Wireless Microphones - Kino

Wireless Microphones - Kino
Kino-Eye.com
Wireless Microphones
Compiled by David Tamés, d.tames@neu.edu
 is document provides a crash-course on wireless microphone technology, concepts, and terminology and is designed
as a companion to (not a substitute for) the user’s manual of the Sennheiser Evolution series wireless microphone
system. This document might help learning to use this wireless mic kits a little easier.  is is a work in progress,
therefore, please send me your comments, suggestions, and corrections. I look forward to your feedback. — David.
Introduction
ere is some mystery surrounding wireless microphone
systems and how they work, but the best way to think
about them is that you’re operating a small radio station.
e electrical energy from the microphone is modulated
by the transmitter into radio frequency (RF) and then
demodulated by the receiver back into an electrical signal
which is fed into your mixer or camera.
Wireless system features
Diversity. Better models have true diversity reception
(two separate receiver modules each with its own
antenna). is eliminates dead spots caused by phase
cancellation which is caused when direct and reflected
signals arrive at the transmitter out of phase.  e newer
G3 series of Sennheiser wireless mics (which bagan
shipping the summer of 2009) features an adaptive
diversity system using the audio cable as an antennae.
Compander. A compander is a technique used to
improve the dynamic range of the audio signal. It
compresses the audio signal in the transmitter to lift it
above the inherent noise floor of the radio frequency
link. e signal is then expanded by the receiver.
Microphone gain adjustment. Most wireless systems
offer adjustable microphone gain on the transmitter in
order to accommodate different level sources. is helps
to avoid clipping.
Squelch. Some models offer adjustable squelch, which
silences the output when the receiver does not get a
strong or quality signal from the microphone, instead of
reproducing noise.
Digital hybrid. Some advanced models (not the
Evolution series, but some you might rent in the future)
use a digital hybrid method that provides an
improvement over traditional wireless. e transmission
is still pure analog, but the compander function is
handled in the digital domain. Digital signal processing
(DSP) is used to enhance the audio quality and makes it
possible to achieve a flatter frequency response in the
audio spectrum and reduce noise and other undesirable
artifacts.
Advantages and disadvantages of using
wireless microphones
ere are several advantages of using wireless microphone
systems over a wired microphones:
• Greater freedom of movement, the camera (or
audio recorder) can be far from the subject or actor,
• Avoidance of cabling and elimination of trip
hazard in crowded or uncontrolled situations.
But wireless is not a panacea. ere are several
disadvantages to be considered:
• Increased overall complexity and thus an increase
in the probability of problems due to the
introduction of three new elements in the mix: a
transmitter, a receiver, and the radio frequency link
between the transmitter and receiver rather than a
single microphone cable,
• Limited range, a balanced XLR microphone cable
can be run to about 300 feet without issues, it can
run through floors and between buildings without
interference,
• Possibility of interference from other radio
frequency transmissions including television
stations or other wireless microphone systems,
• Limited operating time based on battery life,
• Noise or drop-outs (especially with non-diversity
wireless microphone systems),
• Reduced audio quality (due to compression for RF
transmission), and
• Intermodulation (see below).
Intermodulation is a major problem when operating
multiple systems in one location. Intermodulation occurs
when two or more RF signals mix. e solution to this
problem is to manually calculate all of the possible
products of the frequencies in use, or use a computer
program that can do this calculation for you. Many
models offer factory preset frequencies designed to avoid
Kino-Eye.com: Wireless Microphones
intermodulation, avoiding the need for any calculations
when using multiple systems in your production.
Tips for successful use of wireless
microphones
Read the manual, do some homework. Wireless
microphones are not difficult to use, but they do require
some preparation and practice for successful use. e
differences can be as small as remembering to have spare
batteries on hand and making sure the frequencies you
are using don’t conflict with each other. ere are many
nuances involved in using wireless microphones. ey
might seem like a plug-and play proposition, and in
many cases they might be, but when there’s a problem, it
can get complicated to trouble shoot the source of the
problem. More than most gear, you should really take the
time to read the owners manual that comes with your
wireless microphone system and practice using then in a
variety of situations before using them on a critical shoot.
Batteries. Always start with fresh batteries in the
transmitter and receiver. Use quality alkaline batteries,
other types will have much shorter life. Plan on changing
batteries every four to six hours, depending on the
battery life your particular model provides. If you have a
new system, keep notes to determine how much use time
you can expect from a set of fresh batteries. Keep the
system turned off when not in use. Weak transmitter
batteries are a common cause of wireless problems,
including failure, poor range, distorted audio and even
interference.
Finding a usable frequency. Make sure that the
frequency you are using is appropriate, legal, and will
avoid the TV channels operating in the area. See the
“Finding open frequencies” section later in this
document. Some advanced wireless systems have a built
in spectrum analyzer, making it very simple to find an
open frequency. If your wireless microphone does not
have one, then the best way to find a usable frequency is
to turn on your receiver (make sure your transmitter stays
off) and watch the signal strength indicator on the
receiver display while listening with headphones. If there
is no visible activity and the audio you hear is completely
clean, then you can go ahead and use that channel. If you
see or hear anything, then select another frequency
several increments away and try again.
Antenna placement. Good antenna placement is critical
for trouble-free wireless system performance. ere
should be a clear line-of-sight path between the
transmitter antenna and the receiver antenna. Avoid
transmitting through obstacles such as solid metal objects
(e.g. furniture, some walls, industrial equipment). Avoid
2 /8
getting too close to equipment that transmits RF energy
(e.g. electronic equipment like computers, old televisions
sets, any lights with ballasts including fluorescent lights
and neon signs). Human bodies absorb RF energy, so
take that into consideration as well when
placing body pack transmitters.
Camera mounting. e most convenient
place to mount the receiver and its all
important antenna might be on your
camcorder, but it might not be the most
efficient as far as the signal path. Above the
camera is usually better than to the side of
the camera. Camcorders can interfere with
the RF signal and can produce their own
RF interference of their own. If you notice that your
receiver produces any noise when placed close to your
camera, try moving it to find a better position.
Improving line of sight. You can improve the line of
sight between the transmitter and receiving antennas by
locating the receiver either higher up or closer to the
transmitter. Try using a non-metallic pole to hold the
receiver higher if there are walls or obstacles causing
interference problems.
Connections. Connect your audio with good, balanced,
XLR audio cables. Some output adapters might be
unshielded or unbalanced and will allow noise to enter.
Use the shortest mic cable possible between the receiver
output and the camera audio input.
AC Power. Hum can occur when you plug a receiver
directly into an AC powered mixer, camera, or audio
recorder, so use a mic cable to achieve at least a foot of
distance. If that does not work, you might have to see if
you can run the mixer, camera, or audio recorder off
batteries rather than plugging into the AC power.
Receiver placement. If you experience interference, one
thing to consider is placing the receiver closer to the
subject and then running a long mic cable back to your
mixer or camera.
Body-pack transmitter placement. When placing the
microphone and body-pack transmitter on your subject,
be careful not to allow the mic cable to cross over the
antenna wire. e antenna wire on the transmitter
should be kept somewhat straight. If you’re using a bodypack transmitter with a flexible wire antenna, avoid
letting the wire droop over itself. It’s fine to invert the
transmitter and have the antenna hang straight down if
need be. On UHF body-pack transmitters, keep the
microphone cable away from the antenna. When using
VHF body-pack transmitters, don’t coil or bundle the
microphone cable on those transmitters for which the
Kino-Eye.com: Wireless Microphones
microphone cable functions as the antenna. When a
body-pack transmitter is placed under clothing, make
sure that it can be reached quickly to mute the
microphone or replace the battery.
Clip-on microphones. When
using clip-on microphones,
position them reasonably close to
the mouth. is is especially
important in noisy surroundings.
Wind protection. e screen or
foam wind-screen that comes
with most lavalieres designed to
work with wireless transmitters
provide modest protection for light wind and plosives,
however, in windy conditions you should use a lavaliere
windjammer (available from Rycote). Note that proper
operation of the lavaliere windjammer requires placement
over the standard screen or foam wind screen, it does not
work well by itself, there needs to be space between the
artificial fur and the microphone, which the standard
screen or foam provides.
Medical devices. e power output of wireless
microphone transmitters is very low, and they are
completely safe to use around humans and animals.
However, RF energy may interfere with the normal
functioning of implanted cardiac pacemakers or
Automatic Implantable Cardiovertor-Defibrillator
(AICD) devices. A body-pack transmitter should not be
worn where it is immediately adjacent to such a medical
device.
Antenna wire placement. A trick for maintaining
antenna wire in a vertical position is to attach a thin
rubber band to the end of the wire and then use a safety
pin on the other end of the rubber band to attach it to
the subject’s clothing, with a little bit of slack. e rubber
band will stretch to adjust for body movement, but will
break instead of the antenna in the event it is tugged at
violently.
Don’t use a wireless mic unless you need mobility or
cable free operation. Because of all the variables
involved, there is always a chance of losing part of the
dialog you are recording. Run microphone cables when
you can, use wireless when you have to when cable-free
and/or mobility is required. It’s silly to use wireless
microphones for a simple interview with the subject right
in front of you. A wired microphone will sound better
and is virtually trouble free.
What configuration? Different applications may require
different microphones, a lavaliere with a body-pack
transmitter or a handheld microphone with a plug-on
3 /8
transmitter. It’s handy to have both available so you’re
ready for anything. Some plug-on transmitters don’t
provide phantom power, which might limit your
microphone choices. Plan ahead.
Diversity. Use a diversity system if you can unless your
working range is short, the area is uncrowded and the
situation is straightforward with minimal movement
through a space of camera and/or subject.
Multiple wireless microphones. If several wireless
systems will be used, special precautions and procedures
are necessary to avoid intermodulation. Factory presents
on many models are designed to avoid these problems by
maintaining proper spacing between multiple frequencies
in use.
Troubleshooting interference. If you encounter
interference problems, try to take a systematic approach
to finding a solution. is type of problem can be very
confusing unless you are methodical in your
troubleshooting methodology. See the “Resolving
interference problems” section for detailed information.
Checklist. Make a checklist of all the necessary supplies
and accessories, there’s a lot more stuff to worry about
when working with wireless.
Frequencies
Just like a radio station, a wireless microphone system
transmits and receives at a specific frequency, and this
frequency is measured in Hertz (Hz). Hertz refers to
cycles or vibrations per second. kHz stands for kilohertz
or thousands of cycles per second. MHz stands for
megahertz or millions of cycles per second. For example,
FM radio stations transmit at a frequency between 88
MHz and 108 MHz. WBUR transmits at 90.9 MHz,
and thus is heard at 90.9 on the FM dial.
Frequency bands and their permitted usage are allocated
by the FCC (Federal Communications Commission) in
the United States. Every wireless microphone system
operates on a specific frequency. e FCC dictates which
frequency ranges can be used by wireless microphone
systems, and these frequencies are shared with television
stations, communications equipment, and the large
number of wireless microphone systems that other people
are using. Because of frequency sharing, there is always a
chance that someone else in the area might be using their
wireless system at the same frequency you are using.
If any two transmitters are operating on the same
frequency, severe interference will result and the wireless
system will be unusable. If the frequencies of any two
wireless systems are too close together, interference is
Kino-Eye.com: Wireless Microphones
likely, and one or both systems will probably be
unusable. e practical operating range of a wireless
system will vary from as little as 100 feet in a crowded
indoor situations to approximately 1,000 feet (300 m)
under direct line-of-sight outdoors.
Diversity wireless systems will almost always have better
operating range than similar non-diversity systems.
Diversity receivers have two external antennas.
Professional wireless systems transmit in the VHF or
UHF radio frequency bands. ese bands are also used
for television broadcast. e UHF frequency band
provides longer range and fewer drop-outs and
interference compared to systems that operate in the
VHF frequency band. Equipment designed for use in the
VHF band is typically less expensive, however, the VHF
band is overcrowded and you have to deal with
harmonics from electrical mains, fluorescent tubes,
refrigerators, computers, etc. ese are virtually
eliminated when using a UHF system. In addition,
propagation of UHF radio waves is better indoor than
with VHF so RF power can be kept low, which is an
advantage when using multi-channel systems.
While there are really are no “bad” frequencies (a quality
wireless system in theory can use almost any frequency
range) if there is other activities in a particular frequency
range, then you will experience interference. erefore,
you have to find a “clear” frequency to use in order to
avoid interference with other transmissions in your
operating area. is is why wireless microphones come in
“channel ranges” (or banks) and within those ranges you
can select a particular frequency to operate with in order
to avoid interference with other users in the area.
Frequency Ranges
 e UHF mid range (470-806 MHz) is widely used
for wireless microphones. Sennheiser G2 and G3
wireless mics are available in different channel sets:
• A: 518 to 554 MHz (U.S. TV channels 22-27)
• B: 626 to 662 MHz (U.S. TV channels 40-45)
• C: 740 to 776 MHz (U.S. TV channels 59-64, this
range was reallocated by the FCC and should not
be used under any circumstances for wireless
microphone transmission.
 e G3 series is available in a newer range:
• G: 566 to 608 MHz
Other ranges you might see listed are intended for use in
Europe.
4 /8
e UHF mid range range represents the newest area for
wireless microphones because of the vast range (336
MHz UHF versus 42 MHz VHF) and there is very little
usage by comparison with VHF. Operation is usually
interference-free as long as there is no local television
stations using the frequency. e FCC does not assign
adjacent channel operation. is means that if a channel
is in use, there will not be an adjacent channel in use
within a 70 mile radius. ere are often open frequencies
in any given city, but actual use is governed by the FCC
rules which state, “Authorized services under Part 74 of
the rules include wireless microphones operated on
vacant TV channels by certain entities.” e FCC in the
U.S. and DOC in Canada rules allow wider transmission
bandwidth and greater output power for UHF
transmitters, which results in better audio quality, and
longer operating range. e greater total bandwidth also
allows for more simultaneous operating channels than
the VHF range.
While the C range (740 to 776 MHz) used to be the
cleanest range within this UHF mid range (470-806
MHz) it was phased out by the FCC and reallocated for
emergency services and data services.  erefore, you
should not use C range equipment because it is no
longer legal to use this frequency range for wireless
microphones.
Sennheiser Evolution G3
Northestern’s Media Studios have several Sennheiser
Evolution G3 kits available for students taking
selected classes.  ese wireless mic kits are very
popular among documentary filmmakers
because they strikes a good balance between
price, performance, and reliability.
 e G3 is a UHF wireless microphone system
with good performance at a very reasonable
price point. Since this system operates in the
UHF frequency band, it provides longer range
and fewer drop-outs and interference
compared to some less expensive wireless
systems that operate in the VHF frequency
band.
Sennheiser offers various configurations
including lavaliere, handheld, and headset
microphones, body pack or plug-on
transmitters, and camera or rack mountable
receivers.  e Northeastern kits consist of a
transmitter/receiver pair and a plug-on
transmitter for a hand-held mic. If you are
thinking of purchasing your own, I
Kino-Eye.com: Wireless Microphones
recommend the EW100-G3 kit. It includes a camera
mounted receiver, body-pack transmitter, lavalier
microphone, and a plug-in transmitter, 1/8" mini
output cable, XLR output cable, all in one convenient
package. For all but the most demanding applications, I
think you’ll find that the G3 series provides a reliable
RF signal and good audio quality.
e transmitter and receiver have a metal housing and
sport an LCD display that provides channel and
frequency information as well as battery life and signal
status. You can activate the back-light by pressing on the
select button of either the transmitter or receiver. e on/
off button is located inside the battery compartment so
there’s no way the device can be inadvertently turned off.
 e G3 transmitter and G3 receiver use two 1.5-volt
AA batteries. As a separate accessory, Sennheiser sells a
compatible rechargeable battery pack and charger.
Given how common AA batteries are, it’s a welcome
feature that you can use AA batteries rather than a
dedicated rechargeable battery pack.
Transmitters and receivers are available in one of
several channel banks (A, B, G, etc.) with a 36 MHz
UHF frequency range offering a total of 1,440
transmission/receiving frequencies. When you purchase
one of these you have to choose a frequency range:
Bank A (518 - 554MHz), Bank B (626 - 662MHz), or
Bank G (566 to 608 MHz).
body-pack
transmitter
receiver
“brick” plug-on transmitter
lavalier microphone
receiver to camera interconnect (mini to mini)
receiver to camera
interconnect (mini to XLR)
receiver accessory shoe
camera mount
5 /8
You might come across some old equipment that uses
the C range because it used to be a popular choice for
use in the Boston area since it’s the range with the least
amount of interference.  e A and B channel banks are
crowded in the Boston area, but G seems to work well in
the Boston area.
e choice of specific operating frequency allows you to
tune a specific transmitter and receiver pair for operation
in the cleanest frequency for your specific operating area.
e system is pre-configured with 4 preset channels,
however the channels can be reconfigured with any of the
available 1,440 frequencies within the 32MHz range in
25-kHz steps. Several systems can be operated
simultaneously on the different factory-preset frequencies
within a channel bank. e factory-preset frequencies are
intermodulation-free. You have to be careful using a userpreset, it’s possible to set up the transmitter and receiver
to operate in a frequency which is not approved for
wireless microphone use in your operating area.
e transmitter has a mute switch and provides an input
trim to adjust for the sensitivity of the microphone in
use. Both the microphone mini-jack in the transmitter
and the output mini-jack in the receiver have a screw ring
that when tightened will prevents the plugs from being
pulled out accidentally.
While some users have expressed concern over the sound
quality of the standard microphone, it’s pretty good for
basic documentary work. Of course, a Countryman or
Tram would be preferable for high-end work, but given
the price of this kit, it’s unreasonable to expect
Sennheiser to include a high-end lavaliere. The standard
mic is “good enough” for most work.
 e receiver comes with a cold shoe adapter that
provides a light and convenient way of mounting the
receiver on top of your camcorder. If you need to mount
two receivers on a camera, the cold can easily be
expanded with a T-bar accessory shoe adapter.
T he plug-on transmitter allows any standard dynamic
microphone with a 3-pin XLR connection to be used as a
wireless microphone.  e transmitter utilizes the same
frequency band as the body-pack and is powered by 2x
AA batteries or an optional Sennheiser rechargeable
battery pack, just as with the body-pack transmitter.
Note:  e Sennheiser G2 series was replaced with the
newer G3 system announced in 2009. The two are very
similar in terms of menus and operation. The
significanly new and different feature of the G3 ver the
G2 is a new diversity receiver for improved performance
compared to the current models.
Avoiding interference problems
When using wireless microphones, due to the nature of
RF transmission, there is always a chance of interference.
While some forms of interference are beyond your
control, others are avoidable. Here’s a list of precautions:
• Make sure that the wireless frequency you are using
is not on a local TV channel (refer to the “Finding
open frequencies” section).
• Check all wireless frequencies in use to make sure
that two systems are not operating at the same
frequency.
• Check to make sure that you don’t have two
wireless frequencies that are too close together. In
general, 1 MHz is the recommended minimum
spacing between systems.
• If a number of systems will be used at the same
time, or you are working in difficult operating
conditions (e.g. lots of obstacles, working around
sources of RF interference), consider using better
gear. Higher-end professional systems are better at
rejecting interference. is is where you really hear
the difference between a professional systems priced
in the thousands and prosumer systems priced in
the hundreds.
• Before using a system in a new location or another
city, double-check for new sources of problems.
Small changes in operating conditions can cause
interference where none existed before.
• Check the squelch control setting on the receiver. A
higher squelch setting provides better protection
against interference. However, since a high setting
also can cause a reduction in operating range, set
the control to the lowest position that reliably
mutes the interference.
• Make certain that all batteries are fresh and new.
Weak batteries can make a system more susceptible
to interference.
Both the transmitter and receiver have a permanently
attached single flexible M3 type antenna.  e effective
working rage of the G3 system is between 100 and 400
feet depending on the terrain and obstructions in the
area. Battery life is anywhere from five to six hours using
alkaline
Kino-Eye.com: Wireless Microphones
6 /8
shielded building you can assume 40
dB of attenuation. For operation
outdoors near a TV transmitter, you
should select 0dB.
e results are highlighted in various
colors: Green: the channel is vacant
and recommended; Yellow: the
channel is either vacant with strong
transmitters on an adjacent channel
or occupied by a transmitter with
weak signal strength in your location,
operation of wireless systems should
be possible; Red: the channel is being
used by land mobile or radio
astronomy services and not permitted
for wireless microphones; Gray: the
channel is being used by either an
analog or digital TV broadcasting
station and is likely to cause
interference with your wireless system.
• Turn off unnecessary electronic equipment and
digital devices (computers, CD players, etc.). ese
are a relatively common cause of wireless
interference, especially if located near the receiver.
• If use of computers or digital devices is necessary,
keep them at least 3 feet (1 meter) away from the
wireless receiver and its antennas.
• If interference does occur, see “Resolving
Interference Problems” below for suggestions on
solving the problem.
Finding open frequencies
e frequencies used for wireless microphones overlap
the frequency ranges used for television transmission. For
trouble free operation, you want to select a frequency
that is not in use in your area for television transmission.
is is easy to figure out using a page on the Sennheiser
web site (www.sennheiserusa.com/findFrequency/) that
provides you with a calculator and access to the FCC TV
broadcast database. You can use it to find open frequency
slots in your area. You enter your city or zip code and it
provides you with a list of all the FCC broadcast licenses
in the area so you can select a frequency to use with your
wireless microphone system that will not overlap active
segments of the spectrum.
e calculator allows you to adjust various parameters,
including radius and attenuation. e FCC grants its
broadcast licensees with a protection radius of 70 miles.
Depending on your environment you have the choice to
select up to 40 dB additional attenuation. For example, if
you are going to use a wireless microphone inside a well
Kino-Eye.com: Wireless Microphones
e calculator also provides a printer friendly view of the
results. It’s a good idea to print out the results and keep it
with your sound gear in the event you ever experience
interference and need to switch frequencies.
Resolving interference problems
e process involved in correcting interference problems
is complicated by the fact that there are several kinds of
interference and each requires a different approach and a
different solution. Sometimes interference problems have
basic causes. You’ll want to check the following items:
• Make sure than no radio transmitters, including
your own wireless transmitters and those of other
wireless systems, come closer than 10 to 15 feet to
the antennas of your wireless receiver. is can
overload the receivers and increase the chances of
interference.
• Make sure receiver antennas don’t touch or come
too close to each other when using more than one
receiver. Try to provide at least 10 inches of
separation between any two receivers.
• Make sure that all transmitters have good batteries.
Weak batteries can cause some transmitters to
generate interference. If there is any doubt, install
new, fresh alkaline batteries in all wireless
transmitters.
• If you have a combination system (handheld +
body-pack) with two transmitters on the same
frequency, or two wireless systems on the same
frequency, make sure that both transmitters are not
turned on at the same time.
7 /8
• Check the squelch setting on the receiver. A higher
squelch setting provides better protection against
interference. However, since a high setting also can
cause a reduction in operating range, set the control
to the lowest position that reliably mutes the
interference.
For a more detailed discussion of interference, typical
causes, and detailed troubleshooting techniques, see
“Using Wireless Systems > Advanced Wireless Topics >
Resolving Interference Problems” available through the
link in the “References” section below.
• Turn off the wireless transmitter(s) and make sure
that all receiver signal indicators go out. Listen to
the audio system to see if the problem is still
present. If it is, the trouble is probably not radio
interference, but some type of non wireless
interference. If the signal indicators do not go out,
there may be squelch problems.
References
Make sure that the wireless system is really at fault. Try
turning off the wireless receiver(s) and disconnecting the
audio cables. If the problem is still present with the
receivers off or with the cables disconnected, the trouble
is almost certainly elsewhere, not in the wireless. e
best approach is to first eliminate the most obvious causes
of interference, then attempt to eliminate as many of the
remaining possibilities as you can, one by one as follows:
• Reconfirm that it really is interference. If so,
interference will almost always be present (in
different forms) with the system transmitter either
turned on or turned off.
• Make certain that two wireless transmitters on the
same frequency are not both turned on at the same
time.
• Check that the wireless frequency is not on a TV
channel in local use.
• Check for wireless systems that are within
approximately 1 MHz of the frequency of the
system experiencing interference.
• Check for other obvious external sources,
particularly a harmonic of an FM radio transmitter,
cable TV systems and any type of radio transmitter.
Once all of above has been done, attempt to turn off
other possible interference sources one by one, try to test
for interference when the equipment is normally
unpowered. Pay particular attention to communications
and TV equipment, including cable TV gear, cordless
phones and two-way radio equipment. Also carefully
check out computers, printers, effects processors, lighting
controllers and other digital devices.
Sometimes the cause of the interference proves extremely
difficult to identify. In other cases, the cause becomes
known, but it’s impractical to correct the problem. In
these situations, it is usually quicker and easier to change
the wireless frequency once all of the simple steps
outlined above have been checked.
Kino-Eye.com: Wireless Microphones
is document draws upon the following excellent
resources:
Audio Technica. “Using Wireless Systems,” www.audiotechnica.com/cms/site/5821c 10324fec931/
index.html/
Eggerton, John. “FCC: No Wireless Mikes in 700-MHz
Band,” Broadcasting & Cable, August 21, 2008,
www.broadcastingcable.com/article/115103FCC_No_Wireless_Mikes_in_700_ MHz_Band.php
Equipment Emporium. “Tips on using wireless
microphones,” www.equipmentemporium.com/
TipsWireless.htm
Sennheiser. “Find Frequencies,” online calculator,
www.sennheiserusa.com/findFrequency/
Sennheiser. “EW100 G2 Instructions for Use,”
www.sennheiser.com/sennheiser/icm_eng.nsf/
resources/EW100G2_US.pdf/$File/
EW100G2_US.pdf
Fine Print
© 2009-2014 by David Tamés, Some rights reserved.  is
document is provided to you under the terms of a Creative
Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0
License, a copy of which may be found at:
creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/us/  is means you
can use these materials and share them as long as you provide
attribution in the form of a link to kino-eye.com and share
what you create with the same license. Any trademarks
mentioned in this document belong to their respective owners.
Photos not credited belong to the respective product
manufacturers (which they may be copyright) and are used
under guidelines of fair use.
Disclaimer: Mention of specific products, vendors, books, web
sites, or techniques does not constitute an endorsement nor
recommendation, it is provided for educational use only.
Acknowledgement: Some of this material is derived from the
documents listed in the reference section and condensed and
revised for readability. Special thanks to Audio Technica and
Sennheiser for publishing so much useful information.
Colophon:  is document was produced on a MacBook Pro
using Pages and set in Myriad Pro and Adobe Garamond.  e
document is distributed in the PDF document format.
8 /8
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising