944 History Born on the Track The 944 was the direct descendant of the 924 Carrera series and ultimately the earlier 924/931. Beginning in 1979 and the following two years Porsche began developing racing hybrids based on the 924 which later lead to the 944. In 1979/80 Porsche built 406 examples of the 924 Carrera GT. In the following two years, Zuffenhausen continued on to develop several competition versions of the 924 culminating in 1982 with the 924 Carrera GTS (of which 5 were built up as Club Sport models and sold to private owners,) and the limited competition 924 Carrera GTR. When looking at the Carrera GTS Club Sport, one can immediately see the immanent arrival of the 944. Introducing the 944 In order to improve build quality, over the 924 production done at Audi's facility in Neckarsulm, production/assembly of the 944 was done in Zuffenhausen. The power plant was literally derived from half of the 928's V8. At 2479 cc (2.5 liters) the engine was large by four cylinder standards of the day. The engine was a modern design with high compression and a broad power band. The initial power plant was rated at 163 hp (ROW) and 150 hp for the U.S. The 944 was originally announced to the world at the September, 1981 Frankfurt auto show with the U.S. introduction one year later. Upon its introduction the interior of the 944 remained much the same as the 924 while the rear suspension, although improved, retained the VW-derived architecture. In addition to a change in the front suspension control arms, the rear suspension would change with the major revision of the 944 that occurred mid year in 1985. Often times, owners will refer to there 944 as an 85.5, designating the completely redesigned interior and other improvements to the base 944 including; new heater, air conditioning, minor revisions to the bodywork including a flush mounted windscreen, new cats aluminum front A-arms and rear trailing arms suspension components. Although changes where made to the engine, Porsche did not announce any changes to the factory performance specifications. Practical comparison of this watershed model change and it's predecessors indicates performance gains did result however. The 951 At the end of 1985, Porsche announced the 944 Turbo (factory model designation 951) which arrived in the U.S. as a 1986 model. Performance of the 951 was a reminder of the 944's legacy, even in it's toned down production form. Aside from the turbo charged power plant generating 217 hp with 243 ft/lbs of torque, the 951 had other major enhancements over it's normally aspirated brother. Specifically the 951 included aerodynamic polyurethane front bumper/spoiler with new air intakes serving the turbo's intercooler mounted between the headlights under the front panel. Under body panels where added to cleanup air flow beneath the car. This extended to the distinctive air diffuser mounted under the rear of the car to cleanup exiting airflow past the rear end. As well, the 951 received Bembo 4 piston calipers to bring the car to a stop as well as special forged alloy wheels. The suspension received stiffer components to round out the comprehensive performance upgrades. The 951 also has the distinction of being the first sports car to offer both driver-side and passenger-side airbags. Porsche also produced 198 versions of the 944 Turbo as Cup racing cars. The 944S The 944S arrived as a 1987 model year addition with a redesigned 16 valve dual overhead cam engine producing 190 hp. In addition to the increased number of valves and cams, the 944S came with an improved Digital Motor Electronics (DME) system with knock-sensing regulation capabilities. Also included on the base 944, the 944S benefited from the new timing belt tensioner which was implemented for the 1987 model year. As well, the 944S received the Bembo brake calipers with optional ABS. The initial 944S shared the base models bodywork until 1990. Porsche Upgrades the 951 Porsche revisited the 951 and in 1988 introduced the 944 Turbo S with total model year production of 718. This performance version of the already impressive 944 Turbo received many significant improvements including: bigger Bempo brakes, ABS, firmer springs and torsion bars, stiffer Koni low-pressure gas adjustable shock absorbers, a thicker front sway bar, and firmer suspension bushings. The following year, Porsche dropped the "S" designation and the standard 944 Turbo was in fact the "S" form factor, building 1385 for 1989. This was to be the last year the U.S. market would have access to the 944 Turbo. 944 Series 2 In 1990 Porsche releases the 944 Series 2, designated 944 S2. The S2 was an extensive revision of the 944S which now included the aerodynamic bodywork of the 951. The previous three engines available were replaced by the 3.0 liter's 16 valve engine and a big turbo 2.5 liter 944 Turbo (sold in Europe). As well, a soft-top version of the 944 was introduced, the 944 S2 Cabriolet. The new cabriolet was produced jointly by Porsche and the German division of the American Sunroof Corporation. The Turbo Cabriolet Unfortunately for the U.S. market, Porsche offered a Turbo Cabriolet version to the rest of the world through 1991 with the U.S. having the standard S2 Cabriolet to satisfy our open air appetites. Only 625 (non-U.S.-spec) 944 Turbo Cabriolets where built. Unless you know someone abroad who owns one and had driven it, we are left to only dream what a drop head coupe in Turbo form factor would have felt like. 944 Series 3: Introducing the 968 In the fall of 1991, Zuffenhausen announced the Series 3 944, model designation 968. There was a brief period where what we now know as the 968 was to be designated the 944 S3 but in order to boost slumping sales, the model was marketed under it's factory designation and technically represented the final refined version of the 944 family line. In addition to further tuning of the 3 liter motor seen in the S2, the 968 debuted with circular headlamps, new nose and rear end. The interior remained virtually unchanged from the past several years. In addition output of the 3 liter was increased to 240 hp, resulting in the most powerful normally aspirated production 4 cylinder available. Performance was primarily gained through the use of a Variocam, a camshaft chain drive with an adjustable tensioned to retard intake valve actuation up to 7.5 degrees. Along with the 29 hp increase, torque was also increased from 207 lbft to 225 lbft. The engine also now included piston oil spray cooling from squirters similar to the 911. Managing the power transfer to the rear wheels was a six speed gearbox (offered as either a ZF or Torsen limited slip differential,) or an optional 4 speed Tiptronic. The ZF LSD was to be deleted the following year in 1993 with the Torsen version as the only one offered (option code M220).. 968 Club Sport As a final testament reaching all the way back to the 924 Carrera Club Sport, the 968 Club Sport version appeared in 1993. The 968 CS included one inch reduction in ride height, stiffened springs and dampers, fully adjustable suspension, and reduce weight. As with past Porsche Club Sport models, weight reduction was obtained through deleting luxuries like; air conditioning, power windows, leather seats, stereo, and sound insulation from the passenger compartment. In actuality a stripped down high performance version of the 968 Coupe, Porsche priced the 968 CS (available only in Europe,) under $60,000, which was considerably cheaper than production super cars of the time. The 968 CS represented the pinnacle of performance and handling for the normally aspirated 944/968. Rare Air - 968 Turbo S That being said, Porsche had one final parting pass at the 968 which resulted in the ultimate performance incantation, the 968 Turbo S. The Turbo S was a rare model only offered as limited production (15 examples total ) available in Europe. The water cooled KKK turbocharger produced 305 hp (@5,400 rpm) and 369 lb-ft of torque (@3,000 rpm). Based on the 968 CS, the Turbo S rivaled even the 911 Turbo of that year. In 1995, with development of the Boxster well underway and set to debut in 1996, Porsche discontinued the 968 bringing to a close the most successful line of Porsche outside of the 911. The 968 in Competition In that final year Porsche produced and campaigned a competition version of the 968 Turbo S designated the 968 Turbo RS. Blisteringly fast with the by now the respected handling attributes of the 944 S2 suspension architecture, it was a champion from the perspective of performance with some 377 hp. This would be the final farewell to arguably one of the most underrated Porsche production lines ever. 944 FAMILY PRODUCTION 924 Carrera GT Model Year Production Germany Rest of World 1980 GT 406 200 206 Notes includes prototypes 924 Factor Competition Production Model Year Type Production Notes 1978 924 Rallye Turbo 4 1979 924 Rallye Turbo 1 N/A N/A 1979 924 SCCA 16 for US market 1979 924 Group 4 1 built up from street car 1980 924 Le Mans GTP 4 N/A 1981 924 Carrera GTS 59 5 were Club Sport with cage, etc. 1981 924 Carrera GTR 17 N/A total 101 944 Model Year Production Rest of World USA Notes 1982 3921 3921 N/A 1983 14633 9127 5506 1984 26539 9921 16618 1985 23720 17553 6167 1986 17010 6109 10901 1987 10689 2343 8346 1988 5965 2226 3731 8 to Aus. 1989 10593 4941 5652 total 113070 56141 56921 944 Turbo Model Year Production Rest of World USA 1985 178 178 N/A 1986 10273 2760 7513 1987 4955 1546 + 188 SP 3210 + 11 SP Notes 1988 1989 4097 * 4103 1875 + 94 SP 1874 + 98 SP in addition, 126 SP Can., 30 SP Aus. 1333 1385 1385 Can 1990 1251 1107 144 1991 875 º 875 N/A total 25107 9331 14235 30 Aus, 1511 Can * includes 1000 Turbo S ** includes 625 Turbo Cabriolet "SP" designates a sport package option 944S Model Year Production Rest of World USA Notes 1987 1988 5862 7074 2635 1305 3127 5562 100 SP 20 Aus, 188 SP Can total 12936 4040 8688 20 Aus, 188 Can 944S2 Model Year Production Rest of World USA 1989 N/A N/A 970 1990 1991 3321 3118 2872 2608 449 510 total 944S2 Cabriolet Model Year Production Rest of World USA 1989 N/A N/A 16 1990 3938 2114 1824 1991 1702 1140 562 total 944 Limited Production Model Year Type Production Notes 1981 944 GTP/R Le Mans 1 1986-1989 944 Turbo Cup 150 or more Notes 968 Model Year Production Rest of World USA 1992 N/A N/A N/A 1993 N/A N/A N/A 1994 N/A N/A N/A 1995 N/A N/A N/A total 12793 8116 4677 4389 cabri of which 2260 to US SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE 944/951 Model Year Engine Code Displacement (cc.) 1983 M44/02 2479 150 @ 5500 78.9 x 100 9.5 : 1 DME 016K 2675 94DN450001- 1984 M44/02 2479 150 @ 5500 78.9 x 100 9.5 : 1 DME 016K 2675 94EN450001- 1985- M44/02 2479 150 @ 5500 78.9 x 100 9.5 : 1 DME 016K 2675 94FN470001- 2479 150 @ 5500 78.9 x 100 9.5 : 1 DME 016K 2637 94FN450001- 2479 150 @ 5500 78.9 x 100 9.5 : 1 DME 016K 2637 94GN450001- 78.9 x 100 8.0 : 1 DME 016R 2758 95GN150001- 1985+ 1986 M44/07 M44/07 HP Stroke/bore Compression Fuel Transmission Weight @ (mm.) ratio Delivery Code (lb.) RPM system (DIN) Chassis numbers Turbo M44/51 2479 217 @ 5800 1987 M44/07 2479 158 @ 5900 78.9 x 100 10.2 : 1 DME 016K 2637 94HN470001- 2479 188 @ 6000 78.9 x 100 10.9 : 1 DME 083D 2637 94HN450001- 78.9 x 100 8.0 : 1 DME 016R 2758 95HN150001- 944S M44/40 Turbo M44/51 2479 217 @ 5800 1988 M44/09 2479 158 @ 5900 78.9 x 100 10.2 : 1 DME 016J 2637 94JN470001- 2479 188 @ 6000 78.9 x 100 10.9 : 1 DME 083D 2637 94JN450001- 2479 217 @ 5800 78.9 x 100 8.0 : 1 DME 016R 2758 95JN150001- 944S Turbo M44/40 M44/51 2479 250 @ 5800 78.9 x 100 8.0 : 1 DME 016R 2758 97JN50001- 1989 M44/11, 12 2688 162 @ 5800 78.9 x 104 10.9 : 1 DME 016J 2637 94KN450001- S2 M44/41 3000 208 @ 5800 87.8 x 104 10.9 : 1 DME 083F 2637 94KN480001- 2479 247 @ 6000 78.9 x 100 8.0 : 1 DME 016R 2758 95KN150001- 87.8 x 104 10.9 : 1 DME 083F 2857* 94LN450001- 87.8 x 104 10.9 : 1 DME 083F 2857* 94MN450001- Turbo S M44/52 Turbo M44/52 1990 S2M44/41 3000 208 @ 5800 1991 S2M44/41 3000 208 @ 5800 944/951 CHASSIS & ENGINE SERIAL NUMBERS Chassis Serial Numbers : All 944 chassis numbers consist of two groups of code letters followed by the vehicle serial No. ❍ WPO ZZZ = Europe RoW ❍ WPO AAO = USA/Canada ❍ 94 = first two digits of model No. - Standard 944 ❍ 95 = first two digits of model No. - 951 (944 Turbo) ❍ Z = Europe RoW ❍ O = USA/Canada ❍ D= model year (1983) ❍ E=1984 up to 1990 L (later ZL) 1991 ZM, 1992 ZN ❍ N = Neckarsulm (build plant) ❍ 4 = last digit of model No. (944) ❍ 1 = last digit of model No. (951) Engine Serial Numbers 1983 41D 0001-4999 41D 5001-9999 43D 0001-4999 43D 5001-9999 Serial numbers included expander numbers A000-A999, B000-B999 and so on to H. 1984 41E 00001-20000 41E 20001-30000 43E 00001-20000 43E 20001-30000 1985 as for 1984; year code = F serial no. expanded to 60000 1986 41G 00001-20000 41G 20001-30000 43G 00001-60000 43G 60001-90000 44G 0001-00320 45G 0001-20000 944 Europe RoW manual 944 Europe RoW auto 944 USA, Japan manual 944 USA, Japan auto 944 Europe RoW manual 944 Europe RoW auto 944 USA, Japan, Canada manual 944 USA, Japan, Canada auto 944 Europe RoW manual 944 Europe RoW auto 944 USA, Canada, Japan, Australia manual 944 USA, Canada, Japan, Australia auto 944 Turbo Europe RoW 944 Turbo Worldwide 1987 944: as for 1986 with model year code = H 45H 00001-10000 42H 00001-60000 1988 46J 00001-60000 46J 60001-70000 42J 00001-50000 45J 00001-10000 944 turbo All markets 944S All markets 944 Worldwide manual 944 Worldwide auto 944S Worldwide 944 Turbo, Worldwide OPTION CODES COMPLETE CHART OF FACTORY INSTALLED OPTIONS OVERVIEW In this section we include the complete Porsche Option Code Key as well as the 944/951/968 specific option code chart. In the 944/951/968, the option codes installed at the factory can be found beneath the rear cargo carpartment carpet just above the spare tire well, usually pasted against the rear (forward facing) surface. Use the chart below to match up the option codes for your car. OPTION CODE CHART - 944/951/968 C02 C03 C77 R01 R74 009 018 020 024 026 027 030 031 034 036 058 061 062 070 103 113 119 124 126 130 139 152 153 154 157 158 160 164 176 Catalytic Converter Touring Package (Not Available w/ Airbags) Touring Package Sporto-matic transmission Leather STR Wheel/Raised Hub 380MM(Not Available w/ Airbags) Speedometer with 2 scales KPH/MPH Version for Greece Activated charcoal canister Version for California Club Sport Package Sport shock absorbers Version for Italy Bumpers with impact absorbers Bumpers with impact absorbers Version for Great Britain Mud flap (version for Sweden) Tonneau cover - Cabriolet Adjustment of shock absorber strut Version for Canada Version for Spain Yellow light (version for France) Stickers in French Labeling in English Heated Seat Left Engine noise reduction Engine parts belonging to a stipulated assembly for type 951 Control unit for improved emissions Oxygen sensor and catalyst Radio "Reno" Radio "Charleston" Tires 215/60 VR15 Oil cooler with fan 185 186 187 190 193 195 197 215 218 219 220 221 225 240 241 243 249 255 258 261 262 277 286 288 298 302 308 323 325 330 331 335 340 341 346 347 348 351 360 375 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 387 389 391 393 394 Automatic 2 point rear seat belts Manual 2 point rear seat belts Asymmetric head lights Increased side door strength Version for Japan Prepared for cellular telephone Higher amperage battery Version for Saudi Arabia License brackets front and rear Differential Limited Slip Differential Porsche-locking differential Version for Belgium Version for countries with inferior fuel Shorter shifting travel Shorter gear shift lever Automatic transmission Fuel consumption indicator Heating for outside mirror Passenger side mirror - electric - plain Outside mirror for passenger side, plain, manual Version for Switzerland High intensity windscreen washer Headlight Washers Prepared for unleaded fuel, manual transmission Type designated on rear end Pneumatic spring for engine hood Sticker, without ESE-Regulations Version for South Africa AM/FM Cassette w/2 door speakers Automatic 3 point rear seat belts Heated Seat Right Central Locking System Standard color rims (silver) Platinum anodized wheels Forged wheels - Grand Prix White Porsche-car radio, CR stereo, type DE Mud Guards Clutch lining without asbestos Combination seat, left, adjustable Combination seat, right, adjustable Series seat, left electrical vertical adjustment Series seat, right electrical vertical adjustment Series seat, left Series seat, right Sport Seat Left w/Elec. Height. Adj. Sport Seat Right w/Elec. Height. Adj. Porsche-car radio, CR stereo, type US Stone guard foil, added separately Forged Alloy Wheels-8/9x16 (944/944S) (944 Turbo) Pressure Cast Magnesium Rims (944/944S) (944 Turbo) 395 396 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 406 407 409 410 411 412 414 415 418 419 422 423 424 425 426 429 429 431 432 437 438 439 439 440 441 441 442 443 444 446 447 450 451 454 455 458 461 462 462 463 463 16" Forged Alloy Wheels (944/944S) (944 Turbo) Disk wheel, telephone styling 8Jx15 rear Outside Electric Mirror, Left A/C without front condenser Pressure cast wheels Light metal wheels 50 year anniversary car 1982 Pressure cast 17" wheels Stabilizer Bars Front & Rear Level control system 50 year anniversary car 1982 Front wheel housing protection 1983-1986 18-inch polished wheels Sport seats left and right leather Sport seats left and right leatherette/cloth License bracket, front External oil cooler External Transmission Oil Cooler (Turbo) Wider rear track Body Side Molding Rear luggage compartment instead of rear seats Porsche-car radio, CR stereo, type RW Cassette container and coin box Automatic heating control Rear Window Wiper Special model World Champion 1976 1978 Fog headlamp, white Special model "Sebring" Leather Steering Wheel 363MM (Not Available w/Airbags) Sports steering wheel, leather 363mm (4 spokes) Full Power Seat Left Full Power Seat Right Electric Cabriolet top Special model "Weissach" 1980 Manual antenna, 4 speakers Fader, antenna booster, 4 speakers Radio speakers and antenna amplifier Prepared for radio without antenna Tinted front and side glass, heated windshield Cabriolet Parts for type "Targa" belonging to stipulated assembly Emergency wheel - with collapsible tire Light metal wheels Prepared for radio for sport group Automatic Speed Control Wheel locks 6" Cast Alloy Wheels Electric antenna, 4 speakers Special model "Weissach" 1982 Sekuriflex windshield Clear windshield Lateral glasses tinted, (version for Australia) 464 465 467 468 469 470 471 471 472 473 474 475 475 476 479 481 482 483 484 485 487 488 489 490 491 492 494 494 496 498 499 503 505 513 525 526 528 529 533 537 538 548 553 559 Without compressor and tire pressure gauge Fastening parts for transportation (version for overseas) Drivers side mirror, convex Graduated tint windshield, green side glass Black headliner Without spoilers, in conjunction with turbo look Sport group 1 Integrated rear spoiler Rear Apron With spoilers Sport Shock Absorbers Brake pads without asbestos License plate fastening (version for Austria, Finland, Australia) Brake pad with abrasive pad Version for Australia 5 speed manual transmission Engine compartment light Right hand drive Symbols for controls Forged wheels - gold metallic Connection for fog headlamp with parking light Stickers in German Symbols and insignia in German Sound Package Turbo look H4 headlights for left hand traffic Amplifier System 2 speakers on back shelf Black trim - painted headlight rims Delete Model Designation-Rear Version for West Germany Cabrio variant (Speedster) Slant nose Lumbar Support-Right Seat Alarm with continuous sound Door Panels Covered w/Cloth Passenger side mirror convex Outside mirror - passenger side, convex, manual Alarm System Left seat with positrol and lumbar Right seat with positrol and lumbar Fuel filler neck, unleaded fuel with flap Version for USA Air conditioner PORSCHE OPTION CODE CHART Code 009 Option Description 3 speed sportomatic transmission 018 020 024 026 027 030 031 033 034 036 058 061 062 070 09991 103 113 119 124 126 130 139 152 153 154 157 158 159 160 164 176 185 186 187 190 193 195 197 210 215 218 219 220 221 224 225 235 240 Sport steering wheel with elevated hub Speedometer with 2 scales KPH/MPH Version for Greece Activated charcoal canister Version for California Sport Group Sport shock absorbers Lowered chassis Version for Italy Bumpers with impact absorbers Bumpers with impact absorbers Version for Great Britain Mud flap, rear (series equipment for Sweden) Tonneau cover - Cabriolet manufactured from the exclusive-programme Adjustment of shock absorber strut Version for Canada Version for Spain Yellow light (series equipment for France) Stickers in French Labeling in English Seat Heating - Left Engine noise reduction Engine parts belonging to a stipulated assembly for type 951 Control unit for improved emissions Oxygen sensor and catalyst Radio "Monterey" - 86 "Reno" - 87 Motor Sound Package Radio "Charleston" Tires 215/60 VR15 Oil cooler with fan Automatic 2 point rear seat belts Manual 2 point rear seat belts Asymmetric head lights Increased side door strength Version for Japan Prepared for cellular telephone Higher amperage battery Number plate mounting, type II (is reduced space with two rubber protection blocks, which you do not find on the 911 in Europe) Version for Saudi Arabia License brackets front and rear Differential Locking differential Porsche-locking differential Active Brake Differential Version for Belgium Brid N2/PIR N2 (no clue what this means) Version for countries with inferior fuel 241 243 249 255 258 261 262 277 286 288 298 302 308 323 323 325 326 326 327 328 329 330 331 335 339 340 341 346 347 348 351 360 373 374 375 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 387 389 391 393 393 394 395 Shorter shifting travel Shorter gear shift lever Automatic transmission Fuel consumption indicator Heating for outside mirror Passenger side mirror - electric - plain Outside mirror for passenger side, plain, manual Version for Switzerland High intensity windscreen washer Headlight washer Prepared for unleaded fuel, manual transmission Type designated on rear end Pneumatic spring for engine hood without ESE-regulations (not a clue what this means) Sticker, without ESE-Regulations Version for South Africa Radio, Becker type CR21 Radio - ? Radio - ? Radio - ? Radio - ? Radio Blaupunkt Toronto SQR 46, All models, not for USA AM/FM Cassette w/2 door speakers Automatic 3 point rear seat belts All wheel drive Seat heating - Right Central locking system Standard colour rims (silver) Platinum anodized wheels Forged wheels - Grand Prix White Porsche-car radio, CR stereo, type DE, etc. Splash guard corner pieces Left Sport Seat w/ Power Height Adjuster Right Sport Seat w/ Power Height Adjuster Clutch lining without asbestos Combination seat, left, adjustable Combination seat, right, adjustable Series seat, left electrical vertical adjustment Series seat, right electrical vertical adjustment Series seat, left Series seat, right Sport seat - left Sport seat - right Porsche-car radio, CR stereo, type US Stone guard foil, added separately Forged wheel 8J/9Jx16 Lateral insignias, hatched black [1978-1982] Disk wheel, telephone styling 8J/9Jx16 Cast - Magnesium Light metal wheels - forged 396 398 398 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 414 415 416 418 419 422 423 424 425 426 426 429 429 430 431 432 432 434 436 437 438 439 439 440 441 441 442 443 Disk wheel, telephone styling 8Jx15 rear Left outside mirror - electric - plain [Prior to 1996] 17 " 5-Spoke Wheels (P205/50ZR17 front, P225/40ZR17 rear)  18" Technology Design Wheels  A/C without front condenser  Pressure cast wheels Light metal wheels 50 year anniversary car  Pressure cast 17" wheels Stabilizer bars Level control system 50 year anniversary car  Front wheel housing protection [1983-1986] 18-inch polished wheels 18" Technology Design Wheels  Sport seats left and right leather Sport seats left and right leatherette/cloth Licence bracket, front External oil cooler 18" Turbo look wheels Combined oil pressure and temperature gauge Transmission oil cooler Wider rear track Leather steering wheel and shift boot Protective side mouldings Rear luggage compartment instead of rear seats Porsche-car radio, CR stereo, type RW Cassette container and coin box Automatic heating control Rear wiper without rear window wiper Special model World Champion 1976 1978 Fog headlamp, white Special model "Sebring" Rectangular fog lights, yellow Leather steering wheel 363mm Sports steering wheel, leather 363mm (4 spokes) Lateral stripes, Martini [1978-1982] instructions for export market Folding Targa top (non-folding hardtop std in 1974 and 1975) Comfort seat left Comfort seat right Special model "Weissach"  Electric Cabriolet top Manual antenna, 4 speakers Fader, antenna booster, 4 speakers Radio speakers and antenna amplifier Prepared for radio without antenna Tinted front and side glass, heated windshield 444 445 446 447 447 450 451 454 455 456 457 458 461 462 462 463 463 464 465 467 468 469 470 471 471 472 472 473 473 474 475 475 476 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 487 488 489 490 491 492 494 494 496 Cabriolet Wheel Rim Caps with Porsche Crest Parts for type "Targa" belonging to stipulated assembly Emergency wheel - with collapsible tire Headlamp flasher with lower beam [1978-1982] Light metal wheels Prepared for radio for sport group Automatic speed control Wheel locks Sport shock absorbers and stabilizers Front turn signals, yellow with provision for side turn signals 16" alloy wheels Electric antenna, 4 speakers Sekuriflex windshield Special model "Weissach"  Clear windshield Lateral glasses tinted, (Series Equipment for Australia) Without compressor and tire pressure gauge Fastening parts for transportation (Series Equipment overseas) Drivers side mirror, convex Graduated tint windshield, green side glass Black headliner Without spoilers, in conjunction with turbo look Integrated rear spoiler Sport group 1 Additional rear apron Turbo with standard chassis  With spoilers Power Left Seat Sport shock absorbers (Bilsteins) Brake pads without asbestos License plate fastening (Series equipment Austria, Finland, Australia) Brake pad with abrasive pad Version for Australia six speed gearbox 5 speed manual transmission Engine compartment light Right hand drive Symbols for controls Forged wheels - gold metallic Connection for fog headlamp with parking light Stickers in German Symbols and insignia in German Hi-Fi sound system Turbo look H4 headlights for left hand traffic 2 speakers on back shelf Amplifier system Black trim - painted headlight rims 498 499 503 505 513 513 525 526 528 529 530 533 534 537 538 544 548 551 553 559 560 562 562 563 563 565 566 567 568 568 570 571 572 573 576 577 586 590 592 593 595 596 597 598 599 601 602 605 607 Without rear model designation Version for West Germany Cabrio variant (Speedster) Slant nose Lumbar support - right seat Driver's Seat Lumbar Support Alarm with continuous sound Cloth door panels Passenger side mirror convex Outside mirror - passenger side, convex, manual WFS FB 433mhz (assume relates to the frequency of the remote control) Alarm system alarm system Left seat with positrol and lumbar Right seat with positrol and lumbar 75 ltr petrol tank Fuel filler neck, unleaded fuel with flap Air Deflector (Cabriolet) Version for USA Air conditioner (with front & rear condenser) Detachable roof Airbag driver's and PASSENGER'S side Airbag driver's side Airbag passenger's side Automatic air conditioner Safety steering wheel - leather Rectangular front fog lights (white) Windshield green graduated tint Tinted windshield and side glass Tinted windshield, side, and rear glass (heated rear) [1978-1982] High output air conditioner Fog tail lamp Heating Air conditioner Without rear fog light Heated and tinted front Windshield Lumbar support - left seat Center console Brake fluid warning system Antilock brake system Rear spoiler painted to match body Spoiler painted matte black Heavy duty battery and starter Insignia "16 ventiler" Front window top shading Litronic Headlights Third brake light "High mount" Vertical headlight adjustment More numerous cables for dashboard 621 622 637 642 650 651 657 659 666 673 675 680 684 685 686 688 691 692 701 719 756 757 758 780 900 912 925 930 931 932 933 934 935 936 945 946 947 948 974 975 98 98 980 981 982 983 983 985 Differing parts for engine 924S Differing parts for cars with 2 V-Engine Sport Group Additive for cooling water Sunroof Electric windows Power steering Onboard computer Without lacquer preservation and chrome preservation Prepared for lead sealed odometer Instrument cluster - technical lighting Digital Sound 1 piece rear seat Divided rear seat Radio "Ludwigsburg" SQM with arimat Radio, Blaupunkt,Boston, SQM 26, ARI CD-Player "CD-1" with Radio Remote CD changer (6-disc) Car-version Slant Nose Special reconstruction Special model 924S USA 1988 Special model 944 1988 Special model 944 Turbo 1988 Remove safety certificate Tourist delivery Vehicle without identification plate Version for high altitude areas in the US Seat cover rear LLL Seat cover rear KKK Seat cover rear SKK Seat cover rear SLL Seat cover rear SSK Seat cover rear RLL Leather seats rear Seat cover front SKK Leather/leatherette seats Seat cover front: cloth/leather/leatherette Seat cover rear: cloth/leather/leatherette Seat cover front SLL Luggage boot cover Velour carpet in luggage compartment Custom Non-Metallic Paint Standard Porsche Leather Interior (deviating std color combinations) Seat cover - Raff - leather All leather lining Supple Leather Seats/Trim Leather seats front (NOT REAR) Leather seats front and rear Parts silver coloured 986 989 99 99 990 C02 C03 C36 M M6 P02 P04 P08 P14 P15 P31 P32 P49 P65 PCX R01 R74 S** S11 S6 SAC SBE SLB SUL SVD X09 X17 X18 X19 X24 X25 X26 X28 X30 X31 X32 X34 X40 X43 X46 X48 X52 X53 X54 Partial leather lining Left and right sport seats - cloth Custom Metallic Paint Leather Upholstery to Sample Seats all cloth Equipped with catalytic converter California type car Canadian type car * Floor Mats Porsche Floor Mats Stereo with Compact Disc Changer (Coupe) Stereo With Compact Disc Changer (Targa/Cabriolet) Limited Slip Differential Heated Seat Pkg includes adjustable heating range Power Seat Pkg includes dual power seats Sport Chassis (includes 17" 5-spoke wheels) Sport Chassis (includes 18" technology wheels) Digital Sound Pkg (includes 490) With sunroof Porsche Cellular Phone Handset Kit Touring Package (not Available w/Airbags) Touring Package Cellular Telephone Portable (includes exclusive console) Cellular Telephone w/Mounting Bracket (includes installation kit) Cellular Telephone Includes exclusive console AC Rapid Charger Battery Eliminator-Cellular Phone Large Battery-Cellular Phone Ultra Light Battery-Cellular Phone Voice Dialer Kit-Cellular Phone Console with Special Leather Extended Center Light Rootwood Dashboard (standard with Y59) Dark Rootwood Dashboard (standard with Y60) Leather Lower Dashboard Dark Rootwood Triptronic Shifter Light Rootwood Triptronic Shifter Steering Wheel-Special Leather Light Rootwood Steering Wheel (standard with Y59) Dark Rootwood Steering Wheel (standard with Y60) Light Rootwood Parking Brake Lever (standard with Y59) Dark Rootwood Parking Brake Lever (standard with Y60) Painted Instrument Dials includes leather trim on instrument Rings Leather Sunvisors with passenger Reading Light Leather Console Switch Frame Aluminum Tiptronic Shifter Carbon Tiptronic Shifter Console CD Storage for 5 Discs Console CD Storage for 8 Discs Oval Chrome Exhaust Pipes X56 X57 X68 X70 X71 X76 X77 X86 X87 X89 X95 X97 X98 XC3 XC8 XC9 XD4 XD9 XF5 XF6 XF7 XJ4 XJ5 XJ6 XJ8 XK7 XM5 XM7 XM9 XN1 XN2 XN3 XN4 XN7 XN8 XP3 XP6 XP9 XR3 XR6 XR7 XV1 XV2 XV3 XV4 XV5 XV6 XV7 XV9 Lower Carbon Dashboard (standard with Y04) Carbon Door Trim Panels (standard with Y04) Tonneau Cover (Cabriolet) Metal Door Sill with Insignia Aluminum Instrument Dials Flared Rocker Panels Carbon Steering Wheel (standard with Y25) Light Rootwood Door Trim Panels Dark Rootwood Door Trim Panels Painted Porsche Crest Rim Caps Painted Brake Calipers Aluminum/leather shift know Aluminum/leather parking break handle Hardtop (Cabriolet) Light Rootwood Gear Shift Knob (standard with Y59) Dark Rootwood Gear Shift Knob (standard with Y60) Porsche Crest Rim Caps Wheels Painted to match vehicle's color Leather Covered Instrument Rings (standard with X34) Leather Gear Box Tunnel (standard with Y17) Leather Covered Tray Located behind parking brake (standard with ) Leather Ignition Lock Rosette Leather Covered Ignition Key Leather Steering Wheel Casing Leather Tiptronic Shift Plate Leather Wrapped Shift Knob and Cover (deviating colors or to sample) Leather Control Knobs Leather Covered Glove Box Knob Leather Turn Signal/Wiper Switch Leather Power Window Switches (standard with Y66) Leather Inside Door Handles (standard with Y66 and Y16) Leather Fresh Air Side Dash Vents (standard with Package Y65) Leather Fresh Air Center Vent (standard with Y65) Leather Parking Brake Lever (standard with Package Y17) Leather Sunvisors Leather Cabriolet Boot Leather Seat Belt Locks & Housing (standard with Y17) Leather Radio Speaker Trim Rings (standard with Y66 and Y18) Leather Seat Hinges (standard with Y67 and Y18) Leather Front Backrests Lock Controls (standard with Y67 and Y18) Rear Window Washer Leather Covered Ventilating Cover (standard with Y65) Leather Fresh Air Side Vents (standard with Y65) Leather Air Conditioning Switches includes heat adjustment covers Leather Heat Adjuster Switches (standard with Package Y67 and Y18) Leather Seat Adjuster Switches (standard with Y67 and Y18) Leather Ring Plates for Seat Adjuster (switch Standard with Y67 and Y18) Leather Fuel Tank Pull Knob Leather B-Pillar Seatbelt Covers XW1 XW2 XW3 XW3 XW4 XW5 XW6 XW8 XW9 XX1 XX2 XX3 XX6 XZ4 XZ7 Y01 Y02 Y03 Y04 Y05 Y06 Y07 Y08 Y09 Y10 Y16 Y17 Y18 Y23 Y24 Y25 Y26 Y29 Y59 Y60 Y61 Y62 Y63 Y65 Y66 Y67 Y75 Z02 Z05 Z06 Z07 Z08 Z09 Leather Seat Belt Rosettes Leather Rear Seat Belt Locks & Housing (standard with Y17) Leather Clock Adjustment Leather Rear Window Wiper Switch Leather Light Switch Leather Wiper/Instrument Light Knobs Leather Door Lock Pin Rosettes (standard with Y66 and Y16) Leather Door Entrance Panel Sills (standard with Package Y66) Leather Entrance Panel Covers Embroidered Floor Mats (requires leather interior trim) Footwell Lights Map Pocket Lights Leather Shift Lever Knob Pattern insert with deviating colors Leather Glove Box Rosette Leather OS Mirror Adjuster Frame (standard on Y66) Spoiler-Aero Kit I w/Front Duct Spoiler-Aero Kit II with Rockers Shift Lever/Brake Handle-Carbon Carbon pkg I - lower dash, door trim, guage panel (standard with Y25) Shift Lever/Brake Handle-carbon and aluminum Shift Lever/Brake Handle-Aluminum Shift Lever/Brake Handle-aluminum and light wood Shift Lever/Brake Handle-aluminum and dark wood Light Rootwood Pkg - steering wheel, parking brake, shifter, dashboard Dark Rootwood Pkg - steering wheel, parking brake, shifter, dashboard Exclusive Package I - leather door rosettes, handles, speaker trim Exclusive Pkg II - leather seatbelt locks and housings, shifter tunnel, parking brake, tray behind parking brake Exclusive Package III - leather seat adjuster switches, hinges, etc Aluminum Tiptronic Selector includes aluminum brake lever Carbon Tiptronic Selector includes carbon brake lever Carbon package II (Y04 plus: steering wheel, shifter, brake handle) Carbon Pkg III Aluminum/Chrome Pkg (instruments, tailpipe, door sill) Light Wood Pkg (steering wheel, shifter, brake lever, dash) Dark Wood Pkg (steering wheel, shifter, brake lever, dash) Carbon Tiptronic Shifter includes carbon hand brake Light Wood Tiptronic Shifter includes wood hand brake, aluminum switch Dark Wood Tiptronic Shifter includes wood hand brake, aluminum switch Dash Pkg (leather vent covers) Door Pkg (leather sills, pwr switches, locks, speaker trim, etc) Leather Seat Pkg (switches, hinges, adjusters, etc) Front and Rear Spoilers with Aero Kit Leather Console Tray Leather Headliner (Custom Color) Includes A- and B-pillars and visors Steering Wheel-Deviating Color Trunk Carpeting (matches interior color, without CD changer) Trunk Carpeting (Matches interior color, with CD changer) Custom Leather Carpet Welting (color matched to sample interior) Z11 Z21 Z27 Z27 Z27 Z31 Z35 Z41 Z42 Z43 Z44 Z45 Z46 Z50 Z51 Z53 Z65 Z66 Z69 Z79 Z86 Z95 Leather Carpet Welting standard color or matching interior color Seat Stitching-Alternate Standard Colors Headliner, Leatherette (deviating current color; visor & pillars) Headliner, Standard Leather Leather Headliner (Porsche Colors) Includes A- and B-pillars and visors Leather Knee Bar Leather Knee Bar (requires all-leather interior) Pearl White Metallic Paint (requires metallic paint to sample) Door Trim Panels-Leatherette Door Trim Panels-Leather (includes armrests, requires full leather interior) Leather Armrests/Compartments Lids Front Seat Inlays (deviating current colors; requires full leather seats) Rear Seat Inlays (deviating current colors; requires full leather seats) Seatbelts, Red or Yellow Front Front/Rear Seat Inlays (deviating current color; requires leather) Head Rests Stamped w/ Porsche Crest (requires leather upholstery) Leatherette Beltline In standard deviating colors Leatherette Beltline (Cabriolet) in deviating standard color Carpet-Standard Color (deviating from interior colors) Deviating Standard Color A & B Pillars Dashboard in Deviating Standard Color Titanium or Black Brake Calipers 944/944S/951 REQUIRED MAINTENANCE INTERVAL LIST OF MAINTENANCE CHECKLIST ITEMS 15,000 mile Checklist 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. Check and replace if necessary main timing belt Engine: visual inspection for leaks Cooling and heating system: check for leaks Coolant hoses: check condition and tighten hose clips Radiator: visual inspection for external fouling Coolant (antifreeze); check level and antifreeze content and, correct if necessary Crankcase ventilation: check tightness of hose connections Fuel system: visual inspection for leaks and tightness of line connections Intake air: check hoses, lines and connections for tightness Parking brake: check free travel of parking-brake lever and correct if necessary Brake pedal: check play of brake pedal and correct if necessary Brake hoses and lines: visual inspection for leaks, damage and corrosion Check brake fluid level and top up if necessary Brake system: visual inspection of brake pads and discs to check for wear Clutch: check play and correct if necessary Clutch plate: check for wear Hydraulic Clutch actuator: visual inspection for leaks Steering gear: check screw connections for tightness Visual inspection of the bellows for damage Tie rod links: check play, tightness and dust caps Power-assisted steering: visual inspection for leaks, check fluid level and correct if necessary Ball joints: visual inspection of dust caps for damage Wishbone: check screw connections for tightness Front wheel bearings: check play and correct if necessary Rear wheel bearings: check play and correct if necessary Lubricate clutch release lever and secondary spring Manual transmission: check fluid level and correct if necessary Automatic transmission: check fluid level and correct if necessary 29. Drive shafts: visual inspection of sleeves for leaks and damage 30. Exhaust system: visual inspection for leaks and damage, check screw connections for tightness and attachment 31. Tires: check condition and correct tire pressure 32. Door arrester: check operation and lubricate 33. Door hinges: lubricate 34. Check door, engine hood locks and safety hooks on front hood for tightness and function 35. Seals for doors, hood and roof: remove abraded rubber, apply suitable agent to seals 36. Safety switch for fuel pump: check operation 37. Safety switch for charging pressure: check operation 38. Check operation of vehicle lighting 39. All headlights: check setting and correct if necessary 40. Horn: check operation 41. Retractable headlights: lubricate rods 42. Throttle actuator: check for smooth running 43. Windshield washer system: check function, check fluid level and nozzle setting 44. Headlight washer : check operation, check fluid level and nozzle setting 45. Battery: check fluid level and top up if necessary 46. Check operation of all electrical control equipment and optional extras 47. Heater, ventilation and air-conditioner blower: check operation 30,000 mile Maintenance ■ ■ Automatic transmission: change ATF, clean ATF strainer Check and replace if necessary main timing belt 60,000 mile Maintenance ■ ■ ■ Manual transmission: change oil in differential Check and replace as necessary waterpump Check and replace if necessary main timing belt (and every 15K miles afterward) 2 year Maintenance ■ ■ Brake system: renew brake fluid Cooling system: renew coolant fluid Porsche 924 / 944 / 968 (1976) 924 was launched in 1976. It was the cheapest model and accounted for 60% of Porsche's sales. Porsche built it in Audi's factory near Stuttgart, where Audi's 2-litre fuel-injected engine was put into the car. Early cars had rust problems, but Porsche quickly solved that with the most promising rust-proofing treatment. 924 might not be the greatest sports car but certainly the most influential coupe in the 70s and 80s. Its emphasis on elegant engineering inspired many rivals. No other cars in its segment were so well-made and well-tuned. None of them had the same level of handling. It was this car which accelerated the transformation of Japanese sports cars from cheap metal to excellent machines. Its styling was also imitated by rivals. If you look at Mazda RX7, Mitsubishi Starion, Toyota Supra, Chevrolet Corvette and Dodge Laser, you'll either find a trace of its shape or its features, e.g. pop-up headlamps and the distinctive swoopy rear glass window. 924 was originally a joint-project with Volkswagen (once again). Porsche knew very well that a budget sports car needed mass production parts supplied by a giant car maker, so was the investment. Therefore 924 was designed to use many VW / Audi's components - many parts of the front MacPherson strut and rear semi-trailing arm suspensions came from Golf, so was the door handle, instrument gauges etc.. The four-cylinder engine was designed to be shared with Audi's forthcoming 100 saloon. However, due to the energy crisis, VW quit the project (once again !!) when the car was still under development and sold the production right to Porsche for $60 million, which was a decision that VW would forever regret. The 924 was a success in the United States. Apart from praising its beautiful and elegant exterior, most people were impressed by the first class handling, superb steering feel and stable cornering. The latter must hanks to the adoption of rear-mounted transaxle gearbox which counter-balanced the front engine. Superb gearchange and strong brakes (always a feature of Porsche) also contributed to the handling competence. In contrast, since the 2-litre injected engine (125 hp in Europe, 95 hp in US) did not provide sufficient punch, performance was just OK. Autocar measured 126 mph and 9.5 sec for 0-60 mph. Obviously the US version was much worse. Of course, Porsche wouldn't ignore the requirement from its biggest market, so in 1978 the 924 turbo was born. 924 turbo Having experienced in 911 turbo, Porsche put a KKK turbo (without intercooler) into 924's engine in 1978. Power and torque jumped to 170 hp and 181 lbft respectively. Autocar recorded 142 mph and 7.7 sec for 0-60 mph. Now the 924 became a real winner. 944 Its successor, 944, was even more successful. In order to improve build quality, production went back to Porsche's own factory in Zuffenhausen. As a result, fit and finish and painting were greatly improved. The exterior was changed, too. Widened wheel arches made it looked much more muscular while enabled wider tracks which enhanced handling. I still remember the first time I saw it - when I was a 13 year-old school boy. The red 944 passed in front of my eyes very fast. The widened arches, about it I will never forget, made me believed it must not be an ordinary 924. I guessed it might be a 924 turbo which I had never seen before. A month later, I read the 944 in a car magazine. 944 944 S 944 turbo The biggest difference from 924 was the engine: instead of the Audi engine, 944 was powered by a true Posrche-built unit. It was derived from 928's V8. Displaced at 2479 c.c., it was extraordinarily large for a 4-cylinder. To cure the vibration problem which usually occurs in a large inline-4, Porsche installed twin-balancer shafts, which was a patent of Mitsubishi although originally invented by Lancester (Dr. Fred). There were 3 different versions of the engine - an ordinary 8 valves version used in 944 Lux (or simply called "944"), a 16-valver used in 944S and a 220 hp 8V turbocharged version powered the hottest 944 turbo. All of them were as smooth as six-cylinder. The base engine had useable performance from the 163 hp output. The turbo was crazy fast 153 mph, 0-60 took only 6 seconds flat. The 16 valves provided good performance from 185 hp while without the turbo's drawback - turbo lag and high fuel consumption. Anyway, compared with contemporary 911 turbo, 944 turbo had a much better manner. 944 was very popular in USA, sales over there peaked at 30,000 units in 1986, the highest record for Porsche until today. 944 Series 2 But its successor was not so successful. Since 1986, Deutschmark rose considerably while Japanese sports cars were also rising. The sales in USA dropped rapidly to 16,000 units in 1988 so that Porsche had to revise it to Series 2. The three engines were replaced by a 2.7-litre 8 valver (in 944 Lux), 3.0-litres 16 valves (in 944 S2) and a big turbo 944 Turbo SE (250hp from the same 2.5 litres). Perhaps Porsche did too little on the revised versions, Japanese cars headed by Nissan 300ZX, Toyota Supra and the cheaper Celica ate its market share rapidly. These cars imitated the Porsche but was sold at a much lower price while offered better cabin and long list of standard equipment. Porsche started to realise the golden age of 944 had gone. I must point out that the 944 Series 2 still offered the best handling in its class. Autocar compared 944S2 with the handsome Nissan 300ZX non-turbo, the UK magazine still chose the Porsche as the real driver's choice but also praised the overall competence of the Nissan. Meanwhile, Fast Lane magazine compared 944 Turbo SE with the 300 hp 300ZX twin-turbo and Renault Alpine A610, still rated the Porsche's handling as marginally better than rivals, although eventually chose the Alpine as overall winner. 968 The sun was setting, but Porsche wanted to phase out in style. In 1991, the whole 944 line was replaced by a single model, 968. 968 was a new name, but it was actually an evolution from the 944 series 2. It got a pair of circular headlamps similar to 928's, new bumpers, rear lights and rear spoiler. Under the bonnet was 944 S2's 3-litre four added with a kind of variable valve timing called "Variocam". Three different valve timings were set to serve different engine speeds: below 1,500 rpm minimum valve overlapping improved torque and refinement. From 1,500 to 5,500 rpm medium overlapping was used. Above 5,500 rpm the largest overlapping helped raising rpm as well as top end power. As a result, maximum power jumped from 211 hp to 240 hp and torque was increased from 207 lbft to 225 lbft, a record for any production 3-litre normally-aspirated engine. That was the last glorious moment of the big four-pot, and also the last shine of the mighty 924 empire. Now six-speed gearbox replaced the 5-speed. 4-speed Tiptronic was carried over from 911. 968 CS 968 did not improve very much in handling and other aspect, perhaps because 944 Series 2 was good enough. Real drivers had to wait until the Club Sport version appeared in 1993 for real improvement in handling. The 968 CS followed the way 911 CS tried in 1987 - lowered the ride height by an inch, stiffened the springs and dampers, reduced 50 kg weight by deleting equipment (air-con, power windows, leather seats, heavy hi-fi etc.) Because of the discarded equipment, Porsche UK could price it at under 30,000 pounds, which was considerably cheaper than 300ZX turbo and the like. But most important, its handling became even sharper - Autocar elected it as the best handling car in 1993 and 94, against Ferrari 348, Lotus Esprit and Honda NSX etc. Yes, the 924 family eventually quit in style. Specifications Model Year 924 1976 Front-engined, Rwd. 944 1982 Front-engined, Rwd. 944S 1986 Front-engined, Rwd. Engine Inline-4, sohc, 2v/cyl. Inline-4, sohc, 2v/cyl. Inline-4, dohc, 4v/cyl. Engine Capacity Power Torque Gearbox Weight Top speed 0-60 mph 1984 c.c. 125 hp 121 lbft 5M 1114 kg 126 mph* 9.5 sec* 2479 c.c. 163 hp 151 lbft 5M 1320 kg 137 mph* 7.4 sec* 2479 c.c. 185 hp 169 lbft 5M -140 mph* 6.7 sec* 944 turbo 1985 Front-engined, Rwd. Inline-4, sohc, 2v/cyl, turbo 2479 c.c. 220 hp 243 lbft 5M 1350 kg 153 mph* 6.0 sec* Model Year 944 (Series 2) 1988 Front-engined, Rwd. 944 S2 1988 Front-engined, Rwd. Engine Inline-4, sohc, 2v/cyl. Inline-4, dohc, 4v/cyl. Engine Capacity Power Torque Gearbox Weight Top speed 0-60 mph 2681 c.c. 165 hp 166 lbft 5M 1320 kg 136 mph* 7.0 sec* 2990 c.c. 211 hp 207 lbft 5M 1350 kg 146 mph* 6.0 sec* 944 turbo SE 1988 Front-engined, Rwd. Inline-4, sohc, 2v/cyl, turbo 2479 c.c. 250 hp 258 lbft 5M 1400 kg 152 mph* 5.7 sec* 968 CS 1993 Front-engined, Rwd. Inline-4, dohc, 4v/cyl, VVT. 2990 c.c. 240 hp 225 lbft 6M 1335 kg 150 mph* 6.1 sec* Layout Layout * Tested by Autocar Porsche Named after its founder Ferdinand Porsche, Porsche is the largest sports car maker in the world. Annual production rate in recent years is around 15,000 to 30,000 cars. In its 67 years history, it has built many greatest sports cars: 356, 911, 924/944 series and 928. 356 was one of the most beloved classics, 924/944 series reinvented the idea of "afford sports cars", 928 was the only sports car ever won European Car of The Year (COTY) title, but the most legendary still belongs to the mighty 911, which was in production for as long as 34 years and still remained as the core of Porsche's line-up. Ferdinand Porsche and Ferry Porsche Ferdinand Porsche was born in 1875. In my opinion, he was the greatest automotive engineer in history. He emerged as a designer for electric cars, then joined Daimler in 1906 to start his motor car engineering career. During his brightest years, he designed the famous Mercedes SSK (one of the greatest pre-war cars), the Auto Union GP racer (the first mid-engined race car, with a V16 engine) and the NSU "people's car", which evolved to VW Beetle after the war. His talent also expended to military area like tanks, aero engines and military trucks. Therefore he was jailed after the war until 1947, four years before his death. Maybe his greatest achievement was the establishment of his own company in 1931, which became the greatest sports car maker later. Professor Porsche was the last automotive engineer who design the entire car by himself. Accompany with his versatility and his influence in subsequent automotive design, few can be compared with him. His son, Ferry Porsche (1909-98), was not ordinary either. Being a greatest engineer's son and trained in Bosch, he succeeded his father to enhance the reputation of their company. In fact, it was his achievement rather than his father's to establish the solid status of Porsche as famous a sports car maker. His creations included 356 and 911. DRIVING IN IT'S FINEST FORM: THE PORSCHE 944 SERIES THE PORSCHE 944 SERIES: FOR 1989, MORE POWER, MANY REFINEMENTS One of Porsche's many traditions is the ability to create and produce a sports car concept so correct that it becomes the standard for it's type in the industry. Introduced in the fall of 1981, the Porsche 944 was hailed as a breakthrough, a sports car to inspire imitation among it's competitors. Car and Driver called the 944 "America's Best Handling car" and "One of America's 10 Best" four years running. In spite of all the praise, Porsche engineers at the famed Weissach Development Center never stop trying to make it better. To refine it into an optimum configuration. So, in true Porsche tradition, 944 project engineers live with the 944 each day, driving it in every conceivable climate, under the most adverse road conditions. They keep making it handle even better, making it faster, even more solid, more fun to own. And finally, putting exciting new editions into production. New editions like the 1989 944, 944 S2, and 944 Turbo. As in the past, these new Porsches will continue to inspire imitations. Unfortunately, those who drive the Porsche "look alike" will miss the exculsivity of owning the real thing: in 1989, fewer than one new car in eight hundred sold in the U.S. will be a 944 Series sports car. The 1989 944 series is an eloquent example of Porsche AG's refinement philosophy. The new Porsche 944: a higher performing 2.7 liter 165bhp engine and newly standard comfort and convenience features. The Porsche 944 S2: a new 3.0 liter engine - one of the most powerful fours in the world today - in the same body and chassis as last year's 944 Turbo. And the new Porsche 944 Turbo: the same searing performance as the 944 Turbo S, the roadgoing version of Porsche's famous Turbo Cup car, makes it the fastest 4 cylinder production car ever built. At Porsche, rarely is a single change made to realize one benefit. Rather, goals are clearly stated and then existing technology is synergistically improved to reap an optimized new configuration having multiple benefits. The new 944 engine is a case in point. In seeking better pulling power from low rpm, Porsche engineers specified a displacement increase, from 2.5 to 2.7 liters. But the didn't stop there. They also: raised the compression ratio to 10.9:1; enlarged the intake valves; gave the engine a new camshaft with modified timing;and revised the digital motor electronics (DME) settings. These optimization efforts paid off in an impressive increase in torque, particularly at low rpms. Elsewhere in the 944, there are other refinements... ABS braking and automatic speed control are now standard, the passenger's seat now adjusts electrically in height, the electric sunroof and Charleston radio are standard, as is a new alarm system and larger capacity battery. Naturally, new colors and interiors are available. Quoted from the 1989 Porsche 944 Sales brochure THE NEW PORSCHE 944 S2 THE PORSCHE 944 S2: 3.0 LITERS, 208 BHP. For more than 30 years, Porsche engineers have used the "S" designation proudly. It says "this is our Super version of this Porsche sports engine." In the case of the 944 S2, it also carries the engineer's pride of being the second generation of a "Super" version. The first-generation 944 S of 1987 was the first liquid cooled Porsche 4 cylinder engine to employ 4 valves per cylinder. The 1989 944 S2 engine is a full 20% larger than that engine, making it, at 3.0 liters and 208 bhp, one of the most powerful naturally aspirated fours in the world today. Also in true Porsche tradition, the new 944 S2 engine's impressive specifications are derived directly from Porsche's successful racing heritage: high durability forged pistons; a new block pattern air intake system for optimum throttle response; active, regulated engine compartment ventilation with 3-speed blower; large, externally mounted light alloy oil cooler with thermostat for optimum engine temperature regulation; and modified digital motor electronics. Maximum torque of 207 lb-ft is reached at 4100 rpm; the engine's 208 bhp maximum power is achieved at 5800 rpm with the redline at 6500 rpm. The Porsche 944 S2 owner can depend on the balance of their automobile being fully compatable with the new high output engine. The suspension, transmission, competition tested four-piston brake system with ram air cooling, shock absorbers and stabilizers are borrowed directly from the famed 944 Turbo. All 944 features are standard, and include protective side mouldings. Quoted from the 1989 Porsche 944 sales brochure. AN EXCITING NEW CONVERTIBLE Introduced at the 1985 Frankfurt Auto Show in prototype form, the long awaited cabriolet version of the 944 has proven to be worth the wait while Porsche refined each detail for full Porsche production quality. Porsche's development objective behind the 944 S2 Cabriolet was to enhance the driving pleasure unique to the 944 Series by the sensation of top-down driving. This elegant, agile convertible meets and surpasses every sports car convertible goal. In the past, a Porsche Cabriolet edition must offer all the qualities of it's Coupe counterpart. The 944 S2 is no exception. The fully lined, insulated top is easily raised or lowered; when up, it provides near Coupe comfort qualities. Thanks to the transaxle driveline - engine in front, transmission and fuel tank in the rear - the 944 S2 body is highly rigid, making it an ideal basis for a convertible. To further ensure torsional rigidity, Porsche engineers specified various bodyshell reinforcements to ensure safety without compromises. Galvanized reinforcing panels and special corrision protected joints result in long-term protection typical of Porsche. The Cabriolet's windshield - lower than on the 944 S2 Coupe version - permits ideal open-top driving pleasure. The interior retains the practical 2 + 2 features of the Coupe; folding down the rear seats provides access to the luggage compartment, allowing skis or other bulky items to be transported. The 944 S2 personifies the Porsche designer's wish to let the owner of this exciting new Porsche "have it all:" high leisure time value, with leisure time versatility - combined, of course, with Porsche performance! THE FASTEST 4-CYLINDER AUTOMOBILE EVER MADE PORSCHE 944 TURBO: A TURBO CUP CAR FOR THE STREET. For 1989, Porsche proudly presents the 944 Turbo, the fastest 4 cylinder production automobile ever made. To appreciate the technological sophistication represented by the 944 Turbo, a brief review of the model's history may be helpful. Porsche project engineers set a seemingly impossible design goal for the 2.5 liter intercooled and turbocharged engine... a 50% increase in bhp over the then-944's 147 bhp, a 77% increase in torque - all with the smallest possible penalty in fuel economy. The resulting sports car hit the target squarely: 217bhp, 243 ft-lbs torque, top track speed 152 mph *, fuel economy approximately 1 mpg less than the 944. Putting power and efficiency of this magnatude in the superbly balanced 944 transaxle format created an automobile that drew enthusiastic praise from throughout the motoring world. Automobile was typical: "The inherent balance you detect in the 944 Turbo makes you feel you could do anything with it; the practicality of it makes it easy to enjoy." However impressive such a level of performance may be, last year Porsche introduced an even higher performance version of the 944 Turbo. Produced in a limited series of 1000, this automobile was derived directly from a racing version that competed in the Porsche Turbo Cup series waged throughout Western Europe. For 1989 the new 944 Turbo includes all of the performance characteristics of the 944 Turbo S. It features 30 bhp more power, significantly higher torque, and improved suspension, brakes, wheels and tires. The brake system with ABS is from the 928 S4 system. New wider forged wheels are 7 in. front, 9 in. rear, with 225/50 ZR16 tires at the front and 245/45 ZR at the rear. The sports suspension settings are basically the same as on the successful Turbo Cup models. The result, for the Porsche 944 Turbo owner, is an uncanny level of handling for a street car - with maximum reserves of safety for everyday driving. "It's 65.1 mph sprint through the cones and .89g loop around the 200ft circle makes it one of the fastest cars we've ever tested" found Road and Track. To this road car with very direct competition links Porsche has added the most comprehensive complement of luxury and convenience equipment. Air conditioning, limited slip differential, power tilt sunroof, stereo cassette music system with hi-fi sound package, and an alarm system are a few of the standard equipment features. *Top speeds are noted to show performance capabilities. Porsche recommends that all speed laws be obeyed Quoted from the 1989 Porsche 944 sales brochure. SYSTEMS ENGINEERING: AN OPTIMIZED SYNTHESIS A PERFECT SYNTHESIS OF DESIGN SOLUTIONS The new Porsche 944 Turbo is the embodiment of Porsche's commitment to develop a sports car as a system with power increases dictating chassis development. After meeting the original design goal of 50% more power, Porsche engineers proceeded to specify more sophisticated brakes, transmission cooling, heavier duty suspension, optimized aerodynamics - even wider wheels with lower profile tires. Each Porsche 944 Series sports car is a uniquely successful blending of advanced driveline and suspension technology. Of economy. Of unparalled quality in design, engineering and manufacturing. Of reliability and everyday practicality. Of driver and passenger comfort, ease of control and design features affording substantial active and passive safety. Moreover, here is an excellent synthesis of desirable characteristics that at first glance might seem contradictory. For example, responsive handling and economy, or high performance and everyday reliability. Far from being a product of chance, this synthesis is based on extensive knowledge gained from Porsche research and development covering every aspect of automobile manufacturing. From Porsche's rigorous involvement in motor sports. And from consistent worldwide communications with Porsche owners. Porsche designers, engineers and builders proudly endowed the 944 Series with these qualities considered so desirable in a sports car. Qualities that are steadily making these Porsche's contemporary classics. At Porsche, solutions are synthesized until they solve multidimensional needs. In the case of the 944 S2 and 944 Turbo, a wing apron, specially developed for this ultrahigh-performance automobile and situated below the rear bumper, fulfills three tasks at once: airflow under the vehicle is improved; straight line behavior is stabilized; and the transmission and muffler are effectively cooled. Quoted from the 1989 944 sales brochure.
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