Order No. 4451 Fuselage kit Order No. 4451.K Helicopter kit

Order No. 4451 Fuselage kit Order No. 4451.K Helicopter kit
UNI-STAR
60
Order No. 4451
Fuselage kit
Order No. 4451.K Helicopter kit, including fuselage kit and
preassembled UNIEXPERT-Mechanics
with
installed Motor
Order No. 4451.KL Helicopter kit, including fuselage kit
and unassembled UNI-EXPERT-Mechanics,
Motor not included
Order No. 4457
Electric Helicopter kit „TRAINER UNI-E“,
including fuselage kit and preassembled UNIEXPERT-Mechanics (electric version),
Motor not included
WarnIng!
The RC helicopter which can be built based from this kit is by no means a toy! It is a
complex flying machine which is capable of causing serious personal injury and damage
to property if handled and operated incompetently.
You alone are responsible for completing the model correctly and operating it with due
regard for safety. Please be sure to read and observe the enclosed sheets SHW3 and
SHW7 which include full safety information. They should be considered as an integral
part of these instructions.
GRAUPNER GmbH & Co. KG
Änderungen vorbehalten
D-73230 KIRCHHEIM/TECK
GERMANY
4/05
UNI-STAR 60
Foreword
The UNI-STAR 60 fuselage kit complements the UNI-EXPERT- Mechanics or Uni-Mechanics
2000 to form an elegant helicopter of open construction which is as suitable for beginner’s
training as it is for unlimited aerobatics and the extreme style of flying known as "3-D".
The lightweight vacuum-moulded fuselage fairing for the mechanics is mounted on rubber
grommets for optimum vibration suppression, and it can be fitted and removed quickly and
simply. This makes for excellent accessibility to the radio control components and mechanics
for checking and maintenance. The black eloxided tail boom is amply braced by means of two
long CFRP struts, and can be replaced extremely quickly and straightforwardly if damaged. The
boom’s length has been chosen with two factors in mind: to ensure that the beginner can learn
the basic flying skills with short, low-cost wooden blades, and to allow the expert to indulge in
unlimited "3-D" aerobatics by fitting longer symmetrical-section GRP or CFRP rotor blades.
With its long skid tubes the landing gear provides a stable base for the helicopter, and the
system is designed in such a way that the main rotor shaft is vertical when the model is on the
ground. This makes it much easier to take-off and land the model accurately. Sets of wider
reinforced skid bars are available for initial training under Order No. 4447.106 and 4451.14.
An electric version of the UNI-STAR 60, named „TRAINER UNI-E“, is available under Order No.
4457 as a complete helicopter kit. While the mechanics is different the body kit is identical.
Therefore this manual covers the body of the „TRAINER UNI-E“ as well; differences to the
normal Version are mentioned in the text.
Specification
Length excl. rotor approx.
1414 mm
Width excl. rotor approx.
240 mm
Height approx.
430 mm
Rotor Ø range
1410...1550 mm
All-up weight min. approx.
4000 g
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UNI-STAR 60
Warning notes
• The contents of this kit can be assembled to produce a working model helicopter, but
the model is by no means a harmless plaything. If assembled incorrectly or handled
incompetently or carelessly it can cause serious injury to persons and damage to
property.
• When the model helicopter’s engine is running, the two rotors are spinning at high
speed and contain an enormous quantity of rotational energy. Anything and
everything that gets into the rotational plane of the rotors is either damaged or destroyed - and that includes parts of your body. Please take extreme care at all times
with this machine.
• If any object obstructs the rotational plane of the revolving rotors, severe damage will
probably be caused to the rotor blades as well as the object. Broken parts may fly off
and result in enormous imbalance; the whole helicopter then falls into sympathetic
vibration, you lose control and have no way of predicting what the model will do next.
• You may also lose control if a problem arises in the radio control system, perhaps as
a result of outside interference, component failure or flat or faulty batteries, but in any
case the result is the same: the model helicopter’s response is entirely unpredictable.
Without prior warning it may move off in any direction.
• Helicopters have many parts which are naturally subject to wear, including gearbox
components, motor, ball-links etc., and as a result it is absolutely essential to check
and maintain the model regularly. It is standard practice with full-size aircraft to give
the machine a thorough “pre-flight check” before every flight, and this is equally important with your model helicopter. Constant checking gives you the opportunity to
detect and correct any faults which may develop before they are serious enough to
cause a crash.
• The kit also includes two additional information sheets - SHW 3 and SHW 7 - which include safety notes and warnings. Please be sure to read them and keep to our recommendations. They are an essential part of these instructions.
• This helicopter is designed to be constructed and operated by adults, although young
people of 16 years or more may do so under the instruction and supervision of competent adults.
• The model features sharp points and edges which may cause injury.
• Flying model aircraft is subject to certain legal restrictions, and these must be observed at all times. For example, it is essential to take out third party insurance, you must
obtain permission to use the flying site, and you may have to obtain a licence to use
your radio control system (regulations vary from country to country).
• It is important to transport your model helicopter (e.g. to the flying site) in such a way
that there is no danger of damaging the machine. Particularly vulnerable areas are the
rotor head linkages and the tail rotor generally.
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UNI-STAR 60
• Controlling a model helicopter successfully is not easy; you will need persistence and
determination to learn the skills, and good hand-eye co-ordination is a basic requirement.
• Before you attempt to fly the model you should study the subject of helicopters in
depth, so that you have a basic understanding of how the machines work. Read
everything you can on the theory of helicopters, and spend as much time as you can
watching other model helicopter pilots flying. Talk to chopper pilots, ask their advice,
and enrol at a specialist model flying school if you need to. Many model shops will
also be prepared to help you.
• Please be sure to read right through these instructions before you start work on the
model. It is important that you clearly understand each individual stage of assembly
and the correct sequence of events before you begin building.
• Don’t make modifications to the model’s construction by using parts other than those
specifically recommended, unless you are certain of the quality and suitability of
these other components for the task.
• We have made every effort to point out to you the dangers inherent in operating this
model helicopter. Since neither we, the manufacturer, nor the model shop that sold
you the kit have any influence over the way you build and operate your model, we are
obliged to disclaim any liability in connection with it.
Liability exclusion / Compensation
As manufacturers, we at GRAUPNER are not in a position to influence the way you build
and set up the model, nor how you install, operate and maintain the radio control system
components. For this reason we are obliged to deny all liability for loss, damage or costs
which are incurred due to the incompetent or incorrect use and operation of our products, or which are connected with such operation in any way.
Unless otherwise prescribed by binding law, the obligation of the GRAUPNER company
to pay compensation, regardless of the legal argument employed, is limited to the invoice value of that quantity of GRAUPNER products which was immediately and directly
involved in the event which caused the damage. This does not apply if GRAUPNER is
found to be subject to unlimited liability according to binding legal regulation on account
of deliberate or gross negligence.
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UNI-STAR 60
Contents
• Foreword .........................................
P.2
• Warnings .........................................
P.3
• Accessories, additional parts required ....................
P.6
• 1. Assembly .......................................
P.7
•
Preparing the tail boom struts .........................
P.7
•
Preparing the mechanics to accept the tail boom ...........
P.7
•
Preparing the tail boom .............................
P.7
•
Completing the tail boom ............................
P.8
•
Checking and adjustig the tail rotor drive shaft ............
P.8
•
Attaching the tail boom to the mechanics ................
P.9
•
Installing the skids .................................
P.10
•
Tail rotor linkage ..................................
P.10
•
Mounting the Body .................................
P.11
• 2. Setting up .......................................
P.12
• 3. Pre-flight checks ..................................
P.15
• 4. Maintenance .....................................
P.15
• 5. Fitting the starter adaptor ............................
P.15
• 6. Adjustments during the first flight, blade tracking ...........
P.16
Adjusting the motor ................................
P.17
• 7. General safety measures ............................
P.18
• 8. Basic helicopter terminology .........................
P.19
•
The instructions
We have invested considerable effort in producing these instructions to ensure that you are able
to build and fly your new model helicopter safely and without problems. Whether you are a
beginner or an expert, please be sure to follow these instructions, step by step, exactly as
described in the text.
• Some parts, like the mechanics set, are supplied largely factory-preassembled, but the
system is not set up or adjusted ready to fly. It is entirely the modeller’s responsibility to
check that all screws and other joints are tight and secure, and to carry out the essential
adjustments thoroughly and conscientiously.
• The process of completing the mechanics is carried out by referring to the illustrations and
the explanatory texts which accompany them.
must be secured with thread-lock fluid, e.g.
• The joints marked with this symbol
Order No. 952 or bearing adhesive, Order No. 951; be sure to remove all traces of grease
before applying the fluid.
• Parts list, replacement parts list and exploded drawings are included at the end of the
manual.
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UNI-STAR 60
Accessories
(use the instructions in the manual of the mechanics if building the electric version „TRAINER UNI-E“)
Suitable mechanics:
Order No. 4448.LN
Order No. 4448.LN
Order No. 4449.RXN, 4450.L
UNI-MECH. 2000 with OS MAX 91 motor
UNI-MECH. 2000 with OS MAX 61 motor
UNI-Expert mech. with OS MAX 61
Recommended main rotor blades:
Order No. 1246B
GRP, reflex
Order No. 1266
CFRP, symm.
688 mm long
686 mm long
Red. ratio 7.7 : 1
Red. ratio 9 : 1
Red. ratio 9 : 1
Rotor Ø 1551 mm (Starlet: 1533 mm)
Rotor Ø 1547 mm (Starlet: 1529 mm)
Adhesives
UHU plus schnellfest, Order No. 962, fast-setting
UHU plus endfest 300, Order No. 950, slow-setting, for gluing GRP to wood
UHU Blitz, thin cyano-acrylate, Order No. 5803
Thick cyano-acrylate, Order No. 1101, for tacking parts together
Filler agent, e.g. Order No. 963, for thickening resin
Tools required:
Minimum set: assortment of files (round, half-round, flat), set of twist drills, light tin-snips,
fretsaw, various screwdrivers, allen keys and general-purpose pliers. Coarse abrasive paper,
e.g. 100-grit, Order No. 1068.1, for roughening joint surfaces and for sanding the GRP
mouldings.
Radio control system (see Mechanics manual and main Graupner catalogue)
The model requires a radio control system equipped with special helicopter options, or a microcomputer radio control system such as the mc-12, mc-14, mc-15, mc-16/20, mc-22, mx-22 or
mc-24.
Servos (high-quality servos must be used), e.g.
C 4421, Order No. 3892
Gyro:
G490T SRVS gyro, Order No. 5137, with NES-8700G super-servo, Order No. 5156, or
PIEZO 550 gyro system, Order No. 5147.
Electronic speed governor:
mc-HELI-CONTROL, Order No. 3286
Receiver power supply:
For safety reasons it is essential to use a pack of at least 2000 mAh capacity. We also
recommend a voltage monitor module, Order No. 3138, which allows you to monitor the battery
voltage constantly.
Switch harness:
Order No. 3050; suitable receiver battery: Order No. 2568.
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UNI-STAR 60
1. Assembly
The following instructions describe how to assemble the tail boom from its component parts.
Although the parts are supplied largely factory-assembled, you may need to know this
information if repairs become necessary. Some components in this set are supplied factoryassembled. Nevertheless, it is up to the builder to check that the assembly work has been
carried out correctly and that all joints are tight. Final adjustment is also left up to the builder.
1.1 Preparing the tail boom struts
Glue the strut sockets 4447.8A into both ends of the two CFRP struts 1292.108 using slowsetting epoxy, e.g. UHU-plus endfest 300, Order No. 950. Check that the sockets are exactly
parallel to each other, then leave the epoxy to set hard.
1.2 Preparing the mechanics to accept the tail boom
Screw the mounting flange 1292.5 to the bearing holder 4448.14 on the mechanics using two
M3 x 16 socket-head cap screws. At the same time fit the two M3 x 30 strut attachment screws
to the mechanics side frames, together with the aluminium mounting bolts 4451.12. To do this
you will have to unscrew the top rotor shaft bearing temporarily and slide it down; the M3 x 30
screws can then be fitted from the inside and screwed in to the point where their heads
disappear almost completely into the side frames. Install the top rotor shaft bearing again.
1.3 Tail boom
The front end of the tail boom is curved, and the effect of this is that the tail boom rises towards
the tail. This feature increases tail rotor ground clearance, and also ensures that the tail rotor
drive shaft runs in a broad, smooth curve, and therefore has no tendency to oscillate.
1.4 Preparing the tail boom
Push the two tail rotor drive shaft supports 1292.10A into the tail boom 4451.109 using a length
of beech dowel or similar. The front support should be located 200 mm from the front end of the
boom, and the rear support 300 mm from the tail end; in both cases the spherical cavities
should face forward. Working from the front end press the guide ring 4451.7 into the tail boom to
a depth of exactly 27 mm, with the conical opening facing the rear; when the parts are
assembled this ring guides the retaining sleeve accurately onto the coupling yoke.
The front shaft coupling can now be prepared: when completed the coupling should
automatically engage correctly inside the tail boom, without requiring you to align it or use any
tool. This in turn means that the brass coupling sleeve 4618.58 needs to be an easy sliding fit
over the coupling yoke 4618.57. If necessary remove any rough edges from the yoke and
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UNI-STAR 60
reduce it slightly with fine abrasive paper. Push the tail rotor shaft Order No. 4451.19 into the
coupling sleeve completely, so that the pre-formed end is located inside the sleeve. Now fit a
grubscrew in the collet 56.0 and slide it onto the tail rotor shaft after the sleeve. Push the tail
rotor shaft into the coupling yoke as far as it will go, then slide the sleeve over the yoke in the
same way. Position the collet about 1 mm from the sleeve and tighten the grubscrew onto the
shaft.
1.5 Completing the tail boom
Fit the tail rotor flange 1292.7 on the rear end of the tail boom, and fit two strut supports 1292.6
and the tail rotor linkage support 4451.6 on the boom from the front as shown in the drawing.
Note that the clamp clearance gap should be at the top of the strut supports. The hole for the tail
rotor pushrod should be on the left-hand side of the rear support and the right-hand side of the
front support; alternatively remove the front bored lug with a fretsaw. Attach the silencer holder
4451.4 to the front strut support as shown below. Note: the front support 1296.6 and the silencer
holder are not required if you are making the electric version "TRAINER UNI-E".
1.6 Checking and adjustig the tail rotor drive shaft
Withdraw the tail rotor drive shaft from the mechanics, oil it lightly and slip it through the shaft
supports in the tail boom, rotating it all the while, until the rear end projects out of the tail boom
far enough to allow you to insert it in the tail rotor coupling. Push the shaft in as far as it will go,
then pull it back by 1 mm and temporarily tighten the grubscrews in the coupling to hold it in this
position. Note: for normal operations the tail rotor shaft must have this 1 mm clearance in the
front coupling yoke, and this is obtained later by pushing the shaft into the rear coupling as far
as it will go. The tail boom can now be inserted temporarily in the mounting flange 1292.5; at the
same time slide the tail boom completely onto the bearing holder 4448.14 and secure it with the
flange. Push the tail rotor into the rear of the tail boom, rotating the tail rotor drive shaft to
ensure that it engages correctly in the quick-release coupling at the main gearbox at the front. It
should now be possible to slide the tail rotor into the tail boom to the point where it rests flush
against the flange, without the drive shaft striking the end inside the quick-release coupling. If
this is not the case you will have to shorten the tail rotor drive shaft, or alternatively move the tail
rotor gearbox flange 1292.7 slightly further aft. When you are satisfied, remove the tail boom
from the mechanics again.
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UNI-STAR 60
1.7 Attaching the tail boom to the mechanics
Withdraw the tail rotor from the tail boom to the point where the shaft coupling is accessible.
Undo the grubscrews in the shaft coupling so that the tail rotor drive shaft 4451.119 can be
pulled out of it. Now carefully remove all traces of grease from the shaft, slip it into the shaft
coupling as far as it will go and tighten the grubscrews to fix the shaft coupling in this position.
This joint must be secure, and we recommend the following procedure: first unscrew the
grubscrews from the coupling completely, apply thread-lock fluid Order No. 952 or bearing
retainer fluid Order No. 951 to the internal threaded holes, then fit the grubscrews again and
tighten them fully. If possible we recommend that you file a flat in the shaft on one side where
the screws engage, as this ensures that the joint cannot slip. Fix the tail rotor to the tail rotor
gearbox flange 1292.7 using three 2.9 x 13 mm self-tapping screws. Apply a little grease to the
quick-release coupling sleeve and the tail rotor drive shaft at the front end.
Attach the tail boom struts to the screws (installed in Stage 1.2) on either side of the mechanics
side frames, and secure them with the bolts 4451.12.
The complete tail boom assembly can now be pushed into the mounting flange 1292.5 as far as
it will go, taking care to check that the quick-release coupling engages correctly. Rotate the tail
boom until the curve in the boom is on top, and the change in direction lies exactly in the vertical
plane; rotate the tail rotor flange until the tail rotor shaft is at right-angles to the main rotor shaft
when viewed from the tail of the model looking forward. With the boom correctly aligned, fix it in
position with the M3 x 12 socket-head cap screw and an M3 nut in the mounting flange. We
suggest that you hold the tail boom pointing vertically up when you tighten the clamping screw.
Adjust the position of the rear support 1292.6 to the point where the struts 1292.108 can be
attached to it with an M3 x 30 socket-head cap screw and an M3 self-locking nut.
Place the mechanics flat on a level table top and adjust the position of the strut support until the
distance between the bottom edge of the tail rotor flange 1292.7 and the table surface is ** mm.
Tighten the strut support well in this position. Drill 1.5 mm Ø holes through the rear strut support
1292.6 and the tail boom, and the mounting flange 1292.5 and the tail boom, and fit 2.2 x 6.5
mm self-tapping screws to prevent the parts drifting out of alignment. Screw the vertical
stabiliser 1292.4 to the tail rotor flange using 2.9 x 13 self-tapping screws and fix the horizontal
stabiliser to the tail boom using the clip, wire guide and 2.9 x 19 self-tapping screws. Set the
horizontal stabiliser at right-angles to the vertical stabiliser, and position the horizontal stabiliser
clamp at a point 205 mm from the tail rotor flange. Tighten the screws fully.
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UNI-STAR 60
1.8 Installing the skids
Check that the front and rear skid clips 1291.2 are fixed to the mechanics in such a way that the
countersunk holes which take the M3 nuts are on top; if necessary turn them over. Press M3
nuts into the rear skid clips from above. Fit a spacer in each front bracket as shown in the
drawing using an M3 x 12 socket-head cap screw, with a drop of thread-lock fluid to secure the
joint.
Slide the skid tubes 4447.7 through the skid bars 4447.6 and adjust the position of the bars until
the distance between the fixing screw holes is 207 mm.
Fix the skid bars 4447.6 to the mechanics using socket-head cap screws: M3 x 16 (rear) and
M3 x 10 (front). Push the skid tubes 4447.7 into the skid bars 4447.6 as shown in the drawing
and set them parallel to each other. The bars should project by about 50 mm at the rear. Drill
1.5 mm Ø pilot-holes through the bars and skids from the inside, then fit 2.2 x 6.5 mm selftapping screws to prevent the skids shifting. Apply epoxy to the ends of the skid tubes and push
the end-plugs into place.
1.9 Silencer support (not required for "TRAINER UNI-E")
Install the silencer as described in the mechanics instructions. Fit the front flange 1292.6 and
the silencer holder on the tail boom and rotate it until the holder can support and secure the
silencer tail pipe. Push a length of silicone exhaust hose on the tail pipe then tighten the M3 x
16 socket-head cap screw.
1.10 Tail rotor linkage
Fit a piece of plastic tube about 5 cm long into the pushrod guide in the rear flange 1292.6, and
push 5 mm lengths of silicone fuel tubing on both ends to hold it in place. To connect the tail
rotor pushrod 4451.3 you must first loosen the screw in the tail rotor bellcrank 4618.60, then
introduce the pushrod from the tail end, plain end first, and slip it through the guide holes in the
tail rotor gearbox flange, the horizontal stabiliser clip, the strut support and the guide clip on the
tail linkage support 4451.6. If the pushrod is stiff where it passes through the tail rotor gearbox
flange, open up the hole in the flange using a 2 - 2.5 mm Ø twist drill. Connect the pushrod to
the outermost hole in the bellcrank, then re-tighten the screw. The pushrod is connected to the
tail rotor servo at the front end using a clevis screwed on a soldered-on threaded coupler (both
included with the mechanics). You will need to shorten the pushrod before soldering it into the
threaded coupler; at the centre setting of collective pitch the output arm of the tail rotor servo
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UNI-STAR 60
should point straight down, and the bellcrank on the tail rotor should be at right-angles to the tail
boom.
Adjust and rotate the position of the linkage support 4451.6 on the tail boom until the pushrod
runs in as straight a line as possible, or at least in a broad, smooth curve.
1.11 Installing the front cabin holder
Fix the front cabin bolt to the battery holder together with the remaining spacer using an M3x25
screw fitted from behind.
1.12 Attaching the cabin
Press rubber grommets into the three pre-cut holes in the cabin. Place the cabin on the model
and push the grommets over the three mounting bolts (top both sides, bottom front) to secure
the cabin.
Tape the clear canopy 4451.1 to the main fuselage moulding and then carefully glue it in place
using cyano or Stabilit express.
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UNI-STAR 60
2. Setting up
The following sections can be found in the same or a similar form in the manuals of the
mechanics. They are included here, too, if the mechanics used to be combined with this
fuselage kit is one of the older UNI-EXPERT-Mechanics, fitted with the older plans. When
building „TRAINER UNI-E“ in any case follow the instructions that come with the mechanics.
2.1 Setting up the cyclic control system
The basic settings of the roll and pitch-axis control systems should already be correct if you
have fitted the pushrods exactly as described in these instructions. The pushrod linkage points
on the servo output arms are pre-defined, so any servo travel adjustment required must be
carried out via the transmitter’s electronic adjustment facilities. Please note that servo travel
must not be set at too high a value; the swashplate must not foul the main rotor head when the
roll and pitch-axis stick is at its end-points, as this would mean that smooth collective pitch
control would no longer be possible, since the swashplate could not move any further along the
shaft.
2.2 Main rotor collective pitch settings
The collective pitch values are measured using a rotor blade pitch gauge (not included in the
kit). The following table shows good starting points; the optimum values may vary according to
the rotor blades you are using and the model itself.
Hovering, practice flying
Aerobatics
Auto-rotation
Minimum
-2°
-4°
-4°
Hover
5,5°...6°
5°... 5,5°
5,5°
Maximum
12°
8°... 9°
13°
The collective pitch settings are adjusted at the transmitter. This is the procedure:
1. Measure the setting for hovering collective pitch and set it correctly;
2. Measure collective pitch maximum and minimum, and adjust the values using the collective
pitch adjustment facility on your transmitter, following the diagrams shown below:
2.3 Adjusting the carburettor control system
The following diagrams show two possible carburettor control curves:
• The hover-optimised throttle curve produces smooth, gentle control response in the hovering
range.
• The values stated here vary greatly according to the motor, fuel, silencer etc. you are using.
The only means of establishing the ideal settings is to carry out your own series of practical
test-flights.
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UNI-STAR 60
2.4 Further adjustments
If you have made up all the linkages exactly as described in the previous sections, no changes
to the mechanical arrangements will be necessary. The following adjustments can all be carried
out at the transmitter:
1. Servo direction
Set the "sense" (direction of rotation) of all servos as stated in the instructions. Check the
throttle servo in particular!
2. Dual-Rates
You can set switchable travels for roll, pitch-axis and tail rotor. As a starting point we
recommend 100% and 75% as the two settings.
3. Exponential
For the basic set-up you should leave all control systems set to "linear".
4. Sub trim
Do not make any adjustments to this point. At a later stage you may wish to make minor
corrections here.
5. Adjusting servo travel
This is where you can adjust the maximum servo travel. Note that the travels should always
be the same on either side of neutral, otherwise you will end up with unwanted differential
effects:
For the throttle and swashplate servos (collective pitch function) it is important to check that
servo travels are symmetrical, i.e. with the same values for both directions, and that the
throttle servo can move the carburettor barrel from the completely closed position (motor
stopped) to full throttle, without being mechanically stalled at any point. The collective pitch
function of the swashplate servos should produce a range of blade pitch angles covering -5°
to +13°, also with symmetrical travels; you may find it necessary to remove the servo output
arm, move it round by one spline and fit the retaining screw again.
The mechanics should now be set up virtually perfectly. When the throttle/collective stick is
at centre (hover point) collective pitch should be about 5.5°, and the carburettor barrel should
be half-open.
Note:
The collective pitch and throttle curves can be adjusted later to meet your exact personal
requirements. However, if you have already set differential travels in the basic set-up
procedure, as shown in diagram "B" above, any fine adjustments required subsequently will
be more difficult!
6. Collective pitch and throttle curves
These adjustments are of fundamental importance to the flight performance of any model
helicopter. The aim of the procedure is to maintain a constant rotor speed when the model is
climbing and descending, i.e. regardless of load. This then represents a stable basis for
further fine-tuning, e.g. of the torque compensation system etc. (see also P. 21, collective
pitch and throttle curves).
7. Static torque compensation
The tail rotor servo is coupled to the collective pitch function via a mixer in the transmitter in
order to compensate for torque changes when you operate the collective pitch control. On
most transmitters the mixer input can be set separately for climb and descent.
Recommended values for the basic settings are: climb: 35%, descent: 15%.
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UNI-STAR 60
8. Gyro adjustment
Gyro systems damp out unwanted rotational movements around the vertical (yaw) axis of the
model helicopter. They do this by detecting the unwanted motion and injecting a
compensatory signal into the tail rotor control system, and in order to achieve this effect the
gyro electronics are connected between the tail rotor servo and the receiver. Many gyro
systems also allow you to set two different values for gyro effect and switch between them
from the transmitter via a supplementary channel. Some gyros even offer proportional
control. The extra channel is controlled via a proportional slider or rotary knob, or a switch,
depending on the gyro system.
If your gyro system features an adjustor box with two rotary pots for two fixed settings, and
you can switch between them from the transmitter, it is best to set one adjustor
approximately to centre (50%), and the other to 25%. If the gyro system provides
proportional control between the two set values, then the one pot should be set to "0", the
other to about 80%.
If you have a gyro system whose effect cannot be adjusted from the transmitter, i.e. there is
only a single adjustor on the gyro electronics itself, the pot should be set to 50%
effectiveness as a starting point.
Check that the direction of the gyro’s compensatory action is correct, i.e. that it responds to a
movement of the tail boom with a tail rotor response in the opposite direction. If this is not the
case, any yaw movement of the model would be amplified by the gyro! Most gyro systems
are fitted with a change-over switch which reverses its direction, and this must then be
moved to the appropriate position. However, some systems have no such switch, and in this
case the solution is to mount the gyro inverted.
One factor which all gyro systems have in common is that flight testing is necessary in order
to establish the optimum settings, as so many different influences affect the settings.
The aim of the gyro adjustment process is to achieve as high a level of gyro stabilisation as
possible, without the gyro causing the tail boom to oscillate.
14
UNI-STAR 60
3. Pre-flight checks
When you have completed the model, run through the final checks listed below before the first
flight:
• Study the manual again and ensure that all the steps of assembly have been carried out
correctly.
• Check that all the screws in the ball-links and brackets are tightened fully after you have
adjusted gear meshing clearance.
• Can all the servos move freely, without mechanical obstruction at any point? Do they all
rotate in the correct direction? Are the servo output arm retaining screws in place and tight?
• Check the direction of effect of the gyro system.
• Ensure that the transmitter and receiver batteries are fully charged. We recommend using a
voltage monitor module (e.g. Order No. 3157) to check the state of the receiver battery on
the flying field.
Don’t attempt to start the motor and fly the helicopter until you have successfully checked
everything as described above.
Bear in mind that the running qualities of your motor will vary greatly according to the fuel in
use, the glowplug, the height of your flying site above sea level and atmospheric conditions.
Please read the notes on motor set-up which you will find later in this manual.
4. Maintenance
Helicopters, whether large or small, place considerable demands on maintenance. Whenever
you notice vibration in your model, take immediate steps to reduce or eliminate it. Rotating
parts, important screwed joints, control linkages and linkage junctions should be checked before
every flight. If repairs become necessary be sure to use original replacement parts exclusively.
Never attempt to repair damaged rotor blades; replace them with new ones.
9. Fitting the starter adaptor
The starter adaptor supplied with the mechanics consists of three parts which have to be fitted
to your electric starter as shown in the drawing below:
First push the pin 4450.5C through the aluminium shaft 4450.5B. Push the plastic adaptor
4450.5A onto the aluminium shaft, checking that the projecting ends of the pin 4450.5C
engages in the slots in the adaptor.
Remove the holder for the rubber insert from the starter. Push the aluminium shaft onto the
starter shaft until the cross-pin in the shaft engages in the channel of the adaptor. Apply threadlock fluid to the two grubscrews and tighten them fully to secure the aluminium shaft.
Ensure that the adaptor runs "true", i.e. does not wobble from side to side.
To start the motor engage the starter adaptor in the cooling fan from the underside, holding the
starter vertical. Please note:
• Do not switch the starter on until you are sure that the teeth in the cooling fan are
correctly engaged with the teeth on the adaptor.
• When the motor has started, switch off the starter before withdrawing it.
15
UNI-STAR 60
6. Adjustments during the first flight
6.1 Blade tracking
"Blade tracking" refers to the height of the two rotor blades when they are spinning. The
adjustment procedure aims at fine-tuning the pitch of the main rotor blades to exactly the same
value, so that the blades rotate at the same level.
Incorrectly set blade tracking, with the blades revolving at different heights, will cause
the helicopter to vibrate badly in flight.
When you are adjusting blade tracking you are exactly in the "firing line" of the blades,
so it is important to keep at least 5 metres away from the model in the interests of safety.
You can only check blade tracking if you are able to see clearly which blade is higher and which
is lower. The best method is to mark the blades with coloured tape as follows:
There are two alternative methods: figure "A" shows the use of different colours on the blade
tips; fig. "B" shows the use of the same colour, but applied at different distances from the blade
tip.
Procedure for adjusting blade tracking
1. Set the helicopter to the point where it is almost lifting off, then sight directly along the rotor
plane.
2. If you can see that the rotor blades are running in the same plane, no adjustment is required;
however, if one blade is running higher than the other, the settings must be corrected.
3. Locate the pushrods between the swashplate and the mixer levers; the adjustment is made
at the ball-links on both ends of these pushrods: unscrew the links to raise the blade, screw
them in to lower it.
16
UNI-STAR 60
6.2 Adjusting the motor (skip for TRAINER UNI-E)
Please be sure to read the operating instructions supplied with your motor before you
start this section.
The correct matching of collective pitch and throttle when the helicopter is hovering is of crucial
importance to the model’s flying characteristics and performance. For example, if the pitch of
the main rotor blades is too high, the motor may not reach the rotational speed intended, and
this may cause you to think that the motor is not powerful enough for the job. The fact that the
motor will overheat and thereby lose more power tends to reinforce that idea. For this reason
first set the hovering collective pitch value exactly as described earlier in these instructions, then
match the motor settings to that.
Although most motors nowadays are supplied with the carburettor adjusted to approximately the
right settings, final adjustment of the needle valves can only be made under practical test
conditions. Most motors now feature twin-needle carburettors, and in this case the starting point
for adjusting the idle / mid-range needle is to screw it in to the point where it just dips into the
needle valve on the opposite side when the carburettor is half-open.
Typical twin-needle carburettor
For your first attempt at starting the motor open the needle valve 1½ to 2 full turns from closed,
connect the glowplug to the plug battery and start the motor by engaging the adaptor on the
electric starter in the teeth of the fan and switching the starter on.
Caution: when the motor starts withdraw the electric starter from the fan teeth
immediately, otherwise you could damage the model.
When the motor is running, slowly increase throttle/collective pitch. If the fuel mixture is too
"rich" and the model fails to lift off, close (screw in) the needle valve in small stages. In order to
set the motor correctly for hovering you will need to adjust the idle needle, which also governs
the mid-range settings. Note that any adjustment you make here is also influenced by the
needle valve setting. Carefully close (screw in) the idle needle until the motor runs smoothly at
hover, without any tendency to stop through too rich a mixture. If motor speed is then too low,
increase the hover throttle setting at the transmitter. Never attempt to increase the motor speed
for hovering by setting the idle needle too lean. The final needle valve setting can only be made
with the model flying under power with "full collective", and for this reason you are bound to start
by "feeling your way" slowly to the correct setting.
If in any doubt, always set the mixture on the "rich" side. Initial hovering flights should
always be carried out with the motor set distinctly rich.
17
UNI-STAR 60
7. General safety measures
• Take out adequate third-party insurance cover.
• Wherever possible join the local model flying club.
7.1 At the flying site:
•
•
•
•
Never fly your model above spectators.
Do not fly models close to buildings or vehicles.
Avoid flying over agricultural workers in neighbouring fields.
Do not fly your model in the vicinity of railway lines, major roads or overhead cables.
7.2 Pre-flight checks, flying safety:
• Before you switch on the transmitter check carefully that no other model flyer is using the
same frequency.
• Carry out a range check with your RC system.
• Check that the transmitter and receiver battery are fully charged.
• Whenever the motor is running take particular care that no item of clothing can get caught on
the throttle stick.
• Do not let the model fly out of safe visual range.
• There should always be a safe reserve of fuel in the tank. Never keep flying until the fuel
runs out.
7.3 Post-flight checks:
• Clean oil residues and dirt from the model and check that all screws etc. are still tight.
• Look for wear and damage to the helicopter, and replace worn parts in good time.
• Ensure that the electronic components such as battery, receiver, gyro etc. are still securely
fixed. Remember that rubber bands deteriorate with age and may fail.
• Check the receiver aerial. Conductor fractures inside the flex are often not visible from the
outside.
• If the main rotor should touch the ground when spinning, replace the blades. Internal blade
damage may not be visible from the outside.
• Never carry the model by the tail boom: too firm a grip will easily deform the tail rotor
pushrod.
18
UNI-STAR 60
8. A few basic terms used in model helicopter flying
The term "rotary wing machine" indicates that the helicopter’s lift is derived from rotating "wings"
which take the form of rotor blades. As a result, a helicopter does not require a minimum
forward speed in order to fly, i.e. it can hover.
8.1 Cyclic pitch
Cyclic pitch variation is used to steer the machine around the roll and pitch axes. Changing
cyclic pitch has the effect of altering blade pitch depending on its position in the circle. The
effect is caused by tilting the swashplate, which then effectively tilts the helicopter in the
required direction.
8.2 Collective pitch
Collective pitch provides control over vertical movement, i.e. for climb and descent. The pitch of
both rotor blades is altered simultaneously.
8.3 Torque compensation
The spinning rotor produces a moment which tends to turn the whole helicopter in the opposite
direction. This effect must be accurately neutralised, and this is the task of the tail rotor. Tail
rotor blade pitch is altered to vary torque compensation. The tail rotor is also used to control the
model around the vertical (yaw) axis.
8.4 Hovering
This is the state in which the helicopter flies in a fixed position in the air, without moving in any
direction.
8.5 Ground effect
This occurs only when the machine is close to the ground, and it falls off as altitude rises. At an
altitude of about 1 - 1.5 times the rotor diameter ground effect is completely absent. Normally
the revolving airflow from the main rotor is able to flow away freely, but in ground effect the air
strikes an obstacle (the ground) and forms an "air cushion". In ground effect a helicopter can lift
more weight, but its positional stability is reduced, with the result that it tends to "break away" in
an unpredictable direction.
8.6 Climb
Any excess power above that required for hovering can be exploited to make the helicopter
climb. Note that a vertical climb requires more energy than an angled climb which includes
forward motion. For this reason a model with a given amount of motor power will climb more
rapidly at an angle than vertically.
8.7 Level flight
A helicopter absorbs least power when flying straight and level at about half-power. If you have
trimmed the machine carefully for a steady hover, it will tend to turn to one side when flown
forward. The reason for this phenomenon is that the rotor blade which is moving forward
encounters an increased airflow caused by the wind, and this increases its upthrust compared
with the blade which is moving downwind, where the same airflow has to be subtracted. The net
result is a lateral inclination of the helicopter.
8.8 Descent
If the helicopter’s rotor speed is relatively low and you place the helicopter in a fast vertical
descent, the result can be that insufficient air flows through the rotor. This can cause what is
known as a "turbulent ring stage", when the airflow over the blade airfoil breaks away. The
helicopter is then uncontrollable and will usually crash. A high-speed descent is therefore only
possible if the helicopter is moving forward, or if the rotor is spinning at high speed. For the
same reason care should be exercised when turning the model helicopter downwind after flying
into wind.
8.9 Flapping motion of the rotor blades
As we have already seen, the forward-moving blade produces greater upthrust than the other
blade. This effect can be minimised by allowing the forward-moving blade to rise and the other
19
UNI-STAR 60
blade to fall. The rotor head is fitted with what is known as a flapping hinge to allow this
movement, and this prevents the rotor plane tilting excessively in forward flight. In model
helicopters a single hinge shared by both blades has proved a good solution to the problem.
8.10 Auto-rotation
This term refers to a helicopter flying without motor power. The rotational speed of the main
rotor can be kept high by setting both blades to negative pitch, and the airflow through the rotor
as it descends then keeps the blades turning. The rotational energy stored in the rotor by this
means can be converted into upthrust when the helicopter is close to the ground, by the pilot
applying positive collective pitch. Of course, this can only be done once, and it has to be done at
the correct moment. Auto-rotation allows a model helicopter to land safely when the motor fails,
just like a full-size machine.
However, auto-rotation places considerable demands on the pilot’s judgement and reflexes; you
can only halt the machine’s descent once, and you must not "flare" too early or too late. Much
practice is required to get it right.
20
Order No. 4451
Uni-Star 60
since ’98 series
Replacement
parts
Date of issue 4/05
GRAUPNER GmbH & Co. KG
D-73230 KIRCHHEIM/TECK
GERMANY
UNI-STAR 60
since ’98 series
Tail boom
2
UNI-STAR 60
since ’98 series
Graupner
Order No.
1291.13
1292.5
1292.6
1292.7
1292.10A
1292.108
4447.8A
4451.3
4451.4
4451.6
4451.7
4451.12
4451.109
4451.119
Description
Bracket, plastic
Connecting flange
Strut support flange
Tail rotor gearbox flange
Tail rotor driveshaft guide
CFRP strut
Strut sockets
Tail rotor control rod
Tuned pipe holder
Tail rotor control rod holder
ring guide, plasic
Mounting bolt (short)
Tail boom, curved, aluminium, eloxided black
Tail rotor driveshaft
No. off
Reqd./Pack
1/1
1
2/1
1
2/2
2/2
4
1,5mm Ø
1/2
2/2
1/1
1/1
8Ø x 27lg, M3 2/2
880 lg.
1/1
2Ø x 872 lg.
1/1
565.10
565.12
565.16
565.30
706.30
712
713
747.7
746.13
Socket-head cap screw
Socket-head cap screw
Socket-head cap screw
Socket-head cap screw
Cheesehead screw
Hexagon nut
Self-locking nut
Self-tapping screw
Self-tapping screw
M3x10
M3x12
M3x16
M3x30
M3x30
M3
M3
2,2x6,5
2,9x13
3
Dimensions
[mm]
1/20
3/20
4/20
2/20
2/20
5/20
3/20
3/20
3/20
UNI-STAR 60
since ’98 series
Fuselage, tail fins, skids
4
UNI-STAR 60
since ’98 series
Graupner
Order No.
1292.3
Description
Dimensions
[mm]
horizontal stabiliser, plastic
Bracket, plastic
Pushrod guide, plastic
1292.4
vertical stabiliser, plastic
4447.5
Set of mounting bolts, consisting of:
Spacers
4451.12 Mounting bolts (short)
1292.12 Mounting bolts (long)
4447.6
Skid bar, black
4447.7
Skid tubes, eloxided black
4447.7A End-plug, black
4451.1
Cabin glazing
4451.2
Cabin sides (r/l) (glued together)
565.10
565.12
565.16
706.25
712
747.7
746.13
746.19
3513.3
Socket-head cap screw
Socket-head cap screw
Socket-head cap screw
Cheesehead screw
Hexagon nut
Self-tapping screw
Self-tapping screw
Self-tapping screw
Grommet
No. off
Reqd./Pack
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
10Øx9lg, M3
8Øx27lg, M3
8Øx33lg, M3
3
2
1/2
2/2
2
4
1/1
1/1
M3x10
M3x12
M3x16
M3x25
M3
2,2x6,5
2,9x13
2,9x19
2 / 20
2 / 20
2 / 20
1 / 20
2 / 20
4 / 20
2 / 20
2 / 20
3 / 10
Accessories:
Graupner
Order No.
4451.97
4451.98
4451.99
Description
Dimensions
[mm]
Decor pink/blue/yellow
Decor dark blue/medium blue/light blue
Decor red/green/gray
1
1
1
2239A
2238A
2240
2250
Stainless steel manifold (rear exhaust)
Stainless steel manifold (side exhaust)
Stainless steel tuned muffler
Aluminium tuned pipe, for maximum power
1
1
1
1
60
1266
Main rotor blades, wood, Standard 60
Main rotor blades, CFRP, symmetr.
5
625x65
686x60
No. off
Reqd./Pack
1 Paar
1 Paar
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