Outdoor Electrical Safety
Outdoor
Electrical
✓
SAFETY CHECK
TIPS FOR THE SAFE
OUTDOOR USE OF
ELECTRICITY
R
ESFi
R
Electrical Safety Foundation International
Published as a public service by the
Electrical Safety Foundation International in
cooperation with the U.S. Consumer Product
Safety Commission and the Canada Safety
Council.
The Outdoor Electrical Safety Check
booklet is made possible through grants from
Intertek Testing Service and E.I. DuPont, Inc.
No endorsement of any particular product,
company or service is implied by their mention
in this publication.
✓
CONTENTS 1
Safety
Check
R
Introduction ............................................. 2
Electrical Safety Devices ........................... 3
What are electrical safety devices? ................... 3
Ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) .......... 3
Arc fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) .................. 4
How do electrical safety devices work? ........... 5
Hazards in the use of electrical
products outdoors ..................................... 12
Before using electrical products outdoors ..... 14
Safety Rules .......................................... 17
Hot Tubs, Spas and Pools .............................. 20
Extension Cords .............................................. 21
Electrical Lawn and Garden Products ............ 23
Battery Operated Products ............................. 27
Power Tool Safety ........................................... 29
Glossary ............................................... 32
Electrical Safety
Note: Throughout the
pamphlet words
in blue are listed
Foundation
International
in the glossary.
✓
INTRODUCTION
2
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Reasonable people, knowing the danger, would
never stand under a tree or on a hill during a
thunderstorm where they might be struck by a
bolt of lightning. Yet, these same people sometimes become careless about protecting themselves and their families against other outdoor
electrical hazards that can cause a fire, produce
a shock or even electrocute.
✓ Water, which doesn’t mix with electricity,
can be found in unexpected places outdoors.
✓ A tall ladder, even wooden, carried in an
upright position can accidentally contact
an overhead power line with possibly fatal
results.
This pamphlet explains electrical safety devices
that, when properly used and maintained, can
reduce or prevent accidents. It lists do’s and
don’ts for electrically-powered or cordless products commonly used outdoors.
Read through and follow these electrical safety
guidelines to make your outdoor life safer and
more enjoyable.
✓
ELECTRICAL SAFETY DEVICES 3
WHAT ARE ELECTRICAL SAFETY DEVICES?
Four devices that help provide
outdoor electrical safety:
Circuit breakers or fuses protect against overcurrent conditions that could result in potential fire and shock hazards.
Left to right:
Edison-base plug fuse (open)
Edison-base plug fuse (new)
S-Type plug fuse
S-Type socket insert
Four-fuse panel
Pull out fuse
Cartridge fuse
Single pole circuit breaker
Circuit breaker
Ground-fault circuit interrupter
Ground-fault circuit interrupters (GFCIs) protect
against potentially lethal shock when they detect even minute, but potentially dangerous
ground faults, or “leaks” of electrical current
from the circuit. GFCIs may be incorporated
into circuit breakers protecting the entire circuit, outlets protecting everything on the circuit downstream from the GFCI outlet, or as
portable devices that can be used at an outlet
to give protection for a particular electrical item.
4
Three-pronged plugs and outlets, and polarized
plugs and outlets offer enhanced protection
against potential shock when provided on specific products. These measures should never be
circumvented by sawing or breaking off the
third prong or attempting to widen an outlet
slot.
Arc fault circuit interrupters (AFCIs) are relatively
new devices that protect against fires caused by
the effects of unwanted electrical arcing in wiring. An AFCI will de-energize the circuit when
an arc fault is detected.
Electrical wiring in buildings with areas exposed to
the outdoors, including circuits in garages, porches,
patios and storage areas,
could benefit from the additional electrical fire prevention features of AFCI devices when incorporated in
the branch circuitry.
5
HOW DO ELECTRICAL SAFETY
DEVICES WORK?
Circuit breakers or fuses in your home electrical panel sense overcurrent conditions and short
circuits and reduce the risk of fire in your electric wiring. When you overload a branch circuit by plugging in too many products, the fuse
blows or the circuit breaker trips to shut off
power.
Up-to-date single-family dwellings should be
provided with at least one branch circuit that
carries power to an outdoor outlet. Locate your
outdoor branch circuit(s) on the listing of
branch circuits on your electrical panel. (If you
have no outdoor wall outlet, call a qualified
electrician to install one.) You should find the
amperage on the circuit breaker or the fuse.
To figure out whether a combination of products will overload a branch circuit, add up the
power ratings (watts) you plan to use at the
same time on that circuit. The power (watts) or
amperage of an electrical product is shown on
its attached nameplate.
Volts (also on nameplate) x Amps = Power (wattage)
For example: 120 V x 15A = 1800 W. Demanding more
than 1800 W will overload a 15 ampere circuit.
Outdoor electrical products that may use a significant portion of the power a branch circuit
can supply are electric lawn mowers, leaf blowers and snow blowers.
6
Be sure to figure total wattage in advance when
you are planning an outdoor event. Add up the
power ratings of everything you will use: garden lights, electric grill, hot tub and so on plus
everything else on the circuit. If you exceed the
circuit wattage limitation, you will likely trip a
circuit breaker or blow a fuse which can cause
hidden damage to the circuit. If necessary, plan
to redistribute your power needs to more than
one branch circuit, or reduce the electrical load
to avoid the overload situation.
A short circuit in a product, cord or plug may
also trip your circuit breaker or blow a fuse. If
you can identify the product that is causing the
problem, take it to a manufacturer-recommended repair facility. If you don’t know what
is causing your circuit breaker to trip or fuses
to blow, call a qualified electrician.
A ground-fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) will
disconnect power automatically when a
plugged-in electrical product leaks electricity to
ground. Outdoors, where water and electricity
can easily inadvertently come together, a GFCI
is a lifesaver, not a luxury. A GFCI is a simple
device reasonably priced. If you are unsure
about installation, seek a qualified electrician.
GFCIs protect against shock or electrocution
when a plugged-in electrical product is dropped
into a sink, pool, pond, puddle, or hot tub (a
shock may be felt in the split second before the
GFCI trips). A GFCI also cuts off current when
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a person contacts a product like an electric
heater or an electric power tool, which may be
“leaking electricity.”
The National Electrical Code now requires
GFCIs for protection in the bathroom, garage,
kitchen and outdoor outlets of new homes.
Outlet type GFCI
Circuit breaker type GFCI
Portable type GFCI
8
No GFCIs installed?
Buy one. GFCIs come in several models, including a portable plug-in type.
Attach a portable GFCI between the power receptacle and the plug of any electric saw, lawn
edger, weed trimmer or other outdoor (or indoor) electrical equipment; or have a qualified
electrician install receptacle or circuit breaker
GFCI protection for your family. Make sure you
have GFCIs for swimming pool underwater
lighting circuits, for electric circuits of hot tubs,
and for wall outlets within 20 feet of such pools
as required in the National Electrical Code.
Testing GFCIs
To be sure your life-protecting GFCIs are working properly, use this test or the instructions
that come with the GFCI.
1 Plug a night light (or radio turned up loud,
if you have a circuit breaker GFCI) into a
GFCI-protected wall outlet, and turn it on.
2 Press the GFCI test button or switch. The
light or radio should go off.
3 Press the reset feature to restore power.
If the light or radio does not go off when the
test button or switch is pressed, the GFCI is not
working or is not wired correctly. Contact a
qualified electrician to correct the problem or
install a new GFCI.
9
A 3-pronged plug used in a 3-hole outlet protects against shock from a defective electrical
product, cord or plug with grounding problems.
Electricity to power your electrical products travels along a path called a circuit. As long as it
stays in its intended path while traveling to
“ground,” it does its job with minimal risk of
electric shock. But when a product, cord or plug
is damaged, out-of-path electricity may energize expose metal parts as it seeks a new path
to ground. If you come in contact with energized conductive parts and provide a path to
ground, the electricity will deliver a shock. The
third prong on a plug is there to carry any stray
electricity to ground through a 3-pronged receptacle.
Many electrical products designed for outdoor use
have 3-pronged plugs (except for power tools and
other products which may protect you against shock
with a system of double insulation).
10
Never, ever, remove the third prong
of a 3-prong plug.
If your outdoor wall outlet has room for only
2 prongs, you should replace it with a GFCIprotected, 3-hole grounding type receptacle.
When using a 3-to-2 grounding adapter, be certain that the receptacle itself is grounded or
GFCI-protected for the adapter to work. Use a
circuit tester (available in hardware stores) to
find out if your outdoor receptacles are
grounded, or call a qualified electrician to help
you make sure.
Arc-fault circuit interrupters (AFCIs)
Problems in home wiring, like arcing and sparking, are associated with more than 40,000
home fires each year. These fires claim over 350
lives and injure 1,400 victims annually.
A new electrical safety device for homes, called
an arc fault circuit interrupter or AFCI, is expected to provide enhanced protecting from
fires resulting from these unsafe home wiring
conditions.
Typical household fuses and circuit breakers
do not respond to early arcing and sparking
conditions in home wiring. By the time a fuse
or circuit breaker opens to defuse these conditions, a fire may already have begun.
11
Requiring AFCIs
AFCIs are already recognized for their effectiveness in preventing fires. The most recent edition of the National Electrical Code, the widelyadopted model code for electrical wiring, requires AFCIs for bedroom circuits in new residential construction, effective January 2002.
Future editions of the code, which is updated
every three years, could expand coverage to
other circuits, including outdoor circuits.
12
Hazards In Use of Electrical
Products Outdoors
How to Avoid Outdoor Electrical
Accidents
Water
Keep outlets covered. Use a Ground fault
circuit interrupter (GFCI). Keep products
with line cords away from sinks, puddles,
pools, ponds, and hot tubs. Keep
outdoor outlets weather-protected with
outlet covers.
Disabled 3-prong
plug
Never remove third prong. Dispose of
electrical items and extension cords with
damaged prongs.
Damaged product
wiring
Replace or have damaged parts, cords,
plugs repaired by qualified professionals
before use.
Improper product
operation. Exposed
blades or moving
parts
Read instruction manual. Use goggles
or other safety aides. Never bypass a
safety device.
Unattended products
Switch off, unplug, store and lock
products not in use.
Extension cord
misuse
Match product power needs (on product
labels and in manuals) to extension cord
label information and make sure they
are rated appropriately for outdoor use.
13
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Improper product
storage
Store outdoor electrical products
indoors.
Overloaded branch
circuits
Limit power use on each branch circuit
to its rated capacity.
Use of indoor
product outdoors
Use only weather-resistant products
outdoors.
Power line contact
Contact your regional utility protection
center (such as Digsafe, Call Before You
Dig, or Miss Utility) to locate buried
power lines before digging or drilling.
Locate overhead power lines before
trimming trees, flying kites or house
painting, and keep ladders away.
Pad-mounted
electrical equipment
Keep off and away from this electrical
equipment. If you notice the cabinet
doors or locks have been tampered with
or left open, contact your local utility
immediately.
Gasoline, naphtha
fumes
Avoid where electrical sparks may cause
fire or explosion.
For more information, contact CPSC
(1-800-638-2772 or www.cpsc.gov), ESFI
(703-841-3296 or www.electrical-safety.org)
or your local utility company.
14
Before you use any electrical products
outdoors:
✓ Make sure it was intended for outdoor use.
Does the product’s instruction manual or
an attached label warn, “Not for Outdoor
Use” or “Indoor Use Only”? Unless an electrical product is designed to be weather
resistant, a sudden summer shower can
ruin the product and turn it into a serious
shock hazard. Most electrical products intended for continuous outdoor use have
heavily insulated cords and molded-on
plugs to prevent moisture from seeping in.
✓ Study all instructions carefully. Keep the instruction manual where you can easily find
it. Reread it from time to time to refresh
your memory.
✓ Inspect products for damaged cords, plugs
or wiring. Turn the product off and unplug
it if a cord overheats. Take a damaged product to the manufacturer’s authorized repair
center or have a qualified electrician repair it.
15
✓ Make sure a recognized testing laboratory
certifies the product. This insures that the
product is designed and manufactured in
accordance with established safety standards. Look for these and other markings
of internationally recognized testing laboratories:
✓
SAFETY RULES 17
Follow these safety rules for every electrical
product you use outdoors:
Outdoor portable electrical
appliances and power tools
should always be:
✓
Plugged in and turned on only when in use.
✓
Turned off and in lock position when being carried or hooked up to attachments
like mower baskets or saw blades.
✓
Stored indoors (with a few exceptions such
as electric barbecue grills, which can be
covered to remain outdoors) and away
from water and excessive heat.
✓
Used only when all safety guards are in
place. Sharp blades and rapidly moving
parts can cut off a finger or a toe.
Outdoor portable electrical
appliances and power tools
should never be:
✓
Left unattended outdoors, even when you
leave temporarily. If there is a key, remove
it. Put the product where no curious child
or unqualified adult can misuse it.
✓
Plugged in while the switch is in the “on”
position or while being carried or moved.
✓
Carried by their cords.
✓
Used while wet or close to water.
18
✓
Used near sharp edges or in conditions
which can damage the product, its cord or
its plug. Loose and broken wires are both
shock and fire hazards.
✓
Repaired by anyone who is not a licensed
electrician, authorized by the manufacturer
or trained to repair the particular product.
Follow these rules to avoid water
hazards:
✓
Keep outdoor outlets covered and dry between uses. New outlet covers are available
that offer weather protection while a plug
is inserted into the outlet.
✓
Except for electric snow blowers and other
appliances designed for use in a wet environment, select a dry day to power-up outdoors.
✓
Keep cords and plugs away from sweating
pipes and puddles.
✓
If an electrical product falls into water,
make sure you are dry and not in contact
with water or metal surfaces and unplug it
immediately. Do not reach into the water
for it.
✓
Use a ground-fault circuit interrupter (GFCI).
Photography by Mark Regan
20
HOT TUBS, SPAS, AND POOLS
Follow these rules to avoid hot tub,
spa, and pool hazards:
✓
Keep outlets near hot tubs, spas and pools
covered and dry between uses. New outlet
covers are available that offer weather protection while a plug is inserted into the
outlet.
✓
Keep cords and plugs away from hot tubs,
spas and pools and puddles from wet bathers. Never handle electrical items, plugs or
outlets when wet.
✓
If an electrical product falls into water, do
not reach into the water for it. Make sure
you are dry and not in contact with water
or metal surfaces and unplug it immediately or shut off the circuit powering the
item.
✓
Hot tubs, spas and pools, and outlets on
or near them should be protected by a
ground-fault circuit interrupter (GFCI). Many
older swimming pools that pre-date the introduction of GFCIs in the 1970s should
be upgraded to add GFCI protection for
branch circuits supplying power to underwater pool lights operating above 15 volts,
and outlets within 20 feet of the pool.
Note, however, that when a person is immersed
in an isolated body of water, like a hot tub, the
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water could become electrified without involving a ground fault as the electric current passes
through water (and perhaps a person) from one
electrical pole to the opposite pole. In this case,
the GFCI may not provide shock or electrocution protection.
EXTENSION CORDS
Guidelines for selecting and using
outdoor extension cords:
✓
Use only extension cords marked “For Outdoor Use.” Weather-resistant, medium-toheavy gauge extension cords have connectors molded onto them to prevent moisture from seeping in and outer coatings that
are designed to withstand being dragged
along the ground.
✓
Outdoor extension cords come in 25 to 150
foot lengths. Buy only the length you need.
Above 100 feet you can lose power—a hazard when using power tools.
✓
Use three-wire extension cords with 3pronged plugs. Exception: Extension cords
for use with appliances and tools that are
“double-insulated.”
✓
Completely connect plugs. Push them in
all the way. Do not plug one extension cord
into another.
✓
Unwind cord before using. Do not use if
damaged. Do not cover or walk on cords.
22
✓
Never leave an open line (no product
plugged into the end of an extension cord
while it is plugged into an outlet). Not even
for a minute. Always unplug cords not in use.
✓
Never leave extension cords outside in the
snow or very cold weather for extended
periods.
✓
Replace outdoors extension cords every
three or four years if damage is noted.
Match each outdoor electrical
product to its extension cord:
✓
Match power needs (amperage) of electrical products with amperage rating of extension cords.
✓
The extension cord capacity should be as
high as or higher than that of the electrical
product attached to it. Amperage ratings
for outdoor electrical products can range
from “1 A” for a bug killer to “15 A” for a
snow blower and are found on nameplates
attached to products. Compare them to the
rating information on extension cord packaging and on labels permanently attached
to cords.
23
To convert amps to watts, multiply by 120 volts.
For example, 10 A x 120 V = 1200 W.
Match the extension cord gauge to the amperage rating of the product. AWG on the above
label stands for American Wire Gauge. Cords
for outdoor use are generally either 12 AWG
(heavy) or 14 AWG (medium).
ELECTRICAL LAWN & GARDEN PRODUCTS
Follow every general safety rule for outdoor
electrical products when using electrical lawn
and garden products. Then take some extra precautions.
Lawnmowers and other lawn and garden equipment with sharp blades and rapidly moving
parts can cause serious injury by cutting off a
finger or a toe. Never remove the guards.
Keep children well away from lawnmowers and
other products, which can throw objects such
as rocks and sticks.
Products like power shovels or diggers,
lawnmowers, mulchers, tillers, thatchers and
leaf or snow blowers move and have moving
parts that can cut, burn, even blind when directions are not followed. Study each product’s
manual for safe operation rules.
Photography by Mark Regan
25
Mowing a lawn:
✓
Clean area first; remove rocks, branches,
wires, bones or other foreign objects that
can be thrown by blades.
✓
Avoid wet grass. Mow only in daylight.
✓
Always wear enclosed shoes.
✓
Never remove safety guards or adjust wheel
height while motor is running.
✓
Keep cords out of working path.
✓
Avoid loose clothing and jewelry that can
catch on moving parts.
✓
Keep bystanders, especially children away.
✓
Push, don’t pull. Mow across not up and
down slopes.
✓
Clipping, trimming a hedge or edging, wear
safety goggles or other protection recommended by the manufacturer. Never overreach especially when on a ladder.
✓
Avoid power lines. Contact can cause serious injury or death.
Use these accident-prevention
techniques:
✓
Keep your equipment in good operating
condition.
✓
Blocked snow or leaf blower: Unplug the
power cord for these electric appliances (or
26
turn the engine off for gasoline-powered
products) before attempting to clear the
obstruction. To clear out the blockage, use
a stick long enough to protect your hands
from injury. Never put your hand near the
collection or discharge chutes. Even when
the engine is off, blades can remain springcharged, resulting in swift movement when
its path is cleared. Extra precaution is always wise.
Ladders and electricity do not mix.
Electrocutions (an average of 12 over the last
three years according to the U.S.Consumer
Product Safety Commission) can happen when
metal ladders are used near overhead wires to
clean gutters, paint houses, trim trees and repair roofs and chimneys or install outdoor antennas.
✓
Use only a fiberglass or wooden ladder if
you must work near overhead wires and do
not let it come into contact with the wires.
✓
If you must use a metal ladder, keep it well
away from overhead lines.
✓
If a ladder starts to fall into an overhead
line, let it go! Stay nearby while someone
else calls the power company to cut off electricity to the line before you touch or move
the ladder that is in contact with a power
line.
27
✓
Never touch a person who is holding a ladder that has fallen onto a power line. Use
something that does not conduct electricity, such as a long piece of dry wood or rope
to push or pull them loose.
BATTERY-OPERATED PRODUCTS
Follow the same safety rules with cordless, battery-operated products as any other electrical
product. Batteries generate electric power. Read
and follow manufacturer’s instructions.
Some special things to remember
when using battery-powered
products:
✓
Keep batteries away from children.
✓
Cordless products, since they don’t have to
be plugged in, are always ready to use. Store
them away from children or inexperienced
persons.
✓
Bring cordless products indoors overnight
so they won’t be subjected to a higher
moisture level or a sudden rainstorm.
✓
Remove batteries or lock switches in “off”
position when not in use before changing
accessories or cleaning battery-operated
products to prevent accidents while your
hands are near blades or other moving
parts.
28
✓
All batteries should be replaced at the same
time. Do not mix fresh and discharged batteries or battery types.
✓
Ensure batteries are installed correctly in
device and charger with regard to polarity
(+ and -).
✓
Do not use cordless tools near gaseous or
explosive materials. Sparks from their motors might cause fires or explosions.
✓
Never short circuit batteries as this may lead
to high temperatures, leakage or explosion.
✓
Never attempt to disassemble batteries as
this can lead to electrolyte burns.
Things to remember when recharging
batteries:
✓
Always recharge battery-operated products
with the charging unit and procedure recommended by the manufacturer.
✓
Recharge products in a dry place away from
radiators, heaters, stoves, flames or chemicals.
✓
Plug charger directly into an electrical outlet, never into an extension cord.
✓
If your product battery does not recharge
properly, first check the trouble section of
your instruction manual. Next, take the
product and the charger to a manufacturerrecommended repair center.
29
✓
Replace batteries only with recommended
size and type to insure compatibility between rechargeable battery and charging
circuit.
✓
Never attempt to recharge primary batteries as this can cause them to leak, cause a
fire or explode.
Take these precautions with extra
batteries:
✓
Do not expose batteries to moisture, frost
or temperatures over 110 degrees or under
20 degrees F. Do not store in refrigerator
or freezer. If batteries get cold; bring them
to room temperature before use.
✓
Do not store batteries touching metal objects such as wire, nails or coins (in your
pocket). Such contact can cause a large current flow, possibly leading to burns or fire.
And for safe battery disposal:
Batteries and battery packs can explode in a fire.
Follow manufacturer’s instructions for disposal.
POWER TOOL SAFETY
Power tools are often used out of doors or in a
garage or shed where the door should be open
for adequate ventilation, especially when sanding. The same rules apply to them as to other
electrical products used outdoors and then
30
some. Power tools require skilled use. Operators should not only read but also memorize
the product instruction manual.
Power tools should never be used when children are in, or even near, the work area.
Power tools should always be:
✓
Held by the insulated gripping surface to
avoid electrical shock.
✓
Used with safety goggles and other safety
gear: a face shield, dust mask, hard hat, ear
protection, gloves or safety shoes as recommended by the manufacturer.
✓
Used with a GFCI, either permanently installed or a plug-in type.
✓
Plugged into a three-pronged outlet known
to be grounded, unless they are double insulated.
✓
Used with a three-wired extension cord, if
needed.
✓
Used in a dry area away from explosive
fumes (gasoline or naphtha), dust or flammable materials.
Power tools should never be:
✓
Used while wearing loose clothing or jewelry that can get caught in a moving part.
31
✓
✓
✓
✓
Used near live electrical wires or water
pipes, especially when cutting or drilling
into walls where they could be accidentally
touched or penetrated.
Used after they have tripped a safety device such as a GFCI. Take the tool to a
manufacturer-authorized repair center for
service.
Used when you are upset, angry or in a
hurry.
Used without guards or with an extension
cord longer than 100 feet.
Other outdoor electrical products such as fans,
bug killers, holiday or party lights, heaters,
music systems, power paint rollers, barbecue
spits and many more each have manufacturerrecommended precautions included in the instructions that are packaged with them. Take
time to read and follow instructions. Here are
a few reminders:
Power washer—This product uses water with
electricity. Make sure you read the directions
carefully.
Barbecue grill—Read directions to find out if
it can be stored outdoors or used on an apartment balcony, patio or deck. Also check with
your apartment building manager for usage
rules and/or local ordinances or regulations.
Charcoal igniter—Do not store outdoors.
✓
32 GLOSSARY
Amperage (amps)—A measure of electrical current flow.
Arc-fault circuit interrupter (AFCI)—Protection
from fires caused by affects of electrical arcing
in wiring. AFCI device will de-energize the circuit when an arc fault is detected.
Circuit breaker or fuses—Protect against
overcurrent and short circuit conditions that
could result in potential fire hazards and explosion.
Electrical faults—A partial or total failure in an
electrical conductor or appliance.
Energized—Electrically connected to a source
of potential difference, or electrically charged
so as to have a potential different from that of
the ground.
Gauge—Standard or scale of measure.
Ground-fault circuit interrupter (GFCI)—Protection against shock and electrocution. GFCI device will de-energize a circuit when it senses a
difference in the amount of electricity passing
through the device and returning through the
device, or a “leak” of current from the circuit.
Grounded/grounding—A conducting connection, whether intentional or accidental, by
which an electric circuit or equipment is con-
33
nected to the earth, or to some conducting body
of relatively large extent that serves in place of
the earth.
Overcurrent—Any current in excess of the rated
current or ampacity of a conductor. May result
in risk of fire or shock from insulation damaged from heat generated by overcurrent condition.
Outlet—A contact device installed along a circuit for the connection of an attachment plug
and flexible cord to supply power to portable
equipment and electrical appliances. Also
known as receptacles.
Three-pronged plugs and outlets—Protect
against potential shock from the use of damaged products or electrical power cords designed to take stray electrical current safely to
ground.
Short circuits—An abnormal electrical path.
Voltage (volts)—A measure of electrical potential.
Wattage (watts)—A measure of the rate of energy consumption by an electrical device when
it is in operation.
34 About the Electrical Safety
Foundation International
The Electrical Safety Foundation International
is a not-for-profit (501)(c)(3) organization
whose board of directors and officers serve
without compensation.
Board of Directors
Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers
Connector Manufacturing Company
Consumer Partnership
Cooper
CSA International
Cutler-Hammer /Eaton
Edison Electric Institute
E.I. DuPont Company
Emerson
General Cable
Graybar
Heslin Consulting
International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers
International Association of Electrical Inspectors
Intertek Testing Services
Leviton Manufacturing Company Inc.
National Electrical Manufacturers Association
National Fire Protection Association
National Safety Council
National Electrical Contractors Association
Siemens
Southeast Missouri State University
Square D Company
Underwriters Laboratories Inc.
35
The ESFI Board established the ESFI Safety
Awareness Fund through the “Light a Beacon
for Safety” Campaign to secure financial support to implement new electrical safety education and awareness initiatives. We salute the
following companies for their leadership and
support:
Platinum Beacon Sponsors
Square D Company
Gold Beacon Sponsors
Cooper Industries, Inc.
Cutler-Hammer
GE Industrial Systems
Rockwell Automation/Reliance Electric
Silver Beacon Sponsors
ABB Power T & D Company, Inc.
Advance Transformer Company
General Cable
CSA International
Emerson Electric Company
Hubbell, Inc.
Intertek Testing Company
Leviton Manufacturing Co., Inc.
Lithonia Lighting
NECA-IBEW NLMCC
Siemens Corporation
Thomas & Betts
Underwriters Laboratories
36
Bronze Beacon Sponsors
Edison Electric Institute
Graybar Electric Company
Pass & Seymour/Legrand
Copper Beacon Sponsors
Connector Manufacturing Company
Electrical Contracting Foundation
FCI USA, Inc.
Genlyte Thomas Group, LLC
ILSCO Corporation
Lutron Electronics Company, Inc.
Phelps Dodge Foundation
Phoenix Contact, Inc.
Robroy Industries, Inc.
S & C Electric Company
Southwire Company
Other Sponsors
Advanced Protection Technologies Inc.
Alcan Cable
American Lighting Association
L3 Communications
Lamson & Sessions
MGE UPS Systems, Inc.
National Association of Electrical
Distributors, Inc.
ESFI is also grateful for the financial support given
in 2001–2002 by the following organizations:
Corporate Contributors to the
ESFI Annual Contributors Fund
Association of Home
Appliance Manufacturers
Ameren Services
American Public
Power Association
APS Energy Services
Cleco Power LLC
Conectiv
Connector Manufacturing
Kansas City Power & Light Co.
Leviton Manufacturing
LMCC of Chicago
Montana-Dakota
Utility Company
National Electrical
Contractors Association
National Fire
Protection Association
Cooper Industries
National Rural Electric
Cooperative Association
Copper Development
Association
NECA-IBEW #176
CSA International
Exelon Corporation
FERRAZ SHAWMUT, Inc.
NECA-IBEW #701
National Electrical
Manufacturers
Representatives Association
First Energy Foundation
National Grid USA
FPL Group Foundation, Inc.
Northern Indiana Public
Service Company
GE Industrial Systems
International Brotherhood
of Electrical Workers
IBEW #51
IBEW #143
IBEW #252
IBEW #309
IBEW #613
IBEW #1049
IEEE IAS Electrical
Safety Workshop
Industrial Electrical MFG
OSRAM Sylvania
Panasonic/Matsushita
Electric Corporation
Pass & Seymour
Pepco
PNM Electric & Gas Services
PPL Services Corporation
Progress Energy
Square D Company
TXU Electric & Gas
Underwriters Laboratories
Intertek Testing Services
UtiliCorp United
Jones Metal Products
Utility Workers of America
W.W. Grainger, Inc.
ABOUT ESFI
Founded in 1994, ESFI, formerly the National
Electrical Safety Foundation (NESF), is North
America’s only non-profit organization dedicated exclusively to promoting electrical safety
in the home, school and workplace. ESFI is a
501(c)3 organization funded by electrical
manufacturers, utilities, consumer groups, and
individuals. ESFI sponsors National Electrical
Safety Month each May, and engages in public education campaigns and proactive media
relations to help reduce property damage, injury and death due to electrical accidents.
Electrical Safety Foundation International
1300 N. 17th St., Suite 1847
Rosslyn, VA 22209
Phone: 703-841-3229/Fax: 703-841-3329
E-mail: info@esfi.org
Web: www.electrical-safety.org
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