ELT-400 Exposure Level Tester
ELT-400
Exposure Level Tester
BN 2300/98.11
Operating Manual
ELT-400
Exposure Level Tester
BN 2304/xx, Series A ...
Operating Manual
If you have any questions about this
product, please contact your local
Sales Partner.
Narda Safety Test Solutions GmbH
Sandwiesenstr. 7, 72793 Pfullingen
© 2004
Order no.: 2300/98.11
Edition : 03/04.07, A ...
Previous Edition: 02/03.08, A ...
Subject to change
Our normal guarantee and delivery
terms apply
Printed in Germany
Contents
1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
1.1
2
3
4
About this instrument. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
1.1.1
Application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
1.1.2
About this manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Safety instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
2.1
Before connecting up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
2.2
Correct usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
2.3
AC adapter / charger unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
2.4
Faults and excessive stresses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Preparation for use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
3.1
Unpacking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
3.1.1
Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
3.1.2
Checking the package contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
3.1.3
Checking for transport damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
3.1.4
Recovery after storage and transport . . . . . . . . . 3-1
3.2
Power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
3.2.1
Charging the rechargeable batteries . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
3.3
Preparing for field measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
3.3.1
Test setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
3.3.2
Connecting / disconnecting the B field probe . . . 3-4
Control and display elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
4.1
Keypad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
4.2
LCD display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
4.2.1
LCD display elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
4.2.2
Display backlight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
4.3
External connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
5
6
Operation and use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
5.1
Operating modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
5.1.1
Exposure STD (Shaped Time Domain) . . . . . . . . 5-2
5.1.2
Field strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
5.2
Example applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
5.3
Measuring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
5.3.1
Switching the ELT-400 on and off . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
5.3.2
Selecting the operating mode (MODE). . . . . . . . . 5-8
5.3.3
Selecting the detection mode (DETECT) . . . . . . . 5-9
5.3.4
Selecting the lower frequency range limit
(LOW CUT). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
5.3.5
Selecting the measurement range (RANGE) . . . 5-10
5.3.6
Activating the MAX HOLD display function . . . . 5-11
5.3.7
Interpreting the measurement results. . . . . . . . . 5-12
5.4
Active probe (using the three-channel
analog output) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14
Maintenance and repairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
6.1
Rechargeable and alkaline batteries . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
6.1.1
Replacing the rechargeable batteries
and alkaline batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
6.1.2
Disposal of alkaline and rechargeable
batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
6.2
Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
6.3
AC adapter / charger unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
7
8
Remote control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
7.1
Setting up the data link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
7.1.1
Data cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
7.1.2
Interface parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
7.2
Fundamentals of remote control . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
7.2.1
Overview of remote control commands . . . . . . . . 7-3
7.2.2
Remote control command format . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
7.2.3
Response value formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
7.3
Remote control commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
8.1
Functional principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
8.2
Field strength mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
8.3
Exposure STD (Shaped Time Domain)
mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
8.4
General specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7
8.5
Conformance labeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9
8.6
Climatic environmental conditions . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10
8.7
Dimensions and weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10
8.8
Ordering information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11
8.9
Package contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11
8.10
Accessories (optional) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12
Annex A: Default values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1
Annex B: Exposure STD mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1
Annex C: Instrument function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1
Annex D: Probe configuration / signal output . . . . . . . . . . . D-1
Index of key words
Notes:
1
1.1
1.1.1
Introduction
About this instrument
Application
Magnetic fields are present in production areas, public places and the
everyday environment. Measurements are often made in these areas to
ensure that people are not exposed to fields that could cause injuries.
Global efforts to provide effective protection have resulted in a range of
national and international guidelines and standards in recent years, which
specify reference limit values for field strengths for various frequency ranges
and signal shapes.
In practice, simple equipment must be used to determine the fields that
occur and to check that the limit values are not exceeded.
The ELT-400 is a completely new type of tester for workplace and public
area exposure to magnetic radiation. It was developed specially for the
above areas, for use by health and safety representatives in industry,
insurers, and service providers.
Production areas
The ELT-400 is particularly suitable for applications involving production
plant, including welding, smelting and heating, as well as most magnetic
stirring equipment. It can handle special requirements such as the pulsed
signals or phase control encountered in resistance welding without
problems.
Everyday environment
Magnetic fields occur everywhere in the everyday environment, being
produced by everything from power supply plant through to medical
equipment.
For example, the electromagnetic and magneto-acoustic security systems
used in department stores also operate within the frequency range of the
ELT-400.
1-1
1 Introduction
ELT-400
EMC test laboratory
The ELT-400 is ideal for investigating the magnetic fields produced by
household equipment or other electrical devices. The reference test method
described in the latest product standards such as EN 50366 and
prEN 50392 is implemented precisely in this instrument.
Instrument description
The ELT-400 is extremely easy to operate using just 6 buttons and can be
used practically anywhere.
Exposure STD mode
Exposure STD mode is suitable for particularly simple and reliable
measurements on all signal shapes (single or multiple frequency fields,
pulsed fields).
The level of the magnetic field is displayed directly as a percentage of the
reference limit value, regardless of the signal shape and frequency. The
evaluation schemes specified by the relevant safety standards are
implemented in the instrument.
The numerical result therefore clearly expresses the actual situation and
indicates the available safety margin.
Field strength mode
The ELT-400 has a flat frequency response over a very wide frequency
range. Detectors for RMS and peak value measurements can be used for
broadband measurements. The results of field strength measurements are
displayed in µT or mT.
Active probe
The ELT-400 can be connected to an oscilloscope or FFT analyzer for more
in-depth analysis. The signal voltages from all three field probes (isotropic
coil configuration) are output with proper phase. The amplified voltage can
be input directly to the oscilloscope or FFT analyzer.
1-2
ELT-400
1.1.2
1 Introduction
About this manual
Typographic conventions
Some special symbols are used in certain paragraphs to make it easier to
read and understand this manual.
ª This symbol indicates a cross-reference to another chapter, section or
document.
Note:
This indicates important additional information or notes
concerning special features or situations
✓ This symbol indicates a requirement that must be fulfilled before the
subsequent instructions are carried out.
⇒ This symbol indicates an action or task that must be performed.
1. A numbered list indicates a sequence of actions that must be
performed one after the other.
1-3
1 Introduction
ELT-400
Notes:
1-4
2
2.1
Safety instructions
Before connecting up
This instrument was shipped in perfect condition. Please follow the
instructions below to ensure that this condition is maintained and that
operation remains safe.
2.2
Correct usage
The instrument must only be used under the conditions and for the purpose
for which it has been designed.
Strong fields
Extremely strong fields can occur close to some radiation sources.
Danger
⇒ Take care to keep within safety zones and markings.
⇒ Persons fitted with electronic implants (e.g. pacemakers) must avoid
dangerous areas.
⇒ Closely monitor the displayed measurement values as you approach any
unknown field source.
Unsuitable frequency range
Danger
The instrument’s frequency range is limited to 1 Hz and 400 kHz. Fields
outside this range will not be measured correctly. Very strong fields which
may be dangerous to persons fitted with electronic implants will not be
detected.
⇒ Use alternative suitable test equipment for field measurements outside
this frequency range.
2-1
2 Safety instructions
ELT-400
Electric shock
Very high voltages can occur inside the instrument.
Danger
⇒ Make sure that the instrument or the probe does not touch any part
carrying a voltage.
⇒ Do not open the instrument.
⇒ Do not use an instrument which is opened or which is visibly damaged.
⇒ Only use the accessories supplied and designed for use with the
ELT-400.
Malfunctions
Incorrect usage, damage and impermissible repairs can adversely affect the
accuracy and function of the instrument.
Caution
⇒ Only use the instrument under the conditions and for the purpose for
which it has been designed.
⇒ Check the instrument regularly for signs of damage.
⇒ Make sure that repairs are carried out by professionals only.
Explosion
Dry batteries can explode if you attempt to recharge them. The instrument
may be damaged.
Caution
2-2
⇒ Before recharging, make sure that rechargeable batteries and not
alkaline batteries are fitted in the battery compartment.
ELT-400
2.3
2 Safety instructions
AC adapter / charger unit
Electric shock
Parts carrying dangerous voltages that may cause injury may be exposed if
the AC adapter / charger unit is damaged.
Danger
⇒ Do not use an AC adapter / charger unit that has been damaged.
Destruction
Caution
2.4
The wrong AC line voltage, condensation, excessively high or low
temperatures and poor ventilation can lead to destruction of the
AC adapter / charger unit.
⇒ Before connecting up the AC adapter / charger unit make sure that
the operating voltage of the AC adapter / charger unit is the same as the
AC line voltage.
⇒ Do not use the AC adapter / charger unit if condensation has formed on
it. If condensation is unavoidable, e.g. because the instrument has been
moved from a cold to a warm room, wait until the unit has dried off before
connecting it up.
⇒ Only use the AC adapter / charger unit indoors and at temperatures
between +5 °C and +45 °C.
Faults and excessive stresses
Take the unit out of service and secure it against unintentional operation if
safe operation is no longer possible. This will be the case, for example, if:
• the instrument shows visible signs of damage
• the instrument does not work
• the instrument has been subjected to any kind of stress that exceeds the
permitted limits.
Contact your local Service Center in such cases.
2-3
2 Safety instructions
Notes:
2-4
ELT-400
3
3.1
3.1.1
Preparation for use
Unpacking
Packaging
The packaging is designed to be re-used as long as it has not been
damaged during previous transport. Please therefore keep the original
packaging and use it whenever you want to transport the instrument in
future.
3.1.2
Checking the package contents
ª Package contents: see page 8-11
3.1.3
Checking for transport damage
Check the instrument and all accessories for transport damage after you
have unpacked them. Such damage is most likely if the packaging itself has
been clearly damaged. Do not attempt to use an instrument that has been
damaged.
3.1.4
Recovery after storage and transport
Condensation may form on an instrument that has been stored or
transported at a low temperature when it is brought into a warm room. To
prevent damage, wait until all the condensation has evaporated from the
surface of the instrument before using it. The instrument must not be used
until it has reached a temperature that is within the guaranteed operating
range of -10 to +50 °C.
3-1
3 Preparation for use
3.2
ELT-400
Power supply
The ELT-400 is designed to be powered from alkaline or rechargeable
batteries. The AC adapter / charger unit can also be used to provide power.
Note:
The measurement characteristics of the ELT-400 may be affected
by the effect of the cable on the field when the instrument is
powered from the AC adapter / charger unit.
Operation from rechargeable batteries
The ELT-400 is powered from four 1.2 V NiMH batteries (Mignon, size AA,
IEC R 6).
The operating time from a set of fully charged batteries is about twelve
hours.
Note:
The batteries are supplied pre-charged. Several charge /
discharge cycles will be needed in order to achieve their full
capacity.
Handling rechargeable batteries
•
•
•
•
Always handle rechargeable batteries with care.
Avoid incorrect polarity.
Do not short-circuit the battery contacts.
If possible, leave the ELT-400 connected to the AC adapter / charger unit
to ensure that it is always ready for use.
• Do not leave discharged batteries in the instrument for a long period of
time.
ª Charging the rechargeable batteries: see page 3-3
Operation from alkaline batteries
Four 1.5 V alkaline batteries (Mignon, Size AA, IEC LR 6) can be used in
the ELT-400 instead of rechargeable batteries.
The operating time from alkaline batteries is about 20 hours.
ª Replacing the rechargeable batteries and alkaline
batteries: see page 6-1
3-2
ELT-400
3.2.1
3 Preparation for use
Charging the rechargeable batteries
Complete recharging takes less than 2 hours.
Explosion
Alkaline batteries can explode if you attempt to recharge them.
Caution
⇒ Before you start charging the batteries, make sure that rechargeable
batteries and not alkaline batteries are fitted in the battery compartment.
Starting the charging cycle
✓ The AC line voltage matches the operating voltage of the AC adapter /
charger unit.
✓ The appropriate AC line adapter has been fitted.
1. Connect the AC adapter / charger unit to the “Charge” socket of the
ELT-400.
2. Connect the AC adapter / charger unit to the AC line supply.
• The charge cycle starts.
At least one of the four segments in the battery symbol in the LCD is
filled and flashes. Eventually all the segments will be filled as charging
proceeds.
• When the batteries are fully charged, the AC adapter / charger unit
switches to trickle charge mode automatically.
All the segments of the battery symbol in the LCD are filled and
displayed.
Note:
The charge cycle is still indicated if the AC adapter / charger unit
is disconnected from the AC line after charging has started but
remains connected to the ELT-400. If charging seems to be taking
an unusually long time, check that the connection to the AC line
supply is working properly.
3-3
3 Preparation for use
3.3
3.3.1
ELT-400
Preparing for field measurements
Test setup
The following are part of the complete test setup for measuring a field:
• The basic instrument
• The B field probe (cross sectional area 100 cm2)
The instrument uses an external isotropic magnetic field probe and is
also suitable for standards-compliant measurements in nonhomogeneous fields.
Note:
3.3.2
Persons or objects should not come between the probe and the
radiation source during the measurement.
Connecting / disconnecting the B field probe
The multi-pin connector socket for the B field probe is located at the top of
the ELT-400. The field probe is secured by means of a sliding locking sleeve.
Sliding locking sleeve
Fig. 3-1
B field probe
Connecting the field probe
1. Place the probe on the basic instrument so that the red marks on the
plug and socket point in the same direction.
2. Hold the field probe by the black shaft and press it into the basic
instrument until the locking sleeve clicks into place.
The instrument detects the probe automatically.
3-4
ELT-400
3 Preparation for use
Disconnecting the field probe
⇒ Hold the field probe by the locking sleeve and pull it off the basic
instrument.
3-5
3 Preparation for use
Notes:
3-6
ELT-400
4
Control and display elements
The instrument diagram in the Annex shows the positions of all control and
display elements.
4.1
Keypad
Key
Function
ON/OFF
On / off key
• Starts the instrument with its default settings.
• Switches the display backlight on or off (press
briefly)
• Switches the instrument off (press for a longer
time).
MAX HOLD
Display mode selection key
• Switches the MAX HOLD display mode on or off.
• Activation of the MAX HOLD function is shown in
the display.
RANGE
Measurement range selection key
• Switches between HIGH and LOW ranges
• Selection of the HIGH setting is shown in the
display
Table 4-1
Keypad overview
4-1
4 Control and display elements
Key
Function
MODE
Operating mode selection key
• Switches between “Exposure STD” and “Field
strength” modes.
• Switches between standardized evaluation
schemes and measurement ranges.
• All evaluation schemes and measurement ranges
implemented in the instrument are shown beneath
the display. The selected setting is indicated by the
arrow symbol in the display.
DETECT
Detection mode selection key
• Switches between RMS, PEAK and STND
(Standard) detection modes.
• The selected setting is shown in the display.
LOW CUT
Lower frequency range limit selection key
• Switches the lower frequency range limit between
1 Hz, 10 Hz and 30 Hz.
• The selected setting is shown in the display.
Table 4-1
4-2
Keypad overview
ELT-400
ELT-400
4.2
4.2.1
4 Control and display elements
LCD display
LCD display elements
1
7
2
6
5
Fig. 4-1
4
3
LCD elements (example)
No.
Function
1
Measured value including units
The units depend on the selected measurement mode
• %
• µT, mT
Table 4-2
LCD display elements
4-3
4 Control and display elements
ELT-400
No.
Function
2
Battery symbol consisting of a frame containing four segments.
Indicates the current charge status of the rechargeable batteries.
In operation
• Outer frame displayed.
• Inner segments displayed to indicate the
charge level.
Batteries discharged
• Outer frame flashes.
• All inner segments off.
• To avoid deep discharge, the ELT-400
switches off automatically after about 15
minutes.
Batteries fully
discharged or not
fitted
• The battery symbol is no longer
displayed at all.
Charging
(with AC adapter /
charger unit
connected)
• Outer frame displayed.
• Inner segments flash to indicate the
charge level.
Trickle charging
(with AC adapter /
charger unit
connected)
• Outer frame displayed.
• All inner segments displayed.
Note: The charge state is only indicated correctly for rechargeable
batteries that have been charged directly in the instrument.
3
Selected measurement range:
• HIGH
• No display = LOW
4
Selected display function:
• MAX = MAX HOLD activated
• No display = MAX HOLD deactivated
Table 4-2
4-4
LCD display elements
ELT-400
4 Control and display elements
No.
Function
5
Display of selected lower frequency range limit:
• 1 Hz
• 10 Hz
• 30 Hz
6
Selected operating mode indicated by arrow symbol.
7
Display of selected detection mode:
• RMS = root mean square value.
• Stnd = automatic selection according to exposure evaluation
schemes.
• Peak = peak value.
Table 4-2
4.2.2
LCD display elements
Display backlight
Switching on the display backlight
⇒ With the instrument switched on, press the ON/OFF key briefly.
The display backlight switches on.
Switching off the display backlight
⇒ Press the ON/OFF key briefly.
The display backlight switches off.
Note:
The operating time of the instrument is reduced when the display
backlight is switched on, as additional current is used. To
conserve battery power, the display backlight switches off
automatically after about 10 minutes.
4-5
4 Control and display elements
4.3
ELT-400
External connectors
There are three connector sockets for external equipment on the left side of
the instrument.
Socket
Function
Serial data interface
Computer (PC) connection
RS-232
•
•
•
•
19200 baud
8n1
Handshake XON/XOFF
For pin connections (see Fig. 7-1)
Analog signal output (active probe)
Connection to oscilloscope or analyzer
• Three channels (X-Y-Z)
• Interface cable: D-SUB15 / 3 x BNC
Scope
AC adapter / charger unit connector
• Nominal voltage: 9 V
Charge
Table 4-3
4-6
External connectors
5
5.1
Operation and use
Operating modes
Direct numerical display of:
• Safety margin compared with the exposure limit values specified in
standards (“Exposure STD” mode)
• Field strength (“Field strength” mode)
• Also for specialized analysis using an oscilloscope or FFT analyzer
(Active Probe).
Exposure STD mode
In “Exposure STD” mode, the level of the magnetic field (B field) is displayed
directly as a percentage of the reference value, regardless of the signal
shape and frequency. The user simply selects the desired standard. The
required frequency response for the limit values is emulated by means of
internal filters.
Advantages of the ELT-400:
• Instant display of current situation and safety margin without needing to
refer to the standards.
• Automatic allowance for various signal shapes as well as for pulsed
fields without need for in-depth knowledge of the field, the instrument or
the device under test.
• Continuous monitoring of the field with any change being evaluated
immediately.
• Default setting takes RMS and peak values into account simultaneously.
The appropriate detector is selected continuously and automatically,
depending on the test signal and the selected standard. The detectors
can also be selected independently to provide more information about
the signal.
Field strength mode
“Field strength” mode is useful if the field to be measured only contains a
relevant frequency component. The result is displayed in mT or µT.
5-1
5 Operation and use
5.1.1
ELT-400
Exposure STD (Shaped Time Domain)
Broadband measurement with simultaneous real-time exposure
assessment
Fig. 5-1
5-2
Measurement display in “Exposure STD” mode
Measurement goal:
Rapid, reliable assessment of field exposure with reference
limits from a selected standard.
Measured quantity:
Field exposure.
Display:
Numerical display of measurement result as a percentage
of the field strength limit value.
Special features:
Different evaluation schemes (reference value curves,
exposure ranges) available depending on instrument
version.
Active probe:
A frequency response weighted signal is available.
ELT-400
5.1.2
5 Operation and use
Field strength
Broadband real time measurement of magnetic flux density
Fig. 5-2
Measurement display in “Field strength” mode
Measurement goal:
Measurement of overall field strength.
Measured quantity:
RMS or peak flux density value.
Display:
Numerical display of measurement result in units of mT or
µT.
Special features:
Flat frequency response
Active probe:
The output field is available independent of frequency.
5-3
5 Operation and use
5.2
ELT-400
Example applications
To take advantage of the full performance of the ELT-400, it is important to
optimize the instrument settings to match the expected characteristics of the
field being investigated. The table below provides assistance for this
important task. It shows typical applications together with the appropriate
instrument settings. Please note, though, that the choice of measurement
range or the lower measurement range limit in particular must be decided
according to the actual measurement situation and the aim of the
measurement.
Application
Characteristic feature
Recommended
instrument setting
Magnetic stirring
High field strengths,
very low frequencies
• MODE:
Exposure STD (Exp.1/ occ.)
• RANGE: High
• LOW CUT: 1 Hz
Household
Low field strength
50/60 Hz
• MODE: Field strength
320 µT
• RANGE: Low
• LOW CUT: 30 Hz
• DETECT: RMS
Induction heating /
melting
High field strength
50 Hz to 20 kHz
• MODE:
Exposure STD (Exp.1/ occ.)
• RANGE: High
• LOW CUT: 30 Hz
Annealing / tempering
High field strength
10 kHz to 30 kHz
• MODE:
Exposure STD (Exp.1/ occ.)
• RANGE: High
• LOW CUT: 30 Hz
Resistance welding,
spot welding
50 Hz, pulsed)
• MODE:
Exposure STD (Exp.1/ occ.)
• RANGE: High
• LOW CUT: 30 Hz
MF welding
Pulsed DC field with
dominant component of
converter frequency
• MODE:
Exposure STD (Exp.1/ occ.)
• RANGE: Low
• LOW CUT: 1 Hz
Table 5-1
5-4
Example applications and instrument settings
ELT-400
5 Operation and use
Application
Characteristic feature
Recommended
instrument setting
Electronic article
surveillance
(electromagnetic)
Complex pulse shape,
20 Hz to 10 kHz
• MODE:
Exposure STD (gen. pub.)
• RANGE: High
• LOW CUT: 10 Hz
Electronic article
surveillance
(magneto-acoustic)
Complex pulse shape,
58 kHz
• MODE:
Exposure STD (gen. pub.)
• RANGE: Low
• LOW CUT: 30 Hz
CE certification
(household
appliances)
Product standard
w=1, take coupling
factor into account if
necessary
• MODE: prEN 50366
• RANGE: Low
• LOW CUT: 10 Hz
Table 5-1
Example applications and instrument settings
5-5
5 Operation and use
5.3
5.3.1
ELT-400
Measuring
Switching the ELT-400 on and off
Switching the ELT-400 on
✓ You have made sure of the power supply
⇒ Press the ON/OFF key briefly.
The basic instrument switches on.
The function test runs.
Function test
The function test checks the internal memory, display, signal processor and
internal signal paths.
• During the function test,
– all elements of the display and the display backlight are switched on
for 0.5 seconds,
– the firmware version is displayed for about 2 seconds.
Fig. 5-3
5-6
Test display
ELT-400
5 Operation and use
When the function test is successfully completed,
– the measurement display appears.
– You can now start making measurements.
Fig. 5-4
Measurement display
Switching off the ELT-400
⇒ Press and hold down the ON/OFF key for about 3 seconds.
The basic instrument switches off.
Possible faults
No display after switch on
The rechargeable batteries or alkaline batteries are completely discharged.
⇒ Recharge the batteries or replace the alkaline batteries.
ª Charging the rechargeable batteries: see page 3-3
ª Replacing the rechargeable batteries and alkaline
batteries: see page 6-1
One of the following error messages appears after switching on:
F200, F210, F240, F250, F260, F280
An instrument error has occurred.
⇒ Make a note of the error message.
⇒ Contact the Service Center.
5-7
5 Operation and use
ELT-400
The display shows the error message “noPr”.
The probe is not connected or has not been detected by the instrument.
⇒ Remove the probe and reconnect it.
ª Connecting / disconnecting the B field probe: see page 3-4
The display shows the error message “unPr”.
The unknown probe has been connected.
⇒ Connect the correct probe.
ª Connecting / disconnecting the B field probe: see page 3-4
5.3.2
Selecting the operating mode (MODE)
The operating modes implemented in the instrument are shown below the
display.
ª Operating modes: see page 5-1
⇒ Press the MODE key until the arrow symbol in the display points to the
required operating mode.
Note:
5-8
The measurement display will fluctuate whenever the setting is
changed. This fluctuation depends on the selected lower
frequency range limit and may continue for several seconds,
particularly if 1 Hz or 10 Hz is selected. Wait until the display has
settled before starting measurements.
ELT-400
5.3.3
5 Operation and use
Selecting the detection mode (DETECT)
Three modes of detection are available depending on the selected operating
mode:
ª Detection mode / Detector: see page C-2
Detection mode
Field
strength
mode
Exposure
STD mode
x
STND (Standard)
The detection mode specified in the appropriate
standard is set automatically. You can also select RMS
and PEAK detection if required.
RMS (root mean square value)
The RMS value resulting from the isotropic
measurement is derived from the RMS values for the
three individual measurement axes.
x
x
PEAK (peak value)
The peak value of the isotropic measurement is
derived from the peak value of the field vector. The
phase in the three individual measurement axes is
taken into account.
x
x
Table 5-2
Available detection modes, depending on the selected operating mode
⇒ Press the DETECT key until the required detection mode is shown in the
display.
Note:
The selected detection mode is applied immediately.
The measurement value is valid as soon as the switch over occurs.
5-9
5 Operation and use
5.3.4
ELT-400
Selecting the lower frequency range limit (LOW CUT)
The default measurement range setting is limited to 30 Hz to 400 kHz.
The lower frequency range limit can be extended down to 1 Hz or 10 Hz.
⇒ Press the LOW CUT key until the required value for the lower frequency
range limit is shown in the display.
5.3.5
Note:
The 1 Hz and 10 Hz settings should only be selected when this is
necessary for the measurement application (Operating
modes: see page 5-1).
The effect of e.g. the earth’s magnetic field is clearly discernible
when the instrument is moved if one of these settings is made. A
tripod can be used to prevent these effects.
Note:
The measurement display will fluctuate whenever the setting is
changed. This fluctuation depends on the selected lower
frequency range limit and may continue for several seconds,
particularly if 1 Hz or 10 Hz is selected. Wait until the display has
settled before starting measurements.
Selecting the measurement range (RANGE)
The measurement range can be switched between HIGH and LOW settings
depending on the measurement task. If small field strengths are to be
measured, the accuracy of the measurement can be improved by selecting
the LOW setting.
LOW: High measurement sensitivity with limited overload capacity.
HIGH: High overload capacity with limited measurement sensitivity.
⇒ Press the RANGE key until the required measurement range setting is
made.
The display shows HIGH when HIGH range is selected.
– or –
HIGH is no longer shown in the display when LOW range is selected.
5-10
ELT-400
5 Operation and use
Note:
5.3.6
The measurement display will fluctuate whenever the setting is
changed. This fluctuation depends on the selected lower
frequency range limit and may continue for several seconds,
particularly if 1 Hz or 10 Hz is selected. Wait until the display has
settled before starting measurements.
Activating the MAX HOLD display function
The default setting updates the current measurement values in the display
continuously. Activating the MAX HOLD function causes the highest level
measured since activation of the MAX HOLD function to be displayed. This
considerably simplifies the measurement of fields that vary over time, and
particularly of pulsed fields.
If required, the highest field strength existing within the volume of a room
can also be displayed by moving the instrument around the room with the
MAX HOLD display function activated.
Activating the MAX HOLD function
⇒ Press the MAX HOLD key until MAX appears in the display.
Deactivating the MAX HOLD function
⇒ Press the MAX HOLD key until MAX is no longer shown in the display.
The current measurement value is now shown in the display.
5-11
5 Operation and use
5.3.7
ELT-400
Interpreting the measurement results
1
2
4
3
Fig. 5-5
Measurement display showing measurement result
No.
Explanation
1
Numerical value of measurement result
The following applies to “Exposure STD” mode:
The percentage displayed refers to the limit value specified in the
selected safety standard. A measured value of “100 %” indicates that
the limit value has been reached, regardless of the frequency and
signal shape.
Caution: The results are calculated using standardized evaluation
schemes in “Stnd” detection mode only.
2
Measurement value units; depend on the selected operating mode.
3
Operating mode
• The selected standard (standard’s name, exposure range) is
displayed in “Exposure STD” mode.
• The end value (RMS value) of the measurement range is
displayed in Field strength mode.
4
Detection mode used
The crest factor (peak/RMS) can be calculated from the RMS and
peak values. This gives the factor 2 for a pure sine wave signal
(only).
5-12
ELT-400
5 Operation and use
Possible faults:
The overload display appears
Fig. 5-6
Overload display
The selected measurement range is unsuitable for the measurement task.
1. Select HIGH range.
2. If the overload display is still shown, increase the distance of the ELT-400
from the field source.
ª Selecting the measurement range (RANGE): see page 5-10
– or –
3. Deactivate the MAX HOLD function if it is activated.
MAX HOLD cannot be reactivated until the overload display has cleared.
ª Activating the MAX HOLD display function: see page 5-11
ª Overload monitoring: see page C-6
5-13
5 Operation and use
5.4
ELT-400
Active probe (using the three-channel analog output)
The signal detected by the field probe (measurement coils) can be displayed
for scientific applications or further analysis of the signal shape and
frequency. An oscilloscope or FFT analyzer can be connected to the analog
signal output (Scope) of the ELT-400 for this purpose.
ª External connectors: see page 4-6
The analog signal output provides the signal voltages for all three spatial
axes with their correct phases and covers the entire bandwidth of the
instrument. The output is also affected by the measurement range,
operating mode and lower frequency range limit settings.
If the measurement is to be referred to the spatial axes, the probe must be
aligned to correspond.
ª Annex D: Probe configuration / signal output: see page D-1
The analog output can be used in both modes (Exposure STD and Field
Strength).
The maximum output voltage of 800 mV RMS equals in each case the scale
end value of the selected measurement range. The impedance of the output
is 50 Ohm. A minimum load impedance of 10 kOhm is required.
Slight DC offsets can be present at the output. We recommend that you
measure with the oscilloscope or spectrum analyzer in AC mode.
Note the following (depending on the measurement mode):
Field Strength mode
The output voltages at the X, Y and Z outputs correspond in each case to
the measured field strength (magnitude and phase).
Exposure STD mode
The magnitude and phase of the output voltage vary relative to the field
strength due to the transfer function in Exposure STD mode (the phase
relationship between the three channels X, Y, Z is unaffected).
5-14
ELT-400
5 Operation and use
Example
Sinusoidal signal in range 10–500 Hz, measured in Exposure STD mode
• Analog output voltages on channels X, Y and Z are phase-shifted
relative to the measured field strength by approx. 90° (due to the
differentiating transfer function in Exposure STD mode).
• The output signal is the derivative vs. time of the field strength.
5-15
5 Operation and use
Notes:
5-16
ELT-400
6
6.1
Maintenance and repairs
Rechargeable and alkaline batteries
6.1.1
Replacing the rechargeable batteries and alkaline batteries
✓ The ELT-400 is switched off
✓ The ELT-400 is disconnected from the AC adapter / charger unit
Changing the rechargeable or alkaline batteries
1. Remove the probe.
2. Starting from the lower side of the instrument, slide off the rubber cover.
3. Push down the locking button on the back of the instrument and remove
the battery compartment lid.
The battery compartment is now accessible.
4. Insert the new alkaline or rechargeable batteries. Make sure that you
insert them correctly (positive and negative poles are marked in the
instrument).
Fig. 6-1
Polarity markings in the instrument battery compartment
5. Replace the battery compartment lid and close it.
6. Starting from the top side of the instrument, slide the rubber cover back
onto the instrument.
7. Plug in the probe.
The instrument is ready to use again.
Destruction of instrument
The instrument may be damaged if the batteries are inserted incorrectly.
Caution
⇒ Before charging the batteries, make sure they are inserted correctly
according to the polarity markings inside the battery compartment.
6-1
6 Maintenance and repairs
6.1.2
ELT-400
Disposal of alkaline and rechargeable batteries
The instrument contains NiMH batteries or alkaline batteries.
Note:
6.2
Do not put rechargeable or alkaline batteries in household trash.
Return them to the appropriate recycling center.
Cleaning
• Do not use solvents to clean the casing or probes of the ELT-400 or the
AC adapter / charger unit. Use lukewarm water to which a little liquid
detergent has been added.
• Only use a slightly damp cloth for cleaning. Never let water get into the
instrument.
• To prevent drying marks and spots, use a dry cloth to polish the damp
surfaces of the instrument.
6.3
AC adapter / charger unit
The AC adapter / charger unit is not designed to be repaired.
The entire unit should be replaced if defects or malfunctions occur.
6-2
7
7.1
Remote control
Setting up the data link
You will need a suitable cable for making the link between the ELT-400 and
the measurement computer. It is available as an accessory
(BN 2260/90.51).
7.1.1
Data cable
DB9 plug:
GND
Fig. 7-1
DB9 plug connections
Jack plug:
GND
Fig. 7-2
Jack plug connections
Direction of data flow:
• RxD: Data from ELT-400
• TxD: Data to ELT-400
7-1
7 Remote control
ELT-400
Connecting the instrument to the measurement computer
1. Plug the jack plug into the “RS-232” socket on the ELT-400.
2. Plug the DB9 plug into the serial interface connector (COM) of the
measurement computer.
7.1.2
Interface parameters
✓ The ELT-400 is connected to the PC.
The following parameters must be set for the serial interface of the
computer:
•
•
•
•
•
•
7-2
Baud rate: 19200
1 start bit
8 data bits
No parity
1 stop bit
Handshake: XON/XOFF
ELT-400
7.2
7 Remote control
Fundamentals of remote control
All settings can be made and results read out by remote control instead of
manual operation.
Note:
The instrument parameters are set to defined default values if you
switch the ELT-400 off and then on again before using it in remote
control mode. This also applies to various other operating actions.
ª Annex A: Default values
7.2.1
Overview of remote control commands
The ELT-400 runs through a test phase when you switch it on. This tests
important settings and instrument configurations.
The following remote control commands can be used to query or change the
instrument status:
Remote control command
*IDN?[CR]<LF>
see page 7-19
SYST:BAT?[CR]<LF>
see page 7-19
SYST:DEFAULTS[CR]<LF>
see page 7-21
SYST:ERR?[CR]<LF>
see page 7-20
SYST:KLOCK[?][CR]<LF>
see page 7-16
SYST:XONXOFF[?]<SP><param>[CR]<LF>
see page 7-21
Table 7-1
Remote control commands for querying the instrument status
The ELT-400 is in the measurement phase as soon as the test phase has
been completed successfully.
7-3
7 Remote control
ELT-400
The following remote control commands can additionally be used in the
measurement phase:
Remote control command
CALC:BAT[?]<SP><param>[CR]<LF>
see page 7-17
CALC:OVLD[?]<SP><param>[CR]<LF>
see page 7-18
GET:MODE_INFO[?]<SP><STD><name>[CR]<LF>
see page 7-8
MEAS[?][CR]<LF>
see page 7-14
SEN:TYPE?[CR]<LF>
see page 7-7
SET:DETECTOR[?]<SP><param>[CR]<LF>
see page 7-9
SET:LOW_CUT[?]<SP><param>[CR]<LF>
see page 7-10
SET:MAX_HOLD[?]<SP><param>[CR]<LF>
see page 7-11
SET:MODE[?]<SP><param>[CR]<LF>
see page 7-12
SET:RANGE[?]<SP><param>[CR]<LF>
see page 7-13
Table 7-2
7-4
Remote control commands in the measurement phase
ELT-400
7.2.2
7 Remote control
Remote control command format
The following conventions are used to describe the remote control
commands:
Character
Meaning
?
Instrument parameter / measurement value query
param
Instrument status transfer parameter
[]
Optional information is given in square [brackets]
<>
Mandatory information is given in pointed <brackets>
SP
Space; ASCII decimal character: 32
CR
Carriage Return; ASCII decimal character: 13
LF
Line Feed; decimal character: 10
/
Separates alternative entries
Table 7-3
Note:
Remote control command conventions
The remote control commands do not distinguish between upper
and lower case letters.
The remote control command will be ignored if the value of the
transfer parameter param is outside the valid range.
To check the validity of remote control commands:
ª Remote control command SYST:ERR?[CR]<LF>, see
page 7-21
7-5
7 Remote control
7.2.3
ELT-400
Response value formats
Different formats are used for the values returned as responses by the
ELT-400.
Response strings are terminated with a “Carriage Return” and a “Line
Feed”.
It is a good idea to filter out and delete unnecessary characters before
subjecting the received data to further processing. The following characters
can be removed:
•
•
•
•
•
7-6
Leading spaces (ASCII decimal character: 32)
Carriage Return (ASCII decimal character: 13)
Line Feed (ASCII decimal character: 10)
DC1 (ASCII decimal character: 17)
DC3 (ASCII decimal character: 19)
ELT-400
7.3
7 Remote control
Remote control commands
All the remote control commands used for the ELT-400 are described in this
section. The commands are sorted according to their meanings.
Field probe
SEN:TYPE?[CR]<LF>
Response:
<param><CR><LF>
Meaning:
Returns the type of field probe connected.
Response values:
param
Explanation
0
No probe connected
1 to 99
Probe type identification
7-7
7 Remote control
ELT-400
Measured quantity, evaluation mode
GET:MODE_INFO?[CR]<LF>
Response:
<param>, <text><CR><LF>
Meaning:
Returns the operating mode that is selected.
param
Explanation
0
“Field strength” mode
1
“Exposure STD” mode
Table 7-4
text
Operating mode characterization
Explanation
Additional information:
• End value (RMS value) if param = 0
• Standard’s name and exposure range if param = 1
Table 7-5
Note:
7-8
Additional information
The length of <text> is limited to 30 characters.
ELT-400
7 Remote control
SET:DETECTOR<SP><param>[CR]<LF>
SET:DETECTOR?[CR]<LF>
Response:
<param><CR><LF>
Meaning:
Selects the detection mode.
param
Explanation
RMS
The RMS value measured using the selected operating mode
will be output.
PEAK
The peak value measured using the selected operating mode
will be output.
STND
In “Exposure STD” mode only:
The detection mode is selected automatically according to the
selected standard.
Table 7-6
Detection mode selection settings
7-9
7 Remote control
ELT-400
SET:LOW_CUT<SP><param>[CR]<LF>
SET:LOW_CUT?[CR]<LF>
Response:
<param><CR><LF>
Meaning:
Sets the lower frequency range limit.
param
Explanation
1
Defines 1 Hz as the lower frequency range limit.
10
Defines 10 Hz as the lower frequency range limit.
30
Defines 30 Hz as the lower frequency range limit.
Table 7-7
7-10
Lower frequency range limit settings
ELT-400
7 Remote control
SET:MAX_HOLD<SP><param>[CR]<LF>
SET:MAX_HOLD?[CR]<LF>
Response:
<param><CR><LF>
Meaning:
Activates / deactivates the MAX HOLD display function.
param
Explanation
ON
Activate MAX HOLD display function
• The highest value measured since the function was activated
is output instead of the current measurement value.
• The status of the overload display takes into account the
instrument status since the function was activated.
ª Remote control command CALC:OVLD?, see page 7-18
OFF
Deactivate MAX HOLD display function
• The current measurement value is output instead of the
highest measured value.
• The function is deactivated automatically for particular
actions.
ª Default values: see page A-1
Table 7-8
Display function settings
7-11
7 Remote control
ELT-400
SET:MODE<SP><param>[CR]<LF>
SET:MODE?[CR]<LF>
Response:
<param><CR><LF>
Meaning:
Selects the operating MODE. The operating modes are numbered
consecutively (1 to 4). The mode assigned to each number depends on the
instrument version.
param
Explanation
1
Displays the first operating mode counting from the left hand
side of the display.
ª LCD display elements, see page 4-3
2, 3, 4
Table 7-9
Note:
Displays the second, third or fourth operating mode counting
from the left hand side of the display.
Operating mode settings
The operating mode selected can also be queried as text
information.
ª Remote control command GET:MODE_INFO?, see page 7-8
7-12
ELT-400
7 Remote control
SET:RANGE<SP><param>[CR]<LF>
SET:RANGE?[CR]<LF>
Response:
<param><CR><LF>
Meaning:
Sets the measurement range for the selected operating mode.
param
LOW
Explanation
Measurement range particularly suitable for low field strengths
• High measurement sensitivity.
• Reduced overload capacity.
HIGH
Measurement range suitable for higher field strengths
• High overload capacity.
• Reduced measurement sensitivity.
Table 7-10
Measurement range settings
7-13
7 Remote control
ELT-400
MEAS
Meaning:
Transfers the measured values and, where appropriate, the status
information.
Different modes for transferring individual values and for transferring values
continuously are provided.
Remote control
command
Explanation
MEAS?[CR]<LF>
Transfers the latest measured value / status on
request.
• Asynchronous query:
The same measured value is transferred several
times if the query is made more often than the
measurement value is updated
(measured value is refreshed 4 times per second).
MEAS:ARRAY?<SP>
<param>[CR]<LF>
Consecutive transfer of a selectable number of
measured values / statuses at regular intervals
(measured value is refreshed 4 times per second).
• Synchronous query:
Each measured value is transferred once only.
The transfer of the first measured value may be
delayed slightly.
• param: Number of measured values requested
(setting range: 1 to 65535)
• Transfer can be terminated prematurely using the
command MEAS:STOP.
MEAS:START[CR]<LF>
Continuous transfer of measured values / statuses at
regular intervals (measured value is refreshed 4 times
per second).
• Synchronous query:
Each measured value is transferred once only.
The transfer of the first measured value may be
delayed slightly.
• Transfer is stopped with the command
MEAS:STOP.
MEAS:STOP[CR]<LF>
7-14
Stops continuous transfer
ELT-400
7 Remote control
Response values:
<d.dddesdd><, unit> [, ovld] [, bat] <CR><LF>
Example: 1.234e-07, T, N, O
Response
Explanation
unit
Units of measured value; depends on the operating
mode selected by SET:MODE
• T = Tesla (in “Field strength” mode only)
• % = Percentage of limit value (in “Exposure STD”
mode only)
ovld
Overload indicator; for CALC:OVLD ON only
• N = no overload, measured value valid
• ! = overload state occurred during measurement,
reject measured value
bat
Battery status; for CALC:BAT ON only
• L = Battery is discharged
• O = Battery is charged
ª Remote control command SET:LOW_CUT, see page 7-10
ª Remote control command CALC:BAT, see page 7-17
ª Remote control command CALC:OVLD, see page 7-18
7-15
7 Remote control
ELT-400
SYST:KLOC<SP><param>[CR]<LF>
SYST:KLOC?[CR]<LF>
Response:
<param><CR><LF>
Meaning:
Locks / unlocks the keypad of the basic instrument.
param
Explanation
ON
Locks the basic instrument keypad. The instrument does not
respond if any of the operating keys are pressed in this status.
OFF
Unlocks the instrument keypad.
Table 7-11
Note:
7-16
Basic instrument keypad lock settings
The basic instrument can still be switched off using the ON/OFF
key when the keypad is locked. The keypad is unlocked when you
switch the basic instrument on again.
ELT-400
7 Remote control
Instrument status query
CALC:BAT<SP><param>[CR]<LF>
CALC:BAT?[CR]<LF>
Response:
<param><CR><LF>
Meaning:
Activates / deactivates battery status information.
param
Explanation
ON
Battery status response with every measured value transfer.
OFF
No battery status response.
Table 7-12
Battery status response settings
The battery status is appended to the response values for a field
measurement.
ª Remote control command MEAS, see page 7-14
7-17
7 Remote control
ELT-400
CALC:OVLD<SP><param>[CR]<LF>
CALC:OVLD?[CR]<LF>
Response:
<param><CR><LF>
Meaning:
Sets whether or not overload status information is returned at the end of a
result:
param
Explanation
ON
Overload status indicator response every time a measured value
is transferred.
OFF
No overload status indicator response.
Table 7-13
Overload status indicator response settings
The overload status indication is appended to the response values for a field
measurement.
ª Remote control command MEAS, see page 7-14
MEAS:BAT?[CR]<LF>
Response:
<param><CR><LF>
Meaning:
Queries the current battery voltage (measured value, units) separated by a
comma.
Example: 4987, mV
7-18
ELT-400
7 Remote control
SYST:BAT?[CR]<LF>
Response:
<param><CR><LF>
Meaning:
Queries the battery charge status.
param
Explanation
BAT_OK
Battery is charged
BAT_LOW
Battery is discharged
Note:
If you regularly query the charge status, the instrument will
continue to operate for about 15 minutes after the first appearance
of the “BAT_LOW” message. The instrument will then switch off
automatically.
*IDN?[CR]<LF>
Response:
Returns the following information, separated by commas:
•
•
•
•
•
Manufacturer
Instrument name
Article number
Serial number
Version number
Example:
NARDA-STS,ELT-400,BN-2300/01,A-0001,V1.00
Note:
The text length for each item of information is limited to 12
characters.
7-19
7 Remote control
ELT-400
SYST:ERR?[CR]<LF>
Response:
<param><CR><LF>
Meaning:
Queries the error status resulting from the last command used. The
response value indicates the correct interpretation of the previously sent
command or the instrument status.
param
Explanation
0
No error
-109
Incomplete parameter
-110
Unknown command
-224
Parameter value outside range limits
-290
Incorrect probe type connected
-300
Instrument is not (yet) in measurement phase
-310
No probe connected
-400
No data ready
Table 7-14
7-20
SYST:ERR command response values
ELT-400
7 Remote control
Data transfer protocol
SYST:XONXOFF<SP><param>[CR]<LF>
SYST:XONXOFF?[CR]<LF>
Response:
<param><CR><LF>
Meaning:
Selects the software handshake
param
Explanation
ON
Activates XON/XOFF software handshake
OFF
Deactivates XON/XOFF software handshake
Setting the default values
SYST:DEFAULTS[CR]<LF>
Meaning:
Sets the instrument settings to their default (factory) values.
ª Annex A: Default values
The instrument information and the current measurement units are also
returned.
Example: NARDA-STS, ELT-400, BN2300/01, A-0001, V1.00, %
7-21
7 Remote control
Notes:
7-22
ELT-400
8
Specifications
The specifications are valid for the following conditions and settings unless
otherwise stated:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Ambient temperature: 23 °C (±3 °C)
Relative humidity: 40 % ... 60 %
Sine wave signal (CW)
Root mean square value (RMS)
Lower frequency range limit: 30 Hz
Operation from rechargeable or alkaline batteries
Note:
8.1
The use of connecting cables for the external connectors (RS-232,
Scope and Charge) can alter the specifications and the measured
value that is displayed. If you notice any such changes, experiment
by moving the position of the cable in the field until the coupling
effects are minimized.
Functional principle
The voltage induced in a measurement coil (probe) is evaluated in order to
measure the magnetic flux density. The signal voltage is digitized and
evaluated by a digital signal processor (DSP). The DSP simulates the
selected filter characteristics and calculates the flux density resulting from
the voltage.
The orthogonal configuration of the three measurement coils allows the field
to be measured isotropically (i.e. independent of spatial direction). The three
channels are output with their correct phases.
8-1
8 Specifications
8.2
ELT-400
Field strength mode
Brief description
• Measurement of magnetic flux density based on a broadband evaluation
of the measurement signal.
• Display of measurement result in units of mT or µT.
Frequency range
Bandwidth (-3 dB),
selectable
1 Hz to 400 kHz, 10 Hz to 400 kHz, 30 Hz to 400 kHz
Frequency response
Flat response, attenuation occurs at the selected
bandwidth limits
ª see figure C-2
ª see figure C-3
Measurement range, dynamic range
All measurement range information depends on the settings selected.
1
2
Mode
320 µT
Range
Low
High
Low
High
Low
High
Overload limit (1)
32 µT
320 µT
800 µT
8 mT
8 mT
80 mT
Nominal
measurement range(2)
2 µT
20 µT
50 µT
500 µT
500 µT
5 mT
Intrinsic noise (RMS),
approximate
70 nT
320 nT
1,8 µT
8 µT
18 µT
80 µT
80 mT
The overload limit indicates the maximum measurable RMS value of a sine wave (CW) signal.
The frequency-dependent damage level should also be taken into account.
The nominal measurement range indicates the maximum measurable RMS value of a signal
of any shape with a crest factor (peak value/RMS value) of less than 22. The frequencydependent damage level should also be taken into account.
Display resolution
Range: Low
8-2
8 mT
1 nT
ELT-400
8 Specifications
Damage level
The frequency-dependent overload limit shown in figure 8-1 must be taken
into account in all measurements.
Fig. 8-1
Note:
Damage level
The damage level (peak) applies to a pulse duration of ≤15.6 ms
and a duty cycle of ≤1/64.
Measurement value collection
Sampling frequency
1.048576 MHz
Measurement interval
(measurement rate)
250 ms
(4 per second)
RMS ( RMS value detector)
Continuous integration over 4 intervals
(sliding evaluation window: 1 sec.)
Peak (Peak value detector)
Maximum value in each interval, proper phase
Measurement axes evaluated
X, Y and Z (isotropic), combined for resulting flux
density.
8-3
8 Specifications
ELT-400
Measurement uncertainty
Measurement uncertainty
Note:
± 4 % (50 Hz to 120 kHz)
The following influence quantities must also be taken into account:
• Frequency response at the selected band limits:
10 Hz, 30 Hz, 400 kHz: -3 dB ±1 dB
1 Hz:
-3 dB ±2 dB
• Sufficient signal to noise ratio
Result display
8-4
Result display,
selectable
Instantaneous value or maximum value (MAX
HOLD)
Display type
Digital
Digital display resolution
4 digits
Refresh rate
4 times per second
Units, selectable
mT or µT
ELT-400
8.3
8 Specifications
Exposure STD (Shaped Time Domain) mode
Brief description
• Measurement of magnetic flux density taking the limit value
characteristic of the selected standard into account.
• RMS and peak values are measured and calculated simultaneously.
• Display of magnetic flux density as a percentage.
A display of 100 % indicates that the limit value has been reached.
Frequency range
Frequency range (-3 dB),
selectable
1 Hz to 400 kHz, 10 Hz to 400 kHz, 30 Hz to 400 kHz
Frequency response
As per selected standard, emulated by 1st order filters
at the specified corner frequencies. Additional
attenuation occurs at the selected band limits.
ª see figure C-2
ª see figure C-3
8-5
8 Specifications
ELT-400
Measurement range, dynamic range
Nominal measurement range
The fixed measurement range is nominally 100 % of the selected limit value
curve.
1
Operating mode
ICNIRP
BGV B11, prEN 50366
Range
Low
High
Low
High
Overload limit(1)
160 %
1600 %
160 %
1600 %
Nominal measurement
range
10 %
100 %
10 %
100 %
Intrinsic noise,
approximate
1.3 %
6%
0.4 %
1.6 %
The frequency-dependent damage level should also be taken into account.
ª (see Fig. 8-1)
Display resolution
Range: Low
0.001 %
Measurement value collection
8-6
Sampling frequency
1.048576 MHz
Measurement interval
(measurement rate)
250 ms
(4 per second)
RMS (RMS value detector)
Continuous integration over 4 intervals
(sliding evaluation window: 1 sec.)
Peak (Peak value detector)
Maximum value in each interval, true phase
Stnd (Automatic detector)
Continuous calculation from RMS and / or peak,
depending on the standard selected.
Measurement axes evaluated
X, Y and Z (isotropic), combined for resulting
exposure level.
ELT-400
8 Specifications
Result display
8.4
Result display,
selectable
Instantaneous value or maximum value (MAX
HOLD)
Display type
Digital
Digital display resolution
4 digits
Refresh rate
4 times per second
Units
Percent (%)
General specifications
Display type and warning features
Display type
LCD display with backlight
Refresh rate
4 times per second
Remote control interface (serial)
Type
RS 232
Connection
3 wire (TxD, RxD, Gnd)
Bits per second
19200
Data bits
8
Parity
None
Stop bits
1
Handshake
XON / XOFF
8-7
8 Specifications
ELT-400
Analog signal output “Scope”
1
Output signal
X, Y, Z (isotropic). Three separate channels
Output voltage for nominal
measurement range(1)
50 mV (RMS)
Output impedance
50 ohm
Load impedance
≥10 kohm
Channel configuration
See Annex D: Probe configuration
See under “Measurement range” for the selected operating mode
Measurement probe
Effective coil cross sectional
area
100 cm2
Construction features
3 coils, arranged orthogonally, common center
point
Orientation
See Annex D: Probe configuration
External dimensions
Diameter: 125 mm
Length: approximately 300 mm
Power supply
Battery operation
Rechargeable NiMH
batteries, replaceable
4 x Mignon size AA, IEC R6
(e.g. Sanyo HR-3 U)
Operating time from
rechargeable batteries at
23 °C, approximate
12 h
Charging time of
rechargeable batteries, no
measurement operations
2 h max.
– or –
8-8
ELT-400
8 Specifications
Primary batteries (alkaline)
4 x size AA, IEC LR6
Operating time from primary
(alkaline) batteries at 23 °C,
approximate
20 h
AC adapter / charger unit
Type
BN 2259/92.02 (9V=)
Nominal voltage range
100 to 240 VAC
Nominal voltage range
switching
Automatic, universal line plug
AC line frequency, operating
range
47 to 63 Hz
Calibration interval
The recommended calibration interval is 24 months.
8.5
Conformance labeling
Emissions and noise immunity
acc. to EN 61 326-1 and EN 61326/A1
Safety
acc. to EN 61 010-1 and EN 61010-1/A2
This fulfils the conditions required for affixing the CE conformance label.
8-9
8 Specifications
8.6
ELT-400
Climatic environmental conditions
Environment classes
Environment
class as per …
Storage
Transport
Operation
IEC 60721-3
Class 1K3,
1M2
Class 2K4, 2M3
Class 7K2, 7M3
Low air temperature
restricted
Air temperature
range extended
(excluding AC
adapter)
Selected climatic parameters
Temperature
Storage
Transport
Operation
-5 °C to +45 °C
-30 °C to +70 °C
-10 °C to +50 °C
With AC adapter:
+5 °C to +40 °C
Humidity
Condensation
8.7
8-10
5 to 95 % @ ≤30 °C
1 to 29 g/m3 @ > 30 °C
≤95 % @
≤45 °C
Yes
Yes
Dimensions and weight
Dimensions w x h x d
(without probe)
180 x 100 x 55 mm
Weight (incl. batteries and
probe)
approximately 770 g
5 to 95 % @ ≤30 °C
1 to 29 g/m3
@> 30 °C
Occasional, brief
condensation
allowed
ELT-400
8.8
8.9
8 Specifications
Ordering information
Built-in operating modes (MODE)
Order number
•
•
•
•
EXPOSURE STD: ICNIRP gen. pub.
EXPOSURE STD: ICNIRP occ.
FIELDSTRENGTH: 320 µT
FIELDSTRENGTH: 80 mT
BN 2304/101
•
•
•
•
EXPOSURE STD: BGV B11 EXP2
EXPOSURE STD: BGV B11 EXP1
EXPOSURE STD: BGV B11 2H/D
FIELDSTRENGTH: 8 mT
BN 2304/102
•
•
•
•
prEN 50366
EXPOSURE STD: ICNIRP occ.
FIELDSTRENGTH: 320 µT
FIELDSTRENGTH: 80 mT
BN 2304/103
Package contents
Basic instrument
BN 2304/xx
2
B field probe 100 cm
BN 2300/90.10
AC adapter charger unit (9 V=)
BN 2259/92.02
Operating and programming manual
Calibration certificate
4 rechargeable batteries
8-11
8 Specifications
ELT-400
8.10 Accessories (optional)
8-12
Extension cable probe / instrument
(length 1 m)
2300/90.30
RS 232 interface cable (length 2 m) with
jack plug / DB9 plug
2260/90.51
Analog interface cable (D Sub 15 / 3 x BNC,
length 3 m)
2260/90.80
Tripod, non conductive (height 1.65 m)
2244/90.31
Tripod extension, non conductive (height 0.5 m)
2244/90.45
Transport bag
2245/90.07
Annex A: Default values
The table below lists the default values (ex-works settings) of the ELT-400:
• when the instrument is switched on,
• after the remote control command SYST:DEFAULTS has been executed.
Parameter
Default setting
RANGE
HIGH
MODE
Depends on the instrument version selected
(built-in operating modes)
• Default is the operating mode shown farthest to
the left on the basic instrument.
DETECT
(detection mode)
Depends on the mode selected
MAX HOLD
(display function)
OFF (current measurement value is displayed)
LOW CUT
(lower frequency range limit)
30 (Hz)
• RMS if a field strength mode is preset
• STND if an Exposure STD mode is preset
Status display
• MAX HOLD
• OVLD
Cleared
Cleared
CALC:BAT
OFF (battery status not returned at the end of a
result transfer)
CALC:OVLD
OFF (overload status not returned at the end of a
result transfer)
SYST:KLOCK
OFF (no keypad lock)
SYST:XONXOFF
ON (data transfer protocol activated)
Table A-1
Default values
The following table shows the status of the major parameters after various
actions.
A-1
Annex A: Default values
ELT-400
Parameter
Status of parameter after action
Change of
measuring
range
[RANGE]
Change of
operating
mode
[MODE]
Change of
lower frequency
range limit
[LOW CUT]
Change of
probe
Status of parameter after remote control command
SET:
RANGE
SET:
MODE
SET:
LOW_CUT
RANGE
As set
Unchanged Unchanged
MODE
Unchanged As set
1
Unchanged
Unchanged
Unchanged
Unchanged
OFF
OFF
DETECT
(detection mode)
Unchanged Variable
MAX HOLD
(display mode)
OFF
LOW CUT (lower
frequency range limit)
Unchanged Unchanged As set
OFF
Unchanged
Unchanged
Measured values /
display status of the
following instrument
functions:
• RMS, PEAK, STND Cleared
Cleared
• MAX HOLD
Cleared
• OVLD
Cleared
Cleared
Cleared
Cleared
Cleared
Cleared
CALC:BAT
Unchanged Unchanged Unchanged
Unchanged
CALC:OVL
Unchanged Unchanged Unchanged
Unchanged
SYST:XONXOFF
Unchanged Unchanged Unchanged
Unchanged
1
Depends on the selected operating mode:
- RMS in Field strength mode
- STND in Exposure STD mode
Table A-2
A-2
Cleared
Cleared
Cleared
Status of major parameters after various actions
Annex B: Exposure STD mode
Technical background
Health and safety standards prescribe various methods for determining field
exposure, where the reference values stated in the standard are compared
with the measured values:
Bmeas ≤Bref
In calculating the exposure, this means:
Bmeas
----------------- ≤1 (100 %)
Bref
The result of the exposure calculation is always expressed as a percentage
of the reference value. If the measured value is exactly the same as the
reference value, the result is “100 %”. Smaller values directly indicate that
the limit has not been exceeded. It is therefore not necessary to express the
result in units of field strength (mT) to assess the exposure level.
For this reason, the result displayed in “Exposure STD” mode is not the
measured field strength but rather the exposure level in percent as already
calculated. There is no need to find out the reference value from the
standard and calculate the exposure level.
Derivation of exposure calculation in
Exposure STD mode
The reference values are specified in the form of tables or curves in the
various standards. This information can be split into different components
for the purposes of further discussion:
• Limit value curve frequency dependency
• Limit value curve field strength dependency (exposure range)
The function of “Exposure STD” mode is illustrated by taking these items
separately.
B-1
Annex B: Exposure STD mode
ELT-400
Limit value curve frequency dependency
The frequency response describes the degree to which the field strength at
a given frequency f1 may differ from that at another given frequency f2 for
the limit value to be achieved in both cases. The limit value curve can thus
also be interpreted as an attenuation curve.
In “Exposure STD” mode, this (attenuation) curve is simulated by several
first-order filters. The relevant corner frequency is taken from the standard.
The abrupt transitions at the corner frequencies are smoothed by the filters,
leading to discrepancies of up to 3 dB. These deviations are accepted by
ICNIRP (“Guidance on Determining Compliance of Exposure to Pulsed and
Complex Non-Sinusoidal Waveforms below 100kHz”, Health Physics
Vol. 84 No. 3, 2003) since they correspond to the biological effect of the field
on humans.
The filters in the ELT-400 are switched to correspond with the relevant
standard as well as to the selected exposure range.
Example: Limit values for 50 Hz and 150 Hz are taken from ICNIRP 1998.
The corresponding reference values are 100 µT and 33.3 µT, i.e. the
permitted values differ by a factor of 3. If the field at 50 Hz is attenuated by
the filter during the measurement by a factor of 3 compared to the field at
150 Hz, both displayed values will be the same when the field strength
reference value is reached.
Frequency measurement is not required, since the filter converts the
frequency information into the appropriate attenuation. This also avoids the
uncertainty in measuring the frequency of a signal of unknown shape (e.g.
harmonics, interference frequencies, etc.).
Note:
This method has long been used with noise level meters.
Limit value curve field strength dependency
Since the frequency dependency of the reference values is fixed by the
filters, only the level dependency for the selected exposure range needs to
be scaled appropriately. The instrument must indicate the value 100 %
when the limit value is reached.
This scaling is done during manufacture of the ELT-400. The display is
adjusted accordingly at any given frequency. Switching the exposure level
e.g. from “General Public” to “Occupational” takes place in the same way.
You therefore do not need to know the reference values at all.
B-2
ELT-400
Annex B: Exposure STD mode
Advantages of this method
This method is particularly useful when the signal shape is unknown, e.g.
multiple-frequency fields or pulsed fields. The RMS and peak detectors
ensure that such fields are evaluated properly. The ELT-400 continuously
and automatically selects the detectors that are appropriate to the standard.
Measurements and calculations are made continuously and without
interruption. This ensures that every pulse or change in the field is
registered and measured correctly.
B-3
Annex B: Exposure STD mode
ELT-400
Please note
When you compare the results from the ELT-400 in “Exposure STD” mode
with those from other field measuring instruments, some possible factors
that need to be taken into account are:
• The comparison system must also measure isotropically and combine
the results from the thee channels correctly.
• The different bandwidths and the lower frequency limits of comparison
instruments can affect the results considerably.
• The broadband measurement most often used can only be used for
single-frequency fields. This method does not give a reliable result if the
signal shape is unknown. Any frequency measurement that may be
performed can be subject to extreme errors, so it is impossible to
stipulate the correct reference values.
• The effective cross sectional area and the positioning of the
measurement sensors (i.e. distance from the field source) significantly
affect the results, particularly in the near field.
• FFT analyzers usually show the results as peak values. The
corresponding reference values from the standard should be applied.
Spectral components must not be ignored. The recording period of
1 second should also be taken into account.
If the results of isotropic (three channel) FFT analysis are combined, the
phase information is lost. Linear summation of the individual results for
each spectral line leads to a high measurement result that is usually
much higher than the real value.
B-4
Annex C: Instrument function
Functional principle
The voltage induced in the measurement coils (field probe) is evaluated in
order to measure the magnetic flux density. The signal voltages are digitized
and evaluated by a digital signal processor (DSP). The DSP calculates the
measurement result from the voltages. The orthogonal configuration of the
three measurement coils allows the field to be measured isotropically (i.e.
independent of spatial direction).
Block circuit diagram
Fig. C-1
Block circuit diagram
C-1
Annex C: Instrument function
ELT-400
Transfer function
The transfer function defines the intended frequency response of the
measuring instrument and includes the field probe measuring coils.
The transfer functions for the various operating modes differ significantly
from each other.
Operating mode
Transfer function
EXPOSURE STD
• Takes the frequency response of the limit value curve and
the selected exposure range into account.
• Attenuation occurs at the frequency range limits.
ª Band limits: see page C-4
FIELD STRENGTH
• Is independent of frequency (flat) over a wide range.
• Attenuation occurs at the frequency range limits.
ª Band limits: see page C-4
Detection mode / Detector
The ELT-400 simultaneously measures the RMS value and the peak value
of the magnetic field. Both values are available immediately after the
detection mode is switched. The measured values are continuously (every
250 ms) updated and displayed.
RMS value
The RMS value B̃ of the magnetic flux density is calculated from the RMS
values for each of the three measurement axes, i.e. B̃ x to B̃ z .
B̃ =
2
2
2
B̃ x + B̃ y + B̃ z
The RMS value is always independent of the time phases of the field
components.
The averaging (integration) time for the RMS calculation is fixed at 1 second
to conform with the relevant personal safety standards.
C-2
ELT-400
Annex C: Instrument function
Peak value
The peak value B̂ of the magnetic flux density is calculated from the
variation with time Bx(t) through Bz(t) of the magnetic flux density in each of
the three measurement axes.
 2

2
2
B̂ = Max  B x ( t ) + B y ( t ) + B z ( t ) 


The peak value always depends on the phases of the measured field
components. For this reason, vectorial addition is used.
Stnd (Standard)
The results in “Exposure STD” mode are expressed as a “percentage of the
limit value”. The detection modes to be used for the measurement are
specified – sometimes within separate clauses – by the relevant personal
safety standards. They are of decisive importance in ensuring that the
results are measured correctly, regardless of the signal shape (multiple or
single frequency fields, pulsed fields).
There are some standards where both the RMS value and the peak value
must be taken into account at the same time in order to determine exposure.
The ELT-400 compares both measurement results continuously and
displays the relevant measured value, applying the prescribed weighting
factor Vmax where necessary.
C-3
Annex C: Instrument function
ELT-400
Band limits
The signal is attenuated according to the following function at the upper and
lower limits of the frequency range.
C-4
Fig. C-2
Lower band limits (LOW CUT = 1 Hz, 10 Hz and 30 Hz)
Fig. C-3
Upper band limit
ELT-400
Annex C: Instrument function
Settling time
The variation with time of the field under investigation is sampled at intervals
of about 1 µs. This means that the internal signal voltages reflect any
changes in the field immediately. The peak value is measured at the same,
high sampling rate. The displayed measurement value is updated every
250 ms.
The RMS value is always determined by integrating (averaging) the
variation in the field. Some personal safety standards specify an integration
(averaging) time of 1 second for the frequency range in question. The
ELT-400 takes this into account. The numerical result display will therefore
require a settling time of 1 second if there is a sudden increase in field
strength. Short-term changes in the field (e.g. pulses) lead, as intended, to
a smaller RMS value depending on the pulse duration. The display is
updated every 250 ms.
C-5
Annex C: Instrument function
ELT-400
Overload monitoring
The measurement signals of all three measurement channels (X, Y, Z) are
monitored separately. The overload indicator is displayed if an overload
occurs in at least one of the channels.
Fig. C-4
Overload indicator
The overload indicator is displayed as long as the result is not valid, i.e.
normally for at least 1 second (standardized averaging time).
In MAX HOLD display mode, the overload indicator can only be cleared by
switching off the MAX HOLD function.
ª Selecting the display mode: see page 5-11
C-6
Annex D: Probe configuration / signal output
The internal sensor coils are arranged orthogonally. The configuration of the
coils is not immediately visible externally.
If you require the result display to be referred to the spatial axes of the room
in which the measurement is made, the probe coils must be configured so
that they match the spatial axes of the room.
Use the diagram below to position the probe correctly.
Top view
Side view
Fig. D-1
Probe configuration
Positioning the probe
⇒ Tilt the ELT-400 up by exactly 35.3° from the horizontal and secure it in
this position.
Top view: The effective coil cross sectional areas for the X and Z coils
are perpendicular. They are each oriented at 45° to the center axis.
Side view: The Y axis is perpendicular with the coil cross sectional area
horizontal.
D-1
Annex D: Probe configuration / signal output
ELT-400
Connecting cable
The following connections are provided if the analog interface cable
(BN 2260/90.80) is used:
Koax plug:
• Red: X axis
• Green: Y axis
• Blue: Z axis
DB9 plug:
1 = X-Axis
2 = Y-Axis
3 = Z-Axis
6 = GND
7 = GND
8 = GND
plug housing = GND
Fig. D-2
D-2
DB9 plug connections
ELT-400
B field probe connector
RS-232
Scope
Charge
Notes:
Index of key words
A
D
AC adapter / charger unit 2-3, 6-2,
8-9
Accessories 8-12
Active probe 1-2, 5-14
Alkaline batteries 6-1
Application 1-1
EMC test laboratory 1-2
Everyday environment 1-1
Production areas 1-1
Damage level 8-3
Default values A-1
Detect 4-2, 5-9
Detection mode 4-5, 5-9, C-2
Detector C-2
Dimensions 8-10
Direction of data flow 7-1
Display backlight 4-5
Display function 4-4
Display mode 5-11
B
B field probe 3-4
Connecting 3-4
Disconnecting 3-4
Basic instrument keypad 4-1
Batteries 4-4, 8-8
Charging 3-3
Block circuit diagram C-1
Broadband measurements 1-2
C
Calibration interval 8-9
Charge 4-6
Cleaning 6-2
Climatic parameters 8-10
Condensation 2-3
Conformance labeling 8-9
Connecting up 2-1
Correct usage 2-1
E
EMC test laboratory 1-2
Environment classes 8-10
Evaluation schemes 1-2, 4-2, 5-2,
5-12
Exposure 1-2
Exposure STD 1-2, 5-1, 5-2, 8-5, C-2
Dynamic range 8-6
Frequency range 8-5
Measurement range 8-6
Measurement value collection 8-6
F
FFT analyzer 1-2, 5-14
Fiber optic cable 7-1
Field strength 1-2, 5-1, 5-3, C-2
Dynamic range 8-2
Measurement range 8-2
Measurement uncertainty 8-4
Measurement value collection 8-3
Frequency response C-2
Function test 5-6
Functional principle 8-1, C-1
I
Instrument
Connecting to the measurement
computer (data cable) 7-2
Instrument description 1-2
Instrument function C-1
L
Low Cut 4-2, 5-10
Lower frequency range limit 4-5
Lower measurement range limit 5-12
M
Max Hold 4-1, 5-11, C-6
Measured value 4-3
Measurement range 4-4, 5-10
Mode 1-2, 4-2
O
ON/OFF 4-1
Operating mode 4-5, 5-1, 5-8
Operating time 3-2
Oscilloscope 1-2, 5-14
Overload display 5-13
Overload indicator C-6
Overload monitoring C-2
P
Package contents 3-1
Packaging 3-1
Peak 5-9, C-2, C-3
Peak value C-3
Power supply 3-2
Probe configuration D-1
R
Range 4-1, 5-10
Rechargeable batteries 6-1
Remote control 7-1
Cleaning up received data 7-6
Querying instrument data 7-19
Response data characteristics
7-6
Response string 7-6
Setting the parameters to their
default values 7-21
Use of remote control commands
7-3
Remote control commands
Conventions 7-5
In measurement mode
(measuring) 7-4
In ready mode (status query) 7-3
Remote control interface 8-7
RMS 5-9, C-2
RS-232 4-6
S
Safety instructions 2-1
Scope 4-6
Settling time C-5
Specifications 8-1
Stnd (Standard) 5-9, C-3
Switching on 5-6
T
Test setup 3-4
Transfer function C-2
Transport damage 3-1
U
Unpacking 3-1
W
Weight 8-10
Notes:
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