User Manual TRIME-GWs - Tecnología y Ambiente

User Manual TRIME-GWs - Tecnología y Ambiente
User Manual
TRIME-GWs
TRIME-GWs with external GR-Probe
IMKO Micromodultechnik GmbH
Im Stoeck 2
D - 76275 Ettlingen
Telefon:
Fax:
e-mail:
http:
I:\publik\TECH_MAN\TRIME-SONO\ENGLISH\SONO-GW bzw TRIME-GWs\Manual_TRIME-GWs.docx
+49 - (0)7243 - 5921 - 0
+49 - (0)7243 - 90856
info@imko.de
//www.imko.de
User Manual TRIME-GWs Version 1_4
2016-05-04
User Manual for TRIME-GWs
Thank you for buying an IMKO moisture probe.
Please carefully read these instructions in order to achieve best possible results with your
TRIME-GWs in-line moisture measurement system. Should you have any questions or
suggestions regarding your new system after reading, please do not hesitate to contact our
authorised dealers or IMKO directly. We will gladly help you.
List of Content:
1.
Instrument Description TRIME-GWs ......................................................................................... 4
®
1.1.1.
The patented TRIME TDR-Measuring Method ............................................................. 4
®
1.1.2.
TRIME compared to other Measuring Methods ........................................................... 4
1.1.3.
Areas of Application with TRIME-GWs and the GR-Probe ............................................ 4
1.2. Mode of Operation ................................................................................................................. 5
1.2.1.
Measurement value collection with pre-check, average value and filtering ................... 5
1.2.2.
Temperature Measurement ............................................................................................ 5
1.2.3.
Temperature compensation when working at high temperatures .................................. 5
1.2.4.
Analogue Outputs ........................................................................................................... 5
1.2.5.
The serial RS485 and IMP-Bus interface ....................................................................... 6
1.2.6.
The IMP-Bus as a user friendly network system ............................................................ 6
1.2.7.
Error Reports and Error Messages ................................................................................ 6
2. Connectivity to TRIME-GWs ...................................................................................................... 7
2.1.1.
How to configurate SONO-probes to appropriate operating and calibration
parameters? ................................................................................................................... 8
2.2. Instrumentation TRIME-GWs with GR-Probe and SONO-VIEW .......................................... 9
2.2.1.
Electrical connection diagram with analogue outputs and SONO-VIEW ..................... 10
2.2.2.
Connection Plug and Plug Pinning ............................................................................... 10
2.2.3.
Analogue Output 0..10V with a Shunt-Resistor............................................................ 11
3. Installation in Practice .............................................................................................................. 12
3.1.1.
Monitoring during grain delivery ................................................................................... 12
3.1.2.
Manual control of the grain dryer ................................................................................. 13
3.1.3.
Automatic control of the grain dryer ............................................................................. 13
4. The GR-Probe Installation ........................................................................................................ 14
4.1.1.
Best installation conditions for TRIME-GWs inside a tunnel dryer............................... 14
4.1.2.
Best installation conditions for TRIME-GWs inside a rotary dryer ............................... 14
4.1.3.
Exchange of a GR-Probe ............................................................................................. 16
4.2. Installation of measurement transformer TRIME-GWs ....................................................... 17
4.3. Protection of the Probe´s MIL-Connector against Abrasion ................................................ 17
5. Initial operation and installation .............................................................................................. 18
5.1. Adjustment Guidelines for relative Moisture Measurements in the heating Zone ............... 18
5.2. Adjustments for initial operation .......................................................................................... 18
5.2.1.
Adjustment for plants with several TRIME-GWs .......................................................... 18
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5.2.2.
Selection of the calibration curve Cal1 to Cal15 ........................................................... 19
5.2.3.
Calibration curves with or without temperature compensation ..................................... 19
5.3. Calibration Curves Cal1 to Cal15 ......................................................................................... 21
5.3.1.
Selection and application of the reference method ....................................................... 22
5.3.2.
Recording measurement data in trial operation ............................................................ 23
5.3.3.
Setting the calibration curve (adjustment) .................................................................... 23
5.3.4.
An example for wheat ................................................................................................... 24
5.4. Creating a linear Calibration Curve for a specific Material ................................................... 25
5.4.1.
Calculation for a linear 2-point calibration curve ........................................................... 25
5.4.2.
Calculation for a linear 1-point calibration curve ........................................................... 26
5.4.3.
Calculation for a non-linear calibration curve ................................................................ 26
5.5. Configuration of the Measure Mode ..................................................................................... 27
5.5.1.
Operation Mode CA and CF at non-continuous Material Flow ..................................... 27
5.5.2.
Average Time in the measurement mode CA and CF .................................................. 29
5.5.3.
Filtering at material gaps in mode CA and CF .............................................................. 29
5.5.4.
Mode CC – automatic summation of a moisture quantity during one batch process . 30
5.6. Connection of the RS485 to the SM-USB Module ............................................................... 32
6. Quick Guide for the Commissioning Software SONO-CONFIG.................................................. 34
6.1.1.
Scan of connected SONO probes on the serial interface ............................................. 34
6.1.2.
Configuration of Measure Mode and serial SONO-interface ........................................ 35
6.1.3.
Analogue outputs of the SONO probe .......................................................................... 35
6.1.4.
Selection of the individual Calibration Curves .............................................................. 36
6.1.5.
“Test” run in the respective Measurement Mode .......................................................... 37
6.1.6.
Measure Run in Datalogger-Operation ......................................................................... 37
6.1.7.
Basic Balancing in air and dry glass beads .................................................................. 38
6.1.8.
Execution of the basic calibration for TRIME-GWs....................................................... 39
6.1.9.
Offsetting the material temperature sensor .................................................................. 40
7. Technical Data TRIME-GWs...................................................................................................... 41
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1. Instrument Description TRIME-GWs
®
1.1.1. The patented TRIME TDR-Measuring Method
The TDR technology (Time-Domain-Reflectometry) is a radar-based dielectric measuring procedure at
which the transit times of electromagnetic pulses for the measurement of dielectric constants,
respectively the moisture content are determined.
TRIME-GWs consists of the measurement transformer TRIME-GWs and the GR-probe head. An
integrated TRIME TDR measuring transducer of IMKO´s SONO-series is installed into the TRIMEGWs casing. A high frequency TDR pulse (1GHz), passes along wave guides and generates an
electro-magnetic field around these guides and herewith also in the material surrounding the probe.
Using a new patented measuring method, IMKO has achieved to measure the transit time of this
-12
pulse with a resolution of 1 picosecond (1x10 ), consequently determine the moisture and the
conductivity of the measured material.
The established moisture content, as well as the conductivity, respectively the temperature, can
either be uploaded directly into a SPC via two analogue outputs 0(4) ...20 mA or recalled via a serial
RS485 interface.
®
1.1.2. TRIME compared to other Measuring Methods
®
In contrary to conventional capacitive or microwave measuring methods, the TRIME technology
(Time-Domain-Reflectometry with Intelligent Micromodule Elements) offers precise measurement
results which means more reliability at the production.
TRIME-TDR technology operates in the ideal frequency range between 600MHz and 1,2 GHz.
Capacitive measuring methods (also referred to as Frequency-Domain-Technology) , depending on the
device, operate within a frequency range between 5MHz and 40MHz and are therefore prone to
interference due to disturbance such as the temperature and the mineral contents of the measured
material. Microwave measuring systems operate with high frequencies >2GHz. At these frequencies,
nonlinearities are generated which require very complex compensation. For this reason, microwave
measuring methods are more sensitive in regard to temperature variation.
The modular TRIME technology enables a manifold of special applications without much effort due to
the fact that it can be variably adjusted to many applications.
1.1.3. Areas of Application with TRIME-GWs and the GR-Probe
The TRIME-GWs with the 2-rod GR-probe is suited for measuring in different materials directly inside a
grain dryer. The GR rod-probe requires a good flowability of the measured material in order to ensure
that the material lies close to the rods when the material is flowing. For applications with badly flowing
materials, the surface probes SONO-GS1 or SONO-VARIO LD could be a better solution.
The GR-probe head consists of PEEK. The special 2 meter long radar cable is made of PTFA. The GRprobe and the cable withstands temperatures up to 130° Celsius. But the temperature range for the
TRIME-GWs measurement transformer should not be higher than 80°C.
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1.2. Mode of Operation
1.2.1. Measurement value collection with pre-check, average value and filtering
TRIME-GWs measures internally at a rate of 100 measurements per seconds and issues the
measurement value at a cycle time of up to 200 milliseconds at the analogue output. In these 200
milliseconds a probe-internal pre-check of the moisture values is already carried out, i.e. only plausible
and physically pre-averaged measurement values are be used for the further data processing. This
increases the reliability for the recording of the measured values to a downstream control system
significantly.
In the Measurement Mode CS (Cyclic-Successive), an average value is not accumulated and the cycle
time here is 200 milliseconds. In the Measurement Mode CA and CF (Average), not the momentarily
measured individual values are directly issued, but an average value is accumulated via a variable
number of measurements in order to filter out temporary variations. These variations can be caused by
inhomogeneous moisture distribution in the material surrounding the sensor head. The delivery scope of
TRIME-GWs includes suited parameters for the averaging period and a universally applicable filter
function deployable for currently usual applications. The time for the average value accumulation, as
well as various filter functions, can be adjusted for special applications.
1.2.2. Temperature Measurement
A temperature sensor is installed in the rod tip of the GR probe which establishes the measurement of
the material temperature. The temperature can optionally be issued at the analogue output 2.
1.2.3. Temperature compensation when working at high temperatures
Because the TRIME-GWs measurement transformer works in other temperature ranges as the GRprobe inside the dryer, it is necessary to compensate the electronic separately from the GR-probe.
TRIME-GWs offers two possibilities for temperature compensation.
A) Temperature compensation of the internal SONO-electronic
Despite the TRIME-GWs electronic shows a generally low temperature drift, it is necessary to
compensate a temperature drift in applications for measuring moisture inside a grain dryer. With this
method of temperature compensation, a possible temperature drift of the SONO-electronic can be
compensated. For standard applications in grain drying the compensation parameter is pre-setted to
TempComp=0.2. For special applications it could be necessary to adjust this parameter. But it is to
consider that it is necessary to make a Basic-Balancing of the TRIME-GWs in air and dry glass beads, if
the parameter TempComp is changed to another value. The parameter TempComp can be changed
with the software tool SONO-CONFIG, in the menu "Calibration" and the window
"TemperatureCompensation".
B) Temperature compensation for the measured material
Water and special materials like maize, wheat and others, show a dependency of the dielectric
permittivity when using TRIME-GWs at high temperature ranges. The dielectric permittivity is the raw
parameter for measuring water content with TRIME-GWs. If special materials show this temperature
drift, than it could be necessary to use a more elaborate temperature compensation. TRIME-GWs offers
the possibility to set special temperature compensation parameters for every calibration curve Cal1 of
Cal15 (see chapter “Selection of the individual calibration curve”).
1.2.4. Analogue Outputs
The measurement values are issued as a current signal via the analogue output. With the help of the
service program SONO-CONFIG, the TRIME-GWs can be set to the two versions for 0..20mA or
4..20mA. Furthermore, it is also possible to variably adjust the moisture dynamic range e.g. to 0-10%, 020% or 0-50%. For a 0-10V DC voltage output, a 500R resistor can be installed in order to reach a
0..10V output.
Analogue Output 1: Moisture in % (0…50%, variable adjustable)
Analogue Output 2: Temperature 0….100°C, variable adjustable
For the analogue outputs 1 and 2 there are thus two adjustable options:
Analog Output: (two possible selections)
0..20mA
4..20mA
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Output Channel 1 and 2: (three possible selections)
1. Moist, Temp. Analogue output 1 for moisture, output 2 for temperature.
For analogue output 1 and 2 the moisture dynamic range and temperature dynamic
range can be variably adjusted. The moisture dynamic range should not exceed 100%
Moisture Range:
Maximum: e.g. 50 for maize (Set in %)
Minimum: 0
Temp. Range:
Maximum: 70 °C
Minimum: 0 °C
1.2.5. The serial RS485 and IMP-Bus interface
TRIME-GWs is equipped with a standard RS485 as well as the IMP-Bus interface to set and readout
individual parameters or measurement values. An easy to implement data transfer protocol enables the
connection of several sensors/probes at the RS485-Interface. In addition, the TRIME-GWs can be
directly connected via the modul SM-USB to the USB port of a PC, in order to adjust individual
measuring parameters or conduct calibrations.
Please consider: The initial default setting of the serial interface is pre-setted for the IMP-Bus. To
operate with the RS485 inside the TRIME-GWs, it is necessary to switch and activate the RS485
interface with help of the modul SM-USB.
In the download area of IMKO´s homepage www.imko.de we publish the transmission protocol of
TRIME-GWs.
1.2.6. The IMP-Bus as a user friendly network system
With external power supply on site for the SONO probes, a simple 2-wire cable can be used for the
networking. By use of 4-wire cables, several probes can be also supplied with power.
Standard RS485-interfaces cause very often problems! They are not galvanically isolated and
therefore raises the danger of mass grindings or interferences which can lead to considerably security
problems. An RS485 network needs shielded and twisted pair cables, especially for long distances.
Depending on the topology of the network, it is necessary to place 100Ohm termination resistors at
sensitive locations. In practice this means considerable specialist effort and insurmountable problems.
The robust IMP-Bus ensures security. SONO-probes have in parallel to the standard RS485 interface
the robust IMP-Bus which is galvanically isolated which means increased safety. The serial data line is
isolated from the probe´s power supply and the complete sensor network is therefore independent from
single ground potentials and different grid phases. Furthermore the IMP-Bus transmit its data packets
not as voltage signals, but rather as current signals which also works at already existing longer lines. A
special shielded cable is not necessary and also stub lines are no problem.
1.2.7. Error Reports and Error Messages
TRIME-GWs is very fault-tolerant. This enables failure-free operation. Error messages can be recalled
via the serial interface.
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2. Connectivity to TRIME-GWs
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2.1.1. How to configurate SONO-probes to appropriate operating and calibration parameters?
TRIME-GWs is initially adjusted for the application for grain drying with the calibration curve Cal2,
operation mode CF and 3 seconds average time. The analogue outputs are adjusted to 4..20mA. With
this pre-adjustment TRIME-GWs can be installed direct in the heating zone, without further adjustments.
For operation at the discharge hopper where an absolute moisture value is important, TRIME-GWs has
to be adjusted to a suitable calibration curve Cal-x, depending on grain type and possibly to a zerooffset, depending on installation place.
There are two ways to configurate and adjust a SONO-probe:
A: Online Configuration via SONO-VIEW
With the stand-alone device SONO-VIEW it is possible to configurate SONO-probes online to an
appropriate operating mode, without the need to connect the SONO-probe to a PC. The operating mode
depends on the application like the moisture measurement under a silo flap, inside a dryer or mixer or
on a conveyor belt. The SONO-probe can be adapted via the SONO-VIEW to the appropriate operating
mode like: cyclic measurement, averaging, filtering, cumulating and other powerful operating
parameters. Furthermore it is possible to select a calibration curve inside a SONO-probe with zerooffset setting. All configuration parameters are stored in a non-volatile memory inside the SONO-probe.
This ensures that the analog output (e.g. 4-20mA) of the SONO-probe which could be connected in
parallel to a PLC, responds directly to the setted configuration parameters.
B: Configuration via the SM-USB
The SONO-probe is connected via the SM-USB and the RS485-interface to a PC. With help of the
software tool SONO-CONFIG it is possible to configurate SONO-probes to an appropriate operating
mode. The operating mode depends on the application like the moisture measurement under a silo flap,
inside a mixer or on a conveyor belt. The SONO-probe can be adapted to the appropriate operating
mode like: cyclic measurement, averaging, filtering, cumulating and other powerful operating
parameters. Furthermore it is possible to select a calibration curve inside a SONO-probe with zerooffset setting. All configuration parameters are stored in a non-volatile memory inside the SONO-probe.
So the analog output (e.g. 4-20mA) of the SONO-probe which could be connected in parallel to a PLC,
responds directly to the configuration parameters.
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2.2. Instrumentation TRIME-GWs with GR-Probe and SONO-VIEW
The moisture display unit SONO-VIEW can be connected via the IMP-Bus.
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2.2.1. Electrical connection diagram with analogue outputs and SONO-VIEW
2.2.2. Connection Plug and Plug Pinning
TRIME-GWs is supplied with a 10-pole MIL flange plug.
.
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Assignment of the 10-pole MIL Plug and sensor cable connections:
Plug-PIN
Sensor Connections
Lead Colour
Lead Colour
A
+7V….24V Power Supply
red
red
B
0V
Blue
Blue
D
1. Analogue Positive (+)
Moisture
Green
Green
E
1. Analogue Return Line (-)
Moisture
yellow
yellow
F
RS485 A
white
white
G
RS485 B
brown
brown
C
(rt) IMP-Bus
grey/pink
grey/pink
J
(com) IMP-Bus
blue/red
blue/red
K
2. Analogue Positive (+)
Pink
Pink
E
2. Analogue Return Line (-)
Grey
Grey
H
Screen
(is grounded at the sensor. The plant
must be properly grounded!)
transparent
transparent
Power Supply
2.2.3. Analogue Output 0..10V with a Shunt-Resistor
There are PLC´s which have no current inputs 0..20mA, but voltage inputs 0..10V. With the help of a
shunt resistor with 500 ohm (in the delivery included) it is possible to generate a 0..10V signal from the
current signal 0..20mA. The 500 ohm shunt resistor should be placed at the end of the line resp. at the
input of the PLC. Following drawing shows the circuit principle.
Please note: The analogue output of TRIME-GWs must be set to 0 to 20mA!
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3. Installation in Practice
There is a variety of applications for the TRIME-GWs. On the one hand, it can be used for monitoring
the moisture of delivered grain. On the other, it can assist or automate the grain-drying process. The
conditions for installation depend heavily on the characteristics of the plant. The optimum location must
be sought for each case individually. The following guidelines will be of assistance.
The appropriate position of the calibration curve must be selected depending on the grain in question
and its density.
3.1.1. Monitoring during grain delivery
The TRIME-GWs offers possibilities of continually measuring the moisture of the grain while it is being
delivered. This provides a moisture profile that can be recorded by a PC or a line printer. The display
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unit SONO-VIEW can be connected as well for showing the values at any given moment. Legal
regulations prevent TRIME-GWs being used instead of instruments that have been officially calibrated
and authorised for goods traffic. The single measurements, usually based on very small samples, from
such instruments are supplemented by the continual, considerably more representative range of
measurements taken by the TRIME-GWs. This results in better quality control and enhances
transparency.
3.1.2. Manual control of the grain dryer
In the case of manual or semi-automatic dryer-control systems, using the TRIME-GWs in conjunction
with the display unit SONO-VIEW can significantly improve drying results.
3.1.3. Automatic control of the grain dryer
This involves connecting the TRIME-GWs to the controller’s actual-value input. It is ideal to use several
TRIME-GWs in this case. The highest level of drying efficiency can be achieved with automatic control
systems.
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4. The GR-Probe Installation
4.1.1. Best installation conditions for TRIME-GWs inside a tunnel dryer
Near the material feed? Although it is possible to measure here the moisture, the distance to the
cooling zone is so far, that a precise control and regulation of moisture with the PLC is not possible.
Furthermore it could be possible that grains are frozen, but TRIME-GWs cannot detect frozen water. So
an installation here is not recommended.
At the end of the heating zone and transition to the cooling zone? Here it´s already too late to react
and control the moisture with the PLC. Furthermore the material could have not best homogeneity. So
an installation here is also not recommended.
At the beginning of the heating zone: Here the conditions are ideal. The grain is not too hot and the
distance to the cooling zone is sufficient for the PLC to regulate for the correct moisture content. With a
measured moisture value it is possible to calculate the amount of water reduction.
Depending on grain type like maize, wheat or rye, a suitable calibration curve has to be adjusted inside
the TRIME-GWs. At this installation place not the absolute moisture stands in the foreground. Instead it
is more important to measure relative moisture values together with an adjusted temperature
compensation inside the moisture probe, so that the probe measure precise relative moisture values
independent on temperature values. The adjusted calibration curve inside the TRIME-GWs has to be
select with TC (with Temperature compensation, see chapter “Calibration curves”). Calibration curves
with TC use the temperature sensor inside the rod tip of the GR-probe for compensation of temperature
changes in the heating zone.
At very large dryer systems it is recommended to use two TRIME-GWs in the heating zone to achieve
best possible results.
Inside the cooling zone? An installation here is not recommended due to uneven conditions inside this
zone.
At the discharge hopper: Here an installation is recommended for controlling the final result after
drying and cooling. For displaying correct moisture values it is to taken into account that a suitable
calibration curve is to adjust, depending on grain type. A zero offset of TRIME-GWs could be also
necessary due to installation place.
If the outfeed is continually and the GR-probe is continually covered with grain, then the calibration
curve has to be selected “with TC” (Temperature Compensation). However if the outfeed is batch by
batch, then the calibration curve has to be selected “without TC”, because the temperature sensor at
the rod tip of the GR probe measures most of the time the air temperature, not the grain temperature,
which would lead to measurement failures (see chapter “Calibration Curves”).
If only one sensor is installed at the discharge hopper and no sensor in the heating zone, then it is
necessary that the feeded wet grain moisture has nearly identical moisture values. In this case a control
and regulation with a PLC could be possible. If the feeded grain shows larger deviations then a precise
control is impossible with only one TRIME-GWS sensor at the discharge.
4.1.2. Best installation conditions for TRIME-GWs inside a rotary dryer
Recommended is an installation in the funnel, where the material is transported again from bottom to
top and where it is secured, that the GR-probe is continually covered with grain.
The GR-probe comprises a cylindrical probe-head made of a heat-resistant special-purpose plastic that
has a threaded bore for mounting on silo- or housing walls. The actual measuring probe consists of two
parallel, steel prongs that are set into this probe head. The area relevant for moisture measurement
surrounds the prongs.
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Please note: GR-probes and TRIME-GWs measurement transformers must not be exchanged amongst
each other. Please note the serial number, the GR-probe and the TRIME-GWs measurement
transformer must have the same serial number!
The probe must be fitted in such a way that the prongs protrude into the interior of the dryer or silo.
Reliable measurements can only be ensured when the prongs are fully immersed in grain. Therefore, a
location for installation must be chosen where ...
 the full length of the prongs is covered by and in contact with grain.
 hollow spaces cannot occur in the direct vicinity of the probe prongs (at least 5 cm from the prongs).
 the prongs are in the stream of exhaust (outlet) air. The temperature compensation fails in the inlet
(heated) air zone.
 metallic objects, e.g. channelling panels in dryers, are at least 5 cm from the prongs. Measurement
anomalies caused by metallic objects can be eliminated by offset-correction (see following
schematic diagram).
 no temperatures above 120°C occur.
In continuous-flow dryers, the best place for optimum regulation is at the beginning of the drying
zone. Regulation can, of course, be further improved by installing additional probes in the drying zone.
The final moisture content at the end of the drying process can be best monitored when a probe is fitted
at the discharge point as well.
Exhaust
roof
asureme
me
nt
d
iel
f
as
me
grain flow
ur
TRIME-GR
em
ent field
ventilation
roof
grain flow
A schematic diagram of a roof-dryer (exhaust side !) with a fitted probe. The elliptical area represents the
measuring range of the GR-probe. The field of measurement diminishes the greater the distance from the
probe.
Nevertheless, the measurement range can extend into the area of the ventilation roofs where there is no grain.
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This means that the reading includes a proportion of air in the measurement volume and thus the resultant
relative water content is too low. This constant, location-specific offset can be compensated for by a zero
offset-correction.
In the case of rotary dryers and hatch points, the probe should be fitted where the grain conveying
speed is lowest. We recommend installation in the reservoir or close to the discharge point.
Probe installation can be carried out in the following steps:
1. Drill a 72 mm – diameter hole in the container wall or cut out a square hole using an angle-grinder.
2. Secure the aluminium flange to the wall with four M5 screws (Cut M5 threads into the wall).
3. Screw the probe into the flange as far as possible.
4. Use the locknut to secure the probe in such a way that the prongs are set slight past vertical (10° to
15°).
Important:
Under no circumstances is the probe to be connected to the
instrument while being installed, as the electronics may be
destroyed otherwise!
4.1.3. Exchange of a GR-Probe
In the event of a mechanical defect it could be necessary to exchange the GR-probe. After connecting a
new GR-probe, it is necessary to make a basic balancing with the new GR-probe in air (see chapter
“Basic balancing…”. This basic balancing can be made via the modul SM-USB and the software tool
SONO-CONFIG or directly online via the module SONO-VIEW.
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4.2. Installation of measurement transformer TRIME-GWs
The TRIME-GWs must be installed in the
vicinity of the probe as the length of the
probe cable is only 2.5 m for technical
reasons. The temperature of the
surroundings should, however, not exceed
80°C (ideal: outgoing-air end, external wall
of dryer). The instrument can be mounted
at a suitable point with screws through the
two diagonally-opposed holes in the
casing. An aluminium mounting-plate is
available as an optional extra. If the
instrument is to be mounted on a surface
whose temperature exceeds 80°C, it must
be fitted using spacing bolts (min. 8 mm) to
prevent the direct transfer of heat from the
Distance 8
wall to the instrument casing. The
mm
instrument should not permanently be
exposed to direct precipitation, although it
is specified to IP65. For outdoor usage it
should be mounted below a protection roof, e. g. a horizontal mounted plate.
4.3. Protection of the Probe´s MIL-Connector against Abrasion
If water could flow above the probe´s connector, than it is recommended to mount an extra protection
for the probe´s connector. This is feasible e.g. with a commercial flexible garden hose with an inner
diameter of 27mm. The hose can be slotted longitudinally and can be mounted around the connector
and the cable. It could be fixed with cable ties. The following picture shows this solution for protection of
the probe´s connector.
Alternatively, the included shrink sleeve over the cable can be used. After installation of the SONOprobe and connection of the MIL-connector, the shrink sleeve can be shrinked with a hot air blower.
The picture shows the probe SONO-VARIO
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5. Initial operation and installation
5.1. Adjustment Guidelines for relative Moisture Measurements in
the heating Zone
Please read the detailed description first and subsequently use these guidelines as a checklist for
adjustments.
1. Extract samples from as close as possible to the probe.
2. Select calibration curve with help of SONO-VIEW or via the module SM-USB.
Note: TRIME-GWs is initially adjusted for the application for grain drying with the calibration
curve Cal2. The analogue outputs are adjusted to 4..20mA. With this pre-adjustment TRIMEGWs can be installed direct in the heating zone, without further adjustments. For operation at
the discharge hopper where an absolute moisture value is important, TRIME-GWs has to be
adjusted to a suitable calibration curve Cal-x, depending on grain type and possibly to a zerooffset, depending on installation place.
3. Start up the dryer for the trial run, extract reference samples continuously approx. every
half hour and enter the reading together with the switch position in the adjustment
protocol.
4. Determine the difference between the target and the actual value and if necessary adjust
the offset of the selected calibration curve.
5. Repeat this procedure for different grain types.
5.2. Adjustments for initial operation
The term “adjustment” refers, in this case, to the correct setting of the calibration curve and zero offset
depending on grain type and installation place where an absolute moisture value with an accuracy of +0,3% is important.
The TRIME-GWs can only be adjusted when installed in the plant as the location and the bulk density of
the grain have a significant influence on moisture measurement. Adjustment must be carried out
separately for every dried product. Moisture measurement is dependent on the following parameters:

Location (e.g. metallic objects within the field of measurement)

Bulk density of the grain

Type of grain (product)
As soon as one of these parameters changes, another calibration curve and adjustment must be
chosen. If all possible grain types are adjusted, it is only necessary to select the right calibration curve
when changing the grain type in the plant.
5.2.1. Adjustment for plants with several TRIME-GWs
When the plant is only equipped with one TRIME-GWs, adjustments are made for the installationrelated influences at the same time as those for the grain product. Exactly the same procedure can be
followed as described in the next sections.
In plants with several probes, it may also be necessary to correct the deviations between the TRIMEGWs themselves. This is good policy only when all the TRIME-GWs are to give an absolute
measurement. If the installation-related constant deviation of 1-2% presents no problem, it is sufficient
to make an adjustment using the final control probe, e.g. the TRIME-GWs at the discharge point.
To carry out the extended adjustment for all TRIME-GWs, three steps must be taken:
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1. Firstly, the TRIME-GWs which is most important for the drying operation must be selected via the
SONO-VIEW or via the module SM-USB. The probe at the discharge point, for example, is a
potential candidate. Whichever one TRIME-GWs is chosen, it must be possible to extract samples
directly at the point where this probe is located.
2. This TRIME-GWs must be adjusted. Simultaneously, the measurement data for all the other
instruments must be gathered, too. The samples for this should be extracted from as near to the
probe as possible.
3. Using the differences between the readings of each of the instruments, the TRIME-GWs can be
adjusted with help of the SONO-VIEW or via the module SM-USB and a connected PC.
5.2.2. Selection of the calibration curve Cal1 to Cal15
Up to 15 different calibration curves (CAL1 ... Cal15) are stored inside the TRIME-GWs. They can be
activated in two ways:
A: With the stand alone module SONO-VIEW the calibration curve can be selected and activated.
B: The calibration curve (Cal1. .15) can be activated with the module SM-USB which is connected via a
PC. In the menu "Calibration" and in the window “Material Property Calibration" by selecting the
desired calibration curve (Cal1...Cal15) and with using the button “Set Active Calib”. The finally desired
and possibly altered calibration curve (Cal1. .15) which is activated after switching on the probes power
supply will be adjusted with the button "Set Default Calib”.
Moisture measurement is dependent on the following parameters:

Location (e.g. metallic objects within the field of measurement)

Bulk density of the grain

Type of grain (product)
The TRIME-GWs can only be adjusted when installed in the plant as the location and the bulk density of
the grain have a significant influence on moisture measurement. Adjustment must be carried out
separately for every dried product. Moisture measurement is dependent on the following parameters:

Location (e.g. metallic objects within the field of measurement)

Bulk density of the grain

Type of grain (product)
As soon as one of these parameters changes, another calibration curve and adjustment must be
chosen. If all possible grain types are adjusted, it is only necessary to select the right calibration curve
when changing the grain type in the plant.
5.2.3. Calibration curves with or without temperature compensation
Installation of TRIME-GWs at the beginning of the heating zone: Depending on grain type like
maize, wheat or rye, a suitable calibration curve has to be adjusted inside the TRIME-GWs. At this
installation place not the absolute moisture stands in the foreground. Instead it is more important to
measure relative moisture together with an adjusted temperature compensation for the probe, so that
the probe measure precise independent on temperature values. The adjusted calibration curve inside
the TRIME-GWs has to be select with TC (with Temperature compensation, see chapter “Calibration
curves”). Calibration curves with TC use the temperature sensor inside the rod tip of the GR-probe for
compensation of temperature changes in the heating zone.
Installation at the discharge hopper: For displaying correct moisture values it is to taken into account
that a suitable calibration curve is to adjust, depending on grain type. A zero offset of TRIME-GWs could
be also necessary due to installation place.
If the outfeed is continually and the GR-probe is continually covered with grain, then the calibration
curve has to be selected “with TC” (Temperature Compensation). However if the outfeed is batch by
batch, then the calibration curve has to be selected “without TC”, because the temperature sensor at
the rod tip of the GR probe measures most of the time the air temperature, not the grain temperature,
which would lead to measurement failures
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TRIME-GWs can be easily installed in the heating zone with the pre-setted parameters. It measures
moisture values with an accuracy of +-0,3%. If TRIME-GWs is installed at the discharge hopper it is
necessary to make a precise adjustment for every selected calibration curve.
The following charts (Cal.1 .. Cal15) show different selectable calibration curves which are stored
inside the TRIME-GWs.
Plotted is on the y-axis the gravimetric moisture (MoistAve) and on the x-axis depending on the
calibration curve the associated radar time tpAve in picoseconds. With the software SONO-CONFIG
the radar time tpAve is shown on the screen parallel to the moisture value MoistAve (see "Quick
Guide for the Software SONO-CONFIG).
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5.3. Calibration Curves Cal1 to Cal15
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Bulk
density of
grain type
2016-05-04
Calibration
Curve
Recommended
for grain type
Cal1
Maize, without TC
(TC =
Temperature
Compensation)
0,75
Installation at the discharge hopper. The outfeed is
batch by batch and it is not secured, that the GRprobe is continually covered with grain.
Cal2
Maize, with TC
0,75
A: Installation at the beginning of the heating zone,
where the GR-probe is continually covered with grain.
(pre-setted
after delivery)
Application
B: Installation at the discharge hopper. The outfeed is
continually and the GR-probe is continually covered
with grain.
Cal3
Wheat without TC
0,75
Cal4
Wheat with TC
0,75
Cal5
Rye without TC
0,72
Cal6
Rye with TC
0,72
Cal7
Barley without TC
0,63
Cal8
Barley with TC
0,63
Cal9
Rape and oilseeds 0.60
without TC
No temperature compensation necessary!
Cal10
Sunflower seeds
without TC
0,30
No temperature compensation necessary!
Cal11
Soya without TC
0,65
Cal12
Soya with TC
0,65
Cal13
Cal14
Cal15
1/10 tp
Radar time and reference calibration for test
5.3.1. Selection and application of the reference method
In order to adjust the TRIME-GWs for precise absolute measurements at the discharge, an off-line
measurement method must be available to serve as a reference. It must provide a high degree of
absolute precision and function with large sample volumes
Most commercially available grain-moisture measuring systems leave a great deal to be desired
regarding both of these aspects!
The TRIME-GWs measures the average value continuously over a volume of 1-2 litres. In moving grain,
the measurement volume acquired in the averaging time increases many times over. It therefore
requires a lot of time and effort to check this very representative value with a reference instrument that
shows a sample quantity in the millilitre range. There are also factors that can affect measurement, such
as temperature and conductivity, that can be ignored when using TRIME-GWs due to the TDR radar
method of measurement.
Thus, the most suitable method for determining the exact moisture of the grain is to use a drying oven.
Here, too, the sample volume is of decisive importance and should be at 0.5 litres.
When extracting the sample and taking reference measurements, the following must be observed:
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
The samples for the reference measurements should be extracted from as close as possible to
the probe. The distribution of moisture in the grain dryer can vary greatly.

When using a calibrated instrument with small sample volumes, several samples must be
extracted and their arithmetical average calculated.

Please note that calibrated instruments can also produce incorrect measurements that can lie
between 2% in the lower and even 5% in the upper moisture range.
After the dryer or the silo has been filled, the TRIME-GWs moisture value must show a valid reading.
5.3.2. Recording measurement data in trial operation
The selection of the calibration curve can only be adjusted in real operation or in realistic trial operation.
The following description is based on the implementation of the TRIME-GWs at the discharge, in the
delivery or in the storage area.
As a general rule, only the moisture range close to the reference input is of significance for trial
operation, i.e. when determining the switch position for maize, checking should be done at about 15%. It
is more important that the TRIME-GWs is exactly correct in the lower area of measurement. It is of less
importance whether TRIME-GWs measures 26% instead of 28% in the upper range! When extracting a
sample or checking the lower reference input (e.g. 15% ), a single sample is of course insufficient. A
single sample, possibly even extracted from quite a different point than in the direct vicinity of the probe,
is not at all representative, i.e. several samples must be taken directly at the probe and averaged!
At the start of trial operation, the suitable calibration curve can be set.
When all the preparations for extracting samples and measuring them have been made, the grain dryer
can be started up. Now, a sample of grain must be taken continuously, ideally every 15 minutes. The
TRIME-GWs reading and the selected calibration curve are to be noted simultaneously with every
extracted sample. This is compared with the appropriate offline-determined reference value, which is
also to be noted. As soon as the moisture is near the target moisture, the calibration curve should be set
to the best possible value, which is the nearest to the reference value.
In the following you will find a ready-to-use form for entering the measurements.
 Where continuous-flow dryers are concerned, at least 10 to 20 measurements should be
available in the range between the minimum and maximum permissible moisture content after
drying. The measurements from the still very damp discharged grain during the charge phase
should be noted but not used for the purposes of adjustment.
 For rotary dryers, only the measurements take towards the end of the drying process are of
relevance to adjustment. Here, too, at least 10 measurements are to have been documented.
Density and moisture distribution effects in the grain can cause too low measurements during
the first one to two hours. These values should not be used for the adjustment.
5.3.3. Setting the calibration curve (adjustment)
The appropriate setting of the calibration curve should be determined on the adjustment protocol. Only
the measurements near the target moisture should be taken into account.
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5.3.4. An example for wheat
Note: TRIME-GWs is pre-installed to calibration curve Cal2 for maize.
A continuous-flow dryer is to be set for wheat. A TRIME-GWs has been installed whose probe is located
in the direct vicinity of the discharge point. To start with, the calibration curve is set to Cal…. for wheat.
The dryer is started up and measurement recording commences. It is not until the moisture at the
discharge point falls below 18% that the measurements become of real interest and can be used for the
adjustment process. Analysis can start as soon as about 10 to 20 measurements are available in the
range from 12% to 18%.
Reference measurement
TRIME-GW, Level 1
TRIME-GW deviation
17.9%
24.6%
1
17.3%
17.6%
8
17.8%
17.3%
8
17.1%
16.8%
8
16.8%
16.2%
8
16.5%
15.8%
8
15.8%
16.0%
7
15.1%
15.6%
7
14.5%
14.7%
7
13.9%
14.0%
7
13.3%
13.5%
7
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5.4. Creating a linear Calibration Curve for a specific Material
The calibration curves Cal1 to Cal15 can be easily created or adapted for specific materials with help of
SONO-CONFIG. Therefore, two measurement points need to be identified with the probe. Point P1 at
dried material and point P2 at moist material where the points P1 and P2 should be far enough apart
to get a best possible calibration curve. The moisture content of the material at point P1 and P2 can be
determined with laboratory measurement methods (oven drying). It is to consider that sufficient material
is measured to get a representative value.
Under the menu "Calibration" and the window "Material Property Calibration" the calibration curves
CAL1 to Cal15 which are stored in the SONO probe are loaded and displayed on the screen (takes
max. 1 minute). With the mouse pointer individual calibration curves can be tested with the SONOprobe by activating the button "Set Active Calib". The measurement of the moisture value (MoistAve)
with the associated radar time tpAve at point P1 and P2 is started using the program SONO-CONFIG in
the sub menu "Test" and "Test in Mode CF" (see "Quick Guide for the Software SONO- CONFIG").
Step 1: The radar pulse time tpAve of the probe is measured with dried material. Ideally, this takes
place during operation of a mixer/dryer in order to take into account possible density fluctuations of the
material. It is recommended to detect multiple measurement values for finding a best average value for
tpAve. The result is the first calibration point P1 (e.g. 70/0). I.e. 70ps (picoseconds) of the radar pulse
time tpAve corresponds to 0% moisture content of the material. But it would be also possible to use a
higher point P1´ (e.g. 190/7) where a tpAve of 190ps corresponds to a moisture content of 7%. The
gravimetric moisture content of the material, e.g. 7% has to be determined with laboratory measurement
methods (oven drying).
Step 2: The radar pulse time tpAve of the probe is measured with moist material. Ideally, this also
takes place during operation of a mixer/dryer. Again, it is recommended to detect multiple measurement
values of tpAve for finding a best average value. The result is the second calibration point P2 with
X2/Y2 (e.g. 500/25). I.e. tpAve of 500ps corresponds to 25% moisture content. The gravimetric
moisture content of the material, e.g. 25% has to be determined with laboratory measurement methods
(oven drying).
Step 3: With the two calibration points P1 and P2, the calibration coefficients m0 and m1 can be
determined for the specific material (see next page).
Step 4: The coefficients m1 = 0.0581 and m0 = -4.05 (see next page) for the calibration curve Cal14
can be entered directly by hand and are stored in the probe by pressing the button “Set”. The name of
the calibration curve can also be entered by hand. The selected calibration curve (e.g. Cal14) which is
activated after switching on the probes power supply will be adjusted with the button "Set Default
Calib”.
Attention: Use “dot” as separator (0.0581) in SONO-CONFIG, not comma !
5.4.1. Calculation for a linear 2-point calibration curve
1. Download the Excel-Sheet „SONO 2-Point LinearCalibration_Calculation“ from IMKO´s
Homepage under „Support Software“.
2. Enter into the Excel-Sheet both TP-values with the respective reference moisture values.
3. Read out both parameters m0 and m1 from the Excel-Sheet.
4. Enter, set and save both parameters m0 and m1 with help of the software „SONO-CONFIG“ in
the menu „Calibration“ in the window „Material Property Calibration“ in the selected
calibration curve.
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5.4.2. Calculation for a linear 1-point calibration curve
In practice during commissioning of a SONO probe in process, it could be happen that the measured
material above the probe is only available with a single moisture value. So a 2-point calibration could
not be carried out.
The procedure described below is not as precisely like a 2-point calibration, but it could be a
compromise to achieve an acceptable result for a usable calibration curve.
Below you will find the basic steps which are necessary:
1. Measure the radar travel time Tp in the running process while the material lies or flows above the
SONO probe´s surface. Tp can be measured with help of the module SM-USB or with the display
module SONO-VIEW.
2. Determine the reference moisture M in % of the measured material which lies above the SONO
probe. Unless the material moisture is already known, the reference moisture can be determined
with an infrared- or microwave oven in the laboratory.
3
3. Determine the bulk density D of the material in kg per dm . Unless the bulk density is already
known this can be done by weighing of exactly 1 liter volume of the material.
4. Download the Excel-Sheet „SONO 1-Point LinearCalibration_Calculation“ from IMKO´s
Homepage under „Support Software“. Enter the three determined parameters Tp (Radar travel
time), M (Moisture) und D (bulk density) into the Excel-Sheet. As result you get the two
calibration curve coefficients m0 and m1.
5. Enter, set and save both parameters m0 and m1 with help of the software „SONO-CONFIG“ in the
menu „Calibration“ in the window „Material Property Calibration“ in the selected calibration curve.
The three parameters Tp, M and D can be also entered without a PC with the module SONO-VIEW
(see manual SONO-VIEW).
5.4.3. Calculation for a non-linear calibration curve
SONO probes can work also with non-linear calibration curves with polynomials up to 5th grade.
For a non-linear calibration it is necessary to calibrate with 4…8 different calibration points with
different Tp values and the related moisture values in %. To calculate nonlinear coefficients for
polynomials up to 5th grade, an EXCEL software tool from IMKO can be used.
1. Download the Excel-Sheet „SONO_NonlinearCalibration_Calculation“ from IMKO´s
Homepage under „Support Software“.
2. Enter the TP-values with the respective reference moisture values into the Excel-Sheet.
3. Read out the parameters m0 to m5 from the Excel-Sheet.
4. Enter, set and save the parameters m0 to m5 in the selected calibration curve with help of the
software „SONO-CONFIG“ in the menu „Calibration“ under the window „Material Property
Calibration“.
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5.5. Configuration of the Measure Mode
TRIME-GWs is pre-adjusted in the factory before delivery to mode CF. A process-related later new
adjustment of this device-internal setting is possible with the help of the service program SONOCONFIG or directly online with SONO-VIEW. For all activities regarding parameter setting and
calibration the probe can be directly connected via the RS485 interface to the PC via a RS485 USBModule which is available from IMKO.
The following settings of TRIME-GWs can be amended with the service program SONO-CONFIG:
Measurement-Mode and Parameters:

Measurement Mode A-On-Request (only in network operation for the retrieval of measurement
values via the RS485 interface).
 Measurement Mode C Cyclic:
TRIME-GWs is supplied ex factory with suited parameters in Mode CF with
3 second average time for bulk goods.
Mode CS: (Cyclic-Successive) For very short measuring processes (e.g. 5…20 seconds)
without floating average, with internal up to 100 measurements per second and a cycle time of
250 milliseconds at the analogue output. Measurement mode CS can also be used for getting
raw data from the TRIME-GWs without averaging and filtering.
Mode CA: (Cyclic-Average-Filter) For relative short measuring processes with continual
average value, filtering and an accuracy of up to 0.1%
Mode CF: (Cyclic-Float-Average) for continual average value with filtering and an accuracy of
up to 0.1% for very slowly measuring processes, e.g. in fluidized bed dryers, conveyor belts,
etc.
Mode CK: (Cyclic-Kalman-Filter) Standard setting for SONO-MIX for use in fresh concrete
mixer with continual average value with special dynamic Kalman filtering and an accuracy of up
to 0.1%.
Mode CC: (Cyclic Cumulated) with automatic summation of a moisture quantity during one
batch process.
 Calibration (if completely different materials are deployed)
Each of these settings will be preserved after shut down of the probe and is therefore stored on a
permanent basis.
5.5.1. Operation Mode CA and CF at non-continuous Material Flow
For mode CA and CF the TRIME-GWs is supplied ex-factory with suited parameters for the averaging
time.
The setting options and special functions of TRIME-GWs depicted in this chapter are only rarely
required. It is necessary to take into consideration that the modification of the settings or the realisation
of these special functions may lead to faulty operation of the probe!
For applications with non-continuous material flow, there is the option to optimise the control of the
measurement process via the adjustable filter values Filter-Lower-Limit, Filter-Upper-Limit and the time
constant No-Material-Keep-Time. The continual/floating averaging can be set with the parameter
Average-Time.
Parameters in the
Measurement Mode CA, CF,
CC, CH and CK
Function
Average-Time
Standard Setting: 2s
Setting Range: 1…20
Unit: Seconds
CA/CF: Time (in seconds) for the generation of the average value
can be set with this parameter.
CC/CH/CK: Setting of the time for calculation of the trend or
expectation value for the Boost & Offset function.
Filter-Upper-Limit-Offset
Standard Setting: 25%
Setting Range: 1….20
CA/CC/CF/CH/CK: Too high measurement values generated due
to metal wipers or blades are filtered out. The offset value in % is
added to the dynamically calculated upper limit.
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Unit: % Absolut
Filter-Lower-Limit-Offset
Standard Setting: 25%
Setting Range: 1.….20!
Unit: % Absolut
CA/CC/CF/CH/CK: Too low measurement values generated due
to insufficient material at the probe head are filtered out. The
offset value in % is subtracted from the dynamically calculated
lower limit with the negative sign.
Upper-Limit-Keep-Time
Standard Setting: 10
Setting Range: 1...100
Unit: % Absolut
CA/CC/CF/CH/CK: The maximum duration (in seconds) of the
filter function for Upper-Limit-failures (too high measurement
values) can be set with this parameter.
Lower-Limit-Keep-Time
Standard Setting: 10
Setting Range: 1...100s
Unit: Seconds
CA/CC/CF/CH/CK: The maximum duration (in seconds) of the
filter function for Lower-Limit-failures (too low measurement
values) for longer-lasting "material gaps", ie the time where no
material is located on the probe´s surface can be bridged.
Moisture Threshold
(start threshold in %-moisture)
Standard Setting: 0.1%
Setting Range: 0….100%
Unit: % Absolut
CA/CF/CK: inactive
CC/CH: The accumulation of moisture values starts above the
„Moisture Threshold“ and from here the analogue signal is
outputted. The accumulation pauses and will be frozen if the
moisture level is below the threshold value. The No-MaterialDelay time starts and material gaps (disturbance) can be
eliminated.
No-Material-Delay
(period time)
Standard Setting: 10s
Setting Range: 1….100s
Unit: Seconds
CA/CF/CK: inactive
CC/CH: The accumulation stopps if the moisture value is below
the Moisture Threshold. The accumulation pauses for the period
of the setted delay time and will be frozen if the moisture level is
below the threshold value. The SONO probes starts again in a
new batch with a new accumulation after the setted time span of
the “No-Material-Delay” is completely exceeded.
Boost
Standard Setting: 35nn
Setting Range: 1….100nn
Unit: without unit!
CA/CF: inactive
CC/CH/CK: Defines, how strong single measurement values are
weighted dependent on deviation to the current expected average
value. With e.g. Boost=35, a single measurement value is
weighted with only 65% (100-35) for a new average value.
Offset
Standard Setting: 0.5%
Setting Range: 0 ….5%
Unit: % Absolut
CA/CF: inactive
CC/CH/CK: Non-linearities in the process can be compensated
by higher weighting of higher values. Can be used e.g. in fluid bed
dryers or under silo flaps where non-linearities can occur due to
changes in the material density during process. “Offset” works
together with the parameter “Average-time”.
Weight
Standard Setting: 5 values
Setting Range: 0 …..50
Unit: Measurement Values
CA/CF/CK: inactive
CH: Smoothing factor for analog output setting. This parameter
influences the reaction/response time with factor 3. E.g. 15 values
responds to a reaction time of 15/3=5 seconds.
CK: The reaction/response time works nearly 1:1.
E.g. 15 values responds to a reaction time of 15 seconds.
Invalid Measure Count
Standard Setting: 2 values
Setting Range: 0….. 10
Unit: Measurement Values
with 3 single values per second.
CA/CF/CK: inactive
CC/CH: Number of discarded (poor) measurement values after
the start of a new batch, when „No-Material-Delay“ has triggered.
The first measurement values will be rejected, e.g. due to dripping
water.
Moisture Std. Deviation Count
Standard Setting: 5 values
CA/CC/CF/CH/CK: If the parameters Temperature or EC-TRIME
(RbC) are not needed, the analogue output 2 can be setted tot he
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Setting Range: 0….. 20
Unit: Measurement Values
with 3 single values per second.
mode Moist/Moist Std. Deviation. In this mode the standard
deviation of all single moisture values can be outputted. With this
function the homogeneity of the single measurement values can
be determined and it is possible to control a regulating process,
e.g. pressure regulation.
Quick und Quick-Precision
With Meas Time (no. values)
Unit: without unit!
CA/CC/CF/CH/CK/CS: Recommended is Quick Precision with
Meas Time=2 where the TDR pulse is detected precisely. For still
a little better accuracies, Meas Time can be increased, however
the single measurement cycle is increased by 60 milliseconds per
step (e.g. from 280ms to 340ms). Older SONO probe versions do
not have this Quick Precision function!
5.5.2. Average Time in the measurement mode CA and CF
TRIME-GWs establishes every 200 milliseconds a new single measurement value which is incorporated
into the continual averaging and issues the respective average value in this timing cycle at the analogue
output. The averaging time therefore accords to the “memory” of the TRIME-GWs. The longer this time
is selected, the more inert is the reaction rate, if differently moist material passes the probe. A longer
averaging time results in a more stable measurement value. This should in particular be taken into
consideration, if the TRIME-GWs is deployed in different applications in order to compensate
measurement value variations due to differently moist materials.
At the point of time of delivery, the Average Time is set to 4 seconds. This value has proven itself to be
useful for many types of applications. At applications which require a faster reaction rate, a smaller
value can be set. Should the display be too “unstable”, it is recommended to select a higher value.
5.5.3. Filtering at material gaps in mode CA and CF
A TRIME-GWs is able to identify, if temporarily no or less material is at the probe head and can filter out
such inaccurate measurement values (Filter-Lower-Limit). Particular attention should be directed at
those time periods in which the measurement area of the probe is only partially filled with material for a
longer time, i.e. the material (sand) temporarily no longer completely covers the probe head. During
these periods (Lower-Limit-Keep-Time), the probe would establish a value that is too low. The LowerLimit-Keep-Time sets the maximum possible time where the probe could determine inaccurate (too
low) measurement values.
Furthermore, the passing or wiping of the probe head with metal blades or wipers can lead to the
establishment of too high measurement values (Filter-Upper-Limit). The Upper-Limit-Keep-Time sets
the maximum possible time where the probe would determine inaccurate (too high) measurement
values.
Using a complex algorithm, TRIME- GWs are able to filter out such faulty individual measurement
values. The standard settings in the Measurement Mode CA and CF for the filter functions depicted in
the following have proven themselves to be useful for many applications and should only be altered for
special applications.
It is appropriate to bridge material gaps in mode CA with Upper- and Lower-Limit Offsets and KeepTime. For example the Lower-Limit Offset could be adjusted with 2% with a Lower-Limit Keep-Time of 5
seconds. If the TRIME-GWs determines a moisture value which is 2% below the average moisture
value with e.g. 8%, than the average moisture value will be frozen at this value during the Lower-Limit
Keep-Time of 5 seconds. In this way the material gap can be bridged. This powerful function inside the
TRIME-GWs works here as a highpass filter where the higher moisture values are used for building an
average value, and the lower or zero values are filtered out. In the following this function is described
with SONO parameters.
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Sufficient material for an
accurately moisture
measurement value of e.g.8%
2016-05-04
Material gaps over e.g. 3 seconds which must
be bridged for an accurately measurement with
a Lower-Limit Keep-Time of 5 seconds.
The following parameter setting in mode CA fits a high pass filtering for bridging material gaps.
The Filter Upper-Limit is here deactivated with a value of 20, the Filter Lower-Limit is set to 2%. With
a Lower-Limit Keep-Time of 5 seconds the average value will be frozen for 5 seconds if a single
measurement value is below the limit of 2% of the average value. After 5 seconds the average value
is deleted and a new average value building starts. The Keep-Time function stops if a single
measurement value lies within the Limit values.
5.5.4. Mode CC – automatic summation of a moisture quantity during one batch process
Simple PLCs are often unable to record moisture measurement values during one batch process with
averaging and data storage. Furthermore there are applications without a PLC, where accumulated
moisture values of one batch process should be displayed to the operating staff for a longer time.
Previously available microwave moisture probes on the market show three disadvantages:
1. Such microwave probes need a switching signal from a PLC for starting the averaging of the
probe. This increases the cabling effort.
2. Time delays can occur during the summation time with a trigger signal which leads to
measurement errors. This is particularly disadvantageous for small batches, recipe errors can
occur.
3. Material gaps during one batch process will lead to zero measurement values which falsify the
accumulated measurement value considerably, recipe errors can occur.
Unlike current microwave probes, TRIME-GWs work in mode CC with automatic summation, where it is
really ensured that material has contact with the probe. This increases the reliability for the moisture
measurement during one complete batch process. The summation is only working if material fits at the
probe. Due to precise moisture measurement also in the lower moisture range, TRIME-GWs can record,
accumulate and store moisture values during a complete batch process without an external switching or
trigger signal. The TRIME-GWs “freezes” the analogue signal as long as a new batch process starts. So
the PLC has time enough to read in the “freezed” moisture value of the batch. For applications without a
PLC the “freezed” signal of the TRIME-GWs can be used for displaying the moisture value to a simple
7-segment unit as long as a new batch process starts.
With the parameter Moisture Threshold the TRIME-GWs can be configured to the start moisture level
where the summation starts automatically. Due to an automatic recalibration of TRIME-GWs, it is
ensured that the zero point will be precisely controlled. The start level could be variably set dependent
to the plant. Recommended is a level with e.g. 0.5% to 1%.
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With the parameter No-Material-Delay a time range can be set, where the TRIME-GWs is again ready
to start a new batch process. Are there short material gaps during a batch process which are shorter
than the “No-Material-Delay”, with no material at the probes surface, then the TRIME-GWs pauses
shortly with the summation. Is the pause greater as the “No-Material-Delay” then the probe is ready to
start a new batch process.
How can the mode CC be used, if the TRIME-GWs cannot detect the „moisture threshold“ by
itself, e.g. if there is constantly material above the probe over a longer time: In this case, a short
interrupt of the probe´s power supply, e.g for about 0.5 seconds with the help of a relay contact of the
PLC, can restart the TRIME-GWs at the beginning of the material transport. After this short interrupt the
TRIME-GWs starts immediately with the summarizing and averaging.
Please note: It should be noted that no material sticks on the probes surface. Otherwise the moisture
zero point of the probe will be shifted up and the probe would not be detect a moisture low value below
the “Moisture-Threshold”.
Following possible parameter settings in mode CC inside the TRIME-GWs can be set:
Parameter in mode CC
Function
Moisture Threshold
(in %-moisture)
Standard Setting: 1
Setting Range: 1….20
The accumulation of moisture values starts above the
„Moisture Threshold“ and the analogue signal is
output. The accumulation pauses if the moisture level
is below the threshold value.
No-Material-Delay
(in seconds)
Standard Setting: 5
Setting Range: 1….20
The accumulation stopps if the moisture value is below
the moisture threshold. The TRIME-GWs starts again
in a new batch with a new accumulation after the time
span of the “No-Material-Delay” is exceeded.
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5.6. Connection of the RS485 to the SM-USB Module
The SM-USB provides the ability to connect a TRIME-GWs either to the standard RS485 interface or
optionally to the IMP-Bus from IMKO, which enables the download of a new firmware to the TRIMEGWs. Both connector ports are shown in the drawing below.
The SM-USB is signalling the status of power supply and the transmission signals with 4 LED´s. When
using a dual-USB connector on the PC, it is possible to use the power supply for the TRIME-GWs
directly from the USB port of the PC without the use of the external AC adapter.
How to start with the SM-USB module from IMKO
 Install USB-Driver from USB-Stick.
 Connect the SM-USB to the USB-Port of the PC and the installation will be accomplished
automatically.
 Install Software SONOConfig-SetUp.msi from USB-Stick.
 Connection of the TRIME-GWs to the SM-USB via RS485A, RS485B and 0V.
 Check the setting of the COM-Ports in the Device-Manager und setup the specific COM-Port with the
Baudrate of 9600 Baud in SONO-CONFIG with the button "Bus" and "Configuration" (COM1COM15 is possible).
 Start “Scan probes” in SONOConfig.
 The TRIME-GWs logs in the window „Probe List“ after max. 30 seconds with its serial number.
Note 1:
In the Device-Manager passes it as follows:
Control Panel  System  Hardware  Device-Manager
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Under the entry “Ports (COM & LPT) now the
item “USB Serial Port (COMx)” is found.
COMx set must be between COM1….COM9
and it should be ensured that there is no
double occupancy of the interfaces.
If it comes to conflicts among the serial port or the USB-SM has been found in a higher COM-port, the
COM port number can be adjusted manually:
By double clicking on "USB Serial Port" you can go into the properties menu, where you see
"connection settings" – with "Advanced" button, the COM port number can be switched to a free
number.
After changing the COMx port settings, SONO-CONFIG must be restarted.
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6. Quick Guide for the Commissioning Software SONO-CONFIG
With SONO-CONFIG it is possible to make process-related adjustments of individual parameters of the
SONO probe. Furthermore the measurement values of the SONO probe can be read from the probe via
the serial interface and displayed on the screen.
In the menu "Bus" and the window "Configuration" the PC can be configured to an available COMxport with the Baudrate of 9600 Baud.
6.1.1. Scan of connected SONO probes on the serial interface
In the menu "Bus" and the window "Scan Probes" the serial bus can be scanned for attached SONO
probes (takes max. 30 seconds).
SONO-CONFIG reports one or more connected and founded SONO probes with its serial number in the
window “Probe List“. One SONO probe can be selected by klicking.
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6.1.2. Configuration of Measure Mode and serial SONO-interface
In "Probe List" with "Config" and "Measure Mode & Parameters” the SONO probe can be adjusted to the
desired measure mode CA, CF, CS, CK, CC or CH (see Chapter “Configuration Measure Mode”). Furthermore
the serial interface inside the SONO probe can be selected to IMP-Bus, RS485 or both interfaces. Due to very
robust behavior it is recommended to select the IMP-Bus.
6.1.3. Analogue outputs of the SONO probe
In the menu "Config" and the window "Analog Output" the analogue outputs of the SONO probe can
be configured (see Chapter “Analogue outputs..”).
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6.1.4. Selection of the individual Calibration Curves
In the menu "Calibration" and the window "Material Property Calibration" the calibration curves CAL1
to Cal15 which are stored in the SONO probe are loaded and displayed on the screen (takes max. 1
minute). With the mouse pointer individual calibration curves can be activated and tested with the
SONO-probe by activating the button "Set Active Calib". Furthermore, the individual calibration curves
CAL1 to Cal15 can be adapted or modified with the calibration coefficients (see Chapter “Creating a
linear calibration curve”).
The desired and possibly altered calibration curve (Cal1. .15) which is activated after switching on the
probes power supply can be adjusted with the button "Set Default Calib”.
The calibration name can be entered in the window “Calibration Name”.
The coefficients m0 to m1 (for linear curves) and m0 to m5 (for non-linear curves) can be entered and
adjusted directly by hand with the buttons “Set” and “Save”. Possible are non-linear calibration curves
with polynomials up to fifth order (m0-m5).
Attention: Use “dot” as separator not comma, for coefficients m0 to m5 !
Determination of the parameters m0 and m1 for a linear calibration curve (see also chapter
“Creating a linear calibration curve…”
1. Download the Excel-Sheet „SONO_LinearCalibration_Calculation“ from IMKO´s Homepage in
the dropdown menu „Support Software“.
2. Enter into the Excel-Sheet both TP-values with the respective reference moisture values.
3. Read out both parameters m0 and m1 from the Excel-Sheet.
4. Enter, set and save both parameters m0 and m1 in the selected calibration curve.
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6.1.5. “Test” run in the respective Measurement Mode
In the menu "Test" and the window "Test in Mode CA or CF" the measured moisture values “MoistAve”
(Average) of the SONO probe are displayed on the screen and can be parallel saved in a file. In the menu
"Test" and the window "Test in Mode CS" the measured single measurement values “Moist” (5 values per
second) of the SONO probe are displayed on the screen and parallel stored in a file. In „Test in Mode A“
single measurement values (without average) are displayed on the screen and can also be stored in a file.
Attention: for a test run in mode CA, CF, CS or A it must be ensured that the SONO probe
was also set to this mode (Measure Mode CA, CF, CS, A). If this is not assured, the probe
returns zero values.
Following measurement values are displayed on the screen:
MoistAve
Moisture Value in % (Average)
MatTemp
Temperature
EC-TRIME
Radar-based-Conductivity EC-TRIME in dS/m (or mS/cm)
TDRAve
TDR-Signal-Level for special applications.
DeltaCount
Number of single measurements which are used for the averaging.
tpAve
Radar time (average) which corresponds to the respective moisture value.
By clicking „Save“ the recorded data is saved in a text file in the following path:
\SONO-CONFIG.exe-Pfad\MD\Dateiname
The name of the text file Statis+SN+yyyymmddHHMMSS.sts is assigned automatically with the
serial number of the probe (SN) and date and time. The data in the text file can be evaluated with
Windows-EXCEL.
6.1.6. Measure Run in Datalogger-Operation
In the menu "Datalogging" it is possible to aquire and store measurement data from several SONO
probes with variable and longer cycle rates in a datalogger-operation, e.g. to store measurement data
during a long-term drying cycle.
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6.1.7. Basic Balancing in air and dry glass beads
System components directly involved in the measuring process (probe, probe lead, transducer) are
aligned with each another by means of the basis calibration. Manufacturing tolerances influencing the
measurement reading are compensated for. New instruments are supplied with the basis
calibration already performed. The process must be repeated if one of the system components
mentioned above has been repaired or replaced. Calibration at the factory is not possible unless
the unit has been sent in with all components stated above.
Basic calibration involves taking two reference measurements in media of a known value ("reference
value") correcting any divergence of the unit from these reference values where necessary. TRIMEGWs calculates the correction values required for this ("offset" and "slope") itself and stored in nonvolatile form in the instrument, i.e. they remain intact even when the power supply is switched off. Air
and dry glass beads are used as reference media.
The procedure is carried out using the GW basis-calibration set available as an optional extra and
comprising:
 dry glass beads,
With a “Basic Balancing” two reference calibration measurements are to be carried out with known setpoints ("RefValues"). For the reference media, different calibration materials are used, dependent on the
TRIME-GWs type. For the GR probe, air and dry glass beads are used. The “dry glass beads” and
probe required for the basis calibration must themselves be around room temperature (18..24°C).
The reference values listed below apply for the appropriate calibration media.
Table 10
Calibration
medium
Reference value
before material calibration
and offset correction
(pseudo-transit time)
Permissible tolerance for test
measurements
Air
-11.0 %
0.5%
Dry glass beads
+12.7 %
0.2%
Attention: Before performing a “Basic Balancing” it must be ensured that the TRIMEGWs was set to “Measure Mode” A. If this is not assured, the probe returns zero values.
After a “Basic Balancing” the TRIME-GWs has to be set to “Measure Mode C” again,
because otherwise the probe would not measure continuously.
In the menu "Calibration" and the window "Basic Balancing" the two set-point values of the radar time
tp are displayed with 60ps and 145ps.
1. Reference set-point A: tp=60ps in air (the surface of the GR probe head must be dry!!)
The first set-point can be activated with the mouse pointer by clicking to No.1. By activating the
button "Do Measurement" the TRIME-GWs determines the first reference set-point in air. In the
column „MeasValues“ the measured raw value of the radar time t is displayed (e.g. 1532.05
picoseconds).
2. Reference set-point B: tp= 145ps in glass beads. The GR probe head has to be covered
completely with glass beads. The second set-point can be activated with the mouse pointer by
clicking to No.2. By activating the button "Do Measurement" the TRIME-GWs determines the
second reference set-point in water. In the column „MeasValues“ the measured raw value of the
radar time t is displayed.
3. By activating the button „Calculate Coeffs“ and „Coeffs  Probe“ the alignment data is
calculated automatically and is stored in the TRIME-GWs non-volatile. With a “Test run” (in
Mode A) the radar time tp of the TRIME-GWs should be now 60ps in air and 145ps in glass
beads.
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6.1.8. Execution of the basic calibration for TRIME-GWs
1. To set the first reference value “air” the probe must be positioned in such a way that within a field of
at least 15 cm only air surrounds the probe rods.
Note: It is by no means sufficient to place the probe on a table or something similar. The probe can
either be laid on the table so that the probe rods are fully overhanging the edge and the first 2..3
cm of the probe body are overhanging it as well. Alternatively, hold the it your hand at the very rear
(!) of the probe body to ensure that the hand does not invade the field of measurement which also
registers the front 3..4 cm of the probe body.
2. To obtain the second reference value “dry glass beads”, set the probe vertically into the vessel of
dry glass beads up to the lower rim of the probe body. Make sure that the probe lead exerts no
noticeable load on the probe when doing so in order to prevent creating an air space between the
probe rods and glass beads. Tap the outside of the vessel lightly to ensure that the beads sit tightly
around the rods. The glass bead vessel and the probe themselves must not be in contact with any
metal objects (e.g. a metal table top).
Note: Use only the glass beads we supply with the “calibration set” as otherwise completely
different results may be obtained if others are used. The glass beads must be dry and clean and at
room temperature (18-24°C).
The probe, too, must be at room temperature as otherwise condensation may form on the probe
rods and thereby serious distort the results.
The diameter of the vessel used must be at least 18-20 cm; where probe rods are immersed
completely, at least 3-4 cm must remain between the tips of the rods and the bottom of the vessel.
3. 3-4 cm must remain between the tips of the rods and the bottom of the vessel.
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6.1.9. Offsetting the material temperature sensor
In the menu „Calibration“ and the window „Material Temp Offset“, a
zero point offset can be adjusted for the material temperatur sensor
which is installed inside the SONO probe. In this example a
temperature deviation of +5° C is produced by inside self-warming of
the SONO probe. The correction value -5 can be setted in the Coeff0
window.
The example shows the parameters for displaying the temperature in
the unit: Degree Fahrenheit.
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7. Technical Data TRIME-GWs
Power supply:
Power consumption:
Measuring range:
Standard deviation:
Repeatability:
Measurement transformer
temperature range:
Probe temperature range:
Measuring period / -interval:
Interface:
Analogue output:
Cable length of probe:
Housing protection:
GR-Probe protection:
9V..24V-DC
Dependent on the power supply:
12V to 24V-DC 150..200mA consumption
5..45% by weight (b.w.) on a wet mass basis
(depends on the used material)
range 5..20 % b.w.: 0.6 % b.w.
range 20..45 % b.w.: 1 % b.w.
(depends on the used material)
 0.3 % b.w. (depends on the used material)
-10..70 °C, extended range on request
0..127°C; temporarily up to 150°C
floating average with adjustable time interval
RS485 and IMP-Bus
0(4)...20 mA = 0 .. 100% gravimetric moisture
(max. load: 500 )
Standard 2.5 meter
Aluminium diecasting IP65
IP68 watertight casting
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NOTICE:
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NOTICE:
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Precise Moisture Measurement
in industry, hydrology, forestry, agriculture, environmental and
earth science, civil engineering, as well as individual applications!
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