Standard dokument for Simrad

Standard dokument for Simrad
MANUAL
SIMRAD AUTOPILOT
Compass
20220653C
English
This page is intentionally left blank
Instruction Manual
Instruction Manual
This manual is intended as a reference guide for choosing the
correct type of compass for autopilot installations.
It describes the different Fluxgate/Rate compass versions; how
to install, connect and calibrate them.
Please take time to read the manual. It may give some good hints
for your next autopilot installation!
20220653 / Rev. C
1
Simrad Autopilot Compass
About this document
Rev
Rev. C
Date
Written by
Checked by
Approved by
16.11.05
NG
IK
ThH
Complete update with RC25, RC36, RC37 and AP25 Series autopilots
© 2005 Simrad AS. All rights reserved.
No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or
otherwise copied without prior permission from Simrad AS.
The information contained in this document is subject to change without prior
notice. Simrad AS shall not be liable for errors contained herein, or for incidental
or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance, or use
of this document.
2
20220653 / Rev. C
Instruction Manual
Contents
1
INTRODUCTION .........................................................5
2 COMPASS TYPES ........................................................6
2.1
Magnetic compass................................................................................. 6
2.2
Fluxgate compass.................................................................................. 6
2.3
Rate compass (RC25, RC36, RC37)..................................................... 7
2.4
Rate Compass performance diagram .................................................... 8
2.5
Gyro compass........................................................................................ 8
2.6
Compass type selection guide............................................................... 9
3 DESCRIPTION OF MODELS .......................................10
3.1
RFC35 Fluxgate compass ................................................................... 10
3.2
RFC35N NMEA Compass.................................................................. 11
3.3
RFC35NS Compass (RFC35N + SIN) ............................................... 12
3.4
Rate compass (RC25, RC36, RC37)................................................... 12
RC25 Rate compass ...................................................................12
RC36 Rate Compass...................................................................12
RC37 Rate Compass...................................................................13
3.5
Explanation to Rate Compass Block diagram............................13
Adding a SIN PCB to RFC35N Compass .......................................... 15
Inserting the PCB .......................................................................15
Micro-controller chip .................................................................15
4 LOCATION AND INSTALLATION ...............................16
4.1
Inspection of mounting area................................................................ 16
4.2
Installation........................................................................................... 16
4.3
Northerly / Southerly turning error ..................................................... 17
5 WIRING & CALIBRATION .........................................20
5.1
RFC35 Fluxgate Compass .................................................................. 20
5.2
Connection to AP25 series, AP20 series and AP35 autopilots..20
RC25 Rate Compass (Robnet) ............................................................ 21
Recommended connection for AP20/21/22, AP300X, AP35 and
AP50...........................................................................................21
Alternative connection to junction unit......................................22
20220653 / Rev. C
3
Simrad Autopilot Compass
Connection to AP11 ...................................................................23
5.3
Compass set-up and calibration .................................................24
RC36 Rate Compass (Robnet2) .......................................................... 25
Connection to AP16, AP25, AP26, AP27..................................25
Alternative connection to ACXX Autopilot Computer .............25
5.4
Compass setup and calibration...................................................26
RFC35N NMEA Compass.................................................................. 26
Connection to IS15 instruments .................................................26
Compass Calibration ..................................................................27
Connection to other equipment ..................................................28
RFC35N connection for 10Hz NMEA output rate ....................30
5.5
RFC35N as RFC300 substitution...............................................31
RC37 Rate Compass ........................................................................... 33
5.6
Connection to AP45 and AP9MK3............................................33
RFC35NS Compass (NMEA+SIN) as RFC250 substitution ............. 34
Calibration ..................................................................................35
6
COMPASS MODELS, APPLICATION CHART ................36
7 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS ..................................37
7.1
RFC35 Fluxgate Compass .................................................................. 37
7.2
RC25 Rate Compass ........................................................................... 38
7.3
RC36 Rate Compass ........................................................................... 38
7.4
RC37 Rate Compass ........................................................................... 39
7.5
RFC35N NMEA Compass.................................................................. 39
7.6
Optional SIN PCB............................................................................... 40
7.7
RFC35NS Fluxgate Compass ............................................................. 40
4
20220653 / Rev. C
Instruction Manual
1
INTRODUCTION
The compass or heading sensor is the most vital component in an
autopilot system.
Therefore, great care should be taken when choosing compass
type and finding a good mounting location.
Not only should the compass be of good quality, it is even more
important that a good mounting location is found.
Last, but not least, the compass must have calibration /
compensation facilities.
The best autopilot steering is obtained with a compensated
compass!
Of all complaints or problems about autopilots, 70-80% of the
trouble can one way or the other be attributed to poor
performance of the magnetic heading sensor.
Typical complaints are;
• “My boat doesn’t steer going North.”
• “I can steer on all headings but one or two.
• “In a following sea my vessel is wild, the autopilot will not
steer it.”
• “It steers fine when the sea is calm, but not when it’s rough.”
The autopilot compass senses the earth’s magnetic field to
determine whether or not the vessel is actually turning, thereby
producing a heading error signal. If the field is distorted by local
magnetic influence, then the compass cannot accurately measure
the degree of turn.
If the compass does not present a stable reference, no amount of
subsequent electronic processing can compensate for the signal
errors.
The compass will be unable to detect a change in course on some
headings, where on other headings a minor turn will cause the
compass to show a large course change, thereby putting on
excess corrective rudder.
Carefully study chapter 4 of this manual prior to installing a
magnetic heading sensor for your autopilot.
20220653 / Rev. C
5
Simrad Autopilot Compass
2
2.1
COMPASS TYPES
Magnetic compass
The conventional liquid filled magnetic compass with external
gimbals is the typical autopilot compass for smaller fishing boats
and work boats up to approx. 70ft.
The compass card is supported by the fluid and provided it is
compensated by qualified personnel, it is a fairly stable and very
reliable heading reference for the autopilot, even in rough seas.
This compass type may also be used on sail- and motor yachts
with good result.
It gives most often a better autopilot steering performance on
steel boats - providing it can be properly compensated - than a
fluxgate compass.
Be aware that so called spherical compasses, most often found in
the pedestal of sail boats, can not be used as autopilot compass
because of the missing external gimbals.
In order to electrically detect heading change from the compass
that the autopilot can use, a course detector (pick-up coil) is
needed.
This course detector is normally mounted to the bottom of the
compass and as the compass is turning (relative to the compass
card) the changing field from the magnet in the compass card
will induce a varying signal in the detector.
2.2
Fluxgate compass
Different from the course detector that picks up the magnetic
field from the compass card magnet, the fluxgate compass picks
up the Earth’s magnetic field directly.
6
20220653 / Rev. C
Instruction Manual
The sensor coil is either mechanically gimballed or has a floating
ring core (RFC35). This will prevent an uneven distribution of
the magnetic field in the sensor coil when the boat is rolling and
pitching. Compared to a magnetic compass, however, the
fluxgate compass is more sensitive to the motions of a vessel. In
rough sea conditions or in sharp turns at high speeds, the sensor
may be temporarily displaced from the horizontal plane. A
distorted and unstable heading input to the autopilot is the
resulting effect. A lot of attention has been paid to reduce this
effect when designing the RFC35 Fluxgate compass and it has
proven to be successful. The optimum performance is
accomplished with the Rate Compass which is a rate sensor
stabilized fluxgate compass.
Except from the Rate Compass, fluxgate compasses are not
recommended as autopilot compass on steel boats, mainly due to
lack of efficient “heeling error” compensation. This
compensation is needed when a magnetic heading sensor is
mounted on top of the wheelhouse or in the mast.
2.3
Rate compass (RC25, RC36, RC37)
The Simrad Rate Compass is in principle a combination of a
solid state rate sensor and a fluxgate sensor, where the rate
sensor is slaved to the fluxgate sensor.
The rate sensor will momentarily pick up any angular changes in
azimuth, but is almost unaffected by roll and pitch.
As the “rate heading” will drift, the fluxgate sensor is needed to
maintain the (magnetic) heading. However, as the rate sensor is
the primary “heading” source, the fluxgate signal can be more
dampened and thus it will not contribute to the instability caused
by heavy rolling and pitching.
The Rate compass gives a more stable and precise autopilot
steering on any type of boat. It also eliminates the effect of the
distorted horizontal magnetic field at high latitudes and the well
known s-ing phenomena when on autopilot steering.
It can also be used as “stand alone” compass to provide a stable
heading input to a compass repeater, radar or other equipment.
However, care should be taken when using it on bigger steel
boats that can have a strong local disturbing magnetic field that
makes a good calibration of the fluxgate impossible.
20220653 / Rev. C
7
Simrad Autopilot Compass
2.4
Rate Compass performance diagram
Measurements made at open sea in a 33-ft. powerboat.
Heading
The ideal reference shown on the graph is performed by the
Robertson SKR-82 Gyrocompass.
Time
2.5
Gyro compass
A gyro compass does not use the Earth’s magnetic field to seek
North, thus being unaffected by the magnetic conditions
onboard.
The North seeking mechanism utilizes a spinning wheel (gyro)
supported in a 3-axis gimbal or sphere and controlled by
damping weights and electronics. By sensing gravity and the
Earth’s rotation it makes the axis of the spinning wheel always
point towards True North. The reading of a gyrocompass is also
more stable than that on a magnetic compass.
8
20220653 / Rev. C
Instruction Manual
The gyrocompass is therefore the perfect heading sensor for
autopilots on any type of boat. However, because of the high
cost it is mainly used on commercial ships, bigger fishing vessels
and mega yachts.
2.6
Compass type selection guide
Boat type
Compass type
Leisure,
Power
Leisure;
Sail
Work/Fishing
up to 60 ft
Work/Fishing
above 60 ft
Magnetic
3
2
2
2 (1)*
Fluxgate
2
3
3
3
Rate
1
1
1
1 (2)*
Lowest number gives the highest recommendation.
* If steel hull
20220653 / Rev. C
9
Simrad Autopilot Compass
3
DESCRIPTION OF MODELS
The first RFC35 Fluxgate Compass was made in 1994 for the
AP300X series of autopilots. It is today used with all autopilots
using ACXX Autopilot Computers and J3XX Junction units.
The following Simrad autopilots can use the RFC35 Fluxgate
Compass:
AP300CX, AP300PX AP300DLX, AP3000, AP3000X, AP11,
AP35, AP20, AP22, AP16, AP21, AP25, AP26, AP27, AP50.
The RFC35 range has been expanded with other models as
described in this chapter.
3.1
RFC35 Fluxgate compass
The compass comes with a 15 m cable, open end for connection
to the Autopilot Computer or Junction Unit.
RFC35 contains a (main) PCB onto which the fluxgate sensor is
mounted.
The fluxgate is a floating ring core type, which means there is no
(need for) mechanical gimbals to keep it in horizontal position
when the boat pitches and rolls.
The electronics converts the signal from the sin and cosine coils
into a pulse width modulated (pwm) signal.
This signal is transmitted on the 2-wire connection to the
autopilot, which also is the compass power supply line.
The RFC35 has automatic calibration, initialized in the autopilot
sea trial menu.
The compass will calibrate when doing a 1 1/4 turn with the
boat.
See respective autopilot manuals for details.
The calibration data and eventual offset adjustment are stored in
the Autopilot Computer/Junction Unit.
From RFC35 s.no. 7702E02 onwards and from Main PCB s.no.
10000 Rev. F onwards there are PCB connectors for mounting of
extra Rate, NMEA and SIN PCB.
See Wiring diagram, page 20 for connection details.
10
20220653 / Rev. C
Instruction Manual
N
Pulse
with
conv.
Filter
DECODER
(Gating)
Smoothing
Offset
adjust
S
(0,6 - 0,75)
sec.
Pwr.
Supply
(Multiplexer)
Excitation
2,5 kHz
Figure 3-1 RFC35 Block diagram
3.2
RFC35N NMEA Compass
The RFC35N is based on the standard RFC35, with a plug-in
NMEA PCB incorporated.
The compass comes with a 15 m cable, open end.
The PCB converts the pwm (pulse width modulated) signal from
the main PCB to NMEA0183 HDG format.
The 2-wire pwm signal is still available for autopilot connection.
Different from a standard RFC35, the NMEA compass has it’s
own microcontroller and memory (EEPROM) where calibration
data and offset adjustment are stored.
Compass calibration can be activated from an IS15 instrument or
other equipment, such as a PC, if a proprietary NMEA sentence
is transmitted to the compass. When the calibration is completed,
the compass transmits a sentence to confirm “Calibration
completed”.
If the RFC35 is connected to equipment that cannot
communicate on NMEA, it can be calibrated the same way as the
obsolete Robertson RFC250 compass. That is; let the boat turn
starboard in a circle until it passes north 3 times.
This procedure must take place within 5 minutes after having
applied power to the compass.
As there will be no “Calibration completed” signal, the only way
to verify a successful calibration is to check it against known
bearings or against the main steering compass providing this is
compensated and correct.
20220653 / Rev. C
11
Simrad Autopilot Compass
RFC35N can be expanded with an optional plug-in SIN PCB to
provide an analogue sin/cosine signal to other autopilots; AP200
and AP45 e.t.c. See RFC35NS description below.
3.3
RFC35NS Compass (RFC35N + SIN)
By adding the optional Sin PCB to a RFC35N compass you will
get additional analogue Sine/Cosine heading output.
The signal is according to the Simrad standard; ±2V with 2.5V
reference which makes the compass compatible with the obsolete
RFC250 (NMEA + Sin/Cosine output).
The compass can then be used with the following Robertson
autopilots; AP2500, AP200 series, AP40, AP45 and AP9Mk2/3.
(See also table at page 36.)
As from 1998 the RFC35NS (part no. 22083596) has been made
as a separate model to substitute the RFC250. See section 5.5.
An extra cable gland is supplied for a separate NMEA cable
connection if needed.
Note
3.4
Optional SIN PCB cannot be used with a standard RFC35 - only
with RFC35N.
Rate compass (RC25, RC36, RC37)
All three models are based on the same fluxgate sensor and the
same rate sensor, hence the performance are the same for all
three.
However, they have different output signal and must therefore be
used as specified below.
RC25 Rate compass
RC25 is a “Robnet” compass that substitutes the previous
RFC35R Rate Compass. It comes with 15m (49’) cable with
Robnet connector and is used with thefollowing autopilots:
AP50, AP35, AP20/21/22, AP11 and AP300X.
RC36 Rate Compass
RC36 is a “Robnet2” compass and works only with the AP25
series autopilots, including AP16. It comes with a 15 m (49’)
cable with Robnet2 connector, fitting into the (male) Robnet2
connector at the back of the control unit (AP16, AP25, AP26).
12
20220653 / Rev. C
Instruction Manual
RC37 Rate Compass
RC37 is outputting heading on NMEA0183 and analog
Sine/Cosine formats.
It is a substitution for the previous RFC35RS and is a high
performance alternative to RFC35 and RFC35NS.
It comes with a 15 m (49’) open end cable wired for NMEA
input and output.
RC37 is an excellent heading source for autopilots, chart
plotters, radars and other equipment that will benefit from it’s
dynamic characteristics.
RC37 can be used with the following Simrad autopilots: AP45
(Sine/Cosine), AP9Mk3 (Sine/Cosine or NMEA0183).
Explanation to Rate Compass Block
diagram
Refer to Figure 3-2.
The rate sensor generates a rate of turn signal that is converted to
a heading angle by the integrator circuit. This output is called
Rate heading.
The heading output from the fluxgate sensor, is called Flux
heading. It is filtered by a low pass filter with a time constant
approximately three times higher than in a standard RFC35. The
Flux heading is calibrated and calibration data are stored in the
EEPROM in the compass.
The high dampening of the Flux heading will suppress unstable
heading signals caused by the vessel's roll and pitch.
The reduced response from the Flux heading is compensated for
by the Rate sensor. The Rate sensor is very sensitive to any
movement (turn) in the horizontal plane, but almost insensitive
to roll and pitch.
As the Rate heading is a relative angle it has to be coupled to the
Flux heading.
This coupling is made in the Drift Compensation circuit which
serves two purposes;
1. It will prevent the Rate heading from drifting away due to
internal (temperature) drift in the Rate sensor.
20220653 / Rev. C
13
Simrad Autopilot Compass
2. When a big course change is made and there is a difference
between the integrated Rate heading and the measured Flux
heading, the difference will be coupled into the Rate
integrator as a bias offset for the Rate heading to make it
equal to the Flux heading.
Rate sensor
Rate heading
Turn rate
ROBNET
Integrator
Drift
Compensation
N
Compass
calibration
Low pass
filter
S
Figure 3-2 Rate Compass Block diagram
14
20220653 / Rev. C
Instruction Manual
3.5
Adding a SIN PCB to RFC35N Compass
Inserting the PCB
Open the compass and insert the SIN PCB into the slots in the
housing.
SIN PCB
RX+
TX+
2
1
2
1
SIN
EF
CO
S
VR
GN
D
(2.
5
V)
3
ROBNET- (BUS-)
VIN+
Micro-controller
4
ROBNET+ (BUS+)
2 1
VIN- (VSYST-)
3
J3
EXT.COMP
VIN+ (VSYST+)
4
TX-
5
RX-
6
J2
ROBNET
NMEA PCB
J1
NMEA
VIN-
Make sure the edge
connector on the SIN
PCB fits into the
matching connector
on the Main PCB. It
might be necessary
to loosen the Main
PCB screws in order
to align it in right
position. Then
fasten the screws
after the SIN
PCB has been
inserted.
Micro-controller chip
The NMEA PCB should have a chip marked V1R3 or higher in
order to work with the SIN PCB.
Latest software (per February 2005) is V2R4.
20220653 / Rev. C
15
Simrad Autopilot Compass
4
4.1
LOCATION AND INSTALLATION
Inspection of mounting area
The area around which the compass will be mounted should be
inspected for one or more of the following items:
- Vertical or horizontal soft iron rod(s)
- Channel or angle iron.
- Throttle and clutch control push-pull cables.
- DC ampere meters (internal shunt).
- Steel tachometer cables.
- Unpaired, untwisted DC cables.
- All steel, household type, circuit breaker boxes.
- Iron pilothouse hold down bolts.
- Radar magnetrons.
- Other compasses.
- Magnetic flashlights.
- Audio speakers.
- Some microphones.
Reasonable care should be taken to mount the compass a
minimum of 1 meter from any of these objects, and as much as 3
meters from other magnets or radar magnetrons.
4.2
Installation
For initial installation of the compass, the desired mounting
location should be checked for unseen items which may cause
compass error.
This is done easily by a (small) hand
held magnetic compass, provided it has
a visible card with markings, to detect
magnetic interference.
Place the compass in the desired
mounting location. Allow the compass
card to come to rest and note what
heading it is reading (refer to lubber line
or other mark on the compass bowl).
16
Up
Fore
Stbd.
Aft
Port
Down
20220653 / Rev. C
Instruction Manual
Then slowly proceed to move the compass in a straight line fore
and aft (without turning it!) approximately 30 cm out of the
mounting location. Repeat the movement, but this time athwart
ship.
If at all possible, also move the compass in the vertical plane (up
and down).
As a thumb rule, the compass reading should not vary more than
5 degrees from the initial reading during this test. You can then
be reasonably sure that the compass location is OK.
If more than 5 degrees deflection is observed, it might still be
OK, but if exceeding 10 degrees, chances are that the calibration/
compensation will not be optimal.
If a large deflection is observed, try to find what is causing it or
find a new compass location.
Even though the RFC35 Fluxgate compasses can compensate for
up to 30 degrees of deviation, these general rules should be
followed to ensure the best performance from the compass.
FWD
Figure 4-1 RFC35 mounting
4.3
Northerly / Southerly turning error
Autopilot installers operating in higher northerly or southerly
latitudes have most probably experienced steering problems
when sailing in northerly or southerly direction.
To illustrate this common problem we quote the following from
a NMEA publication dated February 1978, written by Mr. M.W.
Freeman:
20220653 / Rev. C
17
Simrad Autopilot Compass
“Another problem that arise as a result of magnetic dip* and
increases with latitude, is what is commonly called the Northerly
turning error in the Northern Hemisphere and Southerly turning
error in the Southern Hemisphere. It is also accentuated by
banking of turns in high speed craft. This phenomenon is true in
all earth seeking magnetic devices.
The effect of the Northerly turning error becomes extremely
critical on higher speed vessels, starting from twelve knots to
approximately thirty knots.
Above thirty knots, it is impractical, if not impossible, to rely
solely on a magnetic seeking device for control of an
automatic pilot.
Because of lateral acceleration in a turn and also because of
the necessary banking of the vessel, part of the dip
component converts to an azimuth component (unless the
compass is gyro stabilized).
The effect of Northerly turning error is generally that the
vessel will steer fairly well on east and west at high speed. It
will over steer on southerly headings but will make wide
swings on northerly headings.
On northerly headings, once the boat has been deflected from
course, it will increase its turn in the same direction rather
than correcting the course in the opposite direction.
The Northerly turning error can be minimized by:
Selecting a compass and autopilot which has been designed
especially with the higher speed boats and Northerly turning
error in consideration.
Keeping boat speed under 15 knots.
Simrad’s solution to this problem is to install our RFC35R Rate
Compass !
18
20220653 / Rev. C
Instruction Manual
* Magnetic dip
The Earth’s magnetic field can be decomposed into a horizontal
and a vertical component. The horizontal component gives
directional information, but the vertical provides no useful
heading information.
Study the simplified presentation of Earth’s magnetic field on
Figure 4-2. When moving towards the poles, the field lines are
no longer parallel to earth’s surface, as they are at equator.
Hence, the horizontal component is decreasing while the vertical
component is increasing.
The angle between the tangent to the field lines and the tangent
to earth’s surface gives the magnetic dip angle, i.e. the dip angle
is 0 degrees at equator and 90 degrees at the poles.
In Egersund, Norway (latitude 58 deg. N) the dip angle is about
67 degrees. In other words, the horizontal component is not more
than 1/3 of the vertical component.
N
Dip angle
W
E
S
Figure 4-2 Magnetic dip
20220653 / Rev. C
19
Simrad Autopilot Compass
5
5.1
WIRING & CALIBRATION
RFC35 Fluxgate Compass
Connection to AP25 series, AP20 series
and AP35 autopilots
J3XX
JUNCTION UNIT
RFC35
FLUXGATE
COMPASS
ACXX
AUTOPILOT
COMPUTER
Figure 5-1 RFC35 wiring
ACXX/J3XX
RFC35
FLUXGATE
COMPASS
MAIN PCB
HSHS+
Heading
Sensor
*
* NON POLARIZED
(COLOR INDEPENDENT)
Figure 5-2 RFC35 connection to J3XX and ACXX
The only way to connect a standard RFC35 to the autopilot is via
the HS+/HS– terminal in J3xx Junction Unit (AP11, AP300X,
AP35, AP20/21/22) and ACXX Autopilot Computer (AP16,
AP25/26/27).
Note
20
RFC35 Fluxgate Compass can also be connected to AP50/J50,
but the compass is not recommended for commercial use!
20220653 / Rev. C
Instruction Manual
Calibration
Automatic calibration is activated from the autopilot’s “Seatrial”
menu. (See autopilot manual for complete calibration
procedure).
Calibration data, including any heading offset, is stored in the
ACXX/J3XX (EEprom) but will be deleted by a “Master Reset”
in the autopilot.
5.2
RC25 Rate Compass (Robnet)
Recommended connection for
AP20/21/22, AP300X, AP35 and AP50
RC25
RATE
COMPASS
Control Unit (AP20)
Figure 5-3 RC25 connection to autopilot control unit
Recommended connection of RC25 to the autopilot control unit
using the Robnet connector.
20220653 / Rev. C
21
Simrad Autopilot Compass
Alternative connection to junction unit
J3XX/J50
JUNCTION UNIT
RC25
RATE
COMPASS
JUNCTION UNIT
MAIN PCB
TB15
GREY
WHITE
Vsys
Vsys+
Bus+
Bus
PINK
BROWN
Bn Wht Pnk Gry
Robnet
GREY
PINK
WHITE
BROWN
RC25
RATE
COMPASS
Figure 5-4 Alternative connection to J3XX/J50 Robnet terminal
The Robnet connector on the compass cable is removed and the
wires are connected in parallel with the ones going to the control
unit.
22
20220653 / Rev. C
Instruction Manual
Connection to AP11
RC25
RATE
COMPASS
AP11
CONTROL
UNIT
J3XX
JUNCTION UNIT
ALTERNATIVE CONNECTION
CONTROL UNIT
J3000X/J300X JUNCTION UNIT
RC25
RATE
COMPASS
REAR SIDE
MAIN PCB
BROWN
WHITE
PINK
GREY
YELLOW
GREEN
ROBNET
BROWN
WHITE
PINK
GREY
Alarm
On-Off
Vsys+
Vsys
Bus
Bus +
Bn Wh Pnk Gry Yel Gn
DO NOT
CONNECT!
NOTE
DO NOT
CONNECT!
A L T E RN A T I V E C O N N E C T I O N
Figure 5-5 RC25 connection to AP11
The Robnet connector on the compass cable is removed and the
wires are connected to J3XX Robnet terminal in parallel with the
ones going to the control unit or to the spare terminal on the
control unit.
20220653 / Rev. C
23
Simrad Autopilot Compass
Compass set-up and calibration
For AP20, AP21, AP22, AP35:
• Select RFC = Robnet in the Interface setup menu.
• Select also RFC as compass in the User setup menu to
activate RC25 as steering compass.
For AP300, AP300X:
• Select RFC = RFC300 in the Interface setup menu.
• Select also RFC as compass in the User setup menu to
activate RC25 as steering compass.
AP11:
• Select “net” as compass in the Dockside setup menu.
For AP50:
• Select FLUX1 or FLUX2 = Robnet
• Select also FLUX1 (or FLUX2) in the User Setup Menu to
activate RC25 as Steering compass or Monitor Compass (if
more than one compass is connected).
Calibration
Automatic calibration is activated from the autopilot’s Seatrial
menu. (See autopilot manual for complete calibration
procedure.)
Calibration data, and any heading offset, are stored in the
compass (EEprom) and will not be deleted by a “Master Reset”
in the autopilot.
24
20220653 / Rev. C
Instruction Manual
5.3
RC36 Rate Compass (Robnet2)
Connection to AP16, AP25, AP26, AP27
CONTROL UNIT (AP25)
RC36
RATE
COMPASS
Figure 5-6 RC36 connection to autopilot control unit
Recommended connection of RC36 to the autopilot Control Unit
using the Robnet2 connector.
Alternative connection to ACXX Autopilot
Computer
ACXX
AUTOPILOT
COMPUTER
RC36
RATE
COMPASS
AUTOPILOT COMPUTER
MAIN PCB
On-Off
Vsys
Vsys+
Bus+
Bus
GREY
TB15
PINK
BROWN
WHITE
Bn Wh Pnk Gry Yel
ROBNET
RC36
RATE
COMPASS
Figure 5-7 Alternative connection to ACXX
20220653 / Rev. C
25
Simrad Autopilot Compass
The Robnet2 connector on the compass cable is removed and the
wires are connected in parallel with the ones going to the Control
Unit.
Compass setup and calibration
The AP25 series autopilots (including AP16) has automatic
interface (source) setup that detects the connected compass and
other connected sources. This setup is taking place first time you
switch on a new installed autopilot system, or if later on you
perform a “Source update”.
If you have more than one compass connected to the autopilot,
you need to enter the “Source select” menu item under “User
setup2” and manually select the wanted compass/heading source.
Calibration
Automatic calibration is activated from the autopilot’s Seatrial
menu. (See autopilot manual for complete calibration
procedure.)
Calibration data, and any heading offset, are stored in the
compass (EEprom) and will not be deleted by a “Master Reset”
in the autopilot.
5.4
RFC35N NMEA Compass
Connection to IS15 instruments
Figure 5-8 RFC35N connection to IS15 instruments
26
20220653 / Rev. C
Instruction Manual
Figure 5-9 RFC35N connection to IS15 Expander
NMEA in:
‘Heading’ and ‘Calibration Completed’ from
compass.
NMEA out:
‘Start Calibration’ to compass.
Compass Calibration
Access the screens in the Compass Menu Group. Calibration and data
input should be carried out in the same sequence as described below.
This function will activate the automatic compass calibration
procedure.
Notes!1. The procedure will not work with a single
instrument head connected to the compass.
2. Do not use the calibration procedure when the IS15
is connected to a Simrad autopilot.
Before you begin the compass calibration, make sure you
have enough open water around you to make a full
clockwise turn at low speed. (Complete turn should take
about 1 minute).
1. Start turning the boat to starboard and press the
and hold for 2 seconds. The LCD flashes ‘CAL’.
button
2. When the calibration is completed, (after having made
approximately 1 ¼ turns), the display will read ‘Done’.
20220653 / Rev. C
27
Simrad Autopilot Compass
Connection to other equipment
RFC35N
2 1
4
3
2
J3
EXT.COMP
1
BROWN (TX-)
WHITE (TX+)
GREEN (RX-)
4 3
YELLOW (RX+)
5
PINK (VIN+)
GREY (VIN-)
6
J2
ROBNET
NMEA PCB
J1
NMEA
2
1
GREY
PINK
GREEN
YELLOW
BROWN
WHITE
GND
+12/24V
SUPPLY (From circuit breaker
or via a separate switch)
RX
NMEA IN (CALIBRATION)
RX+
TX
NMEA OUT (HEADING)
TX+
Figure 5-10 RFC35N Connection to other equipment
Cable color code
* RX+ (Yellow) and RX– (Green) are only used if the NMEA
equipment can send the proprietary sentences for calibration and
offset as described in Technical specifications, section 7.5. If so,
the calibration procedure will be similar to that of the IS15
instruments. Calibration data and heading offset is stored in the
compass and will not be deleted until a new calibration is
performed.
Calibration
As most other NMEA users cannot
communicate with the compass on
NMEA data (calibration start and
confirmation) the RFC35N has to be
calibrated the following way:
• Switch the compass off/on using the
circuit breaker or the separate switch.
28
20220653 / Rev. C
Instruction Manual
• Make two 360 degrees turns to starboard within 5 minutes
from turn on. Make sure the boat passes 3 times through
North (see figure) in smooth and slow turns. A minimum of
roll and acceleration will give the best result.
• The heading sensor is now calibrated. As there is no
confirmation of the completed calibration, you will have to
verify the compass reading against one or more known
headings.
Alignment (Offset)
The calibration procedure must have been carried out. Steer the
boat on a known heading. Slightly turn the heading sensor until
the correct heading readout is displayed. Tighten the screws.
20220653 / Rev. C
29
Simrad Autopilot Compass
RFC35N connection for 10Hz NMEA output
rate
If the NMEA heading with 10Hz output rate is needed from a
RFC35N that is used in an X-series autopilot installation the
wiring will have to be as shown below:
J3XX
JUNCTION UNIT
RADAR
REPEATERS
RFC35N
NMEA (X10)
2-WIRE
10-40V SUPPLY
(From circuit breaker
or via separate switch)
NMEA PCB
J1
NMEA
2 1
4
3
2
J3
EXT.COMP
1
2
1
GREY (VIN-)
BROWN (TX-)
WHITE (TX+)
GREEN (RX-)
4 3
YELLOW (RX+)
5
PINK (VIN+)
GREY (VIN-)
6
J2
ROBNET
PINK (VIN+)
BROWN (TX-)
WHITE (TX+)
GREEN (RX-)
YELLOW (RX+)
Note 2
JUNCTION UNIT
MAIN PCB
HSHS+
Heading
Sensor
*
* NON POLARIZED
(COLOUR INDEPENDENT)
Figure 5-11 RFC35N connection for 10Hz NMEA output rate
30
20220653 / Rev. C
Instruction Manual
Note 1.
As RFC35N can not output Robnet and NMEA at the same time,
the connection to the autopilot has to be made by the 2-wire
p.w.m. signal (as for standard RFC35).
Note 2.
RX+ (Yellow) and RX– (Green) are only used if the NMEA
equipment can send the proprietary sentences for calibration
and offset as described in Technical specifications, section 7.5
Calibration
Perform calibration as for a RFC35N compass “Connection to
other equipment” described in section 5.3, and continue with the
normal compass calibration activated from the sea trial menu in
the autopilot.
RFC35N as RFC300 substitution
When RFC35N is wired for Robnet instead of NMEA it can
substitute an RFC300 Fluxgate compass in an AP300
installation.
1. Open the RFC35N and disconnect the four wires going to J1
NMEA on the NMEA PCB and remove the cable.
2. Cut off the Robnet connector on the existing RFC300
compass cable and pull the cable through the cable gland.
3. Connect four of the six wires to J2 Robnet terminal on the
NMEA PCB according to color code in the drawing below.
Observe the color codes as there are two versions of Robnet
cables/connectors. The standard color code is used on all
removable type connectors, while the one shown in brackets is
for molded type connectors.
4. The two remaining wires must be isolated to avoid electrical
contact with the PCB or other terminals.
20220653 / Rev. C
31
Simrad Autopilot Compass
1
2
1
(P
IN
K)
G
OW
LL
YE
N)
EE
R
(G
RE
EN
2
J3
EXT.COMP
WHITE (BROWN)
MICRO-CONTROLLER
3
PINK (GREY)
VIN+
RX-
4
BROWN (WHITE)
VIN-
2 1
GREY (YELLOW)
4 3
TX+
5
RX+
TX-
6
J2
ROBNET
NMEA PCB
J1
NMEA
Colour code in brackets ( ) is for
moulded type connector only.
Removable connector
Solder type
Moulded connector
Figure 5-12 RFC35N as RFC300 substitution
Calibration
Automatic calibration is activated from AP300 “Seatrial” menu
and RFC35N needs only 1¼ turn to complete the calibration.
(RFC300 needs 3 times through North.)
Calibration data and any heading offset is stored in the compass
and will not be deleted by a “Master reset” in the AP300.
32
20220653 / Rev. C
Instruction Manual
5.5
RC37 Rate Compass
Connection to AP45 and AP9MK3
AP45
RC37
RATE
COMPASS
Figure 5-13 RC37 connection to AP45/AP9MK3
Figure 5-14 RC37 wiring to AP45 and AP9Mk3
20220653 / Rev. C
33
Simrad Autopilot Compass
5.6
RFC35NS Compass (NMEA+SIN) as
RFC250 substitution
As from 1998 the RFC35NS (part no. 22083596) substitutes
RFC250. It comes with a “pigtail” cable that matches with the
Viking connector on the original RFC250 extension cable (part
no. 20183554).
The optional SIN PCB added to the RFC35N compass provides
analogue Sine/Cosine heading output.
The signal is according to the Simrad standard; ±2V with 2.5V
reference that makes the compass compatible with RFC250
(NMEA+Sine/Cosine output).
The compass can then be used with the following Simrad/
Robertson autopilots: AP100, AP1000, AP2500, AP200 series,
AP40, AP45 and AP9MKII/3. See also table page 36.
An extra cable gland is supplied for a separate NMEA cable
connection if needed.
RFC35NS
AP2500
(AP200)
Figure 5-15 RFC35NS connection to autopilot
34
20220653 / Rev. C
Instruction Manual
SIN PCB
NMEA/RATE PCB
J1
NMEA
1
4
3
2
J3
EXT.COMP
1
2
1
BLUE (TX+)
RX-
BROWN (TX-)
2
4 3
RX+
VIN-
5
WHITE (VIN+)
6
J2
ROBNET
BL
A
GR CK
EE
VIO N+R
ED
YE LET
LL
OW
0,5 m
Cable 22083661
Original RFC250 cable
(Part no. 20183554)
RFC35NS
Figure 5-16 RFC35NS as RFC250 substitution; internal connections
Note !
The optional SIN PCB can not be used with a standard RFC35 only with RFC35N (or RFC35R).
Calibration
As for RC37 described in previous section 5.5.
20220653 / Rev. C
35
Simrad Autopilot Compass
6
COMPASS MODELS, APPLICATION
CHART
Autopilot
model
AP50 (J50)
AP25, 26, 27,
AP20, 21, 22,
AP300X
AP300
Dataline
AP16 (AC20)
AP11, AP35,
(J300X)
(J300)
Pilot
Compass
2-wire pwm
2-wire pwm
RFC35N
2-wire pwm
2-wire pwm or 2-wire pwm
or NMEA
NMEA
RFC35NS
2-wire pwm
2-wire pwm n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
2-wire pwm Robnet
n.a.
n.a.
NMEA
2-wire pwm Robnet
Sine/
Sine/
Sine/
Cosine
Cosine
Cosine or
or NMEA
2-wire pwm / 2-wire pwm /
2-wire pwm /
NMEA
NMEA
NMEA
AP9Mk3
(J3000)
(J300X)
RFC35
AP45
NMEA
RC25
Robnet
n.a.
Robnet
Robnet
Robnet
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
RC36
n.a.
Robnet2
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
RC37
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
Sine/
Sine/
Sine/
Cosine
Cosine
Cosine or
NMEA
n.a. = not applicable
36
20220653 / Rev. C
Instruction Manual
7
7.1
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
RFC35 Fluxgate Compass
Dimensions: ................................................................................................. See Figure 7-1
Weight: ....................................................................................................... 0,9 kg (2,0 lbs)
Supply and output:.............................................. Polarity independent 2-wire supply with
superimposed pulse width modulation
Automatic Performance:
Calibration: ......................................................... Automatically activated by control head
Gain compensation: ..................................................Automatically adjusted continuously
Repeatability:................................................................................................. ± 0.5 degrees
Roll/Pitch:....................................................................................................... ± 35 degrees
Accuracy:............................................................................................................. <1° (rms)
Cable supplied: .............................................................................. 15 m TP shielded cable
Temperature range:
Operation:...................................................................0 to +55 °C (+32 to + 130 °F)
Storage: ................................................................... –30 to +70 °C (–22 to +158 °F)
Environmental Protection:........................................................................................... IP56
Mounting: ............................................................................................... Deck or bulkhead
Material: ............................................................................................................Black ABS
Figure 7-1 RFC35 Fluxgate Compass - Dimensions
20220653 / Rev. C
37
Simrad Autopilot Compass
7.2
RC25 Rate Compass
Dimensions: ................................................................................................. See Figure 7-1
Weight: ...................................................................................................... 0.9 kg (2.0 lbs.)
Power consumption: ............................................................................................. 0.9 watts
Supply and interface: ............................................................................................... Robnet
Environmental Protection:........................................................................................... IP56
Material: ................................................................................................. White/black ABS
Temperature range:
Operation:.....................................................................0 to +55°C (+32 to + 130°F)
Storage: ..................................................................... –30 to +70°C (–22 to +158°F)
Mounting: ........................................................................ Deck-mount or bulkhead-mount
Cable:............................................................... 15 m (49 ft.) Robnet cable with connector
Automatic Performance:
Calibration:................................................ Automatically activated by control head
Rate sensor stabilized heading output
Accuracy: ....................................................................<1.25° rms (after calibration)
Repeatability: .............................................................................................<0.2° rms
Roll/Pitch: .........................................................................................................± 35°
7.3
RC36 Rate Compass
Dimensions: ................................................................................................. See Figure 7-1
Weight: ....................................................................................................... 0,9 kg (2,0 lbs)
Supply and interface: ............................................................................................ Robnet2
Power consumption: ............................................................................................. 0,9 watts
Automatic Performance:
Calibration:................................................ Automatically activated by control head
Gain compensation:.........................................Automatically adjusted continuously
Rate sensor stabilized heading output
Accuracy:........................................................................................................ <1.25° (rms)
Repeatability:.................................................................................................... <0.2° (rms)
Roll/Pitch:....................................................................................................... ± 35 degrees
Cable supplied: .............................................................................. 15 m TP shielded cable
Temperature range:
Operation:...................................................................0 to +55 °C (+32 to + 130 °F)
Storage: ................................................................... –30 to +70 °C (–22 to +158 °F)
Environmental Protection:........................................................................................... IP56
Mounting: ............................................................................................... Deck or bulkhead
Material: ........................................................................................................... White ABS
38
20220653 / Rev. C
Instruction Manual
7.4
RC37 Rate Compass
Dimensions: ................................................................................................. See Figure 7-1
Weight: ....................................................................................................... 0,9 kg (2,0 lbs)
Supply:................................................................................................... 10-29VDC, 1 watt
Heading output: .......................................................................................Serial and analog
Output format: ......................................................... NMEA0183 10x/sec. and sine/cosine
NMEA data:.............................................................................$IIHDG,x.x,m*hh<cr><lf>
x.x=heading, hh=checksum
Analog data:...............................................................Sine/cosine ±2V, 2.5VDC reference
Accuracy:.................................................................. <1.25 degrees rms (after calibration)
Repeatability:........................................................................................... <0.2 degrees rms
Calibration: .........................................................................................................Automatic
Roll/Pitch:....................................................................................................... ± 35 degrees
Cable supplied: .....................................................15 m (49 ft) TP shielded with open end
Temperature range:
Operation:....................................................................0 to +55 °C (+32 to + 130°F)
Storage: .................................................................... –30 to +70 °C (–22 to +158°F)
Environmental Protection:........................................................................................... IP56
Mounting: ............................................................................................... Deck or bulkhead
Material: ............................................................................................................Black ABS
7.5
RFC35N NMEA Compass
Dimensions: ................................................................................................. See Figure 7-1
Supply:................................................................................................... 10-29VDC, 1 watt
Heading output: ......................................................................................................... Serial
Output format: ..........................................Serial, RobnetTM bus for Simrad autopilots or
NMEA 0183 10x/sec.
NMEA heading:..................................................................... $IIHDG,x.x,M*hh<cr><lf>
x.x=heading, hh=checksum
NMEA status: * ................................................. $PSTOK,R<cr><lf>Calibration running
$PSTOK,C<cr><lf>Calibration terminated, or not
running (Also presented before calibration is done).
Standard configuration: ................................................................................NMEA output
Optional analogue output: ...................................................... Sine/cosine by plug-in PCB
* also applies for RFC35R and RFC35NS when connected for NMEA output.
20220653 / Rev. C
39
Simrad Autopilot Compass
NMEA0183 input data:
Calibration start command: ....................................................................$PSTOC<cr><lf>
Heading offset adjust:.................................................................. $PSTOK,,,nnn,<cr><lf>
nnn = offset adjust angle 0 – 360 degree.
PSTOK and PSTOC are proprietary NMEA sentences.
Accuracy:.................................................................. <1.25 degrees rms (after calibration)
Repeatability:........................................................................................... <0.2 degrees rms
Calibration: .........................................................................................................Automatic
Roll/Pitch:....................................................................................................... ± 35 degrees
Cable supplied: ............................................................................ 15 m (49 ft) TP shielded
Temperature range:
Operation:...................................................................0 to +55 °C (+32 to + 130 °F)
Storage: ................................................................... –30 to +70 °C (–22 to +158 °F)
Environmental Protection:........................................................................................... IP56
Mounting: ............................................................................................... Deck or bulkhead
Material: ............................................................................................................Black ABS
7.6
Optional SIN PCB
(For RFC35N)
Supply:.............................................................................Internal from RFC35 Main PCB
Output: ......................................................................................Analog Sine/Cosine signal
±2V with 2,5V reference.
Accuracy:.................................................................................. ±1 degree after calibration
Temperature range:
Operation:...................................................................0 to +55 °C (+32 to + 130 °F)
Storage: ................................................................... –30 to +70 °C (–22 to +158 °F)
7.7
RFC35NS Fluxgate Compass
Dimensions: ................................................................................................. See Figure 7-1
Weight: ....................................................................................................... 0,9 kg (2,0 lbs)
Supply:................................................................................................... 10-29VDC, 1 watt
Heading output: ................................................................................... Serial and analogue
Output format: ............................................... NMEA 0183 10x/sec. (as for RFC35R) and
Sine/cosine ±2V, 2.5VDC ref.
NMEA heading:..................................................................... $IIHDG,x.x,M*hh<cr><lf>
x.x=heading, hh=checksum
Standard configuration: ................................................................................Robnet output
Optional analogue output: ...................................................... Sine/cosine by plug-in PCB
40
20220653 / Rev. C
Instruction Manual
Accuracy:.................................................................. <1.25 degrees rms (after calibration)
Repeatability:........................................................................................... <0.2 degrees rms
Calibration: .........................................................................................................Automatic
Roll/Pitch:....................................................................................................... ± 35 degrees
Cable supplied: ..................................................0.3 m (1 ft) with 7-pin Viking connector
Temperature range:
Operation:...................................................................0 to +55 °C (+32 to + 130 °F)
Storage: ................................................................... –30 to +70 °C (–22 to +158 °F)
Environmental Protection:........................................................................................... IP56
Mounting: ............................................................................................... Deck or bulkhead
Material: ............................................................................................................Black ABS
20220653 / Rev. C
41
Simrad Autopilot Compass
42
20220653 / Rev. C
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