The Water Cooler - Porsche`s 944/951/968

The Water Cooler - Porsche`s 944/951/968
944 History
Born on the Track
The 944 was the direct descendant of the 924 Carrera series and ultimately the earlier 924/931. Beginning
in 1979 and the following two years Porsche began developing racing hybrids based on the 924 which
later lead to the 944. In 1979/80 Porsche built 406 examples of the 924 Carrera GT. In the following two
years, Zuffenhausen continued on to develop several competition versions of the 924 culminating in 1982
with the 924 Carrera GTS (of which 5 were built up as Club Sport models and sold to private owners,) and
the limited competition 924 Carrera GTR. When looking at the Carrera GTS Club Sport, one can
immediately see the immanent arrival of the 944.
Introducing the 944
In order to improve build quality, over the 924 production done at Audi's facility in Neckarsulm,
production/assembly of the 944 was done in Zuffenhausen. The power plant was literally derived from
half of the 928's V8. At 2479 cc (2.5 liters) the engine was large by four cylinder standards of the day. The
engine was a modern design with high compression and a broad power band. The initial power plant was
rated at 163 hp (ROW) and 150 hp for the U.S.
The 944 was originally announced to the world at the September, 1981 Frankfurt auto show with the U.S.
introduction one year later. Upon its introduction the interior of the 944 remained much the same as the
924 while the rear suspension, although improved, retained the VW-derived architecture.
In addition to a change in the front suspension control arms, the rear suspension would change with the
major revision of the 944 that occurred mid year in 1985. Often times, owners will refer to there 944 as an
85.5, designating the completely redesigned interior and other improvements to the base 944 including;
new heater, air conditioning, minor revisions to the bodywork including a flush mounted windscreen, new
cats aluminum front A-arms and rear trailing arms suspension components. Although changes where
made to the engine, Porsche did not announce any changes to the factory performance specifications.
Practical comparison of this watershed model change and it's predecessors indicates performance gains did
result however.
The 951
At the end of 1985, Porsche announced the 944 Turbo (factory model designation 951) which arrived in
the U.S. as a 1986 model. Performance of the 951 was a reminder of the 944's legacy, even in it's toned
down production form. Aside from the turbo charged power plant generating 217 hp with 243 ft/lbs of
torque, the 951 had other major enhancements over it's normally aspirated brother. Specifically the 951
included aerodynamic polyurethane front bumper/spoiler with new air intakes serving the turbo's
intercooler mounted between the headlights under the front panel. Under body panels where added to
cleanup air flow beneath the car. This extended to the distinctive air diffuser mounted under the rear of
the car to cleanup exiting airflow past the rear end. As well, the 951 received Bembo 4 piston calipers to
bring the car to a stop as well as special forged alloy wheels. The suspension received stiffer components
to round out the comprehensive performance upgrades. The 951 also has the distinction of being the first
sports car to offer both driver-side and passenger-side airbags. Porsche also produced 198 versions of the
944 Turbo as Cup racing cars.
The 944S
The 944S arrived as a 1987 model year addition with a redesigned 16 valve dual overhead cam engine
producing 190 hp. In addition to the increased number of valves and cams, the 944S came with an
improved Digital Motor Electronics (DME) system with knock-sensing regulation capabilities. Also
included on the base 944, the 944S benefited from the new timing belt tensioner which was implemented
for the 1987 model year. As well, the 944S received the Bembo brake calipers with optional ABS. The
initial 944S shared the base models bodywork until 1990.
Porsche Upgrades the 951
Porsche revisited the 951 and in 1988 introduced the 944 Turbo S with total model year production of
718. This performance version of the already impressive 944 Turbo received many significant
improvements including: bigger Bempo brakes, ABS, firmer springs and torsion bars, stiffer Koni
low-pressure gas adjustable shock absorbers, a thicker front sway bar, and firmer suspension bushings.
The following year, Porsche dropped the "S" designation and the standard 944 Turbo was in fact the "S"
form factor, building 1385 for 1989. This was to be the last year the U.S. market would have access to the
944 Turbo.
944 Series 2
In 1990 Porsche releases the 944 Series 2, designated 944 S2. The S2 was an extensive revision of the
944S which now included the aerodynamic bodywork of the 951. The previous three engines available
were replaced by the 3.0 liter's 16 valve engine and a big turbo 2.5 liter 944 Turbo (sold in Europe). As
well, a soft-top version of the 944 was introduced, the 944 S2 Cabriolet. The new cabriolet was produced
jointly by Porsche and the German division of the American Sunroof Corporation.
The Turbo Cabriolet
Unfortunately for the U.S. market, Porsche offered a Turbo Cabriolet version to the rest of the world
through 1991 with the U.S. having the standard S2 Cabriolet to satisfy our open air appetites. Only 625
(non-U.S.-spec) 944 Turbo Cabriolets where built. Unless you know someone abroad who owns one and
had driven it, we are left to only dream what a drop head coupe in Turbo form factor would have felt like.
944 Series 3: Introducing the 968
In the fall of 1991, Zuffenhausen announced the Series 3 944, model designation 968. There was a brief
period where what we now know as the 968 was to be designated the 944 S3 but in order to boost
slumping sales, the model was marketed under it's factory designation and technically represented the final
refined version of the 944 family line. In addition to further tuning of the 3 liter motor seen in the S2, the
968 debuted with circular headlamps, new nose and rear end. The interior remained virtually unchanged
from the past several years. In addition output of the 3 liter was increased to 240 hp, resulting in the most
powerful normally aspirated production 4 cylinder available. Performance was primarily gained through
the use of a Variocam, a camshaft chain drive with an adjustable tensioned to retard intake valve actuation
up to 7.5 degrees. Along with the 29 hp increase, torque was also increased from 207 lbft to 225 lbft.
The engine also now included piston oil spray cooling from squirters similar to the 911.
Managing the power transfer to the rear wheels was a six speed gearbox (offered as either a ZF or Torsen
limited slip differential,) or an optional 4 speed Tiptronic. The ZF LSD was to be deleted the following
year in 1993 with the Torsen version as the only one offered (option code M220)..
968 Club Sport
As a final testament reaching all the way back to the 924 Carrera Club Sport, the 968 Club Sport version
appeared in 1993. The 968 CS included one inch reduction in ride height, stiffened springs and dampers,
fully adjustable suspension, and reduce weight. As with past Porsche Club Sport models, weight reduction
was obtained through deleting luxuries like; air conditioning, power windows, leather seats, stereo, and
sound insulation from the passenger compartment.
In actuality a stripped down high performance version of the 968 Coupe, Porsche priced the 968 CS
(available only in Europe,) under $60,000, which was considerably cheaper than production super cars of
the time. The 968 CS represented the pinnacle of performance and handling for the normally aspirated
944/968.
Rare Air - 968 Turbo S
That being said, Porsche had one final parting pass at the 968 which resulted in the ultimate performance
incantation, the 968 Turbo S. The Turbo S was a rare model only offered as limited production (15
examples total ) available in Europe. The water cooled KKK turbocharger produced 305 hp (@5,400 rpm)
and 369 lb-ft of torque (@3,000 rpm). Based on the 968 CS, the Turbo S rivaled even the 911 Turbo of
that year.
In 1995, with development of the Boxster well underway and set to debut in 1996, Porsche discontinued
the 968 bringing to a close the most successful line of Porsche outside of the 911.
The 968 in Competition
In that final year Porsche produced and campaigned a competition version of the 968 Turbo S designated
the 968 Turbo RS. Blisteringly fast with the by now the respected handling attributes of the 944 S2
suspension architecture, it was a champion from the perspective of performance with some 377 hp. This
would be the final farewell to arguably one of the most underrated Porsche production lines ever.
944 FAMILY PRODUCTION
924 Carrera GT
Model Year Production Germany Rest of World
1980 GT
406
200
206
Notes
includes prototypes
924 Factor Competition Production
Model Year
Type
Production
Notes
1978
924 Rallye Turbo
4
1979
924 Rallye Turbo
1
N/A
N/A
1979
924 SCCA
16
for US market
1979
924 Group 4
1
built up from street car
1980
924 Le Mans GTP
4
N/A
1981
924 Carrera GTS
59
5 were Club Sport with cage, etc.
1981
924 Carrera GTR
17
N/A
total
101
944
Model Year Production Rest of World USA
Notes
1982
3921
3921
N/A
1983
14633
9127
5506
1984
26539
9921
16618
1985
23720
17553
6167
1986
17010
6109
10901
1987
10689
2343
8346
1988
5965
2226
3731 8 to Aus.
1989
10593
4941
5652
total
113070
56141
56921
944 Turbo
Model Year Production Rest of World
USA
1985
178
178
N/A
1986
10273
2760
7513
1987
4955
1546 + 188 SP 3210 + 11 SP
Notes
1988
1989
4097 *
4103
1875 + 94 SP 1874 + 98 SP in addition, 126 SP Can., 30 SP Aus.
1333
1385
1385 Can
1990
1251
1107
144
1991
875 º
875
N/A
total
25107
9331
14235
30 Aus, 1511 Can
* includes 1000 Turbo S
** includes 625 Turbo Cabriolet
"SP" designates a sport package option
944S
Model Year
Production
Rest of World
USA
Notes
1987
1988
5862
7074
2635
1305
3127
5562
100 SP
20 Aus, 188 SP Can
total
12936
4040
8688
20 Aus, 188 Can
944S2
Model Year Production Rest of World USA
1989
N/A
N/A
970
1990
1991
3321
3118
2872
2608
449
510
total
944S2 Cabriolet
Model Year
Production
Rest of World
USA
1989
N/A
N/A
16
1990
3938
2114
1824
1991
1702
1140
562
total
944 Limited Production
Model Year
Type
Production
Notes
1981
944 GTP/R Le Mans
1
1986-1989
944 Turbo Cup
150
or more
Notes
968
Model Year
Production
Rest of World
USA
1992
N/A
N/A
N/A
1993
N/A
N/A
N/A
1994
N/A
N/A
N/A
1995
N/A
N/A
N/A
total
12793
8116
4677
4389 cabri of which 2260 to US
SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE 944/951
Model
Year
Engine
Code
Displacement
(cc.)
1983
M44/02
2479
150
@
5500
78.9 x 100
9.5 : 1
DME
016K
2675
94DN450001-
1984
M44/02
2479
150
@
5500
78.9 x 100
9.5 : 1
DME
016K
2675
94EN450001-
1985-
M44/02
2479
150
@
5500
78.9 x 100
9.5 : 1
DME
016K
2675
94FN470001-
2479
150
@
5500
78.9 x 100
9.5 : 1
DME
016K
2637
94FN450001-
2479
150
@
5500
78.9 x 100
9.5 : 1
DME
016K
2637
94GN450001-
78.9 x 100
8.0 : 1
DME
016R
2758
95GN150001-
1985+
1986
M44/07
M44/07
HP Stroke/bore Compression Fuel Transmission Weight
@
(mm.)
ratio
Delivery
Code
(lb.)
RPM
system
(DIN)
Chassis
numbers
Turbo
M44/51
2479
217
@
5800
1987
M44/07
2479
158
@
5900
78.9 x 100
10.2 : 1
DME
016K
2637
94HN470001-
2479
188
@
6000
78.9 x 100
10.9 : 1
DME
083D
2637
94HN450001-
78.9 x 100
8.0 : 1
DME
016R
2758
95HN150001-
944S
M44/40
Turbo
M44/51
2479
217
@
5800
1988
M44/09
2479
158
@
5900
78.9 x 100
10.2 : 1
DME
016J
2637
94JN470001-
2479
188
@
6000
78.9 x 100
10.9 : 1
DME
083D
2637
94JN450001-
2479
217
@
5800
78.9 x 100
8.0 : 1
DME
016R
2758
95JN150001-
944S
Turbo
M44/40
M44/51
2479
250
@
5800
78.9 x 100
8.0 : 1
DME
016R
2758
97JN50001-
1989
M44/11,
12
2688
162
@
5800
78.9 x 104
10.9 : 1
DME
016J
2637
94KN450001-
S2
M44/41
3000
208
@
5800
87.8 x 104
10.9 : 1
DME
083F
2637
94KN480001-
2479
247
@
6000
78.9 x 100
8.0 : 1
DME
016R
2758
95KN150001-
87.8 x 104
10.9 : 1
DME
083F
2857* 94LN450001-
87.8 x 104
10.9 : 1
DME
083F
2857* 94MN450001-
Turbo
S
M44/52
Turbo
M44/52
1990
S2M44/41
3000
208
@
5800
1991
S2M44/41
3000
208
@
5800
944/951
CHASSIS & ENGINE SERIAL NUMBERS
Chassis Serial Numbers : All 944 chassis numbers consist of two groups of code letters followed by the
vehicle serial No.
❍ WPO ZZZ = Europe RoW
❍ WPO AAO = USA/Canada
❍ 94 = first two digits of model No. - Standard 944
❍ 95 = first two digits of model No. - 951 (944 Turbo)
❍ Z = Europe RoW
❍ O = USA/Canada
❍ D= model year (1983)
❍ E=1984 up to 1990 L (later ZL) 1991 ZM, 1992 ZN
❍ N = Neckarsulm (build plant)
❍ 4 = last digit of model No. (944)
❍ 1 = last digit of model No. (951)
Engine Serial Numbers
1983 41D 0001-4999
41D 5001-9999
43D 0001-4999
43D 5001-9999
Serial numbers included expander numbers
A000-A999, B000-B999 and so on to H.
1984 41E 00001-20000
41E 20001-30000
43E 00001-20000
43E 20001-30000
1985 as for 1984; year code = F
serial no. expanded to 60000
1986 41G 00001-20000
41G 20001-30000
43G 00001-60000
43G 60001-90000
44G 0001-00320
45G 0001-20000
944 Europe RoW manual
944 Europe RoW auto
944 USA, Japan manual
944 USA, Japan auto
944 Europe RoW manual
944 Europe RoW auto
944 USA, Japan, Canada manual
944 USA, Japan, Canada auto
944 Europe RoW manual
944 Europe RoW auto
944 USA, Canada, Japan, Australia manual
944 USA, Canada, Japan, Australia auto
944 Turbo Europe RoW
944 Turbo Worldwide
1987 944: as for 1986 with model year code = H
45H 00001-10000
42H 00001-60000
1988 46J 00001-60000
46J 60001-70000
42J 00001-50000
45J 00001-10000
944 turbo All markets
944S All markets
944 Worldwide manual
944 Worldwide auto
944S Worldwide
944 Turbo, Worldwide
OPTION CODES
COMPLETE CHART OF FACTORY INSTALLED OPTIONS
OVERVIEW
In this section we include the complete Porsche Option Code Key as well as the 944/951/968 specific option code
chart.
In the 944/951/968, the option codes installed at the factory can be found beneath the rear cargo carpartment
carpet just above the spare tire well, usually pasted against the rear (forward facing) surface. Use the chart below
to match up the option codes for your car.
OPTION CODE CHART - 944/951/968
C02
C03
C77
R01
R74
009
018
020
024
026
027
030
031
034
036
058
061
062
070
103
113
119
124
126
130
139
152
153
154
157
158
160
164
176
Catalytic Converter
Touring Package (Not Available w/ Airbags)
Touring Package
Sporto-matic transmission
Leather STR Wheel/Raised Hub 380MM(Not Available w/ Airbags)
Speedometer with 2 scales KPH/MPH
Version for Greece
Activated charcoal canister
Version for California
Club Sport Package
Sport shock absorbers
Version for Italy
Bumpers with impact absorbers
Bumpers with impact absorbers
Version for Great Britain
Mud flap (version for Sweden)
Tonneau cover - Cabriolet
Adjustment of shock absorber strut
Version for Canada
Version for Spain
Yellow light (version for France)
Stickers in French
Labeling in English
Heated Seat Left
Engine noise reduction
Engine parts belonging to a stipulated assembly for type 951
Control unit for improved emissions
Oxygen sensor and catalyst
Radio "Reno"
Radio "Charleston"
Tires 215/60 VR15
Oil cooler with fan
185
186
187
190
193
195
197
215
218
219
220
221
225
240
241
243
249
255
258
261
262
277
286
288
298
302
308
323
325
330
331
335
340
341
346
347
348
351
360
375
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
387
389
391
393
394
Automatic 2 point rear seat belts
Manual 2 point rear seat belts
Asymmetric head lights
Increased side door strength
Version for Japan
Prepared for cellular telephone
Higher amperage battery
Version for Saudi Arabia
License brackets front and rear
Differential
Limited Slip Differential
Porsche-locking differential
Version for Belgium
Version for countries with inferior fuel
Shorter shifting travel
Shorter gear shift lever
Automatic transmission
Fuel consumption indicator
Heating for outside mirror
Passenger side mirror - electric - plain
Outside mirror for passenger side, plain, manual
Version for Switzerland
High intensity windscreen washer
Headlight Washers
Prepared for unleaded fuel, manual transmission
Type designated on rear end
Pneumatic spring for engine hood
Sticker, without ESE-Regulations
Version for South Africa
AM/FM Cassette w/2 door speakers
Automatic 3 point rear seat belts
Heated Seat Right
Central Locking System
Standard color rims (silver)
Platinum anodized wheels
Forged wheels - Grand Prix White
Porsche-car radio, CR stereo, type DE
Mud Guards
Clutch lining without asbestos
Combination seat, left, adjustable
Combination seat, right, adjustable
Series seat, left electrical vertical adjustment
Series seat, right electrical vertical adjustment
Series seat, left
Series seat, right
Sport Seat Left w/Elec. Height. Adj.
Sport Seat Right w/Elec. Height. Adj.
Porsche-car radio, CR stereo, type US
Stone guard foil, added separately
Forged Alloy Wheels-8/9x16 (944/944S) (944 Turbo)
Pressure Cast Magnesium Rims (944/944S) (944 Turbo)
395
396
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
406
407
409
410
411
412
414
415
418
419
422
423
424
425
426
429
429
431
432
437
438
439
439
440
441
441
442
443
444
446
447
450
451
454
455
458
461
462
462
463
463
16" Forged Alloy Wheels (944/944S) (944 Turbo)
Disk wheel, telephone styling 8Jx15 rear
Outside Electric Mirror, Left
A/C without front condenser
Pressure cast wheels
Light metal wheels
50 year anniversary car 1982
Pressure cast 17" wheels
Stabilizer Bars Front & Rear
Level control system
50 year anniversary car 1982
Front wheel housing protection 1983-1986
18-inch polished wheels
Sport seats left and right leather
Sport seats left and right leatherette/cloth
License bracket, front
External oil cooler
External Transmission Oil Cooler (Turbo)
Wider rear track
Body Side Molding
Rear luggage compartment instead of rear seats
Porsche-car radio, CR stereo, type RW
Cassette container and coin box
Automatic heating control
Rear Window Wiper
Special model World Champion 1976 1978
Fog headlamp, white
Special model "Sebring"
Leather Steering Wheel 363MM (Not Available w/Airbags)
Sports steering wheel, leather 363mm (4 spokes)
Full Power Seat Left
Full Power Seat Right
Electric Cabriolet top
Special model "Weissach" 1980
Manual antenna, 4 speakers
Fader, antenna booster, 4 speakers
Radio speakers and antenna amplifier
Prepared for radio without antenna
Tinted front and side glass, heated windshield
Cabriolet
Parts for type "Targa" belonging to stipulated assembly
Emergency wheel - with collapsible tire
Light metal wheels
Prepared for radio for sport group
Automatic Speed Control
Wheel locks
6" Cast Alloy Wheels
Electric antenna, 4 speakers
Special model "Weissach" 1982
Sekuriflex windshield
Clear windshield
Lateral glasses tinted, (version for Australia)
464
465
467
468
469
470
471
471
472
473
474
475
475
476
479
481
482
483
484
485
487
488
489
490
491
492
494
494
496
498
499
503
505
513
525
526
528
529
533
537
538
548
553
559
Without compressor and tire pressure gauge
Fastening parts for transportation (version for overseas)
Drivers side mirror, convex
Graduated tint windshield, green side glass
Black headliner
Without spoilers, in conjunction with turbo look
Sport group 1
Integrated rear spoiler
Rear Apron
With spoilers
Sport Shock Absorbers
Brake pads without asbestos
License plate fastening (version for Austria, Finland, Australia)
Brake pad with abrasive pad
Version for Australia
5 speed manual transmission
Engine compartment light
Right hand drive
Symbols for controls
Forged wheels - gold metallic
Connection for fog headlamp with parking light
Stickers in German
Symbols and insignia in German
Sound Package
Turbo look
H4 headlights for left hand traffic
Amplifier System
2 speakers on back shelf
Black trim - painted headlight rims
Delete Model Designation-Rear
Version for West Germany
Cabrio variant (Speedster)
Slant nose
Lumbar Support-Right Seat
Alarm with continuous sound
Door Panels Covered w/Cloth
Passenger side mirror convex
Outside mirror - passenger side, convex, manual
Alarm System
Left seat with positrol and lumbar
Right seat with positrol and lumbar
Fuel filler neck, unleaded fuel with flap
Version for USA
Air conditioner
PORSCHE OPTION CODE CHART
Code
009
Option Description
3 speed sportomatic transmission
018
020
024
026
027
030
031
033
034
036
058
061
062
070
09991
103
113
119
124
126
130
139
152
153
154
157
158
159
160
164
176
185
186
187
190
193
195
197
210
215
218
219
220
221
224
225
235
240
Sport steering wheel with elevated hub
Speedometer with 2 scales KPH/MPH
Version for Greece
Activated charcoal canister
Version for California
Sport Group
Sport shock absorbers
Lowered chassis
Version for Italy
Bumpers with impact absorbers
Bumpers with impact absorbers
Version for Great Britain
Mud flap, rear (series equipment for Sweden)
Tonneau cover - Cabriolet
manufactured from the exclusive-programme
Adjustment of shock absorber strut
Version for Canada
Version for Spain
Yellow light (series equipment for France)
Stickers in French
Labeling in English
Seat Heating - Left
Engine noise reduction
Engine parts belonging to a stipulated assembly for type 951
Control unit for improved emissions
Oxygen sensor and catalyst
Radio "Monterey" - 86 "Reno" - 87
Motor Sound Package
Radio "Charleston"
Tires 215/60 VR15
Oil cooler with fan
Automatic 2 point rear seat belts
Manual 2 point rear seat belts
Asymmetric head lights
Increased side door strength
Version for Japan
Prepared for cellular telephone
Higher amperage battery
Number plate mounting, type II (is reduced space with two rubber
protection blocks, which you do not find on the 911 in Europe)
Version for Saudi Arabia
License brackets front and rear
Differential
Locking differential
Porsche-locking differential
Active Brake Differential
Version for Belgium
Brid N2/PIR N2 (no clue what this means)
Version for countries with inferior fuel
241
243
249
255
258
261
262
277
286
288
298
302
308
323
323
325
326
326
327
328
329
330
331
335
339
340
341
346
347
348
351
360
373
374
375
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
387
389
391
393
393
394
395
Shorter shifting travel
Shorter gear shift lever
Automatic transmission
Fuel consumption indicator
Heating for outside mirror
Passenger side mirror - electric - plain
Outside mirror for passenger side, plain, manual
Version for Switzerland
High intensity windscreen washer
Headlight washer
Prepared for unleaded fuel, manual transmission
Type designated on rear end
Pneumatic spring for engine hood
without ESE-regulations (not a clue what this means)
Sticker, without ESE-Regulations
Version for South Africa
Radio, Becker type CR21
Radio - ?
Radio - ?
Radio - ?
Radio - ?
Radio Blaupunkt Toronto SQR 46, All models, not for USA
AM/FM Cassette w/2 door speakers
Automatic 3 point rear seat belts
All wheel drive
Seat heating - Right
Central locking system
Standard colour rims (silver)
Platinum anodized wheels
Forged wheels - Grand Prix White
Porsche-car radio, CR stereo, type DE, etc.
Splash guard corner pieces
Left Sport Seat w/ Power Height Adjuster
Right Sport Seat w/ Power Height Adjuster
Clutch lining without asbestos
Combination seat, left, adjustable
Combination seat, right, adjustable
Series seat, left electrical vertical adjustment
Series seat, right electrical vertical adjustment
Series seat, left
Series seat, right
Sport seat - left
Sport seat - right
Porsche-car radio, CR stereo, type US
Stone guard foil, added separately
Forged wheel 8J/9Jx16
Lateral insignias, hatched black [1978-1982]
Disk wheel, telephone styling 8J/9Jx16 Cast - Magnesium
Light metal wheels - forged
396
398
398
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
414
415
416
418
419
422
423
424
425
426
426
429
429
430
431
432
432
434
436
437
438
439
439
440
441
441
442
443
Disk wheel, telephone styling 8Jx15 rear
Left outside mirror - electric - plain [Prior to 1996]
17 " 5-Spoke Wheels (P205/50ZR17 front, P225/40ZR17 rear) [1996]
18" Technology Design Wheels [1997]
A/C without front condenser [1978]
Pressure cast wheels
Light metal wheels
50 year anniversary car [1982]
Pressure cast 17" wheels
Stabilizer bars
Level control system
50 year anniversary car [1982]
Front wheel housing protection [1983-1986]
18-inch polished wheels
18" Technology Design Wheels [1996]
Sport seats left and right leather
Sport seats left and right leatherette/cloth
Licence bracket, front
External oil cooler
18" Turbo look wheels
Combined oil pressure and temperature gauge
Transmission oil cooler
Wider rear track
Leather steering wheel and shift boot
Protective side mouldings
Rear luggage compartment instead of rear seats
Porsche-car radio, CR stereo, type RW
Cassette container and coin box
Automatic heating control
Rear wiper
without rear window wiper
Special model World Champion 1976 1978
Fog headlamp, white
Special model "Sebring"
Rectangular fog lights, yellow
Leather steering wheel 363mm
Sports steering wheel, leather 363mm (4 spokes)
Lateral stripes, Martini [1978-1982]
instructions for export market
Folding Targa top (non-folding hardtop std in 1974 and 1975)
Comfort seat left
Comfort seat right
Special model "Weissach" [1980]
Electric Cabriolet top
Manual antenna, 4 speakers
Fader, antenna booster, 4 speakers
Radio speakers and antenna amplifier
Prepared for radio without antenna
Tinted front and side glass, heated windshield
444
445
446
447
447
450
451
454
455
456
457
458
461
462
462
463
463
464
465
467
468
469
470
471
471
472
472
473
473
474
475
475
476
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
487
488
489
490
491
492
494
494
496
Cabriolet
Wheel Rim Caps with Porsche Crest
Parts for type "Targa" belonging to stipulated assembly
Emergency wheel - with collapsible tire
Headlamp flasher with lower beam [1978-1982]
Light metal wheels
Prepared for radio for sport group
Automatic speed control
Wheel locks
Sport shock absorbers and stabilizers
Front turn signals, yellow with provision for side turn signals
16" alloy wheels
Electric antenna, 4 speakers
Sekuriflex windshield
Special model "Weissach" [1982]
Clear windshield
Lateral glasses tinted, (Series Equipment for Australia)
Without compressor and tire pressure gauge
Fastening parts for transportation (Series Equipment overseas)
Drivers side mirror, convex
Graduated tint windshield, green side glass
Black headliner
Without spoilers, in conjunction with turbo look
Integrated rear spoiler
Sport group 1
Additional rear apron
Turbo with standard chassis [1980]
With spoilers
Power Left Seat
Sport shock absorbers (Bilsteins)
Brake pads without asbestos
License plate fastening (Series equipment Austria, Finland, Australia)
Brake pad with abrasive pad
Version for Australia
six speed gearbox
5 speed manual transmission
Engine compartment light
Right hand drive
Symbols for controls
Forged wheels - gold metallic
Connection for fog headlamp with parking light
Stickers in German
Symbols and insignia in German
Hi-Fi sound system
Turbo look
H4 headlights for left hand traffic
2 speakers on back shelf
Amplifier system
Black trim - painted headlight rims
498
499
503
505
513
513
525
526
528
529
530
533
534
537
538
544
548
551
553
559
560
562
562
563
563
565
566
567
568
568
570
571
572
573
576
577
586
590
592
593
595
596
597
598
599
601
602
605
607
Without rear model designation
Version for West Germany
Cabrio variant (Speedster)
Slant nose
Lumbar support - right seat
Driver's Seat Lumbar Support
Alarm with continuous sound
Cloth door panels
Passenger side mirror convex
Outside mirror - passenger side, convex, manual
WFS FB 433mhz (assume relates to the frequency of the remote control)
Alarm system
alarm system
Left seat with positrol and lumbar
Right seat with positrol and lumbar
75 ltr petrol tank
Fuel filler neck, unleaded fuel with flap
Air Deflector (Cabriolet)
Version for USA
Air conditioner (with front & rear condenser)
Detachable roof
Airbag driver's and PASSENGER'S side
Airbag driver's side
Airbag passenger's side
Automatic air conditioner
Safety steering wheel - leather
Rectangular front fog lights (white)
Windshield green graduated tint
Tinted windshield and side glass
Tinted windshield, side, and rear glass (heated rear) [1978-1982]
High output air conditioner
Fog tail lamp
Heating
Air conditioner
Without rear fog light
Heated and tinted front Windshield
Lumbar support - left seat
Center console
Brake fluid warning system
Antilock brake system
Rear spoiler painted to match body
Spoiler painted matte black
Heavy duty battery and starter
Insignia "16 ventiler"
Front window top shading
Litronic Headlights
Third brake light "High mount"
Vertical headlight adjustment
More numerous cables for dashboard
621
622
637
642
650
651
657
659
666
673
675
680
684
685
686
688
691
692
701
719
756
757
758
780
900
912
925
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
945
946
947
948
974
975
98
98
980
981
982
983
983
985
Differing parts for engine 924S
Differing parts for cars with 2 V-Engine
Sport Group
Additive for cooling water
Sunroof
Electric windows
Power steering
Onboard computer
Without lacquer preservation and chrome preservation
Prepared for lead sealed odometer
Instrument cluster - technical lighting
Digital Sound
1 piece rear seat
Divided rear seat
Radio "Ludwigsburg" SQM with arimat
Radio, Blaupunkt,Boston, SQM 26, ARI
CD-Player "CD-1" with Radio
Remote CD changer (6-disc)
Car-version Slant Nose
Special reconstruction
Special model 924S USA 1988
Special model 944 1988
Special model 944 Turbo 1988
Remove safety certificate
Tourist delivery
Vehicle without identification plate
Version for high altitude areas in the US
Seat cover rear LLL
Seat cover rear KKK
Seat cover rear SKK
Seat cover rear SLL
Seat cover rear SSK
Seat cover rear RLL
Leather seats rear
Seat cover front SKK
Leather/leatherette seats
Seat cover front: cloth/leather/leatherette Seat cover
rear: cloth/leather/leatherette
Seat cover front SLL
Luggage boot cover
Velour carpet in luggage compartment
Custom Non-Metallic Paint
Standard Porsche Leather Interior (deviating std color combinations)
Seat cover - Raff - leather
All leather lining
Supple Leather Seats/Trim
Leather seats front (NOT REAR)
Leather seats front and rear
Parts silver coloured
986
989
99
99
990
C02
C03
C36
M
M6
P02
P04
P08
P14
P15
P31
P32
P49
P65
PCX
R01
R74
S**
S11
S6
SAC
SBE
SLB
SUL
SVD
X09
X17
X18
X19
X24
X25
X26
X28
X30
X31
X32
X34
X40
X43
X46
X48
X52
X53
X54
Partial leather lining
Left and right sport seats - cloth
Custom Metallic Paint
Leather Upholstery to Sample
Seats all cloth
Equipped with catalytic converter
California type car
Canadian type car
* Floor Mats
Porsche Floor Mats
Stereo with Compact Disc Changer (Coupe)
Stereo With Compact Disc Changer (Targa/Cabriolet)
Limited Slip Differential
Heated Seat Pkg includes adjustable heating range
Power Seat Pkg includes dual power seats
Sport Chassis (includes 17" 5-spoke wheels)
Sport Chassis (includes 18" technology wheels)
Digital Sound Pkg (includes 490)
With sunroof
Porsche Cellular Phone Handset Kit
Touring Package (not Available w/Airbags)
Touring Package
Cellular Telephone Portable (includes exclusive console)
Cellular Telephone w/Mounting Bracket (includes installation kit)
Cellular Telephone Includes exclusive console
AC Rapid Charger
Battery Eliminator-Cellular Phone
Large Battery-Cellular Phone
Ultra Light Battery-Cellular Phone
Voice Dialer Kit-Cellular Phone
Console with Special Leather Extended Center
Light Rootwood Dashboard (standard with Y59)
Dark Rootwood Dashboard (standard with Y60)
Leather Lower Dashboard
Dark Rootwood Triptronic Shifter
Light Rootwood Triptronic Shifter
Steering Wheel-Special Leather
Light Rootwood Steering Wheel (standard with Y59)
Dark Rootwood Steering Wheel (standard with Y60)
Light Rootwood Parking Brake Lever (standard with Y59)
Dark Rootwood Parking Brake Lever (standard with Y60)
Painted Instrument Dials includes leather trim on instrument Rings
Leather Sunvisors with passenger Reading Light
Leather Console Switch Frame
Aluminum Tiptronic Shifter
Carbon Tiptronic Shifter
Console CD Storage for 5 Discs
Console CD Storage for 8 Discs
Oval Chrome Exhaust Pipes
X56
X57
X68
X70
X71
X76
X77
X86
X87
X89
X95
X97
X98
XC3
XC8
XC9
XD4
XD9
XF5
XF6
XF7
XJ4
XJ5
XJ6
XJ8
XK7
XM5
XM7
XM9
XN1
XN2
XN3
XN4
XN7
XN8
XP3
XP6
XP9
XR3
XR6
XR7
XV1
XV2
XV3
XV4
XV5
XV6
XV7
XV9
Lower Carbon Dashboard (standard with Y04)
Carbon Door Trim Panels (standard with Y04)
Tonneau Cover (Cabriolet)
Metal Door Sill with Insignia
Aluminum Instrument Dials
Flared Rocker Panels
Carbon Steering Wheel (standard with Y25)
Light Rootwood Door Trim Panels
Dark Rootwood Door Trim Panels
Painted Porsche Crest Rim Caps
Painted Brake Calipers
Aluminum/leather shift know
Aluminum/leather parking break handle
Hardtop (Cabriolet)
Light Rootwood Gear Shift Knob (standard with Y59)
Dark Rootwood Gear Shift Knob (standard with Y60)
Porsche Crest Rim Caps
Wheels Painted to match vehicle's color
Leather Covered Instrument Rings (standard with X34)
Leather Gear Box Tunnel (standard with Y17)
Leather Covered Tray Located behind parking brake (standard with )
Leather Ignition Lock Rosette
Leather Covered Ignition Key
Leather Steering Wheel Casing
Leather Tiptronic Shift Plate
Leather Wrapped Shift Knob and Cover (deviating colors or to sample)
Leather Control Knobs
Leather Covered Glove Box Knob
Leather Turn Signal/Wiper Switch
Leather Power Window Switches (standard with Y66)
Leather Inside Door Handles (standard with Y66 and Y16)
Leather Fresh Air Side Dash Vents (standard with Package Y65)
Leather Fresh Air Center Vent (standard with Y65)
Leather Parking Brake Lever (standard with Package Y17)
Leather Sunvisors
Leather Cabriolet Boot
Leather Seat Belt Locks & Housing (standard with Y17)
Leather Radio Speaker Trim Rings (standard with Y66 and Y18)
Leather Seat Hinges (standard with Y67 and Y18)
Leather Front Backrests Lock Controls (standard with Y67 and Y18)
Rear Window Washer
Leather Covered Ventilating Cover (standard with Y65)
Leather Fresh Air Side Vents (standard with Y65)
Leather Air Conditioning Switches includes heat adjustment covers
Leather Heat Adjuster Switches (standard with Package Y67 and Y18)
Leather Seat Adjuster Switches (standard with Y67 and Y18)
Leather Ring Plates for Seat Adjuster (switch Standard with Y67 and Y18)
Leather Fuel Tank Pull Knob
Leather B-Pillar Seatbelt Covers
XW1
XW2
XW3
XW3
XW4
XW5
XW6
XW8
XW9
XX1
XX2
XX3
XX6
XZ4
XZ7
Y01
Y02
Y03
Y04
Y05
Y06
Y07
Y08
Y09
Y10
Y16
Y17
Y18
Y23
Y24
Y25
Y26
Y29
Y59
Y60
Y61
Y62
Y63
Y65
Y66
Y67
Y75
Z02
Z05
Z06
Z07
Z08
Z09
Leather Seat Belt Rosettes
Leather Rear Seat Belt Locks & Housing (standard with Y17)
Leather Clock Adjustment
Leather Rear Window Wiper Switch
Leather Light Switch
Leather Wiper/Instrument Light Knobs
Leather Door Lock Pin Rosettes (standard with Y66 and Y16)
Leather Door Entrance Panel Sills (standard with Package Y66)
Leather Entrance Panel Covers
Embroidered Floor Mats (requires leather interior trim)
Footwell Lights
Map Pocket Lights
Leather Shift Lever Knob Pattern insert with deviating colors
Leather Glove Box Rosette
Leather OS Mirror Adjuster Frame (standard on Y66)
Spoiler-Aero Kit I w/Front Duct
Spoiler-Aero Kit II with Rockers
Shift Lever/Brake Handle-Carbon
Carbon pkg I - lower dash, door trim, guage panel (standard with Y25)
Shift Lever/Brake Handle-carbon and aluminum
Shift Lever/Brake Handle-Aluminum
Shift Lever/Brake Handle-aluminum and light wood
Shift Lever/Brake Handle-aluminum and dark wood
Light Rootwood Pkg - steering wheel, parking brake, shifter, dashboard
Dark Rootwood Pkg - steering wheel, parking brake, shifter, dashboard
Exclusive Package I - leather door rosettes, handles, speaker trim
Exclusive Pkg II - leather seatbelt locks and housings, shifter tunnel,
parking brake, tray behind parking brake
Exclusive Package III - leather seat adjuster switches, hinges, etc
Aluminum Tiptronic Selector includes aluminum brake lever
Carbon Tiptronic Selector includes carbon brake lever
Carbon package II (Y04 plus: steering wheel, shifter, brake handle)
Carbon Pkg III
Aluminum/Chrome Pkg (instruments, tailpipe, door sill)
Light Wood Pkg (steering wheel, shifter, brake lever, dash)
Dark Wood Pkg (steering wheel, shifter, brake lever, dash)
Carbon Tiptronic Shifter includes carbon hand brake
Light Wood Tiptronic Shifter includes wood hand brake, aluminum switch
Dark Wood Tiptronic Shifter includes wood hand brake, aluminum switch
Dash Pkg (leather vent covers)
Door Pkg (leather sills, pwr switches, locks, speaker trim, etc)
Leather Seat Pkg (switches, hinges, adjusters, etc)
Front and Rear Spoilers with Aero Kit
Leather Console Tray
Leather Headliner (Custom Color) Includes A- and B-pillars and visors
Steering Wheel-Deviating Color
Trunk Carpeting (matches interior color, without CD changer)
Trunk Carpeting (Matches interior color, with CD changer)
Custom Leather Carpet Welting (color matched to sample interior)
Z11
Z21
Z27
Z27
Z27
Z31
Z35
Z41
Z42
Z43
Z44
Z45
Z46
Z50
Z51
Z53
Z65
Z66
Z69
Z79
Z86
Z95
Leather Carpet Welting standard color or matching interior color
Seat Stitching-Alternate Standard Colors
Headliner, Leatherette (deviating current color; visor & pillars)
Headliner, Standard Leather
Leather Headliner (Porsche Colors) Includes A- and B-pillars and visors
Leather Knee Bar
Leather Knee Bar (requires all-leather interior)
Pearl White Metallic Paint (requires metallic paint to sample)
Door Trim Panels-Leatherette
Door Trim Panels-Leather (includes armrests, requires full leather interior)
Leather Armrests/Compartments Lids
Front Seat Inlays (deviating current colors; requires full leather seats)
Rear Seat Inlays (deviating current colors; requires full leather seats)
Seatbelts, Red or Yellow Front
Front/Rear Seat Inlays (deviating current color; requires leather)
Head Rests Stamped w/ Porsche Crest (requires leather upholstery)
Leatherette Beltline In standard deviating colors
Leatherette Beltline (Cabriolet) in deviating standard color
Carpet-Standard Color (deviating from interior colors)
Deviating Standard Color A & B Pillars
Dashboard in Deviating Standard Color
Titanium or Black Brake Calipers
944/944S/951
REQUIRED MAINTENANCE INTERVAL
LIST OF MAINTENANCE
CHECKLIST
ITEMS
15,000 mile Checklist
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
Check and replace if necessary main timing belt
Engine: visual inspection for leaks
Cooling and heating system: check for leaks
Coolant hoses: check condition and tighten hose clips
Radiator: visual inspection for external fouling
Coolant (antifreeze); check level and antifreeze content and, correct if necessary
Crankcase ventilation: check tightness of hose connections
Fuel system: visual inspection for leaks and tightness of line connections
Intake air: check hoses, lines and connections for tightness
Parking brake: check free travel of parking-brake lever and correct if necessary
Brake pedal: check play of brake pedal and correct if necessary
Brake hoses and lines: visual inspection for leaks, damage and corrosion
Check brake fluid level and top up if necessary
Brake system: visual inspection of brake pads and discs to check for wear
Clutch: check play and correct if necessary
Clutch plate: check for wear
Hydraulic Clutch actuator: visual inspection for leaks
Steering gear: check screw connections for tightness
Visual inspection of the bellows for damage
Tie rod links: check play, tightness and dust caps
Power-assisted steering: visual inspection for leaks, check fluid level and correct if
necessary
Ball joints: visual inspection of dust caps for damage
Wishbone: check screw connections for tightness
Front wheel bearings: check play and correct if necessary
Rear wheel bearings: check play and correct if necessary
Lubricate clutch release lever and secondary spring
Manual transmission: check fluid level and correct if necessary
Automatic transmission: check fluid level and correct if necessary
29. Drive shafts: visual inspection of sleeves for leaks and damage
30. Exhaust system: visual inspection for leaks and damage, check screw connections for
tightness and attachment
31. Tires: check condition and correct tire pressure
32. Door arrester: check operation and lubricate
33. Door hinges: lubricate
34. Check door, engine hood locks and safety hooks on front hood for tightness and
function
35. Seals for doors, hood and roof: remove abraded rubber, apply suitable agent to seals
36. Safety switch for fuel pump: check operation
37. Safety switch for charging pressure: check operation
38. Check operation of vehicle lighting
39. All headlights: check setting and correct if necessary
40. Horn: check operation
41. Retractable headlights: lubricate rods
42. Throttle actuator: check for smooth running
43. Windshield washer system: check function, check fluid level and nozzle setting
44. Headlight washer : check operation, check fluid level and nozzle setting
45. Battery: check fluid level and top up if necessary
46. Check operation of all electrical control equipment and optional extras
47. Heater, ventilation and air-conditioner blower: check operation
30,000 mile Maintenance
■
■
Automatic transmission: change ATF, clean ATF strainer
Check and replace if necessary main timing belt
60,000 mile Maintenance
■
■
■
Manual transmission: change oil in differential
Check and replace as necessary waterpump
Check and replace if necessary main timing belt (and every 15K miles afterward)
2 year Maintenance
■
■
Brake system: renew brake fluid
Cooling system: renew coolant fluid
Porsche 924 / 944 / 968 (1976)
924 was launched in 1976. It was the cheapest model and accounted for 60% of Porsche's sales. Porsche built it in
Audi's factory near Stuttgart, where Audi's 2-litre fuel-injected engine was put into the car. Early cars had rust problems,
but Porsche quickly solved that with the most promising rust-proofing treatment.
924 might not be the greatest sports car but certainly the most influential coupe in the 70s and 80s. Its emphasis on
elegant engineering inspired many rivals. No other cars in its segment were so well-made and well-tuned. None of
them had the same level of handling. It was this car which accelerated the transformation of Japanese sports cars from
cheap metal to excellent machines. Its styling was also imitated by rivals. If you look at Mazda RX7, Mitsubishi Starion,
Toyota Supra, Chevrolet Corvette and Dodge Laser, you'll either find a trace of its shape or its features, e.g. pop-up
headlamps and the distinctive swoopy rear glass window.
924 was originally a joint-project with Volkswagen (once again). Porsche knew
very well that a budget sports car needed mass production parts supplied by a
giant car maker, so was the investment. Therefore 924 was designed to use
many VW / Audi's components - many parts of the front MacPherson strut and
rear semi-trailing arm suspensions came from Golf, so was the door handle,
instrument gauges etc.. The four-cylinder engine was designed to be shared
with Audi's forthcoming 100 saloon. However, due to the energy crisis, VW quit the project (once again !!) when the car
was still under development and sold the production right to Porsche for $60 million, which was a decision that VW
would forever regret.
The 924 was a success in the United States. Apart from praising its beautiful and elegant exterior, most people were
impressed by the first class handling, superb steering feel and stable cornering. The latter must hanks to the adoption
of rear-mounted transaxle gearbox which counter-balanced the front engine. Superb gearchange and strong brakes
(always a feature of Porsche) also contributed to the handling competence.
In contrast, since the 2-litre injected engine (125 hp in Europe, 95 hp in US) did not provide sufficient punch,
performance was just OK. Autocar measured 126 mph and 9.5 sec for 0-60 mph. Obviously the US version was much
worse. Of course, Porsche wouldn't ignore the requirement from its biggest market, so in 1978 the 924 turbo was born.
924 turbo
Having experienced in 911 turbo, Porsche put a KKK
turbo (without intercooler) into 924's engine in 1978.
Power and torque jumped to 170 hp and 181 lbft
respectively. Autocar recorded 142 mph and 7.7 sec
for 0-60 mph. Now the 924 became a real winner.
944
Its successor, 944, was even more successful. In order to improve build quality, production went back to Porsche's
own factory in Zuffenhausen. As a result, fit and finish and painting were greatly improved. The exterior was changed,
too. Widened wheel arches made it looked much more muscular while enabled wider tracks which enhanced handling.
I still remember the first time I saw it - when I was a 13 year-old school boy. The red 944 passed in front of my eyes
very fast. The widened arches, about it I will never forget, made me believed it must not be an ordinary 924. I guessed
it might be a 924 turbo which I had never seen before. A month later, I read the 944 in a car magazine.
944
944 S
944 turbo
The biggest difference from 924 was the engine: instead of the Audi engine, 944 was powered by a true Posrche-built
unit. It was derived from 928's V8. Displaced at 2479 c.c., it was extraordinarily large for a 4-cylinder. To cure the
vibration problem which usually occurs in a large inline-4, Porsche installed twin-balancer shafts, which was a patent of
Mitsubishi although originally invented by Lancester (Dr. Fred). There were 3 different versions of the engine - an
ordinary 8 valves version used in 944 Lux (or simply called "944"), a 16-valver used in 944S and a 220 hp 8V
turbocharged version powered the hottest 944 turbo.
All of them were as smooth as six-cylinder. The base engine had
useable performance from the 163 hp output. The turbo was crazy fast 153 mph, 0-60 took only 6 seconds flat. The 16 valves provided good
performance from 185 hp while without the turbo's drawback - turbo lag
and high fuel consumption. Anyway, compared with contemporary 911
turbo, 944 turbo had a much better manner.
944 was very popular in USA, sales over there peaked at 30,000 units in 1986, the highest record for Porsche until
today.
944 Series 2
But its successor was not so successful. Since 1986, Deutschmark rose considerably while Japanese sports cars were
also rising. The sales in USA dropped rapidly to 16,000 units in 1988 so that Porsche had to revise it to Series 2. The
three engines were replaced by a 2.7-litre 8 valver (in 944 Lux), 3.0-litres 16 valves (in 944 S2) and a big turbo 944
Turbo SE (250hp from the same 2.5 litres).
Perhaps Porsche did too little on the revised versions, Japanese cars
headed by Nissan 300ZX, Toyota Supra and the cheaper Celica ate its
market share rapidly. These cars imitated the Porsche but was sold at a
much lower price while offered better cabin and long list of standard
equipment. Porsche started to realise the golden age of 944 had gone.
I must point out that the 944 Series 2 still offered the best handling in its
class. Autocar compared 944S2 with the handsome Nissan 300ZX
non-turbo, the UK magazine still chose the Porsche as the real driver's
choice but also praised the overall competence of the Nissan. Meanwhile,
Fast Lane magazine compared 944 Turbo SE with the 300 hp 300ZX
twin-turbo and Renault Alpine A610, still rated the Porsche's handling as
marginally better than rivals, although eventually chose the Alpine as overall winner.
968
The sun was setting, but Porsche wanted to phase out in style. In 1991, the whole 944 line was replaced by a single
model, 968. 968 was a new name, but it was actually an evolution from the 944 series 2. It got a pair of circular
headlamps similar to 928's, new bumpers, rear lights and rear spoiler.
Under the bonnet was 944 S2's 3-litre four added with a kind of variable valve timing called "Variocam". Three different
valve timings were set to serve different engine speeds: below 1,500 rpm minimum valve overlapping improved torque
and refinement. From 1,500 to 5,500 rpm medium overlapping was used. Above 5,500 rpm the largest overlapping
helped raising rpm as well as top end power. As a result, maximum power jumped from 211 hp to 240 hp and torque
was increased from 207 lbft to 225 lbft, a record for any production 3-litre normally-aspirated engine. That was the last
glorious moment of the big four-pot, and also the last shine of the mighty 924 empire.
Now six-speed gearbox replaced the 5-speed. 4-speed Tiptronic was carried over from 911.
968 CS
968 did not improve very much in handling and other aspect, perhaps
because 944 Series 2 was good enough. Real drivers had to wait until the
Club Sport version appeared in 1993 for real improvement in handling. The
968 CS followed the way 911 CS tried in 1987 - lowered the ride height by an
inch, stiffened the springs and dampers, reduced 50 kg weight by deleting
equipment (air-con, power windows, leather seats, heavy hi-fi etc.)
Because of the discarded equipment, Porsche UK could price it at under
30,000 pounds, which was considerably cheaper than 300ZX turbo and the
like. But most important, its handling became even sharper - Autocar elected it as the best handling car in 1993 and 94,
against Ferrari 348, Lotus Esprit and Honda NSX etc.
Yes, the 924 family eventually quit in style.
Specifications
Model
Year
924
1976
Front-engined,
Rwd.
944
1982
Front-engined,
Rwd.
944S
1986
Front-engined,
Rwd.
Engine
Inline-4, sohc,
2v/cyl.
Inline-4, sohc,
2v/cyl.
Inline-4, dohc,
4v/cyl.
Engine Capacity
Power
Torque
Gearbox
Weight
Top speed
0-60 mph
1984 c.c.
125 hp
121 lbft
5M
1114 kg
126 mph*
9.5 sec*
2479 c.c.
163 hp
151 lbft
5M
1320 kg
137 mph*
7.4 sec*
2479 c.c.
185 hp
169 lbft
5M
-140 mph*
6.7 sec*
944 turbo
1985
Front-engined,
Rwd.
Inline-4, sohc,
2v/cyl, turbo
2479 c.c.
220 hp
243 lbft
5M
1350 kg
153 mph*
6.0 sec*
Model
Year
944 (Series 2)
1988
Front-engined,
Rwd.
944 S2
1988
Front-engined,
Rwd.
Engine
Inline-4, sohc,
2v/cyl.
Inline-4, dohc,
4v/cyl.
Engine Capacity
Power
Torque
Gearbox
Weight
Top speed
0-60 mph
2681 c.c.
165 hp
166 lbft
5M
1320 kg
136 mph*
7.0 sec*
2990 c.c.
211 hp
207 lbft
5M
1350 kg
146 mph*
6.0 sec*
944 turbo SE
1988
Front-engined,
Rwd.
Inline-4, sohc,
2v/cyl, turbo
2479 c.c.
250 hp
258 lbft
5M
1400 kg
152 mph*
5.7 sec*
968 CS
1993
Front-engined,
Rwd.
Inline-4, dohc,
4v/cyl, VVT.
2990 c.c.
240 hp
225 lbft
6M
1335 kg
150 mph*
6.1 sec*
Layout
Layout
* Tested by Autocar
Porsche
Named after its founder Ferdinand Porsche, Porsche is the largest sports car
maker in the world. Annual production rate in recent years is around 15,000
to 30,000 cars. In its 67 years history, it has built many greatest sports cars:
356, 911, 924/944 series and 928. 356 was one of the most beloved classics,
924/944 series reinvented the idea of "afford sports cars", 928 was the only
sports car ever won European Car of The Year (COTY) title, but the most
legendary still belongs to the mighty 911, which was in production for as
long as 34 years and still remained as the core of Porsche's line-up.
Ferdinand Porsche and Ferry Porsche
Ferdinand Porsche was born in 1875. In my opinion, he was the greatest
automotive engineer in history. He emerged as a designer for electric cars,
then joined Daimler in 1906 to start his motor car engineering career. During
his brightest years, he designed the famous Mercedes SSK (one of the
greatest pre-war cars), the Auto Union GP racer (the first mid-engined race
car, with a V16 engine) and the NSU "people's car", which evolved to VW
Beetle after the war. His talent also expended to military area like tanks, aero
engines and military trucks. Therefore he was jailed after the war until 1947,
four years before his death. Maybe his greatest achievement was the
establishment of his own company in 1931, which became the greatest sports
car maker later.
Professor Porsche was the last automotive engineer who design the entire car
by himself. Accompany with his versatility and his influence in subsequent
automotive design, few can be compared with him. His son, Ferry Porsche
(1909-98), was not ordinary either. Being a greatest engineer's son and
trained in Bosch, he succeeded his father to enhance the reputation of their
company. In fact, it was his achievement rather than his father's to establish
the solid status of Porsche as famous a sports car maker. His creations
included 356 and 911.
DRIVING IN IT'S FINEST FORM: THE PORSCHE 944
SERIES
THE PORSCHE 944 SERIES:
FOR 1989, MORE POWER, MANY REFINEMENTS
One of Porsche's many traditions is the ability to create and produce a sports
car concept so correct that it becomes the standard for it's type in the
industry. Introduced in the fall of 1981, the Porsche 944 was hailed as a
breakthrough, a sports car to inspire imitation among it's competitors. Car
and Driver called the 944 "America's Best Handling car" and "One of
America's 10 Best" four years running. In spite of all the praise, Porsche
engineers at the famed Weissach Development Center never stop trying to
make it better. To refine it into an optimum configuration. So, in true
Porsche tradition, 944 project engineers live with the 944 each day, driving it
in every conceivable climate, under the most adverse road conditions. They
keep making it handle even better, making it faster, even more solid, more
fun to own. And finally, putting exciting new editions into production. New
editions like the 1989 944, 944 S2, and 944 Turbo. As in the past, these new
Porsches will continue to inspire imitations. Unfortunately, those who drive
the Porsche "look alike" will miss the exculsivity of owning the real thing: in
1989, fewer than one new car in eight hundred sold in the U.S. will be a 944
Series sports car.
The 1989 944 series is an eloquent example of Porsche AG's refinement
philosophy. The new Porsche 944: a higher performing 2.7 liter 165bhp
engine and newly standard comfort and convenience features. The Porsche
944 S2: a new 3.0 liter engine - one of the most powerful fours in the world
today - in the same body and chassis as last year's 944 Turbo. And the new
Porsche 944 Turbo: the same searing performance as the 944 Turbo S, the
roadgoing version of Porsche's famous Turbo Cup car, makes it the fastest 4
cylinder production car ever built. At Porsche, rarely is a single change made
to realize one benefit. Rather, goals are clearly stated and then existing
technology is synergistically improved to reap an optimized new
configuration having multiple benefits. The new 944 engine is a case in
point. In seeking better pulling power from low rpm, Porsche engineers
specified a displacement increase, from 2.5 to 2.7 liters. But the didn't stop
there. They also: raised the compression ratio to 10.9:1; enlarged the intake
valves; gave the engine a new camshaft with modified timing;and revised
the digital motor electronics (DME) settings. These optimization efforts paid
off in an impressive increase in torque, particularly at low rpms. Elsewhere
in the 944, there are other refinements... ABS braking and automatic speed
control are now standard, the passenger's seat now adjusts electrically in
height, the electric sunroof and Charleston radio are standard, as is a new
alarm system and larger capacity battery. Naturally, new colors and interiors
are available.
Quoted from the 1989 Porsche 944 Sales brochure
THE NEW PORSCHE 944 S2
THE PORSCHE 944 S2: 3.0 LITERS, 208 BHP.
For more than 30 years, Porsche engineers have used the "S" designation proudly. It says "this is our Super
version of this Porsche sports engine." In the case of the 944 S2, it also carries the engineer's pride of being the
second generation of a "Super" version. The first-generation 944 S of 1987 was the first liquid cooled Porsche 4
cylinder engine to employ 4 valves per cylinder. The 1989 944 S2 engine is a full 20% larger than that engine,
making it, at 3.0 liters and 208 bhp, one of the most powerful naturally aspirated fours in the world today.
Also in true Porsche tradition, the new 944 S2 engine's impressive specifications are derived directly from
Porsche's successful racing heritage: high durability forged pistons; a new block pattern air intake system for
optimum throttle response; active, regulated engine compartment ventilation with 3-speed blower; large,
externally mounted light alloy oil cooler with thermostat for optimum engine temperature regulation; and
modified digital motor electronics. Maximum torque of 207 lb-ft is reached at 4100 rpm; the engine's 208 bhp
maximum power is achieved at 5800 rpm with the redline at 6500 rpm. The Porsche 944 S2 owner can depend
on the balance of their automobile being fully compatable with the new high output engine. The suspension,
transmission, competition tested four-piston brake system with ram air cooling, shock absorbers and stabilizers
are borrowed directly from the famed 944 Turbo. All 944 features are standard, and include protective side
mouldings.
Quoted from the 1989 Porsche 944 sales brochure.
AN EXCITING NEW CONVERTIBLE
Introduced at the 1985 Frankfurt Auto Show in prototype form, the long awaited cabriolet version of the 944 has
proven to be worth the wait while Porsche refined each detail for full Porsche production quality. Porsche's
development objective behind the 944 S2 Cabriolet was to enhance the driving pleasure unique to the 944 Series
by the sensation of top-down driving. This elegant, agile convertible meets and surpasses every sports car
convertible goal.
In the past, a Porsche Cabriolet edition must offer all the qualities of it's Coupe counterpart. The 944 S2 is no
exception. The fully lined, insulated top is easily raised or lowered; when up, it provides near Coupe comfort
qualities. Thanks to the transaxle driveline - engine in front, transmission and fuel tank in the rear - the 944 S2
body is highly rigid, making it an ideal basis for a convertible. To further ensure torsional rigidity, Porsche
engineers specified various bodyshell reinforcements to ensure safety without compromises. Galvanized
reinforcing panels and special corrision protected joints result in long-term protection typical of Porsche.
The Cabriolet's windshield - lower than on the 944 S2 Coupe version - permits ideal open-top driving pleasure.
The interior retains the practical 2 + 2 features of the Coupe; folding down the rear seats provides access to the
luggage compartment, allowing skis or other bulky items to be transported. The 944 S2 personifies the Porsche
designer's wish to let the owner of this exciting new Porsche "have it all:" high leisure time value, with leisure
time versatility - combined, of course, with Porsche performance!
THE FASTEST 4-CYLINDER AUTOMOBILE EVER MADE
PORSCHE 944 TURBO: A TURBO CUP CAR FOR THE
STREET.
For 1989, Porsche proudly presents the 944 Turbo, the fastest 4 cylinder
production automobile ever made. To appreciate the technological sophistication
represented by the 944 Turbo, a brief review of the model's history may be
helpful. Porsche project engineers set a seemingly impossible design goal for the
2.5 liter intercooled and turbocharged engine... a 50% increase in bhp over the
then-944's 147 bhp, a 77% increase in torque - all with the smallest possible
penalty in fuel economy. The resulting sports car hit the target squarely: 217bhp,
243 ft-lbs torque, top track speed 152 mph *, fuel economy approximately 1 mpg
less than the 944.
Putting power and efficiency of this magnatude in the superbly balanced 944
transaxle format created an automobile that drew enthusiastic praise from
throughout the motoring world. Automobile was typical: "The inherent balance
you detect in the 944 Turbo makes you feel you could do anything with it; the
practicality of it makes it easy to enjoy." However impressive such a level of
performance may be, last year Porsche introduced an even higher performance
version of the 944 Turbo. Produced in a limited series of 1000, this automobile
was derived directly from a racing version that competed in the Porsche Turbo
Cup series waged throughout Western Europe. For 1989 the new 944 Turbo
includes all of the performance characteristics of the 944 Turbo S. It features 30
bhp more power, significantly higher torque, and improved suspension, brakes,
wheels and tires. The brake system with ABS is from the 928 S4 system. New
wider forged wheels are 7 in. front, 9 in. rear, with 225/50 ZR16 tires at the front
and 245/45 ZR at the rear. The sports suspension settings are basically the same
as on the successful Turbo Cup models. The result, for the Porsche 944 Turbo
owner, is an uncanny level of handling for a street car - with maximum reserves
of safety for everyday driving. "It's 65.1 mph sprint through the cones and .89g
loop around the 200ft circle makes it one of the fastest cars we've ever tested"
found Road and Track. To this road car with very direct competition links
Porsche has added the most comprehensive complement of luxury and
convenience equipment. Air conditioning, limited slip differential, power tilt
sunroof, stereo cassette music system with hi-fi sound package, and an alarm
system are a few of the standard equipment features.
*Top speeds are noted to show performance capabilities. Porsche recommends that
all speed laws be obeyed
Quoted from the 1989 Porsche 944 sales brochure.
SYSTEMS ENGINEERING: AN OPTIMIZED SYNTHESIS
A PERFECT SYNTHESIS OF DESIGN SOLUTIONS
The new Porsche 944 Turbo is the embodiment of Porsche's commitment to develop a sports car as a system with power increases dictating chassis development. After meeting the original design goal of 50% more power,
Porsche engineers proceeded to specify more sophisticated brakes, transmission cooling, heavier duty
suspension, optimized aerodynamics - even wider wheels with lower profile tires.
Each Porsche 944 Series sports car is a uniquely successful blending of advanced driveline and suspension
technology. Of economy. Of unparalled quality in design, engineering and manufacturing. Of reliability and
everyday practicality. Of driver and passenger comfort, ease of control and design features affording substantial
active and passive safety.
Moreover, here is an excellent synthesis of desirable characteristics that at first glance might seem contradictory.
For example, responsive handling and economy, or high performance and everyday reliability. Far from being a
product of chance, this synthesis is based on extensive knowledge gained from Porsche research and
development covering every aspect of automobile manufacturing. From Porsche's rigorous involvement in motor
sports. And from consistent worldwide communications with Porsche owners. Porsche designers, engineers and
builders proudly endowed the 944 Series with these qualities considered so desirable in a sports car. Qualities
that are steadily making these Porsche's contemporary classics.
At Porsche, solutions are synthesized until they solve multidimensional needs. In the case of the 944 S2 and 944
Turbo, a wing apron, specially developed for this ultrahigh-performance automobile and situated below the rear
bumper, fulfills three tasks at once: airflow under the vehicle is improved; straight line behavior is stabilized; and
the transmission and muffler are effectively cooled.
Quoted from the 1989 944 sales brochure.
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