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A P P E N D I X
A
Working with the Cisco IOS File System,
Configuration Files, and Software Images
This appendix describes how to manipulate the IE 3000 switch flash file system, how to copy
configuration files, and how to archive (upload and download) software images to a switch.
Note
For complete syntax and usage information for the commands used in this chapter, see the switch
command reference for this release and the Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Command
Reference, Release 12.2 from the Cisco.com page under Documentation > Cisco IOS Software > 12.2
Mainline > Command References.
Working with the Flash File System
The flash file system is a single flash device on which you can store files. It also provides several
commands to help you manage software image and configuration files. The default flash file system on
the switch is named flash:.
The switch has a removable compact flash card that stores the Cisco IOS software image and
configuration files. Removing the compact flash card does not interrupt switch operation unless you need to
reload the Cisco IOS software. However, if you remove the compact flash card, you do not have access to the
flash file system, and any attempt to access it generates an error message.
Use the show flash: privileged EXEC command to display the compact flash file settings. For more
information about the command, go to this URL:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/12_2/configfun/command/reference/frf009.html#wp1018357
For information about how to remove or replace the compact flash memory card on the switch, see the
Cisco IE 3000 Hardware Installation Guide.
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Displaying Available File Systems
To display the available file systems on your switch, use the show file systems privileged EXEC
command as shown in this example.
Switch# show file systems
File Systems:
*
Size(b)
134086656
524288
-
Free(b)
117346304
518334
-
Type
opaque
flash
opaque
opaque
nvram
opaque
opaque
opaque
opaque
network
network
network
network
network
network
opaque
Flags
ro
rw
rw
rw
rw
ro
ro
rw
ro
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
ro
Prefixes
bs:
flash:
system:
tmpsys:
nvram:
xmodem:
ymodem:
null:
tar:
tftp:
rcp:
http:
ftp:
scp:
https:
cns:
Switch#
Setting the Default File System
Table A-1
show file systems Field Descriptions
Field
Value
Size(b)
Amount of memory in the file system in bytes.
Free(b)
Amount of free memory in the file system in bytes.
Type
Type of file system.
flash—The file system is for a flash memory device.
nvram—The file system is for a NVRAM device.
opaque—The file system is a locally generated pseudo file system (for example, the system) or a download
interface, such as brimux.
unknown—The file system is an unknown type.
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Table A-1
show file systems Field Descriptions (continued)
Field
Value
Flags
Permission for file system.
ro—read-only.
rw—read/write.\
wo—write-only.
Prefixes
Alias for file system.
flash:—Flash file system.
nvram:—NVRAM.
null:—Null destination for copies. You can copy a remote file to null to find its size.
rcp:—Remote Copy Protocol (RCP) network server.
system:—Contains the system memory, including the running configuration.
tftp:—TFTP network server.
xmodem:—Obtain the file from a network machine by using the Xmodem protocol.
ymodem:—Obtain the file from a network machine by using the Ymodem protocol.
You can specify the file system or directory that the system uses as the default file system by using the
cd filesystem: privileged EXEC command. You can set the default file system to omit the filesystem:
argument from related commands. For example, for all privileged EXEC commands that have the
optional filesystem: argument, the system uses the file system specified by the cd command.
By default, the default file system is flash:.
You can display the current default file system as specified by the cd command by using the pwd
privileged EXEC command.
Displaying Information about Files on a File System
You can view a list of the contents of a file system before manipulating its contents. For example, before
copying a new configuration file to flash memory, you might want to verify that the file system does not
already contain a configuration file with the same name. Similarly, before copying a flash configuration
file to another location, you might want to verify its filename for use in another command.
To display information about files on a file system, use one of the privileged EXEC commands in
Table A-2:
Table A-2
Commands for Displaying Information About Files
Command
Description
dir [/all] [filesystem:][filename]
Display a list of files on a file system.
show file systems
Display more information about each of the files on a file system.
show file information file-url
Display information about a specific file.
show file descriptors
Display a list of open file descriptors. File descriptors are the internal representations
of open files. You can use this command to see if another user has a file open.
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Changing Directories and Displaying the Working Directory
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to change directories and display the working
directory.
Step 1
Command
Purpose
dir filesystem:
Display the directories on the specified file system.
For filesystem:, use flash: for the system board flash device.
Step 2
cd new_configs
Change to the directory of interest.
The command example shows how to change to the directory named
new_configs.
Step 3
pwd
Display the working directory.
Creating and Removing Directories
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to create and remove a directory:
Step 1
Command
Purpose
dir filesystem:
Display the directories on the specified file system.
For filesystem:, use flash: for the system board flash device.
Step 2
mkdir old_configs
Create a new directory.
The command example shows how to create the directory named old_configs.
Directory names are case sensitive.
Directory names are limited to 45 characters between the slashes (/); the name
cannot contain control characters, spaces, deletes, slashes, quotes, semicolons,
or colons.
Step 3
dir filesystem:
Verify your entry.
To delete a directory with all its files and subdirectories, use the delete /force /recursive
filesystem:/file-url privileged EXEC command.
Use the /recursive keyword to delete the named directory and all subdirectories and the files contained
in it. Use the /force keyword to suppress the prompting that confirms a deletion of each file in the
directory. You are prompted only once at the beginning of this deletion process. Use the /force and
/recursive keywords for deleting old software images that were installed by using the archive
download-sw command but are no longer needed.
For filesystem, use flash: for the system board flash device. For file-url, enter the name of the directory
to be deleted. All the files in the directory and the directory are removed.
Caution
When files and directories are deleted, their contents cannot be recovered.
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Copying Files
To copy a file from a source to a destination, use the copy source-url destination-url privileged EXEC
command. For the source and destination URLs, you can use running-config and startup-config
keyword shortcuts. For example, the copy running-config startup-config command saves the currently
running configuration file to the NVRAM section of flash memory to be used as the configuration during
system initialization.
You can also copy from special file systems (xmodem:, ymodem:) as the source for the file from a
network machine that uses the Xmodem or Ymodem protocol.
Network file system URLs include ftp:, rcp:, and tftp: and have these syntaxes:
•
FTP—ftp:[[//username [:password]@location]/directory]/filename
•
RCP—rcp:[[//username@location]/directory]/filename
•
TFTP—tftp:[[//location]/directory]/filename
Local writable file systems include flash:.
Some invalid combinations of source and destination exist. Specifically, you cannot copy these
combinations:
•
From a running configuration to a running configuration
•
From a startup configuration to a startup configuration
•
From a device to the same device (for example, the copy flash: flash: command is invalid)
For specific examples of using the copy command with configuration files, see the “Working with
Configuration Files” section on page A-8.
To copy software images either by downloading a new version or by uploading the existing one, use the
archive download-sw or the archive upload-sw privileged EXEC command. For more information, see
the “Working with Software Images” section on page A-21.
Deleting Files
When you no longer need a file on a flash memory device, you can permanently delete it. To delete a file
or directory from a specified flash device, use the delete [/force] [/recursive] [filesystem:]/file-url
privileged EXEC command.
Use the /recursive keyword for deleting a directory and all subdirectories and the files contained in it.
Use the /force keyword to suppress the prompting that confirms a deletion of each file in the directory.
You are prompted only once at the beginning of this deletion process. Use the /force and /recursive
keywords for deleting old software images that were installed by using the archive download-sw
command but are no longer needed.
If you omit the filesystem: option, the switch uses the default device specified by the cd command. For
file-url, you specify the path (directory) and the name of the file to be deleted.
When you attempt to delete any files, the system prompts you to confirm the deletion.
Caution
When files are deleted, their contents cannot be recovered.
This example shows how to delete the file myconfig from the default flash memory device:
Switch# delete myconfig
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Creating, Displaying, and Extracting tar Files
You can create a tar file and write files into it, list the files in a tar file, and extract the files from a tar
file as described in the next sections.
Note
Instead of using the copy privileged EXEC command or the archive tar privileged EXEC command, we
recommend using the archive download-sw and archive upload-sw privileged EXEC commands to
download and upload software image files.
Creating a tar File
To create a tar file and write files into it, use this privileged EXEC command:
archive tar /create destination-url flash:/file-url
For destination-url, specify the destination URL alias for the local or network file system and the name
of the tar file to create. These options are supported:
•
For the local flash file system, the syntax is
flash:
•
For the FTP, the syntax is
ftp:[[//username[:password]@location]/directory]/tar-filename.tar
•
For the RCP, the syntax is
rcp:[[//username@location]/directory]/tar-filename.tar
•
For the TFTP, the syntax is
tftp:[[//location]/directory]/tar-filename.tar
The tar-filename.tar is the tar file to be created.
For flash:/file-url, specify the location on the local flash file system from which the new tar file is
created. You can also specify an optional list of files or directories within the source directory to write
to the new tar file. If none are specified, all files and directories at this level are written to the newly
created tar file.
This example shows how to create a tar file. This command writes the contents of the new-configs
directory on the local flash device to a file named saved.tar on the TFTP server at 172.20.10.30:
Switch# archive tar /create tftp:172.20.10.30/saved.tar flash:/new-configs
Displaying the Contents of a tar File
To display the contents of a tar file on the screen, use this privileged EXEC command:
archive tar /table source-url
For source-url, specify the source URL alias for the local or network file system. These options are
supported:
•
For the local flash file system, the syntax is
flash:
•
For the FTP, the syntax is
ftp:[[//username[:password]@location]/directory]/tar-filename.tar
•
For the RCP, the syntax is
rcp:[[//username@location]/directory]/tar-filename.tar
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•
For the TFTP, the syntax is
tftp:[[//location]/directory]/tar-filename.tar
The tar-filename.tar is the tar file to display.
You can also limit the display of the files by specifying an optional list of files or directories after the tar
file; then only those files appear. If none are specified, all files and directories appear.
This example shows how to display the contents of a switch tar file that is in flash memory:
Switch# archive tar /table flash:image-name.tar
image-name/ (directory)
image-name/html/ (directory)
image-name/html/file.html (0 bytes)
image-name/image-name.bin (610856 bytes)
image-name/info (219 bytes)
This example shows how to display only the /html directory and its contents:
Switch# archive tar /table flash: image-name/html
cimage-name/html
cimage-name/html/ (directory)
cimage-name/html/const.htm (556 bytes)
cimage-name/html/xhome.htm (9373 bytes)
cimage-name/html/menu.css (1654 bytes)
<output truncated>
Extracting a tar File
To extract a tar file into a directory on the flash file system, use this privileged EXEC command:
archive tar /xtract source-url flash:/file-url [dir/file...]
For source-url, specify the source URL alias for the local file system. These options are supported:
•
For the local flash file system, the syntax is
flash:
•
For the FTP, the syntax is
ftp:[[//username[:password]@location]/directory]/tar-filename.tar
•
For the RCP, the syntax is
rcp:[[//username@location]/directory]/tar-filename.tar
•
For the TFTP, the syntax is
tftp:[[//location]/directory]/tar-filename.tar
The tar-filename.tar is the tar file from which to extract files.
For flash:/file-url [dir/file...], specify the location on the local flash file system into which the tar file is
extracted. Use the dir/file... option to specify an optional list of files or directories within the tar file to
be extracted. If none are specified, all files and directories are extracted.
This example shows how to extract the contents of a tar file located on the TFTP server at 172.20.10.30.
This command extracts just the new-configs directory into the root directory on the local flash file
system. The remaining files in the saved.tar file are ignored.
Switch# archive tar /xtract tftp://172.20.10.30/saved.tar flash:/new-configs
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Displaying the Contents of a File
To display the contents of any readable file, including a file on a remote file system, use the more [/ascii
| /binary | /ebcdic] file-url privileged EXEC command:.
This example shows how to display the contents of a configuration file on a TFTP server:
Switch#
!
! Saved
!
version
service
service
service
service
!
<output
more tftp://serverA/hampton/savedconfig
configuration on server
11.3
timestamps log datetime localtime
linenumber
udp-small-servers
pt-vty-logging
truncated>
Working with Configuration Files
This section describes how to create, load, and maintain configuration files.
Configuration files contain commands entered to customize the function of the Cisco IOS software. A
way to create a basic configuration file is to use the setup program or to enter the setup privileged EXEC
command. For more information, see Chapter 4, “Assigning the Switch IP Address and Default
Gateway.”
You can copy (download) configuration files from a TFTP, FTP, or RCP server to the running
configuration or startup configuration of the switch. You might want to perform this for one of these
reasons:
•
To restore a backed-up configuration file.
•
To use the configuration file for another switch. For example, you might add another switch to your
network and want it to have a configuration similar to the original switch. By copying the file to the
new switch, you can change the relevant parts rather than recreating the whole file.
•
To load the same configuration commands on all the switches in your network so that all the
switches have similar configurations.
You can copy (upload) configuration files from the switch to a file server by using TFTP, FTP, or RCP.
You might perform this task to back up a current configuration file to a server before changing its
contents so that you can later restore the original configuration file from the server.
The protocol you use depends on which type of server you are using. The FTP and RCP transport
mechanisms provide faster performance and more reliable delivery of data than TFTP. These
improvements are possible because FTP and RCP are built on and use the TCP/IP stack, which is
connection-oriented.
Guidelines for Creating and Using Configuration Files
Creating configuration files can aid in your switch configuration. Configuration files can contain some
or all of the commands needed to configure one or more switches. For example, you might want to
download the same configuration file to several switches that have the same hardware configuration.
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Use these guidelines when creating a configuration file:
Note
•
We recommend that you connect through the console port for the initial configuration of the switch.
If you are accessing the switch through a network connection instead of through a direct connection
to the console port, keep in mind that some configuration changes (such as changing the switch IP
address or disabling ports) can cause a loss of connectivity to the switch.
•
If no password has been set on the switch, we recommend that you set one by using the enable secret
secret-password global configuration command.
The copy {ftp: | rcp: | tftp:} system:running-config privileged EXEC command loads the
configuration files on the switch as if you were entering the commands at the command line. The switch
does not erase the existing running configuration before adding the commands. If a command in the
copied configuration file replaces a command in the existing configuration file, the existing command is
erased. For example, if the copied configuration file contains a different IP address in a particular
command than the existing configuration, the IP address in the copied configuration is used. However,
some commands in the existing configuration might not be replaced or negated. In this case, the resulting
configuration file is a mixture of the existing configuration file and the copied configuration file, with
the copied configuration file having precedence.
To restore a configuration file to an exact copy of a file stored on a server, copy the configuration file
directly to the startup configuration (by using the copy {ftp: | rcp: | tftp:} nvram:startup-config
privileged EXEC command), and reload the switch.
Configuration File Types and Location n
Startup configuration files are used during system startup to configure the software. Running
configuration files contain the current configuration of the software. The two configuration files can be
different. For example, you might want to change the configuration for a short time period rather than
permanently. In this case, you would change the running configuration but not save the configuration by
using the copy running-config startup-config privileged EXEC command.
The running configuration is saved in DRAM; the startup configuration is stored in the NVRAM section
of flash memory.
Creating a Configuration File By Using a Text Editor
When creating a configuration file, you must list commands logically so that the system can respond
appropriately. This is one method of creating a configuration file:
Step 1
Copy an existing configuration from a switch to a server.
For more information, see the “Downloading the Configuration File By Using TFTP” section on
page A-10, the “Downloading a Configuration File By Using FTP” section on page A-13, or the
“Downloading a Configuration File By Using RCP” section on page A-16.
Step 2
Open the configuration file in a text editor, such as vi or emacs on UNIX or Notepad on a PC.
Step 3
Extract the portion of the configuration file with the desired commands, and save it in a new file.
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Step 4
Copy the configuration file to the appropriate server location. For example, copy the file to the TFTP
directory on the workstation (usually /tftpboot on a UNIX workstation).
Step 5
Make sure the permissions on the file are set to world-read.
Copying Configuration Files By Using TFTP
You can configure the switch by using configuration files you create, download from another switch, or
download from a TFTP server. You can copy (upload) configuration files to a TFTP server for storage.
Preparing to Download or Upload a Configuration File B y Using TFTP
Before you begin downloading or uploading a configuration file by using TFTP, do these tasks:
•
Ensure that the workstation acting as the TFTP server is properly configured. On a Sun workstation,
make sure that the /etc/inetd.conf file contains this line:
tftp dgram udp wait root /usr/etc/in.tftpd in.tftpd -p -s /tftpboot
Make sure that the /etc/services file contains this line:
tftp 69/udp
Note
You must restart the inetd daemon after modifying the /etc/inetd.conf and /etc/services files.
To restart the daemon, either stop the inetd process and restart it, or enter a fastboot
command (on the SunOS 4.x) or a reboot command (on Solaris 2.x or SunOS 5.x). For more
information on the TFTP daemon, see the documentation for your workstation.
•
Ensure that the switch has a route to the TFTP server. The switch and the TFTP server must be in
the same subnetwork if you do not have a router to route traffic between subnets. Check connectivity
to the TFTP server by using the ping command.
•
Ensure that the configuration file to be downloaded is in the correct directory on the TFTP server
(usually /tftpboot on a UNIX workstation).
•
For download operations, ensure that the permissions on the file are set correctly. The permission
on the file should be world-read.
•
Before uploading the configuration file, you might need to create an empty file on the TFTP server.
To create an empty file, enter the touch filename command, where filename is the name of the file
you will use when uploading it to the server.
•
During upload operations, if you are overwriting an existing file (including an empty file, if you had
to create one) on the server, ensure that the permissions on the file are set correctly. Permissions on
the file should be world-write.
Downloading the Configuration File By Using TFTP
To configure the switch by using a configuration file downloaded from a TFTP server, follow these steps:
Step 1
Copy the configuration file to the appropriate TFTP directory on the workstation.
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Step 2
Verify that the TFTP server is properly configured by referring to the “Preparing to Download or Upload
a Configuration File B y Using TFTP” section on page A-10.
Step 3
Log into the switch through the console port or a Telnet session.
Step 4
Download the configuration file from the TFTP server to configure the switch.
Specify the IP address or hostname of the TFTP server and the name of the file to download.
Use one of these privileged EXEC commands:
•
copy tftp:[[[//location]/directory]/filename] system:running-config
•
copy tftp:[[[//location]/directory]/filename] nvram:startup-config
The configuration file downloads, and the commands are executed as the file is parsed line-by-line.
This example shows how to configure the software from the file tokyo-confg at IP address 172.16.2.155:
Switch# copy tftp://172.16.2.155/tokyo-confg system:running-config
Configure using tokyo-confg from 172.16.2.155? [confirm] y
Booting tokyo-confg from 172.16.2.155:!!! [OK - 874/16000 bytes]
Uploading the Configuration File By Using TFTP
To upload a configuration file from a switch to a TFTP server for storage, follow these steps:
Step 1
Verify that the TFTP server is properly configured by referring to the “Preparing to Download or Upload
a Configuration File B y Using TFTP” section on page A-10.
Step 2
Log into the switch through the console port or a Telnet session.
Step 3
Upload the switch configuration to the TFTP server. Specify the IP address or hostname of the TFTP
server and the destination filename.
Use one of these privileged EXEC commands:
•
copy system:running-config tftp:[[[//location]/directory]/filename]
•
copy nvram:startup-config tftp:[[[//location]/directory]/filename]
The file is uploaded to the TFTP server.
This example shows how to upload a configuration file from a switch to a TFTP server:
Switch# copy system:running-config tftp://172.16.2.155/tokyo-confg
Write file tokyo-confg on host 172.16.2.155? [confirm] y
#
Writing tokyo-confg!!! [OK]
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Copying Configuration Files By Using FTP
You can copy configuration files to or from an FTP server.
The FTP protocol requires a client to send a remote username and password on each FTP request to a
server. When you copy a configuration file from the switch to a server by using FTP, the Cisco IOS
software sends the first valid username in this list:
•
The username specified in the copy command if a username is specified.
•
The username set by the ip ftp username username global configuration command if the command
is configured.
•
Anonymous.
The switch sends the first valid password in this list:
•
The password specified in the copy command if a password is specified.
•
The password set by the ip ftp password password global configuration command if the command
is configured.
•
The switch forms a password named username@switchname.domain. The variable username is the
username associated with the current session, switchname is the configured hostname, and domain
is the domain of the switch.
The username and password must be associated with an account on the FTP server. If you are writing to
the server, the FTP server must be properly configured to accept your FTP write request.
Use the ip ftp username and ip ftp password commands to specify a username and password for all
copies. Include the username in the copy command if you want to specify only a username for that copy
operation.
If the server has a directory structure, the configuration file is written to or copied from the directory
associated with the username on the server. For example, if the configuration file resides in the home
directory of a user on the server, specify that user's name as the remote username.
For more information, see the documentation for your FTP server.
Preparing to Download or Upload a Configuration File By Using FTP
Before you begin downloading or uploading a configuration file by using FTP, do these tasks:
•
Ensure that the switch has a route to the FTP server. The switch and the FTP server must be in the
same subnetwork if you do not have a router to route traffic between subnets. Check connectivity to
the FTP server by using the ping command.
•
If you are accessing the switch through the console or a Telnet session and you do not have a valid
username, make sure that the current FTP username is the one that you want to use for the FTP
download. You can enter the show users privileged EXEC command to view the valid username. If
you do not want to use this username, create a new FTP username by using the ip ftp username
username global configuration command during all copy operations. The new username is stored in
NVRAM. If you are accessing the switch through a Telnet session and you have a valid username,
this username is used, and you do not need to set the FTP username. Include the username in the
copy command if you want to specify a username for only that copy operation.
•
When you upload a configuration file to the FTP server, it must be properly configured to accept the
write request from the user on the switch.
For more information, see the documentation for your FTP server.
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Downloading a Configuration File By Using FTP
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to download a configuration file by using FTP:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
Verify that the FTP server is properly configured by referring
to the “Preparing to Download or Upload a Configuration
File By Using FTP” section on page A-12.
Step 2
Log into the switch through the console port or a Telnet
session.
Step 3
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode on the switch.
This step is required only if you override the default remote
username or password (see Steps 4, 5, and 6).
Step 4
ip ftp username username
(Optional) Change the default remote username.
Step 5
ip ftp password password
(Optional) Change the default password.
Step 6
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 7
Using FTP, copy the configuration file from a network server
copy
ftp:[[[//[username[:password]@]location]/directory] to the running configuration or to the startup configuration
file.
/filename] system:running-config
or
copy
ftp:[[[//[username[:password]@]location]/directory]
/filename] nvram:startup-config
This example shows how to copy a configuration file named host1-confg from the netadmin1 directory
on the remote server with an IP address of 172.16.101.101 and to load and run those commands on the
switch:
Switch# copy ftp://netadmin1:mypass@172.16.101.101/host1-confg system:running-config
Configure using host1-confg from 172.16.101.101? [confirm]
Connected to 172.16.101.101
Loading 1112 byte file host1-confg:![OK]
Switch#
%SYS-5-CONFIG: Configured from host1-config by ftp from 172.16.101.101
This example shows how to specify a remote username of netadmin1. The software copies the
configuration file host2-confg from the netadmin1 directory on the remote server with an IP address
of 172.16.101.101 to the switch startup configuration.
Switch# configure terminal
Switch(config)# ip ftp username netadmin1
Switch(config)# ip ftp password mypass
Switch(config)# end
Switch# copy ftp: nvram:startup-config
Address of remote host [255.255.255.255]? 172.16.101.101
Name of configuration file[rtr2-confg]? host2-confg
Configure using host2-confg from 172.16.101.101?[confirm]
Connected to 172.16.101.101
Loading 1112 byte file host2-confg:![OK]
[OK]
Switch#
%SYS-5-CONFIG_NV:Non-volatile store configured from host2-config by ftp from
172.16.101.101
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Uploading a Configuration File By Using FTP
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to upload a configuration file by using FTP:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
Verify that the FTP server is properly configured by referring
to the “Preparing to Download or Upload a Configuration
File By Using FTP” section on page A-12.
Step 2
Log into the switch through the console port or a Telnet
session.
Step 3
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
This step is required only if you override the default remote
username or password (see Steps 4, 5, and 6).
Step 4
ip ftp username username
(Optional) Change the default remote username.
Step 5
ip ftp password password
(Optional) Change the default password.
Step 6
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 7
Using FTP, store the switch running or startup configuration
copy system:running-config
ftp:[[[//[username[:password]@]location]/directory] file to the specified location.
/filename]
or
copy nvram:startup-config
ftp:[[[//[username[:password]@]location]/directory]
/filename]
This example shows how to copy the running configuration file named switch2-confg to the netadmin1
directory on the remote host with an IP address of 172.16.101.101:
Switch# copy system:running-config ftp://netadmin1:mypass@172.16.101.101/switch2-confg
Write file switch2-confg on host 172.16.101.101?[confirm]
Building configuration...[OK]
Connected to 172.16.101.101
Switch#
This example shows how to store a startup configuration file on a server by using FTP to copy the file:
Switch# configure terminal
Switch(config)# ip ftp username netadmin2
Switch(config)# ip ftp password mypass
Switch(config)# end
Switch# copy nvram:startup-config ftp:
Remote host[]? 172.16.101.101
Name of configuration file to write [switch2-confg]?
Write file switch2-confg on host 172.16.101.101?[confirm]
![OK]
Copying Configuration Files By Using RCP
The RCP provides another method of downloading, uploading, and copying configuration files between
remote hosts and the switch. Unlike TFTP, which uses User Datagram Protocol (UDP), a connectionless
protocol, RCP uses TCP, which is connection-oriented.
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To use RCP to copy files, the server from or to which you will be copying files must support RCP. The
RCP copy commands rely on the rsh server (or daemon) on the remote system. To copy files by using
RCP, you do not need to create a server for file distribution as you do with TFTP. You only need to have
access to a server that supports the remote shell (rsh). (Most UNIX systems support rsh.) Because you
are copying a file from one place to another, you must have read permission on the source file and write
permission on the destination file. If the destination file does not exist, RCP creates it for you.
The RCP requires a client to send a remote username with each RCP request to a server. When you copy
a configuration file from the switch to a server, the Cisco IOS software sends the first valid username in
this list:
•
The username specified in the copy command if a username is specified.
•
The username set by the ip rcmd remote-username username global configuration command if the
command is configured.
•
The remote username associated with the current TTY (terminal) process. For example, if the user
is connected to the router through Telnet and was authenticated through the username command,
the switch software sends the Telnet username as the remote username.
•
The switch hostname.
For a successful RCP copy request, you must define an account on the network server for the remote
username. If the server has a directory structure, the configuration file is written to or copied from the
directory associated with the remote username on the server. For example, if the configuration file is in
the home directory of a user on the server, specify that user's name as the remote username.
Preparing to Download or Upload a Configuration File By Using RCP
Before you begin downloading or uploading a configuration file by using RCP, do these tasks:
•
Ensure that the workstation acting as the RCP server supports the remote shell (rsh).
•
Ensure that the switch has a route to the RCP server. The switch and the server must be in the same
subnetwork if you do not have a router to route traffic between subnets. Check connectivity to the
RCP server by using the ping command.
•
If you are accessing the switch through the console or a Telnet session and you do not have a valid
username, make sure that the current RCP username is the one that you want to use for the RCP
download. You can enter the show users privileged EXEC command to view the valid username. If
you do not want to use this username, create a new RCP username by using the ip rcmd
remote-username username global configuration command to be used during all copy operations.
The new username is stored in NVRAM. If you are accessing the switch through a Telnet session
and you have a valid username, this username is used, and you do not need to set the RCP username.
Include the username in the copy command if you want to specify a username for only that copy
operation.
•
When you upload a file to the RCP server, it must be properly configured to accept the RCP write
request from the user on the switch. For UNIX systems, you must add an entry to the .rhosts file for
the remote user on the RCP server. For example, suppose that the switch contains these
configuration lines:
hostname Switch1
ip rcmd remote-username User0
If the switch IP address translates to Switch1.company.com, the .rhosts file for User0 on the RCP
server should contain this line:
Switch1.company.com Switch1
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For more information, see the documentation for your RCP server.
Downloading a Configuration File By Using RCP
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to download a configuration file by using RCP:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
Verify that the RCP server is properly configured by
referring to the “Preparing to Download or Upload a
Configuration File By Using RCP” section on page A-15.
Step 2
Log into the switch through the console port or a Telnet
session.
Step 3
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
This step is required only if you override the default remote
username (see Steps 4 and 5).
Step 4
ip rcmd remote-username username
(Optional) Specify the remote username.
Step 5
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 6
copy
rcp:[[[//[username@]location]/directory]/filename]
system:running-config
Using RCP, copy the configuration file from a network
server to the running configuration or to the startup
configuration file.
or
copy
rcp:[[[//[username@]location]/directory]/filename]
nvram:startup-config
This example shows how to copy a configuration file named host1-confg from the netadmin1 directory
on the remote server with an IP address of 172.16.101.101 and load and run those commands on the
switch:
Switch# copy rcp://netadmin1@172.16.101.101/host1-confg system:running-config
Configure using host1-confg from 172.16.101.101? [confirm]
Connected to 172.16.101.101
Loading 1112 byte file host1-confg:![OK]
Switch#
%SYS-5-CONFIG: Configured from host1-config by rcp from 172.16.101.101
This example shows how to specify a remote username of netadmin1. Then it copies the configuration
file host2-confg from the netadmin1 directory on the remote server with an IP address of 172.16.101.101
to the startup configuration:
Switch# configure terminal
Switch(config)# ip rcmd remote-username netadmin1
Switch(config)# end
Switch# copy rcp: nvram:startup-config
Address of remote host [255.255.255.255]? 172.16.101.101
Name of configuration file[rtr2-confg]? host2-confg
Configure using host2-confg from 172.16.101.101?[confirm]
Connected to 172.16.101.101
Loading 1112 byte file host2-confg:![OK]
[OK]
Switch#
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%SYS-5-CONFIG_NV:Non-volatile store configured from host2-config by rcp from
172.16.101.101
Uploading a Configuration File By Using RCP
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to upload a configuration file by using RCP:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
Verify that the RCP server is properly configured by
referring to the “Preparing to Download or Upload a
Configuration File By Using RCP” section on page A-15.
Step 2
Log into the switch through the console port or a Telnet
session.
Step 3
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
This step is required only if you override the default remote
username (see Steps 4 and 5).
Step 4
ip rcmd remote-username username
(Optional) Specify the remote username.
Step 5
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 6
copy system:running-config
rcp:[[[//[username@]location]/directory]/filename]
Using RCP, copy the configuration file from a switch running
or startup configuration file to a network server.
or
copy nvram:startup-config
rcp:[[[//[username@]location]/directory]/filename]
This example shows how to copy the running configuration file named switch2-confg to the netadmin1
directory on the remote host with an IP address of 172.16.101.101:
Switch# copy system:running-config rcp://netadmin1@172.16.101.101/switch2-confg
Write file switch-confg on host 172.16.101.101?[confirm]
Building configuration...[OK]
Connected to 172.16.101.101
Switch#
This example shows how to store a startup configuration file on a server:
Switch# configure terminal
Switch(config)# ip rcmd remote-username netadmin2
Switch(config)# end
Switch# copy nvram:startup-config rcp:
Remote host[]? 172.16.101.101
Name of configuration file to write [switch2-confg]?
Write file switch2-confg on host 172.16.101.101?[confirm]
![OK]
Clearing Configuration Information
You can clear the configuration information from the startup configuration. If you reboot the switch with
no startup configuration, the switch enters the setup program so that you can reconfigure the switch with
all new settings.
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Clearing the Startup Configuration File
To clear the contents of your startup configuration, use the erase nvram: or the erase startup-config
privileged EXEC command.
Caution
You cannot restore the startup configuration file after it has been deleted.
Deleting a Stored Configuration File
To delete a saved configuration from flash memory, use the delete flash:filename privileged EXEC
command. Depending on the setting of the file prompt global configuration command, you might be
prompted for confirmation before you delete a file. By default, the switch prompts for confirmation on
destructive file operations. For more information about the file prompt command, see the Cisco IOS
Command Reference for Release 12.2.
Caution
You cannot restore a file after it has been deleted.
Replacing and Rolling Back Configurations
The configuration replacement and rollback feature replaces the running configuration with any saved
Cisco IOS configuration file. You can use the rollback function to roll back to a previous configuration.
Understanding Configuration Replacement and Rollback
Archiving a Configuration
The configuration archive provides a mechanism to store, organize, and manage an archive of
configuration files. The configure replace privileged EXEC command increases the configuration
rollback capability. As an alternative, you can save copies of the running configuration by using the copy
running-config destination-url privileged EXEC command, storing the replacement file either locally
or remotely. However, this method lacks any automated file management. The configuration replacement
and rollback feature can automatically save copies of the running configuration to the configuration
archive.
You use the archive config privileged EXEC command to save configurations in the configuration
archive by using a standard location and filename prefix that is automatically appended with an
incremental version number (and optional timestamp) as each consecutive file is saved. You can specify
how many versions of the running configuration are kept in the archive. After the maximum number of
files are saved, the oldest file is automatically deleted when the next, most recent file is saved. The show
archive privileged EXEC command displays information for all the configuration files saved in the
configuration archive.
The Cisco IOS configuration archive, in which the configuration files are stored and available for use
with the configure replace command, is in any of these file systems: FTP, HTTP, RCP, TFTP.
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Replacing a Configuration
The configure replace privileged EXEC command replaces the running configuration with any saved
configuration file. When you enter the configure replace command, the running configuration is
compared with the specified replacement configuration, and a set of configuration differences is
generated. The resulting differences are used to replace the configuration. The configuration
replacement operation is usually completed in no more than three passes. To prevent looping behavior
no more than five passes are performed.
You can use the copy source-url running-config privileged EXEC command to copy a stored
configuration file to the running configuration. When using this command as an alternative to the
configure replace target-url privileged EXEC command, note these major differences:
•
The copy source-url running-config command is a merge operation and preserves all the commands
from both the source file and the running configuration. This command does not remove commands
from the running configuration that are not present in the source file. In contrast, the configure
replace target-url command removes commands from the running configuration that are not present
in the replacement file and adds commands to the running configuration that are not present.
•
You can use a partial configuration file as the source file for the copy source-url running-config
command. You must use a complete configuration file as the replacement file for the configure
replace target-url command.
Rolling Back a Configuration
You can also use the configure replace command to roll back changes that were made since the previous
configuration was saved. Instead of basing the rollback operation on a specific set of changes that were
applied, the configuration rollback capability reverts to a specific configuration based on a saved
configuration file.
If you want the configuration rollback capability, you must first save the running configuration before
making any configuration changes. Then, after entering configuration changes, you can use that saved
configuration file to roll back the changes by using the configure replace target-url command.
You can specify any saved configuration file as the rollback configuration. You are not limited to a fixed
number of rollbacks, as is the case in some rollback models.
Configuration Guidelines
Follow these guidelines when configuring and performing configuration replacement and rollback:
•
Make sure that the switch has free memory larger than the combined size of the two configuration
files (the running configuration and the saved replacement configuration). Otherwise, the
configuration replacement operation fails.
•
Make sure that the switch also has sufficient free memory to execute the configuration replacement
or rollback configuration commands.
•
Certain configuration commands, such as those pertaining to physical components of a networking
device (for example, physical interfaces), cannot be added or removed from the running
configuration.
– A configuration replacement operation cannot remove the interface interface-id command line
from the running configuration if that interface is physically present on the device.
– The interface interface-id command line cannot be added to the running configuration if no
such interface is physically present on the device.
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•
Note
When using the configure replace command, you must specify a saved configuration as the
replacement configuration file for the running configuration. The replacement file must be a
complete configuration generated by a Cisco IOS device (for example, a configuration generated by
the copy running-config destination-url command).
If you generate the replacement configuration file externally, it must comply with the format of files
generated by Cisco IOS devices.
Configuring the Configuration Archive
Using the configure replace command with the configuration archive and with the archive config
command is optional but offers significant benefit for configuration rollback scenarios. Before using the
archive config command, you must first configure the configuration archive. Starting in privileged
EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure the configuration archive:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
archive
Enter archive configuration mode.
Step 3
path url
Specify the location and filename prefix for the files in the configuration
archive.
Step 4
maximum number
(Optional) Set the maximum number of archive files of the running
configuration to be saved in the configuration archive.
number—Maximum files of the running configuration file in the configuration
archive. Valid values are from 1 to 14. The default is 10.
Note
Step 5
time-period minutes
Before using this command, you must first enter the path archive
configuration command to specify the location and filename prefix for
the files in the configuration archive.
(Optional) Set the time increment for automatically saving an archive file of
the running configuration in the configuration archive.
minutes—Specify how often, in minutes, to automatically save an archive file
of the running configuration in the configuration archive.
Step 6
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 7
show running-config
Verify the configuration.
Step 8
copy running-config
startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Performing a Configuration Replacement or Rollback Operation
Starting in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to replace the running configuration file with a
saved configuration file:
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Step 1
Command
Purpose
archive config
(Optional) Save the running configuration file to the configuration archive.
Note
Step 2
configure terminal
Step 3
Enter the path archive configuration command before using this
command.
Enter global configuration mode.
Make necessary changes to the running configuration.
Step 4
exit
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 5
configure replace target-url [list]
[force] [time seconds] [nolock]
Replace the running configuration file with a saved configuration file.
target-url—URL (accessible by the file system) of the saved configuration file
that is to replace the running configuration, such as the configuration file
created in Step 2 by using the archive config privileged EXEC command.
list—Display a list of the command entries applied by the software parser
during each pass of the configuration replacement operation. The total number
of passes also appears.
force— Replace the running configuration file with the specified saved
configuration file without prompting you for confirmation.
time seconds—Specify the time (in seconds) within which you must enter the
configure confirm command to confirm replacement of the running
configuration file. If you do not enter the configure confirm command within
the specified time limit, the configuration replacement operation is
automatically stopped. (In other words, the running configuration file is
restored to the configuration that existed before you entered the configure
replace command).
Note
You must first enable the configuration archive before you can use the
time seconds command line option.
nolock—Disable the locking of the running configuration file that prevents
other users from changing the running configuration during a configuration
replacement operation.
Step 6
configure confirm
(Optional) Confirm replacement of the running configuration with a saved
configuration file.
Note
Step 7
copy running-config
startup-config
Use this command only if the time seconds keyword and argument of
the configure replace command are specified.
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Working with Software Images
This section describes how to archive (download and upload) software image files, which contain the
system software, the Cisco IOS code, and the embedded device manager software.
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Note
Instead of using the copy privileged EXEC command or the archive tar privileged EXEC command, we
recommend using the archive download-sw and archive upload-sw privileged EXEC commands to
download and upload software image files. .
You can download a switch image file from a TFTP, FTP, or RCP server to upgrade the switch software.
If you do not have access to a TFTP server, you can download a software image file directly to your PC
or workstation by using a web browser (HTTP) and then by using the device manager or Cisco Network
Assistant to upgrade your switch. For information about upgrading your switch by using a TFTP server
or a web browser (HTTP), see the release notes.
You can replace the current image with the new one or keep the current image in flash memory after a
download.
You upload a switch image file to a TFTP, FTP, or RCP server for backup purposes. You can use this
uploaded image for future downloads to the same switch or to another of the same type.
The protocol that you use depends on which type of server you are using. The FTP and RCP transport
mechanisms provide faster performance and more reliable delivery of data than TFTP. These
improvements are possible because FTP and RCP are built on and use the TCP/IP stack, which is
connection-oriented.
Note
For a list of software images and the supported upgrade paths, see the release notes.
Image Location on the Switch
The Cisco IOS image is stored as a .bin file in a directory that shows the version number. A subdirectory
contains the files needed for web management. The image is stored on the system board flash memory
(flash:).
You can use the show version privileged EXEC command to see the software version that is currently
running on your switch. In the display, check the line that begins with System image file is... . It
shows the directory name in flash memory where the image is stored.
You can also use the dir filesystem: privileged EXEC command to see the directory names of other
software images that might be stored in flash memory.The archive download-sw /directory privileged
EXEC command allows you to specify a directory one time followed by a tar file or list of tar files to be
downloaded instead of specifying complete paths with each tar file.
tar File Format of Images on a Server or Cisco.com
Software images located on a server or downloaded from Cisco.com are provided in a tar file format,
which contains these files:
•
An info file, which serves as a table of contents for the tar file
•
One or more subdirectories containing other images and files, such as Cisco IOS images and web
management files
This example shows some of the information contained in the info file. Table A-3 provides additional
details about this information:
system_type:0x00000000:image-name
image_family:xxxx
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stacking_number:x
info_end:
version_suffix:xxxx
version_directory:image-name
image_system_type_id:0x00000000
image_name:image-nameB.bin
ios_image_file_size:6398464
total_image_file_size:8133632
image_feature:IP|LAYER_3|PLUS|MIN_DRAM_MEG=128
image_family:xxxx
stacking_number:x
board_ids:0x401100c4 0x00000000 0x00000001 0x00000003 0x00000002 0x00008000 0x00008002
0x40110000
info_end:
Note
Table A-3
Disregard the stacking_number field. It does not apply to the switch.
info File Description
Field
Description
version_suffix
Specifies the Cisco IOS image version string suffix
version_directory
Specifies the directory where the Cisco IOS image and the HTML subdirectory are installed
image_name
Specifies the name of the Cisco IOS image within the tar file
ios_image_file_size
Specifies the Cisco IOS image size in the tar file, which is an approximate measure of how
much flash memory is required to hold just the Cisco IOS image
total_image_file_size
Specifies the size of all the images (the Cisco IOS image and the web management files) in the
tar file, which is an approximate measure of how much flash memory is required to hold them
image_feature
Describes the core functionality of the image
image_min_dram
Specifies the minimum amount of DRAM needed to run this image
image_family
Describes the family of products on which the software can be installed
Copying Image Files By Using TFTP
You can download a switch image from a TFTP server or upload the image from the switch to a TFTP
server.
You download a switch image file from a server to upgrade the switch software. You can overwrite the
current image with the new one or keep the current image after a download.
You upload a switch image file to a server for backup purposes; this uploaded image can be used for
future downloads to the same or another switch of the same type.
Note
Instead of using the copy privileged EXEC command or the archive tar privileged EXEC command, we
recommend using the archive download-sw and archive upload-sw privileged EXEC commands to
download and upload software image files.
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Preparing to Download or Upload an Image File By Using TFTP
Before you begin downloading or uploading an image file by using TFTP, do these tasks:
•
Ensure that the workstation acting as the TFTP server is properly configured. On a Sun workstation,
make sure that the /etc/inetd.conf file contains this line:
tftp dgram udp wait root /usr/etc/in.tftpd in.tftpd -p -s /tftpboot
Make sure that the /etc/services file contains this line:
tftp 69/udp
Note
You must restart the inetd daemon after modifying the /etc/inetd.conf and /etc/services files.
To restart the daemon, either stop the inetd process and restart it, or enter a fastboot
command (on the SunOS 4.x) or a reboot command (on Solaris 2.x or SunOS 5.x). For more
information on the TFTP daemon, see the documentation for your workstation.
•
Ensure that the switch has a route to the TFTP server. The switch and the TFTP server must be in
the same subnetwork if you do not have a router to route traffic between subnets. Check connectivity
to the TFTP server by using the ping command.
•
Ensure that the image to be downloaded is in the correct directory on the TFTP server (usually
/tftpboot on a UNIX workstation).
•
For download operations, ensure that the permissions on the file are set correctly. The permission
on the file should be world-read.
•
Before uploading the image file, you might need to create an empty file on the TFTP server. To
create an empty file, enter the touch filename command, where filename is the name of the file you
will use when uploading the image to the server.
•
During upload operations, if you are overwriting an existing file (including an empty file, if you had
to create one) on the server, ensure that the permissions on the file are set correctly. Permissions on
the file should be world-write.
Downloading an Image File By Using TFTP
You can download a new image file and replace the current image or keep the current image.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow Steps 1 through 3 to download a new image from a TFTP
server and overwrite the existing image. To keep the current image, go to Step 3.
Command
Purpose
Step 1
Copy the image to the appropriate TFTP directory on the
workstation. Make sure that the TFTP server is properly
configured; see the “Preparing to Download or Upload an Image
File By Using TFTP” section on page A-24.
Step 2
Log into the switch through the console port or a Telnet session.
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Step 3
Step 4
Command
Purpose
archive download-sw /overwrite /reload
tftp:[[//location]/directory]/image-name.tar
Download the image file from the TFTP server to the switch, and
overwrite the current image.
archive download-sw /leave-old-sw /reload
tftp:[[//location]/directory]/image-name.tar
•
The /overwrite option overwrites the software image in flash
memory with the downloaded image.
•
The /reload option reloads the system after downloading the
image unless the configuration has been changed and not been
saved.
•
For //location, specify the IP address of the TFTP server.
•
For /directory/image-name.tar, specify the directory
(optional) and the image to download. Directory and image
names are case sensitive.
Download the image file from the TFTP server to the switch, and
keep the current image.
•
The /leave-old-sw option keeps the old software version after
a download.
•
The /reload option reloads the system after downloading the
image unless the configuration has been changed and not been
saved.
•
For //location, specify the IP address of the TFTP server.
•
For /directory/image-name.tar, specify the directory
(optional) and the image to download. Directory and image
names are case sensitive.
The download algorithm verifies that the image is appropriate for the switch model and that enough
DRAM is present, or it aborts the process and reports an error. If you specify the /overwrite option, the
download algorithm removes the existing image on the flash device whether or not it is the same as the
new one, downloads the new image, and then reloads the software.
Note
If the flash device has sufficient space to hold two images and you want to overwrite one of these images
with the same version, you must specify the /overwrite option.
If you specify the /leave-old-sw, the existing files are not removed. If there is not enough space to install
the new image and keep the running image, the download process stops, and an error message is
displayed.
The algorithm installs the downloaded image on the system board flash device (flash:). The image is
placed into a new directory named with the software version string, and the BOOT environment variable
is updated to point to the newly installed image.
If you kept the old image during the download process (you specified the /leave-old-sw keyword), you
can remove it by entering the delete /force /recursive filesystem:/file-url privileged EXEC command.
For filesystem, use flash: for the system board flash device. For file-url, enter the directory name of the
old image. All the files in the directory and the directory are removed.
Caution
For the download and upload algorithms to operate properly, do not rename image names.
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Appendix A
Working with the Cisco IOS File System, Configuration Files, and Software Images
Working with Software Images
Uploading an Image File By Using TFTP
You can upload an image from the switch to a TFTP server. You can later download this image to the
switch or to another switch of the same type.
Use the upload feature only if the web management pages associated with the embedded device manager
have been installed with the existing image.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to upload an image to a TFTP server:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
Make sure the TFTP server is properly configured; see the
“Preparing to Download or Upload an Image File By Using TFTP”
section on page A-24.
Step 2
Log into the switch through the console port or a Telnet session.
Step 3
archive upload-sw
tftp:[[//location]/directory]/image-name.tar
Upload the currently running switch image to the TFTP server.
•
For //location, specify the IP address of the TFTP server.
•
For /directory/image-name.tar, specify the directory (optional)
and the name of the software image to be uploaded. Directory
and image names are case sensitive. The image-name.tar is the
name of the software image to be stored on the server.
The archive upload-sw privileged EXEC command builds an image file on the server by uploading these
files in order: info, the Cisco IOS image, and the web management files. After these files are uploaded,
the upload algorithm creates the tar file format.
Caution
For the download and upload algorithms to operate properly, do not rename image names.
Copying Image Files By Using FTP
You can download a switch image from an FTP server or upload the image from the switch to an FTP
server.
You download a switch image file from a server to upgrade the switch software. You can overwrite the
current image with the new one or keep the current image after a download.
You upload a switch image file to a server for backup purposes. You can use this uploaded image for
future downloads to the switch or another switch of the same type.
Note
Instead of using the copy privileged EXEC command or the archive tar privileged EXEC command, we
recommend using the archive download-sw and archive upload-sw privileged EXEC commands to
download and upload software image files.
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Appendix A
Working with the Cisco IOS File System, Configuration Files, and Software Images
Working with Software Images
Preparing to Download or Upload an Image File By Using FTP
You can copy images files to or from an FTP server.
The FTP protocol requires a client to send a remote username and password on each FTP request to a
server. When you copy an image file from the switch to a server by using FTP, the Cisco IOS software
sends the first valid username in this list:
•
The username specified in the archive download-sw or archive upload-sw privileged EXEC
command if a username is specified.
•
The username set by the ip ftp username username global configuration command if the command
is configured.
•
Anonymous.
The switch sends the first valid password in this list:
•
The password specified in the archive download-sw or archive upload-sw privileged EXEC
command if a password is specified.
•
The password set by the ip ftp password password global configuration command if the command
is configured.
•
The switch forms a password named username@switchname.domain. The variable username is the
username associated with the current session, switchname is the configured hostname, and domain
is the domain of the switch.
The username and password must be associated with an account on the FTP server. If you are writing to
the server, the FTP server must be properly configured to accept the FTP write request from you.
Use the ip ftp username and ip ftp password commands to specify a username and password for all
copies. Include the username in the archive download-sw or archive upload-sw privileged EXEC
command if you want to specify a username only for that operation.
If the server has a directory structure, the image file is written to or copied from the directory associated
with the username on the server. For example, if the image file resides in the home directory of a user
on the server, specify that user's name as the remote username.
Before you begin downloading or uploading an image file by using FTP, do these tasks:
•
Ensure that the switch has a route to the FTP server. The switch and the FTP server must be in the
same subnetwork if you do not have a router to route traffic between subnets. Check connectivity to
the FTP server by using the ping command.
•
If you are accessing the switch through the console or a Telnet session and you do not have a valid
username, make sure that the current FTP username is the one that you want to use for the FTP
download. You can enter the show users privileged EXEC command to view the valid username. If
you do not want to use this username, create a new FTP username by using the ip ftp username
username global configuration command. This new name will be used during all archive operations.
The new username is stored in NVRAM. If you are accessing the switch through a Telnet session
and you have a valid username, this username is used, and you do not need to set the FTP username.
Include the username in the archive download-sw or archive upload-sw privileged EXEC
command if you want to specify a username for that operation only.
•
When you upload an image file to the FTP server, it must be properly configured to accept the write
request from the user on the switch.
For more information, see the documentation for your FTP server.
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Appendix A
Working with the Cisco IOS File System, Configuration Files, and Software Images
Working with Software Images
Downloading an Image File By Using FTP
You can download a new image file and overwrite the current image or keep the current image.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow Steps 1 through 7 to download a new image from an FTP
server and overwrite the existing image. To keep the current image, go to Step 7.
Command
Purpose
Step 1
Verify that the FTP server is properly configured by referring
to the “Preparing to Download or Upload a Configuration File
By Using FTP” section on page A-12.
Step 2
Log into the switch through the console port or a Telnet
session.
Step 3
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
This step is required only if you override the default remote
username or password (see Steps 4, 5, and 6).
Step 4
ip ftp username username
(Optional) Change the default remote username.
Step 5
ip ftp password password
(Optional) Change the default password.
Step 6
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 7
archive download-sw /overwrite /reload
Download the image file from the FTP server to the switch,
ftp:[[//username[:password]@location]/directory] and overwrite the current image.
/image-name.tar
• The /overwrite option overwrites the software image in
flash memory with the downloaded image.
•
The /reload option reloads the system after downloading
the image unless the configuration has been changed and
not been saved.
•
For //username[:password], specify the username and
password; these must be associated with an account on the
FTP server.
•
For @location, specify the IP address of the FTP server.
•
For directory/image-name.tar, specify the directory
(optional) and the image to download. Directory and
image names are case sensitive.
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Appendix A
Working with the Cisco IOS File System, Configuration Files, and Software Images
Working with Software Images
Command
Step 8
Purpose
archive download-sw /leave-old-sw /reload
Download the image file from the FTP server to the switch,
ftp:[[//username[:password]@location]/directory] and keep the current image.
/image-name.tar
• The /leave-old-sw option keeps the old software version
after a download.
•
The /reload option reloads the system after downloading
the image unless the configuration has been changed and
not been saved.
•
For //username[:password], specify the username and
password. These must be associated with an account on
the FTP server.
•
For @location, specify the IP address of the FTP server.
•
For directory/image-name.tar, specify the directory
(optional) and the image to download. Directory and
image names are case sensitive.
The download algorithm verifies that the image is appropriate for the switch model and that enough
DRAM is present, or it aborts the process and reports an error. If you specify the /overwrite option, the
download algorithm removes the existing image on the flash device, whether or not it is the same as the
new one, downloads the new image, and then reloads the software.
Note
If the flash device has sufficient space to hold two images and you want to overwrite one of these images
with the same version, you must specify the /overwrite option.
If you specify the /leave-old-sw, the existing files are not removed. If there is not enough space to install
the new image and keep the running image, the download process stops, and an error message is
displayed.
The algorithm installs the downloaded image onto the system board flash device (flash:). The image is
placed into a new directory named with the software version string, and the BOOT environment variable
is updated to point to the newly installed image.
If you kept the old image during the download process (you specified the /leave-old-sw keyword), you
can remove it by entering the delete /force /recursive filesystem:/file-url privileged EXEC command.
For filesystem, use flash: for the system board flash device. For file-url, enter the directory name of the
old software image. All the files in the directory and the directory are removed.
Caution
For the download and upload algorithms to operate properly, do not rename image names.
Uploading an Image File By Using FTP
You can upload an image from the switch to an FTP server. You can later download this image to the
same switch or to another switch of the same type.
Use the upload feature only if the web management pages associated with the embedded device manager
have been installed with the existing image.
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Appendix A
Working with the Cisco IOS File System, Configuration Files, and Software Images
Working with Software Images
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to upload an image to an FTP server:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
Verify that the FTP server is properly configured by referring
to the “Preparing to Download or Upload a Configuration
File By Using FTP” section on page A-12.
Step 2
Log into the switch through the console port or a Telnet
session.
Step 3
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
This step is required only if you override the default remote
username or password (see Steps 4, 5, and 6).
Step 4
ip ftp username username
(Optional) Change the default remote username.
Step 5
ip ftp password password
(Optional) Change the default password.
Step 6
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 7
archive upload-sw
Upload the currently running switch image to the FTP server.
ftp:[[//[username[:password]@]location]/directory]/
• For //username:password, specify the username and
image-name.tar
password. These must be associated with an account on
the FTP server.
•
For @location, specify the IP address of the FTP server.
•
For /directory/image-name.tar, specify the directory
(optional) and the name of the software image to be
uploaded. Directory and image names are case sensitive.
The image-name.tar is the name of the software image
to be stored on the server.
The archive upload-sw command builds an image file on the server by uploading these files in order:
info, the Cisco IOS image, and the web management files. After these files are uploaded, the upload
algorithm creates the tar file format.
Caution
For the download and upload algorithms to operate properly, do not rename image names.
Copying Image Files By Using RCP
You can download a switch image from an RCP server or upload the image from the switch to an RCP
server.
You download a switch image file from a server to upgrade the switch software. You can overwrite the
current image with the new one or keep the current image after a download.
You upload a switch image file to a server for backup purposes. You can use this uploaded image for
future downloads to the same switch or another of the same type.
Note
Instead of using the copy privileged EXEC command or the archive tar privileged EXEC command, we
recommend using the archive download-sw and archive upload-sw privileged EXEC commands to
download and upload software image files.
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Working with the Cisco IOS File System, Configuration Files, and Software Images
Working with Software Images
Preparing to Download or Upload an Image File By Using RCP
RCP provides another method of downloading and uploading image files between remote hosts and the
switch. Unlike TFTP, which uses User Datagram Protocol (UDP), a connectionless protocol, RCP uses
TCP, which is connection-oriented.
To use RCP to copy files, the server from or to which you will be copying files must support RCP. The
RCP copy commands rely on the rsh server (or daemon) on the remote system. To copy files by using
RCP, you do not need to create a server for file distribution as you do with TFTP. You only need to have
access to a server that supports the remote shell (rsh). (Most UNIX systems support rsh.) Because you
are copying a file from one place to another, you must have read permission on the source file and write
permission on the destination file. If the destination file does not exist, RCP creates it for you.
RCP requires a client to send a remote username on each RCP request to a server. When you copy an
image from the switch to a server by using RCP, the Cisco IOS software sends the first valid username
in this list:
•
The username specified in the archive download-sw or archive upload-sw privileged EXEC
command if a username is specified.
•
The username set by the ip rcmd remote-username username global configuration command if the
command is entered.
•
The remote username associated with the current TTY (terminal) process. For example, if the user
is connected to the router through Telnet and was authenticated through the username command,
the switch software sends the Telnet username as the remote username.
•
The switch hostname.
For the RCP copy request to execute successfully, an account must be defined on the network server for
the remote username. If the server has a directory structure, the image file is written to or copied from
the directory associated with the remote username on the server. For example, if the image file resides
in the home directory of a user on the server, specify that user’s name as the remote username.
Before you begin downloading or uploading an image file by using RCP, do these tasks:
•
Ensure that the workstation acting as the RCP server supports the remote shell (rsh).
•
Ensure that the switch has a route to the RCP server. The switch and the server must be in the same
subnetwork if you do not have a router to route traffic between subnets. Check connectivity to the
RCP server by using the ping command.
•
If you are accessing the switch through the console or a Telnet session and you do not have a valid
username, make sure that the current RCP username is the one that you want to use for the RCP
download. You can enter the show users privileged EXEC command to view the valid username. If
you do not want to use this username, create a new RCP username by using the ip rcmd
remote-username username global configuration command to be used during all archive
operations. The new username is stored in NVRAM. If you are accessing the switch through a Telnet
session and you have a valid username, this username is used, and there is no need to set the RCP
username. Include the username in the archive download-sw or archive upload-sw privileged
EXEC command if you want to specify a username only for that operation.
•
When you upload an image to the RCP to the server, it must be properly configured to accept the
RCP write request from the user on the switch. For UNIX systems, you must add an entry to the
.rhosts file for the remote user on the RCP server.
For example, suppose the switch contains these configuration lines:
hostname Switch1
ip rcmd remote-username User0
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Appendix A
Working with the Cisco IOS File System, Configuration Files, and Software Images
Working with Software Images
If the switch IP address translates to Switch1.company.com, the .rhosts file for User0 on the RCP
server should contain this line:
Switch1.company.com Switch1
For more information, see the documentation for your RCP server.
Downloading an Image File By Using RCP
You can download a new image file and replace or keep the current image.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow Steps 1 through 6 to download a new image from an RCP
server and overwrite the existing image. To keep the current image, go to Step 6.
Command
Purpose
Step 1
Verify that the RCP server is properly configured by
referring to the “Preparing to Download or Upload a
Configuration File By Using RCP” section on page A-15.
Step 2
Log into the switch through the console port or a Telnet
session.
Step 3
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
This step is required only if you override the default remote
username (see Steps 4 and 5).
Step 4
ip rcmd remote-username username
(Optional) Specify the remote username.
Step 5
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 6
archive download-sw /overwrite /reload
rcp:[[[//[username@]location]/directory]/image-na
me.tar]
Download the image file from the RCP server to the switch,
and overwrite the current image.
•
The /overwrite option overwrites the software image in
flash memory with the downloaded image.
•
The /reload option reloads the system after downloading
the image unless the configuration has been changed and
not been saved.
•
For //username, specify the username. For the RCP copy
request to execute successfully, an account must be
defined on the network server for the remote username.
•
For @location, specify the IP address of the RCP server.
•
For /directory/image-name.tar, specify the directory
(optional) and the image to download. Directory and
image names are case sensitive.
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Working with the Cisco IOS File System, Configuration Files, and Software Images
Working with Software Images
Step 7
Command
Purpose
archive download-sw /leave-old-sw /reload
rcp:[[[//[username@]location]/directory]/image-na
me.tar]
Download the image file from the RCP server to the switch,
and keep the current image.
•
The /leave-old-sw option keeps the old software version
after a download.
•
The /reload option reloads the system after downloading
the image unless the configuration has been changed and
not been saved.
•
For //username, specify the username. For the RCP copy
request to execute, an account must be defined on the
network server for the remote username.
•
For @location, specify the IP address of the RCP server.
•
For /directory]/image-name.tar, specify the directory
(optional) and the image to download. Directory and
image names are case sensitive.
The download algorithm verifies that the image is appropriate for the switch model and that enough
DRAM is present, or it aborts the process and reports an error. If you specify the /overwrite option, the
download algorithm removes the existing image on the flash device whether or not it is the same as the
new one, downloads the new image, and then reloads the software.
Note
If the flash device has sufficient space to hold two images and you want to overwrite one of these images
with the same version, you must specify the /overwrite option.
If you specify the /leave-old-sw, the existing files are not removed. If there is not enough room to install
the new image an keep the running image, the download process stops, and an error message is
displayed.
The algorithm installs the downloaded image onto the system board flash device (flash:). The image is
placed into a new directory named with the software version string, and the BOOT environment variable
is updated to point to the newly installed image.
If you kept the old software during the download process (you specified the /leave-old-sw keyword), you
can remove it by entering the delete /force /recursive filesystem:/file-url privileged EXEC command.
For filesystem, use flash: for the system board flash device. For file-url, enter the directory name of the
old software image. All the files in the directory and the directory are removed.
Caution
For the download and upload algorithms to operate properly, do not rename image names.
Uploading an Image File By Using RCP
You can upload an image from the switch to an RCP server. You can later download this image to the
same switch or to another switch of the same type.
The upload feature should be used only if the web management pages associated with the embedded
device manager have been installed with the existing image.
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Appendix A
Working with the Cisco IOS File System, Configuration Files, and Software Images
Working with Software Images
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to upload an image to an RCP server:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
Verify that the RCP server is properly configured by
referring to the “Preparing to Download or Upload a
Configuration File By Using RCP” section on page A-15.
Step 2
Log into the switch through the console port or a Telnet
session.
Step 3
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
This step is required only if you override the default remote
username (see Steps 4 and 5).
Step 4
ip rcmd remote-username username
(Optional) Specify the remote username.
Step 5
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 6
archive upload-sw
rcp:[[[//[username@]location]/directory]/image-na
me.tar]
Upload the currently running switch image to the RCP
server.
•
For //username, specify the username; for the RCP copy
request to execute, an account must be defined on the
network server for the remote username.
•
For @location, specify the IP address of the RCP server.
•
For /directory]/image-name.tar, specify the directory
(optional) and the name of the software image to be
uploaded. Directory and image names are case sensitive.
•
The image-name.tar is the name of software image to be
stored on the server.
The archive upload-sw privileged EXEC command builds an image file on the server by uploading these
files in order: info, the Cisco IOS image, and the web management files. After these files are uploaded,
the upload algorithm creates the tar file format.
Caution
For the download and upload algorithms to operate properly, do not rename image names.
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