pfSense Tutorial BSDCan 2008 From zero to hero with pfSense May 13, 2008 Chris Buechler <firstname.lastname@example.org> Scott Ullrich <email@example.com> History of pfSense Started as a work project 13 years ago when we needed a internal firewall Originally Linux, switched to FreeBSD 2.2 Evolution of this path shrunk the firewall down to a Soekris size Moatware was started Met Chris Buechler during this time Sell a number of products Sales guy moves to Florida Moatware fails Chris and myself debate starting over fresh pfSense is forked from m0n0wall roughly 4 years ago Still going strong today pfSense Overview Customized FreeBSD distribution tailored for use as a firewall and router. pfSense has many base features and can be extended with the package system including one touch installations of popular 3rd party packages such as SpamD (spam filter) and Squid (web caching). Includes many features found in commercial products such as Cisco PIX, Sonicwall, Watchguard, etc. Many support avenues available, mailing lists, forum and commercial support. Has the best price on the planet.... Free! pfSense Platforms Live CD Full Install Embedded Developers pfSense Stable Versions 1.0 - October 4, 2006 * 1.0.1 - October 20, 2006 * 1.2 - RELENG_1_2 - February 25, 2008 Downloaded more than 500,000 times to date * Not branched in CVS pfSense Development Versions Current Development Versions 1.3-ALPHA - RELENG_1 2.0-ALPHA-ALPHA-ALPHA - HEAD Snapshots are built every two hours available at http://snapshots.pfsense.org Bonus for attendees - 1.3 snapshots available Minimum Hardware Requirements CPU - 100 MHz (500+ MHz for best experience) RAM - 128 MB (256 MB or more is encouraged) Platform Specific Live CD CD-ROM drive (currently USB CD-ROM devices are not supported) USB flash drive or floppy drive to store configuration Full Installation CD-ROM for initial installation 1 GB hard drive Embedded 128 MB CF serial port for console null modem cable Popular hardware NICs - Intel Pro/100 and Pro/1000 Embedded hardware PC Engines WRAP and ALIX Soekris Nexcom Hacom Mini ITX Most Dell servers work well Many HP and Compaq servers work well VMware - entire product line Hardware Sizing Guidance Throughput Considerations Packets per second Bandwidth required 10-20 Mbps - No less than 266 MHz CPU 21-50 Mbps - No less than 500 MHz CPU 51-200 Mbps - No less than 1.0 GHz CPU 201-500 Mbps - server class or newer desktop hardware PCI-x or PCI-e network adapters No less than 2.0 GHz CPU 501+ Mbps - server class hardware PCI-x or PCI-e network adapters No less than 3.0 GHz CPU Hardware Sizing Guidance Feature Considerations VPN Number of connections not much of a factor Very CPU intensive Throughput 4 Mb - 266 MHz 10 Mb - 500 MHz Hardware Sizing Guidance Feature Considerations Large and busy Captive Portal deployments Increased CPU requirements Large state tables 1 KB per state RAM requirement 100,000 states = ~97 MB RAM 500,000 states = ~488 MB RAM 1,000,000 states = ~976 MB RAM etc... One million states! Hardware Sizing Guidance Feature Considerations Packages RAM hungry ntop Snort Disk I/O Squid Common Deployments (that we're aware of) Perimeter firewall BGP router LAN router VLAN Multiple interfaces WAN router for Ethernet WAN services Common Deployments (that we're aware of) Appliance deployments DHCP server VPN server Packet capture appliance Portable monitoring and incident response Organizations Using pfSense (that we're aware of) Advertising Agencies Application service providers Banks Credit unions Churches Coffee shops Co-location facilities Clothing/Apparel manufacturers Homes Hospitals Hotels Libraries Cable TV networks Small to mid sized ISPs Movie studios Restaurants Schools Universities WISPs Wineries ... and many more! Classless InterDomain Routing (CIDR) CIDR Summarization Allows specification of IP ranges Firewall rules NAT IPsec Must fall in subnet boundaries Examples 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.3.255 = 192.168.0.0/22 10.0.0.48 - 10.0.0.63 = 10.0.0.48/28 www.subnetmask.info Installation Live Demo s Running the LiveCD using a USB Keychain. Full installation to hard disk. Live Demo Full installation using LiveCD. Advanced Installation Techniques Live Demo s Installing to drive in VMware Installing with drive in another machine Initial Configuration Assigning network interfaces Setting the LAN IP address Browsing into the pfSense webConfigurator Walk through the initial setup wizard Setup firewall rules for LAN and WAN interfaces Setup any additional NAT port forwards or 1:1 entries Ensure FTP helper is working as needed Firewall aliases Allows grouping of multiple IPs, subnets or ports. Can vastly simplify and reduce your rule sets. Red input boxes are alias friendly. Firewall - VIPs Uses Additional public IPs for use with NAT CARP deployments Firewall - VIPs Types Proxy ARP CARP Other Firewall Rules Firewall rules are always evaluated on incoming traffic (therefore rules have to go to the interface tha traffic is initiated from) If a connection was allowed (like a client at LAN requesting a webpage from a server at WAN) it will create a state. The reverse connection (the server at WAN sending the content to the client at LAN) will then be allowed automatically (no rule at interface WAN is needed). Rules are always applied on a first match basis from top to down. Firewall Rules - Troubleshooting Enable logging on rules Check firewall log in Status -> System logs -> Firewall Click action icon (block, pass, reject) Source port is not the same as destination port Diagnostics -> States offers additional information for passed traffic especially in multi-WAN environments WAN rules - NAT applies first Use private IPs as destination in NAT rules NAT Directions Outbound Internal network(s) to Internet Inbound Internet to internal network(s) Default Configuration Outbound NAT to WAN IP (or to any OPT-Interface that has a gateway set) Inbound Nothing permitted NAT - Inbound Simple port forwarding 1:1 NAT Does not forward connections from the LAN -> WAN -> LAN without enabling NAT Reflection NAT - 1:1 Slightly different process than with other commercial products: Create a VIP (only CARP IPs can be used by the firewall itself, other VIPs can only be forwarded) Create a 1:1 NAT mapping between the VIP and an internal host Create firewall rules allowing traffic the the internal host address Troubleshooting - ICMP doesn't work with PARP; 1:1 NAT won't work with NAT-reflection NAT - Outbound Default configuration NAT all traffic out WAN to WAN IP NAT all traffic out OPT WANs to OPT WAN IP Advanced Outbound NAT Manual NAT rule creation Static Port Live demo FTP Considerations When using the FTP Helper and VIPs, the type must be set to CARP. FTP only works on primary WAN The helper can be disabled if you wish to port forward TCP port 21 and the TCP data port ranges that are setup in the FTP server (or use 1:1 NAT). Don't forget to permit the traffic with firewall rules! Multi-WAN Ability to use multiple Internet connections Most are dual WAN Multiple installs with 6 or more WANs Why use multi-WAN? Provide Internet redundancy Aggregate bandwidth Multi-WAN Interface configuration Policy routing overview Load balancing caveats Some applications do not work with load balancing (like https, ftp, sip ... use failoverpools for these) Do not use sticky connections (apparently broken) Caveats: Services running on pfSense (like squid, DNS, IPsec) can't make use of load balancing or policy based routing. They will use the system's default gateway (you'll need to add some static routes for DNS servers or IPsecendpoints on OPT WANs) Multi-WAN - Choosing Connectivity Check and price available service Cable DSL Metro Ethernet T1 Fixed wireless etc... Reliability Disparate ISP networks Cable path Multi-WAN - Choosing Connectivity Cable seeking backhoe Multi-WAN - Choosing Connectivity Cable paths Copper services T1 DSL etc. Cable services Fiber services Metro Ethernet Fixed Wireless Multi-WAN and Outbound NAT Default outbound NAT config Translates outbound traffic to IP of WAN used Advanced Outbound NAT Multi-WAN and Inbound NAT Each port forward applies to one WAN Multi-WAN and 1:1 NAT Each 1:1 NAT entry tied to specific WAN Host can have multiple 1:1 entries, one per WAN Multi-WAN Failover Enables a secondary WAN link to be used in the event the primary WAN goes offline. Create a Gateway Pool for failover Ensure that monitor IPs are nearby and reliably respond to ICMP (not the physical link determines if a WAN is down but the failure of the monitoring ping) Add interfaces to the pool Modify the default LAN rule to use the failover pool as the gateway Create static routes for WAN2 DNS Servers Multi-WAN Load Balancing Round robin equal distribution among selected WAN interfaces Not capable (yet) of unequal load distribution Requires unique gateway IP for each WAN (adds static routes behind the scenes for monitors to make the monitor pings leave through the correct WAN) Sticky connections not functional Multi-WAN Load Balancing Round robin equal distribution among selected WAN interfaces Not capable (yet) of unequal load distribution Requires unique gateway IP for each WAN Create a Load Balancer Pool of type "Load Balancing" Ensure monitor IPs are nearby and respond reliably to ICMP Add interfaces to the pool Modify the default LAN rule to use the load balancer pool as the gateway Create policy-based routes for WAN2 DNS Servers and nonbalanced applications VPN Capabilities IPsec (with filtering support) PPTP (with filtering support) OpenVPN (filtering available in 1.3) L2TP might appear in 1.3 VPN Uses Remote Access IPsec PPTP OpenVPN Site to site connectivity IPsec OpenVPN IPsec Site to site Variable configuration options between vendor implementations, sometimes a square is actually a circle Always double and triple check configurations on both sides of the tunnel IPsec Site to Site Static IP Static public IPs on both ends At each endpoint, create a tunnel on the interface which sees the traffic (typically WAN) Do not duplicate remote subnets Ensure that Phase 1 and Phase 2 options match on both tunnels _exactly_ Create firewallrules to allow traffic in coming from the tunnel (firewall -> rules, ipsec) IPsec Site to Site Dynamic IP Static IP on one end, dynamic on the other Make the endpoint with the static IP to allow mobile clients (vpn -> ipsec, mobile clients) Add identifiers to be used by the dynamic remote system (vpn>ipsec, preshared keys) On the dynamic endpoint system setup a static tunnel (vpn > ipsec, tunnels). Use the same parameters as the static end on the mobile clients tab. Use the preshared key that you generated as identifier and secret. Hint: tunnel to tunnel routing works if you use a subnetmask with all remote subnets of dynamic endpoints at the static endpoint OpenVPN Open source SSL VPN solution less problematic behind NAT (other then PPTP or IPSEC) Cross platform client support Windows 2000, XP, 2003, Vista, 2008 Mac OS X FreeBSD NetBSD OpenBSD Linux Windows Mobile (Pocket PC) - alpha OpenVPN Certificate Generation Keys must be generated on another system with 1.2 1.3 already includes all certificate management in the web interface) Organizations with existing PKI should use it Quick and easy way - easyrsa included with OpenVPN PPTP Considerations Currently more than one client behind pfSense cannot connect to the same PPTP server at the same time GRE state is not kept by PF which can cause strange behavior when PPTP server is enabled for clients behind pfSense we'll hopefully have a fix for this in 1.3 PPPoE Server Point to Point Protocol over Ethernet Layer 2 protocol using PPP Creates one to one network link with server RADIUS authentication Common usages Internet Service Providers Locked down wireless deployments Anywhere layer 2 authentication is desirable Traffic Shaper - what it is and isn't Current implementation in 1.2 is very limited Only suitable for two interface deployments - LAN and WAN No IPsec shaping Shaping at layers 3 and 4 No deep packet inspection No application layer shaping Traffic Shaper Always start with the EZ Shaper Wizard Penalty Box may be IPs or an alias Ensure all VOIP-participants and server IP addresses belong to an alias P2P Catch-all which puts any unclassified traffic into the P2P queue. Editing shaper rules IP TOS and TCP Flags are used to determine match, not re-written Routing Disabling NAT Routing Protocols BGP (available in packages) RIP (v1 and v2) Server Load Balancing Load balance traffic across multiple servers Configure a server pool Assign a virtual server address Create firewall rules allowing traffic to server pool Support for multiple load balanced virtual servers - combine load balanced HTTP, SMTP and DNS services all in one box Real F5 not included. Sorry guys. Captive Portal Commonly known as "hotspot". The user's web access will be redirected to an authentication page. Unless he is authenticated all traffic from his Client will be blocked. CP pages/elements can be hosted on pfSense itself CP pages can be PHP as well Built-in User manager or RADIUS-Support RADIUS-Accounting support Passthrough IP-/MAC-adress support Caveats: Can't be used with Multiwan or Schedules; "Reauthenticate users every minute" option won't work for very large installs (many concurrent logged in users) Wireless Common Deployments Access Point Wireless WAN Site to site connections Caveats: A WLAN interface can only be bridged when in access point mode. Site to site connections have to be routed and multi-point bridges are not possible. Wireless Demo Configuring an Access Point Wireless WAN Site to site connections Hardware Redundancy - Overview CARP is used to provide high availability of service across multiple devices CARP Misnomers - CARP does not provide configuration synchronization of pf-state synchronization pfSense CARP clusters require a minimum of 3 static addresses per network segment within the same subnet until CARPdev VRRP traffic conflicts - ensure unique VHIDs Not all multicast is equal in the eyes of switch makers Hardware Redundant Example Network CARP VIPs Must be within the same subnet range as the interface they are attached to Issues with the current FreeBSD implementation pfSense webGUI defends against this VHID groups must be unique for each CARP VIP or VRRP address Advertising frequency ( >0 for backup devices ) pfsync and XMLRPC PFSync is used to synchronize firewall states between multiple machines participating in a high-availability configuration such as a CARP cluster (stateful failover or "seamless" failover) XMLRPC is used to mirror pfSense configurations across multiple pfSense installations participating in a CARP cluster DHCP Server Standard ISC DHCP daemon supports typical DHCP options Features: Deny unknown clients Dynamic DNS configuration with dynamic DHCP client registration DHCP Failover PXE boot server options DHCP Relay Relay DHCP requests to DHCP server on another interface Append circuit ID and agent ID to requests Allows for the proxying of requests to a DHCP server used on the WAN subnet DNS Forwarder Caching DNS service Works with DHCP to register and provide DNS to dynamic clients Option to add custom host or domain mappings Can be sometimes abused to override name resolution for unwanted domains Content Filtering "Trick" OpenDNS Setup Sign up for free OpenDNS account Add your network Configure category restrictions pfSense Setup Permit outbound TCP/UDP port 53 only to: 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 Configure above two DNS servers on pfSense Dynamic DNS pfSense can act as a Dynamic DNS client for a number of Dynamic DNS services including: DynDNS DyNS EasyDNS ODS DHS no-ip Zone edit You must configure a DNS server in System: General setup or allow the DNS server list to be overridden by DHCP/PPP on WAN for dynamic DNS updates to work. SNMP SNMP daemon for integrating with existing monitoring systems. Useful for applications like: Cacti Zabbix Nagios MRTG monomon (Windows) AirPort Flow Monitor (OSX) UPnP pfSense includes a UPnP daemon for supporting applications like: IM (MSN Messenger) Some streaming audio/video applications P2P clients Xbox live IRC Clients UPnP Caveats: Only uses one WAN at a time Dynamically generated rules won't obey traffic shaper config Inherently risky and flawed protocol restrict Wake on LAN pfSense allows the administrator to store MAC addresses of WOL-supported computers and may wake up one or all machines upon mouse click. Easy way to become more "green" friendly Backing up and restoring config.xml All pfSense configuration data and pfSense 3rd party package data is saved in config.xml. It is quite easy to backup this configuration file and restore it (even configuration sections). To backup pfSense visit Diagnostics -> Backup / restore. Click download configuration. To restore a pfSense config.xml backup visit Diagnostics -> Backup / restore. Click browse, locate the config.xml backup on your local hard disk / network and then click Restore configuration. Virtualization and pfSense Known Working Hypervisors VMware Entire product line - ESX, Server, Player, Workstation, Fusion Parallels Microsoft Virtual PC and Virtual Server Sort of... just like it "sort of..." works for everything VirtualBox Virtualization and pfSense Uses Perimeter firewall Not necessarily a good idea Segregating virtual networks from physical Routing between virtual networks VMware and pfSense Installer tweaks Use VMware tools Use e1000 or vmxnet network adapters VMware support Possibly limited Packages Packages extend the capabilities of a pfSense install by allowing users to install relevant software. Many of these packages are still under development and testing. Packages include: Squid - HTTP Cache TinyDNS - DNS server SpamD - Spam deferral daemon Siproxy - SIP proxy daemon Snort - Network intrusion detection daemon Zabbix Agent - Agent for system monitoring DNS Server package (tinydns) It works for Lycos. It works for citysearch.com. It works for pobox.com. It works for 1.85 million more .com's. It works for several of the Internet's largest domain-hosting companies: directNIC, MyDomain/NamesDirect, Interland, Dotster, Easyspace, Namezero, Netfirms, and Rackspace Managed Hosting. It'll work for you too. Features Fully authoritative domain name server Does not allow zone transfers by default Failover support (using ping) provided by pfSense Helps allow for 5.9's when using multiple ISPs SPAMD spamd is a fake sendmail(8)-like daemon which rejects false mail. It is designed to be very efficient so that it does not slow down the receiving machine. Features Greylisting - Temporarily fails a new connection. Well behaved MTAs will wait and resend the message again. Whitelists - Hosts that will bypass the greylist process. Blacklists - Hosts that will be blocked out right. SPAMD RBL Support - be aware of RBL TOS and licenses, many charge for commercial use Stutter text - slows down the session to 300 baud like speeds Supports multiple SMTP servers behind pfSense Editing config.xml Config.xml is the main storage location for all of pfSense and it's installed packages configuration settings. Editing the file can be accomplished via three different ways: Via the webConfigurator Via the console Via a remote console (SSH) To enable SSH, visit System -> Advanced -> Enable Secure Shell Good idea to rm /tmp/config.cache after changes to clear out the config cache ... Diagnostics -> Edit file does this for you automatically. Example config.xml Editing config.xml example Setting the LAN interface to 10 baseT/UTP Editing config.xml example Setting the LAN interface to 10 baseT/UTP Introduction to pfSense 1.3 FreeBSD 7.x base (currently 7.0 - RELENG_7_0) PHP 5 Dashboard in base (available as package in 1.2) Improved routing and gateway support User manager with integration for Active Directory, Novell eDirectory and OpenLDAP IPsec Dynamic DNS support Includes latest verson of OpenBSD PF FreeBSD IP alias VIP support Introduction to pfSense 1.3 OpenVPN improvements OpenVPN 2.1 Vista support Integrated user and certificate management Traffic filtering User grouping for firewall rules Client installer package generation Introduction to pfSense 1.3 Traffic shaper rewritten Multiple interface capable (multi-WAN and multiple internal networks) Multiple wizards for various configuration scenarios IPsec shaping now possible DiffServ support Live Demo pfSense Developer Summit First three pfSense developers in attendance here. More than 10 years combined dedication to the project. Chris and Scott - September 2004 pfSense name chosen, launched - November 2004 Bill Marquette - February 2005 Getting together all week to work on pfSense Commercial Offerings On an hourly basis Support Network design Configuration review Vulnerability assessment Hourly or project basis Development Hourly or project basis Nearly all new 1.3 features are the result of sponsored development Helps support the project! www.bsdperimeter.com Questions, additional demos, etc. At this point we would like to open the floor for questions and or give you additional demonstrations of your choosing. Feedback Should be able to submit at bsdcan.org post-conference Can email us - firstname.lastname@example.org Thanks for attending!
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