Frog Bikes OWNER`S MANUAL 3rd Edition, 2014 INTRODUCTION

Frog Bikes OWNER`S MANUAL 3rd Edition, 2014 INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
Thank you for choosing a Frog bike. We hope it will give you many hours of cycling
pleasure. The following pages will help you fully understand your bike and how to look
after it. They will provide you with the information you need to properly use, adjust,
maintain and service your new bike, so you can get the most out of every ride. Please
pay attention to any safety information – it’s there to help you avoid serious injury.
If you have not bought the bike from a stockist and it still needs to be assembled go
to www.frogbikes.com/manual where you will need a separate guide to setting up
your bike. It will tell you how to attach handlebars, front wheel and brakes, saddle
and pedals.
If you encounter any issues with your bike that aren’t covered in this manual, please
contact your nearest Frog Bikes stockist. As your number one resource, your stockist
can answer questions, perform required maintenance and recommend the best
equipment to complement your ride. A list of your nearest Frog bike stockists is
available at www.frogbikes.com
IMPORTANT
This manual meets EN
Standards 71, 14764,
14765, 14766 and 14781.
This manual meets AS/
NZS Standard 1927:1998
ANSI Z535.4
This manual meets CPSC
CFR 1512
Frog Bikes
OWNER’S MANUAL
3rd Edition,
2014
frogbikes.com
This manual contains important safety, performance and service information. Please
read it before you ride your new bike, and keep it for reference.
Additional safety, performance and service information for specific components such
as suspension or pedals on your bike, or for accessories such as helmets or lights
that you purchase, may also be available. Make sure your stockist has given you all
the literature that was included with your Frog bike or accessories. In case of a conflict
between the instructions in this manual and information provided by a component
manufacturer always follow the component manufacturer’s instructions.
If you have any questions or do not understand something take responsibility for your
safety and consult your stockist.
NOTE: This manual is not intended as a comprehensive use, service, repair
or maintenance manual. Please see your stockist for all service, repairs or
maintenance. Your stockist may also be able to refer you to courses or books
on bike use, service, repair or maintenance.
Please note all instructions are subject to change without notice. Please visit
www.frogbikes.com for technical updates.
CONTENT
WARNING
General Warning
A Special Note for Parents
1. INTRODUCTION
A. Bike Fit
B. Safety First
C. Mechanical Safety Check
D. First Ride
2. SAFETY
A. The Basics
B. Riding Safety
C. Off Road Safety
D. Wet Weather Riding
E. Night Riding
F. Extreme, Stunt or Competition Riding
G. Changing Components or Adding Accessories
3. FIT
A. Standover Height
B. Saddle Position
C. Handlebar Height and Angle
D. Control Position Adjustments
E. Brake Reach
4. TECH
A. Wheels
B. Seat Post Cam Action Clamp
C. Brakes
D. Shifting Gears
E. Pedals
F. Bicycle Suspension
G.Tyres and Tubes
5. SERVICE
A. Service Intervals
B. If Your Bicycle Sustains an Impact:
WARNINGS
APPENDIX A
Intended Use of
Your Bicycle
Kids
APPENDIX B
The Lifespan of Your Bike
and its Components
APPENDIX C
Coaster Brake
APPENDIX D
Fastener Torque
Specifications
APPENDIX E
Getting Started with a
Tadpole Balance Bike
APPENDIX F
Recommended Tools
General Warning:
Like any sport, cycling involves risk of injury and damage. By choosing to ride a bike,
you assume the responsibility for that risk, so you need to know the rules of safe and
responsible riding and of proper use and maintenance. Proper use and maintenance
of your bike reduces risk of injury.
This manual contains many “Warnings” and “Cautions” concerning the consequences
of failure to maintain or inspect your bike, and of failure to follow safe cycling practices.
• The combination of the safety alert symbol and the word WARNING indicates a
potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in serious injury
or death.
• The combination of the safety alert symbol and the word CAUTION indicates
a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, may result in minor or
moderate injury, or is an alert against unsafe practices.
• The word CAUTION used without the safety alert symbol indicates a situation
which, if not avoided, could result in serious damage to the bike or the voiding of
your warranty.
Many of the Warnings and Cautions say “you may lose control and fall”. Because any
fall can result in serious injury or even death, we do not always repeat the warning of
possible injury or death.
Because it is impossible to anticipate every situation or condition which can occur
while riding, this manual makes no representation about the safe use of the bike
under all conditions. There are risks associated with the use of any bicycle which
cannot be predicted or avoided, and which are the sole responsibility of the rider.
A Special Note for Parents:
As a parent or guardian you are responsible for the activities and safety of your
child and that includes making sure the bike is properly fitted to the child; that
it is in good repair and safe operating condition; that you and your child have
learned and understand the safe operation of the bike; and that you and your
child have learned, understand and obey not only the applicable local motor
vehicle, bicycle and traffic laws, but also the common sense rules of safe and
responsible cycling. As a parent, you should read this manual as well as review
its warnings and the bike’s functions and operating procedures with your child
before letting your child ride the bike.
WARNING: Make sure your child always wears an approved bicycle helmet
when riding; but also make sure that your child understands that a bicycle helmet
is for cycling only and must be removed when not riding. A helmet should not be
worn while playing, in play areas, on playground equipment, while climbing trees,
or at any time while not riding a bicycle. Failure to follow this warning could result
in serious injury or death.
WARNING: Make sure your child’s bike is sized correctly so that when the
saddle is adjusted correctly both feet can touch the ground. If your child’s new
bike doesn’t fit, ask your stockist to exchange it before you ride it.
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Frog Bikes
Owner’s Manual
3rd Edition
2014
1/ INTRODUCTION
NOTE: We strongly urge you to read this manual in its entirety before your first
ride. At the very least, read and make sure that you understand each point in
this section, and refer to the sections on any issue which you don’t completely
understand. Please note that not all bikes have all the features described in this
manual. Ask your local stockist to point out the features of your bike.
A. Bike Fit
1. Is your bike the right size? To check, see Section 3.A. If your bike is too large or too
small you may lose control and fall. If your new bike is not the right size, ask your
stockist to exchange it before you ride it.
2. Is the saddle at the right height? To check, see Section 3.B. If you adjust your
saddle height, follow the Minimum Insertion instructions in Section 3.B.
3. Are saddle and seat post securely clamped? A correctly tightened saddle will allow
no saddle movement in any direction. See Section 3.B.
4. Are the stem and handlebars at the right height? If not, see Section 3.C.
5. Can you comfortably operate the brakes? If not, you may be able to adjust their
angle and reach. See Section 3.D and 3.E.
6. Do you fully understand how to operate your new bike? If not, before your first ride,
ask your stockist to explain any functions or features you do not understand.
B. Safety First
1. Always wear an approved helmet when riding your bike, and follow the helmet
manufacturer’s instructions for fit, use and care.
2. Do you have all the other required and recommended safety equipment? See
Section 2. It’s your responsibility to familiarize yourself with the laws of the areas
where you ride, and to comply with all applicable laws.
3. Do you know how to correctly secure your front and rear wheels? Check Section
4.A.1 to make sure. Riding with an improperly secured wheel can cause the wheel
to wobble or disengage from the bike, and cause serious injury or death.
4. If your bike has toe clips and straps or clipless (“step-in”) pedals, make sure you
know how they work (see Section 4.E). These pedals require special techniques
and skills. Follow the pedal manufacturer’s instructions for use, adjustment and
care.
5. Do you have “toe overlap”? On smaller framed bikes your toe or toe clip may be
able to contact the front wheel when a pedal is all the way forward and the wheel is
turned. Read Section 4.E. to check whether you have toe overlap.
6. Does your bike have suspension? If so, check Section 4.F. Suspension can change
the way a bike performs. Follow the suspension manufacturer’s instructions for
use, adjustment and care.
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C. Mechanical Safety Check
Routinely check the condition of your bicycle before every ride.
Nuts, bolts screws & other fasteners: because manufacturers use a wide variety of
fastener sizes and shapes made in a variety of materials, often differing by model and
component, the correct tightening force or torque cannot be generalized. To make
sure that the many fasteners on your bike are correctly tightened, refer to the Fastener
Torque Specifications in Appendix D of this manual or to the torque specifications
in the instructions provided by the manufacturer of the component in question.
Correctly tightening a fastener requires a calibrated torque wrench. A professional
bicycle mechanic with a torque wrench should torque the fasteners on your bike. If
you choose to work on your own bike, you must use a torque wrench and the correct
tightening torque specifications from the bike or component manufacturer or from
your stockist. If you need to make an adjustment we urge you to exercise care, and to
have the fasteners checked by your stockist as soon as possible.
WARNING : Correct tightening force on fasteners – nuts, bolts, screws – on your
bicycle is important. Too little force, and the fastener may not hold securely. Too
much force, and the fastener can strip threads, stretch, deform or break. Either
way, incorrect tightening force can result in component failure, which can cause
you to lose control and fall.
Make sure nothing is loose. Lift the front wheel off the ground by two or three
inches, then let it bounce on the ground. Does anything sound, feel or look
loose? Do a visual and tactile inspection of the whole bike. Are there any loose
parts or accessories? If so, secure them. If you’re not sure, ask someone with
experience to check.
Tyres and wheels: Make sure tyres are correctly inflated (see Section 4.G.1). Check
by putting one hand on the saddle, one on the intersection of the handlebars and
stem, then bouncing your weight on the bike while looking at tyre deflection. Compare
what you see with how it looks when you know the tyres are correctly inflated; and
adjust if necessary. Are the tyres in good condition? Spin each wheel slowly and look
for cuts in the tread and sidewall. Replace damaged tyres before riding the bike. Are
the wheels “true”? Spin each wheel and check for brake clearance and lateral wobble.
If a wheel wobbles side to side even slightly, or rubs against the brake pads, take the
bike to a qualified bike stockist to have the wheel corrected.
CAUTION : Wheels must be true for rim brakes to work effectively. Wheel trueing
is a skill which requires special tools and experience. Do not attempt to true a
wheel unless you have the knowledge, experience and tools needed to do the
job correctly.
Wheel rims clean and undamaged? Make sure the rims are clean and undamaged at
the tyre bead and, if you have rim brakes, along the braking surface. Check to make
sure that any rim wear indicator marking is not visible at any point on the wheel rim.
WARNING : Bicycle wheel rims are subject to wear. Ask your stockist about
wheel rim wear. Some wheel rims have a rim wear indicator which becomes
visible as the rim’s braking surface wears. A visible rim wear indicator on the side
of the wheel rim is an indication that the wheel rim has reached its maximum
usable life. Riding a wheel that is at the end of its usable life can result in wheel
failure, which can cause you to lose control and fall.
Brakes: Check the brakes for proper operation (see Section 4.C). Squeeze the brake
levers. Are the brake quick-releases closed? Are all the control cables in place? If
you have rim brakes, do the brake pads contact the wheel rim squarely and make
full contact with the rim? Do the brakes begin to engage within an inch of brake
lever movement? Can you apply full braking force without the levers touching the
handlebar? If not, your brakes need adjustment. Do not ride the bike until the brakes
are properly adjusted by a professional mechanic.
Frog Bikes
Owner’s Manual
3rd Edition
2014
1/ INTRODUCTION
2/ SAFETY
Wheel retention system: Make sure the front and rear wheels are correctly secured.
See Section 4.A
A. The Basics
Handlebar and saddle alignment: Make sure the saddle and handlebar stem are
parallel to the bike’s centre line and clamped tight enough so that you can’t twist them
out of alignment. See Sections 3.B and 3.C.
WARNING : The area in which you ride may require specific safety devices. It is
your responsibility to familiarise yourself with the laws of the area where you ride
and to comply with all applicable laws, including properly equipping yourself and
your bike as the law requires.
Observe all local bicycle laws and regulations. Observe regulations about bicycle
lighting, licensing of bicycles, riding on pavements, laws regulating bike path
and trail use, helmet laws, child carrier laws, special bicycle traffic laws. It’s your
responsibility to know and obey the laws.
Handlebar ends: Make sure the handlebar grips are secure and in good condition. If
not, ask your stockist to replace them. Make sure the handlebar ends and extensions
are plugged. If not, ask your stockist to plug them before you ride. If the handlebars
have bar end extensions, make sure they are clamped tight enough so you can’t
twist them.
1. Always wear a cycling helmet which meets the latest certification standards and is
appropriate for the type of riding you do. Always follow the helmet manufacturer’s
instructions for fit, use and care of your helmet. Many serious bike injuries involve
head injuries which might have been avoided if the rider had worn an appropriate
helmet.
Seat post: If your seat post has an over-centre cam action fastener for easy height
adjustment check that it is properly adjusted and in the locked position. See Section
4.B.
WARNING : Loose or damaged handlebar grips, end plugs or extensions
should be replaced, as they can expose the ends of the handlebar, which have
been known to cause injury, and they can cause you to lose control and fall.
Unplugged handlebars or extensions can cut you and cause serious injury in an
otherwise minor accident.
This warning is particularly important for children’s bikes, which should be
inspected regularly to ensure adequate protection for the ends of the handlebar
is in place.
VERY IMPORTANT SAFETY NOTE:
Please also read and become thoroughly familiar with the important
information on the lifespan of your bicycle and its components in Appendix
B on Page 42.
D. First Ride
When you go for your first ride on your new bike we recommend doing so away from
cars, other cyclists, obstacles or hazards. Aim to become familiar with the controls,
features and performance of your new bike. Familiarise yourself with the braking
action of the bike (see Section 4.C). Test the brakes at slow speed, putting your
weight toward the rear and gently applying the brakes, rear brake first. Sudden or
excessive application of the front brake could pitch you over the handlebars. Applying
brakes too hard can lock up a wheel, which could cause you to lose control and fall.
Skidding is an example of what can happen when a wheel locks up.
If your bike has toeclips or clipless pedals, practice getting in and out of the pedals.
See paragraph B.4 above and Section 4.E.4. If your bike has suspension, familiarize
yourself with how the suspension responds to brake application and the position of
your body. See paragraph B.6 above and Section 4.F.
Practice shifting / changing the gears (see Section 4.D). Never shift/change gears
while pedaling backwards, nor pedal backwards immediately after having moved the
shifter. This could jam the chain and cause serious damage to the bike.
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Check out the handling and response of the bike; and check the comfort. If you have
any questions, or if you feel anything about the bike is not as it should be, consult your
stockist before you ride again.
WARNING : Failure to wear a helmet when riding may result in serious injury or
death.
2. Always do the Mechanical Safety Check (Section 1.C) before you get on a bike.
3. Be thoroughly familiar with the controls of your bike: brakes (Section 4.C.); pedals
(Section 4.E.); shifting (Section 4.D.)
4. Be careful to keep body parts and other objects away from the sharp teeth of
chain-rings, the moving chain, the turning pedals and cranks, and the spinning
wheels of your bike.
5. Always wear:
• Shoes that will stay on your feet and will grip the pedals. Make sure that shoe
laces cannot get into moving parts, and never ride barefoot or in sandals.
• Bright, visible clothing that is not so loose that it will get tangled in the bike or
snagged by objects at the side of the road or trail.
• Protective eyewear, to protect against dirt, dust and insects — tinted when the
sun is bright, clear when it’s not.
6. Don’t jump with your bike. Jumping a bike, particularly a BMX or mountain bike
can put huge and unpredictable stress on the bike and its components. Riders
who jump their bikes risk serious damage and injury. Before you attempt to jump,
perform stunts or race with your bike, read and understand Section 2.F.
7. Ride at a speed appropriate for conditions. Higher speed means higher risk.
Frog Bikes
Owner’s Manual
3rd Edition
2014
2/ SAFETY
B. Riding Safety
1. Obey all rules of the road.
2. Respect the rights of motorists, pedestrians and other cyclists.
3. Ride defensively, anticipating dangers. Always assume that other road users and
pedestrians do not see you.
4. Look ahead, and be ready to avoid:
• Vehicles slowing or turning, entering the road or your lane ahead of you, or
coming up behind you.
• Parked car doors opening.
• Pedestrians stepping out.
• Children or pets playing near the road.
• Pot holes, manhole covers, railway tracks, expansion joints, road or pavement
construction, debris and other obstructions that could cause you to swerve
into traffic, catch your wheel or cause you to have an accident.
• The many other hazards and distractions which can occur on a bike ride.
5. Ride in designated bike lanes if available, on designated bike paths or as close
to the edge of the road as possible, in the direction of traffic flow or as directed
by local laws.
6. Stop at stop signs and traffic lights; slow down and look both ways at street
intersections. Remember that a bike comes off second best in a collision with a
motor vehicle so be prepared to give way even if you have the right of way.
7. Use approved hand signals for turning and stopping.
8. Never ride wearing headphones or earphones. They mask traffic sounds and
emergency vehicle sirens, distract you from concentrating on what’s going on
and their wires can tangle in the moving parts of the bike, causing you to lose
control.
9. Never carry a passenger, unless it is a small child wearing an approved helmet
and secured in a correctly mounted child carrier or a child-carrying trailer.
10. Never carry anything which obstructs your vision or your complete control of the
bike, or which could become entangled in the moving parts of the bike.
11. Never hold on to another vehicle.
12. Don’t perform stunts, wheelies or jumps. If you intend to do stunts, wheelies,
jumps or go racing with your bike despite our advice not to, read Section 2.F,
Downhill, Stunt or Competition Biking. Think carefully about your skills before
deciding to take the large risks that go with this kind of riding.
13. Don’t weave through traffic or make any moves that may surprise people with
whom you are sharing the road.
14. Observe and give way to those who have the right of way.
15. Never ride your bike under the influence of alcohol or drugs.
16. If possible, avoid riding in bad weather, when visibility is obscured, at dawn, dusk
or in the dark, or when extremely tired. Each of these conditions increases the
risk of accident.
C. Off Road Safety
We recommend children do not ride on rough terrain unless accompanied by
an adult.
1. The variable conditions and hazards of off-road riding require close attention and
specific skills. Start slowly on easier terrain and build up your skills. If your bike
has suspension, the increased speed you may develop also increases your risk
of losing control and falling. Learn how to handle your bike safely before trying
increased speed or more difficult terrain.
2. Wear appropriate safety clothing and equipment .
3. Don’t ride alone in remote areas. Even when riding with others, make sure someone
knows where you’re going and when you expect to be back.
4. Always carry identification so that people know who you are in case of accident;
and take along some cash for food, a drink or an emergency phone call.
5. Give way to pedestrians and animals. Ride in a way that does not frighten or
endanger them, and give them enough room so that their unexpected moves don’t
endanger you.
6. Be prepared. If something goes wrong while you’re riding off-road help may not
be close at hand.
7. Before you attempt to jump, perform stunts or race with your bike, read and
understand Section 2.F.
Off Road Respect
Obey the local laws regulating where and how you can ride off-road, and
respect private property. You may be sharing the route with others — hikers,
equestrians, other cyclists. Respect their rights. Stay on the designated
cycle trail if there is one. Don’t exacerbate erosion by riding in mud or
with unnecessary sliding. Don’t disturb wildlife by taking shortcuts through
vegetation or streams. It is your responsibility to minimize your impact on the
environment. Leave things as you find them.
D. Wet Weather Riding
WARNING : Wet weather impairs traction, braking and visibility, both for the
cyclist and other vehicles sharing the road. The risk of an accident is dramatically
increased in wet conditions. Under wet conditions the stopping power of your
brakes (as well as the brakes of other vehicles sharing the road) is dramatically
reduced and your tyres don’t grip as well. This makes it harder to control speed
and easier to lose control. To make sure you can slow down and stop safely in
wet conditions, ride more slowly and apply your brakes earlier and more gradually
than you would in dry conditions. See also Section 4.C.
Frog Bikes
Owner’s Manual
3rd Edition
frogbikes.com
2014
2/ SAFETY
E. Night Riding
Riding a bike at night is much more dangerous than riding during the day. A cyclist
is very difficult for motorists and pedestrians to see. Therefore children should never
ride at dawn, at dusk or at night. Adults who chose to accept the greatly increased
risk of riding at dawn, at dusk or at night need to take extra care both riding and
choosing equipment which helps reduce that risk. Consult your stockist about night
riding safety equipment.
WARNING: Reflectors are not a substitute for required lights. Riding at dawn,
at dusk, at night or at other times of poor visibility without an adequate bicycle
lighting system and without reflectors is dangerous and may result in serious
injury or death.
Bicycle reflectors are designed to pick up and reflect car lights and street lights in a
way that may help you to be seen and be recognised as a moving bicyclist.
CAUTION : Check reflectors and their mounting brackets regularly to make sure
that they are clean, straight, unbroken and securely mounted. Replace damaged
reflectors and straighten or tighten any that are bent or loose.
The mounting brackets of front and rear reflectors are often designed as brake
straddle cable safety catches which prevent the straddle cable from catching on
the tyre tread if the cable jumps out of its yoke or breaks.
WARNING: Do not remove the front or rear reflectors or reflector brackets from
your bike. They are an integral part of the bike’s safety system. Removing the
reflectors reduces your visibility to others. The reflector brackets may protect you
from a brake straddle cable catching on the tyre in the event of brake cable failure.
If a brake straddle cable catches on the tyre, it can cause the wheel to stop
suddenly, causing you to lose control and fall.
If you choose to ride under conditions of poor visibility, check and be sure you comply
with all local laws about night riding, and take the following strongly recommended
additional precautions:
• Purchase and install battery or generator powered front and rear lights which
meet all regulations and provide adequate visibility.
• Wear light coloured, reflective clothing and accessories, such as a reflective
vest, reflective arm and leg bands, reflective stripes on your helmet, flashing
lights attached to your body and/or your bike. Any reflective device or light
source that moves will help alert approaching motorists, pedestrians and other
traffic.
• Make sure your clothing or anything you may be carrying on the bike does not
obstruct a reflector or light.
• Make sure your bike is equipped with correctly positioned and securely mounted
reflectors.
While riding at dawn, at dusk or at night:
• Ride slowly.
• Avoid dark areas and areas of heavy or fast-moving traffic.
• Avoid road hazards.
• If possible, ride on familiar routes.
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If riding in traffic:
• Be predictable. Ride so drivers can see you and predict your movements.
• Be alert. Ride defensively and expect the unexpected.
• If you plan to ride in traffic regularly, ask your stockist about cycling safety
courses or a good source of information on traffic safety.
F. Extreme, Stunt or Competition Riding
Extreme or aggressive riding is dangerous and you voluntarily assume a
greatly increased risk of injury or death.
Not all bikes are designed for extreme riding, and those that are may not be suitable
for all types of aggressive riding. Check with your stockist about the suitability of your
bike.
When riding downhill you can reach speeds achieved by motorbikes, and therefore
face similar hazards and risks. Make sure your bike is in perfect condition.
Consult with expert riders or officials (if in competition) on conditions and wear
appropriate safety gear such as a full face helmet, full finger gloves and body armour.
It is your responsibility to have proper equipment and to be familiar with course
conditions.
WARNING : Although many catalogues, advertisements and articles depict
riders engaged in extreme riding, this activity is extremely dangerous, increases
your risk of injury or death, and increases the severity of any injury. Remember
that the action depicted is being performed by professionals with many years of
training and experience. Know your limits and always wear a helmet and other
appropriate safety gear. Even with state-of-the-art protective safety gear, you
could be seriously injured or killed when jumping, stunt riding, riding downhill at
speed or in competition.
WARNING : Bicycles and bicycle parts have limitations with regard to strength
and integrity, and this type of riding can exceed those limitations.
We recommend against this type of riding because of the increased risks; but if you
choose to take the risk, at least:
• Take lessons from a competent instructor first
• Start with easy exercises and slowly develop your skills before trying more
difficult or dangerous riding
• Use only designated areas for stunts, jumping, racing or fast downhill riding
• Wear a full face helmet, safety pads and other safety gear
• Understand and recognise that the stresses imposed on your bike by this kind
of activity may break or damage parts of the bike and void the warranty
• Take your bike to your stockist if anything breaks or bends. Do not ride your bike
when any part is damaged.
• If you ride downhill at speed, perform stunts or ride in competition, know the
limits of your skill and experience. Ultimately, avoiding injury is your responsibility.
Frog Bikes
Owner’s Manual
3rd Edition
2014
2/ SAFETY
G. Changing Components or Adding Accessories
There are many components and accessories available to enhance the comfort,
performance and appearance of your bike. However, if you change components or
add accessories you do so at your own risk. We may not have tested that component
or accessory for compatibility, reliability or safety on your bike. Before installing any
component or accessory, including a different size tyre, make sure it is compatible
with your bike by checking with your stockist. Be sure to read, understand and follow
the instructions that accompany the products you purchase for your bike. See also
Appendix A, and B,
WARNING : Failure to confirm compatibility, properly install, operate and maintain
any component or accessory can result in serious injury or death.
WARNING : Changing the components on your bike with other than genuine
replacement parts may compromise the safety of your bicycle and may void the
warranty. For example, replacement forks must have the same rake and steerer
tube inner diameter as those originally fitted with the bicycle. Check with your
stockist before changing the components on your bike.
3/ FIT
NOTE: Correct fit is an essential element of cycling safety, performance and
comfort. Making the adjustments to your bike which result in correct fit for your
body and riding conditions requires experience, skill and special tools.
Always ask your stockist to make the adjustments or, if you have the experience,
skill and tools, ask your stockist to check your work before riding.
WARNING : Make sure that the seat position is adjustable so that the feet of
a seated rider can touch the ground. This warning is particularly important for
children. If your bike does not fit properly you may lose control and fall. If your new
bike doesn’t fit, ask your stockist to exchange it before you ride it.
A. Standover Height
1. Diamond frame bikes
fig.2
Standover height is the basic element of bike fit (see
above). It is the distance from the ground to the top
of the bike’s frame at that point where your crotch is
when straddling the bike.
To check for correct standover height, straddle the bike while wearing the kind of
shoes in which you’ll be riding, and bounce on your heels. If your crotch touches
the frame, the bike is too big for you. A bike which you ride on roads and don’t take
off-road should give you a minimum standover height clearance of two inches (5
cm). A bike you’ll ride on unpaved surfaces should give you a minimum of three
inches (7.5 cm) of standover height clearance. A bike you’ll use off road should
give you four inches (10 cm) or more of clearance.
2. Step-through frame bikes
Standover height does not apply to bikes with step-through frames. Instead, the
limiting dimension is determined by saddle height range. You must be able to
adjust your saddle position as described in B without exceeding the limits set by
the height of the top of the seat tube and the ”Minimum Insertion” or “Maximum
Extension” mark on the seat post.
B. Saddle Position
Correct saddle adjustment is an important factor in
getting the most performance and comfort from your
bike. If the saddle position is not comfortable for you,
see your stockist. The saddle can be adjusted in three
directions:
1. Up and down adjustment. To check for correct
saddle height (fig. 3):
• sit on the saddle;
• place one heel on a pedal;
• rotate the crank until the pedal with your heel on
it is in the down position and the crank arm is
parallel to the seat tube.
If your leg is not completely straight, your saddle height needs to be adjusted. If you
need to rock your hips for the heel to reach the pedal, the saddle is too high. If your
leg is bent at the knee with your heel on the pedal, the saddle is too low.
Ask your stockist to set the saddle for your optimal riding position and to show
you how to make this adjustment. If you choose to make your own saddle height
adjustment :
• loosen the seat post clamp
• raise or lower the seat post in the seat tube
• make sure the saddle is straight
• re-tighten the seat post clamp to the recommended torque (see Appendix D).
Once the saddle is at the correct height, make sure that the seat post does not
project from the frame beyond its “Minimum Insertion” or “Maximum Extension” mark
(fig. 4).
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NOTE: Some bikes have a sight hole in the seat tube, the purpose of which is to
make it easy to see whether the seat post is inserted in the seat tube far enough
to be safe. If your bike has such a sight hole, use it instead of the “Minimum
Insertion” or “Maximum Extension” mark to make sure the seat post is inserted
in the seat tube far enough to be visible through the sight hole.
WARNING: If your seat post is not inserted in the seat tube as described in B.1
above, the seat post may break, which could cause you to lose control and fall.
2. Front and back adjustment. The saddle can be adjusted forwards or back to help
you achieve the optimal position on the bike. Ask your stockist to set the saddle
for your optimal riding position and to show you how to make this adjustment. If
you choose to make your own front and back adjustment, make sure the clamp
mechanism is clamping on the straight part of the saddle rails and not touching the
curved part of the rails, and that you are using the recommended torque on the
clamping fastener(s) (see Appendix D).
3. Saddle angle adjustment. Most people prefer a horizontal saddle; but some riders
like the saddle nose angled up or down just a little. Your stockist can adjust saddle
angle or teach you how to do it. If you choose to make your own saddle angle
adjustment and you have a single bolt saddle clamp on your seat post, it is critical
that you loosen the clamp bolt sufficiently to allow any serrations on the mechanism
to disengage before changing the saddle’s angle, and then that the serrations fully
re-engage before you tighten the clamp bolt to the recommended torque (see
Appendix D).
WARNING: When making saddle angle adjustments with a single bolt saddle
clamp always check to make sure the serrations on the mating surfaces of the
clamp are not worn. Worn serrations can allow the saddle to move, causing you
to lose control and fall.
Always tighten fasteners to the correct torque. Bolts that are too tight can stretch and
deform. Bolts that are too loose can move and wear. Either can lead to a sudden
failure of the bolt, causing you to lose control and fall.
NOTE: If your bike is equipped with a suspension seat post, the suspension
mechanism may require periodic service or maintenance. Ask your stockist for
recommended service intervals for your suspension seat post.
Small changes in saddle position can have a substantial effect on performance and
comfort. To find your best saddle position, make only one adjustment at a time.
WARNING: After any saddle adjustment, be sure that the saddle adjusting
mechanism is properly seated and tightened before riding. A loose saddle clamp
or seat post clamp can cause damage to the seat post, or can cause you to
lose control and fall. A correctly tightened saddle adjusting mechanism will allow
no saddle movement in any direction. Periodically check to make sure that the
saddle adjusting mechanism is properly tightened.
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If, in spite of carefully adjusting the saddle height, tilt and fore-and-aft position, your
saddle is still uncomfortable, you may need a different saddle design. Saddles come
in many different shapes and sizes. Your stockist can help you select a saddle which,
when correctly adjusted for your body and riding style, will be comfortable.
WARNING: Some people have claimed that extended riding with a saddle
which is incorrectly adjusted or which does not support your pelvic area correctly
can cause short-term or long-term injury to nerves and blood vessels, or even
impotence. If your saddle causes you pain, numbness or other discomfort, listen
to your body and stop riding until you see your stockist about saddle adjustment
or a different saddle.
C. Handlebar Height and Angle
Frog bikes are equipped with a “threadless” stem, which clamps on to the outside of
the steerer tube.
Your stockist may be able to change handlebar height by
moving height adjustment spacers from below the stem to
above the stem, or vice versa. Otherwise, you’ll have to get a
stem of different length or rise. Consult your stockist. Do not
attempt to do this yourself, as it requires special knowledge.
WARNING: On some bikes, changing the stem or stem
height can affect the tension of the front brake cable, locking
the front brake or creating excess cable slack which can
make the front brake inoperable. If the front brake pads
move in towards the wheel rim or out away from the wheel rim when the stem or
stem height is changed, the brakes must be correctly adjusted before you ride
the bike.
WARNING: Always tighten fasteners to the correct torque. Bolts that are too tight
can stretch and deform. Bolts that are too loose can move and fatigue. Either
mistake can lead to a sudden failure of the bolt, causing you to lose control and
fall.
WARNING: An insufficiently tightened stem clamp bolt, handlebar clamp bolt or
bar end extension clamping bolt may compromise steering action, which could
cause you to lose control and fall. Place the front wheel of the bike between your
legs and attempt to twist the handlebar/stem assembly. If you can twist the stem
in relation to the front wheel, turn the handlebars in relation to the stem, or turn
the bar end extensions in relation to the handlebar, the bolts aren’t tight enough.
WARNING: During use of aero extensions you will have less control over the
bike. You will have a diminished ability to steer. You will also need to reset your
hands to operate the brakes, which means your response to braking will take
longer.
D. Control Position Adjustments
The angle of the brake and shift control levers and their position on the handlebars
can be changed. Ask your stockist to make the adjustments for you. If you choose
to make your own control lever angle adjustment, be sure to re-tighten the clamp
fasteners to the recommended torque (see Appendix D).
E. Brake Reach
Many bikes have brake levers which can be adjusted for reach. If you have small
hands or find it difficult to squeeze the brake levers your stockist can either adjust the
reach or fit shorter reach brake levers.
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WARNING: The shorter the brake lever reach, the more critical it is to have
correctly adjusted brakes so that full braking power can be applied within available
brake lever travel. If the brake lever travel isn’t enough to apply full braking power it
can result in loss of control, which may result in serious injury or death.
Tadpole, Frog 43 and Frog 48 have 15 hex nuts or hex key bolts which are threaded
onto or into the hub axle
4/ TECHNICAL INFORMATION
It’s important to your safety, performance and enjoyment to understand how things
work on your bike. We urge you to ask your stockist how to do the things described
in this section before you attempt them yourself, and that you ask your stockist to
check your work before you ride. If you have even the slightest doubt as to whether
you understand something in this section, talk to your stockist. See also Appendix
A, B, C and D.
A. Wheels
Bicycle wheels are designed to be removable for easier transportation and for puncture
repairs. In most cases, the wheel axles are inserted into slots, called “dropouts” in the
fork and frame, but some suspension mountain bikes use what is called a “through
axle” wheel mounting system.
If you have a mountain bike equipped with through axle wheels make sure your
stockist has given you the relevant instructions, and follow those when installing or
removing a through axle wheel. If you don’t know what a through axle is, ask your
stockist.
Frog Bikes wheels are secured in one of two ways:
• Frog 52 upwards use a hollow axle with a shaft (“skewer”) running through it
which has an adjustable tension nut on one end and an over-centre cam on
the other
Your bike may be equipped with a different securing method for the front wheel than
for the rear wheel. Discuss the wheel securing method for your bike with your stockist.
It is very important that you understand the type of wheel securing method on your
bike, that you know how to secure the wheels correctly, and that you know how to
apply the correct clamping force that safely secures the wheel. Ask your stockist to
instruct you in correct wheel removal and installation, and ask him to give you the
relevant instructions.
WARNING: Riding with an improperly secured wheel can allow the wheel to
wobble or fall off the bike, which can cause serious injury or death. Therefore, it
is essential that you:
•Ask your stockist to help you make sure you know how to install and remove
your wheels safely.
•Understand and apply the correct technique for clamping your wheel in place.
•Each time, before you ride,check the wheel is securely clamped.
•The clamping action of a correctly secured wheel must emboss the surfaces
of the dropouts.
1. Front Wheel Secondary Retention Devices
Most bikes have front forks which utilize a secondary wheel retention device to
reduce the risk of the wheel disengaging from the fork if the wheel is incorrectly
secured. Secondary retention devices are not a substitute for correctly securing
your front wheel.
Secondary retention devices fall into two basic categories:
a. The clip-on type is a part the manufacturer adds to the front wheel hub or
front fork.
b. The integral type is molded, cast or machined into the outer faces of the front
fork dropouts.
Ask your stockist to explain the particular secondary retention device on your bike.
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WARNING: Do not remove or disable the secondary retention device. As its
name implies, it serves as a back-up for a critical adjustment. If the wheel is not
secured correctly, the secondary retention device can reduce the risk of the wheel
disengaging from the fork. Removing or disabling the secondary retention device
may also void the warranty. Secondary retention devices are not a substitute for
correctly securing your wheel. Failure to properly secure the wheel can cause the
wheel to wobble or disengage, which could cause you to lose control and fall,
resulting in serious injury or death.
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2. Wheels with Cam Action Systems
There are currently two types of over-centre cam wheel retention mechanisms:
Both use an over-centre cam action to clamp the bike’s wheel in place. Your bike
may have a cam-and-cup front wheel retention system and a traditional rear wheel
cam action system.
a. Adjusting the traditional cam action mechanism
The wheel hub is clamped in place by the force of the over-centre cam pushing
against one dropout and pulling the tension adjusting nut, by way of the skewer,
against the other dropout. The amount of clamping force is controlled by the
tension adjusting nut. Turning the tension adjusting nut clockwise while keeping
the cam lever from rotating increases clamping force; turning it anticlockwise
while keeping the cam lever from rotating reduces clamping force. Less than
half a turn of the tension adjusting nut can make the difference between safe
clamping force and unsafe clamping force.
WARNING: The full force of the cam action is needed to clamp the wheel
securely. Holding the nut with one hand and turning the lever like a wing nut with
the other hand until everything is as tight as you can get it will not clamp a cam
action wheel safely in the dropouts. See also the first WARNING in this Section
b. Adjusting the cam-and-cup mechanism
The cam-and-cup system on your front wheel will have been correctly adjusted
for your bike by your stockist. Ask them to check the adjustment every six
months. Do not use a cam-and-cup front wheel on any bike other than the one
for which it was adjusted.
3. Removing and Installing Wheels
WARNING: If your bike is equipped with a hub brake such as a rear coaster
brake, front or rear drum, band or roller brake; or if it has an internal gear rear hub,
do not attempt to remove the wheel. The removal and re-installation of most hub
brakes and internal gear hubs requires special knowledge. Incorrect removal or
assembly can result in brake or gear failure, which can cause you to lose control
and fall.
CAUTION: If your bike has a disc brake, exercise care in touching the rotor or
caliper. Disc rotors have sharp edges, and both rotor and caliper can get very
hot during use.
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a. Removing a disk brake or rim brake front wheel
(1) If your bike has rim brakes, disengage the brake’s quick-release mechanism to
increase the clearance between the tyre and the brake pads (See Section 4.C
fig. 11 through 15).
(2) If your bike has cam action front wheel retention, move the cam lever from the
locked or ‘Closed’ position to the ‘Open’ position (figs. 8a & b). If your bike has
through bolt or bolt-on front wheel retention, loosen the fastener(s) a few turns
counter-clockwise using an appropriate wrench, lock key or the integral lever.
(3) If your front fork has a clip-on type secondary retention device, disengage it and
go to step (4). If your front fork has an integral secondary retention device, and a
traditional cam action system (fig. 8a) loosen the tension adjusting nut enough to
allow removing the wheel from the dropouts. If your front wheel uses a cam-andcup system, (fig. 8b) squeeze the cup and cam lever together while removing
the wheel. No rotation of any part is necessary with the cam-and-cup system.
(4) You may need to tap the top of the wheel with the palm of your hand to release
the wheel from the front fork.
b. Installing a disk brake or rim brake front wheel
CAUTION: If your bike is equipped with a front disc brake, be careful not to
damage the disc, caliper or brake pads when re-inserting the disc into the caliper.
Never activate a disc brake’s control lever unless the disc is correctly inserted in
the caliper. See also Section 4.C.
(1) If your bike has cam action front wheel retention, move the cam lever so that it
curves away from the wheel (fig. 8b). This is the ‘Open’ position. If your bike has
through bolt or bolt-on front wheel retention, go to the next step.
(2) With the steering fork facing forward, insert the wheel between the fork blades
so that the axle seats firmly at the top of the fork dropouts. The cam lever, if
there is one, should be on the rider’s left hand side of the bike (fig. 8a & b). If
your bike has a clip-on type secondary retention device, engage it.
(3) If you have a traditional cam action mechanism: holding the cam lever in the
‘Adjust’ position with your right hand, tighten the tension adjusting nut with your
left hand until it is finger tight against the fork dropout. If you have a cam-andcup system: the nut and cup will have snapped into the recessed area of the
fork dropouts and no adjustment should be required.
(4) While pushing the wheel firmly to the top of the slots in the fork dropouts, and
at the same time centering the wheel rim in the fork:
(a) With a cam action system, move the cam lever upwards and swing it
into the ‘Closed’ position. The lever should now be parallel to the fork
blade and curved toward the wheel. To apply enough clamping force, you
should have to wrap your fingers around the fork blade for leverage, and
the lever should leave a clear imprint in the palm of your hand.
(b) With a through-bolt or bolt-on system, tighten the fasteners to the torque
specifications in Appendix D or the hub manufacturer’s instructions.
NOTE: If, on a traditional cam action system, the lever cannot be pushed all
the way to a position parallel to the fork blade, return the lever to the ‘Open’
position. Then turn the tension adjusting nut anti-clockwise a quarter turn and
try tightening the lever again.
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WARNING: Securely clamping the wheel with a cam action retention device
takes considerable force. If you can fully close the cam lever without wrapping
your fingers around the fork blade for leverage, the lever does not leave a clear
imprint in the palm of your hand and the serrations on the wheel fastener do not
emboss the surfaces of the dropouts, the tension is insufficient. Open the lever;
turn the tension adjusting nut clockwise a quarter turn; then try again.
(5) If you disengaged the brake quick-release mechanism in 3. a. (1) above, reengage it to restore correct brake pad-to-rim clearance.
(6) Spin the wheel to make sure that it is centred in the frame and clears the
brake pads; then squeeze the brake lever and make sure that the brakes are
operating correctly.
c. Removing a disk brake or rim brake rear wheel
(1) If you have a multi-speed bike with a derailleur gear system: shift the rear
derailleur to high gear (the smallest, outermost rear sprocket).
If you have an internal gear rear hub, consult your stockist or the hub
manufacturer’s instructions before attempting to remove the rear wheel.
If you have a single-speed bike with rim or disk brake, go to step (4) below.
(2) If your bike has rim brakes, disengage the brake’s quick-release mechanism to
increase the clearance between the wheel rim and the brake pads (see Section
4.C, figs. 11 through 15).
(3) On a derailleur gear system, pull the derailleur body back with your right hand.
(4) With a cam action mechanism, move the quick-release lever to the OPEN
position (fig. 8b). With a through bolt or bolt on mechanism, loosen the
fastener(s) with an appropriate wrench, lock lever or integral lever; then push the
wheel forward far enough to be able to remove the chain from the rear sprocket.
(5) Lift the rear wheel off the ground a few inches and remove it from the rear
dropouts.
d. Installing a disk brake or rim brake rear wheel
WARNING: If your bike is equipped with a rear disc brake, be careful not to
damage the disc, caliper or brake pads when re-inserting the disc into the caliper.
Never activate a disc brake’s control lever unless the disc is correctly inserted in
the caliper.
(1) With a cam action system, move the cam lever to the ‘Open’ position. The
lever should be on the side of the wheel opposite the derailleur and freewheel
sprockets.
(2) On a derailleur bike, make sure that the rear derailleur is still in its outermost,
high gear position; then pull the derailleur body back with your right hand. Put
the chain on top of the smallest freewheel sprocket.
(3) On single-speed bikes, remove the chain from the front sprocket, so that you
have plenty of slack in the chain. Put the chain on the rear wheel sprocket.
(4) Then, insert the wheel into the frame dropouts and pull it all the way in to the
dropouts.
(5) On a single speed or an internal gear hub, replace the chain on the chain-ring;
pull the wheel back in the dropouts so that it is straight in the frame and the
chain has about 6mm (1/4 inches) of up-and-down play.
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(6) With a cam action system, move the cam lever upwards and swing it into the
‘Closed’ position. The lever should now be parallel to the seat stay or chain stay
and curved toward the wheel. To apply enough clamping force, you should have
to wrap your fingers around the fork blade for leverage, and the lever should leave
a clear imprint in the palm of your hand.
(7) With a through-bolt or bolt-on system, tighten the fasteners to the torque
specifications in Appendix D or the hub manufacturer’s instructions.
NOTE: If, on a traditional cam action system, the lever cannot be pushed all the
way to a position parallel to the seat stay or chain stay, return the lever to the
OPEN position. Then turn the tension adjusting nut anti-clockwise a quarter
turn and try tightening the lever again.
WARNING: Securely clamping the wheel with a cam action retention device
takes considerable force. If you can fully close the cam lever without wrapping
your fingers around the seat stay or chain stay for leverage, the lever does not
leave a clear imprint in the palm of your hand and the serrations on the wheel
fastener do not emboss the surfaces of the dropouts, the tension is insufficient.
Open the lever; turn the tension adjusting nut clockwise a quarter turn; then try
again. See also the first WARNING in this section.
(8) If you disengaged the brake quick-release mechanism in 3. c. (2) above, reengage it to restore correct brake pad-to-rim clearance.
(9) Spin the wheel to make sure that it is centred in the frame and clears the brake
pads; then squeeze the brake lever and make sure that the brakes are operating
correctly.
B. Seat Post Cam Action Clamp
Some bikes are equipped with a cam action seat post binder. The seat post cam
action binder works exactly like the traditional wheel cam action fastener (Section
4.A.2) While a cam action binder looks like a long bolt with a lever on one end and a
nut on the other, the binder uses an over-centre cam action to firmly clamp the seat
post (see fig. 8).
WARNING: Riding with an improperly tightened seat post can allow the saddle to
turn or move and cause you to lose control and fall. Therefore:
1. Ask your stockist to help you make sure you know how to correctly clamp your
seat post.
2. Understand and apply the correct technique for clamping your seat post.
3. Before you ride the bike, first check that the seat post is securely clamped.
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Adjusting the seat post cam action mechanism
The action of the cam squeezes the seat collar around the seat post to hold the seat
post securely in place. The amount of clamping force is controlled by the tension
adjusting nut. Turning the tension adjusting nut clockwise while keeping the cam
lever from rotating increases clamping force; turning it anticlockwise while keeping the
cam lever from rotating reduces clamping force. Less than half a turn of the tension
adjusting nut can make the difference between safe and unsafe clamping force.
WARNING: The full force of the cam action is needed to clamp the seat post
securely. Holding the nut with one hand and turning the lever like a wing nut with
the other hand until everything is as tight as you can get it will not clamp the seat
post safely.
WARNING: If you can fully close the cam lever without wrapping your fingers
around the seat post or a frame tube for leverage, and the lever does not leave a
clear imprint in the palm of your hand, the tension is insufficient. Open the lever;
turn the tension adjusting nut clockwise a quarter turn; then try again.
C. Brakes
There are three general types of bicycle brakes:
I. rim brakes, which operate by squeezing the wheel rim between two brake pads;
II. disc brakes, which operate by squeezing a hub-mounted disc between two brake pads;
WARNING:
1. Riding with improperly adjusted brakes, worn brake pads, or wheels on which
the rim wear mark is visible is dangerous and can result in serious injury or death.
2. Applying brakes too hard or too suddenly can lock up a wheel, which could
cause you to lose control and fall. Sudden or excessive application of the front
brake may pitch the rider over the handlebars, which may result in serious injury
or death.
3. Some bicycle brakes, such as disc brakes (fig. 11) and linear-pull brakes
(fig. 12), are extremely powerful. Take extra care in becoming familiar with these
brakes and exercise particular care when using them.
4. Some bicycle brakes are equipped with a brake force modulator, a small,
cylindrical device through which the brake control cable runs and which is
designed to provide a more progressive application of braking force. A modulator
makes the initial brake lever force more gentle, progressively increasing force until
full force is achieved. If your bike is equipped with a brake force modulator, take
extra care in becoming familiar with its performance characteristics.
5. Disc brakes can get extremely hot with extended use. Be careful not to touch
a disc brake until it has had plenty of time to cool.
6. See the brake manufacturer’s instructions for operation and care of your
brakes, and for when brake pads must be replaced. If you do not have the
manufacturer’s instructions, see your stockist or contact the brake manufacturer.
7. If replacing worn or damaged parts, use only manufacturer-approved genuine
replacement parts.
C1. Brake Controls and Features
It’s very important to your safety that you learn and remember which brake lever
controls which brake on your bike. Traditionally, in the UK right brake lever controls the
Front brake and the left brake lever controls the Rear brake; but, to make sure your
bike’s brakes are set up the correct way for your country, squeeze one brake lever
and look to see which brake, front or rear, engages. Now do the same with the other
brake lever. If you need them swapped over, please ask your Frog Bikes stockist to
do this.
internal hub brakes.
III.
All three can be operated by way of a handlebar mounted lever.
On some models of bicycle, the internal hub
brake is operated by pedalling backwards.
This is called a coaster brake and is described
in Appendix C.
Make sure your hands can reach and squeeze the brake levers comfortably. If your
hands are too small to operate the levers comfortably, consult your stockist before
riding the bike. The lever reach may be adjustable; or you may need a different brake
lever design.
Most rim brakes have some form of quick-release mechanism to allow the brake
pads to clear the tyre when a wheel is removed or reinstalled. When the brake quick
release is in the open position, the brakes are inoperative. Ask your stockist to make
sure that you understand the way the brake quick release works on your bike (see
figs. 12, 13. 14 & 15) and check each time to make sure both brakes work correctly
before you get on the bike.
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C2. How Brakes Work
The braking action of a bicycle is a function of the friction between the braking
surfaces. To make sure you have maximum friction keep your wheel rims and brake
pads or the disc rotor and caliper clean and free of dirt, lubricants, waxes or polishes.
When you apply one or both brakes, the bike begins to slow, but your body wants to
continue at the speed at which it was going. This causes a transfer of weight to the
front wheel (or, under heavy braking, around the front wheel hub, which could send
you flying over the handlebars). A wheel with more weight on it will accept greater
brake pressure before lockup; a wheel with less weight will lock up with less brake
pressure. So, as you apply brakes and your weight is transferred forward, you need
to shift your body towards the rear of the bike to transfer weight back on to the rear
wheel; and at the same time, you need to both decrease rear braking and increase
front braking force. This is even more important on descents, because going downhill
shifts weight forward.
Two keys to effective speed control and safe stopping are controlling wheel lockup
and weight transfer. This weight transfer is even more pronounced if your bike has a
front suspension fork. Front suspension “dips” under braking, increasing the weight
transfer (see also Section 4.F). Practice braking and weight transfer techniques where
there is no traffic or other hazards and distractions.
Everything changes when you ride on loose surfaces or in wet weather. It will take
longer to stop on loose surfaces or in wet weather. Tyre adhesion is reduced, so
the wheels have less cornering and braking traction and can lock up with less brake
force. Moisture or dirt on the brake pads reduces their ability to grip. The best way to
maintain control on loose or wet surfaces is to go more slowly.
D. Shifting Gears
Your multi-speed bike will have a derailleur drivetrain (see 1. below), an internal gear
hub drivetrain (see 2. below) or, in some special cases, a combination of the two.
D1. How a Derailleur Drivetrain Works
If your bike has a derailleur drivetrain, the gear-changing mechanism will have:
• a rear cassette or freewheel sprocket cluster
• a rear derailleur
• sometimes a front derailleur
• one or two shifters
• one, two or three front sprockets called chain-rings
• a drive chain
i. Changing gears
There are several different types and styles of gear selectors, or shifters: levers, twist
grips, triggers, combination shift/brake controls and push-buttons. Ask your stockist
to explain the type of shifting controls on your bike, and show you how they work.
The vocabulary of shifting gears can be confusing. A downshift is a change to a
“lower” or “slower” gear, one which is easier to pedal. An upshift is a shift to a “higher”
or “faster” gear which is harder to pedal. What’s confusing is that what’s happening
at the front derailleur is the opposite of what’s happening at the rear derailleur (for
details, read the instructions on Shifting the Rear Derailleur and Shifting the Front
Derailleur below). For example, you can select a gear which will make pedaling easier
on a hill (make a downshift) in one of two ways: shift the chain down the gear “steps”
to a smaller gear at the front, or up the gear “steps” to a larger gear at the rear. So,
at the rear gear cluster, what is called a downshift looks like an upshift. The key is to
remember that shifting the chain in towards the centre of the bike is for accelerating
and climbing and is called a downshift. Moving the chain out or away from the bike is
for speed and is called an upshift.
Whether upshifting or downshifting, the derailleur system requires the drive chain to
be moving forward and be under at least some tension. A derailleur will shift only if
you are pedaling forward.
CAUTION: Never move the gear selector or shifter while pedaling backward, nor
pedal backwards immediately after changing gear. This could jam the chain and
cause serious damage.
ii. Shifting the Rear Derailleur
The rear derailleur is controlled by the right shifter. The function of the rear derailleur
is to move the drive chain from one gear sprocket to another. The smaller sprockets
on the gear cluster produce higher gear ratios. Pedaling in the higher gears requires
greater pedaling effort, but takes you a greater distance with each revolution of the
pedal crank. The larger sprockets produce lower gear ratios. Using them requires less
effort but takes you a shorter distance with each revolution. Moving the chain from a
smaller sprocket of the gear cluster to a larger sprocket results in a downshift. Moving
the chain from a larger sprocket to a smaller sprocket results in an upshift. In order
for the derailleur to move the chain from one sprocket to another, the rider must be
pedaling forward.
iii. Shifting the Front Derailleur:
The front derailleur, which is controlled by the left shifter, shifts the chain between
the larger and smaller chain-rings. Shifting the chain onto a smaller chain-ring makes
pedaling easier (a downshift). Shifting to a larger chain-ring makes pedaling harder
(an upshift).
iv. Which gear should I select?
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The combination of largest rear and smallest front gears is for the steepest hills.
The smallest rear and largest front combination is for the greatest speed. It is not
necessary to shift gears in sequence. Instead, find the “starting gear” which is right
for your level of ability — a gear which is hard enough for quick acceleration but
easy enough to let you start from a stop without wobbling — and experiment with
upshifting and downshifting to get a feel for the different gear combinations. At first,
practice shifting where there are no obstacles, hazards or other traffic until you’ve built
up your confidence. Learn to anticipate the need to shift, and shift to a lower gear
before the hill gets too steep. If you have difficulties with shifting, the problem could
be mechanical adjustment. See your stockist for help.
WARNING: Never shift a derailleur onto the largest or the smallest sprocket if the
derailleur is not shifting smoothly. The derailleur may be out of adjustment and the
chain could jam, causing you to lose control and fall.
v. What if it won’t shift gears?
If moving the shift control one click repeatedly fails to result in a smooth shift to the
next gear the mechanism needs adjustment. Take the bike to your stockist to have
it adjusted.
D2. How an Internal Gear Hub Drivetrain Works
If your bike has an internal gear hub drivetrain, the gear changing mechanism will
consist of:
• a 3, 5, 7, 8, 12 speed or possibly an infinitely variable internal gear hub
• one, or sometimes two shifters
• one or two control cables
• one front sprocket called a chain-ring
• a drive chain
i. Shifting internal gear hub gears
Shifting with an internal gear hub drivetrain is simply a matter of moving the shifter to
the indicated position for the desired gear ratio. After you have moved the shifter to the
gear position of your choice, ease the pressure on the pedals for an instant to allow
the hub to complete the shift.
ii. Which gear should I be in?
The numerically lowest gear (1) is for the steepest hills. The numerically largest gear
is for the greatest speed. Shifting from an easier, “slower” gear to a harder, “faster”
gear is called an upshift. Shifting from a harder, “faster” gear to an easier, “slower”
gear is called a downshift. It is not necessary to shift gears in sequence. Instead,
find the “starting gear” for the conditions — a gear which is hard enough for quick
acceleration but easy enough to let you start from a stop without wobbling — and
experiment with upshifting and downshifting to get a feel for the different gears.
Practice shifting where there are no obstacles, hazards or other traffic until you’ve built
up your confidence. Learn to anticipate the need to shift, and shift to a lower gear
before a hill gets too steep. If you have difficulties with shifting the problem could be
mechanical. See your stockist for help.
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iii. What if it won’t shift gears?
If moving the shift control one click repeatedly fails to result in a smooth shift to the
next gear the mechanism needs adjustment. Take the bike to your stockist to have
it adjusted.
iv. How to adjust a single-speed drivetrain
If your bike has a single speed drivetrain, the chain requires tension to make sure
it doesn’t come off the sprocket or chain-ring. Chain tension requires a fine-tuned
adjustment. We recommend chain tension is adjusted by your stockist.
E. Pedals
1. Toe overlap is when your toe can touch the front wheel when you turn the
handlebars to steer while a pedal is in the forwardmost position. This is common on
small-framed bikes and is avoided by keeping the inside pedal up and the outside
pedal down when making sharp turns. On any bike this technique will also prevent
the inside pedal from striking the ground in a turn.
WARNING: BMX pedals are designed to provide greater grip capability of the
pedal tread surface than that provided by an ordinary pedal. This can result in the
pedal tread surface being very rough and containing sharp edges. To avoid injury,
riders should not ride barefoot and should always wear a pair of shoes with thick
soles to ensure adequate protection.
WARNING: Toe overlap could cause you to lose control and fall. Ask your
stockist to help you determine if the combination of frame size, crank arm length,
pedal design and shoes you will use results in pedal overlap. Replacement of
crank arms or tyres can result in a reduction in toe overlap clearance. Whether
you have overlap or not, you must keep the inside pedal up and the outside pedal
down when making sharp turns.
2. Some bikes come equipped with pedals that have sharp and potentially dangerous
surfaces. These surfaces are designed to add safety by increasing grip between
the rider’s shoe and the pedal. If your bike has this type of high-performance pedal,
you must take extra care to avoid serious injury from the sharp surfaces. Based
on your riding style or skill level, you may prefer a less aggressive pedal design, or
chose to ride with shin pads. Your stockist can show you a number of options and
make suitable recommendations.
3. Toeclips and straps are a means to keep feet correctly positioned and engaged
with the pedals. The toeclip positions the ball of the foot over the pedal spindle,
which gives maximum pedaling power. The toe strap, when tightened, keeps the
foot engaged throughout the rotation cycle of the pedal. While toeclips and straps
give some benefit with any kind of shoe, they work most effectively with cycling
shoes designed for use with toeclips. Your stockist can explain how toeclips and
straps work. Shoes with deep treaded soles or welts which might make it more
difficult for you to insert or remove your foot should not be used with toeclips and
straps.
WARNING: Getting into and out of pedals with toeclips and straps requires skill
which can only be acquired with practice. Until it becomes a reflex action, the
technique requires concentration which can distract your attention and cause
you to lose control and fall. Practice the use of toeclips and straps where there
are no obstacles, hazards or traffic. Keep the straps loose and don’t tighten them
until your technique and confidence in getting in and out of the pedals warrants
it. Never ride in traffic with your toe straps tight.
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Owner’s Manual
3rd Edition
2014
4/ TECHNICAL INFORMATION
4. Clipless pedals (sometimes called “step-in pedals”) are another means to keep feet
securely in the correct position for maximum pedalling efficiency. They have a plate,
called a “cleat,” on the sole of the shoe, which clicks into a mating spring-loaded
fixture on the pedal. They only engage or disengage with a very specific motion
which must be practiced until it becomes instinctive. Clipless pedals require shoes
and cleats which are compatible with the make and model pedal being used. Many
clipless pedals are designed to allow the rider to adjust the amount of force needed
to engage or disengage the foot. Follow the pedal manufacturer’s instructions, or
ask your stockist to show you how to make this adjustment. Use the easiest setting
until engaging and disengaging becomes a reflex action, but always make sure that
there is sufficient tension to prevent unintended release of your foot from the pedal.
WARNING: Not all bicycles can be safely retrofitted with some types of
suspension systems. Before retrofitting a bicycle with any suspension, check
with the manufacturer to make sure what you want to do is compatible with the
design. Failing to do so can result in catastrophic frame failure.
G. Tyres and Tubes
WARNING: Clipless pedals are intended for use with shoes specifically made to
fit them and are designed to firmly keep the foot engaged with the pedal. Do not
use shoes which do not engage the pedals correctly.
Practice is required to learn to engage and disengage the foot safely. Until
engaging and disengaging the foot becomes a reflex action, the technique
requires concentration which can distract your attention and cause you to
lose control and fall. Practice engaging and disengaging clipless pedals in a
place where there are no obstacles, hazards or traffic; and be sure to follow
the pedal manufacturer’s setup and service instructions. If you do not have the
manufacturer’s instructions, see your stockist or contact the manufacturer.
F. Bicycle Suspension
Many bikes are equipped with suspension systems. There are many different
types of suspension systems — too many to deal with individually here. If your bike
has a suspension system of any kind, be sure to read and follow the suspension
manufacturer’s setup and service instructions.
If you do not have the manufacturer’s instructions, see your stockist or contact the
manufacturer.
WARNING: Failure to maintain, check and properly adjust the suspension system
may result in suspension malfunction, which may cause you to lose control and
fall. If your bike has suspension the increased speed you may develop also
increases your risk of injury. For example, when braking, the front of a suspended
bike dips. You could lose control and fall if you do not have experience with this
system. Learn to handle your suspension system safely. See also Section 4.C.
WARNING: Changing suspension adjustment can change the handling and
braking characteristics of your bike. Never change suspension adjustment
unless you are thoroughly familiar with the manufacturer’s instructions and
recommendations, and always check for changes in the handling and braking
characteristics of the bike after a suspension adjustment by taking a careful test
ride in a hazard-free area.
Suspension can increase control and comfort by allowing the wheels to better follow
the terrain. This enhanced capability may allow you to ride faster; but you must not
confuse the enhanced capabilities of the bike with your own capabilities as a rider.
Increasing your skill will take time and practice. Proceed carefully until you have
learned to handle the full capabilities of your bike.
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G1. Tyres
Bicycle tyres are available in many designs and specifications, ranging from generalpurpose designs to tyres designed to perform best under specific weather or
terrain conditions. Once you’ve gained experience with your new bike, if you feel a
different tyre might better suit your needs, your stockist can help you select the most
appropriate design.
The size, pressure rating and, on some high-performance tyres, the specific
recommended use are marked on the sidewall of the tyre. The part of this information
which is most important to you is tyre pressure. Most Frog Bikes bicycle tyres are
covered by pressure rating ranges based on tyre size; however, certain tyres have
different pressure ranges based on the intended use of the tyre. To determine the
correct tyre pressure range for a specific tyre, please refer to the tyre pressure range
specified on the sidewall of the tyre, or refer to www.Frog Bikes.com for a list of tyre
pressures by tyre model.
FROG BIKE
WHEEL SIZE
PSI
BAR
KILOPASCALS
Tadpole
12” Tyre
35-65
2.5-4.5
241-448
Frog 43, 48
14”/16” Tyre
35-65
2.5-4.5
241-448
Frog 52, 55, 62
20”/24” Tyre
35-65
2.5-4.5
241-448
Frog 60 MTB
20”
35-65
2.5-4.5
241-448
Frog 69,73
26”
35-65
2.5-4.5
241-448
Road
700 x 23/25c
110-125
7.5-8.5
758-862
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Owner’s Manual
3rd Edition
2014
4/ TECHNICAL INFORMATION
WARNING: Never inflate a tyre beyond the maximum pressure marked on the
tyre sidewall. Exceeding the recommended maximum pressure may blow the
tyre off the rim, which could cause damage to the bike and injury.. The best and
safest way to inflate a tyre to the correct pressure is with a bicycle pump with a
built-in pressure gauge.
WARNING: There is a safety risk in using petrol station air hoses or other air
compressors. They are not made for bicycle tyres. They move a large volume of
air very rapidly, and will raise the pressure in your tyre very rapidly, which could
cause the tube to explode.
Tyre pressure is given either as maximum pressure or as a pressure range. How a
tyre performs under different terrain or weather conditions depends largely on tyre
pressure. Inflating the tyre to near its maximum recommended pressure gives the
lowest rolling resistance but also produces the harshest ride. High pressures work
best on smooth, dry roads. Very low pressures, at the bottom of the recommended
pressure range, give the best performance on looser or rougher surfaces.
Tyre pressure that is too low for your weight and the riding conditions can cause a
puncture by allowing the tyre to deform sufficiently to pinch the inner tube between
the rim and the riding surface.
CAUTION: Pencil type tyre gauges used for car tyres can be inaccurate and
should not be relied upon for consistent, accurate pressure readings. Instead,
use a high quality dial gauge.
Ask your stockist to recommend the best tyre pressure for the kind of riding you will
most often do, and ask them to inflate your tyres to that pressure. Then check inflation
as described in Section 1.C so you know how correctly inflated tyres should look and
feel when you don’t have access to a gauge. Some tyres may need to be brought
up to the correct pressure every week or two so it is important to check your tyre
pressures before every ride.
Some special high-performance tyres have unidirectional treads: their tread pattern
is designed to work better in one direction than in the other. The sidewall marking of
a unidirectional tyre will have an arrow showing the correct rotation direction. If your
bike has unidirectional tyres, be sure that they are mounted to rotate in the correct
direction.
G2. Tyre Valves
There are primarily two kinds of bicycle tube valve: the Schraeder valve and the Presta
valve. The bicycle pump you use must have the fitting appropriate to the valve stems
on your bike.
The Schraeder valve is like the valve on a car tyre. To inflate a
Schraeder valve tube, remove the valve cap and clamp the
pump fitting onto the end of the valve stem. To let air out of
a Schraeder valve, depress the pin in the end of the valve
stem with the end of a key or other appropriate object. All
Frog hybrid bikes use the Schraeder valve,
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The Presta valve has a narrower diameter and is only found
on bicycle tyres. To inflate a Presta valve tube using a Presta
headed bicycle pump, remove the valve cap; unscrew (anticlockwise) the valve stem lock nut; and push down on the
valve stem to free it up. Then push the pump head on to the
valve head, and inflate. All Frog road bikes use the Presta
valve.
To inflate a Presta valve with a Schraeder pump fitting, you’ll
need a Presta adapter (available at your stockist) which
screws on to the valve stem once you’ve freed up the valve.
The adapter fits into the Schraeder pump fitting. Close the
valve after inflation. To let air out of a Presta valve, open up the
valve stem lock nut and depress the valve stem.
WARNING: We highly recommend you carry a spare inner tube when you ride
your bike. Patching a tube is an emergency repair. If you do not apply the patch
correctly or apply several patches, the tube can fail, resulting in possible tube
failure, which could cause you to lose control and fall. Replace a patched tube
as soon as possible.
5/ SERVICE
WARNING: Technological advances have made bicycles and bicycle
components more complex, and the pace of innovation is increasing. It is
impossible for this manual to provide all the information required to properly repair
and/or maintain your bike. In order to help minimize the chances of an accident
and possible injury, it is critical that you have any repair or maintenance which
is not specifically described in this manual performed by your stockist. Equally
important is that your individual maintenance requirements will be determined by
everything from your riding style to geographic location. Consult your stockist for
help in determining your maintenance requirements.
WARNING: Many bicycle service and repair tasks require special knowledge
and tools. Do not begin any adjustments or service on your bike until you have
learned from your stockist how to properly complete them. We recommend that
significant mechanical repairs should be carried out by a qualified mechanic.
Improper adjustment or service may result in damage to the bike or in an accident
which can cause serious injury or death.
If you want to learn to do major service and repair work on your bike:
1. Ask your stockist for copies of the manufacturers’ installation and service
instructions for all the components on your bike, or contact the component
manufacturer.
2. Ask your stockist to recommend a book on bicycle repairs, or a website.
3. Ask your stockist about the availability of bicycle repair courses in your area.
We recommend you ask your stockist to check the quality of your work the first time
you work on something and before you ride the bike, just to make sure that you
adjusted everything correctly. Since that will require the time of a mechanic, there
may be a modest charge for this service. We also recommend you ask your stockist
for guidance on what spare parts, such as inner tubes, light bulbs, etc. you will need
once you have learned how to replace such parts.
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Owner’s Manual
3rd Edition
2014
5/ SERVICE
A. Service Intervals
Some service and maintenance can and should be performed by the owner, and
require no special tools or knowledge beyond what is presented in this manual. The
following are examples of the type of service you should perform yourself. All other
service, maintenance and repairs should be performed in a properly equipped facility
by a qualified bicycle mechanic using the correct tools and procedures.
1. Run-in period: Your bike will last longer and work better if you run it in before
riding it hard. Control cables and wheel spokes may stretch or “seat” when a
new bike is first used and may require readjustment by your stockist.
Your Mechanical Safety Check (Section 1.C) will help you identify some things that
need readjustment. But even if everything seems fine to you, it’s best to take your bike
back to the stockist for a checkup. Stockists typically suggest you bring the bike in
for a 30-day checkup. Another way to judge when it’s time for the first checkup is to
bring the bike in after three to five hours of hard off-road use, or about 10 to 15 hours
of on-road or more casual off-road use. But if you think something is wrong with the
bike, take it to your stockist before riding it again.
2. Before every ride: Mechanical Safety Check (Section 1.C)
3. After every long or hard ride; if the bike has been exposed to water or grit; or
at least every 100 miles: Clean the bike and lightly lubricate the chain’s rollers
with a good quality bicycle chain lubricant. Wipe off excess lubricant with a
lint-free cloth. Lubrication is a function of climate. Talk to your stockist about the
best lubricants and the recommended lubrication frequency for your area. Avoid
contaminating the rims with lubricant!
4. After every long or hard ride or after every 10 to 20 hours of riding:
• Squeeze the front brake and rock the bike forward and back. Does everything
feel solid? If you feel a clunk with each forward or backward movement of
the bike, you probably have a loose headset. Ask your stockist to check it.
• Lift the front wheel off the ground and swing it from side to side. Does it feel
smooth? If you feel any binding or roughness in the steering, you may have
a tight headset. Ask your stockist to check it.
• Grab one pedal and rock it toward and away from the centre-line of the
bike; then do the same with the other pedal. If anything feels loose ask your
stockist to check it.
• Inspect the brake pads. If they are starting to look worn or not hitting the
wheel rim squarely they might need to be adjusted or replaced.
• Check the control cables and cable housings for signs of rust, kinks or
fraying? Replace if worn.
• Squeeze each adjoining pair of spokes on either side of each wheel between
your thumb and index finger. Do they all feel about the same tension? If any
feel loose, ask your stockist to check for tension and trueness.
• Check the tyres for excess wear, cuts or bruises. Replace them if necessary.
• Check wheel rims for excess wear, dents and scratches. Consult your
stockist if you see any damage.
• Check to make sure all accessories are still secure, and tighten any which
are not.
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• Check the frame, particularly in the area around all tube joints; the handlebars;
the stem; and the seatpost for any deep scratches, cracks or discolouration.
These are signs of stress-caused fatigue and indicate that a part is at the end of
its useful life and needs to be replaced. See also Appendix B.
WARNING: Like any mechanical device, a bicycle and its components are
subject to wear and stress. Different materials and mechanisms wear or fatigue
from stress at different rates and have different life cycles. If a component’s life
cycle is exceeded, the component can suddenly and catastrophically fail, causing
serious injury or death to the rider. Scratches, cracks, fraying and discolouration
are signs of stress-caused fatigue and indicate that a part is at the end of its useful
life and needs to be replaced. While the materials and workmanship of your bike
or of individual components may be covered by a warranty for a specified period
of time, this is no guarantee the product will last the term of the warranty.
Product life is often related to the kind of riding you do and to the treatment to
which you submit the bike. A warranty does not mean the bike cannot be broken
or will last forever. It only means that the bike is covered subject to the terms of
the warranty.
Please be sure to read Appendix A, Intended Use of Your Bicycle and Appendix B,
The Lifespan of Your Bike and its Components,
starting on page 35.
5. As required: If either brake lever fails the Mechanical Safety Check (Section 1.C),
don’t ride the bike. Ask your stockist to check the brakes. If the chain won’t shift
smoothly and quietly from gear to gear, the derailleur is out of adjustment. See
your stockist.
6. Every 25 hours of hard off-road riding or 50 hours on-road riding: Take your bike to
your stockist for a complete checkup.
B. If your bike sustains an impact:
First, check yourself for injuries, and take care of them as best you can. Seek medical
help if necessary. Next, check your bike for damage. After any crash, take your bike to
your stockist for a thorough check. Carbon composite components, including frames,
wheels, handlebars, stems, crank sets, brakes, etc. which have sustained an impact
must not be used until they have been disassembled and thoroughly inspected by a
qualified mechanic.
See also Appendix B, Lifespan of Your Bike and its Components.
WARNING: A crash or other impact can put extraordinary stress on bicycle
components, causing them to fatigue prematurely.
Components suffering from stress fatigue can fail suddenly and catastrophically,
causing loss of control, serious injury or death.
Frog Bikes
Owner’s Manual
3rd Edition
2014
APPENDIX A
Intended Use of Your Bicycle
WARNING: Understand your bike and its intended use. Choosing the wrong bike
for your purpose can be hazardous. Using your bike the wrong way is dangerous.
No one type of bicycle is suited for all purposes. Your retailer can help you pick the
“right tool for the job” and help you understand its limitations. There are many types
of bicycles and many variations within each type. There are many types of mountain,
road, racing, hybrid, touring, cyclo-cross and tandem bicycles.
There are also bikes that mix features. For example, there are road/racing bikes with
triple cranks. These bikes have the low gearing of a touring bike, the quick handling
of a racing bike, but are not well suited for carrying heavy loads on a tour. For that
purpose you want a touring bike. Within each of type of bike, one can optimize for
certain purposes. Visit your bike Stockists and find someone with expertise in the
area that interests you.
Do your own homework. Seemingly small changes such as the choice of tyres
can improve or diminish the performance of a bicycle for a certain purpose. On the
following pages, we generally outline the intended uses of various types of bikes.
Industry usage conditions are generalized and evolving. Consult your stockist about
how you intend to use your bike.
All Frog Bikes have been tested to a maximum weight of 280kg.
Bikes classified and marked as Kids bikes (EN 14765) Frog 43 and Frog 48 have a
maximum combined rider/cargo/bike weight
limit of 45kg – however, they have been tested to a weight of 280kg.
1. High-Performance Road
For riding on paved surfaces only
• CONDITION 1: Bikes designed for riding on a paved surface where the tyres do
not lose ground contact.
• INTENDED: To be ridden on paved roads only.
• NOT INTENDED: For off-road, cyclocross, or touring with racks or panniers.
• TRADE OFF: Material use is optimized to deliver both light weight and specific
performance. You must understand that (1) these types of bikes are intended to
give an aggressive racer or competitive cyclist a performance advantage over a
relatively short product life, (2) a less aggressive rider will enjoy longer frame life,
(3) you are choosing light weight (shorter frame life) over more frame weight and
a longer frame life, (4) you are choosing light weight over more dent-resistant
or rugged frames that weigh more. All frames that are very light need frequent
inspection. These frames are likely to be damaged or broken in a crash. They
are not designed to take abuse or be a rugged workhorse. See also Appendix B.
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2. General Purpose Riding
For riding on improved paths and roadways only. No jumping!
• CONDITION 2: Bikes designed for riding Condition 1, plus smooth gravel roads
and improved trails with moderate grades where the tyres do not lose ground
contact.
• INTENDED: For paved roads, gravel or dirt roads that are in good condition, and
bike paths.
• NOT INTENDED: For off-road or mountain bike use, or for any kind of jumping.
Some of these bikes have suspension features, but these features are designed
to add comfort, not off-road capability. Some come with relatively wide tyres
that are well suited to gravel or dirt paths. Some come with relatively narrow
tyres that are best suited to faster riding on pavement. If you ride on gravel or
dirt paths, carry heavier loads or want more tyre durability talk to your stockist
about wider tyres.
3. Cyclo-cross
For riding on improved paths and roadways only. No jumping!
• CONDITION 2: Bikes designed for riding Condition 1, plus smooth gravel roads
and improved trails with moderate grades where the tyres do not lose ground
contact.
• INTENDED: For cyclo-cross riding, training and racing. Cyclo-cross involves
riding on a variety of terrain and surfaces including dirt or mud surfaces. Cyclocross bikes also work well for all weather rough road riding and commuting.
• NOT INTENDED: For off road or mountain bike use, or jumping. Cyclo-cross
riders and racers dismount before reaching an obstacle, carry their bike over the
obstacle and then remount. Cyclo-cross bikes are not intended for mountain
bike use. The relatively large road bike size wheels are faster than the smaller
mountain bike wheels, but not as strong.
4. Cross-Country, Marathon, Hardtails
For riding on unimproved trails with small obstacles
• CONDITION 3: Bikes designed for riding Conditions 1 and 2, plus rough trails,
small obstacles, and smooth technical areas, including areas where momentary
loss of tyre contact with the ground may occur. NOT jumping. All mountain
bikes without rear suspension are Condition 3, and so are some lightweight rear
suspension models.
• INTENDED: For cross-country riding and racing which ranges from mild to
aggressive over intermediate terrain (e.g. hilly with small obstacles like roots,
rocks, loose surfaces, hard pack and depressions). Crosscountry and marathon
equipment (tyres, shocks, frames, drive trains) is light-weight, favouring nimble
speed over brute force. Suspension travel is relatively short since the bike is
intended to move quickly on the ground.
• NOT INTENDED: For hardcore freeriding, extreme downhill, dirt jumping,
slopestyle or very aggressive or extreme riding. No spending time in the air
landing hard and hammering through obstacles.
• TRADE OFF: Cross-country bikes are lighter, faster to ride uphill, and more
nimble than all-mountain bikes. Cross-country and marathon bikes trade off
some ruggedness for pedaling efficiency and uphill speed.
Frog Bikes
Owner’s Manual
3rd Edition
2014
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B
5. All-Mountain
The Lifespan of Your Bike and its Components
For riding on rough trails with medium obstacles
• CONDITION 4: Bikes designed for riding Conditions 1, 2, and 3, plus rough
technical areas, moderately sized obstacles and small jumps.
• INTENDED: For trail and uphill riding. All-mountain bikes are: (1) more heavy duty
than cross-country bikes, but less heavy duty than freeride bikes, (2) lighter and
more nimble than freeride bikes, (3) heavier and have more suspension travel
than a cross country bike, allowing them to be ridden in more difficult terrain, over
larger obstacles and moderate jumps, (4) intermediate in suspension travel and
use components that fit the intermediate intended use, (5) cover a fairly wide
range of intended use, and within this range are models that are more or less
heavy duty. Talk to your stockist about your needs and these models.
• NOT INTENDED: For use in extreme forms of jumping/riding such as hardcore
mountain, freeriding, downhill, dirt jumping etc. No large drop offs, jumps or
launches (wooden structures, dirt embankments) requiring long suspension
travel or heavy duty components; and no spending time in the air landing hard
and hammering through obstacles.
• TRADE OFF: All-mountain bikes are more rugged than cross-country bikes, for
riding more difficult terrain.
1. Nothing lasts forever, including your bike
When the useful life of your bike or its components is over, continued use is
hazardous. Every bike and its component parts have a finite life. The length of that
life will vary with the construction and materials used in the frame and components,
the maintenance and care the frame and components receive and the type
and amount of use to which the frame and components are subjected. Use in
competitive events, trick riding, ramp riding, jumping, aggressive riding, riding
on severe terrain, riding in severe climates, riding with heavy loads, commercial
activities and other types of non-standard use can dramatically shorten the life of
the frame and components. Any one or a combination of these conditions may
result in an unpredictable failure. All aspects of use being identical, lightweight
bikes and their components will usually have a shorter life than heavier bikes and
their components. In selecting a lightweight bike or components you are making
a trade-off, favouring the higher performance that comes with lighter weight over
longevity. So if you choose lightweight, high performance equipment be sure to
have it inspected frequently.
All-mountain bikes are heavier and harder to ride uphill than cross-country bikes. Allmountain bikes are lighter, more nimble and easier to ride uphill than freeride bikes.
All-mountain bikes are not as rugged as freeride bikes and must not be used for more
extreme riding and terrain.
6. For children only
Bikes designed to be ridden by children. Parental supervision is required at all times.
Avoid areas involving cars and obstacles or hazards including inclines, curbs, stairs,
sewer grates or areas near drop-offs or pools.
You should have your bike and its components checked periodically by your stockist
for indicators of stress and/or potential failure, including cracks, deformation,
corrosion, paint peeling, dents, and any other indicators of potential problems,
inappropriate use or abuse. These are important safety checks and very important to
help prevent accidents, injury to the rider and shortened product life.
2. Perspective
Today’s high-performance bikes require frequent and careful inspection and
service. In this Appendix we try to explain some underlying material science basics
and how they relate to your bike. We discuss some of the trade-offs made in
designing your bike and what you can expect from your bike; and we provide
important, basic guidelines on maintenance and inspection. We cannot teach you
everything you need to know to properly inspect and service your bike; and that
is why we repeatedly urge you to take your bike to your stockist for professional
care and attention.
WARNING: Frequent inspection of your bike is important to your safety. Follow
the Mechanical Safety Check in Section 1.C of this manual before every ride.
Periodic, more detailed inspection of your bike is important. How often this
more detailed inspection is needed depends upon you. You have control and
knowledge of how often you use your bike, how hard you use it and where you
use it. Because your stockist cannot track your use, you must take responsibility
for periodically bringing your bike to your stockist for inspection and service.
Your stockist will help you decide what frequency of inspection and service is
appropriate for how and where you use your bike.
For your safety, understanding and communication with your stockist, we urge you
to read this Appendix in its entirety. The materials used to make your bike determine
how and how frequently to inspect. Ignoring this WARNING can lead to frame, fork or
other component failure, which can result in serious injury or death.
frogbikes.com
Frog Bikes
Owner’s Manual
3rd Edition
2014
APPENDIX B
A. Understanding metals
Steel is the traditional material for building bicycle frames. It has good characteristics,
but in high performance bikes steel has been largely replaced by aluminium and,
in some cases, titanium. The main factor driving this change is interest by cycling
enthusiasts in lighter bikes.
Properties of Metals
Please understand that there is no simple statement that can be made that
characterizes the use of different metals for bikes. What is true is that the way the
metal is applied is much more important than the material alone. One must look
at the way the bike is designed, tested, manufactured, supported along with the
characteristics of the metal rather than seeking a simplistic answer.
Metals vary widely in their resistance to corrosion. Steel must be protected or it will
rust. Aluminium and titanium quickly develop an oxide film that protects the metal
from further corrosion. Both are therefore quite resistant to corrosion. Aluminium is not
totally corrosion resistant and particular care must be used where it contacts other
metals as galvanic corrosion can occur.
Metals are comparatively ductile. Ductile materials bend, buckle and stretch before
breaking. Generally speaking, of the common frame building materials steel is the
most ductile, titanium less ductile, followed by aluminium. Metals vary in density.
Density is weight per unit of material. Steel weighs 7.8 grams/cm3 (grams per cubic
centimetre), titanium 4.5 grams/cm3, aluminium 2.75 grams/cm3.
Contrast these numbers with carbon fibre composite at 1.45 grams/cm3.
Metals are subject to fatigue. With enough use, at high enough loads, metals will
develop cracks that lead to failure. It is very important that you read The Basics of
Metal Fatigue below. Let’s say you hit a curb, ditch, rock, car, another cyclist or other
object. At any speed above a fast walk your body will continue to move forward,
momentum carrying you over the front of the bike. You cannot and will not stay on
the bike, and what happens to the frame, fork and other components is irrelevant to
what happens to your body.
What should you expect from your metal frame? It depends on many complex factors,
which is why we tell you that crashworthiness cannot be a design criteria. With that
important note, we can tell you that if the impact is hard enough the fork or frame may
be bent or buckled. On a steel bike, the fork may be severely bent and the frame
undamaged. Aluminium is less ductile than steel, but you can expect the fork and
frame to be bent or buckled. Hit harder and the top tube may be broken, the down
tube buckled and broken, leaving the head tube and fork separated from the main
triangle.
When a metal bike crashes, you will usually see some evidence of this ductility in
bent, buckled or folded metal. It is now common for the main frame to be made of
metal and the fork of carbon fibre. See Section B, Understanding Composites below.
The relative ductility of metals and the lack of ductility of carbon fibre means that in a
crash scenario you can expect some bending or bucking in the metal but none in the
carbon. Below a given load the carbon fork may be intact even though the frame is
damaged. Above a given load the carbon fork will be completely broken.
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The Basics of Metal Fatigue
Common sense tells us that nothing lasts forever. The more something is used, and
the harder it is used, and the worse the conditions in which it is used, the shorter
its life. Fatigue is the term used to describe accumulated damage to a part caused
by repeated loading. To cause fatigue damage, the load the part receives must be
great enough. A crude, often-used example is bending a paper clip back and forth
(repeated loading) until it breaks. This simple definition will help you understand that
fatigue has nothing to do with time or age. A bicycle in a garage does not fatigue.
Fatigue happens only through use. So what kind of “damage” are we talking about?
On a microscopic level, a crack forms in a highly stressed area. As the load is
repeatedly applied, the crack grows. At some point the crack becomes visible to
the naked eye. Eventually it becomes so large that the part is too weak to carry the
load that it could carry without the crack. At that point there can be a complete and
immediate failure of the part.
Parts can be designed with such strength that fatigue life is almost infinite but this
requires a lot of material and a lot of weight. Any structure that needs to be light and
strong will have a finite fatigue life. Aircraft, race cars, motorcycles all have parts with
finite fatigue lives. If you wanted a bicycle with an infinite fatigue life, it would weigh far
more than any bike sold today. So we all make a trade-off: the wonderful, lightweight
performance we want requires that we inspect the structure.
What to look for:
• ONCE A CRACK STARTS IT CAN GROW AND GROW FAST. Think about the
crack as forming a pathway to failure. This means that any crack is potentially
dangerous and will only become more dangerous.
SIMPLE RULE 1: If you find a crack, replace the part.
• CORROSION SPEEDS DAMAGE. Cracks grow more quickly when they are in a
corrosive environment. Think about the corrosive solution as further weakening
and extending the crack.
SIMPLE RULE 2: Clean your bike, lubricate your bike, protect your bike from
salt and remove any salt as soon as possible.
• STAINS AND DISCOLOURATION CAN OCCUR NEAR A CRACK. Staining may be
a warning sign that a crack exists.
SIMPLE RULE 3: Inspect and investigate any staining to see if it is associated
with a crack.
• SIGNIFICANT SCRATCHES, GOUGES, DENTS OR SCORING CREATE
STARTING POINTS FOR CRACKS. Think about the cut surface as a focal point
for stress (in fact engineers call such areas “stress risers” – areas where the
stress is increased). Perhaps you have seen glass cut? Remember how the
glass was scored and then broke on the scored line.
SIMPLE RULE 4: Do not scratch, gouge or score any surface. If you do, pay
frequent attention to this area or replace the part.
• SOME CRACKS (particularly larger ones) MAY MAKE CREAKING NOISE AS YOU
RIDE. Regard such a noise as a serious warning signal because a well-maintained
bike will be very quiet and free of creaks and squeaks.
SIMPLE RULE 5: Investigate and find the source of any noise. It may not a be
a crack, but whatever is causing the noise should be fixed promptly.
Frog Bikes
Owner’s Manual
3rd Edition
2014
APPENDIX B
Fatigue
Fatigue is not a perfectly predictable science, but here are some general factors to
help you and your stockist determine how often your bike should be inspected. The
more you fit the “shorten product life” profile, the more frequent your need to inspect.
The more you fit the “lengthen product life” profile, the less frequent your need to
inspect.
Factors that shorten product life:
• Hard, harsh riding style
• “Hits”, crashes, jumps, other “shots” to the bike
• High mileage
• Higher body weight
• Stronger, more fit, more aggressive rider
• Corrosive environment (wet, salt air, winter road salt, accumulated sweat)
• Presence of abrasive mud, dirt, sand, soil in riding environment
Factors that lengthen product life:
• Smooth, fluid riding style
• No “hits”, crashes, jumps, other “shots” to the bike
• Low mileage
• Lower body weight
• Less aggressive rider
• Non-corrosive environment (dry, salt-free air)
• Clean riding environment
WARNING: Do not ride a bicycle or component with any crack, bulge or dent,
even a small one. Riding a cracked frame, fork or component could lead to
complete failure, with risk of serious injury or death.
B. Understanding Composites
All riders must understand a fundamental reality of composites. Composite materials
constructed of carbon fibres are strong and light, but when crashed or overloaded,
carbon fibres do not bend, they break.
What are composites?
The term “composites” refers to a part or parts made up of different components or
materials. You’ve heard the term “carbon fibre bike.” This really means “composite
bike.” Carbon fibre composites are typically a strong, light fibre in a matrix of plastic,
molded to form a shape. Carbon composites are light relative to metals. Steel weighs
7.8 grams/cm3 (grams per cubic centimeter), titanium 4.5 grams/cm3, aluminium
2.75 grams/cm3. Contrast these numbers with carbon fibre composite at 1.45
grams/cm3.
The composites with the best strength-to-weight ratios are made of carbon fibre in a
matrix of epoxy plastic. The epoxy matrix bonds the carbon fibres together, transfers
load to other fibres, and provides a smooth outer surface. The carbon fibres are the
“skeleton” that carries the load.
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Why use composites?
Unlike metals, which have uniform properties in all directions (engineers call this
isotropic), carbon fibres can be placed in specific orientations to optimize the structure
for particular loads. The choice of where to place the carbon fibres gives engineers
a powerful tool to create strong, light bikes. Engineers may also orient fibres to suit
other goals such as comfort and vibration damping. Carbon fibre composites are
very corrosion resistant, much more so than most metals. Think about carbon fibre
or fibreglass boats. Carbon fibre materials have a very high strength-to-weight ratio.
What are the limits of composites?
Well designed “composite” or carbon fibre bikes and components have long fatigue
lives, usually better than their metal equivalents. While fatigue life is an advantage
of carbon fibre you must still regularly inspect your carbon fibre frame, fork, or
components. Carbon fibre composites are not ductile. Once a carbon structure is
overloaded, it will not bend; it will break. At and near the break, there will be rough,
sharp edges and maybe delamination of carbon fibre or carbon fibre fabric layers.
There will be no bending, buckling, or stretching.
If you hit something or have a crash, what can you expect from your carbon fibre bike?
Let’s say you hit a curb, ditch, rock, car, other cyclist or other object. At any speed
above a fast walk, your body will continue to move forward, the momentum carrying
you over the front of the bike. You cannot and will not stay on the bike and what
happens to the frame, fork and other components is irrelevant to what happens to
your body.
What should you expect from your carbon frame?
It depends on many complex factors. But if the impact is hard enough the fork or
frame may be completely broken. Note the significant difference in behaviour between
carbon and metal. See Section 2. A, Understanding metals in this Appendix. Even
if a carbon frame is twice as strong as a metal frame, once the carbon frame is
overloaded it will not bend, it will break completely.
Inspection of Composite Frame, Fork, and Components
Cracks:
Inspect for cracks, broken, or splintered areas. Any crack is serious. Do not ride any
bike or component that has a crack of any size.
Delamination:
Delamination is serious damage. Composites are made from layers of fabric.
Delamination means that the layers of fabric are no longer bonded together. Do not
ride any bike or component that has any signs of delamination. These are some
delamination clues:
1. A cloudy or white area. This kind of area looks different from the ordinary undamaged
areas. Undamaged areas will look glassy, shiny, or “deep,” as if one was looking
into a clear liquid. Delaminated areas will look opaque and cloudy.
2. Bulging or deformed shape. If delamination occurs, the surface shape may change.
The surface may have a bump, a bulge, soft spot, or not be smooth.
3. A difference in sound when tapping the surface. If you gently tap the surface of
an undamaged composite you will hear a consistent sound, usually a hard, sharp
sound. If you then tap a delaminated area, you will hear a different sound, usually
duller, less sharp.
Frog Bikes
Owner’s Manual
3rd Edition
2014
APPENDIX B
APPENDIX C
Unusual noises:
Either a crack or delamination can cause creaking noises while riding. Think about
such a noise as a serious warning signal. A well maintained bike will be very quiet and
free of creaks and squeaks. Investigate and find the source of any noise. It may not be
a crack or delamination, but whatever is causing the noise must be fixed before riding.
Coaster Brake
WARNING: Do not ride a bicycle or component with any delamination or crack.
Riding a delaminated or cracked frame, fork or other component could lead to
complete failure, with risk of serious injury or death.
C. Understanding Components
It is often necessary to remove and disassemble components in order to properly
and carefully inspect them. This is a job for a professional bicycle mechanic with the
special tools, skills and experience to inspect and service today’s high-tech highperformance bikes and their components.
Aftermarket “Super Light” components
Think carefully about your rider profile as outlined above. The more you fit the “shorten
product life” profile, the more you must question the use of super light components.
The more you fit the “lengthen product life” profile, the more likely it is that lighter
components may be suitable for you. Discuss your needs and your profile very
honestly with your stockist. Take these choices seriously and understand that you are
responsible for the changes.
1. How the coaster brake works
The coaster brake is a sealed mechanism which is a part of the bicycle’s rear
wheel hub. The brake is activated by reversing the rotation of the pedal cranks
(see below). Start with the pedal cranks in a nearly horizontal position, with the
front pedal in about the 4 o’clock position, and apply downward foot pressure on
the pedal that is to the rear. About 1/8 turn rotation will activate the brake.
The more downward pressure you apply, the more braking force, up to the point
where the rear wheel stops rotating and begins to skid.
WARNING: Before riding, make sure that the brake is working properly. If it is not
working properly, ask your stockist to check it.
WARNING: If your bike has only a coaster brake, ride conservatively. A single
rear brake does not have the stopping power of front-and-rear brake systems.
2. Adjusting your coaster brake
Coaster brake service and adjustment requires special tools and expert
knowledge. Do not attempt to disassemble or service your coaster brake. Take
the bike to your stockist.
A useful slogan to discuss with your stockist if you contemplate changing components
is “Strong, light, cheap – pick two.”
Original equipment components
Bicycle and component manufacturers test the fatigue life of the components that
are original equipment on your bike. This means that they have met test criteria and
have reasonable fatigue life. It does not mean that the original components will last
forever. They won’t.
Frog Bikes
Owner’s Manual
3rd Edition
frogbikes.com
2014
APPENDIX D
APPENDIX E
Fastener Torque Specifications
Getting Started with a Tadpole Balance Bike
Correct tightening torque of threaded fasteners is very important to your safety. Always
tighten fasteners to the correct torque. In case of a conflict between the instructions
in this manual and information provided by a component manufacturer, consult with
your stockist or the manufacturer’s customer service representative for clarification.
Bolts that are too tight can stretch and deform. Bolts that are too loose can move and
fatigue. Either mistake can lead to a sudden failure of the bolt. Always use a correctly
calibrated torque wrench to tighten critical fasteners on your bike. Carefully follow
the torque wrench manufacturer’s instructions on the correct way to set and use the
torque wrench for accurate results.
A Tadpole Balance Bike is the easiest way for a child to learn to ride a bike. Learning
on a Tadpole Balance Bike separates the need to pedal and balance at the same
time, and so very young children can learn to ride safely by learning the balance first
without the need for pedalling. The rate at which children develop the necessary
motor skills for balance may vary greatly, so don’t worry if your child can’t manage it
straight away – just keep trying.
In-lbf
Seat posts
2-bolt clamp serrated
100
11
Seat posts
2-bolt clamp non serrated
80
9.0
Pedal-to-crank
Interface
304
34.3
80
9.0
Forks
Cranks
Pro-Wheel generic
305
34
Chain-ring bolts
Alloy
85
9.4
Stem
Handlebar 4 bolt
45
5.1
Shimano shifter
Revo shift
40
4.5
Rear derailleur
Mounting Road/Hybrid
50
5.4
Front derailleur
Mounting bolt Road or Mountain
44
5
Seat tube collar
55
6.2
Tektro brake lever
40
4.5
Tektro V brake
52
5.9
Brake pad
43
4.9
Rear axle
133
15
Freewheel
261
29.5
Nutted axle
200
22.6
60
6.8
Water bottle cage
35
4
Bottom bracket cable guide
25
2.8
35
4
Derailleur hanger
Mudguard (fender)
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NM
Alloy
Mounting bolts
Follow these simple steps to ride a Tadpole Balance Bike safely:
• Choose a flat place for their first lesson with plenty of space and nothing for the
child to bump into. This can be indoors or outdoors on firm grass.
• Help the child on to their bike and support them by holding them under the armpits
from behind.
• If you have purchased a parent handle, connect this under the seat.
• Make sure the child holds the handlebars – it’s the fastest way to learn.
• Younger children will often stand over the bike initially, rather than let the saddle
take their weight. Try and encourage them to sit down.
• It’s usual for your child to waddle cautiously at first. With practice they will gain
confidence and will learn to stride and in time ‘scoot’ by lifting up their legs.
• Remember young children do not yet possess the judgement to assess risks so
they must always be closely supervised.
APPENDIX F
Recommended tools for proper bicycle maintenance
• Torque wrench with lb•in or N•m gradations
• 2, 4, 5, 6, 8 mm allen wrenches
• 9, 10, 15 mm open-end wrenches
• 15 mm box end wrench
• Socket wrench, 14, 15, and 19 mm socket
• T25 torx wrench
• No. 1 phillips screwdriver
• Bicycle tube patch kit, tyre pump with gauge, and tyre levers
• Special high pressure air pump for rear shock or suspension fork
Note: Not all bikes require all these tools
Frog Bikes
Owner’s Manual
3rd Edition
2014
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