EMC® Data Domain® Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide

EMC® Data Domain® Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
EMC® Data Domain® Operating
System
Version 5.7
Administration Guide
302-002-091
REV. 02
Copyright © 2010-2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Published in the USA.
Published March, 2016
EMC believes the information in this publication is accurate as of its publication date. The information is subject to change
without notice.
The information in this publication is provided as is. EMC Corporation makes no representations or warranties of any kind with
respect to the information in this publication, and specifically disclaims implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a
particular purpose. Use, copying, and distribution of any EMC software described in this publication requires an applicable
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EMC², EMC, and the EMC logo are registered trademarks or trademarks of EMC Corporation in the United States and other
countries. All other trademarks used herein are the property of their respective owners.
For the most up-to-date regulatory document for your product line, go to EMC Online Support (https://support.emc.com).
EMC Corporation
Hopkinton, Massachusetts 01748-9103
1-508-435-1000 In North America 1-866-464-7381
www.EMC.com
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EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
CONTENTS
Chapter 1
Preface
13
EMC Data Domain System Features and Integration
17
Revision history.............................................................................................18
EMC Data Domain system overview............................................................... 19
EMC Data Domain system features................................................................ 20
Data integrity................................................................................... 20
Data deduplication.......................................................................... 20
Restore operations...........................................................................21
EMC Data Domain Replicator............................................................ 21
Multipath and load balancing.......................................................... 21
High Availability............................................................................... 21
System administrator access............................................................23
Licensed features.............................................................................23
Storage environment integration................................................................... 25
Chapter 2
Getting Started
29
DD System Manager overview........................................................................30
Logging in and out of DD System Manager.....................................................30
The DD System Manager interface................................................................. 31
Page elements................................................................................. 32
Banner............................................................................................. 32
Navigation panel..............................................................................33
Information panel............................................................................ 33
HA panel.......................................................................................... 33
Footer.............................................................................................. 33
Help buttons.................................................................................... 34
End User License Agreement............................................................ 34
Configuring the system with the configuration wizard.................................... 34
License page....................................................................................35
Add License Key page...................................................................... 35
Network General page...................................................................... 35
Network Interfaces page...................................................................36
Network DNS page........................................................................... 36
System Settings Administrator page.................................................37
System Settings Email/Location page.............................................. 38
CIFS Protocol Authentication page....................................................38
CIFS Protocol Share page................................................................. 38
NFS Protocol Export page................................................................. 39
DD Boost Protocol Storage Unit page................................................39
DD Boost Protocol Fibre Channel page..............................................40
VTL Protocol Library page................................................................. 40
VTL Protocol Access Group page.......................................................41
Data Domain Command Line Interface...........................................................42
Logging into the CLI.......................................................................................42
CLI online help guidelines............................................................................. 43
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CONTENTS
Chapter 3
Managing Data Domain Systems
45
System management overview...................................................................... 46
HA system management overview.................................................... 46
HA system planned maintenance..................................................... 47
Rebooting a system.......................................................................................47
Powering a system on or off ..........................................................................47
System upgrade management....................................................................... 48
Viewing upgrade packages on the system........................................ 48
Obtaining and verifying upgrade packages.......................................48
Upgrading a Data Domain system.....................................................49
Removing an upgrade package.........................................................50
Managing system licenses............................................................................ 50
HA system license management.......................................................51
System storage management........................................................................ 51
Viewing system storage information.................................................51
Physically locating an enclosure.......................................................55
Physically locating a disk................................................................. 55
Configuring storage..........................................................................56
Network connection management................................................................. 56
HA system network connection management................................... 56
Network interface management........................................................57
General network settings management............................................ 71
Network route management............................................................. 75
System passphrase management..................................................................77
Setting the system passphrase........................................................ 77
Changing the system passphrase.....................................................78
System access management......................................................................... 79
Role-based access control................................................................79
Access management for IP protocols................................................ 80
Local user account management...................................................... 87
Directory user and group management............................................. 94
Configuring mail server settings.................................................................. 101
Managing time and date settings................................................................ 101
Managing system properties....................................................................... 102
SNMP management.....................................................................................103
Viewing SNMP status and configuration......................................... 103
Enabling and disabling SNMP........................................................ 105
Downloading the SNMP MIB...........................................................105
Configuring SNMP properties......................................................... 105
SNMP V3 user management........................................................... 106
SNMP V2C community management.............................................. 107
SNMP trap host management.........................................................109
Autosupport report management.................................................................111
HA system autosupport and support bundle manageability............111
Enabling and disabling autosupport reporting to EMC.................... 112
Reviewing generated autosupport reports...................................... 112
Configuring the autosupport mailing list.........................................112
Support bundle management......................................................................113
Generating a support bundle..........................................................113
Viewing the support bundles list.................................................... 114
Alert notification management.................................................................... 114
HA system alert notification management...................................... 114
Viewing the notification group list.................................................. 115
Creating a notification group.......................................................... 116
Managing the subscriber list for a group........................................ 117
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Modifying a notification group........................................................117
Deleting a notification group.......................................................... 118
Resetting the notification group configuration................................118
Configuring the daily summary schedule and distribution list.........118
Enabling and disabling alert notification to EMC............................ 119
Testing the alerts email feature...................................................... 120
EMC Support delivery management............................................................. 120
Selecting standard email delivery to EMC....................................... 121
Selecting and configuring ConnectEMC delivery............................. 121
Testing ConnectEMC operation.......................................................122
Log file management...................................................................................122
Viewing log files in DD System Manager......................................... 123
Displaying a log file in the CLI.........................................................123
Learning more about log messages................................................ 124
Saving a copy of log files................................................................125
Log message transmission to remote systems................................125
Remote system power management with IPMI............................................. 127
IPMI and SOL limitations................................................................ 127
Adding and deleting IPMI users with DD System Manager.............. 128
Changing an IPMI user password....................................................128
Configuring an IPMI port.................................................................129
Preparing for remote power management and console monitoring with
the CLI........................................................................................... 130
Managing power with DD System Manager..................................... 131
Managing power with the CLI......................................................... 132
Chapter 4
Monitoring Data Domain Systems
135
Viewing individual system status and identity information.......................... 136
Dashboard Alerts area....................................................................136
Dashboard File System area........................................................... 137
Dashboard Services area............................................................... 137
Dashboard HA Readiness area....................................................... 137
Dashboard Hardware area..............................................................138
Maintenance System area.............................................................. 138
Health Alerts panel......................................................................................138
Viewing and clearing current alerts..............................................................139
Current Alerts tab........................................................................... 139
Viewing the alerts history............................................................................ 140
Alerts History tab........................................................................... 140
Viewing hardware component status...........................................................141
Fan status...................................................................................... 142
Temperature status........................................................................ 142
Power supply status....................................................................... 143
PCI slot status................................................................................ 143
NVRAM status................................................................................ 143
Viewing system statistics............................................................................ 144
Performance statistics graphs........................................................ 144
Viewing active users....................................................................................145
History report management......................................................................... 146
Types of reports............................................................................. 146
Creating a report............................................................................ 150
Viewing saved reports.................................................................... 151
Printing saved reports.................................................................... 151
Deleting saved reports................................................................... 151
Renaming saved reports.................................................................151
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CONTENTS
Viewing the Task Log...................................................................................152
Viewing the system High Availability status.................................................153
High Availability status.................................................................. 153
Chapter 5
File System
155
File system overview................................................................................... 156
How the file system stores data......................................................156
How the file system reports space usage........................................156
How the file system uses compression .......................................... 156
How the file system implements data integrity............................... 157
How the file system reclaims storage space with file system cleaning
...................................................................................................... 158
Supported interfaces .....................................................................159
Supported backup software........................................................... 159
Data streams sent to a Data Domain system ..................................159
File system limitations................................................................... 160
Monitoring file system usage.......................................................................161
Accessing the file system view....................................................... 162
Managing file system operations.................................................................169
Performing basic operations.......................................................... 169
Performing cleaning....................................................................... 172
Performing sanitization.................................................................. 173
Modifying basic settings................................................................ 174
Fast copy operations................................................................................... 177
Performing a fast copy operation....................................................177
Chapter 6
MTrees
179
MTrees overview......................................................................................... 180
MTree limits................................................................................... 180
Quotas...........................................................................................180
About the MTree panel................................................................... 181
About the summary view................................................................ 181
About the space usage view (MTrees).............................................185
About the daily written view (MTrees).............................................186
Monitoring MTree usage..............................................................................187
Understanding physical capacity measurement............................. 187
Managing MTree operations........................................................................ 190
Creating an MTree.......................................................................... 190
Configure and enable/disable MTree quotas.................................. 191
Deleting an MTree.......................................................................... 192
Undeleting an MTree...................................................................... 192
Renaming an MTree........................................................................193
Replicating a system with quotas to one without............................ 193
Chapter 7
Snapshots
195
Snapshots overview.................................................................................... 196
Monitoring snapshots and their schedules..................................................197
About the snapshots view.............................................................. 197
Managing snapshots...................................................................................198
Creating a snapshot....................................................................... 198
Modifying a snapshot expiration date............................................ 199
Renaming a snapshot.................................................................... 199
Expiring a snapshot....................................................................... 199
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Managing snapshot schedules....................................................................200
Creating a snapshot schedule........................................................ 200
Modifying a snapshot schedule......................................................201
Deleting a snapshot schedule........................................................ 201
Recover data from a snapshot..................................................................... 202
Chapter 8
CIFS
203
CIFS overview.............................................................................................. 204
Configuring SMB signing............................................................................. 204
Performing CIFS setup................................................................................. 205
HA systems and CIFS......................................................................205
Preparing clients for access to Data Domain systems..................... 205
Enabling CIFS services................................................................... 205
Naming the CIFS server.................................................................. 206
Setting authentication parameters................................................. 206
Disabling CIFS services.................................................................. 207
Working with shares....................................................................................207
Creating shares on the Data Domain system.................................. 207
Modifying a share on a Data Domain system.................................. 209
Creating a share from an existing share..........................................209
Disabling a share on a Data Domain system................................... 210
Enabling a share on a Data Domain system.................................... 210
Deleting a share on a Data Domain system.....................................210
Performing MMC administration.....................................................210
Connecting to a Data Domain system from a CIFS client..................210
Displaying CIFS information ...........................................................212
Managing access control.............................................................................212
Accessing shares from a Windows client........................................ 212
Providing domain users administrative access............................... 213
Allowing administrative access to a Data Domain system for domain
users..............................................................................................213
Restricting administrative access from Windows............................ 214
File access..................................................................................... 214
Monitoring CIFS operation........................................................................... 217
Displaying CIFS status....................................................................217
Display CIFS configuration..............................................................217
Displaying CIFS statistics............................................................... 220
Performing CIFS troubleshooting................................................................. 220
Displaying clients current activity................................................... 220
Setting the maximum open files on a connection........................... 221
Data Domain system clock............................................................. 221
Synchronizing from a Windows domain controller.......................... 222
Synchronize from an NTP server..................................................... 222
Chapter 9
NFS
223
NFS overview...............................................................................................224
HA systems and NFS...................................................................... 224
Managing NFS client access to the Data Domain system..............................225
Enabling NFS services.................................................................... 225
Disabling NFS services................................................................... 225
Creating an export..........................................................................225
Modifying an export....................................................................... 227
Creating an export from an existing export..................................... 228
Deleting an export..........................................................................228
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CONTENTS
Displaying NFS information......................................................................... 228
Viewing NFS status.........................................................................228
Viewing NFS exports.......................................................................229
Viewing active NFS clients..............................................................229
Integrating a DDR into a Kerberos domain................................................... 229
Add and delete KDC servers after initial configuration................................. 231
Chapter 10
Storage Migration
233
Storage migration overview......................................................................... 234
Migration planning considerations.............................................................. 234
Viewing migration status............................................................................. 235
Evaluating migration readiness................................................................... 236
Migrating storage using DD System Manager...............................................236
Storage migration dialog descriptions......................................................... 237
Select a Task dialog....................................................................... 237
Select Existing Enclosures dialog................................................... 237
Select New Enclosures dialog.........................................................238
Review Migration Plan dialog......................................................... 238
Verify Migration Preconditions dialog............................................. 238
Migration progress dialogs.............................................................239
Migrating storage using the CLI................................................................... 240
CLI storage migration example.................................................................... 241
Chapter 11
SCSI Target
247
SCSI Target overview................................................................................... 248
Fibre Channel view...................................................................................... 249
Enabling NPIV................................................................................ 249
Disabling NPIV............................................................................... 251
Resources tab................................................................................ 252
Access Groups tab......................................................................... 258
Differences in FC link monitoring among DD OS versions............................. 259
Chapter 12
Working with DD Boost
261
About Data Domain Boost software............................................................. 262
Managing DD Boost with DD System Manager............................................. 263
Specifying DD Boost user names.................................................... 263
Changing DD Boost user passwords............................................... 264
Removing a DD Boost user name....................................................264
Enabling DD Boost......................................................................... 264
Disabling DD Boost........................................................................ 264
Viewing DD Boost storage units......................................................265
Creating a storage unit................................................................... 266
Viewing storage unit information....................................................267
Modifying a storage unit.................................................................270
Renaming a storage unit................................................................ 270
Deleting a storage unit................................................................... 271
Undeleting a storage unit............................................................... 271
Selecting DD Boost options............................................................272
Managing certificates for DD Boost.................................................273
Managing DD Boost client access and encryption...........................275
About interface groups................................................................................ 276
Interfaces.......................................................................................277
Clients........................................................................................... 278
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CONTENTS
Creating interface groups............................................................... 278
Enabling and disabling interface groups........................................ 279
Modifying an interface group’s name and interfaces.......................279
Deleting an interface group............................................................ 280
Adding a client to an interface group.............................................. 280
Modifying a client’s name or interface group.................................. 281
Deleting a client from the interface group....................................... 281
Using interface groups for Managed File Replication (MFR)............. 281
Destroying DD Boost................................................................................... 283
Configuring DD Boost-over-Fibre Channel.................................................... 284
Enabling DD Boost users................................................................ 284
Configuring DD Boost..................................................................... 285
Verifying connectivity and creating access groups.......................... 286
Using DD Boost on HA systems....................................................................288
About the DD Boost tabs............................................................................. 288
Settings......................................................................................... 289
Active Connections........................................................................ 289
IP Network..................................................................................... 290
Fibre Channel.................................................................................290
Storage Units................................................................................. 290
Chapter 13
DD Virtual Tape Library
293
DD Virtual Tape Library overview................................................................. 294
Planning a VTL.............................................................................................294
VTL limits....................................................................................... 295
Number of drives supported by a VTL............................................. 297
Tape barcodes............................................................................... 297
LTO tape drive compatibility...........................................................298
Setting up a VTL............................................................................. 299
HA systems and VTL....................................................................... 299
Managing a VTL...........................................................................................299
Enabling VTL.................................................................................. 301
Disabling VTL................................................................................. 301
VTL option defaults........................................................................ 301
Configuring VTL default options......................................................302
Working with libraries................................................................................. 303
Creating libraries............................................................................303
Deleting libraries............................................................................305
Searching for tapes........................................................................ 306
Working with a selected library....................................................................306
Creating tapes................................................................................307
Deleting tapes................................................................................308
Importing tapes..............................................................................309
Exporting tapes.............................................................................. 311
Moving tapes between devices within a library...............................311
Adding slots...................................................................................313
Deleting slots.................................................................................313
Adding CAPs.................................................................................. 313
Deleting CAPs................................................................................ 314
Viewing changer information.......................................................................314
Working with drives.....................................................................................315
Creating drives...............................................................................316
Deleting drives...............................................................................316
Working with a selected drive......................................................................317
Working with tapes..................................................................................... 317
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CONTENTS
Changing a tape’s write or retention lock state............................... 318
Working with the vault.................................................................................319
Working with access groups........................................................................ 319
Creating an access group............................................................... 320
Deleting an access group............................................................... 323
Working with a selected access group......................................................... 323
Selecting endpoints for a device.................................................... 324
Configuring the NDMP device TapeServer group............................. 324
Working with resources............................................................................... 325
Working with initiators................................................................... 326
Working with endpoints................................................................. 327
Working with a selected endpoint.................................................. 328
Working with pools..................................................................................... 330
Creating pools................................................................................331
Deleting pools................................................................................332
Working with a selected pool.......................................................................332
Converting a directory pool to an MTree pool ................................. 333
Moving tapes between pools..........................................................334
Copying tapes between pools........................................................ 335
Renaming pools............................................................................. 336
Chapter 14
DD Replicator
337
DD Replicator overview................................................................................338
Replication between HA and non-HA systems..............................................338
Prerequisites for replication configuration................................................... 339
Replication version compatibility................................................................ 340
Using DD Encryption with DD Replicator...................................................... 343
Replication types........................................................................................ 344
Managed file replication ................................................................345
Directory replication.......................................................................345
MTree replication........................................................................... 346
Collection replication .................................................................... 347
Replication topologies................................................................................ 348
One-to-one replication................................................................... 349
Bi-directional replication................................................................350
One-to-many replication.................................................................351
Many-to-one replication................................................................. 351
Cascaded replication..................................................................... 352
Managing replication.................................................................................. 353
Replication status.......................................................................... 354
Summary view................................................................................354
DD Boost view................................................................................364
Topology view................................................................................ 365
Performance view...........................................................................366
Advanced Settings view................................................................. 366
Monitoring replication ................................................................................ 369
Checking replication pair status..................................................... 369
Viewing estimated completion time for backup jobs.......................369
Checking replication context performance......................................370
Tracking status of a replication process..........................................370
Chapter 15
DD Secure Multitenancy
371
Data Domain Secure Multitenancy overview................................................ 372
SMT architecture basics................................................................. 372
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Terminology used in SMT............................................................... 372
Control path and administrative isolation.......................................373
Understanding RBAC in SMT...........................................................374
Provisioning a Tenant Unit...........................................................................375
Enabling Tenant Self-Service mode............................................................. 378
Data access by protocol.............................................................................. 379
Multi-User DD Boost and Storage Units in SMT............................... 379
Configuring access for CIFS............................................................ 379
Configuring NFS access.................................................................. 380
Configuring access for VTL..............................................................380
Using VTL NDMP TapeServer ..........................................................381
Data management operations..................................................................... 381
Collecting performance statistics................................................... 381
Modifying quotas........................................................................... 381
SMT and replication....................................................................... 382
SMT Tenant alerts.......................................................................... 383
Managing snapshots......................................................................383
Performing a file system Fast Copy................................................. 383
Chapter 16
DD Extended Retention
385
DD Extended Retention overview................................................................. 386
Supported protocols in DD Extended Retention........................................... 388
High Availability and Extended Retention.................................................... 388
Using DD Replicator with DD Extended Retention.........................................388
Collection replication with DD Extended Retention......................... 388
Directory replication with DD Extended Retention........................... 389
MTree replication with DD Extended Retention............................... 389
Managed file replication with DD Extended Retention.....................389
Hardware and licensing for DD Extended Retention..................................... 390
Hardware supported for DD Extended Retention............................. 390
Licensing for DD Extended Retention.............................................. 392
Adding shelf capacity licenses for DD Extended Retention..............392
Configuring storage for DD Extended Retention.............................. 393
Customer-provided infrastructure for DD Extended Retention......... 393
Managing DD Extended Retention............................................................... 393
Enabling DD systems for DD Extended Retention............................ 394
Creating a two-tiered file system for DD Extended Retention........... 394
File system panel for DD Extended Retention..................................395
File system tabs for DD Extended Retention....................................397
Upgrades and recovery with DD Extended Retention....................................403
Upgrading to DD OS 5.7 with DD Extended Retention..................... 403
Upgrading hardware with DD Extended Retention...........................403
Recovering a DD Extended Retention-enabled system.................... 404
Chapter 17
DD Retention Lock
405
DD Retention Lock overview........................................................................ 406
DD Retention Lock protocol............................................................ 407
DD Retention Lock flow.................................................................. 407
Supported data access protocols................................................................ 408
Enabling DD Retention Lock on an MTree.....................................................409
Enabling DD Retention Lock Governance on an MTree.................... 409
Enabling DD Retention Lock Compliance on an MTree.................... 410
Client-Side Retention Lock file control......................................................... 412
Setting Retention Locking on a file................................................. 413
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CONTENTS
Extending Retention Locking on a file............................................. 415
Identifying a Retention-Locked file................................................. 416
Specifying a directory and touching only those files....................... 416
Reading a list of files and touching only those files........................ 416
Deleting or expiring a file............................................................... 417
Using ctime or mtime on Retention-Locked files............................. 417
System behavior with DD Retention Lock.....................................................417
DD Retention Lock governance....................................................... 418
DD Retention Lock compliance....................................................... 419
Chapter 18
DD Encryption
431
DD encryption overview...............................................................................432
Configuring encryption................................................................................ 433
About key management...............................................................................434
Rectifying lost or corrupted keys.....................................................434
Key manager support..................................................................... 435
Working with the RSA DPM Key Manager........................................ 435
Working with the Embedded Key Manager......................................437
How the cleaning operation works..................................................438
Key manager setup......................................................................................438
RSA DPM Key Manager encryption setup........................................ 438
Changing key managers after setup.............................................................441
Managing certificates for RSA Key Manager.................................... 442
Checking settings for encryption of data at rest........................................... 443
Enabling and disabling encryption of data at rest........................................ 443
Enabling encryption of data at rest................................................. 443
Disabling encryption of data at rest................................................443
Locking and unlocking the file system......................................................... 444
Locking the file system...................................................................444
Unlocking the file system............................................................... 445
Changing the encryption algorithm.................................................445
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EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
Preface
As part of an effort to improve its product lines, EMC periodically releases revisions of its
software and hardware. Therefore, some functions described in this document might not
be supported by all versions of the software or hardware currently in use. The product
release notes provide the most up-to-date information on product features.
Contact your EMC technical support professional if a product does not function properly
or does not function as described in this document.
Note
This document was accurate at publication time. Go to EMC Online Support (https://
support.emc.com) to ensure that you are using the latest version of this document.
Purpose
This guide explains how to manage the EMC Data Domain® systems with an emphasis on
procedures using the EMC Data Domain System Manager (DD System Manager), a
browser-based graphical user interface (GUI). If an important administrative task is not
supported in DD System Manager, the Command Line Interface (CLI) commands are
described.
Note
l
DD System Manager was formerly known as the Enterprise Manager.
l
In some cases, a CLI command may offer more options than those offered by the
corresponding DD System Manager feature. See the EMC Data Domain Operating
System Command Reference Guide for a complete description of a command and its
options.
Audience
This guide is for system administrators who are familiar with standard backup software
packages and general backup administration.
Related documentation
The following Data Domain system documents provide additional information:
l
Installation and setup guide for your system, for example, EMC Data Domain DD2500
Storage System, Installation and Setup Guide
l
EMC Data Domain DD9500 High Availability System Installation and Upgrade Guide
l
EMC Data Domain Operating System USB Installation Guide
l
EMC Data Domain Operating System DVD Installation Guide
l
EMC Data Domain Operating System Release Notes
l
EMC Data Domain Operating System Initial Configuration Guide
l
EMC Data Domain Product Security Guide
l
EMC Data Domain Operating System High Availability White Paper
l
EMC Data Domain Operating System Command Reference Guide
l
EMC Data Domain Operating System MIB Quick Reference
Preface
13
Preface
l
EMC Data Domain Operating System Offline Diagnostics Suite User's Guide
l
Hardware overview guide for your system, for example, EMC Data Domain DD4200,
DD4500, and DD7200 Systems, Hardware Overview
l
Field replacement guides for your system components, for example, Field Replacement
Guide, Data Domain DD4200, DD4500, and DD7200 Systems, IO Module and
Management Module Replacement or Upgrade
l
EMC Data Domain, System Controller Upgrade Guide
l
EMC Data Domain Expansion Shelf, Hardware Guide (for shelf model ES20 or ES30)
l
EMC Data Domain Boost for Partner Integration Administration Guide
l
EMC Data Domain Boost for OpenStorage Administration Guide
l
EMC Data Domain Boost for Oracle Recovery Manager Administration Guide
l
EMC Data Domain Boost SDK Programmer's Guide
l
Statement of Volatility for the Data Domain DD2500 System
l
Statement of Volatility for the Data Domain DD4200, DD4500, or DD7200 System
If you have the optional RSA Data Protection (DPM) Key Manager, see the latest version of
the RSA Data Protection Manager Server Administrator's Guide, available with the RSA Key
Manager product.
Special notice conventions used in this document
EMC uses the following conventions for special notices:
NOTICE
A notice identifies content that warns of a potential business or data loss.
Note
A note identifies information that is incidental, but not essential, to the topic. Notes can
provide an explanation, a comment, reinforcement of a point in the text, or just a related
point.
Typographical conventions
EMC uses the following type style conventions in this document:
Table 1 Typography
14
Bold
Indicates interface element names, such as names of windows, dialog
boxes, buttons, fields, tab names, key names, and menu paths (what
the user specifically selects or clicks)
Italic
Highlights publication titles listed in text
Monospace
Indicates system information, such as:
l
System code
l
System output, such as an error message or script
l
Pathnames, filenames, prompts, and syntax
l
Commands and options
Monospace italic
Highlights a variable name that must be replaced with a variable value
Monospace bold
Indicates text for user input
[]
Square brackets enclose optional values
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
Preface
Table 1 Typography (continued)
|
Vertical bar indicates alternate selections—the bar means “or”
{}
Braces enclose content that the user must specify, such as x or y or z
...
Ellipses indicate nonessential information omitted from the example
Where to get help
The following topics describe how to get more product information and contact technical
support.
Product information
For documentation, release notes, software updates, or information about EMC
products, go to EMC Online Support at https://support.emc.com.
EMC Data Domain product documentation
To view documentation for EMC Data Domain products, go to EMC Online Support
and click Support by Product below the Search box. Type Data Domain in the Find a
Product box, wait for those words to appear in the list of matches below the box, and
click the words. Then click >>. In the list of categories under the Search box, click
Documentation.
l
l
The Product choices let you filter results by Data Domain system model number,
such as DD990, or by DD OS software release.
The Content Type choices let you filter results by category. Click More under
Content Type to see all of the categories. The categories that contain end-user
and compatibility documentation are:
n
n
n
Manuals and Guides, for the software and hardware manuals for your system,
and for integration guides that explain how to use EMC Data Domain systems
with backup software and other products
Release Notes, for specific versions of the EMC Data Domain Operating
System and EMC Data Domain products
Compatibility Document, for guides that show which EMC and third-party
components are compatible
Technical support
Go to EMC Online Support and click Service Center. You will see several options for
contacting EMC Technical Support. Note that to open a service request, you must
have a valid support agreement. Contact your EMC sales representative for details
about obtaining a valid support agreement or with questions about your account.
Your comments
Your suggestions will help us continue to improve the accuracy, organization, and overall
quality of the user publications. Send your opinions of this document to:
DPAD.Doc.Feedback@emc.com.
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Preface
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EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
CHAPTER 1
EMC Data Domain System Features and
Integration
This chapter includes:
l
l
l
l
Revision history.....................................................................................................18
EMC Data Domain system overview....................................................................... 19
EMC Data Domain system features........................................................................ 20
Storage environment integration........................................................................... 25
EMC Data Domain System Features and Integration
17
EMC Data Domain System Features and Integration
Revision history
The revision history lists the major changes to this document to support DD OS Release
5.7.
Table 2 Document revision history
Revision
Date
Description
02 (5.7.1)
March 2016
This revision includes information about the Data Domain
High Availability (HA) feature, including:
01 (5.7.0)
October 2015
l
An overview of the HA feature and its architecture
l
HA features in the System Manager user interface
l
HA system management information, including
planned maintenance, licensing, networking,
autosupport, and alerts management
l
Information about viewing HA status
l
Considerations for using DD Boost, CIFS, NFS, and VTL
with HA systems
l
Information about replication between HA and non-HA
systems
This revision includes information about these new
features:
l
The new FM 2.0/Likewise server functionality enables
faster recall rates to support the active archive, and
the system now supports both SMB 1.0 and 2.1
l
The new physical capacity measurement feature
provides space usage information for a sub-set of
storage space
l
You can now configure ConnectEMC delivery with DD
System Manager
l
The new storage migration feature allows you to
transfer all files from one set of enclosures to another
set
l
DD System Manager supports the new DS60 enclosure
and 4 TB drives in DS60 and ES30 enclosures
l
A new option allows you to force new users to change
their password during their first login
l
The new MTree scaling feature pushes MTree support
from 32 to up to 128 or 256 (DD9500 only) active
mtrees depending upon the platform
l
The new feature regarding 2000 write streams for SMT
on Apollo
l
The privileged delete feature enables deletion of
Retention Lock Governance files
SCSI Target changes:
18
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
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Table 2 Document revision history (continued)
Revision
Date
Description
l
NPIV (N-port ID Virtualization), a Fibre Channel feature
that lets multiple endpoints share a single physical
port, eases hardware requirements, and provides
failover capabilities, is now supported
DD Boost changes:
l
DFC (DD Boost-over-Fibre Channel) now supports the
Solaris client environment
l
The DD Boost Active Connections graph provides
statistics for active DD Boost connections
l
Interface groups can be used for Managed File
Replication
l
A special license, BLOCK-SERVICES-PROTECTPOINT, is
available to enable clients using ProtectPoint block
services to have DD Boost functionality without a DD
Boost license
VTL changes:
l
Barcode lengths of 6 or 8 characters are now
supported, depending on the changer model type
Removed features:
l
Data Domain System Manager no longer manages
multiple systems. To manage multiple systems from a
single program, use Data Domain Management Center
l
The following system models are not supported in this
release: DD660, DD690, and DD880
EMC Data Domain system overview
EMC Data Domain systems are disk-based inline deduplication appliances that provide
data protection and disaster recovery (DR) in the enterprise environment.
All systems run the EMC Data Domain Operating System (DD OS), which provides both a
command-line interface (CLI) for performing all system operations, and the EMC Data
Domain System Manager (DD System Manager) graphical user interface (GUI) for
configuration, management, and monitoring.
Note
DD System Manager was formerly known as the Enterprise Manager.
Systems consist of appliances that vary in storage capacity and data throughput.
Systems are typically configured with expansion enclosures that add storage space.
EMC Data Domain system overview
19
EMC Data Domain System Features and Integration
EMC Data Domain system features
Data Domain system features ensure data integrity, reliable restoration, efficient resource
usage, and ease of management. Licensed features allow you to scale the system feature
set to match your needs and budget.
Data integrity
The DD OS Data Invulnerability Architecture™ protects against data loss from hardware
and software failures.
l
When writing to disk, the DD OS creates and stores checksums and self-describing
metadata for all data received. After writing the data to disk, the DD OS then
recomputes and verifies the checksums and metadata.
l
An append-only write policy guards against overwriting valid data.
l
After a backup completes, a validation process examines what was written to disk
and verifies that all file segments are logically correct within the file system and that
the data is identical before and after writing to disk.
l
In the background, the online verify operation continuously checks that data on the
disks is correct and unchanged since the earlier validation process.
l
Storage in most Data Domain systems is set up in a double parity RAID 6
configuration (two parity drives). Additionally, most configurations include a hot
spare in each enclosure, except the DD1xx series systems, which use eight disks.
Each parity stripe uses block checksums to ensure that data is correct. Checksums
are constantly used during the online verify operation and while data is read from the
Data Domain system. With double parity, the system can fix simultaneous errors on
as many as two disks.
l
To keep data synchronized during a hardware or power failure, the Data Domain
system uses NVRAM (non-volatile RAM) to track outstanding I/O operations. An
NVRAM card with fully charged batteries (the typical state) can retain data for a period
of hours, which is determined by the hardware in use.
l
When reading data back on a restore operation, the DD OS uses multiple layers of
consistency checks to verify that restored data is correct.
Data deduplication
DD OS data deduplication identifies redundant data during each backup and stores
unique data just once.
The storage of unique data is invisible to backup software and independent of data
format. Data can be structured, such as databases, or unstructured, such as text files.
Data can derive from file systems or from raw volumes.
Typical deduplication ratios are 20-to-1, on average, over many weeks. This ratio
assumes there are weekly full backups and daily incremental backups. A backup that
includes many duplicate or similar files (files copied several times with minor changes)
benefits the most from deduplication.
Depending on backup volume, size, retention period, and rate of change, the amount of
deduplication can vary. The best deduplication happens with backup volume sizes of at
least 10 MiB (MiB is the base 2 equivalent of MB).
To take full advantage of multiple Data Domain systems, a site with more than one Data
Domain system must consistently backup the same client system or set of data to the
same Data Domain system. For example, if a full back up of all sales data goes to Data
20
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
EMC Data Domain System Features and Integration
Domain system A, maximum deduplication is achieved when the incremental backups
and future full backups for sales data also go to Data Domain system A.
Restore operations
File restore operations create little or no contention with backup or other restore
operations.
When backing up to disks on a Data Domain system, incremental backups are always
reliable and can be easily accessed. With tape backups, a restore operation may rely on
multiple tapes holding incremental backups. Also, the more incremental backups a site
stores on multiple tapes, the more time-consuming and risky the restore process. One
bad tape can kill the restore.
Using a Data Domain system, you can perform full backups more frequently without the
penalty of storing redundant data. Unlike tape drive backups, multiple processes can
access a Data Domain system simultaneously. A Data Domain system allows your site to
offer safe, user-driven, single-file restore operations.
EMC Data Domain Replicator
The EMC Data Domain Replicator sets up and manages the replication of backup data
between two Data Domain systems.
A Replicator pair consists of a source and a destination system and replicates a complete
data set or directory from the source system to the destination system. An individual Data
Domain system can be a part of multiple replication pairs and can serve as a source for
one or more pairs and a destination for one or more pairs. After replication is started, the
source system automatically sends any new backup data to the destination system.
Multipath and load balancing
In a Fibre Channel multipath configuration, multiple paths are established between a
Data Domain system and a backup server or backup destination array. When multiple
paths are present, the system automatically balances the backup load between the
available paths.
At least two HBA ports are required to create a multipath configuration. When connected
to a backup server, each of the HBA ports on the multipath is connected to a separate
port on the backup server.
High Availability
The High Availability (HA) feature lets you configure two DD9500 systems as an ActiveStandby pair, providing redundancy in the event of a system failure. HA keeps the active
and standby systems in sync, so that if the active node were to fail due to hardware or
software issues, the standby node can take over services and continue where the failing
node left off.
The HA feature:
l
Supports failover of backup, restore, replication and management services in a twonode system. Automatic failover requires no user intervention.
l
Provides a fully redundant design with no single point of failure within the system
when configured as recommended.
l
Provides an Active-Standby system with no loss of performance on failover.
l
Provides failover within 10 minutes for most operations. CIFS, VTL, and NDMP must
be restarted manually.
Restore operations
21
EMC Data Domain System Features and Integration
Note
Recovery of DD Boost applications may take longer than 10 minutes, because Boost
application recovery cannot begin until the DD server failover is complete. In
addition, Boost application recovery cannot start until the application invokes the
Boost library. Similarly, NFS may require additional time to recover.
l
Supports ease of management and configuration through DD OS CLIs.
l
Provides alerts for malfunctioning hardware.
l
Preserves single-node performance and scalability within an HA configuration in both
normal and degraded mode.
l
Supports the same feature set as stand-alone DD systems.
Note
Extended Retention and vDisk are not supported.
l
Supports DD9500 systems with all SAS drives. This includes legacy systems
upgraded to DD9500 systems with all SAS drives.
Note
The Data Domain DD9500 High Availability System Installation and Upgrade Guide
describes how to install a new DD9500 HA system, or upgrade an existing DD9500 to
an HA pair.
l
Does not impact the ability to scale the product.
l
Supports nondisruptive software updates.
HA architecture
HA functionality is available for both IP and FC connections. Both nodes must have
access to the same IP networks, FC SANs, and hosts in order to achieve high availability
for the environment.
Over IP networks, HA uses a floating IP address to provide data access to the Data
Domain HA pair regardless of which physical node is the active node.
Over FC SANs, HA uses NPIV to move the FC WWNs between nodes, allowing the FC
initiators to re-establish connections after a failover.
Figure 1 on page 23 shows the HA architecture.
22
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
EMC Data Domain System Features and Integration
Figure 1 HA architecture
System administrator access
System administrators can access the system for configuration and management using a
command line interface or a graphical user interface.
l
DD OS CLI—A command-line interface that is available through a serial console or
through Ethernet connections using SSH or Telnet. CLI commands enable initial
system configuration, changes to individual system settings, and display of system
operation status.
l
DD System Manager—A browser-based graphical user interface that is available
through Ethernet connections. Use DD System Manager to perform initial system
configuration, make configuration changes after initial configuration, display system
and component status, and generate reports and charts.
Note
Some systems support access using a keyboard and monitor attached directly to the
system.
Licensed features
Feature licenses allow you to purchase only those features you intend to use. Some
examples of features that require licenses are Extended Retention, DD Boost, and storage
capacity increases.
Consult with your EMC representative for information on purchasing licensed features.
System administrator access
23
EMC Data Domain System Features and Integration
Table 3 Features requiring licenses
24
Feature Name
License Name in
Software
Description
EMC Data Domain
ArchiveStore
ARCHIVESTORE
Licenses Data Domain systems for archive use,
such as file and email archiving, file tiering, and
content and database archiving.
EMC Data Domain
Boost
DDBOOST
Enables the use of a Data Domain system with the
following applications: EMC Avamar, EMC
NetWorker, Oracle RMAN, Quest vRanger, Symantec
Veritas NetBackup (NBU), and Backup Exec. The
managed file replication (MFR) feature of DD Boost
also requires the DD Replicator license.
EMC Data Domain
Capacity on Demand
CONTROLLER-COD
Enables an on-demand capacity increase for 4 TB
DD2200 systems to 7.5 TB or 13.18 TB. An increase
to 13.18 TB also requires the EXPANDED-STORAGE
license.
EMC Data Domain
Encryption
ENCRYPTION
Allows data on system drives or external storage to
be encrypted while being saved and locked when
moving the system to another location.
EMC Data Domain
Expansion Storage
EXPANDEDSTORAGE
Allows Data Domain system storage to be
expanded beyond the level provided in the base
system.
EMC Data Domain
Extended Retention
(formerly DD Archiver)
EXTENDEDRETENTION
Licenses the Extended Retention storage feature.
EMC Data Domain I/OS I/OS
(for IBM i operating
environments)
An I/OS license is required when VTL is used to
backup systems in the IBM i operating
environment. Apply this license before adding
virtual tape drives to libraries.
EMC Data Domain
Replicator
REPLICATION
Adds DD Replicator for replication of data from one
Data Domain system to another. A license is
required on each system.
EMC Data Domain
Retention Lock
Compliance Edition
RETENTION-LOCKCOMPLIANCE
Meets the strictest data retention requirements
from regulatory standards such as SEC17a-4.
EMC Data Domain
Retention Lock
Governance Edition
RETENTION-LOCKGOVERNANCE
Protects selected files from modification and
deletion before a specified retention period
expires.
EMC Data Domain
Shelf Capacity-Active
Tier
CAPACITY-ACTIVE
Enables a Data Domain system to expand the
active tier storage capacity to an additional
enclosure or a disk pack within an enclosure.
EMC Data Domain
Shelf Capacity-Archive
Tier
CAPACITY-ARCHIVE
Enables a Data Domain system to expand the
archive tier storage capacity to an additional
enclosure or a disk pack within an enclosure.
EMC Data Domain
Storage Migration
STORAGEMIGRATION-FOR-
Enables migration of data from one enclosure to
another to support replacement of older, lowercapacity enclosures.
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
EMC Data Domain System Features and Integration
Table 3 Features requiring licenses (continued)
Feature Name
License Name in
Software
Description
DATADOMAINSYSTEMS
EMC Data Domain
Virtual Tape Library
(VTL)
VTL
Enables the use of a Data Domain system as a
virtual tape library over a Fibre Channel network.
This license also enables the NDMP Tape Server
feature, which previously required a separate
license.
EMC High Availability
HA-ACTIVE-PASSIVE Enables the High Availability feature in an ActiveStandby configuration. You only need to purchase
one HA license; the license runs on the active node
and is mirrored to the standby node.
Storage environment integration
EMC Data Domain systems integrate easily into existing data centers.
l
All Data Domain systems can be configured as storage destinations for leading
backup and archiving applications using NFS, CIFS, Boost, or VTL protocols.
l
Search for compatibility documents at https://support.emc.com for information on
the applications that work with the different configurations.
l
Multiple backup servers can share one Data Domain system.
l
One Data Domain system can handle multiple simultaneous backup and restore
operations.
l
Multiple Data Domain systems can be connected to one or more backup servers.
For use as a backup destination, a Data Domain system can be configured either as a
disk storage unit with a file system that is accessed through an Ethernet connection or as
a virtual tape library (VTL) that is accessed through a Fibre Channel connection. The VTL
feature enables Data Domain systems to be integrated into environments where backup
software is already configured for tape backups, minimizing disruption.
Configuration is performed both in the DD OS, as described in the relevant sections of
this guide, and in the backup application, as described in the backup application’s
administrator guides and in Data Domain application-related guides and tech notes.
l
All backup applications can access a Data Domain system as either an NFS or a CIFS
file system on the Data Domain disk device.
l
The following applications work with a Data Domain system using the DD Boost
interface: EMC Avamar, EMC NetWorker, Oracle RMAN, Quest vRanger, Symantec
Veritas NetBackup (NBU), and Backup Exec.
The following figure shows a Data Domain system integrated into an existing basic
backup configuration.
Storage environment integration
25
EMC Data Domain System Features and Integration
Figure 2 Data Domain system integrated into a storage environment
1. Primary storage
2. Ethernet
3. Backup server
4. SCSI/Fibre Channel
5. Gigabit Ethernet or Fibre Channel
6. Tape system
7. Data Domain system
8. Management
9. NFS/CIFS/VTL/DD Boost
10. Data Verification
11. Data Domain file system
12. Global deduplication and compression
13. RAID
As shown in Figure 2 on page 26, data flows to a Data Domain system through an
Ethernet or Fibre Channel connection. Immediately, the data verification processes begin
and are continued while the data resides on the Data Domain system. In the file system,
the DD OS Global Compression™ algorithms dedupe and compress the data for storage.
Data is then sent to the disk RAID subsystem. When a restore operation is required, data
is retrieved from Data Domain storage, decompressed, verified for consistency, and
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EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
EMC Data Domain System Features and Integration
transferred via Ethernet to the backup servers using Ethernet (for NFS, CIFS, DD Boost), or
using Fiber Channel (for VTL and DD Boost).
The DD OS accommodates relatively large streams of sequential data from backup
software and is optimized for high throughput, continuous data verification, and high
compression. It also accommodates the large numbers of smaller files in nearline storage
(DD ArchiveStore).
Data Domain system performance is best when storing data from applications that are
not specifically backup software under the following circumstances.
l
Data is sent to the Data Domain system as sequential writes (no overwrites).
l
Data is neither compressed nor encrypted before being sent to the Data Domain
system.
Storage environment integration
27
EMC Data Domain System Features and Integration
28
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
CHAPTER 2
Getting Started
This chapter includes:
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
DD System Manager overview................................................................................30
Logging in and out of DD System Manager.............................................................30
The DD System Manager interface......................................................................... 31
Configuring the system with the configuration wizard............................................ 34
Data Domain Command Line Interface...................................................................42
Logging into the CLI...............................................................................................42
CLI online help guidelines..................................................................................... 43
Getting Started
29
Getting Started
DD System Manager overview
DD System Manager is a browser-based graphical user interface, available through
Ethernet connections, for managing a single system from any location. DD System
Manager provides a single, consolidated management interface that allows for
configuration and monitoring of many system features and system settings.
Note
The Data Domain Management Center allows you to manage multiple systems from a
single browser window.
DD System Manager provides real-time graphs and tables that allow you to monitor the
status of system hardware components and configured features.
Additionally, a command set that performs all system functions is available to users at
the command-line interface (CLI). Commands configure system settings and provide
displays of system hardware status, feature configuration, and operation.
The command-line interface is available through a serial console or through an Ethernet
connection using SSH or Telnet.
Note
Some systems support access using a keyboard and monitor attached directly to the
system.
Logging in and out of DD System Manager
Use a browser to log in to DD System Manager.
Procedure
1. Open a web browser and enter the IP address or hostname to connect to DD System
Manager. It must be:
l
A fully qualified domain name (for example, http://dd01.emc.com)
l
A hostname (http://dd01)
l
An IP address (http://10.5.50.5)
Note
DD System Manager uses HTTP port 80 and HTTPS port 443. If your Data Domain
system is behind a firewall, you may need to enable port 80 if using HTTP, or port 443
if using HTTPS to reach the system. The port numbers can be easily changed if security
requirements dictate.
2. For HTTPS secure login, click Secure Login.
Secure login with HTTPS requires a digital certificate to validate the identity of the DD
OS system and to support bidirectional encryption between DD System Manager and a
browser. DD OS includes a self-signed certificate, and DD OS allows you to import
your own certificate.
The default settings of most browsers do not automatically accept a self-signed
certificate. This does not prevent you from using the self-signed certificate; it just
means that you must respond to a warning message each time you perform a secure
30
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
Getting Started
log in, or you must install the certificate in your browser. For instructions on how to
install the certificate in your browser, see your browser documentation.
3. Enter your assigned username and password.
Note
The initial username is sysadmin and the initial password is the system serial
number. For information on setting up a new system, see the EMC Data Domain
Operating System Initial Configuration Guide.
4. Click Log In.
If this is the first time you have logged in, the Home view appears in the Information
panel.
Note
If you enter an incorrect password 4 consecutive times, the system locks out the
specified username for 120 seconds. The login count and lockout period are
configurable and might be different on your system.
Note
If this is the first time you are logging in, you might be required to change your
password. If the system administrator has configured your username to require a
password change, you must change the password before gaining access to DD System
Manager.
5. To log out, click the log out button in the DD System Manager banner.
When you log out, the system displays the log in page with a message that your log
out is complete.
The DD System Manager interface
The DD System Manager interface provides common elements on most pages that enable
you to navigate through the configuration and display options and display context
sensitive help.
The DD System Manager interface
31
Getting Started
Page elements
The primary page elements are the banner, the navigation panel, the information panels,
and footer.
Figure 3 DD System Manager page components
1. Banner
2. Navigation panel
3. Information panels
4. Footer
Banner
The DD System Manager banner displays the program name and buttons for Refresh, Log
Out, and Help.
32
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
Getting Started
Navigation panel
The Navigation panel displays the highest level menu selections that you can use to
identify the system component or task that you want to manage.
The Navigation panel displays the top two levels of the navigation system. Click any top
level title to display the second level titles. Tabs and menus in the Information panel
provide additional navigation controls.
Information panel
The Information panel displays information and controls related to the selected item in
the Navigation panel. The information panel is where you find system status information
and configure a system.
Depending on the feature or task selected in the Navigation panel, the Information panel
may display a tab bar, topic areas, table view controls, and the More Tasks menu.
Tab bar
Tabs provide access to different aspects of the topic selected in the Navigation panel.
Topic areas
Topic areas divide the Information panel into sections that represent different aspects of
the topic selected in the Navigation panel or parent tab.
Working with table view options
Many of the views with tables of items contain controls for filtering, navigating, and
sorting the information in the table.
How to use common table controls:
l
Click the diamond icon in a column heading to reverse the sort order of items in the
column.
l
Click the < and > arrows at the bottom right of the view to move forward or backward
through the pages. To skip to the beginning of a sequence of pages, click |<. To skip
to the end, click >|.
l
Use the scroll bar to view all items in a table.
l
Enter text in the Filter By box to search for or prioritize the listing of those items.
l
Click Update to refresh the list.
l
Click Reset to return to the default listing.
More Tasks menu
Some pages provide a More Tasks menu at the top right of the view that contains
commands related to the current view.
HA panel
In high-availability (HA) systems, the HA panel indicates whether the system can fail over
from the active node to the standby node if necessary.
You can click on the HA panel to navigate to the HA section under ADMINISTRATION.
Footer
The DD System Manager footer displays important information about the management
session.
The banner lists the following information.
Navigation panel
33
Getting Started
l
System hostname.
l
DD OS version
l
Selected system model number.
l
User name and role for the current logged in user.
Help buttons
Help buttons display a ? and appear in the banner, in the title of many areas of the
Information panel, and in many dialogs. Click the help button to display a help window
related to the current feature you are using.
The help window provides a contents button and navigation button above the help. Click
the contents button to display the guide contents and a search button that you can use to
search the help. Use the directional arrow buttons to page through the help topics in
sequential order.
End User License Agreement
To view the End User License Agreement (EULA), select Maintenance > System > More
Tasks > EULA.
Configuring the system with the configuration wizard
There are two wizards, a DD System Manager configuration wizard and a Command Line
Interface (CLI) configuration wizard. The configuration wizards guide you through a
simplified configuration of your system to get your system operating quickly.
After you complete the basic configuration with a wizard, you can use additional
configuration controls in DD System Manager and the CLI to further configure your
system.
Note
The following procedure describes how to start and run the DD System Manager
configuration wizard after the initial configuration of your system. For instructions on
running the configuration wizards at system startup, see the EMC Data Domain Operating
System Initial Configuration Guide.
Note
If you want to configure your system for high availability (HA), you must perform this
operation using the CLI Configuration Wizard. For more information, see the EMC Data
Domain DD9500 System Version 5.7.1 High Availability (HA) System Installation and Upgrade
Guide and the EMC Data Domain Operating System Version 5.7.1 Initial Configuration Guide.
Procedure
1. Select Maintenance > System > More Tasks > Launch Configuration Wizard.
2. Use the controls at the bottom of the Configuration Wizard dialog to select which
features you want to configure and to advance through the wizard. To display help for
a feature, click the help icon (question mark) in the lower left corner of the dialog.
34
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
Getting Started
License page
The License page displays all installed licenses. Click Yes to add a license or click No to
skip license installation.
Add License Key page
The Add License Key page accepts a single license per line. Press Enter after you enter
each license key, and click Add when you are done.
Network General page
The General page allows you to configure network settings that define how the system
participates in an IP network.
To configure these network settings outside of the configuration wizard, select Hardware >
Ethernet.
Table 4 General page settings
Item
Description
Obtain Settings using DHCP
Select this option to specify that the system collect network
settings from a Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP) server.
When you configure the network interfaces, at least one of the
interfaces must be configured to use DHCP.
Manually Configure
Select this option to use the network settings defined in the
Settings area of this page.
Host Name
Specifies the network hostname for this system.
Note
If you choose to obtain the network settings through DHCP, you
can manually configure the hostname at Hardware > Ethernet
> Settings or with the net set hostname command. You
must manually configure the host name when using DHCP over
IPv6.
Domain Name
Specifies the network domain to which this system belongs.
Default IPv4 Gateway
Specifies the IPv4 address of the gateway to which the system
will forward network requests when there is no route entry for
the destination system.
Default IPv6 Gateway
Specifies the IPv6 address of the gateway to which the system
will forward network requests when there is no route entry for
the destination system.
License page
35
Getting Started
Network Interfaces page
The Interfaces page allows you to configure network settings that define how each
interface participates in an IP network.
To Configure these network settings outside of the configuration wizard, select Hardware
> Ethernet > Interfaces.
Table 5 Interfaces page settings
Item
Description
Interface
Lists the interfaces available on your system.
Enabled
Shows whether each interface is enabled (checkbox selected)
or disabled (not selected). Click the checkbox to toggle the
interface between the enabled and disabled states.
DHCP
Shows the current Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP)
configuration for each interface. Select v4 for IPv4 DHCP
connections, v6 for IPv6 connections, or no to disable DHCP.
IP Address
Specifies an IPv4 or IPv6 address for this system. To configure
the IP address, you must set DHCP to No.
Note
DD140, DD160, DD610, DD620, and DD630 systems do not
support IPv6 on interface eth0a (eth0 on systems that use
legacy port names) or on any VLANs created on that interface.
Netmask
Specifies the network mask for this system. To configure the
network mask, you must set DHCP to No.
Link
Displays whether the Ethernet link is active (Yes) or not (No).
Network DNS page
The DNS page allows you to configure how the system obtains IP addresses for DNS
servers in a Domain Name System (DNS).
To Configure these network settings outside of the configuration wizard, select Hardware
> Ethernet > Settings.
Table 6 DNS page settings
36
Item
Description
Obtain DNS using DHCP.
Select this option to specify that the system collect DNS IP
addresses from a Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP) server.
When you configure the network interfaces, at least one of the
interfaces must be configured to use DHCP.
Manually configure DNS list.
Select this option when you want to manually enter DNS server
IP addresses.
Add (+) button
Click this button to display a dialog in which you can add a DNS
IP address to the DNS IP Address list. You must select
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
Getting Started
Table 6 DNS page settings (continued)
Item
Description
Manually configure DNS list before you can add or delete
DNS IP addresses.
Delete (X) button
Click this button to delete a DNS IP address from the DNS IP
Address list. You must select the IP address to delete before
this button is enabled. You must also select Manually
configure DNS list before you can add or delete DNS IP
addresses.
IP Address Checkboxes
Select a checkbox for a DNS IP address that you want to delete.
Select the DNS IP Address checkbox when you want to delete all
IP addresses. You must select Manually configure DNS list
before you can add or delete DNS IP addresses.
System Settings Administrator page
The Administrator page allows you to configure the administrator password and how the
system communicates with the administrator.
Table 7 Administrator page settings
Item
Description
User Name
The default administrator name is sysadmin. The sysadmin user
cannot be renamed or deleted. You can create other users
(including other administrators) and change the administrator
password by selecting Administration > Access > Local
Users.
Password
Type the password for sysadmin.
Verify Password
Retype the password for sysadmin.
Admin Email
Specify the email address to which DD System Manager sends
alert and autosupport email messages.
Send Alert Notification Emails
to this address
Check to configure DD System Manager to send alert
notifications to sysadmin as alert events occur.
Send Daily Alert Summary
Emails to this address
Check to configure DD System Manager to send alert summaries
to sysadmin at the end of each day.
Send Autosupport Emails to this Check to configure DD System Manager to send the sysadmin
address
user autosupport emails, which are daily reports that document
system activity and status.
System Settings Administrator page
37
Getting Started
System Settings Email/Location page
The Email/Location page allows you to configure the mail server name, control what
system information is sent to Data Domain, and specify a location name to identify your
system.
Table 8 Email/Location page settings
Item
Description
Mail Server
Specify the name of the mail server that manages emails to and
from the system.
Send Alert Notification Emails
to Data Domain
Check to configure DD System Manager to send alert
notification emails to Data Domain.
Send Vendor Support
Notification Emails to Data
Domain
Check to configure DD System Manager to send vendor support
notification emails to Data Domain.
Location
Use this optional attribute as needed to record the location of
your system. If you specify a location, this information is stored
as the SNMP system location.
CIFS Protocol Authentication page
The Authentication page enables you to configure Active Directory, Workgroup and NIS
authentication information for your system.
To configure these settings outside of the configuration wizard, select Administration >
Access > Authentication.
Table 9 Authentication page settings
Item
Description
Active Directory/Kerberos
Authentication
Expand this panel to enable, disable, and configure Active
Directory Kerberos authentication.
Workgroup Authentication
Expand this panel to configure Workgroup authentication.
NIS Authentication
Expand this panel to enable, disable, and configure NIS
authentication, servers, and groups.
CIFS Protocol Share page
The Share page enables you to configure a CIFS protocol share name and a directory path
for your system.
To configure these settings outside of the configuration wizard, select Protocols > CIFS >
Shares > Create.
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EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
Getting Started
Table 10 Share page settings
Item
Description
Share Name
Enter a share name for the system.
Directory Path
Enter a directory path for the system.
Add (+) button
Click + to enter a system client.
Delete (X) button
Click X to delete a selected client.
NFS Protocol Export page
The Export page enables you to configure an NFS protocol export directory path and
network clients.
To configure these settings outside of the configuration wizard, select Protocols > NFS >
Create.
Table 11 Export page settings
Item
Description
Directory Path
Enter a pathname for the export.
Add (+) button
Click + to enter a system client.
Delete (X) button
Click X to delete a selected client.
DD Boost Protocol Storage Unit page
The Storage Unit page allows you to configure DD Boost storage units.
To configure these settings outside of the configuration wizard, select Protocols > DD
Boost > Storage Units > + (plus sign) to add a storage unit, the pencil to modify a storage
unit, or X to delete a storage unit.
Table 12 Storage Unit page settings
Item
Description
Storage Unit
The name of your DD Boost Storage Unit. You may optionally
change this name.
User
For the default DD Boost user, either select an existing user, or
select Create a new Local User, and enter their User name,
Password, and Management Role. This role can be one of the
following:
l
Admin role: Lets you configure and monitor the entire Data
Domain system.
l
User role: Lets you monitor Data Domain systems and
change your own password.
l
Security role: In addition to user role privileges, lets you set
up security-officer configurations and manage other
security-officer operators.
NFS Protocol Export page
39
Getting Started
Table 12 Storage Unit page settings (continued)
Item
Description
l
Backup-operator role: In addition to user role privileges,
lets you create snapshots, import and export tapes to a
VTL, and move tapes within a VTL.
l
None role: Intended only for EMC DD Boost authentication,
so you cannot monitor or configure a Data Domain system.
DD Boost Protocol Fibre Channel page
The Fibre Channel page allows you to configure DD Boost Access Groups over Fibre
Channel.
To configure these settings outside of the configuration wizard, select Protocols > DD
Boost > Fibre Channel > + (plus sign) to add an access group, the pencil to modify an
access group, or X to delete an access group.
Table 13 Fibre Channel page settings
Item
Description
Configure DD Boost over Fibre
Channel
Select the checkbox if you want to configure DD Boost over
Fibre Channel.
Group Name (1-128 Chars)
Create an Access Group. Enter a unique name. Duplicate access
groups are not supported.
Initiators
Select one or more initiators. Optionally, replace the initiator
name by entering a new one. An initiator is a backup client that
connects to the system to read and write data using the FC
(Fibre Channel) protocol. A specific initiator can support DD
Boost over FC or VTL, but not both.
Devices
The devices to be used are listed. They are available on all
endpoints. An endpoint is the logical target on the Data Domain
system to which the initiator connects.
VTL Protocol Library page
The Library page allows you to configure VTL protocol settings for a library.
To configure these settings outside of the configuration wizard, select PROTOCOLS > VTL >
Virtual Tape Libraries > VTL Service > Libraries > More Tasks > Library > Create
Table 14 Library page settings
Item
Description
Library Name
Enter a name of from 1 to 32 alphanumeric characters.
Number of Drives
Number of supported tape drives.
Drive Model
Select the desired model from the drop-down list:
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40
IBM-LTO-1
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
Getting Started
Table 14 Library page settings (continued)
Item
Number of Slots
Number of CAPs
Changer Model Name
Description
l
IBM-LTO-2
l
IBM-LTO-3
l
IBM-LTO-4
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IBM-LTO-5 (default)
l
HP-LTO-3
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HP-LTO-4
Enter the number of slots per library:
l
Up to 32,000 slots per library
l
Up to 64,000 slots per system
l
This should be equal to, or greater than, the number of drives.
(Optional) Enter the number of cartridge access ports (CAPs):
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Up to 100 CAPs per library
l
Up to 1000 CAPs per system
Select the desired model from the drop-down list:
l
L180 (default)
l
RESTORER-L180
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TS3500
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I2000
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I6000
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DDVTL
Starting Barcode
Enter the desired barcode for the first tape, in the format A990000LA.
Tape Capacity
(Optional) Enter the tape capacity. If not specified, the capacity is
derived from the last character of the barcode.
VTL Protocol Access Group page
The Access Group page allows you to configure VTL protocol settings for an access group.
To configure these settings outside of the configuration wizard, select PROTOCOLS > VTL >
Access Groups > Groups > More Tasks > Group > Create.
Table 15 Access Group page settings
Item
Description
Group Name
Enter a unique name of from 1 - 128 characters. Duplicate access groups
are not supported.
Initiators
Select one or more initiators. Optionally, replace the initiator name by
entering a new one. An initiator is a backup client that connects to a system
VTL Protocol Access Group page
41
Getting Started
Table 15 Access Group page settings (continued)
Item
Description
to read and write data using the Fibre Channel (FC) protocol. A specific
initiator can support EMC DD Boost over FC or VTL, but not both.
Devices
The devices (drives and changer) to be used are listed. These are available
on all endpoints. An endpoint is the logical target on the Data Domain
system to which the initiator connects.
Data Domain Command Line Interface
The Command Line Interface (CLI) is a text driven interface that can be used instead of or
in addition to DD System Manager. Most management tasks can be performed in DD
System Manager or with the CLI. In some cases, the CLI offers configuration options and
reports that are not yet supported in DD System Manager.
Any Data Domain system command that accepts a list, such as a list of IP addresses,
accepts entries separated by commas, by spaces, or both.
The Tab key can be used to do the following.
l
Complete a command entry when that entry is unique. Tab completion is supported
for all keywords. For example, entering syst Tab shTab st Tab displays the
command system show stats.
l
Show the next available option, if you do not enter any characters before pressing the
Tab key.
l
Show partial matched tokens or complete a unique entry, if you enter characters
before pressing the Tab key.
The EMC Data Domain Operating System Command Reference Guide provides information for
each of the CLI commands. Online help is available and provides the complete syntax for
each command.
Logging into the CLI
You can access the CLI using a direct connection to the system or using an Ethernet
connection through SSH or Telenet.
Before you begin
To use the CLI, you must establish a local or remote connection to the system using one
of the following methods.
l
If you are connecting through a serial console port on the system, connect a terminal
console to the port and use the communication settings: 9600 baud, 8 data bits, no
parity, and 1 stop bit.
l
If the system provides keyboard and monitor ports, connect a keyboard and monitor
to those ports.
l
If you are connecting through Ethernet, connect a computer with SSH or Telnet client
software to an Ethernet network that can communicate with the system.
Procedure
1. If you are using an SSH or Telnet connection to access the CLI, start the SSH or Telnet
client and specify the IP address or host name of the system.
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EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
Getting Started
For information on initiating the connection, see the documentation for the client
software. The system prompts you for your username.
2. When prompted, enter your system username.
3. When prompted, enter your system password.
The following example shows SSH login to a system named mysystem using SSH client
software.
# ssh -l sysadmin mysystem.mydomain.com
Data Domain OS 5.6.0.0-19899
Password:
CLI online help guidelines
The CLI displays two types of help, syntax-only help and command-description help that
includes the command syntax. Both types of help offer features that allow you reduce the
time it takes to find the information you need.
The following guidelines describe how to use syntax-only help.
l
To list the top-level CLI commands, enter a question mark (?), or type the command
help at the prompt.
l
To list all forms of a top-level command, enter the command with no options at the
prompt or enter command ?.
l
To list all commands that use a specific keyword, enter help keyword or ? keyword.
For example, ? password displays all Data Domain system commands that use the
password argument.
The following guidelines describe how to use command-description help.
l
To list the top-level CLI commands, enter a question mark (?), or type the command
help at the prompt.
l
To list all forms of a top-level command with an introduction, enter help command
or ? command.
l
The end of each help description is marked END. Press Enter to return to the CLI
prompt.
l
When the complete help description does not fit in the display, the colon prompt (:)
appears at the bottom of the display. The following guidelines describe what you can
do when this prompt appears.
n
To move through the help display, use the up and down arrow keys.
n
To quit the current help display and return to the CLI prompt, press q.
n
To display help for navigating the help display, press h.
n
To search for text in the help display, enter a slash character (/) followed by a
pattern to use as search criteria and press Enter. Matches are highlighted.
CLI online help guidelines
43
Getting Started
44
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
CHAPTER 3
Managing Data Domain Systems
This chapter includes:
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l
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System management overview.............................................................................. 46
Rebooting a system...............................................................................................47
Powering a system on or off ..................................................................................47
System upgrade management............................................................................... 48
Managing system licenses.................................................................................... 50
System storage management................................................................................ 51
Network connection management......................................................................... 56
System passphrase management..........................................................................77
System access management................................................................................. 79
Configuring mail server settings.......................................................................... 101
Managing time and date settings........................................................................ 101
Managing system properties............................................................................... 102
SNMP management.............................................................................................103
Autosupport report management.........................................................................111
Support bundle management..............................................................................113
Alert notification management............................................................................ 114
EMC Support delivery management..................................................................... 120
Log file management...........................................................................................122
Remote system power management with IPMI..................................................... 127
Managing Data Domain Systems
45
Managing Data Domain Systems
System management overview
DD System Manager allows you to manage the system on which DD System Manager is
installed.
l
To support replication, DD System Manager supports the addition of systems running
the previous two versions, the current version and the next two versions as they
become available. For Release 5.7.1, DD System Manager supports the addition of
systems for replication for DD OS Version 5.5 to 5.7 plus the next two releases.
Note
When processing a heavy load, a system might be less responsive than normal. In this
case, management commands issued from either DD System Manager or the CLI might
take longer to complete. When the duration exceeds allowed limits, a timeout error is
returned, even if the operation completed.
The following table recommends the maximum number of user sessions supported by DD
System Manager:
Table 16 Maximum number of users supported by DD System Manager
System Model
Maximum Active Users Maximum Logged In
Users
4 GB modelsa
5
10
8 GB modelsb
10
15
16 GB and greater modelsc
10
20
a.
b.
c.
Includes DD140 and DD2200 (4TB)
Includes DD610 and DD630
Includes DD670, DD860, DD890, DD990, DD2200 (>7.5TB), DD4200, DD4500, DD7200, and
DD9500
Note
Initial HA system set-up (DD9500 only) cannot be done from the DD System Manager, but
the status of an already-configured HA system can be viewed from the DDSM.
HA system management overview
The HA relationship between the two nodes, one active and one standby, is setup
through DDSH CLIs.
Initial set-up can be run on either of the two nodes but only one at a time. It is a
precondition of HA that the system interconnect and identical hardware is setup on both
nodes first.
Note
Both DDRs are required to have identical hardware which will be validated during setup
and system boot-up.
If set-up is from a fresh install of systems, the ha create command needs to be run on
the node with the license installed. If setup is from an existing system and a new fresh
install system (upgrade), then it should be run from the existing system.
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EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
Managing Data Domain Systems
HA system planned maintenance
In order to reduce planned maintenance downtime, system upgrade is included in the HA
architecture.
A rolling system upgrade may use a manual HA failover to move the services away from
the node that must be upgraded. That node may then be shut down and upgraded. The
newly upgraded node is then rebooted to resume redundant operations as the standby
node. The upgrade is then repeated for the active node. It is shutdown, allowing the
newly upgraded standby node to take over. Once the upgrade is performed on the second
node, it is rebooted and assumes the role of the standby node.
All system upgrade operations that may require data conversion may not start until both
systems are upgraded to the same level and HA state is fully restored.
Rebooting a system
Reboot a system when a configuration change, such as changing the time zone, requires
that you reboot the system.
Procedure
1. Select Maintenance > System > More Tasks > Reboot System.
2. Click OK to confirm.
Powering a system on or off
When powering a system off and on, it is important that you follow the proper procedure
to preserve the file system and configuration integrity.
Procedure
1. Power on any expansion shelves before powering on the Data Domain controller. Wait
approximately three minutes after all expansion shelves are turned on.
Note
A controller is the chassis and any internal storage. A Data Domain system refers to
the controller and any optional external storage.
2. Plug in the power cord for your controller, and if there is a power button on the
controller, press the power button (as shown in the Installation and Setup Guide for
your Data Domain system).
3. To shut down power to a Data Domain system, use the system poweroff CLI
command.
This command automatically performs an orderly shut down of DD OS processes and
is available to administrative users only.
Results
NOTICE
Do not use the chassis power switch to power off the system. Doing so prevents remote
power control using IPMI. Use the system poweroff command instead. The system
poweroff command shuts down the system and turns off the power.
HA system planned maintenance
47
Managing Data Domain Systems
Note
The IMPI Remote System Power Down feature does not perform an orderly shutdown of
the DD OS. Use this feature only if the system poweroff command is unsuccessful.
System upgrade management
To upgrade a DD OS system, you must verify that there is sufficient room for the new
software on the target system, transfer the software to the system to be upgraded, and
then start the upgrade.
For HA systems, use the floating IP address to access DD System Manager to perform
software upgrades.
Viewing upgrade packages on the system
DD System Manager allows you to view and manage up to five upgrade packages on a
system. Before you can upgrade a system, you must download an upgrade package from
the EMC Online Support site to a local computer, and then upload it to the target system.
Procedure
1. Select Maintenance > System.
Results
For every package stored on the system, DD System Manager displays the filename, file
size, and last modified date in the list titled: Upgrade Packages Available on Data
Domain System.
Obtaining and verifying upgrade packages
You can use DD System Manager to locate upgrade package files on the Data Domain
Support Web site and upload copies of those files to a system.
Note
You can use FTP or NFS to copy an upgrade package to a system. DD System Manager is
limited to managing 5 system upgrade packages, but there are no restrictions, other than
space limitations, when you manage the files directly in the /ddvar/releases
directory. FTP is disabled by default. To use NFS, /ddvar needs to be exported and
mounted from an external host).
Procedure
1. Select Maintenance > System.
2. To obtain an upgrade package, click the EMC Online Support link, click Downloads,
and use the search function to locate the package recommended for your system by
Support personnel. Save the upgrade package to the local computer.
3. Verify that there are no more than four packages listed in the Upgrade Packages
Available on Data Domain System list.
DD System Manager can manage up to five upgrade packages. If five packages appear
in the list, remove at least one package before uploading the new package.
4. Click Upload Upgrade Package to initiate the transfer of the upgrade package to the
system.
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EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
Managing Data Domain Systems
5. In the Upload Upgrade Package dialog, click Browse to open the Choose File to
Upload dialog. Navigate to the folder with the downloaded file, select the file, and
click Open.
6. Click OK.
An upload progress dialog appears. Upon successful completion of the upload, the
download file (with a .rpm extension) appears in the list titled: Upgrade Packages
Available on Data Domain System.
7. To verify the upgrade package integrity, click View Checksum and compare the
calculated checksum displayed in the dialog to the authoritative checksum on the
EMC Online Support site.
8. To manually initiate an upgrade precheck, select an upgrade package and click
Upgrade Precheck.
Upgrading a Data Domain system
When an upgrade package file is present on a system, you can use DD System Manager
to perform an upgrade using that upgrade package.
Before you begin
Read the DD OS Release Notes for the complete upgrade instructions and coverage of all
the issues that can impact the upgrade.
The procedure that follows describes how to initiate an upgrade using DD System
Manager.
Note
Upgrade package files use the .rpm file extension. This topic assumes that you are
updating only DD OS. If you make hardware changes, such as adding, swapping, or
moving interface cards, you must update the DD OS configuration to correspond with the
hardware changes.
Procedure
1. Log into the system where the upgrade is to be performed.
Note
For most releases, upgrades are permitted from up to two prior major release
versions. For Release 5.7, upgrades are permitted from Releases 5.5 and 5.6.
Note
As recommended in the Release Notes, reboot the Data Domain system before
upgrading to verify that the hardware is in a clean state. If any issues are discovered
during the reboot, resolve those issues before starting the upgrade.
2. Select Data Management > File System, and verify that the file system is enabled and
running.
3. Select Maintenance > System.
4. From the Upgrade Packages Available on Data Domain System list, select the package
to use for the upgrade.
Upgrading a Data Domain system
49
Managing Data Domain Systems
Note
You must select an upgrade package for a newer version of DD OS. DD OS does not
support downgrades to previous versions.
5. Click Perform System Upgrade.
The System Upgrade dialog appears and displays information about the upgrade and
a list of users who are currently logged in to the system to be upgraded.
6. Verify the version of the upgrade package, and click OK to continue with the upgrade.
The System Upgrade dialog displays the upgrade status and the time remaining.
When upgrading the system, you must wait for the upgrade to complete before using
DD System Manager to manage the system. If the system restarts, the upgrade might
continue after the restart, and DD System Manager displays the upgrade status after
login. EMC recommends that you keep the System Upgrade progress dialog open until
the upgrade completes or the system powers off. When upgrading DD OS Release 5.5
or later to a newer version, and if the system upgrade does not require a power off, a
Login link appears when the upgrade is complete.
Note
To view the status of an upgrade using the CLI, enter the system upgrade
status command. Log messages for the upgrade are stored in /ddvar/log/
debug/platform/upgrade-error.log and /ddvar/log/debug/
platform/upgrade-info.log.
7. If the system powers down, you must remove AC power from the system to clear the
prior configuration. Unplug all of the power cables for 30 seconds and then plug them
back in. The system powers on and reboots.
8. If the system does not automatically power on and there is a power button on the
front panel, press the button.
Removing an upgrade package
A maximum of five upgrade packages can be uploaded to a system with DD System
Manager. If the system you are upgrading contains five upgrade packages, you must
remove at least one package before you can upgrade the system.
Procedure
1. Select Maintenance > System.
2. From the list titled Upgrade Packages Available on Data Domain System, select the
package to remove. One package can be removed at a time.
3. Click Remove Upgrade Package.
Managing system licenses
Add system licenses using purchased license keys to enable Data Domain system
features. Remove a system license when you are decommissioning a system.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Licenses.
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EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
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The Feature Licenses list displays the installed feature licenses and names. The Shelf
Capacity Licenses list displays licenses that enable the use of additional storage
shelves.
2. To add a license, complete the following tasks.
a. Click Add Licenses.
b. In the Add Licenses Key dialog box, type or paste one or more license keys in the
License Key box. Type each key on its own line, or separate each key by a space or
comma (DD System Manager automatically places each key on a new line).
c. Click Add.
The added licenses display in the Added license list.
Any errors are listed in the error license list. Select a license with an error to edit it.
Select Retry Failed License(s) to retry the key. Otherwise, click Done to ignore the
errors and return to the Feature Licenses list.
3. To delete a license, complete the following tasks.
a. In the Feature Licenses list, select one or more licenses to remove and click Delete
Selected Licenses.
b. In the Warning dialog box verify the license(s) to delete and click OK.
The licenses are removed from the license list.
HA system license management
HA is a licensed feature, and the system licensing key is registered by following the same
steps to add any other license to the DD system.
A system will be configured as Active-Standby, where one node is designated "standby."
Only one set of licenses will be required rather than needing individual licenses for each
node. During failover, the licenses on one node will failover to the other node.
System storage management
System storage management features allow you to view the status and configuration of
your storage space, flash a disk LED to facilitate disk identification, and change the
storage configuration.
Note
All storage connected or used by the two-node Active-Standby HA system can be viewed
as a single system.
Viewing system storage information
The storage status area shows the current status of the storage, such as Operational or
Non-Operational, and the storage migration status. Below the Status area are tabs that
organize how the storage inventory is presented.
Procedure
1. To display the storage status, select Hardware > Storage.
2. If an alerts link appears after the storage status, click the link to view the storage
alerts.
HA system license management
51
Managing Data Domain Systems
3. If the Storage Migration Status is Not licensed, you can click Add License to add the
license for this feature.
Overview tab
The Overview tab displays information for all disks in the Data Domain system organized
by type. The categories that display are dependent on the type of storage configuration in
use.
The Overview tab lists the discovered storage in one or more of the following sections.
l
Active Tier
Disks in the Active Tier are currently marked as usable by the Data Domain file
system. Disks are listed in two tables, Disks in Use and Disks Not in Use.
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Retention Tier
If the optional EMC Data Domain Extended Retention (formerly DD Archiver) license is
installed, this section shows the disks that are configured for Extended Retention
storage. Disks are listed in two tables, Disks in Use and Disks Not in Use. For more
information, see the EMC Data Domain Extended Retention Administration Guide.
l
Usable Disks and Enclosures
For systems with optional enclosures, this section shows the disks and enclosures
that can be added to the system.
l
Failed/Foreign/Absent Disks (Excluding Systems Disks)
Shows the disks that are in a failed state; these cannot be added to the system Active
or Retention tiers.
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Systems Disks
Shows the disks where the DD OS resides when the Data Domain controller does not
contain data storage disks.
Each section heading displays a summary of the storage configured for that section. The
summary shows tallies for the total number of disks, disks in use, spare disks,
reconstructing spare disks, available disks, and known disks.
Click a section plus (+) button to display detailed information, or click the minus (-)
button to hide the detailed information.
Table 17 Disks In Use column label descriptions
Item
Description
Disk Group
The name of the disk group that was created by the file system
(for example, dg1).
Status
The status of the disk (for example Normal, Warning).
Disks Reconstructing
The disks that are undergoing reconstruction, by disk ID (for
example, 1.11).
Total Disks
The total number of usable disks (for example, 14).
Disks
The disk IDs of the usable disks (for example, 2.1-2.14).
Table 18 Disks Not In Use column label descriptions
Item
Description
Disk
The disk identifier, which can be any of the following.
l
52
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
The enclosure and disk number (in the form Enclosure Slot)
Managing Data Domain Systems
Table 18 Disks Not In Use column label descriptions (continued)
Item
Description
l
A device number for a logical device such as those used by
VTL and vDisk
l
A LUN
Status
The status of the disk, for example In Use, Available, Spare.
Size
The data storage capacity of the disk when used in a Data
Domain system.a
Manufacturer/Model
The manufacturer’s model designation. The display may include
a model ID or RAID type or other information depending on the
vendor string sent by the storage array.
Firmware
The firmware level used by the third-party physical-disk storage
controller.
Serial Number
The manufacturer’s serial number for the disk.
a.
The Data Domain convention for computing disk space defines one gibibyte as 230 bytes,
giving a different disk capacity than the manufacturer’s rating.
Status tab
The Status tab displays a summary status table showing the state of all system disks and
another table that provides additional information on reconstructing disks.
Table 19 Disks Status table column label descriptions
Item
Description
Total
The total number of inventoried disks in the Data Domain
system.
In Use
The number of disks currently in use by the file system.
Spare
The number of spare disks (available to replace failed disks).
Spare (reconstructing)
The number of disks that are in the process of data
reconstruction (spare disks replacing failed disks).
Available
The number of disks that are available for allocation to an Active
or Extended Retention storage tier.
Known
The number of known unallocated disks.
Unknown
The number of unknown unallocated disks.
Failed
The number of failed disks.
Foreign
The number of foreign disks.
Absent
The number of absent disks.
Migrating
The number of disks serving as the source of a storage migration.
Destination
The number of disks serving as the destination of a storage
migration.
Not Installed
The number of empty disk slots that the system can detect.
Viewing system storage information
53
Managing Data Domain Systems
The following table describes the entries in the Reconstructing table.
Table 20 Reconstruction table column label descriptions
Item
Description
Disk
Identifies disks that are being reconstructed. Disk labels are of
the format enclosure.disk. Enclosure 1 is the Data Domain
system, and external shelves start numbering with enclosure 2.
For example, the label 3.4 is the fourth disk in the second shelf.
Disk Group
Shows the RAID group (dg#) for the reconstructing disk.
Tier
The name of the tier where the failed disk is being reconstructed.
Time Remaining
The amount of time before the reconstruction is complete.
Percentage Complete
The percentage of reconstruction that is complete.
When a spare disk is available, the Data Domain file system automatically replaces a
failed disk with a spare and begins the reconstruction process to integrate the spare into
the RAID disk group. The disk use displays Spare and the status becomes
Reconstructing. Reconstruction is performed on one disk at a time.
Disks tab
The Disks tab displays information on each of the system disks. You can filter the disks
viewed to display all disks, disks in a specific tier, or disks in a specific group.
Table 21 Disks Status table column label descriptions
Item
Description
Disk
The disk identifier, which can be:
Status
54
l
The enclosure and disk number (in the form Enclosure.Slot).
l
A device number for a logical device such as those used by
VTL and vDisk..
l
A LUN.
The status of the disk, which can be one of the following.
l
Absent. No disk is installed in the indicated location.
l
Available. An available disk is allocated to the active or
retention tier, but it is not currently in use.
l
Copy Recovery. The disk has a high error rate but is not
failed. RAID is currently copying the contents onto a spare
drive and will fail the drive once the copy reconstruction is
complete.
l
Destination. The disk is in use as the destination for storage
migration.
l
Error. The disk has a high error rate but is not failed. The disk
is in the queue for copy reconstruction. The state will change
to Copy Recovery when copy reconstruction begins.
l
Foreign. The disk has been assigned to a tier, but the disk
data indicates the disk may be owned by another system.
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
Managing Data Domain Systems
Table 21 Disks Status table column label descriptions (continued)
Item
Description
l
In-Use. The disk is being used for backup data storage.
l
Known. The disk is a supported disk that is ready for
allocation.
l
Migrating. The disk is in use as the source for storage
migration.
l
Powered Off. The disk power has been removed by EMC
Support.
l
Reconstruction. The disk is reconstructing in response to a
disk fail command or by direction from RAID/SSM.
l
Spare. The disk is available for use as a spare.
l
System. System disks store DD OS and system data. No
backup data is stored on system disks.
l
Unknown. An unknown disk is not allocated to the active or
retention tier. It might have been failed administratively or
by the RAID system.
Manufacturer/Model
The manufacturer’s model designation. The display may include
a model ID or RAID type or other information depending on the
vendor string sent by the storage array.
Firmware
The firmware level used by the third-party physical-disk storage
controller.
Serial Number
The manufacturer’s serial number for the disk.
Physically locating an enclosure
If you have trouble determining which physical enclosure corresponds to an enclosure
displayed in DD System Manager, you can use the CLI beacon feature to flash the
enclosure IDENT LEDs and all the disk LEDs that indicate normal operation.
Procedure
1. Establish a CLI session with the system.
2. Type enclosure beacon enclosure.
3. Press Ctrl-C to stop the LED flashing.
Physically locating a disk
If you have trouble determining which physical disk corresponds to a disk displayed in
DD System Manager, you can use the beacon feature to flash an LED on the physical disk.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Storage > Disks.
2. Select a disk from the Disks table and click Beacon.
Physically locating an enclosure
55
Managing Data Domain Systems
Note
You can select one disk at a time.
The Beaconing Disk dialog box appears, and the LED light on the disk begins flashing.
3. Click Stop to stop the LED beaconing.
Configuring storage
Storage configuration features allow you add and remove storage expansion enclosures
from the active and retention tiers. Storage in an expansion enclosure (which is
sometimes called an expansion shelf) is not available for use until it is added to a tier.
Note
Additional storage requires the appropriate license or licenses and sufficient memory to
support the new storage capacity. Error messages display if more licenses or memory is
needed.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Storage > Overview > Configure Storage.
2. In the Configure Storage dialog, select the storage to be added from the Available
Storage list.
3. In the Configure list, select either Active Tier or Retention Tier.
The maximum amount of storage that can be added to the active tier depends on the
DD controller used.
Note
The licensed capacity bar shows the portion of licensed capacity (used and
remaining) for the installed enclosures.
4. Select the checkbox for the Shelf to be added.
5. Click the Add to Tier button.
6. Click OK to add the storage.
Note
To remove an added shelf, select it in the Tier Configuration list, click Remove from
Configuration, and click OK.
Network connection management
Network connection management features allow you view and configure network
interfaces, general network settings, and network routes.
HA system network connection management
The HA system relies on two different types of IP addresses, fixed and floating. Each type
has specific behaviors and limitations.
On an HA system, Fixed IP addresses:
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EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
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l
Are used for node management via the CLI
l
Are attached ("fixed") to the node
l
Can be static or DHCP, IPv6 SLAAC
l
Configuration is done on the specific node with the optional type fixed argument
Note
All filesystem access should be through a floating IP.
Floating IP addresses only exist in the two-node HA system; during failover, the IP
address "float" to the new active node and are:
l
Only configured on the active node
l
Used for filesystem access and most configuration
l
Can only be static
l
Configuration requires the type floating argument
Network interface management
Network interface management features allow you to manage the physical interfaces that
connect the system to a network and create logical interfaces to support link aggregation,
load balancing, and link or node failover.
Viewing interface information
The Interfaces tab allows you to manage physical and virtual interfaces, VLANs, DHCP,
DDNS, and IP addresses and aliases.
Consider the following guidelines when managing IPv6 interfaces.
l
The command-line interface (CLI) supports IPv6 for basic Data Domain network and
replication commands, but not for backup and Extended Retention (archive)
commands. CLI commands manage the IPv6 addresses. You can view IPv6 addresses
using the DD System Manager, but you cannot manage IPv6 with the DD System
Manager.
l
Collection, directory, and MTree replication are supported over IPv6 networks, which
allows you to take advantage of the IPv6 address space. Simultaneous replication
over IPv6 and IPv4 networks is also supported, as is Managed File Replication using
DD Boost.
l
There are some restrictions for interfaces with IPv6 addresses. For example, the
minimum MTU is 1280. If you try to set the MTU lower than 1280 on an interface with
an IPv6 address, an error message appears and the interface is removed from service.
An IPv6 address can affect an interface even though it is on a VLAN attached to the
interface and not directly on the interface.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Ethernet > Interfaces.
The following table describes the information on the Interfaces tab.
Table 22 Interface tab label descriptions
Item
Description
Interface
The name of each interface associated with the selected system.
Network interface management
57
Managing Data Domain Systems
Table 22 Interface tab label descriptions (continued)
Item
Description
Enabled
Whether the interface is enabled.
DHCP
l
Select Yes to enable the interface and connect it to the network.
l
Select No to disable the interface and disconnect it from the
network.
Indicates if the interface is configured manually (no), by a DHCP
(Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) IPv4 server (v4), or by a DHCP
IPv6 server (v6).
IP Address
IP address associated with the interface. The address used by the
network to identify the interface. If the interface is configured through
DHCP, an asterisk appears after this value.
Netmask
Netmask associated with the interface. Uses the standard IP network
mask format. If the interface is configured through DHCP, an asterisk
appears after this value.
Link
Whether the Ethernet connection is active (Yes/No).
Address Type
On an HA system, the Address Type indicates Fixed, Floating, or
Interconnect.
Additional Info
Additional settings for the interface. For example, the bonding mode.
IPMI interfaces
configured
Displays Yes or No and indicates if IPMI health monitoring and power
management is configured for the interface.
2. To filter the interface list by interface name, enter a value in the Interface Name field
and click Update.
Filters support wildcards, such as eth*, veth*, or eth0*
3. To filter the interface list by interface type, select a value from the Interface Type menu
and click Update.
On an HA system, there is a filter dropdown to filter by IP Address Type (Fixed,
Floating, or Interconnect).
4. To return the interfaces table to the default listing, click Reset.
5. Select an interface in the table to populate the Interface Details area.
Table 23 Interface Details label descriptions
Item
Description
Auto-generated
Addresses
Displays the automatically generated IPv6 addresses for the selected
interface.
Auto Negotiate
When this feature displays Enabled, the interface automatically
negotiates Speed and Duplex settings. When this feature displays
Disabled, then Speed and Duplex values must be set manually.
Cable
58
Shows whether the interface is Copper or Fiber.
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
Managing Data Domain Systems
Table 23 Interface Details label descriptions (continued)
Item
Description
Note
Some interfaces must be up before the cable status is valid.
Duplex
Used in conjunction with the Speed value to set the data transfer
protocol. Options are Unknown, Full, Half.
Hardware Address
The MAC address of the selected interface. For example,
00:02:b3:b0:8a:d2.
Interface Name
Name of the selected interface.
Latent Fault Detection
(LFD) - HA systems only
The LFD field has a View Configuration link, displaying a pop-
Maximum Transfer Unit
(MTU)
MTU value assigned to the interface.
Speed
Used in conjunction with the Duplex value to set the rate of data
transfer. Options are Unknown, 10 Mb/s, 100 Mb/s, 1000 Mb/s, 10
Gb/s.
up that lists LFD addresses and interfaces.
Note
Auto-negotiated interfaces must be set up before speed, duplex, and
supported speed are visible.
Supported Speeds
Lists all of the speeds that the interface can use.
6. To view IPMI interface configuration and management options, click View IPMI
Interfaces.
This link displays the Maintenance > IPMI information.
Physical interface names and limitations
The format of physical interface names varies on different Data Domain systems and
option cards, and limitations apply to some interfaces.
l
For most systems the physical interface name format is ethxy, where x is the slot
number for an on-board port or an option card and y is an alphanumeric string. For
example, eth0a.
l
For most on-board NIC vertical interfaces, the top interface is named eth0a and the
bottom interface is eth0b.
l
For most on-board NIC horizontal interfaces, the left interface as viewed from the rear,
is named eth0a and the right is named eth0b.
l
DD990 systems provide four on-board interfaces: two on the top and two on the
bottom. The top-left interface is eth0a, the top-right is eth0b, the bottom-left is eth0c,
and the bottom-right is eth0d.
l
DD2200 systems provide four on-board 1G Base-T NIC ports: ethMa (top left), ethMb
(top right), ethMc (bottom left), and ethMd (bottom right).
Network interface management
59
Managing Data Domain Systems
l
DD2500 systems provide six on-board interfaces. The four on-board 1G Base-T NIC
ports are ethMa (top left), ethMb (top right), ethMc (bottom left), and ethMd (bottom
right). The two on-board 10G Base-T NIC ports are ethMe (top) and ethMf (bottom).
l
DD4200, DD4500, and DD7200 systems provide one on-board Ethernet port, which is
ethMa.
l
For systems ranging between DD140 and DD990, the physical interface names for I/O
modules start at the top of the module or at the left side. The first interface is ethxa,
the next is ethxb, the next is ethxc, and so forth.
l
The port numbers on the horizontal DD2500 I/O modules are labeled in sequence
from the end opposite the module handle (left side). The first port is labeled 0 and
corresponds to physical interface name ethxa, the next is 1/ethxb, the next is 2/
ethxc, and so forth.
l
The port numbers on the vertical DD4200, DD4500, and DD7200 I/O modules are
labeled in sequence from the end opposite the module handle (bottom). The first port
is labeled 0 and corresponds to physical interface name ethxa, the next is 1/ethxb,
the next is 2/ethxc, and so forth.
General interface configuration guidelines
Review the general interface configuration guidelines before configuring system
interfaces.
l
When supporting both backup and replication traffic, EMC recommends using
different interfaces for each traffic type so that neither traffic type impacts the other.
l
When replication traffic is expected to be less than 1 Gb/s, EMC recommends against
using 10 GbE interfaces for replication traffic because 10 GbE interfaces are
optimized for faster traffic.
l
On DD4200, DD4500, and DD7200 systems that use IPMI, EMC recommends that
interface ethMa be reserved for IPMI traffic and system management traffic (using
protocols such as HTTP, Telnet, and SSH). Backup data traffic should be directed to
other interfaces.
Configuring physical interfaces
You must configure at least on physical interface before the system can connect to a
network.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Ethernet > Interfaces.
2. Select an interface to configure.
Note
DD140, DD160, DD610, DD620, and DD630 systems do not support IPv6 on interface
eth0a (eth0 on systems that use legacy port names) or on any VLANs created on that
interface.
3. Click Configure.
4. In the Configure Interface dialog, determine how the interface IP address is to be set:
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EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
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Note
On an HA system, the Configure Interface dialog has a field for whether or not to
designate the Floating IP (Yes/No). Selecting Yes the Manually Configure IP
Address radio button is auto-selected; Floating IP interfaces can only be manually
configured.
l
Use DHCP to assign the IP address—in the IP Settings area, select Obtain IP
Address using DHCP and select either DHCPv4 for IPv4 access or DHCPv6 for IPv6
access.
Setting a physical interface to use DHCP automatically enables the interface.
Note
If you choose to obtain the network settings through DHCP, you can manually
configure the hostname at Hardware > Ethernet > Settings or with the net set
hostname command. You must manually configure the host name when using
DHCP over IPv6.
l
Specify IP Settings manually—in the IP Settings area, select Manually configure IP
Address.
The IP Address and Netmask fields become active.
5. If you chose to manually enter the IP address, enter an IPv4 or IPv6 address. If you
entered an IPv4 address, enter a netmask address.
Note
You can assign just one IP address to an interface with this procedure. If you assign
another IP address, the new address replaces the old address. To attach an additional
IP address to an interface, create an IP alias.
6. Specify Speed/Duplex settings.
The combination of speed and duplex settings define the rate of data transfer through
the interface. Select one of these options:
l
l
Autonegotiate Speed/Duplex — Select this option to allow the network interface
card to autonegotiate the line speed and duplex setting for an interface.
Autonegotiation is not supported on the following DD2500, DD4200, DD4500, and
DD7200 I/O modules:
n
Dual Port 10GbE SR Optical with LC connectors (using SFPs)
n
Dual Port 10GbE Direct Attach Copper (SFP+ cables)
n
Quad port 2 port 1GbE Copper (RJ45) /2 port 1GbE SR Optical
Manually configure Speed/Duplex — Select this option to manually set an
interface data transfer rate. Select the speed and duplex from the menus.
n
Duplex options are half-duplex, full-duplex, and unknown.
n
Speed options listed are limited to the capabilities of the hardware device.
Options are 10 Mb, 100 Mb, 1000 Mb (1 Gb), 10 Gb, and unknown. The 10G
Base-T hardware supports only the 100 Mb, 1000 Mb and 10 Gb settings.
n
Half-duplex is only available for 10 Mb and 100 Mb speeds.
n
1000 Mb and 10 Gb line speeds require full-duplex.
n
On DD2500, DD4200, DD4500, and DD7200 10GbE I/O modules, copper
interfaces support only the 10 Gb speed setting.
Network interface management
61
Managing Data Domain Systems
n
The default setting for 10G Base-T interfaces is Autonegotiate Speed/Duplex. If
you manually set the speed to 1000 Mb or 10 Gb, you must set the Duplex
setting to Full.
7. Specify the MTU (Maximum Transfer Unit) size for the physical (Ethernet) interface.
Do the following:
l
Click the Default button to return the setting to the default value.
l
Ensure that all of your network components support the size set with this option.
8. Optionally, select Dynamic DNS Registration.
Dynamic DNS (DDNS) is a protocol that registers local IP addresses on a Domain Name
System (DNS) server. In this release, DD System Manager supports Windows mode
DDNS. To use UNIX mode DDNS, use the net ddns CLI command.
The DDNS must be registered to enable this option.
Note
This option disables DHCP for this interface.
9. Click Next.
The Configure Interface Settings summary page appears. The values listed reflect the
new system and interface state, which are applied after you click Finish.
10. Click Finish and OK.
MTU size values
The MTU size must be set properly to optimize the performance of a network connection.
An incorrect MTU size can negatively affect interface performance.
Supported values for setting the maximum Transfer Unit (MTU) size for the physical
(Ethernet) interface range from 350 to 9000. For 100 Base-T and gigabit networks, 1500
is the standard default.
Note
Although 9000 is the maximum size, to be backwardly compatible, the DD OS accepts up
to 9014, but sets the size to 9000 when it is greater than 9000 and less than or equal to
9014.
Note
The minimum MTU for IPv6 interfaces is 1280. The interface fails if you try to set the MTU
lower than 1280.
Moving a static IP address
A specific static IP address must be assigned to only one interface on a system. A static IP
address must be properly removed from an interface before it is configured on another
interface.
Procedure
1. If the interface that hosts the static IP address is part of a DD Boost interface group,
remove the interface from that group.
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EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
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2. Select Hardware > Ethernet > Interfaces.
3. Remove the static IP address that you want to move.
a. Select the interface that is currently using the IP address you want to move.
b. In the Enabled column, select No to disable the interface.
c. Click Configure.
d. Set the IP Address to 0.
Note
Set the IP address to 0 when there is no other IP address to assign to the interface.
The same IP address must not be assigned to multiple interfaces.
e. Click Next, and click Finish.
4. Add the removed static IP address to another interface.
a. Select the interface to which you want to move the IP address.
b. In the Enabled column, select No to disable the interface.
c. Click Configure.
d. Set the IP Address to the match the static IP address you removed.
e. Click Next, and click Finish.
f. In the Enabled column, select Yes to enable the updated interface.
Virtual interface configuration guidelines
Virtual interface configuration guidelines apply to failover and aggregate virtual
interfaces. There are additional guidelines that apply to either failover or aggregate
interfaces but not both.
l
The virtual-name must be in the form vethx where x is a number. The recommended
maximum number is 99 because of name size limitations.
l
You can create as many virtual interfaces as there are physical interfaces.
l
Each interface used in a virtual interface must first be disabled. An interface that is
part of a virtual interface is seen as disabled for other network configuration options.
l
After a virtual interface is destroyed, the physical interfaces associated with it remain
disabled. You must manually re-enable the physical interfaces.
l
The number and type of cards installed determines the number of Ethernet ports
available.
l
Each physical interface can belong to one virtual interface.
l
A system can support multiple mixed failover and aggregation virtual interfaces,
subject to the restrictions above.
l
Virtual interfaces must be created from identical physical interfaces. For example, all
copper, all optical, all 1 Gb, or all 10 Gb. However, 1 Gb interfaces support bonding a
mix of copper and optical interfaces. This applies to virtual interfaces across different
cards with identical physical interfaces, except for Chelsio cards. For Chelsio cards,
only failover is supported, and that is only across interfaces on the same card.
l
Failover and aggregate links improve network performance and resiliency by using
two or more network interfaces in parallel, thus increasing the link speed and
reliability over that of a single interface.
Network interface management
63
Managing Data Domain Systems
l
Remove functionality is available using the Configure button. Click a virtual interface
in the list of interfaces on the Interfaces tab and click Configure. From the list of
interfaces in the dialog box, clear the checkbox for the interface to remove it from
bonding (failover or aggregate), and click Next.
l
On DD4200, DD4500, and DD7200 systems, the ethMa interface does not support
failover or link aggregation.
Guidelines for configuring a virtual interface for link aggregation
Link aggregation provides improved network performance and resiliency by using one or
more network interfaces in parallel, thus increasing the link speed and reliability over
that of a single interface. These guidelines are provided to help you optimize your use of
link aggregation.
l
Changes to disabled Ethernet interfaces flush the routing table. It is recommended
that you make interface changes only during scheduled maintenance downtime.
Afterwards, reconfigure the routing rules and gateways.
l
Enable aggregation on an existing virtual interface by specifying the physical
interfaces and mode and giving it an IP address.
l
10 Gb single-port optical Ethernet cards do not support link aggregation.
l
1 GbE and 10 GbE interfaces cannot be aggregated together.
l
Copper and optical interfaces cannot be aggregated together.
l
On DD4200, DD4500, and DD7200 systems, the ethMA interface does not support
link aggregation.
Guidelines for configuring a virtual interface for failover
Link failover provides improved network stability and performance by identifying backup
interfaces that can support network traffic when the primary interface is not operating.
These guidelines are provided to help you optimize your use of link failover.
l
A primary interface must be part of the failover. If a primary interface removal is
attempted from a failover, an error message appears.
l
When a primary interface is used in a failover configuration, it must be explicitly
specified and must also be a bonded interface to the virtual interface. If the primary
interface goes down and multiple interfaces are still available, the next interface is
randomly selected.
l
All interfaces in a virtual interface must be on the same physical network. Network
switches used by a virtual interface must be on the same physical network.
l
The recommended number of physical interfaces for failover is greater than one. You
can, however, configure one primary interface and one or more failover interfaces,
except with the following:
l
n
10 Gb CX4 Ethernet card, which are restricted to one primary interface and one
failover interface from the same card, and
n
10 Gb single-port optical Ethernet cards, which cannot be used.
On DD4200, DD4500, and DD7200 systems, the ethMA interface does not support
link failover.
Virtual interface creation
Create a virtual interface to support link aggregation or failover. The virtual interface
serves as a container for the links to be aggregated or associated for failover.
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EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
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Creating a virtual interface for link aggregation
Create a virtual interface for link aggregation to serve as a container to associate the links
that participate in aggregation.
A link aggregation interface must specify a link bonding mode and may require a hash
selection. For example, you might enable link aggregation on virtual interface veth1 to
physical interfaces eth1 and eth2 in mode LACP (Link Aggregation Control Protocol) and
hash XOR-L2L3.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Ethernet > Interfaces.
2. In the Interfaces table, disable the physical interface where the virtual interface is to
be added by clicking No in the Enabled column.
3. From the Create menu, select Virtual Interface.
4. In the Create Virtual Interface dialog, specify a virtual interface name in the veth box.
Enter a virtual interface name in the form vethx, where x is a unique ID (typically one or
two digits). A typical full virtual interface name with VLAN and IP Alias is
veth56.3999:199. The maximum length of the full name is 15 characters. Special
characters are not allowed. Numbers must be between 0 and 4094, inclusively.
5. In the Bonding Type list, select Aggregate.
Note
Registry settings can be different from the bonding configuration. When interfaces are
added to the virtual interface, the information is not sent to the bonding module until
the virtual interface is given an IP address and brought up. Until that time the registry
and the bonding driver configuration are different.
6. In the Mode list, select a bonding mode.
Specify the mode that is compatible with the requirements of the system to which the
interfaces are directly attached.
l
Round-robin
Transmit packets in sequential order from the first available link through the last in
the aggregated group.
l
Balanced
Data is sent over interfaces as determined by the hash method selected. This
requires the associated interfaces on the switch to be grouped into an Ether
channel (trunk) and given a hash via the Load Balance parameter.
l
LACP
Link Aggregation Control Protocol is similar to Balanced, except that it uses a
control protocol that communicates to the other end and coordinates which links
within the bond are available for use. LACP provides a kind of heartbeat failover
and must be configured at both ends of the link.
7. If you selected Balanced or LACP mode, specify a bonding hash type in the Hash list.
Options are: XOR-L2, XOR-L2L3, or XOR-L3L4.
XOR-L2 transmits through a bonded interface with an XOR hash of Layer 2 (inbound
and outbound MAC addresses).
XOR-L2L3 transmits through a bonded interface with an XOR hash of Layer 2 (inbound
and outbound MAC addresses) and Layer 3 (inbound and outbound IP addresses).
Network interface management
65
Managing Data Domain Systems
XOR-L3L4 transmits through a bonded interface with an XOR hash of Layer 3 (inbound
and outbound IP addresses) and Layer 4 (inbound and outbound ports).
8. To select an interface to add to the aggregate configuration, select the checkbox that
corresponds to the interface, and then click Next.
The Create virtual interface veth_name dialog appears.
9. Enter an IP address, or enter 0 to specify no IP address.
10. Enter a netmask address or prefix.
11. Specify Speed/Duplex options.
The combination of speed and duplex settings define the rate of data transfer through
the interface. Select either:
l
Autonegotiate Speed/Duplex
Select this option to allow the network interface card to autonegotiate the line
speed and duplex setting for an interface.
l
Manually configure Speed/Duplex
Select this option to manually set an interface data transfer rate.
n
Duplex options are half-duplex or full-duplex.
n
Speed options listed are limited to the capabilities of the hardware device.
Options are 10 Mb, 100 Mb, 1000 Mb, and 10 Gb.
n
Half-duplex is only available for 10 Mb and 100 Mb speeds.
n
1000 Mb and 10 Gb line speeds require full-duplex.
n
Optical interfaces require the Autonegotiate option.
n
The 10 GbE copper NIC default is 10 Gb. If a copper interface is set to 1000 Mb
or 10 Gb line speed, duplex must be full-duplex.
12. Specify the MTU setting.
l
To select the default value (1500), click Default.
l
To select a different setting, enter the setting in the MTU box. Ensure that all of
your network components support the size set with this option.
13. Optionally, select Dynamic DNS Registration option.
Dynamic DNS (DDNS) is a protocol that registers local IP addresses on a Domain Name
System (DNS) server. In this release, DD System Manager supports Windows mode
DDNS. To use UNIX mode DDNS, use the net ddns CLI command.
The DDNS must be registered to enable this option.
14. Click Next.
The Configure Interface Settings summary page appears. The values listed reflect the
new system and interface state.
15. Click Finish and OK.
Creating a virtual interface for link failover
Create a virtual interface for link failover to serve as a container to associate the links that
will participate in failover.
The failover-enabled virtual interface represents a group of secondary interfaces, one of
which can be specified as the primary. The system makes the primary interface the active
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EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
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interface whenever the primary interface is operational. A configurable Down Delay
failover option allows you to configure a failover delay in 900 millisecond intervals. The
failover delay guards against multiple failovers when a network is unstable.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Ethernet > Interfaces.
2. In the interfaces table, disable the physical interface to which the virtual interface is
to be added by clicking No in the Enabled column.
3. From the Create menu, select Virtual Interface.
4. In the Create Virtual Interface dialog, specify a virtual interface name in the veth box.
Enter a virtual interface name in the form vethx, where x is a unique ID (typically one
or two digits). A typical full virtual interface name with VLAN and IP Alias is
veth56.3999:199. The maximum length of the full name is 15 characters. Special
characters are not allowed. Numbers must be between 0 and 4094, inclusively.
5. In the Bonding Type list, select Failover.
6. Select an interface to add to the failover configuration, and click Next. Virtual
aggregate interfaces can be used for failover.
The Create virtual interface veth_name dialog appears.
7. Enter an IP address, or enter 0 to specify no IP address.
8. Enter a netmask or prefix.
9. Specify the Speed/Duplex options.
The combination of speed and duplex settings defines the rate of data transfer
through the interface.
l
Select Autonegotiate Speed/Duplex to allow the network interface card to
autonegotiate the line speed and duplex setting for an interface.
l
Select Manually configure Speed/Duplex to manually set an interface datatransfer rate.
n
Duplex options are either half duplex or full duplex.
n
Speed options listed are limited to the capabilities of the hardware device.
Options are 10 Mb, 100 Mb, 1000 Mb, and 10 Gb.
n
Half-duplex is available for 10 Mb and 100 Mb speeds only.
n
1000 Mb and 10 Gb line speeds require full-duplex.
n
Optical interfaces require the Autonegotiate option.
n
The copper interface default is 10 Gb. If a copper interface is set to 1000 Gb or
10 Gb line speed, the duplex must be full-duplex.
10. Specify MTU setting.
l
To select the default value (1500), click Default.
l
To select a different setting, enter the setting in the MTU box. Ensure that all of
your network path components support the size set with this option.
11. Optionally, select Dynamic DNS Registration option.
Dynamic DNS (DDNS) is a protocol that registers local IP addresses on a Domain Name
System (DNS) server. In this release, DD System Manager supports Windows mode
DDNS. To use UNIX mode DDNS, use the net ddns CLI command.
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The DDNS must be registered to enable this option.
Note
This option disables DHCP for this interface.
12. Click Next.
The Configure Interface Settings summary page appears. The values listed reflect the
new system and interface state.
13. Complete the Interface, click Finish and OK.
Modifying a virtual interface
After you create a virtual interface, you can update the settings to respond to network
changes or resolve issues.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Ethernet > Interfaces.
2. In the Interfaces column, select the interface and disable the virtual interface by
clicking No in the Enabled column. Click OK in the warning dialog.
3. In the Interfaces column, select the interface and click Configure.
4. In the Configure Virtual Interface dialog, change the settings.
5. Click Next and Finish.
Configuring a VLAN
Create a new VLAN interface from either a physical interface or a virtual interface.
The recommended total VLAN count is 80. You can create up to 100 interfaces (minus the
number of aliases, physical and virtual interfaces) before the system prevents you from
creating any more.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Ethernet > Interfaces.
2. In the interfaces table, select the interface to which you want to add the VLAN.
The interface you select must be configured with an IP address before you can add a
VLAN.
3. Click Create and selectVLAN.
4. In the Create VLAN dialog box, specify a VLAN ID by entering a number in the VLAN Id
box.
The range of a VLAN ID is between 1 and 4094 inclusive.
5. Enter an IP address, or enter 0 to specify no IP address.
The Internet Protocol (IP) address is the numerical label assigned to the interface. For
example, 192.168.10.23.
6. Enter a netmask or prefix.
7. Specify the MTU setting.
The VLAN MTU must be less than or equal to the MTU defined for the physical or
virtual interface to which it is assigned. If the MTU defined for the supporting physical
or virtual interface is reduced below the configured VLAN value, the VLAN value is
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automatically reduced to match the supporting interface. If the MTU value for the
supporting interface is increased above the configured VLAN value, the VLAN value is
unchanged.
l
To select the default value (1500), click Default.
l
To select a different setting, enter the setting in the MTU box. DD System Manager
does not accept an MTU size that is larger than that defined for the physical or
virtual interface to which the VLAN is assigned.
8. Specify Dynamic DNS Registration option.
Dynamic DNS (DDNS) is a protocol that registers local IP addresses on a Domain Name
System (DNS) server. In this release, DD System Manager supports Windows mode
DDNS. To use UNIX mode DDNS, use the net ddns CLI command.
The DDNS must be registered to enable this option.
9. Click Next.
The Create VLAN summary page appears.
10. Review the configuration settings, click Finish, and click OK.
Modifying a VLAN interface
After you create a VLAN interface, you can update the settings to respond to network
changes or resolve issues.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Ethernet > Interfaces.
2. In the Interfaces column, select the checkbox of the interface and disable the VLAN
interface by clicking No in the Enabled column. Click OK in the warning dialog box.
3. In the Interfaces column, select the checkbox of the interface and click Configure.
4. In the Configure VLAN Interface dialog, change the settings.
5. Click Next and Finish.
Configuring an IP alias
An IP alias assigns an additional IP address to a physical interface, a virtual interface, or
a VLAN.
The recommended total number of IP aliases, VLAN, physical, and virtual interfaces that
can exist on the system is 80. Although up to 100 interfaces are supported, as the
maximum number is approached, you might notice slowness in the display.
Note
When using a Data Domain HA system, if a user is created and logins to the standby node
without logging into the active node first, the user will not have a default alias to use.
Therefore, in order to use aliases on the standby node, the user should login to the active
node first.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Ethernet > Interfaces.
2. Click Create, and select IP Alias.
The Create IP Alias dialog appears.
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3. Specify an IP alias ID by entering a number in the IP ALIAS Id box.
The range is 1 to 4094 inclusive.
4. Enter an IPv4 or IPv6 address.
5. If you entered an IPv4 address, enter a netmask address.
6. Specify Dynamic DNS Registration option.
Dynamic DNS (DDNS) is a protocol that registers local IP addresses on a Domain Name
System (DNS) server. In this release, DD System Manager supports Windows mode
DDNS. To use UNIX mode DDNS, use the net ddns CLI command.
The DDNS must be registered to enable this option.
7. Click Next.
The Create IP Alias summary page appears.
8. Review the configuration settings, click Finish, and OK.
Modifying an IP alias interface
After you create an IP alias, you can update the settings to respond to network changes or
resolve issues.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Ethernet > Interfaces.
2. In the Interfaces column, select the checkbox of the interface and disable the IP alias
interface by clicking No in the Enabled column. Click OK in the warning dialog box.
3. In the Interfaces column, select the checkbox of the interface and click Configure.
4. In the Configure IP Alias dialog box, change the settings as described in the procedure
for creating an IP Alias.
5. Click Next and Finish.
Registering interfaces with DDNS
Dynamic DNS (DDNS) is a protocol that registers local IP addresses on a Domain Name
System (DNS) server.
In this release, DD System Manager supports Windows mode DDNS. To use UNIX mode
DDNS, use the net ddns CLI command. You can do the following.
l
Manually register (add) configured interfaces to the DDNS registration list.
l
Remove interfaces from the DDNS registration list.
l
Enable or disable DNS updates.
l
Display whether DDNS registration is enabled or not.
l
Display interfaces in the DDNS registration list.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Ethernet > Interfaces > DDNS Registration.
2. In the DDNS Windows Mode Registration dialog, click Add to add an interface to the
DDNS.
The Add Interface dialog box appears.
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a. Enter a name in the Interface field.
b. Click OK.
3. Optionally, to remove an interface from the DDNS:
a. Select the interface to remove, and click Remove.
b. In the Confirm Remove dialog box, click OK.
4. Specify the DDNS Status.
l
Select Enable to enable updates for all interfaces already registered.
l
Click Default to select the default settings for DDNS updates.
l
Clear Enable to disable DDNS updates for the registered interfaces.
5. To complete the DDNS registration, click OK.
Destroying an interface
You can use DD System Manager to destroy or delete virtual, VLAN, and IP alias
interfaces.
When a virtual interface is destroyed, the system deletes the virtual interface, releases its
bonded physical interface, and deletes any VLANs or aliases attached to the virtual
interface. When you delete a VLAN interface, the OS deletes the VLAN and any IP alias
interfaces that are created under it. When you destroy an IP alias, the OS deletes only
that alias interface.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Ethernet > Interfaces.
2. Click the box next to each interface you want to destroy (Virtual or VLAN or IP Alias).
3. Click Destroy.
4. Click OK to confirm.
Viewing an interface hierarchy in the tree view
The Tree View dialog displays the association between physical and virtual interfaces.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Ethernet > Interfaces > Tree View.
2. In the Tree View dialog box, click the plus or minus boxes to expand or contract the
tree view that shows the hierarchy.
3. Click Close to exit this view.
General network settings management
The configuration settings for hostname, domain name, search domains, host mapping,
and DNS list are managed together on the Settings tab.
Viewing network settings information
The Settings tab displays the current configuration for the hostname, domain name,
search domains, host mapping, and DNS.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Ethernet > Settings.
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Results
The Settings tab displays the following information.
Host Settings
Host Name
The hostname of the selected system.
Domain Name
The fully qualified domain name associated with the selected system.
Search Domain List
Search Domain
A list of search domains that the selected system uses. The system applies the
search domain as a suffix to the hostname.
Hosts Mapping
IP Address
IP address of the host to resolve.
Host Name
Hostnames associated with the IP address.
DNS List
DNS IP Address
Current DNS IP addresses associated with the selected system. An asterisk (*)
indicates that the IP addresses were assigned through DHCP.
Setting the DD System Manager hostname
You can configure the DD System Manager hostname and domain name manually, or you
can configure DD OS to automatically receive the host and domain names from a Dynamic
Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server.
One advantage to manually configuring the host and domain names is that you remove
the dependency on the DHCP server and the interface leading to the DHCP server. To
minimize the risk of service interruption, EMC recommends that you manually configure
the host and domain names.
When configuring the hostname and domain name, consider the following guidelines.
l
Do not include an underscore in the hostname; it is incompatible with some
browsers.
l
Replication and CIFS authentication must be reconfigured after you change the
names.
l
If a system was previously added without a fully qualified name (no domain name), a
domain name change requires that you remove and add the affected system or
update the Search Domain List to include the new domain name.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Ethernet > Settings.
2. Click Edit in the Host Settings area. The Configure Host dialog appears.
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3. To manually configure the host and domain names:
a. Select Manually configure host.
b. Enter a hostname in the Host Name box.
For example, id##.yourcompany.com
c. Enter a domain name in the Domain Name box.
This is the domain name associated with your Data Domain system and, usually,
your company’s domain name. For example, yourcompany.com
d. Click OK.
The system displays progress messages as the changes are applied.
4. To obtain the host and domain names from a DHCP server, select Obtain Settings
using DHCP and click OK.
At least one interface must be configured to use DHCP.
Managing the domain search list
Use the domain search list to define which domains the system can search.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Ethernet > Settings.
2. Click Edit in the Search Domain List area.
3. To add a search domain using the Configure Search Domains dialog:
a. Click Add (+).
b. In the Add Search Domain dialog, enter a name in the Search Domain box.
For example, id##.yourcompany.com
c. Click OK.
The system adds the new domain to the list of searchable domains.
d. Click OK to apply changes and return to the Settings view.
4. To remove a search domain using the Configure Search Domains dialog:
a. Select the search domain to remove.
b. Click Delete (X).
The system removes the selected domain from the list of searchable domains.
c. Click OK to apply changes and return to the Settings view.
Adding and deleting host maps
A host map links an IP address to a hostname, so that either the IP address or the
hostname can be used to specify the host.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Ethernet > Settings.
2. To add a host map, do the following.
a. In the Hosts Mapping area, click Add.
b. In the Add Hosts dialog, enter the IP address of the host in the IP Address box.
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c. Click Add (+).
d. In the Add Host dialog, enter a hostname, such as id##.yourcompany.com, in the
Host Name box.
e. Click OK to add the new hostname to the Host Name list.
f. Click OK to return to the Settings tab.
3. To delete a host map, do the following.
a. In the Hosts Mapping area, select the host mapping to delete.
b. Click Delete (X).
Configuring DNS IP addresses
DNS IP addresses specify the DNS servers the system can use to get IP addresses for host
names that are not in the host mapping table.
You can configure the DNS IP addresses manually, or you can configure DD OS to
automatically receive IP addresses from a DHCP server. One advantage to manually
configuring DNS IP addresses is that you remove the dependency on the DHCP server and
the interface leading to the DHCP server. To minimize the risk of service interruption, EMC
recommends that you manually configure the DNS IP addresses.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Ethernet > Settings.
2. Click Edit in the DNS List area.
3. To manually add a DNS IP address:
a. Select Manually configure DNS list.
The DNS IP address checkboxes become active.
b. Click Add (+).
c. In the Add DNS dialog box, enter the DNS IP address to add.
d. Click OK.
The system adds the new IP address to the list of DNS IP addresses.
e. Click OK to apply the changes.
4. To delete a DNS IP address from the list:
a. Select Manually configure DNS list.
The DNS IP address checkboxes become active.
b. Select the DNS IP address to delete and click Delete (X).
The system removes the IP address from the list of DNS IP addresses.
c. Click OK to apply the changes.
5. To obtain DNS addresses from a DHCP server, select Obtain DNS using DHCP and click
OK.
At least one interface must be configured to use DHCP.
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Network route management
Routes determine the path taken to transfer data to and from the localhost (the Data
Domain system) to another network or host.
Data Domain systems do not generate or respond to any of the network routing
management protocols (RIP, EGRP/EIGRP, and BGP). The only routing implemented on a
Data Domain system is based upon the internal route table, in which the administrator
may define a specific network or subnet that a physical interface (or interface group)
uses.
Data Domain systems use source-based routing, which means that outbound network
packets that match the subnet of multiple interfaces are routed only over the physical
interface from which they originated.
Set static routes multiple interfaces contain the same IPv6 subnets, and the connections
are being made to IPv6 addresses with this subnet. Normally, static routes are not
needed with IPv4 addresses with the same subnet, such as for backups. There are cases
in which static addresses may be required to allow connections to work, such as
connections from the Data Domain system to remote systems.
Note
Routing for connections initiated from the Data Domain system, such as for replication,
depends on the source address used for interfaces on the same subnet. To force traffic
for a specific interface to a specific destination (even if that interface is on the same
subnet as other interfaces), configure a static routing entry between the two systems: this
static routing overrides source routing.
Viewing route information
The Routes tab displays the default gateways, static routes, and dynamic routes.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Ethernet > Routes.
Results
The Static Routes area lists the route specification used to configure each static route.
The Dynamic Routes table lists information for each of the dynamically assigned routes.
Table 24 Dynamic Routes column label descriptions
Item
Description
Destination
The destination host/network where the network traffic (data) is sent.
Gateway
The address of the router in the DD network, or 0.0.0.0 if no gateway is set.
Genmask
The netmask for the destination net. Set to 255.255.255.255 for a host
destination and 0.0.0.0 for the default route.
Flags
Possible flags include: U—Route is up, H—Target is a host, G —Use
gateway, R —Reinstate route for dynamic routing, D—Dynamically installed
by daemon or redirect, M —Modified from routing daemon or redirect, A —
Installed by addrconf, C —Cache entry, and ! —Reject route.
Metric
The distance to the target (usually counted in hops). Not used by the DD
OS, but might be needed by routing daemons.
Network route management
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Table 24 Dynamic Routes column label descriptions (continued)
Item
Description
MTU
Maximum Transfer Unit (MTU) size for the physical (Ethernet) interface.
Window
Default window size for TCP connections over this route.
IRTT
Initial RTT (Round Trip Time) used by the kernel to estimate the best TCP
protocol parameters without waiting on possibly slow answers.
Interface
Interface name associated with the routing interface.
Setting the default gateway
You can configure the default gateway manually, or you can configure DD OS to
automatically receive the default gateway IP addresses from a DHCP server.
One advantage to manually configuring the default gateway is that you remove the
dependency on the DHCP server and the interface leading to the DHCP server. To
minimize the risk of service interruption, EMC recommends that you manually configure
the default gateway IP address.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Ethernet > Routes.
2. Click Edit next to the default gateway type (IPv4 or IPv6) you want to configure.
3. To manually configure the default gateway address:
a. Select Manually Configure.
b. Enter the gateway address in the Gateway box.
c. Click OK.
4. To obtain the default gateway address from a DHCP server, select Use DHCP value and
click OK.
At least one interface must be configured to use DHCP.
Creating static routes
Static routes define destination hosts or networks that they system can communicate
with.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Ethernet > Routes.
2. Click Create in the Static Routes area.
3. In the Create Routes dialog, select the interface you want to host the static route, and
click Next.
4. Specify the Destination.
l
To specify a destination network, select Network and enter the network address
and netmask for the destination network.
l
To specify a destination host, select Host and enter the hostname or IP address of
the destination host.
5. Optionally, specify the gateway to use to connect to the destination network or host.
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a. Select Specify a gateway for this route.
b. Enter the gateway address in the Gateway box.
6. Review the configuration and click Next.
The create routes Summary page appears.
7. Click Finish.
8. After the process is completed, click OK.
The new route specification is listed in the Route Spec list.
Deleting static routes
Delete a static route when you no longer want the system to communicate with a
destination host or network.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Ethernet > Routes.
2. Select the Route Spec of the route specification to delete.
3. Click Delete.
4. Click Delete to confirm and then click Close.
The selected route specification is removed from the Route Spec list.
System passphrase management
The system passphrase is a key that allows a Data Domain system to be transported with
encryption keys on the system. The encryption keys protect the data and the system
passphrase protects the encryption keys.
The system passphrase is a human-readable (understandable) key (like a smart card)
which is used to generate a machine usable AES 256 encryption key. If the system is
stolen in transit, an attacker cannot easily recover the data; at most, they can recover the
encrypted user data and the encrypted keys.
The passphrase is stored internally on a hidden part the Data Domain storage subsystem.
This allows the Data Domain system to boot and continue servicing data access without
any administrator intervention.
Setting the system passphrase
The system passphrase must be set before the system can support data encryption or
request digital certificates.
Before you begin
No minimum system passphrase length is configured when DD OS is installed, but the CLI
provides a command to set a minimum length. To determine if a minimum length is
configured for the passphrase, enter the system passphrase option show CLI
command.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Access > Administrator Access.
If the system passphrase is not set, the Set Passphrase button appears in the
Passphrase area. If a system passphrase is configured, the Change Passphrase
button appears, and your only option is to change the passphrase.
System passphrase management
77
Managing Data Domain Systems
2. Click the Set Passphrase button.
The Set Passphrase dialog appears.
3. Enter the system passphrase in the boxes and click Next.
If a minimum length is configured for the system passphrase, the passphrase you
enter must contain the minimum number of characters.
Results
The system passphrase is set and the Change Passphrase button replaces the Set
Passphrase button.
Changing the system passphrase
The administrator can change the passphrase without having to manipulate the actual
encryption keys. Changing the passphrase indirectly changes the encryption of the keys,
but does not affect user data or the underlying encryption key.
Changing the passphrase requires two-user authentication to protect against data
shredding.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Access > Administrator Access.
2. To change the system passphrase, click Change Passphrase.
The Change Passphrase dialog appears.
Note
The file system must be disabled to change the passphrase. If the file system is
running, you are prompted to disable it.
3. In the text fields, provide:
l
The user name and password of a Security Officer account (an authorized user in
the Security User group on that Data Domain system).
l
The current passphrase when changing the passphrase.
l
The new passphrase, which must contain the minimum number of characters
configured with the system passphrase option set min-length
command.
4. Click the checkbox for Enable file system now.
5. Click OK.
NOTICE
Be sure to take care of the passphrase. If the passphrase is lost, you can never unlock
the file system and access the data; the data is irrevocably lost.
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System access management
System access management features allow you to control system access to users in a
local database or in a network directory. Additional controls define different access levels
and control which protocols can access the system.
Role-based access control
Role-based access control (RBAC) is an authentication policy that controls which DD
System Manager controls and CLI commands a user can access on a system.
For example, users who are assigned the admin role can configure and monitor an entire
system, while users who are assigned the user role are limited to monitoring a system.
When logged into DD System Manager, users see only the program features that they are
permitted to use based on the role assigned to the user. The following roles are available
for administering and managing the DD OS.
admin
An admin role user can configure and monitor the entire Data Domain system. Most
configuration features and commands are available only to admin role users.
However, some features and commands require the approval of a security role user
before a task is completed.
user
The user role enables users to monitor systems and change their own password.
Users who are assigned the user management role can view system status, but they
cannot change the system configuration.
security (security officer)
A security role user, who may be referred to as a security officer, can manage other
security officers, authorize procedures that require security officer approval, and
perform all tasks supported for user-role users.
The security role is provided to comply with the Write Once Read-Many (WORM)
regulation. This regulation requires electronically stored corporate data be kept in an
unaltered, original state for purposes such as eDiscovery. EMC Data Domain added
auditing and logging capabilities to enhance this feature. As a result of compliance
regulations, most command options for administering sensitive operations, such as
encryption, Retention Lock Compliance, and archiving now require security officer
approval.
In a typical scenario, an admin role user issues a command and, if security officer
approval is required, the system displays a prompt for approval. To proceed with the
original task, the security officer must enter his or her username and password on
the same console at which the command was run. If the system recognizes the
security officer credentials, the procedure is authorized. If not, a security alert is
generated.
The following are some guidelines that apply to security-role users:
l
l
Only the sysadmin user (the default user created during the DD OS installation)
can create the first security officer, after which the privilege to create security
officers is removed from the sysadmin user.
After the first security officer is created, only security officers can create other
security officers.
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79
Managing Data Domain Systems
l
l
l
Creating a security officer does not enable the authorization policy. To enable
the authorization policy, a security officer must log in and enable the
authorization policy.
Separation of privilege and duty apply. admin role users cannot perform security
officer tasks, and security officers cannot perform system configuration tasks.
During an upgrade, if the system configuration contains security officers, a secoff-defaults permission is created that includes a list of all current security
officers.
backup-operator
A backup-operator role user can perform all tasks permitted for user role users,
create snapshots for MTrees, import, export, and move tapes between elements in a
virtual tape library, and copy tapes across pools.
A backup-operator role user can also add and delete SSH public keys for nonpassword-required log ins. (This function is used mostly for automated scripting.) He
or she can add, delete, reset and view CLI command aliases, synchronize modified
files, and wait for replication to complete on the destination system.
none
The none role is for DD Boost authentication and tenant-unit users only. A none role
user can log in to a Data Domain system and can change his or her password, but
cannot monitor, manage, or configure the primary system. When the primary system
is partitioned into tenant units, either the tenant-admin or the tenant-user role is
used to define a user's role with respect to a specific tenant unit. The tenant user is
first assigned the none role to minimize access to the primary system, and then
either the tenant-admin or the tenant-user role is appended to that user.
tenant-admin
A tenant-admin role can be appended to the other (non-tenant) roles when the
Secure Multi-Tenancy (SMT) feature is enabled. A tenant-admin user can configure
and monitor a specific tenant unit.
tenant-user
A tenant-user role can be appended to the other (non-tenant) roles when the SMT
feature is enabled. The tenant-user role enables a user to monitor a specific tenant
unit and change the user password. Users who are assigned the tenant-user
management role can view tenant unit status, but they cannot change the tenant
unit configuration.
Access management for IP protocols
This feature manages system access for the FTP, FTPS, HTTP, HTTPS, SSH, SCP, and Telnet
protocols.
Viewing the IP services configuration
The Administrator Access tab displays the configuration status for the IP protocols that
can be used to access the system. FTP and FTPS are the only protocols that are restricted
to administrators.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Access > Administrator Access.
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Results
The Access Management page displays the Administrator Access, Local Users,
Authentication, and Active Users tabs.
Table 25 Administrator Access tab information
Item
Description
Passphrase
If no passphrase is set, the Set Passphrase button appears. If a
passphrase is set, the Change Passphrase button appears.
Services
The name of a service/protocol that can access the system.
Enabled (Yes/No)
The status of the service. If the service is disabled, enable it by
selecting it in the list and clicking Configure. Fill out the General tab
of the dialog box. If the service is enabled, modify its settings by
selecting it in the list and clicking Configure. Edit the settings in the
General tab of the dialog box.
Allowed Hosts
The host or hosts that can access the service.
Service Options
The port or session timeout value for the service selected in the list.
FTP/FTPS
Only the session timeout can be set.
HTTP port
The port number opened for the HTTP protocol (port 80, by default).
HTTPS port
The port number opened for the HTTPS protocol (port 443, by default).
SSH/SCP port
The port number opened for the SSH/SCP protocol (port 22, by
default).
Telnet
No port number can be set.
Session Timeout
The amount of inactive time allowed before a connection closes. The
default is Infinite, that is, the connection does not close. EMC
recommends a session timeout maximum of five minutes. Use the
Advanced tab of the dialog box to set a timeout in seconds.
Managing FTP access
The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) allows administrators to access files on the Data Domain
system.
You can enable either FTP or FTPS access to users who are assigned the admin
management role. FTP access allows admin user names and passwords to cross the
network in clear text, making FTP an insecure access method. FTPS is recommended as a
secure access method. When you enable either FTP or FTPS access, the other access
method is disabled.
Note
Only users who are assigned the admin management role are permitted to access the
system using FTP
Note
LFTP clients that connect to a Data Domain system via FTPS or FTP are disconnected after
reaching a set timeout limit. However the LFTP client uses its cached username and
password to reconnect after the timeout while you are running any command.
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Procedure
1. Select Administration > Access > Administrator Access.
2. Select FTP and click Configure.
3. To manage FTP access and which hosts can connect, select the General tab and do the
following:
a. To enable FTP access, select Allow FTP Access.
b. To enable all hosts to connect, select Allow all hosts to connect.
c. To restrict access to select hosts, select Limit Access to the following systems,
and modify the Allowed Hosts list.
Note
You can identify a host using a fully qualified hostname, an IPv4 address, or an
IPv6 address.
l
To add a host, click Add (+). Enter the host identification and click OK.
l
To modify a host ID, select the host in the Hosts list and click Edit (pencil).
Change the host ID and click OK.
l
To remove a host ID, select the host in the Hosts list and click Delete (X).
4. To set a session timeout, select the Advanced tab, and enter the timeout value in
seconds.
Note
The session timeout default is Infinite, that is, the connection does not close.
5. Click OK.
If FTPS is enabled, a warning message appears with a prompt to click OK to proceed.
Managing FTPS access
The FTP Secure (FTPS) protocol allows administrators to access files on the Data Domain
system.
FTPS provides additional security over using FTP, such as support for the Transport Layer
Security (TLS) and for the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) cryptographic protocols. Consider
the following guidelines when using FTPS.
l
Only users who are assigned the admin management role are permitted to access the
system using FTPS.
l
When you enable FTPS access, FTP access is disabled.
l
FTPS does not show up as a service for DD systems that run DD OS 5.2, managed
from a DD system running DD OS 5.3 or later.
l
When you issue the get command, the fatal error message SSL_read: wrong
version number lftp appears if matching versions of SSL are not installed on
the Data Domain system and compiled on the LFTP client . As a workaround, attempt
to re-issue the get command on the same file.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Access > Administrator Access.
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2. Select FTPS and click Configure.
3. To manage FTPS access and which hosts can connect, select the General tab and do
the following:
a. To enable FTPS access, select Allow FTPS Access.
b. To enable all hosts to connect, select Allow all hosts to connect.
c. To restrict access to select hosts, select Limit Access to the following systems,
and modify the hosts list.
Note
You can identify a host using a fully qualified hostname, an IPv4 address, or an
IPv6 address.
l
To add a host, click Add (+). Enter the host identification and click OK.
l
To modify a host ID, select the host in the Hosts list and click Edit (pencil).
Change the host ID and click OK.
l
To remove a host ID, select the host in the Hosts list and click Delete (X).
4. To set a session timeout, select the Advanced tab and enter the timeout value in
seconds.
Note
The session timeout default is Infinite, that is, the connection does not close.
5. Click OK. If FTP is enabled, a warning message appears and prompts you to click OK to
proceed.
Managing HTTP and HTTPS access
HTTP or HTTPS access is required to support browser access to DD System Manager.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Access > Administrator Access.
2. Select HTTP or HTTPS and click Configure.
The Configure HTTP/HTTPS Access dialog appears and displays tabs for general
configuration, advanced configuration, and certificate management.
3. To manage the access method and which hosts can connect, select the General tab
and do the following:
a. Select the checkboxes for the access methods you want to allow.
b. To enable all hosts to connect, select Allow all hosts to connect.
c. To restrict access to select hosts, select Limit Access to the following systems,
and modify the host list.
Note
You can identify a host using a fully qualified hostname, an IPv4 address, or an
IPv6 address.
l
To add a host, click Add (+). Enter the host identification and click OK.
l
To modify a host ID, select the host in the Hosts list and click Edit (pencil).
Change the host ID and click OK.
Access management for IP protocols
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l
To remove a host ID, select the host in the Hosts list and click Delete (X).
4. To configure system ports and session timeout values, select the Advanced tab, and
complete the form.
l
In the HTTP Port box, enter the port number. Port 80 is assigned by default.
l
In the HTTPS Port box, enter the number. Port 443 is assigned by default.
l
In the Session Timeout box, enter the interval in seconds that must elapse before
a connection closes. The minimum is 60 seconds and the maximum is 31536000
seconds (one year).
Note
The session timeout default is Infinite, that is, the connection does not close.
5. Click OK.
Managing host certificates for HTTP and HTTPS
A host certificate allows browsers to verify the identity of the system when establishing
management sessions.
Requesting a host certificate for HTTP and HTTPS
You can use DD System Manager to generate a host certificate request, which you can
then forward to a Certificate Authority (CA).
Note
You must configure a system passphrase (system passphrase set) before you can
generate a CSR.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Access > Administrator Access.
2. In the Services area, select HTTP or HTTPSand click Configure.
3. Select the Certificate tab.
4. Click Add.
A dialog appears for the protocol you selected earlier in this procedure.
5. Click Generate the CSR for this Data Domain system.
The dialog expands to display a CSR form.
Note
DD OS supports one active CSR at a time. After a CSR is generated, the Generate the
CSR for this Data Domain system link is replaced with the Download the CSR for this
Data Domain system link. To delete a CSR, use the adminaccess certificate
cert-signing-request delete CLI command.
6. Complete the CSR form and click Generate and download a CSR.
The CSR file is saved at the following path: /ddvar/certificates/
CertificateSigningRequest.csr. Use SCP, FTP or FTPS to transfer the CSR file
from the system to a computer from which you can send the CSR to a CA.
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Adding a host certificate for HTTP and HTTPS
You can use DD System Manager to add a host certificate to the system.
Procedure
1. If you did not requested a host certificate, request a host certificate from a certificate
authority.
2. When you receive a host certificate, copy or move it to the computer from which you
run DD Service Manager.
3. Select Administration > Access > Administrator Access.
4. In the Services area, select HTTP or HTTPS and click Configure.
5. Select the Certificate tab.
6. Click Add.
A dialog appears for the protocol you selected earlier in this procedure.
7. To add a host certificate enclosed in a .p12 file, do the following:
a. Select I want to upload the certificate as a .p12 file.
b. Type the password in the Password box.
c. Click Browse and select the host certificate file to upload to the system.
d. Click Add.
8. To add a host certificate enclosed in a .pem file, do the following:
a. Select I want to upload the public key as a .pem file and use a generated private
key.
b. Click Browse and select the host certificate file to upload to the system.
c. Click Add.
Deleting a host certificate for HTTP and HTTPS
DD OS supports one host certificate for HTTP and HTTPS. If the system is currently using a
host certificate and you want to use a different host certificate, you must delete the
current certificate before adding the new certificate.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Access > Administrator Access.
2. In the Services area, select HTTP or HTTPS and click Configure.
3. Select the Certificate tab.
4. Select the certificate you want to delete.
5. Click Delete, and click OK.
Managing SSH and SCP access
SSH is a secure protocol that enables network access to the system CLI, with or without
SCP (secure copy). You can use DD System Manager to enable system access using the
SSH protocol. SCP requires SSH, so when SSH is disabled, SCP is automatically disabled.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Access > Administrator Access.
2. Select SSH or SCP and click Configure.
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3. To manage the access method and which hosts can connect, select the General tab.
a. Select the checkboxes for the access methods you want to allow.
b. To enable all hosts to connect, select Allow all hosts to connect.
c. To restrict access to select hosts, select Limit Access to the following systems,
and modify the host list.
Note
You can identify a host using a fully qualified hostname, an IPv4 address, or an
IPv6 address.
l
To add a host, click Add (+). Enter the host identification and click OK.
l
To modify a host ID, select the host in the Hosts list and click Edit (pencil).
Change the host ID and click OK.
l
To remove a host ID, select the host in the Hosts list and click Delete (X).
4. To configure system ports and session timeout values, click the Advanced tab.
l
In the SSH/SCP Port text entry box, enter the port number. Port 22 is assigned by
default.
l
In the Session Timeout box, enter the interval in seconds that must elapse before
connection closes.
Note
The session timeout default is Infinite, that is, the connection does not close.
Note
Click Default to revert to the default value.
5. Click OK.
Managing Telnet access
Telnet is an insecure protocol that enables network access to the system CLI.
Note
Telnet access allows user names and passwords to cross the network in clear text,
making Telnet an insecure access method.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Access > Administrator Access.
2. Select Telnet and click Configure.
3. To manage Telnet access and which hosts can connect, select the General tab.
a. To enable Telnet access, select Allow Telnet Access.
b. To enable all hosts to connect, select Allow all hosts to connect.
c. To restrict access to select hosts, select Limit Access to the following systems,
and modify the host list.
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Note
You can identify a host using a fully qualified hostname, an IPv4 address, or an
IPv6 address.
l
To add a host, click Add (+). Enter the host identification and click OK.
l
To modify a host ID, select the host in the Hosts list and click Edit (pencil).
Change the host ID and click OK.
l
To remove a host ID, select the host in the Hosts list and click Delete (X).
4. To set a session timeout, select the Advanced tab and enter the timeout value in
seconds.
Note
The session timeout default is Infinite, that is, the connection does not close.
5. Click OK.
Local user account management
A local user is a user account (user name and password) that is configured on the Data
Domain system instead of being defined in a Windows Active Directory, Windows
Workgroup, or NIS directory.
UID conflicts: local user and NIS user accounts
When you set up a Data Domain system in an NIS environment, be aware of potential UID
conflicts between local and NIS user accounts.
Local user accounts on a Data Domain system start with a UID of 500. To avoid conflicts,
consider the size of potential local accounts when you define allowable UID ranges for
NIS users.
Viewing local user information
Local users are user accounts that are defined on the system, rather than in Active
Directory, a Workgroup, or UNIX. You can display the local user's username, management
role, login status, and target disable date. You can also display the user's password
controls and the tenant units the user can access.
Note
The user-authentication module uses Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). To ensure that user
accounts and passwords expire correctly, configure settings to use the GMT that
corresponds to the target local time.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Access > Local Users .
The Local Users view appears and shows the Local Users table and the Detailed
Information area.
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Table 26 Local user list column label descriptions
Item
Description
Name
The user ID, as added to the system.
Management Role
The role displayed is admin, user, security, backup-operator, or none.
In this table, Tenant user roles are displayed as none. To see an
assigned tenant role, select the user and view the role in the Detailed
Information area.
Status
l
Active—User access to the account is permitted.
l
Disabled—User access to the account is denied because the
account is administratively disabled, the current date is beyond
the account expiration date, or a locked account’s password
requires renewal.
l
Locked—User access is denied because the password expired.
Disable Date
The date the account is set to be disabled.
Last Login From
The location where the user last logged in.
Last Login Time
The time the user last logged in.
Note
User accounts configured with the admin or security officer roles can view all users.
Users with other roles can view only their own user accounts.
2. Select the user you want to view from the list of users.
Information about the selected user displays in the Detailed Information area.
Table 27 Detailed User Information, Row Label Descriptions
88
Item
Description
Tenant-User
The list of tenant units the user can access as a tenant-user role user.
Tenant-Admin
The list of tenant units the user can access as a tenant-admin role
user.
Password Last Changed
The date the password was last changed.
Minimum Days Between
Change
The minimum number of days between password changes that you
allow a user. Default is 0.
Maximum Days Between
Change
The maximum number of days between password changes that you
allow a user. Default is 90.
Warn Days Before Expire
The number of days to warn the users before their password expires.
Default is 7.
Disable Days After Expire
The number of days after a password expires to disable the user
account. Default is Never.
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
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Note
The default values are the initial default password policy values. A system
administrator (admin role) can change them by selecting More Tasks > Change Login
Options.
Creating local users
Create local users when you want to manage access on the local system instead of
through an external directory. Data Domain systems support a maximum of 500 local
user accounts.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Access > Local Users.
The Local Users view appears.
2. Click Create to create a new user.
The Create User dialog appears.
3. Enter user information in the General Tab.
Table 28 Create User dialog, general controls
Item
Description
User
The user ID or name.
Password
The user password. Set a default password, and the user can change
it later.
Verify Password
The user password, again.
Management Role
The role assigned to the user, which can be admin, user, security,
backup-operator, or none. .
Note
Only the sysadmin user (the default user created during the DD OS
installation) can create the first security-role user. After the first
security-role user is created, only security-role users can create other
security-role users.
Force Password Change
Select this checkbox to require that the user change the password
during the first login when logging in to DD System Manager or to the
CLI with SSH or Telnet.
The default value for the minimum length of a password is 6 characters. The default
value for the minimum number of character classes required for a user password is 1.
Allowable character classes include:
l
Lowercase letters (a-z)
l
Uppercase letters (A-Z)
l
Numbers (0-9)
l
Special Characters ($, %, #, +, and so on)
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Note
Sysadmin is the default admin-role user and cannot be deleted or modified.
4. To manage password and account expiration, select the Advanced tab and use the
controls described in the following table.
Table 29 Create User dialog, advanced controls
Item
Description
Minimum Days Between
Change
The minimum number of days between password changes that you
allow a user. Default is 0.
Maximum Days Between
Change
The maximum number of days between password changes that you
allow a user. Default is 90.
Warn Days Before Expire
The number of days to warn the users before their password expires.
Default is 7.
Disable Days After Expire
The number of days after a password expires to disable the user
account. Default is Never.
Disable account on the
following date
Check this box and enter a date (mm/dd/yyyy) when you want to
disable this account. Also, you can click the calendar to select a date.
5. Click OK.
Note
Note: The default password policy can change if an admin-role user changes them
(More Tasks > Change Login Options). The default values are the initial default
password policy values.
Modifying a local user profile
After you create a user, you can use DD System Manager to modify the user configuration.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Access > Local Users.
The Local Users view appears.
2. Click a user name from the list.
3. Click Modify to make changes to a user account.
The Modify User dialog box appears.
4. Update the information on the General tab.
Note
If SMT is enabled and a role change is requested from none to any other role, the
change is accepted only if the user is not assigned to a tenant-unit as a managementuser, is not a DD Boost user with its default-tenant-unit set, and is not the owner of a
storage-unit that is assigned to a tenant-unit.
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Table 30 Modify User dialog, general controls
Item
Description
User
The user ID or name.
Role
Select the role from the list.
5. Update the information on the Advanced tab.
Table 31 Modify User dialog, advanced controls
Item
Description
Minimum Days Between
Change
The minimum number of days between password changes that you
allow a user. Default is 0.
Maximum Days Between
Change
The maximum number of days between password changes that you
allow a user. Default is 90.
Warn Days Before Expire
The number of days to warn the users before their password expires.
Default is 7.
Disable Days After Expire
The number of days after a password expires to disable the user
account. Default is Never.
6. Click OK.
Deleting a local user
You can delete certain users based on your user role. If one of the selected users cannot
be deleted, the Delete button is disabled.
The sysadmin user cannot be deleted. Admin users cannot delete security officers. Only
security officers can delete, enable, and disable other security officers.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Access > Local Users.
The Local Users view appears.
2. Click one or more user names from the list.
3. Click Delete to delete the user accounts.
The Delete User dialog box appears.
4. Click OK and Close.
Enabling and disabling local users
Admin users can enable or disable all users except the sysadmin user and users with the
security role. The sysadmin user cannot be disabled. Only Security officers can enable or
disable other security officers.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Access > Local Users.
The Local Users view appears.
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2. Click one or more user names from the list.
3. Click either Enable or Disable to enable or disable user accounts.
The Enable or Disable User dialog box appears.
4. Click OK and Close.
Enabling security authorization
You can use the Data Domain system command-line interface (CLI) to enable and disable
the security authorization policy.
For information on the commands used in this procedure, see the EMC Data Domain
Operating System Command Reference Guide.
Note
The Retention Lock Compliance license must be installed. You are not permitted to
disable the authorization policy on Retention Lock Compliance systems.
Procedure
1. Log into the CLI using a security officer username and password.
2. To enable the security officer authorization policy, enter: # authorization
policy set security-officer enabled
Changing user passwords
After you create a user, you can use DD System Manager to change the user's password.
Individual users can also change their own passwords.
Procedure
1. Click Administration > Access > Local Users.
The Local Users view appears.
2. Click a user name from the list.
3. Click Change Password to change the user password.
The Change Password dialog box appears.
If prompted, enter your old password.
4. Enter the new password into the New Password box.
5. Enter the new password again into Verify New Password box.
6. Click OK.
Modifying the password policy and login controls
The password policy and login controls define login requirements for all users.
Administrators can specify how often a password must be changed, what is required to
create a valid password, and how the system responds to invalid login attempts.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Access.
2. Select More Tasks > Change Login Options.
The Change Login Options dialog appears.
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3. Specify the new configuration in the boxes for each option. To select the default value,
click Default next to the appropriate option.
4. Click OK to save the password settings.
Change Login Options dialog
Use this dialog to set the password policy and specify the maximum login attempts and
lockout period.
Table 32 Change Login Options dialog controls
Item
Description
Minimum Days Between
Change
The minimum number of days between password changes that you
allow a user. This value must be less than the Maximum Days
Between Change value minus the Warn Days Before Expire value.
The default setting is 0.
Maximum Days Between
Change
The maximum number of days between password changes that you
allow a user. The minimum value is 1. The default value is 90.
Warn Days Before Expire
The number of days to warn the users before their password expires.
This value must be less than the Maximum Days Between Change
value minus the Minimum Days Between Change value. The
default setting is 7.
Disable Days After Expire
The system disables a user account after password expiration
according to the number of days specified with this option. Valid
entries are never or number greater than or equal to 0. The default
setting is never.
Minimum Length of
Password
The minimum password length required. Default is 6.
Minimum Number of
Character Classes
The minimum number of character classes required for a user
password. Default is 1. Character classes include:
l
Lowercase letters (a-z)
l
Uppercase letters (A-Z)
l
Numbers (0-9)
l
Special Characters ($, %, #, +, and so on)
Lowercase Character
Requirement
Enable or disable the requirement for at least one lowercase
character. The default setting is disabled.
Uppercase Character
Requirement
Enable or disable the requirement for at least one uppercase
character. The default setting is disabled.
One Digit Requirement
Enable or disable the requirement for at least one numerical
character. The default setting is disabled.
Special Character
Requirement
Enable or disable the requirement for at least one special character.
The default setting is disabled.
Max Consecutive
Character Requirement
Enable or disable the requirement for a maximum of three repeated
characters. The default setting is disabled.
Prevent use of Last N
Passwords
Specify the number of remembered passwords. The range is 0 to 24,
and the default settings is 1.
Local user account management
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Managing Data Domain Systems
Table 32 Change Login Options dialog controls (continued)
Item
Description
Note
If this setting is reduced, the remembered password list remains
unchanged until the next time the password is changed. For example,
if this setting is changed from 4 to 3, the last four passwords are
remembered until the next time the password is changed.
Maximum login attempts
Specifies the maximum number of login attempts before a mandatory
lock is applied to a user account. This limit applies to all user
accounts, including sysadmin. A locked user cannot log in while the
account is locked. The range is 4 to 20, and the default value is 4.
Unlock timeout (seconds) Specifies how long a user account is locked after the maximum
number of login attempts. When the configured unlock timeout is
reached, a user can attempt login. The range is 120 to 3600 seconds,
and the default period is120 seconds.
Directory user and group management
You can use DD System manager to manage access to the system for users and groups in
Windows Active Directory, Windows Workgroup, and NIS. Kerberos authentication is an
option for CIFS and NFS clients.
Viewing Active Directory and Kerberos information
The Active Directory Kerberos configuration determines the methods CIFS and NFS clients
use to authenticate. The Active Directory/Kerberos Authentication panel displays this
configuration.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Access > Authentication.
2. Expand the Active Directory/Kerberos Authentication panel.
Table 33 Active Directory/ Kerberos Authentication label descriptions
94
Item
Description
Mode
The type of authentication mode. In Windows/Active Directory mode,
CIFS clients use Active Directory and Kerberos authentication, and
NFS clients use Kerberos authentication. In Unix mode, CIFS clients
use Workgroup authentication (without Kerberos), and NFS clients
use Kerberos authentication. In Disabled mode, Kerberos
authentication is disabled and CIFS clients use Workgroup
authentication.
Realm
The realm name of the Workgroup or Active Directory.
DDNS
Whether or not the Dynamic Domain Name System is enabled.
Domain Controllers
The name of the domain controller for the Workgroup or Active
Directory.
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
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Table 33 Active Directory/ Kerberos Authentication label descriptions (continued)
Item
Description
Organizational Unit
The name of the organizations unit for the Workgroup or Active
Directory.
CIFS Server Name
The name of the CIFS server in use (Windows mode only).
WINS Server
The name of the WINS server in use (Windows mode only).
Short Domain Name
An abbreviated name for the domain.
NTP
Enabled/Disabled (UNIX mode only)
NIS
Enabled/Disabled (UNIX mode only)
Key Distribution Centers
Hostname(s) or IP(s) of KDC in use (UNIX mode only)
Active Directory
Administrative Access
Enabled/Disabled: Click to Enable or disable administrative access
for Active Directory (Windows) groups.
Table 34 Active Directory administrative groups and roles
Item
Description
Windows Group
The name of the Windows group.
Management Role
The role of the group (admin, user, and so on)
Configuring Active Directory and Kerberos authentication
Configuring Active Directory authentication makes the Data Domain system part of a
Windows Active Directory realm. CIFS clients and NFS clients use Kerberos authentication.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Access > Authentication.
The Authentication view appears.
2. Expand the Active Directory/Kerberos Authentication panel.
3. Click Configure... next to Mode to start the configuration wizard.
The Active Directory/Kerberos Authentication dialog appears.
4. Select Windows/Active Directory and click Next.
5. Enter the full realm name for the system (for example: domain1.local), the user name,
and password for the Data Domain system. Then click Next.
Note
Use the complete realm name. Ensure that the user is assigned sufficient privileges to
join the system to the domain. The user name and password must be compatible with
Microsoft requirements for the Active Directory domain. This user must also be
assigned permission to create accounts in this domain.
6. Select the default CIFS server name, or select Manual and enter a CIFS server name.
7. To select domain controllers, select Automatically assign, or select Manual and enter
up to three domain controller names.
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Managing Data Domain Systems
You can enter fully qualified domain names, hostnames, or IP (IPv4 or IPv6)
addresses.
8. To select an organizational unit, select Use default Computers, or select Manual and
enter an organization unit name.
Note
The account is moved to the new organizational unit.
9. Click Next.
The Summary page for the configuration appears.
10. Click Finish.
The system displays the configuration information in the Authentication view.
11. To enable administrative access, click Enable to the right of Active Directory
Administrative Access.
Authentication mode selections
The authentication mode selection determines how CIFS and NFS clients authenticate
using supported combinations of Active Directory, Workgroup, and Kerberos
authentication.
DD OS supports the following authentication options.
l
Disabled: Kerberos authentication is disabled for CIFS and NFS clients. CIFS clients
use Workgroup authentication.
l
Windows/Active Directory: Kerberos authentication is enabled for CIFS and NFS
clients. CIFS clients use Active Directory authentication.
l
Unix: Kerberos authentication is enabled for only NFS clients. CIFS clients use
Workgroup authentication.
Managing administrative groups for Active Directory
You can use the Active Directory/Kerberos Authentication panel to create, modify, and
delete Active Directory (Windows) groups and assign management roles (admin, backupoperator, and so on) to those groups.
To prepare for managing groups, select Administration > Access > Authentication , expand
the Active Directory/Kerberos Authentication panel, and click the Active Directory
Administrative Access Enable button.
Creating administrative groups for Active Directory
Create an administrative group when you want to assign a management role to all the
users configured in an Active Directory group.
Before you begin
Enable Active Directory Administrative Access on the Active Directory/Kerberos
Authentication panel in the Administration > Access > Authentication page.
Procedure
1. Click Create....
2. Enter the domain and group name separated by a backslash. For example:
domainname\groupname.
3. Select the management role for the group from the drop-down menu.
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4. Click OK.
Modifying administrative groups for Active Directory
Modify an administrative group when you want to change the administrative group name
or management role configured for an Active Directory group.
Before you begin
Enable Active Directory Administrative Access on the Active Directory/Kerberos
Authentication panel in the Administration > Access > Authentication page.
Procedure
1. Select a group to modify under the Active Directory Administrative Access heading.
2. Click Modify....
3. Modify the domain and group name. These names are separated by a backslash. For
example: domainname\groupname.
4. Modify the management role for the group by selecting a different role from the dropdown menu.
Deleting administrative groups for Active Directory
Delete an administrative group when you want to terminate system access for all the
users configured in an Active Directory group.
Before you begin
Enable Active Directory Administrative Access on the Active Directory/Kerberos
Authentication panel in the Administration > Access > Authentication page.
Procedure
1. Select a group to delete under the Active Directory Administrative Access heading.
2. Click Delete.
Configuring UNIX Kerberos authentication
Configuring UNIX Kerberos authentication enables NFS clients to use Kerberos
authentication. CIFS clients use Workgroup authentication.
Before you begin
NIS must be running for UNIX-mode Kerberos authentication to function. For instructions
about enabling Kerberos, see the section regarding enabling NIS services.
Configuring Kerberos for UNIX enables NFS clients to use Kerberos authentication. CIFS
clients use Workgroup authentication.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Access > Authentication.
The Authentication view appears.
2. Expand the Active Directory/Kerberos Authentication panel.
3. Click Configure... next to Mode to start the configuration wizard.
The Active Directory/Kerberos Authentication dialog appears.
4. Select Unix and click Next.
5. Enter the realm name (for example: domain1.local), and up to three host names or IP
addresses (IPv4 or IPv6) for key distribution centers (KDCs).
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6. Optionally, click Browse to upload a keytab file, and click Next.
The Summary page for the configuration appears.
Note
Keytab files are generated on the authentication servers (KDCs) and contain a shared
secret between the KDC server and the DDR.
NOTICE
A keytab file must be uploaded and imported for Kerberos authentication to operate
correctly.
7. Click Finish.
The system displays the configuration information in the Active Directory/Kerberos
Authentication panel.
Disabling Kerberos authentication
Disabling Kerberos authentication prevents CIFS and NFS clients from using Kerberos
authentication. CIFS clients use Workgroup authentication.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Access Management > Authentication.
The Authentication view appears.
2. Expand the Active Directory/Kerberos Authentication panel.
3. Click Configure... next to Mode to start the configuration wizard.
The Active Directory/Kerberos Authentication dialog appears.
4. Select Disabled and click Next.
The system displays a summary page with changes appearing in bold text.
5. Click Finish.
The system displays Disabled next to Mode in the Active Directory/Kerberos
Authentication panel.
Viewing Workgroup authentication information
Use the Workgroup Authentication panel to view Workgroup configuration information.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Access > Authentication.
2. Expand the Workgroup Authentication panel.
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Table 35 Workgroup Authentication label descriptions
Item
Description
Mode
The type of authentication mode (Workgroup or Active Directory).
Workgroup name
The specified workgroup
CIFS Server Name
The name of the CIFS server in use.
WINS Server
The name of the WINS server in use.
Configuring workgroup authentication parameters
Workgroup authentication parameters allow you to configure a Workgroup name and CIFS
server name.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Access > Authentication.
The Authentication view appears.
2. Expand the Workgroup Authentication panel.
3. Click Configure.
The Workgroup Authentication dialog appears.
4. For Workgroup Name, select Manual and enter a workgroup name to join, or use the
default.
The Workgroup mode joins a Data Domain system to a workgroup domain.
5. For CIFS Server Name, select Manual and enter a server name (the DDR), or use the
default.
6. Click OK.
Viewing NIS authentication information
The NIS Authentication panel displays the NIS configuration parameters and whether NIS
authentication is enabled or disabled.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Access > Authentication.
The Authentication view appears.
2. Expand the NIS Authentication panel.
Results
Table 36 NIS Authentication panel items
Item
Description
NIS Status
Enabled or Disabled.
Domain Name
The name of the domain for this service.
Server
Authentication server(s).
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Table 36 NIS Authentication panel items (continued)
Item
Description
NIS Group
The name of the NIS group.
Management Role
The role of the group (admin, user, and so on).
Enabling and disabling NIS authentication
Use the NIS Authentication panel to enable and disable NIS authentication.
Procedure
1. Select Maintenance > Access > Authentication.
The Authentication view appears.
2. Expand the NIS Authentication panel.
3. Click Enable next to NIS Status to enable or Disable to disable NIS Authentication.
The Enable or Disable NIS dialog box appears.
4. Click OK.
Configuring the NIS domain name
Use the NIS Authentication panel to configure the NIS domain name.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Access > Authentication.
The Authentication view appears.
2. Expand the NIS Authentication panel.
3. Click Edit next to Domain Name to edit the NIS domain name.
The Configure NIS Domain Name dialog box appears.
4. Enter the domain name in the Domain Name box.
5. Click OK.
Specifying NIS authentication servers
Use the NIS Authentication panel to specify NIS authentication servers.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Access > Authentication.
The Authentication view appears.
2. Expand the NIS Authentication panel.
3. Below Domain Name, select one of the following:
100
l
Obtain NIS Servers from DHCP The system automatically obtains NIS servers using
DHCP
l
Manually Configure Use the following procedures to manually configure NIS
servers.
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l
To add an authentication server, click Add (+) in the server table, enter the server
name, and click OK.
l
To modify an authentication server, select the authentication server name and
click the edit icon (pencil). Change the server name, and click OK.
l
To remove an authentication server name, select a server, click the X icon, and
click OK.
4. Click OK.
Configuring NIS groups
Use the NIS Authentication panel to configure NIS groups.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Access > Authentication.
The Authentication view appears.
2. Expand the NIS Authentication panel.
3. Configure the NIS groups in the NIS Group table.
l
To add a NIS group, click Add (+), enter the NIS group name and role, and click
Validate. Click OK to exit the add NIS group dialog box. Click OK again to exit the
Configure Allowed NIS Groups dialog box.
l
To modify an NIS group, select the checkbox of the NIS group name in the NIS
group list and click Edit (pencil). Change the NIS group name, and click OK.
l
To remove an NIS group name, select the NIS group in the list and click Delete X.
4. Click OK.
Configuring mail server settings
The Mail Server tab allows you to specify the mail server to which DD OS sends email
reports.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Settings > Mail Server.
2. Select More Tasks > Set Mail Server.
The Set Mail Server dialog box appears.
3. Enter the name of the mail server in the Mail Server box.
4. Click OK.
Managing time and date settings
The Time and Date Settings tab allows you to view and configure the system time and
date or configure the Network Time Protocol to set the time and date.
Procedure
1. To view the current time and date configuration, select Administration > Settings >
Time and Date Settings.
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The Time and Date Settings page presents the current system date and time, shows
whether NTP is enabled or not, and lists the IP addresses or hostnames of configured
NTP servers.
2. To change the configuration, select More Tasks > Configure Time Settings.
The Configure Time Settings dialog appears.
3. In the Time Zone dropdown list, select the time zone where the Data Domain system
resides.
4. To manually set the time and date, select None, type the date in the Date box, and
select the time in the Time dropdown lists.
5. To use NTP to synchronize the time, select NTP and set how the NTP server is
accessed.
l
To use DHCP to automatically select a server, select Obtain NTP Servers using
DHCP.
l
To configure an NTP server IP address, select Manually Configure, add the IP
address of the server, and click OK.
Note
Using time synchronization from an Active Directory domain controller might cause
excessive time changes on the system if both NTP and the domain controller are
modifying the time.
6. Click OK.
7. If you changed the time zone, you must reboot the system.
a. Select Maintenance > System.
b. From the More Tasks menu, select Reboot System.
c. Click OK to confirm.
Managing system properties
The System Properties tab allows you to view and configure system properties that
identify the managed system location, administrator email address, and host name.
Procedure
1. To view the current configuration, select Administration > Settings > System
Properties.
The System Properties tab displays the system location, the administrator email
address, and the administrator hostname.
2. To change the configuration, select More Tasks > Set System Properties.
The Set System Properties dialog box appears.
3. In the Location box, enter information about where the Data Domain system is
located.
4. In the Admin Email box, enter the email address of the system administrator.
5. In the Admin Host box, enter the name of the administration server.
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6. Click OK.
SNMP management
The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a standard protocol for exchanging
network management information, and is a part of the Transmission Control Protocol/
Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol suite. SNMP provides a tool for network administrators
to manage and monitor network-attached devices, such as Data Domain systems, for
conditions that warrant administrator attention.
To monitor Data Domain systems using SNMP, you will need to install the Data Domain
MIB in your SNMP Management system. DD OS also supports the standard MIB-II so you
can also query MIB-II statistics for general data such as network statistics. For full
coverage of available data you should utilize both the Data Domain MIB and the standard
MIB-II MIB.
The Data Domain system SNMP agent accepts queries for Data Domain-specific
information from management systems using SNMP v1, v2c, and v3. SNMP V3 provides a
greater degree of security than v2c and v1 by replacing cleartext community strings (used
for authentication) with user-based authentication using either MD5 or SHA1. Also, SNMP
v3 user authentication packets can be encrypted and their integrity verified with either
DES or AES.
Data Domain systems can send SNMP traps (which are alert messages) using SNMP v2c
and SNMP v3. Because SNMP v1 traps are not supported, EMC recommends using SNMP
v2c or v3.
The default port that is open when SNMP is enabled is port 161. Traps are sent out
through port 162.
l
The EMC Data Domain Operating System Initial Configuration Guide describes how to set
up the Data Domain system to use SNMP monitoring.
l
The EMC Data Domain Operating System MIB Quick Reference describes the full set of
MIB parameters included in the Data Domain MIB branch.
Viewing SNMP status and configuration
The SNMP tab displays the current SNMP status and configuration.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Settings > SNMP.
The SNMP view shows the SNMP status, SNMP properties, SNMP V3 configuration,
and SNMP V2C configuration.
SNMP tab labels
The SNMP tab labels identify the overall SNMP status, SNMP property values, and the
configurations for SNMPv3 and SNMPv2.
Status
The Status area displays the operational status of the SNMP agent on the system, which
is either Enabled or Disabled.
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SNMP Properties
Table 37 SNMP Properties descriptions
Item
Description
SNMP System Location
The location of the Data Domain system being monitored.
SNMP System Contact
The person designated as the person to contact for the Data
Domain system administration.
SNMP V3 Configuration
Table 38 SNMP Users column descriptions
Item
Description
Name
The name of the user on the SNMP manager with access to the
agent for the Data Domain system.
Access
The access permissions for the SNMP user, which can be Readonly or Read-write.
Authentication Protocols
The Authentication Protocol used to validate the SNMP user, which
can be MD5, SHA1, or None.
Privacy Protocol
The encryption protocol used during the SNMP user
authentication, which can be AES, DES, or None.
Table 39 Trap Hosts column descriptions
Item
Description
Host
The IP address or domain name of the SNMP management host.
Port
The port used for SNMP trap communication with the host. For
example, 162 is the default.
User
The user on the trap host authenticated to access the Data Domain
SNMP information.
SNMP V2C Configuration
Table 40 Communities column descriptions
104
Item
Description
Community
The name of the community. For example, public, private, or
localCommunity.
Access
The access permission assigned, which can be Read-only or Readwrite.
Hosts
The hosts in this community.
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Table 41 Trap Hosts column descriptions
Item
Description
Host
The systems designated to receive SNMP traps generated by the
Data Domain system. If this parameter is set, systems receive alert
messages, even if the SNMP agent is disabled.
Port
The port used for SNMP trap communication with the host. For
example, 162 is the default.
Community
The name of the community. For example, public, private, or
localCommunity.
Enabling and disabling SNMP
Use the SNMP tab to enable of disable SNMP.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Settings > SNMP.
2. In the Status area, click Enable or Disable.
Downloading the SNMP MIB
Use the SNMP tab to download the SNMP MIB.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Settings > SNMP.
2. Click Download MIB file.
3. In the Opening DATA_DOMAIN.mib dialog box, select Open.
4. Click Browse and select a browser to view the MIB in a browser window.
Note
If using the Microsoft Internet Explorer browser, enable Automatic prompting for file
download.
5. Save the MIB or exit the browser.
Configuring SNMP properties
Use the SNMP tab to configure the text entries for system location and system contact.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Settings > SNMP.
2. In the SNMP Properties area, click Configure.
The SNMP Configuration dialog box appears.
3. In the text fields, add an SNMP system location (a description of where the Data
Domain system is located) and/or an SNMP system contact (for example, the email
address of the system administrator for the Data Domain system).
4. Click OK.
Enabling and disabling SNMP
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SNMP V3 user management
Use the SNMP tab to create, modify, and delete SNMPv3 users and trap hosts.
Creating SNMP V3 users
When you create SNMPv3 users, you define a username, specify either read-only or readwrite access, and select an authentication protocol.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Settings > SNMP.
2. In the SNMP Users area, click Create.
The Create SNMP User dialog box appears.
3. In the Name text field, enter the name of the user for whom you want to grant access
to the Data Domain system agent. The name must be a minimum of eight characters.
4. Select either read-only or read-write access for this user.
5. To authenticate the user, select Authentication.
a. Select either the MD5 or the SHA1 protocol.
b. Enter the authentication key in the Key text field.
c. To provide encryption to the authentication session, select Privacy.
d. Select either the AES or the DES protocol.
e. Enter the encryption key in the Key text field.
6. Click OK.
The newly added user account appears in the SNMP Users table.
Modifying SNMP V3 users
You can modify the access level (read-only or read-write) and authentication protocol for
existing SNMPv3 users.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Settings > SNMP.
2. In the SNMP Users area, select a checkbox for the user and click Modify.
The Modify SNMP User dialog box appears. Add or change any of the following
settings.
3. Select either read-only or read-write access for this user.
4. To authenticate the user, select Authentication.
a. Select either the MD5 or the SHA1 protocol.
b. Enter the authentication key in the Key text field.
c. To provide encryption to the authentication session, select Privacy.
d. Select either the AES or the DES protocol.
e. Enter the encryption key in the Key text field.
5. Click OK.
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The new settings for this user account appear in the SNMP Users table.
Removing SNMP V3 users
Use the SNMP tab to delete existing SNMPv3 users.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Settings > SNMP.
2. In the SNMP Users area, select a checkbox for the user and click Delete.
The Delete SNMP User dialog box appears.
Note
If the Delete button is disabled, the selected user is being used by one or more trap
hosts. Delete the trap hosts and then delete the user.
3. Verify the user name to be deleted and click OK.
4. In the Delete SNMP User Status dialog box, click Close.
The user account is removed from the SNMP Users table.
SNMP V2C community management
Define SNMP v2c communities (which serve as passwords) to control management
system access to the Data Domain system. To restrict access to specific hosts that use
the specified community, assign the hosts to the community.
Note
The SNMP V2c Community string is a sent in cleartext and is very easy to intercept. If this
occurs, the interceptor can retrieve information from devices on your network, modify
their configuration, and possibly shut them down. SNMP V3 provides authentication and
encryption features to prevent interception.
Note
SNMP community definitions do not enable the transmission of SNMP traps to a
management station. You must define trap hosts to enable trap submission to
management stations.
Creating SNMP V2C communities
Create communities to restrict access to the DDR system or for use in sending traps to a
trap host. You must create a community and assign it to a host before you can select that
community for use with the trap host.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Settings > SNMP.
2. In the Communities area, click Create.
The Create SNMP V2C Community dialog box appears.
3. In the Community box, enter the name of a community for whom you want to grant
access to the Data Domain system agent.
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4. Select either read-only or read-write access for this community.
5. If you want to associate the community to one or more hosts, add the hosts as
follows:
a. Click + to add a host.
The Host dialog box appears.
b. In the Host text field, enter the IP address or domain name of the host.
c. Click OK.
The Host is added to the host list.
6. Click OK.
The new community entry appears in the Communities table and lists the selected
hosts.
Modifying SNMP V2C Communities
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Settings > SNMP.
2. In the Communities area, select the checkbox for the community and click Modify.
The Modify SNMP V2C Community dialog box appears.
3. To change the access mode for this community, select either read-only or read-write
access.
Note
The Access buttons for the selected community are disabled when a trap host on the
same system is configured as part of that community. To modify the access setting,
delete the trap host and add it back after the community is modified.
4. To add one or more hosts to this community, do the following:
a. Click + to add a host.
The Host dialog box appears.
b. In the Host text field, enter the IP address or domain name of the host.
c. Click OK.
The Host is added to the host list.
5. To delete one or more hosts from the host list, do the following:
Note
DD System Manager does not allow you to delete a host when a trap host on the same
system is configured as part of that community. To delete a trap host from a
community, delete the trap host and add it back after the community is modified.
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Note
The Access buttons for the selected community are not disabled when the trap host
uses an IPv6 address and the system is managed by an earlier DD OS version that
does not support IPv6. EMC recommends that you always select a management
system that uses the same or a newer DD OS version than the systems it manages.
a. Select the checkbox for each host or click the Host check box in the table head to
select all listed hosts.
b. Click the delete button (X).
6. To edit a host name, do the following:
a. Select the checkbox for the host.
b. Click the edit button (pencil icon).
c. Edit the host name.
d. Click OK.
7. Click OK.
The modified community entry appears in the Communities table.
Deleting SNMP V2C communities
Use the SNMP tab to delete existing SNMPv2 communities.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Settings > SNMP.
2. In the Communities area, select a checkbox for the community and click Delete.
The Delete SNMP V2C Communities dialog box appears.
Note
If the Delete button is disabled, the selected community is being used by one or more
trap hosts. Delete the trap hosts and then delete the community.
3. Verify the community name to be deleted and click OK.
4. In the Delete SNMP V2C Communities Status dialog box, click Close. The community
entry is removed from the Communities table.
SNMP trap host management
Trap host definitions enable Data Domain systems to send alert messages in SNMP trap
messages to an SNMP management station.
Creating SNMP V3 and V2C trap hosts
Trap host definitions identify remote hosts that receive SNMP trap messages from the
system.
Before you begin
If you plan to assign an existing SNMP v2c community to a trap host, you must first use
the Communities area to assign the trap host to the community.
SNMP trap host management
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Procedure
1. Select Administration > Settings > SNMP.
2. In the SNMP V3 Trap Hosts or SNMP V2C Trap Hosts area, click Create.
The Create SNMP [V3 or V2C] Trap Hosts dialog appears.
3. In the Host box, enter the IP address or domain name of the SNMP Host to receive
traps.
4. In the Port box, enter the port number for sending traps (port 162 is a common port).
5. Select the user (SNMP V3) or the community (SNMP V2C) from the drop-down menu.
Note
The Community list displays only those communities to which the trap host is already
assigned.
6. To create a new community, do the following:
a. Select Create New Community in the Community drop-down menu.
b. Enter the name for the new community in the Community box.
c. Select the Access type.
d. Click the add (+) button.
e. Enter the trap host name.
f. Click OK.
g. Click OK.
7. Click OK.
Modifying SNMP V3 and V2C trap hosts
You can modify the port number and community selection for existing trap host
configurations.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Settings > SNMP.
2. In the SNMP V3 Trap Hosts or SNMP V2C Trap Hosts area, select a Trap Host entry,
and click Modify.
The Modify SNMP [V3 or V2C] Trap Hosts dialog box appears.
3. To modify the port number, enter a new port number in the Port box (port 162 is a
common port).
4. Select the user (SNMP V3) or the community (SNMP V2C) from the drop-down menu.
Note
The Community list displays only those communities to which the trap host is already
assigned.
5. To create a new community, do the following:
a. Select Create New Community in the Community drop-down menu.
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b. Enter the name for the new community in the Community box.
c. Select the Access type.
d. Click the add (+) button.
e. Enter the trap host name.
f. Click OK.
g. Click OK.
6. Click OK.
Removing SNMP V3 and V2C trap hosts
Use the SNMP tab to delete existing trap host configurations.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Settings > SNMP.
2. In the Trap Hosts area (either for V3 or V2C, select a checkbox for the trap host and
click Delete.
The Delete SNMP [V3 or V2C] Trap Hosts dialog box appears.
3. Verify the host name to be deleted and click OK.
4. In the Delete SNMP [V3 or V2C] Trap Hosts Status dialog box, click Close.
The trap host entry is removed from the Trap Hosts table.
Autosupport report management
The Autosupport feature generates a report called an ASUP. The ASUP shows system
identification information, consolidated output from a number of Data Domain system
commands, and entries from various log files. Extensive and detailed internal statistics
appear at the end of the report. This report is designed to aid EMC Data Domain Support
in debugging system problems.
An ASUP is generated every time the file system is started, which is usually once per day.
However, the file system can be started more than once in a day.
You can configure email addresses to receive the daily ASUP reports, and you can enable
or disable sending of these reports to EMC Data Domain. The default time for sending the
daily ASUP is 06.00 a.m, and it is configurable. When sending ASUPs to EMC, you have
the option to select the legacy unsecure method or the ConnectEMC method, which
encrypts the information before transmission.
HA system autosupport and support bundle manageability
Configuration is done on the active node and mirrored to the standby node; therefore, the
same configuration is on both nodes, but there is not a consolidated ASUP and support
bundle.
Auto-support and support bundle on active node also includes filesystem, replication,
protocol, and full HA information in addition to local node information, and auto-support
and support bundle on the standby node only have local node information plus some HA
information (configuration and status), no filesystem/replication/protocol information.
The auto-supports and support bundles from both the nodes will be needed to debug
issues related to HA system status (filesystem, replication, protocols, and HA
configuration).
Autosupport report management
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Enabling and disabling autosupport reporting to EMC
You can enable or disable autosupport reporting to EMC without affecting whether or not
alerts are sent to EMC.
Procedure
1. To view the autosupport reporting status, select Maintenance > Support > Autosupport.
The autosupport reporting status is highlighted next to the Scheduled auto support
label in the EMC Support area. Depending on the current configuration, either an
Enable or a Disable button appears in the Scheduled auto support row.
2. To enable alert reporting to EMC, click Enable in the Scheduled auto support row.
3. To disable alert reporting to EMC, click Disable in the Scheduled auto support row.
Reviewing generated autosupport reports
Review autosupport reports to view system statistics and configuration information
captured in the past. The system stores a maximum of 14 autosupport reports.
Procedure
1. Select Maintenance > Support > Autosupport.
The Autosupport Reports page shows the autosupport report file name and file size,
and the date the report was generated. Reports are automatically named. The most
current report is autosupport, the previous day is autosupport.1, and the number
increments as the reports move back in time.
2. Click the file name link to view the report using a text editor. If doing so is required by
your browser, download the file first.
Configuring the autosupport mailing list
Autosupport mailing list subscribers receive autosupport messages through email. Use
the Autosupport tab to add, modify, and delete subscribers.
Autosupport emails are sent through the configured mail server to all subscribers in the
autosupport email list. After you configure the mail server and autosupport email list, it is
a good practice to test the setup to ensure that autosupport messages reach the
intended destinations.
Procedure
1. Select Maintenance > Support > Autosupport.
2. Click Configure.
The Configure Autosupport Subscribers dialog box appears.
3. To add a subscriber, do the following.
a. Click Add (+).
The Email dialog box appears.
b. Enter the recipients email address in the Email box.
c. Click OK.
4. To delete a subscriber, do the following.
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a. In the Configure Autosupport Subscribers dialog box, select the subscriber to
delete.
b. Click Delete (X).
5. To modify a subscriber email address, do the following.
a. In the Configure Autosupport Subscribers dialog box, select the subscriber name
to edit.
b. Click Modify (pencil icon).
The Email dialog box appears.
c. Modify the email address as needed.
d. Click OK.
6. Click OK to close the Configure Autosupport Subscribers dialog box.
The revised autosupport email list appears in the Autosupport Mailing List area.
Support bundle management
A support bundle is a file that contains system configuration and operation information. It
is a good practice to generate a support bundle before a software upgrade or a system
topology change (such as a controller upgrade).
EMC Data Domain Support often requests a support bundle when providing assistance.
Generating a support bundle
When troubleshooting problems, EMC Data Domain Customer Support may ask for a
support bundle, which is a tar-g-zipped selection of log files with a README file that
includes identifying autosupport headers.
Procedure
1. Select Maintenance > Support > Support Bundles.
2. Click Generate Support Bundle.
Note
The system supports a maximum of 10 support bundles. If you attempt to generate an
11th support bundle, DD System Manager displays a warning that prompts you to
click OK or Cancel. If you click OK to continue, the oldest support bundle, which is
listed in the warning message, is deleted. You can also delete support bundles using
the CLI command support bundle delete.
Also, if you generate a support bundle on a upgraded system that contains a support
bundle named using the old format, support-bundle.tar.gz, that file is
renamed to use the newer name format.
3. Email the file to customer support at support@emc.com.
Note
If the bundle is too large to be emailed, use the EMC support site to upload the
bundle. (Go to https://support.emc.com.)
Support bundle management
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Viewing the support bundles list
Use the Support Bundles tab to view the support bundle files on the system.
Procedure
1. Select Maintenance > Support > Support Bundles.
The Support Bundles list appears.
Listed are the support bundle file name, file size, and date the bundle was generated.
Bundles are automatically named hostname-support-bundledatestamp.tar.gz. An example filename is localhost-supportbundle-1127103633.tar.gz, which indicates that the support bundle was
created on the localhost system on November 27th at 10:36:33.
2. Click the file name link and select a gz/tar decompression tool to view the ASCII
contents of the bundle.
Alert notification management
The alert feature generates event and summary reports that can be distributed to
configurable email lists and to EMC Data Domain.
Event reports are sent immediately and provide detailed information on a system event.
The distribution lists for event alerts are called notification groups. You can configure a
notification group to include one or more email addresses, and you can configure the
types and severity level of the event reports sent to those addresses. For example, you
might configure one notification group for individuals who need to know about critical
events and another group for those who monitor less critical events. Another option is to
configure groups for different technologies. For example, you might configure one
notification group to receive emails about all network events and another group to
receive messages about storage issues.
Summary reports are sent daily and provide a summary of the events that occurred during
the last 24 hours. Summary reports do not include all the information provided in event
reports. The default generation time for the daily report is 08.00 a.m, and it can be
changed. Summary reports are sent using a dedicated email list that is separate from the
event notification groups.
You can enable or disable alert distribution to EMC Data Domain. When sending reports
to EMC, you have the option to select the legacy unsecure method or the ConnectEMC
method, which encrypts the information before transmission.
HA system alert notification management
The alert feature on an HA system generates event and summary report like a non-HA
system but how the HA system manages these alerts is different due to the two node
system set-up.
Initial alert configuration is completed on the active node and mirrored to the stand-by
(i.e., same configuration on both nodes). Local and AM-Alerts are emailed according to
the notification settings and include information indicating they are from an HA system
and from which node, the active or standby, that generated the alerts.
If there are active alerts on the file system, replication, or protocols when a failover
occurs, these active alerts continue to show on the new active node after failover if the
alert conditions have not cleared up.
Historical alerts on the filesystem, replication, and protocols stay with the node where
they originated rather than failing over together with the filesystem on a failover. This
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means the CLIs on the active node will not present a complete/continuous view of
historical alerts for filesystem, replication, and protocols
During a failover, local historical alerts stay with the node from which they were
generated; however, the historical alerts for the filesystem, replication, and protocols
(generally called "logical alerts") fail over together with the filesystem.
Note
The Health > High Availability panel displays only alerts that are HA-related. Those alerts
can be filtered by major HA component, such as HA Manager, Node, Interconnect,
Storage, and SAS connection.
Viewing the notification group list
A notification group defines a set of alert types (classes) and a group of email addresses
(for subscribers). Whenever the system generates an alert type selected in a notification
list, that alert is sent to the list subscribers.
Procedure
1. Select Health > Alerts > Notification.
2. To limit (filter) the entries in the Group Name list, type a group name in the Group
Name box or a subscriber email in the Alert Email box, and click Update.
Note
Click Reset to display all configured groups.
3. To display detailed information for a group, select the group in the Group Name list.
Notification tab
The Notification tab allows you to configure groups of email address that receive system
alerts for the alert types and severity levels you select.
Table 42 Group Name list, column label descriptions
Item
Description
Group Name
The configured name for the group.
Classes
The number of alert classes that are reported to the group.
Subscribers
The number of subscribers who are configured to receive notifications
through email.
Table 43 Detailed Information, label descriptions
Item
Description
Class
A service or subsystem that can forward alerts. The listed classes are
those for which the notification group receives alerts.
Severity
The severity level that triggers an email to the notification group. All
alerts at the specified severity level and above are sent to the
notification group.
Viewing the notification group list
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Table 43 Detailed Information, label descriptions (continued)
Item
Description
Subscribers
The subscribers area displays a list of all email addresses configured
for the notification group.
Table 44 Notification tab controls
Control
Description
Add button
Click the Add button to begin creating a
notification group.
Class Attributes Configure button
Click this Configure button to change the
classes and severity levels that generate alerts
for the selected notification group.
Delete button
Click the Delete button to delete the selected
notification group.
Filter By: Alert Email box
Enter text in this box to limit the group name
list entries to groups that include an email
address that contains the specified text.
Filter By: Group Name box
Enter text in this box to limit the group name
list entries to group names that contain the
specified text.
Modify button
Click the Modify button to modify the
configuration for the selected notification
group.
Reset button
Click this button to remove any entries in the
Filter By boxes and display all group names.
Subscribers Configure button
Click this Configure button to change the email
list for the selected notification group.
Update button
Click this button to update the group name list
after you enter text in a filter box.
Creating a notification group
Use the Notification tab to add notification groups and select the severity level for each
group.
Procedure
1. Select Health > Alerts > Notification.
2. Click Add.
The Add Group dialog box appears.
3. Type the group name in the Group Name box.
4. Select the checkbox of one or more alert classes of which to be notified.
5. To change the default severity level (Warning) for a class, select another level in the
associated list box.
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The severity levels are listed in ascending severity level. Emergency is the highest
severity level.
6. Click OK.
Managing the subscriber list for a group
Use the Notification tab to add, modify, or delete email addresses from a notification
group subscriber list.
Procedure
1. Select Health > Alerts > Notification.
2. Select the checkbox of a group in the Notifications group list, and do one of the
following.
l
Click Modify and select Subscribers.
l
Click Configure in the Subscribers list.
3. To add a subscriber to the group, do the following.
a. Click the + icon.
The Email Address dialog box appears.
b. Enter the email address of a subscriber.
c. Click OK.
4. To modify an email address, do the following.
a. Click the checkbox of the email address in the Subscriber Email list.
b. Click the pencil icon.
c. Edit the email address in the Email Address dialog box.
d. Click OK.
5. To delete an email address, click the checkbox of the email address in the Subscriber
Email list and click the X icon.
6. Click Finish or OK.
Modifying a notification group
Use the Notification table to modify the attribute classes in an existing group.
Procedure
1. Select Health > Alerts > Notification.
2. Select the checkbox of the group to modify in the group list.
3. To modify the class attributes for a group, do the following.
a. Click Configure in the Class Attributes area.
The Edit Group dialog box appears.
b. Select (or clear) the checkbox of one or more class attributes.
c. To change the severity level for a class attribute, select a level from the
corresponding list box.
d. Click OK.
Managing the subscriber list for a group
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4. To modify the subscriber list for a group, do the following.
a. Click Configure in the Subscribers area.
The Edit Subscribers dialog box appears.
b. To delete subscribers from the group list, select the checkboxes of subscribers to
delete and click the Delete icon (X).
c. To add a subscriber, click the Add icon (+), type a subscriber email address, and
click OK.
d. Click OK.
5. Click OK.
Deleting a notification group
Use the Notification tab to delete one or more existing notification groups.
Procedure
1. Select Health > Alerts > Notification.
2. Select one or more checkboxes of groups in the Notifications group list, and click
Delete.
The Delete Group dialog box appears.
3. Verify the deletion and click OK.
Resetting the notification group configuration
Use the Notification tab to remove all notification groups added and to remove any
changes made to the Default group.
Procedure
1. Select Health > Alerts > Notification.
2. Select More Tasks > Reset Notification Groups.
3. In the Reset Notification Groups dialog box, click Yes in the verification dialog.
Configuring the daily summary schedule and distribution list
Every day, each managed system sends a Daily Alert Summary email to the subscribers
configured for the alertssummary.list email group. The Daily Alert Summary email
contains current and historical alerts showing messages about non-critical hardware
situations and disk space usage numbers that you might want to address soon.
A fan failure is an example of a noncritical issue that you might want to address as soon
as is reasonably possible. When Support receives the failure notification, they contact
you to arrange for component replacement.
Procedure
1. Select Health > Alerts > Daily Alert Summary.
2. If the default deliver time of 8 AM is not acceptable, do the following.
a. Click Schedule.
The Schedule Alert Summary dialog box appears.
b. Use the list boxes to select the hour, minute, and either AM or PM for the summary
report.
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c. Click OK.
3. To configure the daily alert subscriber list, do the following.
a. Click Configure.
The Daily Alert Summary Mailing List dialog box appears.
b. Modify the daily alert subscriber list as follows.
l
To add a subscriber, click the + icon, type the email address, and click OK.
l
To modify an email address, select the checkbox for the subscriber, click the
pencil icon, edit the email address, and click OK.
l
To delete an email address, select the checkbox for the subscriber and click X.
c. Click Finish.
Daily Alert Summary tab
The Daily Alert Summary tab allows you to configure an email list of those who want to
receive a summary of all system alerts once each day. The people on this list do not
receive individual alerts unless they are also added to a notification group.
Table 45 Daily Alert Summary, label descriptions
Item
Description
Delivery Time
The delivery time shows the configured time for daily emails.
Email List
This list displays the email addresses of those who receive the daily
emails.
Table 46 Daily Alert Summary tab controls
Control
Description
Configure button
Click the Configure button to edit the
subscriber email list.
Schedule button
Click the Schedule button to configure the
time that the daily report is sent.
Enabling and disabling alert notification to EMC
You can enable or disable alert notification to EMC without affecting whether or not
autosupport reports are sent to EMC.
Procedure
1. To view the alert reporting status, select Maintenance > Support > Autosupport.
The alert notification status is highlighted in green next to the Real-time alert label in
the EMC Support area. Depending on the current configuration, either an Enable or a
Disable button appears in the Real-time alert row.
2. To enable alert reporting to EMC, click Enable in the Real-time alert row.
3. To disable alert reporting to EMC, click Disable in the Real-time alert row.
Enabling and disabling alert notification to EMC
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Testing the alerts email feature
Use the Notification tab to send a test email to select notification groups or email
addresses. This feature allows you to determine if the system is configured correctly to
send alert messages.
Procedure
1. To control whether or not a test alert is sent to EMC Data Domain, do the following.
a. Select Maintenance > Support > Autosupport.
b. In the Alert Support area, click Enable or Disable to control whether or not the test
email is sent .
You cannot change the email address.
2. Select Health > Alerts > Notification.
3. Select More Tasks > Send Test Alert.
The Send Test Alert dialog box appears.
4. In the Notification Groups list, select groups to receive the test email and click Next.
5. Optionally, add additional email addresses to receive the email.
6. Click Send Now and OK.
7. If you disabled sending of the test alert to EMC Data Domain and you want to enable
this feature now, do the following.
a. Select Maintenance > Support > Autosupport.
b. In the Alert Support area, click Enable .
Results
To test newly added alerts emails for mailer problems, enter: autosupport test email
email-addr
For example, after adding the email address djones@yourcompany.com to the list, check
the address with the command: autosupport test email djones@yourcompany.com
EMC Support delivery management
Delivery management defines how alerts and autosupport reports are sent to EMC. By
default, alerts and autosupport reports are sent to EMC Data Domain Customer Support
using the standard (unsecure) email. The ConnectEMC method sends messages in a
secure format using email, FTP, or HTTPS.
When the ConnectEMC method is used with an EMC Secure Remote Support (ESRS)
gateway, one benefit is that one gateway can forward messages from multiple systems,
and this allows you to configure network security for only the ESRS gateway instead of for
multiple systems.
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Selecting standard email delivery to EMC
When you select the standard (non-secure) email delivery method, this method applies to
both alert and autosupport reporting.
Procedure
1. Select Maintenance > Support > Autosupport.
2. Click Configure in the Channel row in the EMC Support area.
The Configure EMC Support Delivery dialog appears. The EMC delivery method is
displayed after the Channel label in the EMC Support area.
3. In the Channel list box, select Email to datadomain.com.
4. Click OK.
Selecting and configuring ConnectEMC delivery
When you select the ConnectEMC delivery method, this method applies to both alert and
autosupport reporting.
Procedure
1. Select Maintenance > Support > Autosupport.
2. Click Configure in the Channel row in the EMC Support area.
The Configure EMC Support Delivery dialog appears. The EMC delivery method is
displayed after the Channel label in the EMC Support area.
3. In the Channel list box, select ConnectEMC.
The dialog displays the controls for ConnectEMC delivery.
4. To define a delivery method, do the following.
a. Click + (plus).
b. Select a method in the Method list.
The direct method sends messages by secure email directly to EMC. The ESRSgateway method sends messages to an EMC Secure Remote Support (ESRS)
gateway using the specified protocol.
c. Enter a destination IP address or hostname in the Gateway box.
d. Click OK.
The first delivery method defined becomes the primary delivery method. You can
configure only one primary transport. Add additional delivery methods to create
alternates to use when the primary delivery method is not available.
5. To change the order of the displayed delivery methods, select a delivery method and
use the up and down arrows. The top delivery method in the list is the primary
method.
6. In the Email to Default Admin list, select Never, On failure, or Always.
This setting determines when the default administrator receives email notification
about an alert or autosupport report that is sent to EMC.
7. In the Admin Email box, enter the email address of the administrator who should
receive notification when alerts or autosupport reports are sent to EMC.
A system administrator email is required to support ConnectEMC delivery.
Selecting standard email delivery to EMC
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8. Click Ok.
Testing ConnectEMC operation
A CLI command allows you to test ConnectEMC operation by sending a dummy file to the
system administrator.
Before you begin
A system administrator address must be configured for the system, and you must disable
ConnectEMC reporting before the test.
Procedure
1. To disable ConnectEMC reporting, configure the system to use standard email
delivery.
2. To test ConnectEMC operation, use the CLI.
#support connectemc test
Connection Record working successfully
After you finish
When the test is complete, enable ConnectEMC by configuring the system to use Connect
EMC delivery.
Log file management
The Data Domain system maintains a set of log files, which can be bundled and sent to
EMC Support to assist in troubleshooting any system issues that may arise. Log files
cannot be modified or deleted by any user with DD System Manager, but they can be
copied from the log directory and managed off of the system.
Note
Log messages on an HA system are preserved on the node where the log file originated.
Log files are rotated weekly. Every Sunday at 0:45 a.m., the system automatically opens
new log files for the existing logs and renames the previous files with appended
numbers. For example, after the first week of operation, the previous week messages
file is renamed messages.1, and new messages are stored in a new messages file.
Each numbered file is rolled to the next number each week. For example, after the second
week, the file messages.1 is rolled to messages.2. If a messages.2 file already
existed, it rolls to messages.3. At the end of the retention period (shown in the table
below, the expired log is deleted. For example, an existing messages.9 file is deleted
when messages.8 rolls to messages.9.
Except as noted in this topic, the log files are stored in /ddvar/log.
Note
Files in the /ddvar directory can be deleted using Linux commands if the Linux user is
assigned write permission for that directory.
The set of log files on each system is determined by the features configured on the
system and the events that occur. The following table describes the log files that the
system can generate.
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Table 47 System log files
Log File
Description
Retention
Period
audit.log
Messages about user log-in events.
15 weeks
cifs.log
Log messages from the CIFS subsystem are logged only in
debug/cifs/cifs.log. Size limit of 50 MiB.
10 weeks
messages
Messages about general system events, including commands
executed.
9 weeks
secure.log
Messages regarding user events such as successful and failed
logins, user additions and deletions, and password changes.
Only Admin role users can view this file.
9 weeks
space.log
Messages about disk space usage by system components, and
messages from the clean process. A space use message is
generated every hour. Each time the clean process runs, it
creates approximately 100 messages. All messages are in
comma-separated-value format with tags you can use to
separate the disk space messages from the clean process
messages. You can use third-party software to analyze either
set of messages. The log file uses the following tags.
A single file is
kept
permanently.
There is no log
file rotation for
this log.
l
CLEAN for data lines from clean operations.
l
CLEAN_HEADER for lines that contain headers for the clean
operations data lines.
l
SPACE for disk space data lines.
l
SPACE_HEADER for lines that contain headers for the disk
space data lines.
Viewing log files in DD System Manager
Use the Logs tab to view and open the system log files in DD System Manager.
Procedure
1. Select Maintenance > Logs.
The Logs list displays log file names and the size and generation date for each log file.
2. Click a log file name to view its contents. You may be prompted to select an
application, such as Notepad.exe, to open the file.
Displaying a log file in the CLI
Use the log view command to view a log file in the CLI.
Procedure
1. To view a log file in the CLI, use the log view command.
With no argument, the command displays the current messages file.
2. When viewing the log, use the up and down arrows to scroll through the file; use the q
key to quit; and enter a slash character (/) and a pattern to search through the file.
Viewing log files in DD System Manager
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The display of the messages file is similar to the following. The last message in the
example is an hourly system status message that the Data Domain system generates
automatically. The message reports system uptime, the amount of data stored, NFS
operations, and the amount of disk space used for data storage (%). The hourly
messages go to the system log and to the serial console if one is attached.
# log view
Jun 27 12:11:33 localhost rpc.mountd: authenticated unmount
request from perfsun-g.emc.com:668 for /ddr/col1/segfs (/ddr/
col1/segfs)
Jun 27 12:28:54 localhost sshd(pam_unix)[998]: session opened
for user jsmith10 by (uid=0)
Jun 27 13:00:00 localhost logger: at 1:00pm up 3 days, 3:42,
52324 NFS ops, 84763 GiB data col. (1%)
Note
GiB = Gibibytes = the binary equivalent of Gigabytes.
Learning more about log messages
Look up error messages in the Error Message Catalog for your DD OS version.
In the log file is text similar to the following.
Jan 31 10:28:11 syrah19 bootbin: NOTICE: MSG-SMTOOL-00006: No
replication throttle schedules found: setting throttle to
unlimited.
The components of the message are as follows.
DateTime Host Process [PID]: Severity: MSG-Module-MessageID: Message
Severity levels, in descending order, are: Emergency, Alert, Critical, Error, Warning,
Notice, Info, Debug.
Procedure
1. Go to the EMC Online Support website at https://support.emc.com, enter Error
Message Catalog in the search box, and click the search button.
2. In the results list, locate the catalog for your system and click on the link.
3. User your browser search tool to search for a unique text string in the message.
The error message description looks similar to the following display.
ID: MSG-SMTOOL-00006 - Severity: NOTICE - Audience: customer
Message: No replication throttle schedules found: setting
throttle to unlimited.
Description: The restorer cannot find a replication
throttle schedule. Replication is running with throttle set
to unlimited.
Action: To set a replication throttle schedule, run the
replication throttle add command.
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4. To resolve an issue, do the recommended action.
Based on the example message description, one could run the replication
throttle add command to set the throttle.
Saving a copy of log files
Save log file copies to another device when you want to archive those files.
Use NFS, CIFS mount, or FTP to copy the files to another machine. If using CIFS or NFS,
mount /ddvar to your desktop and copy the files from the mount point. The following
procedure describes how to use FTP to move files to another machine.
Procedure
1. On the Data Domain system, use the adminaccess show ftp command to see
whether FTP service is enabled. If the service is disabled, use the command
adminaccess enable ftp.
2. On the Data Domain system, use the adminaccess show ftp command to see
that the FTP access list includes the IP address of your remote machine. If the address
is not in the list, use the command adminaccess add ftp ipaddr.
3. On the remote machine, open a web browser.
4. In the Address box at the top of the web browser, use FTP to access the Data Domain
system as shown in the following example.
ftp://Data Domain system_name.yourcompany.com/
Note
Some web browsers do not automatically ask for a login if a machine does not accept
anonymous logins. In that case, add a user name and password to the FTP line. For
example: ftp://sysadmin:your-pw@Data Domain
system_name.yourcompany.com/
5. At the login pop-up, log into the Data Domain system as user sysadmin.
6. On the Data Domain system, you are in the directory just above the log directory.
Open the log directory to list the messages files.
7. Copy the file that you want to save. Right-click the file icon and select Copy To Folder
from the menu. Choose a location for the file copy.
8. If you want the FTP service disabled on the Data Domain system, after completing the
file copy, use SSH to log into the Data Domain system as sysadmin and invoke the
command adminaccess disable ftp.
Log message transmission to remote systems
Some log messages can be sent from the Data Domain system to other systems. DD OS
uses syslog to publish log messages to remote systems.
A Data Domain system exports the following facility.priority selectors for log files. For
information on managing the selectors and receiving messages on a third-party system,
see your vendor-supplied documentation for the receiving system.
l
*.notice—Sends all messages at the notice priority and higher.
l
*.alert—Sends all messages at the alert priority and higher (alerts are included in
*.notice).
Saving a copy of log files
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l
kern.*—Sends all kernel messages (kern.info log files).
The log host commands manage the process of sending log messages to another
system.
Viewing the log file transmission configuration
Use the log host show CLI command to view whether log file transmission is enabled
and which hosts receive log files.
Procedure
1. To display the configuration, enter the log host show command.
# log host show
Remote logging is enabled.
Remote logging hosts
log-server
Enabling and disabling log message transmission
You must use CLI commands to enable or disable log message transmission.
Procedure
1. To enable sending log messages to other systems, use the log host enable
command.
2. To disable sending log messages to other systems, use the log host disable
command.
Adding or removing a receiver host
You must use CLI commands to add or remove a receiver host.
Procedure
1. To add a system to the list that receives Data Domain system log messages, use the
log host add command.
2. To remove a system from the list that receives system log messages, use the
command: log host del.
The following command adds the system named log-server to the hosts that receive log
messages.
log host add log-server
The following command removes the system named log-server from the hosts that receive
log messages.
log host del log-server
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Remote system power management with IPMI
Select DD systems support remote power management using the Intelligent Platform
Management Interface (IPMI), and they support remote monitoring of the boot sequence
using Serial over LAN (SOL).
IPMI power management takes place between an IPMI initiator and an IPMI remote host.
The IPMI initiator is the host that controls power on the remote host. To support remote
power management from an initiator, the remote host must be configured with an IPMI
username and password. The initiator must provide this username and password when
attempting to manage power on a remote host.
IPMI runs independently of DD OS and allows an IPMI user to manage system power as
long as the remote system is connected to a power source and a network. An IP network
connection is required between an initiator and a remote system. When properly
configured and connected, IPMI management eliminates the need to be physically
present to power on or power off a remote system.
You can use both DD System Manager and the CLI to configure IPMI users on a remote
system. After you configure IPMI on a remote system, you can use IPMI initiator features
on another system to log in and manage power.
Note
If a system cannot support IPMI due to hardware or software limitations, DD System
Manager displays a notification message when attempting to navigate to a configuration
page.
SOL is used to view the boot sequence after a power cycle on a remote system. SOL
enables text console data that is normally sent to a serial port or to a directly attached
console to be sent over a LAN and displayed by a management host.
The DD OS CLI allows you to configure a remote system for SOL and view the remote
console output. This feature is supported only in the CLI.
NOTICE
IPMI power removal is provided for emergency situations during which attempts to shut
down power using DD OS commands fail. IPMI power removal simply removes power to
the system, it does not perform an orderly shutdown of the DD OS file system. The proper
way to remove and reapply power is to use the DD OS system reboot command. The
proper way to remove system power is to use the DD OS system poweroff command
and wait for the command to properly shut down the file system.
IPMI and SOL limitations
IPMI and SOL support is limited on some Data Domain systems.
l
IPMI is supported on all systems supported by this release except the following
systems: DD140, DD610, and DD630.
l
IPMI user support varies as follows.
n
Model DD990: Maximum user IDs = 15. Three default users (NULL, anonymous,
root). Maximum user IDs available = 12.
n
Models DD640, DD4200, DD4500, DD7200, and DD9500: Maximum user IDs =
10. Two default users (NULL, root). Maximum user IDs available = 8.
Remote system power management with IPMI
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l
SOL is supported on the following systems: DD160, DD620, DD640, DD670, DD860,
DD890, DD990, DD2200, DD2500 (requires DD OS 5.4.0.6 or later), DD4200,
DD4500, DD7200, and DD9500.
Note
User root is not supported for IPMI connections on DD160 systems.
Adding and deleting IPMI users with DD System Manager
Each system contains its own list of configured IPMI users, which is used to control
access to local power management features. Another system operating as an IPMI
initiator can manage remote system power only after providing a valid username and
password.
To give an IPMI user the authority to manage power on multiple remote systems, you
must add that user to each of the remote systems.
Note
The IPMI user list for each remote system is separate from the DD System Manager lists
for administrator access and local users. Administrators and local users do not inherit
any authorization for IPMI power management.
Procedure
1. Select Maintenance > IPMI.
2. To add a user, complete the following steps.
a. Above the IPMI Users table, click Add.
b. In the Add User dialog box, type the user name (16 or less characters) and
password in the appropriate boxes (reenter the password in the Verify Password
box).
c. Click Create.
The user entry appears in the IPMI Users table.
3. To delete a user, complete the following steps.
a. In the IPMI Users list, select a user and click Delete.
b. In the Delete User dialog box, click OK to verify user deletion.
Changing an IPMI user password
Change the IPMI user password to prevent use of the old password for power
management.
Procedure
1. Select Maintenance > IPMI.
2. In the IPMI Users table, select a user, and click Change Password.
3. In the Change Password dialog box, type the password in the appropriate text box and
reenter the password in the Verify Password box.
4. Click Update.
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Configuring an IPMI port
When you configure an IPMI port for a system, you select the port from a network ports
list and specify the IP configuration parameters for that port. The selection of IPMI ports
displayed is determined by the Data Domain system model.
Some systems support one or more dedicated ports, which can be used only for IPMI
traffic. Other systems support ports that can be used for both IPMI traffic and all IP traffic
supported by the physical interfaces in the Hardware > Ethernet > Interfaces view. Shared
ports are not provided on systems that provide dedicated IPMI ports.
The port names in the IPMI Network Ports list use the prefix bmc, which represents
baseboard management controller. To determine if a port is a dedicated port or shared
port, compare the rest of the port name with the ports in the network interface list. If the
rest of the IPMI port name matches an interface in the network interface list, the port is a
shared port. If the rest of the IPMI port name is different from the names in the network
interface list, the port is a dedicated IPMI port.
Note
DD4200, DD4500, and DD7200 systems are an exception to the naming ruled described
earlier. On these systems, IPMI port, bmc0a, corresponds to shared port ethMa in the
network interface list. EMC recommends that the shared port ethMa be reserved for IPMI
traffic and system management traffic (using protocols such as HTTP, Telnet, and SSH).
Backup data traffic should be directed to other ports.
When IPMI and nonIPMI IP traffic share an Ethernet port, EMC recommends that you do
not use the link aggregation feature on the shared interface because link state changes
can interfere with IPMI connectivity.
Procedure
1. Select Maintenance > IPMI.
The IPMI Configuration area shows the IPMI configuration for the managed system.
The Network Ports table lists the ports on which IPMI can be enabled and configured.
The IPMI Users table lists the IPMI users who can access the managed system.
Table 48 Network Ports list column descriptions
Item
Description
Port
The logical name for a port that supports IPMI communications.
Enabled
Whether the port is enabled for IPMI (Yes or No).
DHCP
Whether the port uses DHCP to set its IP address (Yes or No).
MAC Address
The hardware MAC address for the port.
IP Address
The port IP address.
Netmask
The subnet mask for the port.
Gateway
The gateway IP address for the port.
Configuring an IPMI port
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Table 49 IPMI Users list column descriptions
Item
Description
User Name
The name of a user with authority to power manage the remote
system.
2. In the Network Ports table, select a port to configure.
Note
If the IPMI port also supports IP traffic (for administrator access or backup traffic), the
interface port must be enabled before you configure IPMI.
3. Above the Network Ports table, click Configure.
The Configure Port dialog box appears.
4. Choose how network address information is assigned.
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To collect the IP address, netmask, and gateway configuration from a DHCP server,
select Dynamic (DHCP).
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To manually define the network configuration, select Static (Manual) and enter the
IP address, netmask, and gateway address.
5. Enable a disabled IPMI network port by selecting the network port in the Network
Ports table, and clicking Enable.
6. Disable a disabled IPMI network port by selecting the network port in the Network
Ports table, and clicking Disable.
7. Click Apply.
Preparing for remote power management and console monitoring with the CLI
Remote console monitoring uses the Serial Over Lan (SOL) feature to enable viewing of
text-based console output without a serial server. You must use the CLI to set up a system
for remote power management and console monitoring.
Remote console monitoring is typically used in combination with the ipmi remote
power cycle command to view the remote system’s boot sequence. This procedure
should be used on every system for which you might want to remotely view the console
during the boot sequence.
Procedure
1. Connect the console to the system directly or remotely.
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130
Use the following connectors for a direct connection.
n
DIN-type connectors for a PS/2 keyboard
n
USB-A receptacle port for a USB keyboard
n
DB15 female connector for a VGA monitor
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Note
Systems DD4200, DD4500, and DD7200 do not support direct connection, including
KVM.
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For a serial connection, use a standard DB9 male or micro-DB9 female connector.
Systems DD4200, DD4500, and DD7200 provide a female micro-DB9 connector. A
null modem cable with male micro-DB9 and standard female DB9 connectors is
included for a typical laptop connection.
l
For a remote IPMI/SOL connection, use the appropriate RJ45 receptacle as follows.
n
For DD990 systems, use default port eth0d.
n
For other systems, use the maintenance or service port. For port locations, refer
to the system documentation, such as a hardware overview or installation and
setup guide.
2. To support remote console monitoring, use the default BIOS settings.
3. To display the IPMI port name, enter ipmi show config.
4. To enable IPMI, enter ipmi enable {port | all}.
5. To configure the IPMI port, enter ipmi config port { dhcp | ipaddress
ipaddr netmask mask gateway ipaddr }.
Note
If the IPMI port also supports IP traffic (for administrator access or backup traffic), the
interface port must be enabled with the net enable command before you configure
IPMI.
6. If this is the first time using IPMI, run ipmi user reset to clear IPMI users that
may be out of synch between two ports, and to disable default users.
7. To add a new IPMI user, enter ipmi user add user.
8. To set up SOL, do the following:
a. Enter system option set console lan.
b. When prompted, enter y to reboot the system.
Managing power with DD System Manager
After IPMI is properly set up on a remote system, you can use DD System Manager as an
IPMI initiator to log into the remote system, view the power status, and change the power
status.
Procedure
1. Select Maintenance > IPMI.
2. Click Login to Remote System.
The IPMI Power Management dialog box appears.
3. Enter the remote system IPMI IP address or hostname and the IPMI username and
password, then click Connect.
4. View the IPMI status.
Managing power with DD System Manager
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The IPMI Power Management dialog box appears and shows the target system
identification and the current power status. The Status area always shows the current
status.
Note
The Refresh icon (the blue arrows) next to the status can be used to refresh the
configuration status (for example, if the IPMI IP address or user configuration were
changed within the last 15 minutes using the CLI commands).
5. To change the IPMI power status, click the appropriate button.
l
Power Up—Appears when the remote system is powered off. Click this button to
power up the remote system.
l
Power Down—Appears when the remote system is powered on. Click this button to
power down the remote system.
l
Power Cycle—Appears when the remote system is powered on. Click this button to
power cycle the remote system.
l
Manage Another System—Click this button to log into another remote system for
IPMI power management.
l
Done—Click to close the IPMI Power Management dialog box.
NOTICE
The IPMI Power Down feature does not perform an orderly shutdown of the DD OS.
This option can be used if the DD OS hangs and cannot be used to gracefully
shutdown a system.
Managing power with the CLI
You can manage power on a remote system and start remote console monitoring using
the CLI.
Note
The remote system must be properly set up before you can manage power or monitor the
system.
Procedure
1. Establish a CLI session on the system from which you want to monitor a remote
system.
2. To manage power on the remote system, enter ipmi remote power {on | off
| cycle | status} ipmi-target <ipaddr | hostname> user user.
3. To begin remote console monitoring, enter ipmi remote console ipmitarget <ipaddr | hostname> user user.
Note
The user name is an IPMI user name defined for IPMI on the remote system. DD OS
user names are not automatically supported by IPMI.
4. To disconnect from a remote console monitoring session and return to the command
line, enter the at symbol (@).
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5. To terminate remote console monitoring, enter the tilde symbol (~).
Managing power with the CLI
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CHAPTER 4
Monitoring Data Domain Systems
This chapter includes:
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Viewing individual system status and identity information.................................. 136
Health Alerts panel..............................................................................................138
Viewing and clearing current alerts......................................................................139
Viewing the alerts history.................................................................................... 140
Viewing hardware component status...................................................................141
Viewing system statistics.................................................................................... 144
Viewing active users............................................................................................145
History report management................................................................................. 146
Viewing the Task Log...........................................................................................152
Viewing the system High Availability status......................................................... 153
Monitoring Data Domain Systems
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Viewing individual system status and identity information
The Dashboard area displays summary information and status for alerts, the file system,
licensed services, and hardware enclosures. The Maintenance area displays additional
system information, including the system uptime and system and chassis serial numbers.
The system name, software version, and user information appear in the footer at all
times.
Procedure
1. To view system dashboard, select Home > Dashboard.
Figure 4 System dashboard
2. To view the system uptime and identity information, select Maintenance > System.
The system uptime and identification information appears in the System area.
Dashboard Alerts area
The Dashboard Alerts area shows the count, type, and the text of the most recent alerts in
the system for each subsystem (hardware, replication, file system, and others). Click
anywhere in the alerts area to display more information on the current alerts.
Table 50 Dashboard Alerts column descriptions
136
Column
Description
Count
A count of the current alerts for the subsystem type specified in the adjacent
column. The background color indicates the severity of the alert.
Type
The subsystem that generated the alert.
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
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Table 50 Dashboard Alerts column descriptions (continued)
Column
Description
Most recent alerts The text of the most recent alert for the subsystem type specified in the
adjacent column
Dashboard File System area
The Dashboard File System area displays statistics for the entire file system. Click
anywhere in the File System area to display more information.
Table 51 File System area label descriptions
Column
Description
Status
The current status of the file system.
X.Xx
The average compression reduction factor for the file system.
Used
The total file system space being used.
Data Written: Pre-compression
The data quantity received by the system prior to compression.
Data Written: Post-compression The data quantity stored on the system after compression.
Dashboard Services area
The Dashboard Services area displays the status of the replication, VTL, CIFS, NFS, DD
Boost, and vDisk services. Click on a service to display detailed information about that
service.
Table 52 Services area column descriptions
Column
Description
Left column
The left column lists the services that may be used on the system. These service
can include replication, VTL, CIFS, NFS, DD Boost, vDisk.
Right column The right column shows the operational status of the service. For most services,
the status is enabled, disabled, or not licensed. The replication service row
displays the number of replication contexts that are in normal, warning, and error
states. A color coded box displays green for normal operation, yellow for warning
situations, or red when errors are present).
Dashboard HA Readiness area
In high-availability (HA) systems, the HA panel indicates whether the system can fail over
from the active node to the standby node if necessary.
You can click on the HA panel to navigate to the High Availability section under HEALTH.
Dashboard File System area
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Monitoring Data Domain Systems
Dashboard Hardware area
The Dashboard Hardware area displays the status of the system enclosures and drives.
Click anywhere in the Hardware area to display more information on these components.
Table 53 Hardware area label descriptions
Label
Description
Enclosures The enclosure icons display the number of enclosures operating in the normal (green
checkmark) and degraded (red X) states.
Storage
The storage icons display the number of disk drives operating in the normal (green
checkmark), spare (green +), or failed (red X) state.
Maintenance System area
The Maintenance System area displays the system model number, DD OS version, system
uptime, and system and chassis serial numbers.
Table 54 System area label descriptions
Label
Description
Model Number The model number is the number assigned to the EMC Data Domain system.
Version
The version is the DD OS version and build number of the software running on
the system.
System Uptime The system uptime displays how long the system has been running since the
last system start. The time in parenthesis indicates when the system uptime was
last updated.
System Serial
No.
The system serial number is the serial number assigned to the system. On newer
systems, such as DD4500 and DD7200, the system serial number is
independent of the chassis serial number and remains the same during many
types of maintenance events, including chassis replacements. On legacy
systems, such as DD990 and earlier, the system serial number is set to the
chassis serial number.
Chassis Serial
No.
The chassis serial number is the serial number on the current system chassis.
Health Alerts panel
Alerts are messages from system services and subsystems that report system events. The
Health > Alerts panel displays tabs that allow you to view current and non-current alerts,
the configured alert notification groups, and the configuration for those who want to
receive daily alert summary reports.
Alerts are also sent as SNMP traps. See the MIB Quick Reference Guide or the SNMP MIB
for the full list of traps.
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Viewing and clearing current alerts
The Current Alerts tab displays a list of all the current alerts and can display detailed
information for a selected alert. An alert is automatically removed from the Current Alerts
list when the underlying situation is corrected or when manually cleared.
Procedure
1. To view all of the current alerts, select Health > Alerts > Current Alerts.
2. To limit the number of entries in the current alert list, do the following.
a. In the Filter By area, select a Severity and Class to expose only alerts that pertain
to those choices.
b. Click Update.
All alerts not matching the Severity and Class are removed from the list.
3. To display additional information for a specific alert in the Details area, click the alert
in the list.
4. To clear an alert, select the alert checkbox in the list and click Clear.
A cleared alert no longer appears in the current alerts list, but it can be found in the
alerts history list.
5. To remove filtering and return to the full listing of current alerts, click Reset.
Current Alerts tab
The Current Alerts tab displays a list of alerts and detailed information about a selected
alert.
Table 55 Alerts list, column label descriptions
Item
Description
Message
The alert message text.
Severity
The level of seriousness of the alert. For example, warning, critical,
info, or emergency.
Date
The time and date the alert occurred.
Class
The subsystem where the alert occurred.
Object
The physical component where the alert is occurring.
Table 56 Details area, row label descriptions
Item
Description
Name
A textual identifier for the alert.
Message
The alert message text.
Severity
The level of seriousness of the alert. For example, warning, critical,
info, emergency.
Class
The subsystem and device where the alert occurred.
Viewing and clearing current alerts
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Monitoring Data Domain Systems
Table 56 Details area, row label descriptions (continued)
Item
Description
Date
The time and date the alert occurred.
Object ID
The physical component where the alert is occurring.
Event ID
An event identifier.
Tenant Units
Lists affected tenant units.
Description
More descriptive information about the alert.
Action
A suggestion to remedy the alert.
Object Info
Additional information about the affected object.
SNMP OID
SNMP object ID.
Viewing the alerts history
The Alerts History tab displays a list of all the cleared alerts and can display detailed
information for a selected alert.
Procedure
1. To view all of the alerts history, select Health > Alerts > Alerts History.
2. To limit the number of entries in the current alert list, do the following.
a. In the Filter By area, select a Severity and Class to expose only alerts that pertain
to those choices.
b. Click Update.
All alerts not matching the Severity and Class are removed from the list.
3. To display additional information for a specific alert in the Details area, click the alert
in the list.
4. To remove filtering and return to the full listing of cleared alerts, click Reset.
Alerts History tab
The Alerts History tab displays a list of cleared alerts and details about a selected alert.
Table 57 Alerts list, column label descriptions
140
Item
Description
Message
The alert message text.
Severity
The level of seriousness of the alert. For example, warning, critical,
info, or emergency.
Date
The time and date the alert occurred.
Class
The subsystem where the alert occurred.
Object
The physical component where the alert is occurring.
Status
Whether the status is posted or cleared. A posted alert is not cleared.
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
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Table 58 Details area, row label descriptions
Item
Description
Name
A textual identifier for the alert.
Message
The alert message text.
Severity
The level of seriousness of the alert. For example, warning, critical,
info, emergency,
Class
The subsystem and device where the alert occurred.
Date
The time and date the alert occurred.
Object ID
The physical component where the alert is occurring.
Event ID
An event identifier.
Tenant Units
Lists affected tenant units.
Additional Information
More descriptive information about the alert.
Status
Whether the status is posted or cleared. A posted alert is not cleared.
Description
More descriptive information about the alert.
Action
A suggestion to remedy the alert.
Viewing hardware component status
The Hardware Chassis panel displays a block drawing of each enclosure in a system,
including the chassis serial number and the enclosure status. Within each block drawing
are the enclosure components, such as disks, fans, power supplies, NVRAM, CPUs, and
memory. The components that appear depend upon the system model.
On systems running DD OS 5.5.1 and later, the system serial number is also displayed.
On newer systems, such as DD4500 and DD7200, the system serial number is
independent of the chassis serial number and remains the same during many types of
maintenance events, including chassis replacements. On legacy systems, such as DD990
and earlier, the system serial number is set to the chassis serial number.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Chassis.
The Chassis view shows the system enclosures. Enclosure 1 is the system controller,
and the rest of the enclosures appear below Enclosure 1.
Components with problems show yellow (warning) or red (error); otherwise, the
component displays OK.
2. Hover the cursor over a component to see detailed status.
Viewing hardware component status
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Monitoring Data Domain Systems
Fan status
Fans are numbered and correspond to their location in the chassis. Hover over a system
fan to display a tooltip for that device.
Table 59 Fan tooltip, column label descriptions
Item
Description
Description
The name of the fan.
Level
The current operating speed range (Low, Medium, High). The
operating speed changes depending on the temperature inside the
chassis.
Status
The health of the fan.
Temperature status
Data Domain systems and some components are configured to operate within a specific
temperature range, which is defined by a temperature profile that is not configurable.
Hover over the Temperature box to display the temperature tooltip.
Table 60 Temperature tooltip, column label descriptions
142
Item
Description
Description
The location within the chassis being measured. The components
listed depend on the model and are often shown as abbreviations.
Some examples are:
l
CPU 0 Temp (Central Processing Unit)
l
MLB Temp 1 (main logic board)
l
BP middle temp (backplane)
l
LP temp (low profile of I/O riser FRU)
l
FHFL temp (full height full length of I/O riser FRU)
l
FP temp (front panel)
C/F
The C/F column displays temperature in degrees Celsius and
Fahrenheit. When the description for a CPU specifies relative (CPU n
Relative), this column displays the number of degrees that each
CPU is below the maximum allowable temperature and the actual
temperature for the interior of the chassis (chassis ambient).
Status
Shows the temperature status:
l
OK—The temperature is acceptable
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Critical—The temperature is higher than the shutdown
temperature.
l
Warning—The temperature is higher than the warning
temperature (but lower than the shutdown temperature).
l
Dash (-) —No temperature thresholds are configured for this
component, so there is no status to report.
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Table 60 Temperature tooltip, column label descriptions (continued)
Power supply status
The tooltip shows the status of the power supply (OK or DEGRADED if a power supply is
absent or failed). You can also look at the back panel of the enclosure and check the LED
for each power supply to identify those that need replacing.
PCI slot status
The PCI slots shown in the chassis view indicate the number of PCI slots and the numbers
of each slot. Tooltips provide component status for each card in a PCI slot. For example,
the tooltip for one NVRAM card model displays the memory size, temperature data, and
battery levels.
NVRAM status
Hover over NVRAM to display information about the Non-Volatile RAM, batteries, and
other components.
Table 61 NVRAM tooltip, dolumn label descriptions
Item
Description
Component
The items in the component list depend on the NVRAM installed in
the system and can include the following items.
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Firmware version
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Memory size
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Error counts
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Flash controller error counts
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Board temperature
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CPU temperature
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Battery number (The number of batteries depends on the
system type.)
l
Current slot number for NVRAM
C/F
Displays the temperature for select components in the Celsius/
Fahrenheit format.
Value
Values are provided for select components and describe the
following.
l
Firmware version number
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Memory size value in the displayed units
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Error counts for memory, PCI, and controller
l
Flash controller error counts sorted in the following groups:
configuration errors (Cfg Err), panic conditions (Panic), Bus
Hang, bad block warnings (Bad Blk Warn), backup errors (Bkup
Err), and restore errors (Rstr Err)
Power supply status
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Monitoring Data Domain Systems
Table 61 NVRAM tooltip, dolumn label descriptions (continued)
Item
Description
l
Battery information, such percent charged and status (enabled
or disabled)
Viewing system statistics
The Realtime Charts panel displays up to seven graphs that show real-time subsystem
performance statistics, such as CPU usage and disk traffic.
Procedure
1. Select Home > Realtime Charts.
The Performance Graphs area displays the currently selected graphs.
2. To change the selection of graphs to display, select and clear the checkboxes for
graphs in the list box.
3. To view specific data-point information, hover over a graph point.
4. When a graph contains multiple data, you can use the checkboxes in the upper-right
corner of the graph to select what to display. For example, if Read is not selected in
the upper right of the disk activity graph, only write data is graphed.
Results
Each graph shows usage over the last 200 seconds. Click Pause to temporarily stop the
display. Click Resume to restart it and show points missed during the pause.
Performance statistics graphs
The performance statistics graphs display statistics for key system components and
features.
DD Boost Active Connections
The DD Boost Active Connections graph displays the number of active DD Boost
connections for each of the past 200 seconds. Separate lines within the graph
display counts for Read (recovery) connections and Write (backup) connections.
DD Boost Data Throughput
The DD Boost Data Throughput graph displays the bytes/second transferred for each
of the past 200 seconds. Separate lines within the graph display the rates for data
read from the system by DD Boost clients and data written to the system by DD Boost
clients.
Disk
The Disk graph displays the amount of data in the appropriate unit of measurement
based on the data received, such as KiB or MiB per second, going to and from all
disks in the system.
File System Operations
The File System Operations graph displays the number of operations per second that
occurred for each of the past 200 seconds. Separate lines within the graph display
the NFS and CIFS operations per second.
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Network
The Network graph displays the amount of data in the appropriate unit of
measurement based on the data received, such as KiB or MiB per second, that
passes through each Ethernet connection. One line appears for each Ethernet port.
Recent CPU Usage
The Recent CPU Usage graph displays the percentage of CPU usage for each of the
past 200 seconds.
Replication (DD Replicator must be licensed)
The Replication graph displays the amount of replication data traveling over the
network for each of the last 200 seconds. Separate lines display the In and Out data
as follows:
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In: The total number of units of measurement, such as kilobytes per second,
received by this side from the other side of the Replicator pair. For the
destination, the value includes backup data, replication overhead, and network
overhead. For the source, the value includes replication overhead and network
overhead.
Out: The total number of units of measurement, such as kilobytes per second,
sent by this side to the other side of the Replicator pair. For the source, the value
includes backup data, replication overhead, and network overhead. For the
destination, the value includes replication and network overhead.
Viewing active users
The Active Users tab displays the names of users who are logged into the system and
statistics about the current user sessions.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Access > Active Users.
The Active Users list appears and displays information for each user.
Table 62 Active Users list, column label descriptions
Item
Description
Name
User name of the logged-in user.
Idle
Time since last activity of user.
Last Login From
System from which the user logged in.
Last Login Time
Datestamp of when user logged in.
TTY
Terminal notation for login. GUI appears for DD System Manager
users.
Note
To manage local users, click Go to Local Users.
Viewing active users
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Monitoring Data Domain Systems
History report management
DD System Manager enables you to generate reports to track space usage on a Data
Domain system for up to the previous two years. You can also generate reports to help
understand replication progress, and view daily and cumulative reports on the file
system.
The Reports view is divided into two sections. The upper section lets you create the
various types of reports. The lower section lets you view and manage saved reports.
Reports display in a table format, and as charts, depending on the type of report. You can
select a report for a specific Data Domain system and provide a specific time period.
The reports display historical data, not real-time data. After the report is generated, the
charts remain static and do not update. Examples of the types of information you can get
from the reports include:
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The amount of data that was backed up to the system and the amount of deduplication that was achieved
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Estimates of when the Data Domain system will be full, based on weekly space usage
trends
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Backup and compression utilization based on selected intervals
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Historical cleaning performance, including duration of cleaning cycle, amount of
space that can be cleaned, and amount of space that was reclaimed
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Amount of WAN bandwidth used by replication, for source and destination, and if
bandwidth is sufficient to meet replication requirements
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System performance and resource utilization
Types of reports
The New Report area lists the types of reports you can generate on your system.
Note
Replication reports can only be created if the system contains a replication license and a
valid replication context is configured.
File System Cumulative Space Usage report
The File System Cumulative Space Usage Report displays 3 charts that detail space usage
on the system during the specified duration. This report is used to analyze how much
data is backed up, the amount of deduplication performed, and how much space is
consumed.
Table 63 File System—Usage chart label descriptions
146
Item
Description
Data Written (GiB)
The amount of data written before compression. This is
indicated by a purple shaded area on the report.
Time
The timeline for data that was written. The time displayed on
this report changes based upon the Duration selection when
the chart was created.
Total Compression Factor
The total compression factor reports the compression ratio.
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
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Table 63 File System—Usage chart label descriptions (continued)
Table 64 File System—Consumption chart label descriptions
Item
Description
Used (GiB)
The amount of space used after compression.
Time
The date the data was written. The time displayed on this report
changes based upon the Duration selection when the chart was
created.
Used (Post Comp)
The amount of storage used after compression.
Usage Trend
The dotted black line shows the storage usage trend. When the
line reaches the red line at the top, the storage is almost full.
Capacity
The total capacity on a Data Domain system.
Cleaning
Cleaning is the Cleaning cycle (start and end time for each
cleaning cycle). Administrators can use this information to
choose the best time for space cleaning the best throttle
setting.
Table 65 File System Weekly Cumulative Capacity chart label descriptions
Item
Description
Date (or Time for 24 hour report) The last day of each week, based on the criteria set for the
report. In reports, a 24-hour period ranges from noon-to-noon.
Data Written (Pre-Comp)
The cumulative data written before compression for the
specified time period.
Used (Post-Comp)
The cumulative data written after compression for the specified
time period.
Compression Factor
The total compression factor. This is indicated by a black line on
the report.
File System Daily Space Usage report
The File System Daily Space Usage report displays five charts that detail space usage
during the specified duration. This report is used to analyze daily activities.
Table 66 File System Daily Space Usage chart label descriptions
Item
Description
Space Used (GiB)
The amount of space used. Post-comp is red shaded area. PreComp is purple shaded area.
Time
The date the data was written.
Compression Factor
The total compression factor. This is indicated by a black
square on the report.
Types of reports
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Table 67 File System Daily Capacity Utilization chart label descriptions
Item
Description
Date
The date the data was written.
Data Written (Pre-Comp)
The amount of data written pre-compression.
Used (Post-Comp)
The amount of storage used after compression.
Total Compression Factor
The total compression factor.
Table 68 File System Weekly Capacity Utilization chart label descriptions
Item
Description
Start Date
The first day of the week for this summary.
End Date
The last day of the week for this summary.
Available
Total amount of storage available.
Consumed
Total amount of storage used.
Data (Post -Comp)
The cumulative data written before compression for the
specified time period.
Replication (Post-Comp)
The cumulative data written after compression for the specified
time period.
Overhead
Extra space used for non-data storage.
Reclaimed by Cleaning
The total space reclaimed after cleaning.
Table 69 File System Compression Summary chart label descriptions
Item
Description
Time
The period of data collection for this report.
Data Written (Pre-Comp)
The amount of data written pre-compression.
Used (Post-Comp)
The amount of storage used after compression.
Total Compression Factor
The total compression factor.
Table 70 File System Cleaning Activity chart label descriptions
148
Item
Description
Start Time
The time the cleaning activity started.
End Time
The time the cleaning activity finished.
Duration (Hours)
The total time required for cleaning in hours.
Space Reclaimed
The space reclaimed in Gibibytes (GiB).
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
Monitoring Data Domain Systems
Replication Status report
The Replication Status report displays three charts that provide the status of the current
replication job running on the system. This report is used to provide a snapshot of what is
happening for all replication contexts to help understand the overall replication status on
a Data Domain System.
Table 71 Replication Context Summary chart label descriptions
Item
Description
ID
The Replication Context identification.
Source
Source system name.
Destination
Destination system name.
Type
Type of replication context: MTree, Directory, Collection, or Pool.
Status
Replication status types include: Error, Normal.
Sync as of Time
Time and date stamp of last sync.
Estimated Completion
The estimated time the replication should be complete.
Pre-Comp Remaining
The amount of pre-compressed data to be replicated. This only
applies to Collection type.
Post-Comp Remaining
The amount of post-compressed data to be replicated. This only
applies to Directory and Pool types.
Table 72 Replication Context Error Status chart label descriptions
Item
Description
ID
The Replication Context identification.
Source
Source system name.
Destination
Destination system name.
Type
Replication context type: Directory or Pool.
Status
Replication status types include: Error, Normal, and Warning.
Description
Description of the error.
Table 73 Replication Destination Space Availability chart label descriptions
Item
Description
Destination
Destination system name.
Space Availability (GiB)
Total amount of storage available.
Types of reports
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Replication Summary report
The Replication Summary report provides performance information about a system’s
overall network in-and-out usage for replication, as well as per context levels over a
specified duration. You select the contexts to be analyzed from a list.
Table 74 Replication Summary report label descriptions
Item
Description
Network In (MiB)
The amount of data entering the system. Network In is indicated
by a thin green line.
Network Out (MiB)
The amount of data sent from the system. Network Out is
indicated by a thick orange line.
Time
The date on which the data was written.
Pre-Comp Remaining (MiB)
The amount of pre-compressed data to be replicated. Pre-Comp
Remaining is indicated by a blue line.
Creating a report
Create a new report when you want to evaluate file system or replication data collected in
the past.
Procedure
1. Select Reports > Management.
The information panel displays a new report area and a list of saved reports.
2. Click a report type in the New Report area.
3. Select additional options for the report based on the type of report.
l
Duration— Last 4 Weeks, Last 7 Days, or Custom
l
Contexts—Available contexts for working with the Replication Summary report
Note
In reports, the duration of a 24-hour day ranges from noon-to-noon.
4. If you select Custom for the duration, enter Start and End Date in the additional fields.
5. Click Create.
The report appears in a separate browser window and is added to the end of the
Saved Reports list.
Note
If the report does not display, verify the option to block pop-up windows is enabled on
your browser.
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Viewing saved reports
Saved reports remain available for viewing until deleted.
Procedure
1. Select Reports > Management.
The Save Reports area lists the available reports.
2. Select the report you want to view.
3. Click View.
The report appears in a new browser window.
Note
If the report does not appear, verify the option to block pop-up windows is enabled on
your browser.
Printing saved reports
After you create a report, you can print it using the controls in your browser window.
Procedure
1. Select Reports > Management.
2. Select the report you want to view in the Saved Reports area.
3. Click View.
The report appears in a new browser window.
4. In the browser window, select File > Print.
Deleting saved reports
You can delete any of the reports that appear in the Saved Reports area.
Procedure
1. Select Reports > Maintenance.
2. Select the report you want to delete in the Saved Reports area. You can select multiple
reports to delete. Click the checkbox in the heading to select all reports.
3. Click Delete.
A warning dialog box asks if you are sure you want to delete the selected reports.
4. Click OK, and click Close.
Renaming saved reports
DD System Manager automatically names each report as it is created. You can rename
any of the reports that appear in the Saved Reports area.
Procedure
1. Select Reports > Management.
2. Select the report you want to rename in the Saved Reports area.
Viewing saved reports
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Monitoring Data Domain Systems
3. Click Rename.
The Rename Report dialog box appears.
4. Type a name for your report in the New Report Name box.
It is a good idea to give the report a simple, descriptive name you can easily
recognize.
5. Click OK.
Viewing the Task Log
The Task Log displays a list of currently running jobs, such as, replication or system
upgrades. DD System Manager can manage multiple systems and can initiate tasks on
those systems. If a task is initiated on a remote system, the progress of that task is
tracked in the management station task log, not in the remote system task log.
Procedure
1. Select Health > Jobs.
The Tasks view appears.
2. Select a filter by which to display the Task Log from the Filter By list box. You can
select All, In Progress, Failed, or Completed.
The Tasks view displays the status of all tasks based on the filter you select and
refreshes every 60 seconds.
3. To manually refresh the Tasks list, do either of the following.
l
Click Update to update the task log.
l
Click Reset to display all tasks and remove any filters that were set.
4. To display detailed information about a task, select the task in the task list.
Table 75 Detailed Information, label descriptions
152
Item
Description
System
The system name.
Task Description
A description of the task.
Status
The status of the task (completed, failed, or in progress).
Start Time
The date and time the task started.
End Time
The date and time the task ended.
Error Message
An applicable error message, if any.
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
Monitoring Data Domain Systems
Viewing the system High Availability status
You can use the High Availability panel to see detailed information about the HA status
of the system and whether the system can perform failover if necessary.
Procedure
1. Select Health > High Availability on the System Manager.
The Health High Availability screen appears.
A green check mark indicates the system is operating normally and ready for failover.
The screen shows the active node, which is typically Node 0.
2. Hover the cursor over a node to see its status.
The node is highlighted in blue if it is active.
3. Click the drop-down menu in the banner if you want to change the view from the
active node to the standby node, which is typically Node 1.
High Availability status
The Health High Availability (HA) view informs you about the system status using a
diagram of the nodes and their connected storage. In addition, you can also see any
current alerts as well as detailed information about the system.
You can determine if the active node and the storage are operational by hovering the
cursor over them. Each is highlighted in blue when operating normally. The standby node
should appear gray.
You can also filter the alerts table by clicking on a component. Only alerts related to the
selected components will be displayed.
Viewing the system High Availability status
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Figure 5 Health/High Availability indicators
Table 76 High Availability indicators
Item
Description
HA System bar
Displays a green check mark when the system is operating normally and
ready for failover.
Failover to Node 0
Allows you to manually fail over to the standby node.
Take Node 1 Offline Allows you to take the active node offline if necessary.
System Information Lists the Data Domain system model, the system type, the version of the
Data Domain operating system version in use, and the applied HA license.
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HA Manager
Displays the nodes, their attached storage, the HA interconnect, and the
cabling.
Severity
Indicates the severity of any alerts that could impact the system's HA status.
Component
Indicates which component is affected.
Class
Indicates the class of the alert received such as hardware, environment, and
others.
Post Time
Indicates the time and date the alert was posted.
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
CHAPTER 5
File System
This chapter includes:
l
l
l
l
File system overview........................................................................................... 156
Monitoring file system usage...............................................................................161
Managing file system operations.........................................................................169
Fast copy operations........................................................................................... 177
File System
155
File System
File system overview
Learn how to use the file system.
How the file system stores data
Data Domain storage capacity is best managed by keeping multiple backups and 20%
empty space to accommodate backups until the next cleaning. Space use is primarily
affected by the size and compressibility of data, and the retention period.
A Data Domain system is designed as a very reliable online system for backups and
archive data. As new backups are added to the system, old backups are aged out. Such
removals are normally done under the control of backup or archive software based on the
configured retention period.
When backup software expires or deletes an old backup from a Data Domain system, the
space on the Data Domain system becomes available only after the Data Domain system
cleans the data of the expired backups from disk. A good way to manage space on a Data
Domain system is to retain as many online backups as possible with some empty space
(about 20% of total space available) to comfortably accommodate backups until the next
scheduled cleaning, which runs once a week by default.
Some storage capacity is used by Data Domain systems for internal indexes and other
metadata. The amount of storage used over time for metadata depends on the type of
data stored and the sizes of the stored files. With two otherwise identical systems, one
system may, over time, reserve more space for metadata and have less space for actual
backup data than the other if different data sets are sent to each system.
Space utilization on a Data Domain system is primarily affected by:
l
The size and compressibility of the backup data.
l
The retention period specified in the backup software.
High levels of compression result when backing up datasets with many duplicates and
retaining them for long periods of time.
How the file system reports space usage
All DD System Manager windows and system commands display storage capacity using
base 2 calculations. For example, a command that displays 1 GiB of disk space as used
reports 230 bytes = 1,073,741,824 bytes.
l
1 KiB = 210 = 1024 bytes
l
1 MiB = 220 = 1,048,576 bytes
l
1 GiB = 230 = 1,073,741,824 bytes
l
1 TiB = 240 = 1,099,511,627,776 bytes
How the file system uses compression
The file system uses compression to optimize available disk space when storing data, so
disk space is calculated two ways: physical and logical. (See the section regarding types
of compression.) Physical space is the actual disk space used on the Data Domain
system. Logical space is the amount of uncompressed data written to the system.
The file system space reporting tools (DD System Manager graphs and filesys show
space command, or the alias df) show both physical and logical space. These tools also
report the size and amounts of used and available space.
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When a Data Domain system is mounted, the usual tools for displaying a file system’s
physical use of space can be used.
The Data Domain system generates warning messages as the file system approaches its
maximum capacity. The following information about data compression gives guidelines
for disk use over time.
The amount of disk space used over time by a Data Domain system depends on:
l
The size of the initial full backup.
l
The number of additional backups (incremental and full) retained over time.
l
The rate of growth of the backup dataset.
l
The change rate of data.
For data sets with typical rates of change and growth, data compression generally
matches the following guidelines:
l
For the first full backup to a Data Domain system, the compression factor is generally
3:1.
l
Each incremental backup to the initial full backup has a compression factor generally
in the range of 6:1.
l
The next full backup has a compression factor of about 60:1.
Over time, with a schedule of weekly full and daily incremental backups, the aggregate
compression factor for all the data is about 20:1. The compression factor is lower for
incremental-only data or for backups with less duplicate data. Compression is higher
when all backups are full backups.
Types of compression
Data Domain compresses data at two levels: global and local. Global compression
compares received data to data already stored on disks. Duplicate data does not need to
be stored again, while data that is new is locally compressed before being written to disk.
Local Compression
A Data Domain system uses a local compression algorithm developed specifically to
maximize throughput as data is written to disk. The default algorithm (lz) allows shorter
backup windows for backup jobs but uses more space. Local compression options
provide a trade-off between slower performance and space usage. To change
compression, see the section regarding changing local compression.
After you change the compression, all new writes use the new compression type. Existing
data is converted to the new compression type during cleaning. It takes several rounds of
cleaning to recompress all of the data that existed before the compression change.
The initial cleaning after the compression change might take longer than usual. Whenever
you change the compression type, carefully monitor the system for a week or two to verify
that it is working properly.
How the file system implements data integrity
Multiple layers of data verification are performed by the DD OS file system on data
received from backup applications to ensure that data is written correctly to the Data
Domain system disks. This ensures the data can be retrieved without error.
The DD OS is purpose-built for data protection and it is architecturally designed for data
invulnerability. There are four critical areas of focus, described in the following sections.
End-to-end verification
End-to-end checks protect all file system data and metadata. As data comes into the
system, a strong checksum is computed. The data is deduplicated and stored in the file
How the file system implements data integrity
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File System
system. After all data is flushed to disk, it is read back, and re-checksummed. The
checksums are compared to verify that both the data and the file system metadata are
stored correctly.
Fault avoidance and containment
Data Domain uses a log-structured file system that never overwrites or updates existing
data. New data is always written in new containers and appended to existing old
containers. The old containers and references remain in place and are safe even in the
face of software bugs or hardware faults that may occur when storing new backups.
Continuous fault detection and healing
Continuous fault detection and healing protects against storage system faults. The
system periodically rechecks the integrity of the RAID stripes, and uses the redundancy of
the RAID system to heal any faults. During a read, data integrity is re-verified and any
errors are healed on the fly.
File system recoverability
Data is written in a self-describing format. The file system can be re-created, if necessary,
by scanning the log and rebuilding it from the metadata stored with the data.
How the file system reclaims storage space with file system cleaning
When your backup application (such as NetBackup or NetWorker) expires data, the data
is marked by the Data Domain system for deletion. However, the data is not deleted
immediately; it is removed during a cleaning operation.
l
During the cleaning operation, the file system is available for all normal operations
including backup (write) and restore (read).
l
Although cleaning uses a significant amount of system resources, cleaning is selfthrottling and gives up system resources in the presence of user traffic.
l
Data Domain recommends running a cleaning operation after the first full backup to a
Data Domain system. The initial local compression on a full backup is generally a
factor of 1.5 to 2.5. An immediate cleaning operation gives additional compression
by another factor of 1.15 to 1.2 and reclaims a corresponding amount of disk space.
l
When the cleaning operation finishes, a message is sent to the system log giving the
percentage of storage space that was reclaimed.
A default schedule runs the cleaning operation every Tuesday at 6 a.m. (tue 0600). You
can change the schedule or you can run the operation manually (see the section
regarding modifying a cleaning schedule).
Data Domain recommends running the cleaning operation once a week.
Any operation that disables the file system, or shuts down a Data Domain system during
a cleaning operation (such as a system power-off or reboot) aborts the cleaning
operation. The cleaning operation does not immediately restart when the system restarts.
You can manually restart the cleaning operation or wait until the next scheduled cleaning
operation.
With MTree replication, If a file is created and deleted while a snapshot is being
replicated, then the next snapshot will not have any information about this file, and the
system will not replicate any content associated with this file. Directory replication will
replicate both the create and delete, even though they happen close to each other.
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With the replication log that directory replication uses, operations like deletions,
renaming, and so on, execute as a single stream. This can reduce the replication
throughput. The use of snapshots by MTree replication avoids this problem.
Supported interfaces
Interfaces supported by the file system.
l
NFS
l
CIFS
l
DD Boost
l
VTL
Supported backup software
Guidance for setting up backup software and backup servers to use with a Data Domain
systems is available at support.emc.com.
Data streams sent to a Data Domain system
For optimal performance, Data Domain recommends limits on simultaneous streams
between Data Domain systems and your backup servers.
A data stream, in the context of the following table, refers to a large byte stream
associated with sequential file access, such as a write stream to a backup file or a read
stream from a restore image. A Replication source or destination stream refers to a
directory replication operation or a DD Boost file replication stream associated with a file
replication operation.
Table 77 Data streams sent to a Data Domain system
Model
RAM/ NVRAM
Backup
write
streams
Backup
read
streams
Repla
source
streams
Repla dest
streams
Mixed
DD140, DD160,
DD610
4 GB or 6 GB /
0.5 GB
16
4
15
20
w<= 16 ; r<= 4 ReplSrc<=15;
ReplDest<=20; ReplDest+w<=16; w
+r+ReplSrc <=16;Total<=20
DD620, DD630,
DD640
8 GB / 0.5 GB or
1 GB
20
16
30
20
w<=20; r<=16; ReplSrc<=30;
ReplDest<=20; ReplDest+w<=20;
Total<=30
DD640, DD670
16 GB or 20
GB / 1 GB
90
30
60
90
w<=90; r<=30; ReplSrc<=60;
ReplDest<=90; ReplDest+w<=90;
Total<=90
DD670, DD860
36 GB / 1 GB
90
50
90
90
w<=90; r<=50; ReplSrc<=90;
ReplDest<=90; ReplDest+w<=90;
Total<=140
DD860
72 GBb / 1 GB
90
50
90
90
w<=90; r<=50; ReplSrc<=90;
ReplDest<=90; ReplDest+w<=90;
Total<=140
DD890
96 GB / 2 GB
180
50
90
180
w<=180; r<=50; ReplSrc
<=90;ReplDest<=180; ReplDest
+w<=180; Total<=180
Supported interfaces
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File System
Table 77 Data streams sent to a Data Domain system (continued)
Model
RAM/ NVRAM
Backup
write
streams
Backup
read
streams
Repla
source
streams
Repla dest
streams
Mixed
DD990
128 or 256
GBb / 4 GB
540
150
270
540
w<=540; r<=150; ReplSrc<=270;
ReplDest<=540; ReplDest+w<=540;
Total<=540
DD2200
8 GB
35
6
26
35
w<=35; r<=6; ReplSrc <= 26;
ReplDest <= 20; ReplDest+w <= 35;
Total <= 35
DD2200
16 GB
60
16
56
42
w<=60; r<=16; ReplSrc <= 56;
ReplDest <= 42; ReplDest+w <= 60;
Total <= 60
DD2500
32 or 64 GB / 2
GB
180
50
90
180
w<=180; r<=50; ReplSrc<=90;
ReplDest<=180; ReplDest+w<=180;
Total<=180
DD4200
128 GBb / 4 GB
270
75
150
270
w<=270; r<=75; ReplSrc<=150;
ReplDest<=270; ReplDest+w<=270;
Total<=270
DD4500
192 GBb / 4 GB
270
75
150
270
w<=270; r<=75; ReplSrc<=150;
ReplDest<=270; ReplDest+w<=270;
Total<=270
DD7200
128 or 256
GBb / 4 GB
540
150
270
540
w<=540; r<=150; ReplSrc<=270;
ReplDest<=540; ReplDest+w<=540;
Total<=540
DD9500
256/512 GB
1885
300
540
1080
w<=1885; r<=300; ReplSrc<=540;
ReplDest<=1080; ReplDest
+w<=1885; Total<=1885
a. DirRepl, OptDup, MTreeRepl streams
b. The Data Domain Extended Retention software option is available only for these devices with extended (maximum) memory
File system limitations
File system limitations, including: limits on the number of files, the battery, and so on.
Limits on number of files in a Data Domain system
Consequences and considerations of storing more than 1 billion files.
Data Domain recommends storing no more than 1 billion files on a system. Storing a
larger number of files can adversely affect the performance and the length of cleaning,
and some processes, such as file system cleaning, may run much longer with a very large
number of files. For example, the enumeration phase of cleaning may take from a few
minutes to several hours depending upon the number of files in the system.
Note
The overall performance for the Data Domain system will fall to unacceptable levels if the
system is required to support the maximum file amount and the workload from the client
machines is not carefully controlled.
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File System
When the file system passes the billion file limit, several processes or operations might
be adversely affected, for example:
l
Cleaning may take a very long time to complete, perhaps several days.
l
AutoSupport operations may take more time.
l
Any process or command that needs to enumerate all the files.
If there are many small files, other considerations arise:
l
The number of separate files that can be created per second, (even if the files are very
small) may be more of a limitation than the number of MB/s that can be moved into a
Data Domain system. When files are large, the file creation rate is not significant, but
when files are small, the file creation rate dominates and may become a factor. The
file creation rate is about 100 to 200 files per second depending upon the number of
MTrees and CIFS connections. This rate should be taken into account during system
sizing when a bulk ingest of a large number of files is needed by a customer
environment.
l
File access latencies are affected by the number of files in a directory. To the extent
possible, we recommend directory sizes of less than 250,000. Larger directory sizes
might experience slower responses to metadata operations such as listing the files in
the directory and opening or creating a file.
Limits on the battery
For systems that use NVRAM, the operating system creates a low battery alert if the
battery charge falls below 80% capacity, and the file system is disabled.
NOTICE
The Data Domain DD2200 system does not use NVRAM so firmware calculations decide
whether the battery charge is sufficient to save the data and disable the file system if
there is a loss of AC power.
Maximum number of supported inodes
An NFS or CIFS client request causes a Data Domain system to report a capacity of about
two billion inodes (files and directories). A Data Domain system can exceed that number,
but the reporting on the client may be incorrect.
Maximum path name length
The maximum length of a full path name (including the characters in /data/col1/
backup) is 1023 bytes. The maximum length of a symbolic link is also 1023 bytes.
Limited access during HA failover
Access to files may be interrupted for up to 10 minutes during failover on High Availability
systems. (DD Boost and NFS require additional time.)
Monitoring file system usage
View real-time data storage statistics.
The File System view has tabs that show real-time data storage statistics, including
current compression factors showing the space saved by using data deduplication,
graphs of space usage amounts, consumption factors, and data written trends. There are
Monitoring file system usage
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File System
also some options for managing file system cleaning, expansion, copying, and
destruction.
Accessing the file system view
This section describes the file system functionality.
Procedure
l
Select Data Management > File System.
The File System view has a File System panel and six tabs which are described in
detail in this section.
About the file system panel
Display the file system state and the clean status.
State
The State area contains an Enable/Disable button and the shows the working state of the
file system:
l
Enabled and running—and the latest consecutive length of time the file system has
been enabled and running.
l
Disabled and shutdown.
l
Enabling and disabling—in the process of becoming enabled or disabled.
l
Destroying—if the file system is being deleted.
l
Error—if there is an error condition, such as a problem initializing the file system.
Clean Status
The Clean Status area contains a Start Cleaning/Stop Cleaning button and shows the
date the last cleaning operation occurred, or the current cleaning status if the cleaning
operation is currently running. For example:
Cleaning finished at 2009/01/13 06:00:43
or, if the file system is disabled, shows:
Unavailable
Data Movement Status
The Data Movement Status area contains Start/Stop buttons and shows the date the last
data movement operation finished, the number of files copied, and the amount of data
copied. The system displays a Start button when the data movement operation is
available, and a Stop when a data movement operation is running.
Space Reclamation Status
The Space Reclamation Status area displays the amount of space reclaimed after
deleting data in the retention tier. If space reclamation can be run, it shows a Start
button. If it is already running, the system displays Stop and Suspend buttons. If the
system was running previously and was suspended, it displays Stop and Resume
buttons. Click More Information to see space reclamation detailed information: cycle
name, start and end time, effective run time, percent completed, units reclaimed, space
freed, and total space freed.
Storage Migration Status
The Storage Migration Status area displays the Storage Migration state including:
Starting, Migrating, Paused by User, and so on. The state None indicates that no shelf
migration has run on the system or there is no currently running migration. If migration
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has previously run, the system displays the finish time of the last-run migration. If an
error occurs during migration, the system displays the error message. If migration is
running, the system displays a link to the storage page.
Physical Capacity Measurement Status
The Physical Capacity Measurement Status area contains an Enable button when
physical capacity measurement status is disabled. When enabled, the system displays
Disable and View buttons. Click View to see currently running physical capacity
measurements: MTree, priority, submit time, start time, and duration.
About the file system summary view
Click the Summary tab to view file system statistics.
Space usage
Display the amount of disk space available and used by the file system components,
based on the last cleaning.
l
The /data:post-comp line shows amounts for compressed data in the /data
directory.
l
The /ddvar line shows amounts for log and core files. (Remove old logs and core
files to free space in this area.)
Note
You can also delete core files from the /ddvar/var/core or the /ddvar/ext
directory if it exists.
For both of these, the following amounts are shown in real numbers and in the colorcoded graph as described in About the Space Usage View (File System).
l
Size—The amount of total physical disk space available for data.
l
Used—the actual physical space used for compressed data. Warning messages go to
the system log and an email alert is generated when the use reaches 90%, 95%, and
100%. At 100%, the Data Domain system accepts no more data from backup servers.
If the Used amount is always high, check the cleaning schedule to see how often the
cleaning operation runs automatically. Then use the modifying a cleaning schedule
procedure to run the operation more often. Also consider reducing the data retention
period or splitting off a portion of the backup data to another Data Domain system.
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Available (GiB)—The total amount of space available for data storage. This figure can
change because an internal index may expand as the Data Domain system fills with
data. The index expansion takes space from the Avail GiB amount.
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Cleanable (GiB)—The amount of space that could be reclaimed if a cleaning were run.
The second Space Usage panel shows the compression factors:
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Currently Used—The amounts currently in use by the file system.
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Written in Last 24 Hours—The compression activity over the last day.
For both of these areas, the following is shown:
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Pre-Compression (GiB)—Data written before compression.
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Post-Compression (GiB)—Storage used after compression.
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Global-Comp Factor—(Pre-Compression / (Size after global compression).
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Local-Comp Factor—(Size after global compression) / Post-Compression).
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Total-Comp Factor (Reduction %)—Pre-Comp / Post-Comp.
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Reduction %—[(Pre-Comp - Post-Comp) / Pre-Comp] * 100.
About the retention units view
Display the retention unit and its state, status, and size.
The Retention Units view on the File System page is shown only when the optional DD
Extended Retention license is enabled. This view lists the retention unit and shows its
state (new, sealed, or target), its status (disabled or ready), and its size. If the unit has
been sealed, meaning no more data can be added, the date that it was sealed is given.
Select the diamond symbol to the right of a column heading to sort the order of the
values in reverse.
About the configuration view
Display and change system options as well as the current cleaning schedule.
Table 78 Option settings and descriptions
Options settings
Description
Local Compression Type
The type of local compression in use.
Report Replica as Writable
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See the section regarding types of compression for an
overview.
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See the section regarding changing local compression
How applications see a replica.
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See the section regarding changing read-only settings
Marker Type
Backup software markers (tape markers, tag headers, or other
names are used) in data streams. See the section regarding tape
marker settings
Staging Reserve
Manage disk staging.
l
See the section regarding working with disk staging
l
See the section regarding configuring disk staging
Table 79 Cleaning schedule settings
Cleaning schedule
settings
Description
Time
The date time cleaning operations run.
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Throttle
The system resources allocation.
l
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See the section regarding modifying a cleaning schedule
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
See the section regarding throttling the cleaning operation
File System
Table 80 Physical capacity measurement settings
Physical capacity
measurement settings
Description
Throttle
See the section regarding setting the physical capacity
measurement throttle.
Cache
Physical Capacity Cache initialization cleans up the caches and
enhances the measuring speed.
Table 81 Data movement policy settings
Data movement policy
settings
Description
File Age Threshold
When data movement starts, all files that have not been modified
for the specified threshold number of days will be moved from the
active to the retention tier.
Schedule
Days and times data is moved.
Throttle
The percentage of available resources the system uses for data
movement. A throttle value of 100% is the default throttle and
means that data movement will not be throttled.
About the encryption view
Display encryption status, progress, algorithms, and so on.
Table 82 Encryption settings
Setting
Description
Encryption
Status
Encryption Progress
Status can be one of the following:
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Not licensed—No other information provided.
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Not configured—Encryption is licensed but not configured.
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Enabled—Encryption is enabled and running.
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Disabled—Encryption is disabled.
View encryption status details for the active tier regarding the
application of changes and re-encryption of data. Status can be one
of the following:
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None
l
Pending
l
Running
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Done
Click View Details to display the Encryption Status Details dialog that
includes the following information for the Active Tier:
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Table 82 Encryption settings (continued)
Setting
Encryption Algorithm
Description
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Type (Example: Apply Changes when encryption has already been
initiated, or Re-encryption when encryption is a result of
compromised data-perhaps a previously destroyed key.)
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Status (Example: Pending)
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Details: (Example: Requested on December xx/xx/xx and will take
after the next system clean).
The algorithm used to encrypt the data:
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AES 256-bit (CBC) (default)
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AES 256-bit (GCM) (more secure but slower)
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AES 128-bit (CBC) (not as secure as 256-bit)
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AES 128-bit (GCM) (not as secure as 256-bit)
See Changing the Encryption Algorithm for details.
Encryption Passphrase
When configured, shows as “*****.” To change the passphrase, see
Managing the System Passphrase.
File System Lock
Status
The File System Lock status is either:
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Unlocked—The feature is not enabled.
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Locked—The feature is enabled.
Key Management
Key Manager
Either the internal Data Domain Embedded Key Manager or the
optional RSA Data Protection Manager (DPM) Key Manager. Click
Configure to switch between key managers (if both are configured),
or to modify Key Manager options.
Server
The name of the RSA Key Manager Server.
Server Status
Online or offline, or the error messages returned by the RSA Key
Manager Server.
Key Class
A specialized type of security class used by the optional RSA Data
Protection Manager (DPM) Key Manager that groups crytopgraphic
keys with similar characteristics. The Data Domain system retrieves a
key from the RSA server by key class. A key class to be set up to either
return the current key, or to generate a new key each time.
Note
The Data Domain system supports only key classes configured to
return the current key.
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Port
The port number of the RSA server.
FIPS mode
Whether or not the imported host certificate is FIPS compliant. The
default mode is enabled.
Encryption Keys
Lists keys by ID numbers. Shows when a key was created, how long it
is valid, its type (RSA DPM Key Manager or the Data Domain internal
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
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Table 82 Encryption settings (continued)
Setting
Description
key), its state (see Working with the RSA DPM Key Manager, DPM
Encryption Key States Supported by Data Domain), and the amount of
the data encrypted with the key. The system displays the last updated
time for key information above the right column. Selected keys in the
list can be:
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Synchronized so the list shows new keys added to the RSA server
(but are not usable until the file system is restarted).
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Deleted.
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Destroyed.
About the space usage view (file system)
Display a visual (but static) representation of data use for the file system at certain points
in time.
Click the Data Management > File System > Space Usage.
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Click a point on a graph line to display a box with data at that point.
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Click Print (at the bottom on the graph) to open the standard Print dialog box.
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Click Show in new window to display the graph in a new browser window.
The lines of the graph denote measurement for:
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Pre-comp Written—The total amount of data sent to the MTree by backup servers. Precompressed data on an MTree is what a backup server sees as the total
uncompressed data held by an MTree-as-storage-unit, shown with the Space Used
(left) vertical axis of the graph.
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Post-comp Used—The total amount of disk storage in use on the MTree, shown with
the Space Used (left) vertical axis of the graph.
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Comp Factor—The amount of compression the Data Domain system has performed
with the data it received (compression ratio), shown with the Compression Factor
(right) vertical axis of the graph.
Checking Historical Space Usage
On the Space Usage graph, clicking an interval (that is, 7d, 30d, 60d, or 120d) on the
Duration line above the graph allows you to change the number of days of data shown on
the graph, from 7 to 120 days.
To see space usage for intervals over 120 days, issue the following command:
# filesys show compression [summary | daily | daily-detailed] {[last n
{hours | days | weeks | months}] | [start date [end date]]}
About the consumption view
Display space used over time, in relation to total system capacity.
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Click a point on a graph line to display a box with data at that point.
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Click Print (at the bottom on the graph) to open the standard Print dialog box.
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Click Show in new window to display the graph in a new browser window.
The lines of the graph denote measurement for:
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Capacity—The total amount of disk storage available for data on the Data Domain
system. The amount is shown with the Space Used (left) vertical axis of the graph.
Clicking the Capacity checkbox toggles this line on and off.
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Post-comp—The total amount of disk storage in use on the Data Domain system.
Shown with the Space Used (left) vertical axis of the graph.
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Comp Factor—The amount of compression the Data Domain system has performed
with the data it received (compression ratio). Shown with the Compression Factor
(right) vertical axis of the graph.
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Cleaning—A grey diamond is displayed on the chart each time a file system cleaning
operation was started.
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Data Movement—The amount of disk space moved to the archiving storage area (if
the Archive license is enabled).
Checking Historical Consumption Usage
On the Consumption graph, clicking an interval (that is, 7d, 30d, 60d, 120d) on the
Duration line above the graph allows you to change the number of days of data shown on
the graph, from 7 to 120 days.
About the daily written view (file system)
Display the flow of data over the last 24 hours. The data amounts are shown over time for
pre- and post-compression amounts.
The system also provides totals for global and local compression amounts, and precompression and post-compression amounts.
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Click a point on a graph line to display a box with data at that point.
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Click Print (at the bottom on the graph) to open the standard Print dialog box.
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Click Show in new window to display the graph in a new browser window.
The lines on the graph denote measurements for:
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Pre-Comp Written—The total amount of data written to the file system by backup
servers. Pre-compressed data on the file system is what a backup server sees as the
total uncompressed data held by the file system.
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Post-Comp Written—The total amount of data written to the file system after
compression has been performed, as shown in GiBs.
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Total Comp Factor—The total amount of compression the Data Domain system has
performed with the data it received (compression ratio), shown with the Total
Compression Factor (right) vertical axis of the graph.
Checking Historical Written Data
On the Daily Written graph, clicking an interval (that is, 7d, 30d, 60d, or 120d) on the
Duration line above the graph allows you to change the number of days of data shown on
the graph, from 7 to 120 days.
Below the Daily Written graph, the following totals display for the current duration value:
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Pre-Comp Written
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Post-Comp Written
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Global-Comp Factor
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Local-Comp Factor
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Total-Comp Factor (Reduction)
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When the file system is full or nearly full
Data Domain systems have three progressive levels of being full. As each level is
reached, more operations are progressively disallowed. At each level, deleting data and
then performing a file system cleaning operation makes disk space available.
Note
The process of deleting files and removing snapshots does not immediately reclaim disk
space, the next cleaning operation reclaims the space.
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Level 1—At the first level of fullness, no more new data can be written to the file
system. An informative out of space alert is generated.
Remedy—Delete unneeded datasets, reduce the retention period, delete snapshots,
and perform a file system cleaning operation.
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Level 2—At the second level of fullness, files cannot be deleted. This is because
deleting files also require free space but the system has so little free space available
that it cannot even delete files.
Remedy—Expire snapshots and perform a file system cleaning operation.
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Level 3—At the third and final level of fullness, attempts to expire snapshots, delete
files, or write new data fail.
Remedy—Perform a file system cleaning operation to free enough space to at least
delete some files or expire some snapshots and then rerun cleaning.
Monitor the space usage with email alerts
Alerts are generated when the file system is at 90%, 95%, and 100% full. To send these
alerts, add the user to the alert emailing list.
Note
To join the alert email list, see Viewing and Clearing Alerts.
Managing file system operations
This section describes file system cleaning, sanitization, and performing basic
operations.
Performing basic operations
Basic file system operations include enabling and disabling the file system, and in the
rare occasion, destroying a file system.
Creating the file system
Create a file system from the Data Management > File System page using the More Tasks
menu.
There are three reasons to create a file system:
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For a new Data Domain system.
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When a system is started after a clean installation.
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After a file system has been destroyed.
To create the file system:
Managing file system operations
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File System
Procedure
1. Verify that storage has been installed and configured (see the section on viewing
system storage information for more information). If the system does not meet this
prerequisite, a warning message is displayed. Install and configure the storage before
attempting to create the file system.
2. Select Data Management > File System > Data Management > More Tasks > Create File
System.
The File System Create dialog box shows the approximate size of the file system.
Check Enable file system after creation to start using this file system as soon as it is
created. Click Next.
A summary displays the file system size and whether the file system is to be
automatically enabled. Click Back if you want to change the enable the file system
option. Clicking Finish starts the file system creation.
A progress bar measures the file system creation’s progress. A check mark indicates
that a step of the procedure has completed. When a check mark Completed is
displayed, click OK.
Enabling or disabling the file system
The option to enable or disable the file system is dependent on the current state of the
file system—if its enabled, you can disable it and vice versa.
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Enabling the file system allows Data Domain system operations to begin. This ability
is available to administrative users only.
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Disabling the file system halts all Data Domain system operations, including
cleaning. This ability is available to administrative users only.
CAUTION
Disabling the file system when a backup application is sending data to the system can
cause the backup process to fail. Some backup software applications are able to recover
by restarting where they left off when they are able to successfully resume copying files;
others might fail, leaving the user with an incomplete backup.
Procedure
1. Select Data Managment > File System.
2. In the File System panel, click Enable or Disable in the State area.
3. Click OK and Close.
Expanding the file system
You might need to expand the size of a file system if the suggestions given in "When the
File System Is Full or Nearly Full" do not clear enough space for normal operations.
A file system may not be expandable, however, for these reasons:
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The file system is not enabled.
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There are no unused disks or enclosures in the Active or Retention tiers.
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An expanded storage license is not installed.
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There are not enough capacity licenses installed.
To expand the file system:
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Procedure
1. Select Data Managment > File System > More Tasks > Expand Capacity.
The Expand File System Capacity window displays the current capacity of the file
system (active or retention tier) as well as how much additional storage space is
available for expansion.
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If enough capacity is available for expansion requirements, continue to 5 on page
171.
l
If capacity needs to be added, continue with the next step.
Note
If you are configuring a DD2200 system, click the Add License link in the Expand File
System Capacity window and enter the CONTROLLER-COD license to expand storage to
7.5 TB, and the EXPANDED-STORAGE license to expand storage to 13.18 TB, and click
Expand.
Note
File system capacity can be expanded only if the physical disks are installed on the
system and file system is enabled.
2. Click Configure to allocate existing storage to the file system.
The Configure Storage dialog box is displayed.
3. In the Available Storage area, click the checkboxes of the storage devices to use and
click Add to Tier.
System storage must be moved from the Available Storage area to the Active Tier
storage area before the file system can be created.
4. Click OK and Close in the progress dialog box.
5. Click Finish to expand the file system into the available storage.
Destroying the file system
Destroying the file system should be done only under the direction of Customer Support.
This action deletes all data in the Data Domain file system, including virtual tapes.
Deleted data is not recoverable. This operation also removes Replication configuration
settings.
This operation is used when it is necessary to clean out existing data, to create a new
collection replication destination, or to replace a collection source, or for security reasons
because the system is being removed from operation.
CAUTION
The optional Write zeros to disk operation writes zeros to all file system disks,
effectively removing all traces of data. If the Data Domain system contains a large
amount of data, this operation can take many hours, or a day, to complete.
Note
As this is a destructive procedure, this operation is available to administrative users only.
Performing basic operations
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File System
Procedure
1. Select Data Managment > File System > More Tasks > Distroy....
2. In the Destroy File System dialog box, enter the sysadmin password (it is the only
accepted password).
3. Optionally, click the checkbox for Write zeros to disk to completely remove data.
4. Click OK.
Performing cleaning
This section describes how to start, stop, and modify cleaning schedules.
Starting cleaning manually
To immediately start a cleaning operation.
Procedure
1. Select Data Managment > File System > Start Cleaning in the Clean Status area.
The system displays the Start File System Clean dialog box.
2. In the Throttle Percentage text box, enter a system throttle amount. This is the
percentage of CPU usage dedicated to cleaning. The default is 50 percent.
3. Click OK.
The Start File System Clean dialog box allows you to monitor the cleaning operation
progress.
4. Click Close to exit the progress dialog box.
Stopping cleaning manually
To immediately stop a cleaning operation.
WARNING
Stopping the cleaning process cancels all cleaning progress for the cleaning run.
Procedure
1. Select Data Managment > File System > Stop Cleaning.
2. In the File System panel, click Stop Cleaning in the Clean Status area.
3. Click OK.
Modifying a cleaning schedule
Use the Modify Schedule dialog of the GUI to modify a cleaning schedule.
Procedure
1. Select Data ManagementFile SystemConfiguration.
2. In the Clean Schedule area, click Edit.
3. Select the cleaning frequency, such as daily, bi-weekly, or monthly. Weekly is the
default.
4. Enter the start day of the week, time, and throttle percentage.
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Note
Modify the throttle percentage only if necessary. Cleaning leverages all resources
when they are idle.
5. Click OK.
Throttling the cleaning operation
Throttle settings to change the amount of system resources used by the cleaning process.
Use the Modifying a Cleaning Schedule section to change the system resources used by
the cleaning process.
Performing sanitization
To comply with government guidelines, system sanitization, also called data shredding,
must be performed when classified or sensitive data is written to any system that is not
approved to store such data.
When an incident occurs, the system administrator must take immediate action to
thoroughly eradicate the data that was accidentally written. The goal is to effectively
restore the storage device to a state as if the event never occurred. If the data leakage is
with sensitive data, the entire storage will need to be sanitized using EMC Professional
Services' Secure Data erasure practice.
The Data Domain sanitization command exists to enable the administrator to delete files
at the logical level, whether a backup set or individual files. Deleting a file in most file
systems consists of just flagging the file or deleting references to the data on disk,
freeing up the physical space to be consumed at a later time. However, this simple action
introduces the problem of leaving behind a residual representation of underlying data
physically on disks. Deduplicated storage environments are not immune to this problem.
Shredding data in a system implies eliminating the residual representation of that data
and thus the possibility that the file may be accessible after it has been shredded. Data
Domain's sanitization approach ensures is compliant with the 2007 versions of
Department of Defense (DoD) 5220.22 of the following specifications:
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US Department of Defense 5220.22-M Clearing and Sanitization Matrix
l
National Institute of Systems and Technology (NIST) Special Publication 800-88
Guidelines for Media Sanitization
Sanitizing deduplicated data
Data Domain systems sanitize data in place, in its native deduplicated state.
Deduplication storage systems extract common data patterns from files sent to the
system and store only unique copies of these patterns, referencing all the redundant
instances. Because these data patterns or segments may potentially be shared among
many files in the system, the sanitization process must first determine whether each of
the segments of the contaminated file are shared with a clean file and then erase only
those segments that are not shared, along with any contaminated metadata.
All storage tiers, caches, unused capacity, and free space are cleared so that every copy
of every segment that belongs exclusively to the deleted files is eradicated. The system
reclaims and overwrites all of the storage occupied by these segments to effectively
restore the storage device to a state as if the contaminated files never existed in that
system.
Performing sanitization
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File System
Sanitization level 1: data clearing or shredding
If the data you need to remove is unclassified, as defined in the "US Department of
Defense 5220.22-M Clearing and Sanitization Matrix," Level 1 sanitization can be used to
overwrite the affected storage once. This provides the basis for handling most data
shredding and system sanitization cases.
The Data Domain system sanitization feature ensures that every copy of every segment
that belongs only to erased files is overwritten using a single-pass zerotization
mechanism. Clean data in the system being sanitized is online and available to users.
Procedure
1. Delete the contaminated files or backups through the backup software or
corresponding client. In the case of backups, be sure to manage the backup software
appropriately to ensure that related files on that image are reconciled, catalog records
are managed as required, and so forth.
2. Run the system sanitize start command on the contaminated Data Domain
system to cause all previously used space in it to be overwritten once (see the figure
below).
3. Wait for the affected system to be sanitized. Sanitization can be monitored by using
the system sanitize watch command.
If the affected Data Domain system has replication enabled, all the systems
containing replicas need to be processed in a similar manner. Depending on how
much data exists in the system and how it is distributed, the system sanitize
command could take some time. However, during this time, all clean data in the
system is available to users.
Sanitization level 2: full system sanitization
If the data you need to remove is classified, as defined in the "US Department of Defense
5220.22-M Clearing and Sanitization Matrix," Level 2 sanitization, or full system
sanitization, is now required.
Data Domain recommends Blancco for multi-pass overwrites with any overwrite pattern
and a certificate. This provides the basis for handling universal Department of Defense
requirements where complete system sanitization is required. For more information, go
to:
https://www.emc.com/auth/rcoll/servicekitdocument/
cp_datadomaindataerase_psbasddde.pdf
Modifying basic settings
Change the type of compression used, marker types, Replica write status, and Staging
Reserve percentage, as described in this section.
Changing local compression
Use the Local Compression Type area of the GUI to select a new compression type.
Note
Do not change the type of local compression unless it is necessary.
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Procedure
1. Select Data Management > File System > Configuration.
2. In the Options area, click Edit.
The Modify Settings dialog box displays.
3. In the Local Compression Type area, click the drop-down list and select a new
compression type.
Table 83 Compression type
Option
Description
none
Do not compress data.
lz
The default algorithm that gives the best throughput. Data Domain
recommends the lz option.
gzfast
A zip-style compression that uses less space for compressed data, but more
CPU cycles (twice as much as lz). Gzfast is the recommended alternative for
sites that want more compression at the cost of lower performance.
gz
A zip-style compression that uses the least amount of space for data storage
(10% to 20% less than lz on average; however, some datasets get much higher
compression). This also uses the most CPU cycles (up to five times as much as
lz). The gz compression type is commonly used for nearline storage
applications in which performance requirements are low.
4. Click OK at the confirmation dialog box.
5. Click Close to exit the status dialog box.
Changing read-only settings
Change the replica to writable. Some backup applications must see the replica as
writable to do a restore or vault operation from the replica.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > File System > Configuration.
2. In the Options area, click Edit.
3. In the Report Replica as Writable area, click the Enable checkbox.
4. Click OK.
5. Click Close to exit the status dialog box.
Working with disk staging
Disk staging enables a Data Domain system to serve as a staging device, where the
system is viewed as a basic disk via a CIFS share or NFS mount point.
Disk staging can be used in conjunction with your backup software, such as Symantec’s
NetBackup (NBU) and EMC’s NetWorker, it does not require a license, and is disabled by
default.
Modifying basic settings
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Note
The VTL feature is not required or supported when the Data Domain system is used as a
Disk Staging device.
The reason that some backup applications use disk staging devices is to enable tape
drives to stream continuously. After the data is copied to tape, it is retained on disk for as
long as space is available. Should a restore be needed from a recent backup, more than
likely the data is still on disk and can be restored from it more conveniently than from
tape. When the disk fills up, old backups can be deleted to make space. This delete-ondemand policy maximizes the use of the disk.
In normal operation, the Data Domain System does not reclaim space from deleted files
until a cleaning operation is done. This is not compatible with backup software that
operates in a staging mode, which expects space to be reclaimed when files are deleted.
When you configure disk staging, you reserve a percentage of the total space—typically
20 to 30 percent—in order to allow the system to simulate the immediate freeing of
space.
The amount of available space is reduced by the amount of the staging reserve. When the
amount of data stored uses all of the available space, the system is full. However,
whenever a file is deleted, the system estimates the amount of space that will be
recovered by cleaning and borrows from the staging reserve to increase the available
space by that amount. When a cleaning operation runs, the space is actually recovered
and the reserve restored to its initial size. Since the amount of space made available by
deleting files is only an estimate, the actual space reclaimed by cleaning may not match
the estimate. The goal of disk staging is to configure enough reserve so that you do not
run out before cleaning is scheduled to run.
Configuring disk staging
Enable disk staging and specify the staging reserve percentage.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > File System > Configuration.
2. In the Options area, click Edit.
3. In the Staging Reserve panel, select the Enable checkbox.
4. Enter a value in the % of Total Space text box.
This value represents the percentage of the total disk space to be reserved for disk
staging, typically 20 to 30 percent.
5. Click OK.
Tape marker settings
Backup software from some vendors insert markers (tape markers, tag headers, or other
names are used) in all data streams (both file system and VTL backups) sent to a Data
Domain system.
Markers can significantly degrade data compression on a Data Domain system. As such,
the default marker type auto is set and cannot be changed by the user. If this setting is
not compatible with your backup software, contact your contracted support provider.
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Note
For information about how applications work in a Data Domain environment, see How
EMC Data Domain Systems Integrate into the Storage Environment. You can use these
matrices and integration guides to troubleshoot vendor-related issues.
Fast copy operations
A fast copy operation clones files and directory trees of a source directory to a target
directory on a Data Domain system.
The force option allows the destination directory to be overwritten if it exists. Executing
the fast copy operation displays a progress status dialog box.
Note
A fast copy operation makes the destination equal to the source, but not at a specific
time. There are no guarantees that the two are or were ever equal if you change either
folder during this operation.
Performing a fast copy operation
Copy a file or directory tree from a Data Domain system source directory to another
destination on the Data Domain system.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > File System > More Tasks > Fast Copy.
2. In the Source text box, enter the pathname of the directory where the data to be
copied resides. For example, /data/col1/backup/.snapshot/snapshot-name/
dir1.
Note
col1 uses a lower case L followed by the number 1.
3. In the Destination text box, enter the pathname of the directory where the data will be
copied to. For example, /data/col1/backup/dir2. This destination directory
must be empty, or the operation fails.
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If the Destination directory exists, click the checkbox Overwrite existing
destination if it exists.
4. Click OK.
5. In the progress dialog box that appears, click Close to exit.
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CHAPTER 6
MTrees
This chapter includes:
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MTrees overview................................................................................................. 180
Monitoring MTree usage......................................................................................187
Managing MTree operations................................................................................ 190
MTrees
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MTrees overview
An MTree is a logical partition of the Data Domain file system.
You can use MTrees in the following ways: for DD Boost storage units, VTL pools, or an
NFS/CIFS share. MTrees allow granular management of snapshots, quotas, and Retention
Lock. For systems that have DD Extended Retention and granular management of data
migration policies from Active Tier to Retention Tier, MTree operations can be performed
on a specific MTree as opposed to the entire file system.
Note
There can be up to the maximum configurable MTrees designated for MTree replication
contexts.
MTree limits
MTree limits for Data Domain systems
Table 84 Supported MTrees
Data Domain System
DD OS
Version
Supported
configurable MTrees
DD9500
5.7 and later 256
256
DD990, DD4200,
DD4500, DD7200
5.7 and later 128
128
All other DD systems
5.7 and later 100
Up to 32 based on the model
DD9500
5.6
64
DD990, DD890
5.3 and later 100
Up to 32 based on the model
DD7200, DD4500,
DD4200
5.4 and later 100
Up to 32 based on the model
All other DD systems
5.2 and later 100
Up to 14 based on the model
100
Supported concurrently
active MTrees
Quotas
MTree quotas apply only to the logical data written to the MTree.
An administrator can set the storage space restriction for an MTree, Storage Unit, or VTL
pool to prevent it from consuming excess space. There are two kinds of quota limits: hard
limits and soft limits. You can set either a soft or hard limit or both a soft and hard limit.
Both values must be integers, and the soft value must be less than the hard value.
When a soft limit is set, an alert is sent when the MTree size exceeds the limit, but data
can still be written to it. When a hard limit is set, data cannot be written to the MTree
when the hard limit is reached. Therefore, all write operations fail until data is deleted
from the MTree.
See the section regarding MTree quota configuration for more information.
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Quota enforcement
Enable or disable quota enforcement.
About the MTree panel
Lists all the active MTrees on the system and shows real-time data storage statistics.
Information in the overview area is helpful in visualizing space usage trends.
Select Data Management > MTree.
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Select a checkbox of an MTree in the list to display details and perform configuration
in the Summary view.
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Enter text (wildcards are supported) in the Filter By MTree Name field and click
Update to list specific MTree names in the list.
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Delete filter text and click Reset to return to the default list.
Table 85 MTree overview information
Item
Description
MTree Name
The pathname of the MTree.
Quota Hard Limit
Percentage of hard limit quota used.
Quota Soft Limit
Percentage of hard limit quota used.
Last 24 Hr Pre-Comp (precompression)
Amount of raw data from the backup application that has been
written in the last 24 hours.
Last 24 Hr Post-Comp (postcompression)
Amount of storage used after compression in the last 24 hours.
Last 24 hr Comp Ratio
The compression ratio for the last 24 hours.
Weekly Avg Post-Comp
Average amount of compressed storage used in the last five
weeks.
Last Week Post-Comp
Average amount of compressed storage used in the last seven
days.
Weekly Avg Comp Ratio
The average compression ratio for the last five weeks.
Last Week Comp Ratio
The average compression ratio for the last seven days.
About the summary view
View important file system statistics.
View detail information
Select an MTree to view information.
Table 86 MTree detail information for a selected MTree
Item
Description
Full Path
The pathname of the MTree.
About the MTree panel
181
MTrees
Table 86 MTree detail information for a selected MTree (continued)
Item
Description
Pre-Comp Used
The current amount of raw data from the backup application that
has been written to the MTree.
Status
The status of the MTree (combinations are supported). Status can
be:
Tenant Unit
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D: Deleted
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RO: Read-only
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RW: Read/write
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RD: Replication destination
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RLCE: Retention Lock Compliance enabled
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RLCD: Retention Lock Compliance disabled
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RLGE: Retention Lock Governance enabled
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RLGD: Retention Lock Governance disabled
Tenant-unit information displays if the selected MTree belongs to
a tenant-unit. References to tenant-units display only when
Secure Multi-tenancy is enabled.
Quota
Quota Enforcement
Enabled or Disabled.
Pre-Comp Soft Limit
Current value. Click Configure to revise the quota limits.
Pre-Comp Hard Limit
Current value. Click Configure to revise the quota limits.
Quota Summary
Percentage of Hard Limit used.
Protocols
CIFS Shared
The CIFS share status. Status can be:
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Yes—The MTree or its parent directory is shared.
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Partial—The subdirectory under this MTree is shared.
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No—This MTree and its parent or subdirectory are not shared.
Click the CIFS link to go to the CIFS view.
NFS Exported
The NFS export status. Status can be:
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Yes—The MTree or its parent directory is exported.
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Partial—The subdirectory under this MTree is exported.
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No—This MTree and its parent or subdirectory are not
exported.
Click the NFS link to go to the NFS view.
DD Boost Storage Unit
The DD Boost export status. Status can be:
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Yes—The MTree is exported.
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No—This MTree is not exported.
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Unknown—There is no information.
Click the DD Boost link to go to the DD Boost view.
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Table 86 MTree detail information for a selected MTree (continued)
Item
Description
VTL Pool
If applicable, the name of the VTL pool that was converted to an
MTree.
vDisk Pool
vDisk report status. Status can be:
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Unknown— vDisk service is not enabled.
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No— vDisk service is enabled but the MTree is not a vDisk
pool.
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Yes— vDisk service is enabled and the MTree is a vDisk pool.
Physical Capacity
Measurements
Used (Post-Comp)
MTree space that is used after compressed data has been
ingested.
Compression
Global Comp-factor.
Last Measurement Time
Last time the system measured the MTree.
Schedules
Number of schedules assigned.
Click Assign to view and assign schedules to the MTree.
Submitted Measurements
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Name: The schedule name.
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Status: Enabled or Disabled
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Priority:
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Normal— Submits a measurement task to the processing
queue.
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Urgent— Submits a measurement task to the front of the
processing queue.
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Schedule: Time the task runs.
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MTree Assignments: Number of MTrees the schedule is
assigned to.
Displays the post compression status for the MTree.
Click Measure Now to submit a manual post compression job for
the MTree and select a priority for the job.
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0— No measurement job submitted.
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1— 1 measurement job running.
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2— 2 measurement jobs running.
View MTree replication information
Display MTree replication configuration.
If the selected MTree is configured for replication, summary information about the
configuration displays in this area. Otherwise, this area displays No Record Found.
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Click the Replication link to go to the Replication page for configuration and to see
additional details.
About the summary view
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Table 87 MTree replication information
Item
Description
Source
The source MTree pathname.
Destination
The destination MTree pathname.
Status
The status of the MTree replication pair. Status can be Normal,
Error, or Warning.
Sync As Of
The last day and time the replication pair was synchronized.
View MTree snapshot information
If the selected MTree is configured for snapshots, summary information about the
snapshot configuration displays.
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Click the Snapshots link to go to the Snapshots page to perform configuration or to
see additional details.
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Click Assign Snapshot Schedules to assign a snapshot schedule to the selected
MTree. Select the schedule’s checkbox, and then click OK and Close. To create a
snapshot schedule, click Create Snapshot Schedule (see the section about creating a
snapshot schedule for instructions).
Table 88 MTree snapshot information
Item
Description
Total Snapshots
The total number of snapshots created for this MTree. A total of
750 snapshots can be created for each MTree.
Expired
The number of snapshots in this MTree that have been marked for
deletion, but have not been removed with the clean operation as
yet.
Unexpired
The number of snapshots in this MTree that are marked for
keeping.
Oldest Snapshot
The date of the oldest snapshot for this MTree.
Newest Snapshot
The date of the newest snapshot for this MTree.
Next Scheduled
The date of the next scheduled snapshot.
Assigned Snapshot
Schedules
The name of the snapshot schedule assigned to this MTree.
View MTree retention lock information
If the selected MTree is configured for one of the Retention Lock software options,
summary information about the Retention Lock configuration displays.
Note
For information on how to manage Retention Lock for an MTree, see the section about
working with DD retention lock.
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Table 89 Retention lock information
Item
Description
Status
Indicates whether Retention Lock is enabled or disabled.
Retention Period
Indicates the minimum and maximum Retention Lock time
periods.
UUID
Shows either:
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the unique identification number generated for an MTree
when the MTree is enabled for Retention Lock
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that the Retention Lock on a file in the MTree has been
reverted
Enabling and managing DD retention lock settings
Use the Retention Lock area of the GUI to modify retention lock periods.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > MTree > Summary.
2. In the Retention Lock area, click Edit.
3. In the Modify Retention Lock dialog box, select Enable to enable Retention Lock on the
Data Domain system.
4. Modify the minimum or maximum retention period (the feature must be enabled first),
in the Retention Period panel.
5. Select an interval (minutes, hours, days, years). Click Default to show the default
values.
6. Click OK.
Results
After you close the Modify Retention Lock dialog box, updated MTree information is
displayed in the Retention Lock summary area.
About the space usage view (MTrees)
Display a visual representation of data usage for an MTree at certain points in time.
Select Data Management > MTree > Space Usage.
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Click a point on a graph line to display a box with data at that point.
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Click Print (at the bottom on the graph) to open the standard Print dialog box.
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Click Show in new window to display the graph in a new browser window.
The lines of the graph denote measurement for:
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Pre-comp Written—The total amount of data sent to the MTree by backup servers. Precompressed data on an MTree is what a backup server sees as the total
uncompressed data held by an MTree-as-storage-unit, shown with the Space Used
(left) vertical axis of the graph.
About the space usage view (MTrees)
185
MTrees
Note
For the MTrees Space Usage view, the system displays only pre-compressed information.
Data can be shared between MTrees so compressed usage for a single MTree cannot be
provided.
Checking Historical Space Usage
On the Space Usage graph, clicking an interval (that is, 7d, 30d, 60d, or 120d) on the
Duration line above the graph allows you to change the number of days of data shown on
the graph, from 7 to 120 days.
To see space usage for intervals over 120 days, issue the following command:
# filesys show compression [summary | daily | daily-detailed] {[last n
{hours | days | weeks | months}] | [start date [end date]]}
About the daily written view (MTrees)
Display the flow of data over the last 24 hours. Data amounts are shown over time for preand post-compression.
It also provides totals for global and local compression amounts, and pre-compression
and post-compression amounts.
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Click a point on a graph line to display a box with data at that point.
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Click Print (at the bottom on the graph) to open the standard Print dialog box.
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Click Show in new window to display the graph in a new browser window.
The lines on the graph denote measurements for:
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Pre-Comp Written—The total amount of data written to the MTree by backup servers.
Pre-compressed data on an MTree is what a backup server sees as the total
uncompressed data held by an MTree -as-storage-unit.
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Post-Comp Written—The total amount of data written to the MTree after compression
has been performed, as shown in GiBs.
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Total Comp Factor—The total amount of compression the Data Domain system has
performed with the data it received (compression ratio), shown with the Total
Compression Factor (right) vertical axis of the graph.
Checking Historical Written Data
On the Daily Written graph, clicking an interval (that is, 7d, 30d, 60d, or 120d) on the
Duration line above the graph allows you to change the number of days of data shown on
the graph, from 7 to 120 days.
Below the Daily Written graph, the following totals display for the current duration value:
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Pre-Comp Written
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Post-Comp Written
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Global-Comp Factor
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Local-Comp Factor
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Total-Comp Factor
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
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Monitoring MTree usage
Display space usage and data written trends for an MTree.
Procedure
l
Select Data Management > MTtee.
The MTree view shows a list of configured MTrees, and when selected in the list,
details of the MTree are shown in the Summary tab. The Space Usage and Daily
Written tabs show graphs that visually display space usage amounts and data written
trends for a selected MTree. The view also contains options that allow MTree
configuration for CIFS, NFS, and DD Boost, as well as sections for managing snapshots
and Retention Lock for an MTree.
The MTree view has an MTree overview panel and three tabs which are described in
detail in these sections.
n
About the MTree panel on page 181
n
About the summary view on page 181
n
About the space usage view (MTrees) on page 185
n
About the daily written view (MTrees) on page 186
Note
Physical capacity measurement (PCM) provides space usage information for MTrees.
For more information about PCM, see the section regarding understanding physical
capacity measurement.
Understanding physical capacity measurement
Physical capacity measurement (PCM) provides space usage information for a sub-set of
storage space. From the System Manager, PCM provides space usage information for
MTrees, but from the command line interface you can view space usage information for
MTrees, tenants, tenant units, and pathsets. For more information about how to use PCM
from the command line, see the EMC Data Domain Operating System Command
Reference Guide.
Enabling, disabling, and viewing physical capacity measurement
Physical capacity measurement provides space usage information for an MTree.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > File System > File System.
The system displays the Summary tab in the File System panel.
2. Click Enable to the right of Physical Capacity Measurement Status to enable PCM.
3. Click View to the right of Physical Capacity Measurement Status to view currently
running PCM jobs.
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MTree: The MTree that PCM is measuring.
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Priority: The priority (normal or urgent) for the task.
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Submit Time: The time the task was requested.
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Duration: The length of time PCM ran to accomplish of the task.
Monitoring MTree usage
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MTrees
4. Click Disable to the right of Physical Capacity Measurement Status to disable PCM
and cancel all currently running PCM jobs.
Initializing physical capacity measurement
Physical capacity measurement (PCM) initialization is a one-time action that can take
place only if PCM is enabled and the cache has not been initialized. It cleans the caches
and enhances measuring speed. During the initialization process, you can still manage
and run PCM jobs.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > File System > Configuration.
2. Click Initialize under Physical Capacity Measurement to the right of Cache.
3. Click Yes.
Managing physical capacity measurement schedules
Create, edit, delete, and view physical capacity measurement schedules. This dialog only
displays schedules created for MTrees and schedules that currently have no
assignments.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > MTree > Manage Schedules.
l
Click Add (+) to create a schedule.
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Select a schedule and click Modify (pencil) to edit the schedule.
l
Select a schedule and click Delete (X) to delete a schedule.
2. Optionally, click the heading names to sort by schedule: Name, Status (Enabled or
Disabled) Priority (Urgent or Normal), Schedule (schedule timing), and MTree
Assignments (the number of MTrees the schedule is assigned to).
Creating physical capacity measurement schedules
Create physical capacity measurement schedules and assign them to MTrees.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > MTree > Manage Schedules.
2. Click Add (+) to create a schedule.
3. Enter the name of the schedule.
4. Select the status:
l
Normal: Submits a measurement task to the processing queue.
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Urgent: Submits a measurement task to the front of the processing queue.
5. Select how often the schedule triggers a measurement occurrence: every Day, Week,
or Month.
l
For Day, select the time.
l
For Week, select the time and day of the week.
l
For Month, select the time, and days during the month.
6. Select MTree assignments for the schedule (the MTrees that the schedule will apply
to):
7. Click Create.
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8. Optionally, click on the heading names to sort by schedule: Name, Status (Enabled or
Disabled) Priority (Urgent or Normal), Schedule (schedule timing), and MTree
Assignments (the number of MTrees the schedule is assigned to).
Editing physical capacity measurement schedules
Edit a physical capacity measurement schedule.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > MTree > Manage Schedules.
2. Select a schedule and click Modify (pencil).
3. Modify the schedule and click Save.
Schedule options are described in the Creating physical capacity measurement
schedules topic.
4. Optionally, click the heading names to sort by schedule: Name, Status (Enabled or
Disabled) Priority (Urgent or Normal), Schedule (schedule timing), and MTree
Assignments (the number of MTrees the schedule is assigned to).
Assigning physical capacity measurement schedules to an MTree
Attach schedules to an MTree.
Before you begin
Physical capacity measurement (PCM) schedules must be created.
Note
Administrators can assign up to three PCM schedules to an MTree.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > MTree > Summary.
2. Select MTrees to assign schedules to.
3. Scroll down to the Physical Capacity Measurements area and click Assign to the right
of Schedules.
4. Select schedules to assign to the MTree and click Assign.
Starting physical capacity measurement immediately
Start the measurement process as soon as possible.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > MTree > Summary.
2. Scroll down to the Physical Capacity Measurements area and click Measure Now to
the right of Submitted Measurements.
3. Select Normal (Submits a measurement task to the processing queue), or Urgent
(Submits a measurement task to the front of the processing queue).
4. Click Submit.
Understanding physical capacity measurement
189
MTrees
Setting the physical capacity measurement throttle
Set the percentage of system resources that are dedicated to physical capacity
measurement.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > File System > Configuration.
2. In the Physical Capacity Measurement area, click Edit to the left of Throttle.
3.
Option
Description
Click Default
Enters the 20% system default.
Type throttle percent The percentage of system resources that are dedicated to
physical capacity measurement.
4. Click Save.
Managing MTree operations
This section describes MTree creation, configuration, how to enable and disable MTree
quotas, and so on.
Creating an MTree
An MTree is a logical partition of the Data Domain file system. Use MTrees in for DD Boost
storage units, VTL pools, or an NFS/CIFS share.
MTrees are created in the area /data/col1/mtree_name.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > MTree.
2. In the MTree overview area, click Create.
3. Enter the name of the MTree in the MTree Name text box. MTree names can be up to
50 characters. The following characters are acceptable:
190
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Upper- and lower-case alphabetical characters: A-Z, a-z
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Numbers: 0-9
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Embedded space
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comma (,)
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period (.), as long as it does not precede the name.
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explanation mark (!)
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number sign (#)
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dollar sign ($)
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per cent sign (%)
l
plus sign (+)
l
at sign (@)
l
equal sign (=)
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ampersand (&)
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
MTrees
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semi-colon (;)
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parenthesis [(and)]
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square brackets ([and])
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curly brackets ({and})
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caret (^)
l
tilde (~)
l
apostrophe (unslanted single quotation mark)
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single slanted quotation mark (‘)
4. Set storage space restrictions for the MTree to prevent it from consuming excessive
space. Enter a soft or hard limit quota setting, or both. With a soft limit, an alert is sent
when the MTree size exceeds the limit, but data can still be written to the MTree. Data
cannot be written to the MTree when the hard limit is reached.
Note
The quota limits are pre-compressed values.
To set quota limits for the MTree, select Set to Specific value and enter the value.
Select the unit of measurement: MiB, GiB, TiB, or PiB.
Note
When setting both soft and hard limits, a quota’s soft limit cannot exceed the quota’s
hard limit.
5. Click OK.
The new MTree displays in the MTree table.
Note
You may need to expand the width of the MTree Name column to see the entire
pathname.
Configure and enable/disable MTree quotas
Set the storage space restriction for an MTree, Storage Unit, or VTL pool.
The Data Management > Quota page shows the administrator how many MTrees have no
soft or hard quotas set. For MTrees with quotas set, the page shows the percentage of
pre-compressed soft and hard limits used.
Consider the following information when managing quotas.
l
MTree quotas apply to ingest operations. These quotas can be applied to data on
systems that have the DD Extended Retention software, regardless of which tier it
resides on, as well as VTL, DD Boost, CIFS, and NFS.
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Snapshots are not counted.
l
Quotas cannot be set on the /data/col1/backup directory.
l
The maximum quota value allowed is 4096 PiB.
Configure and enable/disable MTree quotas
191
MTrees
Configure MTree quotas
Use the MTree tab or the Quota tab to configure MTree quotas.
Procedure
1. Select one of the following menu paths:
l
Select Data Management > MTree.
l
Select Data Management > Quota.
2. Select only one MTree in the MTree tab, or one or more MTrees in the Quota tab.
Note
Quotas cannot be set on the /data/col1/backup directory.
3. In the MTree tab, click the Summary tab, and then click the Configure button in the
Quota area.
4. In the Quota tab, click the Configure Quota button.
Configuring MTree quotas
Enter values for hard and soft quotas and select the unit of measurement.
Procedure
1. In the Configure Quota for MTrees dialog box, enter values for hard and soft quotas
and select the unit of measurement: MiB, GiB, TiB, or PiB.
2. Click OK.
Deleting an MTree
Removes the MTree from the MTree table. The MTree data is deleted at the next cleaning.
Note
Because the MTree and its associated data are not removed until file cleaning is run, you
cannot create a new MTree with the same name as a deleted MTree until the deleted
MTree is completely removed from the file system by the cleaning operation.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > MTree.
2. Select an MTree.
3. In the MTree overview area, click Delete.
4. Click OK at the Warning dialog box.
5. Click Close in the Delete MTree Status dialog box after viewing the progress.
Undeleting an MTree
Undelete retrieves a deleted MTree and its data and places it back in the MTree table.
An undelete of an MTree retrieves a deleted MTree and its data and places it back in the
MTree table.
An undelete is possible only if file cleaning has not been run after the MTree was marked
for deletion.
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Note
You can also use this procedure to undelete a storage unit.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > MTree > More Tasks > Undelete.
2. Select the checkboxes of the MTrees you wish to bring back and click OK.
3. Click Close in the Undelete MTree Status dialog box after viewing the progress.
The recovered MTree displays in the MTree table.
Renaming an MTree
Use the Data Management MTree GUI to rename MTrees.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > MTree.
2. Select an MTree in the MTree table.
3. Select the Summary tab.
4. In the Detailed Information overview area, click Rename.
5. Enter the name of the MTree in the New MTree Name text box.
See the section about creating an MTree for a list of allowed characters.
6. Click OK.
The renamed MTree displays in the MTree table.
Replicating a system with quotas to one without
Replicate a Data Domain system with a DD OS that supports quotas, to a system with a
DD OS that does not have quotas.
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A reverse resync, which takes the data from the system without quotas and puts it
back in an MTree on the system that has quotas enabled (and which continues to
have quotas enabled).
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A reverse initialization from the system without quotas, which takes its data and
creates a new MTree on the system that supports quotas, but does not have quotas
enabled because it was created from data on a system without quotas.
Note
Quotas were introduced as of DD OS 5.2.
Renaming an MTree
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CHAPTER 7
Snapshots
This chapter includes:
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Snapshots overview............................................................................................ 196
Monitoring snapshots and their schedules..........................................................197
Managing snapshots...........................................................................................198
Managing snapshot schedules............................................................................200
Recover data from a snapshot............................................................................. 202
Snapshots
195
Snapshots
Snapshots overview
This chapter describes how to use the snapshot feature with MTrees.
A snapshot saves a read-only copy (called a snapshot) of a designated MTree at a
specific time. You can use a snapshot as a restore point, and you can manage MTree
snapshots and schedules and display information about the status of existing
snapshots.
Note
Snapshots created on the source Data Domain system are replicated to the destination
with collection and MTree replication. It is not possible to create snapshots on a Data
Domain system that is a replica for collection replication. It is also not possible to create
a snapshot on the destination MTree of MTree replication. Directory replication does not
replicate the snapshots, and it requires you to create snapshots separately on the
destination system.
Snapshots for the MTree named backup are created in the system directory /data/
col1/backup/.snapshot. Each directory under /data/col1/backup also has
a .snapshot directory with the name of each snapshot that includes the directory. Each
MTree has the same type of structure, so an MTree named SantaClara would have a
system directory /data/col1/SantaClara/.snapshot, and each subdirectory in /
data/col1/SantaClara would have a .snapshot directory as well.
Note
The .snapshot directory is not visible if only /data is mounted. When the MTree itself
is mounted, the .snapshot directory is visible.
An expired snapshot remains available until the next file system cleaning operation.
The maximum number of snapshots allowed per MTree is 750. Warnings are sent when
the number of snapshots per MTree reaches 90% of the maximum allowed number (from
675 to 749 snapshots), and an alert is generated when the maximum number is reached.
To clear the warning, expire snapshots and then run the file system cleaning operation.
Note
To identify an MTree that is nearing the maximum number of snapshots, check the
Snapshots panel of the MTree page regarding viewing MTree snapshot information.
Snapshot retention for an MTree does not take any extra space, but if a snapshot exists
and the original file is no longer there, the space cannot be reclaimed.
Note
Snapshots and CIFS Protocol: As of DD OS 5.0, the .snapshot directory is no longer
visible in the directory listing in Windows Explorer or DOS CMD shell. You can access
the .snapshot directory by entering its name in the Windows Explorer address bar or
the DOS CMD shell. For example, \\dd\backup\.snapshot or Z:\.snapshot when
Z: is mapped as \\dd\backup).
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Snapshots
Monitoring snapshots and their schedules
This section provides detailed and summary information about the status of snapshots
and snapshot schedules.
About the snapshots view
The topics in this section describe the Snapshot view.
Snapshots overview panel
View the total number of snapshots, the number of expired snapshots, unexpired
snapshots, and the time of the next cleaning.
Select Data Management > Snapshots.
Table 90 Snapshot overview panel information
Field
Description
Total Snapshots (Across all The total number of snapshots, active and expired, on all MTrees in
MTrees)
the system.
Expired
The number of snapshots that have been marked for deletion, but
have not been removed with the cleaning operation as yet.
Unexpired
The number of snapshots that are marked for keeping.
Next file system clean
scheduled
The date the next scheduled file system cleaning operation will be
performed.
Snapshots view
View snapshot information by name, by MTree, creation time, whether it is active, and
when it expires.
The Snapshots tab displays a list of snapshots and lists the following information.
Table 91 Snapshot information
Field
Description
Selected Mtree
A drop-down list that selects the MTree the snapshot operates on.
Filter By
Items to search for in the list of snapshots that display. Options are:
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Name—Name of the snapshot (wildcards are accepted).
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Year—Drop-down list to select the year.
Name
The name of the snapshot image.
Creation Time
The date the snapshot was created.
Expires On
The date the snapshot expires.
Status
The status of the snapshot, which can be Expired or blank if the
snapshot is active.
Monitoring snapshots and their schedules
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Snapshots
Schedules view
View the days snapshots will be taken, the times, the time they will be retained, and the
naming convention.
Table 92 Snapshot schedule information
Field
Description
Name
The name of the snapshot schedule.
Days
The days the snapshots will be taken.
Times
The time of day the snapshots will be taken.
Retention Period
The amount of time the snapshot will be retained.
Snapshot Name Pattern
A string of characters and variables that translate into a snapshot
name (for example, scheduled-%Y-%m-%d-%H-%M, which
translates to “scheduled-2010-04-12-17-33”).
1. Select a schedule in the Schedules tab. The Detailed Information area appears listing
the MTrees that share the same schedule with the selected MTree.
2. Click the Add/Remove button to add or remove MTrees from schedule list.
Managing snapshots
This section describes how to manage snapshots.
Creating a snapshot
Create a snapshot when an unscheduled snapshot is required.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > Snapshots to open the Snapshots view.
2. In the Snapshots view, click Create.
3. In the Name text field, enter the name of the snapshot.
4. In the MTree(s) area, select a checkbox of one or more MTrees in the Available MTrees
panel and click Add.
5. In the Expiration area, select one of these expiration options:
a. Never Expire.
b. Enter a number for the In text field, and select Days, Weeks, Month, or Years from
the drop-down list. The snapshot will be retained until the same time of day as
when it is created.
c. Enter a date (using the formatmm/dd/yyyy) in the On text field, or click Calendar
and click a date. The snapshot will be retained until midnight (00:00, the first
minute of the day) of the given date.
6. Click OK and Close.
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Modifying a snapshot expiration date
Modify snapshot expiration dates to remove them or extent their life for auditing or
compliance.
Procedure
1. Select Data ManagementSnapshots to open the Snapshots view.
2. Click the checkbox of the snapshot entry in the list and click Modify Expiration Date.
Note
More than one snapshot can be selected by clicking additional checkboxes.
3. In the Expiration area, select one of the following for the expiration date:
a. Never Expire.
b. In the In text field, enter a number and select Days, Weeks, Month, or Years from
the drop-down list. The snapshot will be retained until the same time of day as
when it is created.
c. In the On text field, enter a date (using the format mm/dd/yyyy) or click Calendar
and click a date. The snapshot will be retained until midnight (00:00, the first
minute of the day) of the given date.
4. Click OK.
Renaming a snapshot
Use the Snapshot tab to rename a snapshot.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > Snapshots to open the Snapshots view.
2. Select the checkbox of the snapshot entry in the list and click Rename.
3. In the Name text field, enter a new name.
4. Click OK.
Expiring a snapshot
Snapshots cannot be deleted. To release disk space, expire snapshots and they will be
deleted in the next cleaning cycle after the expiry date.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > Snapshots to open the Snapshots view.
2. Click the checkbox next to snapshot entry in the list and click Expire.
Note
More than one snapshot can be selected by selecting additional checkboxes.
The snapshot is marked as Expired in the Status column and will be deleted at the
next cleaning operation.
Modifying a snapshot expiration date
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Snapshots
Managing snapshot schedules
Set up and manage a series of snapshots that will be automatically taken at regular
intervals (a snapshot schedule).
Multiple snapshot schedules can be active at the same time.
Note
If multiple snapshots are scheduled to occur at the same time, only one is retained.
Which one is retained is indeterminate, thus only one snapshot should be scheduled for
a given time.
Creating a snapshot schedule
Create a weekly or monthly snapshot schedule using the Data Management GUI.
Procedure
1. Select Data Managment > Snapshots > Schedules to open the Schedules view.
2. Click Create.
3. In the Name text field, enter the name of the schedule.
4. In the Snapshot Name Pattern text box, enter a name pattern.
Enter a string of characters and variables that translates to a snapshot name (for
example, scheduled-%Y-%m-%d-%H-%m, translates to
"scheduled-2012-04-12-17-33"). Use alphabetic characters, numbers, _, -, and
variables that translate into current values.
5. Click Validate Pattern & Update Sample.
6. Click Next.
7. Select the date when the schedule will be executed:
a. Weekly—Click checkboxes next to the days of the week or select Every Day.
b. Monthly—Click the Selected Days option and click the dates on the calendar, or
select the Last Day of the Month option.
c. Click Next.
8. Select the time of day when the schedule will be executed:
a. At Specific Times—Click Add and in the Time dialog that appears, enter the time in
the format hh:mm, and click OK.
b. In Intervals—Click the drop-down arrows to select the start and end time hh:mm
and AM or PM. Click the Interval drop-down arrows to select a number and then
the hours or minutes of the interval.
c. Click Next.
9. In the Retention Period text entry field, enter a number and click the drop-down arrow
to select days, months, or years, and click Next.
Schedules must explicitly specify a retention time.
10. Review the parameters in the schedule summary and click Finish to complete the
schedule or Back to change any entries.
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11. If an MTree is not associated with the schedule, a warning dialog box asks if you
would like to add an MTree to the schedule. Click OK to continue (or Cancel to exit).
12. To assign an MTree to the schedule, in the MTree area, click the checkbox of one or
more MTrees in the Available MTrees panel, then click Add and OK.
Naming conventions for snapshots created by a schedule
The naming convention for scheduled snapshots is the word scheduled followed by the
date when the snapshot is to occur, in the format scheduled-yyyy-mm-dd-hh-mm. For
example, scheduled-2009-04-27-13-30.
The name “mon_thurs” is the name of a snapshot schedule. Snapshots generated by that
schedule might have the names scheduled-2008-03-24-20-00,
scheduled-2008-03-25-20-00, etc.
Modifying a snapshot schedule
Change the snapshot schedule name, date, and retention period.
Procedure
1. In the schedule list, select the schedule and click Modify.
2. In the Name text field, enter the name of the schedule and click Next.
Use alphanumeric characters, and the _ and -.
3. Select the date when the schedule is to be executed:
a. Weekly—Click checkboxes next to the days of the week or select Every Day.
b. Monthly—Click the Selected Days option and click the dates on the calendar, or
select the Last Day of the Month option.
c. Click Next.
4. Select the time of day when the schedule is to be executed:
a. At Specific Times—Click the checkbox of the scheduled time in the Times list and
click Edit. In the Times dialog that appears, enter a new time in the format hh:mm,
and click OK. Or click Delete to remove the scheduled time.
b. In Intervals—Click the drop-down arrows to select the start and end time hh:mm
and AM or PM. Click the Interval drop-down arrows to select a number and then the
hours or minutes of the interval.
c. Click Next.
5. In the Retention Period text entry field, enter a number and click the drop-down arrow
to select days, months, or years, and click Next.
6. Review the parameters in the schedule summary and click Finish to complete the
schedule or Back to change any entries.
Deleting a snapshot schedule
Delete a snapshot schedule from the schedule list.
Procedure
1. In the schedule list, click the checkbox to select the schedule and click Delete.
2. In the verification dialog box, click OK and then Close.
Modifying a snapshot schedule
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Snapshots
Recover data from a snapshot
Use the fastcopy operation to retrieve data stored in a snapshot. See the section
regarding fast copy operations.
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CHAPTER 8
CIFS
This chapter includes:
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CIFS overview...................................................................................................... 204
Configuring SMB signing..................................................................................... 204
Performing CIFS setup......................................................................................... 205
Working with shares............................................................................................207
Managing access control.....................................................................................212
Monitoring CIFS operation................................................................................... 217
Performing CIFS troubleshooting......................................................................... 220
CIFS
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CIFS
CIFS overview
Common Internet File System (CIFS) clients can have access to the system directories on
the Data Domain system.
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The /data/col1/backup directory is the destination directory for compressed
backup server data.
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The /ddvar/core directory contains Data Domain System core and log files
(remove old logs and core files to free space in this area).
Note
You can also delete core files from the /dvar or the /ddvar/ext directory if it
exists.
Clients, such as backup servers that perform backup and restore operations with a Data
Domain System, at the least, need access to the /data/col1/backup directory.
Clients that have administrative access need to be able to access the /ddvar/core
directory to retrieve core and log files.
As part of the initial Data Domain system configuration, CIFS clients were configured to
access these directories. This chapter describes how to modify these settings and how to
manage data access using the Data DD Manager and the cifs command.
Note
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The DD System Manager Protocols > CIFS page allows you to perform major CIFS
operations such as enabling and disabling CIFS, setting authentication, managing
shares, and viewing configuration and share information.
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The cifs command contains all the options to manage CIFS backup and restores
between Windows clients and Data Domain systems, and to display CIFS statistics
and status. For complete information about the cifs command, see the EMC Data
Domain Operating System Command Reference Guide.
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For information about the initial system configuration, see the EMC Data Domain
Operating System Initial Configuration Guide.
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For information about setting up clients to use the Data Domain system as a server,
see the related tuning guide, such as the CIFS Tuning Guide, which is available from
the support.emc.com web site. Search for the complete name of the document using
the Search EMC Support field.
Configuring SMB signing
On a DD OS version that supports it, you can configure the SMB signing feature using the
CIFS option called server signing.
This feature is disabled by default because it degrades performance. When enabled, SMB
signing can cause a 29 percent (reads) to 50 percent (writes) throughput performance
drop, although individual system performance will vary. There are three possible values
for SMB signing: disabled, auto and mandatory:
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When SMB signing is set to disabled, SMB signing is disabled, this is the default.
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When SMB signing is set to required, SMB signing is required, and both computers in
the SMB connection must have SMB signing enabled.
SMB Signing CLI Commands
cifs option set "server-signing" required
Sets server signing to required.
cifs option reset "server-signing"
Resets server signing to the default (disabled).
As a best practice, whenever you change the SMB signing options, disable and then
enable (restart) CIFS service using the following CLI commands:
cifs disable
cifs enable
The System Manager interface displays whether the SMB signing option is disabled or set
to auto or mandatory. To view this setting in the interface, navigate to: Protocols > CIFS >
Configuration tab. In the Options area, the value for the SMB signing option will be
disabled, auto or mandatory reflecting the value set using the CLI commands.
Performing CIFS setup
This section contains instructions about enabling CIFS services, naming the CIFS server,
and so on.
HA systems and CIFS
HA systems are compatible with CIFS; however, if a CIFS job is in progress during a
failover, the job will need to be restarted.
"/ddvar is an ext3 file system, and cannot be shared like a normal MTree-based share.
The information in /ddvar will become stale when the active node fails over to the
standby node because the filehandles are different on the two nodes. If /ddvar is
mounted to access log files or upgrade the system, unmount and remount /ddvar if a
failover has occurred since the last time /ddvar was mounted."
Preparing clients for access to Data Domain systems
Find EMC documentation online.
Procedure
1. Log into the EMC Online Support (support.emc.com) web site.
2. In the Search EMC Support field, enter the name of the document that you are looking
for.
3. Select the appropriate document, such as the CIFS and Data Domain Systems Tech
Note.
4. Follow the instructions in the document.
Enabling CIFS services
Enable the client to access the system using the CIFS protocol.
After configuring a client for access to Data Domain systems, enable CIFS services, which
allows the client to access the system using the CIFS protocol.
Performing CIFS setup
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CIFS
Procedure
1. For the Data Domain system that is selected in the DD System Manager Navigation
tree, click Protocols > CIFS.
2. In the CIFS Status area, click Enable.
Naming the CIFS server
The hostname for the Data Domain system that serves as the CIFS server is set during the
system’s initial configuration.
To change a CIFS server name, see the procedures in the section regarding setting
authentication parameters.
A Data Domain system’s hostname should match the name assigned to its IP address, or
addresses, in the DNS table. Otherwise authentication, as well as attempts to join a
domain, can fail. If you need to change the Data Domain system’s hostname, use the net
set hostname command, and also modify the system’s entry in the DNS table.
When the Data Domain system acts as a CIFS server, it takes the hostname of the system.
For compatibility purposes, it also creates a NetBIOS name. The NetBIOS name is the first
component of the hostname in all uppercase letters. For example, the hostname
jp9.oasis.local is truncated to the NetBIOS name JP9. The CIFS server responds to
both names.
You can have the CIFS server respond to different names at the NetBIOS levels by
changing the NetBIOS hostname.
Changing the NetBIOS hostname
Change the NetBIOS hostname with the CLI.
Procedure
1. Display the current NetBIOS name by entering:
# cifs show config
2. Use the
cifs set nb-hostname nb-hostname
command.
Setting authentication parameters
Set the Data Domain authentication parameters for working with CIFS.
Click the Configure link in to the left of the Authentication label in the Configuration tab.
The system will navigate to the Administration > Access > Authentication tab where you
can configure authentication for Active Directory, Kerberos, Workgroups, and NIS.
Setting CIFS options
View CIFS configuration, restrict anonymous connections.
Procedure
1. Select Protocols > CIFS > Configuration.
2. In the Options area, click Configure Options.
3. To restrict anonymous connections, click the checkbox of the Enable option in the
Restrict Anonymous Connections area.
4. In the Log Level area, click the drop-down list to select the level number.
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The level is an integer from 1 (one) to 5 (five). One is the default system level that
sends the least-detailed level of CIFS-related log messages, five results in the most
detail. Log messages are stored in the file /ddvar/log/debug/cifs/cifs.log.
Note
A log level of 5 degrades system performance. Click the Default in the Log Level area
after debugging an issue. This sets the level back to 1.
5. In the Server Signing area, select:
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Enabled to enable server signing
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Disabled to disable server signing
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Required when server signing is required
Disabling CIFS services
Prevent clients from accessing the Data Domain system.
Procedure
1. Select Protocols > CIFS.
2. In the Status area, click Disable.
3. Click OK.
Even after disabling CIFS access, CIFS authentication services continue to run on the
Data Domain system. This continuation is required to authenticate active directory
domain users for management access.
Working with shares
To share data, create shares on the Data Domain system.
Shares are administered on the Data Domain system and the CIFS systems.
Creating shares on the Data Domain system
When creating shares, you have to assign client access to each directory separately and
remove access from each directory separately. For example, a client can be removed
from /ddvar and still have access to /data/col1/backup
A Data Domain system supports a maximum number of 3000 CIFS shares.1 And 600
simultaneous connections are allowed. However, the maximum number of connections
supported is based on system memory. See the section regarding setting the maximum
open files on a connection for more information.
Note
If Replication is to be implemented, a Data Domain system can receive backups from
both CIFS clients and NFS clients as long as separate directories are used for each. Do not
mix CIFS and NFS data in the same directory.
1.
May be affected by hardware limitations.
Disabling CIFS services
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CIFS
Procedure
1. Select Protocols > CIFS tabs to navigate to the CIFS view.
2. Ensure authentication has been configured, as described in the section regarding
setting authentication parameters.
3. On the CIFS client, set shared directory permissions or security options.
4. On the CIFS view, click the Shares tab.
5. Click Create.
6. In the Create Shares dialog box, enter the following information:
Table 93 Shares dialog box information
Item
Description
Share Name
A descriptive name for the share.
Directory Path
The path to the target directory (for example, /data/col1/
backup/dir1).
Note
col1 uses the lower case letter L followed by the number 1.
Comment
A descriptive comment about the share.
Note
The share name can be a maximum of 80 characters and cannot contain the following
characters: \ / : * ? " < > | + [ ] ; , = or extended ASCII characters.
7. Add a client by clicking Add (+) in the Clients area. The Client dialog box appears.
Enter the name of the client in the Client text box and click OK.
Consider the following when entering the client name.
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No blanks or tabs (white space) characters are allowed.
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It is not recommended to use both an asterisk (*) and individual client name or IP
address for a given share. When an asterisk (*) is present, any other client entries
for that share are not used.
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It is not required to use both client name and client IP address for the same client
on a given share. Use client names when the client names are defined in the DNS
table.
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To make share available to all clients, specify an asterisk (*) as the client. All users
in the client list can access the share, unless one or more user names are
specified, in which case only the listed names can access the share.
Repeat this step for each client that you need to configure.
8. In the Max Connections area, select the text box and enter the maximum number of
connections to the share that are allowed at one time. The default value of zero (also
settable via the Unlimited button) enforces no limit on the number of connections.
9. Click OK.
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The newly created share appears at the end of the list of shares, located in the center
of the Shares panel.
Modifying a share on a Data Domain system
Change share information and connections.
Procedure
1. Select Protocols > CIFS > Shares to navigate to the CIFS view, Shares tab.
2. Click the checkbox next the share that you wish to modify in the Share Name list.
3. Click Modify.
4. Modify share information:
a. To change the comment, enter new text in the Comment text field.
b. To modify a User or Group names, in the User/Group list, click the checkbox of the
user or group and click Edit (pencil icon) or Delete (X). To add a user or group, click
(+), and in the User/Group dialog box select the Type for User or Group, and enter
the user or group name.
c. To modify a client name, in the Client list click the checkbox of the client and click
Edit (pencil icon) or Delete (X). To add a client, click the Add (+) and add the name
in the Client dialog box.
Note
To make the share available to all clients, specify an asterisk (*) as the client. All
users in the client list can access the share, unless one or more user names are
specified, in which case only the listed names can access the share.
d. Click OK.
5. In the Max Connections area, in the text box, change the maximum number of
connections to the share that are allowed at one time. Or select Unlimited to enforce
no limit on the number of connections.
6. Click OK.
Creating a share from an existing share
Create a share from an existing share and modify the new share if necessary.
Note
User permissions from the existing share are carried over to the new share.
Procedure
1. In the CIFS Shares tab, click the checkbox for the share you wish to use as the source.
2. Click Create From.
3. Modify the share information, as described in the section about modifying a share on
a Data Domain system.
Modifying a share on a Data Domain system
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CIFS
Disabling a share on a Data Domain system
Disable one or more existing shares.
Procedure
1. In the Shares tab, click the checkbox of the share you wish to disable in the Share
Name list.
2. Click Disable.
3. Click Close.
Enabling a share on a Data Domain system
Enable one or more existing shares.
Procedure
1. In the Shares tab, click the checkbox of the shares you wish to enable in the Share
Name list.
2. Click Enable.
3. Click Close.
Deleting a share on a Data Domain system
Delete one or more existing shares.
Procedure
1. In the Shares tab, click the checkbox of the shares you wish to delete in the Share
Name list.
2. Click Delete.
The Warning dialog box appears.
3. Click OK.
The shares are removed.
Performing MMC administration
Use the Microsoft Management Console (MMC) for administration.
DD OS supports these MMC features:
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Share management, except for browsing when adding a share, or the changing of the
offline settings default, which is a manual procedure.
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Session management.
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Open file management, except for deleting files.
Connecting to a Data Domain system from a CIFS client
Use CIFS to connect to a Data Domain system and create a read-only backup subfolder.
Procedure
1. On the Data Domain system CIFS page, verify that CIFS Status shows that CIFS is
enabled and running.
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2. In the Control Panel, open Administrative Tools and select Computer Management.
3. In the Computer Management dialog box, right-click Computer Management (Local)
and select Connect to another computer from the menu.
4. In the Select Computer dialog box, select Another computer and enter the name or IP
address for the Data Domain system.
5. Create a \backup subfolder as read-only. For more information, see the section on
creating a /data/col1/backup subfolder as read-only.
Figure 6 Computer Management dialog box
Creating a \data\col1\backup subfolder as read-only
Enter a path, share name, and select permissions.
Procedure
1. In the Control Panel, open Administrative Tools and select Computer Management.
2. Right-click Shares in the Shared Folders directory.
3. Select New File Share from the menu.
The Create a Shared Folder wizard opens. The computer name should be the name or
IP address of the Data Domain system.
4. Enter the path for the Folder to share, for example, enter C:\data\col1\backup
\newshare.
5. Enter the Share name, for example, enter newshare. Click Next.
6. For the Share Folder Permissions, selected Administrators have full access. Other
users have read-only access. Click Next.
Connecting to a Data Domain system from a CIFS client
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CIFS
Figure 7 Completing the Create a Shared Folder Wizard
7. The Completing dialog shows that you have successfully shared the folder with all
Microsoft Windows clients in the network. Click Finish.
The newly created shared folder is listed in the Computer Management dialog box.
Displaying CIFS information
Display information about shared folders, sessions, and open files.
Procedure
1. In the Control Panel, open Administrative Tools and select Computer Management.
2. Select one of the Shared Folders (Shares, Sessions, or Open Files) in the System Tools
directory.
Information about shared folders, sessions, and open files is shown in the right panel.
Managing access control
Access shared from a Windows client, provide administrative access, and allow access
from trusted domain users.
Accessing shares from a Windows client
Use the command line to map a share.
Procedure
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From the Windows client use this DOS command:
net use drive: backup-location
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For example, enter:
# \\dd02\backup /USER:dd02\backup22
This command maps the backup share from Data Domain system dd02 to drive H on the
Windows system and gives the user named backup22 access to the \\DD_sys\backup
directory.
Providing domain users administrative access
Use the command line to add CIFS and include the domain name in the ssh instruction.
Procedure
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Enter: adminaccess authentication add cifs
The SSH, Telnet, or FTP command that accesses the Data Domain system must
include, in double quotation marks, the domain name, a backslash, and the user
name. For example:
C:> ssh "domain2\djones" @dd22
Allowing administrative access to a Data Domain system for domain users
Use the command line to map a DD system default group number, and then enable CIFS
administrative access.
Procedure
1. To map a Data Domain System default group number to a Windows group name that
differs from the default group name, use the
cifs option set "dd admin group2" ["windows grp-name"]
command.
The Windows group name is a group (based on one of the user roles—admin, user, or
back-up operator) that exists on a Windows domain controller, and you can have up to
50 groups (dd admin group1 to dd admin group50).
Note
For a description of DD OS user roles and Windows groups, see the section about
managing Data Domain systems.
2. Enable CIFS administrative access by entering:
adminaccess authentication add cifs
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The default Data Domain System group dd admin group1 is mapped to the
Windows group Domain Admins.
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You can map the default Data Domain System group dd admin group2 to a
Windows group named Data Domain that you create on a Windows domain
controller.
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Access is available through SSH, Telnet, FTP, HTTP, and HTTPS.
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After setting up administrative access to the Data Domain system from the
Windows group Data Domain, you must enable CIFS administrative access using
the adminaccess command.
Providing domain users administrative access
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CIFS
Restricting administrative access from Windows
Use the command line to prohibit access to users without a DD account.
Procedure
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Enter: adminaccess authentication del cifs
This command prohibits Windows users access to the Data Domain system if they do
not have an account on the Data Domain system.
File access
This sections contains information about ACLs, setting DACL and SACL permissions using
Windows Explorer, and so on.
NT access control lists
Access control lists (ACLs) are enabled by default on the Data Domain system.
CAUTION
Data Domain recommends that you do not disable NTFS ACLs once they have been
enabled. Contact Data Domain Support prior to disabling NTFS ACLs.
Default ACL Permissions
The default permissions, which are assigned to new objects created through the CIFS
protocol when ACLs are enabled, depend on the status of the parent directory. There are
three different possibilities:
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The parent directory has no ACL because it was created through NFS protocol.
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The parent directory has an inheritable ACL, either because it was created through the
CIFS protocol or because ACL had been explicitly set. The inherited ACL is set on new
objects.
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The parent directory has an ACL, but it is not inheritable. The permissions are as
follows:
Table 94 Permissions
Type
Name
Permission
Apply To
Allow
SYSTEM
Full control
This folder only
Allow
CREATOR OWNER
Full control
This folder only
Note
CREATOR OWNER is replaced by the user creating the file/folder for normal users and by
Administrators for administrative users.
Permissions for a New Object when the Parent Directory Has No ACL
The permissions are as follows:
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BUILTIN\Administrators:(OI)(CI)F
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NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM:(OI)(CI)F
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CREATOR OWNER:(OI)(CI)(IO)F
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BUILTIN\Users:(OI)(CI)R
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BUILTIN\Users:(CI)(special access:)FILE_APPEND_DATA
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BUILTIN\Users:(CI)(IO)(special access:)FILE_WRITE_DATA
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Everyone:(OI)(CI)R
These permissions are described in more detail as follows:
Table 95 Permissions Detail
Type
Name
Permission
Apply To
Allow
Administrators
Full control
This folder, subfolders, and
files
Allow
SYSTEM
Full control
This folder, subfolders, and
files
Allow
CREATOR OWNER
Full control
Subfolders and files only
Allow
Users
Read & execute
This folder, subfolders, and
files
Allow
Users
Create subfolders
This folder and subfolders
only
Allow
Users
Create files
Subfolders only
Allow
Everyone
Read & execute
This folder, subfolders, and
files
Setting ACL Permissions and Security
Windows-based backup and restore tools such as NetBackup can be used to back up
DACL- and SACL-protected files to the Data Domain system, and to restore them from the
Data Domain system.
Granular and Complex Permissions (DACL)
You can set granular and complex permissions (DACL) on any file or folder object within
the DDFS file systems, either through using Windows commands such as cacls,
xcacls, xcopy and scopy, or through the CIFS protocol using the Windows Explorer
GUI.
Audit ACL (SACL)
You can set audit ACL (SACL) on any object in the Data Domain File System (DDFS), either
through commands or through the CIFS protocol using the Windows Explorer GUI.
Setting DACL permissions using the Windows Explorer
Use Explorer properties settings to select DACL permissions.
Procedure
1. Right-click the file or folder and select Properties.
2. In the Properties dialog box, click the Security tab.
3. Select the group or user name, such as Administrators, from the list. The permissions
appear, in this case for Administrators, Full Control.
4. Click the Advanced button, which enables you to set special permissions.
5. In the Advanced Security Settings for ACL dialog box, click the Permissions tab.
File access
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CIFS
6. Select the permission entry in the list.
7. To view more information about a permission entry, select the entry and click Edit.
8. Select the Inherit from parent option to have the permissions of parent entries
inherited by their child objects, and click OK.
Setting SACL permissions using the Windows Explorer
Use Explorer properties settings to select SACL permissions.
Procedure
1. Right-click the file or folder and select Properties from the menu.
2. In the Properties dialog box, click the Security tab.
3. Select the group or user name, such as Administrators, from the list, which displays
its permissions, in this case, Full Control.
4. Click the Advanced button, which enables you to set special permissions.
5. In the Advanced Security Settings for ACL dialog box, click the Auditing tab.
6. Select the auditing entry in the list.
7. To view more information about special auditing entries, select the entry and click
Edit.
8. Select the Inherit from parent option to have the permissions of parent entries
inherited by their child objects, and click OK.
Viewing or changing the current owner security ID (owner SID)
Use the Advanced Security Settings for ACL dialog box.
Procedure
1. In the Advanced Security Settings for ACL dialog box, click the Owner tab.
2. To change the owner, select a name from the Change owner list, and click OK.
Controlling ID account mapping
The CIFS option idmap-type controls ID account mapping behavior.
This option has two values: rid (the default) and none. When the option is set to rid, the
ID-to-id mapping is performed internally. When the option is set to none, all CIFS users
are mapped to a local UNIX user named “cifsuser” belonging to the local UNIX group
users.
Consider the following information while managing this option.
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CIFS must be disabled to set this option. If CIFS is running, disable CIFS services.
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The idmap-type can be set to none only when ACL support is enabled.
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Whenever the idmap type is changed, a file system metadata conversion might be
required for correct file access. Without any conversion, the user might not be able to
access the data. To convert the metadata, consult your contracted support provider.
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
CIFS
Monitoring CIFS operation
Monitoring CIFS Operation topics.
Displaying CIFS status
View and enable/disable CIFS status.
Procedure
1. In the DD System Manager, select Protocols > CIFS.
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Status is either enabled and running, or disabled but CIFS authentication is
running.
To enable CIFS, see the section regarding enabling CIFS services. To disable CIFS,
see the section regarding disabling CIFS services.
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Connections lists the tally of open connections and open files.
Table 96 Connections Details information
Item
Description
Open Connections
Open CIFS connections
Connection Limit
Maximum allowed connections
Open Files
Current open files
Max Open Files
Maximum number of open files on a Data Domain system
2. Click Connection Details to see more connection information.
Table 97 Connections Details information
Item
Description
Sessions
Active CIFS sessions
Computer
IP address or computer name connected with DDR for the
session
User
User operating the computer connected with the DDR
Open Files
Number of open files for each session
Connection Time
Connection length in minutes
User
Domain name of computer
Mode
File permissions
Locks
Number of locks on the file
Files
File location
Display CIFS configuration
This section displays CIFS Configuration.
Monitoring CIFS operation
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CIFS
Authentication configuration
The information in the Authentication panel changes, depending on the type of
authentication that is configured.
Click the Configure link in to the left of the Authentication label in the Configuration tab.
The system will navigate to the Administration > Access > Authentication page where you
can configure authentication for Active Directory, Kerberos, Workgroups, and NIS.
Active directory configuration
Table 98 Active directory configuration information
Item
Description
Mode
The Active Directory mode displays.
Realm
The configured realm displays.
DDNS
The status of the DDNS Server displays: either enabled or
disabled.
Domain Controllers
The name of the configured domain controllers display or a * if
all controllers are permitted.
Organizational Unit
The name of the configured organizational units displays.
CIFS Server Name
The name of the configured CIFS server displays.
WINS Server Name
The name of the configured WINS server displays.
Short Domain Name
The short domain name displays.
Workgroup configuration
Table 99 Workgroup configuration authentication information
Item
Description
Mode
The Workgroup mode displays.
Workgroup Name
The configured workgroup name displays.
DDNS
The status of the DDNS Server displays: either enabled or
disabled.
CIFS Server Name
The name of the configured CIFS server displays.
WINS Server Name
The name of the configured WINS server displays.
Display shares information
This section displays shares information.
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Viewing configured shares
View the list of configured shares.
Table 100 Configured shares information
Item
Description
Share Name
The name of the share (for example, share1).
Share Status
The status of the share: either enabled or disabled.
Directory Path
The directory path to the share (for example, /data/col1/
backup/dir1).
Note
col1 uses the lower case letter L followed by the number 1.
Directory Path Status
The status of the directory path.
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To list information about a specific share, enter the share name in the Filter by Share
Name text box and click Update.
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Click Update to return to the default list.
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To page through the list of shares, click the < and > arrows at the bottom right of the
view to page forward or backward. To skip to the beginning of the list, click |< and to
skip to the end, click >|.
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Click the Items per Page drop-down arrow to change the number of share entries
listed on a page. Choices are 15, 30, or 45 entries.
Viewing detailed share information
Display detailed information about a share by clicking a share name in the share list.
Table 101 Share information
Item
Description
Share Name
The name of the share (for example, share1).
Directory Path
The directory path to the share (for example, /data/col1/
backup/dir1).
Note
col1 uses the lower case letter L followed by the number 1.
Directory Path Status
Indicates whether the configured directory path exists on the
DDR. Possible values are Path Exists or Path Does Not Exist, the
later indicating an incorrect or incomplete CIFS configuration.
Max Connections
The maximum number of connections allowed to the share at
one time. The default value is Unlimited.
Comment
The comment that was configured when the share was created.
Share Status
The status of the share: either enabled or disabled.
Display CIFS configuration
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CIFS
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The Clients area lists the clients that are configured to access the share, along with a
client tally beneath the list.
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The User/Groups area lists the names and type of users or groups that are configured
to access the share, along with a user or group tally beneath the list.
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The Options area lists the name and value of configured options.
Displaying CIFS statistics
Use the command line to display CIFS statistics.
Procedure
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Enter: cifs show detailed-stats
The output shows number of various SMB requests received and the time taken to
process them.
Performing CIFS troubleshooting
This section provides basic troubleshooting procedures.
Note
The cifs troubleshooting commands provide detailed information about CIFS
users and groups.
Displaying clients current activity
Use the command line to display CIFS sessions and open files information.
Procedure
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Enter: cifs show active
Results
Table 102 Sessions
Computer
User
Open
files
Connect
time (sec)
Idle time
(sec)
::ffff:
10.25.132.84
ddve-25179109\sysadmin
1
92
0
Table 103 Open files
220
User
Mode
Locks
File
ddve-25179109\sysadmin
1
0
C:\data\col1\backup
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
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Setting the maximum open files on a connection
Use the command line to set the maximum number of files that can be open concurrently.
Procedure
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Enter: cifs option set max-global-open-files value.
The value for the maximum global open files can be between 1 and the open files
maximum limit. The maximum limit is based on the DDR system memory. For systems
with greater than 12 GB, the maximum open files limit is 30,000. For systems with
less than or equal to 12 GB, the maximum open files limit is 10,000.
Table 104 Connection and maximum open file limits
DDR Models
Memory
Connection Limit
Open File Maximum Limit
DD620, DD630, DD640
8 GB
300
10,000
DD640
16 GB
600
30,000
DD640
20 GB
600
30,000
DD860
36 GB
600
30,000
DD860, DD860ArT
72 GB
600
30,000
96 GB
600
30,000
128 GB
600
30,000
256 GB
600
30,000
Note
The system has a maximum limit of 600 CIFS connections and 250,000 open files.
However, if the system runs out of open files, the number of files can be increased.
Note
File access latencies are affected by the number of files in a directory. To the extent
possible, we recommend directory sizes of less than 250,000. Larger directory sizes
might experience slower responses to metadata operations such as listing the files in
the directory and opening or creating a file.
Data Domain system clock
When using active directory mode for CIFS access, the Data Domain System clock time
can differ by no more than five minutes from that of the domain controller.
The DD System Manager, Administration > Settings > Time and Date Settings tab
synchronizes the clock with a time server.
Because the Windows domain controller obtains the time from an external source, NTP
must be configured. See the Microsoft documentation on how to configure NTP for the
Windows operating system version or service pack that is running on your domain
controller.
Setting the maximum open files on a connection
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CIFS
In active directory authentication mode, the Data Domain system periodically
synchronizes the clock with a Windows Active Directory Domain Controller.
Synchronizing from a Windows domain controller
Use the command line on a Windows domain controller to synchronize with an NTP
server.
Note
This example is for Windows 2003 SP1; substitute your domain server for the NTP
server’s name (ntpservername).
Procedure
1. On the Windows system, enter commands similar to the following:
C:\>w32tm /config /syncfromflags:manual /manualpeerlist: ntpserver-name C:\>w32tm /config /update C:\>w32tm /resync
2. After NTP is configured on the domain controller, configure the time server
synchronization, as described in the section about working with time and date
settings.
Synchronize from an NTP server
Configure the time server synchronization, as described in the section regarding working
with time and date settings.
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CHAPTER 9
NFS
This chapter includes:
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NFS overview.......................................................................................................224
Managing NFS client access to the Data Domain system......................................225
Displaying NFS information................................................................................. 228
Integrating a DDR into a Kerberos domain........................................................... 229
Add and delete KDC servers after initial configuration......................................... 231
NFS
223
NFS
NFS overview
Network File System (NFS) clients can have access to the system directories or MTrees on
the Data Domain system.
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The/backup directory is the default destination for non-MTree compressed backup
server data.
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The /data/col1/backup path is the root destination when using MTrees for
compressed backup server data.
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The /ddvar/core directory contains Data Domain System core and log files
(remove old logs and core files to free space in this area).
Note
You can also delete core files from the /ddvar or the /ddvar/ext directory if it
exists.
Clients, such as backup servers that perform backup and restore operations with a Data
Domain System, need access to the /backup or /data/col1/backup areas. Clients
that have administrative access need to be able to access the /ddvar/core directory to
retrieve core and log files.
As part of the initial Data Domain system configuration, NFS clients were configured to
access these areas. This chapter describes how to modify these settings and how to
manage data access.
Note
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For information about the initial system configuration, see the EMC Data Domain
Operating System Initial Configuration Guide.
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The nfs command manages backups and restores between NFS clients and Data
Domain systems, and it displays NFS statistics and status. For complete information
about the nfs command, see the EMC Data Domain Operating System Command
Reference Guide.
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For information about setting up third-party clients to use the Data Domain system as
a server, see the related tuning guide, such as the Solaris System Tuning, which is
available from the Data Domain support web site. From the Documentation >
Integration Documentation page, select the vendor from the list and click OK. Select
the tuning guide from the list.
HA systems and NFS
HA systems are compatible with NFS. If a NFS job is in progress during a failover, the job
will not need to be restarted.
"/ddvar is an ext3 file system, and cannot be shared like a normal MTree-based share.
The information in /ddvar will become stale when the active node fails over to the
standby node because the filehandles are different on the two nodes. If /ddvar is
mounted to access log files or upgrade the system, unmount and remount /ddvar if a
failover has occurred since the last time /ddvar was mounted."
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Managing NFS client access to the Data Domain system
The topics in this section describe how to manage NFS client access to a Data Domain
System.
Enabling NFS services
Enable NFS services to allow the client to access the system using the NFS protocol.
Procedure
1. Select Protocols > NFS.
The NFS view opens displaying the Exports tab.
2. Click Enable.
Disabling NFS services
Disable NFS services to prevent the client access to the system using the NFS protocol.
Procedure
1. Select the Protocols > NFS tabs.
The NFS view opens displaying the Exports tab.
2. Click Disable.
Creating an export
You can use Data Domain System Manager’s Create button on the NFS view or use the
Configuration Wizard to specify the NFS clients that can access the /backup, /data/
col1/backup,/ddvar, /ddvar/core areas, or the/ddvar/ext area if it exists.
A Data Domain system supports a maximum number of 128 NFS exports.2 And 900
simultaneous connections are allowed.
Note
You have to assign client access to each export separately and remove access from each
export separately. For example, a client can be removed from /ddvar and still have
access to /data/col1/backup.
CAUTION
If Replication is to be implemented, a single destination Data Domain system can
receive backups from both CIFS clients and NFS clients as long as separate directories or
MTrees are used for each. Do not mix CIFS and NFS data in the same area.
Procedure
1. Select ProtocolsNFS.
The NFS view opens displaying the Exports tab.
2.
May be affected by hardware limitations.
Managing NFS client access to the Data Domain system
225
NFS
2. Click Create.
3. Enter the pathname in the Directory Path text box (for example, /data/col1/
backup/dir1).
Note
col1 uses the lower-case letter L followed by the number 1.
4. In the Clients area, select an existing client or click the + icon to create a client.
The Client dialog box is displayed.
a. Enter a server name in the text box.
Enter fully qualified domain names, hostnames, or IP addresses. A single asterisk
(*) as a wild card indicates that all backup servers are to be used as clients.
Note
Clients given access to the /data/col1/backup directory have access to the
entire directory. A client given access to a subdirectory of /data/col1/backup
has access only to that subdirectory.
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A client can be a fully-qualified domain hostname, an IPv4 or IPv6 IP address,
an IPv4 address with either a netmask or prefix length, an IPv6 address with
prefix length, an NIS netgroup name with the prefix @, or an asterisk (*)
wildcard with a domain name, such as *.yourcompany.com.
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A client added to a subdirectory under /data/col1/backup has access only
to that subdirectory.
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Enter an asterisk (*) as the client list to give access to all clients on the
network.
b. Select the checkboxes of the NFS options for the client.
General:
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Read-only permission (ro).
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Allow connections from ports below 1024 (secure) (default).
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Log NFS request arguments (log). This option may impact performance.
Anonymous UID/GID:
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Map requests from UID (user identifier) or GID (group identifier) 0 to the
anonymous UID/GID (root _squash).
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Map all user requests to the anonymous UID/GID (all _squash).
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Use Default Anonymous UID/GID.
Allowed Kerberos Authentication Modes:
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Unauthenticated connections (sec=sys). Select to not use authentication.
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Authenticated Connections (sec=krb5).
Note
Integrity and Privacy are not supported.
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c. Click OK.
5. Click OK to create the export.
Modifying an export
Change the directory path, domain name, and other options using the GUI.
Procedure
1. SelectProtocols > NFS.
The NFS view opens displaying the Exports tab.
2. Click the checkbox of an export in the NFS Exports table.
3. Click Modify.
4. Modify the pathname in the Directory Path text box.
5. In the Clients area, select another client and click the pencil icon (modify), or click the
+ icon to create a client.
a. Enter a server name in the Client text box.
Enter fully qualified domain names, hostnames, or IP addresses. A single asterisk
(*) as a wild card indicates that all backup servers are to be used as clients.
Note
Clients given access to the /data/col1/backup directory have access to the
entire directory. A client given access to a subdirectory of /data/col1/backup
has access only to that subdirectory.
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A client can be a fully-qualified domain hostname, an IPv4 or IPv6 IP address,
an IPv4 address with either a netmask or prefix length, an IPv6 address with
prefix length, an NIS netgroup name with the prefix @, or an asterisk (*)
wildcard with a domain name, such as *.yourcompany.com.
A client added to a subdirectory under /data/col1/backup has access only
to that subdirectory.
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Enter an asterisk (*) as the client list to give access to all clients on the
network.
b. Select the checkboxes of the NFS options for the client.
General:
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Read-only permission (ro).
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Allow connections from ports below 1024 (secure) (default).
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Log NFS request arguments (log). This option may impact performance.
Anonymous UID/GID:
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Map requests from UID (user identifier) or GID (group identifier) 0 to the
anonymous UID/GID (root _squash).
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Map all user requests to the anonymous UID/GID (all _squash).
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Use Default Anonymous UID/GID.
Allowed Kerberos Authentication Modes:
Modifying an export
227
NFS
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Unauthenticated connections (sec=sys). Select to not use authentication.
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Authenticated Connections (sec=krb5).
Note
Integrity and Privacy are not supported.
c. Click OK.
6. Click OK to modify the export.
Creating an export from an existing export
Create an export from an existing export and then modify it as needed.
Procedure
1. In the NFS Exports tab, click the checkbox of the export you wish to use as the source.
2. Click Create From.
3. Modify the export information, as described in section about modifying an export.
Deleting an export
Delete an export from the NFS Exports tab.
Procedure
1. In the NFS Exports tab, click the checkbox of the export you wish to delete.
2. Click Delete.
3. Click OK and Close to delete the export.
Displaying NFS information
The topics in this section describe how to use the DD System Manager to monitor NFS
client status and NFS configuration.
Viewing NFS status
Display whether NFS is active and Kerberos is enabled.
Procedure
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Click Protocols > NFS.
The top panel shows the operational status of NFS; for example, whether NFS is
currently active and running, and whether Kerberos mode is enabled.
Note
Click Configure to view the Administration > Access > Authentication tab where you can
configure Kerberos authentication.
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NFS
Viewing NFS exports
See the list of clients allowed to access the Data Domain System.
Procedure
1. Select ProtocolsNFS.
The Exports view shows a table of NFS exports that are configured for Data Domain
System and the mount path, status, and NFS options for each export.
2. Click an export in the table to populate the Detailed Information area, below the
Exports table.
In addition to the export’s directory path, configured options, and status, the system
displays a list of clients.
Use the Filter By text box to sort by mount path.
Click Update for the system to refresh the table and use the filters supplied.
Click Reset for the system to clear the Path and Client filters.
Viewing active NFS clients
Display all clients that have been connected in the past 15 minutes and their mount path.
Procedure
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Select the Protocols > NFS > Active Clients tab.
The Active Clients view displays, showing all clients that have been connected in the
past 15 minutes and their mount path.
Use the Filter By text boxes to sort by mount path and client name.
Click Update for the system to refresh the table and use the filters supplied.
Click Reset for the system to clear the Path and Client filters.
Integrating a DDR into a Kerberos domain
Set the domain name, the host name, and the DNS server for the DDR.
Enable the DDR to use the authentication server as a Key Distribution Center (for UNIX)
and as a Distribution Center (for Windows Active Directory).
CAUTION
The examples provided in this description are specific to the operating system (OS) used
to develop this exercise. You must use commands specific to your OS.
Note
For UNIX Kerberos mode, a keytab file must be transferred from the Key Distribution
Center (KDC) server, where it is generated, to the DDR. If you are using more than one
DDR, each DDR requires a separate keytab file. The keytab file contains a shared secret
between the KDC server and the DDR.
Viewing NFS exports
229
NFS
Note
When using a UNIX KDC, the DNS server does not have to be the KDC server, it can be a
separate server.
Procedure
1. Set the host name and the domain name for the DDR, using DDR commands.
net set hostname <host>
net set {domainname <local-domain-name>}
Note
The host name is the name of the DDR.
2. Configure NFS principal (node) for the DDR on the Key Distribution Center (KDC).
Example:
addprinc nfs/hostname@realm
Note
Hostname is the name for the DDR.
3. Verify that there are nfs entries added as principals on the KDC.
Example:
listprincs
nfs/hostname@realm
4. Add the DDR principal into a keytab file.
Example:
ktadd <keytab_file> nfs/hostname@realm
5. Verify that there is an nfs keytab file configured on the KDC.
Example:
klist -k <keytab_file>
Note
The <keytab_file> is the keytab file used to configure keys in a previous step.
6. Copy the keytab file from the location where the keys for NFS DDR are generated to the
DDR in the /ddvar/ directory.
Table 105 Keytab destination
Copy file from:
Copy file to:
<keytab_file> (The keytab file configured in a previous
step.)
/ddvar/
7. Set the realm on the DDR, using the following DDR command:
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EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
NFS
authentication kerberos set realm <home realm> kdc-type <unix,
windows.> kdcs <IP address of server>
8. When the kdc-type is UNIX, import the keytab file from /ddvar/ to /ddr/etc/, where the
Kerberos configuration file expects it. Use the following DDR command to copy the
file:
authentication kerberos keytab import
NOTICE
This step is required only when the kdc-type is UNIX.
Kerberos setup is now complete.
9. To add a NFS mount point to use Kerberos, use the nfs add command.
See the EMC Data Domain Operating System Command Reference Guide for more
information.
10. Add host, NFS and relevant user principals for each NFS client on the Key Distribution
Center (KDC).
Example: listprincs
host/hostname@realm
nfs/hostname@realm
root/hostname@realm
11. For each NFS client, import all its principals into a keytab file on the client.
Example:
ktadd -k <keytab_file> host/hostname@realm
ktadd -k <keytab_file> nfs/hostname@realm
Add and delete KDC servers after initial configuration
After you have integrated a DDR into a Kerberos domain, and thereby enabled the DDR to
use the authentication server as a Key Distribution Center (for UNIX) and as a Distribution
Center (for Windows Active Directory), you can use the following procedure to add or
delete KDC servers.
Procedure
1. Join the DDR to a Windows Active Directory (AD) server or a UNIX Key Distribution
Center (KDC).
authentication kerberos set realm <home-realm> kdc-type {windows
[kdcs <kdc-list>] | unix kdcs <kdc-list>}
Example: authentication kerberos set realm krb5.test kdc-type unix
kdcs nfskrb-kdc.krb5.test
This command joins the system to the krb5.test realm and enables Kerberos
authentication for NFS clients.
Note
A keytab generated on this KDC must exist on the DDR to authenticate using Kerberos.
2. Verify the Kerberos authentication configuration.
authentication kerberos show config
Add and delete KDC servers after initial configuration
231
NFS
Home Realm:
KDC List:
KDC Type:
krb5.test
nfskrb-kdc.krb5.test
unix
3. Add a second KDC server.
authentication kerberos set realm <home-realm> kdc-type {windows
[kdcs <kdc-list>] | unix kdcs <kdc-list>}
Example: authentication kerberos set realm krb5.test kdc-type unix
kdcs ostqa-sparc2.krb5.test nfskrb-kdc.krb5.test
Note
A keytab generated on this KDC must exist on the DDR to authenticate using Kerberos.
4. Verify that two KDC servers are added.
authentication kerberos show config
Home Realm:
KDC List:
KDC Type:
krb5.test
ostqa-sparc2.krb5.test, nfskrb-kdc.krb5.test
unix
5. Display the value for the Kerberos configuration key.
reg show config.keberos
config.kerberos.home_realm = krb5.test
config.kerberos.home_realm.kdc1 = ostqa-sparc2.krb5.test
config.kerberos.home_realm.kdc2 = nfskrb-kdc.krb5.test
config.kerberos.kdc_count = 2
config.kerberos.kdc_type = unix
6. Delete a KDC server.
Delete a KDC server by using the authentication kerberos set realm <homerealm> kdc-type {windows [kdcs <kdc-list>] | unix kdcs <kdc-list>}
command without listing the KDC server that you want to delete. For example, if the
existing KDC servers are kdc1, kdc2, and kdc3, and you want to remove kdc2 from the
realm, you could use the following example:
authentication kerberos set realm <realm-name> kdc-type <kdc_type>
kdcs kdc1,kdc3
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EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
CHAPTER 10
Storage Migration
This chapter includes:
l
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l
l
l
l
l
l
Storage migration overview................................................................................. 234
Migration planning considerations...................................................................... 234
Viewing migration status..................................................................................... 235
Evaluating migration readiness........................................................................... 236
Migrating storage using DD System Manager.......................................................236
Storage migration dialog descriptions................................................................. 237
Migrating storage using the CLI........................................................................... 240
CLI storage migration example............................................................................ 241
Storage Migration
233
Storage Migration
Storage migration overview
Storage migration supports the replacement of existing storage enclosures with new
enclosures that may offer higher performance, higher capacity, and a smaller footprint.
After new enclosures are installed, you can migrate the data from the older enclosures to
the new enclosures while the system continues to support other processes such as data
access, expansion, cleaning, and replication. The storage migration does require system
resources, but you can control this with throttle settings that give the migration a
relatively higher or lower priority. You can also suspend a migration to make more
resources available to other processes, then resume the migration when resource
demand is lower.
During the migration, the system uses data on the source and destination enclosures.
New data is written to the new enclosures. Non-migrated data is updated on the source
enclosures, and migrated data is updated on the destination enclosures. If the migration
is interrupted, the migration can resume migrating blocks that have not been marked as
migrated.
During the migration, each block of data is copied and verified, the source block is freed
and marked as migrated, and the system index is updated to use the new location. New
data that was destined to land in the source block will now be redirected to destination
block. All new data block allocations that would have been allocated from source are
allocated from the destination.
The Migration copy process is done at the shelf level, not the logical data level, so all disk
sectors on the source shelf are accessed and copied over regardless of whether there is
data on them. Therefore, the Storage Migration Utility cannot be used to shrink a logical
data footprint.
Note
Because the data set is divided between the source and destination enclosures during
migration, you cannot halt a migration and resume use of only the source enclosures.
Once started, the migration must complete. If a failure, such as a faulty disk drive,
interrupts the migration, address the issue and resume the migration.
Depending on the amount of data to migrate and the throttle settings selected, a storage
migration can take days or weeks. When all data is migrated, the finalize process, which
must be manually initiated using the storage migration finalize command,
restarts the filesystem. During the restart, the source enclosures are removed from the
system configuration and the destination enclosures become part of the filesystem.
When the finalize process is complete, the source enclosures can be removed from the
system.
Migration planning considerations
Consider the following guidelines before starting a storage migration.
l
Storage migration requires a single-use license and operates on system models
supported by DD OS version 5.7 or later.
Note
Multiple storage migration needs multiple licenses.
l
234
The destination enclosures must:
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
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n
Be new, unassigned shelves.
n
Be supported on the DD system model.
n
Contain at least as much usable capacity as the enclosures they are replacing.
Note
Migration between enclosures with identical raw capacity can fail if the usable
capacity on the destination is less than that on the source. For example, enclosures
with higher capacity disk drives can have a proportionately larger usable capacity
than that for enclosures with smaller capacity disk drives. In this situation, a
migration to the enclosures with smaller drives might fail if data storage in the source
enclosures is approaching full capacity.
l
Data migration is not supported for disks in the system controller.
l
Although DD OS can be upgraded while a migration is taking place, we recommend
that you do not upgrade DD OS during the migration finalize phase.
l
Storage migration cannot start when the file system is disabled or while a DD OS
upgrade is in progress, another migration is in progress, or a RAID reconstruction is in
progress.
l
All specified source enclosures must be in the same tier (active or archive).
l
There can be only one disk group in each source enclosure, and all disks in the disk
group must be installed in within the same enclosure.
l
All disks in each destination enclosure must be of the same type (for example, all
SATA or all SAS).
l
After migration begins, the destination enclosures cannot be removed.
l
Source enclosures cannot be removed until migration is complete and finalized.
l
The storage migration duration depends on the system resources (which differ for
different system models), the availability of system resources, and the data quantity
to migrate. Storage migration can take days or weeks to complete.
Viewing migration status
DD SM provides two ways to view storage migration status.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Storage.
In the Storage area, review the Storage Migration Status line. If the status is Not
Licensed, you must add a license before using any storage migration features. If the
storage migration license is installed, the status can be one of the following: None,
Starting, Migrating, Paused by User, Paused by System, Copy Completed - Pending
Finalization, Finalizing, Failed during Copy, or Failed during Finalize.
2. If a storage migration is in progress, click View Storage Migration to view the progress
dialogs.
Note
The migration status shows the percentage of blocks transferred. In a system with
many free blocks, the free blocks are not migrated, but they are included in the
progress indication. In this situation, the progress indication will climb quickly and
then slow when the data migration starts.
Viewing migration status
235
Storage Migration
3. When a storage migration is in progress, you can also view the status by selecting
Health > Jobs.
Evaluating migration readiness
You can use the system to evaluate storage migration readiness without committing to
start the migration.
Procedure
1. Install the destination enclosures using the instructions in the product installation
guides.
2. Select Administration > Licenses and verify that the storage migration license is
installed.
3. If the storage migration license is not installed, click Add Licenses and add the
license.
4. Select Hardware > Storage, then click Migrate Data.
5. In the Select a Task dialog, select Estimate, then click Next.
6. In the Select Existing Enclosures dialog, use the checkboxes to select each of the
source enclosures for the storage migration, then click Next.
7. In the Select New Enclosures dialog, use the checkboxes to select each of the
destination enclosures for the storage migration, then click Next.
The Add Licenses button allows you to add storage licenses for the new enclosures as
needed, without interrupting the current task.
8. In the Review Migration Plan dialog, review the estimated migration schedule, then
click Next.
9. Review the precheck results in the Verify Migration Preconditions dialog, then click
Close.
Results
If any of the precheck tests fail, resolve the issue before you start the migration.
Migrating storage using DD System Manager
The storage migration process evaluates system readiness, prompts you to confirm that
you want to start the migration, migrates the data, and then prompts you to finalize the
process.
Procedure
1. Install the destination enclosures using the instructions in the product installation
guides.
2. Select Administration > Licenses and verify that the storage migration license is
installed.
3. If the storage migration license is not installed, click Add Licenses and add the
license.
4. Select Hardware > Storage, then click Migrate Data.
5. In the Select a Task dialog, select Migrate, then click Next.
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6. In the Select Existing Enclosures dialog, use the checkboxes to select each of the
source enclosures for the storage migration, then click Next.
7. In the Select New Enclosures dialog, use the checkboxes to select each of the
destination enclosures for the storage migration, then click Next.
The Add Licenses button allows you to add storage licenses for the new enclosures as
needed, without interrupting the current task.
8. In the Review Migration Plan dialog, review the estimated migration schedule, then
click Start.
9. In the Start Migration dialog, click Start.
The Migrate dialog appears and updates during the three phases of the migration:
Starting Migration, Migration in Progress, and Copy Complete.
10. When the Migrate dialog title displays Copy Complete and a filesystem restart is
acceptable, click Finalize.
Note
This task restarts the filesystem and typically takes 10 to 15 minutes. The system is
unavailable during this time.
Results
When the migration finalize task is complete, the system is using the destination
enclosures and the source enclosures can be removed.
Storage migration dialog descriptions
The DD System Manager dialog descriptions provide additional information on storage
migration. This information is also available by clicking the help icon in the dialogs.
Select a Task dialog
The configuration in this dialog determines whether the system will evaluate storage
migration readiness and stop, or evaluate readiness and begin storage migration.
Select Estimate to evaluate system readiness and stop.
Select Migrate to start migration after the system evaluation. Between the system
evaluation and the start of the migration, a dialog prompts you to confirm or cancel the
storage migration.
Select Existing Enclosures dialog
The configuration in this dialog selects either the active or the retention tier and the
source enclosures for the migration.
If the Extended Retention feature is installed, use the list box to select either the Active
Tier or Retention Tier. The list box does not appear when Extended Retention is not
installed.
The Existing Enclosures list displays the enclosures that are eligible for storage migration.
Select the checkbox for each of the enclosures to migrate. Click Next when you are ready
to continue.
Storage migration dialog descriptions
237
Storage Migration
Select New Enclosures dialog
The configuration in this dialog selects the destination enclosures for the migration. This
dialog also displays the storage license status and an Add Licenses button.
The Available Enclosures list displays the enclosures that are eligible destinations for
storage migration. Select the checkbox for each of the desired destination enclosures.
The license status bar represents all of the storage licenses installed on the system. The
green portion represents licenses that are in use, and the and clear portion represents
the licensed storage capacity available for destination enclosures. If you need to install
additional licenses to support the selected destination controllers, click Add Licenses.
Click Next when you are ready to continue.
Review Migration Plan dialog
This dialog presents an estimate of the storage migration duration, organized according
to the three stages of storage migration.
Stage 1 of the storage migration runs a series of tests to verify that the system is ready for
the migration. The test results appear in the Verify Migration Preconditions dialog.
During Stage 2, the data is copied from the source enclosures to the destination
enclosures. When a large amount of data is present, the copy can take days or weeks to
complete because the copy takes place in the background, while the system continues to
serve backup clients. A setting in the Migration in Progress dialog allows you to change
the migration priority, which can speed up or slow down the migration.
Stage 3, which is manually initiated from the Copy Complete dialog, updates the system
configuration to use the destination enclosures and removes the configuration for the
source controllers. During this stage, the file system is restarted and the system is
unavailable to backup clients.
Verify Migration Preconditions dialog
This dialog displays the results of the tests that execute before the migration starts.
The following list shows the test sequence and provides additional information on each
of the tests.
P1. This system's platform is supported.
Older DD system models do not support storage migration.
P2. A storage migration license is available.
A storage migration license is required.
P3. No other migration is currently running.
A previous storage migration must complete before you can start another.
P4. The current migration request is the same as the interrupted migration request.
Resume and complete the interrupted migration.
P5. Check the disk group layout on the existing enclosures.
Storage migration requires that each source enclosure contain only one disk group,
and all the disks in the group must be in that enclosure.
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P6. Verify the final system capacity.
The total system capacity after migration and the removal of the source enclosures
must not exceed the capacity supported by the DD system model.
P7. Verify the replacement enclosures' capacity.
The usable capacity of the destination enclosures must be greater than that of the
source enclosures.
P8. Source enclosures are in the same active tier or retention unit.
The system supports storage migration from either the active tier or the retention
tier. It does not support migration of data from both tiers at the same time.
P9. Source enclosures are not part of the head unit.
Although the system controller is listed as an enclosure in the CLI, storage migration
does not support migration from disks installed in the system controller.
P10. Replacement enclosures are addable to storage.
All disks in each destination enclosure must be of the same type (for example, all
SATA or all SAS).
P11. No RAID reconstruction is occurring in the source controllers.
Storage migration cannot start while a RAID reconstruction is in progress.
Migration progress dialogs
This series of dialogs presents the storage migration status and the controls that apply at
each stage.
Migrate - Starting Migration
During the first stage, the progress is shown on the progress bar and no controls are
available.
Migrate - Migration in Progress
During the second stage, data is copied from the source enclosures to the destination
enclosures and the progress is shown on the progress bar. Because the data copy can
take days or weeks to complete, controls are provided so that you can manage the
resources used during migration and suspend migration when resources are needed for
other processes.
You can click Pause to suspend the migration and later click Resume to continue the
migration.
The Low, Medium, and High buttons define throttle settings for storage migration
resource demands. A low throttle setting gives storage migration a lower resource
priority, which results in a slower migration and requires fewer system resources.
Conversely, A high throttle setting gives storage migration a higher resource priority,
which results in a faster migration and requires more system resources. The medium
setting selects an intermediate priority.
You do not have to leave this dialog open for the duration of the migration. To check the
status of the migration after closing this dialog, select Hardware > Storage and view the
migration status. To return to this dialog from the Hardware/Storage page, click Manage
Migration. The migration progress can also be viewed by selecting Health > Jobs.
Migrate - Copy Complete
When the copy is complete, the migration process waits for you to click Finalize. During
this final stage, , which takes 10 to 15 minutes, the filesystem is restarted and the
Migration progress dialogs
239
Storage Migration
system is not available. It is a good practice to start this stage during a maintenance
window or a period of low system activity.
Migrating storage using the CLI
A migration simply requires moving all of the allocated blocks from the blocksets
formatted over source DGs (e.g., source blocksets) to the blocksets formatted over
destination DGs (e.g., destination blocksets). Once all of the allocated blocks have been
moved from the source blocksets, those blocksets can be removed from DDFS, their disks
can be removed from their storage tier, and the physical disks and enclosures can be
removed from the DDR.
Note
The preparation of new enclosures for storage migration is managed by the storage
migration process. Do not prepare destination enclosures as you would for an enclosure
addition. For example, use of the filesys expand command is appropriate for an
enclosure addition, but this command prevents enclosures from being used as storage
migration destinations.
Procedure
1. Install the destination enclosures using the instructions in the product installation
guides.
2. Check to see if the storage migration feature license is installed.
# license show
3. If the storage migration license is not installed, install it now.
# license add AAAA-BBBB-CCCC-DDDD-EEEE-FFFF-GGGG-HHHH
4. View the disk states for the source and destination disks.
# disk show state
The source disks should be in the active state, and the destination disks should be in
the unknown state.
5. Run the storage migration precheck command to determine if the system is ready for
the migration.
# storage migration precheck source-enclosures 7:2 destinationenclosures 7:4
6. View the migration throttle setting.
storage migration option show throttle
7. When the system is ready, begin the storage migration.
# storage migration start source-enclosures 7:2 destinationenclosures 7:4
8. Review the migration status as needed.
# storage migration status
9. View the disk states for the source and destination disks.
# disk show state
During the migration, the source disks should be in the migrating state, and the
destination disks should be in the destination state.
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10. When the migration is complete, update the configuration to use the destination
enclosures.
Note
This task restarts the filesystem and typically takes 10 to 15 minutes. The system is
unavailable during this time.
storage migration finalize
11. If you want to remove all data from each of the source enclosures, remove the data
now.
storage sanitize start enclosure <enclosure-id>[:<pack-id>]
Note
The storage sanitize command does not produce a certified data erasure. EMC offers
certified data erasure as a service. For more information, contact your EMC
representative.
12. View the disk states for the source and destination disks.
# disk show state
After the migration, the source disks should be in the unknown state, and the
destination disks should be in the active state.
Results
When the migration finalize task is complete, the system is using the destination storage
and the source storage can be removed.
CLI storage migration example
CLI storage migration example
241
Storage Migration
Figure 8 Output: license show
Figure 9 Output: license add
Figure 10 Output: disk show state
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EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
Storage Migration
Figure 11 Output: storage migration precheck
Figure 12 Output: storage migration show history
CLI storage migration example
243
Storage Migration
Figure 13 Output: storage migration start, part 1
Figure 14 Output: storage migration start, part 2
Figure 15 Output: storage migration status
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EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
Storage Migration
Figure 16 Output: disk show state, migration in progress
Figure 17 Output: storage migration finalize
CLI storage migration example
245
Storage Migration
Figure 18 Output: disk show state, migration complete
Note
Currently storage migration is only supported on Active node. Storage migration is not
supported on passive node of the HA cluster.
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EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
CHAPTER 11
SCSI Target
This chapter includes:
l
l
l
SCSI Target overview........................................................................................... 248
Fibre Channel view.............................................................................................. 249
Differences in FC link monitoring among DD OS versions..................................... 259
SCSI Target
247
SCSI Target
SCSI Target overview
SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) Target is a unified management daemon for all
SCSI services and transports. SCSI Target supports VTL (Virtual Tape Library), DD Boost
over FC (Fibre Channel), and vDisk/ProtectPoint Block Services, as well as anything that
has a target LUN (logical unit number) on a DD system.
SCSI Target Services and Transports
The SCSI Target daemon starts when FC ports are present or VTL is licensed. It provides
unified management for all SCSI Target services and transports.
l
A service is anything that has a target LUN on a DD system that uses SCSI Target
commands, such as VTL (tape drives and changers), DD Boost over FC (processor
devices), or vDisk (Virtual Disk Device).
l
A transport enables devices to become visible to initiators.
l
An initiator is a backup client that connects to a system to read and write data using
the FC protocol. A specific initiator can support DD Boost over FC, vDisk, or VTL, but
not all three.
l
Devices are visible on a SAN (storage area network) through physical ports. Host
initiators communicate with the DD system through the SAN.
l
Access groups manage access between devices and initiators.
l
An endpoint is the logical target on a DD system to which an initiator connects. You
can disable, enable, and rename endpoints. To delete endpoints, the associated
transport hardware must no longer exist. Endpoints are automatically discovered and
created when a new transport connection occurs. Endpoints have the following
attributes: port topology, FCP2-RETRY status, WWPN, and WWNN.
l
NPIV (N_port ID Virtualization) is an FC feature that lets multiple endpoints share a
single physical port. NPIV eases hardware requirements and provides failover
capabilities.
Note the following exceptions:
l
VTL, vDisk/ProtectPoint Block Services, and DD Boost over FC can run on the same
system, but they cannot share the same HBA (host bus adapter) ports.
l
DD Boost can service both FC and IP clients simultaneously; however, both transports
cannot share the same initiator.
l
Only one initiator should be present per access group. Each access group is assigned
a type (VTL, vDisk/ProtectPoint Block Services, or DD Boost over FC).
SCSI Target Architectures - Supported and Unsupported
SCSI Target supports the following architectures:
l
VTL plus DD Boost over FC from different initiators: Two different initiators (on the
same or different clients) may access a DD system using VTL and DD Boost over FC,
through the same or different DD system target endpoints.
l
VTL plus DD Boost over FC from one initiator to two different DD systems: A single
initiator may access two different DD systems using any service.
SCSI Target does not support the following architecture:
l
VTL plus DD Boost over FC from one initiator to the same DD system: A single initiator
may not access the same DD system through different services.
For More Information about DD Boost and the scscitarget Command (CLI)
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SCSI Target
For more information about using DD Boost through the DD System Manager, see the
related chapter in this book. For other types of information about DD Boost, see the EMC
Data Domain Boost for OpenStorage Administration Guide.
This chapter focuses on using SCSI Target through the DD System Manager. After you
have become familiar with basic tasks, the scscitarget command in the EMC Data
Domain Operating System Command Reference Guide provides more advanced
management tasks.
When there is heavy VTL traffic, avoid running the scsitarget group use command,
which switches the in-use endpoint lists for one or more SCSI Target or vdisk devices in a
group between primary and secondary endpoint lists.
Fibre Channel view
The Fibre Channel view displays the current status of whether Fibre Channel and/or NPIV
is enabled. It also displays two tabs: Resources and Access Groups. Resources include
ports, endpoints, and initiators. An access group holds a collection of initiator WWPNs
(worldwide port names) or aliases and the drives and changers they are allowed to
access.
Enabling NPIV
NPIV (N_Port ID Virtualization), is a Fibre Channel feature in which multiple endpoints can
share a single physical port. NPIV eases hardware requirements and provides endpoint
failover/failback capabilities. NPIV is not configured by default; you must enable it.
Note
NPIV is enabled by default in HA configuration.
NPIV provides simplified multiple-system consolidation:
l
NPIV is an ANSI T11 standard that allows a single HBA physical port to register with a
Fibre Channel fabic using multiple WWPNs
l
The virtual and physical ports have the same port properties and behave exactly the
same.
l
There may be m:1 relationships between the endpoints and the port, that is, multiple
endpoints can share the same physical port.
Specifically, enabling NPIV enables the following features:
l
Multiple endpoints are allowed per physical port, each using a virtual (NPIV) port. The
base port is a placeholder for the physical port and is not associated with an
endpoint.
l
Endpoint failover/failback is automatically enabled when using NPIV.
Note
After NPIV is enabled, the "Secondary System Address" must be specified at each of
the endpoints. If not, endpoint failover will not occur.
l
Multiple DD systems can be consolidated into a single DD system, however, the
number of HBAs remains the same on the single DD system.
l
The endpoint failover is triggered when FC-SSM detects when a port goes from online
to offline. In the case where the physical port is offline before scsitarget is enabled
and the port is still offline after scsitarget is enabled, a endpoint failover is not
possible because FC-SSM does not generate a port offline event. If the port comes
Fibre Channel view
249
SCSI Target
back online and auto-failback is enabled, any failed over endpoints that use that port
as a primary port will fail-back to the primary port.
The Data Domain HA features requires NPIV to move WWNs between the nodes of an HA
pair during the failover process.
Note
Before enabling NPIV, the following conditions must be met:
l
The DD system must be running DD OS 5.7.
l
All ports must be connected to 4Gb, 8Gb, and 16 Gb Fibre Channel HBA and SLIC.
l
The DD system ID must be valid, that is, it must not be 0.
In addition, port topologies and port names will be reviewed and may prevent NPIV from
being enabled:
l
NPIV is allowed if the topology for all ports is loop-preferred.
l
NPIV is allowed if the topology for some of the ports is loop-preferred; however, NPIV
must be disabled for ports that are loop-only, or you must reconfigure the topology to
loop-preferred for proper functionality.
l
NPIV is not allowed if none of the ports has a topology of loop-preferred.
l
If port names are present in access groups, the port names are replaced with their
associated endpoint names.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Fibre Channel.
2. Next to NPIV: Disabled, select Enable.
3. In the Enable NPIV dialog, you will be warned that all Fibre Channel ports must be
disabled before NPIV can be enabled. If you are sure that you want to do this, select
Yes.
CLI Equivalent
a. Make sure (global) NPIV is enabled.
# scsitarget transport option show npiv
SCSI Target Transport Options
Option
Value
------------npiv
disabled
-------------
b. If NPIV is disabled, then enable it. You must first disable all ports.
# scsitarget port disable all
All ports successfully disabled.
# scsitarget transport option set npiv enabled
Enabling FiberChannel NPIV mode may require SAN zoning to
be changed to configure both base port and NPIV WWPNs.
Any FiberChannel port names used in the access groups will
be converted to their corresponding endpoint names in order
to prevent ambiguity.
Do you want to continue? (yes|no) [no]:
c. Re-enable the disabled ports.
# scsitarget port enable all
All ports successfully enabled.
d. Make sure the physical ports have an NPIV setting of “auto”.
# scsitarget port show detailed 0a
System Address:
0a
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Enabled:
Yes
Status:
Online
Transport:
FibreChannel
Operational Status: Normal
FC NPIV:
Enabled (auto)
.
.
.
e. Create a new endpoint using the primary and secondary ports you have selected.
# scsitarget endpoint add test0a0b system-address 0a
primary-system-address 0a secondary-system-address 0b
Note that the endpoint is disabled by default, so enable it.
# scsitarget endpoint enable test0a0b
Then display the endpoint information.
# scsitarget endpoint show detailed test0a0b
Endpoint:
test0a0b
Current System Address:
0b
Primary System Address:
0a
Secondary System Address: 0b
Enabled:
Yes
Status:
Online
Transport:
FibreChannel
FC WWNN:
50:02:18:80:08:a0:00:91
FC WWPN:
50:02:18:84:08:b6:00:91
f. Zone a host system to the auto-generated WWPN of the newly created endpoint.
g. Create a VTL, vDisk, or DD Boost over Fibre Channel (DFC) device, and make this
device available on the host system.
h. Ensure that the DD device chosen can be accessed on the host (read and/or
written).
i. Test the endpoint failover by using the “secondary” option to move the endpoint
to the SSA (secondary system address).
# scsitarget endpoint use test0a0b secondary
j. Ensure that the DD device chosen can still be accessed on the host (read and/or
written). Test the failback by using the “primary” option to move the endpoint back
to the PSA (primary system address).
# scsitarget endpoint use test0a0b primary
k. Ensure that the DD device chosen can still be accessed on the host (read and/or
written).
Disabling NPIV
Before you can disable NPIV, you must not have any ports with multiple endpoints.
Note
NPIV is required for HA configuration. It is enabled by default and cannot be disabled.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Fibre Channel.
2. Next to NPIV: Enabled, select Disable.
3. In the Disable NPIV dialog, review any messages about correcting the configuration,
and when ready, select OK.
Disabling NPIV
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SCSI Target
Resources tab
The Hardware > Fibre Channel > Resources tab displays information about ports,
endpoints, and initiators.
Table 106 Ports
Item
Description
System Address
System address for port
WWPN
Unique worldwide port name, which is a 64-bit identifier (a 60bit value preceded by a 4-bit Network Address Authority
identifier), of the Fibre Channel (FC) port.
WWNN
Unique worldwide node name, which is a 64-bit identifier (a 60bit value preceded by a 4-bit Network Address Authority
identifier), of the FC node
Enabled
Port operational status; either Enabled or Disabled.
NPIV
NPIV status; either Enabled or Disabled.
Link Status
Link status: either Online or Offline; that is, whether or not the
port is up and capable of handling traffic.
Operation Status
Operation status: either Normal or Marginal.
# of Endpoints
Number of endpoints associated with this port.
Table 107 Endpoints
Item
Description
Name
Name of endpoint.
WWPN
Unique worldwide port name, which is a 64-bit identifier (a 60bit value preceded by a 4-bit Network Address Authority
identifier), of the Fibre Channel (FC) port.
WWNN
Unique worldwide node name, which is a 64-bit identifier (a 60bit value preceded by a 4-bit Network Address Authority
identifier), of the FC node
System Address
System address of endpoint.
Enabled
Port operational state; either Enabled or Disabled.
Link Status
Either Online or Offline; that is, whether or not the port is up
and capable of handling traffic.
Table 108 Initiators
252
Item
Description
Name
Name of initiator.
Service
Service support by the initiator, which is either VTL, DD Boost,
or vDisk.
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
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Table 108 Initiators (continued)
Item
Description
WWPN
Unique worldwide port name, which is a 64-bit identifier (a 60bit value preceded by a 4-bit Network Address Authority
identifier), of the Fibre Channel (FC) port.
WWNN
Unique worldwide node name, which is a 64-bit identifier (a 60bit value preceded by a 4-bit Network Address Authority
identifier), of the FC node.
Vendor Name
Initiator's model.
Online Endpoints
Endpoints seen by this initiator. Displays none or offline if
the initiator is not available.
Configuring a port
Ports are discovered, and a single endpoint is automatically created for each port, at
startup.
The properties of the base port depend on whether NPIV is enabled:
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In non-NPIV mode, ports use the same properties as the endpoint, that is, the WWPN
for the base port and the endpoint are the same.
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In NPIV mode, the base port properties are derived from default values, that is, a new
WWPN is generated for the base port and is preserved to allow consistent switching
between NPIV modes. Also, NPIV mode provides the ability to support multiple
endpoints per port.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Fibre Channel > Resources.
2. Under Ports, select an port, and then select Modify (pencil).
3. In the Configure Port dialog, select whether to automatically enable or disable NPIV for
this port.
4. For Topology, select Loop Preferred, Loop Only, Point to Point, or Default.
5. For Speed, select 1, 2, 4 or 8 Gbps, or auto.
6. Select OK.
Enabling a port
Ports must be enabled before they can be used.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Fibre Channel > Resources.
2. Select More Tasks > Ports > Enable. If all ports are already enabled, a message to that
effect is displayed.
3. In the Enable Ports dialog, select one or more ports from the list, and select Next.
4. After the confirmation, select Next to complete the task.
Resources tab
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Disabling a port
You can simply disable a port (or ports), or you can chose to failover all endpoints on the
port (or ports) to another port.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Fibre Channel > Resources.
2. Select More Tasks > Ports > Disable.
3. In the Disable Ports dialog, select one or more ports from the list, and select Next.
4. In the confirmation dialog, you can continue with simply disabling the port, or you can
chose to failover all endpoints on the ports to another port.
Adding an endpoint
An endpoint is a virtual object that is mapped to a underlying virtual port. In non-NPIV
mode (not available on HA configuration), only a single endpoint is allowed per physical
port, and the base port is used to configure that endpoint to the fabric. When NPIV is
enabled, multiple endpoints are allowed per physical port, each using a virtual (NPIV)
port, and endpoint failover/failback is enabled.
Note
Non-NPIV mode is not available on HA configurations. NPIV is enabled by default and
cannot be disabled.
Note
In NPIV mode, endpoints:
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have a primary system address.
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may have zero or more secondary system addresses.
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are all candidates for failover to an alternate system address on failure of a port;
however, failover to a marginal port is not supported.
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may be failed back to use their primary port when the port comes back up online.
Note
When using NPIV, it is recommended that you use only one protocol (that is, VTL Fibre
Channel, DD Boost-over-Fibre Channel, or vDisk Fibre Channel) per endpoint. For failover
configurations, secondary endpoints should also be configured to have the same
protocol as the primary.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Fibre Channel > Resources.
2. Under Endpoints, select Add (+ sign).
3. In the Add Endpoint dialog, enter a Name for the endpoint (from 1 to 128 characters).
The field cannot be empty or be the word “all,” and cannot contain the characters
asterisk (*), question mark (?), front or back slashes (/, \), or right or left parentheses
[(,)].
4. For Endpoint Status, select Enabled or Disabled.
5. If NPIV is enabled, for Primary system address, select from the drop-down list. The
primary system address must be different from any secondary system address.
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6. If NPIV is enabled, for Fails over to secondary system addresses, check the
appropriate box next to the secondary system address.
7. Select OK.
Configuring an endpoint
After you have added an endpoint, you can modify it using the Configure Endpoint dialog.
Note
When using NPIV, it is recommended that you use only one protocol (that is, VTL Fibre
Channel, DD Boost-over-Fibre Channel, or vDisk Fibre Channel) per endpoint. For failover
configurations, secondary endpoints should also be configured to have the same
protocol as the primary.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Fibre Channel > Resources.
2. Under Endpoints, select an endpoint, and then select Modify (pencil).
3. In the Configure Endpoint dialog, enter a Name for the endpoint (from 1 to 128
characters). The field cannot be empty or be the word “all,” and cannot contain the
characters asterisk (*), question mark (?), front or back slashes (/, \), or right or left
parentheses [(,)].
4. For Endpoint Status, select Enabled or Disabled.
5. For Primary system address, select from the drop-down list. The primary system
address must be different from any secondary system address.
6. For Fails over to secondary system addresses, check the appropriate box next to the
secondary system address.
7. Select OK.
Modifying an endpoint's system address
You can modify the active system address for a SCSI Target endpoint using the
scsitarget endpoint modify command option. This is useful if the endpoint is
associated with a system address that no longer exists, for example after a controller
upgrade or when a controller HBA (host bus adapter) has been moved. When the system
address for an endpoint is modified, all properties of the endpoint, including WWPN and
WWNN (worldwide port and node names, respectively), if any, are preserved and are used
with the new system address.
In the following example, endpoint ep-1 was assigned to system address 5a, but this
system address is no longer valid. A new controller HBA was added at system address
10a. The SCSI Target subsystem automatically created a new endpoint, ep-new, for the
newly discovered system address. Because only a single endpoint can be associated with
a given system address, ep-new must be deleted, and then ep-1 must be assigned to
system address 10a.
Note
It may take some time for the modified endpoint to come online, depending on the SAN
environment, since the WWPN and WWNN have moved to a different system address. You
may also need to update SAN zoning to reflect the new configuration.
Procedure
1. Show all endpoints to verify the endpoints to be changed:
Resources tab
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SCSI Target
# scsitarget endpoint show list
2. Disable all endpoints:
# scsitarget endpoint disable all
3. Delete the new, unnecessary endpoint, ep-new:
# scsitarget endpoint del ep-new
4. Modify the endpoint you want to use, ep-1, by assigning it the new system address
10a:
# scsitarget endpoint modify ep-1 system-address 10a
5. Enable all endpoints:
# scsitarget endpoint enable all
Enabling an endpoint
Enabling an endpoint enables the port only if it is currently disabled, that is, you are in
non-NPIV mode.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Fibre Channel > Resources.
2. Select More Tasks > Endpoints > Enable. If all endpoints are already enabled, a
message to that effect is displayed.
3. In the Enable Endpoints dialog, select one or more endpoints from the list, and select
Next.
4. After the confirmation, select Next to complete the task.
Disabling an endpoint
Disabling an endpoint does not disable the associated port, unless all endpoints using
the port are disabled, that is, you are in non- NPIV mode.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Fibre Channel > Resources.
2. Select More Tasks > Endpoints > Disable.
3. In the Disable Endpoints dialog, select one or more endpoints from the list, and select
Next. If an endpoint is in use, you are warned that disabling it might disrupt the
system.
4. Select Next to complete the task.
Deleting an endpoint
You may want to delete an endpoint if the underlying hardware is no longer available.
However, if the underlying hardware is still present, or becomes available, a new
endpoint for the hardware is discovered automatically and configured based on default
values.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Fibre Channel > Resources.
2. Select More Tasks > Endpoints > Delete.
3. In the Delete Endpoints dialog, select one or more endpoints from the list, and select
Next. If an endpoint is in use, you are warned that deleting it might disrupt the
system.
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4. Select Next to complete the task.
Adding an initiator
Add initiators to provide backup clients to connect to the system to read and write data
using the FC (Fibre Channel) protocol. A specific initiator can support DD Boost over FC, or
VTL, but not both. A maximum of 1024 initiators can be configured for a DD system.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Fibre Channel > Resources.
2. Under Initiators, select Add (+ sign)
3. In the Add Initiator dialog, enter the port’s unique WWPN in the specified format.
4. Enter a Name for the initiator.
5. Select the Address Method: Auto is used for standard addressing, and VSA (Volume
Set Addressing) is used primarily for addressing virtual buses, targets, and LUNs.
6. Select OK.
CLI Equivalent
# scsitarget group add My_Group initiator My_Initiator
Modifying or deleting an initiator
Before you can delete an initiator, it must be offline and not attached to any group.
Otherwise, you will get an error message, and the initiator will not be deleted. You must
delete all initiators in an access group before you can delete the access group. If an
initiator remains visible, it may be automatically rediscovered.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Fibre Channel > Resources.
2. Under Initiators, select one of the initiators. If you want to delete it, select Delete (X). If
you want to modify it, select Modify (pencil) to display the Modify Initiator dialog.
3. Change the initiator’s Name and/or Address Method [Auto is used for standard
addressing, and VSA (Volume Set Addressing) is used primarily for addressing virtual
buses, targets, and LUNs.]
4. Select OK.
Recommendation to Set Initiator Aliases - CLI only
It is strongly recommended that Initiator aliases be set to reduce confusion and
human error during the configuration process.
# vtl initiator set alias NewAliasName wwpn 21:00:00:e0:8b:9d:0b:e8
# vtl initiator show
Initiator Group
Status
WWNN
WWPN
--------- ------- ------- ----------------------- ----------------------NewVTL
aussie1 Online
20:00:00:e0:8b:9d:0b:e8 21:00:00:e0:8b:9d:0b:e8
Offline 20:00:00:e0:8b:9d:0b:e8 21:00:00:e0:8b:9d:0b:e8
Initiator
--------NewVTL
---------
Symbolic Port Name
-----------------------------------
Port
--6a
6b
Address Method
-------------auto
--------------
Resources tab
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Setting a hard address (loop ID)
Some backup software requires that all private-loop targets have a hard address (loop ID)
that does not conflict with another node. The range for a loop ID is from 0 to 125.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Fibre Channel > Resources.
2. Select More Tasks > Set Loop ID.
3. In the Set Loop ID dialog, enter the loop ID (from 0 to 125), and select OK.
Setting failover options
You can set options for automatic failover and failback when NPIV is enabled.
Here is the expected behavior for Fibre Channel port failover, by application:
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DD Boost-over-Fibre Channel operation is expected to continue without user
intervention when the Fibre Channel endpoints failover.
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VTL Fibre Channel operation is expected to be interrupted when the VTL Fibre Channel
endpoints failover. You may need to perform discovery (that is, operating system
discovery and configuration of VTL devices) on the initiators using the affected Fibre
Channel endpoint. You should expect to re-start active backup and restore
operations.
l
vDisk Fibre Channel operation is expected to continue without user intervention when
the Fibre Channel endpoints failover.
Automatic failback is not guaranteed if all ports are disabled and then subsequently
enabled (which could be triggered by the administrator), as the order in which ports get
enabled is unspecified.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Fibre Channel > Resources.
2. Select More Tasks > Set Failover Options.
3. In the Set Failover Options dialog, enter the Failover and Failback Delay (in seconds)
and whether to enable Automatic Failback, and select OK.
Access Groups tab
The Hardware > Fibre Channel > Access Groups tab provides information about DD Boost
and VTL access groups. Selecting the link to View DD Boost Groups or View VTL Groups
takes you to the DD Boost or VTL pages.
Table 109 Access Groups
258
Item
Description
Group Name
Name of access group.
Service
Service for this access group: either DD Boost or VTL.
Endpoints
Endpoints associated with this access group.
Initiators
Initiators associated with this access group.
Number of Devices
Number of devices associated with this access group.
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
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Differences in FC link monitoring among DD OS versions
Different releases of DD OS handle FC (Fibre Channel) Link Monitoring in different ways.
DD OS 5.3 and later
Port monitoring detects an FC port at system startup and raises an alert if the port is
enabled and offline. To clear the alert, disable an unused port using the scsitarget
port commands.
DD OS 5.1 up to 5.3
If a port is offline, an alert notifies you that the link is down. This alert is managed, which
means it stays active until cleared. This occurs when the VTL FC port is online or disabled.
If the port is not in use, disable it unless it needs to be monitored.
DD OS 5.0 up to 5.1
If a port is offline, an alert notifies you that the link is down. The alert is not managed,
which means it does not stay active and does not appear in the current alerts list. When
the port is online, an alert notifies you that the link is up. If the port is not in use, disable
it unless it needs to be monitored.
DD OS 4.9 up to 5.0
An FC port must be included in a VTL group to be monitored.
Differences in FC link monitoring among DD OS versions
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CHAPTER 12
Working with DD Boost
This chapter includes:
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About Data Domain Boost software..................................................................... 262
Managing DD Boost with DD System Manager..................................................... 263
About interface groups........................................................................................ 276
Destroying DD Boost........................................................................................... 283
Configuring DD Boost-over-Fibre Channel............................................................ 284
Using DD Boost on HA systems............................................................................288
About the DD Boost tabs..................................................................................... 288
Working with DD Boost
261
Working with DD Boost
About Data Domain Boost software
Data Domain Boost (DD Boost) software provides advanced integration with backup and
enterprise applications for increased performance and ease of use. DD Boost distributes
parts of the deduplication process to the backup server or application clients, enabling
client-side deduplication for faster, more efficient backup and recovery.
DD Boost software is an optional product that requires a separate license to operate on
the Data Domain system. You can purchase a DD Boost software license key for a Data
Domain system directly from EMC Data Domain.
Note
A special license, BLOCK-SERVICES-PROTECTPOINT, is available to enable clients using
ProtectPoint block services to have DD Boost functionality without a DD Boost license. If
DD Boost is enabled for ProtectPoint clients only—that is, if only the BLOCK-SERVICESPROTECTPOINT license is installed—the license status indicates that DD Boost is enabled
for ProtectPoint only.
There are two components to DD Boost: one component that runs on the backup server
and another that runs on the Data Domain system.
l
In the context of the EMC NetWorker backup application, EMC Avamar backup
application and other DDBoost partner backup applications, the component that runs
on the backup server (DD Boost libraries) is integrated into the particular backup
application.
l
In the context of Symantec backup applications (NetBackup and Backup Exec) and
the Oracle RMAN plug-in, you need to download an appropriate version of the DD
Boost plugin that is installed on each media server. The DD Boost plugin includes the
DD Boost libraries for integrating with the DD Boost server running on the Data
Domain system.
The backup application (for example, Avamar, NetWorker, NetBackup, or Backup Exec)
sets policies that control when backups and duplications occur. Administrators manage
backup, duplication, and restores from a single console and can use all of the features of
DD Boost, including WAN-efficient replicator software. The application manages all files
(collections of data) in the catalog, even those created by the Data Domain system.
In the Data Domain system, storage units that you create are exposed to backup
applications that use the DD Boost protocol. For Symantec applications, storage units are
viewed as disk pools. For Networker, storage units are viewed as logical storage units
(LSUs). A storage unit is an MTree; therefore, it supports MTree quota settings. (Do not
create an MTree in place of a storage unit.)
This chapter does not contain installation instructions; refer to the documentation for the
product you want to install. For example, for information about setting up DD Boost with
Symantec backup applications (NetBackup and Backup Exec), see the EMC Data Domain
Boost for OpenStorage Administration Guide. For information on setting up DD Boost with
any other application, see the application-specific documentation.
Additional information about configuring and managing DD Boost on the Data Domain
system can also be found in the EMC Data Domain Boost for OpenStorage Administration
Guide (for NetBackup and Backup Exec) and the EMC Data Domain Boost for Partner
Integration Administration Guide (for other backup applications).
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Working with DD Boost
Managing DD Boost with DD System Manager
Access the DD Boost view in System Manager.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > File System. Verify that the file system is enabled and
running by checking its state.
2. Select Protocols > DD Boost.
If you go to the DD Boost page without a license, the Status states that DD Boost is
not licensed. Click Add License and enter a valid license in the Add License Key dialog
box.
Note
A special license, BLOCK-SERVICES-PROTECTPOINT, is available to enable clients
using ProtectPoint block services to have DD Boost functionality without a DD Boost
license. If DD Boost is enabled for ProtectPoint clients only—that is, if only the BLOCKSERVICES-PROTECTPOINT license is installed—the license status indicates that DD
Boost is enabled for ProtectPoint only.
Use the DD Boost tabs—Settings, Active Connections, IP Network, Fibre Channel, and
Storage Units—to manage DD Boost.
Specifying DD Boost user names
A DD Boost user is also a DD OS user. Specify a DD Boost user either by selecting an
existing DD OS user name or by creating a new DD OS user name and making that name a
DD Boost user.
Backup applications use the DD Boost user name and password to connect to the Data
Domain system. You must configure these credentials on each backup server that
connects to this system. The Data Domain system supports multiple DD Boost users. For
complete information about setting up DD Boost with Symantec NetBackup and Backup
Exec, see the EMC Data Domain Boost for OpenStorage Administration Guide. For
information on setting up DD Boost with other applications, see the EMC Data Domain
Boost for Partner Integration Administration Guide and the application-specific
documentation.
Procedure
1. Select Protocols > DD Boost.
2. Select Add (+) above the Users with DD Boost Access list.
The Add User dialog appears.
3. To select an existing user, select the user name in the drop-down list.
EMC recommends that you select a user name with management role privileges set to
none.
4. To create and select a new user, select Create a new Local User and do the following:
a. Enter the new user name in the User field.
The user must be configured in the backup application to connect to the Data
Domain system.
Managing DD Boost with DD System Manager
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Working with DD Boost
b. Enter the password twice in the appropriate fields.
5. Click Add.
Changing DD Boost user passwords
Change a DD Boost user password.
Procedure
1. Select Protocols > DD Boost > Settings.
2. Select a user in the Users with DD Boost Access list.
3. Click the Edit button (pencil icon) above the DD Boost user list.
The Change Password dialog appears.
4. Enter the password twice in the appropriate boxes.
5. Click Change.
Removing a DD Boost user name
Remove a user from the DD Boost access list.
Procedure
1. Select Protocols > DD Boost > Settings.
2. Select the user in the Users with DD Boost Access list that needs to be removed.
3. Click Remove (X) above the DD Boost user list.
The Remove User dialog appears.
4. Click Remove.
After removal, the user remains in the DD OS access list.
Enabling DD Boost
Use the DD Boost Settings tab to enable DD Boost and to select or add a DD Boost user.
Procedure
1. Select Protocols > DD Boost > Settings.
2. Click Enable in the DD Boost Status area.
The Enable DD Boost dialog box is displayed.
3. Select an existing user name from the menu, or add a new user by supplying the
name, password, and role.
Disabling DD Boost
Disabling DD Boost drops all active connections to the backup server. When you disable
or destroy DD Boost, the DD Boost FC service is also disabled.
Before you begin
Ensure there are no jobs running from your backup application before disabling.
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Note
File replication started by DD Boost between two Data Domain restores is not canceled.
Procedure
1. Select Protocols > DD Boost > Settings.
2. Click Disable in the DD Boost Status area.
3. Click OK in the Disable DD Boost confirmation dialog box.
Viewing DD Boost storage units
Access the Storage Units tab to view and manage DD Boost storage units.
The DD Boost Storage Unit tab:
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Lists the storage units and provides the following information for each storage unit:
Table 110 Storage unit information
Item
Description
Storage Unit
The name of the storage unit.
User
The DD Boost user owning the storage unit.
Quota Hard Limit
The percentage of hard limit quota used.
Last 24 hr Pre-Comp
The amount of raw data from the backup application that has
been written in the last 24 hours.
Last 24 hr Post-Comp
The amount of storage used after compression in the last 24
hours.
Last 24 hr Comp Ratio
The compression ratio for the last 24 hours.
Weekly Avg Post-Comp
The average amount of compressed storage used in the last five
weeks.
Last Week Post-Comp
The average amount of compressed storage used in the last seven
days.
Weekly Avg Comp Ratio
The average compression ratio for the last five weeks.
Last Week Comp Ratio
The average compression ratio for the last seven days.
l
Allows you to create, modify, and delete storage units.
l
Displays four related tabs for a storage unit selected from the list: Storage Unit,
Space Usage, Daily Written, and Data Movement.
Note
The Data Movement tab is available only if the optional EMC Data Domain Extended
Retention (formerly DD Archiver) license is installed.
l
Takes you to Replication > On-Demand > File Replication when you click the View DD
Boost Replications link.
Viewing DD Boost storage units
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Working with DD Boost
Note
A DD Replicator license is required for DD Boost to display tabs other than the File
Replication tab.
Creating a storage unit
You must create at least one storage unit on the Data Domain system, and a DD Boost
user must be assigned to that storage unit. Use the Storage Units tab to create a storage
unit.
Each storage unit is a top-level subdirectory of the /data/col1 directory; there is no
hierarchy among storage units.
Procedure
1. Select Protocols > DD Boost > Storage Units.
2. Click Create (+).
The Create Storage Unit dialog box is displayed.
3. Enter the storage unit name in the Name box.
Each storage unit name must be unique. Storage unit names can be up to 50
characters. The following characters are acceptable:
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upper- and lower-case alphabetical characters: A-Z, a-z
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numbers: 0-9
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embedded space
Note
The storage-unit name must be enclosed in double quotes (") if the name has an
embedded space.
266
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comma (,)
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period (.), as long as it does not precede the name
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exclamation mark (!)
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number sign (#)
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dollar sign ($)
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per cent sign (%)
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plus sign (+)
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at sign (@)
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equal sign (=)
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ampersand (&)
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semi-colon (;)
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parenthesis [(and)]
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square brackets ([and])
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curly brackets ({and})
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caret (^)
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tilde (~)
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
Working with DD Boost
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apostrophe (unslanted single quotation mark)
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single slanted quotation mark (')
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minus sign (-)
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underscore (_)
4. To select an existing username that will have access to this storage unit, select the
user name in the dropdown list.
EMC recommends that you select a username with management role privileges set to
none.
5. To create and select a new username that will have access to this storage unit, select
Create a new Local User and:
a. Enter the new user name in the User box.
The user must be configured in the backup application to connect to the Data
Domain system.
b. Enter the password twice in the appropriate boxes.
6. To set storage space restrictions to prevent a storage unit from consuming excess
space: enter either a soft or hard limit quota setting, or both a hard and soft limit. With
a soft limit an alert is sent when the storage unit size exceeds the limit, but data can
still be written to it. Data cannot be written to the storage unit when the hard limit is
reached.
Note
Quota limits are pre-compressed values. To set quota limits, select Set to Specific
Value and enter the value. Select the unit of measurement: MiB, GiB, TiB, or PiB.
Note
When setting both soft and hard limits, a quota’s soft limit cannot exceed the quota’s
hard limit.
7. Click Create.
8. Repeat the above steps for each Data Domain Boost-enabled system.
Viewing storage unit information
From the DD Boost Storage Units tab, you can select a storage unit and access the
Storage Unit, Space Usage, Daily Written, and Data Movement tabs for the selected
storage unit.
Storage Unit tab
The Storage Unit tab shows detailed information for a selected storage unit in its
Summary and Quota panels. The Snapshot panel shows snapshot details, allows you to
create new snapshots and schedules, and provides a link to the Data Management >
Snapshots tab.
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The Summary panel shows summarized information for the selected storage unit.
Viewing storage unit information
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Working with DD Boost
Table 111 Summary panel
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Summary item
Description
Total Files
The total number of file images on the storage unit. For
compression details that you can download to a log file, click the
Download Compression Details link. The generation can take up
to several minutes. After it has completed, click Download.
Full Path
/data/col1/filename
Tenant Unit
Lists the tenant unit if one is assigned to the selected storage
unit.
Status
R: read; W: write; Q: quota defined
Pre-Comp Used
The amount of pre-compressed storage already used.
The Quota panel shows quota information for the selected storage unit.
Table 112 Quota panel
Quota item
Description
Quota Enforcement
Enabled or disable. Clicking Quota takes you to the Data
Management > Quota tab where you can configure quotas.
Pre-Comp Soft Limit
Current value of soft quota set for the storage unit.
Pre-Comp Hard Limit
Current value of hard quota set for the storage unit.
Quota Summary
Percentage of Hard Limit used.
To modify the pre-comp soft and hard limits shown in the tab:
1. Click the Configure button in the Quota panel.
2. In the Configure Quota dialog box, enter values for hard and soft quotas and
select the unit of measurement: MiB, GiB, TiB, or PiB. Click OK.
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Snapshots
The Snapshots panel shows information about the storage unit’s snapshots.
Table 113 Snapshots panel
268
Item
Description
Total Snapshots
The total number of snapshots created for this MTree. A total of
750 snapshots can be created for each MTree.
Expired
The number of snapshots in this MTree that have been marked for
deletion, but have not been removed with the clean operation as
yet.
Unexpired
The number of snapshots in this MTree that are marked for
keeping.
Oldest Snapshot
The date of the oldest snapshot for this MTree.
Newest Snapshot
The date of the newest snapshot for this MTree.
Next Scheduled
The date of the next scheduled snapshot.
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
Working with DD Boost
Table 113 Snapshots panel (continued)
Item
Description
Assigned Snapshot
Schedules
The name of the snapshot schedule assigned to this MTree.
Using the Snapshots panel, you can:
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Assign a snapshot schedule to a selected storage unit: Click Assign Snapshot
Schedules. Select the schedule’s checkbox; click OK and Close.
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Create a new schedule: Click Assign Snapshot Schedules. Enter the new
schedule’s name.
Note
The snapshot name can be composed only of letters, numbers, _, -, %d (numeric
day of the month: 01-31), %a (abbreviated weekday name), %m (numeric month of
the year: 01-12), %b (abbreviated month name), %y (year, two digits), %Y (year,
four digits), %H (hour: 00-23), and %M (minute: 00-59), following the pattern shown
in the dialog box. Enter the new pattern and click Validate Pattern & Update
Sample. Click Next.
– Select when the schedule is to be executed: weekly, every day (or selected
days), monthly on specific days that you select by clicking that date in the
calendar, or on the last day of the month. Click Next.
– Enter the times of the day when the schedule is to be executed: Either select At
Specific Times or In Intervals. If you select a specific time, select the time from
the list. Click Add (+) to add a time (24-hour format). For intervals, select In
Intervals and set the start and end times and how often (Every), such as every
eight hours. Click Next.
– Enter the retention period for the snapshots in days, months, or years. Click
Next.
– Review the Summary of your configuration. Click Back to edit any of the values.
Click Finish to create the schedule.
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Click the Snapshots link to go to the Data Management > Snapshots tab.
Space Usage tab
The Space Usage tab graph displays a visual representation of data usage for the storage
unit over time.
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Click a point on a graph line to display a box with data at that point.
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Click Print (at the bottom on the graph) to open the standard Print dialog box.
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Click Show in new window to display the graph in a new browser window.
There are two types of graph data displayed: Logical Space Used (Pre-Compression) and
Physical Capacity Used (Post-Compression).
Daily Written tab
The Daily Written view contains a graph that displays a visual representation of data that
is written daily to the system over a period of time, selectable from 7 to 120 days. The
data amounts are shown over time for pre- and post-compression amounts.
Viewing storage unit information
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Data Movement tab
A graph in the same format as the Daily Written graph that shows the amount of disk
space moved to the Extended Retention storage area (if the Extended Retention license is
enabled).
Modifying a storage unit
Use the Modify Storage Unit dialog to rename a storage unit, select a different existing
user, create and select a new user, and edit quota settings.
Procedure
1. Select Protocols > DD Boost > Storage Units.
2. In the Storage Unit list, select the storage unit to modify.
3. Click the pencil icon.
The Modify Storage Unit dialog appears.
4. To rename the storage unit, edit the text in the Name field.
5. To select a different existing user, select the user name in the drop-down list.
EMC recommends that you select a username with management role privileges set to
none.
6. To create and select a new user, select Create a new Local User and do the following:
a. Enter the new user name in the User box.
The user must be configured in the backup application to connect to the Data
Domain system.
b. Enter the password twice in the appropriate boxes.
7. Edit the Quota Settings as needed.
To set storage space restrictions to prevent a storage unit from consuming excess
space: enter either a soft or hard limit quota setting, or both a hard and soft limit. With
a soft limit an alert is sent when the storage unit size exceeds the limit, but data can
still be written to it. Data cannot be written to the storage unit when the hard limit is
reached.
Note
Quota limits are pre-compressed values. To set quota limits, select Set to Specific
Value and enter the value. Select the unit of measurement: MiB, GiB, TiB, or PiB.
Note
When setting both soft and hard limits, a quota’s soft limit cannot exceed the quota’s
hard limit.
8. Click Modify.
Renaming a storage unit
Use the Modify Storage Unit dialog to rename a storage unit.
Renaming a storage unit changes the name of the storage unit while retaining its:
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Username ownership
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Stream limit configuration
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Capacity quota configuration and physical reported size
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AIR association on the local Data Domain system
Procedure
1. Go to Protocols > DD Boost > Storage Units.
2. In the Storage Unit list, select the storage unit to rename.
3. Click the pencil icon.
The Modify Storage Unit dialog appears.
4. Edit the text in the Name field.
5. Click Modify.
Deleting a storage unit
Use the Storage Units tab to delete a storage unit from your Data Domain system.
Deleting a storage unit removes the storage unit, as well as any images contained in the
storage unit, from your Data Domain system.
Procedure
1. Select Protocols > DD Boost > Storage Units.
2. Select the storage unit to be deleted from the list.
3. Click Delete (X).
4. Click OK.
Results
The storage unit is removed from your Data Domain system. You must also manually
remove the corresponding backup application catalog entries.
Undeleting a storage unit
Use the Storage Units tab to undelete a storage unit.
Undeleting a storage unit recovers a previously deleted storage unit, including its:
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Username ownership
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Stream limit configuration
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Capacity quota configuration and physical reported size
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AIR association on the local Data Domain system
Note
Deleted storage units are available until the next filesys clean command is run.
Procedure
1. Select Protocols > DD Boost > Storage Units > More Tasks > Undelete Storage Unit....
2. In the Undelete Storage Units dialog box, select the storage unit(s) that you want to
undelete.
3. Click OK.
Deleting a storage unit
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Selecting DD Boost options
Use the Set DD Boost Options dialog to specify settings for distributed segment
processing, virtual synthetics, low bandwidth optimization for file replication, file
replication encryption, and file replication network preference (IPv4 or IPv6).
Procedure
1. To display the DD Boost option settings, select Protocols > DD Boost > Settings >
Advanced Options.
2. To change the settings, select More Tasks > Set Options.
The Set DD Boost Options dialog appears.
3. Select any option to be enabled.
4. Deselect any option to be disabled.
To deselect a File Replication Network Preference option, select the other option.
5. Click OK.
Note
You can also manage distributed segment processing via the ddboost option
commands, which are described in detail in the EMC Data Domain Operating System
Command Reference Guide.
Distributed segment processing
Distributed segment processing increases backup throughput in almost all cases by
eliminating duplicate data transmission between the media server and the Data Domain
system.
You can manage distributed segment processing via the ddboost option commands,
which are described in detail in the EMC Data Domain Operating System Command
Reference Guide.
Note
Distributed segment processing is enabled by default with EMC Data Domain Extended
Retention (formerly Data Domain Archiver) configurations and cannot be disabled.
Virtual synthetics
A virtual synthetic full backup is the combination of the last full (synthetic or full) backup
and all subsequent incremental backups. Virtual synthetics are enabled by default.
Low-bandwidth optimization
If you use file replication over a low-bandwidth network (WAN), you can increase
replication speed by using low bandwidth optimization. This feature provides additional
compression during data transfer. Low bandwidth compression is available to Data
Domain systems with an installed Replication license.
Low-bandwidth optimization, which is disabled by default, is designed for use on
networks with less than 6 Mbps aggregate bandwidth. Do not use this option if maximum
file system write performance is required.
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Note
You can also manage low bandwidth optimization via the ddboost filereplication commands, which are described in detail in the EMC Data Domain
Operating System Command Reference Guide.
File replication encryption
You can encrypt the data replication stream by enabling the DD Boost file replication
encryption option.
Note
If DD Boost file replication encryption is used on systems without the Data at Rest option,
it must be set to on for both the source and destination systems.
Managed file replication TCP port setting
For DD Boost managed file replication, use the same global listen port on both the source
and target Data Domain systems. To set the listen port, use the replication option
command as described in the EMC Data Domain Operating Sysem Command Reference
Guide.
File replication network preference
Use this option to set the preferred network type for DD Boost file replication to either
IPv4 or IPv6.
Managing certificates for DD Boost
A host certificate allows DD Boost client programs to verify the identity of the system
when establishing a connection. CA certificates identify certificate authorities that should
be trusted by the system. The topics in this section describe how to manage host and CA
certificates for DD Boost.
Adding a host certificate for DD Boost
Add a host certificate to your system. DD OS supports one host certificate for DD Boost.
Procedure
1. If you have not yet requested a host certificate, request one from a trusted CA.
2. When you have received a host certificate, copy or move it to the computer from which
you run DD Service Manager.
3. Start DD System Manager on the system to which you want to add a host certificate.
Note
DD System Manager supports certificate management only on the management
system (which is the system running DD System Manager).
4. Select Protocols > DD Boost > More Tasks > Manage Certificates....
Managing certificates for DD Boost
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Note
If you try to remotely manage certificates on a managed system, DD System Manager
displays an information message at the top of the certificate management dialog. To
manage certificates for a system, you must start DD System Manager on that system.
5. In the Host Certificate area, click Add.
6. To add a host certificate enclosed in a .p12 file, do the following:
a. Select I want to upload the certificate as a .p12 file.
b. Type the password in the Password box.
c. Click Browse and select the host certificate file to upload to the system.
d. Click Add.
7. To add a host certificate enclosed in a .pem file, do the following:
a. Select I want to upload the public key as a .pem file and use a generated private
key.
b. Click Browse and select the host certificate file to upload to the system.
c. Click Add.
Adding CA certificates for DD Boost
Add a certificate for a trusted CA to your system. DD OS supports multiple certificates for
trusted CAs.
Procedure
1. Obtain a certificate for the trusted CA.
2. Copy or move the trusted CA certificate to the computer from which you run DD Service
Manager.
3. Start DD System Manager on the system to which you want to add the CA certificate.
Note
DD System Manager supports certificate management only on the management
system (which is the system running DD System Manager).
4. Select Protocols > DD Boost > More Tasks > Manage Certificates....
Note
If you try to remotely manage certificates on a managed system, DD System Manager
displays an information message at the top of the certificate management dialog. To
manage certificates for a system, you must start DD System Manager on that system.
5. In the CA Certificates area, click Add.
The Add CA Certificate for DD Boost dialog appears.
6. To add a CA certificate enclosed in a .pem file, do the following:
a. Select I want to upload the certificate as a .pem file.
b. Click Browse, select the host certificate file to upload to the system, and click
Open.
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c. Click Add.
7. To add a CA certificate using copy and paste, do the following:
a. Copy the certificate text to the clipboard using the controls in your operating
system.
b. Select I want to copy and paste the certificate text.
c. Paste the certificate text in the box below the copy and paste selection.
d. Click Add.
Managing DD Boost client access and encryption
Use the DD Boost Settings tab to configure which specific clients, or set of clients, can
establish a DD Boost connection with the Data Domain System and whether or not the
client will use encryption. By default, the system is configured to allow all clients to have
access, with no encryption.
Note
Enabling in-flight encryption will impact system performance.
Adding a DD Boost client
Create an allowed DD Boost client and specify whether the client will use encryption.
Procedure
1. Select Protocols > DD Boost > Settings.
2. In the Allowed Clients section, click Create (+).
The Add Allowed Client dialog appears.
3. Enter the hostname of the client.
This can be a fully-qualified domain name (e.g. host1.emc.com) or a hostname with a
wildcard (e.g. *.emc.com).
4. Select the Encryption Strength.
The options are None (no encryption), Medium (AES128-SHA1), or High (AES256SHA1).
5. Select the Authentication Mode.
The options are One Way, Two Way, or Anonymous.
6. Click OK.
Modifying a DD Boost client
Change the name, encryption strength, and authentication mode of an allowed DD Boost
client.
Procedure
1. Select Protocols > DD Boost > Settings.
2. In the Allowed Clients list, select the client to modify.
3. Click the Edit button, which displays a pencil icon.
The Modify Allowed Client dialog appears.
Managing DD Boost client access and encryption
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4. To change the name of a client, edit the Client text.
5. To change the Encryption Strength, select the option.
The options are None (no encryption), Medium (AES128-SHA1), or High (AES256SHA1).
6. To change the Authentication Mode, select the option.
The options are One Way, Two Way, or Anonymous.
7. Click OK.
Removing a DD Boost client
Delete an allowed DD Boost client.
Procedure
1. Select Protocols > DD Boost > Settings.
2. Select the client from the list.
3. Click Delete (X).
The Delete Allowed Clients dialog appears.
4. Confirm and select the client name. Click OK.
About interface groups
This feature lets you combine multiple Ethernet links into a group and register only one
interface on the Data Domain system with the backup application. The DD Boost Library
negotiates with the Data Domain system to obtain the best interface to send data. Load
balancing provides higher physical throughput to the Data Domain system.
Configuring an interface group creates a private network within the Data Domain system,
comprised of the IP addresses designated as a group. Clients are assigned to a single
group, and the group interface uses load balancing to improve data transfer performance
and increase reliability.
For example, in the Symantec NetBackup environment, media server clients use a single
public network IP address to access the Data Domain system. All communication with the
Data Domain system is initiated via this administered IP connection, which is configured
on the NetBackup server.
If an interface group is configured, when the Data Domain system receives data from the
media server clients, the data transfer is load-balanced and distributed on all the
interfaces in the group, providing higher input/output throughput, especially for
customers who use multiple 1 GigE connections.
The data transfer is load-balanced based on the number of connections outstanding on
the interfaces. Only connections for backup and restore jobs are load-balanced. Check
the Active Connections for more information on the number of outstanding connections
on the interfaces in a group.
Should an interface in the group fail, all the in-flight jobs to that interface are
automatically resumed on healthy operational links (unbeknownst to the backup
applications). Any jobs that are started subsequent to the failure are also routed to a
healthy interface in the group. If the group is disabled or an attempt to recover on an
alternate interface fails, the administered IP is used for recovery. Failure in one group will
not utilize interfaces from another group.
Consider the following information when managing interface groups.
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The IP address must be configured on the Data Domain system, and its interface
enabled. To check the interface configuration, select Hardware > Ethernet > Interfaces
page, and check for free ports. See the net chapter of the EMC Data Domain Operating
System Command Reference Guide or the EMC Data Domain Operating System Initial
Configuration Guide for information about configuring an IP address for an interface.
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You can use the ifgroup commands to manage interface groups; these commands
are described in detail in the EMC Data Domain Operating System Command Reference
Guide.
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Interface groups provide full support for static IPv6 addresses, providing the same
capabilities for IPv6 as for IPv4. Concurrent IPv4 and IPv6 client connections are
allowed. A client connected with IPv6 sees IPv6 ifgroup interfaces only. A client
connected with IPv4 sees IPv4 ifgroup interfaces only. Individual ifgroups include all
IPv4 addresses or all IPv6 addresses. For details, see the EMC Data Domain Boost
Administration Guide.
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Configured interfaces are listed in Active Connections, on the lower portion of the
Activities page.
Note
See Using DD Boost on HA systems on page 288 for important information about using
interface groups with HA systems.
The topics that follow describe how to manage interface groups.
Interfaces
IFGROUP supports physical and virtual interfaces.
An IFGROUP interface is a member of a single IFGROUP <group-name> and may consist of:
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Physical interface such as eth0a
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Virtual interface, created for link failover or link aggregation, such as veth1
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Virtual alias interface such as eth0a:2 or veth1:2
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Virtual VLAN interface such as eth0a.1 or veth1.1
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Within an IFGROUP <group-name>, all interfaces must be on unique interfaces
(Ethernet, virtual Ethernet) to ensure failover in the event of network error.
IFGROUP provides full support for static IPv6 addresses, providing the same capabilities
for IPv6 as for IPv4. Concurrent IPv4 and IPv6 client connections are allowed. A client
connected with IPv6 sees IPv6 IFGROUP interfaces only. A client connected with IPv4 sees
IPv4 IFGROUP interfaces only. Individual IFGROUPs include all IPv4 addresses or all IPv6
addresses.
For more information, see the EMC Data Domain Boost Administration Guide.
Interface enforcement
IFGROUP lets you enforce private network connectivity, ensuring that a failed job does not
reconnect on the public network after network errors.
When interface enforcement is enabled, a failed job can only retry on an alternative
private network IP address. Interface enforcement is only available for clients that use
IFGROUP interfaces.
Interface enforcement is off (FALSE) by default. To enable interface enforcement, you
must add the following setting to the system registry:
system.ENFORCE_IFGROUP_RW=TRUE
Interfaces
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After you've made this entry in the registry, you must do a filesys restart for the
setting to take effect.
For more information, see the EMC Data Domain Boost Administration Guide.
Clients
IFGROUP supports various naming formats for clients. Client selection is based on a
specified order of precedence.
An IFGROUP client is a member of a single ifgroup <group-name> and may consist of:
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A fully qualified domain name (FQDN) such as ddboost.datadomain.com
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Wild cards such as *.datadomain.com or “*”
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A short name for the client, such as ddboost
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Client public IP range, such as 128.5.20.0/24
Prior to write or read processing, the client requests an IFGROUP IP address from the
server. To select the client IFGROUP association, the client information is evaluated
according to the following order of precedence.
1. IP address of the connected Data Domain system. If there is already an active
connection between the client and the Data Domain system, and the connection
exists on the interface in the IFGROUP, then the IFGROUP interfaces are made
available for the client.
2. Connected client IP range. An IP mask check is done against the client source IP; if
the client's source IP address matches the mask in the IFGROUP clients list, then the
IFGROUP interfaces are made available for the client.
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For IPv4, xx.xx.xx.0/24 provides a 24-bit mask against the connecting IP.
The /24 represents what bits are masked when the client's source IP address is
evaluated for access to the IFGROUP. For IPv4, 16, 20, 24, 28, and 32 bit masks
are supported.
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For IPv6, xxxx::0/112 provides a 112-bit mask against the connecting IP.
The /112 represents what bits are masked when the client's source IP address is
evaluated for access to the IFGROUP. For IPv6, 64, 112, and 128 bit masks are
supported.
This host-range check is useful for separate VLANs with many clients where there isn't
a unique partial hostname (domain).
3. Client Name: abc-11.d1.com
4. Client Domain Name: *.d1.com
5. All Clients: *
For more information, see the EMC Data Domain Boost for Partner Integration Administration
Guide.
Creating interface groups
Use the IP Network tab to create interface groups and to add interfaces and clients to the
groups.
Multiple interface groups improve the efficiency of DD Boost by allowing you to:
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Configure DD Boost to use specific interfaces configured into groups.
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Assign clients to one of those interface groups.
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Monitor which interfaces are active with DD Boost clients.
Create interface groups first, and then add clients (as new media servers become
available) to an interface group.
Procedure
1. Select Protocols > DD Boost > IP Network.
2. In the Interface Groups section, click Add (+).
3. Enter the interface group name.
4. Select one or more interfaces. A maximum of 32 interfaces can be configured.
Note
Depending upon aliasing configurations, some interfaces may not be selectable if
they are sharing a physical interface with another interface in the same group. This is
because each interface within the group must be on a different physical interface to
ensure fail-over recovery.
5. Click OK.
6. In the Configured Clients section, click Add (+).
7. Enter a fully qualified client name or *.mydomain.com.
Note
The * client is initially available to the default group. The * client may only be a
member of one ifgroup.
8. Select a previously configured interface group, and click OK.
Enabling and disabling interface groups
Use the IP Network tab to enable and disable interface groups.
Procedure
1. Select Protocols > DD Boost > IP Network.
2. In the Interface Groups section, select the interface group in the list.
Note
If the interface group does not have both clients and interfaces assigned, you cannot
enable the group.
3. Click Edit (pencil).
4. Click Enabled to enable the interface group; clear the checkbox to disable.
5. Click OK.
Modifying an interface group’s name and interfaces
Use the IP Network tab to change an interface group's name and the interfaces
associated with the group.
Procedure
1. Select Protocols > DD Boost > IP Network.
Enabling and disabling interface groups
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2. In the Interface Groups section, select the interface group in the list.
3. Click Edit (pencil).
4. Retype the name to modify the name.
The group name must be one to 24 characters long and contain only letters, numbers,
underscores, and dashes. It cannot be the same as any other group name and cannot
be “default”, “yes”, “no”, or “all.”
5. Select or deselect client interfaces in the Interfaces list.
Note
If you remove all interfaces from the group, it will be automatically disabled.
6. Click OK.
Deleting an interface group
Use the IP Network tab to delete an interface group. Deleting an interface group deletes
all interfaces and clients associated with the group.
Procedure
1. Select Protocols > DD Boost > IP Network.
2. In the Interface Groups section, select the interface group in the list. The default group
cannot be deleted.
3. Click Delete (X).
4. Confirm the deletion.
Adding a client to an interface group
Use the IP Network tab to add clients to interface groups.
Procedure
1. Select Protocols > DD Boost > IP Network.
2. In the Configured Clients section, click Add (+).
3. Enter a name for the client.
Client names must be unique and may consist of:
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FQDN
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*.domain
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* (for the default group only)
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Client public IP range:
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For IPv4, xx.xx.xx.0/24 provides a 24-bit mask against the connecting IP.
The /24 represents what bits are masked when the client's source IP address is
evaluated for access to the IFGROUP.
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For IPv6, xxxx::0/112 provides a 112-bit mask against the connecting IP.
The /112 represents what bits are masked when the client's source IP address
is evaluated for access to the IFGROUP.
Client names have a maximum length of 128 characters.
4. Select a previously configured interface group, and click OK.
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Modifying a client’s name or interface group
Use the IP Network tab to change a client's name or interface group.
Procedure
1. Select Protocols > DD Boost > IP Network.
2. In the Configured Clients section, select the client.
3. Click Edit (pencil).
4. Type a new client name.
Client names must be unique and may consist of:
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FQDN
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*.domain
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* (for the default group only)
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Client public IP range:
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For IPv4, xx.xx.xx.0/24 provides a 24-bit mask against the connecting IP.
The /24 represents what bits are masked when the client's source IP address is
evaluated for access to the IFGROUP.
n
For IPv6, xxxx::0/112 provides a 112-bit mask against the connecting IP.
The /112 represents what bits are masked when the client's source IP address
is evaluated for access to the IFGROUP.
Client names have a maximum length of 128 characters.
5. Select a new interface group from the menu.
Note
The old interface group is disabled if it has no clients.
6. Click OK.
Deleting a client from the interface group
Use the IP Network tab to delete a client from an interface group.
Procedure
1. Select Protocols > DD Boost > IP Network.
2. In the Configured Clients section, select the client.
3. Click Delete (X).
Note
If the interface group to which the client belongs has no other clients, the interface
group is disabled.
4. Confirm the deletion.
Using interface groups for Managed File Replication (MFR)
Interface groups can be used to control the interfaces used for DD Boost MFR, to direct
the replication connection over a specific network, and to use multiple network interfaces
Modifying a client’s name or interface group
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with high bandwidth and reliability for failover conditions. All Data Domain IP types are
supported—IPv4 or IPv6, Alias IP/VLAN IP, and LACP/failover aggregation.
Note
Interface groups used for replication are different from the interface groups previously
explained and are supported for DD Boost Managed File Replication (MFR) only. For
detailed information about using interface groups for MFR, see the EMC Data Domain
Boost for Partner Integration Administration Guide or the EMC Data Domain Boost for
OpenStorage Administration Guide.
Without the use of interface groups, configuration for replication requires several steps:
1. Adding an entry in the /etc/hosts file on the source Data Domain system for the
target Data Domain system and hard coding one of the private LAN network interfaces
as the destination IP address.
2. Adding a route on the source Data Domain system to the target Data Domain system
specifying a physical or virtual port on the source Data Domain system to the remote
destination IP address.
3. Configuring LACP through the network on all switches between the Data Domain
systems for load balancing and failover.
4. Requiring different applications to use different names for the target Data Domain
system to avoid naming conflicts in the /etc/hosts file.
Using interface groups for replication simplifies this configuration through the use of the
DD OS System Manager or DD OS CLI commands. Using interface groups to configure the
replication path lets you:
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Redirect a hostname-resolved IP address away from the public network, using
another private Data Domain system IP address.
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Identify an interface group based on configured selection criteria, providing a single
interface group where all the interfaces are reachable from the target Data Domain
system.
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Select a private network interface from a list of interfaces belonging to a group,
ensuring that the interface is healthy.
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Provide load balancing across multiple Data Domain interfaces within the same
private network.
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Provide a failover interface for recovery for the interfaces of the interface group.
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Provide host failover if configured on the source Data Domain system.
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Use Network Address Translation (NAT)
The selection order for determining an interface group match for file replication is:
1. Local MTree (storage-unit) path and a specific remote Data Domain hostname
2. Local MTree (storage-unit) path with any remote Data Domain hostname
3. Any MTree (storage-unit) path with a specific Data Domain hostname
The same MTree can appear in multiple interface groups only if it has a different Data
Domain hostname. The same Data Domain hostname can appear in multiple interface
groups only if it has a different MTree path. The remote hostname is expected to be an
FQDN, such as dd890-1.emc.com.
The interface group selection is performed locally on both the source Data Domain
system and the target Data Domain system, independent of each other. For a WAN
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replication network, only the remote interface group needs to be configured since the
source IP address corresponds to the gateway for the remote IP address.
Adding a replication path to an interface group
Use the IP Network tab to add replication paths to interface groups.
Procedure
1. Select Protocols > DD Boost > IP Network.
2. In the Configured Replication Paths section, click Add (+).
3. Enter values for MTree and/or Remote Host.
4. Select a previously configured interface group, and click OK.
Modifying a replication path for an interface group
Use the IP Network tab to modify replication paths for interface groups.
Procedure
1. Select Protocols > DD Boost > IP Network.
2. In the Configured Replication Paths section, select the replication path.
3. Click Edit (pencil).
4. Modify any or all values for MTree, Remote Host, or Interface Group.
5. Click OK.
Deleting a replication path for an interface group
Use the IP Network tab to delete replication paths for interface groups.
Procedure
1. Select Protocols > DD Boost > IP Network.
2. In the Configured Replication Paths section, select the replication path.
3. Click Delete (X).
4. In the Delete Replication Path(s) dialog, click OK.
Destroying DD Boost
Use this option to permanently remove all of the data (images) contained in the storage
units. When you disable or destroy DD Boost, the DD Boost FC service is also disabled.
Only an administrative user can destroy DD Boost.
Procedure
1. Manually remove (expire) the corresponding backup application catalog entries.
Note
If multiple backup applications are using the same Data Domain system, then remove
all entries from each of those applications’ catalogs.
2. Select Protocols > DD Boost > More Tasks > Destroy DD Boost....
3. Enter your administrative credentials when prompted.
4. Click OK.
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Configuring DD Boost-over-Fibre Channel
In earlier versions of DD OS, all communication between the DD Boost Library and any
Data Domain system was performed using IP networking. DD OS now offers Fibre Channel
as an alternative transport mechanism for communication between the DD Boost Library
and the Data Domain system.
Note
Windows, Linux, HP-UX (64-bit Itanium architecture), AIX, and Solaris client environments
are supported.
Enabling DD Boost users
Before you can configure the DD Boost-over-FC service on a Data Domain system, you
must add one or more DD Boost users and enable DD Boost.
Before you begin
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Log in to System Manager. For instructions, see “Logging In and Out of DD System
Manager.”
CLI equivalent
login as: sysadmin
Data Domain OS 5.7.x.x-12345
Using keyboard-interactive authentication.
Password:
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If you are using the CLI, ensure that the SCSI target daemon is enabled:
# scsitarget enable
Please wait ...
SCSI Target subsystem is enabled.
Note
If you are using System Manager, the SCSI target daemon is automatically enabled
when you enable the DD Boost-over-FC service (later in this procedure).
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Verify that the DD Boost license is installed. In System Manager, select Protocols > DD
Boost > Settings. If the Status indicates that DD Boost is not licensed, click Add
License and enter a valid license in the Add License Key dialog box.
CLI equivalents
# license show
# license add license-code
Procedure
1. Select Protocols > DD Boost > Settings.
2. In the Users with DD Boost Access section, specify one or more DD Boost user names.
A DD Boost user is also a DD OS user. When specifying a DD Boost user name, you can
select an existing DD OS user name, or you can create a new DD OS user name and
make that name a DD Boost user. This release supports multiple DD Boost users. For
detailed instructions, see “Specifying DD Boost User Names.”
CLI equivalents
# user add username [password password]
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Working with DD Boost
# ddboost set user-name exampleuser
3. Click Enable to enable DD Boost.
CLI equivalent
# ddboost enable
Starting DDBOOST, please wait...............
DDBOOST is enabled.
Results
You are now ready to configure the DD Boost-over-FC service on the Data Domain system.
Configuring DD Boost
After you have added user(s) and enabled DD Boost, you need to enable the Fibre
Channel option and specify the DD Boost Fibre Channel server name. Depending on your
application, you may also need to create one or more storage units and install the DD
Boost API/plug-in on media servers that will access the Data Domain system.
Procedure
1. Select Protocols > DD Boost > Fibre Channel.
2. Click Enable to enable Fibre Channel transport.
CLI equivalent
# ddboost option set fc enabled
Please wait...
DD Boost option "FC" set to enabled.
3. To change the DD Boost Fibre Channel server name from the default (hostname), click
Edit, enter a new server name, and click OK.
CLI equivalent
# ddboost fc dfc-server-name set DFC-ddbeta2
DDBoost dfc-server-name is set to "DFC-ddbeta2" for DDBoost FC.
Configure clients to use "DFC-DFC-ddbeta2" for DDBoost FC.
4. Select Protocols > DD Boost > Storage Units to create a storage unit (if not already
created by the application).
You must create at least one storage unit on the Data Domain system, and a DD Boost
user must be assigned to that storage unit. For detailed instructions, see “Creating a
Storage Unit.”
CLI equivalent
# ddboost storage-unit create storage_unit_name-su
5. Install the DD Boost API/plug-in (if necessary, based on the application).
The DD Boost OpenStorage plug-in software must be installed on NetBackup media
servers that need to access the Data Domain system. This plug-in includes the
required DD Boost Library that integrates with the Data Domain system. For detailed
installation and configuration instructions, see the Data Domain Boost for OpenStorage
Administration Guide or the Data Domain Boost Administration Guide.
Configuring DD Boost
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Results
You are now ready to verify connectivity and create access groups.
Verifying connectivity and creating access groups
Go to Hardware > Fibre Channel > Resources to manage initiators and endpoints for access
points. Go to Protocols > DD Boost > Fibre Channel to create and manage DD Boost-over-FC
access groups.
Note
Avoid making access group changes on a Data Domain system during active backup or
restore jobs. A change may cause an active job to fail. The impact of changes during
active jobs depends on a combination of backup software and host configurations.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Fibre Channel > Resources > Initiators to verify that initiators are
present.
It is recommended that you assign aliases to initiators to reduce confusion during the
configuration process.
CLI equivalent
# scsitarget initiator show list
Initiator
System Address
---------------------------------initiator-1
21:00:00:24:ff:31:b7:16
initiator-2
21:00:00:24:ff:31:b8:32
initiator-3
25:00:00:21:88:00:73:ee
initiator-4
50:06:01:6d:3c:e0:68:14
initiator-5
50:06:01:6a:46:e0:55:9a
initiator-6
21:00:00:24:ff:31:b7:17
initiator-7
21:00:00:24:ff:31:b8:33
initiator-8
25:10:00:21:88:00:73:ee
initiator-9
50:06:01:6c:3c:e0:68:14
initiator-10
50:06:01:6b:46:e0:55:9a
tsm6_p23
21:00:00:24:ff:31:ce:f8
----------------------------------
Group
---------n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
SetUp_Test
----------
Service
------n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
VTL
-------
2. To assign an alias to an initiator, select one of the initiators and click the pencil (edit)
icon. In the Name field of the Modify Initiator dialog, enter the alias and click OK.
CLI equivalents
# scsitarget initiator rename initiator-1 initiator-renamed
Initiator 'initiator-1' successfully renamed.
# scsitarget initiator show list
Initiator
System Address
--------------------------------------initiator-2
21:00:00:24:ff:31:b8:32
initiator-renamed
21:00:00:24:ff:31:b7:16
---------------------------------------
Group
---------n/a
n/a
----------
Service
------n/a
n/a
-------
3. On the Resources tab, verify that endpoints are present and enabled.
CLI equivalent
# scsitarget endpoint show list
-------------------------endpoint-fc-0
5a
endpoint-fc-1
5b
--------------------------
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-----------FibreChannel
FibreChannel
------------
------Yes
Yes
-------
-----Online
Online
------
Working with DD Boost
4. Go to Protocols > DD Boost > Fibre Channel.
5. In the DD Boost Access Groups area, click the + icon to add an access group.
6. Enter a unique name for the access group. Duplicate names are not supported.
CLI equivalent
# ddboost fc group create test-dfc-group
DDBoost FC Group "test-dfc-group" successfully created.
7. Select one or more initiators. Optionally, replace the initiator name by entering a new
one. Click Next.
CLI equivalent
#ddboost fc group add test-dfc-group initiator initiator-5
Initiator(s) "initiator-5" added to group "test-dfc-group".
An initiator is a port on an HBA attached to a backup client that connects to the
system for the purpose of reading and writing data using the Fibre Channel protocol.
The WWPN is the unique World-Wide Port Name of the Fibre Channel port in the media
server.
8. Specify the number of DD Boost devices to be used by the group. This number
determines which devices the initiator can discover and, therefore, the number of I/O
paths to the Data Domain system. The default is one, the minimum is one, and the
maximum is 64.
CLI equivalent
# ddboost fc group modify Test device-set count 5
Added 3 devices.
See the Data Domain Boost for OpenStorage Administration Guide for the recommended
value for different clients.
9. Indicate which endpoints to include in the group: all, none, or select from the list of
endpoints. Click Next.
CLI equivalents
# scsitarget group add Test device ddboost-dev8 primary-endpoint
all
secondary-endpoint all
Device 'ddboost-dev8' successfully added to group.
# scsitarget group add Test device ddboost-dev8 primary-endpoint
endpoint-fc-1 secondary-endpoint fc-port-0
Device 'ddboost-dev8' is already in group 'Test'.
When presenting LUNs via attached FC ports on HBAs, ports can be designated as
primary, secondary or none. A primary port for a set of LUNs is the port that is currently
advertizing those LUNs to a fabric. A secondary port is a port that will broadcast a set
of LUNs in the event of primary path failure (this requires manual intervention). A
setting of none is used in the case where you do not wish to advertize selected LUNs.
The presentation of LUNs is dependent upon the SAN topology.
10. Review the Summary and make any modifications. Click Finish to create the access
group, which is displayed in the DD Boost Access Groups list.
CLI equivalent
# scsitarget group show detailed
Verifying connectivity and creating access groups
287
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Note
To change settings for an existing access group, select it from the list and click the
pencil icon (Modify).
Deleting access groups
Use the Fibre Channel tab to delete access groups.
Procedure
1. Select Protocols > DD Boost > Fibre Channel.
2. Select the group to be deleted from the DD Boost Access Groups list.
Note
You cannot delete a group that has initiators assigned to it. Edit the group to remove
the initiators first.
3. Click Delete (X).
Using DD Boost on HA systems
HA provides seamless failover of any application using DD Boost—that is, any backup or
restore operation continues with no manual intervention required. All other DD Boost
user scenarios are supported on HA systems as well, including managed file replication
(MFR), distributed segment processing (DSP), filecopy, and dynamic interface groups
(DIG).
Note these special considerations for using DD Boost on HA systems:
l
On HA-enabled Data Domain systems, failovers of the DD server occur in less than 10
minutes. However, recovery of DD Boost applications may take longer than this,
because Boost application recovery cannot begin until the DD server failover is
complete. In addition, Boost application recovery cannot start until the application
invokes the Boost library.
l
DD Boost on HA systems requires that the Boost applications be using Boost HA
libraries; applications using non-HA Boost libraries do not see seamless failover.
l
MFR will fail over seamlessly when both the source and destination systems are HAenabled. MFR is also supported on partial HA configurations (that is, when either the
source or destination system is enabled, but not both) when the failure occurs on the
HA-enabled system. For more information, see the EMC DD Boost for OpenStorage
Administration Guide or the EMC DD Boost for Partner Integration Administration Guide.
l
Dynamic interface groups should not include IP addresses associated with the direct
interconnection between the active and standby Data Domain systems.
l
DD Boost clients must be configured to use floating IP addresses.
About the DD Boost tabs
Learn to use the DD Boost tabs in System Manager.
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Working with DD Boost
Settings
Use the Settings tab to enable or disable DD Boost, select clients and users, and specify
advanced options.
The Settings tab shows the DD Boost status (Enabled or Disabled). Use the Status button
to switch between Enabled or Disabled.
Under Allowed Clients, select the clients that are to have access to the system. Use the
Add, Modify, and Delete buttons to manage the list of clients.
Under Users with DD Boost Access, select the users that are to have DD Boost access.
Use the Add, Change Password, and Remove buttons to manage the list of users.
Expand Advanced Options to see which advanced options are enabled. Go to More Tasks
> Set Options to reset these options.
Active Connections
Use the Active Connections tab to see information about clients, interfaces, and
outbound files.
Table 114 Connected client information
Item
Description
Client
The name of the connected client.
Idle
Whether the client is idle (Yes) or not (No).
CPUs
The number of CPUs that the client has, such as 8.
Memory (GiB)
The amount of memory (in GiB) the client has, such as 7.8.
Plug-In Version
The DD Boost plug-in version installed, such as 2.2.1.1.
OS Version
The operating system version installed, such as Linux 2.6.1
7-1.2142_FC4smp x86_64.
Application Version
The backup application version installed, such as NetBackup
6.5.6.
Encrypted
Whether the connection is encrypted (Yes) or not (No).
DSP
Whether or not the connection is using Distributed Segment
Processing (DSP) or not.
Transport
Type of transport being used, such as IPv4, IPv6 or DFC (Fibre
Channel).
Table 115 Configured interface connection information
Item
Description
Interface
The IP address of the interface.
Interface Group
One of the following:
Backup
l
The name of the interface group.
l
None, if not a member of one.
The number of active backup connections.
Settings
289
Working with DD Boost
Table 115 Configured interface connection information (continued)
Item
Description
Restore
The number of active restore connections.
Replication
The number of active replication connections.
Synthetic
The number of synthetic backups.
Total
The total number of connections for the interface.
Table 116 Outbound file replication information
Outbound files item
Description
File Name
The name of the outgoing image file.
Target Host
The name of the host receiving the file.
Logical Bytes to Transfer
The number of logical bytes to be transferred.
Logical Bytes Transferred
The number of logical bytes already transferred.
Low Bandwidth Optimization
The number of low-bandwidth bytes already transferred.
IP Network
The IP Network tab lists configured interface groups. Details include whether or not a
group is enabled and any configured client interfaces. Administrators can use the
Interface Group menu to view which clients are associated with an interface group.
Fibre Channel
The Fibre Channel tab lists configured DD Boost access groups. Use the Fibre Channel tab
to create and delete access groups and to configure initiators, devices, and endpoints for
DD Boost access groups.
Storage Units
Use the Storage Unit tab to create, modify, and delete storage units. To see detailed
information about a listed storage unit, select its name.
Table 117 Storage unit: Detailed information
Item
Description
Existing Storage Units
290
Storage Unit Name
The name of the storage unit.
Pre-Comp Used
The amount of pre-compressed storage already used.
Pre-Comp Soft Limit
Current value of soft quota set for the storage unit.
% of Pre-Comp Soft Limit Used
Percentage of hard limit quota used.
Pre-Comp Hard Limit
Current value of hard quota set for the storage unit.
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
Working with DD Boost
Table 117 Storage unit: Detailed information (continued)
Item
Description
% of Pre-Comp Hard Limit Used
Percentage of hard limit quota used.
Storage Unit Details
Select the storage unit in the list.
Total Files
The total number of file images on the storage unit.
Download Files
Link to download storage unit file details in .tsv format. You
must allow pop-ups to use this function.
Compression Ratio
The compression ratio achieved on the files.
Metadata Size
The amount of space used for metadata information.
Storage Unit Status
The current status of the storage unit (combinations are
supported). Status can be:
l
D—Deleted
l
RO—Read-only
l
RW—Read/write
l
RD—Replication destination
l
RLE—Retention lock enabled
l
RLD—Retention lock disabled
Quota Enforcement
Click Quota to go to the Data Management Quota page, which
lists hard and soft quota values/percentage used by MTrees.
Quota Summary
Percentage of Hard Limit used.
Original Size
The size of the file before compression was performed.
Global Compression Size
The total size after global compression of the files in the
storage unit when they were written.
Locally Compressed Size
Total size after local compression of the files in the storage
unit when they were written.
Storage Units
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CHAPTER 13
DD Virtual Tape Library
This chapter includes:
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
DD Virtual Tape Library overview......................................................................... 294
Planning a VTL.....................................................................................................294
Managing a VTL................................................................................................... 299
Working with libraries......................................................................................... 303
Working with a selected library............................................................................306
Viewing changer information...............................................................................314
Working with drives.............................................................................................315
Working with a selected drive..............................................................................317
Working with tapes............................................................................................. 317
Working with the vault.........................................................................................319
Working with access groups................................................................................ 319
Working with a selected access group................................................................. 323
Working with resources....................................................................................... 325
Working with pools..............................................................................................330
Working with a selected pool...............................................................................332
DD Virtual Tape Library
293
DD Virtual Tape Library
DD Virtual Tape Library overview
EMC Data Domain Virtual Tape Library (VTL) is a disk-based backup system that emulates
the use of physical tapes. It enables backup applications to connect to and manage DD
system storage using functionality almost identical to a physical tape library.
Virtual tape drives are accessible to backup software in the same way as physical tape
drives. After you create these drives in a VTL, they appear to the backup software as SCSI
tape drives. The VTL, itself, appears to the backup software as a SCSI robotic device
accessed through standard driver interfaces. However, the backup software (not the DD
system that is configured as a VTL) manages the movement of the media changer and
backup images.
The following terms have special meaning when used with VTL:
l
Library: A library emulates a physical tape library with drives, changer, CAPs
(cartridge access ports), and slots (cartridge slots).
l
Tape: A tape is represented as a file. Tapes can be imported from the vault to a
library. Tapes can be exported from a library to the vault. Tapes can be moved within
a library across drives, slots, and CAPs.
l
Pool: A pool is a collection of tapes that maps to a directory on the file system. Pools
are used to replicate tapes to a destination. You can convert directory-based pools to
MTree-based pools to take advantage of the greater functionality of MTrees.
l
Vault: The vault holds tapes not being used by any library. Tapes reside in either a
library or the vault.
VTL has been tested with, and is supported by, specific backup software and hardware
configurations. For more information, see the appropriate Backup Compatibility Guide on
the EMC Online Support Site.
VTL supports simultaneous use of the tape library and file system (NFS/CIFS/DD Boost)
interfaces.
When DR (disaster recovery) is needed, pools and tapes can be replicated to a remote DD
system using the DD Replicator.
To protect data on tapes from modification, tapes can be locked using Retention Lock
Governance software.
Note
At present, for 16 Gb/s, EMC supports fabric and point-to-point topologies. Other
topologies will present issues.
Planning a VTL
The VTL (Virtual Tape Library) feature has very specific requirements, such as proper
licensing, interface cards, user permissions, etc. These requirements are listed here,
complete with details and recommendations.
l
294
An appropriate VTL license.
n
VTL is a licensed feature, and you must use NDMP (Network Data Management
Protocol) over IP (Internet Protocol) or VTL directly over FC (Fibre Channel).
n
An additional license is required for IBM i systems – the I/OS license.
n
Adding a VTL license through the DD System Manager automatically disables and
enables the VTL feature.
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
DD Virtual Tape Library
l
l
l
An installed FC interface card or VTL configured to use NDMP.
n
If the VTL communication between a backup server and a DD system is through an
FC interface, the DD system must have an FC interface card installed. Notice that
whenever an FC interface card is removed from (or changed within) a DD system,
any VTL configuration associated with that card must be updated.
n
If the VTL communication between a backup server and a DD system is through
NDMP, no FC interface card is required. However, you must configure the
TapeServer access group. Also, when using NDMP, all initiator and port
functionality does not apply.
A backup software minimum record (block) size.
n
EMC strongly recommends that backup software be set to use a minimum record
(block) size of 64 KiB or larger. Larger sizes usually give faster performance and
better data compression.
n
Depending on your backup application, if you change the size after the initial
configuration, data written with the original size might become unreadable.
Appropriate user access to the system.
n
For basic tape operations and monitoring, only a user login is required.
n
To enable and configure VTL services and perform other configuration tasks, a
sysadmin login is required.
VTL limits
Before setting up or using a VTL, review these limits on size, slots, etc.
l
I/O Size – The maximum supported I/O size for any DD system using VTL is 1 MB.
l
Libraries – VTL supports a maximum of 64 libraries per DD system (that is, 64 VTL
instances on each DD system).
l
Initiators – VTL supports a maximum of 1024 initiators or WWPNs (world-wide port
names) per DD system.
l
Tape Drives – Information about tape drives is presented in the next section.
l
Data Streams – Information about data streams is presented in the following table.
Table 118 Data streams sent to a Data Domain system
Model
RAM/ NVRAM
Backup
write
streams
Backup
read
streams
Repla
source
streams
Repla dest
streams
Mixed
DD140, DD160,
DD610
4 GB or 6 GB /
0.5 GB
16
4
15
20
w<= 16 ; r<= 4 ReplSrc<=15;
ReplDest<=20; ReplDest+w<=16; w
+r+ReplSrc <=16;Total<=20
DD620, DD630,
DD640
8 GB / 0.5 GB or
1 GB
20
16
30
20
w<=20; r<=16; ReplSrc<=30;
ReplDest<=20; ReplDest+w<=20;
Total<=30
DD640, DD670
16 GB or 20 GB / 90
1 GB
30
60
90
w<=90; r<=30; ReplSrc<=60;
ReplDest<=90; ReplDest+w<=90;
Total<=90
DD670, DD860
36 GB / 1 GB
50
90
90
w<=90; r<=50; ReplSrc<=90;
ReplDest<=90; ReplDest+w<=90;
Total<=140
90
VTL limits
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Table 118 Data streams sent to a Data Domain system (continued)
Model
RAM/ NVRAM
Backup
write
streams
Backup
read
streams
Repla
source
streams
Repla dest
streams
Mixed
DD860
72 GBb / 1 GB
90
50
90
90
w<=90; r<=50; ReplSrc<=90;
ReplDest<=90; ReplDest+w<=90;
Total<=140
DD890
96 GB / 2 GB
180
50
90
180
w<=180; r<=50; ReplSrc
<=90;ReplDest<=180; ReplDest
+w<=180; Total<=180
DD990
128 or 256 GBb / 540
4 GB
150
270
540
w<=540; r<=150; ReplSrc<=270;
ReplDest<=540; ReplDest+w<=540;
Total<=540
DD2200
8 GB
35
6
26
35
w<=35; r<=6; ReplSrc <= 26;
ReplDest <= 20; ReplDest+w <= 35;
Total <= 35
DD2200
16 GB
60
16
56
42
w<=60; r<=16; ReplSrc <= 56;
ReplDest <= 42; ReplDest+w <= 60;
Total <= 60
DD2500
32 or 64 GB / 2
GB
180
50
90
180
w<=180; r<=50; ReplSrc<=90;
ReplDest<=180; ReplDest+w<=180;
Total<=180
DD4200
128 GBb / 4 GB
270
75
150
270
w<=270; r<=75; ReplSrc<=150;
ReplDest<=270; ReplDest+w<=270;
Total<=270
DD4500
192 GBb / 4 GB
270
75
150
270
w<=270; r<=75; ReplSrc<=150;
ReplDest<=270; ReplDest+w<=270;
Total<=270
DD7200
128 or 256 GBb / 540
4 GB
150
270
540
w<=540; r<=150; ReplSrc<=270;
ReplDest<=540; ReplDest+w<=540;
Total<=540
DD9500
256/512 GB
300
540
1080
w<=1885; r<=300; ReplSrc<=540;
ReplDest<=1080; ReplDest
+w<=1885; Total<=1885
1885
a. DirRepl, OptDup, MTreeRepl streams
b. The Data Domain Extended Retention software option is available only for these devices with extended (maximum) memory
l
Slots – VTL supports a maximum of:
n
32,000 slots per library
n
64,000 slots per DD system
The DD system automatically adds slots to keep the number of slots equal to, or
greater than, the number of drives.
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Note
Some device drivers (for example, IBM AIX atape device drivers) limit library
configurations to specific drive/slot limits, which may be less than what the DD
system supports. Backup applications, and drives used by those applications, may
be affected by this limitation.
l
CAPs (cartridge access ports) – VTL supports a maximum of:
n
100 CAPs per library
n
1000 CAPs per DD system
Number of drives supported by a VTL
The maximum number of drives supported by a VTL depends on the number of CPU cores
and the amount of memory installed (both RAM and NVRAM, if applicable) on a DD
system.
Note
There are no references to model numbers in this table because there are many
combinations of CPU cores and memories for each model, and the number of supported
drives depends only on the CPU cores and memories – not on the particular model, itself.
Table 119 Number of drives supported by a VTL
Number of CPU
cores
RAM (in GB)
NVRAM (in
GB)
Maximum number of supported
drives
Fewer than 32
4 or less
NA
64
More than 4, up to
38
NA
128
More than 38, up
to 128
NA
256
More than 128
NA
540
Up to 128
Less than 4
270
Up to 128
4 or more
540
More than 128
NA
540
40 to 59
NA
NA
540
60 or more
NA
NA
1080
32 to 39
Tape barcodes
When you create a tape, you must assign a unique barcode (never duplicate barcodes as
this can cause unpredictable behavior). Each barcode consists of eight characters: the
Number of drives supported by a VTL
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DD Virtual Tape Library
first six are numbers or uppercase letters (0-9, A-Z), and the last two are the tape code for
the supported tape type, as shown in the following table.
Note
Although a VTL barcode consists of eight characters, either six or eight characters may be
transmitted to a backup application, depending on the changer type.
Table 120 Tape Codes by Tape Type
Tape Type
Default Capacity (unless Tape Code
noted)
LTO-1
100 GiB
L1
LTO-1
50 GiB (non-default)
LAa
LTO-1
30 GiB (non-default)
LB
LTO-1
10 GiB (non-default)
LC
LTO-2
200 GiB
L2
LTO-3
400 GiB
L3
LTO-4
800 GiB
L4
LTO-5 (default)
1.5 TiB
L5
a.
For TSM, use the L2 tape code if the LA code is ignored.
For multiple tape libraries, barcodes are automatically incremented, if the sixth character
(just before the "L") is a number. If an overflow occurs (9 to 0), numbering moves one
position to the left. If the next character to increment is a letter, incrementation stops.
Here are a few sample barcodes and how each will be incremented:
l
000000L1 creates tapes of 100 GiB capacity and can accept a count of up to 100,000
tapes (from 000000 to 99999).
l
AA0000LA creates tapes of 50 GiB capacity and can accept a count of up to 10,000
tapes (from 0000 to 9999).
l
AAAA00LB creates tapes of 30GiB capacity and can accept a count of up to 100 tapes
(from 00 to 99).
l
AAAAAALC creates one tape of 10 GiB capacity. Only one tape can be created with
this name.
l
AAA350L1 creates tapes of 100 GiB capacity and can accept a count of up to 650
tapes (from 350 to 999).
l
000AAALA creates one tape of 50 GiB capacity. Only one tape can be created with
this name.
l
5M7Q3KLB creates one tape of 30 GiB capacity. Only one tape can be created with
this name.
LTO tape drive compatibility
You may have different generations of LTO (Linear Tape-Open) technology in your setup;
the compatibility between these generations is presented in tabular form.
In this table:
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298
RW = read and write compatible
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
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l
R = read-only compatible
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— = not compatible
Table 121 LTO tape drive compatibility
tape format
LTO-5
LTO-4
LTO-3
LTO-2
LTO-1
LTO-5
RW
LTO-4
RW
RW
—
—
—
LTO-3
R
RW
RW
—
—
LTO-2
R
RW
RW
—
LTO-1
—
R
RW
RW
Setting up a VTL
To set up a simple VTL, use the Configuration Wizard, which is described in the Getting
Started chapter.
Similar documentation is available in the EMC Data Domain Operating System Initial
Configuration Guide.
Then, continue with the following topics to enable the VTL, create libraries, and create
and import tapes.
HA systems and VTL
HA systems are compatible with VTL; however, if a VTL job is in progress during a failover,
the job will need to be restarted manually after the failover is complete.
The Data Domain Operating System Backup Compatibility Guide provides additional details
about the HBA, switch, firmware, and driver requirements for using VTL in an HA
environment.
Managing a VTL
You can manage a VTL using the Data Domain System Manager (DD System Manager) or
the Data Domain Operating System (DD OS) Command Line Interface (CLI). After you
login, you can check the status of your VTL process, check your license information, and
review and configure options.
Logging In
To use a graphical user interface (GUI) to manage your Virtual Tape Library (VTL), log in to
the DD System Manager.
CLI Equivalent
You can also log in at the CLI:
login as: sysadmin
Data Domain OS
Using keyboard-interactive authentication.
Password:
Enabling SCSI Target Daemon (CLI only)
If you do log in from the CLI, you must enable the scsitarget daemon (the Fibre Channel
service). This daemon is enabled during the VTL or DD Boost-FC enable selections in DD
System Manager. In the CLI, these processes need to be enabled separately.
Setting up a VTL
299
DD Virtual Tape Library
# scsitarget enable
Please wait ...
SCSI Target subsystem is enabled.
Accessing VTL
From the menu at the left of the DD System Manager, select Protocols > VTL.
Status
In the Virtual Tape Libraries > VTL Service area, you can see the status of your VTL process
is displayed at the top, for example, Enabled: Running. The first part of the status will be
Enabled (on) or Disabled (off). The second part will be one of the following process
states.
Table 122 VTL process states
State
Description
Running
VTL process is enabled and active (shown in green).
Starting
VTL process is starting.
Stopping
VTL process is being shut down.
Stopped
VTL process is disabled (shown in red).
Timing out
VTL process crashed and is attempting an automatic restart.
Stuck
After several failed automatic restarts, the VTL process is unable
to shut down normally, so an attempt is being made to kill it.
VTL License
The VTL License line tells you whether your VTL license has been applied. If it says
Unlicensed, select Add License. Enter your license key in the Add License Key dialog.
Select Next and OK.
Note
All license information should have been populated as part of the factory configuration
process; however, if the VTL option was purchased later, the VTL license key may not
have been available at that time.
CLI Equivalent
You can also verify that the VTL license has been installed at the CLI:
# license show
## License Key
-------------------1
DEFA-EFCD-FCDE-CDEF
2
EFCD-FCDE-CDEF-DEFA
--------------------
Feature
----------Replication
VTL
-----------
If the license is not present, each unit comes with documentation – a quick install card –
which will show the licenses that have been purchased. Enter the following command to
populate the license key.
# license add license-code
I/OS License (for IBM i users)
For customers of IBM i, the I/OS License line tells you whether your I/OS license has been
applied. If it says Unlicensed, select Add License. You must enter a valid I/OS license in
either of these formats: XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX or XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX. Your
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I/OS license must be installed before creating a library and drives to be used on an IBM i
system. Select Next and OK.
Enabling VTL
Enabling VTL broadcasts the WWN of the Data Domain HBA to customer fabric and
enables all libraries and library drives. If a forwarding plan is required in the form of
change control processes, this process should be enabled to facilitate zoning.
Procedure
1. Make sure that you have a VTL license and that the file system is enabled.
2. Select Virtual Tape Libraries > VTL Service.
3. To the right of the Status area, select Enable.
4. In the Enable Service dialog, select OK.
5. After VTL has been enabled, note that Status will change to Enabled: Running in
green. Also note that the configured VTL options are displayed in the Option Defaults
area.
CLI Equivalent
# vtl enable
Starting VTL, please wait ...
VTL is enabled.
Disabling VTL
Disabling VTL closes all libraries and shuts down the VTL process.
Procedure
1. Select Virtual Tape Libraries > VTL Service.
2. To the right of the Status area, select Disable.
3. In the Disable Service dialog, select OK.
4. After VTL has been disabled, notice that the Status has changed to Disabled: Stopped
in red.
CLI Equivalent
# vtl disable
VTL option defaults
The Option Default area of the VTL Service page displays the current settings for default
VTL options (auto-eject, auto-offline, and barcode-length) that you can configure.
In the Virtual Tape Libraries > VTL Service area, the current default options for your VTL are
displayed. Select Configure to change any of these values.
Table 123 Option Defaults
Item
Description
Property
Lists the configured options:
l
auto-eject
Enabling VTL
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Table 123 Option Defaults (continued)
Item
Description
Value
l
auto-offline
l
barcode-length
Provides the value for each configured option:
l
auto-eject: default (disabled), enabled, or disabled
l
auto-offline: default (disabled), enabled, or disabled
l
barcode-length: default (8), 6, or 8
Configuring VTL default options
You can configure VTL default options when you add a license, create a library, or any
time thereafter.
Note
VTLs are assigned global options, by default, and those options are updated whenever
global options change, unless you change them manually using this method.
Procedure
1. Select Virtual Tape Libraries > VTL Service.
2. In the Option Defaults area, select Configure. In the Configure Default Options dialog,
change any or all of the default options.
Table 124 VTL default options
302
Option
Values
Notes
auto-eject
default (disabled),
enable, or disable
Enabling auto-eject causes any tape put into a CAP (cartridge
access port) to automatically move to the virtual vault,
unless:
l
the tape came from the vault, in which case the tape
stays in the CAP.
l
an ALLOW_MEDIUM_REMOVAL command with a 0 value
(false) has been issued to the library to prevent the
removal of the medium from the CAP to the outside
world.
autooffline
default (disabled),
enable, or disable
Enabling auto-offline takes a drive offline automatically
before a tape move operation is performed.
barcodelength
default (8), 6 or 8
[automatically set to
6 for L180,
RESTORER-L180, and
DDVTL changer
models]
Although a VTL barcode consists of 8 characters, either 6 or
8 characters may be transmitted to a backup application,
depending on the changer type.
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
DD Virtual Tape Library
3. Select OK.
4. Or to disable all of these service options, select Reset to Factory, and the values will
be immediately reset to factory defaults.
Working with libraries
A library emulates a physical tape library with drives, changer, CAPs (cartridge access
ports), and slots (cartridge slots). Selecting Virtual Tape Libraries > VTL Service > Libraries
displays detailed information for all configured libraries.
Table 125 Library information
Item
Description
Name
The name of a configured library.
Drives
The number of drives configured in the library.
Slots
The number of slots configured in the library.
CAPs
The number of CAPs (cartridge access ports) configured in the
library.
From the More Tasks menu, you can create and delete libraries, as well as search for
tapes.
Creating libraries
VTL supports a maximum of 64 libraries per system, that is, 64 concurrently active virtual
tape library instances on each DD system.
Procedure
1. Select Virtual Tape Libraries > VTL Service > Libraries.
2. Select More Tasks > Library > Create
3. In the Create Library dialog, enter the following information:
Table 126 Create Library dialog
Field
User input
Library Name
Enter a name of from 1 to 32 alphanumeric characters.
Number of Drives
Enter the number of drives (from 1 to 98 (see Note). The number of
drives to be created will correspond to the number of data streams
that will write to a library.
Note
The maximum number of drives supported by a VTL depends on
the number of CPU cores and the amount of memory installed
(both RAM and NVRAM, if applicable) on a DD system.
Drive Model
Select the desired model from the drop-down list:
l
IBM-LTO-1
l
IBM-LTO-2
Working with libraries
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Table 126 Create Library dialog (continued)
Field
User input
l
IBM-LTO-3
l
IBM-LTO-4
l
IBM-LTO-5 (default)
l
HP-LTO-3
l
HP-LTO-4
Do not mix drive types, or media types, in the same library. This
can cause unexpected results and/or errors in the backup
operation.
Number of Slots
Enter the number of slots in the library. Here are some things to
consider:
l
The number of slots must be equal to or greater than the
number of drives.
l
You can have up to 32,000 slots per individual library
l
You can have up to 64,000 slots per system.
l
Try to have enough slots so tapes remain in the VTL and never
need to be exported to a vault – to avoid reconfiguring the VTL
and to ease management overhead.
l
Consider any applications that are licensed by the number of
slots.
As an example, for a standard 100-GB cartridge on a DD580, you
might configure 5000 slots. This would be enough to hold up tp
500 TB (assuming reasonably compressible data).
Number of CAPs
(Optional) Enter the number of cartridge access ports (CAPs).
l
You can have up to 100 CAPs per library.
l
You can have up to 1000 CAPs per system.
Check your particular backup software application documentation
on the EMC Online Support Site for guidance.
Changer Model Name
Select the desired model from the drop-down list:
l
L180 (default)
l
RESTORER-L180
l
TS3500 (which should be used for IBMi deployments)
l
I2000
l
I6000
l
DDVTL
Check your particular backup software application documentation
on the EMC Online Support Site for guidance. Also refer to the VTL
support matrix to see the compatibility of emulated libraries to
supported software.
Options
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Table 126 Create Library dialog (continued)
Field
User input
auto-eject
default (disabled), enable, disable
auto-offline
default (disabled), enable, disable
barcode-length
default (8), 6, 8 [automatically set to 6 for L180, RESTORER-L180,
and DDVTL changer models]
4. Select OK.
After the Create Library status dialog shows Completed, select OK.
The new library appears under the Libraries icon in the VTL Service tree, and the
options you have configured appear as icons under the library. Selecting the library
displays details about the library in the Information Panel.
Note that access to VTLs and drives is managed with Access Groups.
CLI Equivalent
# vtl add NewVTL model L180 slots 50 caps 5
This adds the VTL library, NewVTL. Use 'vtl show config NewVTL' to
view it.
# vtl drive add NewVTL count 4 model IBM-LTO-3
This adds 4 IBM-LTO-3 drives to the VTL library, NewVTL.
Deleting libraries
When a tape is in a drive within a library, and that library is deleted, the tape is moved to
the vault. However, the tape's pool does not change.
Procedure
1. Select Virtual Tape Libraries > VTL Service > Libraries.
2. Select More Tasks > Library > Delete.
3. In the Delete Libraries dialog, select or confirm the checkbox of the items to delete:
l
The name of each library, or
l
Library Names, to delete all libraries
4. Select Next.
5. Verify the libraries to delete, and select Submit in the confirmation dialogs.
6. After the Delete Libraries Status dialog shows Completed, select Close. The selected
libraries are deleted from the VTL.
CLI Equivalent
# vtl del OldVTL
Deleting libraries
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Searching for tapes
You can use a variety of criteria – location, pool, and/or barcode – to search for a tape.
Procedure
1. Select Virtual Tape Libraries or Pools.
2. Select the area to search (library, vault, pool).
3. Select More Tasks > Tapes > Search.
4. In the Search Tapes dialog, enter information about the tape(s) you want to find.
Table 127 Search Tapes dialog
Field
User input
Location
Specify a location, or leave the default (All).
Pool
Select the name of the pool in which to search for the tape. If no pools have been
created, use the Default pool.
Barcode
Specify a unique barcode. or leave the default (*) to return a group of tapes.
Barcode allows the wildcards ? and *, where ? matches any single character and *
matches 0 or more characters.
Count
Enter the maximum number of tapes you want to be returned to you. If you leave
this blank, the barcode default (*) is used.
5. Select Search.
Working with a selected library
Selecting Virtual Tape Libraries > VTL Service > Libraries > library displays detailed
information for a selected library.
Table 128 Devices
Item
Description
Device
The elements in the library, such a drives, slots, and CAPs
(cartridge access ports).
Loaded
The number of devices with media loaded.
Empty
The number of devices with no media loaded.
Total
The total number of loaded and empty devices.
Table 129 Options
306
Property
Value
auto-eject
enabled or disabled
auto-offline
enabled or disabled
barcode-length
6 or 8
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DD Virtual Tape Library
Table 129 Options (continued)
Table 130 Tapes
Item
Description
Pool
The name of the pool where the tapes are located.
Tape Count
The number of tapes in that pool.
Capacity
The total configured data capacity of the tapes in that pool, in
GiB (Gibibytes, the base-2 equivalent of GB, Gigabytes).
Used
The amount of space used on the virtual tapes in that pool.
Average Compression
The average amount of compression achieved on the data on
the tapes in that pool.
From the More Tasks menu, you can delete, rename, or set options for a library; create,
delete, import, export, or move tapes; and add or delete slots and CAPs.
Creating tapes
You can create tapes in either a library or a pool. If initiated from a pool, the system first
creates the tapes, then imports them to the library.
Procedure
1. Select Virtual Tape Libraries > VTL Service > Libraries > library or Vault or Pools > Pools >
pool.
2. Select More Tasks > Tapes > Create.
3. In the Create Tapes dialog, enter the following information about the tape:
Table 131 Create Tapes dialog
Field
User input
Library (if initiated
from a library)
If a drop-down menu is enabled, select the library or leave the default
selection.
Pool Name
Select the name of the pool in which the tape will reside, from the dropdown list. If no pools have been created, use the Default pool.
Number of Tapes
For a library, select from 1 to 20. For a pool, select from 1 to 100,000, or
leave the default (20). [Although the number of supported tapes is
unlimited, you can create no more than 100,000 tapes at a time.]
Starting Barcode
Enter the initial barcode number (using the format A99000LA).
Tape Capacity
(optional) Specify the number of GiBs from 1 to 4000 for each tape (this
setting overrides the barcode capacity setting). For efficient use of disk
space, use 100 GiB or fewer.
4. Select OK and Close.
CLI Equivalent
Creating tapes
307
DD Virtual Tape Library
# vtl tape add A00000L1 capacity 100 count 5 pool VTL_Pool
... added 5 tape(s)...
Note
You must auto-increment tape volume names in base10 format.
Deleting tapes
You can delete tapes from either a library or a pool. If initiated from a library, the system
first exports the tapes, then deletes them. The tapes must be in the vault, not in a library.
On a Replication destination DD system, deleting a tape is not permitted.
Procedure
1. Select Virtual Tape Libraries > VTL Service > Libraries > library or Vault or Pools > Pools >
pool.
2. Select More Tasks > Tapes > Delete.
3. In the Delete Tapes dialog, enter search information about the tapes to delete, and
select Search:
Table 132 Delete Tapes dialog
Field
User input
Location
If there is a drop-down list, select a library, or leave the default Vault selection.
Pool
Select the name of the pool in which to search for the tape. If no pools have been
created, use the Default pool.
Barcode
Specify a unique barcode, or leave the default (*) to search for a group of tapes.
Barcode allows the wildcards ? and *, where ? matches any single character and *
matches 0 or more characters.
Count
Enter the maximum number of tapes you want to be returned to you. If you leave
this blank, the barcode default (*) is used.
Tapes Per
Page
Select the maximum number of tapes to display per page – possible values are 15,
30, and 45.
Select all
pages
Select the Select All Pages checkbox to select all tapes returned by the search
query.
Items
Selected
Shows the number of tapes selected across multiple pages – updated
automatically for each tape selection.
4. Select the checkbox of the tape that should be deleted or the checkbox on the
heading column to delete all tapes, and select Next.
5. Select Submit in the confirmation window, and select Close.
Note
After a tape is removed, the physical disk space used for the tape is not reclaimed
until after a file system cleaning operation.
CLI Equivalent
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# vtl tape del barcode [count count] [pool pool]
For example:
# vtl tape del A00000L1
Note
You can act on ranges; however, if there is a missing tape in the range, the action will
stop.
Importing tapes
Importing a tape means that an existing tape will be moved from the vault to a library
slot, drive, or cartridge access port (CAP).
The number of tapes you can import at one time is limited by the number of empty slots
in the library, that is, you cannot import more tapes than the number of currently empty
slots.
To view the available slots for a library, select the library from the stack menu. The
information panel for the library shows the count in the Empty column.
l
If a tape is in a drive, and the tape origin is known to be a slot, a slot is reserved.
l
If a tape is in a drive, and the tape origin is unknown (slot or CAP), a slot is reserved.
l
If a tape is in a drive, and the tape origin is known to be a CAP, a slot is not reserved.
(The tape returns to the CAP when removed from the drive.)
l
To move a tape to a drive, see the section on moving tapes, which follows.
Procedure
1. You can import tapes using either step a. or step b.
a. Select Virtual Tape Libraries > VTL Service > Libraries > library. Then, select More
Tasks > Tapes > Import. In the Import Tapes dialog, enter search information about
the tapes to import, and select Search:
Table 133 Import Tapes dialog
Field
User input
Location
If there is a drop-down list, select the location of the tape, or leave the
default of Vault.
Pool
Select the name of the pool in which to search for the tape. If no pools have
been created, use the Default pool.
Barcode
Specify a unique barcode. or leave the default (*) to return a group of tapes.
Barcode allows the wildcards ? and *, where ? matches any single character
and * matches 0 or more characters.
Count
Enter the maximum number of tapes you want to be returned to you. If you
leave this blank, the barcode default (*) is used.
Tapes Per
Page
Select the maximum number of tapes to display per page. Possible values
are 15, 30, and 45.
Items
Selected
Shows the number of tapes selected across multiple pages – updated
automatically for each tape selection.
Importing tapes
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Table 133 Import Tapes dialog (continued)
Based on the previous conditions, a default set of tapes is searched to select the
tapes to import. If pool, barcode, or count is changed, select Search to update the
set of tapes available from which to choose.
b. Select Virtual Tape Libraries > VTL Service > Libraries> library > Changer > Drives >
drive > Tapes. Select tapes to import by selecting the checkbox next to:
l
An individual tape, or
l
The Barcode column to select all tapes on the current page, or
l
The Select all pages checkbox to select all tapes returned by the search query.
Only tapes showing Vault in the Location can be imported.
Select Import from Vault. This button is disabled by default and enabled only if all
of the selected tapes are from the Vault.
2. From the Import Tapes: library view, verify the summary information and the tape list,
and select OK.
3. Select Close in the status window.
CLI Equivalent
# vtl tape show pool VTL_Pool
Processing tapes....
Barcode Pool
Location State
Size
-------- -------- -------- ----- ------A00000L3 VTL_Pool vault
RW
100 GiB
A00001L3 VTL_Pool vault
RW
100 GiB
A00002L3 VTL_Pool vault
RW
100 GiB
A00003L3 VTL_Pool vault
RW
100 GiB
A00004L3 VTL_Pool vault
RW
100 GiB
-------- -------- -------- ----- ------VTL Tape Summary
---------------Total number of tapes:
5
Total pools:
1
Total size of tapes:
500 GiB
Total space used by tapes: 0.0 GiB
Average Compression:
0.0x
Used (%)
--------------0.0 GiB (0.00%)
0.0 GiB (0.00%)
0.0 GiB (0.00%)
0.0 GiB (0.00%)
0.0 GiB (0.00%)
---------------
---0x
0x
0x
0x
0x
----
# vtl import NewVTL barcode A00000L3 count 5 pool VTL_Pool
... imported 5 tape(s)...
# vtl tape show pool VTL_Pool
Processing tapes....
VTL Tape Summary
---------------Total number of tapes:
Total pools:
Total size of tapes:
Total space used by tapes:
Average Compression:
310
5
1
500 GiB
0.0 GiB
0.0x
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Exporting tapes
Exporting a tape removes that tape from a slot, drive, or cartridge-access port (CAP) and
sends it to the vault.
Procedure
1. You can export tapes using either step a. or step b.
a. Select Virtual Tape Libraries > VTL Service > Libraries > library. Then, select More
Tasks > Tapes > Export. In the Export Tapes dialog, enter search information about
the tapes to export, and select Search:
Table 134 Export Tapes dialog
Field
User input
Location
If there is a drop-down list, select the name of the library where the tape is
located, or leave the selected library.
Pool
Select the name of the pool in which to search for the tape. If no pools have
been created, use the Default pool.
Barcode
Specify a unique barcode. or leave the default (*) to return a group of tapes.
Barcode allows the wildcards ? and *, where ? matches any single character
and * matches 0 or more characters.
Count
Enter the maximum number of tapes you want to be returned to you. If you
leave this blank, the barcode default (*) is used.
Tapes Per Select the maximum number of tapes to display per page. Possible values are
Page
15, 30, and 45.
Select all
pages
Select the Select All Pages checkbox to select all tapes returned by the
search query.
Items
Selected
Shows the number of tapes selected across multiple pages – updated
automatically for each tape selection.
b. Select Virtual Tape Libraries > VTL Service > Libraries> library > Changer > Drives >
drive > Tapes. Select tapes to export by selecting the checkbox next to:
l
An individual tape, or
l
The Barcode column to select all tapes on the current page, or
l
The Select all pages checkbox to select all tapes returned by the search query.
Only tapes with a library name in the Location column can be exported.
Select Export from Library. This button is disabled by default and enabled only if
all of the selected tapes have a library name in the Location column.
2. From the Export Tapes: library view, verify the summary information and the tape list,
and select OK.
3. Select Close in the status window.
Moving tapes between devices within a library
Tapes can be moved between physical devices within a library to mimic backup software
procedures for physical tape libraries (which move a tape in a library from a slot to a
Exporting tapes
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drive, a slot to a CAP, a CAP to a drive, and the reverse). In a physical tape library, backup
software never moves a tape outside the library. Therefore, the destination library cannot
change and is shown only for clarification.
Procedure
1. Select Virtual Tape Libraries > VTL Service > Libraries library .
Note that when started from a library, the Tapes panel allows tapes to be moved only
between devices.
2. Select More Tasks > Tapes > Move.
Note that when started from a library, the Tapes panel allows tapes to be moved only
between devices.
3. In the Move Tape dialog, enter search information about the tapes to move, and select
Search:
Table 135 Move Tape dialog
Field
User input
Location
Location cannot be changed.
Pool
N/A
Barcode
Specify a unique barcode. or leave the default (*) to return a group of tapes.
Barcode allows the wildcards ? and *, where ? matches any single character and *
matches 0 or more characters.
Count
Enter the maximum number of tapes you want to be returned to you. If you leave
this blank, the barcode default (*) is used.
Tapes Per
Page
Select the maximum number of tapes to display per page. Possible values are 15,
30, and 45.
Items
Selected
Shows the number of tapes selected across multiple pages – updated
automatically for each tape selection.
4. From the search results list, select the tape or tapes to move.
5. Do one of the following:
a. Select the device from the Device list (for example, a slot, drive, or CAP), and enter
a starting address using sequential numbers for the second and subsequent
tapes. For each tape to be moved, if the specified address is occupied, the next
available address is used.
b. Leave the address blank if the tape in a drive originally came from a slot and is to
be returned to that slot; or if the tape is to be moved to the next available slot.
6. Select Next.
7. In the Move Tape dialog, verify the summary information and the tape listing, and
select Submit.
8. Select Close in the status window.
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Adding slots
You can add slots from a configured library to change the number of storage elements.
Note
Some backup applications do not automatically recognize that slots have been added to
a VTL. See your application documentation for information on how to configure the
application to recognize this type of change.
Procedure
1. Select Virtual Tape Libraries > VTL Service > Libraries > library.
2. Select More Tasks > Slots > Add.
3. In the Add Slots dialog, enter the Number of Slots to add. The total number of slots in
a library, or in all libraries on a system, cannot exceed 32,000 for a library and 64,000
for a system.
4. Select OK and Close when the status shows Completed.
Deleting slots
You can delete slots from a configured library to change the number of storage elements.
Note
Some backup applications do not automatically recognize that slots have been deleted
from a VTL. See your application documentation for information on how to configure the
application to recognize this type of change.
Procedure
1. If the slot that you want to delete contains cartridges, move those cartridges to the
vault. The system will delete only empty, uncommitted slots.
2. Select Virtual Tape Libraries > VTL Service > Libraries > library.
3. Select More Tasks > Slots > Delete.
4. In the Delete Slots dialog, enter the Number of Slots to delete.
5. Select OK and Close when the status shows Completed.
Adding CAPs
You can add CAPs (cartridge access ports) from a configured library to change the number
of storage elements.
Note
CAPs are used by a limited number of backup applications. See your application
documentation to ensure that CAPs are supported.
Procedure
1. Select Virtual Tape Libraries > VTL Service > Libraries > library.
2. Select More Tasks > CAPs > Add.
3. In the Add CAPs dialog, enter the Number of CAPs to add. You can add from 1 to 100
CAPs per library and from 1 to 1,000 CAPs per system.
Adding slots
313
DD Virtual Tape Library
4. Select OK and Close when the status shows Completed.
Deleting CAPs
You can delete CAPs (cartridge access ports) from a configured library to change the
number of storage elements.
Note
Some backup applications do not automatically recognize that CAPs have been deleted
from a VTL. See your application documentation for information on how to configure the
application to recognize this type of change.
Procedure
1. If the CAP that you want to delete contains cartridges, move those cartridges to the
vault, or this will be done automatically.
2. Select Virtual Tape Libraries > VTL Service > Libraries > library.
3. Select More Tasks > CAPs > Delete.
4. In the Delete CAPs dialog, enter the Number of CAPs to delete. You can delete a
maximum of 100 CAPs per library or 1000 CAPs per system.
5. Select OK and Close when the status shows Completed.
Viewing changer information
There can be only one changer per VTL. The changer model you select depends on your
specific configuration.
Procedure
1. Select Virtual Tape Libraries > VTL Service > Libraries .
2. Select a specific library.
3. If not expanded, select the plus sign (+) on the left to open the library, and select a
Changer element to display the Changer information panel, which provides the
following information.
Table 136 Changer information panel
314
Item
Description
Vendor
The name of the vendor who manufactured the changer
Product
The model name
Revision
The revision level
Serial Number
The changer serial number
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Working with drives
Selecting Virtual Tape Libraries > VTL Service > Libraries > library > Drives displays detailed
information for all drives for a selected library.
Table 137 Drives information panel
Column
Description
Drive
The list of drives by name, where name is “Drive #” and # is a number between 1 and
n representing the address or location of the drive in the list of drives.
Vendor
The manufacturer or vendor of the drive, for example, IBM.
Product
The product name of the drive, for example, ULTRIUM-TD5.
Revision
The revision number of the drive product.
Serial
Number
The serial number of the drive product.
Status
Whether the drive is Empty, Open, Locked, or Loaded. A tape must be present for the
drive to be locked or loaded.
Tape
The barcode of the tape in the drive (if any).
Pool
The pool of the tape in the drive (if any).
Tape and library drivers – To work with drives, you must use the tape and library drivers
supplied by your backup software vendor that support the IBM LTO-1, IBM LTO-2, IBM
LTO-3, IBM LTO-4, IBM LTO-5 (default), HP-LTO-3, or HP-LTO-4 drives and the StorageTek
L180 (default), RESTORER-L180, IBM TS3500, I2000, I6000, or DDVTL libraries. For more
information, see the Application Compatibility Matrices and Integration Guides for your
vendors. When configuring drives, also keep in mind the limits on backup data streams,
which are determined by the platform in use.
LTO drive capacities – Because the DD system treats LTO drives as virtual drives, you can
set a maximum capacity to 4 TiB (4000 GiB) for each drive type. The default capacities for
each LTO drive type are as follows:
l
LTO-1 drive: 100 GiB
l
LTO-2 drive: 200 GiB
l
LTO-3 drive: 400 GiB
l
LTO-4 drive: 800 GiB
l
LTO-5 drive: 1.5 TiB
Migrating LTO-1 tapes – You can migrate tapes from existing LTO-1 type VTLs to VTLs that
include other supported LTO-type tapes and drives. The migration options are different
for each backup application, so follow the instructions in the LTO tape migration guide
specific to your application. To find the appropriate guide, go to the EMC Online Support
Site, and in the search text box, type in LTO Tape Migration for VTLs.
Tape full: Early warning – You will receive a warning when the remaining tape space is
almost completely full, that is, greater than 99.9, but less than 100 percent. The
application can continue writing until the end of the tape to reach 100 percent capacity.
The last write, however, is not recoverable.
From the More Tasks menu, you can create or delete a drive.
Working with drives
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Creating drives
See the Number of drives supported by a VTL section to determine the maximum number
of drives supported for your particular VTL.
Procedure
1. Select Virtual Tape Libraries > VTL Service > Libraries > library> Changer > Drives.
2. Select More Tasks > Drives > Create.
3. In the Create Drive dialog, enter the following information:
Table 138 Create Drive dialog
Field
User input
Location
Select a library name, or leave the name selected.
Number of
Drives
See the table in the Number of Drives Supported by a VTL section, earlier in this
chapter.
Model Name
Select the model from the drop-down list. If another drive already exists, this
option is inactive, and the existing drive type must be used. You cannot mix drive
types in the same library.
l
IBM-LTO-1
l
IBM-LTO-2
l
IBM-LTO-3
l
IBM-LTO-4
l
IBM-LTO-5 (default)
l
HP-LTO-3
l
HP-LTO-4
4. Select OK, and when the status shows Completed, select OK.
The added drive appears in the Drives list.
Deleting drives
A drive must be empty before it can be deleted.
Procedure
1. If there is a tape in the drive that you want to delete, remove the tape.
2. Select Virtual Tape Libraries > VTL Service > Libraries > library > Changer > Drives.
3. Select More Tasks > Drives > Delete.
4. In the Delete Drives dialog, select the checkboxes of the drives to delete, or select the
Drive checkbox to delete all drives.
5. Select Next, and after verifying that the correct drive(s) has been selected for deletion,
select Submit.
6. When the Delete Drive Status dialog shows Completed, select Close.
The drive will have been removed from the Drives list.
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Working with a selected drive
Selecting Virtual Tape Libraries > VTL Service > Libraries > library > Drives > drive displays
detailed information for a selected drive.
Table 139 Drive Tab
Column
Description
Drive
The list of drives by name, where name is “Drive #” and #
is a number between 1 and n representing the address or
location of the drive in the list of drives.
Vendor
The manufacturer or vendor of the drive, for example, IBM.
Product
The product name of the drive, for example, ULTRIUM-TD5.
Revision
The revision number of the drive product.
Serial Number
The serial number of the drive product.
Status
Whether the drive is Empty, Open, Locked, or Loaded. A
tape must be present for the drive to be locked or loaded.
Tape
The barcode of the tape in the drive (if any).
Pool
The pool of the tape in the drive (if any).
Table 140 Statistics Tab
Column
Description
Endpoint
The specific name of the endpoint.
Ops/s
The operations per second.
Read KiB/s
The speed of reads in KiB per second.
Write KiB/s
The speed of writes in KiB per second.
From the More Tasks menu, you can delete the drive or perform a refresh.
Working with tapes
A tape is represented as a file. Tapes can be imported from the vault to a library. Tapes
can be exported from a library to the vault. Tapes can be moved within a library across
drives, slots (cartridge slots), and CAPs (cartridge access ports).
When tapes are created, they are placed into the vault. After they have been added to the
vault, they can be imported, exported, moved, searched, or removed.
Selecting Virtual Tape Libraries > VTL Service > Libraries> library >Tapes displays detailed
information for all tapes for a selected library.
Working with a selected drive
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Table 141 Tape description
Item
Description
Barcode
The unique barcode for the tape.
Pool
The name of the pool that holds the tape. The Default pool
holds all tapes unassigned to a user-created pool.
Location
The location of the tape - whether in a library (and which drive,
CAP, or slot number) or in the virtual vault.
State
The state of the tape:
l
RW – Read-writable
l
RL – Retention-locked
l
RO – Readable only
l
WP – Write-protected
l
RD – Replication destination
Capacity
The total capacity of the tape.
Used
The amount of space used on the tape.
Compression
The amount of compression performed on the data on a tape.
Last Modified
The date of the last change to the tape’s information.
Modification times used by the system for age-based policies
might differ from the last modified time displayed in the tape
information sections of the DD System Manager.
Locked Until
If a Retention Lock deadline has been set, the time set is
shown. If no retention lock exists, this value is Not
specified.
From the information panel, you can import a tape from the vault, export a tape to the
library, set a tape's state, create a tape, or delete a tape.
From the More Tasks menu, you can move a tape.
Changing a tape’s write or retention lock state
Before changing a tape's write or retention lock state, the tape must have been created
and imported. VTL tapes follow the standard Data Domain retention lock policy. After the
retention period for a tape has expired, it cannot be written to or changed (however, it
can be deleted).
Procedure
1. Select Virtual Tape Libraries > VTL Service > Libraries > library > Tapes.
2. Select the tape to modify from the list, and select Set State (above the list).
3. In the Set Tape State dialog, select Read-Writeable, Write-Protected, or RetentionLock.
4. If the state is Retention-Lock, either
318
l
enter the tape’s expiration date in a specified number of days, weeks, months,
years, or
l
select the calendar icon, and select a date from the calendar. The Retention-Lock
expires at noon on the selected date.
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5. Select Next, and select Submit to change the state.
Working with the vault
The vault holds tapes not being used by any library. Tapes reside in either a library or the
vault.
Selecting Virtual Tape Libraries > VTL Service > Vault displays detailed information for the
Default pool and any other existing pools in the vault.
Table 142 Pool Information
Item
Description
Location
The name of the pool.
Type
Whether it is a Directory or MTree pool.
Tape Count
The number of tapes in the pool.
Capacity
The total amount of space in the pool.
Used
The amount of space used on in the pool.
Average Compression
The average amount of compression in the pool.
From the More Tasks menu, you can create, delete, and search for tapes in the vault.
Working with access groups
Access groups hold a collection of initiator WWPNs (worldwide port names) or aliases
and the drives and changers they are allowed to access. A VTL default group named
TapeServer lets you add devices that will support NDMP (Network Data Management
Protocol)-based backup applications.
Access group configuration allows initiators (in general backup applications) to read and
write data to devices in the same access group.
Access groups let clients access only selected LUNs (media changers or virtual tape
drives) on a system. A client set up for an access group can access only devices in its
access group.
Avoid making access group changes on a DD system during active backup or restore jobs.
A change may cause an active job to fail. The impact of changes during active jobs
depends on a combination of backup software and host configurations.
Selecting Access Groups > Groups displays the following information for all access
groups.
Table 143 Access group information
Item
Description
Group Name
Name of group.
Initiators
Number of initiators in group.
Devices
Number of devices in group.
If you select View All Access Groups, you are taken to the Fibre Channel view.
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From the More Tasks menu, you can create or delete a group.
Creating an access group
Access groups manage access between devices and initiators. Do not use the default
TapeServer access group unless you are using NDMP.
Procedure
1. Select Access Groups > Groups.
2. Select More Tasks > Group > Create
3. In the Create Access Group dialog, enter a name, from 1 to 128 characters, and select
Next.
4. Add devices, and select Next.
5. Review the summary, and select Finish or Back, as appropriate.
CLI Equivalent
# scsitarget group create My_Group service My_Service
Adding an access group device
Access group configuration allows initiators (in general backup applications) to read and
write data to devices in the same access group.
Procedure
1. Select Access Groups > Groups. You can also select a specific group.
2. Select More Tasks > Group > Create or Group > Configure.
3. In the Create or Modify Access Group dialog, enter or modify the Group Name if
desired. (This field is required.)
4. To configure initiators to the access group, check the box next to the initiator. You can
add initiators to the group later.
5. Select Next.
6. In the Devices display, select Add (+) to display the Add Devices dialog.
a. Verify that the correct library is selected in the Library Name drop-down list, or
select another library.
b. In the Device area, select the checkboxes of the devices (changer and drives) to be
included in the group.
c. Optionally, specify a starting LUN in the LUN Start Address text box.
This is the LUN that the DD system returns to the initiator. Each device is uniquely
identified by the library and the device name. (For example, it is possible to have
drive 1 in Library 1 and drive 1 in Library 2). Therefore, a LUN is associated with a
device, which is identified by its library and device name.
When presenting LUNs via attached FC ports on FC HBA/SLIC, ports can be
designated as primary, secondary, or none. A Primary port for a set of LUNs is the
port that is currently advertizing those LUNs to a fabric. A secondary port is a port
that will broadcast a set of LUNs in the event of primary path failure (this requires
manual intervention). A setting of none is used in the case where you do not wish
to advertize selected LUNs. The presentation of LUNs depends on the SAN
topology in question.
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The initiators in the access group interact with the LUN devices that are added to
the group.
The maximum LUN accepted when creating an access group is 16383.
A LUN can be used only once for an individual group. The same LUN can be used
with multiple groups.
Some VTL initiators (clients) have specific rules for VTL target LUN numbering; for
example, requiring LUN 0 or requiring contiguous LUNs. If these rules are not
followed, an initiator may not be able to access some or all of the LUNs assigned
to a VTL target port.
Check your initiator documentation for special rules, and if necessary, alter the
device LUNs on the VTL target port to follow the rules. For example, if an initiator
requires LUN 0 to be assigned on the VTL target port, check the LUNs for devices
assigned to ports, and if there is no device assigned to LUN 0, change the LUN of a
device so it is assigned to LUN 0.
d. In the Primary and Secondary Endpoints area, select an option to determine from
which ports the selected device will be seen. The following conditions apply for
designated ports:
l
all – The checked device is seen from all ports.
l
none – The checked device is not seen from any port.
l
select – The checked device is to be seen from selected ports. Select the
checkboxes of the appropriate ports.
If only primary ports are selected, the checked device is visible only from
primary ports.
If only secondary ports are selected, the checked device is visible only from
secondary ports. Secondary ports can be used if the primary ports become
unavailable.
The switchover to a secondary port is not an automatic operation. You must
manually switch the VTL device to the secondary ports if the primary ports become
unavailable.
The port list is a list of physical port numbers. A port number denotes the PCI slot
and a letter denotes the port on a PCI card. Examples are 1a, 1b, or 2a, 2b.
A drive appears with the same LUN on all the ports that you have configured.
e. Select OK.
You are returned to the Devices dialog box where the new group is listed. To add
more devices, repeat these five substeps.
7. Select Next.
8. Select Close when the Completed status message is displayed.
CLI Equivalent
# vtl group add VTL_Group vtl NewVTL changer lun 0 primary-port all secondary-port all
# vtl group add VTL_Group vtl NewVTL drive 1 lun 1 primary-port all secondary-port all
# vtl group add SetUp_Test vtl SetUp_Test drive 3 lun 3 primary-port endpoint-fc-0
secondary-port endpoint-fc-1
# vtl group show Setup_Test
Group: SetUp_Test
Initiators:
Initiator Alias
Initiator WWPN
Creating an access group
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--------------tsm6_p23
---------------
----------------------21:00:00:24:ff:31:ce:f8
-----------------------
Devices:
Device Name
-----------------SetUp_Test changer
SetUp_Test drive 1
SetUp_Test drive 2
SetUp_Test drive 3
------------------
LUN
--0
1
2
3
---
Primary Ports
------------all
all
5a
endpoint-fc-0
-------------
Secondary Ports
--------------all
all
5b
endpoint-fc-1
---------------
In-use Ports
------------all
all
5a
endpoint-fc-0
-------------
Modifying or deleting an access group device
You may need to modify or delete a device from an access group.
Procedure
1. Select Protocols > VTL > Access Groups > Groups > group.
2. Select More Tasks > Group > Configure.
3. In the Modify Access Group dialog, enter or modify the Group Name. (This field is
required.)
4. To configure initiators to the access group, check the box next to the initiator. You can
add initiators to the group later.
5. Select Next.
6. Select a device, and select the edit (pencil) icon to display the Modify Devices dialog.
Then, follow steps a-e. If you simply want to delete the device, select the delete (X)
icon, and skip to step e.
a. Verify that the correct library is selected in the Library drop-down list, or select
another library.
b. In the Devices to Modify area, select the checkboxes of the devices (Changer and
drives) to be modified.
c. Optionally, modify the starting LUN (logical unit number) in the LUN Start Address
box.
This is the LUN that the DD system returns to the initiator. Each device is uniquely
identified by the library and the device name. (For example, it is possible to have
drive 1 in Library 1 and drive 1 in Library 2). Therefore, a LUN is associated with a
device, which is identified by its library and device name.
The initiators in the access group interact with the LUN devices that are added to
the group.
The maximum LUN accepted when creating an access group is 16383.
A LUN can be used only once for an individual group. The same LUN can be used
with multiple groups.
Some VTL initiators (clients) have specific rules for VTL target LUN numbering; for
example, requiring LUN 0 or requiring contiguous LUNs. If these rules are not
followed, an initiator may not be able to access some or all of the LUNs assigned
to a VTL target port.
Check your initiator documentation for special rules, and if necessary, alter the
device LUNs on the VTL target port to follow the rules. For example, if an initiator
requires LUN 0 to be assigned on the VTL target port, check the LUNs for devices
assigned to ports, and if there is no device assigned to LUN 0, change the LUN of a
device so it is assigned to LUN 0.
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d. In the Primary and Secondary Ports area, change the option that determines the
ports from which the selected device is seen. The following conditions apply for
designated ports:
l
all – The checked device is seen from all ports.
l
none – The checked device is not seen from any port.
l
select – The checked device is seen from selected ports. Select the checkboxes
of the ports from which it will be seen.
If only primary ports are selected, the checked device is visible only from
primary ports.
If only secondary ports are selected, the checked device is visible only from
secondary ports. Secondary ports can be used if primary ports become
unavailable.
The switchover to a secondary port is not an automatic operation. You must
manually switch the VTL device to the secondary ports if the primary ports become
unavailable.
The port list is a list of physical port numbers. A port number denotes the PCI slot,
and a letter denotes the port on a PCI card. Examples are 1a, 1b, or 2a, 2b.
A drive appears with the same LUN on all ports that you have configured.
e. Select OK.
Deleting an access group
Before you can delete an access group, you must remove all of its initiators and LUNs.
Procedure
1. Remove all of the initiators and LUNs from the group.
2. Select Access Groups > Groups.
3. Select More Tasks > Group > Delete.
4. In the Delete Group dialog, select the checkbox of the group to be removed, and
select Next.
5. In the groups confirmation dialog, verify the deletion, and select Submit.
6. Select Close when the Delete Groups Status displays Completed.
CLI Equivalent
# scsitarget group destroy My_Group
Working with a selected access group
Selecting Access Groups > Groups > group displays the following information for a
selected access group.
Table 144 LUNs tab
Item
Description
LUN
Device address – maximum number is 16383. A LUN can be
used only once within a group, but can be used again within
Deleting an access group
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Table 144 LUNs tab (continued)
Item
Description
another group. VTL devices added to a group must use
contiguous LUNs.
Library
Name of library associated with LUN.
Device
Changers and drives.
In-Use Endpoints
Set of endpoints currently being used: primary or secondary.
Primary Endpoints
Initial (or default) endpoint used by backup application. In the
event of a failure on this endpoint, the secondary endpoints
may be used, if available.
Secondary Endpoints
Set of fail-over endpoints to use if primary endpoint fails.
Table 145 Initiators tab
Item
Description
Name
Name of initiator, which is either the WWPN or the alias
assigned to the initiator.
WWPN
Unique worldwide port name, which is a 64-bit identifier (a 60bit value preceded by a 4-bit Network Address Authority
identifier), of the Fibre Channel port.
From the More Tasks menu, with a group selected, you can configure that group, or set
endpoints in use.
Selecting endpoints for a device
Since endpoints connect a device to an initiator, use this process to set up the endpoints
before you connect the device.
Procedure
1. Select Access Groups > Groups > group.
2. Select More Tasks > Endpoints > Set In-Use.
3. In the Set in-Use Endpoints dialog, select only specific devices, or select Devices to
select all devices in the list.
4. Indicate whether the endpoints are primary or secondary.
5. Select OK.
Configuring the NDMP device TapeServer group
The VTL TapeServer group holds tape drives that interface with NDMP (Network Data
Management Protocol)-based backup applications and that send control information and
data streams over IP (Internet Protocol) instead of Fibre Channel (FC). A device used by
the NDMP TapeServer must be in the VTL group TapeServer and is available only to the
NDMP TapeServer.
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Procedure
1. Add tape drives to a new or existing library (in this example, named “dd990-16”).
2. Create slots and CAPs for the library.
3. Add the created devices in a library (in this example, “dd990-16”) to the TapeServer
access group.
4. Enable the NDMP daemon by entering at the command line:
# ndmpd enable
Starting NDMP daemon, please wait...............
NDMP daemon is enabled.
5. Ensure that the NDMP daemon sees the devices in the TapeServer group:
# ndmpd show devicenames
NDMP Device
Virtual Name
-------------------------------/dev/dd_ch_c0t0l0
dd990-16 changer
/dev/dd_st_c0t1l0
dd990-16 drive 1
/dev/dd_st_c0t2l0
dd990-16 drive 2
/dev/dd_st_c0t3l0
dd990-16 drive 3
/dev/dd_st_c0t4l0
dd990-16 drive 4
--------------------------------
Vendor
-----STK
IBM
IBM
IBM
IBM
------
Product
----------L180
ULTRIUM-TD3
ULTRIUM-TD3
ULTRIUM-TD3
ULTRIUM-TD3
-----------
Serial Number
------------6290820000
6290820001
6290820002
6290820003
6290820004
-------------
6. Add an NDMP user (ndmp in this example) with the following command:
# ndmpd user add ndmp
Enter password:
Verify password:
7. Verify that user ndmp is added correctly:
# ndmpd user show
ndmp
8. Display the NDMP configuration:
# ndmpd option show all
Name
Value
--------------------authentication
text
debug
disabled
port
10000
preferred-ip
---------------------
9. Change the default user password authentication to use MD5 encryption for enhanced
security, and verify the change (notice the authentication value changed from text to
md5):
# ndmpd option set authentication md5
# ndmpd option show all
Name
Value
--------------------authentication
md5
debug
disabled
port
10000
preferred-ip
---------------------
Results
NDMP is now configured, and the TapeServer access group shows the device
configuration. See the ndmpd chapter of the EMC Data Domain Operating System Command
Reference Guide for the complete command set and options.
Working with resources
Selecting Resources > Resources displays information about initiators and endpoints. An
initiator is a backup client that connects to a system to read and write data using the
Working with resources
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Fibre Channel (FC) protocol. A specific initiator can support DD Boost over FC or VTL, but
not both. An endpoint is the logical target on a DD system to which the initiator connects.
Table 146 Initiators tab
Item
Description
Name
Name of initiator, which is either the WWPN or the alias
assigned to the initiator.
WWPN
Unique worldwide port name, which is a 64-bit identifier (a 60bit value preceded by a 4-bit Network Address Authority
identifier), of the Fibre Channel (FC) port.
WWNN
Unique worldwide node name, which is a 64-bit identifier (a 60bit value preceded by a 4-bit Network Address Authority
identifier), of the FC node.
Online Endpoints
Group name where ports are seen by initiator. Displays None
or Offline if the initiator is unavailable.
Table 147 Endpoints tab
Item
Description
Name
Specific name of endpoint.
WWPN
Unique worldwide port name, which is a 64-bit identifier (a 60bit value preceded by a 4-bit Network Address Authority
identifier), of the Fibre Channel (FC) port.
WWNN
Unique worldwide node name, which is a 64-bit identifier (a 60bit value preceded by a 4-bit Network Address Authority
identifier), of the FC node.
System Address
System address for the endpoint.
Enabled
HBA (host bus adapter) port operational state, which is either
Yes (enabled) or No (not enabled).
Status
DD system VTL link status, which is either Online (capable of
handling traffic) or Offline.
Configure Resources
Selecting Configure Resources takes you to the Fibre Channel area, where you can
configure endpoints and initiators.
Working with initiators
Selecting Resources > Resources > Initiators displays information about initiators. An
initiator is a client system FC HBA (fibre channel host bus adapter) WWPN (worldwide port
name) with which the DD system interfaces. An initiator name is an alias for the client’s
WWPN, for ease of use.
While a client is mapped as an initiator – but before an access group has been added –
the client cannot access any data on a DD system.
After adding an access group for the initiator or client, the client can access only the
devices in that access group. A client can have access groups for multiple devices.
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An access group may contain multiple initiators, but an initiator can exist in only one
access group.
Note
A maximum of 1024 initiators can be configured for a DD system.
Table 148 Initiator information
Item
Description
Name
Name of initiator.
Group
Group associated with initiator.
Online Endpoints
Endpoints seen by initiator. Displays none or offline if
initiator is unavailable.
WWPN
Unique worldwide port name, which is a 64-bit identifier (a 60bit value preceded by a 4-bit Network Address Authority
identifier), of the Fibre Channel (FC) port.
WWNN
Unique worldwide node name, which is a 64-bit identifier (a 60bit value preceded by a 4-bit Network Address Authority
identifier), of the FC node.
Vendor Name
Name of vendor for initiator.
Selecting Configure Initiators takes you to the Fibre Channel area, where you can
configure endpoints and initiators.
CLI Equivalent
# vtl initiator show
Initiator Group
--------- --------tsm6_p1
tsm3500_a
--------- --------Initiator
--------tsm6_p1
---------
Status
-----Online
------
WWNN
----------------------20:00:00:24:ff:31:ce:f8
-----------------------
Symbolic Port Name
------------------------------------------QLE2562 FW:v5.06.03 DVR:v8.03.07.15.05.09-k
-------------------------------------------
WWPN
----------------------21:00:00:24:ff:31:ce:f8
-----------------------
Port
---10b
----
Address Method
-------------auto
--------------
Working with endpoints
Selecting Resources > Resources > Endpoints provides information about endpoint
hardware and connectivity.
Table 149 Hardware Tab
Item
Description
System Address
System address of endpoint.
WWPN
Unique worldwide port name, which is a 64-bit identifier (a 60bit value preceded by a 4-bit Network Address Authority
identifier), of the Fibre Channel (FC) port.
WWNN
Unique worldwide node name, which is a 64-bit identifier (a 60bit value preceded by a 4-bit Network Address Authority
identifier), of the FC node.
Working with endpoints
327
DD Virtual Tape Library
Table 149 Hardware Tab (continued)
Item
Enabled
Description
HBA (host bus adapter) port operational state, which is either
Yes (enabled) or No (not enabled).
NPIV
NPIV status of this endpoint: eithe Enabled or Disabled.
LInk Status
Link status of this endpoint: either Online or Offline.
Operation Status
Operation status of this endpoint: either Normal or Marginal.
# of Endpoints
Number of endpoints associated with this endpoint.
Table 150 Endpoints Tab
Item
Description
Name
Specific name of endpoint.
WWPN
Unique worldwide port name, which is a 64-bit identifier (a 60bit value preceded by a 4-bit Network Address Authority
identifier), of the Fibre Channel (FC) port.
WWNN
Unique worldwide node name, which is a 64-bit identifier (a 60bit value preceded by a 4-bit Network Address Authority
identifier), of the FC node.
System Address
System address of endpoint.
Enabled
HBA (host bus adapter) port operational state, which is either
Yes (enabled) or No (not enabled).
LInk Status
Link status of this endpoint: either Online or Offline.
Configure Endpoints
Selecting Configure Endpoints takes you to the Fibre Channel area, where you can change
any of the above information for the endpoint.
CLI Equivalent
# scsitarget endpoint show list
Endpoint
System Address Transport
--------------------- --------endpoint-fc-0 5a
FibreChannel
endpoint-fc-1 5b
FibreChannel
Enabled
------Yes
Yes
Status
-----Online
Online
Working with a selected endpoint
Selecting Resources > Resources > Endpoints > endpoint provides information about the
endpoint's hardware, connectivity, and statistics.
Table 151 Hardware tab
328
Item
Description
System Address
System address of endpoint.
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
DD Virtual Tape Library
Table 151 Hardware tab (continued)
Item
Description
WWPN
Unique worldwide port name, which is a 64-bit identifier (a 60bit value preceded by a 4-bit Network Address Authority
identifier), of the Fibre Channel port.
WWNN
Unique worldwide node name, which is a 64-bit identifier (a 60bit value preceded by a 4-bit Network Address Authority
identifier), of the FC node.
Enabled
HBA (host bus adapter) port operational state, which is either
Yes (enabled) or No (not enabled).
NPIV
NPIV status of this endpoint: eithe Enabled or Disabled.
LInk Status
Link status of this endpoint: either Online or Offline.
Operation Status
Operation status of this endpoint: either Normal or Marginal.
# of Endpoints
Number of endpoints associated with this endpoint.
Table 152 Summary tab
Item
Description
Name
Specific name of endpoint.
WWPN
Unique worldwide port name, which is a 64-bit identifier (a 60bit value preceded by a 4-bit Network Address Authority
identifier), of the Fibre Channel port.
WWNN
Unique worldwide node name, which is a 64-bit identifier (a 60bit value preceded by a 4-bit Network Address Authority
identifier), of the FC node.
System Address
System address of endpoint.
Enabled
HBA (host bus adapter) port operational state, which is either
Yes (enabled) or No (not enabled).
LInk Status
Link status of this endpoint: either Online or Offline.
Table 153 Statistics tab
Item
Description
Endpoint
Specific name of endpoint.
Library
Name of library containing the endpoint.
Device
Number of device.
Ops/s
Operations per second.
Read KiB/s
Speed of reads in KiB per second.
Write KiB/s
Speed of writes in KiB per second.
Working with a selected endpoint
329
DD Virtual Tape Library
Table 154 Detailed Statistics tab
Item
Description
Endpoint
Specific name of endpoint.
# of Control Commands
Number of control commands.
# of Read Commands
Number of read commands.
# of Write Commands
Number of write commands.
In (MiB)
Number of MiB written (the binary equivalent of MB).
Out (MiB)
Number of MiB read.
# of Error Protocol
Number of error protocols.
# of Link Fail
Number of link failures.
# of Invalid Crc
Number of invalid CRCs (cyclic redundancy checks).
# of Invalid TxWord
Number of invalid tx (transmission) words.
# of Lip
Number of LIPs (loop initialization primitives).
# of Loss Signal
Number of signals or connections that have been lost.
# of Loss Sync
Number of signals or connections that have lost
synchronization.
Working with pools
Selecting Pools > Pools displays detailed information for the Default pool and any other
existing pools. A pool is a collection of tapes that maps to a directory on the file system.
Pools are used to replicate tapes to a destination. You can convert directory-based pools
to MTree-based pools to take advantage of the greater functionality of MTrees.
Note the following about pools:
330
l
Pools can be of two types: MTree (recommended), or Directory, which is backwardcompatible.
l
A pool can be replicated no matter where individual tapes are located. Tapes can be
in the vault or in a library (slot, cap, or drive).
l
You can copy and move tapes from one pool to another.
l
Pools are not accessible by backup software.
l
No VTL configuration or license is needed on a replication destination when
replicating pools.
l
You must create tapes with unique barcodes. Duplicate barcodes may cause
unpredictable behavior in backup applications and can be confusing to users.
l
Two tapes in two different pools on a DD system may have the same name, and in
this case, neither tape can be moved to the other tape's pool. Likewise, a pool sent to
a replication destination must have a name that is unique on the destination.
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
DD Virtual Tape Library
Table 155 Pools tab
Item
Description
Location
The location of the pool.
Type
Whether it is a Directory or MTree pool.
Tape Count
The number of tapes in the pool.
Capacity
The total configured data capacity of tapes in the pool, in GiB
(Gibibytes base-2 equivalent of GB, Gigabytes).
Used
The amount of space used on virtual tapes in the pool.
Average Compression
The average amount of compression achieved for data on tapes
in the pool.
Table 156 Replication tab
Item
Description
Name
The name of the pool.
Configured
Whether replication is configured for the pool: yes or no.
Remote Source
Contains an entry only if the pool is replicated from another DD
system.
Remote Destination
Contains an entry only if the pool replicates to another DD
system.
From the More Tasks menu, you can create and delete pools, as well as search for tapes.
Creating pools
You can create backward-compatible pools, if necessary for your setup, for example, for
replication with a pre-5.2 DD OS system.
Procedure
1. Select Pools > Pools.
2. Select More Tasks > Pool > Create.
3. In the Create Pool dialog, enter a Pool Name, noting that a pool name:
l
cannot be “all,” “vault,” or “summary.”
l
cannot have a space or period at its beginning or end.
l
is case-sensitive.
4. If you want to create a directory pool (which is backward compatible with the previous
version of DD System Manager), select the option “Create a directory backwards
compatibility mode pool. ” However, be aware that the advantages of using an MTree
pool include the ability to:
l
make individual snapshots and schedule snapshots.
l
apply retention locks.
l
set an individual retention policy.
Creating pools
331
DD Virtual Tape Library
l
get compression information.
l
get data migration policies to the Retention Tier.
l
establish a storage space usage policy (quota support) by setting hard limits and
soft limits.
5. Select OK to display the Create Pool Status dialog.
6. When the Create Pool Status dialog shows Completed, select Close. The pool is
added to the Pools subtree, and you can now add virtual tapes to it.
CLI Equivalent
# vtl pool add VTL_Pool
A VTL pool named VTL_Pool is added.
Deleting pools
Before a pool can be deleted, you must have deleted any tapes contained within it. If
replication is configured for the pool, the replication pair must also be deleted. Deleting a
pool corresponds to renaming the MTree and then deleting it, which occurs at the next
cleaning process.
Procedure
1. Select Pools > Pools pool.
2. Select More Tasks > Pool > Delete.
3. In the Delete Pools dialog, select the checkbox of items to delete:
l
The name of each pool, or
l
Pool Names, to delete all pools.
4. Select Submit in the confirmation dialogs.
5. When the Delete Pool Status dialog shows Completed, select Close.
The pool will have been removed from the Pools subtree.
Working with a selected pool
Both Virtual Tape Libraries > VTL Service > Vault > pool and Pools > Pools > pool display
detailed information for a selected pool. Notice that pool “Default” always exists.
Table 157 Pool Tab
332
Item
Description
Convert to MTree Pool
Select this button to convert a Directory pool to an MTree pool.
Type
Whether it is a Directory or MTree pool.
Tape Count
The number of tapes in the pool.
Capacity
The total configured data capacity of tapes in the pool, in GiB
(Gibibytes, base-2 equivalent of GB, Gigabytes).
Used
The amount of space used on virtual tapes in the pool.
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
DD Virtual Tape Library
Table 157 Pool Tab (continued)
Item
Description
Average Compression
The average amount of compression achieved for data on tapes
in the pool.
Table 158 Replication Tab
Item
Description
Name
The name of the pool.
Configured
Whether replication is configured for this pool: yes or no.
Remote Source
Contains an entry only if the pool is replicated from another DD
system.
Remote Destination
Contains an entry only if the pool replicates to another DD
system.
You can also select the Replication Detail button, at the top right, to go directly to the
Replication information panel for the selected pool.
From either the Virtual Tape Libraries or Pools area, from the More Tasks menu, you can
create, delete, move, copy, or search for a tape in the pool.
From the Pools area, from the More Tasks menu, you can rename or delete a pool.
Converting a directory pool to an MTree pool
MTree pools have many advantages over directory pools. See the Creating pools section
for more information.
Procedure
1. Make sure the following prerequisites have been met:
l
The source and destination pools must have been synchronized, so that the
number of tapes, and the data on each side, remains intact.
l
The directory pool must not be a replication source or destination.
l
The file system must not be full.
l
The file system must not have reached the maximum number of MTrees allowed
(100).
l
There must not already be an MTree with the same name.
l
If the directory pool is being replicated on multiple systems, those replicating
systems must be known to the managing system.
l
If the directory pool is being replicated to an older DD OS (for example, from DD OS
5.5 to DD OS 5.4), it cannot be converted. As a workaround:
n
Replicate the directory pool to a second DD system.
n
Replicate the directory pool from the second DD system to a third DD system.
n
Remove the second and third DD systems from the managing DD system's Data
Domain network.
n
On any of the systems running DD OS 5.5, from the Pools submenu, select
Pools and a directory pool. In the Pools tab, select Convert to MTree Pool.
Converting a directory pool to an MTree pool
333
DD Virtual Tape Library
2. With the directory pool you wish to convert highlighted, choose Convert to MTree
Pool.
3. Select OK in the Convert to MTree Pool dialog.
4. Be aware that conversion affects replication in the following ways:
l
VTL is temporarily disabled on the replicated systems during conversion.
l
The destination data is copied to a new pool on the destination system to preserve
the data until the new replication is initialized and synced. Afterward, you may
safely delete this temporarily copied pool, which is named CONVERTED-pool,
where pool is the name of the pool that was upgraded (or the first 18 characters
for long pool names). [This applies only to DD OS 5.4.1.0 and later.]
l
The target replication directory will be converted to MTree format. [This applies
only to DD OS 5.2 and later.]
l
Replication pairs are broken before pool conversion and re-established afterward
if no errors occur.
l
Retention Lock cannot be enabled on systems involved in MTree pool conversion.
Moving tapes between pools
If they reside in the vault, tapes can be moved between pools to accommodate
replication activities. For example, pools are needed if all tapes were created in the
Default pool, but you later need independent groups for replicating groups of tapes. You
can create named pools and re-organize the groups of tapes into new pools.
Note
You cannot move tapes from a tape pool that is a directory replication source. As a
workaround, you can:
l
Copy the tape to a new pool, then delete the tape from the old pool.
l
Use an MTree pool, which allows you to move tapes from a tape pool that is a
directory replication source.
Procedure
1. With a pool highlighted, select More Tasks > Tapes > Move.
Note that when started from a pool, the Tapes Panel allows tapes to be moved only
between pools.
2. In the Move Tapes dialog, enter information to search for the tapes to move, and
select Search:
Table 159 Move Tapes dialog
334
Field
User input
Location
Location cannot be changed.
Pool
Select the name of the pool where the tapes reside. If no pools have been created,
use the Default pool.
Barcode
Specify a unique barcode. or leave the default (*) to import a group of tapes.
Barcode allows the wildcards ? and *, where ? matches any single character and *
matches 0 or more characters.
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
DD Virtual Tape Library
Table 159 Move Tapes dialog (continued)
Field
User input
Count
Enter the maximum number of tapes you want to be returned to you. If you leave
this blank, the barcode default (*) is used.
Tapes Per
Page
Select the maximum number of tapes to display per page. Possible values are 15,
30, and 45.
Items
Selected
Shows the number of tapes selected across multiple pages – updated
automatically for each tape selection.
3. From the search results list, select the tapes to move.
4. From the Select Destination: Location list, select the location of the pool to which
tapes are to be moved. This option is available only when started from the (named)
Pool view.
5. Select Next.
6. From the Move Tapes view, verify the summary information and tape list, and select
Submit.
7. Select Close in the status window.
Copying tapes between pools
Tapes can be copied between pools, or from the vault to a pool, to accommodate
replication activities. This option is available only when started from the (named) Pool
view.
Procedure
1. With a pool highlighted, select More Tasks > Tapes > Copy.
2. In the Copy Tapes Between Pools dialog. select the checkboxes of tapes to copy, or
enter information to search for the tapes to copy, and select Search:
Table 160 Copy Tapes Between Pools dialog
Field
User input
Location
Select either a library or the Vault for locating the tape. While tapes always show
up in a pool (under the Pools menu), they are technically in either a library or the
vault, but not both, and they are never in two libraries at the same time. Use the
import/export options to move tapes between the vault and a library.
Pool
To copy tapes between pools, select the name of the pool where the tapes currently
reside. If no pools have been created, use the Default pool.
Barcode
Specify a unique barcode. or leave the default (*) to import a group of tapes.
Barcode allows the wildcards ? and *, where ? matches any single character and *
matches 0 or more characters.
Count
Enter the maximum number of tapes you want to be imported. If you leave this
blank, the barcode default (*) is used.
Tapes Per
Page
Select the maximum number of tapes to display per page. Possible values are 15,
30, and 45.
Copying tapes between pools
335
DD Virtual Tape Library
Table 160 Copy Tapes Between Pools dialog (continued)
Field
User input
Items
Selected
Shows the number of tapes selected across multiple pages – updated
automatically for each tape selection.
3. From the search results list, select the tapes to copy.
4. From the Select Destination: Pool list, select the pool where tapes are to be copied. If
a tape with a matching barcode already resides in the destination pool, an error is
displayed, and the copy aborts.
5. Select Next.
6. From the Copy Tapes Between Pools dialog, verify the summary information and the
tape list, and select Submit.
7. Select Close on the Copy Tapes Between Pools Status window.
Renaming pools
A pool can be renamed only if none of its tapes is in a library.
Procedure
1. Select Pools > Pools pool.
2. Select More Tasks > Pool > Rename.
3. In the Rename Pool dialog, enter the new Pool Name, with the caveat that this name:
l
cannot be “all,” “vault,” or “summary.”
l
cannot have a space or period at its beginning or end.
l
is case-sensitive.
4. Select OK to display the Rename Pool status dialog.
5. After the Rename Pool status dialog shows Completed, select OK.
The pool will have been renamed in the Pools subtree in both the Pools and the
Virtual Tape Libraries areas.
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EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
CHAPTER 14
DD Replicator
This chapter includes:
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
DD Replicator overview........................................................................................338
Replication between HA and non-HA systems......................................................338
Prerequisites for replication configuration........................................................... 339
Replication version compatibility........................................................................ 340
Using DD Encryption with DD Replicator.............................................................. 343
Replication types................................................................................................ 344
Replication topologies........................................................................................ 348
Managing replication.......................................................................................... 353
Monitoring replication ........................................................................................ 369
DD Replicator
337
DD Replicator
DD Replicator overview
EMC Data Domain Replicator (DD Replicator) provides automated, policy-based, networkefficient, and encrypted replication for DR (disaster recovery) and multi-site backup and
archive consolidation. DD Replicator asynchronously replicates only compressed,
deduplicated data over a WAN (wide area network).
DD Replicator performs two levels of deduplication to significantly reduce bandwidth
requirements: local and cross-site deduplication. Local deduplication determines the
unique segments to be replicated over a WAN. Cross-site deduplication further reduces
bandwidth requirements when multiple sites are replicating to the same destination
system. With cross-site deduplication, any redundant segment previously transferred by
any other site, or as a result of a local backup or archive, will not be replicated again. This
improves network efficiency across all sites and reduces daily network bandwidth
requirements up to 99%, making network-based replication fast, reliable, and costeffective.
In order to meet a broad set of DR requirements, DD Replicator provides flexible
replication topologies, such as full system mirroring, bi-directional, many-to-one, one-tomany, and cascaded. In addition, you can choose to replicate either all or a subset of the
data on your DD system. For the highest level of security, DD Replicator can encrypt data
being replicated between DD systems using the standard SSL (Secure Socket Layer)
protocol.
DD Replicator scales performance and supported fan-in ratios to support large enterprise
environments. When deployed over a 10GB network, DD Replicator can mirror data
between two systems at up to 52 TB/hour.
Before getting started with DD Replicator, note the following general requirements:
l
DD Replicator is a licensed product. See your EMC Data Domain sales representative
to purchase licenses.
l
You can usually replicate only between machines that are within two releases of each
other, for example, from 5.5 to 5.7. However, there may be exceptions to this (as a
result of atypical release numbering), so review the tables in the Replication version
compatibility section, or check with your EMC representative.
l
If you are unable to manage and monitor DD Replicator from the current version of the
DD System Manager, use the replication commands described in the EMC Data
Domain Operating System Command Reference Guide.
Replication between HA and non-HA systems
If you want to set up a replication between a high-availability (HA) system and a system
running DD OS 5.7.0.3 or earlier, you must create and manage that replication on the HA
system if you want to use the DD System Manager graphical user interface (GUI).
However, you can perform replications from a non-HA system to an HA system using the
CLI as well as from the HA system to the non-HA system.
338
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
DD Replicator
Prerequisites for replication configuration
Before configuring a replication, review the following prerequisites to minimize initial
data transfer time, prevent overwriting of data, etc.
l
Contexts – Determine the maximum number of contexts for your DD systems by
reviewing the replication streams numbers in the following table.
Table 161 Data streams sent to a Data Domain system
Model
RAM/ NVRAM
Backup
write
streams
Backup
read
streams
Repla
source
streams
Repla dest
streams
Mixed
DD140, DD160,
DD610
4 GB or 6 GB /
0.5 GB
16
4
15
20
w<= 16 ; r<= 4 ReplSrc<=15;
ReplDest<=20; ReplDest+w<=16; w
+r+ReplSrc <=16;Total<=20
DD620, DD630,
DD640
8 GB / 0.5 GB or
1 GB
20
16
30
20
w<=20; r<=16; ReplSrc<=30;
ReplDest<=20; ReplDest+w<=20;
Total<=30
DD640, DD670
16 GB or 20 GB / 90
1 GB
30
60
90
w<=90; r<=30; ReplSrc<=60;
ReplDest<=90; ReplDest+w<=90;
Total<=90
DD670, DD860
36 GB / 1 GB
90
50
90
90
w<=90; r<=50; ReplSrc<=90;
ReplDest<=90; ReplDest+w<=90;
Total<=140
DD860
72 GBb / 1 GB
90
50
90
90
w<=90; r<=50; ReplSrc<=90;
ReplDest<=90; ReplDest+w<=90;
Total<=140
DD890
96 GB / 2 GB
180
50
90
180
w<=180; r<=50; ReplSrc
<=90;ReplDest<=180; ReplDest
+w<=180; Total<=180
DD990
128 or 256 GBb / 540
4 GB
150
270
540
w<=540; r<=150; ReplSrc<=270;
ReplDest<=540; ReplDest+w<=540;
Total<=540
DD2200
8 GB
35
6
26
35
w<=35; r<=6; ReplSrc <= 26;
ReplDest <= 20; ReplDest+w <= 35;
Total <= 35
DD2200
16 GB
60
16
56
42
w<=60; r<=16; ReplSrc <= 56;
ReplDest <= 42; ReplDest+w <= 60;
Total <= 60
DD2500
32 or 64 GB / 2
GB
180
50
90
180
w<=180; r<=50; ReplSrc<=90;
ReplDest<=180; ReplDest+w<=180;
Total<=180
DD4200
128 GBb / 4 GB
270
75
150
270
w<=270; r<=75; ReplSrc<=150;
ReplDest<=270; ReplDest+w<=270;
Total<=270
Prerequisites for replication configuration
339
DD Replicator
Table 161 Data streams sent to a Data Domain system (continued)
Model
RAM/ NVRAM
Backup
write
streams
Backup
read
streams
Repla
source
streams
Repla dest
streams
Mixed
DD4500
192 GBb / 4 GB
270
75
150
270
w<=270; r<=75; ReplSrc<=150;
ReplDest<=270; ReplDest+w<=270;
Total<=270
DD7200
128 or 256 GBb / 540
4 GB
150
270
540
w<=540; r<=150; ReplSrc<=270;
ReplDest<=540; ReplDest+w<=540;
Total<=540
DD9500
256/512 GB
300
540
1080
w<=1885; r<=300; ReplSrc<=540;
ReplDest<=1080; ReplDest
+w<=1885; Total<=1885
1885
a. DirRepl, OptDup, MTreeRepl streams
b. The Data Domain Extended Retention software option is available only for these devices with extended (maximum) memory
l
Compatibility – If you are using DD systems running different versions of DD OS,
review the next section on Replication Version Compatibility.
l
Initial Replication – If the source holds a lot of data, the initial replication operation
can take many hours. Consider putting both DD systems in the same location with a
high-speed, low-latency link. After the first replication, you can move the systems to
their intended locations because only new data will be sent.
l
Bandwidth Delay Settings – Both the source and destination must have the same
bandwidth delay settings. These tuning controls benefit replication performance over
higher latency links by controlling the TCP (transmission control protocol) buffer size.
The source system can then send enough data to the destination while waiting for an
acknowledgment.
l
Only One Context for Directories/Subdirectories – A directory (and its subdirectories)
can be in only one context at a time, so be sure that a subdirectory under a source
directory is not used in another directory replication context.
l
Adequate Storage – At a minimum, the destination must have the same amount of
space as the source.
l
Destination Empty for Directory Replication – The destination directory must be
empty for directory replication, or its contents no longer needed, because it will be
overwritten.
Replication version compatibility
To use DD systems running different versions of DD OS for a source or destination, the
following tables provide compatibility information for single-node, extended retention,
retention lock, MTree, directory, collection, delta (low bandwidth optimization), and
cascaded replication.
In general:
340
l
For DD Boost or OST, see “Optimized Duplication Version Compatibility” in the Data
Domain Boost Administration Guide for supported configurations.
l
MTree and directory replication cannot be used simultaneously for replicating the
same data.
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
DD Replicator
l
The recovery procedure is valid for all supported replication configurations.
l
Migration is supported whenever collection replication is supported.
l
MTree replication between a source DD system running DD OS 5.2.x and a destination
DD system running DD OS 5.4.x or DD OS 5.5.x is not supported when Retention Lock
governance is enabled on the source MTree.
l
For cascaded configurations, the maximum number of hops is two, that is, three DD
systems.
l
One-to-many, many-to-one, and cascaded replication support up to three consecutive
DD OS release families, as seen in these figures.
Figure 19 Valid replication configurations
Figure 20 Invalid replication configurations
In these tables:
l
Each DD OS release includes all releases in that family, for example, DD OS 5.4
includes 5.4.4.x, 5.4.5.x, etc.
l
c = collection replication
l
dir = directory replication
l
m = MTree replication
l
del = delta (low bandwidth optimization) replication
l
dest = destination
l
src = source
l
NA = not applicable
Replication version compatibility
341
DD Replicator
Table 162 Configuration: single-node to single-node
4.8
(dest)
4.9
(dest)
5.0
(dest)
5.1
(dest)
5.2
(dest)
5.3
(dest)
5.4
(dest)
5.5 (dest) 5.6 (dest) 5.7 (dest)
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
dir, del
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
4.8 (src)
c, dir, del dir, del
4.9 (src)
NA
c, dir, del dir, del
5.0 (src)
NA
NA
c, dir, del dir, del
dir, del
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
5.1 (src)
NA
dir, del
dir, del
c, dir,
del, ma
dir, del,
ma
dir, del,
ma
dir, del,
ma
NA
NA
NA
5.2 (src)
NA
NA
dir, del
dir, del,
ma
c, dir,
del, mb
dir, del,
m
dir, del,
m
dir, del, m
NA
NA
5.3 (src)
NA
NA
NA
dir, del,
ma
dir, del,
m
c, dir,
del, m
dir, del,
m
dir, del, m
NA
NA
5.4 (src)
NA
NA
NA
dir, del,
ma
dir, del,
m
dir, del,
m
c, dir,
del, m
dir, del, m
dir, del, m
NA
5.5 (src)
NA
NA
NA
NA
dir, del,
m
dir, del,
m
dir, del,
m
c, dir, del,
m
dir, del, m
dir, del, m
5.6 (src)
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
dir, del,
m
dir, del, m
c, dir, del,
m
dir, del, m
5.7 (src)
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
dir, del, m
dir, del, m
c, dir, del,
m
a.
b.
MTree replication is unsupported for VTL.
Collection replication is supported only for compliance data.
Table 163 Configuration: Extended Retention to Extended Retention
4.8
(dest)
4.9
(dest)
5.0
(dest)
5.1
(dest)
5.2
(dest)
5.3
(dest)
5.4
(dest)
5.5 (dest) 5.6 (dest) 5.7 (dest)
4.8 (src)
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
4.9 (src)
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
5.0 (src)
NA
NA
c
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
5.1 (src)
NA
NA
NA
c
ma
mb
mb
NA
NA
NA
5.2 (src)
NA
NA
NA
ma
c, ma
ma
ma
ma
NA
NA
5.3 (src)
NA
NA
NA
mc
mc
c, m
m
m
NA
NA
5.4 (src)
NA
NA
NA
mc
mc
m
c, m
m
m
NA
5.5 (src)
NA
NA
NA
NA
mc
m
m
c, m
m
m
5.6 (src)
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
m
m
c, m
m
5.7 (src)
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
m
m
c, m
a. File migration is not supported with MTree replication on either the source or destination in this configuration.
b. File migration is not supported with MTree replication on the source in this configuration.
c. File migration is not supported with MTree replication on the destination in this configuration.
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Table 164 Configuration: single-node to Extended Retention
4.8
(dest)
4.9
(dest)
5.0
(dest)
5.1
(dest)
5.2
(dest)
5.3
(dest)
5.4
(dest)
5.5 (dest) 5.6 (dest) 5.7 (dest)
4.8 (src)
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
4.9 (src)
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
5.0 (src)
NA
NA
dir
dir
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
5.1 (src)
NA
NA
dir
dir, ma
dir, ma
dir, m
dir, m
NA
NA
NA
dir, ma
dir, m
dir, m
dir, m
NA
NA
5.2 (src)
NA
NA
dir
dir, ma
5.3 (src)
NA
NA
NA
dir, ma
dir, ma
dir, m
dir, m
dir, m
NA
NA
5.4 (src)
NA
NA
NA
dir, ma
dir, ma
dir, m
dir, m
dir, m
dir, m
NA
5.5 (src)
NA
NA
NA
NA
dir, ma
dir, m
dir, m
dir, m
dir, m
dir, m
5.6 (src)
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
dir, m
dir, m
dir, m
dir, m
5.7 (src)
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
dir, m
dir, m
dir, m
a.
File migration is not supported for this configuration.
Using DD Encryption with DD Replicator
DD Replicator can be used with the optional DD Encryption feature, enabling encrypted
data to be replicated using collection, directory, or MTree replication
Replication contexts are always authenticated with a shared secret. That shared secret is
used to establish a session key using a Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol, and that
session key is used to encrypt and decrypt the Data Domain system encryption key when
appropriate.
Each replication type works uniquely with encryption and offers the same level of
security.
l
Collection replication requires the source and destination to have the same
encryption configuration, because the destination data is expected to be an exact
replica of the source data. In particular, the encryption feature must be turned on or
off at both the source and destination, and if the feature is turned on, the encryption
algorithm and the system passphrases must also match. The parameters are checked
during the replication association phase.
During collection replication, the source transmits the encrypted user data with the
encrypted system encryption key. The data can be recovered at the destination
because the destination has the same passphrase and the same system encryption
key.
l
MTree or directory replication does not require encryption configuration to be the
same at both the source and destination. Instead, the source and destination
securely exchange the destination’s encryption key during the replication association
phase, and the data is first decrypted and then re-encrypted at the source using the
destination’s encryption key before transmission to the destination.
If the destination has a different encryption configuration, the data transmitted is
prepared appropriately. For example, if the feature is turned off at the destination, the
source decrypts the data, and it is sent to the destination un-encrypted.
l
In a cascaded replication topology, a replica is chained among three Data Domain
systems. The last system in the chain can be configured as a collection, MTree, or
Using DD Encryption with DD Replicator
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directory. If the last system is a collection replication destination, it uses the same
encryption keys and encrypted data as its source. If the last system is an MTree or
directory replication destination, it uses its own key, and the data is encrypted at its
source. The encryption key for the destination at each link is used for encryption.
Encryption for systems in the chain works as in a replication pair.
Replication types
Replication typically consists of a source DD system (which receives data from a backup
system) and one or more destination DD systems. Each DD system can be the source
and/or the destination for replication contexts. During replication, each DD system can
perform normal backup and restore operations.
Each replication type establishes a context associated with an existing directory or MTree
on the source. The replicated context is created on the destination when a context is
established. The context establishes a replication pair, which is always active, and any
data landing in the source will be copied to the destination at the earliest opportunity.
Paths configured in replication contexts are absolute references and do not change
based on the system in which they are configured.
A Data Domain system can be set up for directory, collection, or MTree replication.
l
Directory replication provides replication at the level of individual directories.
l
Collection replication duplicates the entire data store on the source and transfers that
to the destination, and the replicated volume is read-only.
l
MTree replication replicates entire MTrees (that is, a virtual file structure that enables
advanced management). Media pools can also be replicated, and by default (as of DD
OS 5.3), an MTree is created that will be replicated. (A media pool can also be created
in backward-compatibility mode that, when replicated, will be a directory replication
context.)
For any replication type, note the following requirements:
l
A destination Data Domain system must have available storage capacity that is at
least the size of the expected maximum size of the source directory. Be sure that the
destination Data Domain system has enough network bandwidth and disk space to
handle all traffic from replication sources.
l
The Data Domain file system must be enabled or, based on the replication type, will
be enabled as part of the replication initialization.
l
The source must exist.
l
The destination must not exist.
l
The destination will be created when a context is built and initialized.
l
After replication is initialized, ownership and permissions of the destination are
always identical to those of the source.
l
In the replication command options, a specific replication pair is always identified by
the destination.
l
Both systems must have an active, visible route through the IP network so that each
system can resolve its partner's host name.
The choice of replication type depends on your specific needs. The next sections provide
descriptions and features of these three types, plus a brief introduction to Managed File
Replication, which is used by DD Boost.
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Managed file replication
Managed file replication, which is used by DD Boost, is a type of replication that is
managed and controlled by backup software.
With managed file replication, backup images are directly transferred from one DD
system to another, one at a time, at the request of the backup software.
The backup software keeps track of all copies, allowing easy monitoring of replication
status and recovery from multiple copies.
Managed file replication offers flexible replication topologies including full system
mirroring, bi-directional, many-to-one, one-to-many, and cascaded, enabling efficient
cross-site deduplication.
Here are some additional points to consider about managed file replication:
l
Replication contexts do not need to be configured.
l
Lifecycle polices control replication of information with no intervention from the user.
l
DD Boost will build and tear down contexts as needed on the fly.
For more information, see the ddboost file-replication commands in the EMC
Data Domain Operating System Command Reference Guide.
Directory replication
Directory replication transfers deduplicated data within a DD file system directory
configured as a replication source to a directory configured as a replication destination
on a different system.
With directory replication, a DD system can simultaneously be the source of some
replication contexts and the destination of other contexts. And that DD system can also
receive data from backup and archive applications while it is replicating data.
Directory replication has the same flexible network deployment topologies and cross-site
deduplication effects as managed file replication (the type used by DD Boost).
Here are some additional points to consider when using directory replication:
l
Do not mix CIFS and NFS data within the same directory. A single destination DD
system can receive backups from both CIFS clients and NFS clients as long as
separate directories are used for CIFS and NFS.
l
Any directory can be in only one context at a time. A parent directory may not be used
in a replication context if a child directory of that parent is already being replicated.
l
Renaming (moving) files or tapes into or out of a directory replication source directory
is not permitted. Renaming files or tapes within a directory replication source
directory is permitted.
l
A destination DD system must have available storage capacity of at least the postcompressed size of the expected maximum post-compressed size of the source
directory.
l
When replication is initialized, a destination directory is created automatically.
l
After replication is initialized, ownership and permissions of the destination directory
are always identical to those of the source directory. As long as the context exists, the
destination directory is kept in a read-only state and can receive data only from the
source directory.
l
At any time, due to differences in global compression, the source and destination
directory can differ in size.
Managed file replication
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Folder Creation Recommendations
Directory replication replicates data at the level of individual subdirectories under /
data/col1/backup.
To provide a granular separation of data you must create, from a host system, other
directories (DirA, DirB, etc.) within the /backup Mtree. Each directory should be based on
your environment and the desire to replicate those directories to another location. You
will not replicate the entire /backup MTree, but instead would set up replication contexts
on each subdirectory underneath /data/col1/backup/ (ex. /data/col1/backup/DirC). The
purpose of this threefold:
l
It allows control of the destination locations as DirA may go to one site and DirB may
go to another.
l
This level of granularity allows management, monitoring, and fault isolation. Each
replication context can be paused, stopped, destroyed, or reported on.
l
Performance is limited on a single context. The creation of multiple contexts can
improve aggregate replication performance.
l
As a general recommendation, approximately 5 - 10 contexts may be required to
distribute replication load across multiple replication streams. This must be validated
against the site design and the volume and composition of the data at the location.
Note
Recommending a number of contexts is a design-dependent issue, and in some cases,
significant implications are attached to the choices made about segregating data for the
purposes of optimizing replication. Data is usually optimized for the manner in which it
will rest – not in manner with which it will replicate. Keep this in mind when altering a
backup environment.
MTree replication
MTree replication is used to replicate MTrees between DD systems. Periodic snapshots
are created on the source, and the differences between them are transferred to the
destination by leveraging the same cross-site deduplication mechanism used for
directory replication. This ensures that the data on the destination is always a point-intime copy of the source, with file consistency. This also reduces replication of churn in
the data, leading to more efficient utilization of the WAN.
With MTree replication, a DD system can be simultaneously the source of some
replication contexts and the destination of other contexts. And that DD system can also
receive data from backup and archive applications while it is replicating data.
MTree replication has the same flexible network deployment topologies and cross-site
deduplication effects as managed file replication (the type used by DD Boost).
MTree replication replicates data for an MTree specified by the /data/col1/mtree
pathname.
Here are some additional points to consider when using MTree replication:
346
l
When replication is initialized, a destination read-only MTree is created
automatically.
l
Data can be logically segregated into multiple MTrees to promote greater replication
performance.
l
Snapshots must be created on source contexts.
l
Snapshots cannot be created on a replication destination.
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
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l
Snapshots are replicated with a fixed retention of one year; however, the retention is
adjustable on the destination and must be adjusted there.
l
Replication contexts must be configured on both the source and the destination.
l
Replicating VTL tape cartridges (or pools) simply means replicating MTrees or
directories that contain VTL tape cartridges. Media pools are replicated by MTree
replication, as a default. A media pool can be created in backward-compatibility
mode and can then be replicated via directory-based replication. You cannot use the
pool:// syntax to create replication contexts using the command line. When
specifying pool-based replication in DD System Manager, either directory or MTree
replication will be created, based on the media pool type.
l
Replicating directories under an MTree is not permitted.
l
A destination DD system must have available storage capacity of at least the postcompressed size of the expected maximum post-compressed size of the source
MTree.
l
After replication is initialized, ownership and permissions of the destination MTree
are always identical to those of the source MTree. If the context is configured, the
destination MTree is kept in a read-only state and can receive data only from the
source MTree.
l
At any time, due to differences in global compression, the source and destination
MTree can differ in size.
l
MTree replication is supported from DD Extended Retention systems to non-DD
Extended Retention systems if both are running DD OS 5.5 or later.
l
Retention Lock Compliance is supported with MTree replication, by default. If
Retention Lock is licensed on a source, the destination must also have a Retention
Lock license, or replication will fail. (To avoid this situation, you must disable
Retention Lock.) If Retention Lock is enabled on a replication context, a replicated
destination context will always contain data that is Retention Locked.
Collection replication
Collection replication performs whole-system mirroring in a one-to-one topology,
continuously transferring changes in the underlying collection, including all of the logical
directories and files of the DD file system.
Collection replication does not have the flexibility of the other types, but it can provide
higher throughput and support more objects with less overhead, which may work better
for high-scale enterprise cases.
Collection replication replicates the entire /data/col1 area from a source DD system to
a destination DD system.
Here are some additional points to consider when using collection replication:
l
No granular replication control is possible. All data is copied from the source to the
destination producing a read-only copy.
l
Collection replication requires that the storage capacity of the destination system be
equal to, or greater than, the capacity of the source system. If the destination
capacity is less than the source capacity, the available capacity on the source is
reduced to the capacity of the destination.
l
The DD system to be used as the collection replication destination must be empty
before configuring replication. After replication is configured, this system is
dedicated to receive data from the source system.
l
With collection replication, all user accounts and passwords are replicated from the
source to the destination. However, as of DD OS 5.5.1.0, other elements of
Collection replication
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configuration and user settings of the DD system are not replicated to the
destination; you must explicitly reconfigure them after recovery.
l
Retention Lock Compliance supports collection replication.
Replication topologies
DD Replicator supports five replication topologies (one-to-one, one-to-one bidirectional,
one-to-many, many-to-one, and cascaded). The tables in this section show (1) how these
topologies work with three types of replication (MTree, directory, and collection) and two
types of DD systems [single node (SN) and Extended Retention (ER)-enabled] and (2) how
mixed topologies are supported with cascaded replication.
In general:
l
Single node (SN) systems support all replication topologies.
l
Single node-to-single node (SN -> SN) can be used for all replication types.
l
Extended Retention (ER)-enabled systems cannot be the source for directory
replication.
l
Collection replication cannot be configured from either a single node (SN) system to
an Extended Retention (ER)-enabled system, nor from an ER-enabled system to an SN
system.
In this table:
l
SN = single node DD system (no Extended Retention)
l
ER = Extended Retention-enabled DD system
Table 165 Topology Support by Replication Type and DD System Type
Topologies
MTree Replication
Directory Replication Collection
Replication
one-to-one
{SN | ER} -> {SN | ER}
ER->SN [supported starting
with 5.5 release; prior to 5.5,
it is recovery only]
SN -> SN
SN -> ER
SN -> SN
ER -> ER
one-to-one
bidirectional
{SN | ER} -> {SN | ER}
SN -> SN
not supported
one-to-many
{SN | ER} -> {SN | ER}
SN -> SN
SN -> ER
not supported
many-to-one
{SN | ER} -> {SN | ER}
SN -> SN
SN -> ER
not supported
cascaded
{SN | ER } -> {SN | ER} -> {SN |
ER}
SN -> SN -> SN
SN -> SN -> ER
ER -> ER -> ER
SN -> SN -> SN
Cascaded replication supports mixed topologies where the second leg in a cascaded
connection is different from the first type in a connection (for example, A -> B is directory
replication, and B -> C is collection replication).
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Table 166 Mixed Topologies Supported with Cascaded Replication
Mixed Topologies
SN – Dir Repl -> ER – MTree Repl -> ER – MTree
Repl
SN – Dir Repl -> ER – Col Repl -> ER – Col Repl
SN – MTree Repl -> SN – Col Repl -> SN – Col
Repl
SN – MTree Repl -> ER – Col Repl -> ER – Col Repl
One-to-one replication
The simplest type of replication is from a DD source system to a DD destination system,
otherwise known as a one-to-one replication pair. This replication topology can be
configured with directory, MTree, or collection replication types.
Figure 21 One-to-one replication pair
One-to-one replication
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Bi-directional replication
In a bi-directional replication pair, data from a directory or MTree on DD system A is
replicated to DD system B, and from another directory or MTree on DD system B to DD
system A.
Figure 22 Bi-directional replication
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One-to-many replication
In one-to-many replication, data flows from a source directory or MTree on one DD system
to several destination DD systems. You could use this type of replication to create more
than two copies for increased data protection, or to distribute data for multi-site usage.
Figure 23 One-to-many replication
Many-to-one replication
In many-to-one replication, whether with MTree or directory, replication data flows from
several source DD systems to a single destination DD system. This type of replication can
One-to-many replication
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DD Replicator
be used to provide data recovery protection for several branch offices on a corporate
headquarter’s IT system.
Figure 24 Many-to-one replication
Cascaded replication
In a cascaded replication topology, a source directory or MTree is chained among three
DD systems. The last hop in the chain can be configured as collection, MTree, or directory
replication, depending on whether the source is directory or MTree.
For example, DD system A replicates one or more MTrees to DD system B, which then
replicates those MTrees to DD system C. The MTrees on DD system B are both a
destination (from DD system A) and a source (to DD system C).
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Figure 25 Cascaded directory replication
Data recovery can be performed from the non-degraded replication pair context. For
example:
l
In the event DD system A requires recovery, data can be recovered from DD system B.
l
In the event DD system B requires recovery, the simplest method is to perform a
replication resync from DD system A to (the replacement) DD system B. In this case,
the replication context from DD system B to DD system C should be broken first. After
the DD system A to DD system B replication context finishes resync, a new DD system
B to DD System C context should be configured and resynced.
Managing replication
You can manage replication using the Data Domain System Manager (DD System
Manager) or the Data Domain Operating System (DD OS) Command Line Interface (CLI).
To use a graphical user interface (GUI) to manage replication, log in to the DD System
Manager.
Procedure
1. From the menu at the left of the DD System Manager, select Replication. If your
license has not been added yet, select Add License.
2. Select Automatic or On-Demand (you must have a DD Boost license for on-demand).
CLI Equivalent
You can also log in at the CLI:
login as: sysadmin
Data Domain OS 5.5.x.x-12345
Managing replication
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Using keyboard-interactive authentication.
Password:
Replication status
Replication Status shows the system-wide count of replication contexts exhibiting a
warning (yellow text) or error (red text) state, or if conditions are normal.
Summary view
The Summary view lists the configured replication contexts for a DD system, displaying
aggregated information about the selected DD system – that is, summary information
about the inbound and outbound replication pairs. The focus is the DD system, itself, and
the inputs to it and outputs from it.
The Summary table can be filtered by entering a Source or Destination name, or by
selecting a State (Error, Warning, or Normal).
Table 167 Replication Summary view
Item
Description
Source
System and path name of the source context, with format
system.path. For example, for directory dir1 on system
dd120-22, you would see dd120-22.chaos.local/data/
col1/dir1.
Destination
System and path name of destination context, with format
system.path. For example, for MTree MTree1 on system
dd120-44, you would see dd120-44.chaos.local/data/
col1/MTree1.
Type
Type of context: MTree, directory (Dir), or Pool.
State
Possible states of replication pair status include:
l
Normal – If the replica is Initializing, Replicating, Recovering,
Resyncing, or Migrating.
l
Idle – For MTree replication, this state can display if the
replication process is not currently active or for network errors
(such as the destination system being inaccessible).
l
Warning – If there is an unusual delay for the first five states, or
for the Uninitialized state.
l
Error – Any possible error states, such as Disconnected.
Synced As Of Time
Timestamp for last automatic replication sync operation performed
by the source. For MTree replication, this value is updated when a
snapshot is exposed on the destination. For directory replication, it
is updated when a sync point inserted by the source is applied. A
value of unknown displays during replication initialization.
Pre-Comp Remaining
Amount of pre-compressed data remaining to be replicated.
Completion Time (Est.)
Value is either Completed, or the estimated amount of time
required to complete the replication data transfer based on the last
24 hours’ transfer rate.
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Detailed information for a replication context
Selecting one replication context from the Summary view populates that context’s
information in Detailed Information, Performance Graph, Completion Stats, and
Completion Predictor.
Table 168 Detailed Information
Item
Description
State Description
Message about state of replica.
Source
System and path name of source context, with format
system.path. For example, for directory dir1 on system
dd120-22, you would see dd120-22.chaos.local/data/
col1/dir1.
Destination
System and path name of destination context, with format
system.path. For example, for MTree MTree1 on system
dd120-44, you would see dd120-44.chaos.local/data/
col1/MTree1.
Connection Port
System name and listen port used for replication connection.
Table 169 Performance Graph
Item
Description
Pre-Comp Remaining
Pre-compressed data remaining to be replicated.
Pre-Comp Written
Pre-compressed data written on the source.
Post-Comp Replicated
Post-compressed data that has been replicated.
Table 170 Completion Stats
Item
Description
Synced As Of Time
Timestamp for last automatic replication sync operation performed
by the source. For MTree replication, this value is updated when a
snapshot is exposed on the destination. For directory replication, it
is updated when a sync point inserted by the source is applied. A
value of unknown displays during replication initialization.
Completion Time (Est.)
Value is either Completed or the estimated amount of time
required to complete the replication data transfer based on the last
24 hours’ transfer rate.
Pre-Comp Remaining
Amount of data remaining to be replicated.
Files Remaining
(Directory Replication Only) Number of files that have not yet been
replicated.
Status
For source and destination endpoints, shows status (Enabled,
Disabled, Not Licensed, etc.) of major components on the system,
such as:
l
Replication
Summary view
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DD Replicator
Table 170 Completion Stats (continued)
Item
Description
l
File System
l
Replication Lock
l
Encryption at Rest
l
Encryption over Wire
l
Available Space
l
Low Bandwidth Optimization
l
Compression Ratio
l
Low Bandwidth Optimization Ratio
Completion Predictor
The Completion Predictor is a widget for tracking a backup job's progress and for
predicting when replication will complete, for a selected context.
Creating a replication pair
Before creating a replication pair, make sure the destination does not exist, or you will
get an error.
Procedure
1. Select Replication > Automatic > Summary tab > Create Pair .
2. In the Create Pair dialog, add information to create an inbound or outbound MTree,
directory, collection, or pool replication pair, as described in the next sections.
Adding a DD system for replication
You may need to add a DD system as either a host or a destination before you can create
a replication pair.
Note
Make sure the system being added is running a compatible DD OS version.
Procedure
1. In the Create Pair dialog, select Add System.
2. For System, enter the hostname or IP address of the system to be added.
3. For User Name and Password, enter the sysadmin's user name and password.
4. Optionally, select More Options to enter a proxy IP address (or system name) of a
system that cannot be reached directly. If configured, enter a custom port instead of
the default port 3009.
Note
IPv6 addresses are supported only when adding a DD OS 5.5 or later system to a
management system using DD OS 5.5 or later.
5. Select OK.
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Note
If the system is unreachable after adding it to DD System Manager, make sure that
there is a route from the managing system to the system being added. If a hostname
(either a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) or non-FQDN) is entered, make sure it is
resolvable on the managed system. Configure a domain name for the managed
system, ensure a DNS entry for the system exists, or ensure an IP address to
hostname mapping is defined.
6. If the system certificate is not verified, the Verify Certificate dialog shows details
about the certificate. Check the system credentials. Select OK if you trust the
certificate, or select Cancel.
Creating a collection replication pair
See the Collection replication section for general information about this type of
replication.
Before creating a collection replication pair, make sure:
l
The storage capacity of the destination system is equal to, or greater than, that of the
source system. (If the destination capacity is less than that of the source, the
available capacity on the source is reduced to that of the destination.)
l
The destination has been destroyed, and subsequently re-created, but not enabled.
l
Each destination and each source is in only one context at a time.
l
The file system is disabled on the replica, while configuring and enabling encryption
on the source.
l
The file system is disabled on the source, while configuring and enabling encryption
on the replica.
Procedure
1. In the Create Pair dialog, select Collection from the Replication Type menu.
2. Select the source system hostname from the Source System menu.
3. Select the destination system hostname from the Destination System menu. The list
includes only those hosts in the DD-Network list.
4. If you want to change any host connection settings, select the Advanced tab.
5. Select OK. Replication from the source to the destination begins.
Results
Test results from Data Domain returned the following performance guidelines for
replication initialization. These are guidelines only, and actual performance seen in
production environments may vary.
l
Over a gibibit LAN: With a high enough shelf count to drive maximum input/output
and ideal conditions, collection replication can saturate a 1GigE link (modulo 10%
protocol overhead), as well as 400-900 MB/sec on 10gigE, depending on the
platform.
l
Over a WAN, performance is governed by the WAN link line speed, bandwidth,
latency, and packet loss rate.
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Creating an MTree, directory, or pool replication pair
See the MTree replication and Directory replication sections for general information about
these types of replication.
When creating an MTree, directory, or pool replication pair:
l
Make sure the replication is transiting\exiting the correct interface. When defining a
replication context, the host names of the source and destination must resolve with
forward and reverse lookups. To make the data transit alternate interfaces on the
system, other than the default resolving interface, the replication context must be
modified after creation. It may be necessary to set up host files to ensure that
contexts are defined on non-resolving (cross-over) interfaces.
l
You can “reverse” the context for an MTree replication, that is, you can switch the
destination and the source.
l
Subdirectories within an MTree cannot be replicated, because the MTree, in its
entirety, is replicated.
l
MTree replication is supported from Extended Retention-enabled systems to nonExtended Retention-enabled systems, if both are running DD OS 5.5 or later.
l
The destination DD system must have available storage capacity of at least the postcompressed size of the expected maximum post-compressed size of the source
directory or MTree.
l
When replication is initialized, a destination directory is created automatically.
l
A DD system can simultaneously be the source for one context and the destination for
another context.
Procedure
1. In the Create Pair dialog, select Directory, MTree (default), or Pool from the
Replication Type menu.
2. Select the source system hostname from the Source System menu.
3. Select the destination system hostname from the Destination System menu.
4. Enter the source path in the Source Path text box (notice the first part of the path is a
constant that changes based on the type of replication chosen).
5. Enter the destination path in the Destination Directory text box (notice the first part of
the path is a constant that changes based on the type of replication chosen).
6. If you want to change any host connection settings, select the Advanced tab.
7. Select OK.
The Replication from the source to the destination begins.
Test results from Data Domain returned the following guidelines for estimating the
time needed for replication initialization.
These are guidelines only and may not be accurate in specific production
environments.
358
l
Using a T3 connection, 100ms WAN, performance is about 40 MiB/sec of precompressed data, which gives data transfer of:
40 MiB/sec = 25 seconds/GiB = 3.456 TiB/day
l
Using the base-2 equivalent of gigabit LAN, performance is about 80 MiB/sec of
pre-compressed data, which gives data transfer of about double the rate for a T3
WAN.
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DD Replicator
CLI Equivalent
Here are examples of creating MTree and directory replication pairs at the CLI. The last
example specifies the IP version used as a replication transport.
# replication add source mtree://ddsource.test.com/data/col1/
examplemtree destination mtree://ddtarget.test.com/data/col1/
examplemtree (Mtree example)
# replication add source dir://ddsource.test.com/data/col1/
directorytorep destination dir://ddtarget.test.com/backup/
directorytorep
# replication add source dir://ddsource.test.com/data/col1/
directorytorep destination dir://ddtarget.test.com/backup/
directorytorep ipversion ipv6
To start replication between a source and destination, use the replication initialize
command on the source. This command checks that the configuration and
connections are correct and returns error messages if any problems appear.
# replication initialize mtree://host3.test.com/data/col1/mtree1/
Configuring bi-directional replication
To create a bi-directional replication pair, use the directory or MTree replication pair
procedure (for example, using mtree2) from host A to host B. Use the same procedure to
create a replication pair (for example, using mtree1) from host B to host A. For this
configuration, destination pathnames cannot be the same.
Configuring one-to-many replication
To create a one-to-many replication pair, use the directory or MTree replication pair
procedure (for example, using mtree1) on host A to: (1) mtree1 on host B, (2) mtree1 on
host C, and (3) mtree1 on host D. A replication recovery cannot be done to a source
context whose path is the source path for other contexts; the other contexts must be
broken and resynced after the recovery.
Configuring many-to-one replication
To create a many-to-one replication pair, use the directory or MTree replication pair
procedure [for example, (1) mtree1 from host A to mtree1 on host C and (2) mtree2 on
host B to mtree2 on host C.]
Configuring cascaded replication
To create a cascaded replication pair, use the directory or MTree replication pair
procedure: (1) mtree1 on host A to mtree1 on host B, and (2) on host B, create a pair for
mtree1 to mtree1 on host C. The final destination context (on host C in this example, but
more than three hops are supported) can be a collection replica or a directory or MTree
replica.
Disabling and enabling a replication pair
Disabling a replication pair temporarily pauses the active replication of data between a
source and a destination. The source stops sending data to the destination, and the
destination stops serving as an active connection to the source.
Procedure
1. Select one or more replication pairs in the Summary table, and select Disable Pair.
2. In the Display Pair dialog, select Next and then OK.
3. To resume operation of a disabled replication pair, select one or more replication
pairs in the Summary table, and select Enable Pair to display the Enable Pair dialog.
4. Select Next and then OK. Replication of data is resumed.
CLI Equivalent
Summary view
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# replication disable {destination | all}
# replication enable {destination | all}
Deleting a replication pair
When a directory or MTree replication pair is deleted, the destination directory or MTree,
respectively, becomes writeable. When a collection replication pair is deleted, the
destination DD system becomes a stand-alone read/write system, and the file system is
disabled.
Procedure
1. Select one or more replication pairs in the Summary table, and select Delete Pair.
2. In the Delete Pair dialog, select Next and then OK. The replication pairs are deleted.
CLI Equivalent
Before running this command, always run the filesys disable command. Then,
afterward, run the filesys enable command
# replication break {destination | all}
Changing host connection settings
To direct traffic out of a specific port, modify a current context by altering the connection
host parameter using a host name previously defined in the local hosts file to address
the alternate system. That host name will correspond to the destination. The host entry
will indicate an alternate destination address for that host. This may be required on both
the source and destination systems.
Procedure
1. Select the replication pair in the Summary table, and select Modify Settings. You can
also change these settings when you are performing Create Pair, Start Resync, or Start
Recover by selecting the Advanced tab.
2. In the Modify Connection Settings dialog, modify any or all of these settings:
a. Use Low Bandwidth Optimization – For enterprises with small data sets and 6
Mb/s or less bandwidth networks, DD Replicator can further reduce the amount of
data to be sent using low bandwidth optimization. This enables remote sites with
limited bandwidth to use less bandwidth or to replicate and protect more of their
data over existing networks. Low bandwidth optimization must be enabled on both
the source and destination DD systems. If the source and destination have
incompatible low bandwidth optimization settings, low bandwidth optimization
will be inactive for that context. After enabling low bandwidth optimization on the
source and destination, both systems must undergo a full cleaning cycle to
prepare the existing data, so run filesys clean start on both systems. The
duration of the cleaning cycle depends on the amount of data on the DD system,
but takes longer than a normal cleaning. For more information on the filesys
commands, see the EMC Data Domain Operating System Command Reference Guide.
Important: Low bandwidth optimization is not supported if the DD Extended
Retention software option is enabled on either DD system. It is also not supported
for Collection Replication.
b. Enable Encryption Over Wire – DD Replicator supports encryption of data-in-flight
by using standard SSL (Secure Socket Layer) protocol version 3, which uses the
ADH-AES256-SHA cipher suite to establish secure replication connections. Both
sides of the connection must enable this feature for encryption to proceed.
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c. Network Preference – You may choose IPv4 or IPv6. An IPv6-enabled replication
service can still accept connections from an IPv4 replication client if the service is
reachable via IPv4. An IPv6-enabled replication client can still communicate with
an IPv4 replication service if the service is reachable via IPv4.
d. Use Non-default Connection Host – The source system transmits data to a
destination system listen port. Since a source system can have replication
configured for many destination systems (each of which can have a different listen
port), each context on the source can configure the connection port to the
corresponding listen port of the destination.
3. Select Next and then Close.
The replication pair settings are updated, and replication resumes.
CLI Equivalent
#replication modify <destination> connection-host <new-host-name>
[port <port>]
Managing replication systems
You can add or delete Data Domain systems to be used for replication using the Manage
Systems dialog.
Procedure
1. Select Modify Settings.
2. In the Manage Systems dialog, add and/or delete Data Domain systems, as required.
3. Select Close.
Recovering data from a replication pair
If source replication data becomes inaccessible, it can be recovered from the replication
pair destination. The source must be empty before recovery can proceed. Recovery can be
performed for all replication topologies, except for MTree replication.
Recovery of data from a directory pool, as well as from directory and collection replication
pairs, is described in the next sections.
Recovering directory pool data
You can recover data from a directory-based pool, but not from an MTree-based pool.
Procedure
1. Select More > Start Recover.
2. In the Start Recover dialog, select Pool from the Replication Type menu.
3. Select the source system hostname from the System to recover to menu.
4. Select the destination system hostname from the System to recover from menu.
5. Select the context on the destination from which data is recovered.
6. If you want to change any host connection settings, select the Advanced tab.
7. Select OK to start the recovery.
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Recovering collection replication pair data
To successfully recover collection replication pair data, the source file system must be in
a pristine state, and the destination context must be fully initialized.
Procedure
1. Select More > Start Recover to display the Start Recover dialog.
2. Select Collection from the Replication Type menu.
3. Select the source system host name from the System to recover to menu.
4. Select the destination system host name from the System to recover from menu.
5. Select the context on the destination from which data is recovered. Only one
collection will exist on the destination.
6. To change any host connection settings, select the Advanced tab.
7. Select OK to start the recovery.
Recovering directory replication pair data
To successfully recover directory replication pair data, the same directory used in the
original context must be created (but left empty).
Procedure
1. Select More > Start Recover to display the Start Recover dialog.
2. Select Directory from the Replication Type menu.
3. Select the host name of the system to which data needs to be restored from the
System to recover to menu.
4. Select the host name of the system that will be the data source from the System to
recover from menu.
5. Select the context to restore from the context list.
6. To change any host connection settings, select the Advanced tab.
7. Select OK to start the recovery.
Aborting a replication pair recovery
If a replication pair recovery fails or must be terminated, you can stop the replication
recovery.
Procedure
1. Select the More menu, and select Abort Recover to display the Abort Recover dialog,
which shows the contexts currently performing recovery.
2. Select the checkbox of one or more contexts to abort from the list.
3. Select OK.
After you finish
As soon as possible, you should restart recovery on the source.
Resyncing an MTree, directory, or pool replication pair
Resynchronization is the process of recovering (or bringing back into sync) the data
between a source and a destination replication pair after a manual break. The replication
pair are resynchronized so both endpoints contain the same data. Resynchronization is
available for MTree, directory, and pool replication, but not for collection replication.
A replication resynchronization can also be used:
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l
To recreate a context that has been deleted.
l
When a destination runs out of space, but the source still has data to replicate.
l
To convert a directory replication pair to an MTree replication pair.
Procedure
1. Delete the context on both the replication source and replication destination systems.
2. From either the replication source or replication destination system, select More >
Start Resync to display the Start Resync dialog.
3. Select the Replication Type to be resynced: Directory, MTree, or Pool.
4. Select the replication source system host name from the Source System menu.
5. Select the replication destination system host name from the Destination System
menu.
6. Enter the replication source path in the Source Path text box.
7. Enter the replication destination path in the Destination Path text box.
8. To change any host connection settings, select the Advanced tab.
9. Select OK.
CLI Equivalent
# replication resync Destination
Aborting a replication pair resynchronization
If a replication pair resynchronization fails or must be terminated, you can stop the
resynchronization.
Procedure
1. From either the replication source or replication destination system, select More >
Abort Resync to display the Abort Resync dialog, which lists all contexts currently
performing resynchronization.
2. Select the checkboxes of one or more contexts to abort their resynchronization.
3. Select OK.
Converting a directory replication pair to an MTree
When a directory replication pair is converted to an MTree, the directory data is initialized
in an MTree, and the directory replication configuration is deleted. The conversion is
started with a replication resync that filters all data from the source DD system to the
destination DD system.
Here are some estimates for filtering performance:
[MiB = MibiBytes, base-2 equivalent of Megabytes; GiB = GibiBytes, base-2 equivalent of
Gigabytes; TiB = TibiBytes, base-2 equivalent of Terabytes]
l
Over a T3, 100ms WAN, filtering performance is about 100 MiB/sec, providing a data
transfer rate of 100 MiB/sec = 10 seconds/GiB = 8.6 TiB/day.
l
Over a gibibit LAN, filtering performance is about 120 MiB/sec, providing a data
transfer rate of 120 MiB/sec = 8.3 seconds/GiB = 10.3 TiB/day.
Procedure
1. Create a new MTree on both the source and the destination.
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2. Select the directory replication pair in the Summary table.
3. Select More > Convert to MTree to display the Convert to MTree dialog.
4. Add the new MTree paths to the source and destination text fields.
5. Select OK.
A Warning dialog is displayed, indicating the directory data is being initialized in the
new MTree, and the old directory replication configuration is being deleted.
6. Select OK.
The Convert to MTree Status dialog is displayed, showing the progress of the
conversion.
7. Select Close.
DD Boost view
The DD Boost view provides configuration and troubleshooting information to NetBackup
administrators who have configured DD systems to use DD Boost AIR (Automatic Image
Replication) or any DD Boost application that uses managed file replication.
See the EMC Data Domain Boost for OpenStorage Administration Guide for DD Boost AIR
configuration instructions.
The File Replication tab displays:
l
l
l
Currently Active File Replication:
n
Direction (Out-Going and In-Coming) and the number of files in each.
n
Remaining data to be replicated (pre-compressed value in GiB) and the amount of
data already replicated (pre-compressed value in GiB).
n
Total size: The amount of data to be replicated and the already replicated data
(pre-compressed value in GiB).
Most Recent Status: Total file replications and whether completed or failed
n
during the last hour
n
over the last 24 hours
Remote Systems:
n
Select a replication from the list.
n
Select the time period to be covered from the menu.
n
Select Show Details for more information about these remote system files.
The Storage Unit Associations tab displays the following information, which you can use
for audit purposes or to check the status of DD Boost AIR events used for the storage
unit's image replications:
l
A list of all storage unit Associations known to the system. The source is on the left,
and the destination is on the right. This information shows the configuration of AIR on
the Data Domain system.
l
The Event Queue is the pending event list. It shows the local storage unit, the event
ID, and the status of the event.
An attempt is made to match both ends of a DD Boost path to form a pair and present this
as one pair/record. If the match is impossible, for various reasons, the remote path will
be listed as Unresolved.
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Remote system files
The Show Details button provides information for the selected remote file replication
system. File Replications shows starting and ending information, as well as size and data
amount, for the selected remote file replication system. The Performance Graph shows
performance over time for the selected remote file replication system.
Table 171 File Replications
Item
Description
Start
Starting point of time period.
End
Ending point of time period.
File Name
Name of specific replication file.
Status
Most recent status (Success, Failure).
Pre-Comp Size (MiB)
Amount of pre-compressed outbound and inbound data, as
compared to network throughput or post-compressed data (in MiB).
Network Bytes (MiB)
Amount of network throughput data (in MiB).
Table 172 Performance Graph
Item
Description
Duration
Duration for replication (either 1d, 7d or 30d).
Interval
Interval for replication (either Daily or Weekly).
Pre-Comp Replicated
Amount of pre-compressed outbound and inbound data (in GiB).
Post-Comp Replicated
Amount of post-compressed data (in GiB).
Network Bytes
Amount of network throughput data (in GiB).
Files Succeeded
Number of files that were successfully replicated.
Files Failed
Number of files that failed to be replicated.
Show in new window
Brings up a separate window.
Print
Prints the graph.
Topology view
The Topology view shows how the selected replication pairs are configured in the
network.
l
The arrow – which is green (normal), yellow (warning), or red (error) – between DD
systems represents one or more replication pairs.
l
To view details, select a context , which opens the Context Summary dialog, with
links to Show Summary, Modify Options, Enable/Disable Pair, Graph Performance,
and Delete Pair.
l
Select Collapse All to roll-up the Expand All context view and show only the name of
the system and the count of destination contexts.
l
Select Expand All to show all the destination directory and MTree contexts configured
on other systems.
Topology view
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l
Select Reset Layout to return to the default view.
l
Select Print to open a standard print dialog.
Performance view
The Performance view displays a graph that represents the fluctuation of data during
replication. These are aggregated statistics of each replication pair for this DD system.
l
Duration (x-axis) is 30 days by default.
l
Replication Performance (y-axis) is in GibiBytes or MebiBytes (the binary equivalents
of GigaBytes and MegaBytes).
l
Network In is the total replication network bytes entering the system (all contexts).
l
Network Out is the total replication network bytes leaving the system (all contexts).
l
For a reading of a specific point in time, hover the cursor over a place on the graph.
l
During times of inactivity (when no data is being transferred), the shape of the graph
may display a gradually descending line, instead of an expected sharply descending
line.
Advanced Settings view
Advanced Settings lets you manage throttle and network settings.
Throttle Settings
l
Temporary Override – Displays throttle rate if configured, or 0 meaning all replication
traffic is stopped.
l
Permanent Schedule – Displays the time and days of the week on which scheduled
throttling occurs.
Network Settings
l
Bandwidth – Displays the configured data stream rate if bandwidth has been
configured, or Unlimited (default) if not. The average data stream to the replication
destination is at least 98,304 bits per second (12 KiB).
l
Delay – Displays the configured network delay setting (in milliseconds) if it has been
configured, or None (default) if not.
l
Listen Port – Displays the configured listen port value if it has been configured, or
2051 (default) if not.
Adding throttle settings
To modify the amount of bandwidth used by a network for replication, you can set a
replication throttle for replication traffic.
There are three types of replication throttle settings:
l
Scheduled throttle – The throttle rate is set at a predetermined time or period.
l
Current throttle – The throttle rate is set until the next scheduled change, or until a
system reboot.
l
Override throttle – The previous two types of throttle are overridden. This persists –
even through reboot – until you select Clear Throttle Override or issue the
replication throttle reset override command.
You can also set a default throttle or a throttle for specific destinations, as follows:
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l
Default throttle – When configured, all replication contexts are limited to this throttle,
except for those destinations specified by destination throttles (see next item).
l
Destination throttle – This throttle is used when only a few destinations need to be
throttled, or when a destination requires a throttle setting different from the default
throttle. When a default throttle already exists, this throttle takes precedence for the
destination specified. For example, you can set the default replication throttle to 10
kbps, but – using a destination throttle – you can set a single collection replication
context to unlimited.
Note
Currently, you can set and modify destination throttle only by using the commandline interface (CLI); this functionality is not available in the DD System Manager. For
documentation on this feature, see the replication throttle command in the
EMC Data Domain Operating System Command Reference Guide. If the DD System
Manager detects that you have one or more destination throttles set, you will be
given a warning, and you should use the CLI to continue.
Additional notes about replication throttling:
l
Throttles are set only at the source. The only throttle that applies to a destination is
the 0 Bps (Disabled) option, which disables all replication traffic.
l
The minimum value for a replication throttle is 98,304 bits per second.
Procedure
1. Select Replication > Advanced Settings > Add Throttle Setting to display the Add
Throttle Setting dialog.
2. Set the days of the week for which throttling is to be active by selecting Every Day or
by selecting checkbox(es) next to individual day(s).
3. Set the time that throttling is to start with the Start Time drop-down selectors for the
hour:minute and AM/PM.
4. For Throttle Rate:
l
Select Unlimited to set no limits.
l
Enter a number in the text box (for example, 20000), and select the rate from the
menu (bps, Kbps, Bps, or KBps).
l
Select the 0 Bps (disabled) option to disable all replication traffic.
5. Select OK to set the schedule. The new schedule is shown under Permanent
Schedule.
Results
Replication runs at the given rate until the next scheduled change, or until a new throttle
setting forces a change.
Deleting Throttle Settings
You can delete a single throttle setting or all throttle settings at once.
Procedure
1. Select Replication > Advanced Settings > Delete Throttle Setting to display the Delete
Throttle Setting dialog.
2. Select the checkbox for the throttle setting to delete, or select the heading checkbox
to delete all settings. This list can include settings for the “disabled” state.
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DD Replicator
3. Select OK to remove the setting.
4. In the Delete Throttle Setting Status dialog, select Close.
Temporarily overriding a throttle setting
A throttle override temporarily changes a throttle setting. The current setting is listed at
the top of the window.
Procedure
1. Select Replication > Advanced Settings > Set Throttle Override to display the Throttle
Override dialog.
2. Either set a new throttle override, or clear a previous override.
a. To set a new throttle override:
l
Select Unlimited to revert to the system-set throttle rate (no throttling
performed), or
l
Set the throttling bit and rate in the text box (for example, 20000) and (bps,
Kbps, Bps, or KBps), or
l
Select 0 Bps (Disabled) to set the throttle rate to 0, effectively stopping all
replication network traffic.
l
To enforce the change temporarily, select Clear at next scheduled throttle
event.
b. To clear an override previously set, select Clear Throttle Override.
3. Select OK.
Changing network settings
Using the bandwidth and network-delay settings together, replication calculates the
proper TCP (transmission control protocol) buffer size for replication usage. These
network settings are global to the DD system and should be set only once per system.
Note the following:
l
You can determine the actual bandwidth and the actual network delay values for
each server by using the ping command.
l
The default network parameters in a restorer work well for replication in low latency
configurations, such as a local 100Mbps or 1000Mbps Ethernet network, where the
latency round-trip time (as measured by the ping command) is usually less than 1
millisecond. The defaults also work well for replication over low- to moderatebandwidth WANs, where the latency may be as high as 50-100 milliseconds.
However, for high-bandwidth high-latency networks, some tuning of the network
parameters is necessary.
The key number for tuning is the bandwidth-delay number produced by multiplying
the bandwidth and round-trip latency of the network. This number is a measure of
how much data can be transmitted over the network before any acknowledgments
can return from the far end. If the bandwidth-delay number of a replication network is
more than 100,000, then replication performance benefits from setting the network
parameters in both restorers.
Procedure
1. Select Replication > Advanced Settings > Change Network Settings to display the
Network Settings dialog.
2. In the Network Settings area, select Custom Values.
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3. Enter Delay and Bandwidth values in the text boxes. The network delay setting is in
milliseconds, and bandwidth is in bytes per second.
4. In the Listen Port area, enter a new value in the text box. The default IP Listen Port for
a replication destination for receiving data streams from the replication source is
2051. This is a global setting for the DD system.
5. Select OK. The new settings appear in the Network Settings table.
Monitoring replication
The DD System Manager provides many ways to track the status of replication – from
checking replication pair status, to tracking backup jobs, to checking performance, to
tracking a replication process.
Checking replication pair status
Several places in the Replication area of the DD System Manager provide status updates
for replication pairs.
Procedure
1. Select Replication > Topology.
2. Check the colors of the arrows, which provide the status of the context.
3. Select the Summary tab.
4. From the Filter By drop-down list (under the Create Pair button), select State, and
select Error, Warning, or Normal from the state menu.
The replication contexts are sorted according to the selection.
Viewing estimated completion time for backup jobs
You can use the Completion Predictor to see the estimated time for when a backup
replication job will be completed.
Procedure
1. Select Replication > Summary.
2. Select a Replication context for which to display Detailed Information.
3. In the Completion Predictor area, select options from the Source Time drop-down list
for a replication’s completion time, and select Track.
The estimated time displays, in the Completion Time area, for when a particular
backup job will finish its replication to the destination. If the replication is finished,
the area shows Completed.
Monitoring replication
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Checking replication context performance
To check the performance of a replication context over time, select a Replication context
in the Summary view, and select Performance Graph in the Detailed Information area.
Tracking status of a replication process
To display the progress of a replication initialization, resynchronization, or recovery
operation, use the Replication > Summary view to check the current state.
CLI Equivalent
# replication show config all
CTX Source
Destination
Connection Host and Port
Enabled
--- --------------------------------------------------1
dir://host2/backup/dir2
dir://host3/backup/dir3
host3.company.com
Yes
2
dir://host3/backup/dir3
dir://host2/backup/dir2
host3.company.com
Yes
------------------------
When specifying an IP version, use the following command to check its setting:
# replication show config rctx://2
CTX:
Source:
Destination:
Connection Host:
Connection Port:
Ipversion:
Low-bw-optim:
Encryption:
Enabled:
Propagate-retention-lock:
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2
mtree://ddbeta1.dallasrdc.com/data/col1/EDM1
mtree://ddbeta2.dallasrdc.com/data/col1/EDM_ipv6
ddbeta2-ipv6.dallasrdc.com
(default)
ipv6
disabled
disabled
yes
enabled
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
CHAPTER 15
DD Secure Multitenancy
This chapter includes:
l
l
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l
l
Data Domain Secure Multitenancy overview........................................................ 372
Provisioning a Tenant Unit...................................................................................375
Enabling Tenant Self-Service mode..................................................................... 378
Data access by protocol...................................................................................... 379
Data management operations............................................................................. 381
DD Secure Multitenancy
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DD Secure Multitenancy
Data Domain Secure Multitenancy overview
Data Domain Secure Multitenancy (SMT) is the simultaneous hosting, by an internal IT
department or an external provider, of an IT infrastructure for more than one consumer or
workload (business unit, department, or Tenant).
SMT provides the ability to securely isolate many users and workloads in a shared
infrastructure, so that the activities of one Tenant are not apparent or visible to the other
Tenants.
A Tenant is a consumer (business unit, department, or customer) who maintains a
persistent presence in a hosted environment.
Within an enterprise, a Tenant may consist of one or more business units or departments
on a DD system configured and managed by IT staff.
l
For a business unit (BU) use case, the Finance and Human Resources departments of
a corporation could share the same DD system, but each department would be
unaware of the presence of the other.
l
For a service provider (SP) use case, the SP could deploy one or more DD systems to
accommodate different Protection Storage services for multiple end-customers.
Both use cases emphasize the segregation of different customer data on the same
physical DD system.
SMT architecture basics
Secure Multitenancy (SMT) provides a simple approach to setting up Tenants and Tenant
Units, using MTrees. SMT setup is performed using DD Management Center (DDMC)
and/or the DD OS command line interface. This administration guide provides the theory
of SMT and some general command line instructions.
The basic architecture of SMT is as follows.
l
A Tenant is created on the DD Management Center and/or DD system.
l
A Tenant Unit is created on a DD system for the Tenant.
l
One or more MTrees are created to meet the storage requirements for the Tenant's
various types of backups.
l
The newly created MTrees are added to the Tenant Unit.
l
Backup applications are configured to send each backup to its configured Tenant
Unit MTree.
Note
For more information about DD Management Center, see the DD Management Center User
Guide. For more information about the DD OS command line interface, see the DD OS
Command Reference.
Terminology used in SMT
Understanding the terminology used in SMT (Secure Multitenancy) will help you better
understand this unique environment.
MTrees
MTrees are logical partitions of the Data Domain file system and offer the highest degree
of management granularity, meaning users can perform operations on a specific MTree
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without affecting the entire file system. MTrees are assigned to Tenant Units and contain
that Tenant Unit's individualized settings for managing and monitoring SMT.
Multitenancy
Multitenancy refers to the hosting of an IT infrastructure by an internal IT department, or
an external service provider, for more than one consumer/workload (business unit/
department/Tenant) simultaneously. Data Domain SMT enables Data Protection-as-aService.
RBAC (role-based access control)
RBAC (role-based access control offers multiple roles with different privilege levels, which
combine to provide the administrative isolation on a multitenant DD system. (The next
section will define these roles.)
Storage Unit
A Storage Unit is an MTree configured for the DD Boost protocol. Data isolation is
achieved by creating a Storage Unit and assigning it to a DD Boost user. The DD Boost
protocol permits access only to Storage Units assigned to DD Boost users connected to
the DD system.
Tenant
A Tenant is a consumer (business unit/department/customer) who maintains a persistent
presence in a hosted environment.
Tenant Self-Service
Tenant Self-Service is a method of letting a Tenant log in to a DD system to perform some
basic services (add, edit, or delete local users, NIS groups, and/or AD groups). This
reduces the bottleneck of always having to go through an administrator for these basic
tasks. The Tenant can access only their assigned Tenant Units. Tenant Users and Tenant
Admins will, of course, have different privileges.
Tenant Unit
A Tenant Unit is the partition of a DD system that serves as the unit of administrative
isolation between Tenants. Tenant Units are secured and logically isolated from each
other, which ensures security and isolation of the control path when running multiple
Tenants simultaneously on the shared infrastructure. Tenant Units can contain one or
more MTrees, which hold all configuration elements needed in a multitenancy setup.
Users, management-groups, notification-groups, and other configuration elements are
part of a Tenant Unit.
Control path and administrative isolation
Control path isolation is achieved by providing the user roles of tenant-admin and tenantuser for a Tenant Unit. Administrative isolation is achieved by associating a fixed set of
management IP address(es) with a Tenant Unit.
The tenant-admin and tenant-user roles are restricted in scope and capability to specific
Tenant Units and to a restricted set of operations they can perform on those Tenant Units.
To ensure a logically secure and isolated data path, a system administrator must
configure one or more Tenant Unit MTrees for each protocol in an SMT environment.
Supported protocols include DD Boost, NFS, CIFS, and VTL. Access is strictly regulated by
the native access control mechanisms of each protocol.
Tenant-self-service sessions (through ssh) can be restricted to a fixed set of management
IP address(es) on a DD system. Administrative access sessions (through ssh/http/https)
can also be restricted to a fixed set of management IP address(es) on DD systems. By
default, however, there are no management IP address(es) associated with a Tenant Unit,
so the only standard restriction is through the use of the tenant-admin and tenant-user
Control path and administrative isolation
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DD Secure Multitenancy
roles. You must use smt tenant-unit management-ip to add and maintain
management IP address(es) for Tenant Units.
Understanding RBAC in SMT
In SMT (Secure Multitenancy), permission to perform a task depends on the role assigned
to a user. DD Management Center uses RBAC (role-based access control) to control these
permissions.
All DD Management Center users can:
l
View all Tenants
l
Create, read, update, or delete Tenant Units belonging to any Tenant if the user is an
administrator on the DD system hosting the Tenant Unit
l
Assign and unassign Tenant Units to and from a Tenant if the user is an administrator
on the DD system hosting the Tenant Unit
l
View Tenant Units belonging to any Tenant if the user has any assigned role on the
DD system hosting the Tenant Unit
To perform more advanced tasks depends on the role of the user, as follows:
admin role
A user with an admin role can perform all administrative operations on a DD system. An
admin can also perform all SMT administrative operations on a DD system, including
setting up SMT, assigning SMT user roles, enabling Tenant self-service mode, creating a
Tenant, and so on. In the context of SMT, the admin is typically referred to as the
landlord. In DD OS, the role is known as the sysadmin.
To have permission to edit or delete a Tenant, you must be both a DD Management
Center admin and a DD OS sysadmin on all DD systems associated with the Tenant Units
of that Tenant. If the Tenant does not have any Tenant Units, you need only to be a DD
Management Center admin to edit or delete that Tenant.
tenant-admin role
A user with a tenant-admin role can perform certain tasks only when tenant self-service
mode is enabled for a specific Tenant Unit. Responsibilities include scheduling and
running a backup application for the Tenant and monitoring resources and statistics
within the assigned Tenant Unit. In addition, tenant-admins ensure administrative
separation when Tenant self-service mode is enabled. In the context of SMT, the tenantadmin is usually referred to as the backup admin.
tenant-user role
A user with a tenant-user role can monitor the performance and usage of SMT
components only on Tenant Unit(s) assigned to them and only when Tenant self-service is
enabled. In addition, tenant-users may run the show and list commands.
none role
A user with a role of none is not allowed to perform any operations on a DD system other
than changing their password and accessing data using DD Boost. However, after SMT is
enabled, the admin can select a user with a none role from the DD system and assign
them an SMT-specific role of tenant-admin or tenant-user. Then, that user can perform
operations on SMT management objects.
management groups
BSPs (backup service providers) can use management groups defined in a single,
external AD (active directory) or NIS (network information service) to simplify managing
user roles on Tenant Units. Each BSP Tenant may be a separate, external company and
may use a name-service such as AD or NIS.
With SMT management groups, the AD and NIS servers are set up and configured by the
admin in the same way as SMT local users. The admin can ask their AD or NIS
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administrator to create and populate the group. The admin then assigns an SMT role to
the entire group. Any user within the group who logs in to the DD system is logged in with
the role assigned to the group.
When users leave or join a Tenant company, they can be removed or added to the group
by the AD or NIS administrator. It is not neceesary to modify the RBAC configuration on a
DD system when users who are part of the group are added or removed.
Provisioning a Tenant Unit
Launching the configuration wizard begins the initial provisioning procedure for Secure
Multitenancy (SMT). During the procedure, the wizard creates and provisions a new
Tenant Unit based on Tenant configuration requirements. Information is entered by the
administrator, as prompted. After completing the procedure, the administrator proceeds
to the next set of tasks, beginning with enabling Tenant Self-Service mode. Following the
initial setup, manual procedures and configuration modifications may be performed as
required.
Procedure
1. Start SMT.
# smt enable
SMT enabled.
2. Verify that SMT is enabled.
# smt status
SMT is enabled.
3. Launch the SMT configuration wizard.
# smt tenant-unit setup
No tenant-units.
4. Follow the configuration prompts.
SMT TENANT-UNIT Configuration
Configure SMT TENANT-UNIT at this time (yes|no) [no]: yes
Do you want to create new tenant-unit (yes/no)? : yes
Tenant-unit Name
Enter tenant-unit name to be created
: SMT_5.7_tenant_unit
Invalid tenant-unit name.
Enter tenant-unit name to be created
: SMT_57_tenant_unit
Pending Tenant-unit Settings
Create Tenant-unit
SMT_57_tenant_unit
Do you want to save these settings (Save|Cancel|Retry): save
SMT Tenant-unit Name Configurations saved.
SMT TENANT-UNIT MANAGEMENT-IP Configuration
Configure SMT TENANT-UNIT MANAGEMENT-IP at this time (yes|no) [no]: yes
Do you want to add a local management ip to this tenant-unit? (yes|no) [no]: yes
port
enabled
state
DHCP
IP address
netmask
type additional
/prefix length
setting
----- ------- ------- ---- -------------------------- -------------- ---- ---------ethMa
yes
running no 192.168.10.57
255.255.255.0
n/a
fe80::260:16ff:fe49:f4b0** /64
eth3a
yes
running ipv4 192.168.10.236*
255.255.255.0* n/a
fe80::260:48ff:fe1c:60fc** /64
Provisioning a Tenant Unit
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DD Secure Multitenancy
eth3b
yes
running
no
192.168.50.57
fe80::260:48ff:fe1c:60fd**
eth4b
yes
running no 192.168.60.57
fe80::260:48ff:fe1f:5183**
----- ------- ------- ---- -------------------------* Value from DHCP
** auto_generated IPv6 address
255.255.255.0
n/a
/64
255.255.255.0
n/a
/64
-------------- ---- ----------
Choose an ip from above table or enter a new ip address. New ip addresses will need
to be created manually.
Ip Address
Enter the local management ip address to be added to this tenant-unit
: 192.168.10.57
Do you want to add a remote management ip to this tenant-unit? (yes|no) [no]:
Pending Management-ip Settings
Add Local Management-ip
192.168.10.57
Do you want to save these settings (Save|Cancel|Retry): yes
unrecognized input, expecting one of Save|Cancel|Retry
Do you want to save these settings (Save|Cancel|Retry): save
Local management access ip "192.168.10.57" added to tenant-unit "SMT_57_tenant_unit".
SMT Tenant-unit Management-IP Configurations saved.
SMT TENANT-UNIT MANAGEMENT-IP Configuration
Do you want to add another local management ip to this tenant-unit? (yes|no) [no]:
Do you want to add another remote management ip to this tenant-unit? (yes|no) [no]:
SMT TENANT-UNIT DDBOOST Configuration
Configure SMT TENANT-UNIT DDBOOST at this time (yes|no) [no]:
SMT TENANT-UNIT MTREE Configuration
Configure SMT TENANT-UNIT MTREE at this time (yes|no) [no]: yes
Name
Pre-Comp (GiB)
------------------------------------/data/col1/laptop_backup
4846.2
/data/col1/random
23469.9
/data/col1/software2
2003.7
/data/col1/tsm6
763704.9
------------------------------------D
: Deleted
Q
: Quota Defined
RO
: Read Only
RW
: Read Write
RD
: Replication Destination
RLGE : Retention-Lock Governance Enabled
RLGD : Retention-Lock Governance Disabled
RLCE : Retention-Lock Compliance Enabled
Status
-----RO/RD
RO/RD
RO/RD
RO/RD
------
Tenant-Unit
---------------------
Do you want to assign an existing MTree to this tenant-unit? (yes|no) [no]:
Do you want to create a mtree for this tenant-unit now? (yes|no) [no]: yes
MTree Name
Enter MTree name
: SMT_57_tenant_unit
Invalid mtree path name.
Enter MTree name
:
SMT_57_tenant_unit
Invalid mtree path name.
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Enter MTree name
: /data/col1/SMT_57_tenant_unit
MTree Soft-Quota
Enter the quota soft-limit to be set on this MTree (<n> {MiB|GiB|TiB|PiB}|none)
:
MTree Hard-Quota
Enter the quota hard-limit to be set on this MTree (<n> {MiB|GiB|TiB|PiB}|none)
:
Pending MTree Settings
Create MTree
/data/col1/SMT_57_tenant_unit
MTree Soft Limit
none
MTree Hard Limit
none
Do you want to save these settings (Save|Cancel|Retry): save
MTree "/data/col1/SMT_57_tenant_unit" created successfully.
MTree "/data/col1/SMT_57_tenant_unit" assigned to tenant-unit
"SMT_57_tenant_unit".
SMT Tenant-unit MTree Configurations saved.
SMT TENANT-UNIT MTREE Configuration
Name
Pre-Comp (GiB)
------------------------------------/data/col1/laptop_backup
4846.2
/data/col1/random
23469.9
/data/col1/software2
2003.7
/data/col1/tsm6
763704.9
------------------------------------D
: Deleted
Q
: Quota Defined
RO
: Read Only
RW
: Read Write
RD
: Replication Destination
RLGE : Retention-Lock Governance Enabled
RLGD : Retention-Lock Governance Disabled
RLCE : Retention-Lock Compliance Enabled
Status
-----RO/RD
RO/RD
RO/RD
RO/RD
------
Tenant-Unit
---------------------
Do you want to assign another MTree to this tenant-unit? (yes|no) [no]: yes
Do you want to assign an existing MTree to this tenant-unit? (yes|no) [no]:
Do you want to create another mtree for this tenant-unit? (yes|no) [no]:
SMT TENANT-UNIT SELF-SERVICE Configuration
Configure SMT TENANT-UNIT SELF-SERVICE at this time (yes|no) [no]: yes
Self-service of this tenant-unit is disabled
Do you want to enable self-service of this tenant-unit? (yes|no) [no]: yes
Do you want to configure a management user for this tenant-unit? (yes|no) [no]:
Do you want to configure a management group for this tenant-unit (yes|no) [no]: yes
Management-Group Name
Enter the group name to be assigned to this tenant-unit
: SMT_57_tenant_unit_group
What role do you want to assign to this group
tenant-admin
(tenant-user|tenant-admin) [tenant-user]:
Management-Group Type
What type do you want to assign to this group (nis|active-directory)?
: nis
Pending Self-Service Settings
Enable Self-Service
SMT_57_tenant_unit
Provisioning a Tenant Unit
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Assign Management-group
Management-group role
Management-group type
SMT_57_tenant_unit_group
tenant-admin
nis
Do you want to save these settings (Save|Cancel|Retry): save
Tenant self-service enabled for tenant-unit "SMT_57_tenant_unit"
Management group "SMT_57_tenant_unit_group" with type "nis" is assigned to tenant-unit
"SMT_57_tenant_unit" as "tenant-admin".
SMT Tenant-unit Self-Service Configurations saved.
SMT TENANT-UNIT SELF-SERVICE Configuration
Do you want to configure another management user for this tenant-unit? (yes|no) [no]:
Do you want to configure another management group for this tenant-unit? (yes|no) [no]:
SMT TENANT-UNIT ALERT Configuration
Configure SMT TENANT-UNIT ALERT at this time (yes|no) [no]: yes
No notification lists.
Alert Configuration
Alert Group Name
Specify alert notify-list group name to be created
: SMT_57_tenant_unit_notify
Alert email addresses
Enter email address to receive alert for this tenant-unit
: dd_proserv@emc.com
Do you want to add more emails (yes/no)?
: no
Pending Alert Settings
Create Notify-list group
Add emails
SMT_57_tenant_unit_notify
dd_proserv@emc.com
Do you want to save these settings (Save|Cancel|Retry): save
Created notification list "SMT_57_tenant_unit_notify" for tenant "SMT_57_tenant_unit".
Added emails to notification list "SMT_57_tenant_unit_notify".
SMT Tenant-unit Alert Configurations saved.
Configuration complete.
Enabling Tenant Self-Service mode
For administrative separation of duties and delegation of administrative/management
tasks to implement Tenant Self-Service, which is required for control path isolation, the
system administrator can enable this mode on a Tenant Unit and then assign users to
manage the unit in the roles of tenant-admin or tenant-user. These roles allow users other
than the administrator to perform specific tasks on the Tenant Unit to which they are
assigned. In addition to administrative separation, Tenant Self-Service mode helps
reduce the management burden on internal IT and service provider staff.
Procedure
1. View Tenant Self-Service mode status for one or all Tenant Units.
# smt tenant-unit option show { tenant-unit | all }
2. Enable Tenant Self-Service mode on the selected Tenant Unit.
# smt tenant-unit option set tenant-unit self-service { enabled |
disabled }
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Data access by protocol
Secure data paths, with protocol-specific access controls, enable security and isolation
for Tenant Units. In a Secure Multitenancy (SMT) environment, data access protocol
management commands are also enhanced with a Tenant Unit parameter to enable
consolidated reporting.
DD systems support multiple data access protocols simultaneously, including DD Boost,
NFS, CIFS, and VTL. A DD system can present itself as an application-specific interface,
such as a file server offering NFS or CIFS access over the Ethernet, a VTL device, or a DD
Boost device.
The native access control mechanisms of each supported protocol ensure that the data
paths for each Tenant remain separate and isolated. Such mechanisms include access
control lists (ACLs) for CIFS, exports for NFS, DD Boost credentials, and Multi-User Boost
credential-aware access control.
Multi-User DD Boost and Storage Units in SMT
When using Multi-User DD Boost with SMT (Secure Multitenancy), user permissions are
set by Storage Unit ownership.
Multi-User DD Boost refers to the use of multiple DD Boost user credentials for DD Boost
Access Control, in which each user has a separate user name and password.
A Storage Unit is an MTree configured for the DD Boost protocol. A user can be associated
with, or “own,” one or more Storage Units. Storage Units that are owned by one user
cannot be owned by another user. Therefore, only the user owning the Storage Unit can
access the Storage Unit for any type of data access, such as backup/restore. The number
of DD Boost user names cannot exceed the maximum number of MTrees. (See the
“MTrees” chapter in this book for the current maximum number of MTrees for each DD
model.) Storage Units associated with SMT must have the none role assigned to them.
Each backup application must authenticate using its DD Boost user name and password.
After authentication, DD Boost verifies the authenticated credentials to confirm
ownership of the Storage Unit. The backup application is granted access to the Storage
Unit only if the user credentials presented by the backup application match the user
names associated with the Storage Unit. If user credentials and user names do not
match, the job fails with a permission error.
Configuring access for CIFS
Common Internet File System (CIFS) is a file-sharing protocol for remote file access. In a
Secure Multitenancy (SMT) configuration, backup and restores require client access to
the CIFS shares residing in the MTree of the associated Tenant Unit. Data isolation is
achieved using CIFS shares and CIFS ACLs.
Procedure
1. Create an MTree for CIFS.
# mtree create mtree-path tenant-unit tenant-unit]
2. Assign the MTree to the Tenant Unit.
# mtree modify mtree-path tenant-unit tenant-unit | none]
3. Set capacity soft and hard quotas for the MTree.
# mtree create mtree-path tenant-unit tenant-unit] [quota-softlimit n{MiB|GiB|TiB|PiB} ] [quota-hard-limit n {MiB|GiB|TiB|PiB}
Data access by protocol
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DD Secure Multitenancy
4. Create a CIFS share for pathname from the MTree.
# cifs share create share path pathname clients clients
Configuring NFS access
NFS is a UNIX-based, file-sharing protocol for remote file access. In a Secure Multitenancy
(SMT) environment, backup and restores require client access to the NFS exports residing
in the MTree of the associated Tenant Unit. Data isolation is achieved using NFS exports
and network isolation. NFS determines if an MTree is associated with a network-isolated
Tenant Unit. If so, NFS verifies the connection properties associated with the Tenant Unit.
Connection properties include the destination IP address and interface or client
hostname.
Procedure
1. Create an MTree for NFS.
# mtree create mtree-path tenant-unit tenant-unit]
2. Assign the MTree to the Tenant Unit.
# mtree modify mtree-path tenant-unit tenant-unit | none]
3. Set capacity soft and hard quotas for the MTree.
# mtree create mtree-path tenant-unit tenant-unit] [quota-softlimit n{MiB|GiB|TiB|PiB} ] [quota-hard-limit n {MiB|GiB|TiB|PiB}
4. Create an NFS export by adding one or more clients to the MTree.
# nfs add path client-list
Configuring access for VTL
VTL Tenant data isolation is achieved using VTL access groups that create a virtual access
path between a host system and the VTL. (The physical Fibre Channel connection
between the host system and VTL must already exist.)
Placing tapes in the VTL allows them to be written to, and read by, the backup application
on the host system. VTL tapes are created in a VTL pool, which is an MTree. Because VTL
pools are MTrees, the pools can be assigned to Tenant Units. This association enables
SMT monitoring and reporting.
For example, if a tenant-admin is assigned a Tenant Unit that contains a VTL pool, the
tenant-admin can run MTree commands to display read-only information. Commands can
run only on the VTL pool assigned to the Tenant Unit.
These commands include:
l
mtree list to view a list of MTrees in the Tenant Unit
l
mtree show compression to view statistics on MTree compression
l
mtree show performance to view statistics on performance
Output from most list and show commands include statistics that enable service
providers to measure space usage and calculate chargeback fees.
VTL operations are unaffected and continue to function normally.
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Using VTL NDMP TapeServer
VTL Tenant data isolation is also achieved using NDMP. DD OS implements a NDMP
(Network Data Management Protocol) tape server that allows NDMP-capable systems to
send backup data to the DD system via a three-way NDMP backup.
The backup data is written to virtual tapes (which are in a pool) by a VTL assigned to the
special VTL group TapeServer.
Because the backup data is written to tapes in a pool, information in the VTL topic
regarding MTrees also applies to the Data Domain NDMP TapeServer.
Data management operations
Secure Multitenancy (SMT) management operations include monitoring Tenant Units and
other objects, such as Storage Units and MTrees. For some SMT objects, additional
configuration or modification may also be required.
Collecting performance statistics
Each MTree can be measured for performance or “usage” statistics and other real-time
information. Historical consumption rates are available for DD Boost Storage Units.
Command output lets the tenant-admin collect usage statistics and compression ratios
for an MTree associated with a Tenant Unit, or for all MTrees and associated Tenant Units.
Output may be filtered to display usage in intervals ranging from minutes to months.
Results are passed to the administrator, who uses the statistics as a chargeback metric. A
similar method is used to gather usage statistics and compression ratios for Storage
Units.
Procedure
1. Collect MTree real-time performance statistics.
# mtree show stats
2. Collect performance statistics for MTrees associated with a Tenant Unit.
# mtree show performance
3. Collect compression statistics for MTrees associated with a Tenant Unit.
# mtree show compression
Modifying quotas
To meet QoS criteria, a system administrator uses DD OS “knobs” to adjust the settings
required by the Tenant configuration. For example, the administrator can set “soft” and
“hard” quota limits on DD Boost Storage Units. Stream “soft” and “hard” quota limits can
be allocated only to DD Boost Storage Units assigned to Tenant Units. After the
administrator sets the quotas, the tenant-admin can monitor one or all Tenant Units to
ensure no single object exceeds its allocated quotas and deprives others of system
resources.
Quotas are set initially when prompted by the configuration wizard, but they can be
adjusted or modified later. The example below shows how to modify quotas for DD Boost.
(You can also use quota capacity and quota streams to deal with capacity and
stream quotas and limits.)
Procedure
1. To modify soft and hard quota limits on DD Boost Storage Unit “su33”:
Using VTL NDMP TapeServer
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DD Secure Multitenancy
ddboost storage-unit modify su33 quota-soft-limit 10 Gib quotahard-limit 20 Gib
2. To modify stream soft and hard limits on DD Boost Storage Unit “su33”:
ddboost storage-unit modify su33 write-stream-soft-limit 20 readstream-soft-limit 6 repl -stream-soft-limit 20 combined-streamsoft-limit 20
3. To report physical size for DD Boost Storage Unit “su33”:
ddboost storage-unit modify su33 report-physical-size 8 GiB
SMT and replication
In case of disaster, user roles dictate how a user can assist in data recovery operations.
Several replication types are available in an SMT configuration. (See the DD Replicator
chapter for more detail on how to perform replication.)
Here are some points to consider regarding user roles:
l
The admin can recover MTrees from a replicated copy.
l
The tenant-admin can replicate MTrees from one system to another, using DD Boost
managed file replication.
l
The tenant-admin can recover MTrees from a replicated copy, also by using DD Boost
managed file replication.
Collection replication
Collection replication replicates core Tenant Unit configuration information.
MTree replication (NFS/CIFS) using DD Boost managed file replication
MTree replication is supported on MTrees assigned to Tenant Units, using DD Boost
managed file replication. During MTree replication, an MTree assigned to a Tenant Unit on
one system can be replicated to an MTree assigned to a Tenant Unit on another system.
MTree replication is not allowed between two different Tenants on the two DD systems.
When security mode is set to strict, MTree replication is allowed only when the MTrees
belong to same Tenants.
For backward compatibility, MTree replication from an MTree assigned to a Tenant Unit to
an unassigned MTree is supported, but must be configured manually. Manual
configuration ensures the destination MTree has the correct settings for the Tenant Unit.
Conversely, MTree replication from an unassigned MTree to an MTree assigned to a
Tenant Unit is also supported.
When setting up SMT-aware MTree replication, security mode defines how much checking
is done on the Tenant. The default mode checks that the source and destination do not
belong to different Tenants. The strict mode makes sure the source and destination
belong to the same Tenant. Therefore, when you use strict mode, you must create a
Tenant on the destination machine with the same UUID as the UUID of the Tenant on the
source machine that is associated with the MTree being replicated.
DD Boost managed file replication (also with DD Boost AIR)
DD Boost managed file replication is supported between Storage Units, regardless of
whether one Storage Unit, or both, are assigned to Tenant Units.
During DD Boost managed file replication, Storage Units are not replicated in total.
Instead, certain files within a Storage Unit are selected by the backup application for
replication. The files selected in a Storage Unit and assigned to a Tenant Unit on one
system can be replicated to a Storage Unit assigned to a Tenant Unit on another system.
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For backward compatibility, selected files in a Storage Unit assigned to a Tenant Unit can
be replicated to an unassigned Storage Unit. Conversely, selected files in an unassigned
Storage Unit can be replicated to a Storage Unit assigned to a Tenant Unit.
DD Boost managed file replication can also be used in DD Boost AIR deployments.
SMT Tenant alerts
A DD system generates events when it encounters potential problems with software or
hardware. When an event is generated, an alert notification is sent immediately via email
to members designated in the notification list and to the Data Domain administrator.
SMT alerts are specific to each Tenant Unit and differ from DD system alerts. When Tenant
Self-Service mode is enabled, the tenant-admin can choose to receive alerts about the
various system objects he or she is associated with and any critical events, such as an
unexpected system shutdown. A tenant-admin may only view or modify notification lists
to which he or she is associated.
The example below shows a sample alert. Notice that the two event messages at the
bottom of the notification are specific to a Multi-Tenant environment (indicated by the
word “Tenant”). For the entire list of DD OS and SMT alerts, see the EMC Data Domain MIB
Quick Reference Guide or the SNMP MIB.
EVT-ENVIRONMENT-00021 – Description: The system has been shutdown by
abnormal method; for example, not by one of the following: 1) Via
IPMI chassis control command 2) Via power button 3) Via OS shutdown.
Action: This alert is expected after loss of AC (main power) event.
If this shutdown is not expected and persists, contact your
contracted support provider or visit us online at https://
my.datadomain.com.
Tenant description: The system has experienced an unexpected power
loss and has restarted.
Tenant action: This alert is generated when the system restarts after
a power loss. If this alert repeats, contact your System
Administrator.
Managing snapshots
A snapshot is a read-only copy of an MTree captured at a specific point in time. A
snapshot can be used for many things, for example, as a restore point in case of a system
malfunction. The required role for using snapshot is admin or tenant-admin.
To view snapshot information for an MTree or a Tenant Unit:
# snapshot list mtree mtree-path | tenant-unit tenant-unit
To view a snapshot schedule for an MTree or a Tenant Unit:
# snapshot schedule show [name | mtrees mtree-listmtree-list | tenantunit tenant-unit]
Performing a file system Fast Copy
A Fast Copy operation clones files and directory trees of a source directory to a target
directory on a DD system. There are special circumstances regarding Fast Copy with
Secure Multitenancy (SMT).
Here are some considerations when performing a file system Fast Copy with Tenant SelfService mode enabled:
SMT Tenant alerts
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DD Secure Multitenancy
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A tenant-admin can Fast Copy files from one Tenant Unit to another when the tenantadmin is the tenant-admin for both Tenant Units, and the two Tenant Units belong to
the same Tenant.
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A tenant-admin can Fast Copy files within the same Tenant Unit.
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A tenant-admin can Fast Copy files within the Tenant Units at source and destination.
To perform a file system Fast Copy:
# filesys fastcopy source <src> destination <dest>
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CHAPTER 16
DD Extended Retention
This chapter includes:
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DD Extended Retention overview......................................................................... 386
Supported protocols in DD Extended Retention................................................... 388
High Availability and Extended Retention............................................................ 388
Using DD Replicator with DD Extended Retention.................................................388
Hardware and licensing for DD Extended Retention............................................. 390
Managing DD Extended Retention....................................................................... 393
Upgrades and recovery with DD Extended Retention............................................403
DD Extended Retention
385
DD Extended Retention
DD Extended Retention overview
EMC Data Domain Extended Retention (DD Extended Retention) provides an internal
tiering approach that enables cost-effective, long-term retention of backup data on a DD
system. DD Extended Retention lets you leverage DD systems for long-term backup
retention and minimize reliance on tape.
Note
DD Extended Retention was formerly known as Data Domain Archiver.
Two-Tiered File System
The internal two-tiered file system of a DD Extended Retention-enabled DD system
consists of an active tier and a retention tier. The file system, however, appears as a
single entity. Incoming data is first placed in the active tier of the file system. The data (in
the form of complete files) is later moved to the retention tier of the file system, as
specified by your individual Data Movement Policy. For example, the active tier might
retain weekly full and daily incremental backups for 90 days, while the retention tier
might retain monthly fulls for seven years.
The retention tier is comprised of one or more retention units, each of which may draw
storage from one or more shelves.
Note
As of DD OS 5.5.1, only one retention unit per retention tier is allowed. However, systems
set up prior to DD OS 5.5.1 may continue to have more than one retention unit, but you
will not be allowed to add any more retention units to them.
Transparency of Operation
DD Extended Retention-enabled DD systems support existing backup applications using
simultaneous data access methods through NFS and CIFS file service protocols over
Ethernet, through VTL for open systems and IBMi, or as a disk-based target using
application-specific interfaces, such as DD Boost (for use with EMC Avamar®, EMC
NetWorker®, EMC GreenPlum, Symantec OpenStorage, and Oracle RMAN).
DD Extended Retention extends the DD architecture with automatic transparent data
movement from the active tier to the retention tier. All of the data in the two tiers is
accessible, although there might be a slight delay on initial access to data in the
retention tier. The namespace of the system is global and is not affected by data
movement. No partitioning of the file system is necessary to take advantage of the twotiered file system.
Data Movement Policy
The Data Movement Policy, which you can customize, is the policy by which files are
moved from the active to the retention tier. It is based on the time when the file was last
modified. You can set a different policy for each different subset of data, because the
policy can be set on a per-MTree basis. Files that may be updated need a policy different
from those that never change.
Deduplication within Retention Unit
For fault isolation purposes, deduplication occurs entirely within the retention unit for DD
Extended Retention-enabled DD systems. There is no cross-deduplication between active
and retention tiers, or between different retention units (if applicable).
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Storage Drawn from Each Tier
The concept of tiering extends to the storage level for a DD Extended Retention-enabled
DD system. The active tier of the file system draws storage from the active tier of storage.
The retention tier of the file system draws storage from the retention tier of storage.
Note
For both active and retention tiers, DD OS 5.2 and later releases support ES20 and ES30
shelves. Different Data Domain controller models cannot be mixed in the same shelf set,
and the shelf sets must be balanced according to the configuration rules specified in the
EMC ES30 Expansion Shelf Hardware Guide. DD OS 5.7 and later support, DS60 shelves
and the shelf sets must be balanced according to the configuration rules specified in the
EMC DS60 Expansion Shelf Hardware Guide. You can attach significantly more storage to
the same controller, for example, you can attach up to a maximum of 56 shelves on a
DD990, when you are using DD Extended Retention. The active tier must include storage
consisting of at least one shelf. For the minimum and maximum shelf configuration for
the Data Domain controller models, refer to the expansion shelf hardware guides for
ES30 and DS60.
Data Protection
On a DD Extended Retention-enabled DD system, data is protected with built-in fault
isolation features, disaster recovery capability, and DIA (Data Invulnerability
Architecture). DIA checks files when they are moved from the active to the retention tier.
After data is copied into the retention tier, the container and file system structures are
read back and verified. The location of the file is updated, and the space on the active tier
is reclaimed after the file is verified to have been correctly written to the retention tier.
When a retention unit is filled up, namespace information and system files are copied
into it, so the data in the retention unit may be recovered even when other parts of the
system are lost.
Note
Sanitization and some forms of Replication are not supported for DD Extended Retentionenabled DD systems.
Space Reclamation
To reclaim space that has been freed up by data moved to the retention tier, you can use
Space Reclamation (as of DD OS 5.3), which runs in the background as a low-priority
activity. It suspends itself when there are higher priority activities, such as data
movement and cleaning.
Encryption of Data at Rest
As of DD OS 5.5.1, you can use the Encryption of Data at Rest feature on DD Extended
Retention-enabled DD systems, if you have an encryption license. Encryption is not
enabled by default.
This is an extension of the encryption capability already available, prior to DD OS 5.5.1,
for systems not using DD Extended Retention.
Refer to the Managing Encryption of Data at Rest chapter in this guide for complete
instructions on setting up and using the encryption feature.
DD Extended Retention overview
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DD Extended Retention
Supported protocols in DD Extended Retention
DD Extended Retention-enabled DD systems support the protocols NFS, CIFS, and DD
Boost. Support for VTL was added in DD OS 5.2, and support for NDMP was added in DD
OS 5.3.
Note
For a list of applications supported with DD Boost, see the DD Boost Compatibility List on
the EMC Online Support site.
When you are using DD Extended Retention, data first lands in the active tier. Files are
moved in their entirety into the retention unit in the retention tier, as specified by your
Data Movement Policy. All files appear in the same namespace. There is no need to
partition data, and you can continue to expand the file system as desired.
All data is visible to all users, and all file system metadata is present in the active tier.
The trade-off in moving data from the active to the retention tier is larger capacity versus
slightly slower access time if the unit to be accessed is not currently ready for access.
High Availability and Extended Retention
Data Domain systems with High Availability (HA) enabled do not support DD Extended
Retention. DD OS 5.7.1 cannot currently support the Extended Retention Tier.
Using DD Replicator with DD Extended Retention
Some forms of replication are supported on DD Extended Retention-enabled DD systems.
Supported replication types depend on the data to be protected:
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To protect data on a system as a source, a DD Extended Retention-enabled DD system
supports collection replication, MTree replication, and DD Boost managed file
replication.
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To protect data from other systems as a destination, a DD Extended Retentionenabled DD system also supports directory replication, as well as collection
replication, MTree replication, and DD Boost managed file replication.
Note
Delta (low bandwidth optimization) replication is not supported with DD Extended
Retention. You must disable delta replication on all contexts before enabling DD
Extended Retention on a DD system.
Collection replication with DD Extended Retention
Collection replication takes place between the corresponding active tier and retention
unit of the two DD systems with DD Extended Retention enabled. If the active tier or
retention unit at the source fails, the data can be copied from the corresponding unit at
the remote site onto a new unit, which is shipped to your site as a replacement unit.
Prerequisites for setting up collection replication include:
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Both the source and destination systems must be configured as DD systems with DD
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The file system must not be enabled on the destination until the retention unit has
been added to it, and replication has been configured.
Directory replication with DD Extended Retention
For directory replication, a DD Extended Retention-enabled DD system serves as a
replication target and supports one-to-one and many-to-one topologies from any
supported DD system. However, DD Extended Retention-enabled DD systems do not
support bi-directional directory replication and cannot be a source of directory
replication.
Note
To copy data using directory replication into a DD Extended Retention-enabled DD
system, the source must be running DD OS 5.0 or later. Therefore, on systems running DD
OS 5.0 or earlier, you must first import data into an intermediate system running DD OS
5.0 or later. For example, replication from a DD OS 4.9 Extended Retention-enabled
system could be made into a DD OS 5.2 non-Extended Retention-enabled system. Then,
replication could be made from the DD OS 5.2 system into the DD OS 4.9 system.
MTree replication with DD Extended Retention
You can set up MTree replication between two DD Extended Retention-enabled DD
systems. Replicated data is first placed in the active tier on the destination system. The
Data Movement Policy on the destination system then determines when the replicated
data is moved to the retention tier.
Note that MTree replication restrictions and policies vary by DD OS release, as follows:
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As of DD OS 5.1, data can be replicated from a non-DD Extended Retention-enabled
system to a DD Extended Retention-enabled system with MTree replication.
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As of DD OS 5.2, data can be protected within an active tier by replicating it to the
active tier of a DD Extended Retention-enabled system.
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As of DD OS 5.5, MTree replication is supported from a DD Extended Retentionenabled system to a non-DD Extended Retention-enabled system if both are running
DD OS 5.5 or later.
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For DD OS 5.3 and 5.4, if you plan to enable DD Extended Retention, do not set up
replication for the /backup MTree on the source machine. (DD OS 5.5 and later do not
have this restriction.)
Managed file replication with DD Extended Retention
For DD Extended Retention-enabled DD systems, the supported topologies for DD Boost
managed file replication are one-to-one, many-to-one, bi-directional, one-to-many, and
cascaded.
Note
For DD Boost 2.3 or later, you can specify how multiple copies are to be made and
managed within the backup application.
Directory replication with DD Extended Retention
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Hardware and licensing for DD Extended Retention
Certain hardware configurations are required for DD Extended Retention-enabled DD
systems. Licensing, specifically separate shelf capacity licenses, is also specific to this
feature.
Hardware supported for DD Extended Retention
The hardware requirements for DD Extended Retention-enabled DD systems include
memory requirements, shelves, NIC/FC cards, and so on. For details about the required
hardware configurations for DD Extended Retention, see the installation and setup guide
for your DD system, and the expansion shelf hardware guides for your expansion shelves.
The following DD systems support DD Extended Retention:
DD860
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72 GB of RAM
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1 - NVRAM IO module (1 GB)
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3 - Quad-port SAS IO modules
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2 - 1 GbE ports on the motherboard
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0 to 2 - 1/10 GbE NIC IO cards for external connectivity
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0 to 2 - Dual-Port FC HBA IO cards for external connectivity
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0 to 2 - Combined NIC and FC cards
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Shelf combinations are documented in the installation and setup guide for your DD
system, and the expansion shelf hardware guides for your expansion shelves.
If DD Extended Retention is enabled on a DD860, the maximum usable storage capacity
of an active tier is 144 TB. The retention tier can have a maximum usable capacity of 552
TB. The active and retention tiers have a total usable storage capacity of 696 TB.
DD990
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256 GB of RAM
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1 - NVRAM IO module (2 GB)
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4 - Quad-port SAS IO modules
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2 - 1 GbE ports on the motherboard
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0 to 4 - 1 GbE NIC IO cards for external connectivity
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0 to 3 - 10 GbE NIC cards for external connectivity
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0 to 3 - Dual-Port FC HBA cards for external connectivity
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0 to 3 - Combined NIC and FC cards, not to exceed three of any one specific IO module
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Shelf combinations are documented in the installation and setup guide for your DD
system, and the expansion shelf hardware guides for your expansion shelves.
If DD Extended Retention is enabled on a DD990, the maximum usable storage capacity
of the active tier is 570 TB. The retention tier can have a maximum usable capacity of 1.4
PB. The active and retention tiers have a total usable storage capacity of 2 PB.
DD4200
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128 GB of RAM
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1 - NVRAM IO module (4 GB)
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4 - Quad-port SAS IO modules
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1 - 1 GbE port on the motherboard
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0 to 6 - 1/10 GbE NIC cards for external connectivity
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0 to 6 - Dual-Port FC HBA cards for external connectivity
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0 to 6 - Combined NIC and FC cards, not to exceed four of any one specific IO module
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Shelf combinations are documented in the installation and setup guide for your DD
system, and the expansion shelf hardware guides for your expansion shelves.
If DD Extended Retention is enabled on a DD4200, the maximum usable storage capacity
of the active tier is 192 TB. The retention tier can have a maximum usable capacity of 384
TB. The active and retention tiers have a total usable storage capacity of 576 TB. External
connectivity is supported for DD Extended Retention configurations up to 16 shelves.
DD4500
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192 GB of RAM
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1 - NVRAM IO module (4 GB)
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4 - Quad-port SAS IO modules
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1 - 1 GbE port on the motherboard
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0 to 6 - 1/10 GbE NIC IO cards for external connectivity
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0 to 6 - Dual-Port FC HBA cards for external connectivity
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0 to 5 - Combined NIC and FC cards, not to exceed four of any one specific IO module
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Shelf combinations are documented in the installation and setup guide for your DD
system, and the expansion shelf hardware guides for your expansion shelves.
If DD Extended Retention is enabled on a DD4500, the maximum usable storage capacity
of the active tier is 288 TB. The retention tier can have a maximum usable capacity of 864
TB. The active and retention tiers have a total usable storage capacity of 1.1 PB. External
connectivity is supported for DD Extended Retention configurations up to 32 shelves.
DD7200
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128 GB of RAM for entry capacity; optional upgrade to 256 GB RAM for expanded
capacity
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1 - NVRAM IO module (4 GB)
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4 - Quad-port SAS IO modules
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1 - 1 GbE port on the motherboard
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0 to 6 - 1/10 GbE NIC cards for external connectivity
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0 to 6 - Dual-Port FC HBA cards for external connectivity
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0 to 5 - Combined NIC and FC cards, not to exceed four of any one specific IO module
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Shelf combinations are documented in the installation and setup guide for your DD
system, and the expansion shelf hardware guides for your expansion shelves.
If DD Extended Retention is enabled on a DD7200, the maximum usable storage capacity
of the active tier is 428 TB. The retention tier can have a maximum usable capacity of 1.2
PB. The active and retention tiers have a total usable storage capacity of 1.7 PB. External
connectivity is supported for DD Extended Retention configurations up to 56 shelves.
DD9500
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256 GB of RAM for entry capacity; optional upgrade to 512 GB RAM for expanded
capacity
Hardware supported for DD Extended Retention
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DD Extended Retention
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1 - NVRAM IO module (8 GB)
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4 - Quad-port SAS IO modules
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1 - Quad 1 GbE ports on the motherboard
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0 to 4 - 10 GbE NIC cards for external connectivity
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0 to 4 - Dual-Port 16 Gbe FC HBA cards for external connectivity
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Shelf combinations are documented in the installation and setup guide for your DD
system, and the expansion shelf hardware guides for your expansion shelves.
If DD Extended Retention is enabled on a DD9500, the maximum usable storage capacity
of the active tier is 864 TB. The retention tier can have a maximum usable capacity of 864
TB. The active and retention tiers have a total usable storage capacity of 1.7 PB. External
connectivity is supported for DD Extended Retention configurations up to 56 shelves.
Licensing for DD Extended Retention
DD Extended Retention is a licensed software option installed on a supported DD system.
A separate shelf capacity license is needed for each storage shelf, for shelves installed in
both the active tier and the retention tier. Shelf capacity licenses are specific to either an
active or retention tier shelf.
An Expanded-Storage license is required to expand the active tier storage capacity
beyond the entry capacity, which varies by Data Domain model. You cannot use the
additional storage without first applying the appropriate licenses.
Adding shelf capacity licenses for DD Extended Retention
Every shelf in a DD Extended Retention-enabled DD system must have a separate license.
Procedure
1. Select Administration > Licenses.
2. Click Add Licenses.
3. Enter one or more licenses, one per line, pressing the Enter key after each one. Click
Add when you have finished. If there are any errors, a summary of the added licenses,
and those not added because of the error, are listed. Select the erroneous License Key
to fix it.
Results
The licenses for the DD system are displayed in two groups:
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Software option licenses, which are required for options such as DD Extended
Retention and DD Boost.
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Shelf Capacity Licenses, which display shelf capacity (in TiB), the shelf model (such
as ES30), and the shelf’s storage tier (active or retention).
To delete a license, select the license in the Licenses list, and click Delete Selected
Licenses. If prompted to confirm, read the warning, and click OK to continue.
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Configuring storage for DD Extended Retention
Additional storage for DD Extended Retention requires the appropriate license or licenses
and enough installed memory on the DD system to support it. Error messages display if
more licenses or memory are needed.
Procedure
1. Select Hardware > Storage tab.
2. In the Overview tab, select Configure Storage.
3. In the Configure Storage tab, select the storage to be added from the Available
Storage list.
4. Select the appropriate Tier Configuration (or Active or Retention) from the menu. The
active tier is analogous to a standard DD system and should be sized similarly. The
maximum amount of storage that can be added to the active tier depends on the DD
controller used.
5. Select the checkbox for the Shelf to be added.
6. Click the Add to Tier button.
7. Click OK to add the storage.
8. To remove an added shelf, select it in the Tier Configuration list, select Remove from
Tier, and select OK.
Customer-provided infrastructure for DD Extended Retention
Before enabling DD Extended Retention, your environment and setup must meet certain
requirements.
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Specifications, site requirements, rack space, and interconnect cabling: See the EMC
Data Domain Installation and Setup Guide for your DD system model.
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Racking and cabling: It is recommended that you rack your system with future
expansion in mind. All shelves are attached to a single DD system.
Note
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See the EMC Data Domain Expansion Shelf Hardware Guide for your shelf model
(ES20, ES30, or DS60).
Managing DD Extended Retention
To set up and use DD Extended Retention on your DD system, you can use the DD System
Manager and/or the DD CLI.
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The DD System Manager, formerly known as the Enterprise Manager, is a graphical
user interface (GUI), which is described in this guide.
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The archive commands, entered at the DD Command Line Interface (CLI) are
described in the EMC Data Domain Operating System Command Reference Guide.
The only command not available when you use the DD System Manager is archive
report.
Configuring storage for DD Extended Retention
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DD Extended Retention
Enabling DD systems for DD Extended Retention
Before using a DD system for DD Extended Retention, you must have the correct license
and the correct file system setup.
Procedure
1. Ensure that the correct license is applied. Select Administration > Licenses, and check
the Feature Licenses list for Extended Retention.
2. Select Data Management > File System > More Tasks > Enable DD Extended Retention.
This option is available only if the file system has not already been configured for DD
Extended Retention. Be aware that after DD Extended Retention has been enabled, it
cannot be disabled without destroying the file system.
a. If the file system is already enabled (as a non-DD Extended Retention system), you
are prompted to disable it. Click Disable to do so.
b. If prompted to confirm that you want to convert the file system for use by DD
Extended Retention, click OK.
After a file system is converted into a DD Extended Retention file system, the file
system page is refreshed to include information about both tiers, and there is a
new tab labeled Retention Units.
CLI Equivalent
You can also verify that the Extended Retention license has been installed at the
CLI:
# license show
## License Key
-------------------1
AAAA-BBBB-CCCC-DDDD
2
EEEE-FFFF-GGGG-HHHH
--------------------
Feature
----------Replication
VTL
-----------
If the license is not present, each unit includes documentation – a quick install
card – which shows the licenses that have been purchased. Enter the following
command to populate the license key.
# license add license-code
Then, enable Extended Retention:
# archive enable
Creating a two-tiered file system for DD Extended Retention
DD Extended Retention has a two-tiered file system for the active and retention tiers. The
DD system must have been enabled for DD Extended Retention before enabling this
special file system.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > File System.
2. If a file system exists, destroy it.
3. Select More Tasks > Create file system.
4. Select a retention-capable file system and click Next.
5. Click Configure in the File System Create dialog box.
Storage must be configured before the file system is created.
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6. Use the Configure Storage dialog box to add and remove available storage from the
Active and Retention Tiers, and click OK when you have finished.
The storage in the active tier is used to create the active file system tier, and the
storage in the retention tier is used to create a retention unit.
Note
As of DD OS 5.5.1, only one retention unit per retention tier is allowed. However,
systems set up prior to DD OS 5.5.1 may continue to have more than one retention
unit, but you cannot add any more retention units to them.
7. Use the File System Create dialog box to:
a. Select the size of the retention unit from the drop-down list.
b. Select the Enable file system after creation option.
c. Click Next.
A Summary page shows the size of the active and retention tiers in the new file
system.
8. Click Finish to create the file system.
The progress of each creation step is shown, and a progress bar monitors overall
status.
9. Click OK after the file system execution has completed.
CLI Equivalent
To add additional shelves, use this command once for each enclosure:
# storage add tier archive enclosure 5
Create an archive unit, and add it to the file system. You are asked to specify the
number of enclosures in the archive unit:
# filesys archive unit add
Verify that the archive unit is created and added to the file system:
# filesys archive unit list all
Check the file system, as seen by the system:
# filesys show space
File system panel for DD Extended Retention
After you have enabled a DD system for DD Extended Retention, the Data Management >
File System panel will look slightly different (from a non-DD Extended Retention-enabled
system).
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State shows that the file system is either enabled or disabled. You can change the
state by using the Disable/Enable button immediately to the right.
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Clean Status shows the time the last cleaning operation finished, or the current
cleaning status if the cleaning operation is currently running. If cleaning can be run, it
shows a Start Cleaning button. When cleaning is running, the Start Cleaning button
changes to a Stop Cleaning button.
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Data Movement Status shows the time the last data movement finished. If data
movement can be run, it shows a Start button. When data movement is running, the
Start button changes to a Stop button.
File system panel for DD Extended Retention
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DD Extended Retention
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Space Reclamation Status shows the amount of space reclaimed after deleting data
in the retention tier. If space reclamation can be run, it shows a Start button. If it is
already running, it shows Stop and Suspend buttons. If it was running previously and
was suspended, it shows Stop and Resume buttons. There is also a More Information
button that will display detailed information about starting and ending times,
completion percentage, units reclaimed, space freed, etc.
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Selecting More Tasks > Destroy lets you delete all data in the file system, including
virtual tapes. This can be done only by a system administrator.
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Selecting More Tasks > Fast Copy lets you clone files and MTrees of a source directory
to a destination directory. Note that for DD Extended Retention-enabled systems, fast
copy will not move data between the active and retention tiers.
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Selecting More Tasks > Expand Capacity lets you expand the active or retention tier.
Expanding the active or retention tier
When the file system is enabled, you can expand either the active or the retention tier.
To expand the Active tier:
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > File System > More Tasks > Expand Capacity.
2. In the Expand File System Capacity dialog, select Active Tier, then click Next.
3. Click Configure.
4. In the Configure Storage dialog, make sure that Active Tier is displayed as the
Configure selection, and click OK.
5. After the configuration completes, you are returned to the Expand File System
Capacity dialog. Select Finish to complete the active tier expansion.
To expand the retention tier:
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > File System > More Tasks > Expand Capacity.
2. In the Expand File System Capacity dialog, select Retention Tier, then select Next.
3. If a retention unit is available, you will see the Select Retention Unit dialog. Select the
retention unit you want to expand and then Next. If a retention unit is not available,
you will see the Create Retention Unit dialog, and you must create a retention unit
before proceeding.
Note
To ensure optimal performance of a DD system with DD Extended Retention enabled,
you should always expand the retention tier in at least two-shelf increments. You
should also not wait until the retention unit is nearly full before expanding it.
4. Select the size to expand the retention unit, then click Configure.
5. After configuration completes, you are returned to the Expand File System Capacity
dialog. Click Finish to complete the retention tier expansion.
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Reclaiming space in the retention tier
You can reclaim space from deleted data in the retention tier by running space
reclamation (introduced in DD OS 5.3). Space reclamation also occurs during file system
cleaning.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > File System. Just above the tabs, Space Reclamation
Status shows the amount of space that is reclaimed after deleting data in the
retention tier.
2. If space reclamation can be run, it shows a Start button. If it is already running, it
shows Stop and Suspend buttons. If it was running previously and was suspended, it
shows Stop and Resume buttons.
3. Click More Information for details about the cycle name, start and end times, effective
run time, percent completed (if in progress), units reclaimed, space freed on target
unit, and total space freed.
Note
When you use the archive space-reclamation command, the system runs
space-reclamation in the background until it is manually stopped unless you use the
one-cycle option. You can also use the archive space-reclamation
schedule set command to set the starting time for space-reclamation.
CLI Equivalent
To enable space reclamation:
# archive space-reclamation start
To disable space reclamation:
# archive space-reclamation stop
To show the status of space reclamation:
# archive space-reclamation status-detailed
Space-reclamation will start when 'archive data-movement'
completes.
Previous Cycle:
--------------Start time
:
End time
:
Effective run time
:
Percent completed
:
Units reclaimed
:
Space freed on target unit :
Total space freed
:
Feb 21 2014 14:17
Feb 21 2014 14:49
0
days, 00:32.
00 % (was stopped by user)
None
None
None
File system tabs for DD Extended Retention
After you have enabled a DD system for DD Extended Retention, the Data Management >
File System tabs will also look slightly different (from a non-DD Extended Retentionenabled system), and there will be one additional tab: Retention Units
Summary Tab
The Summary tab displays information about disk space usage and compression for both
the active and retention tiers.
File system tabs for DD Extended Retention
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DD Extended Retention
Space Usage: Shows the total size, amount of space used, and amount of available
space and combined totals for active and retention tiers. The amount of cleanable space
is shown for the active tier.
Active Tier and Retention Tier: Shows the pre-compression and post-compression values
currently used and those written in the last 24 hours. Also shows the global, local, and
total compression (reduction percentage) factors.
Retention Units Tab
The Retention Units tab displays the retention unit(s). As of DD OS 5.5.1.4, only one
retention unit per retention tier is allowed. However, systems set up prior to DD OS
5.5.1.4 may continue to have more than one retention unit, but you will not be allowed to
add any more retention units to them.
The following information is displayed: the unit’s State (New, Empty, Sealed, Target, or
Cleaning), its Status (Disabled, Ready, or Stand-by), its Start Date (when it was moved to
the retention tier), and the Unit Size. The unit will be in the cleaning state if space
reclamation is running. If the unit has been sealed, meaning no more data can be added,
the Sealed Date is provided. Selecting the retention unit's checkbox displays additional
information (Size, Used, Available, and Cleanable) in the Detailed Information panel.
There are two buttons: Delete (for deleting the unit) and Expand (for adding storage to a
unit). The unit must be in a new or target state to be expanded.
Configuration Tab
The Configuration Tab lets you configure your system.
Selecting the Options Edit button displays the Modify Settings dialog, where you can
change Local Compression Type [options are none, lz (the default), gz, and gzfast] and
Retention Tier Local Comp(ression) [options are none, lz, gz (the default), and gzfast], as
well as enable Report Replica Writable.
Selecting the Clean Schedule Edit button displays the Modify Schedule dialog, where you
can change the cleaning schedule, as well as the throttle percentage.
Selecting the Data Movement Policy Edit button displays the Data Movement Policy
dialog, where you can set several parameters. File Age Threshold is a system-wide default
that applies to all MTrees for which you have not set a custom default. The minimum
value is 14 days. Data Movement Schedule lets you establish how often data movement
will be done; the recommended schedule is every two weeks. File System Cleaning lets
you elect not to have a system cleaning after data movement; however, it is strongly
recommended that you leave this option selected.
File Age Threshold per MTree Link
Selecting the File Age Threshold per MTree link will take you from the File System to the
MTree area (also accessible by selecting Data Management > MTree), where you can set a
customized File Age Threshold for each of your MTrees.
Select the MTree, and then select Edit next to Data Movement Policy. In the Modify Age
Threshold dialog, enter a new value for File Age Threshold, and select OK. As of DD OS
5.5.1, the minimum value is 14 days.
Encryption Tab
The Encryption tab lets you enable or disable Encryption of Data at Rest, which is
supported only for systems with a single retention unit. As of 5.5.1, DD Extended
Retention supports only a single retention unit, so systems set up during, or after, 5.5.1
will have no problem complying with this restriction. However, systems set up prior to
5.5.1 may have more than one retention unit, but they will not work with Encryption of
Data at Rest until all but one retention unit has been removed, or data has been moved or
migrated to one retention unit.
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Space Usage Tab
The Space Usage Tab lets you select one of three chart types [(entire) File System; Active
(tier); Archive (tier)] to view space usage over time in MiB. You can also select a duration
value (7, 30, 60, or 120 days) at the upper right. The data is presented (color-coded) as
pre-compression written (blue), post-compression used (red), and the compression factor
(black).
Consumption Tab
The Consumption Tab lets you select one of three chart types [(entire) File System; Active
(tier); Archive (tier)] to view the amount of post-compression storage used and the
compression ratio over time, which enables you to view consumption trends. You can
also select a duration value (7, 30, 60, or 120 days) at the upper right. The Capacity
checkbox lets you choose whether to display the post-compression storage against total
system capacity.
Daily Written Tab
The Daily Written Tab lets you select a duration (7, 30, 60, or 120 days) to see the amount
of data written per day. The data is presented (color-coded) in both graph and table
format as pre-compression written (blue), post-compression used (red), and the
compression factor (black).
Expanding a retention unit
To ensure optimal performance, do not wait until a retention unit is nearly full before
expanding it, and do not expand it in 1-shelf increments. Storage cannot be moved from
the active tier to the retention tier after the file system has been created. Only unused
enclosures can be added to the retention tier.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > File System > Retention Units.
2. Select the retention unit.
Note that if cleaning is running, a retention unit cannot be expanded.
3. Click Expand.
The system displays the current retention tier size, an estimated expansion size, and
a total expanded capacity. If additional storage is available you can click the
Configure link.
4. Click Next.
The system displays a warning telling you that you cannot revert the file system to its
original size after this operation.
5. Click Expand to expand the file system.
Deleting a retention unit
If all of the files on a retention unit are no longer needed, deleting them makes the unit
available for reuse. You can generate a file location report to make sure that the retention
unit is indeed empty, delete the retention unit, and then add it as a new retention unit.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > File System and click Disable to disable the file system if it
is running.
2. Select Data Management > File System > Retention Units.
3. Select the retention unit.
File system tabs for DD Extended Retention
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DD Extended Retention
4. Click Delete.
Modifying retention tier local compression
You can modify the local compression algorithm for subsequent data movement to the
retention tier.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > File System > Configuration.
2. Click Edit to the right of Options.
3. Select one of the compression options from the Retention Tier Local Comp menu, and
click OK.
The default is gz, which is a zip-style compression that uses the least amount of space
for data storage (10% to 20% less than lz on average; however, some data sets
achieve much higher compression).
Understanding the Data Movement Policy
A file is moved from the active to the retention tier based on the date it was last modified.
For data integrity, the entire file is moved at this time. The Data Movement Policy
establishes two things: a File Age Threshold and a Data Movement Schedule. If data has
not changed during the period of days set by the File Age Threshold, it is moved from the
active to the retention tier on the date established by the Data Movement Schedule.
Note
As of DD OS 5.5.1, the File Age Threshold must be a minimum of 14 days.
You can specify different File Age Thresholds for each defined MTree. An MTree is a
subtree within the namespace that is a logical set of data for management purposes. For
example, you might place financial data, emails, and engineering data in separate
MTrees.
To take advantage of the space reclamation feature, introduced in DD OS 5.3, it is
recommended that you schedule data movement and file system cleaning on a bi-weekly
(every 14 days) basis. By default, cleaning is always run after data movement completes.
It is highly recommended that you do not change this default.
Avoid these common sizing errors:
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Setting a Data Movement Policy that is overly aggressive; data will be moved too
soon.
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Setting a Data Movement Policy that is too conservative: after the active tier fills up,
you will not be able to write data to the system.
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Having an undersized active tier and then setting an overly aggressive Data
Movement Policy to compensate.
Be aware of the following caveats related to snapshots and file system cleaning:
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Files in snapshots are not cleaned, even after they have been moved to the retention
tier. Space cannot be reclaimed until the snapshots have been deleted.
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It is recommended that you set the File Age Threshold for snapshots to the minimum
of 14 days.
Here are two examples of how to set up a Data Movement Policy.
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You could segregate data with different degrees of change into two different MTrees
and set the File Age Threshold to move data soon after the data stabilizes. Create
MTree A for daily incremental backups and MTree B for weekly fulls. Set the File Age
EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
DD Extended Retention
Threshold for MTree A so that its data is never moved, but set the File Age Threshold
for MTree B to 14 days (the minimum threshold).
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For data that cannot be separated into different MTrees, you could do the following.
Suppose the retention period of daily incremental backups is eight weeks, and the
retention period of weekly fulls is three years. In this case, it would be best to set the
File Age Threshold to nine weeks. If it were set lower, you would be moving daily
incremental data that was actually soon to be deleted.
Modifying the Data Movement Policy
You can set different Data Movement Policies for each MTree.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > File System > Configuration.
2. Click Edit to the right of Data Movement Policy.
3. In the Data Movement Policy dialog, specify the system-wide default File Age
Threshold value in number of days. As of DD OS 5.5.1, this value must be greater than
or equal to 14 days. This value applies to newly created MTrees and MTrees that have
not been assigned a per-MTree age threshold value using the File Age Threshold per
MTree link (see step 7). When data movement starts, all files that have not been
modified for the specified threshold number of days will be moved from the active to
the retention tier.
4. Specify a Data Movement Schedule, that is, when data movement should take place;
for example, daily, weekly, bi-weekly (every 14 days), monthly, or on the last day of
the month. You can also pick a specific day or days, and a time in hours and minutes.
It is highly recommended that you schedule data movement and file system cleaning
on a bi-weekly (every 14 days) basis, to take advantage of the space reclamation
feature (introduced in DD OS 5.3).
5. Specify a Data Movement Throttle, that is, the percentage of available resources the
system uses for data movement. A value of 100% indicates that data movement will
not be throttled.
6. By default, file system cleaning is always run after data movement completes. It is
highly recommended that you leave Start file system clean after Data Movement
selected.
7. Select OK.
8. Back in the Configuration tab, you can specify age threshold values for individual
MTrees by using the File Age Threshold per MTree link at the lower right corner.
CLI Equivalent
To set the age threshold:
# archive data-movement policy set age-threshold {days|none}
mtrees mtree-list
If necessary, to set the default age threshold:
# archive data-movement policy set default-age-threshold days
To verify the age threshold setting:
# archive data-movement policy show [mtree mtree-list]
To specify the migration schedule:
# archive data-movement schedule set days days time time [no-clean]
Acceptable schedule values include:
File system tabs for DD Extended Retention
401
DD Extended Retention
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days sun time 00:00
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days mon,tue time 00:00
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days 2 time 10:00
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days 2,15 time 10:00
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days last time 10:00 - last day of the month
To verify the migration schedule:
# archive data-movement schedule show
To disable the file cleaning schedule:
Note
The reason for disabling the cleaning schedule is to eliminate a scheduling conflict
between cleaning and data movement. At the conclusion of data movement, cleaning
will automatically start. If you disable data movement, you should re-enable file
system cleaning.
# filesys clean set schedule never
Starting or stopping data movement on demand
Even when you have a regular Data Movement Policy, you can also start or stop data
movement on demand.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > File System.
2. Click Start to the right of Data Movement Status.
3. The Start Data Movement dialog warns that data is to be moved from the active to the
retention tier, as defined by your Data Movement Policy, followed by a file system
cleaning. Select Start to start the data movement.
If a file system cleaning happens to already be in progress, data movement will occur
after that cleaning completes. However, another cleaning will be automatically started
after this on-demand data movement completes, as well.
4. The Start button will be replaced by a Stop button.
5. At any time, if you want to stop data movement, click Stop and click OK in the Stop
Data Movement dialog to confirm.
Using data movement packing
Data is compacted in the target partition after every file migration (as of DD OS 5.2). By
default, this feature, which is called data movement packing, is enabled.
When this feature is enabled, the overall compression of the retention tier improves, but
there is a slight increase in migration time.
To determine if this feature is enabled, select Data Management > File System >
Configuration.
The current value for Packing data during Retention Tier data movement can be either
Enabled or Disabled. Consult with a system engineer to change this setting.
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Upgrades and recovery with DD Extended Retention
The following sections describe how to perform software and hardware upgrades, and
how to recover data, for DD Extended Retention-enabled DD systems.
Upgrading to DD OS 5.7 with DD Extended Retention
The upgrade policy for a DD Extended Retention-enabled DD system is the same as for a
standard DD system.
Upgrading from up to two major prior releases is supported. For instructions on how to
upgrade the DD OS, refer to the upgrade instructions section of the Release Notes for the
target DD OS version.
When upgrading a DD Extended Retention-enabled DD system to DD OS 5.7, be sure to
update existing data movement schedules to bi-weekly (14 days) to take advantage of
the space reclamation feature.
DD Extended Retention-enabled DD systems automatically run cleaning after data
movement completes; therefore, do not schedule cleaning separately using the DD
System Manager or CLI (command line interface).
If the active tier is available, the process upgrades the active tier and the retention unit,
and puts the system into a state that the previous upgrade has not been verified to be
complete. This state is cleared by the file system after the file system is enabled and has
verified that the retention tier has been upgraded. A subsequent upgrade is not permitted
until this state is cleared.
If the active tier is not available, the upgrade process upgrades the system chassis and
places it into a state where it is ready to create or accept a file system.
If the retention unit becomes available after the upgrade process has finished, the unit is
automatically upgraded when it is plugged into the system, or at the next system start.
Upgrading hardware with DD Extended Retention
You can upgrade a DD Extended Retention-enabled DD system to a later or higher
performance DD Extended Retention-enabled DD system. For example, you could replace
a DD Extended Retention-enabled DD860 with a DD Extended Retention-enabled DD990
Note
Consult your contracted service provider, and refer to the instructions in the appropriate
System Controller Upgrade Guide.
This type of upgrade affects DD Extended Retention as follows:
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If the new system has a more recent version of DD OS than the active and retention
tiers, the active and retention tiers are upgraded to the new system's version.
Otherwise, the new system is upgraded to the version of the active and retention
tiers.
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The active and retention tiers that are connected to the new system become owned
by the new system.
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If there is an active tier, the registry in the active tier is installed in the new system.
Otherwise, the registry in the retention tier with the most recently updated registry is
installed in the new system.
Upgrades and recovery with DD Extended Retention
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DD Extended Retention
Recovering a DD Extended Retention-enabled system
If the active tier, and a subset of the retention units are lost, on a DD Extended Retentionenabled DD system, and there is no replica available, EMC Support may be able to
reconstitute any remaining sealed retention units into a new DD system.
A DD Extended Retention-enabled DD system is designed to remain available to service
read and write requests when one or more retention units are lost. The file system may
not detect that a retention unit is lost until the file system restarts or tries to access data
stored in the retention unit. The latter circumstance may trigger a file system restart. After
the file system has detected that a retention unit is lost, it returns an error in response to
requests for data stored in that unit.
If the lost data cannot be recovered from a replica, EMC Support might be able to clean
up the system by deleting the lost retention unit and any files that reside fully or partially
in it.
Using replication recovery
The replication recovery procedure for a DD Extended Retention-enabled DD system
depends on the replication type
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Collection replication – The new source must be configured as a DD Extended
Retention-enabled DD system with the same number (or more) of retention units as
the destination. The file system must not be enabled on the new source until the
retention units have been added, and replication recovery has been initiated.
Note
If you need to recover only a portion of a system, such as one retention unit, from a
collection replica, contact EMC Support.
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MTree replication – See the MTree Replication section in the Working with DD
Replicator chapter.
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DD Boost managed file replication – See the EMC Data Domain Boost for OpenStorage
Administration Guide.
Recovering from system failures
A DD Extended Retention-enabled DD system is equipped with tools to address failures in
different parts of the system.
Procedure
1. Restore the connection between the system controller and the storage. If the system
controller is lost, replace it with a new system controller.
2. If there is loss of data and a replica is available, try to recover the data from the
replica. If a replica is not available, limit any loss of data by leveraging the fault
isolation features of DD Extended Retention through EMC Support.
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CHAPTER 17
DD Retention Lock
This chapter includes:
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DD Retention Lock overview................................................................................ 406
Supported data access protocols........................................................................ 408
Enabling DD Retention Lock on an MTree.............................................................409
Client-Side Retention Lock file control................................................................. 412
System behavior with DD Retention Lock.............................................................417
DD Retention Lock
405
DD Retention Lock
DD Retention Lock overview
When data is locked on an MTree that is enabled with the DD Retention Lock software
option, DD Retention Lock helps ensure that data integrity is maintained. Any data that is
locked cannot be overwritten, modified, or deleted for a user-defined retention period of
up to 70 years.
There are two DD Retention Lock editions:
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EMC Data Domain Retention Lock Governance Edition retains the functionality of Data
Domain Retention Lock software prior to DD OS 5.2. You can use Data Domain
Retention Lock Governance to define retention policies on data that is to be retained
for a specific period of time to meet internal IT governance policies implemented by
the system administrator.
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EMC Data Domain Retention Lock Compliance Edition enables you to meet the
strictest data permanence requirements of regulatory standards, such as those of
SEC 17a-4(f). The full list of regulatory standards includes:
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CFTC Rule 1.31b
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FDA 21 CFR Part 11
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Sarbanes-Oxley Act
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IRS 98025 and 97-22
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ISO Standard 15489-1
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MoREQ2010
For certification information, see Compliance Assessments - Summary and
Conclusions – EMC Data Domain Retention Lock Compliance Edition at:
https://www.emc.com/collateral/analyst-reports/cohasset-dd-retention-lock-assoccomp-assess-summ-ar.pdf
(Login is required.)
Compliance with these standards ensures that files locked on a Data Domain system
using Data Domain Retention Lock Compliance Edition software cannot be altered or
destroyed before the retention period expires. Data Domain Retention Lock
Compliance Edition requires a security officer for implementation of policies. An audit
log file is accessible by the administrator or security officer.
Each edition requires a separate, add-on license, and either or both can be used on a
single Data Domain system.
The retention-locking protocol is the same for both the DD Retention Lock Governance
and Compliance Editions. The differences in use stem from the system behavior for the
DD Retention Lock Compliance Edition, since it places strict restrictions to meet
compliance requirements. For an overview, see the EMC Data Domain Retention Lock
Software – A Detailed Review (a white paper) available at:
https://www.emc.com/collateral/hardware/white-papers/h10666-data-domainretention-lock-wp.pdf
(Login is required.)
The DD Retention Lock Governance Edition does not require a security officer and
provides a higher degree of flexibility for archive data retention on Data Domain systems.
For archive compliance storage requirements, SEC rules require that a separate copy of
retention-locked data must be stored with the same retention requirements as the
original. Retention-locked files can be replicated using DD Replicator software to another
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Data Domain system. If a retention-locked file is replicated, it remains retention locked
on the destination system, with the same level of protection as the source file.
The topics that follow provide additional information on the DD Retention Lock software
option.
DD Retention Lock protocol
Only files that are explicitly committed to be retention-locked files are retention locked on
the Data Domain system. Files are committed to be retention-locked files through clientside file commands issued while DD Retention Lock Governance or Compliance is
enabled on the MTree containing the files.
Note
Linux, Unix, and Windows client environments are supported.
Files that are written to shares or exports that are not committed to be retained (even if
DD Retention Lock Governance or Compliance is enabled on the MTree containing the
files) can be modified or deleted at any time.
Retention locking prevents any modification or deletion of files under retention from
occurring directly from CIFS shares or NFS exports during the retention period specified by
a client-side atime update command. Some archive applications and backup applications
can issue this command when appropriately configured. Applications or utilities that do
not issue this command cannot lock files using DD Retention Lock.
Retention-locked files are always protected from modification and premature deletion,
even if retention locking is subsequently disabled or if the retention-lock license is no
longer valid.
You cannot rename or delete non-empty folders or directories within an MTree that is
retention-lock enabled. However, you can rename or delete empty folders or directories
and create new ones.
The retention period of a retention-locked file can be extended (but not reduced) by
updating the file’s atime.
For both DD Retention Lock Governance and Compliance, once the retention period for a
file expires, the file can be deleted using a client-side command, script, or application.
However, the file cannot be modified even after the retention period for the file expires.
The Data Domain system never automatically deletes a file when its retention period
expires.
DD Retention Lock flow
The general flow of activities with DD Retention Lock.
1. Enable MTrees for DD Retention Lock Governance or Compliance retention locking
using the DD System Manager or DD OS commands issued from the system console.
2. Commit files to be retention locked on the Data Domain system using client-side
commands issued by an appropriately configured archiving or backup application,
manually, or via scripts.
Note
Windows clients may need to download utility programs for DD OS compatibility.
3. Optionally, extend file retention times using client-side commands.
4. Optionally, delete files with expired retention periods using client-side commands.
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DD Retention Lock
Supported data access protocols
DD Retention Lock is compatible with industry-standard, NAS-based Write-Once-ReadMany (WORM) protocols, and integration is qualified with archive applications such as
Symantec Enterprise Vault, EMC SourceOne, EMC Cloud Tiering Appliance, EMC
DiskXtender, and so on. Customers using backup applications such as CommVault can
also develop custom scripts to use the EMC Data Domain Retention Lock software option.
To check whether an archive application is tested and certified for DD Retention Lock,
refer to the EMC Data Domain Archive Application Compatibility Guide.
The protocol support of DD Retention Lock software is as follows:
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NFS is supported with both DD Retention Lock Governance and Compliance.
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CIFS is supported with both DD Retention Lock Governance and Compliance.
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VTL is supported with DD Retention Lock Governance, but not with DD Retention Lock
Compliance.
Virtual tapes, here referred to as tapes, are represented as files on the Data Domain
file system.
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When you create a storage pool, a collection of tapes that map to a directory on
the file system, you are creating an MTree, unless you specifically select to create
the older style directory pool (for backward compatibility). You can also convert
storage pools created prior to DD OS 5.3 to MTrees. These MTrees can be
retention locked and replicated.
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You can retention-lock one or more tapes using the vtl tape modify
command, described in the EMC Data Domain Operating System Command
Reference Guide.
The mtree retention-lock revert path command can be used to revert
the retention-locked state of tapes locked with the vtl tape modify
command. After the tape is unlocked, updates can be made to it. The unlocked
state won't be visible via the DD System Manager or CLI until the VTL service is
disabled then enabled; however, updates will be applied to the unlocked tape.
This capability is only for the DD Retention Lock Governance Edition.
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The retention time for tapes can be displayed using the vtl tape show
command with the time-display retention argument.
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You can retention-lock an individual tape using the DD System Manager.
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DD Retention Lock
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DD Boost is supported with both DD Retention Lock Governance and Compliance.
If client-side scripts are used to retention-lock backup files or backup images, and if a
backup application (Symantec NetBackup, for example) is also used on the system
via DD Boost, be aware that the backup application may not share the context of the
client-side scripts. Thus, when a backup application attempts to expire or delete files
that were retention locked via the client-side scripts, space is not released on the
EMC Data Domain system.
Data Domain recommends that administrators change their retention period policy to
align with the retention lock time. This applies to all the backup applications that are
integrated with DD Boost: Avamar, Symantec NetBackup, Symantec Backup Exec,
EMC NetWorker, and so on.
Enabling DD Retention Lock on an MTree
Only files within DD Retention Lock Governance or Compliance enabled MTrees can be
retention-locked.
MTrees enabled for DD Retention Lock Compliance cannot be converted to DD Retention
Lock Governance MTrees and vice versa.
The procedures that follow show how to enable MTrees for either DD Retention Lock
Governance or DD Retention Lock Compliance.
Enabling DD Retention Lock Governance on an MTree
Add a DD Retention Lock Governance license to a system, and then enable DD Retention
Lock Governance on one or more MTrees.
Procedure
1. Add the Retention Lock Governance license, if it is not listed under Feature Licenses.
a. Select Administration > Licenses
b. In the Licenses area click Add Licenses.
c. In the License Key text box, type the license key.
Note
License keys are case-insensitive. Include the hyphens when typing keys.
d. Click Add.
2. Select an MTree for retention locking.
a. Select Data Management > MTree.
b. Select the MTree you want to use for retention locking. You can also create an
empty MTree and add files to it later.
3. Click the MTree Summary tab to display information for the selected MTree.
4. Scroll down to Retention Lock area and click Edit to the right of Retention Lock.
5. Enable DD Retention Lock Governance on the MTree and change the default minimum
and maximum retention lock periods for the MTree, if required.
Perform the following actions in the Modify Retention Lock dialog box:
a. Select Enable to enable DD Retention Lock Governance on the MTree.
Enabling DD Retention Lock on an MTree
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b. To change the minimum or maximum retention period for the MTree, modify the
minimum or maximum period:
Type a number for the interval in the text box (for example, 5 or 14).
From the drop-down list, select an interval (minutes, hours, days, years).
Note
Specifying a minimum retention period of less than 12 hours, or a maximum
retention period longer than 70 years, results in an error.
c. Click OK to save the settings.
After you close the Modify Retention Lock dialog box, which is updated MTree
information appears in the Retention Lock area.
6. Check retention lock information for the MTree.
Note the following retention lock fields:
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Top:
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The Status field indicates the read/write access for the MTree, the type of
retention locking on the MTree, and whether retention locking is enabled or
disabled.
Bottom:
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The Status field indicates whether retention locking is enabled for the MTree.
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The Retention Period field indicates minimum and maximum retention periods
for the MTree. The retention period that is specified for a file in the MTree must
be equal to or greater than the minimum retention period and equal to or less
than the maximum retention period.
n
The UUID field is a unique identification number that is generated for the
MTree.
Note
To check retention lock configuration settings for any MTree, select the MTree in the
Navigation Panel, then click the Summary tab.
After you finish
Retention-lock files in a retention-lock-enabled MTree.
Enabling DD Retention Lock Compliance on an MTree
Add a DD Retention Lock Compliance license to a system, set up a system administrator
and one or more security officers, configure and enable the system to use DD Retention
Lock Compliance software, and then enable DD Retention Lock Compliance on one or
more MTrees.
Procedure
1. Add the DD Retention Lock Compliance license on the system, if it is not present.
a. First, check whether the license is already installed.
license show
b. If the RETENTION-LOCK-COMPLIANCE feature is not displayed, install the license.
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license add license-key
Note
License keys are case-insensitive. Include the hyphens when typing keys.
2. Set up one or more security officer users accounts according to Role-Base Access
Control (RBAC) rules.
a. In the system administrator role, add a security officer account.
user add user role security
b. Enable the security officer authorization.
authorization policy set security-officer enabled
3. Configure and enable the system to use DD Retention Lock Compliance.
Note
Enabling DD Retention Lock Compliance enforces many restrictions on low-level
access to system functions used during troubleshooting. Once enabled, the only way
to disable DD Retention Lock Compliance is to initialize and reload the system, which
results in destroying all data on the system.
a. Configure the system to use DD Retention Lock Compliance.
system retention-lock compliance configure
The system automatically reboots.
b. After the restart process is complete, enable DD Retention Lock Compliance on the
system.
system retention-lock compliance enable
4. Enable compliance on an MTree that will contain retention-locked files.
mtree retention-lock enable mode compliance mtree mtree-path
Note
Compliance cannot be enabled on /backup or pool MTrees.
5. To change the default minimum and maximum retention lock periods for a
compliance-enabled MTree, type the following commands with security officer
authorization.
mtree retention-lock set min-retention-period period mtree
mtree-path
mtree retention-lock set max-retention-period period mtree
mtree-path
Note
The retention period is specified in the format [number] [unit]. For example: 1 min, 1
hr, 1 day, 1 mo, or 1 year. Specifying a minimum retention period of less than 12
hours, or a maximum retention period longer than 70 years, results in an error.
Repeat steps 4 and 5 to enable additional MTrees.
Enabling DD Retention Lock Compliance on an MTree
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After you finish
Retention lock files reside in a retention-lock-enabled MTree.
Client-Side Retention Lock file control
This section describes the DD Retention Lock client command interface for locking files
stored on EMC Data Domain systems. Client commands are the same for DD Retention
Lock Governance and Compliance. Linux, Unix, and Windows client environments are
supported; however, Windows clients may need to download utility programs with
commands to lock files.
Note
If your application already supports industry-standard WORM, writing a WORM file to a DD
Retention Lock Governance or Compliance enabled MTree will lock the file on the Data
Domain system. The retention time in the application should agree with the DD Retention
Lock settings. You do not need to use the commands described in this section. To check
whether an application is tested and certified for the DD Retention Lock, refer to the EMC
Data Domain Archive Application Compatibility Guide.
Note
Some client machines using NFS, but running a legacy OS, cannot set retention time later
than 2038. The NFS protocol doesn’t impose the 2038 limit and allows to specifying
times until 2106. Further, DD OS doesn’t impose the 2038 limit.
Client-side commands are used to manage the retention locking of individual files. These
commands apply to all retention-lock-capable Data Domain systems and must be issued
in addition to the setup and configuration of the DD Retention Lock software on the Data
Domain system.
Required Tools for Windows Clients
You need the touch.exe command to perform retention-locking from a Windows-based
client.
To obtain this command, download and install utilities for Linux/Unix-based applications
according to your Windows version. These utilities are best recommendations from EMC
and should be used per customer environment.
l
For Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Server 2008, Windows Vista, Windows Server
2003, and Windows XP:
http://sourceforge.net/projects/unxutils/files/latest
l
For Windows Server 2008, Windows Vista Enterprise, Windows Vista Enterprise 64-bit
edition, Windows Vista SP1, Windows Vista Ultimate, and Windows Vista Ultimate 64bit edition:
http://www.microsoft.com/download/en/details.aspx?displaylang=en&id=23754
l
For Windows Server 2003 SP1 and Windows Server 2003 R2:
http://www.microsoft.com/download/en/details.aspx?displaylang=en&id=20983
Note
The touch command for Windows may have a different format than the Linux examples
in this chapter.
Follow the installation instructions provided and set the search path as needed on the
client machine.
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Client Access to Data Domain System Files
After an MTree is enabled for DD Retention Lock Governance or Compliance, you can:
l
Create a CIFS share based on the MTree. This CIFS share can be used on a client
machine.
l
Create an NFS mount for the MTree and access its files from the NFS mount point on a
client machine.
Note
The commands listed in this section are to be used only on the client. They cannot be
issued through the DD System Manager or CLI. Command syntax may vary slightly,
depending on the utility you are using.
The topics that follow describe how to manage client-side retention lock file control.
Setting Retention Locking on a file
To perform retention locking on a file, change the last access time (atime) of the file to the
desired retention time of the file, that is, the time when the file can be deleted.
This action is usually performed using the archive application, and all the archive
applications that are qualified on Data Domain systems today (per the EMC Data Domain
Archive Application Compatibility Guide) follow the basic locking protocol outlined here.
The future atime you specify must respect the minimum and maximum retention periods
of the file’s MTree (as offsets from the current time), as shown in the next figure.
Setting Retention Locking on a file
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Figure 26 Valid and invalid atimes for retention locking files
Note
Some client machines using NFS, but running a legacy OS, cannot set retention time later
than 2038. The NFS protocol doesn’t impose the 2038 limit and allows to specifying
times until 2106. Further, DD OS doesn’t impose the 2038 limit.
Errors are permission-denied errors (referred to as EACCESS, a standard POSIX error).
These are returned to the script or archive application setting the atime.
Note
A file must be completely written to the Data Domain system before it is committed to be
a retention-locked file.
The following command can be used on clients to set the atime:
touch -a -t [atime] [filename]
The format of atime is:
[[YY]YY] MMDDhhmm[.ss]
For example, suppose the current date and time is 1 p.m. on January 18, 2012 (that is,
201201181300), and the minimum retention period is 12 hours. Adding the minimum
retention period of 12 hours to that date and time results in a value of 201201190100.
Therefore, if the atime for a file is set to a value greater than 201201190100, that file
becomes retention locked.
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The following command:
ClientOS# touch -a -t 201412312230 SavedData.dat
will lock file SavedData.dat until 10:30 p.m. December 31, 2014.
Extending Retention Locking on a file
To extend the retention time of a retention-locked file, set the file’s atime to a value
greater than the file’s current atime but less than the maximum retention period of the
file’s MTree (as an offset from the current time), as shown in the next figure.
Figure 27 Valid and invalid atimes for extending retention locking on files
For example, changing the atime from 201412312230 to 202012121230 using the
following command:
ClientOS# touch -a -t 202012121230 SavedData.dat
will cause the file to be locked until 12:30 p.m. December 12, 2020.
Extending Retention Locking on a file
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Note
Some client machines using NFS, but running a very old OS, cannot set retention time
later than 2038. The NFS protocol doesn’t impose the 2038 limit and allows to specifying
times until 2106. Further, DD OS doesn’t impose the 2038 limit.
Errors are permission-denied errors (referred to as EACCESS, a standard POSIX error).
These are returned to the script or archive application setting the atime.
Identifying a Retention-Locked file
The atime value for a retention-locked file is its retention time. To determine whether a file
is retention locked, try to set the atime of the file to a value earlier than its current atime.
This action will fail with a permission-denied error if and only if the file is a retentionlocked file.
First, list the current atime value, and then execute the touch command with an earlier
atime using these commands:
ls -l --time=atime [filename]
touch -a -t [atime] [filename]
The following example shows the command sequence:
ClientOS# ls -l --time=atime SavedData.dat
202012121230
ClientOS# touch -a -t 202012111230 SavedData.dat
If the atime of SavedData.dat is 202012121230 (12:30 p.m. December 12, 2020) and
the touch command specifies an earlier atime, 202012111230 (12:30 p.m. December
11, 2020), the touch command fails, indicating that SavedData.dat is retentionlocked.
Note
The --time=atime option is not supported in all versions of Unix.
Specifying a directory and touching only those files
Use the command line to create a root directory containing the files for which access
times will change.
In this routine, root directory to start from contains the files on which you want to change
access times using this client system command:
find [root directory to start from] -exec touch -a -t
[expiration time] {} \;
For example:
ClientOS# find [/backup/data1/] -exec touch -a -t 202012121230 {} \;
Reading a list of files and touching only those files
In this routine, name of file list is the name of a text file that contains the names of the
files on which you want to change access times. Each line contains the name of one file.
Here is the client system command syntax:
touch -a -t [expiration time] 'cat [name of file list]'
For example:
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ClientOS# touch -a -t 202012121230 ‘cat /backup/data1/filelist.txt‘
Deleting or expiring a file
Delete or expire a file with an expired retention lock using a client application, or delete a
file using a standard file-delete command.
Expiring a file using an application makes the file inaccessible to the application. The file
may or may not actually be removed from the Data Domain system by the expiration
operation. If it is not removed, the application often provides a separate delete operation.
You must have the appropriate access rights to delete the file, independent of the DD
Retention Lock software.
Note
If the retention period of the retention-locked file has not expired, the delete operation
results in a permission-denied error.
Privileged delete
For Retention Lock Governance (only), you can delete retention locked files using this two
step process.
Procedure
1. Use the mtree retention-lock revert path command to revert the retention
locked file.
2. Delete the file on the client system using the rm filename command.
Using ctime or mtime on Retention-Locked files
ctime is the last-metadata-change time of a file.
ctime
ctimegets set to the current time when any of the follow events occur:
l
A non-retention-locked file is retention locked.
l
The retention time of a retention-locked file is extended.
l
A retention-locked file is reverted.
Note
User access permissions for a retention-locked file are updated using the Linux command
line tool chmod.
mtime
mtime is the last-modified time of a file. It changes only when the contents of the file
change. So, the mtime of a retention-locked file cannot change.
System behavior with DD Retention Lock
System behavior topics are discussed separately for DD Retention Lock Governance and
DD Retention Lock Compliance in the sections that follow.
Deleting or expiring a file
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DD Retention Lock governance
Certain DD OS commands behave differently when using DD Retention Lock Governance.
The following sections describe the differences for each.
Replication
Collection replication, MTree replication, and directory replication replicate the locked or
unlocked state of files.
Files that are governance retention locked on the source are governance retention locked
on the destination and have the same level of protection. For replication, the source
system must have a DD Retention Lock Governance license installed—a license is not
required on the destination system.
Replication is supported between systems that are:
l
Running the same major DD OS version (for example, both systems are running DD
OS 5.5.x.x).
l
Running DD OS versions within the next two consecutive higher or lower major
releases (for example, 5.3.x.x to 5.5.x.x or 5.5.x.x to 5.3.x.x). Cross-release replication
is supported only for directory and MTree replication.
Note
MTree replication is not supported for DD OS 5.0 and earlier.
Be aware that:
l
Collection replication and MTree replication replicate the minimum and maximum
retention periods configured on MTrees to the destination system.
l
Directory replication does not replicate the minimum and maximum retention periods
to the destination system.
The procedure for configuring and using collection, MTree, and directory replication is the
same as for Data Domain systems that do not have a DD Retention Lock Governance
license.
Replication Resync
The replication resync destination command tries to bring the destination into
sync with the source when the MTree or directory replication context is broken between
destination and source systems. This command cannot be used with collection
replication. Note that:
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If the destination directory has retention lock enabled, but the source directory does
not have retention lock enabled, then a resync of a directory replication will fail.
l
With Mtree replication, resync will fail if the source MTree does not have retention
lock enabled and the destination MTree has retention lock enabled.
l
With Mtree replication, resync will fail if the source and destination MTrees are
retention lock enabled but the propagate retention lock option is set to FALSE.
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Fastcopy
When the filesys fastcopy [retention-lock] source src destination
dest command is run on a system with a DD Retention Lock Governance enabled MTree,
the command preserves the retention lock attribute during the fastcopy operation.
Note
If the destination MTree is not retention lock enabled, the retention-lock file attribute is
not preserved.
Filesys destroy
Effects of the filesys destroy command when it is run on a system with a DD
Retention Lock Governance enabled MTree.
l
All data is destroyed, including retention-locked data.
l
All filesys options are returned to their defaults. This means that retention locking
is disabled and the minimum and maximum retention periods are set back to their
default values on the newly created file system.
Note
This command is not allowed if DD Retention Lock Compliance is enabled on the system.
MTree delete
When the mtree delete mtree-path command attempts to delete a DD Retention Lock
Governance enabled (or previously enabled) MTree that currently contains data, the
command returns an error.
Note
The behavior of mtree delete is a similar to a command to delete a directory—an
MTree with retention lock enabled (or previously enabled) can be deleted only if the
MTree is empty.
DD Retention Lock compliance
Certain DD OS commands behave differently when using DD Retention Lock Compliance.
The following sections describe the differences for each.
Replication
An MTree enabled with Retention Lock Compliance can be replicated via MTree and
collection replication only. Directory replication is not supported.
MTree and collection replication replicate the locked or unlocked state of files. Files that
are compliance retention locked on the source are compliance retention locked on the
destination and have the same level of protection. Minimum and maximum retention
periods configured on MTrees are replicated to the destination system.
To perform collection replication, the same security officer user must be present on both
the source and destination systems before starting replication to the destination system
and afterward for the lifetime of the source/replica pair.
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Replication Resync
The replication resync destination command can be used with MTree replication,
but not with collection replication.
l
If the destination MTree contains retention-locked files that do not exist on the
source, then resync will fail.
l
Both source and destination MTrees must be enabled for Retention Lock Compliance,
or resync will fail.
Replication procedures
The topics in this section describe MTree and collection replication procedures supported
for Retention Lock Compliance.
Note
For full descriptions of the commands referenced in the following topics, see the EMC
Data Domain Operating System Command Reference Guide.
Replicating an MTree: One-to-one topology
Replicate a Retention Lock Compliance enabled MTree from a source system to a
destination system.
Before you begin
Enable DD Retention Lock on an MTree and configure client-side retention lock file control
before replication.
Procedure
1. Until instructed otherwise, perform the following steps on the destination system
only.
2. Add the DD Retention Lock Compliance license on the system, if it is not present.
a. First, check whether the license is already installed.
license show
b. If the RETENTION-LOCK-COMPLIANCE feature is not displayed, install the license.
license add license-key
Note
License keys are case-insensitive. Include the hyphens when typing keys.
3. Set up one or more security officer users accounts according to Role-Base Access
Control (RBAC) rules.
a. In the system administrator role, add a security officer account.
user add user role security
b. Enable the security officer authorization.
authorization policy set security-officer enabled
4. Configure and enable the system to use DD Retention Lock Compliance.
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Note
Enabling DD Retention Lock Compliance enforces many restrictions on low-level
access to system functions used during troubleshooting. Once enabled, the only way
to disable DD Retention Lock Compliance is to initialize and reload the system, which
results in destroying all data on the system.
a. Configure the system to use DD Retention Lock Compliance.
system retention-lock compliance configure
The system automatically reboots.
b. After the restart process is complete, enable DD Retention Lock Compliance on the
system.
system retention-lock compliance enable
5. Create a replication context.
replication add source mtree://source-system-name/data/col1/
mtree-name destination mtree://destination-system-name/data/
col1/mtree-name
6. Perform the following steps on the source system only.
7. Create a replication context.
replication add source mtree://source-system-name/data/col1/
mtree-name destination mtree://destination-system-name/data/
col1/mtree-name
8. Initialize the replication context.
replication initialize mtree://destination-system-name/data/
col1/mtree-name
9. Confirm that replication is complete.
replication status mtree://destination-system-name/data/
col1/mtree-name detailed
This command reports 0 pre-compressed bytes remaining when replication is
finished.
Replicating an MTree: One-to-many topology
Replicate a Retention Lock Compliance enabled MTree from a source system to multiple
destination systems.
Before you begin
Enable DD Retention Lock compliance on an MTree and configure client-side retention
lock file control before replication.
Procedure
1. Until instructed otherwise, perform the following steps on the destination system
only.
2. Add the DD Retention Lock Compliance license on the system, if it is not present.
a. First, check whether the license is already installed.
license show
b. If the RETENTION-LOCK-COMPLIANCE feature is not displayed, install the license.
license add license-key
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Note
License keys are case-insensitive. Include the hyphens when typing keys.
3. Set up one or more security officer users accounts according to Role-Base Access
Control (RBAC) rules.
a. In the system administrator role, add a security officer account.
user add user role security
b. Enable the security officer authorization.
authorization policy set security-officer enabled
4. Configure and enable the system to use DD Retention Lock Compliance.
Note
Enabling DD Retention Lock Compliance enforces many restrictions on low-level
access to system functions used during troubleshooting. Once enabled, the only way
to disable DD Retention Lock Compliance is to initialize and reload the system, which
results in destroying all data on the system.
a. Configure the system to use DD Retention Lock Compliance.
system retention-lock compliance configure
The system automatically reboots.
b. After the restart process is complete, enable DD Retention Lock Compliance on the
system.
system retention-lock compliance enable
5. Create a replication context.
replication add source mtree://source-system-name/data/col1/
mtree-name destination mtree://destination-system-name/data/
col1/mtree-name
6. Perform the following steps on the source system only.
7. Create a replication context for each destination system.
replication add source mtree://source-system-name/data/col1/
mtree-name destination mtree://destination-system-name/data/
col1/mtree-name
8. Initialize the replication context for each destination system MTree.
replication initialize mtree://destination-system-name/data/
col1/mtree-name
9. Confirm that replication is complete for each destination system.
replication status mtree://destination-system-name/data/
col1/mtree-name detailed
This command reports 0 pre-compressed bytes remaining when replication is
finished.
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Adding Retention Lock Compliance protection to an existing MTree
replication pair
Add DD Retention Lock Compliance protection to an existing MTree replication pair that is
not enabled for retention locking.
Procedure
1. Until instructed otherwise, perform the following steps on both the source and
destination systems.
2. Log in to the DD System Manager.
The DD System Manager window appears with DD Network in the Navigation panel.
3. Select a Data Domain system.
In the Navigation panel, expand DD Network and select a system
4. Add the Retention Lock Governance license, if it is not listed under Feature Licenses.
a. Select Administration > Licenses
b. In the Licenses area click Add Licenses.
c. In the License Key text box, type the license key.
Note
License keys are case-insensitive. Include the hyphens when typing keys.
d. Click Add.
5. Break the current MTree context on the replication pair.
replication break mtree://destination-system-name/data/col1/
mtree-name
6. Create the new replication context.
replication add source mtree://source-system-name/data/col1/
mtree-name destination mtree://destination-system-name/data/
col1/mtree-name
7. Perform the following steps on the source system only.
8. Select an MTree for retention locking.
Click the Data Management > MTree tab, then the checkbox for the MTree you want to
use for retention locking. (You can also create an empty MTree and add files to it
later.)
9. Click the MTree Summary tab to display information for the selected MTree.
10. Lock files in the compliance-enabled MTree.
11. Ensure that both source and destination (replica) MTrees are the same.
replication resync mtree://destination-system-name/data/
col1/mtree-name
12. Check the progress of resync.
replication watch mtree://destination-system-name/data/col1/
mtree-name
13. Confirm that replication is complete.
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replication status mtree://destination-system-name/data/
col1/mtree-name detailed
This command reports 0 pre-compressed bytes remaining when replication is
finished.
Converting a collection replication pair to MTree replication pairs
A procedure for customers who used collection replication under DD Retention Lock
Compliance in DD OS 5.2 and want to upgrade compliance-enabled MTrees in the
collection replication pair to MTree replication pairs.
Procedure
1. On the source system only:
a. Create a snapshot for each Retention Lock Compliance enabled MTree.
snapshot create snapshot-name /data/col1/mtree-name
b. Synchronize the collection replication pair.
replication sync col://destination-system-name
c. Confirm that replication is complete.
replication status col://destination-system-name detailed
This command reports 0 pre-compressed bytes remaining when replication is
finished.
d. View snapshot information for each Retention Lock Compliance enabled MTree.
snapshot list mtree /data/col1/mtree-name
Note the snapshot names for use later.
2. On the destination system only:
a. Confirm that the replication is complete.
replication status mtree://destination-system-name/data/
col1/mtree-name detailed
This command reports 0 pre-compressed bytes remaining when replication is
finished.
b. View each MTree snapshot replicated to the destination system.
snapshot list mtree /data/col1/mtree-name
c. Ensure that all Retention Lock Compliance MTree snapshots have been replicated
by comparing the snapshot names generated here with those generated on the
source system.
snapshot list mtree /data/col1/mtree-name
3. On the both the source and destinations systems:
a. Disable the file system.
filesys disable
b. Break the collection replication context.
replication break col://destination-system-name
c. Enable the file system. (Security officer authorization may be required.)
filesys enable
d. Add a replication context for each Retention Lock Compliance enabled MTree.
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replication add source mtree://source-system-name/data/
col1/mtree-name destination mtree://destination-systemname/data/col1/mtree-name
Note
Source and destination MTree names must be the same.
4. On the source system only:
a. Ensure that both source and destination MTrees are the same.
replication resync mtree://destination-system-name
b. Check the progress of resync.
replication watch destination
c. Confirm that replication is complete.
replication status mtree://destination-system-name/data/
col1/mtree-name detailed
This command reports 0 pre-compressed bytes remaining when replication is
finished.
Performing collection replication
Replicate /data/col1 from a compliance-enabled source system to a compliance-enabled
destination system.
Note
For collection replication the same security officer account must be used on both the
source and destination systems.
Procedure
1. Until instructed to do differently, perform the following steps on the source system
only.
2. Log in to the DD System Manager.
The DD System Manager window appears with DD Network in the Navigation Panel.
3. Select a Data Domain system.
In the Navigation Panel, expand DD Network and select a system.
4. Add the Retention Lock Governance license, if it is not listed under Feature Licenses.
a. Select Administration > Licenses
b. In the Licenses area click Add Licenses.
c. In the License Key text box, type the license key.
Note
License keys are case-insensitive. Include the hyphens when typing keys.
d. Click Add.
5. Create the replication context.
replication add source col://source-system-name destination
col://destination-system-name
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6. Until instructed to do differently, perform the following steps on the destination
system only.
7. Destroy the file system.
filesys destroy
8. Log in to the DD System Manager.
The DD System Manager window appears with DD Network in the Navigation Panel.
9. Select a Data Domain system.
In the Navigation Panel, expand DD Network and select a system.
10. Create a file system, but do not enable it.
filesys create
11. Create the replication context.
replication add source col://source-system-name destination
col://destination-system-name
12. Configure and enable the system to use DD Retention Lock Compliance.
system retention-lock compliance configure
(The system automatically reboots and executes the system retention-lock
compliance enable command.)
13. Perform the following steps on the source system only.
14. Initialize the replication context.
replication initialize source col://source-system-name
destination col://destination-system-name
15. Confirm that replication is complete.
replication status col://destination-system-name detailed
This command reports 0 pre-compressed bytes remaining when replication is
finished.
Adding Retention Lock Compliance protection to an existing collection
replication pair
Add DD Retention Lock Compliance protection to a collection replication pair that was
created without DD Retention Lock Compliance enabled on the source and destination
systems.
Procedure
1. Until instructed otherwise, perform the following steps on both the source and
destination systems.
2. Disable the replication.
replication disable col://destination-system-name
3. Log in to the DD System Manager.
The DD System Manager window appears with DD Network in the Navigation Panel.
4. Select a Data Domain system.
In the Navigation Panel, expand DD Network and select a system.
5. Until instructed otherwise, perform the following steps on the source system.
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6. Configure and enable the system to use DD Retention Lock Compliance.
system retention-lock compliance configure
(The system automatically reboots by executing the system retention-lock
compliance enable command.)
7. Enable the replication context.
replication enable col://destination-system-name
8. Until instructed otherwise, perform the following steps on the destination system.
9. Configure and enable the system to use DD Retention Lock Compliance.
system retention-lock compliance configure
(The system automatically reboots by executing the system retention-lock
compliance enable command.)
10. Enable the replication context.
replication enable col://destination-system-name
Fastcopy
When the filesys fastcopy [retention-lock] source src destination
dest command is run on a system with a DD Retention Lock Compliance enabled MTree,
the command preserves the retention lock attribute during the fastcopy operation.
Note
If the destination MTree is not retention lock enabled, the retention-lock file attribute is
not preserved.
CLI usage
Considerations for a Data Domain system with DD Retention Lock Compliance.
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Commands that break compliance cannot be run. The following commands are
disallowed:
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filesys archive unit del archive-unit
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filesys destroy
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mtree delete mtree-path
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mtree retention-lock reset {min-retention-period period |
max-retention-period period} mtree mtree-path
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mtree retention-lock disable mtree mtree-path
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mtree retention-lock revert
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user reset
The following command requires security officer authorization if the license being
deleted is for DD Retention Lock Compliance:
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license del license-feature [license-feature ...] |
license-code [license-code ...]
The following commands require security officer authorization if DD Retention Lock
Compliance is enabled on an MTree specified in the command:
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mtree retention-lock set {min-retention-period period |
max-retention-period period} mtree mtree-path
DD Retention Lock compliance
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mtree rename mtree-path new-mtree-path
The following commands require security officer authorization if DD Retention Lock
Compliance is enabled on the system:
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alerts notify-list reset
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config set timezone zonename
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config reset timezone
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cifs set authentication active-directory realm { [dc1
[dc2 ...]]
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license reset
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ntp add timeserver time server list
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ntp del timeserver time server list
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ntp disable
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ntp enable
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ntp reset
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ntp reset timeservers
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replication break {destination | all}
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replication disable {destination | all}
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system set date MMDDhhmm[[CC]YY]
System clock
DD Retention Lock Compliance implements an internal security clock to prevent malicious
tampering with the system clock.
The security clock closely monitors and records the system clock. If there is an
accumulated two-week skew within a year between the security clock and the system
clock, the Data Domain file system (DDFS) is disabled and can be resumed only by a
security officer.
Finding the System Clock Skew
You can run the DD OS command system retention-lock compliance status
(security officer authorization required) to get system and security clock information,
including the last recorded security clock value, and the accumulated system clock
variance. This value is updated every 10 minutes.
Removing the system clock skew
Clock skew is updated every time the security clock records a new value for the system
clock. After 1 year, it is reset to 0.
At any time, you can run the DD OS command system set date MMDDhhmm[[CC]YY]
to set the time of the system clock (security officer authorization required). If the clock
skew becomes larger than the preset value (2 weeks), the file system is disabled.
Complete these steps to restart the file system and remove the skew between security
and system clocks.
Procedure
1. At the system console, enable the file system.
filesys enable
2. At the prompt, confirm that you want to quit the filesys enable command and
check whether the system date is right.
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3. Display the system date.
system show date
4. If the system date is not correct, set the correct date (security officer authorization is
required) and confirm it.
system set date MMDDhhmm[[CC]YY]
system show date
5. Enable the file system again.
filesys enable
6. At the prompt, continue to the enabling procedure.
7. A security officer prompt appears. Complete the security officer authorization to start
the file system. The security clock will automatically be updated to the current system
date.
DD Retention Lock compliance
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CHAPTER 18
DD Encryption
This chapter includes:
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DD encryption overview.......................................................................................432
Configuring encryption........................................................................................ 433
About key management.......................................................................................434
Key manager setup..............................................................................................438
Changing key managers after setup.....................................................................441
Checking settings for encryption of data at rest................................................... 443
Enabling and disabling encryption of data at rest................................................ 443
Locking and unlocking the file system................................................................. 444
DD Encryption
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DD encryption overview
Data encryption protects user data if the Data Domain system is stolen or if the physical
storage media is lost during transit, and it eliminates accidental exposure of a failed drive
if it is replaced.
When data enters the Data Domain system using any of the supported protocols (NFS,
CIFS, VTL, DD Boost, and NDMP Tape Server), the stream is segmented, fingerprinted, and
de-duplicated (global compression). It is then grouped into multi-segment compression
regions, locally compressed, and encrypted before being stored to disk.
Once enabled, the Encryption at Rest feature encrypts all data entering the Data Domain
system. You cannot enable encryption at a more granular level.
CAUTION
Data that has been stored before the encryption feature is enabled does not
automatically get encrypted. To protect all of the data on the system, be sure to enable
the option to encrypt existing data when you configure encryption.
Additional Notes:
As of DD OS 5.5.1.0, Encryption of Data at Rest is supported for DD Extended Retentionenabled systems with a single retention unit. As of 5.5.1.0, DD Extended Retention
supports only a single retention unit, so systems set up during, or after, 5.5.1.0 will have
no problem complying with this restriction. However, systems set up prior to 5.5.1.0 may
have more than one retention unit, but they will not work with Encryption of Data at Rest
until all but one retention unit has been removed, or data has been moved or migrated to
one retention unit.
The filesys encryption apply-changes command applies any encryption
configuration changes to all data present in the file system during the next cleaning cycle.
For more information about this command, see the EMC Data Domain Operating System
Command Reference Guide.
Encryption of Data at Rest supports all of the currently supported backup applications
described in the Backup Compatibility Guides available through EMC Online Support at
http://support.emc.com.
Data Domain Replicator software can be used with the encryption option, enabling
encrypted data to be replicated using collection, directory, MTree, or application-specific
managed file replication with the various topologies. Each replication form works
uniquely with encryption and offers the same level of security. For more information, see
the section on using encryption of data at rest with replication.
Files locked using the Data Domain Retention Lock software options can be stored,
encrypted, and replicated.
The autosupport feature includes information about the state of encryption on the Data
Domain system:
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Whether or not encryption is enabled
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The Key Manager in effect and which keys are used
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The encryption algorithm that is configured
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Configuring encryption
This procedure includes configuring a key manager.
If the Encryption Status on the Data Management > File System > Encryption tab shows
Not Configured, click Configure to set up encryption on the Data Domain system.
Provide the following information:
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Algorithm
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Select an encryption algorithm from the drop-down list or accept the default AES
256-bit (CBC).
The AES 256-bit Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) is the most secure algorithm but it is
significantly slower than the Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode.
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Determine what data is to be encrypted: existing and new or only new. Existing
data will be encrypted during the first cleaning cycle after the file system is
restarted. Encryption of existing data can take longer than a standard file system
cleaning operation.
Key Manager (select one of the two)
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Embedded Key Manager
By default, the Data Domain Embedded Key Manager is in effect after you restart
the file system unless you configure the RSA DPM Key Manager.
You can enable or disable key rotation. If enabled, enter a rotation interval
between 1-12 months.
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RSA DPM Key Manager
Note
See the section about key management for an explanation about how the Embedded
Key Manager and the RSA DPM Key Manager work.
Note
The RSA DPM Key Manager requires setup on both an RSA DPM server and on the
Data Domain system. Follow the instructions in the RSA DPM key manager encryption
setup section before selecting the RSA DPM Key Manager in the Data Domain
interface. You can enable encryption using the Embedded Key Manager before
configuring the RSA DPM Key Manager. You can then switch to the RSA DPM Key
Manager after performing an RSA DPM key manager encryption setup and following
the procedure described in the changing key managers after setup section.
Table 173 Configuring RSA Key Manager
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Enter the name or the IP address of the Key Manager server.
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Choose the key class that the Data Domain system will use to generate the key
from the menu.
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Enter the port number (443 is the default).
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Select whether the imported host certificate is FIPS compliant. The default mode
is enabled.
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The Summary shows your selected configuration values. Review them for correctness. To
change a value, click Back to navigate to the page where it was entered and modify it.
A system restart is necessary to enable encryption. To apply the new configuration, select
the option to restart the file system.
Note
Applications may experience an interruption while the file system is restarted.
About key management
Encryption keys determine the output of the cryptographic algorithm. They are protected
by a passphrase, which encrypts the encryption key before it is stored in multiple
locations on disk. The passphrase is user generated and requires both an administrator
and a security officer to change it.
A key manager controls the generation, distribution, and lifecycle management of
multiple encryption keys. A Data Domain system can use either the Embedded Key
Manager or the RSA Data Protection Manager (DPM) Key Manager. Only one can be in
effect at a time. When encryption is enabled on a Data Domain system, the Embedded
Key Manager is in effect by default. If you configure the RSA DPM Key Manager, it replaces
the Embedded Key Manager and remains in effect until you disable it. A file system
restart is required for a new key manager to be operational.
Both key managers provide multiple keys, although the system uses only one key at a
time to encrypt data coming into a Data Domain system. If the RSA DPM Key Manager is
configured and enabled, the Data Domain systems use keys provided by the RSA DPM
Key Manager Server. If the same DPM Key Manager manages multiple Data Domain
systems, all systems will have the same active key (if they are using the same key class)
when the systems are synced and the Data Domain file system has been restarted. The
Embedded Key Manager generates its keys internally.
Both key managers rotate keys and support a maximum of 254 keys. The Embedded Key
Manager allows you to specify how many months a key is in effect before being replaced
(after the file system is restarted). The RSA DPM Key Manager rotates keys on a regular
basis, depending on the key class. The Embedded Key Manager key rotation is managed
on the Data Domain system. The DPM Key Manager key rotation is managed on the RSA
DPM Key Manager server.
The section covers the following major topics.
Rectifying lost or corrupted keys
Create a file that contains all of your system’s current encryption keys. Your support
provider can use this file to import keys back to your system should they become lost or
corrupted. It is recommended that you create an export file on a regular basis.
You are prompted for the Security Officer's credential to export the keys. For additional
key file protection, you can use a passphrase that differs from the one used in a Data
Domain system. After exporting, it is recommended that you save the key file in a secure
file server accessible only by authorized users. You must remember the passphrase used
for the key file. If the passphrase is lost or forgotten, the Data Domain system cannot
import and restore the keys. Enter:
# filesys encryption keys export
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Key manager support
Both Key Managers support all DD OS file system protocols.
Replication
When configuring Data Domain systems for directory MTree replication, configure each
Data Domain system separately. The two systems can use either the same or a different
key class, and the same or different key managers.
For collection replication configuration, the Data Domain system must be configured on
the source. After a replication break, the original replica Data Domain system has to be
configured for the Key Manager. If not, the Data Domain system continues to use the
latest known key.
Working with the RSA DPM Key Manager
If the RSA DPM Key Manager is configured and enabled, the Data Domain systems use
keys provided by the RSA DPM Key Manager Server. If the same DPM Key Manager
manages multiple Data Domain systems, all systems will have the same active key (if
they are using the same key class) when the systems are synced and the Data Domain file
system has been restarted. Key rotation is managed on the RSA DPM Key Manager server.
If the RSA DPM Key Manager is configured and enabled, the Data Domain systems use
keys provided by the RSA DPM Key Manager Server. If the same DPM Key Manager
manages multiple Data Domain systems, all systems will have the same active key (if
they are using the same key class) when the systems are synced and the Data Domain file
system has been restarted. Key rotation is managed on the RSA DPM Key Manager server.
Encryption Key States
One Activated-RW key is always in effect. If the active key is compromised, the RSA DPM
Key Manager provides a new key. When the Data Domain system detects the new key, it
issues an alert for the administrator to restart the file system.
Expired keys become read only for the existing data on the Data Domain system, and a
new active key is applied to all new data that is ingested. When a key is compromised,
the existing data is re-encrypted using the new encryption key after a file system cleaning
is run. If the maximum number of keys is reached, unused keys must be deleted to make
room for new keys.
To view information about the encryption keys that are on Data Domain system, open the
DD System Manager and go to the Data Management > File System > Encryption tab. Keys
are listed by ID number in the Encryption Keys section of the Encryption tab. The
following information is given for each key: when a key was created, how long it is valid,
its type (RSA DPM or Data Domain), its state (see DPM Encryption Key States Supported
by Data Domain), and its post-compression size. If the system is licensed for Extended
Retention, the following fields are also displayed:
Active Size (post comp)
The amount of physical space on the active tier encrypted with the key.
Retention Size (post comp)
The amount of physical space on the retention tier encrypted with the key.
Click on a Key MUID and the system displays the following information for the key in the
Key Details dialog: Tier/Unit (example: Active, Retention-unit-2), creation date, valid until
date, state (see DPM Encryption Key States Supported by Data Domain), and post
compression size. Click Close to close the dialog.
Key manager support
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Table 174 DPM encryption key states supported by Data Domain
State
Definition
Pending-Activated
The key has just been created. After a file system restart, the key becomes
Activated-RW.
Activated-RW and
Activated-RO
Both Activated-RW and Activated-RO read the data encrypted with their
keys, respectively. Activated-RW is the latest activated key.
De-Activated
A key becomes deactivated when the current time exceeds the validity
period. The key is used for reading.
Compromised
The key can only decrypt. After all of the data encrypted with the
compromised key is re-encrypted, the state changes to Destroyed
Compromised. The keys are re-encrypted when a file system cleaning is
run. You can delete a Destroyed Compromised key, if necessary.
Marked-For-Destroy
You have marked the key as destroyed for the data to be re-encrypted.
Destroyed
After re-encrypting all data encrypted with this key, the DD OS changes it
from Marked-For-Destroy to Destroyed. Also, when the key that is destroyed
is compromised, it becomes Compromised-Destroyed. You can delete keys
that are Destroyed and Compromised-Destroyed.
Note
A key is not destroyed in the Data Domain system until a cleaning operation
is run and completed.
Keeping keys in sync with the RSA DPM key manager
An automatic key sync is performed every day at midnight. A manual key sync is required
only if you cannot wait for the scheduled sync. Whenever new keys are synced on the
Data Domain system, an alert is generated. This alert is cleared after the Data Domain file
system is restarted.
After the RSA DPM Key Manager Server generates new keys, click the Sync button to have
them display in the Encryption Key list on the Data Domain System Manager’s Encryption
tab.
Note
A file system restart is necessary if keys have changed since the last sync.
Procedure
1. Using the DD System Manager, select the Data Domain system you are working with in
the Navigation panel.
Note
Always perform DD System Manager functions on the system you have selected in the
Navigation panel.
2. Select Data Management > File System > Encryption.
3. In the Encryption Keys section, select the RSA DPM key, and click Sync.
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Destroying a key (RSA DPM key manager)
Destroy a key if you do not want any data to be encrypted with it. This procedure requires
security officer credentials.
Note
For information about the security officer, see the sections regarding creating local users
and enabling security authorization.
To change an RSA DPM key to a state in which it can be destroyed:
Procedure
1. Deactivate the key on the RSA DPM Server.
2. Restart the file system for the key to be deactivated on the Data Domain system.
3. Using the DD System Manager, select Data Management > File System > Encryption.
4. In the Encryption Keys section, select the key in the list to be destroyed.
5. Click Destroy....
The system displays the Destroy dialog that includes the tier and state for the key.
6. Enter your security officer user name and password.
7. Confirm that you want to destroy the key by clicking Destroy.
Note
After a file system clean has run, the key state will change to Destroyed.
Deleting a key
You can delete Key Manager keys that are in the Destroyed or Compromised-Destroyed
states. However, you only need to delete a key when the number of keys has reached the
maximum 254 limit. This procedure requires security officer credentials.
Note
To reach the Destroyed state, the Destroying a Key procedure (for either the Embedded
Key Manager or the RSA DPM Key Manager) must be performed on the key and a system
cleaning must be run.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > File System > Encryption.
2. In the Encryption Keys section, select the key or keys in the list to be deleted.
3. Click Delete....
The system displays the key to be deleted, and the tier and state for the key.
4. Type your security officer user name and password.
5. Confirm that you want to delete the key or keys by clicking Delete.
Working with the Embedded Key Manager
When the Embedded Key Manager is selected, the Data Domain System creates its own
keys.
After the key rotation policy is configured, a new key is automatically created at the next
rotation. An alert informs you of the creation of a new key. You must perform a file system
Working with the Embedded Key Manager
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restart to activate the new key and deactivate the old key. You can disable the key
rotation policy by clicking the disable button associated with the Embedded Key Manager
Key’s rotation status.
Creating a key (Embedded Key Manager)
Create an encryption key for the Embedded Key Manager.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > File System > Encryption.
2. In the Encryption Keys section, click Create... .
3. Type your security officer user name and password.
4. Click Restart the filesystem now if you want to restart the file system.
A new Data Domain key will be created. After the file system is restarted, the previous
key will become deactivated and the new key will become activated.
5. Click Create.
Destroying a key (Embedded Key Manager)
Destroy an encryption key for the Embedded Key Manager.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > File System > Encryption.
2. In the Encryption Keys section, select the key in the list to be destroyed.
3. Click Destroy....
The system displays the Destroy dialog that includes the tier and state for the key.
4. Type your security officer user name and password.
5. Confirm that you want to destroy the key by clicking Destroy.
Note
After a file system clean has run, the key state changes to Destroyed.
How the cleaning operation works
Encryption affects the performance of cleaning operations when data encrypted with the
Compromised or Marked-For-Destroyed keys is re-keyed using the Activated-RW key.
At the end of the cleaning operation, there will be no data that is encrypted with the
Compromised or Marked-For-Destroyed keys. Also, any data written by the cleaning
operation is encrypted with the Activated-RW key.
Key manager setup
Follow the instructions for the type of key manager you are using.
RSA DPM Key Manager encryption setup
RSA DPM Key Manager must be set up on both the RSA DPM Server and on the Data
Domain system.
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Performing this setup on the RSA DPM server
The main steps for setting up the RSA DPM Server (using its graphical user interface).
Note
See the latest version of the RSA Data Protection Manager Server Administrator’s Guide for
more information about each step of this procedure.
Algorithm and cipher mode settings set on the RSA DPM Key Manager Server are ignored
by the Data Domain system. Configure these settings on the Data Domain system.
Procedure
1. Create an identity for the Data Domain system using the X509 certificate. A secure
channel is created based on this certificate.
2. Create a key class with the proper attributes:
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Key length: 256 bits.
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Duration: For example, six months or whatever matches your policy.
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Auto-key generation: Select to have keys automatically generated.
Note
Multiple Data Domain systems can share the same key class. For more information
about key classes, see the section about RSA DPM key classes.
3. Create an identity using the Data Domain system’s host certificate as its identity
certificate. The identity and the key class have to be in the same identity group.
4. Import the certificates. See the section about importing certificates for more
information.
About RSA DPM key classes
The Data Domain system retrieves a key from RSA DPM Key Manager by key class. A key
class is a specialized type of security class used by the RSA DPM Key Manager that
groups crytopgraphic keys with similar characteristics.
The RSA DPM Key Manager Server allows a key class to be set up to either return the
current key, or to generate a new key each time. The Data Domain system supports only
the key classes configured to return the current key. Do not use a key class that is
configured to generate a new key each time.
Note
If the key length is not 256 bits, the DPM configuration will fail.
Importing the certificates
After obtaining certificates, import them to the Data Domain system.
Before you begin
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The Host certificate should be in PKCS12 format.
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The CA certificate should be in PEM format.
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You must obtain CA and Host certificates that are compatible with the RSA DPM Key
Manager. You can request these certificates from third-party certificates authorities,
or create them using appropriate SSL utility tools.
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If the system passphrase is not set, you cannot import the host certificate. The
passphrase is set when you enable encryption. To change it, see the section
regarding changing the system passphrase in the Managing the Data Domain
Systems chapter.
DD OS supports certificates without any extension and certificates with server and client
extensions for use with both the Data DD Manager and RSA DPM Key Manager.
Certificates with client extensions are supported only by RSA DPM Key Manager, and
certificates with server extensions are supported only by the DD System Manager.
DD OS does not support the RSA DPM Key Manager Server’s Auto Registration Certificate
capability, which uploads an auto registered certificate directly, or imports multiple
certificates. This means that you must import the CA and Host certificates for a Data
Domain system.
The following information describes how to respond to a couple of alerts that might
appear during certificate management.
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If HTTPS fails to restart due to corrupted imported certificates, self-signed certificates
are used. If this occurs, a managed alert, UnusableHostCertificate, is issued. To clear
the alert, delete the corrupted certificates and re-import new certificates.
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If imported certificates are removed, for example during a system headswap and the
imported certificates fail to copy over, a managed alert, MissingHostCertificate, is
issued. Re-import the certificates to clear the alert.
After obtaining the certificates, import them to the Data Domain system as follows:
Procedure
1. Configure the RSA DPM Key Manager Server to use the CA and Host certificates. For
instructions, see the RSA DPM Key Manager Server Administration Guide.
2. Import the certificates by redirecting the certificate files using ssh command syntax.
See the EMC Data Domain Operating System Command Reference Guide for details.
ssh sysadmin@<Data-Domain-system> adminaccess certificate import {host
password password |ca } < path_to_the_certificate
For example, to import the host certificate host.p12 from your personal computer’s
desktop over to the Data Domain system DD1 using ssh, enter:
# ssh sysadmin@DD1 adminaccess certificate import host password
abc123 < C:\host.p12
3. Import the CA certificate, for example, ca.pem, from your desktop to DD1 via SSH by
entering:
# ssh sysadmin@DD1 adminaccess certificate import ca < C:\ca.pem
Performing this setup on the Data Domain system
Configure encryption on the Data Domain System Manager using the DPM Key Manager.
Procedure
1. Complete the DPM Key Manager setup on the RSA DPM Server.
2. The Data Domain system must be able to resolve its own IP address using its
hostname. If this mapping has not been added to the DNS server, use this command
line to add the entry to the /etc/hosts file:
# net hosts add ipaddr host-list
where ipaddr is the IP address of Data Domain system and host-list is the hostname of
the Data Domain system.
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If you are working in a dual stack environment, and the system displays the following
error message: "RKM is not configured correctly," then use the net hosts add
ipaddr host-list command to add the IPv4 address of the Data Domain System to
the /etc/hosts file.
Note
A DPM server cannot be enabled in an environment using only IPv6 addresses.
Note
By default, the fips-mode is enabled. If the PKCS #12 client credential is not encrypted
with the FIPS 140-2 approved algorithm, such as RC2, then you must disable fipsmode. See the Data Domain Operating System Command Reference Guide for
information about disabling fips-mode.
3. Log into the DD System Manager and select the Data Domain system you are working
with in the Navigation panel.
Note
Always perform DD System Manager functions on the system you have selected in the
Navigation panel.
4. Click the Data Management > File System > Encryption tab.
5. Follow the instructions in the section regarding configuring encryption and select the
DPM Key Manager. If encryption has already been set up, follow the instructions in
the section regarding changing key managers after setup.
Changing key managers after setup
Select from the Embedded Key Manager or the RSA DPM Key Manager.
Before you begin
To manage certificates for a system, you must start DD System Manager on that system.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > File System > Encryption.
2. Under Key Management, click Configure.
3. Type your security officer username and password.
4. Select which Key Manager to use.
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Embedded Key Manager: Select to enable or disable key rotation. If enabled, enter
a rotation interval between 1-to-12 months. Select Restart the file system now,
and click OK.
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RSA DPM Key Manager: Enter the server name, key class, port (the default is 443),
and whether the imported host certificate is FIPS compliant. The default mode is
enabled. Select Restart the file system now, and click OK.
5. Click Manage Certificates to add certificates.
Changing key managers after setup
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Managing certificates for RSA Key Manager
You must use both host and CA certificates with RSA Key Manager.
Note
Certificates are only necessary for RSA Key Manager. Embedded Key Manager does not
use certificates.
Adding CA certificates for RSA Key Manager
Upload or copy and paste CA certificates.
Procedure
1. Select one of the following:
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Select the option to upload a CA certificate as a .pem file and click Browse to find
the file.
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Select the option to copy and paste the CA certificate and paste the certificate
contents into the field provided.
2. Click Add to add the certificate.
Adding a host certificate for RSA Key Manager
Upload the certificate as a .p12 file, or upload a public key as a .pem file and use a
generated private key.
To start, select the first or second of the following steps:
Procedure
1. Select the option to upload the certificate as a .p12 file.
a. Enter a password.
b. Click Browse to find the .p12 file.
2. Select the option to upload the public key as a .pem file and use a generated private
key.
a. Click Browse to find the .pem file.
3. Click Add.
Deleting certificates
Select a certificate with the correct fingerprint.
Procedure
1. Select a certificate to delete.
2. Click Delete.
The system displays a Delete Certificate dialog with the fingerprint of the certificate to
be deleted.
3. Click OK.
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Checking settings for encryption of data at rest
Check the settings for the Encryption feature.
Click the Data Management > File System > Encryption tabs. The currently used Key
Manager is shown as Enabled. For a description of the Encryption settings, see the
section about the encryption view.
Enabling and disabling encryption of data at rest
After configuring Encryption, the status is enabled and the Disabled button is active.
When Encryption is disabled, the Enabled button is active.
Enabling encryption of data at rest
Use the DD System Manager to enable the Encryption feature.
Procedure
1. Using the DD System Manager, select the Data Domain system you are working with in
the Navigation panel.
2. In the Encryption view, click the Enable button.
3. Both of the following options are available:
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Select Apply to existing data and click OK. Encryption of existing data will occur
during the first cleaning cycle after the file system is restarted.
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Select Restart the file system now and click OK. Encryption will be enabled after
the file system is restarted.
After you finish
Note
Applications may experience an interruption while the file system is restarted.
Disabling encryption of data at rest
Use the DD System Manager to disable the Encryption feature.
Procedure
1. Using the DD System Manager, select the Data Domain system you are working with in
the Navigation panel.
2. In the Encryption view, click the Disable button.
The Disable Encryption dialog box is displayed.
3. In the Security Officer Credentials area, enter the user name and password of a
security officer.
4. Select one of the following:
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Select Apply to existing data and click OK. Decryption of existing data will occur
during the first cleaning cycle after the file system is restarted.
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Select Restart the file system now and click OK. Encryption will be disabled after
the file system is restarted.
Checking settings for encryption of data at rest
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DD Encryption
After you finish
Note
Applications may experience an interruption while the file system is restarted.
Locking and unlocking the file system
Use this procedure when an encryption-enabled Data Domain system (and its external
storage devices) are being transported, or if you want to lock a disk that is being
replaced. The procedure requires two accounts: Security Officer and System
Administration roles.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > File System > Encryption .
In the File System Lock area, the Status shows whether the file system is Locked or
Unlocked.
2. Disable the file system by clicking Disabled in the File System status area.
3. Use the procedure to lock or unlock the file system.
Locking the file system
To lock the file system, Encryption must be enabled and the file system must be disabled.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > File System > Encryption and click Lock File System.
2. In the text fields of the Lock File System dialog box, provide:
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The username and password of a Security Officer account (an authorized user in
the Security User group on that Data Domain system).
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The current and a new passphrase.
3. Click OK.
This procedure re-encrypts the encryption keys with the new passphrase. This process
destroys the cached copy of the current passphrase (both in-memory and on-disk).
Note
Changing the passphrase requires two-user authentication to protect against the
possibility of a rogue employee‘s shredding the data.
CAUTION
Be sure to take care of the passphrase. If the passphrase is lost, you will never be
able to unlock the file system and access the data. The data will be irrevocably lost.
4. Shut down the system:
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EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
DD Encryption
CAUTION
Do not use the chassis power switch to power off the system. Type the following
command at the command prompt instead.
# system poweroff The ‘system poweroff’ command shuts down
the system and turns off the power. Continue? (yes|no|?)
[no]:
5. Transport the system or remove the disk being replaced.
6. Power on the system and use the procedure to unlock the file system.
Unlocking the file system
This procedure prepares an encrypted file system for use after it has arrived at its
destination.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > File System > Encryption and click Unlock File System.
2. In the text fields, type the passphrase that was used to lock the file system.
3. Click OK.
4. Click Close to exit.
If the passphrase is incorrect, the file system does not start and the system reports
the error. Type the correct passphrase, as directed in the previous step.
Changing the encryption algorithm
Reset the encryption algorithm if necessary, or select options to encrypt new and existing
data or just new data.
Procedure
1. Select Data Management > File System > Encryption
2. To change the Encryption Algorithm used to encrypt the Data Domain system, click
Change Algorithm.
The Change Algorithm dialog box is displayed. Supported encryption algorithms are:
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AES-128 CBC
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AES-256 CBC
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AES-128 GCM
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AES-256 GCM
3. Select an encryption algorithm from the drop-down list or accept the default AES 256bit (CBC).
The AES 256-bit Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) is the most secure algorithm but it is
significantly slower than the Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode.
Note
To reset the algorithm to the default AES 256-bit (CBC), click Reset to default.
4. Determine what data will be encrypted:
Unlocking the file system
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DD Encryption
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To encrypt existing and new data on the system, select Apply to Existing data,
Restart file system now, and click OK.
Existing data will be encrypted during the first cleaning cycle after the file system
is restarted.
Note
Encryption of existing data can take longer than a standard file system clean
operation.
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To encrypt only new data, select Restart file system now and click OK.
5. The status is displayed. Click Close when the process is complete.
Note
Applications may experience an interruption while the file system is restarted.
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EMC Data Domain Operating System 5.7 Administration Guide
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