fabrication of display unit for electrical and electronic wire harness of

fabrication of display unit for electrical and electronic wire harness of
FABRICATION OF DISPLAY UNIT FOR ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC WIRE
HARNESS OF SINGLE CYLINDER FOUR STROKE ENGINE FOR TEACHING PURPOSE
MOHD HASSNUN SAIFFUDDIN B MOHD MUSTAFA
(MB09101)
A report submitted for partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Diploma of Mechanical
Engineering award.
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA PAHANG
JANUARI 2012
iv
ABSTRACT
This project is about to design the display unit for the electric and electronic wire
harness of the motorcycle for the teaching. Its purpose is to ease the user to study about
the wire harness in the motorcycle without need to tear down the whole bike. This
project component is base on single cylinder four stroke engine of Yamaha FZ 150i
which is using the injection technology. This project is design base on the sketching
from the computer software and manual sketching to place the electronic component of
the motorcycle which will ease the user to understand the arrangement of the wire
harness in the motorcycle. Understanding the problem of user to identify each
component, it has been label and each of them had been described as simple as possible.
Each material of the project is using the tough and rigid to built the chassis and resist to
any force. It also can be modified for the further development in the future. As the result
it has down the cost and satisfied the user about the project purpose.
v
ABSTRAK
Projek ini adalah bertujuan untuk menghasilkan satu unit paparan wayar dalam
motosikal untuk memudahkan pengguna mengenali dan mempelajari system wayar
secara ringkas tanpa perlu meleraikan motosikal. Unit paparan yang dihasilkan adalah
berpandukan pada system motosikal Yamaha FZ 150i yang menggunakan teknologi
pancutan minyak yang lebih efisyen dari lain-lain motosikal yang kebanyakannya masih
menggunakan system karburator. Projek ini dihasilkan dengan berpandukan pada
lakaran gambar berkomputer untuk meletakkan komponen-komponen utama motosikal
pada kedudukan yg mudah difahami pengguna tentang fungsi dan tujuan dihasilkan.
Memahami aspek masalah yang dihadapi oleh pngguna motosikal tentang system
wayar,unit paparan yang dihasilkan lebih mesra pengguna dimana setiap komponen
disusun mengikut posisi di dalam motosikal. Penghasilan unit paparan ini menggunakan
bahan yang tahan lasak dimana dapat bertahan lama untuk tujuan pembangunan dan
penambahbaikan. Keputusan ini nyata sekali menurunkan kos dan meningkatkan
kebolehharapan produk dan keyakinan pelanggan.
vi
TABLE OF CONTAIN
Page
SUPERVISOR’S DECLARATION
i
STUDENT’S DECLARATION
ii
DEDICATION
iii
ABSTRACT
vi
ABSTRAK
v
TABLE OF CONTENTS
vi
LIST OF APPENDICES
ix
LIST OF TABLE
x
LIST OF FIGURES
CHAPTER 1
CHAPTER 2
xi
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Project Background
1
1.2 Problem Statement
1
1.3 Objectives
2
1.4 Project Scope
2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1
Introduction
3
vii
2.2
2.3
CHAPTER 3
CHAPTER 4
Electric And Electronic Of The Motorcycle
4
2.2.1
Fuel Injection System
4
2.2.2
Lighting System
5
2.2.3
Ignition System
6
2.2.4
Engine Management System
8
2.2.5
Sensor and Actuator
9
Summary
10
METHODOLOGY
3.1
Introduction
11
3.2
Project Flow Chart
11
3.3
Sketching Design for The Display Unit
14
3.4
Fabrication Process
17
3.4.1
Marking And Measuring
17
3.4.2
Metal cutting and Removal
18
3.4.3
Grinding
18
3.4.4
Welding
19
3.4.5
Finishing
20
RESULT AND DICUSSION
4.1
Introduction
21
4.2
Bill of Material
21
4.3
Design Description
22
4.3.1
22
4.4
Expected Result
Discussion
22
4.4.1
23
Material Preparation
viii
CHAPTER 5
4.4.2
Design and Sketching
23
4.4.3
Budget Preparation
23
4.4.4
Fabrication Problem
24
4.4.5
Advantages
24
4.4.6
Disadvantages
25
4.4.7
Final Product
26
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1
Introduction
27
5.2
Conclusion
27
5.3
Recommendation
28
5.3.1
Student Skill
29
5.3.2
Project Plan
29
5.3.3
Material
29
5.3.4
Facilities
29
5.3.5
Design
30
Further Improvement
30
5.4
ix
LIST OF APPENDICES
APPENDIX
A
TITLE
Gantt Chart
Page
31
x
LIST OF TABLE
Table No.
Title
4.1
Bill of Material
Page
21
xi
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure No.
Title
Page
2.1
Fuel Injection
5
2.2
Lighting diagram
6
2.3
Ignition System
8
2.4
Engine Management System
2.5
Speed Sensor
3.1
Flow Chart
3.2
Display Unit Platform
3.3
Side View
15
3.4
Front View
16
3.5
Top View
16
3.6
Marking and Measuring
3.7
Cutting
18
3.8
Grinding
19
3.9
Welding
19
3.10
Finishing
20
4.2
Final Product
26
8
9
13
14
17
1
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Project Background
This project is aiming to fabricate the display unit for teaching purpose. The
final product can be use to learn the wiring in motorcycle without need to tear down
the whole motorcycle in order to get an overview the whole system. This project also
help student to identify any component of electrical and electronic of the motorcycle.
1.2 Problem Statement
The problem of this project is to determine how to simplify the main wire and
display it as simple as possible with correct arrangement of the wiring to avoid shortcircuit. this aso include to tear down the whole bike to get the main wire of the
motorcycle. Then, fabricate the display unit for electric and electronic wire harness
of single cylinder four stroke engine.
2
1.3 Objectives
i.
To tear down the whole part of the motorcycle.
ii.
To design and fabricate the display unit.
1.4 Project Scope
i.
Design the display unit platform and the layout of the electrical wire harness.
ii.
Fabricate the display unit of wire harness that can be used for teaching in the
class.
iii.
Label each wire that is connected to ease the user to identify the electrical and
electronic component.
iv.
To carry out the finishing work of the display unit.
3
CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter will discuss about the component that important in building the
motorcycle wire harness. This include all the component that run on electronic part
which are fuel injection system, lightning system, ignition system, engine
management system (ECU), sensor and actuator.
The wiring system is important because it is the major part of the motorcycle
that run on every detail on the motorcycle. If the wiring system is damage, the
motorcycle is consider broken even the mechanical part still running smooth.
Usually, repairing the wiring system in the motorcycle need an expert about the
system and manufacture guide book. This why in the motorcycle guidebook where
include about the safety and precaution about the wiring system that user need to be
alert.
According to certain website about the motorcycle wiring system, ”specific
wiring issues regarding a particular vehicle make and model, get a factory manual if
you can or at least get a Haynes or Clymer (or similar) manual for your specific
make and model. These have wiring diagrams on the back pages. If you are
attempting to make parts from one vehicle work in another vehicle, get both manuals,
strictly for figuring out what wire serves what function and so you know what to
connect to where and what to eliminate”..
4
2.2
ELECTRIC AND ELECTRONIC OF THE MOTORCYCLE
This is basic component that the motorcycle need in order to run the engine
and all the electronic part.
2.2.1 Fuel Injection System
According to the website reference, fuel injection is a system for
admitting fuel into an internal combustion engine. It has become the primary fuel
delivery system used in automotive petrol engines, having almost completely
replaced carburetors in the late 1980s.
A fuel injection system (figure 2.2.1) is designed and calibrated specifically
for the type(s) of fuel it will handle. Most fuel injection systems are for gasoline or
diesel applications. With the advent of electronic fuel injection (EFI), the diesel and
gasoline hardware has become similar. EFI's programmable firmware has permitted
common hardware to be used with different fuels.
Carburetors were the predominant method used to meter fuel on gasoline
engines before the widespread use of fuel injection. A variety of injection systems
have existed since the earliest usage of the internal combustion engine.
The primary difference between carburetors and fuel injection is that fuel
injection atomizes the fuel by forcibly pumping it through a small nozzle under high
pressure, while a carburetor relies on suction created by intake air rushing through
a venturi to draw the fuel into the airstream.
5
Figure 2.1: Fuel Injection Design
2.2.2 Lighting System
Vehicle lighting systems are very important, particularly where road safety is
concerned. A key point to remember with vehicle lights is that they must allow the
driver to:
1. See in the dark.
2. Be seen in the dark (or conditions of poor visibility).
3. Sidelights, tall lights, brake lights and others are relatively
straightforward.
6
Headlights present the most problems, namely that, on dipped beam they
must provide adequate light for the driver but without dazzling other road users.
Many techniques have been tried over the years an great advances have been made,
but the conflict between seeing and dazzling is very difficult to overcome.
In Figure 2.2, the sketching about the lighting system in the motorcycle. It
showed all wires are connected to the battery as the main source of power.
Figure 2.2: Ligting diagram
2.2.3
Ignition System
The fundamental purpose of the ignition system show in figure 2.2.3 is to
supply a spark inside the cylinder, near the end of the compression stroke, to ignite
the compressed charge of air-fuel vapour. The ignition system has to transform the
normal battery voltage of 12 V to approximately 8-20 kV and, in addition, has to
7
deliver this high voltage to the right cylinder, at the right time. One winding of a coil
is switched on and of causing a high voltage to be induced in a second winding.
A coil-ignition system is composed of various components and subassemblies, the actual design and construction of which depend mainly on the engine
with which the system is to be used.
Figure 2.3 : Ignition System
8
2.2.4
Engine Management System
A hierarchical structure for the tasks of the Electronic Control Units devoted
to automotive engine control is proposed. It has been divided into three parts:
◦
the driver interpreter
◦
the engine controller
◦
the actuators controller
Figure 2.4 : Engine Management System
9
2.2.5
Sensor And Actuator
A sensor is any device, such as a thermometer, that detects a physical
condition in the world. In this case the sensor will detect the vital part of the
motorcycle such as the speed, temperature, ignition and oil management. For
example, Figure 2.2.5 show the speed sensor for the motorcycle. This sensor will
detect how fast the motorcycle is running. This is crucial because this basic part of
the motorcycle will determine the safety of the motorcycle can be running.
Actuators are devices, such as valves and switches that perform actions such
as turning things on or off or making adjustments in an operational system. It can
integrate sensors and actuators to create a closed-loop operational system.
Figure 2.5: Speed Sensor
10
2.3 Summary
This chapter has present a few electronic and electric system of a motorcycle
engine. The system include the fuel injection system, the lighting system, ignition
system, the engine management system, and finally the sensor and actuator system.
11
CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY
3.1
Introduction
This chapter will describe about the overall methodology in this project from
beginning until end of the project. All the processes will be described in this chapter
by following the chart. During this part, every information and data will be gathered
together and concluded according to the objectives and scope of the project.
3.2 Project Flow Chart
From figure 3.1, the project start with the literature review and research about
the title. These were shown the flow of the fabrication of the display unit for electric
and electronic wire harness of single cylinder of four stroke engines for the teaching
purpose. These tasks have been done through study
on the internet, books,
discussion with the supervisor and the other resources.
After gather all the relevant information, the project had begun on week five.
In this step, the bike has been tore down to get the main wire. It has to be labeled to
avoid the confusion because all the wire needs to be connected correctly on the
display unit.
After that, discussion had been made about the display unit fabricating is
begin. In this process, the L-shaped mild steel is been chosen to built the chassis of
the display unit. This process involved cutting and welding the steel to get the shape.
This chassis need to be stable and strong in order to place all components.
12
After finish fabricating the display unit, all components is been tighten to the
board and arrange it correctly. The testing of the component will be determined if the
wire are connected correctly or not. If the wire is connecting correctly, the electronic
and electronic will run smoothly like the normal motorcycle. After that, proceeding
to the finishing stage which are painting and smooth all the sharp edge of the display
unit. If the wire did not function as needed, the arrangement and connection stage
need to be repeat again.
After all the process mentioned above is done, all the material for the writing
is gathered. The report writing process will be guided by the UMP final year project
report writing, this process also included the presentation slide making for the final
presentation of the project.
13
START
LITERATURE REVIEW
PROBLEM STATEMENT
ENGINE TEAR DOWN
SKETCHING DESIGN FOR THE
DISPLAY UNIT
FABRICATE THE DISPLAY UNIT
INSTALLATION OF ELECTRIC AND
ELECTRONIC PART
VERIFIED BY THE
SUPERVISOR
YES
PROJECT FINISHIING
DOCUMENTATION
Figure 3.1: Flow Chart
NO
14
3.3
SKETCHING DESIGN FOR THE DISPLAY UNIT
After choose the selected design for the project, the early sketch is transfer to
the engineering drawing and also for the solid modelling by using the computer to
show the actual design for the display unit.
Figure 3.2
After select the design and the early sketch, the next step are set the
dimension and run the dimensioning process. The dimensions were set before run the
project drawing according to the relevant dimensions by refer to the currents display
unit and the other parts to make sure all of them were fit.
Part by part are been draw according to the dimensions that have been set,
and after finish the drawing, all the parts were assembled to give and show the actual
design for the project.
15
1.5m
0.2 m
1.0m
Figure 3.3: top view
16
1.4 m
0.2 m
1.0 m
Figure 3.4: front view
1.0m
1.0 m
Figure 3.5: top view
17
3.4
FABRICATION PROCESS
This process use the materials that selected, make the product base on the
selected design and then followed by the selected dimension. In this process, many
methods are used in order to make the design become reality. Fabrication process
uses a different method. All the methods that can be used are sketching, measuring,
cutting, grinding, bending, drilling, finishing and many more method. The fabrication
process starts with the dimensioning by using marking and measuring process until
finishing. The processes involve are as below.
3.4.1 Marking and Measuring
The marking and measuring process was done first base on the dimensioning.
The common tools and devices used are steel ruler, center punch, measuring tape,
90o elbow, vernier calliper and pencil to mark and measure the raw materials.
Measures are taken more or 3 times for accuracy reasons.
Figure 3.6: Marking and Measuring
18
3.4.2 Metal Cutting And Removal
All the material had been cutting using the cutter. It had been measured about
one meter each to build the chassis.
Figure 3.7: Cutting
3.4.3 Grinding
The materials are grinded carefully into shape desired with using portable
grinding machine and disc cutter to remove unwanted parts and to give smooth
surface finish on the edges to make sure that joining process can be done precisely.
The mild steel are clammed on the table and the grinding process is done first by
grinding off unwanted parts.
19
Figure 3.8: Grinding
3.4.4 Welding
The steel had been weld to build the chassis and had been tested its toughness
to put the heavy component on the board. It had been tested and welded several time
to make sure it can withstand any force.
Figure 3.9: Welding
20
3.4.5 Finishing
After joining process and testing the product, the final stage of finishing
which is filing and painting process. In filing process, make the smoothing the
product to ensure a clean and non-sharp edge which can be hazardous using sand
paper and smooth file to get the smooth surfaces and to remove dirt and rust.
Figure 3.10: Finishing
21
CHAPTER 4
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1
INTRODUCTION
This chapter discusses on the result and discussion of the project. It includes
design parts, bill of materials (B.O.M) and also test result based on functionality of
the component. This chapter also provide whether there is weakness occur so that
further improvement can be made onto the product. Also the result can compare
whether meet the specification required or expected by referring to the data provided.
4.2
Bill of materials
Bill of materials below explains on the materials ordered or used in this
project. The materials used are listed in Table 4.1 according to it no. material,
quantity, and dimension for this project.
ITEM
QUANTITY
DIMENSION
CABEL TIGHT
13
-
BOLT
6
-
MILD STEEL
3
14m
PVC BOARD
1
1.2Mx1.4m
Table 4.1 : bill of material
22
4.3
Design Descriptions
This design of the display unit is base on the pyramid shape and been chose
because of the toughness and rigid factor. The chassis of the display unit is using the
mild steel which is considered tough and rigid. The PVC board had been chosen
because it is wide and easy to place the component on it. It also easy to be drill
compared to other material such aluminium sheet and tougher than plywood which is
easily broken or damage if we drill it too much and not resistant to the water.
4.3.1 Expected Result
The design had been tough and rigid. Each joint had been weld repeatable to
make sure the structure is tough and solid. Behind the PVC board had been place the
chassis from the mils steel to make sure the PVC board did not bend when it had
been tighten with the component.
4.4
DISCUSSION
While developing this project, there are some error and problem had occur
that need some improvement to been done in the future. The total cost to produce this
product can be reduce if decrease using bolts and nuts. Many errors have occurred
during making this project. These errors occur from the beginning until the finishing
of the project. The errors occur were detected by further observations and analysis.
23
4.4.1 Material Preparation
Materials required for this project are ordered through bill of materials (Refer
to Table 4.2: Bill of materials). Some of the materials can also be bought by students
themselves from hardware shops. Some materials required are already available in
the university laboratory main store.
4.4.2 Designing and sketching
For designing, ideas are develop entirely from the student. References aren’t
available due to all measurements and drawing designs are generated from the
students. However there are the matters of stability within the design. Students has to
focus on stability a functions since it is a platform which has to hold a heavy object
and also able to rotate it in a certain position. This criteria has been the guideline as
well developing the design not only to fit the main function but also practical to
users.
4.4.3 Budget preparations
The budget for this project should be entirely handled by the university. The
students have to inform the University regarding the matter whereas the budget itself
is not affordable and practical for a student of such level to provide.
24
4.4.4 Fabrications problem
a) Materials
The problems regarding the materials are the available materials some
aren’t sufficient within the University materials store. Some materials require
strict procedure to be extracted out of the store which cause valuable time
spend on handling the paperwork and asking for permission. Some materials
required long period of time to arrive. This does not only cause a major error
in fabrication process, but also halted the schedule behind time period
required. This has caused the project to be finished behind required or desired
time.
b) Fabrication
During fabrication, there is a matter of precise measurements which
can affect the project. The measuring has to be taken more than once. There
are also the cutting processes in which some materials require scroll saw and
band saw to be used to cut plastic into circle shape. This process requires
intense accuracy in which can produce defects once a minor error occur.
4.4.5 Advantages
This display unit model has several advantages. First advantage of this model
is it is tough and firm for the display unit because of its chassis made of the mild
steel. This is important because the chassis need to support the PVC board and the
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