SportStar Max Maintenance Manual

SportStar Max Maintenance Manual
EVEKTOR–AEROTECHNIK a.s.
Letecka 1384
686 04 Kunovice
Czech Republic
tel.: +420 572 537 111
fax: +420 572 537 900
e-mail: marketing@evektor.cz
http://www.evektor.cz
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND
INSPECTION PROCEDURES
FOR
LIGHT SPORT AIRCRAFT
© EVEKTOR–AEROTECHNIK a.s., 2009
EVEKTOR–AEROTECHNIK a.s.
Letecka 1384
686 04 Kunovice
Czech Republic
tel.: +420 572 537 111
fax: +420 572 537 900
e-mail: marketing@evektor.cz
http:://www.evektor.cz
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE
AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
FO R
LIGHT SPORT AIRCRAFT
Serial Number:
2009 1202
Registration:
N906SL
Owner:
...............................................................
...............................................................
...............................................................
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i
The manufacturer invites suggestions and reminders concerning this manual,
and appreciates propo sals for corrections.
We invite you to share your experiences with us during operation of your
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
1. GENERAL
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
1.1
Information source
Aircraft manufacturer issues information and mandatory bulletins to ensure continued airworthiness
of the Light Sport Aircraft (LSA). The bulletins are provided to all known owners and dealers of the
SportStar MAX aircraft.
All bulletins may be downloaded from:
http://www.evektor.cz/at/en/index.htm#sportstar
You can also contact us via mail, telephone, fax or e-mail mentioned on the title page.
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1.2
Record of revisions
Any revisions or amendments to these instructions shall be issued in the form of bulletins with
attached new pages. It is in the interests of every user to enter such revision into the table of
revisions and to replace the existing page by the new one. The revised or corrected text shall be
indicated by a vertical line on the page fore-edge and the page shall bear a revision number and
date of its issue.
Rev.
No.
Affected
Section
Affected
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Date of
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
1.4
Contents
1.
GENERAL ....................................................................................................................................... 1-1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
INFORMATION SOURCE ........................................................................................................................ 1-2
RECORD OF REVISIONS ....................................................................................................................... 1-3
LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES ................................................................................................................. 1-4
CONTENTS ......................................................................................................................................... 1-5
2.
TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION .......................................................................................................... 2-1
2.1 BASIC AND GENERAL INFORMATION ..................................................................................................... 2-2
2.1.1 Designation................................................................................................................................... 2-2
2.2 BASIC TECHNICAL DATA ...................................................................................................................... 2-3
2.2.1 Airplane views............................................................................................................................... 2-3
2.2.2 Three-view drawing ...................................................................................................................... 2-4
2.2.3 Basic dimensions.......................................................................................................................... 2-5
2.2.4 Weight........................................................................................................................................... 2-6
2.2.5 Center of gravity ........................................................................................................................... 2-6
2.2.6 Operating limitations ..................................................................................................................... 2-6
2.3 TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE AIRPLANE ......................................................................................... 2-7
2.3.1 General ......................................................................................................................................... 2-7
2.3.2 Fuselage ....................................................................................................................................... 2-7
2.3.3 Wing.............................................................................................................................................. 2-7
2.3.4 Horizontal tail unit ......................................................................................................................... 2-7
2.3.5 Vertical tail unit ............................................................................................................................. 2-8
2.3.6 Landing gear................................................................................................................................. 2-9
2.3.7 Cockpit........................................................................................................................................ 2-16
2.3.8 Equipment................................................................................................................................... 2-19
2.3.9 Instrument panel ......................................................................................................................... 2-19
2.3.10
Avionics................................................................................................................................... 2-19
2.3.11
Additional equipment............................................................................................................... 2-19
2.3.12
Control system ........................................................................................................................ 2-20
2.3.13
Powerplant .............................................................................................................................. 2-30
2.3.14
Fuel system............................................................................................................................. 2-37
2.3.15
Engine lubrication system scheme.......................................................................................... 2-40
2.3.16
Cooling system description ..................................................................................................... 2-40
2.3.17
Heating.................................................................................................................................... 2-41
2.3.18
Ventilation ............................................................................................................................... 2-42
2.3.19
Wiring ...................................................................................................................................... 2-43
2.3.20
Pitot-static system ................................................................................................................... 2-44
2.3.21
Placards .................................................................................................................................. 2-45
3.
OPERATION ................................................................................................................................... 3-1
3.1
3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
3.2.4
3.2.5
3.2.6
3.3
3.4
3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3
3.4.4
3.4.5
3.4.6
OPERATION OUTLINES ........................................................................................................................ 3-2
AIRPLANE ASSEMBLY .......................................................................................................................... 3-3
Wing.............................................................................................................................................. 3-3
Horizontal tail unit ......................................................................................................................... 3-5
Vertical tail unit ............................................................................................................................. 3-6
Landing gear................................................................................................................................. 3-7
Cockpit canopy ........................................................................................................................... 3-10
Installation and reinstallation of instruments............................................................................... 3-11
LEVELING ......................................................................................................................................... 3-12
MEASUREMENT OF CONTROL SURFACES DEFLECTIONS ...................................................................... 3-13
Required deflections ................................................................................................................... 3-13
Aileron deflection measurement ................................................................................................. 3-14
Flap deflection measurement ..................................................................................................... 3-14
Elevator deflections measurement ............................................................................................. 3-15
Rudder deflection measurement................................................................................................. 3-15
Trim tab deflections measurement ............................................................................................. 3-16
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3.5
3.6
3.6.1
3.6.2
3.7
3.7.1
3.7.2
3.7.3
3.7.4
3.8
PERMISSIBLE TOLERANCES ............................................................................................................... 3-17
W EIGHING THE AIRPLANE AND C.G. CALCULATION.............................................................................. 3-18
Empty weight determination........................................................................................................ 3-18
Operating C.G. Range calculation .............................................................................................. 3-19
GROUND HANDLING........................................................................................................................... 3-20
Towing the airplane..................................................................................................................... 3-20
Parking the airplane .................................................................................................................... 3-20
Tieing-Down ................................................................................................................................ 3-20
Jacking the airplane .................................................................................................................... 3-21
ROAD TRANSPORT ............................................................................................................................ 3-21
4.
MAINTENANCE .............................................................................................................................. 4-1
4.1 OVERALL MAINTENANCE SURVEY ......................................................................................................... 4-2
4.1.1 Terminology .................................................................................................................................. 4-2
4.1.2 Qualification requirements ............................................................................................................ 4-5
4.2 PRE-FLIGHT INSPECTION ..................................................................................................................... 4-7
4.3 POST-FLIGHT INSPECTION ................................................................................................................... 4-8
4.4 PERIODICAL INSPECTIONS ................................................................................................................... 4-8
4.4.1 Periodical inspection intervals....................................................................................................... 4-8
4.4.2 Periodical inspection actions......................................................................................................... 4-8
4.4.3 Periodical Inspections Checklists.................................................................................................. 4-9
4.5 FLUIDS ............................................................................................................................................. 4-16
4.5.1 Engine oil .................................................................................................................................... 4-17
4.5.2 Coolant........................................................................................................................................ 4-20
4.5.3 Brake fluid ................................................................................................................................... 4-21
4.5.4 Fuel ............................................................................................................................................. 4-23
4.6 LUBRICATION .................................................................................................................................... 4-26
4.6.1 Lubrication fundamentals ............................................................................................................ 4-26
4.6.2 Recommended lubricants ........................................................................................................... 4-26
4.7 MECHANISM ADJUSTMENTS ............................................................................................................... 4-28
4.7.1 Torque moments ......................................................................................................................... 4-28
4.8 NECESSARY MAINTENANCE TOOLS..................................................................................................... 4-29
4.9 ACCESS HOLES ................................................................................................................................. 4-29
4.10
BRAKE SYSTEM EFFICIENCY ADJUSTMENT ...................................................................................... 4-30
4.10.1
Brake pad replacement ........................................................................................................... 4-30
4.10.2
Bleeding................................................................................................................................... 4-31
4.11
CONTROL SURFACES DEFLECTION SETTING .................................................................................... 4-32
4.11.1
Aileron deflection adjustment .................................................................................................. 4-32
4.11.2
Flap deflection adjustment....................................................................................................... 4-32
4.11.3
Elevator deflection adjustment ................................................................................................ 4-33
4.11.4
Rudder deflection adjustment.................................................................................................. 4-33
4.11.5
Trim tab adjustment................................................................................................................. 4-33
4.12
STEERABLE NOSEWHEEL LANDING GEAR ADJUSTMENT .................................................................... 4-34
4.12.1
Rubber shock absorber replacement ...................................................................................... 4-34
4.13
ENGINE IDLE ADJUSTMENT ............................................................................................................. 4-35
4.14
TIRE INFLATION PRESSURE ............................................................................................................ 4-36
4.15
CLEANING AND CARE ..................................................................................................................... 4-37
4.15.1
Airplane care outlines .............................................................................................................. 4-37
4.15.2
External surfaces cleaning ...................................................................................................... 4-37
4.15.3
Interior cleaning ....................................................................................................................... 4-37
4.15.4
Cockpit canopy cleaning ......................................................................................................... 4-37
4.15.5
Engine maintenance................................................................................................................ 4-38
4.15.6
Propeller maintenance............................................................................................................. 4-38
4.15.7
Winter operation ...................................................................................................................... 4-39
5.
REPAIRS ......................................................................................................................................... 5-1
5.1 REPAIR GUIDELINES ............................................................................................................................ 5-2
5.1.1 Repair clasification ........................................................................................................................ 5-2
5.1.2 Repair guidelines .......................................................................................................................... 5-2
5.2 DAMAGE CLASSIFICATION .................................................................................................................... 5-2
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5.3.1
5.4
5.4.1
5.5
5.5.1
5.5.2
5.5.3
5.5.4
5.6
5.6.1
5.6.2
5.6.3
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
MATERIALS USED ............................................................................................................................... 5-3
List of skin sheets ......................................................................................................................... 5-3
SKIN REPAIR....................................................................................................................................... 5-4
Riveting......................................................................................................................................... 5-5
FIBERGLASS PARTS REPAIRS .............................................................................................................. 5-6
Damage classification................................................................................................................... 5-6
General ......................................................................................................................................... 5-6
Parts of external appearance........................................................................................................ 5-6
Structural parts ............................................................................................................................. 5-8
PAINT REPAIRS ................................................................................................................................... 5-9
Safety rules................................................................................................................................... 5-9
Recommendation for paint repairs................................................................................................ 5-9
Small damage............................................................................................................................. 5-12
AIRPLANE ASSEMBLY AND LEVELING AFTER A REPAIR ......................................................................... 5-14
FIRST FLIGHT AFTER A REPAIR........................................................................................................... 5-15
SPARE PARTS ORDER ....................................................................................................................... 5-15
RECOMMENDED READING .............................................................................................................. 5-15
6.
APPENDICES ................................................................................................................................. 6-1
6.1
LIST OF APPENDICES .......................................................................................................................... 6-2
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2. TECHNICAL
DESCRIPTION
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2.1
Basic and general information
The SportStar MAX is a single engine, metal-composite, low-wing monoplane of semimonocoque
construction with two side-by side seats. The aircraft is equipped with fixed, tricycle landing gear.
The standard power plant consists of the four-cylinder, 4 stroke ROTAX 912 ULS (100 hp) engine
and on-ground adjustable, 3 bladed, composite, WOODCOMP KLASSIC 170/3/R prop.
For concrete engine / propeller type see Supplement No. 1 – Description of actual airplane.
2.1.1
Designation
SportStar MAX is an aircraft especially intended for recreational and cross-country flying with a
limitation to non-aerobatic operation.
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Basic technical data
2.2.1
Airplane views
Note: US version of the SportStar MAX is fitted with a row of vortex generators along the whole
wing span. These are not shown on the pictures above.
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2.2.2
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Three-view drawing
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2.2.3
Basic dimensions
Wing
span..............................................................................................
28.37 ft
8.646 m
area ..............................................................................................
112.7 sq.ft
10.47 sq.m
MAC .............................................................................................
4.1 ft
1.25 m
Loading.........................................................................................
11.71 lbs/sq.ft 57.30 kg/sq.m
Aileron
area ..............................................................................................
2.62 sq.ft
0.25 sq.m
5.60 sq.ft
0.52 sq.m
length............................................................................................
19.62 ft
5.98 m
width .............................................................................................
3.55 ft
1.082 m
height............................................................................................
7.66 ft
2.335 m
cockpit canopy max. width ...........................................................
3.9 ft
1.180 m
span..............................................................................................
8.20 ft
2.5 m
HTU area......................................................................................
20.88 sq.ft
1.94 sq.m
elevator area ................................................................................
8.4 sq.ft
0.8 sq.m
height............................................................................................
4.21 ft
1.28 m
VTU area ......................................................................................
10.99 sq.ft
1.02 sq.m
rudder area...................................................................................
4.67 sq.ft
0.43 sq.m
wheel track ...................................................................................
6.39 ft
1.95 m
wheel base ...................................................................................
4.43 ft
1.350 m
main wheel diameter ....................................................................
15 in
380 mm
nosewheel diameter .....................................................................
15 in
380 mm
Flap
area ..............................................................................................
Fuselage
HTU
VTU
Landing gear
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2.2.4
Weight
Empty weight (standard equipment)............................................. 740 lbs ± 2%
335 kg ± 2%
Maximum Take-off weight
..................................................... 1320 lbs
600 kg
Maximum Landing weight
..................................................... 1320 lbs
600 kg
Maximum weight in Baggage Compartment ................................ 55 lbs
25 kg
NOTE
Actual empty weight is stated on the placard “LOAD LIMITS,“
located on the cockpit canopy.
2.2.5
Center of gravity
Empty weight CG (standard equipment) ....................................20 ± 2 % MAC
Operating CG ............................................................................20 - 34 % MAC
(MAC...Mean Aerodynamic Chord)
2.2.6
Operating limitations
Refer to the AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS (AOI), Section 2 for more details about the
following operating limits:
• Airspeed limits
• Weight limits
• CG Range limits
• Approved maneuvers
Additional rules are of a more common character and result from generally valid flight regulations.
It is in every user’s interest to be familiar with these regulations, rules and restrictions.
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2.3
Technical description of the airplane
2.3.1
General
The SportStar MAX airframe is of semi-monocoque construction formed with metal
reinforcements, bulkheads and duralumin cover. Pop-rivets and a sealant are used for joints. The
canopy, fuselage aft section top, as well as some other non-supporting parts )cowlings, wing tips,
etc.) are made from fiberglass.
2.3.2
Fuselage
The fuselage is a combination of semimonocoque structure consisting of reinforcements and
duralumin skin, with a composite fuselage aft section top and composite canopy . Fuselage section
is rectangular in the lower part and eliptic in the upper part. The fin is an integral part of fuselage.
The cockpit for two-member crew is located in the middle part of the fuselage that is accessible
after uncovering the single-piece organic glass composite canopy. The engine compartment in the
front part of the fuselage is separated from the cockpit by the steel firewall to which the engine bed
is attached.
2.3.3
Wing
The wing is of rectangular shape, single-spar structure with the auxiliary spar with suspended
ailerons and split wing flaps. Riveting is used for connecting individual structural elements. Fiberglass wing tips are riveted on the wing ends. There is an integral fuel tank inside each wing half, in
the section between the main and auxiliary spar at the wing root.
2.3.3.1 Ailerons
The ailerons are of rectangular shape on each half of the wing and are attached to the wing with
hinges. An aileron is formed with the ribs and cover, which forms a hollow section.
2.3.3.2 Trim tab
Left aileron is optionally equipped with electrically controlled trim tab.
2.3.3.3 Flaps
Two-third's of each half of the wing is fitted with a flap. The flaps are of rectangular shape and are
formed with the ribs and cover, which forms a hollow section. The flap is attached to the wing with a
hinge.
2.3.4
Horizontal tail unit
The VTU of conventional type consists of the stabilizer and elevator with the trim tab. Single-spar
structure of HTU consists of duralumin ribs, spar and skin. Top view of HTU is of rectangular
shape. The width of 8.20 ft (2.5 m) enables transport without dismantling.
2.3.4.1 Stabilizer
The stabilizer is rectangular in shape and formed with a duralumin cover and ribs. The stabilizer is
attached to the fuselage with two pins at the leading edge and secured with two screws at the
stabilizer trailing edge.
2.3.4.2 Elevator
The elevator is rectangular in shape and formed with a duralumin cover and ribs. The elevator is
attached to the stabilizer with a hinge. There is also a hinged trim tab at the elevator trailing edge.
2.3.4.3 Trim tab
Elevator is equipped with the trim tab of rectangular shape. The tab is formed with duralumin plate.
The span of the trim tab is approx. 2/3 of the elevator spanwise.
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2.3.5
Vertical tail unit
The trapezoidal VTU consists of the fin and rudder. The rudder is attached on the fin by two hinges.
The frame of the VTU is composed of a metal sheet spar and a duralumin cover.
2.3.5.1 Fin
The fin is an integral part of the fuselage rear section and is formed with a duralumin spar and
cover. The fin tip is formed with a fiberglass cover, where the anticollision beacon can be installed.
The fillet between the fin and rear upper fuselage part is formed with a fiberglass fillet cover.
2.3.5.2 Rudder
The rudder is of trapezoidal shape and formed with a duralumin spar and cover and attached by two
hinges at the fin. The rudder upper tip is formed with a fiberglass cover.
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2.3.6
Landing gear
2.3.6.1 General description
The aircraft is equipped with fixed nosewheel landing gear. The nosewheel is steerable.
2
2
1
Fig. Landing gear
1 - Steerable nosewheel
2 - Main landing gear
2.3.6.2 Main landing gear
2.3.6.2.1 Description
The main landing gear consists of the left and right landing gear legs. The legs are formed from
fiberglass springs and are fixed by means of screws in the fuselage casing under the seats. Wheel
axis is screwed at the lower part of the main landing gear legs. The main wheels on both legs are
equipped with hydraulic disc brakes controlled with toe brake pedals mounted on the rudder pedals.
The wheels can be covered with the fiberglass fairings (wheel pants) or mudguards.
2.3.6.3 Nosewheel landing gear
2.3.6.3.1 Description
Steerable nose landing gear consists of front landing gear leg, rubber rope suspension unit and
suspension stop. The nose leg is made of a bent steel tube, attached to the firewall by two
bearings. The axle, with wheel attached, is connected to the welded bushing in the bottom part of
the leg. Two rods are used for the leg steering by the control pedals.
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2.3.6.3.2 Main landing gear layout
MAIN LEG ATTACHMENT
ANGLE REINFORCEMENT
MAIN LEG ATTACHMENT
MAIN LEG
WHEEL WITH BRAKE
SCREW 4x40 ČSN 02 1781.04
MAIN LEG
NUT M16x1.5 ČSN 02 1412.24
WASHER
SCREW 5x10 ČSN 02 2150.01
FLIGHT DIRECTION
Fig. Main leg attachment into fuselage
2-10
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2.3.6.3.3 Steerable nosewheel landing gear layout
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2.3.6.4 Auxiliary tail skid
2.3.6.4.1 Description
The auxiliary tail skid is attached at the lower rear part of the fuselage and protects the aircraft from
inadvertent damage during tail-down landing conditions. The tail skid is formed from duralumin
sheet.
Fig. Auxiliary tail skid
2-12
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2.3.6.5 Wheel brakes
2.3.6.5.1 Description
Both wheels on the main landing gear are equipped with hydraulic disc brakes. The brake system
consists of the brake pedals (pilot standard, co-pilot as an option), hydraulic brake master cylinders,
plastic hoses, brake caliper with the hydraulic brake cylinder, brake pads and the brake disc which
is bolted onto the inner part of the rim.
Fig. The MATCO brake on
the left wheel (MATCO)
1- brake caliper with the
hydraulic cylinder
2 - brake disc
3 - brake fluid hose
4 - terminal
5 - air bleed screw
5
2
1
3
4
2.3.6.5.2 Brake control
The brakes on both wheels are controlled independently by toe brake pedals mounted on the pilot’s
and the co-pilot’s rudder pedals.
1
3
1
2
3
2
Fig. The brake control with toe brake pedals
1 – ruder pedals, 2 – brake cylinder, 3 – nose wheel steering rod
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2.3.6.5.3 Brake system layout
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2.3.6.6 Wheels
2.3.6.6.1 Description
All the wheels consist of a two-part casting rim with a tire and tube. The main wheels are on an axle
attached to the main gear leg, fastened by the nuts.
2.3.6.6.2 Main undercarriage wheel layout
2.3.6.6.3 Nosewheel layout
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
2.3.6.7 Tires
All wheels............................................. CHENG SHIN 15 x 6.00 – 6 (standard)
GOOD YEAR 15 x 6.00 – 6
SAVA 14x4
2.3.7
or optional:
Cockpit
2.3.7.1 Description
The comfortable cockpit has a side-by-side, dual control arrangement, which provides the crew with
an excellent view and comfort. It protects the crew from adverse weather conditions, and allows
easy access to the controls and instruments.
The instrument panel is located in front of the crew. The flap control lever, elevator trim tab lever
and optional towing mechanism release lever are located on the quadrant between seats.
Optionally, the trim may be electric, with the control buttosns on top of the control stick grip.
A baggage compartment is situated behind the seats.
The cockpit floor is covered with a removable carpet and the seats are also covered with a thin
upholstery. The interior cockpit sides are covered with padded panels containing pockets.
The actual cockpit controls and instrument arrangement is described later.
Fig.: Cockpit of the SportStar MAX
2-16
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2.3.7.2 Cockpit controls
A sample of the cockpit control arrangement
A detailed instrument panel is shown in par. 2.3.9.
1.
3.
Control stick
Flap control lever
2.
4.
5.
7.
Fuel tank selector
Switches
(depending on equipment)
Switch box
Choke lever
12V socket
6.
8.
Knobs from the left:
• Cold air
• Hot air
• Canopy defog
• Carburetter pre-heating
Parking brake lever (option)
Additional 12V socket (option)
16.
9.
11.
13.
15.
17.
19.
10.
12.
14.
18.
20.
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is
shown
in
the
following
figure.
Rudder pedals
4a Electric trim (option)
4b Elevator trim control lever
Static pressure selector (option)
Master switch
Throttle lever
ELT switch
Emergency parachute system
lever (option)
Pop-up breakres (depending on
equipment)
Headset sockets
Dimmer (option)
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
2.3.7.3 Cockpit canopy
The fiberglass bubble canopy consists of two parts. The front perspex portion can be tilted forward
and is attached to a composite frame. The fixed rear portion is made of perspex. The canopy is
attached to the nose section of the fuselage by two pins which make it possible for the canopy to be
tilted forward. For easier manipulation, the weight of the canopy is counterbalanced by two gas
struts which allow effortless opening. The canopy is equipped with a lock on the upper rear section
of the frame.
3
1
2
Fig. Two-parts cockpit
canopy
1- front tilted canopy, 2 - rear
fixed canopy, 3 - canopy lock,
2
3
Fig. Cockpit canopy lock
1- inside lever
2 - outside lever
3 – grab handle
1
Fig. Cockpit canopy lock
Cockpit is unlocked,
when a latch is visible
under the glass,
otherwise it is locked.
1 - latch
1
2-18
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2.3.8
Equipment
2.3.8.1 Seats and safety harness
The plane has two side-by-side seats which are fixed and covered with upholstery, each equipped
with four-point seatbelts. Adjustable rudder pedals are optional. The waist belt is attached alongside
the seat and shoulder belts behind the seats.
2.3.8.2 Baggage compartment
The baggage compartment is situated behind the seats. It is equipped with the nets to prevent
baggage movement.
Maximum baggage weight is stated on a placard located near the compartment.
There are pockets on both cockpit interior sides for small objects (maps, pencils, keys etc.).
1
2
Fig. Baggage compartment
1 - safety seat belts, 2 - baggage compartment
WARNING
A SPACE BEHIND THE BAGGAGE COMPARTMENT, WHERE THE ELT IS LOCATED, IS NOT
INTENDED AS AN ADDITIONAL BAGGAGE COMPARTMENT. DO NOT PLACE THERE ANY
HEAVY OBJECTS! AIRPLANE REAR C.G. LIMIT MAY BE EXCEEDED IN SUCH CASE!
2.3.9
Instrument panel
See Supplement No. 1 to this Airplane Maintenance and Inspection Procedures.
2.3.10 Avionics
See Supplement No. 1 to this Airplane Maintenance and Inspection Procedures.
2.3.11 Additional equipment
See Supplement No. 1 to this Airplane Maintenance and Inspection Procedures.
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
2.3.12 Control system
2.3.12.1 Longitudinal control system description
The airplane is equipped with a classic dual control system. The elevator is controlled by a control
stick, with connecting rods and arms. A control stick push/pull movement is transmitted, by a rod
inside the quadrant between the seats to the elevator through a two-armed lever located
underneath the baggage compartment floor cover. The angular displacement of the two-armed
lever is transferred by a longitudinal motion of two rods, connected with a single arm lever, inside
the middle rear part of the fuselage. The rear rod is connected to the elevator single-arm lever.
A control stick motion is limited by two stops. Both control sticks have a common "push-down" stop
on the center-section and each control stick has a "pull-up" stop formed with a reinforcement
riveted on the front edge of each seat. The rods have adjustable ends and swivel bearings to adjust
the elevator deflections.
2.3.12.2 Lateral control system description
The ailerons are controlled by control sticks, connecting rods and arms. A control stick lateral
motion is transferred by a short rod in the cockpit to a longitudinal movement of a longer rod in the
wing. This in turn transfers to the angular displacement of a two-armed lever attached to the wing
main spar. The two-armed lever angular movement is transferred to the ailerons by short rods. The
rods have adjustable ends to adjust the aileron deflections. The control stick has a termination stop.
Electric aileron trim tab control can be installed optionally. Control switches are located on the
control stick, trim tab position indicator is located on the instrument panel.
CAUTION
To adjust an aileron deflection, never use the adjustable end of the short rod which is accessible
when wing fillet (covering the space between the wing and fuselage) is removed. See Figure in
2.3.12.8.
2.3.12.3 Directional control system description
The rudder control system is dual. The rudder is controlled by cables attached at the rudder pedals
and guided alongside the fuselage sides to the rudder. The rudder control cable is equipped with
adjusting stops located in the cockpit (see figure on page 2-24). The rudder pedals are attached to
the cockpit floor. There are toe brake pedals on the pilot's and copilot’s rudder pedals to operate the
main wheel brakes. The cables are connected to the hinges in the lower part of the rudder leading
edge. The cables are prestressed by means of nose wheel control rods. The rudder control is
connected to the nosewheel landing gear to control the nosewheel by the adjustable rods.
2-20
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2.3.12.4 Flap control system description
The wing flaps are controlled by a control lever in a changing gate. The lever push/pull movement is
transferred to a longitudinal movement of a rod guided inside the quadrant between the seats. Then
to an angular displacement of a two-armed lever welded onto a tube connecting left and right flap.
The flap control lever is located in the quadrant between the seats. When a lock button located on
the upper end of the lever is pressed, the lock pin is pulled out of the groove in the changing gate.
The flaps can then be extended to a position for takeoff or landing. The flap position is locked when
the lock button is released.
2.3.12.5 Trim tab control system description
The elevator trim tab is controlled by the control lever located in the quadrant between the seats.
The trim tab control lever movement is transmitted to the trim tab displacement by bowden cables.
Maximum trim tab deflections can be adjusted by means of adjusting screws on the upper or lower
tab surface.
Electric elevator trim tab control can by installed optionally. Control switches are located on the
control stick, trim tab position indicator is located on the instrument panel.
2.3.12.6 Nosewheel control system description
The aircraft is equipped with steerable nosewheel landing gear. In this case the wheel control
system is connected to the rudder pedals. The nosewheel control system consists of the rods,
connecting pedals and a two-armed lever welded to the nose landing gear leg.
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2-21
2-22
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Adjustable rod end
3
5
6
Elevator control rod
4
INF O
I NFO
Adjustable stop screw
PŘEPÁŽKY
1 SYSTÉM
2
FRAME SYSTEM
Control stick
7
6a
10
11
Adjustable rod end
Elevator control rods
9
Two arm lever
8
Rods connecting lever
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
2.3.12.7 Longitudinal control system layout
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2.3.12.8 Lateral control system layout
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2.3.12.8.1 Electric aileron trim tab control system layout (optional)
2-24
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2.3.12.9 Directional control system layout
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2.3.12.10 Flap control system layout
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2.3.12.11 Elevator trim tab control system layout
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2.3.12.11.1 Electric elevator trim tab control system layout (optional)
2-28
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2.3.12.12 Nosewheel control system layout
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
2.3.13 Powerplant
2.3.13.1 Brief description
The standard powerplant consists of the four-cylinder, 4 stroke, ROTAX 912 ULS engine and onground adjustable, 3 bladed, composite, WOODCOMP KLASSIC 170/3/R prop. Other props are
optional.
IFR version is fitted with certified ROTAX 912S and ground adjustable, 3-bladed, composite
Warpdrive CF prop, with Nickel protection of blade leading edges.
The engine data is scanned by an analog instruments or by integrated digital engine monitoring
system EMS (optional).
Fig. SportStar MAX Powerplant (optional Rotax 912S for IFR version)
2.3.13.2 Engine
2.3.13.2.1 Description
The Rotax 912 is a 4-stroke, 4 cylinder, horizontally opposed, spark ignition engine and has one
central camshaft-push-rods-OHV.
Liquid cooled cylinder heads, ram air cooled cylinders.
Dry sump forced lubrication.
Dual breakerless capacitor discharge ignition.
The engine is fitted with electric starter, AC generator and mechanical fuel pump. Prop drive via
reduction gear with integrated shock absorber.
Refer to the Rotax documentation for more details about different versions.
2-30
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2.3.13.2.2 Technical data
Engine manufacturer:
Bombardier-Rotax GMBH
Engine type:
ROTAX 912 ULS (S2 for IFR version)
Power:
maximum take-off
73.5 kW / 100 HP
maximum continuous
69 kW / 95 HP
maximum take-off
5800 RPM
max. 5 minutes
maximum continuous
5500 RPM
idle
1400 RPM
Cylinder head
temperature:
maximum
275 °F
Oil temperature:
maximum
266 °F
optimum operation
190 - 230 °F
maximum
102 PSI
minimum
12 PSI
optimum operation
29 - 73 PSI
Fuel pressure:
minimum
2.2 PSI
Fuel grades:
see 2.13,
Oil grades:
see 2.14,
Reducer gear ratio:
2.43 : 1
Propeller:
Prop manufacturer:
Propeller type:
Standardly installed:
WOODCOMP s.r.o.
KLASSIC 170/3/R
IFR version:
Warpdrive
Warpdrive CF
3 blade
composite
ground adjustable
Nickel protection of
blade leading edges
3-bladed, composite
Ground adjustable
68 in
2600 RPM
68 in
2600 RPM
Engine speed:
Oil pressure:
Propeller diameter:
Maximum prop speed:
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
Fuel
Oil
Automotive engine oil of a registered brand with gear additives, but not aircraft oil (refer to Engine
Operator’s and Manual Service Information). API classification “SF“ or “SG“.
Refer to para 4.6.1 and the Engine Operator’s Manual and Service Information.
2-32
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2.3.13.3 Propeller
2.3.13.3.1 Description
The WOODCOMP KLASSIC 170/3/R prop is installed in the SportStar MAX standardly. The prop is
attached to the propeller hub with 6 bolts. A fiberglass spinner is used.
Refer to the manuals supplied with the prop for more information.
Propeller Technical Data
Diameter.................................................................... 67
in
1700
Pitch ..............................................................................
on-ground adjustable, pitch 6-17°
Weight ...................................................................... 8.2
lbs
Propeller blade clearance
from ground................................................... 11.8 ± 1.2
in
3.7
300 ± 30
mm
kg
mm
Manufacturer ...................................................................... WOODCOMP, s.r.o.
Kremen Sport Prop Junkers
Czech Republic
Vodolská 4
250 70 Odolena Voda
NOTE
The exact pitch/performance of the prop supplied with each airplane may differ slightly, therefore
the exact performance of your airplane may be different.
IFR version is fitted with ground adjustable, 3-bladed, composite Warpdrive CF prop, with Nickel
protection of blade leading edges.
NOTE
See Supplement No. 1 to this Aircraft Maintenance and Inspection Procedures for exact propeller
installed on the airplane.
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
2.3.13.4 The EMS - engine monitoring system (if installed)
The Rotax 912ULS engine parameters can be monitored by an engine monitoring system
like Dynon EMS D-120, TruTrak EMS, etc..
For engine parameters which are displayed refer to the manual supplied with such instrument.
2.3.13.5 Analog engine instruments
If analog engine instruments are installed then the instruments limit indicators should show the
following:
Red line
Green arc
Yellow arc
Red line
Instrument
Units
Lower
limit
Normal
operation
range
Caution
range
Upper
limit
RPM indicator
RPM
-
1400 - 5500
5500 - 5800
5800
Oil temperature
indicator
°F
-
190 - 230
120 - 190
266
Oil pressure
indicator
PSI
Cylinder head
temperature
°F
230 - 266
12
29 - 73
12 - 29
102
73 - 102
-
-
-
275
The following analog powerplant instruments are generally installed:
MITCHELL
Engine speed indicator .............................................MITCHELL P/N D1-211-5021
Oil press indicator.....................................................MITCHELL P/N D1-211-5054
Oil temperature indicator ..........................................MITCHELL P/N D1-211-5091
Cylinder head temperature indicator ........................MITCHELL P/N D1-211-5082
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2.3.13.6 Engine bed
2.3.13.6.1 Description
The engine bed is welded from chrome-molybdenum tubes and is attached to the firewall with 4
bolts. The bed is spring-mounted with four rubber silentblocks.
1
2
Fig. Engine bed
1- bed, 2 - rubber silentblock
Fig. Engine bed suspensions
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
2.3.13.7 Engine cowlings
2.3.13.7.1 Description
There are two fiberglass cowlings (upper and lower) attached to the engine mount which cover the
engine. The interior sides of the cowlings are protected with fireproof paint, exterior sides are
painted with aircraft paint. The upper cowling is connected to the lower cowling with quick-closing
locks and is usually removed for preflight inspections.
Removed engine cowlings are shown in the following figure.
1
3
2
Fig. Rotax 912UL or 912S (ULS) engine cowlings
1- upper cowling, 2 - lower cowling with cut-out for the radiator,
3 – cap for oil level check
2.3.13.7.2 Engine cowlings disassembly and assembly
Type of maintenance: line.
Authorization to perform: - Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
- Sport pilot
- or higher
Tools needed: Phillips screwdriver
Parts needed: none
Instructions:
• The upper cowling: The disassembly and assembly are both easy - just release the quickclosing locks. The upper cowling is usually removed during engine pre-flight inspection to
check the engine compartment, operating fluids quantity (oil, coolant) and to check the
engine installation.
• The lower cowling: To remove it, unscrew the attachment screws connecting the cooler to the
cowling face side, then remove two air hose (unscrew sleeves) and then unscrew the
attachment screws connecting the cowling to the firewall flange.
It is highly recommended to protect the removed cowlings so as to prevent them from
inadvertent damage.
The cowling assembly is the reverse of disassembly.
Task proper accomplishment: check: check the screws are tight,
visually check the camlocks position.
2-36
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2.3.14 Fuel system
2.3.14.1 Fuel system description
Fuel is contained in the wing integral tanks having approximately 60 liters (15.85 U.S. gallons)
volume each. Each tank is fitted with air venting (output is under the wing tip) and draining valve on
the bottom side of the wing. There are also single-way valves in the air venting system to avoid fuel
leak through air vents in turns etc. Fuel is led from the tanks through the hoses to the fuel selector
located on a central console under the instrument panel and then through a fuel filter to the engine
pump and carburetors. Fuel return hose goes from the fuel pump into the left tank, which is due to
considered as a primary" tank. See figure below for Scheme of fuel system.
The fuel tanks filler necks are placed on the upper side of the each wing. Fuel quantity is indicated
by an electric fuel gauges or on a display of the engine monitoring system.
The drain valves are located on the bottom side of the each wing.
.
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
2.3.14.2 Standard fuel system layout
2-38
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2.3.14.3 Fuel tank draining
Type of maintenance: line.
Authorization to perform: - Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
- Sport pilot or higher
Tools needed: flat screwdriwer
fuel resisting transparent bottle
Parts needed: none
Instructions:
The drain points of the fuel tanks are located at the bottom side of the wing.
Fig. Fuel drain valve
Procedure:
1. Put the suitable vessel or transparent cup under the drain valve.
2. Using screwdriver (or appropriate jig) press and turn draining valve to the left
to open it.
3. Drain required quantity of fuel.
NOTE
Draining serves to elimimation of impurities and deposits from the fuel. Drain until clean fuel flows
from the drain valve.
4. Using screwdriver (or appropriate jig) turn draining valve to the right to close it.
5. Repeat procedure for the opposite tank.
WARNING
DO NOT SMOKE OR HAVE OPEN ANY FLAME DURING DRAINING!
Task proper accomplishment check: visually check, that the valve is closed and there is no leak of
fuel through it.
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
2.3.15 Engine lubrication system scheme
2.3.15.1 Lubrication system description
The Rotax 912 engine is provided with a dry sump forced lubrication system. The oil pump pulls the
motor oil from the oil tank attached to the firewall via the oil cooler. Then forces it through the oil
filter to the lubrication points in the engine.
The surplus oil emerging from the lubrication points accumulates on the bottom of the crankcase
and is forced back to the oil tank by the blow-by gases.
The oil tank is equipped with a vent hose.
The engine lubrication system is further described in documentation supplied with the engine.
2.3.16 Cooling system description
2.3.16.1 Cooling system description
The cooling system uses two forms of cooling. The cylinder heads are liquid cooled and the
cylinders ram air cooled. The radiator is located in the front of the lower engine cowling. The coolant
is forced through the radiator by a water pump, driven from the crankshaft to the cylinder heads.
From the top of the cylinder heads the coolant passes on to the expansion tank which allows for
coolant expansion. The expansion tank is closed by a pressure cap with an excess pressure valve
and return valve. When the temperature rises the coolant creates excess pressure, a relief valve
opens and the coolant flows through a thin hose to the overflow bottle mounted on the firewall.
The engine cooling system is more completely described in documentation supplied with the
engine.
Check the coolant level in the expansion tank (installed on the engine body) before the first flight of
the day - replenish as required up to max. 2/3 of the expansion tank volume.
Check the coolant level in the overflow bottle (installed on the firewall) – coolant level volume should
be at least approx. 0.42 pints (0.2 litre).
2-40
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
2.3.17 Heating
A cockpit heating system is optional.
2.3.17.1 Description
One air hose leads the air to the heat exchanger in the exhaust system where the air is heated up,
then it is led through the valve at the firewall to the mixing chamber in the cockpit floor. When the
valve is closed, the air is led through the outlet air hose under the aircraft.
The second air hose leads cold outside air directly through the valve at the firewall to the mixing
chamber in the cockpit floor.
The hot air and cold air valves are operated by a cable from the heating valve/flap to a small
push/pull knobs located on the instrument panel. Pull the knob to open the appropriate valve and
bring air into the mixing chamber. The flap located in the mixing chamber allows air direction to the
windshield or cockpit floor. The flap is operated with a knob located on the instrument panel.
The cockpit heating system is shown in the following figure:
1
2
3
2
5
4
Fig. Cockpit heating system
1- muffler, 2 – hot air hose, 3 – outer air hose
4 - on the firewall mounted flaps, 5 – outlet hose
Fig. Heating mixing chamber
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2.3.18 Ventilation
2.3.18.1 Description
Ventilation is ensured by 2 eye–ball vents located on the left and right of the tip-up canopy frame.
Vents are connected to the NACA scoops through tip-up canopy frame front flaps.
Defrosting of windshield and sides is ensured by hot air conducted from a cold/hot air mixing
chamber on the firewall into the tip-up canopy frame and then through a row of holes onto the
glass.
Fig. Eye-ball vent and
holes for the canopy
defog.
Fig. NACA scoop on the
canopy
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2.3.19 Wiring
2.3.19.1 Wiring description
The electric system is a single-wire type with the negative side connected to the chassis. The power
source is a single-phase generator integral to the engine. A 12V/16Ah maintenancefree battery is
located on the firewall.
Widely equipped airplanes (night VFR, IFR) are fitted with the auxiliary generator SD-20, mounted
on the engine.
The system is protected by the main 30 Amp circuit breaker. The circuits of the particular sections
are each guarded individually by circuit breakers.
The dual engine ignition is a separate part of the electrical system.
Piper type external power socket can be installed optionally. Socket is located on the right side of
the fuselage, behind the firewall.
Optionally 12V automotive socket located on the instrument panel can be installed, as well as an
another 12V socket behind the co-pilot seat, next to the headphones sockets.
2.3.19.2 Wiring diagram
The wiring system will vary and depends on the instrumentation, electronic equipment, and electric
accessories of your aircraft.
See Supplement No. 1 to this Airplane Maintenance and Inspection Procedures to find wiring
diagrams of your airplane.
2.3.19.3 Circuit breakers
The circuit breakers are located on the lower edge of instrument panel.
See Supplement No. 1 to this Airplane Maintenance and Inspection Procedures for circuit breakers
detailed description of your airplane.
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2.3.20 Pitot-static system
2.3.20.1 Pitot-static system description
The Pitot-static tube, located under the left wing near the aileron root, provides both total and static
air pressure.
Pressure distribution to individual instruments is done through flexible plastic hoses.
Keep the system clear to ensure its correct function.
Both hose systems (Total and Static) are equipped with dirt pockets. The dirt pockets are located
inside the cockpit on the floor n front of the pilot's seat.
IFR version is equipped with an alternate pitot-static tube located under the right half of the wing.
This pitot serves only as a source of alternate static pressure. Both Primary and Alternate pitots are
heated. There is a static pressure select knob located on the instrument panel to switch from
Primary to Alternate static pressure.
Fig. Standard pitot-static system
Fig. IFR pitot-static system
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2.3.20.1.1 Pitot system draining
Type of maintenance: line, preventive
Authorization to perform: - Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
- Sport pilot or higher
Tools needed: screwdriver to unscrew hand control cover(s) inside the cockpit
Parts needed: none
Instructions:
If water is visible inside the reservoirs from below the fuselage (see left figure below), then unscrew
the hand control cover in front of the pilot seat to make access to the water reservoirs (right figure
below). Screw the reservoirs off, dry, and slightly blow into the Pitot-static head. Then screw the
reservoir covers back and check the packings.
CAUTION
Avoid blowing into the Pitot-static system with the dirt pocket cover is closed - it may cause an
instrument malfunction.
Task proper accomplishment check: Check the dirt pocket covers are tight
Note: IFR version has 4 water reservoirs. 2 for the left wing primary pitot system, additional 2 for
alternate pitot system for the right wing.
2.3.21 Placards
A new aircraft is equipped with placards supplied by the airplane manufacturer.
These placards explain the purpose of controls, instruments, airspeed limits, weight limits, etc.
Placards with supplemetal information such as a direction of handles are also supplied.
The placards are usually attached to the appropriate instruments and controls. Limitation placards
are attached to the canopy, external placards are attached on the appropriate aircraft part, however
placards may vary slightly from plane to plane.
CAUTION
The owner (aircraft operating agency) of the aircraft is responsible for the readability of placards
during the aircraft service life.
2.3.21.1 Placards renewal
Type of maintenance: minor.
Authorization to perform: - Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
- Sport pilot or higher
Tools needed: scissors
Parts needed: placards
Instructions:
In case of placard damage or unreadibility, it is permissible to copy placards enclosed in the
Appendices of these Procedures (copy on suitable adhesive tape) to replace the damaged placard.
Task proper accomplishment check: Check the new placards shows proper information, check it is
properly attached.
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
3. OPERATION
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
3.1
Operation outlines
During operation of the SportStar MAX it is required to have in the following documentation in the
plane (or according to appropriate aviation authority requirements):
• Aircraft Operating Instructions for SportStar MAX Light Sport Aircraft
• Aircraft Station Licence
• Certificate of Registration
• Certificate of Airworthiness
• Insurance Certificates
• Log Book (recommended)
• Other documents required by valid regulations and rules
However it is recommended to have on board other supplied manuals and documents e.g.:
• Aircraft Maintenance and Inspection Procedures for SportStar MAX Light Sport Aircraft
• Engine Operator’s Manual
• Propeller Operator’s Manual
• Additional documents supplied with instruments or equipment
The airworthiness and operational readiness of the airplane depends upon the careful adherence to
the recommended procedures and regulations. Climate, aerodrome conditions, dustiness, manner
of hangaring and other factors, such as the corrosive effects of industrial or seaside areas, should
be considered.
The procedures given in this manual suit average operational conditions, more harsh environments
may require more frequent maintenance intervals.
3-2
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3.2
Airplane assembly
3.2.1
Wing
3.2.1.1 Wing assembly
The wing assembly procedure for an aircraft not-equipped with the optional wing folding mechanism
is the following (3 persons are needed to accomplish this task):
3.2.1.1.1 Task information
Type of maintenance: heavy.
Authorization to perform:
−
Repairman (LS-M) or Mechanic (A&P) – both with the minimum level of certification to perform
heavy maintenance of SLSA in the U.S.
−
FAA approved Part 145 Repair station
Tools needed:
− a hammer to move the wing suspension pins
− a screwdriver to attach wing fillets
− wrenches to tighten the rear wing suspension bolt nut
Parts needed: recommended grease
3.2.1.1.2 Wing-to-fuselage assembly procedure
The assembly procedure of one half of the wing is the following.
The procedure for both halves is similar.
1. Thoroughly clean and lubricate all the wing suspensions and bolts with a suitable lubricant
before the assembly. Also lubricate the flap root groove.
2. The first person holds the wing tip, the second person holds the wing root leading edge, while
the third holds the wing root trailing edge.
CAUTION
Take care of the pitot-static tube(s) when handling the wings.
3. Set the wing carefully on the wing attachments on the fuselage in such a way that the wing flap
is set with the slot on the control pin. When sliding the wings on the attachments take increased
care so that damage to hoses of pitotstatic system (left half of the wing) and electric system
cables cannot occur.
4. Set the wing so that the attachments on the wing and on the fuselage are concentric.
5. The person keeping the wing on the leading edge will insert the pin into the upper main
attachment (the pin head is in flight direction) and will insert the spacer with connected safety pin
inside wing suspension (between rear eye and fuselage suspension). Shift pin by means of slight
hammering to the stop (shifting can be facilitated by slight moving the wing tip up and down).
Thereafter insert the pin into the lower main attachment and shift it by slight hammering to the
stop.
6. Insert the bolt into the rear attachment of the wing and push it by slight hammering to the stop.
Put the washer on the bolt and screw the nut on it. Secure the nut by means of the safety pin.
7. Put on the washers on the wing main attachment pins and secure the pins by cotter pins.
8. Connect the aileron control pull rod, secure the joint.
9. Connect fuel hoses to beaks on the fuselage and secure it with hose clip. Keep hose connection
according to placards on the left side of the fuselage.
10. Connect wiring.
11. Install pitotstatic system hoses and carry out leakage test of the pitotstatic system.
12. Install wing fairings.
Task proper accomplishment check: Visually check that all pins are inserted and secured
properly. Visually check the all control system joints are
connected
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
3.2.1.2 Wing disassembly
3.2.1.2.1 Task information
Type of maintenance: heavy.
Authorization to perform:
− Repairman (LS-M) or Mechanic (A&P) – both with the minimum level of certification to perform
heavy maintenance of SLSA in the U.S.
− FAA approved Part 145 Repair station
Tools needed:
− a hammer to tap the wing suspension pins out
− a screwdriver to unscrew the wing fillet connection screws
− wrenches to unscrew the rear wing suspension bolt nut
− a drift made from duralumin round or other suitable material (diameter 10-12 mm) to drive out
the wing suspension pins
Parts needed: none
3.2.1.2.2 Wing-from-fuselage disassembly
1. Remove the fuselage-wing fairings.
2. Drain all fuel from tanks. Push airplane tail down (almost to the ground) to allow drain of the all
unusable fuel.
3. In case of dismatling the left half of the wing disconnect hoses of pitotstatic system.
4. Disconnect fuel hoses from beaks on the fuselage
5. Disconnect cable plugs and sockets of electrical system.
6. Disconnect aileron control pull rod.
7. The first person will lay hold on the wing tip, the second person by the root on the leading edge,
the third person by the root on the trailing edge.
8. Push out the safety pin securing the crown nut of the rear pin and dismantle the rear pin of the
wing attachment.
9. Release pins (push out the cotter-pins) on the main atatchments of the wings.
10. Releave the wing by slight lifting the wing tip upwards.
11. By meas of hammer and round timber knock out the lower and the upper pin from the main wing
attachments.
12. By pulling the wing in direction from the fuselage, disconnect the wing from the fuselage.
13. Position the disconnected wing in such a way that its damaging cannot occur.
Task proper accomplishment check: Check that nothing was damaged on the airplane due to wing
removal.
3-4
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3.2.2
Horizontal tail unit
Type of maintenance: heavy.
Authorization to perform:
− Repairman (LS-M) or Mechanic (A&P) – both with the minimum level of certification to perform
heavy maintenance of SLSA in the U.S.
− FAA approve d Part 145 Repair station
Tools needed:
− a wrench for M8 nuts
− a screwdriver for the tail unit/fuselage fairing
Parts needed: recommended grease
3.2.2.1 HTU-from-fuselage disassembly
1.
2.
3.
4.
Unscrew attachment bolts of HTU-fuselage fiberglass cover.
Disconnect the trim tab control cables.
Disconnect the elevator control rod.
Remove the safety pins securing the castle nuts on the bolts of the stabilizer rear suspensions.
Screw off the nuts and remove the washers.
5. Draw the HTU out of the fuselage.
6. Put connecting components in a safe place to avoid loosing them.
3.2.2.2 HTU-to-fuselage assembly
3.2.2.2.1 Necessary tools
3.2.2.2.2 HTU-to-fuselage assembly
1. Make the connecting components ready, clean and lubricate HTU suspensions.
2. Insert the HTU from the rear into the fuselage as far as the stabilizer will go into the two pins in
the front, and the two bolts (M8) in the rear. Take care of the trim tab control cables.
3. Put the washers on the M8 bolts. Screw on the castle nuts, and secure with a safety pins.
4. Attach the HTU/fuselage fairing using screws.
5. Insert the M8 bolt to connect the elevator control hinge with the control rod. Put on a washer,
and self-locking nut.
6. Connect trim tab control cables.
7. Adjust the elevator and trim tab deflections (see 3.4.6)
Task proper accomplishment check:
− check proper attachment of trim control cables (upper cable to trim upper surface)
− check HTU proper attachment and securing of all joints
− check elevator and trim tab deflection
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
3.2.3
Vertical tail unit
3.2.3.1 Assembly and Disassembly of the rudder
3.2.3.1.1 Task information
Type of maintenance: heavy.
Authorization to perform:
− Repairman (LS-M) or Mechanic (A&P) – both with the minimum level of certification to perform
heavy maintenance of SLSA in the U.S.
− FAA approved Part 145 Repair station
Tools needed:
− a wrench to tighten/remove the M5 nut
Parts needed: none
3.2.3.1.2 Rudder-from-fuselage disassembly
1. Disconnect the rudder control cables, attach the ends of the cables together to keep the cables
from slipping inside the fuselage.
2. Remove the safety pin from the lower suspension bolt. Remove the castle nut and washer.
3. Lift and remove the rudder from suspensions
3.2.3.1.3 Assembly procedure
1. Put the rudder on the fin suspensions from above. Use care not to move the spherical bearings
in the rudder suspensions.
2. If necessary insert a washer to adjust lower suspension clearance.
3. Put the washer on the lower suspension bolt, tighten the castle nut and secure with a safety pin.
Attach the rudder control cables. Use tab washers to secure bolt heads.
Task proper accomplishment check: check securing of all joints.
3-6
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3.2.4
Landing gear
Type of maintenance: line.
Authorization to perform: - Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
- Sport pilot or higher
Tools needed:
− flat screwdriwer
− allen wrench No. 6
Parts needed: none
3.2.4.1 Disassembly of wheel pants
Instructions:
Main wheel pants are attached with 3 bolts to a bracket mounted on the main landing gear leg and
with one bolt from outside to the wheel axle.
1. Remove 3 bolts attaching the wheel pant from inner side to the bracket.
2. Remove the bolt attaching the wheel pant to the wheel axle.
3. The nose landing gear wheel pant consists of two parts. The rear part is attached by two bolts to
the brace on the landing gear leg and by another two bolts to the braces on the landing gear
fork. The front part of the wheel pant is bolted by 10 bolts to the rear part of the wheel pant.
Remove 10 bolts connecting both parts of the wheel pant.
4. First remove two side bolts on the rear wheel pant and then two bolts on the upper side of the
wheel pant.
3.2.4.2 Assembly of wheel pants
When assembling the main landing gear wheel pant, proceed as follows:
1. Set the wheel pant to position and bolt it with 3 bolts to the bracket.
2. From outside insert the bolt with washer into the hole in the wheel pant. From inner side of the
wheel pant shift the spacing tube on the bolt and screw the bolt into nut hole in the wheel
center. Secure the bolt head with locking wire in order to prevent from its turning.
3. At assembling the nose wheel pant proceed in the following way:
4. By using two bolts with washers attach the rear part of the wheel pant to the brace on the nose
landing gear leg. Attach the wheel pant on the sides with two remaining bolts with washers to
the braces on the landing gear fork.
5. Shift the front part on the rear part of the wheel pant and join both parts using 10 bolts with
washers.
Task proper accomplishment check: check tightening of bolts and securing of bolt head by wire
Fig. MATCO main wheel and brake
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
3.2.4.3 Disassembly of nose landing gear wheel
Type of maintenance: heavy.
Authorization to perform:
− Repairman (LS-M) or Mechanic (A&P) – both with the minimum level of certification to perform
heavy maintenance of SLSA in the U.S.
− FAA approved Part 145 Repair station
Tools needed:
− a support
− cut pliers
− flat screwdriver
− allen wrench No. 6
Parts needed: recommended grease
locking wire
Instruction
1. Jack and support the airplane.
2. Disassemble the nose landing gear wheel pant.
3. Cut the locking wire securing side screws.
4. Disassemble one side screw.
5. Release the wheel axle from the wheel hub and the fork eyes.
3.2.4.4 Assembly of nose landing gear wheel
Instruction:
1. Clear the wheel axle of impurities and grease it slightly.
2. From one side shift the axle into the landing gear leg fork eye.
3. Gradually put on the long spacer, shim, nose wheel, shim and short spacer on the wheel axle
according to the figure (from the right in the flight direction).
4. From both sides screw and tighten screw in the wheel axle.
5. Check for free turning of the nose wheel (turning must be continual without catching).
6. Secure side screw with locking wire to prevent from their releasing according to figure.
7. Reassemble the wheel pant.
Task proper accomplishment check: check free rotation, no clearance, securing of screw heads.
3-8
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
3.2.4.5 Disassembly of main landing gear wheel
Type of maintenance: heavy.
Authorization to perform:
− Repairman (LS-M) or Mechanic (A&P) – both with the minimum level of certification to perform
heavy maintenance of SLSA in the U.S.
− FAA approved Part 145 Repair station
Tools needed:
− a support
− flat screwdriver
− nut wrench
Parts needed:
− recommended grease
− locking wire
Refer to the MHE6B & MHE6B-C External caliper, 6“ E- Series, Wheel and Brake, I. MHMË6B
Wheel Assembly Instructions
available at http://matco.veracart.com/pdf/MHE6BMANUALp.pdf?Iit=2411&Ict=23
3.2.4.6 Assembly of main landing gear wheel
For the assembly of the MATCO MHMHE 6B1.25 main wheel refer to the MHE6B & MHE6B-C
External caliper, 6“ E- Series, Wheel and Brake, I. MHMË6B Wheel Assembly Instructions
available at http://matco.veracart.com/pdf/MHE6BMANUALp.pdf?Iit=2411&Ict=23
Task proper accomplishment check: check free rotation of wheel, no clearance, securing of screws.
Fig. MATCO wheel assembly diagram
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
3.2.5
Cockpit canopy
Type of maintenance: line.
Authorization to perform:
− Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
− Sport pilot or higher
Tools needed:
− Phillips screwdriver
− pincers
− nut wrench No. 9 and 10
Parts needed: none
3.2.5.1 Canopy demounting
The front portion of the canopy can be removed, while the rear portion is fixed. The front section of
the canopy is attached to the fuselage with two screws. The weight of canopy is counter-balanced
with two gas struts inside the cockpit. Use the following procedure to remove the front canopy:
1. Remove cover above the dashboard in front of the canopy. Use Phillps screwdriver to unscrew
all screws which attach the cover.
2. Open fully the canopy and fix it in open position. Help of another person is useful.
3. Use pincers or another useful tool to remove safety wire from the gas strut ball end. Repeat this
on opossite side of the canopy
4. Fix or hold canopy open and carefully remove gas strut ends from the canopy.
5. Use nut wrench M9 to release and unscrew nuts form the canopy attachments bolts.
6. Remove the bolts and washers
7. Remove carefully the canopy and put it on a safe place to not be damaged
Pictures below illustrate canopy attachment.
3.2.5.2 Canopy mounting
The Mounting procedure is the reverse.
Task proper accomplishment check: Check proper attachment of canopy, open and close it. Check
if it may be locked in closed position.
Attach.bolt
Front cover
Fully opened canopy
3-10
Canopy attachment bolts
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Safety wire
Canopy attachment
3.2.6
Installation and reinstallation of instruments
Type of maintenance for the pitot static instruments: heavy.
Authorization to perform:
− Repairman (LS-M) or Mechanic (A&P) – both with the minimum level of certification to perform
heavy maintenance of SLSA in the U.S.
− FAA approved Part 145 Repair station
Type of maintenance for the other instruments: line.
Authorization to perform:
− Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
− Sport pilot or higher
Tools needed:
− flat screwdriver
− other tools according to installed instruments
Parts needed: Refer to manuals supplied with particular instruments
Insructions:
The installation procedure will depend on the instrument being installed. Follow the manufacturer
recommendations (manuals supplied with particular instruments).
Ordinarily, there is no need to remove the instrument panel when installing or removing an
instrument. Remove the instrument attaching screws and remove the instrument from the back of
the instrument panel (after disconnection of appropriate wires or hoses). If it is necessary to gain
access to the instrument wiring, remove the sheet cover over the instrument panel.
Task proper accomplishment check: Refer to manuals supplied with particular instruments
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
3.3
Leveling
Type of maintenance: heavy.
Authorization to perform:
− Repairman (LS-M) or Mechanic (A&P) – both with the minimum level of certification to perform
heavy maintenance of SLSA in the U.S.
− FAA approved Part 145 Repair station
Tools needed:
− jacks to lift and level the aircraft
− level instrument
− roll meter
Parts needed: none
Instructions:
Leveling is used to check the airframe alignment.
First set the aircraft in a horizontal position (use boards) according to leveling points. The leveling
points are the rivets on the aircraft which are (generally) marked with red paint. The location of the
points is shown in the Leveling Record. Use the leveling points 1(3) and 2(4) to set the airplane in a
horizontal position in longitudinal direction, and leveling points 5 and 7 in lateral direction.
Boards, under the main or nosewheel, may be used to level the airplane. The best way to measure
a leveling point height is to use a level. Alternatively a running meter is sufficient for approximate
measurement.
Measured values should be recorded in the Leveling Record (see Appendices). Height differences
between corresponding leveling points have to be calculated. A check must than be carried out to
prove that any differences do not exceed the tolerances permitted in the Leveling Record.
If any difference exceeds the permitted tolerance, the aircraft assembly, plays in hinges and
eventual permanent deformations, should be inspected.
The aircraft manufacturer should be contacted in serious cases.
Task proper accomplishment check: Compare measured values with those ones prescribed in
leveling record.
3-12
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
3.4
Measurement of control surfaces deflections
Type of maintenance: line.
Authorization to perform: - Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
- Sport pilot or higher
Tools needed:
− protractor with deflecting hand
− a clamp to fix protractor on control surface
Parts needed: none
Task proper accomplishment check: Compare measured deflections with those ones prescribed
in Control surfaces deflection record.
3.4.1
Required deflections
The deflection of the control surfaces are specified in the Control Surfaces Deflection Record (see
Appendices of this Manual) and in the following Figure. A protractor with deflecting hand is used by
the airplane manufacturer to measure deflections. The protractor is attached to a control surface
with a hand clamp. There are also alternative procedures in the following text.
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
3.4.2
Aileron deflection measurement
Measurement procedure:
1. Attach a protractor with a deflection hand at the aileron upper surface by means of a clamp.
2. Set the aileron in neutral position (the aileron must fit the wing profile).
3. Zero the protractor - starting position for measurement .
4. Deflect the aileron fully down/up and note the deflections.
5. Compare, the measured deflections with the ones specified in the Control Surfaces Deflection
Record. If required - adjust the aileron deflection according to par. 4.11.1 .
If a protractor is not available, the following procedure may be substituted:
1. Insert a stiff cardboard sheet of paper in the space between the aileron and the flap. Hold the
drawing paper against the flap.
2. Put the aileron in a neutral position. Then trace its profile (upper surface from the hinge to the
trailing edge). Then trace the profile of the aileron fully deflected in both directions.
3. Remove the drawing paper and measure the deflection from the neutral position using a
protractor.
4. Compare the measured deflections with those specified in the Control Surfaces Deflection
Record. If required - adjust the aileron deflection according to 4.11.1.
3.4.3
Flap deflection measurement
The wing flaps can be set in 4 positions: RETRACTED, TAKEOFF, LANDING (2 positions).
Measurement procedure:
1. Cut a strip of aluminium sheet 2 inches (50 mm) wide. The strip is than attached to the flap
lower surface with two bolts (somewhere in the middle of the flap span where two nuts are
riveted). The strip should overhang the flap trailing edge.
2. Attach a protractor with a deflection hand at the strip using a clamp.
3. Zero the protractor - this will be the starting position for measurement with the flaps retracted
4. Extend the flap to the required position using the flap control lever and read the deflection
5. Compare the measured deflections with those specified in the Control Surfaces Deflection
Record. If required - adjust flap deflection according to the par. 4.11.2.
If a protractor is not available, the following procedure may be substituted:
1. Insert a stiff cardboard sheet of paper in the space between the aileron and the flap. Hold the
drawing paper against the flap.
2. Trace the profile of the retracted flap on the lower surface from the hinge to the flap trailing
edge)
3. Move the flap to an extended position and trace the lower surface profile again
4. Remove the drawing paper and measure the deflection from the "RETRACTED" position using a
protractor
5. Compare the measured deflections with those specified in the Control Surfaces Deflection
Record. If required - adjust flap deflection according to the par. 4.11.2.
3-14
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
3.4.4
Elevator deflections measurement
The starting position to measure the elevator deflections is the neutral positions of the control stick
and elevator. The neutral position of the control stick is set by the aircraft manufacturer, by means
of a jig. The distances between the control stick and instrument panel, and between the control
stick and fuselage side can be used to set the neutral position. When the elevator is in the neutral
position, the chord of the Horizontal tail unit will be parallel to upper edge of the fuselage side (lower
frame of the cockpit).
Measurement procedure:
1. Attach a protractor with a deflection hand at the elevator trailing edge
2. Set the elevator to the neutral position
3. Zero the protractor
4. Fully pull or push the control stick to deflect the elevator and read the deflection
5. Compare the measured deflections with those specified in the Control Surfaces Deflection
Record. If required - adjust elevator deflection according to the par. 4.11.3.
If a protractor is not available, the following procedure may be substituted:
1. Support the airplane under the tail skid and firewall and set the airplane in a horizontal position
(a level set on the canopy lower frame can be used to set the airplane in horizontal position)
2. Stand a suitable staff close to the elevator trailing edge and mark the neutral position of the
elevator.
3. Move the control stick and fully deflect the elevator. Mark the positions of the elevator while fully
deflected
4. Measure the distances between marks on the staff
5. Compare the distances with those specified in Fig. 3.4.1. If required - adjust elevator deflection
according to the par. 4.11.3.
3.4.5
Rudder deflection measurement
The rudder deflections are set by the aircraft manufacturer. If necessary the rudder deflections can
be adjusted by adjustable stops located on the rudder control cable in the cockpit (see figure on
page 2-24).
A measuring instrument is used by the aircraft manufacturer to measure the rudder deflections. The
instrument is put on the vertical tail unit and a rudder deflection may be read directly.
The rudder deflection may be measured however, when the set the rudder is set to the neutral
position. Stand a suitable staff at the ruder trailing edge and mark lower edge of the rudder. Fully
deflect the rudder and measure using a ruler between the mark on the staff and the lower edge of
the rudder. Compare the measured distance with that specified in 3.4.1.
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
3.4.6
Trim tab deflections measurement
The trim tab deflection is measured from the neutral position. When the trim tab profile does not
protrude from the elevator profile with elevator set in neutral position.
Measurement procedure:
1. Attach a protractor with a deflection hand at the trim tab
2. Neutralize the trim tab and the elevator
3. Zero the protractor
4. Set the trim tab in maximum lower or upper position using the trim tab control lever and read the
deflection from the protractor scale.
5. Compare the deflection with that specified in the Control Surfaces Deflection Record. If required
- adjust trim tab deflection according to the par. 4.11.5.
6. Check tension of trim tab control cables according to the following procedures:
Block elevator against to movement and trim tab control lever set to the neutral position. Apply a
load of 20 N (preferably according to a dynamometer) to the trim tab trailing edge. The trim tab
+2
deflection must not exceed value of 5 mm from the original position. If the trim tab deflection
exceeds this value, then it is necessary to adjust trim tab cable preload by adjusting screws.
If a protractor is not available, the following procedure may be substituted:
1. Insert a stiff cardboard sheet of paper in the space between the elevator and the trim tab and
hold the cardboard against the elevator.
2. Trace the profile of the neutralized trim tab
3. Move the trim tab to the maximum (both directions) using the trim tab control lever and trace the
profile again
4. Remove the cardboard and measure the deflection from the neutral position using a protractor
5. Compare the deflection with that specified in the Control Surfaces Deflection Record. If required
- adjust trim tab deflections according to the par. 4.11.5.
6. Check tension of trim tab control cables according to the following procedures:
Block elevator against to movement and trim tab control lever set to the neutral position. Apply a
load of 20 N (preferably according to a dynamometer) to the trim tab trailing edge. The trim tab
+2
deflection musn’t exceed value of 5 mm from the original position. If the trim tab deflection
exceeds this value, then it is necessary to adjust trim tab cable preload by adjusting screws.
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3.5
Permissible Tolerances
Type of maintenance: clearance finding - line.
play compensation - heavy
Authorization to perform:
clearance finding - Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
- Sport pilot or higher
play compensation − Repairman (LS-M) or Mechanic (A&P) – both with the minimum level of
certification to perform heavy maintenance of SLSA in the U.S.
− FAA approved Part 145 Repair station
Tools needed: no special tools to find excessive play
Parts needed: swivel bearing, pins if replacement is necessary to be consulted with aircraft
manufacturer.
The following table indicates the permissible tolerances for critical parts of the airplane. These
values should not be exceeded in operation.
It is expected that an operator will take steps if excessive plays are found on/in part not listed below.
System
Ailerons
control
system
Elevator
control
system
Procedure to find a play
Trim tab
control
system
WingFuselage
attachment
HTU
attachment
Move the stabilizer tip forwardrearward
Rudder
hinges
Nose
wheel
Main
landing
gear
Max.
operat.
play
0.08 in
2 mm
0.2 in
5 mm
0.08 in
2 mm
0.2 in
5 mm
Check the part with oval
hole for the control pin in
the flap root rib and
replace the worn-out pin
or the part with oval hole.
0.08 in
2 mm
0.2 in
5 mm
Check cable tension
0.08 in
2 mm
0.2 in
5 mm
Check wing suspensions,
replace pins
0.08 in
2 mm
0.16 in
4 mm
Block ailerons up to the wing and Check condition of
move the control stick to the left and bearings and replace if
right
needed
Block elevator up to the stabilizer, Check condition of
pull and push the control
bearings and replace if
needed
Set the flaps in all position by
degrees and then handle the flap
trailing edge near the flap root, move
the trailing edge up/downward to find
possible plays
Block the tab up to the elevator,
move the trim tab control lever to find
a play in a control system
Move the wing tip and note play in
wing suspensions (play is measured
on the wing tip).
Flaps
control
system
Max.
product.
play
Procedure to remedy a
play
Lift the rudder
Push the rear part of the fuselage
down (use a weight) to lift the
nosewheel, then move the wheel
forward- rearward
Lift the wing tip (hold the wing under
the main spar) to lift a main leg, then
move the wheel forward-rearward
and note play in bearings or leg
attachment
Replace bearings in
suspension points and
bearings in control system
Change swivel bearing or
insert a washer under the
lower hinge pin
0
0.08 in
2 mm
0.04 in
1 mm
0.08 in
2 mm
Remove the wheel,
remove the rim and tire
and replace the bearings
0.04 in
1 mm
0.12 in
3 mm
Check the leg attachment,
wheels attachment,
replace the bearings, if
necessary
0.04 in
1 mm
0.12 in
3 mm
Task proper accomplishment check: check replaced parts are properly installed,
check plays after replacement
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
3.6
Weighing the airplane and C.G. calculation
WARNING
Never exceed the maximum takeoff weight and c.g. range for any configuration of crew, fuel and
baggage as shown in the Aircraft Operating Instructions.
The removal or addition of equipment may result in changes to the center of gravity and empty
weight of the aircraft. The permissible useful load can also be affected. In such case a new weight
and balance is necessary to determine the new empty weight and center-of-gravity position. The
new empty weight and C.G. position should be recorded in the Aircraft Operating Instructions,
Section 6., Weight and Balance Record / Permitted Payload Range. Then a new permitted crew
weight f or fueling and baggage must be computed and recorded. The cockpit placard "Load Limits"
should also be up-dated.
3.6.1
Empty weight determination
Type of maintenance: line.
Authorization to perform: - Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
- Sport pilot or higher
Tools needed:
− scales
− ramp boards
− rests under wheels to level the aircraft
Parts needed: Weight and Balance Record
Instructions:
The empty weight of an aircraft includes all operating equipment that has a fixed location and is
actually installed in the airplane. It includes the weight of the painted airplane, accumulator,
standard and optional equipment, full engine coolant, hydraulic fluid, brake fluid, oil and unusable
fuel (2.0 liters / 0.5 USGal). The aircraft is weighed without crew and baggage.
The following weighing procedure is recommended:
1. Remove excessive dirt, grease, moisture from the airplane before weighing
2. Weigh the airplane inside a closed building to prevent errors due to wind
3. Place the scales, calibrate zero
4. Place the airplane on the scales (use boards to run on the scales or lift the airplane - see
airplane jacking)
5. Place the airplane in a level flight position (use suitable rests under the wheels)
6. Check the configuration for weighing (e.g. empty weight);
7. Weigh the airplane and record the values in Weight and Balance Record (make a copy of
standard Record included in section 6 Appendices).
8. Compute the weight and C.G. position according to the formula Weight and Balance Record
9. Compute and record permitted crew weight for fueling and baggage - see Aircraft Operating
Instructions par. 6.3.
10. Up-date the placard "Load Limits" (make a new one) and attach in the cockpit.
Task proper accomplishment check: push a wing down to rock the aircraft and then repeat
weighing. You should get the same results like before.
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
3.6.2
Operating C.G. Range calculation
On the basis of knowledge of arms, weights of items, airplane empty weight and the C.G. position it
is possible to calculate weight and C.G. position according to below given formula:
Loading Schedule Chart
Your Aircraft
No
Item
1. Empty Airplane
2. Crew
3. Baggage (Max. 55 lb)
Sample Aircraft
Arm * Arm Weight Moment/100
(in)
(in)
(lb)
(lb-in)
10,39 740,75
77,1 lb-in
in
lb
399,04
21,45 in
85,6 lb-in
lb
42,65 in
11,02 lb
Your Aircraft
Weight
Moment/100
(lb)
(lb-in)
4,7 lb-in
Fuel
4. (Max.
26,75 in
60,41 lb
16,2 lb-in
32 USGAL)
5. Total weight (Takeoff weight) =
Sum of weights 1-4
(MTOW 1320 lb)
184 lb-in
1211 lb
Total moment =
Sum of moments 1-4
*) – for your empty airplane arm see Weight and Balance Record delivered with your airplane
C.G. position from Datum (Leading edge):
C.G. =
Total Moment
=
= ..................[in] or [mm]
Total Weight
........................
C.G. position in % MAC
(MAC ...Mean Aerodynamic Chord = 49.2 in i.e.1250 mm):
C. G . =
C. G .
⋅ 100 =
⋅ 100 =................... [% MAC]
MAC
...................
C.G. range limits
Empty weight C.G. range (standard equipment) .......................... 20 ± 2
Operating C.G. range ................................................................... 20 ÷ 34
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% MAC
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
3.7
Ground handling
All ground handling activities described below are concidered as Line Maintenace and may be
performed by Sport Pilot or higher (or Aircraft owner for ELSA).
3.7.1
Towing the airplane
It is easy to tow the airplane a short distance by holding the blade root, since the empty weight of
this airplane is relatively low.
Suitable surfaces to hold the aircraft airframe, are the rear part of the fuselage before the fin and
the wing roots.
A tow bar may be used to tow the aircraft over long distances. Steerable nose wheel is equipped
with the stops, it is impossible to turn it around.
3.7.2
Parking the airplane
It is advisable to park the aircraft inside a hangar, or eventually inside a other weather proof space
(such as a garage) with stable temperature, good ventilation, low humidity and a dust-free
environment.
It is necessary to tie-down the aircraft when parking outside.
On occasions when the plane must be tied-down outdoors for extended periods, it is advisable to
cover the cockpit canopy, and if possible, the entire aircraft using a suitable cover.
The space requirements in the case of long-term hangaring may be reduced by removing or folding
the wings. We recommend removing the battery in winter and storing it at indoor temperature.
CAUTION
Avoid parking airplane (especially airplane with dark design) on the direct sunshine during warm
climate - then “can effect” or wave can arise on the upper skin of the wing and fuselage.
It disappear when airplane is parked in the hangar, in the shadow or during taxiing or in flight when
airplane surface is cooled with air flow.
This “can effect” or wave arised during parking has no effect onto funcionality and it cannot be
subject of claim.
3.7.3
Tieing-Down
The airplane is usually tied-down when parked outside a hangar. The tie-down is necessary to
protect the aircraft against possible damage caused by wind gusts.
For this reason the aircraft is equipped with tie-down eyes, located on the wing lower surface.
Procedure:
1. Check: Fuel valve off, Circuit breakers and Master switch off, Switch box off.
2. Block the control stick up e.g. by means of safety harness or connect the control stick with
rudder pedals by means of a suitable rope.
3. Shut all the ventilation windows
4. Close and lock cockpit
5. Tie-down the aircraft to the ground by means of a mooring rope passed through the eyes,
located on the wing lower surface. It is also necessary to tie the nose wheel landing gear and
the tail skid to the ground.
NOTE
It is advisable to cover cockpit canopy, if possible the whole airplane, by means of a suitable
covering material attached to the airframe for long term outside parking..
3-20
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3.7.4
Jacking the airplane
Because the empty weight of this airplane is relatively low it is easy to lift the airplane using 2
people.
First prepare two suitable jacks or supports to support the aircraft. Aircraft fuselage can be
supported on the places marked by the black triangles in the figure below.
The aircraft should be lifted by the following parts:
• Press-down on the rear of the fuselage in front of the fin to lift the front and then support under
the firewall.
• To jack the rear of the fuselage, grab the fuselage near the auxiliary tail skid, lift it upward and
then support.
• To lift the wings, push on the wings lower surface at the main spar. Do not lift by the wing tips.
3.8
Road transport
The aircraft may be transported in a suitable trailer. It is necessary to remove the wings before
loading. The aircraft and removed wings should be fastened down securely to ensure against
possible damage.
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Intentionally left blank
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4. MAINTENANCE
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4-1
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
4.1
Overall maintenance survey
Airplane maintenance is required to maintain its airworthiness. Periodical events are performed
(periodical and pre-flight inspections) along with irregular events e.g. a repair of a damage as
required.
The owner/operator of an LSA airplane shall be responsible for notifying the manufacturer of any safety
of flight issue or significant service difficulty upon discovery.
The latest safety of flight information developed by the manufacturer are available on the manufacturer
web site http://www.evektor.cz (mandatory bulletins) or by post on request.
Contact the manufacturer if in doubt.
Contact address:
Evektor-Aerotechnik a.s.
Letecká 1384
686 04 Kunovice
Czech Republic
tel.:
+420 572 537 111
fax:
+420 572 537 900
e-mail: marketing@evektor.cz
Owner/Operator Responsibilities:
• Each owner/operator of an LSA airplane shall read and comply with the maintenance and
continued airworthiness information and instructions provided by the manufacturer.
• Each owner/operator of an LSA airplane shall be responsible for providing the manufacturer with
current contact information where the manufacturer may send the owner/operator Supplemental
notification bulletins.
• The owner/operator of an LSA airplane shall be responsible for notifying the manufacturer of any
safety of flight issue or significant service difficulty upon discovery.
• The owner/operator of an LSA airplane shall be responsible for complying with all manufacturer
issued notices of corrective action and for complying with all applicable aviation authority
regulations in regard to maintaining the airworthiness of the LSA airplane.
• An owner of an LSA airplane shall ensure that any needed corrective action must be completed as
specified in a notice, or by the next scheduled annual inspection.
• Should an owner/operator not comply with any mandatory service requirement, the LSA airplane
shall be considered not in compliance with applicable ASTM Standards and may be subject to
regulatory action by the presiding aviation authority.
4.1.1
Terminology
A&P: A US FAA certificated Mechanic as defined by 14 CFR Part 65.
LSA Repairman Inspection: A US FAA certificated repairman (light-sport aircraft) with and
inspection rating as defined by14 CFR part 65, authorized to perform the annual condition
inspection on experimental light-sport aircraft, which the repairman owns. 1Yote: Experimental LSA
do not require the individual performing maintenance to hold any FAA airman certificate.
LSA Repairman Maintenance: A US FAA certificated repairman (light-sport aircraft) with a
maintenance rating as defined by 14 CFR part 65, authorized to perform line maintenance on
aircraft certificated as special LSA aircraft. Authorized to perform the annual condition/100
inspection on special and experimental light-sport aircraft,
LSA Aircraft (Light Sport Aircraft) - An aircraft designed per ASTM F2245 (airplanes) and
complies with the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations Chapter 14 Part 1 definition for a light sport
aircraft and will be certificated in the US as SLSA or ELSA.
FAA: United States Federal Aviation Administration
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
14 CFR: Code of federal regulations chapter 14 Aeronautics and Space also know as the ”FARs” or
federal aviation regulations.
Manufacturer – Any entity engaged in the production of a SLSA or ELSA or component used on an
LSA.
Maintenance Manual(s) – A manual provided by a SLSA or ELSA manufacturer (this manual) or
supplier that specifies all maintenance, repairs and alterations authorized by the manufacturer.
Line Maintenance – Any unscheduled maintenance resulting from unforeseen events, or
scheduled checks that contain servicing and/or inspections not considered heavy maintenance that
is approved by the manufacturer and is specified in the manufacturer’s maintenance manual.
Authorization to perform: The holder of a LSA Repairman certificate, with either an inspection or
maintenance rating is generally considered the minimum level of certification to perform line
maintenance of LSA in the U.S..
Note: Many of the tasks listed are also authorized, by the FAA, to be performed by the owner of the
SLSA which holds a sport pilot certificate. The examples listed below should not be considered as
restrictions against the performance of the tasks by an owner that is authorized to perform said task
by the FAA.
Typical tasks considered as line maintenance for LSA ’s include:
1. 100 hour inspection
2. Annual Condition Inspection
3. Servicing of fluids
4. Removal and replacement of components for which instructions are provided in the maintenance
manual such as:
• Fuel pumps
• Batteries
• Instruments, switches, lights and circuit breakers
• Starters/generators/alternators
• Exhaust manifolds/mufflers
• Wheel and brake assemblies
• Propellers
• Sparkplugs, ignition wires and electronic ignition models/components limited to the use of
mechanical connections
• Hoses and lines
• Sailcloth covering
• Ballistic Recovery System
5. Repair of components and structure for which instructions are provided in the maintenance
manual and which do not require additional specialized training such as:
• Patching of a hole in a fabric, metal or composite non-structural component.
• Stop-drilling of cracks
6. Alterations for which specific instruction are provided in the maintenance manual such as:
• Installation of a communications radio, GPS and antenna
• Installation of a strobe light system
• Compliance with a manufacturer service directive when the repairman is listed as an
authorized person to accomplish the alteration.
Heavy Maintenance – Any maintenance, inspection, repair or alteration that requires specialized
training, equipment, or facilities.
Authorization to perform: The holder of an FAA Mechanic certificate with Airframe and or
Powerplant rating(s); or a LSA Repairman maintenance that has received additional task specific
training for the function to ’,”be performed is generally considered the minimum level of certification
to perform heavy maintenance of SLSA in the U.S..
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
Typical tasks considered as heavy maintenance for SLSA ’s include:
1. Removal and replacement of components for which instructions are provided in the maintenance
manual or service directive instructions such as:
• Complete engine removal and reinstallation in support of an engine overhaul or to install a
new engine.
• Remove and replacement of engine cylinders, pistons, and or valve assemblies
• Primary flight control cables/components
• Landing gear assemblies
2. Repair of components and or aircraft structure for which instructions are provided in the
maintenance manual or service directive instructions such as:
• Repainting of control surfaces
• Structural repai rs
• Recovering of a dope and fabric covered aircraft
3. Alterations of components and or aircraft structure which instruction are provided in the
maintenance manual or service directive instruction such as:
• Installation of skis
• Installation of new additional pitot static instruments
Overhaul – Maintenance, inspection, repair or alterations that are only to be accomplished by the
original manufacturer or a facility approved by the original manufacture of the product.
Authorization to perform: Only the manufacturer of a SLSA or the component to be overhauled on a
SLSA may perform or authorize to be performed the overhaul of a SLSA or SLSA component. No
FAA certification is given to be a SLSA approved overhaul facility.
Overhaul manual: A separate overhaul manual, not the manufacturers maintenance manual, is
required to perform the overhaul of a SLSA or SLSA component. The form and content of such a
manual is not governed by this standard or by any FAA regulation. Note: Specific form and content
guidelines have not been promulgated here as type specific training and authorization is required
from the manufacturer in order to overhaul a SLSA or component.
Typical components that are overhauled include:
• Engines
• Carburetors/fuel injection systems
• Starters/alternators/generators
• Instruments
Overhaul Facility – A facility specifically authorized by the aircraft or component manufacturer to
overhaul the product originally produced by that manufacturer.
Annual Condition Inspection – A detailed inspection accomplished once a year on a SLSA or
ELSA in accordance with instructions provided in the maintenance manual (refer to 4.4.1. Periodical
inspection intervals ) supplied with the aircraft. The purpose of the inspection is to look for any wear,
corrosion, or damage that would cause an aircraft to not be in a condition for safe operation.
100 Hour Inspection – Same as an annual condition inspection except the interval of inspection is
100 hours of operation instead of 12 calendar months. This inspection is utilized when the SLSA or
ELSA is being used for commercial operations such as flight instruction and or rental.
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4.1.2
Qualification requirements
Maintenance and Repairs of LSA
The factory-built SportStar MAX belongs to Special-Light Sport Aircraft category, while the
SportStar MAX built from a kit to Experimental-Light Sport Aircraft category.
This fact determines the conditions for aircraft maintenance and repairs, as explained hereafter:
Special-Light Sport Aircraft
A special LSA is a factory-built, ready-to-fly aircraft. They must be maintained and inspected by a
certificated repairman with a LSA maintenance rating, an A&P, or an FAA authorized repair station.
Pilots can perform preventive maintenance on S-LSA.
Experimental-Light Sport Aircraft (New Kit-Built)
The builder must perform all maintenance in accordance with the manufacturer maintenance
manuals.
Builders can perform the annual condition inspection if they hold an FAA repairman certificateinspection, otherwise an A&P or FAA authorized repair station must perform the inspection.
Earning a Repairman Certificate-Base Requirements
To earn an FAA repairman certificate of any type, you must be:
• 18 years old
• Speak, read, and understand English
• Demonstrate the requisite skill to determine whether a LSA is in a condition for safe operation
• U.S. citizen or legal permanent resident
Repairman Certificate—Inspection
In addition to meeting the base requirements, to earn an FAA repairman certificate-inspection you
must complete an FAA-approved 16-hour training course on inspecting light sport aircraft. This
certificate enables you to perform the annual condition inspection on the Experimental-LSA you
own.
Repairman Certificate-Maintenance
In addition to meeting the base requirements, to earn an FAA repairman certificate-maintenance
you must complete an FAA-approved 80- to 120-hour training course on inspecting and maintaining
light sport aircraft (time depends on LSA type). This certificate allows you to maintain, repair, and
perform the annual condition inspection on all Special - LSAs and condition inspections on
Experimental - LSAs. What repairs and maintenance you can perform are specifically authorized in
the aircraft manufacturer's maintenance manual. A&Ps or FAA authorized repair stations must
perform all major modifications.
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4-5
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
Review of the required ground staff qualification for maintenance and inspections:
SportStar MAX built from a kit
(ELSA under §21.191 (i)
1,320 pounds MTOW)
Maintenance
Factory-built SportStar MAX
(SLSA under §21.190
1,320 pounds MTOW)
Owner- maintained
Maintenance-• Repairman (LS-M)
• Mechanic (A&P)
• Part 145 Repair station
Annual condition
• Repairman LS –I and LS-M
• Mechanic (A & P)
• Part 145 Repair station
Preventive maintenance
Sport pilot or higher
Annual condition
• Repairman LS - M
• Mechanic (A & P)
• Part 145 Repair station
100-hour condition
• Repairman LS-M
• Mechanic (A & P)
• Part 145 Repair station
100-hour condition
• Repairman LS-M
• Mechanic (A & P)
• Part 145 Repair station
Inspections
REVIEW MAINTENANCE TYPE VERSUS REQUIRED QUALIFICATION
LINE MAINTENANCE
HEAVY MAINTENANCE
OVERHAUL
Authorization to perform:
• Aircraft owner (only for
ELSA)
• Sport pilot or higher
• Repairman (LS-M)
• Mechanic (A&P)
• Part 145 Repair station
Authorization to perform:
• Repairman (LS-M) or Mechanic
(A&P) – both with the minimum
level of certification to perform
heavy maintenance of SLSA in
the U.S..
• FAA approved Part 145
Repair station
Authorization to perform:
• manufacturer of a SLSA /
ELSA or the component
• facility specifically
authorized by the aircraft or
component manufacturer
Typical tasks:
1. 100 hour inspection
2. Annual Condition Inspection
3. Servicing of fluids
4. Removal and replacement of
components for which
instructions are provided in the
maintenance manual such as:
• Fuel pumps
• Batteries
• Instruments, switches, lights
and circuit breakers
• Starters /generators
/alternators
• Exhaust manifolds/mufflers
• Wheel and brake assemblies
• Propellers
• Sparkplugs, ignition wires
and electronic ignition
models/components limited
to the use of mechanical
Typical tasks:
1. Removal and replacement of
components for which
instructions are provided in the
maintenance manual or service
directive instructions such as:
• Complete engine removal
and reinstallation in support
of an engine overhaul or to
install a new engine.
• Remove and replacement of
engine cylinders, pistons, and
or valve assemblies
• Primary flight control
cables/components
• Landing gear assemblies
2. Repair of components and or
aircraft structure for which
instructions are provided in the
maintenance manual or service
directive instructions such as:
Typical tasks:
Overhaul of the:
• Engines
• Carburetors/fuel injection
systems
• Starters/alternators/generators
• Instruments
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
LINE MAINTENANCE
HEAVY MAINTENANCE
connections
• Hoses and lines
• Sailcloth covering
• Ballistic Recovery System
5. Repair of components and
structure for which instructions
are provided in the maintenance
manual and which do not
require additional specialized
training such as:
• Patching of a hole in a fabric,
metal or composite nonstructural component.
• Stop-drilling of cracks
6. Alterations for which specific
instruction are provided in the
maintenance manual such as:
• Installation of a
communications radio, GPS
and antenna
• Installation of a strobe light
system
• Compliance with a
manufacturer service
directive when the repairman
is listed as an authorized
person to accomplish the
alteration.
• Repainting of control
surfaces
• Structural repai rs
• Recovering of a dope and
fabric covered aircraft
3. Alterations of components and
or aircraft structure which
instruction are provided in the
maintenance manual or service
directive instruction such as:
• Installation of skis
• Installation of new additional
pitot static instruments
OVERHAUL
Refer to particular maintenance action for authorized person to perform maintenance.
4.2
Pre-flight inspection
Type of maintenance: line.
Authorization to perform:
− Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
− Sport pilot or higher
Tools needed: flat screwdriver to remove upper engine cowling
Parts needed: none
Instructions: refer to Aircraft Operating Instructions section 4, item 4.4.4.
A pre-flight inspection is performed prior to the beginning of each flight. A pre-flight inspection
should be repeated prior to each flight even during the same day.
The Pre-flight inspection is a visual check of the aircraft for deformations, surface damage, fuel and
oil system leaks, prop damage, released locks, covers and cowlings etc.
Any damage or failure should be repaired immediately if the airworthiness is affected or when the
aircraft can not be put out of operation.
It is important to perform a pre-flight inspection carefully to prevent problems from arising.
Refer to the Aircraft Operating Instructions for more details.
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Date of Issue:
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March 01, 2009
Revision:
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
4.3
Post-flight inspection
Type of maintenance: line.
Authorization to perform:
− Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
− Sport pilot or higher
Tools needed: flat screwdriver to remove upper engine cowling
Parts needed: none
Instructions: refer to Aircraft Operating Instructions section 4, item 4.4.4.
Post-flight inspection is performed at the end of each flight day; the post-flight inspection events are
the same as the preflight ones. If possible failures, damages and malfunctions should be recorded
and repaired immediately. It is recommended to clean and/or wash the airplane and check that the
fuel and oil consumption are in the normal range.
Lastly record all hours flown and other data in appropriate documentation (Log Book etc.).
4.4
Periodical inspections
4.4.1
Periodical inspection intervals
Type of maintenance: line.
Authorization to perform:
− Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
− Sport pilot or higher
Tools needed: set of basic metric tools, no specials tools required.
Parts needed: Refer to 4.4.3.
Instructions: Refer to 4.4.3.
Task proper accomplishment check: Refer to 4.4.3.
The periods for overall checks and contingent maintenance will depend on the conditions of the
operation and the overall condition of the airplane. The manufacturer recommends maintenance
checks and periodic inspections in the following periods:
1) after the first
25 ± 2 flight hours
2) after every
50 ± 3 flight hours
after every
100 ± 5 hours of service or 1 times per two years as minimum
airplanes older than 8 years or having more than 3000 flight hours once a
year.
Refer to the Rotax 912 Operator's Manual for engine maintenance.
Refer to the Propeller Maintenance Manual for propeller maintenance.
4.4.2
Periodical inspection actions
The following Periodical Inspection Checklists are intended for copying and serve as the
Maintenance Records. It is also recommended to include small repairs, damages and their remedy
or replacement.
Some parts of the airplane (engine, propeller etc.) may have special time limits - refer to the
appropriate manuals for maintenance time limits and procedures.
4-8
Document No.:
Date of Issue:
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Revision:
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
4.4.3
Periodical Inspections Checklists
Model:
S/N.:
Hours flown:
SportStar MAX
Registration:
No. of Takeoffs:
Event
#
Inspection
Tick off performed inspection
Event description
after the
first
after the
first
25 hrs. 50 hrs.
Prior to the inspection clean and wash the
airplane surfaces, if needed.
1.
2.
3.
3.1.2.
3.1.3.
3.2.
3.2.1.
3.2.2.
Remove engine cowling
3.6.
3.6.1.
3.6.2.
3.6.3.
hrs.
Engine mount
Visually check condition, attachment,
security of attachment bolts: engine-engine
mounting, engine mounting-firewall
Visually check condition of rubber
silentblocks - replace those cracked and
excessively deformed
Visually check condition, attachment and
security of air filter at carburetor inlet
- clean filter acc. to the engine manual
Visually check condition of suction tubing
Check carburetor - condition, control cables
attachment, lubricate cables at inlet to the
bowdens, thermal protection
3.5.
3.5.1.
100
hrs.
Inspected
by:
Visually check inside fireproof primer paint
- Repaint if needed
- White color T 50, Norm V1000 N 56582,
thermal protection
3.3.1.
3.4.4.
50
Carried
out by:
Fiberglass engine cowlings
Suction system
3.4.
3.4.1.
3.4.2.
3.4.3.
every
Check condition of cowlings and quick
closing locks
- repair any damage
3.3.
3.3.2.
3.3.3.
every
see engine manufacturer´s instructions
ENGINE
ENGINE COMPARTMENT
3.1.
3.1.1.
Date of inspection:
Battery
Visually check attachment and security
Check charging - charge if needed
Visually check condition and attachment of
wire leads
- replace those damaged
Load test
Wiring
Visually check condition and integrity of
wires, connections, security of wires and
grounding
Fuel system
Visually check condition, integrity,
attachment and security of hoses - replace
those damaged
Visually check fuel filter condition
- replace stopped up filter
Visually check system for leaks
Document No.:
Date of Issue:
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March 01, 2009
Revision:
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
Event
#
Event description
Inspection
Tick off performed inspection
after the
first
after the
first
25 hrs. 50 hrs.
3.7.
3.7.1.
3.7.2.
3.7.3.
3.7.4.
3.7.5.
3.8.
3.8.1.
3.8.2.
3.8.3.
3.8.4.
3.9.
3.9.1.
3.9.2.
3.9.3.
3.10.
3.10.1.
3.10.2.
3.11.
3.12.
4.
4.1.
4.1.1.
4.2.
4.2.1.
4.2.2.
4-10
every
every
50
100
hrs.
hrs.
Carried
out by:
Inspected
by:
Cooling system
Visually check radiator for condition and
leaks
Visually check condition, attachment of
hoses; radiator left hose clearance from
exhaust pipe approx. 0.8 in (20 mm), check
system for leaks
Tighten hose clips if needed
Check coolant quantity in the expansion tank
- add or change coolant acc. to the engine
manual if needed
Visually check condition and attachment of
overflow bottle on the firewall
Lubrication system
Visually check condition and attachment of
oil tank
Check oil cooler for condition, attachment
and leaks
Visually check hoses for condition, leaks,
attachment and security - replace damaged
hoses
Check oil quantity - add or change oil acc. to
the engine manual if needed
Exhaust system
Visually check exhaust system for condition,
cracks, deformations or damage - repair /
replace. Check left front pipe clearance from
radiator hose - approx. 0.8 in (20 mm),
Visually check condition and attachment of
the muffler - repair / replace
Check joint security
Heating
Visually check hoses leading air into the
cockpit - check hose for condition, integrity,
attachment and security
Check condition, function and control of the
heating / venting system flaps
Reinstall lower engine cowling
Reinstall lower engine cowling when the
inspection is completed and engine test run
performed
Lubricate per Lubricating Chart
see manufacturer instructions +
PROPELLER
Blades
Inspect blades for abrasions, cracks, paint
damage, condition of blades leading edges
and tips - repair according to the propeller
manual
Visually check spinner for condition,
abrasions, cracks, paint damage - repair
large damage
Remove spinner
Spinner
Document No.:
Date of Issue:
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March 01, 2009
Revision:
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
Event
#
Inspection
Tick off performed inspection
Event description
after the
first
after the
first
25 hrs. 50 hrs.
4.3.
4.3.1.
4.3.2.
4.3.3.
4.3.4.
4.3.5.
5.
every
every
50
100
Carried
out by:
Inspected
by:
hrs.
hrs.
see manufacturer instructions +
Propeller
Check prop attachment, security of bolts
Check run-out
Install spinner
Check tightening by torque wrench
Pitch change mechanism
(if controllable pitch prop is mounted)
Check condition and function according to
the prop manufacturer´s instructions
see manufacturer instructions
LANDING GEAR
NOSEWHEEL LANDING GEAR
5.1.
5.1.1.
5.2.
5.2.1.
5.2.2.
Nosewheel leg
Check condition and attachment of the
nosewheel leg (lift airplane nose)
Rubber rope and rubber suspension
stop
5.3.1.
Visually check rubber rope a suspension
stop and flexible washer for deformation,
cracks, excessive wear - replace if needed
5.4.2.
5.5.
5.5.1.
5.5.2.
5.5.3.
5.6.
5.6.1.
5.6.2.
5.7.
5.7.1.
5.7.2.
Tire
Check tires for condition, cuts, uneven or
excessive wear and slippage - replace if
needed
Check pressure - inflate to required pressure
Wheel
Visually check for cracks, permanent
deformations - if damaged, replace
Check valve condition around the hole in the
rim
Check condition of bearings, wheel free
rotation, play
Joints
Check torque and security of fixed joints
Check nosewheel free rotation inside the leg
- the rotation should not be too free to
prevent shimmy
Nosewheel control system
Check control rods condition, rod ends
security
Check condition of nosewheel control lever
covers for wear through - repair damage
5.8.
Lubricate per Lubricating Chart
6.
LANDING GEAR
MAIN LANDING GEAR
6.1.
6.1.1.
Visually check wheel pants or mudguards
condition - repair damages and cracks
Remove fairing (reinstall when nosewheel
inspection is completed)
5.3.
5.4.
5.4.1.
Wheel pants
Fiberglass legs
Visually check condition of fiberglass legs repaint damaged areas, contact airplane
manufacturer if cracks were found
Document No.:
Date of Issue:
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March 01, 2009
Revision:
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4-11
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
Event
#
Event description
Inspection
Tick off performed inspection
after the
first
after the
first
25 hrs. 50 hrs.
6.1.2.
6.1.3.
6.1.4.
6.1.5.
6.2.
6.2.1.
6.3.
6.3.1.
6.4.
6.4.1.
6.4.2.
6.4.3.
Inspect leg attachment into the fuselage (no
play) - Lift the landing gear and move a leg
forward-backward, upward-downward; at the
same time check wheel play on the axle tighten attachment bolts if the leg has a play
Check torque and security of fixed joints
Check cloth cover which covers the legfuselage input hole
Check grounding
Check wire integrity and grounding
7.1.7.
Check lanels
7.2.
Aileron
4-12
Wing
7.1.6.
7.1.4.
WING
7.1.5.
7.1.3.
Wheel
Visually check condition
- no loose rivets, deformations, cracks or any
other damage - contact the airplane
manufacturer
Check play of wing suspensions - move the
wing tip upward-downward, frontwardrearward
Check condition and attachment of fiberglass
wing tips
Visual check of riveted joints leakage of
integral tank
Check desludging
7.1.2.
hrs.
Visually check wheel rims for cracks,
permanent deformations - replace wheel rim
in case of cracks
Check valve condition around the hole in the
disc
Check condition of bearings, wheel free
rotation, play
Visually check condition of pads - steady and
symmetry abrasion of pads - replace pads if
needed
Check wear of the disc and overheating
Check brake system for leaks
- add brake fluid and bleed the system if a
brake pedal has soft movement
By brake fluid replacement clean up and
reseal btake cylinders – once two years
7.1.
7.1.1.
100
hrs.
Inspected
by:
Tires
Check tires for condition, cuts, uneven or
excessive wear and slippage - replace if
needed
6.5.2.
7.
50
Carried
out by:
Visually check wheel pants / mudguards
condition - repair damage and cracks
Brakes
Check attachment of brake system
plastic hoses to the main leg
6.5.5.
every
Wheel pants or mudguards
6.5.
6.5.1.
6.5.3.
6.5.4.
every
Document No.:
Date of Issue:
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March 01, 2009
Revision:
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
Event
#
Inspection
Tick off performed inspection
Event description
after the
first
after the
first
25 hrs. 50 hrs.
7.2.1.
7.2.2.
7.2.3.
7.2.4.
7.2.5.
7.2.6.
7.2.7.
7.2.8.
7.3.
7.3.1.
7.3.2.
7.3.3.
7.3.4.
7.3.5.
7.4.
7.4.1.
7.4.2.
Visually check condition
Check free movement
Check aileron hinge
Check play
Check security of control rod ends
Check grounding
Remove inspection covers from the lower
wing surface to inspect security of control
system joints
Lubricate per Lubricating Chart and reinstall
covers and completed lever
7.4.4.
Check fall sensor
7.4.5.
7.5.
7.5.1.
7.5.2.
Check safety system
8.
FUSELAGE
8.1.6.
8.2.
hrs.
Wing suspensions
7.5.3.
7.5.4.
7.6.
8.1.4.
8.1.5.
100
hrs.
Inspected
by:
Remove wing fillets
Visually check condition of wing suspensions
(wing folding mechanism), cleanness of
folding system, lubrication
Check wear, corrosion
Check security of joints
Lubricate per Lubricating Chart
8.1.3.
50
Carried
out by:
Pitotstatic tube
7.4.3.
8.1.2.
every
Flap
Fully extend the flaps and visually check
condition
Check flap hinge
Check play
Check condition of flap control pin and wear
of the groove at the flap root
Lubricate per Lubricating Chart
Check pitotstatic tube attachment
Check pitostatic system for leaks - the
airplane manufacturer uses KPU 3
instrument
Check hoses under pitostatic tube (in bend)
8.1.
8.1.1.
every
Fuselage surface
Visually check condition
- no loose rivets, deformations, cracks or any
other damage, corrosion
- repair small damage or contact the airplane
manufacturer
Visually check rivets near the landing gear
attachment
Check condition and attachment of
equipment
- antenna, beacon etc.
Check tail skid attachment
Visually check condition, attachment and
operation of towing mechanism (if installed)
and lubricate
Visually check condition of fiberglass wing
fillets
Cockpit canopy
Document No.:
Date of Issue:
SSM2008MAIPUS
March 01, 2009
Revision:
-
4-13
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
Event
#
Event description
Inspection
Tick off performed inspection
after the
first
after the
first
25 hrs. 50 hrs.
8.2.5.
Visually check canopy condition for
- cracks, scratches, any other damage
- drill end of cracks
Check canopy lock for condition and
operation, signalization
Check eye–ball vents for condition and
operation
Check gas struts operation - replace those
functionless
Check canopy silicone rubber packing
8.2.6.
8.2.7.
8.2.8.
Check cabin lighting
Check cabin dewatering
Check labels
9.
HORIZONTAL TAIL UNIT
9.1.
Visually check condition
- no loose rivets, deformation, cracks,
scratches and any other damage - contact
the airplane manufacturer
Visually check condition and attachment
of fiberglass tips
Check elevator free movement
Check elevator hinge
Check play - move the stabilizer frontwardrearward, upward-downward
- contact the airplane manufacturer if play
exceeded tolerances
Check security of joints at control column
8.2.1.
8.2.2.
8.2.3.
8.2.4.
9.2.
9.3.
9.4.
9.5.
9.6.
9.7.
9.7.1.
9.7.2.
9.7.3.
9.7.4.
9.7.5.
9.8.
10.
VERTICAL TAIL UNIT
10.1.
10.6.
10.7.
Visually check condition
- no loose rivets, deformation, cracks,
scratches and/or other damage - contact the
airplane manufacturer
Visually check condition and attachment
of fiberglass tips
Check rudder free movement
Check rudder suspensions
Check play - move rudder upwarddownward
Check joints security
Lubricate per Lubricating Chart
11.
COCKPIT
11.1.
11.1.1.
Instrument panel
Visually check condition and attachment of
the instrument panel
10.3.
10.4.
10.5.
4-14
every
50
100
hrs.
hrs.
Carried
out by:
Inspected
by:
Trim tab
Visually check condition
Check hinge
Check control cables condition
Check tension of trim tab control cables and
check securing the adjusting screws
Check eletrical trim - functionality
Lubricate per Lubricating Chart
10.2.
every
Document No.:
Date of Issue:
SSM2008MAIPUS
March 01, 2009
Revision:
-
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
Event
#
Inspection
Tick off performed inspection
Event description
after the
first
after the
first
25 hrs. 50 hrs.
11.1.2.
11.1.3.
11.1.4.
11.1.5.
11.1.6.
11.1.7.
11.2.
11.2.1.
11.2.2.
11.2.3.
11.2.4.
Check condition and attachment of individual
instruments
Check function of instruments
Check throttle and choke levers free
movement and lock
Inspect completeness and readability of
placards
Check wire integrity
Check heating and pre-heating actuator
11.4.
11.4.1.
11.4.2.
11.4.3.
11.4.4.
11.4.5.
11.4.6.
11.4.7.
11.5.
11.5.1.
11.5.2.
11.5.3.
11.5.4.
11.5.5.
Hand control
11.6.3.
11.7.
11.8.
11.9.
11.11.
100
hrs.
hrs.
Carried
out by:
Inspected
by:
Visually check condition, attachment and
security
Remove aileron rod covers inside the cockpit
Check hand control free movement
Check play
Check joints security
Check control column stops for condition
Pitostatic system drainage, see 2.3.20
Lubricate per Lubricating Chart
Check free movement of levers
Check operation of flap control lever lock
(push button)
Lubricate per Lubricating Chart
Rudder control
Check stiffness of movement
Check joints security
Check stops at pedal control cables
Check condition and security of cables
Check hydraulic brake system for leaks - add
brake fluid if needed
Lubricate per Lubricating Chart
Flap and trim control, Towing
mechanism control
Complete lubricating per Lubricating
Chart
Install seats upholstery and covers
Engine Test Run (see FM)
•
•
•
•
•
•
11.10.
50
Visually check seat upholstery, remove
upholstery
Visually check seats and backrests condition
Check for loose rivets or any other damage
on the seats
Visually check main landing gear legs
attachment inside the fuselage
Safety harness
11.6.1.
11.6.2.
every
Seats
11.3.
11.3.1.
11.5.6.
11.6.
every
idling
throttle and choke levers operation
acceleration - deceleration
r.p.m. drop with either magneto switched off
max. r.p.m.
test brake system efficiency
Test flight
Clean the airplane surface
(only for service station)
Document No.:
Date of Issue:
SSM2008MAIPUS
March 01, 2009
Revision:
-
4-15
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
4.5
Fluids
The fluids are: fuel, engine oil, liquid coolant and brake fluid.
Filling locations can be seen in the Figure below. Fuel and Brake fluid filling locations are described
in 4.5.4 and 4.5.3 respectively.
3
2
Fig. Filling locations in
engine compartment
1
4-16
Document No.:
Date of Issue:
SSM2008MAIPUS
March 01, 2009
1- oil tank,
2 - liquid coolant tank
3 – brake fluid central bottle
Revision:
-
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
4.5.1
Engine oil
4.5.1.1 Recommended brands
The recommended oil brands are listed in Service Instruction SI-18-1997, which is enclosed with
this Maintenance manual.
4.5.1.1.1 Table of oils
4.5.1.2 Oil quantity
The total oil quantity in the Rotax 912 lubricating system amounts to 0.9 U.S. gall (3.5 liters). Prior
to oil check, turn the propeller by hand (ignition switched off!) several times to pump oil from the
engine into the oil tank, or leave the engine idle for 1 minute. The oil level in the oil tank should be
between the min. and max. marks and should not be below min. mark.
4.5.1.3 Oil filling
Type of maintenance: line.
Authorization to perform: - Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
- Sport pilot or higher
Tools needed:
− flat screwdriver to remove upper engine cowling
− suitable funnel
Parts needed: recommended brand of oil
Instructions:
1. Remove upper cowling.
2. Unscrew oil tank cap.
3. Insert funnel and fill oil.
4. Remove funnel, screw oil tank cap, check cap proper attachment.
5. Mount upper cowling
The oil tank is located in the engine compartment and is accessible when engine upper cowling is
removed. Oil quantity is measured by wire-gauge in the oil tank - see previous paragraph.
Task proper accomplishment check: check the oil tank cap is fitted properly.
Document No.:
Date of Issue:
SSM2008MAIPUS
March 01, 2009
Revision:
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4-17
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
4.5.1.4 Oil emptying
Type of maintenance: line.
Authorization to perform: - Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
- Sport pilot or higher
Tools needed:
− flat screw driver to remove upper engine cowling
− Philips tip screw driver
− nut wrench No. 17
− a suitable oil can or sump
Parts needed: recommended brand of oil
Instructions:
Unscrew the plug located on the bottom of the oil tank to empty out the oil.
To empty oil from the engine, pull out the return hose located on the bottom of the engine from oil
tank (relase hose clip first) and lower hose end to oil can.
It is recommended to empty oil when the engine is warm.
Task proper accomplishment check: none
4-18
Document No.:
Date of Issue:
SSM2008MAIPUS
March 01, 2009
Revision:
-
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
4.5.1.5 Oil filter replacement
Remove engine cowlings. Unscrew the elbow on the left front (as viewed in flight direction) exhaust
pipe using nut wrench size 12. Loose a clamp of that pip on the exhaust muffler using wrench 13.
Disconnect the elbow from the engine and turn the exhaust pipe slightly to move it from the oil filter.
Replace oil filter by a new one. See Maintenance Manual (Line Maintenance) for ROTAX Engine
Type 912 Series for replacement instructions. Connect the elbow to the engine and tighten the nuts
slightly by fingers. Set exhaust pipe clearance from the radiator hose and oil filter. Clearance from
the radiator hose must be min. 0.8 in (20 mm) and approximately 0.2 in (5 mm) from oil filter. When
clearances are set, tighten the elbow and clamp. Re-install the engine cowlings after oil re-filling.
Document No.:
Date of Issue:
SSM2008MAIPUS
March 01, 2009
Revision:
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4-19
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
4.5.2
Coolant
4.5.2.1 Recommended types
Refer to the Rotax 912 Operator’s Manual for recommended coolant types. The “BASF Glysantin
Anticorrosion“, “FRIDEX G 48“ or “Glysantin Protect Plus (produced by BASF)“ is recommended by
the engine manufacturer. The engine manufacturer also recommends the use of antifreeze
concentrate during cold weather operation.
4.5.2.2 Coolant quantity
Total coolant quantity is about 0.4 U.S. gall (1.5 liters).
4.5.2.3 Coolant refilling
Type of maintenance: line.
Authorization to perform:
− Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
− Sport pilot or higher
Tools needed:flat screw driver
Parts needed: recommended type of coolant
Instructions:
1. Remove upper engine cowling.
2. Unscrew coolant expansion tank cap.
3. Check coolant quantity and fill some amount if needed.
4. Screw tank cap back
5. Mount upper cowling back.
The expansion tank located in the engine compartment is used for filling. In addition to that, an
overflow bottle is attached on the firewall to absorb coolant in the case of engine overheating.
Task proper accomplishment check: check proper attachment of coolant tank cap after refilling,
check proper attachment of the upper engine cowling.
4.5.2.4 Coolant emptying
Type of maintenance: line.
Authorization to perform:
− Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
− Sport pilot or higher
Tools needed:flat screw driver
suitable container for coolant
Parts needed: none
Instructions:
1. Remove upper engine cowling.
2. Place suitable container under the engine.
3. Check coolant quantity and fill some amount if needed.
4. Disconnect the hose going from the radiator into the pump (on the lowest part of the cooling
system)
5. Empty coolant into a container.
6. Mount hose back.
7. Mount upper cowling back.
Task proper accomplishment check: check proper hose attachment
check proper attachment of the upper engine cowling.
4-20
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Revision:
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
4.5.3
Brake fluid
4.5.3.1 Recommended types
Standard Brake System
Only brake fluid of J 1703c classification should be used for hydraulic brake system (type for middle
hard or hard operation).
Czech Rep.
• Syntol HD 205
or
• Syntol HD 260
Foreign
• ATE Blau
• STOP SP 19
• MOBIL Hydraulic Brake Fluid 550
• BP Brake Fluid
• PENTOSIN Super Fluid
• AGIP F. 1 Brake Fluid Super HD
• NAFTAGAS AT-2
• INA UK-2.
These brake fluid types may be blended as required and refilled in any mixing proportion.
MATCO Brake System
4.5.3.2 Brake fluid refilling
Type of maintenance for the other instruments: line.
Authorization to perform:
− Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
− Sport pilot or higher
Tools needed: screwdriver to remove upper cowling
Parts needed: recommended brake fluid
Instructions:
Brake fluid refilling is necessary when a low brake system efficiency occurs due to a fluid leak.
A brake fluid is filled into reservoir located in the engine compartment on the firewall. A brake fluid
level must be approx. 1 inch in the reservoir – see figure below.
Step repeatedly on the pedal during refilling. Bleed the system after refilling.
Task proper accomplishment check:brake fluid level in the reservoir approx. 1 inch
check eficiency of brake system
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4-21
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
4.5.3.3 Brake fluid emptying
Type of maintenance: line.
Authorization to perform:
− Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
− Sport pilot or higher
Standard Brake System
Tools needed:
− wrench No. 7
− hose with inner diameter suitable for bleeding screw
− suitable cup for brake fluid
Parts needed: recommended brake fluid
Bleeding
screw
Instructions:
Brake fluid thickens during aircraft operation and absorbes water. This condition causes brake
system failures. It is not possible to determine when this may occur. The best way to prevent trouble
is to change the brake fluid every year.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Insert hose on the bleeding screw and hold hose end in suitable cup.
Release bleeding screw and let flow brake fluid into cap.
Step repeatedly on the pedal during emptying.
Tighten bleeding screw and remove hose from it.
Repeat above procedure for the other brake.
Task proper accomplishment check no brake fluid flow during item No. 3 executing.
MATCO Brake System
The procedure is the same as described above.
4-22
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
4.5.4
Fuel
4.5.4.1 Recommended brands
.
4.5.4.2 Fuel quantity
Total fuel capacity is bout 31.7 U.S. gallons (120 litres).
Keep the maximum permitted take-off weight in mind when fueling.
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4-23
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
4.5.4.3 Fueling
Type of maintenance: line.
Authorization to perform: - Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
- Sport pilot or higher
Tools needed: funnel (for filling from petrol can)
Parts needed: none
Instructions:
Precaution
The following precautions should be maintained during fueling to prevent fire.
WARNING
•
•
•
•
•
No smoking or open flames during fueling!
Fire extinguisher should be within reach!
Under no circumstances add fuel with the engine running!
Connect the aircraft to ground prior fueling.
No person in the cockpit during fueling!
A fuel tank filler is located on the upper side of the each wing (see photo).
CAUTION
It is highly recommended to pour gasoline through a filter if it was not tested for water content. After
fueling, allow 20 min. for water to settle out on the bottom. Drain off some fuel and look for water.
Fig. Fuel tank filler neck
4-24
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Connect the aircraft to the ground.
Open fuel tank filler
Insert fuel delivery nozzle or a funnel into the filler.
Fill required quantity of fuel.
Remove nozzle.
Close fuel tank filler by its cap.
Task proper accomplishment check: check the fuel tank cap is home screwed and required
amount of fuel is in the tank (according to fuel gauge).
4.5.4.4 Fuel emptying
Type of maintenance: line.
Authorization to perform: - Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
- Sport pilot or higher
Tools needed: none
Parts needed: a petrol can to be placed under the aircraft
Instructions:
Precaution
Use the same precautions as during fueling.
Draining procedure
1. Put the vessel under the drain valve.
2. Open fuel tank cap to speed up draining.
3. Using screwdriver (or appropriate jig) press and turn draining valve to the left to open it.
4. Drain fuel. If it is necessary to drain all fuel, push airplane tail down (almost to the ground) to
allow drain of the all unusable fuel.
5. Using screwdriver (or appropriate jig) turn draining valve to the right to close it.
6. Close fuel tank cap.
7. Repeat procedure for the opposite tank.
WARNING
Do not smoke or have open any flame during draining!
Task proper accomplishment check: check the drain valve closing
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4-25
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
4.6
Lubrication
Type of maintenance: line.
Authorization to perform:
− Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
− Sport pilot or higher
Authorized person can lubricate the aircraft in all lubricating points according to 4.6.2.2.
4.6.1
Lubrication fundamentals
There are some generally inaccessible joints and control system parts inside the wings and
fuselage, which have been cleaned and lubricated during airplane assembly. Lubrication of these
will be performed during a periodic inspection.
There are some parts, e.g. landing gear, which are exposed to external conditions and to varying
loads. These parts will be inspected during pre-flight and during periodical inspections. These
should be lubricated as is necessary, but at least in the intervals specified below.
4.6.2
Recommended lubricants
4.6.2.1 Greases
Greases are mineral oils thickened with calcic, sodium, lithium or any other thickeners of aliphatic
acids.
The greases do not SAE classification and their usage is recommended by manufacturer. Grease
may be applied all the year round.
The following greases are recommended:
• waxy, semi-solid or butyraceous consistency and water resistant. They are used at very low
temperatures (-22 °F, -30 °C) and at high temperatures ( 248 °F , 120 °C)
•
Czech
MOGUL MOLYKA G
(or equivalent)
4-26
Foreign
AEROSHELL GREASE 22
AEROSHELL GREASE 11MS
AEROSHELL GREASE 23C
SHELL RETINAX HDX2
SHELL RETINAX EPX2
(or equivalent)
Document No.:
Date of Issue:
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
4.6.2.2 Lubricating points
Unit
Prop
Engine
Lubricating point
•
•
•
•
Nosewheel
landing gear
•
•
Main landing •
gear
•
Wing
Ailerons
•
•
•
•
Flaps
•
•
•
•
•
•
HTU
•
VTU
•
Adjustable props acc. to Prop Manual
oil change acc. to Engine Manual
carburetor control cable at inlet into the
bowden (in engine compartment)
choke control cable at inlet into the
termination (in engine compartment)
landing gear leg in the area of bushing
bearings in pull rod terminals of landing
gear control
pins of brake pads holders
all movable joints of wing folding
mechanism (if mounted)
hinges
control hinge pin
after the
first
25 hrs.
Every
50 hrs.
x
x
oil
x
x
oil
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
elevator hinge
swivel bearing in the elevator control rod
termination
rudder suspensions
x
x
x
•
•
rudder control cables at attachment to the
rudder
trim tab hinge
control cables at inlets in the terminations
Stick control
•
All movable joints in the cockpit
x
Rudder
control
•
All movable joints in the cockpit
x
•
The passages of rudder control cables
x
•
Brake system control cables at inlets in
the bowdens (at brake pedals)
x
Trim tab
Document No.:
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SSM2008MAIPUS
March 01, 2009
x
Lubricant
x
x
x
two-armed aileron control levers inside
the wing
hinge joint of rods under the wing fillet
hinges
all movable joints under the quadrant
cover between the seats
All movable joints under the baggage
compartment bottom cover
Flaps control pins (at a flap root)
Every
100 hrs
x
x
oil
oil
MOGUL MOLYKA G,
foreign greases
MOGUL MOLYKA G,
foreign greases
oil
MOGUL MOLYKA G,
foreign greases
MOGUL MOLYKA G,
foreign greases
MOGUL MOLYKA G,
foreign greases
oil
MOGUL MOLYKA G,
foreign greases
MOGUL MOLYKA G,
foreign greases
MOGUL MOLYKA G,
foreign greases
oil
MOGUL MOLYKA G,
foreign greases
MOGUL MOLYKA G,
foreign greases
MOGUL MOLYKA G,
foreign greases
oil
MOGUL MOLYKA G,
foreign greases
MOGUL MOLYKA G,
foreign greases
MOGUL MOLYKA G,
foreign greases
MOGUL MOLYKA G,
foreign greases
MOGUL MOLYKA G,
foreign greases
Revision:
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4-27
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
4.7
Mechanism adjustments
4.7.1
Torque moments
Metric thread
N.m
kg.m
N.m
M5
kg.m
N.m
M6
kg.m
N.m
M7
kg.m
N.m
M8
kg.m
N.m
M10
kg.m
N.m
M12
kg.m
N.m
M14
kg.m
N.m
M16
kg.m
N.m
M18
kg.m
N.m
M20
kg.m
N.m
M22
kg.m
N.m
M24
kg.m
Ultimate strength
(MPa)
ϑ in %
Yield point
(MPa)
4.8
5.8
Strength class
8.8
5,39
0,55
8,82
0,90
12,74
1,30
24,51
2,50
42,16
4,30
66,68
6,80
93,16
9,50
137,29
14,00
176,51
18,00
225,55
23,00
313,81
32,00
1,67
0,17
3,45
0,35
6,86
0,70
10,78
1,10
15,69
1,60
31,38
3,20
52,95
5,40
78,54
8,00
107,87
11,50
171,61
17,50
225,55
23,00
284,39
29,00
392,26
40,00
9,80
1,00
14,70
1,50
22,55
2,30
44,12
4,50
74,53
7,60
117,67
12,00
164,75
16,80
245,16
25,00
313,81
32,00
392,26
40,00
549,17
56,00
13,72
1,40
20,59
2,10
32,36
3,30
61,78
6,30
104,93
10,70
164,75
16,80
225,55
23,00
343,23
35,00
441,29
45,00
558,97
57,00
755,11
77,00
16,67
1,70
25,49
2,60
38,24
3,90
73,54
7,50
125,52
12,80
196,13
20,00
274,58
28,00
411,87
42,00
539,36
55,00
676,65
69,00
970,85
99,00
420
500
880
1040
1220
(14)
330
7
400
12
640
8
940
8
1100
M4
10.9
12.9
Conversion: 1 N.m = 0.74 lb.ft
Conversion may be found at e.g. http://www.unitconversion.org/unit_converter/torque-ex.html
Torque moment formula (valid for all bolt sizes):
M kmax = 1,065 ×
d ⋅σ ⋅ S
1000 ⋅ m
Legend:
Mk ............ torque moment
d............... bolt shank diam.
σ............... min. yield point
m.............. safety factor
s ............... lead of helix
4-28
N.m
mm
MPa
(m=1,25 for σ<500 MPa; m=1,43 for σ>500 MPa)
mm
Document No.:
Date of Issue:
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March 01, 2009
Revision:
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
4.8
Necessary maintenance tools
No special tools are needed for the SportStar MAX maintenance. Tools used for automobile
maintenance are suitable.
As the SportStar MAX is European design, metric tools are recommended for its maintenance.
The aircraft manufacturer can provide a set of such metric tools.
4.9
Access holes
The following are the inspection and access holes:
• Screw caps on the wings lower surface - access to the aileron control rods and levers and to the
pitot/static installation in the left half of the wing
• Screw cap on the fuselage lower surface under the baggage compartment close to the fuel tank
- access to the fuel tank installation
• Screw cap on the fuselage lower surface in the middle of the rear section - access to the
elevator control rods and a lever
• Wing fillets which cover space between the fuselage and wing - access to the wing-fuselage
suspensions (wing folding mechanism)
• Cover sheet of Control stick system in the cockpit
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4-29
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
4.10
Brake system efficiency adjustment
4.10.1 Brake pad replacement
Type of maintenance for the other instruments: line.
Authorization to perform:
− Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
− Sport pilot or higher
Tools needed:
− jacks or supports
− pliers to remove locking wire
− flat screw driver to bend locking wire
Parts needed:
1. Brake pads
4 pcs
2. Stainless locking wire 2 pcs dia. 1 mm
P/N E5 50-50 21
Instructuions:
Brake pad replacement is only performed when a pad is worn-out.
Brake pad replacement procedure
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Jack the airplane for easier acces to brake pads.
Remove the locking wire, shift the pins out and remove the brake pads
Mount a new brake pads - insert the upper pin and insert stainless locking wire to pin hole.
Insert lower pin, rotate it so that locking wire from upper pin can get through lower pin hole.
Get through locking wire through lower pin hole. One wire is used for both pins.
Secure both pins with bend of the locking wire around the pins.
Lower the airplane.
Task proper accomplishment check: check securing of both pins after replacement
check efficiency of brakes
4-30
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Revision:
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
4.10.2 Bleeding
Type of maintenance: line.
Authorization to perform: - Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
- Sport pilot or higher
Tools needed: nut wrench No. 7 to release bleeding screw
Parts needed: none
Instructions:
Standard Brake System
It is important to thoroughly bleed the brake system. Otherwise the system function may be
unreliable and the brakes may fail. There are two main reasons for air entering the brake system:
1. Disconnected or loose hoses
2. Insufficient quantity of brake fluid
1
Fig. Brake system bleeding
1- Bleeding screw
Procedure:
1. Loosen the bleeding screw in the brake cylinder
2. Step repeatedly on the pedal to bleed the brake system
3. Tighten the screw
4. Repeat several times or until the pedal offers resistance against motion (feels firm)
NOTE
If the brake efficiency remains unsatisfactory after bleeding or if the pedal motion is excessive, fill
with brake fluid and bleed the system again. Continue until all the air is out of the system
Task proper accomplishment check: check tightening of the bleeding screw
check function and efficiency of brakes
MATCO Brake System
For the bleeding of the MATCO MHMHE 6B1.25 main wheel refer to the MHE6B & MHE6B-C
External caliper, 6“ E- Series, Wheel and Brake, L. Bleeding the Brake System
available at http://matco.veracart.com/pdf/MHE6BMANUALp.pdf?Iit=2411&Ict=23
Document No.:
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4-31
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
4.11
Control surfaces deflection setting
Type of maintenance: line.
Authorization to perform: - Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
- Sport pilot or higher
Tools needed: refer to paragraphs below
Parts needed:
− a bevel protractor
− a clip to attach protractor to measured control surface
− cotter pin 1.6 x 16 to secure some nuts
Instructions: refer to paragraph below
Task proper accomplishment check: check securing of all joints
check proper tightening of all screws
check the deflections comply with Control Surfaces
Deflection Record
Control surface deflections of a new aircraft are set by the manufacturer. Deflections are adjusted
to values specified in the Control Surfaces Deflection Record enclosed in this Manual.
A neutral position of the control surfaces and controls is used as a base for adjustment of
deflections.
4.11.1 Aileron deflection adjustment
Tools needed:
− wrench No. 9, 10, 13,
− allen wrench No. 3,
− flat screw driver
− pliers
Instructions:
A range of deflections are set using adjustment screws on lateral control stops located on a console
of the left/right control column.
The aileron neutral position can be adjusted with the adjustable end of the short rod inside the
cockpit. Or with the adjustable end of the longer rod inside the wing (when the screw cap on the
lower wing surface is removed).
The aileron differential (difference between a lower and upper deflection) can be adjusted with the
adjustable end of the rod connecting the two-armed lever inside the wing and the hinge. The
adjustable rod end is accessible when an aileron is deflected upward.
4.11.2 Flap deflection adjustment
Tools needed:
− wrench No. 5.5, 9 (2x), 10, 13,
− pliers
Instructions:
Flaps deflection is determined by cut-outs in a changing gate on the flap control lever inside the
cockpit. Use the following procedure to adjust flap deflection:
Remove the baggage compartment bottom cover which will allow access to a rod connecting the
flap control lever and a lever welded on a tube connecting the left and right flap. Use the adjustable
rod end to adjust the flaps in the position "RETRACTED" Or you can use eccentric pin to set
retracted position – see below.
The deflection of the left flap against the right flap may be adjusted when the eccentric pin is moved
a slight amount. The pin is inserted into the groove of the flap root.
See Figure in par. 2.3.12.10 for adjustment points.
4-32
Document No.:
Date of Issue:
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Revision:
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
4.11.3 Elevator deflection adjustment
Tools needed:
− wrench No. 9 (2x), 13
− pliers
Instructions:
The range of elevator deflection is determined by the control stick stops setting. The "Push in" stop
may be adjusted with an adjustment screw. To adjust an upward deflection, fully pull the control
stick rearward. Then measure the elevator upward deflection and compare it with the one specified
– if required adjust the deflection with the adjustable end of the elevator control rod or with the
adjustable end of the rod below the baggage compartment cover. When the upward elevator
deflection is adjusted, fully push the control stick and adjust a stop so that an elevator downward
deflection corresponds with that one specified.
See Figure in par. 2.3.12.7 for adjustment points.
4.11.4 Rudder deflection adjustment
Tools needed:
- wrench No. 8, 10
Instructions:
The rudder deflections are set by the aircraft manufacturer. If necessary the rudder deflections can
be adjusted by adjustable stops located on the rudder control cable in the cockpit (see para.
2.3.12.9). Side cockpit upholstery must be removed first.
4.11.5 Trim tab adjustment
Tools needed:
− wrench No. 10 (2x)
− allen wrench No. 4
− pliers
Instructions:
The following may be adjusted:
a) The position of the trim tab control lever may be adjusted against a groove in the quadrant
between the seats.
Loosen the bolts which clamp the ends of the trim tab control cables on the upper/lower tab
surface. Then set the trim tab control lever in the desired position, slightly tighten the cables and
retighten the bolts.
b) Trim tab deflections
Trim tab deflection may be adjusted using the adjustment bolts which clamp the ends of the
control cables. The adjustment bolts are on the upper/lower tab surface – see Fig. in par.
2.3.12.11.
Document No.:
Date of Issue:
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Revision:
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4-33
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
4.12
Steerable nosewheel landing gear adjustment
Type of maintenance: line.
Authorization to perform: - Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
- Sport pilot or higher
Tools needed:
- wrench No. 9, 10,
- pliers
Parts needed: cotter pin 1.6 x 16
Instructions:
A steerable nosewheel adjustment is necessary so the airplane tracks during straight taxiing with
engine idling (to eliminate prop turning moment) with rudder pedals held in neutral position (no
crosswind!).
Procedure:
1. Lift the nosewheel and neutralize wheel and rudder pedals
2. Adjust the nosewheel control using the adjustable rod ends.
Task proper accomplishment check: check straight taxiing at idle with rudder pedals neutralized.
4.12.1 Rubber shock absorber replacement
Type of maintenance: line.
Authorization to perform: - Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
- Sport pilot or higher
Tools needed: pliers to remove cotter pin
Parts needed: new rubber rope (bungees),
cotter pins
Instructions:
Perform rubber shock absorber replacement when rubber rope is damaged or excessively worn
down.
Procedure:
1. Remove cotter pins from the hollow pin attaching a rubber rope
2. Remove hollow pin
3. Remove rubber rope from the nose landing gear leg
4. Mount a new rubber rope at the leg, sling over pin
5. Insert a hollow pin back
6. Secure by two cotter pins
Task proper accomplishment check: check function of nose wheel shock absorbing.
4-34
Document No.:
Date of Issue:
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March 01, 2009
Revision:
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
1
FUSELAGE FRAME SYSTEM
SUSPENSION STOP
NOSE WHEEL LEG
RUBBER ROPE
D
RUBBER ROPE
HOLLOW PIN
COTTER PIN 2.5 x 25 ČSN 02 1781.05
D
4.13
Engine idle adjustment
Type of maintenance: line.
Authorization to perform:
− Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
− Sport pilot or higher
Tools needed: flat screw driver
Parts needed: none
Instructions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Remove upper engine cowling.
Use chocks under main wheels.
Start engine, set idle.
A mechanic shall go alongside the wing leading edge, very carefully considering rotating
propeller .
5. Mechanic adjusts the engine run at idle to increase / decrease engine speed Use adjustment
screw on the carburetors to set engine speed approximately 1400 R.P.M.
WARNING
BECAUSE THE ENGINE IDLE IS ADJUSTED ON A RUNNING ENGINE, USE EXTREME
CAUTION NEAR THE PROPELLER.
6. Stop the engine
Task proper accomplishment check: check engine run at he idle, it must be smooth
Document No.:
Date of Issue:
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March 01, 2009
Revision:
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4-35
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
4.14
Tire inflation pressure
Type of maintenance: line.
Authorization to perform:
− Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
− Sport pilot or higher
Tools needed:
- tire valve adapter
- air pump or compressor
- manometer
Parts needed: none
Instructions:
Tire pressures are noted on placards located on the aircraft. Use the adapter supplied with the
aircraft to inflate the nosewheel. A car tire pump or compressor, or pressure bottle may be used for
inflating the wheels.
Nose wheel pressure:
Cheng Shin 15 x 6.00 – 6 ................................160 + 20 kPa / 17 + 3 psi
Sava tire 14x4..................................................160 + 20 kPa / 23 + 3 psi
Main wheel pressure:
Sava tire 14x4..................................................180 + 20 kPa / 26 + 3 psi
Cheng Shin 15 x 6.00 – 6 ................................120 + 20 kPa / 17 + 3 psi
GOOD YEAR 15 x 6.00 – 6 ...............................80 + 20 kPa / 12 + 3 psi
Task proper accomplishment check: check tire pressure.
4-36
Document No.:
Date of Issue:
SSM2008MAIPUS
March 01, 2009
Revision:
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
4.15
Cleaning and care
Cleaning and care may be performed by Aircraft owner (only for ELSA) or Sport pilot or higher.
4.15.1 Airplane care outlines
Use mild detergents to clean the exterior surfaces. Oil spots on the surfaces (except the canopy!)
may be cleaned with gasoline or strong detergents such as 409.
Upholstery covers can be removed from the cockpit, brushed or washed in lukewarm water with a
laundry detergent. Dry the upholstery before reinstalling.
4.15.2 External surfaces cleaning
The external metal surfaces and fiberglass parts (cowlings, wingtips etc.) of the airplane are
protected with weather-proof paint. Wash the airplane surface with lukewarm water and car wash
type detergents. Then wash the airplane with water and sponge dry. It is recommended to protect
painted external surfaces twice a year, by applying an automotive type polish. Use only on a clean
and dry surface, and polish with a soft flannel rag.
CAUTION
• Never wipe a dry surface – the surface may be scratched by dusts and dirt
• Never apply any chemical solvents
• Repair a damaged painted surface (see par. 5.6) as soon as possible to prevent corrosion
4.15.3 Interior cleaning
Keep in mind the following:
• Remove any loose objects from the cockpit
• Vacuum the interior, upholstery and carpets
• Wipe the upholstery using a rag with in lukewarm water and mild laundry detergent. Then dry or
remove the seat upholstery, side panels, carpets and clean with lukewarm water and/or carpet
cleaners, upholstery cleaners. Dry thoroughly before reinstallation.
• Clean the cockpit canopy interior surface (see par.4.15.4) below.
4.15.4 Cockpit canopy cleaning
The canopy may be cleaned by washing it with lukewarm water and car or laundry type detergents.
Use a clean, soft cloth. Then use a suitable polisher on the canopy such as WEISS POLIERPASTE,
WEIS SPEZIAL-SPRUHREININGER, WEIS SPEZIAL TUCHTER.
CAUTION
•
•
•
Never clean dry canopy
Never apply gasoline or chemical solvents!
Cover the canopy with a cover sheet
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4.15.5 Engine maintenance
Refer to the engine manufacturer's instructions for engine maintenance.
4.15.6 Propeller maintenance
Refer to the propeller manufacturer's instructions for engine maintenance.
4-38
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4.15.7 Winter operation
4.15.7.1 General
It is considered a winter operation, if the outside temperature falls below 41°F (+5 °C).
4.15.7.2 Preparing the aircraft for winter operation
Type of maintenance: line.
Authorization to perform: - Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
- Sport pilot or higher
Aircraft airframe
• Lubricate the aircraft per Lubricating Chart (100 hr. Inspection) if the last inspection was not
within 6 months
• Check and adjust rudder control cable prestress
• Check cockpit canopy rubber packing – replace if damaged
• Check fuel tank venting
• Check attachment of wing, ailerons, flaps and tail units; lubricate per Lubricating Chart
Engine
Refer to the Engine Manual for more details.
The following should be done:
• Add Anti-freeze to the cooling system as required (usually a 50/50 mix.)
• Change the oil (see Engine Manual or Service instructions)
• Check the spark plug gaps
If low cylinder head or oil temperatures occur during operation under low outside temperature, then
do the following:
• Cover a portion of the radiator face using an aluminium sheet, insert it between the radiator and
the lower engine cowling.
• Cover the oil cooler face (or a part of face) using an aluminum sheet attached with a suitable
adhesive tape.
• Cover the Reduction gear unit by means of a car engine cover
• Cover the oil filter (see instructions for Reduction gear unit)
• Cover the oil tank (see instructions for Reduction gear unit)
4.15.7.3 Operation
Preflight inspection
In addition to the Pre-flight inspection described in the AOI, the following must be done:
• Remove all snow from the airplane surfaces, and remove any icing using hot air
• Check the control surfaces for free movement. Check the slots of the control surfaces and flaps.
Remove any snow or ice
• Check the fuel tank vent hose for openness before each flight
• Check fuel system (fuel filter) for debbris, if found, empty the fuel tank and refill with fresh fuel
• Check fuel for water prior filling (use of water separator/filter is recommended)
• Drain fuel tank (drain valves are located on the bottom side of the each wing), drain a small
quantity of fuel; check for water and other contaminates untill fuel is clean and clear.
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Pre-heating engine and oil
It is permissible to start an engine without pre-heating if the outside air temperature is not below
+5 °C. Pre-heat the engine and oil if air temperatu re falls below 41°F (+5 °C). Use suitable air
heater or a dryer.
WARNING
NEVER USE OPEN FIRE TO PRE-HEAT AN ENGINE!
Blow hot air from the front into the hole around the prop (engine covered with fiberglass cowlings).
The temperature of the hot air should not exceed 212°F (100°C) at air heater output. Warm up the
oil tank along with the oil in the engine. Pre-heat until cylinder head and oil temperatures exceed
68°F (+20° C).
Engine starting
1. Turn the propeller by hand (ignition switched off!)
2. Set the fuel selector to LEFT position
3. Set throttle lever to idle
4. Open the choke
5. Master switch to "ON"
6. Switch on ignition to "START" after starting to “BOTH”
7. Adjust engine RPM after starting
8. Close the choke
9. Warm up the engine
CAUTION
If the cylinder head and oil temperatures fall during parking. Start and warm up engine from time to
time between flights. Do not open choke when starting a hot engine.
Parking and taxiing
Check wheel brakes for freezing when parked outside and temperature is below zero. Check
wheels free rotation prior to taxiing (Grasp the propeller and pull the airplane). Heat the brakes with
hot air (to melt snow or ice). Frozen materials should not be removed by forced towing.
After winter operation
• Clean the airplane thoroughly (hinges, especially the suspensions)
• Lubricate airplane per Lubricating Chart
• Check and adjust the control system
4-40
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
5. REPAIRS
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5.1
Repair guidelines
5.1.1
Repair clasification
Major repair, alteration or maintenance – Any repair, alteration or maintenance for which
instructions to complete the task are excluded from the maintenance manual(s) supplied to the
consumer are considered major.
Minor repair, alteration or maintenance – Any repair, alteration or maintenance for which
instructions are provided for in the maintenance manual(s) supplied to the consumer of the product
are considered minor.
Overhaul – Maintenance, inspection, repair or alterations that are only to be accomplished by the
original manufacturer or a facility approved by the original manufacture of the product.
Repair Facility – A facility specifically authorized by the aircraft or component manufacturer to
repair the product originally produced by that manufacturer.
5.1.2
Repair guidelines
NOTE
Repairs must be performed only by qualified persons – see 4.1.1 Qualification requirements.
Dents, cracks and loose rivets are the most frequent problems encountered during the operation of
an all-metal airplane.
The following guidelines should be considered during repair:
1. The Strength in any cross-section of a repaired area/part should at a minimum be the same as
the strength of the original undamaged area or part. The repaired area is not considered as a
whole, but is considered as:
• an original assembly unit
• a stiffener or a patch
If the cross-section of a repaired area is (in all directions), at a minimum, the same as the one
on the original part, or if a stiffener or a patch shape and design is similar, and the same
materials are used, then there is no risk that the airframe will be weakened.
2. The load has to be transferred by a stiffener or a patch from one side of a repaired area to
another.
In some cases, the load transmission should be carried out at another structural member and
then back to an undamaged part of the original structure.
3. The length of overlapping between a reinforcement (stiffener or patch) and the undamaged part
of the original structure should be enough to assure a good joint. The length of overlapping is
very important to assure no load concentration.
5.2
Damage classification
Various types of damage may occur during aircraft operation. It is important to correctly classify
damage according to its character, size and especially, which part of the airplane has been
damaged.
The important parts are the engine, engine mount, propeller, wing spar, wing box in the fuselage,
elevator, control system, and landing gear.
Any damage must be repaired only by person/repair station qualified in accordance with
4.1.1 Qualification requirements. The damaged parts may be replaced in their entity by new ones
supplied by the aircraft manufacturer.
Any damage and its repair should be recorded in the Log Book.
5-2
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
5.3
Materials used
5.3.1
List of skin sheets
Duralumin sheets plated by aluminum are used for skins.
The following thickness are used:
0.016 in
0.020 in
0.024 in
Material qualities are shown in the following table :
1
2
0.4 mm
0.5 mm
0.6 mm
Czech Standard
Mechanical properties
(Minimum)
3
Chemical composition
[%]
4
Half-finished products
5
Equivalent
Standards
Yield Point
Rp 0.2
Tensile strength
Rm
Ductility [%]
Al
Fe max
Mn
Cu
Zn max
Mg
Si max
U.S.A.
Germany
Russia
Z 424253.61
Al Cu Mg 1
260 MPa
400 MPa
15
(A10)
rest
0.3
0.3 - 0.9
3.8 - 4.9
0.3
1.2 - 1.8
0.3
by Al plated Sheets
Al thickness max.10 mm
0.4 in
Alclad 2024
DIN 1745
D16AT
List of Skin Sheets:
Thickness
0.016 in
(0.4 mm)
0.020 in
(0.5 mm)
0.024 in
(0.6 mm)
Airplane part
Elevator skin (except L.E.)
Trim tab skin
Rudder skin
Wing skin between rib 7 and 11
Flaps skin
Ailerons skin
Skin of upper rear part of a fuselage
Wing skin between rib 1 and 7
Elevator leading edge
Skin of front, rear and bottom part of the fuselage
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
5.4
Skin repair
Type of maintenance: line.
Authorization to perform:
− Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
− Sport pilot or higher
− Repairman (LS-M)
− Mechanic (A&P)
− Part 145 Repair station
1. To prevent small cracks (max. 0.2 in (5 mm)) from spreading, drill a hole of 0.06 in (1.5 mm),
diameter at the end of the crack
2. Small holes (up to ∅ 0.16 in (4 mm)) can be repaired by a "POP" rivets
3. More extensive skin damage is repaired by means of a patch. A flush or surface patch may be
used, as shown on the following figure:
1-Patch
2-Frame
3-Skin
5-4
A-Punctured skin
B-Cutting out and deburring the damaged spot
C-Surface patch repair
D-Flush patch repair
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Use a sheet of the same thickness as the repaired skin for the patch and frame.
2
A single row of rivets is used to rivet a small patch (patch area max. 7.75 sq in. 50 cm ). Use a
double row for greater patches as shown on figure. Paint the internal side of the patch and frame
before riveting and then paint the outside surface.
5.4.1
Riveting
"POP" rivets are used in most cases. Aircraft solid rivets are used only on wing spars, the wing box
inside the fuselage and on some airplane parts with high loads. These parts must be repaired only
by an authorized repair station.
When pop-rivets are to be removed, weaken the rivet head by drilling and then carefully drive out
with a drift. Use a drill of the same size as the rivet. The rest of the rivet may be removed from the
underside.
Pop-rivet joints are sealed. If necessary use a suitable knife to cut out the sealing compound and
then clean the joint. Warm up shortly the sealed joint using hot air gun 356-392°F (180-200 °C) to
make it easier to cut.
In the following table lists the pop-rivets and characteristics:
AVEX Pop-rivets supplied by AVDEL Company
1. material : Al Mg 2.5
2. Shank material: steel, zinc-chromate coating surface
Rivet No.:
Diameter
[in]
1691-0410
1691-0414
1691-0512
1691-0516
0.126
0.126
0.157
0.157
[mm]
3.2
3.2
4
4
Length
[in]
0.3110
0.441
0.374
0.050
[mm]
7.9
11.2
9.5
12.7
Hole
diameter
[in]
0.130-0.138
0.130-0.138
0.161-0.170
0.161-0.170
[mm]
3.3-3.5
3.3-3.5
4.1-4.3
4.1-4.3
Max. riveting
thickness
[in]
0.0310.189
0.1570.311
Head
[mm]
0.8-4.8
4-7.9
1.2-6.3
4-9.6
button
2.4-6.3
countersunk
0.0470.248
0.1570.378
1604-0412
0.126
3.2
0.374
9.5
0.130-0.134
3.3-3.4
0.0940.248
After drilling and deburring the holes apply Emfimastic PU50 sealing compound or equiv. on either
part. Use a spatula to make a homogenous layer (0.004 in, 0.1mm).
Riveting should be done before the sealing compound hardenes (approximately half an hour).
For rivets spacing see surrounding skin; usually 0.8-1.6 in (20-40 mm) and keep a minimum
distance of 0.3 in (8 mm) from the edge.
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
5.5
Fiberglass parts repairs
Type of maintenance: line.
Authorization to perform:
− Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
− Sport pilot or higher
5.5.1
Damage classification
Any damage of parts from reinforces plastics with epoxy matrix leads to increased saturation of the
matrix with humidity and subsequently to loss of properties. Therefore we recommend to carry out
their repair as soon as possible after the damage has occurred.
Two kinds of parts are made from these materials in the airplane:
• structural, load-bearing parts (landing gear legs)
• design appearance, non load-bearing parts (fairings)
According to the damage size we can divide repairs into:
• small damage (surface defects, not affecting the stiffeners)
• medium damage (not more than 2/3 of stiffener thickness damaged)
• big damage
We recommend to carry out repairs by means of epoxy materials and glass stiffeners.
5.5.2
General
Epoxy mixtures are prepared in a given mass ratio by means of weighing (accurecy of scales 1g)
5.5.3
Parts of external appearance
5.5.3.1 Small damage
Repair of damage just by application of mastic and by varnish repair.
Preparatory grinding
For a good adhesion of repair layers it is necessary to carry out surface grinding at the utmost up to
the depth of contact with the stiffener (do not damage). It is necesary to do surface grinding with
overrun of 50 mm from the damage location smoothly to the top layer. It is suitable to do grinding
with grain size of 160. Dry grinding equipment with suction from the grinding area is used. Al2O3
(fused corundum) can be used as grinding material.
Dust removing
It is made by wiping with clean and dry brush or by a vacuum cleaner.
Application of smoothing layer
After preparation of mixture (for material recommendation see tab below) and its eventual
thickening to enhance the non curtaining capability (for vertical or lower areas) is performed its
application onto the repair area by means of a spatula. For better disribution of deposited material
on irregular surface it is possible to form it through the laid PE or PP transparent folie. After proper
application the layer is without bubbles. Deposit thicknessis given by necessary thickness of
surrounding layers (levelling) and ranges from 0.2 to 10 mm (0.0079 – 0.394 in) in one deposit.
5-6
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Recommended materials for mixture preparation for application of levelling layer
manufacturer,
name
type
míxing
ration
HUNTSMAN,
VANTICO,
Araldite 2011
(AW106 +
HV953U)
epoxy
A:B =
100:80
dwelling
rate of
setting
time of
setting
temperature
40%
24 hours
(32hrs)
20 - 35°C
(17 - 20°C)
100%
48 hrs
(72 hrs)
(3 hrs)
20 - 35°C
(17 - 20°C)
(60°C)
to be
processed
within
100min (for
0.1 kg
mixture)
fillers
thickening:
Aerosil,
microballs
Grinding
Grinding or eventually sealing the surface is made after setting the mixture and possible tearing off
the the used folie. It is suitable to start grinding with grain size up to 160 and finish with grain size of
at least 400. It is carried out by dry grinding equipment with suction from the grinding area. Al2O3
(fused corundum) can be used as grinding material. Basic material of the part must not be
diminished at grinding.
NOTE
Especially in case of C/K stiffener in the basic part, grinding through up to the stiffener must not
occur (complication - see note about preparatory grinding at medium damage).
Finishing
See para 5.6 - Paint repairs.
5.5.3.2 Medium damage
Repair of damage by replacing the stiffener part, by mastic and varnish repair. At such repair it is
necessary to distinguish type of used stiffener (especially for grinding):
• C/K (carbon/kevlar), rovings of fabric of black colour (C) take turns with yellowish (K)
• G (glass), rovings from milky white to transparent
Preparatory grinding
For good adhesion of repair layers it is necessary to do grinding up to the depth of damage. It is
necessary to do surface grinding from the damage area with overrun at the least 25 mm (1 in) for
every damaged stiffener layer smoothly up to the top layer and then about 50 mm (2 in) for finishing
and mastic aplication. It is convenient to do grinding with grinding material having grain size of 160.
It is carried out by dry grinding equipment with suction from grinding area. Al203 (fused corundum)
ca be used as grinding material.
NOTE
In case of C/K stiffener K rovings tend to rise up from the surface at grinding - it is difficult to grind
them, we recommend to use diamond grinding tool and one-way grinding.
Dust removing
Dust is removed by wiping with a clean and dry brush or by a vacuum cleaner.
Stiffener preparation
2
For this kind of repairs we recommend the stiffener G (glass) with plain weave, 150g/m , with
surface protection (drewwing) for epoxides.
Number of needed stiffener layers depends on depth of damage. It is possible to say that each layer
of the mentioned fabric represents at proper saturation by matrix resin thickness of 0.5 mm (0.02
in).
Stiffener layers must be prepared (cut out) gradually from the smallest (the lowest) upto the bigger
(upper), each with overrun of 20 mm (0.78 in).
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
Putting layers
After preparing lamination mixture (for recommendation of material see the Tab. on page 5-6), it is
applied to the place of repair by means of rigid brush. The first stiffener is laid into the deposit and it
is again saturated by brush. Another layer of stiffener is laid and saturated. When putting the last
layer it is necessary to pay attention to a proper saturation and compression of stiffeners so that
they cannot “come up” tothe surface and subsequent useless damage at final grinding. For better
saturation of the surface by resin and securing against curtaining it is possible to put PE or PP
transparent foil across the surface. When applied properly, the layer is without bubbles. Repar
thickness shold exceed surrounding surface in this phase by about 0.5 to 1 mm (0.02 – 0.04 in) for
finishing.
Grinding
Carry out grinding and evetually apply mastick on the surface after setting, eventually tearing off
the folie (see small damage). It is suitable to begin grinding by abrasive with grain size of 160 and
finish by grain size of at least 400. Dry grinding equipment is used with suction from the grinding
area. Al2O3 can be used as grinding material. It is important not to diminish basic material of the
part at grinding.
NOTE
Especialy in case of C/K stiffener in the basic part there must not be any grinding through up to the
stiffener (complication -see the note about preparatory grinding).
Finishing
See para 5.6 - Paint repairs.
5.5.3.3 Big damage
At such damage we recommend to change the part or to do this repair in a professional facility.
Use instructions in chapter about medium damage as recommendation for used materials.
5.5.4
Structural parts
With these parts we do not recommend to do othe repairs than small damage repairs. In case of
the other damage we recommend to contact manufacturer.
CAUTION
When repairing, it is necessary to pay attention to timely repair (see the text about low of properties
at humidity effect at the begining of paragraph 5.5.1)!
Small damage
Repairs are made according to instructions with appearance parts.
CAUTION
When repairing, it is necessary to carefully pay attention not to damage the stiffeners!
Cracks, permanent deformations and breaks are the most relevant type of damage.
Prior to undertaking the repair, clean the area to be repaired thoroughly, with soap and water.
Remove any paint by wet or dry sanding. Superficial scars, scratches, surface abrasions, or erosion
can generally be repaired by applying one or more coats of epoxy resin. The number of coats
required (2 generally) depends upon the type of resin and severity of damage. The layers should
have an overlap of 1.5-2 in (30-50 mm). After the resin has cured, sand off any excess and prepare
the area for primming and painting.
If the area to be repaired is large, use a temporary block or mold coated with PVC or PE foil to
support the repaired area.
5-8
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
5.6
Paint repairs
Type of maintenance: line.
Authorization to perform:
− Aircraft owner (only for ELSA)
− Sport pilot or higher
5.6.1
Safety rules
When working with paints, thinners and solvents follow the following safety rules:
•
•
•
•
5.6.2
it is necessary to follow safety rules for working with flammable and volatile substances
working area must be properly aerated
it is prohibited to smoke and anyway handle with free fire in a working area
use protective working means such as goggles, gloves, respirator, etc.
Recommendation for paint repairs
CAUTION
By applying paints weight of airplane is increased and centre of gravity position is changed.
Increase in weight depends on type of coat and its thickness.
5.6.2.1 Washing and degreasing
It is possible to use both organic solvents and solvents based on water.
(a) Organic solvents - acetone, metyetylketone (MEK), benzine, toluene, BASF Glasurit 360-4
• Applied by spraying on washed surfaces (e.g. mechanical sprayer, jet ejector) or by wiping with
wet (by pouring, not by dipping because it would contaminate the whole volume of solvent)
textile wad. After applying it, the agent is wiped off by clean absorbing material before solvent
evaporation.
• Advantages: fast and reliable evaporation even from the corners and borders without additional
warming.
• Disadvantages: it must be used without other dilution (expensive); not ecological (danger of
water contamination); detrimental to health (must be carried out in an aerated area with personal
protective means); waste (including dripping from the area) must be eliminated in the
incinerating plants.
• Use: for Al-alloys surfaces, epoxide fibreglass
CAUTION
These agents must not be used for degreasing parts from plastics (PC - Lexan, PMMA - Plexiglas)
(b) Water-based agents - emulgation substances, wetting agents
• Applied also by spraying onto washed surfaces or by wiping with wet (by pouring and dipping)
textile wad. After applying it, let it act for some time (see manufacturers recommendation) and
then it is rinsed with clear water (by means of sponge dipped in ample amount of water or water
jet).
• Advantages: (different according to the type of product: it is possible to highly dilute with water
(cheap); ecological - waste (including dripping from the surface - due to ample amount of water it
is necessary to contain it) can be generally eliminated after its additional dilution with water in
public sewerage; the least detrimental to health.
• Disadvantages: slow and unreliable evaporating from corners and borders, additional warming
(drying) mostly required - imperfect elimination of water results in wrong adhesion of paint coats;
imperfect degreasing of fibreglass parts (not possible to use)
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
• Use: for Al-alloys surfaces and plastics
5.6.2.2 Bonding rivet heads, big irregularities and material transitions
CAUTION
In case that airplane surface remains without top coat, carry out just rivet head bonding.
After perfect degreasing carry out bonding of rivet heads, big irregularities and transitions of
fibreglass parts with Al-sheet.
Epoxide and polyester bonding agents for car bodies are suitable; moreover for transitions between
two types of material with increased elasticity. Recommended bonding agents are shown in the
following tables.
Polyester bonding agents are applied with plastic spatula after being mixed with initiator. Grinding
with grinding paper with grain size of 240is made to smooth surface after drying .Remove dust after
grinding and clean with degreasing agent.
Epoxide bonding agent is applied from the special jet with static mixer by means of extruding pistol.
Excessive material is wiped off with spatula to final appearance before setting (slight recess is not a
defect) - do not grind!
Recommended bonding agents:
surface
manufacturer,
name
type
other components
drying (grindable)
[min] / 20°C
Al-alloys
BASF
Glasurit 839-10
(base)
polyester
BASF
Glasurit 948-36
(initiator)
30
transitions
epoxidefibreglass + Alalloys
BASF
Glasurit 839-45
(base)
polyester
BASF
Glasurit 948-36
(initiator)
150
Rivet heads
3M
DP-190
(base+
hardener)
epoxide
(elastic)
360
5.6.2.3 Application of primer (paint)
In order to reach a uniform resistance to corrosion and smooth surface, we recommend to carry out
application by means of spraying (air standard gun with the upper vessel, air HVLP gun, airless
electric gun). The adjusting of the used gun (given by manufacturer) differs according to the type air pressure, jet diameter. Primer should be applied in several sprayings (total thickness is not
reached at a blow) with defined maximum dwell and total drying time till further treatment or
handling.
Primer serves especially for anchoring (adhesion to the substrate) the top coats and can serve also
for eliminating irregularities of the surface (function of filler, for grinding).
For surfaces from Al-alloys we recommend to use the etch-primers for light metals based on alkyd
or materials based on epoxides or polyurethans (2-component paints); specific recommendations
according to the table on the next page.
5-10
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AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROCEDURES
Recommended primers
Surface
Manufactu
rer, name
Type
Further
components
Al-alloys
BASF
Glasurit
801-1871
(base)
epoxide
BASF
epoxyfibreglass
Surface
Recommen
mass
ded
[g/µm/m2] thickness
[µm]
1.62
Glasurit
965-32/2
(hardener)
PC
(Lexan),
PMMA
(Plexiglas)
Drying
(between
spraying/total)
/20°C
25
(at 50 it can
be also used
as filler)
15min / 12hour
Glasurit
965-50
(thinner)
5.6.2.4 Bonding
After total drying of basic coat we recommend to carry out total bonding of irregularities including
repairs of bonding. Recommended binders are shown in the table - Recommended bonding agents.
After drying perform grinding with emery paper with grain size of 240 until the surface is smooth.
After grinding clean dust and wipe off with grease remover and perform repairing paint coat by
primer (1//3of coat thickness)
5.6.2.5 Application of top coat
In order to reach smooth surface we recommend again to carry out the paint coat by spraying (see
para 5.6.2.3).
Top coat serves especially for creating the coat resistant to weather and external effects for
aesthetic rendering of the unit. Considering the higher loading by external effects we recommend to
use top materials, exclusively two-component ones, on the acrylic-polyurethan or polyurethan basis,
always with guaranteed adhesiveness to the used base coat (according to manufacturer). It is
possible to use some of the coat systems for car repairs. In our recommendation (see the tab. 3)
there are two types of colours: single coat (colour shade and protection in one), double coat (onecomponent colour shade is formed by the substrate and protection is ensured by two-component
transparent top coat). By single coat paint coat it is possible to reach the wide spectrum of colours,
but it is difficult to do metallic paint coats (we do not recommend them).
Recommended colours
type of
colour
manufacturer
name
single
coat
type
other items
surface recommended
weight
thickness
[g/µm/m2]
[µm]
BASF
acrylicBASF
1.0-1.6
Glasurit R-18/ polyure Glasurit 922-18 (by shade)
shade
than
(standard
(base)
hardener)
drying
time
(beween
spraycoats /
total) /20°C
20-40
15 min / 16
hrs
15-20
10 min / 20
min
Glasurit
352-91
(standard
thinner)
Doublecoat
base colour acryliccoat:
polyure
BASF
tan
Glasurit R-55/
shade
(base)
BASF
Glasurit
352-216
(thinner, long)
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type of
colour
manufacturer
name
top coat,
bright::
BASF
Glasurit
923-155
(base)
5.6.3
type
other items
surface recommended
weight
thickness
[g/µm/m2]
[µm]
acrylicBASF
polyure Glasurit 929-73
than
(standard
hardener)
0.92
30-40
drying
time
(beween
spraycoats /
total) /20°C
5 min / 5
hrs
Glasurit 352-91
(standard
thinner)
Small damage
5.6.3.1 General
Small damage is a deterioration of corrosion resistance. At repair the situation is made more
difficult by the fact that the substrate for repair coats is not a compact surface of basic material but
mostly all coats of surface protection (after grinding), of which not all are suitable for (in ageing
stage) for good adhesion of paint coats. Therefore we recommend to carry out such repairs by a
verified system.
Before repairing it is necessary to differentiate the type of the existing top coat, single coat and twocoat (with the top coat). For repair it is necessary to follow the used type of colour.
It is suitable to choose the delimited area (e.g. connection of sheets, wing edge) for the scope of the
place which is being repaired transition is then better blended. In the case that it is not possible to
choose the area in this way, it is necessary to take into consideration the higher difficulty of the
procedure as for the uniformity of shade and elaboration of coat transition.
5.6.3.2 Grinding
For good adhesion of the repair coats it is necessary to carry out grinding of the old paint coat at
least up to such depth as the depth of damage. With two-coat type of the top coat it is necessary to
add at least 50 mm (2 in) for the run-out of the top coat. Grinding can be started with abrasive
having grain size of max. 160 and to finish with grain size of 400. It is made by the grinding
equipment with the suction from the area of grinding or by manual grinding under water.
CAUTION
Anodized coat must not be destroyed by grinding on the Al-alloy sheet.
5.6.3.3 Degreasing
It is carried out in the same way as in the case of the total spray coat - see para 5.6.2.1
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5.6.3.4 Aplication of primer
For reaching the satisfactory equal adhesion we recommend to carry out a spray coat of the place
to be repaired by adhesive interlayer (see the tab. below).
Adhesive interlayer
surface
manufacturer,
name
Al-alloys
Epoxy fibreglass
type
surface recommend drying (total)
weight
ed
/20°C
2
[g/µm/m ] thickness
[µm]
BASF
singleGlasurit 934-0 component
0.8
5-10
max. 15 min
Old paint coats
Subsequently the primer is applied according to the table Recommended primers. Paint coat
thickness is given by necessary thickness of surrounding coats (levelling).
CAUTION
In case that the primer was not removed by the previous step, it is not necessary to apply the primer
again. The original ground primer with adhesive intercoat is enough.
Actual application of primer will be carried out in the same way as for the total spray-coat (see
5.6.2.3).
5.6.3.5 Application of top coat
CAUTION
For repairing it is necessary to choose the identical type (single coat, double coat) of the repair
colour as on the original surface.
Application of the top coat will be carried out by spraying as for the total spray coat (see 5.6.2.3)
with the exception of used thinners and hardeners. Due to the need of smooth transition to the
basic surface and it is necessary to use so called “spraying into the surface” using longer time of
drying initiations for a good result of work. The recommended material is shown in the table below.
Recommended colours
manufacturer,
name
type of color
single coat
BASF
Glasurit R-18/
shade
(base)
type
acrylicpolyurethan
other
componen
ts
BASF
Glasurit
922-18
(standard
hardener)
surface
weight
[g/µm/m2]
recommended
thickness
[µm]
drying
(between
spray coats/
total) /20°C
1.0-1.6
(accordingto
shade)
20-40
15 min / 19 hrs
1.2-1.4
(according to
shade)
15-20
10 min / 20 min
Glasurit
352-319
(extra long
thinner)
double coat
basic colour code:
BASF
Glasurit R-55/
shade
(base)
acrylicpolyurethan
BASF
Glasurit
352-216
(long
thinner)
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type of color
manufacturer,
name
Glossy top coat :
BASF
Glasurit 923-155
(base)
type
other
componen
ts
acrylicpolyurethan
surface
weight
[g/µm/m2]
recommended
thickness
[µm]
drying
(between
spray coats/
total) /20°C
0.92
30-40
5 min / 6 hrs
BASF
Glasurit
929-73
(standard
hardener)
Glasurit
352-400
(extra long
thinner)
5.7
Airplane assembly and leveling after a repair
Type of maintenance for the pitot static instruments: heavy.
Authorization to perform:
− Repairman (LS-M) or Mechanic (A&P) – both with the minimum level of certification to perform
heavy maintenance of SLSA in the U.S.
− FAA approved Part 145 Repair station
When major damage is repaired the following should be performed:
• Technical inspection by qualified person with attention to wiring, tightening and securing of
appropriate joints, clearances in the control systems and control surfaces movement.
• Leveling
• Weight; Balance changes
• Control surfaces deflections measurement
• Engine test run
• Test flight
• Remedy of the defect
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5.8
First flight after a repair
CAUTION
Only qualified pilots may perform the test flight.
The following information is intended for the aircraft owner.
A test flight is mandatory in the following cases:
After repair or replacement of fixed surfaces - wing, fin, stabilizer, or control surfaces i.e. elevator,
aileron or flap. The flight characteristics and stability can be affected when any of these parts are
replaced or adjusted. Therefore a test flight should be performed to check the airplane flight
characteristics, control surfaces setting, maneuverability, stability and stall characteristics. These
characteristics are to be check during taxiing, takeoff, climbing, cruise, descent, approach and
landing. In other words all flight modes!
Use the Flight Test Record (see Appendices of this Procedures) to record data obtained during a
test flight.
Test flight flying time
A test flight, if carried out in accordance with SportStar MAX Test Flight Record provided in
appendices of this Manual, would take approximately one hour.
Aircraft inspection before a Test flight
Prior to the test flight the aircraft should be thoroughly inspected, weighed, faults corrected by
qualified personell. Then and only then the airplane be prepared for the flight.
Test crew
Only qualified persons (test pilots) are permitted to perform a test flight.
Any failures found during test flight should be removed prior to next flight.
5.9
Spare parts order
Use the "Spare Parts Order" form to order a replacement for a damaged or worn-out part. Do not
hesitate to contact the airplane manufacturer (phone or fax) to request a required part.
On the Spare Part Order form additional information is necessary for systematic monitoring and
analysis of our planes reliability.
5.10
Recommended reading
Many useful information you can find in the document :
Acceptable Methods,Techniques, and Practices – Aircraft Inspections, Repair & Alternations
AC 43.13-1B, AC 43.13-2A
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Intentionally left blank
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6. APPENDICES
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6.1
List of Appendices
1. Description of actual airplane
2. Weight and Balance Record
3. Control Surfaces Deflection Record
4. Leveling Record
5. SportStar MAX Test Flight Record
6. Spare Parts Order
7. Airplane Failure Card
8. Airplane Placards
9. Airplane Wiring diagrams
10. Service Instruction SI-912-016 R2, Selection of Suitable Operating Fluids for Rotax engine
Type 912 and 914 Series
11. Sonnenschein A500 batteries operating instructions (used type - A512/16.0 G5)
12. Cleaning, polishing and tips for repairing little crazing in a plexiglas glazing – Weiss plexiglas
13. Color scheme of actual airplane
14. EAA Quick Guides
6-2
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