Operating Manual - SUNNY ISLAND 4548-US / 6048-US

Operating Manual - SUNNY ISLAND 4548-US / 6048-US
Off-Grid Inverter
SUNNY ISLAND 4548-US / 6048-US
Operating Manual
SI4548-6048-US-BE-en-21 | Version 2.1
AMERICAN ENGLISH
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
Legal Provisions
Legal Provisions
Copyright © 2015 SMA Solar Technology America LLC. All rights reserved.
No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form
or by any means, be it electronic, mechanical, photographic, magnetic or otherwise, without the prior
written permission of SMA Solar Technology America LLC.
SMA Solar Technology America LLC doesn‘t make representations, express or implied, with respect
to this documentation or any of the equipment and/or software it may describe, including (with no
limitation) any implied warranties of utility, merchantability, or fitness for any particular purpose. All
such warranties are expressly disclaimed. Neither SMA Solar Technology America LLC nor its
distributors or dealers shall be liable for any indirect, incidental, or consequential damages under any
circumstances.
(The exclusion of implied warranties may not apply in all cases under some statutes, and thus the
above exclusion may not apply.)
Specifications are subject to change without notice. Every attempt has been made to make this
document complete, accurate and up-to-date. Readers are cautioned, however, that
SMA Solar Technology America LLC reserves the right to make changes without notice and shall not
be responsible for any damages, including indirect, incidental or consequential damages, caused by
reliance on the material presented, including, but not limited to, omissions, typographical errors,
arithmetical errors or listing errors in the content material.
All trademarks are recognized even if these are not marked separately. Missing designations do not
mean that a product or brand is not a registered trademark.
The Bluetooth® word mark and logos are registered trademarks owned by Bluetooth SIG, Inc. and
any use of such marks by SMA Solar Technology America LLC and SMA Solar Technology Canada
Inc. is under license.
Modbus® is a registered trademark of Schneider Electric and is licensed by the Modbus
Organization, Inc.
Phillips® and Pozidriv® are registered trademarks of Phillips Screw Company.
Torx® is a registered trademark of Acument Global Technologies, Inc.
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
3801 N. Havana Street
Denver, CO 80239 U.S.A.
Operating Manual
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Important Safety Instructions
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
Important Safety Instructions
SAVE THESE INSTRUCTIONS
This manual contains important instructions for the following products:
• Sunny Island 4548-US / 6048-US
This manual must be followed during installation and maintenance.
The product is designed and tested in accordance with international safety requirements, but as with
all electrical and electronic equipment, certain precautions must be observed when installing and/or
operating the product. To reduce the risk of personal injury and to ensure the safe installation and
operation of the product, you must carefully read and follow all instructions, cautions and warnings
in this manual.
Warnings in this Document
A warning describes a hazard to equipment or personnel. It calls attention to a procedure or practice,
which, if not correctly performed or adhered to, could result in damage to or destruction of part or all
of the SMA equipment and/or other equipment connected to the SMA equipment or personal injury.
Symbol
Description
DANGER indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, will result in
death or serious injury.
WARNING indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result
in death or serious injury.
CAUTION indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result
in minor or moderate injury.
NOTICE is used to address practices not related to personal injury.
Other symbols in this document
In addition to the safety and hazard symbols described on the previous pages, the following symbol
is also used in this manual:
Information
This symbol accompanies notes that call attention to supplementary information that you must
know and use to ensure optimal operation of the system.
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Important Safety Instructions
Markings on this Product
The following symbols are used as product markings with the following meanings.
Symbol
Description
Warning regarding dangerous voltage
The product works with high voltages. All work on the product must only
be performed as described in the documentation of the product.
Electric arc hazards
The product has large electrical potential differences between its
conductors. Arc flashes can occur through air when high-voltage current
flows. Do not work on the product during operation.
Beware of hot surface
The product can become hot during operation. Do not touch the product
during operation.
Observe the operating instructions
Read the documentation of the product before working on it. Follow all
safety precautions and instructions as described in the documentation.
UL1741 is the standard applied by Underwriters Laboratories to the
product to certify that it meets the requirements of the National Electrical
Code®, the Canadian Electrical Code® CSA C22.1, IEEE 929 2000 and
IEEE 1547.
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General Warnings
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
General Warnings
All electrical installations must be made in accordance with the local and National Electrical Code®
ANSI/NFPA 70 or the Canadian Electrical Code® CSA C22.1. This document does not and is not
intended to replace any local, state, provincial, federal or national laws, regulations or codes
applicable to the installation and use of the product, including without limitation applicable
electrical safety codes. All installations must conform with the laws, regulations, codes and
standards applicable in the jurisdiction of installation. SMA assumes no responsibility for the
compliance or non-compliance with such laws or codes in connection with the installation of the
product.
The product contains no user-serviceable parts.
For all repair and maintenance, always return the unit to an authorized SMA Service Center.
Before installing or using the product, read all of the instructions, cautions, and warnings in this
manual.
Before connecting the product to the electrical utility grid, contact the local utility company.
This connection must be made only by qualified personnel.
Wiring of the product must be made by qualified personnel only.
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
1 Information on this Document. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
Validity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Target Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Additional Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15
15
15
15
2 Sunny Island 4548-US / 6048-US . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
At a Glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scope of Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Required Tools and Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Identifying the Sunny Island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16
22
23
25
25
3 Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3.1 Intended Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3.2 Important Notes regarding Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3.3 Potential Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4 Mounting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4.1 Selecting the Mounting Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4.2 Mounting the Sunny Island with the Wall Mounting Bracket . . . . . . 33
4.2.1 Mounting the Sunny Island on a Stone Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
4.2.2 Mounting the Sunny Island using Wall Studs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5 Opening and Closing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
5.1 Opening the Sunny Island . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
5.2 Closing the Sunny Island . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
6 Electrical Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
6.1 Grounding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
6.2 DC Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
6.2.1 Safety Precautions/Conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
6.2.2 Cable Dimensioning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
6.2.3 Cable Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
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6.2.4 Connecting the Sunny Island on the DC Side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
6.3 AC Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
6.3.1 Cable Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
6.3.2 AC1 (Loads/Sunny Boys) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
6.3.3 AC2 (Generator/Grid) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
6.4 Additional Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
6.4.1 Inserting the Data Cables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
6.4.2 Connecting the Data Cable of the Lithium-Ion Batteries . . . . . . . . . . 53
6.4.3 Battery Temperature Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
6.4.4 Battery Current Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
6.4.5 Communication for Multi-Device Connection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
6.4.6 Multifunction Relay 1 and 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
6.4.7 BatVtgOut Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
6.4.8 DigIn Digital Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
6.5 Interface for External Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
6.5.1 Connection of the Interface for External Communication. . . . . . . . . 62
7 Control Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
Display Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DC Circuit Breaker. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Meaning of the Light-Emitting Diodes (LED). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SD Memory Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
67
68
68
68
68
8 Commissioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
8.1 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
8.2 Starting the Quick Configuration Guide (QCG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
8.3 Commissioning the battery current sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
9 Switching On and Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
8
Switching On . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stopping the Sunny Island (Standby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Switching Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disconnecting the Device from Voltage Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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76
76
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9.5 Recommissioning After Automatic Shutdown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
10 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9
Menu Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Direct Access - Direct Access to the Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compact Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entering the Installer Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Display Messages (Overview) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parameter Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Display of Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Display of Warnings and Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
80
83
84
84
88
89
92
93
93
11 Data Storage on SD Memory Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
Inserting the SD Memory Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Removing the SD Memory Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Saving and Loading Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Writing Log Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Status Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Firmware Update. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
12 Additional Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.8
12.9
Load Shedding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Sleep Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Time-Controlled Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Overload and Short-Circuit Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Mixed Operation with Sunny Island Inverters of Different Power . . 105
Device Faults and Autostart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Automatic Frequency Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Time-Controlled Standby . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Behavior in the Event of a Failure in a Three-Phase System . . . . . . . 107
13 Battery Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
13.1 Battery Type and Minimum Battery Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
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Table of Contents
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
Battery Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Start Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
State of Charge (SOC) and State of Health (SOH) . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Charge Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
13.5.1 Boost Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
13.5.2 Full Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
13.5.3 Equalization Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
13.5.4 Manual Equalization Charge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
13.5.5 Silent Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
13.6 Battery-Preservation Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
13.7 Battery Diagnosis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
13.8 Battery Lead Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
14 Connecting External Sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
14.1 Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
14.1.1 Parallel Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
14.1.2 Generator Start Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
14.1.3 Generator Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
14.1.4 Manual Generator Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
14.1.5 Automatic Generator Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
14.1.6 Limits and Power Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
14.1.7 Run Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
14.1.8 Operation Together with PV Inverters and Wind Power Inverters . 128
14.1.9 Stopping the Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
14.1.10 Stopping the Sunny Island . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
14.1.11 Disturbances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
14.2 Utility grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
14.2.1 Limits of the Voltage Range and Frequency Range . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
14.2.2 Starting the Sunny Island . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
14.2.3 Operation in Case of a Grid Failure in a Battery-Backup Grid . . . 131
14.2.4 Battery-Backup Operation and Anti-Islanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
14.2.5 Grid Reconnection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
14.2.6 Grid Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
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14.2.7 Grid Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
14.2.8 Disturbances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
14.2.9 Limitations and Power Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
14.2.10 Operation Together with PV Inverters and Wind Power Inverters 136
14.3 Generator and Utility Grid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
15 Relays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
16 Multicluster Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
16.1 Communication between the Sunny Island Inverters . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
16.2 Commissioning the Multicluster System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
16.3 Switching a Multicluster System On and Off. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
16.3.1 Switching On/Starting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
16.3.2 Stopping and Switching Off. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
16.3.3 Load Shedding in a Multicluster System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
16.4 Generator Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
16.5 Behavior with Different States of Charge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
16.6 Testing Multicluster Communication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
16.7 Automatic Frequency Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
16.8 Firmware Update. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
16.9 Error Handling in a Multicluster System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
16.10 Grid Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
16.11 Generator Emergency Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
17 PV Inverters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
17.1
17.2
17.3
17.4
Connection to the Stand-Alone Grid (Protected Load Switch) . . . . . 150
Setting the Off-Grid Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Configuration of the PV Inverters with a Communication Products . 151
Parameter Settings of the PV Inverters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
17.4.1 Configuration of the PV Inverters in Battery-Backup Systems . . . . . 152
17.4.2 Configuration of PV Inverters in Off-Grid Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
17.5 Frequency-Shift Power Control (FSPC). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
18 Maintenance and Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
18.1 Enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
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18.2
18.3
18.4
18.5
18.6
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Cleaning the Fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Display. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
19 Parameter Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
19.1 Display Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
19.1.1 Inverter Meters (110#) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
19.1.2 Battery Meters (120#). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
19.1.3 External Meters (130#) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
19.1.4 Charge Controller (140#)(not UL-certified) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
19.2 Adjustable Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
19.2.1 Inverter Settings (210#). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
19.2.2 Battery Settings (220#) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
19.2.3 External Settings (230#) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
19.2.4 Relay Settings (240#) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
19.2.5 System Settings (250#) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
19.2.6 Password Setting (280#) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
19.3 Diagnosis (300#) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
19.3.1 Inverter Diagnosis (310#) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
19.3.2 Battery Diagnosis (320#) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
19.3.3 External Diagnosis (330#). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
19.4 Events, Warnings and Errors (History). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
19.4.1 Failure/Event (400#). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
19.5 Functions in Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
19.5.1 Operation (500#) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
19.6 Direct Access to the Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
19.6.1 Direct Access (600#). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
20 Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
20.1 Error Acknowledgement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
20.2 Autostart Handling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
20.3 Master-Slave Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
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20.4 Handling of Pending Errors during the Booting Procedure . . . . . . . 205
20.5 Display of Failures and Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
20.6 Events. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
20.6.1 Category INV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
20.6.2 Category BAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
20.6.3 Category GEN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
20.6.4 Category GRD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
20.6.5 Category REL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
20.6.6 Category SYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
20.7 Failure Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
20.8 Warnings and Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
20.8.1 Category INV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
20.8.2 Category BAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
20.8.3 Category EXT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
20.8.4 Category GEN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
20.8.5 Category GRD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
20.8.6 Category RLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
20.8.7 Category SYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
20.8.8 AUX Category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
20.8.9 Category SYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
20.9 Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
20.10 Procedure during Emergency Charge Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
21 Accessory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
22 Technical Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
22.1 Sunny Island 4548-US . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
22.2 Sunny Island 6048-US . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
23 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
24 Compliance Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
25 Contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
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1 Information on this Document
1 Information on this Document
1.1 Validity
This document is valid for the following battery inverters as of firmware version 7.3:
• Sunny Island 4548-US (SI 4548-US-10)
• Sunny Island 6048-US (SI 6048-US-10)
1.2 Target Group
This document is for trained electrically qualified persons. A trained electrically qualified person has
received sufficient training and has knowledge of the design and function of the device and has
demonstrable practical experience of mounting, connecting and commissioning of the device. An
electrically qualified person is trained to deal with the dangers and hazards involved in installing
electrical systems.
1.3 Additional Information
You will find further information on special topics such as selecting and using PV inverters in off-grid
systems in the download area at www.SMA-America.com.
1.4 Terminology
In this document, SMA Solar Technology America LLC is referred to in the following as SMA.
The syntax specified here for menus and parameters applies throughout the entire document.
Menu:
Parameter:
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Menu number, hash and menu name (150# Compact Meters)
Menu number, dot, parameter number and parameter name (150.01 GdRmgTm)
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2 Sunny Island 4548-US / 6048-US
2.1 Properties
The Sunny Island is a bidirectional inverter (battery inverter and battery charger) for off-grid systems.
The Sunny Island supplies loads on the stand-alone grid side and charges the batteries with the
energy from grid-feeding units connected on the AC side.
The comfortable support of AC and DC coupling, as well as the expandability of the systems formed
with the Sunny Island guarantee highest flexibility. In addition, innovative technology allows the
Sunny Island to achieve a maximum efficiency of more than 95%. Optimized for partial load
operation, it impresses with low open-circuit and standby consumption. Due to the high overload
capacity and the integrated output management, there is no need to oversize the Sunny Island.
The operation of up to three devices in a single-phase parallel system, of three devices in a
three-phase system or of up to four devices in a double split-phase system enables the Sunny Island
to establish off-grid power supply systems with a power of between 2 kW to 24 kW. In Multicluster
systems, powers of up to as much as 100 kW are possible. Thanks to its sophisticated generator
management, the Sunny Island can control connected diesel generators in a particularly low-stress
and fuel-saving manner. The utility grid can also be integrated. The Sunny Island can also deactivate
loads automatically if the battery does not provide sufficient electrical energy.
The critical component of the off-grid system, the battery, is diligently monitored and optimally utilized.
For lead-acid batteries, the intelligent battery management of the Sunny Island precisely records the
state of charge of the battery. This makes an improved utilization of the battery capacity possible,
which also means that smaller and thus more cost-effective batteries can be used without affecting
performance. The Sunny Island also offers an interface to integrate the external battery management
of lithium-ion batteries.
In order to prevent premature aging caused by incorrect charging and frequent deep discharge, the
Sunny Island has an intelligent charge control and reliable deep-discharge protection. Thanks to these
functions, the battery life can be greatly extended in comparison with simpler devices.
Despite its complex functioning, the Sunny Island is easy to configure. All the settings required for
operation can be quickly and easily configured in a few steps using the Quick Configuration Guide
(QCG). By employing the concept of central operation referred to as "Single Point of Operation", the
system/cluster parameters are only set on the master device, and all other devices automatically
adopt the configuration. The easy-to-understand menu navigation allows quick access to all important
data, even while the system is running. An SD memory card offers an easy system control and
facilitates servicing.
Saving data and events
Always use the SD memory card to save data and events. In case of a failure SMA can thus
help you quickly.
The Sunny Island monitors the set voltage and frequency limits on the utility grid and generator. If
these limits are not observed, it disconnects from the external source without interruption and changes
to stand-alone mode.
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2 Sunny Island 4548-US / 6048-US
The Sunny Island also has an integrated anti-islanding feature which prevents islanding on the utility
grid. If this process is triggered, the system also completely changes to stand-alone mode without
interruption.
The Sunny Island can be integrated into different system constellations. The following graphics show
the devices of a Sunny Island system and the different wiring options (single-phase / single-phase
parallel, split-phase, double-split-phase and three-phase).
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Devices of a Sunny Island System:
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2 Sunny Island 4548-US / 6048-US
Single-Phase System, 120 Vac, up to 6 kW:
• 4.5 kW with SI 4548-US-10
• 6 kW with SI 6048-US-10
Single-Phase Parallel System, 120 Vac, up to 18 kW:
Maximum 3 Sunny Island of types SI 4548-US-10 / 6048-US-10.*
* The types SI 4548-US-10 / 6048-US-10 can be arbitrarily combined, also with older devices of type SI 5048U.
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2 Sunny Island 4548-US / 6048-US
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Split-Phase System, 240 Vac, up to 12 kW
2 Sunny Island of types SI 4548-US-10 / 6048-US-10.*
Three-Phase System, 120/208 Vac, up to 18 kW
3 Sunny Island of types SI 4548-US-10 / 6048-US-10.*
* The types SI 4548-US-10 / 6048-US-10 can be arbitrarily combined, also with older devices of type SI 5048U.
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2 Sunny Island 4548-US / 6048-US
Double Split-Phase System, 240 Vac, up to 24 kW
4 Sunny Island of types SI 4548-US-10 / 6048-US-10. Only Sunny Island inverters of the same type
must be used on one line conductor. L1 and L2 may be installed with different types (e.g.: L1 with 2
x SI 4548-US-10 und L2 with 2 x SI 6048-US--10).*
SMA multicluster technology
You will find all other information on SMA multicluster technology for up to twelve Sunny Island
inverters and up to 100 kW power in the installation manual of the Multicluster Box.
* The types SI 4548-US-10 / 6048-US-10 can be arbitrarily combined, also with older devices of type SI 5048U.
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2.2 At a Glance
The following figure provides an overview of all control elements and connections of the Sunny Island:
Position
Description
A
Display
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Position
Description
B
LEDs showing device operation
C
Control buttons
D
Slot for the SD memory card
2 Sunny Island 4548-US / 6048-US
E
Opening for the additional connections area (insertion of the cables via conduits)
F
Connection area for additional connections
G
Opening for the additional connections area (insertion of the cables via conduits)
H
Rubber enclosure opening for the area of additional connections (inserting cables
without conduits)
I
DC connection area
K
Opening for the DC connection area (insertion of DC+, DC − and the grounding
conductor)
L
Opening for AC2 terminal (insertion of the conductors L, N and grounding
conductor)
M
AC connection area
N
Opening for AC1 terminal (insertion of the conductors L, N and grounding
conductor)
O
DC circuit breaker
2.3 Scope of Delivery
Check that the delivery is complete. Check the packaging and the Sunny Island for externally visible
damage.
Contact your supplier in case of damage to the packaging. Please contact your distributor if you find
any damage to the Sunny Island or if the delivery is incomplete.
Keeping the packaging
Keep the packaging in case you need to return the inverter or its accessories.
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A
B
G
M
N
R
D
C
H
E
I
O
K
P
F
L
Q
S
Position
Quantity
Designation
A
1
Sunny Island
B
1
Wall mounting bracket
C
2
Ventilation grid
D
1
Battery temperature sensor
E
2
Filler plug
F
2
Counter nut for filler plug
G
1
RJ45 cable, black
H
1
Silicone tube
I
1
Rubber plugs for feed-through of one cable
K
2
Rubber plugs for feed-through of 2 cables
L
1
SD memory card
M
2
M6x10 hexagon socket screw and split lock washer for
connecting the Sunny Island to the wall mounting bracket
N
1
Operating manual
O
1
Test report
P
2
4-pole terminal for connecting the battery temperature sensor and
battery current sensor
Q
2
3-pole terminal for connecting the relays 1 and 2
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2 Sunny Island 4548-US / 6048-US
Position
Quantity
Designation
R
1
RS485 Piggy-Back (optional)
S
1
RJ45 cable, white (optional)
2.4 Required Tools and Materials
The following tools and materials are required in order to mount and install the
Sunny Island 4548-US / 6048-US:
Tools (not included in scope of delivery)
Cable knife
Combination pliers
Crimping tool for bootlace ferrules (suitable for wire sizes up to 3/0 AWG)
Diagonal cutting pliers
Drill
Drill bit (e.g. for masonry or wood), fastener 3/8 in or Ø 10 mm
Flat-blade screwdriver 2.5 mm
Flat-blade screwdriver SZS 1.0 x 6.5
Allen key, 3 mm to 8 mm
Multimeter
Open-end/box wrenches or socket wrenches in the sizes 10/19/24/30
Cross-head screwdriver, PH1 and PH2
Spirit level
Torque wrench 4 ft-lb to 21 ft-lb (6 Nm to 28 Nm) with hexagon socket screwdriver bit in the sizes
5 mm and 10 mm
Torque wrench 5 in-lb to 22 in-lb (0.56 Nm to 2.5 Nm) with flat-blade screwdriver bit in the sizes
2.5 mm and flat-blade screwdriver SZS 1.0 x 6.5
Insulation stripping tool
Material (not included in scope of delivery)
Cable tie
Heat-shrink tubing
Hexagon screws, 8 mm x 60 mm
Washers
Screw anchor for the wall mounting bracket (e.g. SX 10)
Bootlace ferrules appropriate for the selected cable (see Section 6 "Electrical Connection", page 39)
2.5 Identifying the Sunny Island
Identify the Sunny Island by the serial number (Serial No.) and the device type (Type) on the type
label. The type label is located on the right-hand side of the enclosure. You will require the information
on the type label to use the product safely and when seeking customer support from the
SMA Service Line.
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3 Safety
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3 Safety
3.1 Intended Use
The Sunny Island is a bidirectional inverter (battery inverter and battery charger) for off-grid systems.
The Sunny Island supplies loads on the stand-alone grid side and charges the batteries with the
energy from grid-feeding units connected on the AC side.
The Sunny Island is designed for indoor use only and may only be used as stationary equipment.
The Sunny Island is not suitable for supplying life-sustaining medical devices. A power outage must
not lead to personal injury.
AC sources (such as PV inverters) can be used in off-grid systems for energy supply. Too much power
from the AC sources in the stand-alone grid can lead to system failures. The maximum output power
of the AC sources must be observed in off-grid systems (see Section 22 "Technical Data", page 227).
The powers of the individual Sunny Island inverters are added to yield the total maximum power.
The Sunny Island uses batteries for the storage of energy. The nominal voltage of the battery must
correspond to the input voltage on the DC connection. The battery room must be ventilated in
accordance with the requirements of the battery manufacturer and with the locally applicable
standards and directives (see documentation of the battery manufacturer). If connecting a lithium-ion
battery, the following must be observed:
• The lithium-ion battery must comply with the locally applicable standards and directives and be
intrinsically safe.
• Ensure that the lithium-ion batteries are approved for use with the Sunny Island. The list of
lithium-ion batteries approved by SMA for the Sunny Island is updated regularly (see the
Technical Information "List of Approved Lithium-Ion Batteries" at www.SMA-America.com).
• If no lithium-ion batteries approved for the Sunny Island can be used, use lead-acid batteries.
• The lithium-ion batteries must be able to supply enough current at maximum output power of the
Sunny Island (see Section 22 "Technical Data", page 227).
In off-grid systems or battery-backup systems with lead-acid batteries only, a maximum of four
Sunny Island Charger charge controllers can be connected per cluster. In off-grid systems or
battery-backup systems with lithium-ion batteries, only charge controllers approved by the
manufacturer of the lithium-ion batteries must be used. A battery current sensor must be installed in
off-grid systems or battery-backup systems with lithium-ion batteries and external charge controllers.
The Sunny Island is not suitable for establishing a DC distribution grid.
The battery management must record the DC current when charging and discharging the battery.
The Sunny Island can control various devices in the system (e.g. load-shedding contactors) via two
multifunction relays. The multifunction relays are not suitable for controlling functions which may
endanger persons in the event of a malfunction of the multifunction relays, e.g. if there is insufficient
redundancy in the ventilation of the battery room.
Use this product only in accordance with the information provided in the enclosed documentation and
with the locally applicable standards and directives. Any other application may cause personal injury
or property damage.
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3 Safety
Alterations to the product, e.g. modifications or conversions, are permitted only with the express
written permission of SMA. Unauthorized alterations will void guarantee and warranty claims and
usually void the operation permit. SMA shall not be held liable for any damage caused by such
changes.
Any use of the product other than that described in the Intended Use section does not qualify as
appropriate.
The enclosed documentation is an integral part of this product. Keep the documentation in a
convenient place for future reference and observe all instructions contained therein.
The type label must remain permanently attached to the product.
3.2 Important Notes regarding Operation
Observe all operating and safety information in this document. If these instructions are ignored, a
significant danger of injury or death arises and damage to the device, system or plant may also result.
Carefully read the safety precautions before installing and commissioning the device. Store the
manual at an easily accessible location.
Danger to life due to high voltages in the Sunny Island
Death or serious injury possible due to electric shock.
• All work on the Sunny Island must only be carried out by electrically qualified persons.
• All work on the Sunny Island must only be carried out in accordance with this document.
• All safety precautions listed here must be observed.
Danger to life from electric shock due to damaged Sunny Island
Operating a damaged Sunny Island can lead to hazardous situations that can result in death or
serious injuries due to electric shock.
• Only operate the Sunny Island when it is technically faultless and in an operationally safe
state.
• Regularly check the Sunny Island for visible damage.
• Make sure that all external safety equipment is freely accessible at all times.
• Make sure that all safety equipment is in good working order.
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3 Safety
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Risk of crushing injuries due to movable generator parts
Moving parts in the generator can crush or sever body parts. A generator can be started
automatically by the Sunny Island.
• Only operate the generator with the safety equipment.
• Install, maintain, and operate the generator according to the manufacturer's specifications.
Danger to life due to incompatible lithium-ion battery
An incompatible lithium-ion battery can lead to a fire or an explosion. Use of incompatible
lithium-ion batteries can also make the user’s battery management system unsafe, and void
manufacturers’ warranties. To avoid fire or explosion, we strongly recommend doing the following:
• Verify that the battery complies with locally applicable standards and directives, and is
intrinsically safe.
• Verify that the particular lithium-ion battery type is approved for use with the
SMA Sunny Island inverter (please see “List of Approved Lithium-Ion Batteries” under the
Technical Information tab at www.SMA-America.com).
• If manufacturer approved Sunny Island lithium-ion batteries are not available, you may use
lead acid batteries.
Destruction of the Sunny Island due to parallel connection of Sunny Island inverters
which are set to different grid voltages
• Do not connect a Sunny Island in parallel if its line voltage is set to different values.
Batteries may be destroyed due to deep discharge
The self-consumption of the Sunny Island discharges the battery. In standby mode, this load is about
4 W and about 25 W in no-load operation.
• If you install the Sunny Island and do not wish to use it immediately, switch the Sunny Island
off (see Section 9.3 "Switching Off", page 76).
• If you want to decommission the Sunny Island for a long period, switch the Sunny Island off
(see Section 9.3 "Switching Off", page 76).
Connection requirements
Be sure to observe all valid regional standards and directives.
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3 Safety
Installation altitude
The Sunny Island has been designed for use at altitudes of up to 9,840 ft (3,000 m) above
MSL. Please contact SMA before using the device at altitudes above 9,840 ft (3,000 m).
A performance loss of 0.5% per 330 ft (100 m) is to be expected starting at an altitude of
6,560 ft (2,000 m) above MSL.
3.3 Potential Hazards
Electric shock from touching live components
Death or serious injuries. In order to ensure complete protection against contact, comply with the
following observing this document:
• Ensure that the Sunny Island is correctly mounted.
• Ensure that the Sunny Island is properly grounded.
• Ensure that all connections are correctly made.
• Ensure that the enclosure lid is firmly closed.
Danger to life due to high voltages in the stand-alone grid
Death or serious injury possible due to electric shock. The Sunny Island can start on its own.
• Before working on the stand-alone grid, switch off and disconnect all AC and DC power
sources.
• Ensure that the system cannot be reconnected.
• Open the enclosure lid of the Sunny Island and ensure that no voltage is present.
• Ground and short-circuit the AC cables outside the Sunny Island inverter.
• Cover or isolate any adjacent live components.
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Danger to life if the Sunny Island is used to supply energy to life-sustaining medical
devices
The Sunny Island was not developed to power life-sustaining medical devices.
• Do not use the Sunny Island in systems in which a power outage might result in personal injury.
Destruction of the Sunny Island if installed in improper locations
The Sunny Island is only suited for indoor installation and corresponds to degree of protection
NEMA 1 (IP30, or IP40 with inserted SD memory card).
• Do not expose the Sunny Island to moisture, rain or direct solar irradiation.
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4 Mounting
4 Mounting
4.1 Selecting the Mounting Location
Danger to life if installed in improper locations
Death or serious burns. Despite careful construction, electrical devices can cause fires.
• Do not mount the Sunny Island on flammable construction materials.
• Do not mount the Sunny Island near highly flammable materials.
• Do not mount the Sunny Island in potentially explosive areas.
Risk of injury through contact with hot enclosure parts during operation
Burns to the body.
• Mount the inverter in such a way that the enclosure cannot be touched inadvertently.
Risk of injury due to the Sunny Island falling during transport or mounting
Physical injury (fractures or crushing) and damage to the Sunny Island.
• Take the weight of the Sunny Island of 139 lb (63 kg) into account.
• Use the recessed grips or steel bars for transporting and mounting.
Overheating of the Sunny Island due to insufficient clearance to other Sunny Island
inverters in areas with high ambient temperatures
If several inverters have been installed in areas with high ambient temperatures, the
independent cooling of individual inverters needs to be guaranteed.
If necessary, increase the clearances between the individual inverters and make sure there is
enough fresh-air supply to ensure optimum operation of the inverters.
The Sunny Island switches itself off automatically in the event of overtemperature.
Observe the following conditions during mounting:
• The mounting location and method must be suitable for the weight and dimensions of the
Sunny Island.
• Mount on a solid support surface.
• The mounting location must be accessible at all times.
• The ambient temperature must be between − 13°F ( − 25°C) and +140°F (+60°C).
• Do not expose the Sunny Island to direct solar irradiation, so as to avoid power reduction due
to excessive heating.
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• Mount the Sunny Island in such a way that the display is at eye level in order to allow the
operating state to be read at all times.
• Mount vertically or tilted backwards by max. 45°.
• Never mount the device with a forward tilt.
• Do not mount in a horizontal position.
• The connection area must not point upwards.
• The room air can have a humidity of up to 100%, but this must not be condensing.
• In a living area, do not mount the unit on
plasterboard walls, etc. in order to avoid audible
vibrations.
The Sunny Island can make noises when in use
which can be considered a nuisance when installed
in a living area.
• Maintain the minimum distances to walls, other
devices and objects as represented in the
illustration.
In order to maintain sufficient ventilation, when
installing the device a minimum clearance of 12 in
(30 cm) at the sides and top must be maintained.
Operation and reading are made easier by
installing the Sunny Island with its display at eye
level and by keeping a distance of 20 in (50 cm)
from the front.
• All cables are routed to the outside through the
underside of the enclosure. Therefore a minimum
clearance of 20 in (50 cm) must be observed here.
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4 Mounting
4.2 Mounting the Sunny Island with the Wall Mounting Bracket
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4.2.1 Mounting the Sunny Island on a Stone Wall
Risk of injury due to the Sunny Island falling
Physical injury (fractures or crushing) and damage to the Sunny Island.
• Ensure that the wall can carry the weight of the Sunny Island.
• If mounting onto a wooden wall with studs, ensure that the wall mounting bracket is firmly
connected with all studs.
1. Place the wall mounting bracket against a suitable wall for mounting and align using a level.
Mark the position of the drill holes using the wall mounting bracket. When doing this, use at
least one hole on the left side and one hole on the right side of the wall mounting bracket.
2. Check the mounting location for current-carrying cables. If there are current-carrying cables at
the mounting location, select a different mounting location.
3. Drill holes on the markings for them.
4. Secure the wall mounting bracket to the wall using
appropriate screws and washers. Tighten the
screws in a clockwise direction.
Risk of injury due to the Sunny Island falling during transport or mounting
Physical injury (fractures or crushing) and damage to the Sunny Island.
• Take the weight of the Sunny Island of 139 lb (63 kg) into account.
• Use the recessed grips or steel bars for transporting and mounting.
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4 Mounting
5. Attach the Sunny Island to the wall mounting
bracket.
6. Screw the Sunny Island to the wall mounting
bracket on both sides using the screws (M6x10)
provided. Tighten the screws clockwise.
7. Make sure that the screws are securely in place.
8. Close the recessed grips with the ventilation grids
provided. To help you identify the sides, the
ventilation grids are marked on the inside with
"links/left" and "rechts/right".
☑ The Sunny Island is mounted using the wall mounting bracket.
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4.2.2 Mounting the Sunny Island using Wall Studs
Risk of injury due to the Sunny Island falling
Physical injury (fractures or crushing) and damage to the Sunny Island.
• Ensure that the wall can carry the weight of the Sunny Island.
• If mounting onto a wooden wall with studs, ensure that the wall mounting bracket is firmly
connected with all studs.
If the Sunny Island is to be mounted on wall studs, then
use the holes in the wall mounting bracket as shown in the
figures. Ensure that the wall mounting bracket is
positioned at least over one wall stud. Note that the wall
mounting bracket is designed to mount on a single wall
stud or on two wall studs. When mounting to wall studs,
use a minimum of four 0.315 in (8 mm) lag screws with a
minimum length of 2 in (50 mm).
If two or more Sunny Island inverters are to be installed,
mount the inverters on two studs each in order to get
better cooling. Make sure that the wall where you intend
to install the Sunny Island is vertical and can carry the
weight of the Sunny Island (139 Ib, 63 kg) on a
long-term basis.
Otherwise proceed as per the mounting on a stone wall
(see Section 4.2.1 "Mounting the Sunny Island on a Stone Wall", page 34).
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5 Opening and Closing
5 Opening and Closing
The enclosure of the Sunny Island has a removable lid. Remove the enclosure lid only when installing
the device or for required maintenance or repair work.
5.1 Opening the Sunny Island
1. Stop the Sunny Island (see Section 9.2 "Stopping the Sunny Island (Standby)", page 76).
2. Disconnect the Sunny Island from voltage sources (see Section 9.4 "Disconnecting the Device
from Voltage Sources", page 76).
3. Ensure that the system cannot be accidentally switched on again.
Danger to life due to high voltages in the Sunny Island
Death or serious injury possible due to electric shock.
• Wait 15 minutes before opening the Sunny Island until its capacitors are discharged.
Risk of burns due to hot components
Some components of the Sunny Island can get very hot during operation. Touching these
components can cause burns. Heat build-up can cause burns.
• During operation, do not touch any parts other than the enclosure lid of the Sunny Island.
• When the Sunny Island is open, do not touch hot surfaces.
4. Loosen all six screws on the enclosure lid and set
them aside.
5. Remove the enclosure lid and set it aside.
☑ The Sunny Island is open.
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5.2 Closing the Sunny Island
Electric shock due to live enclosure lid
Death or serious injuries.
The grounding of the lid is ensured by the toothed washers.
• Fasten the washers for all six screws with the toothing facing toward the enclosure lid.
1. Place the enclosure lid onto the enclosure and
fasten with the six screws and the corresponding
washers in the sequence depicted on the right.
Tighten the screws with a torque of 53 in-lb (6 Nm).
2. Commission the Sunny Island as described in Section (see Section 9.1 "Switching On",
page 75).
☑ The Sunny Island is closed and in operation.
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6 Electrical Connection
6 Electrical Connection
All cables are routed through the openings on the bottom side of the device (see next illustration) and
connected to the appropriate terminals on the Sunny Island.
Use conduits to install the cables on the DC side and on the AC side on the Sunny Island. Conduits
ensure the dust-tight and water-tight mounting of a cable on the enclosure and also serve as a strain
relief of the cable at the terminal. Close all unused openings in the enclosure using the appropriate
filler plugs.
Use the provided terminals to connect the cables inside the Sunny Island enclosure in a manner
conforming to the appropriate standards.
Obtain an overview of the different devices and connection areas of the Sunny Island
(see Section 2.2 "At a Glance", page 22).
Refer to the table below for the appropriate torque values and cable sizes.
Terminal
DC connections
Operating Manual
Torque
21 ft-lb (28 Nm)
Cable size
AWG 6 to AWG 3/0
(16 mm² to 95 mm²)
Cable type
Only use copper
conductors. These
cables must be
approved for 167°F
(75°C).
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Terminal
Torque
Cable size
Cable type
AC terminals
22 in-lb (2.5 Nm)
AWG 4 (25 mm²)
Only use copper
conductors. These
cables must be
approved for 167°F
(75°C).
Additional
Connections
5 in-lb to 7 in-lb
(0.56 Nm to
0.79 Nm)
AWG 30 to AWG 12 Only use copper
(0.05 mm² to 4 mm²) conductors. These
cables must be
approved for 167°F
(75°C).
An overview of the different devices and their connection areas of the Sunny Island 4548-US /
6048-US can be found in section (see Section 2.2 "At a Glance", page 22).
Detailed installation descriptions of the connections are provided in the following sections:
• Grounding (see Section 6.5 "Interface for External Communication", page 62)
• DC Connection (see Section 6.2 "DC Connection", page 43)
• AC Connection (see Section 6.3 "AC Connection", page 48)
• Data Cable of the Lithium-Ion Battery (see Section 6.4.2 "Connecting the Data Cable of the
Lithium-Ion Batteries", page 53)
• Battery Temperature Sensor (see Section 6.4.3 "Battery Temperature Sensor", page 53)
• Battery Current Sensor (see Section 6.4.4 "Battery Current Sensor", page 54)
• Communication for Multi-Device Connection (see Section 6.4.5 "Communication for
Multi-Device Connection", page 56)
• Multifunction Relay 1 and 2 (see Section 6.4.6 "Multifunction Relay 1 and 2", page 58)
• External Communication (see Section 6.5 "Interface for External Communication", page 62)
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6 Electrical Connection
6.1 Grounding
Danger to life due to electric shock
• Fuse the sub-distribution of the generator or the utility grid at input AC2 of the Sunny Island
with an overcurrent protective device (Branch Circuit Protection).
• Ensure that the overcurrent protective device complies with the specifications of the National
Electrical Code®, ANSI/NFPA 70.
• Use an overcurrent protective device for a maximum of 70 A.
Danger to life from electric shock due to faulty grounding
To allow different types of grounding, the N connection of the Sunny Island is NOT connected to
PE at the factory. However, since a connection between N and PE is required for correct operation,
this must be done outside of the device.
• Before commissioning, connect the Sunny Island 4548-US/6048-US and all other devices of
the stand-alone grid to a grounded utility grid.
• Take the National Electrical Code®, ANSI/NFPA 70, and all locally applicable standards
and directives into consideration.
External grounding of the negative terminal of the battery
External grounding of the negative terminal of the batteries is possible because the batteries and
the grid side are galvanically insulated within the Sunny Island.
• Dimension the cross-section of the grounding conductor sufficiently. Thus, you are ensuring
that in the event of a fault the high currents occurring can be discharged with an external
grounding.
• If grounding of the negative terminal of the battery is necessary, assemble this outside of
the Sunny Island.
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Connecting the Grounding Conductor
1. Install a conduit with a diameter of 11/2 in. (38.1 mm) at the opening in the center of the
Sunny Island. Attach the conduit in the inside of the Sunny Island using the appropriate nut.
2. Pull the cable with the grounding conductor through the supply line from the inside of the
distribution board into the enclosure of the Sunny Island.
3. Strip off the insulation of the grounding conductor.
4. Plug the grounding conductor into the DC terminal for grounding and tighten the fastening screw
with a torque of 21 ft-lb (28 Nm). Use an Allen key (8 mm).
☑ The grounding conductor is connected.
Calculating the cross-section of a grounding conductor
SMA cannot state generally valid values for the cross-section of the grounding conductor required for
the external grounding of the battery. The conductor dimensions depend on the type and size of the
battery connected, the external fuse (DC side) and the material used for the grounding conductor.
Calculating the grounding conductor cross-section according to applicable standards
Exact calculation of the grounding conductor cross-section must take account of the regionally
applicable standards and directives (e.g National Electric Code® Article 250.122).
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6.2 DC Connection
Function impairments of devices on the DC busbar
The Sunny Island is not suitable for use with DC supply grids. Function impairment can occur on
devices installed on the DC side of a Sunny Island with cables exceeding 98 ft (30 m) and with a
flexible connection.
• Only use fixed installations.
• Do not use cables of lengths greater than 98 ft (30 m) between the Sunny Island and the
battery and/or DC device.
6.2.1 Safety Precautions/Conditions
Connect a suitable battery to the DC side (see Section 22 "Technical Data", page 227). The DC
connection must be made in accordance with all locally applicable directives and directives.
Danger to life due to explosive gases
Explosive gases may escape from the battery and cause an explosion. This can result in death or
serious injury.
• Protect the battery environment from open flames, embers, or sparks.
• Install, operate, and maintain the battery in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications.
• Do not heat the battery above the temperature permitted or burn the battery.
• Ensure that the battery room is sufficiently ventilated.
Chemical burns and poisoning due to battery electrolyte
If handled inappropriately, battery electrolyte can cause irritation to the eyes, respiratory system,
and skin, and it can be toxic. This may result in blindness and serious chemical burns.
• Protect the battery enclosure against destruction.
• Do not open or deform the battery.
• Whenever working on the battery, wear suitable personal protective equipment such as
rubber gloves, apron, rubber boots and goggles.
• Rinse acid splashes thoroughly with clear water and consult a doctor.
• Install, operate, maintain, and dispose of the battery according to the manufacturer's
specifications.
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Risk of injury due to short-circuit currents
Short-circuit currents in the battery can cause heat build-up and electric arcs. Burns or eye injuries
due to flashes may result.
• Remove watches, rings, and other metal objects.
• Use insulated tools.
• Do not place tools or metal parts on the battery.
Danger to life due to incompatible lithium-ion battery
An incompatible lithium-ion battery can lead to a fire or an explosion. Use of incompatible
lithium-ion batteries can also make the user’s battery management system unsafe, and void
manufacturers’ warranties. To avoid fire or explosion, we strongly recommend doing the following:
• Verify that the battery complies with locally applicable standards and directives, and is
intrinsically safe.
• Verify that the particular lithium-ion battery type is approved for use with the
SMA Sunny Island inverter (please see “List of Approved Lithium-Ion Batteries” under the
Technical Information tab at www.SMA-America.com).
• If manufacturer approved Sunny Island lithium-ion batteries are not available, you may use
lead acid batteries.
Ampacity of lithium-ion batteries in off-grid systems
In order to meet the requirements of off-grid systems, the Sunny Island has a high overload
capacity. This overload capacity requires the battery to supply sufficient current. With lithium-ion
batteries, this ampacity cannot be taken for granted.
• Check with the battery manufacturer whether the battery is suitable for off-grid systems
with Sunny Island inverters. Pay special attention to the ampacity.
Lithium-ion batteries on the Sunny Island require firmware version 7.3
When using lithium-ion batteries on the Sunny Island, the firmware version must be at least 7.3.
• Before connecting a lithium-ion battery to the Sunny Island, check whether the
Sunny Island has at least firmware version 7.3.
• If the Sunny Island has an older firmware version, update the firmware (see Section 11.6
"Firmware Update", page 100).
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6.2.2 Cable Dimensioning
Keep the cables to the battery as short as possible
The battery cables should be as short as possible. Long cables and insufficient wire sizes reduce
the system efficiency as well as the overload capacities. Do not lay the battery cable under
plaster or in armored conduits.
Choosing the wire size
For cable lengths exceeding 33 ft (10 m), SMA recommends choosing wire sizes greater than
those given by the National Electrical Code® 310.15.
Example for Cable Dimensioning
With a 48 V battery voltage and an outgoing AC power of 4,500 W, a current of up to 100 A flows
through the SI 4548-US-10 battery cable. At the same battery voltage and an outgoing AC power of
6,000 W, a current of up to 130 A flows through the battery cables of the SI 6048-US-10.
The current flowing through the battery cables causes a power loss and a voltage drop with every
meter. Refer to the following table for the power loss and voltage drop associated with different wire
sizes.
Wire size
Power loss
Voltage drop
AWG 2/0 (70 mm²)
1.8 W/ft (6 W/m)
14 mV/ft (45 mV/m)
AWG 3/0 (95 mm²)
1.4 W/ft (4.7 W/m)
11 mV/ft (35 mV/m)
Example:
For a distance of 33 ft (10 m) between the Sunny Island and the battery, at least 66 ft (20 m) of cable
are needed (distance there and back). Using a wire size of AWG 2/0 (70 mm²), 100 A (nominal
current of the battery) causes a power loss of 120 W in total and an effective voltage drop of 0.9 V.
Calculation of the averaged nominal current of the battery
You can calculate the averaged nominal current of the connected battery using the following formula:
IBat = Nominal current of the battery
PAC = AC power of the inverter
VBat = Nominal voltage of the battery
ηINV = Inverter efficiency at a given AC power
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6.2.3 Cable Protection
The DC circuit breaker in the Sunny Island can interrupt DC currents of up to 10 kA. In addition to the
internal DC circuit breakers, install a separate, external fuse as close as possible to the battery. Install
a fuse link for the fuse suitable for the maximum occurring DC currents.
Electric shock resulting from insufficient protection of the DC cables
Death or serious burns.
• Check whether external cable protection is present.
• If no external cable protection is present, observe the following:
– Lay the DC cable in such way that ground faults and short circuits cannot occur.
– Install the additional current limiting fuse outside of the Sunny Island. When doing so,
observe all locally applicable standards and directives.
6.2.4 Connecting the Sunny Island on the DC Side
Danger to life due to electric shock
• Connect the external fuse and the battery cable to the battery only after all installation work
has been completed.
Risk of burns due to hot battery components
Improper battery connection may result in excessively high transition resistances. Excessive transition
resistances give rise to localized heat build-up.
• Ensure that all pole connectors are connected with the connecting torque specified by the
battery manufacturer.
• Ensure that all DC cables are connected with the connecting torque specified by the battery
manufacturer.
Requirements
• 1 conduit with a diameter of 11/2 in. (38.1 mm) is installed at the opening in the middle of the
Sunny Island (see Section 6.1 "Grounding", page 41).
• The conduit is attached inside the Sunny Island with a suitable nut.
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Installing the DC Connection
1. Pull the positive DC cable through the conduit from the distribution board into the enclosure of
the Sunny Island.
2. Pull the negative DC cable through the conduit from the distribution board into the enclosure of
the Sunny Island.
3. Remove the coating.
4. Strip the DC cable insulation.
DC connection area
The areas between the stripped conductor and the connection area must be clean. This ensures
that the transition resistance and the heating of the terminal points is reduced.
The Sunny Island has a DC terminal for a maximum of 3/0 AWG for DC+, DC− and grounding
conductor.
5. Insert the negative DC conductor in the "DC–" terminal and tighten the fastening screw with a
torque of 21 ft-lb (28 Nm). Use an Allen key (8 mm).
6. Insert the positive DC conductor in the "DC+" terminal and tighten the fastening screw with a
torque of 21 ft-lb (28 Nm). Use an Allen key (8 mm).
DC cable
Do not connect any other devices to the DC cables. Other devices must be connected directly
to the battery via separate cables.
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6.3 AC Connection
6.3.1 Cable Protection
You must connect the Sunny Island via a sub-distribution to the stand-alone grid and any external
source present.
Fit the sub-distribution with appropriate circuit breakers and observe all locally applicable standards
and directives.
Fitting the sub-distribution with circuit breakers
The sub-distribution must be equipped with appropriate circuit breakers. Observe all locally
applicable standards and directives.
Maximum permissible input current
The maximum input current allowed on the Sunny Island is 56 A. Higher input currents must not
be connected to the Sunny Island.
No all-pole isolator on the Sunny Island
The Sunny Island is not equipped with an all-pole isolator. The neutral conductor (N conductor)
is looped through the device and the N terminals of AC1 and AC2 are connected inside the
Sunny Island.
6.3.2 AC1 (Loads/Sunny Boys)
The sub-distribution of the stand-alone grid (e.g. loads, PV inverter, wind power inverter) is connected
to output AC1 of the Sunny Island.
Damage to the Sunny Island inverter due to excessive current load at output AC1
The output AC1 of the Sunny Island inverter may handle a current rating up to 56A. A higher current
load at output AC1 may cause a cable fire, which can result in personal injury.
• A circuit breaker with a rated current of a maximum of 56A must be installed.
If you want to fuse individual load circuits in a 120 V grid separately, install circuit breakers with a
rated current of up to 20 A: the Sunny Island can safely trip circuit breakers of up to 20 A.
If you install circuit breakers with a higher rated current, the Sunny Island may not trip these. In this
case the DC breaker in the Sunny Island would trip and the Sunny Island would disconnect
(see Section 9.5 "Recommissioning After Automatic Shutdown", page 77).
Cable lengths in single-phase, parallel, split-phase, double split-phase and
three-phase systems
The AC cables between the Sunny Island and the sub-distribution of a system must have the
same wire size and the same cable length for all parallel connected devices.
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Distributing loads and AC feed-in generators in multiple-phase systems
Distribute the feed-in power and the consumed power of the loads and AC feed-in generators
as equally as possible across all line conductors of the system.
Connection in a split-phase system
In a split-phase system, connect the master to line conductor L1 and the slave 1 to line conductor
L2 (see Section 2.2 "At a Glance", page 22).
Double-split-phase system
In a double split-phase system, connect the master and slave 2 to line conductor L1.
In a double split-phase system, connect slave 1 and slave 3 to line conductor L2.
Connection in a three-phase system
Always install the master on line conductor L1, slave 1 on L2 and slave 2 on L3. This installation
has a right-hand rotating magnetic field.
Failure of a line conductor within a three-phase system
If in a three-phase system, a line conductor fails on the master, the cluster stops. If a line
conductor fails on a slave, the cluster can either continue to operate or switch off. Whether the
cluster continues to work or switches off depends on the setting of the parameter "250.30
RnMod" (see Section 19.2.5 "System Settings (250#)", page 191).
Connecting the AC1 cable:
Wire size
The maximum wire size for connecting the loads/PV inverters is 4 AWG (25 mm²).
1. Install a conduit with a diameter of 3/4 in. (19 mm) at the left opening on the left side of the
Sunny Island enclosure. Attach the conduit on the inside of the Sunny Island with a counter nut.
2. Install the conduit on the distribution board.
3. Pull the cable from the distribution board through the conduit into the Sunny Island.
4. Remove the protective insulation of the three cables (insulation stripping length: 0.75 in
(18 mm)).
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5. Insert the grounding conductor into the terminal labeled "AC1 Loads/Sunny Boys" and tighten
the fastening screw with a torque of 22 in-lb (2.5 Nm). Use a torque wrench with flat-blade
screwdriver bit SZS 1.0 x 6.5.
6. Insert N and L into the terminals labeled "AC1 Loads/Sunny Boys" and tighten the fastening
screws with a torque of 22 in-lb (2.5 Nm). Use a torque wrench with flat-blade screwdriver bit
SZS 1.0 x 6.5.
☑ The AC1 cables are connected.
6.3.3 AC2 (Generator/Grid)
The sub-distribution of the generator or utility grid is connected at input AC2 of the Sunny Island.
Cable lengths in single-phase, parallel, split-phase, double split-phase and
three-phase systems
The AC cables between all Sunny Island inverters and generator or the utility grid of a system
must have the same wire size and the same cable length.
Single-phase parallel system
In the case of single-phase parallel systems, also connect the generator or the utility grid to all
slaves on AC2. The wire sizes and cable lengths used must be identical.
Distribution of loads and AC feed-in generators in multi-phase systems
Distribute the feed-in power and consumption power of the loads as well as the AC feed-in
generators as equally as possible across all line conductors of the system.
Split-phase system
In a split-phase system, connect the master to line conductor L1 and the slave 1 to line conductor
L2 (see Section 2.2 "At a Glance", page 22).
Double-split-phase system
In a double split-phase system, connect the master and slave 2 to line conductor L1.
In a double split-phase system, connect slave 1 and slave 3 to line conductor L2.
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Three-phase system
Always install the master on line conductor L1, slave 1 on L2 and slave 2 on L3. This installation
has a right-hand rotating magnetic field.
Additional fuses in the system
If there are no additional fuses installed between the generator or utility grid and the
Sunny Island, the Sunny Island knows whether it has a connection to the utility grid/to the
generator. The Sunny Island can then draw current from the utility grid/from the generator.
If there are additional fuses or switches installed between the Sunny Island and the utility grid/
the generator, the Sunny Island cannot determine whether fuses or switches are disconnected
or whether there is no voltage available from the utility grid/the generator. In either case the
Sunny Island cannot charge its battery and the loads that are in operation will discharge the
Sunny Island battery.
Check the additional fuses and switches regularly in order that the Sunny Island battery only
discharges when there is no voltage available from the utility grid/the generator.
Connecting the AC2 Cable (Generator/Grid):
Wire size
The maximum wire size for connecting the generator is 4 AWG (25 mm²).
1. Install a conduit with a diameter of 3/4 in. (19 mm) at the right opening on the left side of the
Sunny Island enclosure. Attach the conduit on the inside of the Sunny Island with a counter nut.
2. Install the conduit on the distribution board.
3. Pull the cable from the distribution board through the conduit into the Sunny Island.
4. Remove the protective insulation of the three cables (insulation stripping length: 0.75 in
(18 mm)).
5. Insert the grounding conductor into the terminal labeled "AC2 Gen/Grid" and tighten the
fastening screw with a torque of 22 in-lb (2.5 Nm). Use a torque wrench with flat-blade
screwdriver bit SZS 1.0 x 6.5.
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6. Insert N and L into the terminals labeled "AC2 Gen/Grid" and tighten the fastening screws with
a torque of 22 in-lb (2.5 Nm). Use a torque wrench with flat-blade screwdriver bit SZS
1.0 x 6.5.
6.4 Additional Connections
6.4.1 Inserting the Data Cables
For installing the connections described in the following sections, lead the data cables through the
specified holes in the cable support sleeve. Plugs for sealing the RJ45 data cables for internal and
external communication are provided in the plastic flange plate upon delivery. Through a combination
of the plugs there are up to four feed-throughs (two plugs without a feed-through, one plug with one
feed-through and two plugs with two feed-throughs). Insert the necessary plugs with feed-through to
attach the data cables.
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6.4.2 Connecting the Data Cable of the Lithium-Ion Batteries
Requirements:
The total length of the communication bus must not exceed 98 ft (30 m). Keep in mind that the
communication bus possibly connects several nodes such as additional Sunny Island inverters.
The data cable must be a CAT5 cable with RJ45 plugs.
1. Plug the data cable into a free pin connector ComSync on the Sunny Island.
2. Connect the other end of the data cable to the battery management of the lithium-ion battery
(see battery manufacturer documentation).
3. Ensure that the communication bus is closed at each end, e.g. with a terminator.
6.4.3 Battery Temperature Sensor
The battery temperature sensor measures the temperature of the connected battery. For lead-acid
batteries, this is necessary since the optimum charging voltage for a battery strongly depends on the
temperature (see Section 13.5 "Charge Control", page 111). For lithium-ion batteries, the external
battery management transfers the battery temperature to the Sunny Island and thus replaces the
battery temperature sensor.
The battery temperature sensor must be connected for the operation of the Sunny Island (included in
the scope of delivery). In case of a fault (short circuit, cable break), the Sunny Island operates in a
safe setting, which over time leads to deep discharge of the battery. A warning indicating that the
defective battery temperature sensor should be replaced immediately is displayed.
Destruction of the battery through deep discharge as a result of the installation of an
unsuitable battery temperature sensor
• Only use the battery temperature sensor included in the scope of delivery.
• Do not drill holes into the battery to install the battery temperature sensor.
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Battery temperature sensor in a cluster
A battery temperature sensor is provided with each Sunny Island. Only one battery temperature
sensor is required for a cluster. Connect the temperature sensor to the master of the cluster.
Connecting the Battery Temperature Sensor
Polarity of the conductors
The polarity of the two conductors is irrelevant for the functioning of the battery temperature
sensor.
1. Pierce a hole at a suitable location in the cable support sleeve using a sharp object.
2. Starting from the outside, lead the insulated conductors with bootlace ferrules through the hole
in the Sunny Island.
3. Connect the insulated conductors correspondingly to the "BatVtgOut" terminal of the four-pole
terminal included in the delivery.
4. Tighten the terminals (torque: 5 in-lb to 7 in-lb (0.56 Nm to 0.79 Nm)).
5. Insert the 4-pole terminal into the "BatTmp" pin connector on the Sunny Island.
6. Attach the battery temperature sensor to the outside of one of the battery cells. Choose a spot
between two cells and in the central area of the battery storage system. The heat generation
during operation is the greatest there.
6.4.4 Battery Current Sensor
In addition to the internal measurement, the Sunny Island provides the possibility to measure the
battery current via a shunt. You need this function if you intend to operate additional DC generators
and DC loads in your off-grid system. Only one battery current sensor is necessary in a cluster; this is
to be connected to the cluster master.
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Destruction of the battery due to the connection of additional DC devices
If additional DC devices are installed in an off-grid system, the internal Sunny Island current
measurement becomes inaccurate. The charge current can no longer be set exactly and as a result
will destroy the battery.
• Install an external battery current sensor (shunt).
Example:
Connecting the Battery Current Sensor
Use cables of intrinsically safe circuits
Always use cables for intrinsically safe electric circuits for connecting the battery current sensor.
Intrinsically safe means that the cable is double-insulated and that in the event of a short-circuit
the wire melts but the insulation remains intact. In addition, the cable is not combustible. In order
to avoid measuring errors, make sure that the cable conductors are twisted.
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Installation notice
The battery current sensor must be looped around the negative terminal of the battery. The
terminal of the battery current sensor which is connected to the Sunny Island (1), must be
connected to the terminal "BatCur+" (see example).
• Positive battery current means that the battery is being discharged (current from the
battery).
• Negative battery current means that the battery is being charged (current into the battery).
1. Pierce a hole at a suitable location in the cable support sleeve using a sharp object.
2. Starting from the outside, lead the insulated conductors with bootlace ferrules through the hole
in the Sunny Island.
3. Connect the insulated conductors correspondingly to the "BatVtgOut" terminal of the 4-pole
terminal included in the delivery.
4. Tighten the terminals (torque: 5 in-lb to 7 in-lb (0.56 Nm to 0.79 Nm)).
5. Insert the 4-pole terminal into the "BatTmp" pin connector on the Sunny Island.
☑ The battery current sensor is installed.
Commissioning the battery current sensor
When connecting a battery current sensor to the Sunny Island, you must set the device-internal
offset during the initial start-up of the off-grid system on the Sunny Island as described(see
Section 8.3 "Commissioning the battery current sensor", page 73).
6.4.5 Communication for Multi-Device Connection
The Sunny Island can be connected in parallel, as a split-phase system or in a three-phase system with
other Sunny Island inverters in order to increase the overall power. The Sunny Island inverters
communicate with each other via an RJ45 data cable. A black RJ45 cable is provided with each
Sunny Island. You need it in order to establish an (internal) communication between several
Sunny Island inverters. The maximum overall length of the communication bus of 98 ft (30 m) must
not be exceeded. If you operate only one Sunny Island in your system, the cable is not required.
Proceed as follows to implement the connection:
1. Remove one of the two plugs from the cable support sleeve.
2. Lead the RJ45 cable from the outside through the plugs inside the master.
3. Remove the terminator plugged into the "ComSyncOut" pin connector of the master and insert
it in "ComSyncIn" pin connector of the master.
4. Plug the RJ45 cable into the "ComSyncOut" pin connector.
5. Connect the master with slave:
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Number of slaves
1 slave
6 Electrical Connection
Connection procedure
• Take the RJ45 cable coming from the master, insert it into the
slave and plug it into the "ComSyncIn" pin connector.
• Leave the terminator plugged into the "ComSyncOut" pin
connector.
☑ Master and slave are connected.
2 slaves
• Lead the RJ45 cable coming from the master into slave 1 and
plug it into the "ComSyncIn" pin connector.
• Remove the terminator in the slave 1 from the "ComSyncOut"
pin connector.
• Plug the RJ45 cable included in the scope of delivery into the
"ComSyncOut" pin connector of slave 1.
• Lead the RJ45 cable coming from slave 1 into slave 2 and
plug it into the "ComSyncIn" pin connector.
☑ The master and the slaves are connected.
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6.4.6 Multifunction Relay 1 and 2
The Sunny Island offers you several options for the control of internal and external processes. Two
multi-function relays are integrated into the Sunny Island to which you can assign functions using the
parameters "241.01 Rly1Op" and "241.02 Rly2Op" (see Section 15 "Relays", page 140).
We recommend connecting the load shedding and generator request functions to the master, since,
if a failure occurs, the slave may be waiting for a confirmation, but the master continues to operate
and the device can at least operate in a limited capacity.
Operating principles of the relays
The relays are changeover contacts; they can be used as break contact (NCC) or as make
contact (NOC).
You can only assign one function to each relay!
Connection to the Relay Contact
Danger to life from electric shock due to incorrect insulation
• Securely disconnect the insulated conductors leading to the relay contact from the
communication area and the AC area.
• Strip off the insulation of the conductor leading to the relay contact.
• Sheathe the silicon tube included in the delivery via the insulated conductors used in the relay
contacts.
• Never operate the Sunny Island without silicone tube.
1. Pierce a hole at a suitable location in the cable support sleeve using a sharp object.
2. Starting from the outside, lead the insulated conductors with bootlace ferrules through the hole
in the Sunny Island.
3. Cut an appropriate piece from the silicone tube (included in scope of delivery) and pull it over
the insulated conductors.
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4. Connect the insulated conductors to the supplied three-pole terminal. The pins have the
following meaning:
– NC: normally closed (when the Sunny Island is
off, the relay is closed)
– C: Contact (front contact)
– NO: normally opened (when the Sunny Island
is off, the relay is open)
5. Tighten the terminals (torque: 5 in-lb to 7 in-lb
(0.56 Nm to 0.79 Nm)).
6. Insert the three-pole terminal into corresponding pin connector on the Sunny Island.
Power Contactor for Load Shedding
The Sunny Island can automatically disconnect loads to protect the battery from deep discharge. An
external (AC or DC) power contactor must be installed between the Sunny Island and the loads (see
Section 12.1 "Load Shedding", page 103).
Installing the power supply of a DC power contactor for load shedding (e.g. relay2):
Power supply of the DC power contactor
A voltage of 48 V supplied by the battery is present in the control circuit.
• Load the BatVtgOut terminals with a maximum of 0.75 A.
1. Connect the A1 coil terminal of the power contactor to the terminal NO (Relay2).
2. Wire terminal C (Relay2) to the terminal "BatVtgOut +".
3. Wire the A2 coil connector of the power contactor to the terminal "BatVtgOut –".
☑ The control circuit of the power contactor is installed.
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Generator start
The Sunny Island can control generators. The Sunny Island directly supports generators that can be
started/stopped using a single contact.
Default settings of the relays
Relay 1 is preset to the "AutoGn" generator start function and relay 2 to the "AutoLodSoc" load
shedding function.
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6.4.7 BatVtgOut Power Supply
The battery voltage is conducted to the outside at these terminals. The battery voltage is fused at both
poles by PTC resistors (max. 0.75 A). Depending on the internal temperature of the Sunny Island, the
tripping threshold is over 0.75 A.
This connection can be used, for example, to supply a DC contactor for load shedding.
Connecting the BatVtgOut Voltage Supply
1. Pierce a hole at a suitable location in the cable support sleeve using a sharp object.
2. Starting from the outside, lead the insulated conductors with bootlace ferrules through the hole
in the Sunny Island.
3. Connect the insulated conductors to the "BatVtgOut" terminal of the 4-pole terminal.
4. Tighten the screws of the terminal (torque: 5 in-lb to 7 in-lb (0.56 Nm to 0.79 Nm)).
☑ The BatVtgOut voltage supply is connected.
6.4.8 DigIn Digital Input
The DigIn connection is used as a digital input for external electrical sources.
Area of the input voltage at the DigIn input
A voltage of between 5 V and 63 V may be present at the digital input DigIn.
Corresponding functions
If you operate the system in mixed operation with generator and utility grid (GenGrid) in
parallel, use the relays on the master device in order to activate the corresponding functions.
Connecting the DigIn Digital Input
1. Pierce a hole at a suitable location in the cable support sleeve using a sharp object.
2. Starting from the outside, lead the insulated conductors with bootlace ferrules through the hole
in the Sunny Island.
3. Connect the insulated conductors correspondingly to the "DigIn" terminal of the 4-pole terminal.
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4. Tighten the screws of the terminal (torque: 5 in-lb to 7 in-lb (0.56 Nm to 0.79 Nm)).
☑ The DigIn digital input is connected.
6.5 Interface for External Communication
You can connect SMA communication devices (e.g. Sunny WebBox) or a PC with the appropriate
software to a communication interface. You will find a detailed wiring diagram in the communication
device manual, the software or on the Internet at www.SMA-America.com.
You can incorporate an RS485 communication interface into the Sunny Island.
Powerline/Powerline modem (PLM)
Communication via Powerline (PLC) is not possible in off-grid systems.
Communication in a cluster
Fitting a communication interface in a cluster is only necessary on the master.
6.5.1 Connection of the Interface for External Communication
Destruction of the communication interface through electrostatic discharge
Internal components of the Sunny Island can be irreparably damaged by electrostatic discharge.
• Ground yourself before touching components.
Interface for external communication in battery-backup systems
If a battery-backup system. is connected to the Sunny Island, the RS485 communication
between the Sunny Island and the PV inverters is necessary For this, the following devices each
need one RS485 interface:
• the Sunny Island (if there are several Sunny Island inverters, the Sunny Island master)
• each PV inverter
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Connecting the Interface for External Communication
1. Remove the right-hand plug from the cable support sleeve.
Position
Description
A
Slot for communication interface
B
Cable route
C
Enclosure opening in the floor of the Sunny Island
2. Lead the cable from the outside through the enclosure opening (C) into the interior of the
Sunny Island.
3. Plug the cable into the "ComSmaIn" pin connector.
4. Fit the plug around the cable.
5. Plug the plug back into the designated opening in the cable support sleeve.
6. Lay the cable in the cable route (B).
7. Connect the insulated conductors. Assignment pins in the RJ45 pin connector:
Sunny Boy/
Sunny WebBox
RS485 –
Signal allocation
RJ45 pin connector - RJ45 plug color
Sunny Island
code
2
A (Data+)
3
white with green
stripes
5
GND
2
orange with white
stripes
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Sunny Boy/
Sunny WebBox
RS485 –
Signal allocation
RJ45 pin connector - RJ45 plug color
Sunny Island
code
7
B (Data–)
6
green with white
stripes
8. The RS485 data bus of the Sunny Island is terminated using a terminator. This terminator is
already plugged into the "ComSmaOut" pin connector. Only remove the plug if you want to
connect another communication device.
9. Plug the communication interface in slot (A).
Connecting the Sunny Island to the Sunny Boy and the Sunny WebBox with an
RS485 Cable
Connecting the Sunny Island to the Sunny Boy and the Sunny WebBox with
Separate RS485 Cables
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Data Transmission Speed
The Sunny Island can be operated at different data transfer rates to communicate with external
devices. Set the parameter "250.06 ComBaud".
Setting the baud rate
If PV inverters are connected to the communication bus, then the baud rate must be set to 1,200
bps (default setting).
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7 Control Elements
In order to commission the Sunny Island, you should familiarize yourself with its operation
beforehand. The individual control elements can be seen in the following figure.
Position
Description
A
Display
B
Red LED
C
Green LED
D
Control buttons
E
Slot for the SD memory card
F
DC Circuit Breaker
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7.1 Display Messages
The display of the Sunny Island has two lines, each with 16 characters.
Meaning of the symbols
Observe the information on the meaning of the individual symbols (see Section 10.6 "Display
Messages (Overview)", page 89).
Position
Description
A
Output power/charging power (load status)
B
Direction of energy flow and system status
C
Displays if the Sunny Island loaded parameters for grid operation or parameters
for generator operation.
D
Device assignment
E
Status of the external source (asterisk, question mark or exclamation mark)
F
Relay 1 status
G
Relay 2 status
H
Warning message (exclamation mark)
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7.2 DC Circuit Breaker
The DC circuit breaker is used to switch on/off as well as to disconnect the Sunny Island on the DC
side (see Section 9 "Switching On and Off", page 75).
7.3 Buttons
The table explains the functions of the buttons on the Sunny Island:
Button
Function
cancels the selected function
answers NO
navigates one menu level higher
stops device (when held pressed down)
navigates up one list element, increases data value
navigates down one list element, decreases data value
selects function
selects value
confirms change
answers YES
navigates one menu level down
starts device (when held pressed down)
stops device (when held pressed down)
7.4 Meaning of the Light-Emitting Diodes (LED)
On the Sunny Island control panel, there are both a green (above) and a red (below) light emitting
diode (LED), the functions of which are described in the table below:
Green LED
Red LED
Operating state
–
–
Off
On
–
Operation or Standby
–
On
Disturbance or error
7.5 SD Memory Card
The Sunny Island features an SD memory card which can be used for updating firmware and as a
service interface (see Section 11 "Data Storage on SD Memory Card", page 94).
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8 Commissioning
8.1 Requirements
Checking the Connections
• Before commissioning check all electrical connections for correct polarity.
• Ensure that all electrical connections are connected in accordance with the specifications
of this technical description.
Always save data
Always use the SD memory card for storing data and events. In case of a failure SMA can thus
help you quickly.
• Always leave the SD memory card plugged in the Sunny Island.
• Plug the SD memory card into the card reader in the PC in order to read off the data and
events.
The Quick Configuration Guide (QCG) allows you to quickly and easily commission your stand-alone
grid power system. To do so, use the menu to select the 'suitable' system for you. The display then
shows special queries via which the system parameters can be set specifically.
8.2 Starting the Quick Configuration Guide (QCG)
Error occurrence
If the Sunny Island displays an error message, this must be remedied before the Sunny Island is
commissioned (see Section 20 "Troubleshooting", page 204).
Default settings of parameters
Upon starting the QCG, viable parameter values are set by default.
The QCG is automatically activated during the initial start-up of the Sunny Island. In this case begin
with point 3. If the QCG is not activated automatically, begin with point 1.
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1. Switch the DC circuit breaker of the Sunny Island to "ON".
☑ The Sunny Island initiates the start-up phase.
The notifications shown here are displayed.
The last notification is displayed as soon as the
start-up phase is completed.
2. Press and hold down <ENTER> until the Sunny Island beeps three times.
☑ The QCG is started.
01#StartMenu
Start System
Systems with several Sunny Island inverters
If you have a system with more than one Sunny Island, you must take the following measures:
• Configure the Sunny Island with the latest firmware version as master or install the latest
firmware version in the master (see www.SMA-America.com). The master updates the
firmware of the slaves once the off-grid system is started.
• You must first run the QCG on the slave(s) before starting the master device (display
message "INIT MASTER OK START?"). Only the device type is set there. Only start the
master device thereafter!
– "Start System" (if you have accidentally accessed the QCG and would only like to restart
the system)
– "New System" (if you would like to start a new system or perform changes to the plant
configuration)
– "New Battery" (if you wish to reset battery-specific parameters only) You cannot change
general parameters using "New Battery".
– "Emerg Charge" (if you would like to charge a deeply discharged battery using an
external source)
3. The following parameters must be set when "New Battery" is selected:
– Device type (master, slave 1, slave 2, slave 3)
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Systems with one Sunny Island
If only one Sunny Island is used in the system, the device type is permanently set to "master" and
is not displayed.
– System configuration (see table for setting options)
Displayed text
Description
3Phase
Three-phase system, 3 Sunny Island
1Phase1
Single-phase system, 1 Sunny Island
1Phase2
Single-phase system, 2 Sunny Island
1Phase3
Single-phase system, 3 Sunny Island
2Phase2
Split-phase system, 2 Sunny Island
2Phase4
Double split-phase system, 4 Sunny Island
MC-Box
Setting for Multicluster operation
– Date/time
– Battery type (VRLA, FLA, NiCd, LiIon_Ext-BMS), default setting: "VRLA"
Battery types
VRLA: Valve Regulated Lead Acid
Valve-regulated lead-acid batteries with immobilized electrolyte in gel or AGM (Absorbent
Glass Mat Separator) in all standard designs available on the market (grid plate, tubular plate,
small, large, AGM, gel, etc.)
FLA: Flooded Lead Acid
Flooded lead–acid batteries with liquid electrolyte in all standard designs available on the
market (grid plate, tubular plate, small, large, etc.)
NiCd: Nickel Cadmium
Sealed pocket-type plate or fiber plate nickel-cadmium batteries.
LiIon_Ext-BMS: Lithium-ions with external battery management system
Closed lithium-ion battery with external battery management system.
– For FLA and VRLA: Nominal voltage of the battery 42 V to 52 V adjustable in 2 V steps;
default setting: 48 V. For NiCd: Nominal voltage of the battery 43.2 V to 48 V adjustable
in 1.2 V steps; default setting: 45.6 V. For LiIon_Ext-BMS: no battery voltage adjustable.
– Nominal battery capacity:
– for lead-acid batteries (100 Ah to 10,000 Ah), default setting: "100 Ah"
– for NiCd batteries (100 Ah to 10,000 Ah), default setting: "100 Ah"
– for lithium-ion batteries (50 Ah to 10,000 Ah), default setting: "100 Ah"
– External voltage source (PvOnly, Gen, Grid, GenGrid)
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Value in variable
Explanation
PvOnly
Stand-alone grid, no utility grid, no generator
Gen
Stand-alone grid with generator
Grid
Battery-backup grid
GenGrid
Battery-backup grid with generator
GenGrid:
– Maximum generator current (0 A to 224 A), default setting: "30 A"
– Generator interface (Manual, Autostart), default setting: "Autostart"
– Maximum grid current (0 A to 224 A), default setting: "30 A"
Grid:
– Maximum grid current (0 A to 224 A), default setting: "30 A"
Gen:
– Maximum generator current (0 A to 224 A), default setting: "30 A"
– Generator interface (Manual, GenMan, Autostart), default setting: "Autostart"
4. The following parameters must be set when "New Battery" is selected:
– Battery type (VRLA, FLA, NiCd), default setting: "VRLA"
– Nominal voltage of the battery (42 V to 52 V in 2 V steps for FLA and VRLA, 43.2 V to 48 V
in 1.2 V steps for NiCd), default setting: "48.0 V"
– Nominal capacity of the battery (100 Ah to 10,000 Ah for VRLA, FLA and NiCd, 50 Ah to
10,000 Ah for LiIon_Ext-BMS), default setting: "100 Ah"
☑ After entering all parameters, the following
notification appears.
5. Press <ENTER> to confirm.
☑ The notification shown here is displayed.
6. Press <ENTER> and hold until you hear an acoustic
signal.
☑ The Sunny Island has started and is in operation.
Adjustable Parameters
Observe the information on the possible settings of the parameters (see Section 19 "Parameter
Lists", page 158).
Note that some parameters can only be changed after entering the installer password (see
Section 10.5 "Entering the Installer Password", page 88) and in standby mode (see Section 9.2
"Stopping the Sunny Island (Standby)", page 76).
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8.3 Commissioning the battery current sensor
In the event you have installed a battery current sensor in your system, you are required to synchronize
the internal offset of the device. To do this, proceed as follows:
1. Set the Sunny Island to standby mode (see Section 9.2 "Stopping the Sunny Island (Standby)",
page 76).
Entering incorrect parameters endangers operational safety. Damage to the off-grid
system and its components
All parameter settings which could affect the operating safety of the off-grid system are protected
by the installer password.
• Only trained electrically qualified persons are permitted to set and adjust system parameters.
2. Short-circuit the battery current sensor conductors.
– BatCur+ to terminal 1
– BatCur– to terminal 1
3. Enter the installer password (see Section 10.5 "Entering the Installer Password", page 88).
4. Set the following parameters:
Choose the type of battery current sensor:
– "225.01 BatCurSnsTyp" (None/50 mV/60 mV). Only after activation of the parameter
with 50 mV or 60 mV, other parameters (02, 03 and 04 in the menu "225# Battery Current
Sensor") will be shown and activated.
5. Set the nominal current of the battery current sensor (e.g. 400 A/60 mV):
– "225.02 BatCurGain60": (for a 60 mV output)
– "225.03 BatCurGain50": (for a 50 mV output)
6. Start automatic calibration:
– Set "225.04 BatCurAutoCal" to "Start".
☑ The Sunny Island conducts an automatic calibration.
7. Check the offset error:
Display value "120.06 TotBatCur" should be (close to) zero.
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8. Reconnect the conductors of the battery current sensor correctly as displayed in the graphic.
Make sure the insulated conductors have the correct polarity.
– BatCur+ to terminal 1
– BatCur– to terminal 2
9. Start the Sunny Island (see Section 9.1 "Switching On", page 75).
10. Check the current direction: "120.06 TotBatCur"
Current direction: Discharging the battery
• No generator/utility grid connected
• Loads are being supplied
The measured value of the battery current is positive.
Current direction: Charging the battery
• Generator/utility grid connected
• Loads are not/marginally supplied
• Battery is being charged
The measured value of the battery current is negative.
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9 Switching On and Off
9.1 Switching On
Systems with several Sunny Island inverters
Switch on the slaves before you switch on the master. To do this, proceed as follows.
1. Check the following requirements:
– correct electrical connections
– voltages and polarities
2. Switch the DC circuit breaker of the Sunny Island to "ON".
☑ The display light of the Sunny Island switches on.
Parameter "250.01 AutoStr"
Even with the parameter "250.01 AutoStr" set, the Sunny Island must be manually started after
each time the device is switched on using the DC circuit breaker.
☑ The Sunny Island initiates the start-up phase.
The notifications shown here are displayed.
The last notification is displayed as soon as the
start-up phase is completed.
3. To change settings in the QCG, manually start the QCG.
(Press and hold down <ENTER> until the Sunny Island beeps three times.)
☑ The QCG is started and the notification
displayed here is shown.
or Wait five seconds.
01#StartMenu
Start System
☑ The Sunny Island skips the QCG and the
notification shown here is displayed.
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4. Press and hold <ENTER>.
☑ Process bar is shown in the display.
☑ On a slave, the notification displayed here is
shown until the master is started.
5. Press <ENTER> on the master.
☑ An acoustic signal sounds. The Sunny Island is in operation and the green LED is glowing.
9.2 Stopping the Sunny Island (Standby)
Standby
Even in standby mode the Sunny Island still requires approx. 4 W of power from the battery.
Proceed as follows to stop the Sunny Island:
1. Press <ENTER> or <ESC> to stop the Sunny Island.
☑ The notification shown here is displayed.
2. Press and hold <ENTER>.
☑ The remaining time is displayed as a bar.
☑ The Sunny Island is stopped. The notification shown
here is displayed.
9.3 Switching Off
To switch off the Sunny Island, proceed as follows:
"Switching sequence"
Only with the sequence shown here can you ensure that all internal meter positions/values are
saved.
1. Stop the Sunny Island (see Section 9.2 "Stopping the Sunny Island (Standby)", page 76).
2. Switch the DC circuit breaker of the Sunny Island to "OFF".
☑ The Sunny Island is switched off.
9.4 Disconnecting the Device from Voltage Sources
1. Switch off the Sunny Island (see Section 9.3 "Switching Off", page 76).
2. Disconnect the Sunny Island from the battery.
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3. Disconnect the Sunny Island from the voltage sources (AC1 and AC2). Separate AC1 and AC2
and disconnect from voltage sources.
☑ If PV inverters are connected to AC1, they automatically switch off once they are no longer
connected to the stand-alone grid.
4. Check that the Sunny Island has been disconnected from voltage sources.
5. Wait at least 15 minutes to let the capacitors discharge and to allow the voltage inside the
Sunny Island to drop to a safe level.
☑ The Sunny Island is free of voltage.
9.5 Recommissioning After Automatic Shutdown
A complete shutdown indicates that off-grid system devices have failed or are not working correctly
due to incorrect parameter settings. Check the off-grid system for possible faults, both before and after
recommissioning to avoid a complete shutdown in the future.
Damage to the Sunny Island and connected devices
• Disconnect the loads only.
• Do not disconnect generators.
• Install an external load-shedding contactor if the Sunny Island is coupled to PV arrays or wind
generators on the AC-generating side.
To recommission the Sunny Island after it has switched off due to a battery being too deeply
discharged, proceed as follows:
1. Switch the DC circuit breaker of the Sunny Island to "OFF".
Danger to life due to high voltages in the Sunny Island Death or serious injury possible
due to electric shock
After an automatic disconnection, high residual voltages can remain in the Sunny Island capacitors.
• Wait at least 15 minutes before restarting the Sunny Island. The capacitors in the Sunny Island
discharge during this time.
2. Wait at least 15 minutes.
3. Switch the DC circuit breaker of the Sunny Island to "ON".
☑ The display light of the Sunny Island switches on.
Switching on the DC circuit breaker
If, in rare cases, the device cannot be switched back on after 15 minutes, wait 30 minutes and
try again.
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4. Switch on the Sunny Island as described in section (see Section 9.1 "Switching On", page 75).
Charging the batteries
After recommissioning, it is important that the batteries are charged. If an autostart generator is
present in the stand-alone grid, the Sunny Island will request the generator after a few minutes.
5. Monitor the generator startup and check that the Sunny Island switches to charge mode.
6. Check for error-free functioning of all other energy generators in the system.
Battery-preservation mode after recommissioning
If, after recommissioning, the Sunny Island immediately switches into battery-preservation mode
(see Section 13.6 "Battery-Preservation Mode", page 115), disconnect all loads from the AC
output.
The loads can be reconnected once the Sunny Island enters the state of charge. A precondition
for this is that a generator capable of providing the required power is connected (see
Section 20.10 "Procedure during Emergency Charge Mode", page 223).
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10 Operation
10 Operation
The main menu consists of a "Home Screen" and the other main menu entries, which split up into the
different menu levels. Operating states, e.g. the current operating mode, power, etc. are displayed
on the "Home Screen" (see Section 10.6 "Display Messages (Overview)", page 89).
The menu consists of a main menu and maximum two sub-menu levels (see Section 10.1 "Menu
Structure", page 80).
Use the up and down arrow buttons to navigate through the menu levels. The cyclical arrangement
(wrap around) allows you to scroll both forward and backwards to access the desired menu as
quickly as possible.
Faster access to menus
If you want to access sub-menu "7", go back from step "1" to step "9" instead of going six steps
forwards.
When the desired menu is reached press the <ENTER> key in order to access it. The <ESC> key exits
the menu and puts you one menu level up.
Switching to the "Home Screen" in case of inactivity
If no button is actuated for more than five minutes (inactivity), the "Home Screen" appears.
Backlight
The display backlight is automatically deactivated after a short time of inactivity. You can switch
the backlight back on by pressing one of the four buttons. No settings are changed when you
press the button, this only activates the display illumination.
Button sound
The button sound is switched on by default. In order to deactivate it, set the parameter
"250.04 BeepEna" to Off. If "250.04 BeepEna" is set to "Off", the Sunny Island does not emit
an acoustic signal in the event of disturbances and errors.
Slaves wait for commands from the master
Slave devices must wait for commands from the
master device. The following message is shown in
the display during this time.
The Sunny Island uses an operating concept referred to as "Single Point of Operation". For a
system with more than one Sunny Island, all entries are made on the master. There, you configure the
entire system, confirm events, warnings and errors in the QCG (see Section 8 "Commissioning",
page 69), and perform firmware updates when required (see Section 11.6 "Firmware Update",
page 100).
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Exception: When starting the device for the first time, you must set the slave devices as slave in the
QCG and everything else is performed from the master.
Single Point of Operation
Single Point of Operation also means that all log data of the master including the log data of
the slaves are saved to the SD memory card on the master.
Messages
Messages can be displayed at any time while the device is in operation and they have priority
over the "Home Screen" display.
10.1 Menu Structure
The navigation area includes the "Home Screen" and the main menu items:
• 100# Meters (display values)
• 200# Settings
• 300# Diagnosis
• 400# Failure/Event (lists)
• 500# Operation (operating functions)
• 600# Direct Access
The main menu is divided into several sub-menus.
In a sub-menu, you can select a second sub-menu or a parameter.
Entering incorrect parameters endangers operational safety. Damage to the off-grid
system and its components
All parameter settings which could affect the operating safety of the off-grid system are protected
by the installer password.
The menu items and parameters in which system parameters can be changed are accessible after
entering the installer password (see Section 10.5 "Entering the Installer Password", page 88).
• Only trained electrically qualified persons are permitted to set and adjust system parameters.
You can access the navigation area from one of two levels:
• User level
• Installer level (password required)
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Overview of the Menu Structure:
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100# Meters - Display values
In this main menu, you will find the display values for the following devices of the off-grid system:
• 110# Inverter Meters − Sunny Island
• 120# Battery Meters − Battery
• 130# External Meters − Utility grid/Generator
• 140# Charge Controller − Sunny Island Charger (is only shown when there is at least one
Sunny Island Charger connected to the Sunny Island)
• 150# Compact Meters − compact view of values for commissioning
By opening the relevant sub-menu - if necessary, the second sub-menu - you can view the parameters
(e.g., Parameter "112.03 InvVtg").
200# Settings
The following sub-menus allow you to view and adjust the system parameters:
• 210# Inverter Settings − Sunny Island
• 220# Battery Settings − Battery
• 230# External Settings − Utility Grid/Generator
• 240# Relay Settings − Relays
• 250# System Settings − System
• 280# Password Setting − Password entry
300# Diagnosis
The following sub-menus allow you to view system data:
• 310# Inverter Diagnosis − Sunny Island
• 320# Battery Diagnosis − Battery
• 330# External Diagnosis − Utility Grid/Generator
400# Failure/Event - Failures and Events
You can view various error and event lists in the following sub-menus:
• 410# Failures Current − Current failures
• 420# Failure History − Previous warnings and failures
• 430# Event History − Previous events
500# Operation - Functions during operation
The following sub-menus allow you to view and adjust operating parameters:
• 510# Operation Inverter − Sunny Island
• 520# Operation Battery − Battery
• 540# Operation Generator − Generator
• 550# Operation MMC − SD Memory Card
• 560# Operation Grid − Utility grid
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600# Direct Access − Direct access to the parameters
This is a main menu that gives you direct access to the settings and display values (see Section 10.3
"Direct Access - Direct Access to the Parameters", page 84).
10.2 Changing Parameters
Using the up and down arrow buttons, you navigate through a selected menu to view or change a
parameter, for example. When the relevant parameter is displayed, you can read off its present value.
An arrow next to the value indicates that the parameter can be changed.
If you press <ENTER>, the arrow begins to blink and you can use the up and down arrow buttons to
change the value of the parameter "221.02 BatCpyNom".
Increments (speed)
The increment size (speed) of the change increases if you hold the button pressed down.
As soon as the desired value appears on the display, press <ENTER> to save the new value.
Then select Y(es) or N(o) by pressing the up/down arrow buttons to accept or reject the changes.
Press <ENTER> again in order to finish the process and continue with other modifications.
Changing parameters
Note that some parameters can only be changed when the device is in standby mode (see
Section 19.2 "Adjustable Parameters", page 167). All menu items that can only be changed by
the installer using a password are shaded in gray in the parameter list.
The Sunny Island displays a corresponding message for parameters that can only be changed in
standby mode or require a different password level.
Display
Description
Incorrect password level, you cannot make any
changes in the menus (see Section 10.5 "Entering the
Installer Password", page 88).
All menu items and parameters that can only be
changed by the installer are shaded in gray in the
parameter list (see Section 19 "Parameter Lists",
page 158).
This parameter can only be changed in standby
mode. Stop the Sunny Island to change the
parameter (see Section 9.2 "Stopping the
Sunny Island (Standby)", page 76).
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10.3 Direct Access - Direct Access to the Parameters
The "600# Direct Access" menu gives you direct access to the selected parameter using the
parameter name or number.
Via the Select Name sub-menu, you have direct access to the following functions:
• GnManStr: manual starting of the generator (see Section 14.1.4 "Manual Generator
Operation", page 122)
• ManChrgSel: manual starting of equalization charge (see Section 13.5.3 "Equalization
Charge", page 114)
Via the Select Number menu, you have direct access to every parameter by entering the parameter
number.
Example
Using the menu 600# Direct Access, you can select the parameter "222.01 BatChrgCurMax",
e.g. to set the maximum battery charging current.
The direct access must be entered as a five-digit number, for example 22201. Here, the first
three digits describe the menu number and the last two describe the parameter number.
Exit the menu level after the parameter has been set.
10.4 Compact Meters
The "150# Compact Meters" menu is intended primarily to help the installer commission the device.
The display gives you information at a glance on the following areas:
• Battery 1
• Battery 2
• Inverter (AC values)
• InvTot
• Utility grid/Generator (External)
• ExtTot
• Inverter status
Selecting the area
You can select the different displays of the compact meters using the up/down arrow buttons.
Here, you can also use the "Wrap around" function.
The displays are always shown from the upper left to the lower right.
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Bat1 (Battery values 1)
Position
Description
A
Name of the compact meter
B
Present battery state of charge (BatSoc)
C
Estimated error of the state of charge (BatSocErr)
D
Total battery current of the cluster (TotBatCur)
E
Battery temperature (BatTmp)
Bat2 (Battery values 2)
Position
Description
A
Name of the compact meter
B
Battery voltage (BatVtg)
C
Setpoint of charging voltage (BatChrgVtg)
D
Active charging process (BatChrgOp)
E
Remaining absorption time (AptTmRmg)
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Inv (AC Values of Inverter)
Position
Description
A
Name of the compact meter
B
Present voltage at the inverter (InvVtg)
C
Present frequency at the inverter (InvFrq)
D
Present active power of the inverter (InvPwrAt)
E
Present reactive power at the inverter (InvPwrPt)
InvTot (Total AC Values of Inverter)
Position
Description
A
Name of the compact meter
B
Total active power of the inverter (cluster)
C
Total reactive power of the inverter (cluster)
Ext (AC Values of External Source)
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Position
Description
A
Name of the compact meter
B
Voltage of the external source (ExtVtg)
C
Frequency of the external source (ExtFrq)
D
Active power of the external source (ExtPwrAt)
E
Reactive power of the external source (ExtPwrPt)
10 Operation
ExtTot (Total AC Values of External Source)
Position
Description
A
Name of the compact meter
B
Total active power of the external source (cluster)
C
Total reactive power of the external source (cluster)
OpStt (Inverter and Generator Status)
Position
Description
A
Name of the compact meter
B
Operating state of the inverter (InvOpStt)
C
State of the generator (GnStt)
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10.5 Entering the Installer Password
Entering incorrect parameters endangers operational safety. Damage to the off-grid
system and its components
All parameter settings which could affect the operating safety of the off-grid system are protected
by the installer password.
• Only trained electrically qualified persons are permitted to set and adjust system parameters.
Do not disclose the password to unauthorized persons
Do not provide the following information for entering the installer password to unauthorized
persons. Illegal provision of this information to other persons will lead to the invalidation of all
SMA warranty provisions.
Entering the password
The Sunny Island allows you to enter the password not only in standby, but also during
operation.
The password is dependent on the operating hours counter. In the installer level, there are extended
access privileges to all necessary parameters.
Password = checksum of the operating hours
Proceed as follows to enter the installer password of the "Home Screen":
1. Keep pressing the "arrow down" key until the
"200# Settings" menu is displayed.
2. Press <ENTER>.
3. Keep pressing the "arrow up" key until the "280#
Password Setting" menu is displayed.
4. Press <ENTER>.
☑ The "280# Password Setting" sub-menu opens.
5. Press <ENTER>.
6. Determine the password. Calculate the checksum
(sum of all digits) of the operating hours. In the
message shown here:
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 = 21
7. Enter the password by pressing the up/down arrow buttons.
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8. Confirm the password by pressing <ENTER>.
☑ The installer password has been entered.
Operating level [1] = the installer level is set.
9. Exit the menu by pressing the <ESC> key.
Switching operating levels
• If the password is invalid, the Sunny Island does not switch to the installer level. In this case,
recalculate and re-enter the installer password as described in this section.
The installer level is switched back to the user level if:
• the Sunny Island is switched off and on again.
• specific parameters are entered (e.g. parameter "510.01 InvRs") that cause a restart.
• an incorrect password is entered.
• no activity takes place within five minutes.
10.6 Display Messages (Overview)
The display has two lines, each with 16 characters. The first line shows the menu number and the menu
name, or the name of the parameter where applicable. In the lower line - if required - the name of the
menu is added or additional text is displayed (for example the parameter value).
"Home Screen"
Position
Description
A
Output power/charging power (load status)
B
Direction of energy flow and system status
C
Displays if the Sunny Island loaded parameters for grid operation or parameters
for generator operation.
D
Device assignment
E
Status of the external source (asterisk, question mark or exclamation mark)
F
Relay 1 status
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Position
Description
G
Relay 2 status
H
Warning message (exclamation mark)
The Sunny Island also shows the following values one after the other in the upper line of the "Home
Screen" (parameter name and parameter value in 3-second intervals):
• Bar display for output power or charging power (the direction of energy flow is displayed by
the arrows in the lower line)
• Total active power of the inverter (cluster)
• Active power of external source (total of all phases)
• Present state of charge of the battery (SOC)
• Meters (always one of five possibilities, depending on priority)
– Remaining absorption time
– Remaining generator warm-up time
– Remaining Run1h time for the generator
– Remaining time of Timer 1
– Remaining time of Timer 2
• Active charging process
Situational displaying of text and values
The display shows only values that are relevant in the actual system status. If there is no
generator connected, no generator values are displayed
Messages on the slave devices
On the slave devices, the upper line of the display shows the bar graph for output power or
charging power. The lower line of the display shows the device assignment (e.g. S1 for slave
1) and, where applicable, the status of external sources (*, for a description, see further above)
and the status of relays.
Meaning of the Symbols that appear in the "Home Screen":
Symbol
Meaning
Nominal power
Nominal load exceeded.
Direction of energy flow between grid/generator side, battery and load side.
Generation side (Generator/Grid) is on.
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Symbol
10 Operation
Meaning
Battery
Load side (Loads/Sunny Boys)
Utility pole
The Sunny Island is working with grid limits.
The Sunny Island is working with generator limits.
The Sunny Island is configured as master.
The Sunny Island is configured as slave 1.
The Sunny Island is configured as slave 2.
Status of the external source:
Voltage and frequency of the generator/the utility grid are within the configured
limits.
Status of the external source:
Voltage and frequency of the external source are not within set limits. In this case,
the Sunny Island does not connect the generator to the stand-alone grid.
Status of the external source (at position (E) on the display):
The maximal admissible generator reverse power was exceeded and the
Sunny Island has disconnected the generator from the stand-alone grid.
"Battery" request reason:
The generator has been requested as a result of the battery state of charge.
"Cycle" request reason:
The generator was requested via the time-dependent repetition cycle of the
generator operation (parameter: 235.17 GnTmOpCyc).
This symbol can only be shown in Multicluster operation.
"External" request reason:
The generator was requested via the extension cluster. This request can only take
place in multicluster operation.
"Load" request reason:
The generator has been requested as a result of the load-dependent generator
request.
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Symbol
Meaning
"Start" request reason:
The generator has been requested by the operator manually setting the generator
request in the Sunny Island from "Auto" to "Start". The generator is then no longer
automatically controlled or switched off by the Sunny Island.
"Time" request reason:
The generator was started for one hour using the "Run1h" setting in the
Sunny Island. Once this time has passed, the Sunny Island automatically switches
off the generator.
Display for relay (solid circle = relay is activated; empty circle = relay is
deactivated)
Warning message is displayed (at position (H):
This symbol blinks until you have confirmed the warning or the error in the menu
"410# Failures Current" or "420# Failure History".
Display "Generator Status" and "Request Reason"
The two displays above are cyclically shown on the display as the status of the external source.
Example:
If the display changes every three seconds from "*" to "B", this means that the generator voltage
and frequency are within the set limits and that the generator was requested as a result of the
battery state of charge.
Stopping the generator manually
If the generator has been manually stopped, no generator status information is displayed. The
field remains empty in this case.
Indications of a warning
If faults occur, the device switches into standby mode and shows the fault on the display. The
fault must be eliminated and confirmed, then the Sunny Island carries out an autostart.
10.7 Parameter Display
Parameters on the Sunny Island are displayed as follows:
In the upper line, the parameter number comes first, then
a separator (hash) followed by the parameter name. In
the lower line, there is the value with the unit and the
modification mark (enter arrow) is on the far right.
Parameter/value list
If you would like to switch from a menu (regardless of whether it is a main or sub-menu) into a
parameter/value list, the menu numbers are not included on the display.
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Syntax for menus and parameters
The syntax specified here for menus and parameters applies throughout the entire document.
A menu is designated by the number of the menu, hash and the name of the menu (120# Battery
Meters).
A parameter is labeled with the menu number, dot, the parameter number and parameter name
(120.02 BatVtg).
10.8 Display of Events
The Sunny Island can display a list of events:
The serial number (quantity) of the event is displayed in
the upper line. Display of time and date and time changes
in two-second intervals. In the lower line are the number
of the event and the corresponding short text.
10.9 Display of Warnings and Failures
The Sunny Island can display a list of errors and warnings:
The consecutive number (quantity) of the error is on the
upper line; the time and date display changes in
two-second intervals. On the lower line are the number of
the error and the corresponding error short text.
A "!" on the right on the upper line indicates when the warning and/or error occurred.
A "C" on the right on the upper line indicates when the warning or the error was confirmed or cleared.
Direct access to the error list
As a shortcut, press ESC and the arrow up button simultaneously to go directly to the error list
(#420 Failure History).
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11 Data Storage on SD Memory Card
The Sunny Island can store firmware, parameters and measured data on a SD memory card which
must be FAT-16-formatted and may have a max. size of 2 GB (possible storage sizes are 32/64/
128/256/512 MB and 1 GB and 2 GB). Use the supplied SD memory card only for the
Sunny Island. Do not save any multimedia files on the SD memory card.
File names are saved in 8.3 format and files with other designations are ignored.
Example of a format
A valid 8.3 format is, for example, "M1111LOG.DAT".
8.3 is the "old" MS-DOS format with a file name that has a maximum of eight figures before and
three figures after the dot.
Type of memory card
SMA recommends the use of a Transcend SD memory card.
If you use a memory card from another manufacturer, check whether the card is FAT-16
formatted. If necessary, format the card. Be aware that data stored on the card will be lost.
Using memory cards in the off-grid system
If you combine the Sunny Island inverters in one off-grid system, use one SD memory card
always only for one type of Sunny Island (SI 4548-US-10 / 5048U / 6048-US-10). This will
ensure optimum functioning of the off-grid system.
• Make a note of the type of the Sunny Island used on the SD memory card after the first
data recording.
• Only insert this SD memory card into this type of Sunny Island.
Once you have inserted the SD memory card in the slot on your PC, you can search the corresponding
drive in your Explorer (example here: Microsoft Windows). The following data is present on this drive
(here E:):
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The files on the SD memory card have the following meanings:
File name
Meaning
evthism.log (evthisN.log for SlaveN)
Event history of the device, saved by means of parameter
"550.03 CardFunc",
option StoEvtHis
failhism.log (failhisN.log for SlaveN)
Failure history of the device, saved by means of
parameter "550.03 CardFunc", option StoFailHis
si030607.evt
Event/failure history for the day
(Format MMDDYY)
si030607.log
Data logging for the day
sipar1.lst
Parameter list of the device, created by means of
parameter "550.01 ParaSto", option Set1
sipar2.lst
Parameter list of the device, created by means of
parameter "550.01 ParaSto", option Set2
sipar.lst
This file is saved after changing a parameter.
update.bin
Software for the device
batstat.txt
Statistical values of the battery. These values are saved
every day at 10:00 p.m.
batstat.sma
Internal data from SMA
si.ccf
System information from Sunny Island.
(Format MMDDYY)
"BOOTEX.LOG" File
The file "BOOTLEX.LOG" is not necessarily contained on the card, it will be created depending
on the operating system used (e.g. Windows XP or Windows 2000).
The firmware of the Sunny Island expects device-specific data in the main directory of the SD memory
card. This data includes a new firmware, parameters and measuring data.
The Sunny Island uses the SD memory card to save and load device parameters.
The Sunny Island still records the measuring data on the SD memory card. It saves this data in a
special file. This contains, among other things, a header, time stamp, date and data type. There are
two different types of log data:
• Measurement data (are saved cyclically)
• Events and errors (are only saved when they occur)
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The Sunny Island supports the acquisition of measurement data with data from the fields:
• Battery
• Inverter
• System
• External source
• Loads
Always save data
Always use the SD memory card for storing data and events. In case of a failure SMA can thus
help you quickly.
1. In the event of a fault contact the SMA Service Line.
2. Upon agreement with the SMA Service Line, save all data from the SD memory card into
one folder and compress this (e.g. as ZIP file).
3. Send the compressed data via e-mail to the SMA Service Line.
The data saved on the SD memory card can be processed using common spreadsheet programs.
• The first 13 lines of the file are used for information (file header).
• The following data is separated by semicolons.
• Decimal places are separated by periods.
• The date format is MM/DD/YYYY
• The time format is hh:mm.
Log Data
For additional information on processing the log data, please refer to the manual of the data
processing software you use.
11.1 Inserting the SD Memory Card
Electrostatic discharge when inserting the SD memory card Electrostatic discharge can
damage the Sunny Island components
• Ground yourself before inserting or removing the SD memory card at the Sunny Island
enclosure.
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Insert the SD memory card with the cut corner pointing
down into the slot on the Sunny Island (see illustration).
After inserting the SD memory card into the Sunny Island,
the adjacent message appears on the display prohibiting
the removal of the card:
Initializing the SD memory card may take a few minutes. During this time, the buttons are disabled
and cannot be used for making entries, and three points appear in the lower line of the display.
If the procedure was successful, the graphic shown here
is displayed.
☑ The Sunny Island initializes the SD memory card and writes a file "Sipar1.Ist" to the SD memory
card.
In case of a fault, the following message appears:
11.2 Removing the SD Memory Card
To ensure that all log data is saved upon deactivation, write all data not yet saved from the buffer to
the SD memory card by using the parameter "550.03 CardFunc" with the option "ForcedWrite".
Data loss
If you remove the SD memory card without first activating the parameter "550.03 CardFunc",
you lose up to a maximum of 15 minutes of data.
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11.3 Saving and Loading Parameters
You can configure and use various settings with various parameters, this means winter and summer.
This parameter seta are known as Set 1 and Set 2. Using the parameter "550.01 ParaSto", you can
save the current parameter settings and using the parameter "550.02 ParaLod", you can load the
saved parameters.
Save settings
If the system is working optimally, it is a good idea to save these settings. This is especially useful
if you try out new settings and then wish to reset the inverter back to the previous settings.
When saving the parameters, you have the following options:
• Set1 (save parameter set 1)
• Set2 (save parameter set 2)
When loading the parameters, you have the following options:
• Set1 (load parameter set 1)
• Set2 (load parameter set 2)
• Factory (load the default settings (reset))
Write protection function of SD memory cards
The write protection function of SD cards (plastic sliding clip on the left side) is not supported by
the Sunny Island. You should take note of this when writing data to your card.
11.4 Writing Log Data
Using the parameter "550.04 DatLogEna", you can activate the function for writing log data to your
SD memory card (activated by default).
If the Sunny Island is writing data to the SD memory card,
removing the card is prohibited and the following
message appears on the display:
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11.5 Status Messages
Using the parameter 312.07 CardStt", you can query the status of your SD memory card:
Display
Description
The SD memory card is deactivated.
The SD memory card is activated.
The SD memory card is full.
The SD memory card has an invalid file format.
The SD memory card is incompatible.
The Sunny Island is loading parameters from the SD
memory card.
Loading parameters from the SD memory card has
failed.
The SD memory card is being accessed.
The Sunny Island is writing log data to the SD memory
card.
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11.6 Firmware Update
The firmware of the Sunny Island can be updated via the SD memory card. Upon startup or when the
SD memory card is inserted, the Sunny Island searches for special update files on the SD memory
card. If it finds files containing new firmware versions, it performs an update when the Sunny Island is
in standby mode.
Duration of the firmware update
The update for single-phase systems takes approximately five minutes.
For system configurations with more than one Sunny Island, the software update can take up to
20 minutes.
A status bar shows the progress of the update. Leave the SD memory card in the Sunny Island
until the update is finished. During the update process, leave the DC switch to the "On" position.
Proceed as follows for a firmware update:
Observe the following:
• You may only download firmware versions from www.SMA-America.com. Using
unauthorized firmware versions cancels the warranty.
• None of the already existing parameter settings are changed or erased during a firmware
update.
• New parameters are assumed with default values.
• If there is an update to the firmware version greater or equal to 6.000, the battery
management is automatically reset. All set parameters are lost.
• Do not activate the DC circuit breaker during the firmware update.
• Do not switch off the Sunny Island during the firmware update.
1. Create a backup copy of the existing parameter lists (see Section 11.3 "Saving and Loading
Parameters", page 98).
2. Download the latest firmware version from the Internet at www.SMA-America.com.
3. Copy the "UPDATE.BIN" file to the SD memory card.
4. Set the master device to standby.
5. Insert the SD memory card into the slot of the master.
☑ The update will be performed.
Reset after a successful update
After the update has been successfully completed a reset is enforced in order for the changes
to become effective. After the reset, the master device remains in standby mode.
6. Press and hold <ENTER>.
☑ The Sunny Island starts. The update has been completed.
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Starting QCG
If you have carried out a firmware update in which the number before the dot in the firmware
version has changed, it is advisable to start QCG and to perform all settings anew.
Firmware Update in a System with One Sunny Island
During the update, the Sunny Island displays the following
messages.
Load parameter
Firmware Update in a System with Several Sunny Island
In a system with several Sunny Island inverters, the firmware is only updated on the master. If the
master detects that a slave has a different firmware version, it transmits its firmware to the slave and
makes sure that all Sunny Island inverters within a system operate with the identical firmware version.
While the master updates the slaves, the devices show the following messages, among other things.
The display messages listed below may be shown at various lengths. Wait until the master displays
the message "Update finished". Press Enter" and for the slaves the display message "Ready Wait for
Master." Do not make any entries during the update.
Display message
Operating Manual
Display from
Explanation
Master
The master update
starts.
Master
Master update part 1/
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Display from
Explanation
Master
Master update part 2/
2.
Master
The slave update starts.
Master
The slave update is
running.
Master
The master update is
completed.
Slave
The slave update is
completed.
⋮
⋮
⋮
⋮
Parameters and settings
Individual parameters and settings are retained during a firmware update.
Switching on a slave with a different firmware version
If a slave with a different firmware version is connected, first stop the master. Stop all slaves.
Then restart the master. The slaves start automatically and the master performs a firmware
update.
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12 Additional Functions
12.1 Load Shedding
If the loads connected to the Sunny Island consume more energy over a longer period of time than
the generators connected produce, the batter can deeply discharge. The Sunny Island shuts down
automatically if the state of charge of the battery is too low. This way, the Sunny Island avoids a deep
discharge of the battery. Due to the automatic shutdown of the Sunny Island, the loads are not
supplied with electricity and the generators connected to the Sunny Island can not charge the battery.
In off-grid systems in which generators are connected directly to the battery via DC-to-DC converters,
these generators charge the battery, even if the Sunny Island automatically shuts down. When the
battery reaches a particular state of charge, the Sunny Island can carry out an automatic restart after
the automatic shutdown. After the automatic restart, the generators connected to the Sunny Island can
also charge the battery.
You can prevent the Sunny Island from automatically shutting down by installing a power contactor
for load shedding. The power contactor automatically switches off the loads in the off-grid system
when the battery charge level is low. The Sunny Island continues operating and can charge the
battery.
Install an external (AC or DC) power contactor between the Sunny Island and the loads (see
Section 21 "Accessory", page 226).
Rapid battery electric discharge in the event of missing load shedding
Premature failing of the off-grid system.
• Install an external load shedding contactor as soon as the off-grid system on the AC
generating side is coupled to PV arrays or wind generators.
• If there is overload due to low energy production or very high energy consumption, you must
be able to switch off loads.
• Always switch off the loads, never the energy generators (e.g. Sunny Boy).
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The figure shows an example of the settings if the step-by-step load shedding function at night is to be
avoided as much as possible. From 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. the load shedding is activated for a state of
charge (SOC) of 40%, at nighttime (from 10 p.m. to 6 a.m.), however, the state of charge of the
battery is allowed to go down to 30% before the load-shedding contactor is activated.
The load shedding function can be assigned a total of two times. Thus, in the above listed parameters,
the part "Lod1" (see parameters "242.01 Lod1SocTm1Str" to "242.06 Lod1Tm2Str") represents the
first assigned function. Another part "Lod2" (see parameters "242.07 Lod2SocTm1Str" to
"242.12 Lod2Tm2Str") represents a second, identical function. These two battery state-dependent
load-shedding functions allow a step by step load shedding where different load groups with different
SOC values can be defined with different priorities.
Define the time intervals t1 and t2:
• Starting time t1: with parameter "242.05 Lod1Tm1Str", set the start time for t1 (and with it the
end of t2).
• Starting time t2: with parameter "242.06 Lod1Tm2Str", set the start time for t2 (and with it the
end of t1).
• If the time intervals t1 (Lod1Tm1Str) and t2 (Lod1Tm2Str) are consistent with one another, only
t1 will be activated.
Set the battery state of charge at which the time interval t1 or t2 will start/stop:
• The battery state of charge during the t1 interval, the recognition of which will lead to the
load-shedding function being started: Parameter "242.01 Lod1SocTm1Str"
• The battery state of charge during the t1 interval, the recognition of which will lead to the
load-shedding function being stopped: Parameter "242.02 Lod1SocTm1Stp"
• The battery state of charge during the t2 interval, the recognition of which will lead to the
load-shedding function being started: Parameter "242.03 Lod1SocTm2Str"
• The battery state of charge during the t2 interval, the recognition of which will lead to the
load-shedding function being stopped: Parameter "242.04 Lod1SocTm2Stp"
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12.2 Sleep Mode
Using the parameter "250.10 SleepEna" set to "Enable" allows the sleep mode to be activated in
single-phase utility grids which the master uses to switch off the slaves when the power value allows
this.
Sleep mode
The "Sleep Mode" works exclusively in stand-alone mode. The values for connection and
disconnection of the Sunny Island are already set at the factory (optimized in terms of
efficiency).
12.3 Time-Controlled Operation
The Sunny Island can be operated in a time-controlled manner using a timer function (like a clock
timer), supplying power at a planned point in time.
This function must be activated by using the parameter "510.02 InvTmOpEna". Using the parameter
"510.03 InvTmOpStrDt", you can specify the start date, and using the parameter
"510.04 InvTmOpStrTm", you specify the start time. With the parameter "510.05 InvTmOpRnDur",
you set the running time and with the parameter "510.06 InvTmOpCyc", you determine whether this
function will be carried out once, every day or weekly, at or from the specified start time (date and
time).
12.4 Overload and Short-Circuit Behavior
The Sunny Island can be temporarily operated under overload conditions. and is able to supply
short-circuit current.
In the event of overload, the Sunny Island 4548-US supplies a power of 5,300 W for 30 minutes at
77°F (25°C) and the Sunny Island 6048-US a power of 7,000 W. Both Sunny Island inverters can
deliver a power of 7,200 W for 5 minutes at 77°F (25°C). The available power can even reach
8,400 W for 1 minute at 77°F (25°C).
In the event of a short circuit, the Sunny Island provides a maximum current of 180 A (for 60 ms). This
is sufficient to trip commercial 20 A circuit breakers.
12.5 Mixed Operation with Sunny Island Inverters of Different
Power
The Sunny Island inverters 4548-US, 6048-US and 5048U can be operated in an off-grid system
together.
Each Sunny Island makes its contribution to cover the current power requirements of the loads. This
contribution is made up of the ratio of the nominal power of each Sunny Island to the overall power
of all Sunny Island inverters.
If an SI 5048U is installed in an off-grid system configure the SI 5048U as slave or equip with the
latest firmware (see www.SMA-America.com).
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Double-Split-Phase System
In a double split-phase system, each line conductor must only be fitted with Sunny Island inverters of
the same type (e.g. two Sunny Island 6048-US).
12.6 Device Faults and Autostart
If a critical fault occurs, the Sunny Island automatically shuts down and displays the reason on the
display. If the autostart function is activated (parameter "250.01 AutoStr") the Sunny Island can
acknowledge the error automatically and restart on its own. If the error persists, the Sunny Island
cannot be started.
Autostart meter
If the autostart meter has counted down to zero, the Sunny Island waits for ten minutes before
attempting to restart automatically.
Displaying messages
Messages can be displayed at any time while the device is in operation and they have priority
over the "Home Screen" display.
12.7 Automatic Frequency Synchronization
Clocks that depend on the stability of the power frequency for their accuracy become increasingly
inaccurate when there are constant frequency deviations. Frequency fluctuations, i.e., deviations from
the nominal frequency occur, for example, in off-grid systems that operate with a diesel generator.
The automatic frequency synchronization (German: AFRA) function of the Sunny Island allows the use
of clocks in these types of off-grid systems. This function is activated using the parameter
"250.11 AfraEna". The time deviation is compensated on average.
Quartz-controlled clock in the Sunny Island
The internal clock in the Sunny Island is quartz-controlled and thus operates correctly (within the
tolerance limits). The adjustment refers to externally connected clocks that depend on the power
frequency.
12.8 Time-Controlled Standby
You can set the Sunny Island to standby mode in a time-controlled way. Activate the time-controlled
standby using the parameter "250.13 SlpAtNgt". Set the parameter to "Enable".
After activation, set the start time and the stop time for standby. Carry out the setting using the
parameters "250.14 SlpStrTm" and "250.15 SlpStpTm".
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12.9 Behavior in the Event of a Failure in a Three-Phase System
You can influence how the Sunny Island reacts to failures occurring in a three-phase system using the
parameter "250.30 RnMod". The parameter is set to "RunAlways" at the factory. This means that the
master ignores all errors at the slave devices.
If you set the parameter to "StopAlways", the system will be put in standby mode upon detection of a
fault at the slave devices. Faults which can be removed via an autostart are not included.
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13 Battery Management
13.1 Battery Type and Minimum Battery Capacity
The battery management of the Sunny Island supports the following three battery types (parameter
"221.01 BatTyp"):
FLA
VRLA
NiCd
Flooded Lead Acid: valve-regulated lead-acid battery with liquid
electrolyte in all standard designs available on the market (grid plate,
tubular plate, small, large, etc.).
Valve Regulated Lead Acid: Closed lead acid batteries with immobilized
electrolyte in gel or AGM (Absorbent Glass Mat Separator) in all standard
designs available on the market (grid plate, tubular plate, small, large,
AGM, gel, etc.)
Nickel Cadmium: Sealed pocket-type plate or fiber plate nickel-cadmium
batteries.
Lithium-ion batteries have an own battery management. The battery management of the lithium-ion
battery communicates with the Sunny Island via data cables.
The battery capacity (parameter "221.02 BatCpyNom") is to be entered as the nominal capacity for
a 20 hour discharge (C20). If this information is not available from the battery manufacturer's
datasheet, it can be calculated from the data for different discharge times (120 h, 100 h, 20 h, 5 h,
1 h) in the following manner:
C20
C120/1.18
C20
C10/0.92
C20
C100/1.15
C20
C5/0.81
C20
C20
C20
C1/0.57
SMA recommends the following minimum battery capacities:
• Minimum battery capacity per Sunny Island inverter:
– Sunny Island 4548-US: 190 Ah
– Sunny Island 6048-US: 250 Ah
• Minimum battery capacity per 1 kW output power of the PV system: 100 Ah (C20)
The Sunny Island is designed and preset for a nominal battery voltage (parameter
"221.03 BatVtgNom") of 48 V (24 cells for every 2 V) with lead-acid batteries (FLA and VRLA) and
45.6 V (38 cells for every 1.2 V) with nickel-cadmium batteries.
Failure of individual battery cells
If individual battery cells fail over several years of continuous operation, the nominal voltage
can be set in the range from 42 V to 48 V. Up to three individual cells can be removed and the
plant can still continue to operate.
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13.2 Battery Temperature
The Sunny Island continuously monitors the battery temperature using the battery temperature sensor
provided. At 9°F (5°C) below the maximum permissible temperature (parameter
"221.04 BatTmpMax"), a warning message is displayed. If the maximum value for the battery
temperature is exceeded, the Sunny Island switches off.
A warning is given if the value for lead-acid batteries falls below 14°F (-10°C) and below -4°F
(-20°C) for NiCd batteries.
The battery temperature is taken into consideration when the charging voltage is calculated (see
Section 13.5 "Charge Control", page 111).
The battery may be destroyed due to deep discharge.
If the battery temperature sensor is defective or missing, the Sunny Island continues to run, assuming
a battery temperature of 104°F (40°C). This can result in deep discharge of the battery in the long
run.
• Observe the corresponding warnings of the Sunny Island.
• Connect the battery temperature sensor.
• Replace the defective battery temperature sensor.
13.3 Start Options
If the battery is replaced in a system, the battery management system must be restarted and
reconfigured. This can be done using the "Quick Configuration Guide" (QCG) (see Section 8.2
"Starting the Quick Configuration Guide (QCG)", page 69).
13.4 State of Charge (SOC) and State of Health (SOH)
State of Charge (SOC)
The Sunny Island has a very precise internal state of charge calculation (display value
"120.01 BatSoc"). The procedure for calculating the state of charge is based on balancing the
ampere hours. This means that all currents flowing in and out of the battery are accumulated and
referred to the nominal capacity. In order to take into consideration faults caused by self-discharge
and charging losses caused by gassing, these losses are already internally extracted. Unlike other
operations, no fixed charging factor must be set.
When the full charge states are reached, the battery state of charge is reset to values of 90%, 95%
or 100%, depending on how full the battery was actually charged. If default settings are not changed,
a state of charge of 90% after boost charge, 95% after full charge and 100% after equalization
charge is reached.
Since full charge states are generally only rarely achieved during a grid failure, the operation used
here can also utilize the battery voltage during constant discharge phases with low discharge currents
to recalibrate the state of charge. Compared to the ampere-hour balancing method, the operation
used here exhibits a high level of stability over the long term when recalibrated at regular intervals.
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Both the ampere-hour balancing method and the recalibration procedure which is performed via the
voltage, automatically adjust to the connected battery over time (depends on the number of grid
failures).
The estimated state of charge error (display value "120.11 BatSocErr") will provide you with
continuous information on the accuracy of the battery state of charge currently calculated. The
average error will continuously diminish as the adjustment to the actual battery state of charge
increasingly improves.
State of Health (SOH)
Only when the battery is new does its usable capacity correspond to the capacity specified by the
battery manufacturer. As the battery ages and as a result of frequent insufficient charging, the battery's
usable capacity may decrease considerably on a permanent or only temporary basis.
The battery's state of health (display value "320.01 Soh") is a measurement of the present useable
capacity expressed as a percentage relative to the nominal capacity. 100% means that the entire
nominal capacity can be used. 50% means that only half of the original nominal battery capacity can
be used. The state of health of the battery is determined using a self-adapting procedure which takes
several charging cycles to collect accurate and reliable data.
The current capacity for the Sunny Island is automatically adjusted downwards for temperatures
below < 68°F (20°C) because of the significant drop in the usable capacity of the battery when
temperatures fall below the rated temperature.
For all lead-acid batteries, the nominal capacity is adjusted by a fixed factor of −0.6%/°F (−1%/°C).
For NiCd batteries, a factor of − 0.4%/°F ( − 0.75%/°C) is used.
Recalibration of the State of Charge
The Sunny Island recalibrates the display value for the state of charge of the battery to 20% as soon
as the battery voltage per cell has reached a limiting value that is dependent on the battery type and
the battery capacity. In addition, recalibration of the state of charge always takes place if one of the
following conditions is met:
• The nominal capacity is entered incorrectly.
• The battery cable resistance is too high.
• The battery is not connected correctly.
• Differing concentrations of acid in FLA batteries (if necessary, reset the parameters in the menu
"222# Battery Charge Mode).
• The battery has aged so much that the SOH is below 80%.
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13.5 Charge Control
The Sunny Island uses a three-level charge control, using the IUoU procedure. When operating with
the utility grid, a fourth level, Silent Mode, is optionally available.
The I stands for the constant current phase (I phase). In this phase, the charging is limited by the
maximum defined battery current (parameter "222.01 BatChrgCurMax"), the nominal generator
current (parameter "234.03 GnCurNom"), the nominal grid current (parameter
"232.03 GdCurNom") or the maximum AC charging current of the Sunny Island (parameter
"210.02 InvChrgCurMax"). The respective value reached first is the limiting value. During this phase,
the battery voltage increases as the battery is charged.
Once the battery voltage reaches the predefined value for the second phase Uo (parameters
"222.07 to 222.09", ChrgVtgBoost or ChrgVtgFul or ChrgVtgEqu), the constant voltage charging
(absorption phase) begins.
In this phase, the battery voltage is maintained at a constant level, resulting in a continually decreasing
battery current. The Sunny Island remains in this phase for a defined period of time (parameters
"222.02 to 222.04", AptTmBoost or AptTmFul or AptTmEqu"). For this charging phase, the
Sunny Island automatically selects one of three possible charging methods:
• Boost charge (see Section 13.5.1, page 113)
• Full charge (see Section 13.5.2, page 113)
• Equalizing charge (see Section 13.5.3, page 114)
The remaining charging time (display value "120.04 AptTmRmg") of this phase and the actual
process (display value "120.05 BatChrgOp") can be read on the display.
The following figure shows the relation and the flowchart of the charging phases and charging
processes.
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Once this constant voltage phase is finished, the Sunny Island switches to float charge which again
carries out constant voltage charging but at a greatly reduced charging voltage (parameter
"222.10 ChrgVtgFlo"). The purpose of the float charge is to keep the battery in a fully charged state
without causing premature aging through overcharging. The Sunny Island remains in this phase until
either more than 30% of the nominal capacity has been used (all discharges are added up) or the
state of charge is below 70%. When the Sunny Island is operating on the utility grid, it can also switch
from float charge to silent mode.
Changing the charging voltage
The charging voltage does not change erratically. Instead, it slowly changes to the new setpoint
at a rate of approximately 0.5 mV/cell*s when switching from constant voltage charging to
float charge. This also happens if the setpoint is set manually.
The charging capability of batteries is highly dependent on the battery temperature. For temperatures
<77°F (25°C), the charging voltage must be slightly increased, and for temperatures > 77°F (25°C)
it must be slightly decreased. This is necessary to prevent overcharging and deep discharge reliably
at any battery temperature. For this reason, the Sunny Island is equipped with automatic temperature
compensation of the charging voltage. The battery charging voltage is adjusted by:
• VLA and FLRA battery types: 2 mV/°F (4 mV/°C) and cell
• NiCd battery types: 0 mV/°F (0 mV/°C) and cell
The temperature compensation value can be set using the parameter "222.11 BatTmpCps".
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13.5.1 Boost Charge
The boost charge is the most common charging process of the Sunny Island. The boost charge ensures
a high generator workload through a high charging voltage over a short period of time. With liquid
FLA lead-acid batteries, this charge process should be used for gassing and thus compensating the
electrolytes. The boost charge process can charge the battery up to approx. 85% to 90%.
13.5.2 Full Charge
Every 14 days or after eight nominal charge throughputs, the Sunny Island automatically initiates a
full charge (parameter "222.05 CycTmFul").
Nominal charge throughput
A nominal charge throughput is reached when the sum of the discharge currents corresponds
to the nominal capacity of the battery.
Example: The battery has a nominal capacity of 100 Ah. A nominal charge throughput is
reached when the battery has been discharged ten times for one hour by 10 A.
The objective is to recharge the battery to a state of charge of at least 95% and rectify possible effects
caused by an insufficient charge. Regular full charging approximately every two to four weeks can
double the battery life.
Change to full charge
If the Sunny Island changes to full charge after a specific time of boost charge has elapsed, the
entire time of boost charge elapsed is considered for full charge.
More than 1% of the nominal battery capacity is discharged
If more than 1% of the nominal battery capacity is discharged during a full charge, 50% of the
time elapsed is considered for the next constant voltage phase.
External charging device
If an external charging device or charge controller is connected to the battery and the criteria
for a full charge are fulfilled due to external charging, the Sunny Island treats this as if it had
performed the full charge itself.
Parallel procedures for full charge
Any parallel procedures causing the generator to stop during full charge are not taken into
account until the charging process is completed.
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13.5.3 Equalization Charge
A battery bank consists of many individual battery cells connected in series which all behave slightly
different. Over time, this results in different charge levels in the individual cells. This can lead to
premature failure, initially of individual cells, and finally to failure of the entire bank.
The Sunny Island can perform an equalization charge automatically every 180 days (parameter
"222.06 CycTmEqu") or every 30 nominal charge throughputs. During equalization charge, it
performs controlled overcharging of the battery storage system to ensure that even the weaker cells
are fully recharged. Equalization charging extends the battery life by up to 50%. The automatic
equalization charging function can also be deactivated (parameter "222.12 AutoEquChrgEna",
activated by default) or manually started (parameter "520.01 ChrgSelMan").
Change to an equalization charge
If the Sunny Island changes to equalization charge after a specific time of boost charging or full
charging has elapsed, these times are completely considered for the equalization charge.
More than 1% of the nominal battery capacity is discharged
If more than 1% of the nominal battery capacity is discharged during an equalization charge,
50% of the time elapsed is considered for the next constant voltage phase.
External charging device
If an external charger or charge controller is connected to the battery and the criteria for an
equalization charge are fulfilled due to external charging, the Sunny Island treats this as if it had
performed the equalization charge itself.
13.5.4 Manual Equalization Charge
The parameter "520.01 ChrgSelMan" activates the manual equalization charge on the Sunny Island.
If a generator is connected to the system, it is automatically started and stopped once the equalization
charge is completed.
Carrying out the equalization charge
An equalization charge should be performed at least once a year. After long periods of time
without charging, e.g. in the case of plants which are only operated seasonally, equalization
charges should always be performed manually at the end or at the beginning of the season.
13.5.5 Silent Mode
In addition to the float charge, the silent mode can only be used (parameter "224.01 SilentEna")
when operating on the utility grid.
The main purpose of the silent mode is to save energy by switching from charge mode to standby
mode in battery-backup systems where the Sunny Island is predominantly in float charge.
The silent mode is activated after the time set for float charge (parameter "224.02 SilentTmFlo") has
expired. The Sunny Island remains in silent mode for a fixed time (parameter "224.03 SilentTmMax")
or until the battery voltage per cell is 0.14 V lower than the set voltage (parameter
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"222.10 ChrgVtgFlo"). This ensures that the battery is always fully charged, even in silent mode. If a
grid failure is detected during silent mode, the Sunny Island makes a stand-alone grid available within
10 ms to 30 ms.
13.6 Battery-Preservation Mode
The Sunny Island has a sophisticated battery-preservation mode. The battery-preservation mode
prevents deep discharge from the battery as far as possible when the energy supply is low, thus
preventing a total system failure as well as damage to the battery.
The battery-preservation mode has three levels that are activated as a result of the battery state of
charge (when the charge falls below the respective limit, parameters "223.05 BatPro1Soc",
"223.06 BatPro2Soc" and "223.07 BatPro3Soc"):
Level 1: The first level is used to switch the Sunny Island into standby mode at times when the energy
is not necessarily required (e.g. at night). You define the start time using the parameter
"223.01 BatPro1TmStr" and the stop time using the parameter "223.02 BatPro1TmStp".
Level 2: The second level of the battery-preservation mode ensures that the Sunny Island is started
regularly every two hours only in the time period during which energy supply is expected, and that it
attempts to charge the battery from the AC side. For PV plants, this is during the day. In this case, you
define the start time using the parameter "223.03 BatPro2TmStr" and the stop time using the
parameter "223.04 BatPro2TmStp".
Level 3: The third level ensures that the battery is protected from deep discharge and thus protected
against damage. In this case, the Sunny Island is switched off completely.
• To recommission the Sunny Island, restart it (see Section 9.5 "Recommissioning After Automatic
Shutdown", page 77).
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At all three levels, the Sunny Island is stopped only if no battery charging current flows within ten
minutes (limit: 3 A charging current).
The limits for all three levels can be set independently from each other. This allows individual levels to
be skipped.
Parameter BatPro1Soc < BatPro2Soc
If the BatPro1Soc parameter < BatPro2Soc, level 1 is skipped and only level 2 is carried out.
Battery-preservation mode levels 1 and 2 are automatically quit as soon as an external voltage source
(grid reconnection/generator start) is present at the AC2 terminal. For exiting these levels, a hysteresis
of 5% of the state of charge is provided.
Only battery-preservation mode of level 3 is not automatically quit if an external voltage
source (grid reconnection/generator start) is present.
The battery-preservation mode can be quit by manually starting the Sunny Island. If, within ten minutes
(see above), charging current is detected, the Sunny Island continues to operate; otherwise, it
switches off again.
Saving potential due to battery-preservation mode
In inverter operation, the Sunny Island draws 25 W of the battery power. If the device is in
standby mode, only the on-board power supply, which requires approx. 4 W, is supplied. This
results in a savings of 21 W.
Using the conditions described in level 1 of the battery-preservation mode and assuming an
operation time from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m., this results in 336 Wh/day. This in turn corresponds to
7 Ah at 48 V and thus 210 Ah per month (30 days).
13.7 Battery Diagnosis
The "320# Battery Diagnosis" menu displays several values that provide information on the past
operational behavior of the battery. These values are helpful in checking the efficiency of the set
parameters and in viewing the typical operating conditions of the battery (see Section 19.3
"Diagnosis (300#)", page 193).
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13.8 Battery Lead Resistance
In menu "221# Battery Property", you can specify the battery lead resistance (BatWirRes). The
resistance is the ohmic resistance from the battery to the input of the master device. The default value
of the parameter "221.06 BatWirRes" is 0 m Ω .
The resistance is made up of the resistance of cable 1 and fuse and resistance of cable 2:
R = R (cable 1) + R (fuse 1) + R (cable 2)
The following applies:
ρ = specific resistance for copper
L = Cable length in m (1 m = 39⁄32 ft)
A = cross-section area of the cable in mm2 (for conversion of cable sizes
see page 43)
BatFuse
R (fuse 1) at the BatFuse is approx. 1 m Ω .
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The Sunny Island supports the integration of external energy sources. Here, a distinction is made
between the integration of a generator and the integration of the utility grid.
Both the generator as well as the utility grid are integrated via the AC2 terminal of the Sunny Island.
A single-phase, a split-phase and a three-phase connection can be established. In the case of
single-phase parallel operation, the transfer relays are operated in parallel, making it possible to use
a correspondingly larger current, which in turn allows for a generator or grid connection with a higher
capacity
Connecting in a single-phase parallel system
When installing parallel single-phase systems, the connection cables for AC1 and AC2 of all
Sunny Island inverters must have the same wire sizes and cable lengths.
The Sunny Island has separate parameters for the utility grid and the generator. This generally allows
both operating modes to be used without making additional adjustments. The parameter settings and
display values distinguish between settings or values which are generator-specific or grid-specific and
settings or values (EXT) common to both grid and generator.
14.1 Generator
The Sunny Island can start or stop a generator depending on load power or battery state of charge.
In this case, diverse limits and times are taken into consideration (see Section 14.1.5 "Automatic
Generator Operation", page 123).
Extended Generator Management
If necessary, the Sunny Island and generator supply loads together. The total of the (nominal) power
of both energy sources is available in the stand-alone grid.
14.1.1 Parallel Connection
In the case of Sunny Island inverters connected in parallel which operate on the same line conductor
and in the same cluster, the internal transfer relay is activated simultaneously. It is thus possible to
multiply the generator current and therefore to connect a larger generator or a higher grid current.
The maximum current in the system is limited to 150 A:
Maximum number of Sunny Island
Maximum current
1 Sunny Island
56 A
2 Sunny Island
112 A
3 Sunny Island
150 A
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Sunny Island Connected in Parallel to a 120 V Generator
Sunny Island in the Split-Phase System connected to a 240 V Generator
Generally, the internal transfer relays of the slaves close only if the internal relay of the master is
closed.
Plants with master and slave unit on one battery (cluster operation) will keep on working if one slave
fails. If the master fails, the whole cluster stops its operation.
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Cable length and wire size
Use the same cable length and the same wire size when installing the Sunny Island inverters
with the generator.
14.1.2 Generator Start Options
The Sunny Island supports the following options for starting the generator which can be set in standby
mode with parameter "234.07 GnStrMod":
• Manual
• Autostart
Manual (Manual Generator Start)
This setting is for generators that do not have an electrical remote starting option and, for example,
are started using cable winches, cranks or similar.
In this case, the Sunny Island does not have the option of starting the generator. It only monitors the
generator input (AC2). If, while monitoring the input, the device detects that the generator voltage
and frequency are within the set limits (see Section 14.1.6 "Limits and Power Control", page 126),
the device is synchronized and connected following the warm-up time.
The following figure shows the wiring for a generator that cannot be started remotely:
The generator is also always switched off manually. The Sunny Island then automatically switches to
operation without generator.
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GenReq signal
The GnReq signal (see Section 15 "Relays", page 140) is set for signaling the generator request
and can thus be used as an alarm contact (in this case: a bulb). If no request is pending, the
signal is reset.
If an internal request is sent while the generator is already running, the signal is disabled until
the generator is externally stopped and the stop time has expired (30 seconds).
Disconnecting the generator
A disconnection device should be positioned between the Sunny Island and the generator. If
the generator is to be stopped, it is first manually disconnected using the disconnection device
and then it is stopped. This prevents actuation of the generator by the Sunny Island.
Autostart
This allows autostart generators to be directly integrated. They have a separate internal controller that
controls the start procedure.
The Sunny Island requests the generator via the GnReq signal. If the generator voltage and frequency
are within the set limits (see Section 14.1.6 "Limits and Power Control", page 126), the device is
synchronized and connected following the warm-up time.
The Sunny Island keeps the request signal active until a disconnection is made and the set
power-down time has expired.
Shut-off delay
Autostart generators can have an internal after-run cycle that is only activated when the request
has been disabled. This may result in a longer power-down time.
Internal warm-up phase
With some generator types, the voltage is only switched to the output after the internal warm-up
phase is finished. This is why generator connection is internally time-monitored:
• 2 x "234.12 GnWarmTm" + 2 minutes for manual and automatic start
The following figure shows the wiring for a generator capable of autostart:
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If the generator is started manually in this operating mode, the Sunny Island detects the running
generator and connects it once the warm-up time has expired. If you stop the generator externally,
this is detected, the generator disconnected and the stand-alone grid is still supplied.
Generator request
If the generator is running after being externally started and a generator request occurs, the
GnReq signal is disabled until the generator is externally stopped again and the stop time has
expired.
14.1.3 Generator Operation
The Sunny Island allows automatic operation (depending on the state of charge or load) (see
Section 14.1.5 "Automatic Generator Operation", page 123). In addition, manual operation is also
possible.
14.1.4 Manual Generator Operation
The manual operating modes for the generator management are tripped using the parameter
"540.01 GnManStr". Here, a distinction is made between the following operating modes:
Auto:
Stop:
Start:
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In this operating mode, the generator is automatically started due to the settings.
This includes the start via the state of charge or the load power or by the request for
a manual equalization charge.
("520.01 ChrgSelMan" = Start).
The generator is manually stopped. The current generator request is canceled –
immediate disconnection from generator and change to lock state. Once the lockout
time has ended, the generator switches into automatic operation.
Manual generator start – the generator runs "continuously" until stopped. The
generator can only be manually stopped.
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Operation for one hour. Once the lockout time has expired, the transition back into
automatic mode follows.
An equalization charge can be manually started using the parameter "520.01 ChrgSelMan". This
sets the battery management (see Section 13 "Battery Management", page 108) in the equalization
charge state and the generator is requested. This request persists until equalization charge has been
completed.
The following flowcharts provide an overview of the start/stop behavior of the Sunny Island during
manual generator operation:
Generator Interface "234.07 GnStrMod" = Manual; Start at the Generator
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Manual generator start
"Generator is running" detected, beginning of warm-up phase
Internal generator request is ignored
Warm-up phase is completed, generator is connected
Generator current limit
Current is reduced, battery absorption phase
Manual generator stop, disconnection of the generator
Minimum stop time has expired
*
Transfer relay
Generator Interface "234.07 GnStrMod" = Autostart; Start at the Generator
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Manual generator start
"Generator is running" detected, beginning of warm-up phase
Warm-up phase completed
Generator is connected
Generator current limit
Current is reduced, battery absorption phase
Manual generator stop, disconnection of the generator
Generator is disconnected, beginning of stop time
End of stop time
*
Transfer relay
14.1.5 Automatic Generator Operation
In automatic operating mode (parameter "235.01 GnAutoEna"), the Sunny Island automatically
defines the settings (depending on battery state of charge or load) as to when the generator starts
and how long it runs. The automatic operating mode is activated using GnAutoEna = On (default). If
GnAutoEna = Off, the automatic operating mode is deactivated.
In addition, the user can also manually start and stop the generator, if required.
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Charge State Dependent Start
The Sunny Island changes to the operating mode "Stop/Lock" when stopped manually during
automatic operation.
• Manual inputs on the Sunny Island have a higher priority than automatic operation.
• If the Sunny Island is manually stopped while the automatic operating mode is activated,
it switches to stop/lock operating mode.
• If generator automatic start is activated and the conditions for automatic operation are
met, the Sunny Island changes back into the operating mode "Start" after lock time (or
manual acknowledgment with the parameter "540.02 GnAck").
The time periods t1 and t2 are defined using the parameters "235.07 GnTm1Str" and
"235.08 GnTm2Str". The start time for t1 (and thus the end of t2) is defined using GnTm1Str, and the
start time for t2 (end of t1) is defined using GnTm2Str.
GnTm1Str = GnTm2Str
If GnTm1Str = GnTm2Str, only t1 is activated!
The time intervals t1 and t2 are assigned charge states for start-up and stop with the parameters
"235.03 GnSocTm1Str", "235.04 GnSocTm1Stp", "235.05 GnSocTm2Str" and
"235.06 GnSocTm2Stp". GnSocTm1Str designates the battery state of charge at which the generator
is started during the t1 time and GnSocTm1Stp designates the state of charge at which the generator
is switched off during t1. The GnSocTm2Str and GnSocTm2Stp parameters are similarly defined
during the time t2.
The following figure shows an example of the settings if operation of the generator at night is to be
avoided as much as possible. From 6 a.m. to 10 p.m., the generator is activated at a state of charge
(SOC) of 40%, at night (from 10 p.m. to 6 a.m.), however, the state of charge of the battery is allowed
to drop to 30% before the diesel generator is activated.
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Reaching the float charging process
If the float charging process (see Section 13.5 "Charge Control", page 111) is activated before
the cutoff limit (GnSocTm1Stp or GnSocTm2Stp) is reached, the generator request is disabled
again. If a full or equalization charge is active, the generator is only stopped after this charge
is completed and not when "235.04 GnSocTm1Stp" or "235.06 GnSocTm2Stp" is reached.
Load-Dependent Start
In case increased energy demands arise, the generator can be requested for support. This function
can be switched on or off (default) using the parameter "235.09 GnPwrEna". The function is only
effective if the parameter "235.01 GnAutoEna" is simultaneously set to On.
The load limit for the request and the generator stop is configured using the parameters
"235.10 GnPwrStr" and "235.11 GnPwrStp". The average time by which an average value for the
load power is calculated can be set using "235.12 GnPwrAvgTm". This prevents temporary power
consumption peaks of a few seconds from causing a power-dependent generator start.
If the generator has been started due to the load, it runs according to the minimum generator run time.
If, once this time has expired, the average power is below the cutoff limit, the generator is stopped
again.
Multi-Phase System
Only the total load power of all line conductors is monitored. Individual line conductors in a
multi-phase system are not monitored.
The load power is calculated using the Sunny Island power (parameter "111.01 TotInvPwrAt")
and generator power (parameter "131.01 TotExtPwrAt").
The following flowcharts provide an overview of the start/stop behavior of the Sunny Island during
automatic generator operation:
Generator Interface "234.07 GnSrtMod" = Manual; Request Via Sunny Island
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Generator is requested via Sunny Island
Manual generator start
"Generator is running" detected, beginning of warm-up phase
Warm-up phase is completed, connection
Generator current limit
Minimum run time has expired
Current is reduced, battery absorption phase
Charging process is completed, request signal is disabled
Manual generator stop
Generator separation
Stop time has expired
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Generator Interface "234.07 GnSrtMod" = Autostart; Request Via Sunny Island
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Generator started by Sunny Island
Generator start
Beginning of warm-up time
Warm-up time has expired
Generator is connected
Current limit
Minimum running time is expired
Current is reduced, battery absorption phase
Charging process is completed, generator disconnection
Generator follow-up time expired, generator disconnection
Stop time has expired
Power-dependent generator start
Warm-up times, minimum run times and power-down times are also maintained for power
dependent generator starts.
14.1.6 Limits and Power Control
The voltage limits can be set using the parameters "234.01 GnVtgMin" and "234.02 GnVtgMax"
and the frequency limits for generator operation can be set using the parameters "234.05 GnFrqMin"
and "234.06 GnFrqMax". If the values are outside these permitted limits, the generator is
disconnected. Slightly narrower limits apply to generator connection.
System voltage (AC)
The system voltage (AC) depends on the generator voltage when the generator is running.
The voltage and frequency limits are monitored in phases. At least the phase on the master device
must comply with the limits defined for connecting the generator. If the limits are not maintained, slave
devices, where applicable, connect or disconnect individually.
Generator disconnection by the master
If the master device disconnects the generator, all slave devices are disconnected as well.
Generator disconnection by a slave
If a slave device is disconnected from a generator (and the master continues to be connected
to the generator), the slave device can reconnect once the voltage and frequency are within the
valid range again.
In this case, a monitoring period is running. Only after the time for the parameter
"234.12 GnWarmTm" has expired and after voltage and frequency are determined to be valid
does reconnection take place.
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The Sunny Island charges the generator at each line conductor with the current defined in the
parameter "234.03 GnCurNom" as a maximum. The power that is not directly used by the loads
flows into the battery for charging. At the same time, the limits for the AC charging current limit
(parameter "210.02 InvChrgCurMax") on the Sunny Island and the DC charging current limit
(parameter "222.01 BatChrgCurMax") are active.
Low values for this limit may be the reason why the defined generator current cannot be adjusted. If
the battery voltage reaches the charging voltage target value, it is also reduced (absorption phase)
(see Section 13.5 "Charge Control", page 111).
Value for parameter "234.03 GnCurNom"
A sensible value for parameter "234.03 GnCurNom" is approximately 80% of the maximum
generator current for each line conductor.
If the parameter "234.15 GnCtlMod" is set to CurFrq, the generator is also limited at frequencies
lower than the nominal frequency (parameter "234.04 GnFrqNom"). This function can be used if the
full generator power is not always available and you want to prevent the generator from being
overloaded. The default setting is only intended to control the nominal generator current.
If the current set using the parameter "234.03 GnCurNom" is not sufficient for powering the loads,
the battery provides support ("real generator support").
The Sunny Island provides all the required reactive power.
14.1.7 Run Times
If the generator is started (or the Sunny Island detects an external generator start), the warm-up phase
starts. If, during this time, the voltage or frequency detected is not within the permissible range, the
warm-up time begins again.
If the generator cannot be connected at the GenMan within twice the time set at "234.12
GnWarmTm" + 2 minutes, the connection process is canceled and a new attempt is made. After three
attempts, the system changes to error state (Fail "GnNoSync").
If the generator has been connected, the minimum run time begins (parameter
"234.08 GnOpTmMin"). The generator remains connected during this time, even if in the meantime
the generator request is no longer pending.
If the minimum run time has ended and a generator request is no longer present, the generator
disconnects and enters the power-down time (Cool). If this power-down phase is completed after the
"234.10 GnCoolTm" time, the generator is stopped.
If a generator fault (e.g. generator failure) is detected, the generator is also disconnected and then
stopped immediately. In doing so, the follow-up time is skipped.
Once the stop time (parameter "234.09 GnStpTmMin") has elapsed, the generator is ready for the
next request.
Disabling the internal generator request
An internal generator request is disabled during the after-run time and stop time or in error state.
If a generator fault is detected several times and the number of autostarts (parameter
"235.02 GnAutoStr") has been exceeded, the system transitions into the locked error state.
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This state lasts for the time period set at "234.11 GnErrStpTm". Once this time has expired, the
generator is ready for another attempt.
Autostart meter
The recording of autostarts is only reset after the generator has been successfully connected and
the minimum run time has expired or when the locked error state (Fail Lock) is disabled.
Error status
The error state and also the blocked error state can be quit by acknowledging the generator
error (parameter "540.02 GnAck").
The display value "133.03 GnRmgTm" is used to display the remaining time of the generator meter.
Depending on the current request or the phase in which the generator state machine is, the following
times are displayed:
• Remaining time of Run1h
• Remaining run time during the warm-up phase (Warm)
• Remaining minimum run time in operation (Run)
• Remaining run time during the follow-up time (Cool)
• Remaining stop time after the follow-up time has expired (Lock)
• Remaining time in the error state (Fail)
• Remaining time in the locked error state (FailLock)
14.1.8 Operation Together with PV Inverters and Wind Power
Inverters
Incorrect plant designs will result in excessive AC power of the PV inverters or wind
power inverters
Damage to the Sunny Island.
• The maximum AC power of the connected PV inverters and the connected wind power
inverters must not exceed 9 kW per SI 4548-US-10 or 12 kW per SI 6048-US-10.
• Observe the following:
PAC max of the PV inverter = 2 x PAC nom of the Sunny Island
PAC max of the wind power inverter = PAC nom of the Sunny Island
If the battery is fully charged, the frequency limits the power output of the AC feed-in generators
(Sunny Boy). If the generator is now manually started, for example, the frequency would be lowered,
if required, as the Sunny Island synchronizes with the generator. The AC feeding-in generators
(Sunny Boys) would then feed additional energy into the system and possibly overload the batteries.
In order to prevent this, in this case the stand-alone grid frequency is temporarily increased, in line with
the synchronization, until the AC feed-in generators (Sunny Boy) are disconnected from the
stand-alone grid as a result of the grid limits being exceeded.
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14.1.9 Stopping the Generator
If the generator was started via the Sunny Island (automatically or manually), it can be manually
stopped at any time using the parameter "540.01 GnManStr". This disconnects the generator (the
minimum run time is not taken into account here) and the power-down time (Cool) is skipped.
Afterwards, the system enters the stop time (Lock).
Electric shock through residual voltage in the off-grid system due to generator shut-off
delays
Death or serious injuries. The power-down times depend on the generator type. During the follow-up
time, there is still grid voltage at the loads.
• Wait until there is no voltage on the generator.
• Measure voltage to ensure that none is present in the system.
Generators with manual start option
Generators with the "manual" start option can generally only be started and stopped at the
generator.
Generator start prevented
If the generator start is to be disabled after a manual stop, this must be performed by setting the
parameter "235.01 GnAutoEna" to "Off".
14.1.10 Stopping the Sunny Island
If the Sunny Island is stopped by the user, the generator is immediately disconnected. The generator
is then stopped (generator request, GnReq, is disabled). The power down time (Cool) is skipped and
the system enters the stop time.
Generator can be operating while Sunny Island is stopped
If the generator is started directly at the generator management box or the generator, it can only
be stopped there again. Stopping the Sunny Island here only disconnects the generator and the
system transitions into the stop time (Lock).
14.1.11 Disturbances
Reverse power
If the reverse power (parameter "234.13 GnRvPwr") set for the time "234.14 GnRvTm" is exceeded,
the generator is disconnected and stopped. The power-down time (Cool, parameter
"234.10 GnCoolTm") is skipped and the system transitions into the minimum stop time (Lock). After
reverse power, connection is blocked for at least "231.03 ExtLkTm" or "234.09 GnStpTmMin".
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Reverse power
Observe the reverse power which the Sunny Island can generate. The generator must provide
this protection; observe the information of the generator manufacturers.
Generator Failure
If a generator failure is detected (failure on the master phase), the generator is disconnected
immediately and a stop signal occurs on generator. The system enters the minimum stop time (Lock).
Generator Phase Failure
The failure of a line conductor (e.g. broken fuse) on a slave device is treated as a line conductor
failure. The slave device then disconnects this line conductor. If the line conductor is detected as being
available again, it is reconnected after the warm-up time "234.12 GnWarmTm" has elapsed.
The line conductor failure on the master device is treated as a generator failure (see above).
Slave Device Failure
You can influence the behavior of the cluster upon failure of a slave device (see Section 12.9
"Behavior in the Event of a Failure in a Three-Phase System", page 107).
14.2 Utility grid
The Sunny Island supports the operation of battery-backup systems. Here, a distinction is made
between two main states: either a utility grid and stand-alone grid are connected or a utility grid and
stand-alone grid are disconnected. The operating mode of the Sunny Island is derived from this. If the
stand-alone grid is disconnected, the Sunny Island alone is responsible for powering this stand-alone
grid. If the utility grid is connected to the stand-alone grid, the stand-alone grid is powered from the
utility grid. Voltage and frequency in the stand-alone grid are identical with the utility grid.
RS485 communication between the Sunny Island and PV inverters
If a battery-backup system is connected to the Sunny Island, the RS485 communication between
the Sunny Island and the PV inverters is necessary (see Section 6.5.1 "Connection of the
Interface for External Communication", page 62).
Operating mode "Grid Charge"
Under specific conditions, the system can also temporarily feed energy from the stand-alone
grid into the utility grid in the operating mode GridCharge (parameter "232.08 GdMod").
14.2.1 Limits of the Voltage Range and Frequency Range
In order to operate on the utility grid, very strict limits (for voltage and frequency) must generally be
maintained. These strict limits are not sensible for generator operation. The limits are therefore set
separately for grid operation and the generator limits are not used.
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Default values
The default values for limits during grid operation comply with the following standards:
• For 120 V_60 Hz: UL1741
14.2.2 Starting the Sunny Island
The Sunny Island always starts in stand-alone mode. Once the device is operating, it checks for the
presence and validity (voltage and frequency) of the utility grid.
14.2.3 Operation in Case of a Grid Failure in a Battery-Backup Grid
If the utility grid fails, the Sunny Island supplies the requirements of the protected load switch. At the
same time the Sunny Island serves as the voltage source for Sunny Boy inverters or any other
grid-compatible power source.
If the supply of energy from the power source exceeds the requirements of the protected load
switches, the energy surplus will be used by the Sunny Island to charge the batteries.
14.2.4 Battery-Backup Operation and Anti-Islanding
In general, Sunny Boy inverters in battery-backup systems feed in energy into the utility grid.
According to UL1741 an anti-islanding has to be active. During normal operation, the Sunny Island
performs this verification. The battery inverter is connected to the Sunny Boy via a CAT5 cable using
a RS485 communication. This communication line signals the Sunny Boy that the Sunny Island is
active and monitors the utility grid.
Whenever this information is missing (in the event of maintenance or interference) the Sunny Boy
inverters switch from the "OffGrid" setting to the "grid tied" setting and take on the anti-islanding
function. This ensures that an anti-islanding is active at all times according to UL1741 when feeding
into the utility grid.
If the Sunny Island continues working, it orders the Sunny Boy inverters to switch back to the "OffGrid"
setting and performs the anti-islanding.
This function can be realized with the Sunny Island inverters in combination with the compatible PV
inverters. You will find the list with compatible PV inverters in the download are at
www.SMA-America.com in the Technical Information "PV Inverters: Use of PV Inverters in Off-Grid
Systems and Battery-Backup Systems North America and South America".
RS485 Piggy-Backs must be installed in both the Sunny Island and in the Sunny Boy inverters. In
addition, a CAT5 cable is needed.
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14.2.5 Grid Reconnection
In stand-alone mode, the Sunny Island constantly checks whether the grid has been reconnected (see
above). The following conditions have to be fulfilled to guarantee that the Sunny Island synchronizes
with the utility grid and connects to the utility grid:
• The frequency of the utility grid must be between the values of the parameters
"232.05 GdFrqMin" and "232.06 GdFrqMax" for the time defined in the parameter
"232.07 GdVldTm".
• The voltage of the utility grid must be between the values of the parameter "232.01 GdVtgMin"
and 5 V below the parameter "232.02 GdVtgMax" for the time defined in parameter
"232.07 GdVldTm".
14.2.6 Grid Operation
During grid operation, the stand-alone grid and the utility grid are connected. The Sunny Island is
connected along with the stand-alone grid to the utility grid. In this case, the voltage and frequency
in both grids are identical.
Disturbances of the utility grid
All disturbances of the utility grid affect the stand-alone grid during grid operation.
In grid operation, the grid monitoring checks whether the permissible limits for voltage and frequency
(see grid reconnection) are maintained or whether the grid fails to assume supplying the stand-alone
grid. For this, the utility grid is disconnected (battery-backup operation).
The battery is generally charged or its charge is maintained on the utility grid.
Charge Mode
Charge mode on the utility grid is indicated by energy flowing to the battery. The battery is charged
until the respective charge process (Boost, Full, Equalize) has been completed and the system
changes to float charge (Float) (see Section 13.5 "Charge Control", page 111).
Utility grid as generator: charging the Sunny Island via the utility grid to avoid
deep discharge
Manual grid start deactivates settings for automatic grid start
Via the parameter "560.01 GdManStr", you can define whether the utility grid is to be
connected or not:
• "Stop": the utility grid will never be connected.
• "Start": the utility grid is always connected.
• "Auto": the utility grid connects automatically and protects the battery from deep
discharge.
The following section describes how to perform the settings for an automatic grid start.
You can configure the Sunny Island in such a way that it charges its battery automatically via the utility
grid as soon as the state of charge is low. To activate this function, set the parameter
"232.41 GdSocEna" to "Enable" and the parameter "560.01 GdManStr" to "Auto."
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The Sunny Island connects to the utility grid when the state of charge of its batteries lies within the limits
determined by the following parameters:
• "233.01 GdSocTm1Str" to "233.02 GdSocTm1Stp"
• "233.03 GdSocTm2Str" to "233.04 GdSocTm2Stp"
The Sunny Island distinguishes between two time periods for which you can set different thresholds
for connecting to and disconnecting from the utility grid via the above mentioned parameters. These
two time periods are subdivided via the following parameters:
• "233.05 GdTm1Str"
• "233.06 GdTm2Str"
The Sunny Island charges its batteries using the battery charging process which is set via the
parameter "233.09 GdStrChrgMod".
Utility grid as generator: connecting the utility grid as soon as the loads request
high power from the Sunny Island
You can configure the Sunny Island in such a way that it automatically connects to the utility grid once
the connected loads request high power from the Sunny Island. To activate this function, set the
parameter "232.42 GdPwrEna" to "Enable". The Sunny Island connects to the utility grid when the
power requested by the loads is within the limits determined by the following parameters:
• "233.07 GdPwrStr" to "233.08 GdPwrStp"
Grid feed-in into the utility grid
If the parameter "232.08 GdMod" is set to "GridFeed", the Sunny Island can feed into the utility
grid, regardless of whether parameter "232.42 GdPwrEna" is enabled or disabled.
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Silent Mode
In order to save energy, the silent mode can be activated using the parameter "224.01 SilentEna" set
to "Enable" (default disable). In this case, the Sunny Island is set to standby mode if the charge has
been completed and the battery has been in float charge for some time (see Section 13.5.5 "Silent
Mode", page 114).
The silent mode is quit regularly to recharge the battery.
In a single-phase parallel Sunny Island system, only the master detects a grid failure in silent mode.
The slaves do not detect a grid failure in silent mode.
Feed-In Operation
Whether energy is fed from the stand-alone grid into the utility grid is controlled using the parameter
"232.08 GdMod".
The wire size to the utility grid must be appropriate for the maximum current. This ensures that the
Sunny Island can feed into the utility grid with a full battery and at full solar irradiation.
In all cases, make sure to consult your grid operator if grid feed-in is possible.
If GdCharge is set, no energy is fed into the grid. If GridFeed (Default) is set, energy is fed into the
grid.
Grid feed-in from the DC side into the utility grid
In order to allow electricity to be fed from the DC side into the utility grid, the battery voltage in
a charged battery (on the utility grid) must be increased by external DC chargers or the
Sunny Island Charger above the nominal charging voltage.
AC feed-in generators on the stand-alone grid side (Sunny Boy) can feed their energy into the utility
grid through the internal transfer relay of the Sunny Island; limitations (see Section 14.1.6 "Limits and
Power Control", page 126).
The following illustration shows the direction of energy flow for the "Net Metering" and the energy
consumption from the utility grid.
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14.2.7 Grid Failure
A grid fault is characterized by the voltage or frequency being outside of the permissible limits (see
Section 14.2.5 "Grid Reconnection", page 132) or the utility grid being disconnected. In this case,
the time limits are relevant: smaller deviations are permitted for longer than large deviations (see
Section 14.2.1 "Limits of the Voltage Range and Frequency Range", page 130).
In case of a grid fault/failure, the utility grid is disconnected and the inverter starts from silent mode.
Waking up from the silent mode
If the Sunny Island is in silent mode when there is a utility grid failure, there is a short grid failure
in the stand-alone grid (see Section 13.5.5 "Silent Mode", page 114).
14.2.8 Disturbances
Reverse Power
If the reverse power (parameter "232.09 GdRvPwr") set for the time "232.10 GdRvTm" is exceeded,
the generator is disconnected from the utility grid. After reverse power, connection is blocked for at
least "231.03 ExtLkTm".
Failure of the Utility Grid
If a grid failure is detected (failure on the master line conductor), the utility grid is disconnected
immediately.
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Failure of a Grid Line Conductor
The failure of a line conductor (e.g. broken fuse) on a slave device is treated as a line conductor
failure. The slave device then disconnects this line conductor. If the line conductor is detected as being
available again, it is reconnected.
The line conductor failure on the master device is treated as a grid failure (see above).
Failure of a Slave
If a slave fails, the system continues to operate using the remaining devices of the cluster.
14.2.9 Limitations and Power Control
The Sunny Island burdens the utility grid at each line conductor with the current defined in parameter
"232.03 GdCurNom". The power that is not directly used by the loads flows into the battery for
charging. At the same time, the limits for the AC charging current limit (parameter
"210.02 InvChrgCurMax") on the Sunny Island and the DC charging current limit (parameter
"222.01 BatChrgCurMax") are active. If the battery voltage reaches the charging voltage target
value, it is also reduced (see Section 13.5 "Charge Control", page 111).
If the current set using the parameter "232.03 GdCurNom" is not sufficient for supplying the loads,
the battery provides support.
Silent mode active
When silent mode is activated, the grid cannot be supported.
The grid may temporarily fail. This way, the voltage supply of the loads will be interrupted for a
short time.
14.2.10 Operation Together with PV Inverters and Wind Power
Inverters
Overload of the Sunny Island through high currents. Destruction of the Sunny Island
If the current via the relay exceeds the maximum permissible current, the Sunny Island disconnects
from the utility grid (relay protection).
• The quantity of PV power installed in the stand-alone grid must never exceed the maximum
quantity allowed by the AC input (see Section (see Section 22 "Technical Data", page 227)).
• The maximum AC power of the connected PV inverters and wind power inverters must not
exceed 7 kW in grid-tie systems.
• Observe the following:
PAC max of the wind power inverter = PAC nom of the Sunny Island
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Energy of the PV inverters or wind power inverters not being consumed in the off-grid system, is fed-in
by the Sunny Island via the internal transfer relay into the utility grid. The Sunny Island prevents an
overload of the internal transfer relay. For this reason, reverse power monitoring is used that, if
required, disconnects the connection to the utility grid if the reverse power limitation is exceeded or if
the relay is subject to overload.
If the battery is fully charged, the frequency limits the power output of the AC feeding-in generators
(PV inverter) in the stand-alone grid. If the utility grid is now reconnected, the frequency would be
lowered, if required, as the Sunny Island is synchronized with the grid. The AC feed-in generators
would then feed additional energy into the system and possibly overload the batteries. In order to
prevent this, the stand-alone grid frequency is temporarily increased, in line with the synchronization,
until the AC feed-in generators disconnect from the stand-alone grid as a result of the grid limits being
exceeded.
14.3 Generator and Utility Grid
In addition to the utility grid, a generator can also be integrated into an off-grid system as a secondary
protective measure. This is particularly useful in case of long-term grid failures, even if the battery
capacity is no longer sufficient to bridge the failure after a period of time.
The common solution in such cases is using a transfer switch which can be purchased as a manual or
automatic switch. By using such a switch, a diesel generator is connected to the AC2 terminal to which
the utility grid is normally connected, as displayed in the figure below:
To use such a switch, carry out the installation as follows.
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Abrupt switching from the utility grid to the generator and vice versa can lead to the
destruction of the Sunny Island
• If an automatic switch is installed, make sure that it completely disconnects the Sunny Island
from the utility grid and from the generator for at least five seconds.
• If a manual switch is installed, leave the switch in the OFF position for at least five seconds
before switching to the new position.
• If no switch is installed, install a switch (see Technical Information „Sunny Island 4548-US /
5048-US / 6048-US: Grid Backup with Generator“ at www.SMA-America.com).
The requirements of the generator and the utility grid demand different settings of the Sunny Island.
In a battery-backup system with generator, the Sunny Island needs a signal circuit via the DigIn input.
The DigIn input notifies the Sunny Island when the utility grid is feeding in.
The Sunny Island has one AC external source connection labeled AC2 Grid/Generator. With only
one external connection, the DigIn input is used to distinguish between the generator or line voltage.
If the DigIn input detects an open electric circuit, the Sunny Island is operated with grid parameters
and can feed excess current into the utility grid. When the DigIn input has a closed electric circuit the
Sunny Island recognizes that a generator is available.
When using a generator, install an automatic transfer switch which is able to switch from the utility
grid to the generator. This can be an automatic transfer switch (ATS) or a manual transfer switch. An
automatic transfer switch provides an automatic changeover between generator and utility grid. In the
event of a grid failure, no intervention by the operator is necessary.
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In order to switch the signal circuit via the DigIn input, a single pole break contact or a single pole
auxiliary relay with a 120 V coil is necessary. If there is no auxiliary relay present in the ATS, you must
install an external contactor with a 120 V or 240 V coil. The coil is supplied with voltage via the utility
grid.
Treat this electric circuit as a communication circuit and do not connect it in parallel to AC voltage and
current cables. Running this circuit parallel to AC voltage and current conductors may cause
interference in the signal and give the Sunny Island an incorrect signal. No voltage should be present
on the relay during a grid failure. For external relays, pull voltage from the grid side of the transfer
switch.
The auxiliary relay can be a part of the automatic transfer switch or a separate assembly.
The signal circuit occupies two auxiliary contactors at the DigIn input:
1. Connect the negative terminal of the DigIn terminal to the negative terminal of the BatVtgOut
terminal.
2. Connect the positive terminal of the DigIn terminal to a NO terminal of an auxiliary contact of
the transfer switch.
3. Connect the positive terminal of the BatVtgOut terminal to the second contact of the same
auxiliary contact on the transfer switch.
An auxiliary contact is used because the Sunny Island must "know" whether it is connected to the utility
grid or whether it must manage a diesel generator.
To enable such an operation, you must set parameter "231.06 ExtSrc" to "GenGrid" (see Section 8.2
"Starting the Quick Configuration Guide (QCG)", page 69).
Settings performed on the generator and utility grid
All the settings made for the generator and utility grid in the sub-menus also apply to the
"GenGrid" selection.
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15 Relays
The Sunny Island offers you several options for the control of internal and external processes. Two
multi-function relays are integrated into the device to which you can assign functions using the
parameters "241.01 Rly1Op" and "241.02 Rly2Op" (see Section 6.4.6 "Multifunction Relay 1 and
2", page 58).
The different settings have the following meanings:
Function/
Setting
Meaning
Function description
Off
Off
Relay remains permanently switched off
(deactivated).
On
On
Relay remains permanently switched on (e.g. relay
function test during commissioning).
AutoGn
Automatic generator request
The generator is automatically activated due to set
criteria (see Section 14.1.5 "Automatic Generator
Operation", page 123).
AutoLodExt
Automatic load shedding
dependent on an external
source
Automatic connection / disconnection of loads.
Connection occurs if the device is connected to an
external source (e.g. generator), or if the Lod1Soc
limits are exceeded (see Section 12.1 "Load
Shedding", page 103).
AutoLodSoc1
Auto LoadShedding Soc1
Automatic connection / disconnection of loads.
Connection only if Lod1Soc limits are exceeded
(see Section 12.1 "Load Shedding", page 103).
AutoLodSoc2
Auto LoadShedding Soc2
Automatic load disconnection. Connection only if
Lod2Soc limits are exceeded (see Section 12.1
"Load Shedding", page 103).
Tm1
Timer 1 (time-controlled
switching of relay 1)
Programmable timer (once, daily, weekly) with
duty cycle.
Tm2
Timer 2 (time-controlled
switching of relay 2)
Programmable timer (once, daily, weekly) with
duty cycle.
AptPhs
Absorption phase is active
Relay switching when battery charge is in
absorption phase.
ExtPwrDer
External power reduction
The Sunny Island controls additional loads in order
to put excess energy to practical use. When
excessive energy can be used, the multifunction
relay is activated.
GnRn
Generator active
Relay switching when generator is in operation
and connected.
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Function/
Setting
Meaning
Function description
ExtVfOk
External voltage and
frequency OK
External voltage and frequency are within the valid
range for connection.
GdOn
Utility grid
Relay switching when utility grid is available and
connected.
Error
Error
Sunny Island has a fault; in case of fault, contact is
open (relay is deactivated).
If the autostart is activated, the error status will be
left within 15 s and restart triggered. If the start is
unsuccessful this procedure will be repeated until
the autostart counter has expired.
Warn
Warning
The Sunny Island has warning pending. If the
warning disappears, the "Warning" state is quit.
When a warning disappears depends on the type
of warning.
Run
Run
Sunny Island is in operation, contact is closed
(relay is activated) if the device is running in
inverter operation.
BatFan
Battery Fan
Relay is used for automatic battery room ventilation
(switching the fan).
The "BatFan" function is responsible for the
ventilation of the battery room and provides
ventilation of the room in the event of battery
gassing.
AcdCir
Acid Circulation
Relay is used for automatic acid circulation
(switching the electrolyte pump)
The acid circulation enables mixing of the acid and
thus reduces acid stratification in the battery.
MccBatFan
Multicluster battery fan
Relay is used for automatic battery room ventilation
(switching the fan).
"MccBatFan" is the request from the master of the
main cluster that is transmitted to a master of an
extension cluster in order to use its relay for the
battery room ventilation.
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Function/
Setting
Meaning
Function description
MccAutoLod
Multicluster auto
Loadshedding
Automatic disconnection of the loads via an
extension cluster in the Multicluster system
"MccAutoLod" is the request from the master of the
main cluster that is transmitted to a master of an
extension cluster in order to use its relay for the
automatic disconnection of the loads.
CHPReq
Request CHP plant
Request of the CHP plant through the CHP plant
control
CHPAdd
Request additional CHP plant Request of additional CHP plant through the CHP
plant control
SiComRemote Remote control
The relay can be controlled remotely.
Overload
When using the output limitation of the
Sunny Island (temperature-dependent), the relay
will be opened.
Overload
"Overload" is directly linked to the derating
warning and the relay switches when the warning
is present.
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16 Multicluster Operation
16.1 Communication between the Sunny Island Inverters
For increased output, up to four Sunny Island clusters can be interconnected to form a Multicluster
system. A Multicluster Box for Sunny Island 4548-US / 5048-US / 6048-US (MCB-12U) is required
for such systems. Within each cluster, a communication interface connects the master to the slaves.
Each cluster is connected to the others via another communication interface connected to the
respective master.
The Multicluster Piggy-Back (MC-PB) is plugged into the Sunny Island at the external communication
slot. The scope of delivery of the Multicluster Piggy-Back includes a grounding cable. Lay the
grounding cable (B) as illustrated in the following figure:
Position
Description
A
Multicluster Piggy-Back (MC-PB)
B
Grounding cable connection
C
Cable route
Electrostatic Discharge
Electrostatic discharges are an acute danger to the Sunny Island and to the communication
interface.
• Ground yourself before removing the communication interface from the packaging, and
before touching any components within the Sunny Island. To achieve this, touch PE.
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RJ45 cable
The RJ45 data cable is a standard Cat5e-FTP cable (simple shielding), with gold contacts.
Each Multicluster Piggy-Back (MC-PB) is delivered with one yellow and one gray RJ45 data cable
and two plugs (terminators).
You require the yellow cable to establish communication between the master of the main cluster and
the masters of the extension clusters.
The gray cable is used for external communication (via RS485) needed for the system monitoring
(Sunny WebBox).
Multicluster Piggy-Back
If just one cluster is used in connection with a Multicluster Box, a Multicluster Piggy-Back is not
necessary.
Proceed as follows when connecting the data cable:
1. Remove the left of the two plugs from the cable support sleeve.
2. Feed the RJ45 cable from the outside through the plugs inside the Sunny Island master.
3. Plug the RJ45 plug in the lower pin connector. The termination resistor remains plugged in the
upper one.
4. Lead the RJ45 cable into the next Sunny Island and connect it to the upper pin connector there.
5. Insert the terminator into the lower pin connector if no other Sunny Island will be connected.
6. Wrap the rubber plug (depending on the number of cables with one or two feed-throughs)
around the RJ45 cable.
7. Plug the plug back into the designated opening in the cable support sleeve.
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16.2 Commissioning the Multicluster System
Possible load shedding during initial start-up of a multicluster system
Unwanted load shedding can occur during the initial start-up of a multicluster system. The
possible causes of this can be a too-low state of charge of the battery or a still too inaccurate
charge level calculation in the Sunny Island.
• Disconnect all loads before the initial start-up of a multicluster system.
• After initial start-up, observe the SOC on the master of the main cluster via the parameter
"120.01 BatSoc". As soon as the SOC has risen above 50%, connect the loads.
1. Perform steps 1 to 3 of the QCG start (see Section 8.2 "Starting the Quick Configuration Guide
(QCG)", page 69).
2. The following parameters must be set when "New Battery" is selected:
– Device type (master, slave 1, slave 2, slave 3)
– System configuration (3Phase, 1Phase 1, 1Phase 2, 1Phase 3, 2Phase 2, 2Phase 4,
MC-Box), for multicluster operation choose "MC-Box". Default setting: "1Phase 1"
– Multicluster configuration (MainCluster, ExtensionClst1, ExtensionClst2, ExtensionClst3),
default setting: "MainCluster"
– Device type of the Multicluster Box (MC-Box-12), default setting: "MC-Box-12"
3. For further settings, follow the QCG instructions (see Section 8.2 "Starting the Quick
Configuration Guide (QCG)", page 69).
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16.3 Switching a Multicluster System On and Off
16.3.1 Switching On/Starting
Switching on a Multicluster system can only take place at the master of the main cluster. The extension
clusters will be started automatically after starting the main cluster. To do this, the DC circuit breakers
of all Sunny Island inverters in the extension cluster must be set to "ON".
Proceed as follows:
1. Perform steps 1 to 4 of the start-up procedure on the master of the main cluster (see Section 9.1
"Switching On", page 75).
☑ The masters of the extension clusters show the
following message:
2. Press and hold <ENTER> on the main cluster
master.
☑ The remaining time is displayed as a bar.
☑ An acoustic signal sounds. The main master is on
and in operation. The green LED is glowing.
Starting the Multicluster system
The Multicluster system is started once the main master has started. All extension clusters follow
the main master.
Error occurrence
If the Sunny Island displays an error message, this must be remedied before the Sunny Island is
commissioned (see Section 20 "Troubleshooting", page 204).
16.3.2 Stopping and Switching Off
The Sunny Island Multicluster system can only be stopped at the master of the main cluster. Proceed
at the master of the main cluster as described in Sections (see Section 9.2 "Stopping the Sunny Island
(Standby)", page 76) and (see Section 9.3 "Switching Off", page 76).
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16.3.3 Load Shedding in a Multicluster System
The load-shedding contactor in the Multicluster Box is controlled depending on the state of charge of
the batteries.
Significance of the SOC thresholds:
When the state of charge of a battery reaches the lower SOC threshold, the load contactor is opened.
The state of charge of the battery of the main cluster and the states of charge of the batteries of the
extension clusters are evaluated. The load contactor disconnects the loads from the stand-alone grid.
When the state of charge of all batteries reaches the upper SOC threshold during recharging, the
load contactor closes. The load-shedding contactor connects the loads to the stand-alone grid.
The load shedding of the Multicluster Box only reacts to the SOC value of the main cluster.
1. Select the parameter "242.01 Lod1SocTm1Str" and set it to the lower SOC threshold.
2. Select the parameter "242.02 Lod1SocTm1Stp" and set it to the upper SOC threshold. The
upper SOC threshold must be at least 10 percentage points above the lower SOC threshold.
3. Set the parameter "242.05 Lod1Tm1Str" and the parameter "242.06 Lod1Tm2Str" each to the
same value, e.g. to 000000. This will switch the time-dependent load shedding off.
16.4 Generator Operation
The generator request of the main master comprises its own request (based on SOC, time, etc.) and
possible requests from one or more extension clusters. The generator remains in a requested state as
long as a request is present.
Generator request
The determined generator request at the extension clusters is transferred to the main master via
a communication connection.
16.5 Behavior with Different States of Charge
In Multicluster systems, each cluster has its own battery-storage system. To prevent the states of charge
of the various battery storage systems from diverging over time, a function for equalization of the
states of charge is integrated into the Sunny Island inverters. This distributes the power to all clusters,
however, it is not always distributed identically. Instead, the cluster with the highest state of charge
discharges the most power or charges the battery with the lowest power.
The differences in power depend on the difference in the state of charge and total 1% of the nominal
power for each 1% of difference in the state of charge. Thus, when initial charge states differ,
equalization of the states of charge over the course of time is ensured. If all batteries in the various
clusters have the same capacity, the charge states should always be within a few percent of each
other. Only if a fault occurs, or upon deliberate deactivation of individual clusters, can a greater
imbalance arise, but even so, such an imbalance should also be equalized after one day at the latest.
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Nominal capacity of the battery storage systems
Ideally, the various battery banks should all have the same nominal capacity.
If the nominal capacity varies by up to 30%, a similar average state of charge is ensured via
the equalization function. However, the smallest battery is then cycled more intensively. The
nominal power and overload capacity are no longer the value of an individual device multiplied
by the number of devices. Instead, it is 10% to 20% lower for the cluster with the smaller battery.
16.6 Testing Multicluster Communication
Enter the installer password in order to be able to select the parameters "510.08 TstClstCom" and
"510.09 ClstComStt".
1. Using the parameter "510.08 TstClstCom" a communication test between the clusters can be
started from each master device of a cluster. Only switch the master device of the extension
cluster to "Transmit".
2. Request the status of the test via the Parameter "510.09 ClstComStt" at each master, including
the master at which the test was started.
☑ If the communication test is successful, the status "OK" appears on each master.
16.7 Automatic Frequency Synchronization
In multicluster operation, the automatic frequency synchronization can only be activated at the main
master. This function is activated using the parameter "250.11 AfraEna".
16.8 Firmware Update
Stopping the Sunny Island
It is recommended to stop the entire cluster network, and to deactivate the loads insofar as this
is possible.
DC Circuit Breaker
Do not activate the DC circuit breaker during update process.
Carry out the update on all masters of the individual
clusters via an SD memory card. All extension masters
must have completed their updates! The message shown
on the right is displayed.
After the update of the masters has been carried out, carry out an automatic update of the slaves.
Starting the multicluster system
Start the system only after the firmware on all Sunny Island devices has been updated.
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16.9 Error Handling in a Multicluster System
For Multicluster system operation, the entire main cluster is always required. If a device in the main
cluster fails (master and/or slave), this causes the main cluster to stop.
If the main cluster is stopped — whether due to a fault, or otherwise — this causes the extension clusters
to stop, and thus the entire Multicluster system.
For operation of an extension cluster, it is necessary that at least the master device (of the extension
cluster) is in operation. If a slave device in the extension cluster fails, this does not cause the master
device to stop.
The devices in an extension cluster are only started up if the respective device detects a voltage when
starting.
16.10 Grid Operation
The multicluster system is not certified for grid-tie use.
16.11 Generator Emergency Operation
If a Multicluster system fails, manual operation via the generator is possible. For this purpose, the
generator must be started manually, directly at the generator. As soon as a voltage is present, the
Multicluster Box connects the generator through to the loads, without a Sunny Island being in
operation.
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17 PV Inverters
PV inverters compatible with the Sunny Island
You will find the list with compatible PV inverters in the download are at
www.SMA-America.com in the Technical Information "PV Inverters: Use of PV Inverters in
Off-Grid Systems and Battery-Backup Systems North America and South America".
The following section provides information on the connection and configuration of the Sunny Boy in
stand-alone grid systems.
The Sunny Island together with the Sunny Boy are optimized for battery-backup operation (grid-tied)
and for "Off-Grid" use.
This section describes the parameter setting of the Sunny Boy for both kinds of application. In
battery-backup operation, the parameter must be set to "Default" in accordance with UL 1741. In
parallel grid operation, the Sunny Island automatically detects a power outage and automatically
switches the Sunny Boy inverter to "Off-Grid" mode. To set up this arrangement, the Sunny Island and
the Sunny Boy must be connected with a data cable and the parameter of the Sunny Boy inverters
must be set according to this document. If the utility grid is activated, the Sunny Island switches back
to grid-tie operation in accordance with "UL 1741".
Interface for external communication in Sunny Island systems with the utility grid
If the utility grid is connected to the Sunny Island system as an external source, the RS485
communication between the Sunny Island and the PV inverters is necessary. For this, the
following devices each need one RS485 interface:
• the Sunny Island (if there are several Sunny Island inverters, the Sunny Island master)
• each PV inverter
17.1 Connection to the Stand-Alone Grid (Protected Load Switch)
Danger to life due to high voltages in the Sunny Island system. Death or serious injury
possible due to electric shock
• Ensure that the entire connection area of the Sunny Island 4548-US / 6048-US is voltage-free
before installing the Sunny Boy inverter.
• Observe the safety information (see Section 3 "Safety", page 26).
• Connect the Sunny Boy to the stand-alone grid in accordance with the Sunny Boy installation
manual.
• Connect the AC sub-distribution to the AC1 terminals of the Sunny Island. This AC
sub-distribution is where the PV inverter will be connected as well.
• You must set the corresponding parameters in the Sunny Boy to suit a stand-alone grid so that
it works properly together with the Sunny Island. The required values for these settings are
described in the next section.
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17.2 Setting the Off-Grid Parameters
Danger to life from back-feed into the utility grid in the event of grid failure
Once you set the Sunny Boy to stand-alone grid parameters, the device no longer complies with
IEEE 929 and the IEEE 1547.
• Observe the locally applicable regulations.
• Consult the responsible power company.
Controlled battery charging is needed in an off-grid configuration. Therefore Sunny Boy inverters can
reduce their feed-in power. This task is performed by an implemented "Frequency Shift Power Control"
system (see Section 17.5 "Frequency-Shift Power Control (FSPC)", page 154).
To activate this function, you must first pre-configure the Sunny Boy via programming.
17.3 Configuration of the PV Inverters with a Communication
Products
SMA Grid Guard code required to change grid-relevant parameters
To change grid-relevant parameters in the PV inverter after more than ten operating hours, you
will need the SMA Grid Guard code.
• Install a communication product corresponding to the type of communication and the PV
inverter used.
• Apply for an SMA Grid Guard code to change grid-relevant parameters (for an
application for the SMA Grid Guard code, see the Certificate "Application for SMA Grid
Guard Code" at www.SMA-America.com).
PV Inverters with RS485
You can configure PV inverters with RS485 using the following communication products:
• Sunny WebBox
• Sunny Boy Control
• Computer with Sunny Data/Sunny Data Control software
For PV inverters without RS485 Piggy-Back or RS485 data module, you will also need a service cable
for data transmission (USB Service Interface, SMA order number: USBPBS).
PV Inverters with Speedwire
You can configure PV inverters with Speedwire using the following communication products:
• Sunny Explorer
• SMA Cluster Controller
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PV Inverters with BLUETOOTH
You can configure PV inverters with BLUETOOTH using the following communication products:
• Sunny Explorer
• Sunny WebBox mit BLUETOOTH Wireless Technology
17.4 Parameter Settings of the PV Inverters
17.4.1 Configuration of the PV Inverters in Battery-Backup Systems
In a battery-backup system, the Sunny Island is connected to the utility grid and communicates with
the PV inverters via RS485. Therefore, the following requirements must be met:
• The Sunny Island and each PV inverter must be equipped with an RS485 Piggy-Back or an
RS485 data module.
• In a cluster, only the master of the Sunny Island inverters must be equipped with an RS485
Piggy-Back.
• All PV inverters must be configured for battery-backup operation (see Section 17.3
"Configuration of the PV Inverters with a Communication Products", page 151).
When the utility grid is present at the AC2 terminal of the Sunny Island, the Sunny Boy will display the
message "Backupstate: Grid". When there is no utility grid present at the AC2 terminal of the
Sunny Island, the Sunny Boy will display the message "Backupstate: Off-Grid". The RS485
communication bus needs to be verified if this change does not occur.
Settings for Battery-Backup Operation via RS485 (e.g. with Sunny WebBox)
The following table shows how battery-backup operation must be set during configuration of the PV
inverters via RS485. The parameter name and the configurable value depend on the PV inverter being
used.
Parameter name
Value
Either "Backup Mode"
Either "On all"
or
or
"Op.BckOpMod"
"OnAllPhs"
In battery-backup systems, you operate the PV inverters with the locally typical country data set for
grid-tie PV systems in accordance with UL1741. If the parameter is set to "On all" or "OnAllPhs", the
system meets the requirements as per UL1741.
PV inverters without battery-backup function
For PV inverters without battery-backup function, the country data set must be set to the locally
typical value for grid-tie PV systems as per UL1741. The PV inverter is then configured for
operation on the utility grid. In the event of a utility grid failure, the Sunny Island is unable to
derate the PV inverters by means of FSPC (frequency-shift power control) (see Section 17.5,
page 154). If there is an excessive supply of energy, the PV inverters will switch off.
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17.4.2 Configuration of PV Inverters in Off-Grid Systems
The country data set must be set to stand-alone mode in off-grid systems.
You can order PV inverters configured for stand-alone mode or you can configure existing PV inverters
for stand-alone mode (see Section 17.3 "Configuration of the PV Inverters with a Communication
Products", page 151). During the first ten operating hours you can adjust the country data set for
many PV inverters by means of rotary switches (see the manual of the PV inverter).
Setting the Country Data Set via RS485 (e.g. with Sunny WebBox)
The following table shows how the country data set must be set during configuration of the PV inverter
via RS485. The parameter name and the configurable value depend on the PV inverter being used.
Parameter name
Value
Either "Default"
Either "Off-Grid"
or
or
"CntrySet"
depending on power frequency, "OFF-Grid50" for 50 Hz power
frequency or "Off-Grid60" for 60 Hz power frequency
Setting the Country Data set via Speedwire or BLUETOOTH (e.g. with
Sunny Explorer)
The following table shows how the country data set must be set during configuration of the PV inverters
via Speedwire or BLUETOOTH. The country data set value depends on the PV inverter being used.
Parameter name
Value
Set country standard
Either "Island mode"
or
depending on power frequency, "Island mode 50" for 50 Hz
power frequency or "Island mode 60" for 60 Hz power
frequency
The parameter setting "OffGrid" automatically sets the following Sunny Boy parameters to the values
below:
No.
Parameters
Short descr.
Value
1
Test current
mA
Off (MSD = 0)
2
Vac.Min
V
3
Vac.Max
V
4
Fac-delta–
Hz
Lower range in which the Sunny Boy is active,
based on f0
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–12% VAC Nom*
+10% VAC Nom*
–3.0 (starting from
base frequency f0)
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No.
Parameters
Short descr.
Value
5
Fac-max+
Hz
+3.0 (starting from the
base frequency f0)
Hz/s
4
Hz
1 (starting from the
base frequency f0)
Hz
2 (starting from the
base frequency f0)
Upper range where the Sunny Boy is active,
based on f0
6
dFac-Max
Max. rate of change
7
Fac-start delta
Frequency increase in relation to f0, at which
point the power adjustment via frequency begins
8
Fac-Limit delta
Frequency increase based on f0, where the
power control via frequency ends. The power of
the Sunny Boy at this point is 0 W.
* VAC Nom = 208 V/240 V/277 V
This completes the stand-alone grid parameter settings for the Sunny Boy.
17.5 Frequency-Shift Power Control (FSPC)
This section describes the operating principles of the "power adjustment via frequency" (Frequency
Shift Power Control - FSPC).
If Sunny Boy inverters are connected to the AC side of the off-grid system, the Sunny Island must be
able to limit their output power. This situation can occur when, e.g. the Sunny Island battery is fully
charged and the (solar) power available from the PV array exceeds the power required by the
connected loads.
To prevent the excess energy from overcharging the battery, the Sunny Island 4548-US / 6048-US
recognizes this situation and changes the frequency at the AC output. This frequency adjustment is
analyzed by the Sunny Boy. As soon as the power frequency increases and exceeds a defined value
"fAC Start Delta", the Sunny Boy limits its power accordingly.
This function is shown in the following figure:
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The different settings have the following meanings:
• f0 refers to the base frequency of the stand-alone grid created by the Sunny Island.
• fAC Delta– and fAC Delta+ refer to the maximum range in which the Sunny Boy is active, based
on, e.g. f0, 60 Hz.
• fAC Start delta refers to the frequency increase relative to f0, at which point the frequency shift
power control begins
• fAC Limit delta refers to the frequency increase relative to f0, at which point the frequency shift
power control stops. The power of the Sunny Boy at this point is 0 W.
If the thresholds "fAC Delta–" is fallen below or if "fAC Delta+" is exceeded, the Sunny Boy inverters
disconnect from the stand-alone grid.
When FSPC is activated and the diesel generator in the off-grid power system is operating, the diesel
generator determines the frequency, and the Sunny Boys react to certain changes in the diesel
generator frequency. The diesel generators generally operate at 60 Hz under load. For this reason,
in most cases the Sunny Boy inverters will deliver their entire power to the stand-alone grid, even when
the generator is in operation.
Short-term increase of the frequency possible
If the current battery voltage (VBat) is greater than the nominal battery voltage (VBat, nom) and is
also to be synchronized with an external source (generator), the Sunny Island temporarily
increases the frequency and disconnects the Sunny Boy inverters using the frequency shutdown
method (overfrequency). Afterwards, it synchronizes with the generator.
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18 Maintenance and Care
The Sunny Island has been constructed for low maintenance. Thus, the necessary work is limited to
only a few points.
18.1 Enclosure
Check that the Sunny Island enclosure is mechanically sound. If damage (e.g. cracks, holes, missing
covers) endangers the operating safety, the Sunny Island must be deactivated immediately.
Larger particles of dirt should be removed from the device with a soft brush or similar item. Dust can
be removed with a damp cloth. Do not use any solvents, abrasives or corrosive liquids for cleaning.
18.2 Cleaning the Fans
The cleaning intervals depend on the ambient conditions. If the fans are covered with loose dust, you
can clean them with the aid of a vacuum cleaner (recommended) or a soft paint brush/hand brush.
Clean the fans only when they are at a standstill. If it is necessary to replace the fans, contact your
installer.
18.3 Display
It is best to clean the control elements with a soft, damp cloth. Do not use any solvents, abrasives or
corrosive liquids for cleaning.
Take care not to accidentally press the membrane buttons during cleaning. Only clean the membrane
keypad when the Sunny Island is deactivated.
18.4 Function
Check regularly whether error messages are present. If an error message is displayed, for which you
cannot identify any apparent cause, the off-grid power system must be inspected by an installer. To
ensure optimum operation, the operator should regularly check the Sunny Island entries in the error
list at short intervals (monthly, or even weekly), especially during the first months after commissioning.
This can help to discover hidden faults in the installation or errors in the configuration.
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18.5 Battery
Danger to life due to incompatible lithium-ion battery
An incompatible lithium-ion battery can lead to a fire or an explosion. Use of incompatible
lithium-ion batteries can also make the user’s battery management system unsafe, and void
manufacturers’ warranties. To avoid fire or explosion, we strongly recommend doing the following:
• Verify that the battery complies with locally applicable standards and directives, and is
intrinsically safe.
• Verify that the particular lithium-ion battery type is approved for use with the
SMA Sunny Island inverter (please see “List of Approved Lithium-Ion Batteries” under the
Technical Information tab at www.SMA-America.com).
• If manufacturer approved Sunny Island lithium-ion batteries are not available, you may use
lead acid batteries.
Inspect and maintain the battery at regular intervals. In this regard, observe all of the battery
manufacturer's specifications.
Immediately replace the defective batteries.
18.6 Disposal
Dispose of the Sunny Island at the end of its electrical endurance in accordance with the disposal
regulations for electronic waste which apply at the installation site at that time. Alternatively, send the
devices back to SMA with shipping paid by sender, and labeled with the information "FOR
DISPOSAL" (see Section 25 "Contact", page 242).
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19 Parameter Lists
Only parameters in the menu branches "200 Settings" and "500 Operation" can be changed. All
other values are only shown on the display of the SI 4548-US-10 / 6048-US-10. All menu items that
can only be changed by the installer using a password are shaded in gray in the following tables.
Menu structure depends on system configuration
Depending on the set system configuration, individual menu items may be missing.
Interference during operation due to incorrect parameter settings
Use caution when setting parameters. Incorrect settings can lead to faulty operation of the
inverter. Take note of the original values of all parameters that you change.
19.1 Display Values
19.1.1 Inverter Meters (110#)
111# Inverter Total Meters
No. Name
Description
01
TotInvPwrAt
Total active power of the inverters (cluster) in kW
02
TotInvCur
Total current of the inverters (cluster) in A
03
TotInvPwrRt
Total reactive power of the inverters (cluster) in kVAr
112# Inverter Device Meters
No. Name
Description
Value clear
text (No.)
Explanation
01
Operating state of
the Sunny Island
Standby (2)
Standby
Run (3)
Operation
Run (4)/
EmCharge
Emergency charge mode
Error (5)
Error
Manual (6)
Manual Operation
Startup (7)
Transfer standby > operation
InvOpStt
02
InvPwrAt
Active power
Sunny Island in kW
03
InvVtg
Voltage of the
Sunny Island in V
04
InvCur
Current of the
Sunny Island in A
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No. Name
Description
05
InvFrq
Frequency of the
Sunny Island in Hz
06
InvPwrRt
Reactive power of
the Sunny Island in
kVAr
07
Rly1Stt
08
Rly2Stt
19 Parameter Lists
Value clear
text (No.)
Explanation
State of relay 1
Off
Relay open
On
Relay closed
State of relay 2
Off
Relay open
On
Relay closed
113# Inverter Slave1 Meters
No. Name
Description
Value clear
text (No.)
Explanation
01
Operating state of
slave 1
Standby (2)
Standby
Run (3)
Operation
EmCharge (4)
Emergency charge mode
Error (5)
Error
Manual (6)
Manual Operation
Startup (7)
Transfer standby > operation
InvOpSttSlv1
02
InvPwrAtSlv1
Active power of
slave 1 in kW
03
InvVtgSlv1
Voltage of slave 1
in V
04
InvCurSlv1
Current of slave 1
in A
05
InvPwrRtSlv1
Reactive power of
slave 1 in kVAr
06
Rly1SttSlv1
State of relay 1 on
slave 1
Off
Relay open
On
Relay closed
State of relay 2 on
slave 1
Off
Relay open
On
Relay closed
07
Rly2SttSlv1
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114# Inverter Slave2 Meters
No. Name
Description
Value clear
text (No.)
Explanation
01
Operating state of
slave 2
Standby (2)
Standby
Run (3)
Operation
EmCharge (4)
Emergency charge mode
Error (5)
Error
Manual (6)
Manual Operation
Startup (7)
Transfer standby > operation
InvOpSttSlv2
02
InvPwrAtSlv2
Active power of
slave 2 in kW
03
InvVtgSlv2
Voltage of slave 2
in V
04
InvCurSlv2
Current of slave 2
in A
05
InvPwrRtSlv2
Reactive power of
slave 2 in kVAr
06
Rly1SttSlv2
State of relay 1 on
slave 2
Off
Relay open
On
Relay closed
07
Rly2SttSlv2
State of relay 2 on
slave 2
Off
Relay open
On
Relay closed
115# Inverter Slave3 Meters
No. Name
Description
Value clear
text (No.)
Explanation
01
Operating state of
slave 3
Standby (2)
Standby
Run (3)
Operation
EmCharge (4)
Emergency charge mode
Error (5)
Error
Manual (6)
Manual Operation
Startup (7)
Transfer standby > operation
InvOpSttSlv3
02
InvPwrAtSlv3
Active power of
slave 3 in kW
03
InvVtgSlv3
Voltage of slave 3
in V
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No. Name
Description
04
InvCurSlv3
Current of slave 3
in A
05
InvPwrRtSlv3
Reactive power of
slave 3 in kVAr
06
Rly1SttSlv3
07
Rly2SttSlv3
19 Parameter Lists
Value clear
text (No.)
Explanation
State of relay 1 on
slave 3
Off
Relay open
On
Relay closed
State of relay 2 on
slave 3
Off
Relay open
On
Relay closed
Value clear
text (No.)
Explanation
Boost (1)
Fast charge
Full (2)
Full charge
Float (3; 7)
Float charge
Equalize (4; 5)
Equalization charge
Silent (6; 8)
Silent mode
19.1.2 Battery Meters (120#)
No. Name
Description
01
BatSoc
Momentary battery
state of charge
(SOC) in %
02
BatVtg
Battery voltage in V
03
BatChrgVtg
Charging voltage
target value in V
04
AptTmRmg
Remaining
absorption time in
hours, minutes and
seconds
05
BatChrgOp
Active charging
process
06
TotBatCur
Total battery current
of the cluster in A
07
BatTmp
Battery temperature
in °C
08
RmgTmFul
Remaining time until
next full charge in
days
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Negative values indicate
charging, positive values
indicate discharging.
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No. Name
Description
09
RmgTmEqu
Remaining time until
next equalization
charge in days
10
AptPhs
Status of the
absorption phase
11
BatSocErr
Estimated error of the
state of charge in %
12
BatCpyThrpCnt
Nominal energy
throughputs of the
battery
Value clear
text (No.)
Explanation
Off (1)
Absorption phase not active
On (2)
Absorption phase is active
Estimated error of the displayed
state of charge in relation to the
actual state of charge of the
battery in percent (e.g. +/
− 3%).
19.1.3 External Meters (130#)
131# Total Meters
No. Name
Description
01
TotExtPwrAt
Total active power of the external source in kW
02
TotExtCur
Total current of the external source in A
03
TotExtPwrRt
Total reactive power in kVAr
04
TotLodPwr
Total average active power of the loads (cluster) in kW
05
TotMccLodPwr
Total average active power of the loads (Multicluster) in kW
132# Grid State
No. Name
Description
01
Remaining time of parameter "GdValTm" in hours, minutes and seconds
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133# Generator State
No. Name
Description
Value clear
text (No.)
Explanation
01
Source for generator
request
None (1)
No request
Bat (2)
Dependent on battery state of
charge
Lod (3)
Load-dependent
Tim (4)
Time-controlled
Run1h (5)
Requested for 1 hour
Start (6)
Manually started
ExtSrcReq (7)
Requested via an external
source
Off (1)
Off
Init (2)
Init
Ready (3)
Waiting for request (ready)
Warm (4)
Warming up
Connect (5)
Connecting
Run (6)
Operation
Retry (7)
Restarting
02
GnDmdSrc
GnStt
Generator state
Disconnect (8) Split
Cool (9)
Cooling down
Lock (10)
Locked after error
Fail (11)
Error
FailLock (12)
Locked after error occurred.
03
GnRmgTm
Remaining time of the
generator (minimum
run time) in hours,
minutes and seconds
04
GnRnStt
Status generator
Off (1)
feedback on the master On (2)
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134# Device Meters
No. Name
Description
01
ExtPwrAt
Active power of the external source in kW
02
ExtVtg
Voltage of the external source in V
03
ExtCur
Current of the external source in A
04
ExtFrq
Frequency of the external source in Hz
05
ExtPwrRt
Reactive power of the external source in kVAr
135# Slave1 Meters
No. Name
Description
01
ExtPwrAtSlv1
Active power of the external source slave 1 in kW
02
ExtVtgSlv1
Voltage of the external source slave 1 in V
03
ExtCurSlv1
Current of the external source slave 1 in A
04
ExtPwrRtSlv1
Reactive power of the external source slave 1 in kVAr
136# Slave2 Meters
No. Name
Description
01
Active power of the external source slave 2 in kW
ExtPwrAtSlv2
02
ExtVtgSlv2
Voltage of the external source slave 2 in V
03
ExtCurSlv2
Current of the external source slave 2 in A
04
ExtPwrRtSlv2
Reactive power of the external source slave 2 in kVAr
137# Slave3 Meters
No. Name
Description
01
ExtPwrAtSlv3
Active power of the external source slave 3 in kW
02
ExtVtgSlv3
Voltage of the external source slave 3 in V
03
ExtCurSlv3
Current of the external source slave 3 in A
04
ExtPwrRtSlv3
Reactive power of the external source slave 3 in kVAr
164
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SMA Solar Technology America LLC
19 Parameter Lists
138# Chp Meters (Combined Heat and Power)
No. Name
Description
Value
Explanation
01
State of CHP plant
Idle
Off
Run
Operation
Lock
Locked after operation
ChpStt
02
ChpPwrAt
Power of the CHP
plant
03
ChpRmgTm
Remaining time of the
CHP plant (minimum
run time) in hours,
minutes and seconds
04
ChpStrRmgTm
Remaining time of the
power request of the
CHP plant in hours,
minutes and seconds
19.1.4 Charge Controller (140#)(not UL-certified)
Visibility of parameters in menu 140#
The parameters in menu 140# are only visible, if at least one Sunny Island Charger is
connected to the system.
141# SIC50 Total
No. Name
Description
01
TotSicEgyCntIn
Total energy of all Sunny Island Chargers in kWh
02
TotSicDyEgyCntI Total daily yield of all Sunny Island Chargers in kWh
n
03
TotSicPvPwr
Total PV power of all Sunny Island Chargers in W
04
TotSicBatCur
Total battery current of all Sunny Island Chargers in A
Operating Manual
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142# SIC50 1
No. Name
Description
01
Sic1EgyCntIn
Energy of the first Sunny Island Charger in kWh
02
Sic1TdyEgyCntI
n
Daily yield of the first Sunny Island Charger in kWh
03
Sic1PvPwr
PV power of the first Sunny Island Charger in W
04
Sic1PvVtg
PV voltage of the first Sunny Island Charger in V
05
Sic1BatVtg
Battery voltage of the first Sunny Island Charger in V
06
Sic1BatCur
Battery current of the first Sunny Island Charger in A
07
Sic1HsTmp
Heat sink temperature of the first Sunny Island Charger in °C
08
Sic1SWVers
Software version of the first Sunny Island Charger
143# SIC50 2
No. Name
Description
01
Sic2EgyCntIn
Energy of the second Sunny Island Charger in kWh
02
Sic2TdyEgyCntI
n
Daily yield of the second Sunny Island Charger in kWh
03
Sic2PvPwr
PV power of the second Sunny Island Charger in W
04
Sic2PvVtg
PV voltage of the second Sunny Island Charger in V
05
Sic2BatVtg
Battery voltage of the second Sunny Island Charger in V
06
Sic2BatCur
Battery current of the second Sunny Island Charger in A
07
Sic2HsTmp
Heat sink temperature of the second Sunny Island Charger in °C
08
Sic2SWVers
Software version of the second Sunny Island Charger
144# SIC50 3
No. Name
Description
01
Sic3EgyCntIn
Energy of the third Sunny Island Charger in kWh
02
Sic3TdyEgyCntI
n
Daily yield of the third Sunny Island Charger in kWh
03
Sic3PvPwr
PV power of the third Sunny Island Charger in W
04
Sic3PvVtg
PV voltage of the third Sunny Island Charger in V
05
Sic3BatVtg
Battery voltage of the third Sunny Island Charger in V
06
Sic3BatCur
Battery current of the third Sunny Island Charger in A
07
Sic3HsTmp
Heat sink temperature of the third Sunny Island Charger in °C
166
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SMA Solar Technology America LLC
19 Parameter Lists
No. Name
Description
08
Software version of the third Sunny Island Charger
Sic3SWVers
145# SIC50 4
No. Name
Description
01
Sic4EgyCntIn
Energy of the fourth Sunny Island Charger in kWh
02
Sic4TdyEgyCntI
n
Daily yield of the fourth Sunny Island Charger in kWh
03
Sic4PvPwr
PV power of the fourth Sunny Island Charger in W
04
Sic4PvVtg
PV voltage of the fourth Sunny Island Charger in V
05
Sic4BatVtg
Battery voltage of the fourth Sunny Island Charger in V
06
Sic4BatCur
Battery current of the fourth Sunny Island Charger in A
07
Sic4HsTmp
Heat sink temperature of the fourth Sunny Island Charger in °C
08
Sic4SWVers
Software version of the forth Sunny Island Charger
19.2 Adjustable Parameters
19.2.1 Inverter Settings (210#)
No. Name
Description
01
InvVtgNom
Nominal voltage of
the Sunny Island
02
03
Explanation
Default
value
120 V / 60 Hz
120 V
InvChrgCurMax Maximum AC
charging current
SI 4548-US-10
37.5 A
SI 6048-US-10
48 A
InvFrqNom
120 V / 60 Hz
60 Hz
Operating Manual
Nominal frequency
of the Sunny Island
Value
SI4548-6048-US-BE-en-21
167
19 Parameter Lists
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
19.2.2 Battery Settings (220#)
221# Battery Property
No. Name
Description
Value
Explanation
Default
value
01
Battery type
VRLA
Lead-acid battery
with immobilized
electrolyte in gel or
AGM (Absorbent
Glass Mat
Separator)
VRLA
FLA
Valve-regulated
lead–acid battery
with liquid
electrolyte
NiCd
Nickel-cadmium
battery
LiIon_Ext-BMS
Lithium-ion battery
100 Ah to
10,000 Ah
VRLA/FLA/NiCd
50 Ah to
10,000 Ah
LiIon_Ext-BMS
02
03
BatTyp
BatCpyNom
BatVtgNom
Nominal battery
capacity
Nominal battery
voltage
VRLA
04
BatTmpMax
Max. battery
temperature
05
BatTmpStr
Battery start
32°F to 104°F
temperature
(0°C to 40°C)
following stop due "BatTmpMax"
to overtemperature
06
BatWirRes
Power resistor of
the battery
connection in
mOhm
07
BatFanTmpStr
Starting
temperature for the
"BatFan" function
168
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104°F to 122°F
(40°C to 50°C)
100 Ah
48 V
FLA
48 V
NiCd
45.6 V
113°F
(45°C)
104°F
(40°C)
0 mOhm to
50 mOhm
104°F
(40°C)
Operating Manual
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
19 Parameter Lists
#222 Battery Charge Mode
No. Name
Description
01
BatChrgCurMax Charging current
of the battery
02
AptTmBoost
03
AptTmFul
Value
Explanation
10 A to 1,200 A
Default
value
61 A
Absorption time for 1 min to 600 min
normal charge
1 min to 600 min
VRLA
120 min
FLA
90 min
1 min to 600 min
NiCd
300 min
Absorption time for 1 h to 20 h
full charge
1 h to 20 h
VRLA
5h
FLA
5h
1 h to 20 h
NiCd
7h
04
AptTmEqu
Absorption time for 1 h to 48 h
equalization
charge
10 h
05
CycTmFul
Cycle time of full
charge
1 day to 180 days
14 days
06
CycTmEqu
Equalization
charge cycle time
7 days to 365
days
180
days
07
ChrgVtgBoost
Cell voltage
2.2 V to 2.7 V
setpoint for normal
charge
1.5 V to 1.8 V
VRLA
2.40 V
FLA
2.55 V
NiCd
1.65 V
Cell voltage
setpoint for full
charge
2.3 V to 2.7 V
VRLA
2.40 V
FLA
2.50 V
1.5 V to 1.8 V
NiCd
1.65 V
Cell voltage
setpoint for
equalization
charge
2.3 V to 2.7 V
VRLA
2.40 V
FLA
2.50 V
1.5 V to 1.8 V
NiCd
1.65 V
Cell voltage
setpoint for float
charge
2.2 V to 2.4 V
VRLA
2.25 V
FLA
2.25 V
NiCd
1.55 V
08
09
10
ChrgVtgFul
ChrgVtgEqu
ChrgVtgFlo
Operating Manual
1.4 V to 1.6 V
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19 Parameter Lists
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
No. Name
Description
Value
Explanation
Default
value
11
Battery
temperature
compensation
0 mV/C° to
VRLA
4.0 mV/
°C
FLA
4.0 mV/
°C
NiCd
0 mV/
°C
Disable
Disable
Enable
Enable
Enable
12
BatTmpCps
AutoEquChrgEn
a
Automatic
equalization
charge
10 mV /°C
#223 Battery Protection
No. Name
Description
01
BatPro1TmStr
Starting time of the
battery-preservation
mode (level 1)
22:00:00
02
BatPro1TmStp
End time of the
battery-preservation
mode (level 1)
06:00:00
03
BatPro2TmStr
Starting time of the
battery-preservation
mode (level 2)
17:00:00
04
BatPro2TmStp
End time of the
battery-preservation
mode (level 2)
09:00:00
05
BatPro1Soc
State of charge for
battery-preservation
mode, level 1
0% to 70%
20%
06
BatPro2Soc
State of charge for
battery-preservation
mode, level 2
0% to 70%
15%
07
BatPro3Soc
State of charge for
battery-preservation
mode, level 3
0% to 70%
10%
170
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Value
Default value
Operating Manual
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
19 Parameter Lists
#224 Battery Silent Mode
No. Name
Description
Value
Explanation
Default
value
01
Silent mode on utility
grid
Disable
Disable
Disable
Enable
Enable
SilentEna
02
SilentTmFlo
Maximum time for float 1 h to 48 h
charge until transfer
into silent mode
3h
03
SilentTmMax
Maximum time for
silent until transfer into
float
12 h
1 h to 168 h
225# Battery Current Sensor
No. Name
Description
Value
Explanation
Default
value
01
Battery current sensor
type
None
No sensor is
connected.
None
60 mV
Battery current
sensor 60 mV
50 mV
Battery current
sensor 50 mV
BatCurSnsTyp
02
BatCurGain60
External battery current 0 A to
sensor type (60 mV
1,000 A
type)
100 A/
60 mV
03
BatCurGain50
External battery current 0 A to
sensor type (50 mV
1,000 A
type)
100 A/
50 mV
04
BatCurAutoCal
Automatic calibration
of external battery
current sensor
Operating Manual
Start
Start automatic
calibration
SI4548-6048-US-BE-en-21
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19 Parameter Lists
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
226# BMS Mode Basic / Off
- No. Name
Description
Value
Explanation
Default
value
01
BatChrgVtgMan Manual setpoint of the 41.0 V to 63.0 V
battery charging
voltage with disabled
battery management
in V
54.0 V
02
BatDiChgVtg
Minimum charging
voltage of the battery
42 V to
BatDiChgVtgStr
44 V
03
BatDiChgVtgStr
Start voltage after
BatDiChgVtg to
undervoltage detection BatChrgVtgMan
48 V
04
BatRes
Internal resistance of
the battery
0 mOhm
0 mOhm to
200 mOhm
19.2.3 External Settings (230#)
231# Ext General
No. Name
Description
01
PvFeedTmStr
Start feed-in operation
02
PvFeedTmStp
Stop feed-in operation
03
ExtLkTm
Lock time after reverse
power or relay
protection
0 min to 60 min
05
ExtSrc
generator and grid
operating mode
PvOnly
PV only
Gen
Generator
Grid
Utility grid
GenGrid
Generator/
utility grid
Disable
Deactivated
Enable
Activated
12
172
ChpEna
Combined heat and
power plant
SI4548-6048-US-BE-en-21
Value
Explanation
Default
value
04:00:00
22:00:00
20 min
PvOnly
Disable
Operating Manual
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
19 Parameter Lists
232# Grid Control
No. Name
Description
Value
Explanation
Default
value
01
GdVtgMin
Minimum grid voltage
105.6 V
02
GdVtgMax
Maximum grid voltage
132 V
03
GdCurNom
Nominal grid current
30 A
04
GdFrqNom
Nominal grid
frequency
60 Hz
05
GdFrqMin
Minimum power
frequency
59.3 Hz
06
GdFrqMax
Maximum power
frequency
60.5 Hz
07
GdVldTm
Minimum time required
for grid (voltage and
frequency) to be within
permissible range for
connection
300 sec
08
GdMod
Grid interface
GridCharge
Charging on the GdFeed
utility grid
GridFeed
Charge and
feedback on the
utility grid
09
GdRvPwr
Permissible grid reverse 0 W to 5,000 W
power (active power)
100 W
10
GdRvTm
Permissible time for
grid reverse power
0 sec to 60 sec
5 sec
15
GdAlSns
AI sensitivity
Low
Low
Medium
Medium
Normal
Normal
High
High
Disable
Disable
Enable
Enable
37
GdVtgIncProEna Voltage increase
protection
38
GdVtgIncPro
Limit for voltage
increase protection
41
GdSocEna
Activate the grid
Disable
request based on SOC Enable
Operating Manual
Normal
Disable
132 V
Disable
Disable
Enable
SI4548-6048-US-BE-en-21
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19 Parameter Lists
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
No. Name
Description
Value
Explanation
Default
value
42
Activate the grid
request based on
power
Disable
Disable
Disable
Enable
Enable
GdPwrEna
233# Grid Start
No. Name
Description
Value
Explanation
Default
value
01
GdSocTm1Str
SOC limit for switching
on utility grid for time 1
40%
02
GdSocTm1Stp
SOC limit for switching
off the utility grid for time
1
80%
03
GdSocTm2Str
SOC limit for switching
on utility grid for time 2
40%
04
GdSocTm2Stp
SOC limit for switching
off the utility grid for time
2
80%
05
GdTm1Str
Time 1 for grid request in
hours, minutes and
seconds
Start: time 1, end: time 2
06
GdTm2Str
Time 2 for grid request in
hours, minutes and
seconds
07
GdPwrStr
Grid request starting
capacity
4.0 kW
08
GdPwrStp
Grid request
disconnection power
limit
2.0 kW
09
GdStrChrgMod
Charge start when
connecting to the grid
Start: time 2, end: time 1
174
SI4548-6048-US-BE-en-21
Off
off
Full
Full charge
Equal
Equalization
charge
Both
Full and
equalization
charge
Equal
Operating Manual
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
19 Parameter Lists
234# Generator Control
No. Name
Description
Value
Explanation
01
GnVtgMin
Minimum generator
voltage
80 V
02
GnVtgMax
Maximum generator
voltage
150 V
03
GnCurNom
Nominal generator
current
30 A
04
GnFrqNom
Nominal generator
frequency at nominal
load
60 Hz
05
GnFrqMin
Minimum generator
frequency
54 Hz
06
GnFrqMax
Maximum generator
frequency
66 Hz
07
GnStrMod
Generator interface
Manual
Manual
Autostart
Automatic
GenMan
SMA generator
management box
Default
value
Autostart
08
GnOpTmMin
Minimum run time of
the generator
15 min
09
GnStpTmMin
Minimum stop time of
the generator
15 min
10
GnCoolTm
Cooling time of the
generator
5 min
11
GnErrStpTm
Stop time of generator
in case of errors
1h
12
GnWarmTm
Warm-up time
60 sec
13
GnRvPwr
Generator reverse
power (active power)
100 W
14
GnRvTm
Permissible time for
reverse power/reverse
current
30 sec
15
GnCtlMod
Generator regulation
Operating Manual
Cur
Current
CurFrq
Frequency
SI4548-6048-US-BE-en-21
Cur
175
19 Parameter Lists
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
No. Name
Description
Value
Explanation
Default
value
20
AI sensitivity
Low
Low
Normal
Medium
Medium
Normal
Normal
High
High
Droop (1)
Standard
generator
operation without
I-Loop
CurCtl (2)
Current-controlled
generator
operation with
I-Loop
41
GnAlSns
GnCurCtlMod
Enable I-Loop in
generator mode
Droop (1)
235# Generator Start
No. Name
Description
Value
Explanation
Default
value
01
Generator autostart
Off
Disable
On
On
Enable
GnAutoEna
02
GnAutoStr
Number of autostarts
3
03
GnSocTm1Str
SOC limit for switching
on generator for time 1
40%
04
GnSocTm1Stp
SOC limit for switching
off generator for time 1
80%
05
GnSocTm2Str
SOC limit for switching
on generator for time 2
40%
06
GnSocTm2Stp
SOC limit for switching
off generator for time 2
80%
07
GnTm1Str
Time 1 for generator
request in hours,
minutes and seconds
Start: time 1, end: time
2
176
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No. Name
Description
08
Time 2 for generator
request in hours,
minutes and seconds
GnTm2Str
19 Parameter Lists
Value
Explanation
Default
value
Off
Disable
Off
On
Enable
Start: time 2, end: time
1
09
GnPwrEna
Generator request
based on power
10
GnPwrStr
Generator request,
connection power limit
4 kW
11
GnPwrStp
Generator request,
disconnection power
limit
2 kW
12
GnPwrAvgTm
Average time for
power-related
generator start
60 sec
13
GnTmOpEna
Time-controlled
generator operation
14
GnTmOpStrDt
Starting date for
time-controlled
generator operation
15
GnTmOpStrTm
Starting time for
time-controlled
generator operation in
hours, minutes and
seconds
16
GnTmOpRnDur
Running time for
time-controlled
generator operation in
hours, minutes and
seconds
17
GnTmOpCyc
Repeat cycle for
time-controlled
generator operation
Operating Manual
Disable
Disable
Enable
Enable
Disable
2010-0101
Single
One-time
Daily
Daily
Weekly
Weekly
SI4548-6048-US-BE-en-21
Single
177
19 Parameter Lists
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
No. Name
Description
Value
Explanation
Default
value
18
Generator start for
charge type
Off
off
Both
Full
Full charge
Equal
Equalization
charge
Both
Full and
equalization
charge
Disable
Disable
Enable
Enable
19
GnStrChrgMod
GnStrDigIn
Generator start upon
signal at activated
digital input.
Disable
Based on the value at
the input "DigIn", the
Sunny Island decides
whether to start or stop
the generator.
If the value of "DigIn" is
at high level, the
Sunny Island starts the
generator.
If the value of "DigIn" is
at low level, the
Sunny Island stops the
generator.
178
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19 Parameter Lists
236# CHP Control (Combined Heat and Power)
No. Name
Description
Value
Explanation
Default
value
01
ChpOpTmMin
Minimum run time of
CHP plant
60 min
02
ChpStpTmMin
Minimum stop time of
CHP plant
10 min
03
ChpPwrMax
Maximum power of
CHP plant
5 kW
04
ChpPwrMin
Minimum power of
CHP plant
2 kW
05
ChpFrqPwrMax
Maximum frequency of
CHP plant
51 Hz
06
ChpFrqPwrMin
Minimum frequency of
CHP plant
52 Hz
07
ChpFrqOff
53 Hz
237# CHP Start
No. Name
Description
Value
Explanation
Default
value
01
ChpSocTm1Str
SOC limit for switching
on CHP plant for time 1
40%
02
ChpSocTm1Stp
Switch off SOC limit for
CHP plant for time 1
80%
03
ChpSocTm2Str
SOC limit for switching
on CHP plant for time 2
40%
04
ChpSocTm2Stp
Switch off SOC limit for
CHP plant for time 2
80%
05
ChpTm1Str
Time 1 for CHP plant
request in hours,
minutes and seconds
Start: time 1, end: time
2
06
ChpTm2Str
Time 2 for CHP plant
request in hours,
minutes and seconds
Start: time 2, end: time
1
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179
19 Parameter Lists
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
No. Name
Description
Value
Explanation
Default
value
07
Activate CHP plant
request based on
power
Disable
Disable
Enable
Enable
Enable
ChpPwrEna
08
ChpPwrStr
CHP plant request,
connection power limit
4 kW
09
ChpPwrStrDly
Time delay for power
request for CHP plant
5 min
10
ChpManStr
Manual CHP start
Auto
Automatic
Start
Starting
Stop
Stopping
Auto
11
ChpAddOnTm
Time activated for the
additional CHP plant
request
60 sec
12
ChpAddOffTm
Time deactivated for
the additional CHP
plant request
120 sec
13
ChpAddSocDel
Distance to the next
SOC limit
5%
180
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Operating Manual
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
19 Parameter Lists
19.2.4 Relay Settings (240#)
241# Relay General
No. Name
Description
Value
Explanation
Default
value
01
Function relay 1
Off
off
AutoGn
On
on
AutoGn
Generator request
AutoLodExt
External loadshedding
AutoLod1Soc
SOC1 Loadshedding
AutoLod2Soc
SOC2 Loadshedding
Tmr1
Timer 1
Tmr2
Timer 2
AptPhs
Absorption phase
ExtPwrDer
External power
reduction
GnRn
Generator in operation
ExtVfOk
External source (voltage
and frequency OK)
GdOn
Utility grid connected
Error
Error
Warn
Warning
Run
Operation
BatFan
Battery fan (room)
AcdCir
Acid circulation
MccBatFan
Multicluster battery
room ventilator
MccAutoLod
Loadshedding
CHPReq
CHP plant request
CHPAdd
Additional CHP plant
request
SiComRemote
SI Com module
Overload
Overload
Rly1Op
Operating Manual
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181
19 Parameter Lists
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
No. Name
Description
Value
Explanation
Default
value
02
Function relay 2
Off
off
On
on
AutoLod
Ext
AutoGn
Generator request
AutoLodExt
External loadshedding
AutoLod1Soc
SOC1 Loadshedding
AutoLod2Soc
SOC2 Loadshedding
Tmr1
Timer 1
Tmr2
Timer 2
AptPhs
Absorption phase
ExtPwrDer
External power
reduction
GnRn
Generator in operation
ExtVfOk
External source (voltage
and frequency OK)
GdOn
Utility grid connected
Error
Error
Warn
Warning
Run
Operation
BatFan
Battery fan (room)
AcdCir
Acid circulation
MccBatFan
Multicluster battery
room ventilator
MccAutoLod
Loadshedding
CHPReq
CHP plant request
CHPAdd
Additional CHP plant
request
SiComRemote
SI Com module
Overload
Overload
182
Rly2Op
SI4548-6048-US-BE-en-21
Operating Manual
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
19 Parameter Lists
No. Name
Description
Value
07
ExtPwrDerMinT
m
Minimum time of
external power
reduction
0 min to
600 min
08
ExtPwrDerDltVtg Differential voltage 0 V to 0.4 V
of external power
reduction
Explanation
Default
value
10 min
0.15 V
242# Relay Load
No. Name
Description
Value
Explanation
Default
value
01
Lod1SocTm1Str
SOC limit for load
shedding 1 start for t1
30%
02
Lod1SocTm1Stp SOC limit for load
shedding 1 stop for t1
50%
03
Lod1SocTm2Str
SOC limit for load
shedding 1 start for t2
30%
04
Lod1SocTm2Stp SOC limit for load
shedding 1 stop for t2
50%
05
Lod1Tm1Str
Time 1 for Loadshed 1
in hours, minutes and
seconds
Start: time 1, end: time
2
06
Lod1Tm2Str
Time 2 for Loadshed 1
in hours, minutes and
seconds
Start: time 2, end: time
1
07
Lod2SocTm1Str
SOC limit for load
shedding 2 start for t1
30%
08
Lod2SocTm1Stp SOC limit for load
shedding 1 stop for t2
50%
09
Lod2SocTm2Str
SOC limit for load
shedding 2 start for t2
30%
10
Lod2SocTm2Stp SOC limit for load
shedding 2 stop for t2
50%
Operating Manual
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19 Parameter Lists
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
No. Name
Description
11
Time 1 for Loadshed 2
in hours, minutes and
seconds
Lod2Tm1Str
Value
Explanation
Default
value
Value
Explanation
Default
value
Start: time 1, end: time
2
12
Lod2Tm2Str
Time 2 for Loadshed 2
in hours, minutes and
seconds
Start: time 2, end: time
1
243# Relay Timer
No. Name
Description
01
RlyTmr1StrDt
Start date for timer 1
02
RlyTmr1StrTm
Start time for relay
control timer 1 in hours,
minutes and seconds
03
RlyTmr1Dur
Running time for relay
control timer 1 in hours,
minutes and seconds
04
RlyTmr1Cyc
Repetition cycle time
for timer 1
05
RlyTmr2StrDt
Start date timer 2
06
RlyTmr2StrTm
Start time for relay
control timer 2 in hours,
minutes and seconds
07
RlyTmr2Dur
Running time for relay
control timer 2 in hours,
minutes and seconds
08
RlyTmr2Cyc
Repetition cycle time
for timer 2
184
SI4548-6048-US-BE-en-21
2006-0
1-01
Single
One-time
Daily
Daily
Weekly
Weekly
Single
2006-0
1-01
Single
One-time
Daily
Daily
Weekly
Weekly
Single
Operating Manual
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
19 Parameter Lists
244# Relay Slave1
No. Name
Description
01
Function of relay 1 Off
on slave 1
On
Rly1OpSlv1
Operating Manual
Value
Explanation
Default
value
off
Off
on
AutoGn
Generator request
AutoLodExt
External loadshedding
AutoLod1Soc
SOC1 Loadshedding
AutoLod2Soc
SOC2 Loadshedding
Tmr1
Timer 1
Tmr2
Timer 2
AptPhs
Absorption phase
ExtPwrDer
External power
reduction
GnRn
Generator in operation
ExtVfOk
External source (voltage
and frequency OK)
GdOn
Utility grid connected
Error
Error
Warn
Warning
Run
Operation
BatFan
Battery fan (room)
AcdCir
Acid circulation
MccBatFan
Multicluster battery
room ventilator
MccAutoLod
Loadshedding
CHPReq
CHP plant request
CHPAdd
Additional CHP plant
request
SiComRemote
SI Com module
Overload
Overload
SI4548-6048-US-BE-en-21
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19 Parameter Lists
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
No. Name
Description
02
Function of relay 2 Off
on slave 1
On
186
Rly2OpSlv1
SI4548-6048-US-BE-en-21
Value
Explanation
Default
value
off
Off
on
AutoGn
Generator request
AutoLodExt
External loadshedding
AutoLod1Soc
SOC1 Loadshedding
AutoLod2Soc
SOC2 Loadshedding
Tmr1
Timer 1
Tmr2
Timer 2
AptPhs
Absorption phase
ExtPwrDer
External power
reduction
GnRn
Generator in operation
ExtVfOk
External source (voltage
and frequency OK)
GdOn
Utility grid connected
Error
Error
Warn
Warning
Run
Operation
BatFan
Battery fan (room)
AcdCir
Acid circulation
MccBatFan
Multicluster battery
room ventilator
MccAutoLod
Loadshedding
CHPReq
CHP plant request
CHPAdd
Additional CHP plant
request
SiComRemote
SI Com module
Overload
Overload
Operating Manual
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
19 Parameter Lists
245# Relay Slave2
No. Name
Description
01
Function of relay 1 Off
on slave 2
On
Rly1OpSlv2
Operating Manual
Value
Explanation
Default
value
off
Off
on
AutoGn
Generator request
AutoLodExt
External loadshedding
AutoLod1Soc
SOC1 Loadshedding
AutoLod2Soc
SOC2 Loadshedding
Tmr1
Timer 1
Tmr2
Timer 2
AptPhs
Absorption phase
ExtPwrDer
External power
reduction
GnRn
Generator in operation
ExtVfOk
External source (voltage
and frequency OK)
GdOn
Utility grid connected
Error
Error
Warn
Warning
Run
Operation
BatFan
Battery fan (room)
AcdCir
Acid circulation
MccBatFan
Multicluster battery
room ventilator
MccAutoLod
Loadshedding
CHPReq
CHP plant request
CHPAdd
Additional CHP plant
request
SiComRemote
SI Com module
Overload
Overload
SI4548-6048-US-BE-en-21
187
19 Parameter Lists
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
No. Name
Description
02
Function of relay 2 Off
on slave 2
On
188
Rly2OpSlv2
SI4548-6048-US-BE-en-21
Value
Explanation
Default
value
off
Off
on
AutoGn
Generator request
AutoLodExt
External loadshedding
AutoLod1Soc
SOC1 Loadshedding
AutoLod2Soc
SOC2 Loadshedding
Tmr1
Timer 1
Tmr2
Timer 2
AptPhs
Absorption phase
ExtPwrDer
External power
reduction
GnRn
Generator in operation
ExtVfOk
External source (voltage
and frequency OK)
GdOn
Utility grid connected
Error
Error
Warn
Warning
Run
Operation
BatFan
Battery fan (room)
AcdCir
Acid circulation
MccBatFan
Multicluster battery
room ventilator
MccAutoLod
Loadshedding
CHPReq
CHP plant request
CHPAdd
Additional CHP plant
request
SiComRemote
SI Com module
Overload
Overload
Operating Manual
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
19 Parameter Lists
246# Relay Slave3
No. Name
Description
01
Function of relay 1 Off
on slave 3
On
Rly1OpSlv3
Operating Manual
Value
Explanation
Default
value
off
Off
on
AutoGn
Generator request
AutoLodExt
External loadshedding
AutoLod1Soc
SOC1 Loadshedding
AutoLod2Soc
SOC2 Loadshedding
Tmr1
Timer 1
Tmr2
Timer 2
AptPhs
Absorption phase
ExtPwrDer
External power
reduction
GnRn
Generator in operation
ExtVfOk
External source (voltage
and frequency OK)
GdOn
Utility grid connected
Error
Error
Warn
Warning
Run
Operation
BatFan
Battery fan (room)
AcdCir
Acid circulation
MccBatFan
Multicluster battery
room ventilator
MccAutoLod
Loadshedding
CHPReq
CHP plant request
CHPAdd
Additional CHP plant
request
SiComRemote
SI Com module
Overload
Overload
SI4548-6048-US-BE-en-21
189
19 Parameter Lists
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
No. Name
Description
02
Function of relay 2 Off
on slave 3
On
190
Rly2OpSlv3
SI4548-6048-US-BE-en-21
Value
Explanation
Default
value
off
Off
on
AutoGn
Generator request
AutoLodExt
External loadshedding
AutoLod1Soc
SOC1 Loadshedding
AutoLod2Soc
SOC2 Loadshedding
Tmr1
Timer 1
Tmr2
Timer 2
AptPhs
Absorption phase
ExtPwrDer
External power
reduction
GnRn
Generator in operation
ExtVfOk
External source (voltage
and frequency OK)
GdOn
Utility grid connected
Error
Error
Warn
Warning
Run
Operation
BatFan
Battery fan (room)
AcdCir
Acid circulation
MccBatFan
Multicluster battery
room ventilator
MccAutoLod
Loadshedding
CHPReq
CHP plant request
CHPAdd
Additional CHP plant
request
SiComRemote
SI Com module
Overload
Overload
Operating Manual
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
19 Parameter Lists
19.2.5 System Settings (250#)
No. Name
Description
01
Autostart
AutoStr
Value
Explanation
Default value
3
If the value 0 has
been set, this
means that the
autostart is
deactivated.
02
Dt
Date
MM/DD/YYYY
99.99.9999
03
Tm
Time in hours,
minutes and
seconds
HH:MM:SS
99:99:99
04
BeepEna
Button sound
Off
Disable
On
On
Enable
Slave1
Cluster slave 1
Slave2
Cluster slave 2
Slave3
Cluster slave 3
1Phase1
Single-phase, 1
Sunny Island
1Phase2
Single-phase, 2
Sunny Island
1Phase3
Single-phase,
3 Sunny Island
1Phase4
Single-phase, 4
Sunny Island
2Phase2
Split-phase, 2
Sunny Island
2Phase4
Double split-phase,
4 Sunny Island
3Phase
Three-phase, 3
Sunny Island
MC-Box
Setting for
Multicluster
operation
05
ClstCfg
Operating Manual
Cluster
configuration
1Phase1
SI4548-6048-US-BE-en-21
191
19 Parameter Lists
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
No. Name
Description
Value
06
Baud rate
1,200
ComBaud
Explanation
Default value
1,200
4,800
9,600
19,200
09
ComAdr
Address for
communication
10
SleepEna
Sleep mode
11
AfraEna
Tertiary control
(automatic
frequency
synchronization)
13
SlpAtNgt
1
Disable
Disable
Enable
Enable
Disable
Disable
Enable
Enable
Switch off slaves at Disable
night
Enable
Disable
Enable
Enable
Disable
Enable
14
SlpStrTm
Start time for
overnight
shutdown (sleep
mode)
20:00:00
15
SlpStpTm
Stop time for
overnight
shutdown (sleep
mode)
05:00:00
23
Box
Type of
Multicluster Box
used
24
ClstMod
Cluster type in
Multicluster
operation (system
configuration)
MCB-12U
SingleCluster
MC-Box-12
SingleCluster
MainCluster
ExtensionClst1
ExtensionClst2
ExtensionClst3
ExtensionClstN
25
192
ClstAdr
Cluster address
SI4548-6048-US-BE-en-21
Operating Manual
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
19 Parameter Lists
No. Name
Description
Value
Explanation
Default value
28
Typ of DC
charging device
Auto
Automatic
Auto
DCOnly
Battery charger
only
SMA
Sunny Island Charg
er
"Run Mode"
RunAlways
Always available
Behavior under
fault conditions
StopAlways
Stop if device
malfunctions
30
ChrgCtlOp
RnMod
RunAlways
19.2.6 Password Setting (280#)
Observe the information on entering the installer password (see Section 10.5 "Entering the Installer
Password", page 88).
19.3 Diagnosis (300#)
19.3.1 Inverter Diagnosis (310#)
311# System Total Diagnosis
No. Name
Description
01
EgyCntIn
Energy absorbed in kWh
02
EgyCntOut
Energy fed in kWh
03
EgyCntTm
Energy metering run time in hours
312# Inverter Device Diagnosis
No. Name
Description
Value clear text
(No.)
Explanation
Default
value
01
Device address
Master (1)
Address
Master
Slave1 (2)
Address
Slave2 (3)
Address
Slave3 (4)
Address
Adr
02
FwVer
Firmware version
of the master
03
SN
Serial number of
the master
Operating Manual
SI4548-6048-US-BE-en-21
193
19 Parameter Lists
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
No. Name
Description
04
OnTmh
Operating hours of
the Sunny Island in
hours
05
ClstCfgAt
Set cluster
configuration
Value clear text
(No.)
Explanation
Default
value
The value is based
on the setting in
QCG
06
07
OpStt
CardStt
Operating state of Operating (1)
the Sunny Island
Warning (2)
SD memory card
status message
08
FwVer2
Firmware version
DSP
09
FwVer3
OCU boot loader
10
FwVer4
DSP boot loader
194
SI4548-6048-US-BE-en-21
Operation
Warning
Failure (3)
Error
Off (1)
none
Operational (2)
Busy
Mount (3)
Initialization
OutOfSpace (4)
No storage space
available
BadFileSys (5)
No file system
detected
Incomp (6)
Incompatible file
system
Parameter (7)
Parameter set write
access
ParamFailed (8)
Parameter set write
access failed
WriteLogData (9)
Log data write
access
WriteLogFailed
(10)
Log data write
access failed
Off
Operating Manual
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
19 Parameter Lists
313# Inverter Slave1 Diagnosis
No. Name
Description
01
FwVerSlv1
Firmware version
of slave 1
02
SNSlv1
Serial number of
slave 1
03
OnTmhSlv1
Operating hours of
slave 1 in hours
04
PhSlv1
Phase position of
slave 1
Value
Explanation
L1
Line conductor L1
L2
Line conductor L2
L3
05
OpSttSlv1
Operating state of Operating
slave 1
Warning
06
FwVer2Slv1
DSP firmware
version of slave 1
07
FwVer3Slv1
OCU boot loader
of slave 1
08
FwVer4Slv1
DSP boot loader of
slave 1
Line conductor L3
Operation
Warning
Failure
Error
Value
Explanation
L1
Line conductor L1
L2
Line conductor L2
L3
Line conductor L3
314# Inverter Slave2 Diagnosis
No. Name
Description
01
FwVerSlv2
Firmware version
of slave 2
02
SNSlv2
Serial number of
slave 2
03
OnTmhSlv2
Operating hours of
slave 2 in hours
04
PhSlv2
Phase position of
slave 2
05
OpSttSlv2
Operating state of Operating
slave 2
Warning
Failure
Operating Manual
Operation
Warning
Error
SI4548-6048-US-BE-en-21
195
19 Parameter Lists
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
No. Name
Description
06
FwVer2Slv2
DSP firmware
version of slave 2
07
FwVer3Slv2
OCU boot loader
of slave 2
08
FwVer4Slv2
DSP boot loader of
slave 2
Value
Explanation
Value
Explanation
L1
Line conductor L1
L2
Line conductor L2
L3
Line conductor L3
315# Inverter Slave3 Diagnosis
No. Name
Description
01
FwVerSlv3
Firmware version
of slave 3
02
SNSlv3
Serial number of
slave 3
03
OnTmhSlv3
Operating hours of
slave 3 in hours
04
PhSlv3
Phase position of
slave 3
05
OpSttSlv3
Operating state of Operating
slave 3
Warning
Failure
06
FwVer2Slv3
DSP firmware
version of slave 3
07
FwVer3Slv3
OCU boot loader
of slave 3
08
FwVer4Slv3
DSP boot loader of
slave 3
Operation
Warning
Error
19.3.2 Battery Diagnosis (320#)
No. Name
01
Soh
Description
State of health (SOH)
Value
Explanation
Default
value
100%
Ratio of current
capacity to its nominal
value
196
SI4548-6048-US-BE-en-21
Operating Manual
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
No. Name
Description
02
Run time of statistics
counter in days
StatTm
03
ChrgFact
Charging factor
04
BatEgyCntIn
Energy meter for
battery charging
in kWh
05
BatEgyCntOut
Energy meter for
battery discharge in
kWh
06
AhCntIn
Meter for battery
charging ampere-hours
07
AhCntOut
Meter for battery
discharging
ampere-hours
08
BatTmpPkMin
Minimum battery
temperature in °C
09
BatTmpPkMax
Maximum battery
temperature in °C
10
EquChrgCnt
Equalization charge
meter
11
FulChrgCnt
Full charge counter
12
BatCurOfsErr
Offset error of battery
current in A
13
OcvPointCnt
Meter for open-circuit
voltage points
15
AhCntFul
Ampere-hour meter for
battery discharge since
last full charge (in Ah/
100 Ah)
16
AhCntEqu
Ampere-hour meter for
battery discharge since
last equalization
charge (in Ah/
100 Ah)
17
BatVtgPk
Maximum battery
voltage to have arisen
in V
Operating Manual
19 Parameter Lists
Value
Explanation
Default
value
1.00
SI4548-6048-US-BE-en-21
197
19 Parameter Lists
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
No. Name
Description
18
BatCurPkIn
Maximum battery
current in the charging
direction (in A)
19
BatCurPkOut
Maximum battery
current in discharging
direction (in A)
20
SocHgm100
Frequency scale of
state of charge in
percent, 100% > SOC
>= 90%
21
SocHgm090
Frequency scale of
state of charge in
percent, 90% > SOC
>= 80%
22
SocHgm080
Frequency scale of
state of charge in
percent, 80% > SOC
>= 70%
23
SocHgm070
Frequency scale of
state of charge in
percent, 70% > SOC
>= 60%
24
SocHgm060
Frequency scale of
state of charge in
percent, 60% > SOC
>= 50%
25
SocHgm050
Frequency scale of
state of charge in
percent, 50% > SOC
>= 40%
26
SocHgm040
Frequency scale of
state of charge in
percent, 40% > SOC
>= 30%
27
SocHgm030
Frequency scale of
state of charge in
percent, 30% > SOC
>= 20%
198
SI4548-6048-US-BE-en-21
Value
Explanation
Default
value
Operating Manual
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
19 Parameter Lists
No. Name
Description
28
SocHgm020
Frequency scale of
state of charge in
percent, 20% > SOC
>= 10%
29
SocHgm010
Frequency scale of
state of charge in
percent, 10% > SOC
>= 0%
30
SocHgm000
Frequency scale of
state of charge in
percent SOC < 0%
31
SocVtgCal
Recalibration of state
of charge only via
open-circuit voltage (in
percent)
32
ErrSocVtgCal
Estimated error of the
voltage-calibrated
state of charge
50%
33
SocChrgCal
Recalibration of state
of charge only via full
charge
50%
34
ErrSocChrgCal
Estimated error of the
full charge calibrated
state of charge
50%
35
OcvGra
Slope of the
characteristic curve of
the open-circuit voltage
700 Ah
/V
36
OcvMax
Maximum open-circuit
voltage
2.12 V
Operating Manual
Value
Explanation
SI4548-6048-US-BE-en-21
Default
value
199
19 Parameter Lists
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
19.3.3 External Diagnosis (330#)
331# Grid Diagnosis
No. Name
Description
01
GdEgyCntIn
Energy meter for grid feed-in in kWh
02
GdEgyCntOut
Energy meter for power taken from the grid in kWh
03
GdEgyTmh
Run time of energy meter for utility grid in hours
04
GdOpTmh
Operating hour meter for grid operation
05
GdCtcCnt
Counter for grid connections
06
TotTmh
Feed-in hours
332# Generator Diagnosis
No. Name
Description
01
GnEgyCnt
Generator energy meter in kWh
02
GnEgyTm
Running time of generator energy meter in hours
03
GnOpTmh
Operating hour meter for generator
04
GnStrCnt
Number of generator starts
19.4 Events, Warnings and Errors (History)
19.4.1 Failure/Event (400#)
Observe the information on the menus "410# Failures Current", "420# Failure History" and "430#
Event History" (see Section 10.9 "Display of Warnings and Failures", page 93).
19.5 Functions in Operation
19.5.1 Operation (500#)
510# Operation Inverter
No. Name
Description
Value
Explanation
01
InvRs
Trips a restart of the
Sunny Island
Restart
Restart
02
InvRmOpEna
Time-controlled inverter Disable
operation
Enable
200
SI4548-6048-US-BE-en-21
Disable
Default
value
Disable
Enable
Operating Manual
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
19 Parameter Lists
No. Name
Description
03
InvTmOpStrDt
Start date for
time-controlled inverter
operation
04
InvTmOpStrTm
Start time for
time-controlled inverter
operation in hours,
minutes and seconds
Value can be set
freely
05
InvTmOpRnDur
Running time for
time-controlled inverter
operation in hours,
minutes and seconds
Value can be set
freely
06
InvTmOpCyc
Repetition cycle for
Single
time-controlled inverter Daily
operation (Tm1)
Weekly
One-time
Delete energy meter
Inv
Sunny Island
The value indicates
which energy meter is
to be deleted.
Bat
Battery
Gn
Generator
Gd
Utility grid
All
All energy meters
Sic1
Sunny Island Charg
er 1
Sic2
Sunny Island Charg
er 2
Sic3
Sunny Island Charg
er 3
Sic4
Sunny Island Charg
er 4
SicAll
All
Sunny Island Charg
ers
07
08
09
CntRs
TstClstCom
ClstComStt
Operating Manual
Value
Explanation
Default
value
2006-0
1-01
Single
Daily
Weekly
Activates the
Off
communication test
Transmit
between the individual
clusters:
off
Communication test
status
Wait
Wait
OK
Completed
Enable
SI4548-6048-US-BE-en-21
201
19 Parameter Lists
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
No. Name
Description
Value
Explanation
10
Manual update of the
cluster
UpdateClst
Cluster update
(OCU & DSP)
FrcClstUpd
Default
value
UpdateClstBFR Cluster update
(OCU)
UpdateClstDSP Cluster update
(DSP)
520# Operation Battery
No. Name
Description
Value
Explanation
Default
value
01
Manual equalization
charge
Idle
Wait
Idle
Start
Starting
Stop
Stopping
Value
Explanation
Default
value
Automatic
Auto
ChrgSelMan
540# Operation Generator
No. Name
Description
01
Manual generator start Auto
02
GnManStr
GnAck
Error confirmation for
generator error
Stop
Stopping
Start
Starting
Run1h
Run for 1 h
Ackn
Failure confirmation
550# Operation MMC
No. Name
Description
Value
Explanation
01
Save parameter
settings
Set1
Parameter Set1
Set2
Parameter Set2
Load parameter
settings
Set1
Parameter Set1
Set2
Parameter Set2
Factory
Load default
settings
02
202
ParaSto
ParaLod
SI4548-6048-US-BE-en-21
Default
value
Operating Manual
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
19 Parameter Lists
No. Name
Description
Value
Explanation
03
Functions of the SD
memory card
ForcedWrite
Forced write
StoEvtHis
Save event memory
04
CardFunc
DatLogEna
Automatic data
storage
StoFailHis
Save error log
StoHis
Storing event and
fault memory
Off
Disable
On
Enable
Default
value
On
560# Operation Grid
The 560# Operation Grid menu can only be seen if the external voltage source of the Sunny Island
is set to "Grid" or "GenGrid".
No. Name
Description
01
Manual grid start
GdManStr
Value
Explanation
Default
value
Auto
Auto
Automatic
Stop
Stopping
Start
Starting
19.6 Direct Access to the Parameters
19.6.1 Direct Access (600#)
Observe the information for the direct accessing of the parameters (see Section 10.3 "Direct Access
- Direct Access to the Parameters", page 84).
Operating Manual
SI4548-6048-US-BE-en-21
203
20 Troubleshooting
SMA Solar Technology America LLC
20 Troubleshooting
In general, the Sunny Island distinguishes between events and errors.
• Events describe state changes or transient states (e.g. generator connection).
• Errors describe states that are not permitted or are only permitted up to a certain rate. This
includes warnings, distrubances and errors. User interaction is generally required.
20.1 Error Acknowledgement
If a disturbance or error occurs, the Sunny Island goes into standby.
Proceed as follows to acknowledge an error:
1. Eliminate the cause.
2. Confirm error with <ENTER>.
3. Start the Sunny Island again.
20.2 Autostart Handling
The Sunny Island has an autostart meter which counts down by 1 with every automatic start. If the
Sunny Island runs uninterrupted for over ten minutes, the autostart meter is reset to its initial value.
If another fault occurs when the autostart meter is at 0, the Sunny Island waits for ten minutes and then
attempts to restart. The autostart meter begins to run again.
The number of autostarts allowed can be set using the parameter "250.01 AutoStr" (in standby
mode).
20.3 Master-Slave Handling
Each device detects the errors separately and saves them. The slaves transmit their errors to the
master. The master collects these error messages and enters the slave errors as warnings into its
history.
Example:
Slave 1 has detected overtemperature. It enters this error in its history and reports it to the master,
which also enters it as a warning into its failure history ("Menu 420# Failure History").
The following message appears in the lower display line
on the master.
If warning 138 is still active on slave 1, the Enter symbol appears at the end.
After the warning has been confirmed on the master by pressing the <ENTER> key, it is forwarded to
the respective slave.
The master shows the following message after
confirmation.
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No comparison between master and slave
The error and event memory are not compared between the master and slaves. The errors of
the slave device are acknowledged when the Sunny Island system is restarted.
20.4 Handling of Pending Errors during the Booting Procedure
During the booting procedure, all pending failures are generally confirmed without an entry being
made in the history. This way, after the booting procedure, a failure that is still pending will be
reentered, or if the system detects that this failure has disappeared, it is entered as no longer being
present.
20.5 Display of Failures and Events
Each failure and each event have a unique three-digit display number that is created according to the
parameter/measuring value assignment. The events and failures have the identical numerical range:
• 1xx ‒ INV ‒ Inverter
• 2xx ‒ BAT ‒ Battery
• 3xx ‒ EXT ‒ External
• 4xx ‒ GEN ‒ Generator
• 5xx ‒ GRD ‒ Grid
• 6xx ‒ RLY ‒ Relay
• 7xx ‒ SYS ‒ System
• 8xx ‒ AUX ‒ External devices and components
Meaning of abbreviations
"F" indicates a failure, "W" a warning and "E" an event.
In the event of a failure, and provided it is recorded, "!" is displayed for a failure that has
occurred and "C" is displayed for a failure that has stopped.
20.6 Events
The meanings of the events displayed by the Sunny Island are described in the following table:
20.6.1 Category INV
Display no.
Description
E101
Waiting mode
E102
Startup process
E103
Operation
E104
Operating on the generator (at external input)
E105
Operation on utility grid (at external input)
E106
Feeding-in grid operation (at external input)
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Display no.
Description
E107
Sleep mode (slave in single-phase systems)
E108
Silent mode on utility grid
E110
Shutdown due to error
E115
Emergency charge
E118
Automatic start
E119
Manual start (transition from standby mode to operation)
E120
Manual stop (transition from operation to standby mode)
E121
Start of energy saving mode
E122
End of energy saving mode
E129
External start (remote)
E130
External stop (remote)
E131
Start of automatic frequency synchronization
E132
End of automatic frequency synchronization
20.6.2 Category BAT
Display no.
Description
E202
(Partial) reset of BMS due to new battery
E203
State change, battery charging algorithm for float charge
E204
State change, battery charging algorithm for boost charge
E205
State change, battery charging algorithm for full charge
E206
State change into silent mode option
E207
State change, battery charging algorithm for equalization charge
E221
Status change battery-preservation mode level 1
E222
Status change battery-preservation mode level 2
E223
Status change battery-preservation mode level 3
20.6.3 Category GEN
Display no.
Description
E401
Automatic generator start due to set criteria (battery state of charge, power, time,
etc.)
E402
Automatic generator stop due to set criteria (battery state of charge, power, time,
etc.)
E403
Manual generator start
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Display no.
Description
E404
Manual generator stop
E405
Manual error acknowledgment of generator error
E406
Source of generator request
E407
Current-regulated generator operation initiated
E408
Current-controlled generator operation stopped
20.6.4 Category GRD
Display no.
Description
E501
Grid request due to SOC (insufficient value)
E502
Release of grid due to SOC (exceeds)
E503
Grid request due to exceeding the power limit
E504
Release of grid due to falling below the power limit
E505
Manual grid request
E506
Manual grid release
E507
Feed-in started
E508
Feed-in stopped
20.6.5 Category REL
Display no.
Description
E601
Relay 1 off
E602
Relay 1 on
E603
Relay 1 slave 1 off
E604
Relay 1 slave 1 on
E605
Relay 1 slave 2 off
E606
Relay 1 slave 2 on
E607
Relay 1 slave 3 off
E608
Relay 1 slave 3 on
E609
Transfer relay open
E610
Transfer relay closed
E611
Transfer relay on slave 1 open
E612
Transfer relay on slave 1 closed
E613
Transfer relay on slave 2 open
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Display no.
Description
E614
Transfer relay on slave 2 closed
E615
Transfer relay on slave 3 open
E616
Transfer relay on slave 3 closed
E617
Relay 2 open
E618
Relay 2 closed
E619
Relay 2 slave 1 open
E620
Relay 2 slave 1 closed
E621
Relay 2 slave 2 open
E622
Relay 2 slave 2 closed
E623
Relay 2 slave 3 open
E624
Relay 2 slave 3 closed
E625
Digital input OFF (Low)
E626
Digital input ON (High)
E627
Digital input slave 1 to OFF (low)
E628
Digital input slave 1 to ON (high)
E629
Digital input slave 2 to OFF (low)
E630
Digital input slave 2 to ON (high)
E631
Digital input slave 3 to OFF (low)
E632
Digital input slave 3 to ON (high)
20.6.6 Category SYS
Display no.
Description
E705
Device start
E706
date, time changed
E707
New system configured in QCG
E708
Part 1 of firmware updated
E709
Part 2 of firmware updated
E710
Cluster firmware updated
E711
MMC/SD memory card inserted
E712
Parameters from MMC/SD memory card loaded
E851
Sunny Island Charger #1 detected
E852
Sunny Island Charger #2 detected
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Display no.
Description
E853
Sunny Island Charger #3 detected
E854
Sunny Island Charger #4 detected
E901
SOC recalibration started
E902
SOC recalibration stopped
E903
Derating started
E904
Derating stopped
E905
Preventive self-disconnection to protect the battery from deep discharge
20.7 Failure Categories
The Sunny Island distinguishes between five different levels of errors, each requiring different user
interaction:
Level
Designation
Display
Meaning
1
Warning
Warning
Warning, device continues to run. There is an explicit
information on the Home Screen that a warning was
recorded.
2
Malfunction 1 Malfunction
Failure that can only be detected during operation.
Device switches off. Device can be restarted
immediately (autostart).
3
Malfunction 2 Malfunction
Failure that can also be detected in standby mode.
Device switches off. The device can only be restarted
(autostart) once the system detects that the
malfunction has ended.
4
Error
Failure
Device error, device switches off. User interaction
required (troubleshooting, confirmation, manual
restart)
5
Device defect
Defect
Device is defect. Device switches off and does not
switch on again. Permanent operation inhibition.
Device must be replaced.
20.8 Warnings and Error Messages
The meanings of the warnings and errors displayed by the Sunny Island are described in the following
table:
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20.8.1 Category INV
Display no.
Level
Description
F109
3
Transformer overtemperature
W110
1
Overtemperature transformer slave 1
W111
1
Overtemperature transformer slave 2
W112
1
Overtemperature transformer slave 3
F113
3
Overtemperature heat sink
W114
1
Overtemperature heat sink slave 1
W115
1
Overtemperature heat sink slave 2
W116
1
Overtemperature heat sink slave 3
F117
2
AC current limit (short-circuit control active for too long)
W118
1
AC current limitation (short-circuit control active for too long) slave 1
W119
1
AC current limitation (short-circuit control active for too long) slave 2
W120
1
AC current limitation (short-circuit control active for too long) slave 3
F121
3
Inverter overvoltage
W122
1
Inverter overvoltage slave 1
W123
1
Inverter overvoltage slave 2
W124
1
Inverter overvoltage slave 3
W137
1
Derating due to temperature (heat sink or transformer)
W138
1
Derating due to temperature (heat sink or transformer) slave 1
W139
1
Derating due to temperature (heat sink or transformer) slave 2
W140
1
Derating due to temperature (heat sink or transformer) slave 3
F141
2
Inverter undervoltage
W142
1
Inverter undervoltage slave 1
W143
1
Inverter undervoltage slave 2
W144
1
Inverter undervoltage slave 3
F158
2
Voltage on output AC1
W159
1
Voltage on output AC1 slave 1
W160
1
Voltage on output AC1 slave 2
W161
1
Voltage on output AC1 slave 3
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20.8.2 Category BAT
Display no.
Level
Description
F201
2
Measuring range of battery voltage exceeded
W202
1
Measuring range of battery voltage exceeded on slave 1
W203
1
Measuring range of battery voltage exceeded on slave 2
W204
1
Measuring range of battery voltage exceeded on slave 3
F206
3
Battery overtemperature
F208
3
Battery overvoltage error
W209
1
Battery overvoltage error
W210
1
Battery overvoltage warning
W211
1
Low battery temperature warning
W212
1
High battery temperature warning
F213
2
Warning low battery voltage
W220
1
Warning SOH < 70%
F221
4
External battery management detected although no external energy
management has been configured.
20.8.3 Category EXT
Display no.
Level
Description
W309
1
Relay protection
W310
1
Relay protection slave 1
W311
1
Relay protection slave 2
W312
1
Relay protection slave 3
F314
2
External voltage failure
W315
1
Disconnection from utility grid/generator due to insufficient external
voltage
W316
1
Disconnection from utility grid/generator due to insufficient external
voltage slave 1
W317
1
Disconnection from utility grid/generator due to insufficient external
voltage slave 2
W318
1
Disconnection from utility grid/generator due to insufficient external
voltage slave 3
W319
1
Disconnection from utility grid/generator due to excessive external
voltage
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Display no.
Level
Description
W320
1
Disconnection from utility grid/generator due to excessive external
voltage slave 1
W321
1
Disconnection from utility grid/generator due to excessive external
voltage slave 2
W322
1
Disconnection from utility grid/generator due to excessive external
voltage slave 3
W323
1
Disconnection from utility grid/generator due to insufficient external
frequency
W324
1
Disconnection from utility grid/generator due to insufficient external
frequency slave 1
W325
1
Disconnection from utility grid/generator due to insufficient external
frequency slave 2
W326
1
Disconnection from utility grid/generator due to insufficient external
frequency slave 3
W327
1
Disconnection from utility grid/generator due to excessive external
frequency
W328
1
Disconnection from utility grid/generator due to excessive external
frequency slave 1
W329
1
Disconnection from utility grid/generator due to excessive external
frequency slave 2
W330
1
Disconnection from utility grid/generator due to excessive external
frequency slave 3
W331
1
Disconnection from utility grid/generator due to islanding
W332
1
Disconnection from utility grid/generator due to islanding (slave 1)
W333
1
Disconnection from utility grid/generator due to islanding (slave 2)
W334
1
Disconnection from utility grid/generator due to islanding (slave 3)
W335
1
Disconnection from utility grid/generator due to breach of voltage
limits (redundant measurement)
W336
1
Disconnection from utility grid/generator due to breach of voltage
limits of slave 1 (redundant measurement)
W337
1
Disconnection from utility grid/generator due to breach of voltage
limits of slave 2 (redundant measurement)
W338
1
Disconnection from utility grid/generator due to breach of voltage
limits of slave 3 (redundant measurement)
W339
1
Disconnection from utility grid/generator due to voltage increase
protection
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Display no.
Level
Description
W340
1
Disconnection from utility grid/generator due to voltage increase
protection slave 1
W341
1
Disconnection from utility grid/generator due to voltage increase
protection slave 2
W342
1
Disconnection from utility grid/generator due to voltage increase
protection slave 3
W343
1
Disconnection from the external source, because the relation of the
external voltage to the battery voltage is too high.
W344
1
Disconnection from the slave 1 external source, because the relation
of the external voltage to the battery voltage is too high.
W345
1
Disconnection from the slave 2 external source, because the relation
of the external voltage to the battery voltage is too high.
W346
1
Disconnection from the slave 3 external source, because the relation
of the external voltage to the battery voltage is too high.
W347
1
Disconnection from external source due to excessive load
W348
1
Disconnection from external source due to excessive load slave 1
W349
1
Disconnection from external source due to excessive load slave 2
W350
1
Disconnection from external source due to excessive load slave 3
W351
1
Disconnection from external source due to external short circuit
W352
1
Disconnection from external source due to external short circuit slave
1
W353
1
Disconnection from external source due to external short circuit slave
2
W354
1
Disconnection from external source due to external short circuit slave
3
W377
1
Output current of the Sunny Island is greater than the nominal grid
current/nominal generator current (master)
W378
1
Output current of the Sunny Island is greater than the nominal grid
current/nominal generator current (slave 1)
W379
1
Output current of the Sunny Island is greater than the nominal grid
current/nominal generator current (slave 2)
W380
1
Output current of the Sunny Island is greater than the nominal grid
current/nominal generator current (slave 3)
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20.8.4 Category GEN
Display no.
Level
Description
W401
1
Reverse power protection (generator)
W402
1
Generator management switches into the locked error status
(Fail-Lock)
20.8.5 Category GRD
Display no.
Level
Description
W501
1
Grid reverse current prevented (quick grid disconnection)
W502
1
Grid reverse current prevented (quick grid disconnection) slave 1
W503
1
Grid reverse current prevented (quick grid disconnection) slave 2
W504
1
Grid reverse current prevented (quick grid disconnection) slave 3
W505
1
Feed-in current is greater than the nominal grid current (parameter
"#232.03 GdCurNom")
W506
1
Feed-in current is greater than the nominal grid current (parameter
"#232.03 GdCurNom") on slave 1
W507
1
Feed-in current is greater than the nominal grid current (parameter
"#232.03 GdCurNom") on slave 2
W508
1
Feed-in current is greater than the nominal grid current (parameter
"#232.03 GdCurNom") on slave 3
20.8.6 Category RLY
Display no.
Level
Description
F605
4
Transfer relay does not open
W606
1
Transfer relay does not open slave 1
W607
1
Transfer relay does not open slave 2
W608
1
Transfer relay does not open slave 3
20.8.7 Category SYS
Display no.
Level
Description
F702
5
DSP reset
F703
2
Timeout during a task
F704
4
Invalid DSP calibration
W705
1
Watchdog DSP has been tripped
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Display no.
Level
Description
F706
4
Watchdog meter elapsed (watchdog tripped several times in
succession)
W707
1
Watchdog meter on slave 1 elapsed (watchdog tripped several times
in succession)
W708
1
Watchdog meter on slave 2 elapsed (watchdog tripped several times
in succession)
W709
1
Watchdog meter on slave 3 elapsed (watchdog tripped several times
in succession)
F710
4
Autostart meter elapsed (several autostarts in succession)
W713
1
Watchdog has been tripped
F716
2
Measuring range of battery voltage exceeded
W717
1
Measuring range of battery voltage exceeded on slave 1
W718
1
Measuring range of battery voltage exceeded on slave 2
W719
1
Measuring range of battery voltage exceeded on slave 3
F720
4
Short circuit or cable break on transformer temperature sensor
F721
4
Short circuit or cable break on heat sink temperature sensor
W722
1
Short circuit on battery temperature sensor
W723
1
Cable break on battery temperature sensor
W724
1
Autostart meter slave 1 elapsed
W725
1
Autostart meter slave 2 elapsed
W726
1
Autostart meter slave 3 elapsed
F731
4
Error in cluster configuration
F732
4
Error in address assignment of cluster devices
F733
4
No message from cluster master (only slave)
W734
1
No message from cluster slave 1
W735
1
No message from cluster slave 2
W736
1
No message from cluster slave 3
W738
1
Synchronization not successful
F739
3
Internal communication of the master is interrupted
W740
1
Internal device communication of slave 1 interrupted
W741
1
Internal device communication of slave 2 interrupted
W742
1
Internal device communication of slave 3 interrupted
F743
3
Internal CAN communication of the master is interrupted
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Display no.
Level
Description
W744
1
Internal CAN communication of slave 1 is interrupted
W745
1
Internal CAN communication of slave 2 is interrupted
W746
1
Internal CAN communication of slave 3 is interrupted
W747
1
Short circuit or cable break on transformer temperature sensor slave 1
W748
1
Short circuit or cable break on transformer temperature sensor slave 2
W749
1
Short circuit or cable break on transformer temperature sensor slave 3
W750
1
Short circuit or cable break on heat sink temperature sensor slave 1
W751
1
Short circuit or cable break on heat sink temperature sensor slave 2
W752
1
Short circuit or cable break on heat sink temperature sensor slave 3
W753
1
Invalid system time
F754
2
Communication with Multicluster Box interrupted
W755
1
Battery-preservation mode 1 (LBM)
W756
1
Battery-preservation mode 2 (LBM)
W757
1
Battery-preservation mode 3 (LBM)
F758
2
No output voltage measured from the main cluster
W759
1
No output voltage measured from slave 1 of main cluster
W760
1
No output voltage measured from slave 2 of main cluster
W761
1
No output voltage measured from slave 3 of main cluster
F781
4
Error at a slave which leads to shutdown of the system (for the
"RunMod" function)
F782
4
Failure of the grid monitoring
F783
2
Slave does not receive a Syncpuls
W784
1
Slave does not receive a Syncpuls Slave 1
W785
1
Slave does not receive a Syncpuls Slave 2
W786
1
Slave does not receive a Syncpuls Slave 3
W791
1
DSP reset detected on slave 1
W792
1
DSP reset detected on slave 2
W793
1
DSP reset detected on slave 3
W797
1
Failure of the grid monitoring slave 1
W798
1
Failure of the grid monitoring slave 2
W799
1
Failure of the grid monitoring slave 3
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20.8.8 AUX Category
Display no.
Level
Description
F801
4
Plausibility check of contactors in a Multicluster Box failed
W804
1
Grid operation not possible
W805
1
Generator operation not possible
F806
4
Multicluster Box settings do not match software settings.
W807
1
No valid line voltage for requested grid operation
W808
1
Error Q4 contactor
F809
4
Error Q10 contactor (load shedding)
F810
4
Error in 15 V supply of the Multicluster Box
F811
4
Error in 24 V supply of the Multicluster Box
W815
1
Error Q5 contactor
F816
2
Error Q7 contactor
F817
4
Error Q9 contactor
F818
4
A phase is missing, Multicluster Box goes into "Failure" status
W824
1
Error Q4 contactor
W851
1
Battery reversely connected or short circuit on Sunny Island Charger 1
W852
1
Battery overvoltage Sunny Island Charger 1
W853
1
Overvoltage PV array Sunny Island Charger 1
W854
1
No PV voltage or short circuit on Sunny Island Charger 1
W855
1
Sensor error (or undertemperature) on Sunny Island Charger 1
W856
1
Overtemperature Sunny Island Charger 1
W857
1
No communication with Sunny Island Charger 1 for more than 24 h
W861
1
Battery reversely connected or short circuit on Sunny Island Charger 2
W862
1
Battery overvoltage Sunny Island Charger 2
W863
1
Overvoltage PV array Sunny Island Charger 2
W864
1
No PV voltage or short circuit on Sunny Island Charger 2
W865
1
Sensor error (or undertemperature) on Sunny Island Charger 2
W866
1
Overtemperature Sunny Island Charger 2
W867
1
No communication with Sunny Island Charger 2 for more than 24 h
W871
1
Battery reversely connected or short circuit on Sunny Island Charger 3
W872
1
Battery overvoltage Sunny Island Charger 3
W873
1
Overvoltage PV array Sunny Island Charger 3
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Display no.
Level
Description
W874
1
No PV voltage or short circuit on Sunny Island Charger 3
W875
1
Sensor error (or undertemperature) on Sunny Island Charger 3
W876
1
Overtemperature Sunny Island Charger 3
W877
1
No communication with Sunny Island Charger 3 for more than 24 h
W881
1
Battery reversely connected or short circuit on Sunny Island Charger 4
W882
1
Battery overvoltage Sunny Island Charger 4
W883
1
Overvoltage PV array Sunny Island Charger 4
W884
1
No PV voltage or short circuit on Sunny Island Charger 4
W885
1
Sensor error (or undertemperature) on Sunny Island Charger 4
W886
1
Overtemperature Sunny Island Charger 4
W887
1
No communication with Sunny Island Charger 4 for more than 24 h
F890
2
Interference at external measurement point of Multicluster Box
F891
2
Interference at external measurement point of Multicluster Box slave 1
F892
2
Interference at external measurement point of Multicluster Box slave 2
F893
2
Interference at external measurement point of Multicluster Box slave 3
20.8.9 Category SYS
Display no.
Level
Description
W915
1
DSP failure
F920
3
Error message via SiCom: General
F921
3
Error message via SiCom: Battery overvoltage
F922
3
Error message via SiCom: Battery undervoltage
F923
3
Error message via SiCom: Battery overtemperature
F924
3
Error message via SiCom: Battery undertemperature
F925
3
Error message via SiCom: Battery overtemperature in charge mode
F926
3
Error message via SiCom: battery undertemperature in charge mode
F927
3
Error message via SiCom: battery charging current too high
F928
3
Error message via SiCom: Battery charging current in charge mode
too high
F929
3
Error message via SiCom: Error in the battery
F930
3
Error message via SiCom: Short circuit
F931
3
Error message via SiCom: Internal error in battery management
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Display no.
Level
Description
F932
3
Error message via SiCom: Different state of charge of the battery cells
F935
3
Error message via SiCom: Error in the generator
W936
1
Warning via SiCom: General
W937
1
Warning via SiCom: Battery overvoltage
W938
1
Warning via SiCom: Battery undervoltage
W939
1
Warning via SiCom: Battery overtemperature
W940
1
Warning via SiCom: Battery undertemperature
W941
1
Warning via SiCom: Battery overtemperature in charge mode
W942
1
Warning via SiCom: Battery undertemperature in charge mode
W943
1
Warning via SiCom: battery charging current too high
W944
1
Warning via SiCom: battery charging current in charge mode too high
W945
1
Warning via SiCom: error in the battery
W946
1
Warning via SiCom: short circuit
W947
1
Warning via SiCom: internal error in battery management
W948
1
Warning via SiCom: different state of charge of the battery cells
W951
1
Warning via SiCom: Generator
F952
3
Time for external battery management exceeded
W953
1
Time for external battery management exceeded
20.9 Troubleshooting
Answers are provided below for faults that may occur in practice:
Why does the Sunny Island not connect to the running generator?
• Is the AC disconnection unit on the generator ok?
• Has the power which is allowed to be fed back into the generator during the permissible time
been exceeded (parameter "233.14 GnRvTm")? If yes, "!" is displayed. Generator connection
is blocked for the set time. Set the parameter "540.02 GnAck" to Ackn.
• If the generator control relay (GnReq) is open has the generator been started manually
(parameter "234.07 GnStrMod")? Change the setting to autostart, if required.
• Is a GenMan used in the system?
– Check the return signal (DigIn)
– The generator can only be started manually using GenMan.
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Why is the display of the Sunny Island dark and why is nothing shown on the
display?
• Is the DC circuit breaker of the Sunny Island switched to "ON"? In this case, the device has
switched off to protect the battery from deep discharge (see Section 13.4 "State of Charge
(SOC) and State of Health (SOH)", page 109). After self-disconnection, restart the
Sunny Island as described in this document (see Section 9.5 "Recommissioning After Automatic
Shutdown", page 77).
• The external battery fuse has tripped.
Why is it not possible to change the parameters?
• Has the installer password been entered correctly? Check whether you are in "Installer Level"
(see Section 10.5 "Entering the Installer Password", page 88). If necessary, repeat the
calculation and entry of the password.
• You are in the "100-Meters" (measuring data) main menu or in the "300-Diagnosis" (diagnosis)
menu, for example. You can only read the data values shown here.
• Some parameters can only be changed in standby mode or in the QCG, e.g. the parameter
"234.07 GnStrMod" (see Section 19.2 "Adjustable Parameters", page 167). Stop the
Sunny Island (see Section 9.2 "Stopping the Sunny Island (Standby)", page 76). Note that this
causes a failure of the stand-alone grid and the loads are no longer supplied.
Why does the Sunny Island connect to the running generator only for a short
time?
• The limits for the maximum permissible AC voltage or the minimum permissible frequency of the
generator are too strict (parameter in the menu "233# Generator Control"). Change the voltage
and/or frequency thresholds while observing the technical data of your generator.
Why does the "VAC-Low" error (output voltage too low) also occur when the
Sunny Island is started?
• A permanent short-circuit exists in the stand-alone grid. Check the AC output connections of the
stand-alone grid (see Section 6.3 "AC Connection", page 48).
• The consumption of the loads connected to the stand-alone grid is too high. The power/
electrical energy of the Sunny Island is not sufficient to supply the loads. Switch off some of the
loads and restart the Sunny Island.
Why is the frequency of the stand-alone grid not at 60 Hz?
• The Sunny Boy inverter is controlled via the frequency (see Section 17.5 "Frequency-Shift Power
Control (FSPC)", page 154).
• The automatic frequency synchronization function of the Sunny Island 4548-US / 6048-US is
activated (see Section 12.7 "Automatic Frequency Synchronization", page 106).
• Power fluctuations cause frequency deviations.
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What can I do when the battery cell of a lead-acid battery can no longer be used?
• Remove the cell that can no longer be used from your battery bank. Start the Sunny Island and
change the battery voltage in the QCG under "New Battery".
What can I do when the QCG does not run?
• Switch off the Sunny Island (see Section 9.3 "Switching Off", page 76) and restart it (see
Section 9.1 "Switching On", page 75).
What can I do when "MMC operation failed" appears on the display?
• You wanted to perform an action using the SD memory card, but it failed (see Section 10.9
"Display of Warnings and Failures", page 93). Check the card (on your PC/laptop). If
necessary, use a new SD memory card.
Why does my Sunny Island stay on even though I switched the DC circuit breaker
to "Off"?
• Your Sunny Island may be powered by the AC side. Switch off all AC loads and disconnect
them from the Sunny Island (see Section 9.4 "Disconnecting the Device from Voltage Sources",
page 76).
Why is my battery discharging even though the generator is running?
• The power produced by the generator does not reach the Sunny Island. Check the voltage and
frequency values. The fuses on the generator may have been tripped.
• The load power exceeds the generator power "234.03 GnCurNom".
– Check the error messages. Find the cause.
Why is the deactivation defined by the SOC in case of a full or equalization
charge and generator start in the second time zone?
• The equalization charge has a higher priority than silent time.
Why is the SOC not 100% after completion of full charge?
• Set a longer absorption period.
How is it possible to ensure that the maximum battery charging current is
correctly calculated after a reinstallation of the battery current sensor?
• Recalibrate the battery current sensor using the parameter "225.04 BatCurAutoCal" with the
setting "Start".
What is required if the Sunny Island is continuously switched off after Low Battery
Mode (LBM) when restarting the device?
• Start the generator manually, if required (e.g.: Run1h). Consider the warm-up times: five minutes
without charging current in BatProtMode can cause the device to change to standby mode.
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How is it possible to change between wintertime and summertime operation e.g.
for alpine huts?
• Save two different parameter sets on the SD memory card and activate them via parameter
"550.02 ParaLod" (see Section 11.3 "Saving and Loading Parameters", page 98).
What happens if the card inserted is not FAT16 formatted?
• The Sunny Island displays the message "Incomp".
Why does the generator and/or the utility grid not reconnect although the
(voltage or frequency) limit for disconnection has been exceeded again?
• The Sunny Island connects with a so-called hysteresis, i.e., the connection value is slightly below
or above the disconnection value. These thresholds are preset by default.
Why is it not possible to set any combinations of voltage and frequency limits?
• The possible ranges for voltage and frequency of the Sunny Island allow the combination of
special frequencies and voltages that result in transformer saturation and are therefore not
permitted.
Why is it that one (or more) extension clusters remain in standby, although the
main cluster is operating properly?
• Is the data cable between the master devices connected? The main master cannot forward the
"Start" command to the extension master. The devices remain in standby.
Why is the Multicluster system not supplying full power?
• Has an extension cluster's slave failed? The system continues to operate, but with
correspondingly lower output on the line conductor of the failed device.
Why is it that shortly after startup, the slave switches to standby with the error
message F117, but the master continues to operate?
• Are the line conductors within the cluster or from the cluster to the Multicluster Box connected
the wrong way around? This causes a permanent short-circuit in the cluster, and the slave reports
this to the master.
What is the meaning of the F605 error message?
• The F605 error message might occur, among other things, if you have installed a direct
connection with switch between the AC input (AC2) and the AC output (AC1) of the
Sunny Island. If such a connection is not installed on the Sunny Island and if the switch is closed,
the Sunny Island is surpassed. If the Sunny Island did not give the order for closing its internal
transfer relay itself, it displays the F605 error message and does not start operation. Open the
bypass switch and restart the Sunny Island afterwards to fix this error.
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Why is it that high outputs are being transferred back and forth between the
clusters in the cluster network?
• The nominal frequencies and voltages are defined differently. Correct this by means of the
appropriate parameters.
What is the meaning of the F221 error message?
• Error message F221 appears when a battery with external battery management has been
connected to the Sunny Island (e.g. a lithium-ion battery), the Sunny Island, however, is not set
to this battery type. Start the QCG and change the system configuration on the connected
battery type (see Section 8.2 "Starting the Quick Configuration Guide (QCG)", page 69).
20.10 Procedure during Emergency Charge Mode
The Sunny Island cannot provide voltage with full amplitude with a deeply discharged battery and
can no longer synchronize with an existing grid or generator. Using the emergency charge mode
(ECM), it is possible to charge the batteries in current-controlled mode.
Emergency charge mode with lead-acid batteries only
In emergency charge mode, a lead-acid battery must be connected to the Sunny Island.
Emergency charge mode is not possible with lithium-ion batteries.
To charge the batteries in the emergency charge mode, either bridge the AC1 with AC2 (for a
stationary generator) or connect a portable generator directly to AC1.
All loads must be disconnected in emergency charge mode.
Battery Management
The battery management is active and the current set battery parameters and the current
charging phase are used. These values can be changed in "normal operation".
Generator and Grid Management
In emergency charge mode, the generator management and grid management are not active.
Reverse power protection and relay protection are also not active.
AC1 and AC2 are bridged
If AC1 and AC2 have been bridged, the generator should first be connected and then started/
started by hand. Otherwise, it is possible that the magnetizing current trips the generator fuse.
(This can also happen when connecting the relay without using a bridge.)
Emergency charge mode is activated in the QCG. Follow the instructions on starting the QCG up to
point 2 (see Section 8.2 "Starting the Quick Configuration Guide (QCG)", page 69). Then start the
emergency charge mode as described in the following
1. Select "Emerg Charge" in QCG with <ENTER>.
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2. Confirm the following view with <ENTER>.
3. Set the maximum external current, e.g. that of the
generator.
4. Confirm the set value with <ENTER>.
5. Use the down arrow key.
☑ The display on the right appears.
6. Press <ENTER> to confirm.
7. Press <ENTER>.
☑ The emergency charge mode is started.
Interrupt the emergency charge mode, e.g. in order to refill diesel:
1. Press <ENTER> to stop the Sunny Island.
☑ The notification shown here is displayed.
2. Press and hold <ENTER>.
☑ The remaining time is displayed as a bar.
☑ The emergency charging mode is interrupted. The
notification shown here is displayed.
Prematurely ending the Emergency Charge Mode
In order to exit the emergency charge mode early, the Sunny Island must be restarted with
parameter "510.01 InvRs".
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In emergency charge mode, process values are shown in the display. Parameters cannot be changed
during the charging process. If the Sunny Island is restarted, the settings that were saved before the
ECM are loaded.
Bridge between AC1 and AC2
After emergency charge mode has been completed make sure to remove the bridge between
AC1 and AC2!
Restarting
Observe information for restarting and wait for 15 minutes (see Section 9.5 "Recommissioning
After Automatic Shutdown", page 77).
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21 Accessory
The following overview details the accessories and spare parts for your product. If necessary, you can
order these from SMA Solar Technology or your distributor.
Designation
Brief description
BatFuse-B.01 (250 A)
2-pole LV/HRC battery fuse-switch-disconnector, BATFUSE-B.01
size 1 for 1 Sunny Island, 3 DC inputs (1 x
battery and 2 x Sunny Island Charger 50), 1 x
auxiliary voltage output with 8 A
(not UL certified)
BatFuse-B.03 (250 A)
(not UL certified)
Load-shedding
contactor
SMA order number
Two-pole LV/HRC battery
BATFUSE-B.03
fuse-switch-disconnector, size 1 for up to three
Sunny Island, 6 DC inputs (2 x battery and 4 x
Sunny Island Charger 50), 1 x auxiliary voltage
output with 8 A
Three-pole load-shedding contactor with 48 V
DC coil for Sunny Island
SI-LSXX
The load-shedding contactor is available in
several versions. You can obtain more
information from SMA or your specialty retailer.
SI-Shunt
Measuring shunts for the battery current
detection
SI-SHUNTXXX
The measuring shunt is available in several
versions. You can obtain more information from
SMA.
Sunny Island Charger
(not UL-certified)
Solar charge controller for Sunny Island systems SIC50-MPT
Battery voltage: 48 V/24 V/12 V
Battery current: 50 A at 48 V, 50 A at 12 V/
24 V
Nominal power: 2,000 W at 48 V, max. PV
voltage: 140 V
Must not be used with lithium-ion batteries.
Smart Load 6000
Adjustable dump load
SL6000
RS485 retrofit kit
RS485 interface
485PB-G3
Multicluster Piggy-Back Interface for communication between the
Sunny Island and the Multicluster Box
MC-PB
Sunny Island Charger
Piggy-Back
SIC-PB
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22 Technical Data
22 Technical Data
22.1 Sunny Island 4548-US
Output Data
SI 4548-US-10
120 V (105 V to 132 V)
Nominal AC voltage (adjustable)
VAC, nom
Nominal frequency
fnom
60 Hz (55 to 65 Hz)
Continuous AC power at 77°F (25°C)
Pnom
4,500 W
AC power for 30 minutes at 77°F (25°C)
P30min
5,300 W
AC power for 1 minute at 77°F (25°C)
P1min
8,400 W
AC power for 3 seconds at 77°F (25°C)
P3sec
11,000 W
Continuous AC power at 104°F (40°C)
Pnom
3,100 W
AC power at 104°F (40°C) for 3 hours
P3h
4,000 W
Continuous AC power at 122°F (50°C)
Pnom
1,800 W
Continuous AC power at 140°F (60°C)
Pnom
200 W
Nominal AC current
IAC, nom
37.5 A
Maximum current (peak value) for 60 ms
IAC, max
180 A
Total harmonic factor of the output voltage
KVAC
< 3%
Power factor cos φ
–1 to +1
Input Data
Input voltage (adjustable)
VAC, ext
120 V (80 V to 150 V)
Input frequency (adjustable)
fext
60 Hz (54 Hz to 66 Hz)
Maximum AC input current (adjustable)
IAC, ext
56 A (0 A to 56 A)
Maximum input power
PAC, ext
6.7 kW
Battery voltage (range)
VBat, nom
48 V (41 V to 63 V)
Maximum battery charging current
IBat, max
110 A
Continuous charging current
IBat, nom
85 A
Battery Data
Battery type
Lead-acid battery: VRLA/FLA
NiCd battery
Lithium-ion battery
Battery capacity for lead-acid batteries and
NiCd batteries
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CBat
100 Ah to 10,000 Ah
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Battery Data
Battery capacity for lithium-ion batteries
Charge control
Efficiency/power consumption
Maximum efficiency
Efficiency > 90%
CEC weighted efficiency
CBat
50 Ah to 10,000 Ah
IUoU procedure with automatic full
and equalization charge
SI 4548-US-10
96%
5% Pnom to 120% Pnom
94.5%
Efficiency curve
Self-consumption with no load (in standby mode)
25 W (4 W)
General Data
Dimensions (W x H x D)
18.39 in x 24.10 in x 9.25 in
(467 mm x 612 mm x 235 mm)
Weight
approx. 139 lb (approx. 63 kg)
Certification
Degree of protection
Device protection
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NEMA 1
Short-circuit, overload,
overtemperature
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22 Technical Data
General Data
Ambient temperature
Interfaces
− 13°F to +140°F
( − 25°C to +60°C)
SI 4548-US-10
Number of LEDs
2
Number of buttons
4
Display
Multifunction relay
Communication
Memory card
Digital input level (Dig-In)
Load switching limits multifunction relays 1 and 2
Two-line display
2
RS485, galvanically insulated
(optional)
SD memory card
High level as of 5 V (up to 63 V),
low level 0 V to 2 V
AC: 6 A at 250 V
DC: see graphic
Load limitation curve
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22.2 Sunny Island 6048-US
Output Data
SI 6048-US-10
120 V (105 V to 132 V)
Nominal AC voltage (adjustable)
VAC, nom
Nominal frequency
fnom
60 Hz (55 to 65 Hz)
Continuous AC power at 77°F (25°C)
Pnom
5,750 W
AC power for 30 minutes at 77°F (25°C)
P30min
7,000 W
AC power for 1 minute at 77°F (25°C)
P1min
8,400 W
AC power for 3 seconds at 77°F (25°C)
P3sec
11,000 W
Continuous AC power at 104°F (40°C)
Pnom
4,700 W
AC power at 104°F (40°C) for 3 hours
P3h
5,000 W
Continuous AC power at 122°F (50°C)
Pnom
3,500 W
Continuous AC power at 140°F (60°C)
Pnom
2,200 W
Nominal AC current
IAC, nom
48.0 A
Maximum current (peak value) for 60 ms
IAC, max
180 A
Total harmonic factor of the output voltage
KVAC
< 3%
Power factor cos φ
–1 to +1
Input Data
Input voltage (adjustable)
VAC, ext
120 V (80 V to 150 V)
Input frequency (adjustable)
fext
60 Hz (54 Hz to 66 Hz)
Maximum AC input current (adjustable)
IAC, ext
56 A (0 A to 56 A)
Maximum input power
PAC, ext
6.7 kW
Battery voltage (range)
VBat, nom
48 V (41 V to 63 V)
Maximum battery charging current
IBat, max
140 A
Continuous charging current
IBat, nom
Battery Data
Battery type
110 A
Lead-acid battery: VRLA/FLA/
NiCd battery
Lithium-ion battery
Battery capacity for lead-acid batteries and
NiCd batteries
CBat
100 Ah to 10,000 Ah
Battery capacity for lithium-ion batteries
CBat
50 Ah to 10,000 Ah
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Battery Data
Charge control
Efficiency/power consumption
Maximum efficiency
Efficiency > 90%
CEC weighted efficiency
IUoU procedure with automatic full
and equalization charge
SI 6048-US-10
96%
5 to 120% Pnom
94.0%
Efficiency curve
Self-consumption with no load (in standby mode)
25 W (< 4 W)
General Data
Dimensions (W x H x D in mm)
18.39 in x 24.10 x in 9.25 in
(467 mm x 612 mm x 235 mm)
Weight
approx. 139 lb (approx. 63 kg)
Certification
Degree of protection
Operating Manual
UL 1741/UL1998
NEMA 1
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General Data
Device protection
Ambient temperature
Interfaces
Short-circuit, overload,
overtemperature
− 13°F to +140°F ( − 25°C
to +60°C)
SI 6048-US-10
Number of LEDs
2
Number of buttons
4
Display
Two-line display
Multifunction relay
Communication
Memory card
Digital input level (Dig-In)
Load switching limits multifunction relays 1 and 2
2
RS485, galvanically insulated
(optional)
SD memory card
High level as of 5 V (up to 63 V),
low level 0 V to 2 V
AC: 6 A at 250 V
DC: see graphic
Load limitation curve
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23 Glossary
Absorption Phase
Constant voltage phase: A charging phase using constant charging voltage. The charging current
constantly decreases in this phase.
AC
Abbreviation for "Alternating Current"
AC Coupling
The AC side connection between loads, generators and storage devices.
AGM Battery
Absorbent Glass Mat separator battery. This is a battery where the electrolyte (a mixture of water and
sulfuric acid) is bound to a glass fiber mat. This is a type of a sealed or valve regulated lead-acid
(VRLA) lead-acid battery. A gas mixture (hydrogen and oxygen) is always generated when lead-acid
batteries are charged, and in normal operation this internally recombines to form water. This removes
the need for regularly refilling the battery cells with water, which is why these batteries are often
described as "low maintenance" or even "maintenance free". AGM batteries are available from many
different manufacturers for a wide range of applications. They usually have very good high current
properties but are not very charge-cycle resistant in relation to deep discharge.
Ah
Abbreviation for "ampere-hour". Unit of electrical charge, one ampere-hour is the charge provided by
a constant current of 1 A over a period of one hour.
AI
Abbreviation for anti-islanding. Procedure which prevents unintentional islanding on the utility grid.
Equalization Charge
Equalization charge: allows different series-connected battery cells to be charged to a unified state of
charge of 95% to 100%. Without regular equalization charge, the state of charge of the different
cells slowly drift apart, which can lead to a poor battery power performance and a premature battery
storage system failure.
Battery-Backup System
Backup-backup systems are power supply systems that provide an extra level of security for standard
power supply systems. The utility grid is usually the standard power supply system and the
battery-backup system which is protected by an additional stand-alone grid system in the case of a
power outage. In addition to the battery-backup systems, diesel generators in PV battery systems are
also described as backup generators. They perform the same task as a battery-backup system for the
utility grid.
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Battery
A battery is an electrochemical energy storage that can release previously stored chemical energy as
electrical energy. A distinction is made between non-rechargeable batteries (often used in
end-customer markets) and rechargeable batteries (batteries). In stand-alone grid systems, lead-acid
batteries are almost always used and, very rarely, nickel-cadmium batteries are used as secondary
rechargeable batteries.
Battery Charge Mode
Operating mode of the battery inverter in which the inverter takes energy from the AC grid to recharge
the battery in a controlled way. In this operating mode, the battery inverter is responsible for correctly
charging the batteries and acts like an independent battery charger.
Battery Inverter
See Battery power converter
Battery Management
The battery management is responsible for optimum battery storage system charging and reliable
protection against deep discharge. This is the only way of ensuring that the battery service life reflects
the manufacturer's specifications.
Battery Power Converter
A bidirectional converter that can regulate voltage and frequency in a stand-alone grid as well as
correctly charge the batteries.
Battery Storage System
The combination of serial and possibly also parallel connection of several identical batteries.
Typical battery storage systems are 12 V, 24 V, 48 V and 60 V.
CEC
Abbreviation for "California Energy Commission"
Charge Mode
See Battery charging mode
C rate
The nominal capacity specification is always provided with the discharge time on which the capacity
is based. The nominal capacity is the product of the constant charging current IN and the discharge
time tN, which passes between commencement of discharging the fully charged battery and when the
final cut-off voltage VS is reached. For stationary batteries, the C10 capacity is usually specified, i. e.
a battery with C10 = 200 Ah can be discharged for 10 hours at a nominal current of 0.1 × C10 =
I10 = 20 A.
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DC
Abbreviation for "Direct Current"
Derating
A controlled reduction in performance, usually dependent on component temperatures.
Derating is initiated in order to avoid the shutting down of the complete plant.
DSP
Abbreviation for Digital Signal Processor. A DSP is a microprocessor chip especially developed for
digital signal processing and control.
Electrolyte
A chemical solution that allows the conduction of ions within a battery. In lead-acid batteries, the
electrolyte is diluted sulfuric acid and is also a reactant in the electrochemical reaction. Nickel/
cadmium batteries use an alkaline electrolyte (potassium hydroxide).
EPROM
See Flash EEPROM
Firmware
Firmware is software that is stored in a chip in various electronic devices, such as Sunny Island, hard
disk recorders, DVD burners and players, newer television sets, household appliances and computers
— in contrast to software that is stored on a hard drive, CD-ROM or other media. These days, firmware
is usually stored in Flash memory or an EEPROM chip.
FLA
Flooded lead-acid battery: a lead-acid battery with liquid electrolyte, also often described as a
flooded lead-acid battery.
Flash EEPROM
The abbreviation EEPROM stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory. Flash
memory is a digital storage chip, the exact designation is Flash EEPROM. In contrast to "normal"
EEPROM storage, individual bytes (the smallest addressable storage units) cannot be deleted.
EEPROM is a non-volatile, electronic storage component that is used in the Sunny Island, the computer
industry (among others) and usually in Embedded Systems. Flash EEPROMs are used where
information must be permanently stored in the smallest amount of space, e.g. for storing the firmware.
MSD
See Automatic disconnection unit
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Float Charge
Maintenance charge: Allows the batteries to be slowly charged to a state of charge of 100% without
the negative effects of overcharging. Complete charging to 100% using float charge takes several
days. For this reason, float charge is more important for battery-backup systems and less important
for stand-alone grids.
Sealed Lead-Acid Battery
A type of battery in which the electrolyte (a mixture of water and sulfuric acid) is bound into a gel.
This is a type of a sealed or valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) lead-acid battery. A gas mixture
(hydrogen and oxygen) is always generated when lead-acid batteries are charged, and in normal
operation this internally recombines to form water. This removes the need for regularly refilling the
battery cells with water, which is why these batteries are often described as "low maintenance" or
even "maintenance free" (see also AGM batteries). Gel batteries are available from many different
manufacturers for a wide range of applications. There are gel batteries for high current applications
but also for cycle operation with very high deep discharge cycle resistance.
Protected Loads Panel
See "Stand-alone grid system".
I-Loop
I-Loop enables generators with inadequate voltage regulation to be used in the Sunny Island system.
Stand-Alone Grid System
An energy generation system that supplies electrical energy completely independently of any external
electrical energy supply.
Constant Current Phase
I-Phase: The charging phase in which charging can be done using the maximum allowable charging
current.
Capacity
Describes the storage capability of a cell or battery, specified in Ah (ampere-hour).
The capacity of a battery is heavily dependent on the charging cycle, the amount of electrical current
strength drawn and the temperature.
State of Charge
Describes the current amount of charge that can be drawn from the battery, in percent of the nominal
capacity (100% = battery full, 0% = battery empty).
Maximum Power Point "MPP"
The operating point (current/voltage characteristic curve) of a PV array where the maximum power
can be drawn. The actual MPP changes constantly depending e.g. on the level of solar irradiation
and the temperature.
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MPP Tracker
Regulation of the power drawn so that a PV field remains as close as possible to the MPP. This
operating point varies with the solar irradiation and the temperature conditions of the modules. MPP
tracking optimizes the extraction of electrical power and is a feature of inverters and charge
controllers.
Multi-String Inverter
An inverter that combines the advantages of several string inverters (separate MPP tracking of
individual strings) and a central inverter (lower performance specific costs).
Nominal Energy Throughput of the Battery
A nominal energy throughput is the calculated result of one full charge and discharge of the battery.
Grid-Tie Plant
A PV system that is connected to the utility grid, such as the power company.
NiCd
Nickel cadmium battery, contains nickel, cadmium and potassium hydroxide as electrolytes. They
require a significantly higher charging voltage, have a lower level of efficiency and are significantly
more expensive than lead-acid batteries. Their robustness, cycle resistance and low temperature
capabilities allow them to be used in certain special applications.
Parallel Connection
Parallel connection of the batteries (all positive terminals connected and all negative terminals
connected) increases the capacity of the battery storage system while keeping the voltage constant.
Example: Two 24 V/100 Ah batteries connected in parallel still have a voltage of 24 V, however, a
capacity of 100 Ah + 100 Ah = 200 Ah.
Piggy-Back (Printed Circuit Board)
A printed circuit board that is plugged into another assembly to increase performance. A Piggy-Back
can also replace an individual chip. In this case, the chip is removed and the Piggy-Back is plugged
into the empty base.
Photovoltaics
Photovoltaics (PV) is the conversion of solar irradiation into electrical energy using special
semiconductors called PV cells.
PV System
Describes the totality of devices required for the exploitation and utilization of solar energy. In grid-tie
systems, this includes not only the PV array, but also the inverter, e.g. Sunny Boy or
Sunny Mini Central.
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PV Field
See PV array
PV Array
Technical device for the conversion of solar energy into electrical energy. All electrically connected
(in series and in parallel) PV modules of a PV system are referred to as the PV array.
PV Module
Electrical connection of several PV cells encapsulated in an enclosure to protect the sensitive cells from
mechanical stress and environmental influences.
PV Cell
An electronic component that generates electrical energy when irradiated with sunlight.
Since the electrical voltage of a single PV cell is very low (approximately 0.5 V), multiple PV cells are
combined as PV modules. The most common semiconductor material presently used for PV cells is
silicon which is manufactured in different forms (monocrystalline, polycrystalline, amorphous). In
addition to different mechanical variations, that are usually designed to increase the level of
efficiency, completely new materials are currently being tested (cadmium telluride, cadmium indium
sulfide, titanium dioxide and many others).
Series Connection
In this case the positive terminal of each battery is connected to the negative terminal of the next
battery. There is only one circuit where current can flow. Series connection increases the voltage of
the entire battery bank. If four 12 V batteries with a capacity of 100 Ah each are connected in series,
the total voltage is 4 × 12 V = 48 V, while the total capacity remains at 100 Ah.
Fast Charge
Boost charge: serves to charge the battery as quickly and efficiently as possible to a state of charge
of approx. 85% to 90%.
Self Discharge
Loss of battery charge while it is stored or not used. A higher ambient temperature has a strong
influence on self discharge.
SOC
State of Charge: the state of charge of the battery, see State of charge. If 25 Ah is taken from a
100-Ah battery, e.g. the state of charge (SOC) is 75%.
Solar Energy
"Solar energy", this means energy from sunlight or other solar irradiation (heat and/or UV radiation).
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23 Glossary
Split-Phase
A split-phase system is a three-conductor single-phase distribution system, commonly used in North
America, the UK, Australia and New Zealand for single-family residential and light commercial
applications up to 100 kVA. Its primary advantage is that it saves conductor material since a
single-phase system with one neutral conductor is used, while on the supply side of the grid
configuration only one line conductor is necessary. Since there are two live conductors in the system,
it is sometimes incorrectly referred to as "two-phase system". To avoid confusion with split-phase
applications, it would be correct to call this power distribution system a three-conductor, single-phase,
mid-point, neutral system.
String
Describes a group of electrical series-connected PV modules. A PV system usually consists of a number
of strings, which avoids yield losses due to variations in shading over different modules.
String Inverter
Inverter concept in which the disadvantages of the central inverter concept are avoided. The PV is split
into individual strings, each of which is connected to the external transmission line with its own string
inverter. This greatly simplifies installation and greatly reduces the yield losses caused by
manufacturing deviations or variations in shading of the PV modules.
Overload Capacity
The overload capacity of an inverter describes its ability to supply short-term (seconds or minutes)
excessive loads that can be significantly higher than the nominal power of battery inverters. The
overload capacity is necessary in order to be able to also start electronic machines that have a
nominal power similar to the nominal power of the inverter in the stand-alone grid, since these
machines typically need six times more current during start up in relation to the nominal current.
Full Charge
Recharging of the batteries to a level of approximately 95% on a regular basis (at least once a
month). This efficiently avoids premature aging of the batteries caused by inadequate charging.
VRLA
Valve Regulated Lead Acid battery: lead-acid battery with immobilized electrolyte or flooded lead–
acid battery. Examples of this type of battery are SLA batteries and AGM batteries (Absorbent Glass
Mat).
Inverter
A device for converting the direct current (DC) from the PV array into alternating current (AC), which
is necessary for the connection of most devices and especially for the feed-in of solar energy into an
existing transmission line. Inverters for PV systems usually include one or more MPP trackers, store
operating data and monitor the grid connections of the PV system.
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Inverter mode
Operating mode of a battery inverter where it supplies the stand-alone grid from the battery energy.
In this operating mode, the battery inverter is especially responsible for the control of frequency and
voltage in the stand-alone grid.
Central inverter
An inverter concept in which all PV modules are connected to each other (in series and/or parallel)
and which uses a single inverter for feeding energy into the utility grid. The low cost of the inverter is
usually offset by the much higher installation efforts required and possible yield losses due to
variations in shading of different PV modules.
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24 Compliance Information
FCC Compliance
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following conditions:
1. This device may not cause harmful interference, and
2. This device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause
undesired operation.
NOTE: This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device,
pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection
against harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates, uses, and can
radiate radio frequency energy and if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may
cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference
will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or
television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is
encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:
• Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
• Increase the separation between the equipment and the receiver.
• Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is
connected.
• Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
The user is cautioned that changes or modifications not expressly approved by
SMA Solar Technology America LLC could void the user’s authority to operate this equipment.
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25 Contact
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25 Contact
If you have technical problems with our products, please contact the SMA Service Line. We need the
following information in order to provide you with the necessary assistance:
• Type of Sunny Island
• Serial number of the Sunny Island
• Firmware version of the Sunny Island
• Displayed error message
• Type of battery connected
• Nominal battery capacity
• Nominal battery voltage
• Communication products connected
• Type and size of additional energy sources
• Type of connected generator
• Power of the connected generator
• Maximum current of the generator
• Interface of the generator
United States/ SMA Solar Technology
Estados
America LLC
Unidos
Rocklin, CA
+1 877-MY-SMATech (+1 877-697-6283)*
+1 916 625-0870**
* toll free for USA, Canada and Puerto Rico / Llamada gratuita en EE. UU., Canadá y Puerto Rico
** international / internacional
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www.SMA-Solar.com
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