Oscilloscope(Hameg 507)

Oscilloscope(Hameg 507)
Oscilloscope
HM507
Manual
English
Contents
General information regarding the CE marking ............ 4
3
General Information .........................................................
Symbols .........................................................................
Use of tilt handle ...........................................................
Safety .............................................................................
Intended purpose and operating conditions ................
Warranty .........................................................................
Maintenance ..................................................................
Protective Switch-Off ....................................................
Power supply .................................................................
6
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
Oscilloscope
HM507
Type of signal voltage ...................................................... 8
Amplitude Measurements ............................................ 8
Total value of input voltage ........................................... 9
Time Measurements ..................................................... 9
Connection of Test Signal ........................................... 10
Controls and readout ..................................................... 11
Menu ................................................................................ 29
First Time Operation ......................................................
Trace Rotation TR ........................................................
Probe compensation and use .....................................
Adjustment at 1kHz .....................................................
Adjustment at 1MHz ...................................................
Operating modes of the vertical
amplifiers in Yt mode ..................................................
X-Y Operation ...............................................................
Phase comparison with Lissajous figures ..................
Phase difference measurement
in DUAL mode (Yt) .......................................................
Phase difference measurement in DUAL mode ........
Measurement of an amplitude modulation ...............
30
30
30
30
31
31
32
32
32
32
33
Triggering and time base ............................................... 33
Automatic Peak (value) -Triggering ............................. 33
Normal Triggering ....................................................... 34
(Slope) .................................................................... 34
Trigger coupling ........................................................... 34
Triggering of video signals .......................................... 34
Line/Mains triggering (~) ............................................. 35
Alternate triggering ..................................................... 35
External triggering ....................................................... 35
Trigger indicator “TR” ................................................. 36
HOLD OFF-time adjustment ....................................... 36
Delay / After Delay Triggering ..................................... 36
Component Tester (analog mode) ................................
General ........................................................................
Using the Component Tester .....................................
Test Procedure ............................................................
Test Pattern Displays ..................................................
Testing Resistors ........................................................
Testing Capacitors and Inductors ...............................
Testing Semiconductors .............................................
Testing Diodes ............................................................
Testing Transistors ......................................................
In-Circuit Tests .............................................................
38
38
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
40
Storage Mode .................................................................
Signal capture modes ..................................................
Raltime sampling .........................................................
Radom sampling ..........................................................
Raltime sampling .........................................................
Signal display and recording modes ...........................
Vertical resolution ........................................................
Horizontal resolution ...................................................
Alias signal display ......................................................
Operating modes of the vertical amplifiers ................
40
40
40
41
41
41
41
41
42
42
Adjustments .................................................................... 42
Auto Set .......................................................................... 38
RS232 Interface - Remote Control ................................
Safety ...........................................................................
Operation .....................................................................
RS-232 Cable ...............................................................
RS-232 protocol ...........................................................
Baud-Rate Setting ........................................................
Data Communication ..................................................
Mean Value Display ........................................................ 38
Front Panel HM507 ......................................................... 43
2
42
42
42
42
43
43
43
Subject to change without notice
General information regarding the CE marking
KONFORMITÄTSERKLÄRUNG
DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY
DECLARATION DE CONFORMITE
Herstellers
Manufacturer
Fabricant
HAMEG Imstruments GmbH
Industriestraße 6
D-63533 Mainhausen
Angewendete harmonisierte Normen / Harmonized standards applied / Normes harmonisées
utilisées
Sicherheit / Safety / Sécurité
Die HAMEG Instruments GmbH bescheinigt die Konformität für das Produkt
The HAMEG Instruments GmbH herewith declares conformity of the product
HAMEG Instruments GmbH déclare la conformite du produit
EN 61010-1: 1993 / IEC (CEI) 1010-1: 1990 A 1: 1992 / VDE 0411: 1994
EN 61010-1/A2: 1995 / IEC 1010-1/A2: 1995 / VDE 0411 Teil 1/A1: 1996-05
Überspannungskategorie / Overvoltage category / Catégorie de surtension: II
Verschmutzungsgrad / Degree of pollution / Degré de pollution: 2
Bezeichnung / Product name / Designation:
Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit / Electromagnetic compatibility /
Compatibilité électromagnétique
Oszilloskop/Oscilloscope/Oscilloscope
Typ / Type / Type:
HM507
EN 61326-1/A1
Störaussendung / Radiation / Emission: Tabelle / table / tableau 4; Klasse / Class / Classe B.
Störfestigkeit / Immunity / Imunitee: Tabelle / table / tableau A1.
mit / with / avec: Optionen / Options / Options: mit den folgenden Bestimmungen / with applicable regulations / avec les directives
suivantes
EMV Richtlinie 89/336/EWG ergänzt durch 91/263/EWG, 92/31/EWG
EMC Directive 89/336/EEC amended by 91/263/EWG, 92/31/EEC
Directive EMC 89/336/CEE amendée par 91/263/EWG, 92/31/CEE
Niederspannungsrichtlinie 73/23/EWG ergänzt durch 93/68/EWG
Low-Voltage Equipment Directive 73/23/EEC amended by 93/68/EEC
Directive des equipements basse tension 73/23/CEE amendée par 93/68/CEE
EN 61000-3-2/A14
Oberschwingungsströme / Harmonic current emissions / Émissions de courant harmonique: Klasse / Class / Classe D.
EN 61000-3-3
Spannungsschwankungen u. Flicker / Voltage fluctuations and flicker /
Fluctuations de tension et du flicker.
Datum /Date /Date
Unterschrift / Signature /Signatur
15.01.2001
E. Baumgartner
Technical Manager /Directeur Technique
General information regarding the CE marking
HAMEG instruments fulfill the regulations of the EMC directive. The conformity test made by HAMEG is based on the actual
generic- and product standards. In cases where different limit values are applicable, HAMEG applies the severer standard.
For emission the limits for residential, commercial and light industry are applied. Regarding the immunity (susceptibility)
the limits for industrial environment have been used. The measuring- and data lines of the instrument have much influence
on emmission and immunity and therefore on meeting the acceptance limits. For different applications the lines and/or
cables used may be different. For measurement operation the following hints and conditions regarding emission and immunity should be observed:
1. Data cables
For the connection between instruments resp. their interfaces and external devices, (computer, printer etc.) sufficiently
screened cables must be used. Without a special instruction in the manual for a reduced cable length, the maximum cable
length of a dataline must be less than 3 meters and not be used outside buildings. If an interface has several connectors
only one connector must have a connection to a cable. Basically interconnections must have a double screening. For IEEEbus purposes the double screened cables HZ72S and HZ72L from HAMEG are suitable.
2. Signal cables
Basically test leads for signal interconnection between test point and instrument should be as short as possible. Without
instruction in the manual for a shorter length, signal lines must be less than 3 meters and not be used outside buildings.
Signal lines must screened (coaxial cable - RG58/U). A proper ground connection is required. In combination with signal
generators double screened cables (RG223/U, RG214/U) must be used.
3. Influence on measuring instruments
Under the presence of strong high frequency electric or magnetic fields, even with careful setup of the measuring equipment an influence of such signals is unavoidable. This will not cause damage or put the instrument out of operation. Small
deviations of the measuring value (reading) exceeding the instruments specifications may result from such conditions in
individual cases.
4. RF immunity of oscilloscopes
4.1 Electromagnetic RF field
The influence of electric and magnetic RF fields may become visible (e.g. RF superimposed), if the field intensity is high. In
most cases the coupling into the oscilloscope takes place via the device under test, mains/line supply, test leads, control
cables and/or radiation. The device under test as well as the oscilloscope may be effected by such fi elds. Although the interior of the oscilloscope is screened by the cabinet, direct radiation can occur via the CRT gap. As the bandwidth of each
amplifier stage is higher than the total –3dB bandwidth of the oscilloscope, the influence RF fields of even higher frequencies may be noticeable.
4.2 Electrical fast transients / electrostatic discharge
Electrical fast transient signals (burst) may be coupled into the oscilloscope directly via the mains/line supply, or indirectly
via test leads and/or control cables. Due to the high trigger and input sensitivity of the oscilloscopes, such normally high
signals may effect the trigger unit and/or may become visible on the CRT, which is unavoidable. These effects can also be
caused by direct or indirect electrostatic discharge.
HAMEG Instruments GmbH
Subject to change without notice
3
HM507
50 MHz CombiScope
HM507
Automatic measurements
®
Digital mode:
Single, Refresh, Envelope, Average, Roll and XY modes
Low-Noise 8-bit Flash A/D Converters with max. 100 MSa/s
Real Time Sampling, 2 GSa/s Random Sampling and 2 kPts
Memory per Channel
Pre-/Post-Trigger -10 cm to +10 cm
Cursor measurement
Digital Time Base 100 s – 100 ns/cm, with X Magnification up
to 20 ns/cm
Programmable Mathematical Signal Processing
RS-232 interface for control and signal data transfer, incl.
Windows® software
Signal processing with
userdefined formulas
4
Specifications and functions, see HM504-2
Subject to change without notice
Specifications
50 MHz CombiScope® HM507
Valid at 23 °C after a 30 minute warm-up period
Vertical Deflection
Operating Modes:
Invert:
XY Mode:
Bandwidth:
Rise Time:
Overshoot:
Deflection Coefficients:
1 mV/div. – 2 mV/div.:
5 mV/div. – 20 V/div.:
Variable (uncalibrated):
Input Impedance:
Coupling:
Max. Input Voltage:
Triggering
Automatic (Peak to Peak):
Normal with Level Control:
Slope:
Sources:
Coupling:
Trigger Indicator:
Triggering after Delay:
External Trigger Signal:
Active TV sync. separator:
Channel I or II only
Channels I and II (alternate or chopped)
Sum or Difference of CH I and CH II
CH II
via CH I (X) and CH II (Y)
2 x 0 – 50 MHz (-3 dB)
‹ 7 ns
max. 1 %
1-2-5 Sequence
± 5 % (0 to 10 MHz (-3 dB))
± 3 % (0 to 50 MHz (-3 dB))
› 2.5: 1 to › 50 V/div.
1 MΩ II 18 pF
DC, AC, GND (ground)
400 V (DC + peak AC)
20 Hz – 100 MHz (≥ 5 mm)
0 – 100 MHz (≥ 5 mm)
positive or negative
Channel I or II, CH I/CH II alternate (≥ 8 mm)
Line and External
AC (10 Hz – 100 MHz), DC (0 – 100 MHz),
HF (50 kHz – 100 MHz), LF (0 – 1.5 kHz)
with LED
with Level Control and Slope selection
≥ 0.3 VPP (0 – 50 MHz)
Field and Line, +/-
Horizontalablenkung (analog u. digital)
Analog
Time Base:
0.5 s/div. – 50 ns/div. (1-2-5 Sequence)
Accuracy:
± 3%
Variable (uncalibrated): › 2.5 :1 to › 1.25 s/div.
X-Magnification x 10:
up to 10 ns/div. (± 5 %)
Accuracy:
± 5%
Delay (selectable):
140 ms – 200 ns (variable)
Hold-Off Time:
variable to approx. 10 : 1
XY Mode
Bandwidth X amplifier:
0 – 3 MHz (-3 dB)
XY Phase shift ‹ 3°:
‹ 120 kHz
Digital
Time Base:
100 s/div. – 100 ns/div. (1-2-5 Sequence)
Accuracy:
± 2%
X-Magnification x 10:
up to 20 ns/div.
Accuracy:
± 2%
XY Mode
Bandwidth X Amplifier :
0 - 50 MHz (-3 dB)
XY Phase shift ‹ 3°:
‹ 10 MHz
Digital Storage
Operating Modes:
Interpolation:
Sampling Rate (Real Time):
Sampling Rate (Random):
Refresh, Roll, Single, XY, Envelope,
Average, Random Sampling
Linear Dot Join Function
max 100 MSa/s, 8 bit Flash A/D Converter
2 GSa/s relative
Post/Pre-Trigger:
-10 div. to + 10 div. (continuous)
Display Refresh Rate:
max. 180/s
Bandwidth:
2 x 0 – 50 MHz (-3 dB)
Rise Time, Overshoot:
‹ 7 ns, ≤1 %
Signal Memory:
3 x 2 k x 8 bit
Reference Signal Memory: 3 x 2 k x 8 bit
Mathematical Signal Memory:3 x 2 k x 8 bit
Resolution (dots/div.) Yt Mode:
X: 200/div., Y: 25/div.
Resolution (dots/div.) XY Mode:
X: 25/div., Y: 25/div.
Operation / Readout / Control
Manual:
via controls
Autoset:
automatic signal related parameter settings
Save and Recall:
9 user defined parameter settings
Readout:
display of menu, parameters, cursors
and results
Auto Measurements:
Analog mode:
Frequency, Period, VDC, Vpp, Vp+, Vp-,
also in digital mode:
Vrms, Vaverage
Cursor Measurements:
Analog mode:
ΔV, Δt, 1/Δt (f), tr, ΔV, V to GND, ratio X and Y
also in digital mode:
Pulse count, Vt related to Trigger Point,
Peak to Peak, Peak+, PeakFrequency counter:
4 digit (0.01 % ± 1 digit) 0.5 Hz – 100 MHz
Interface (standard fitting): RS-232 (Control, Signal Data)
Interface Option:
HO79-6 (IEEE-488, RS-232, Centronics)
Component Tester
Test Voltage:
approx. 7 Vrms (open circuit)
Test Current:
max. 7 mArms (short-circuit)
Test Frequency:
approx. 50 Hz
Test Connection:
2 banana jacks 4 mm Ø
One test circuit lead is grounded via protective earth (PE)
Miscellaneous
CRT:
D14-363GY, 8 x 10 cm with internal graticule
Acceleration Voltage:
approx. 2 kV
Trace Rotation:
adjustable on front panel
Z-Input (Intens. modulation, analog): max. + 5 V (TTL)
Calibrator Signal (Square Wave): 0.2 V ± 1 %, 1 Hz - 1 MHz (tr ‹ 4 ns), DC
Power Supply (Mains):
105-253 V, 50/60 Hz ± 10 %, CAT II
Power Consumption:
approx. 42 Watt at 230 V/50 Hz
Min./max. Ambient temperature:
0° C...+ 40° C
Safety class:
Safety class I (EN61010-1)
Weight:
approx. 6.0 kg
Dimensions (W x H x D):
285 x 125 x 380 mm
Accessories supplied: Line Cord, Operators Manual and Software for Windows
on CD-ROM, 2 Probes 1:1 / 10:1
Optional accessories:
HZ70 Opto Interface (with optical fiber cable)
HO79-6 Multifunction Interface
w w w. h a m e g . co m
HM507E/030906/ce · Subject to alterations · © HAMEG Instruments GmbH · ® Registered Trademark · DQS-certified in accordance with DIN EN ISO 9001:2000, Reg.-No.: DE-071040 QM
HAMEG Instruments GmbH · Industriestr. 6 · D-63533 Mainhausen · Tel +49 (0) 6182 800 0 · Fax +49 (0) 6182 800 100 · www.hameg.com · info@hameg.com
A Rohde & Schwarz Company
Subject to change without notice
5
General information
Please check the instrument for mechanical damage or loose
parts immediately after unpacking. In case of damage we advise
to contact the sender. Do not operate.
B
B
C
T
A
C
List of symbols used
D
Consult the manual
High voltage
Important note
Ground
F
E
D
Positioning
the instrument
STOP
As can be seen from the figures, the handle can be set into different positions:
A = carrying
B = handle removal and horizontal carrying
C = horizontal operating
D and E = operating at different angles
F = handle removal
T = shipping (handle unlocked)
E
A
PUOPFGkT
PUOPFGkT
PUOPFGkT
PUOGkT
PUOPFGkT
PUOPFGkT
PUOPFGkT
HM507
PUOPFGkT
STOP
Attention!
When changing the handle position, the instrument must be placed so that it can not fall (e.g.
placed on a table). Then the handle locking knobs
must be simultaneously pulled outwards and
rotated to the required position. Without pulling
the locking knobs they will latch in into the next
locking position.
PUOPFGkT
PUOPFGkT
PUOPFGkT
PUOPFGkT
PUOPFGkT
PUk
PUk
B
PUk
PUOPFGkT
PUOPFGkT
PUOPFGkT
PUk
PUk
PUk
PUkT
HGOPFFD
PUOPFGkT
PUOPFGkT
PUkT
PUkT
HGOFFD
PUkT
INPUT CHI
OPK
HJ
VBN
HJKL
PUkT
PUkT
PUOPFGkT
PUOPFGkT
PUOPFGkT
PUkT
PUkT
PUkT
INPUT CHI
OPK
HJ
VBN
HJKL
HAMEG
PUOPFGkT
INPUT CHI
OPK
HJ
VBN
HJKL
T
Handle mounting/dismounting
T
The handle can be removed by pulling it out further, depending on
the instrument model in position B or F.
Safety
The instrument fulfils the VDE 0411 part 1 regulations for
electrical measuring, control and laboratory instruments and
was manufactured and tested accordingly. It left the factory in
perfect safe condition. Hence it also corresponds to European
Standard EN 61010-1 resp. International Standard IEC 1010-1.
In order to maintain this condition and to ensure safe operation
the user is required to observe the warnings and other directions
for use in this manual. Housing, chassis as well as all measuring terminals are connected to safety ground of the mains.
All accessible metal parts were tested against the mains with
200 VDC. The instrument conforms to safety class I.
The oscilloscope may only be operated from mains outlets with a
safety ground connector. The plug has to be installed prior to connecting any signals. It is prohibited to separate the safety ground
connection.
Most electron tubes generate X-rays; the ion dose rate of this
instrument remains well below the 36 pA/kg permitted by law.
In case safe operation may not be guaranteed do not use the instrument any more and lock it away in a secure place.
6
Safe operation may be endangered if any of the following
was noticed:
– in case of visible damage.
– in case loose parts were noticed
– if it does not function any more.
– after prolonged storage under unfavourable conditions (e.g.
like in the open or in moist atmosphere).
– after any improper transport (e.g. insufficient packing not
conforming to the minimum standards of post, rail or transport
company)
Proper operation
Please note: This instrument is only destined for use by personnel
well instructed and familiar with the dangers of electrical measurements.
For safety reasons the oscilloscope may only be operated from
mains outlets with safety ground connector. It is prohibited to
separate the safety ground connection. The plug must be inserted
prior to connecting any signals.
Subject to change without notice
CAT I
This oscilloscope is destined for measurements in circuits not
connected to the mains or only indirectly. Direct measurements,
i.e. with a galvanic connection to circuits corresponding to the
categories II, III, or IV are prohibited!
The measuring circuits are considered not connected to the mains
if a suitable isolation transformer fulfilling safety class II is used.
Measurements on the mains are also possible if suitable probes
like current probes are used which fulfil the safety class II. The
measurement category of such probes must be checked and
observed.
Measurement categories
The measurement categories were derived corresponding to the
distance from the power station and the transients to be expected
hence. Transients are short, very fast voltage or current excursions
which may be periodic or not.
Measurement CAT IV:
Measurements close to the power station, e.g. on electricity
meters
Measurement CAT III:
Measurements in the interior of buildings (power distribution installations, mains outlets, motors which are permanently installed).
Measurement CAT II:
Measurements in circuits directly connected to the mains (household appliances, power tools etc).
Environment of use.
The oscilloscope is destined for operation in industrial, business,
manufacturing, and living sites.
Environmental conditions
Operating ambient temperature: 0 to + 40 degrees C. During transport or storage the temperature may be –20 to +55 degrees C.
Please note that after exposure to such temperatures or in case
of condensation proper time must be allowed until the instrument
has reached the permissible range of 0 to + 40 degrees resp. until
the condensation has evaporated before it may be turned on!
Ordinarily this will be the case after 2 hours. The oscilloscope is
destined for use in clean and dry environments. Do not operate in
dusty or chemically aggressive atmosphere or if there is danger
of explosion.
burn in, a final functional and quality test is performed to check
all operating modes and fulfilment of specifications. The latter is
performed with test equipment traceable to national measurement
standards.
Statutory warranty regulations apply in the country where the
HAMEG product was purchased. In case of complaints please
contact the dealer who supplied your HAMEG product.
Maintenance
Clean the outer shell using a dust brush in regular intervals. Dirt can
be removed from housing, handle, all metal and plastic parts using
a cloth moistened with water and 1 % detergent. Greasy dirt may
be removed with benzene (petroleum ether) or alcohol, there after
wipe the surfaces with a dry cloth. Plastic parts should be treated
with an antistatic solution destined for such parts. No fluid may
enter the instrument. Do not use other cleansing agents as they
may adversely affect the plastic or lacquered surfaces.
Line voltage
The instrument has a wide range power supply from 105 to 253 V,
50 or 60 Hz ±10%. There is hence no line voltage selector.
The line fuse is accessible on the rear panel and part of the line input
connector. Prior to exchanging a fuse the line cord must be pulled
out. Exchange is only allowed if the fuse holder is undamaged, it
can be taken out using a screwdriver put into the slot. The fuse
can be pushed out of its holder and exchanged.
The holder with the new fuse can then be pushed back in place
against the spring. It is prohibited to ”repair“ blown fuses or to
bridge the fuse. Any damages incurred by such measures will
void the warranty.
Type of fuse:
Size 5 x 20 mm; 250V~, C;
IEC 127, Bl. III; DIN 41 662
(or DIN 41 571, Bl. 3).
Cut off: slow blow (T) 0,8A.
The operating position may be any, however, sufficient ventilation
must be ensured (convection cooling). Prolonged operation requires
the horizontal or inclined position.
Do not obstruct the ventilation holes!
Specifications are valid after a 20 minute warm-up period between
15 and 30 degr. C. Specifications without tolerances are average
values.
STOP
Warranty and repair
HAMEG instruments are subjected to a rigorous quality control.
Prior to shipment each instrument will be burnt in for 10 hours.
Intermittent operation will produce nearly all early failures. After
Subject to change without notice
7
Type of signal voltage
Type of signal voltage
Voltage values of a sine curve
The oscilloscope HM507 allows examination of DC voltages
and most repetitive signals in the frequency range up to at least
40MHz (-3dB).
The vertical amplifiers have been designed for minimum
overshoot and therefore permit a true signal display.
The display of sinusoidal signals within the bandwidth limits
causes no problems, but an increasing error in measurement
due to gain reduction must be taken into account when
measuring high frequency signals. This error becomes
noticeable at approx. 14MHz. At approx. 18MHz the reduction
is approx. 10% and the real voltage value is 11% higher. The
gain reduction error can not be defined exactly as the -3dB
bandwidth of the amplifiers differ between 40MHz and 42MHz.
For sinewave signals the -6dB limit is approx. 50MHz.
When examining square or pulse type waveforms, attention
must be paid to the harmonic content of such signals. The
repetition frequency (fundamental frequency) of the signal
must therefore be significantly smaller than the upper limit
frequency of the vertical amplifier.
Displaying composite signals can be difficult, especially if they
contain no repetitive higher amplitude content which can be
used for triggering. This is the case with bursts, for instance.
To obtain a well-triggered display in this case, the assistance
of the variable holdoff function or the delayed time base may
be required. Television video signals are relatively easy to
trigger using the built-in TV-Sync-Separator (TV).
For optional operation as a DC or AC voltage amplifier, each
vertical amplifier input is provided with a DC/AC switch. DC
coupling should only be used with a series-connected attenuator
probe or at very low frequencies or if the measurement of the
DC voltage content of the signal is absolutely necessary.
When displaying very low frequency pulses, the flat tops may be
sloping with AC coupling of the vertical amplifier (AC limit frequency
approx. 1.6 Hz for 3dB). In this case, DC operation is preferred, provided
the signal voltage is not superimposed on a too high DC level.
Otherwise a capacitor of adequate capacitance must be connected
to the input of the vertical amplifier with DC coupling. This capacitor
must have a sufficiently high breakdown voltage rating. DC coupling
is also recommended for the display of logic and pulse signals,
especially if the pulse duty factor changes constantly. Otherwise the
display will move upwards or downwards at each change. Pure direct
voltages can only be measured with DC-coupling.
The input coupling is selectable by the AC/DC pushbutton. The
actual setting is displayed in the readout with the ” = ” symbol
for DC- and the ” ~ ” symbol for AC coupling.
Vrms = effective value; Vp = simple peak or crest value;
Vpp = peak-to-peak value; Vmom = momentary value.
The minimum signal voltage which must be applied to the Y input
for a trace of 1div height is 1mVpp (± 5%) when this deflection
coefficient is displayed on the screen (readout) and the vernier is
switched off (VAR-LED dark). However, smaller signals than this
may also be displayed. The deflection coefficients are indicated
in mV/div or V/div (peak-to-peak value).
The magnitude of the applied voltage is ascertained by multiplying
the selected deflection coefficient by the vertical display height in
div. If an attenuator probe x10 is used, a further multiplication by
a factor of 10 is required to ascertain the correct voltage value.
For exact amplitude measurements, the variable control (VAR)
must be set to its calibrated detent CAL position.
With the variable control activated the deflection sensitivity
can be reduced up to a ratio of 2.5 to 1 (please note “controls
and readout”). Therefore any intermediate value is possible
within the 1-2-5 sequence of the attenuator(s).
With direct connection to the vertical input, signals up to 400Vpp may be displayed (attenuator
set to 20V/div, variable control to 2.5:1).
With the designations
H = display height in div,
U = signal voltage in Vpp at the vertical input,
D = deflection coefficient in V/div at attenuator switch,
the required value can be calculated from the two given
quantities:
However, these three values are not freely selectable. They
have to be within the following limits (trigger threshold,
accuracy of reading):
Amplitude Measurements
In general electrical engineering, alternating voltage data normally
refers to effective values (rms = root-mean-square value). However,
for signal magnitudes and voltage designations in oscilloscope
measurements, the peak-to-peak voltage (Vpp) value is applied.
The latter corresponds to the real potential difference between the
most positive and most negative points of a signal waveform.
If a sinusoidal waveform, displayed on the oscilloscope screen,
is to be converted into an effective (rms) value, the resulting peakto-peak value must be divided by 2x√2 = 2.83. Conversely, it
should be observed that sinusoidal voltages indicated in Vrms
(Veff) have 2.83 times the potential difference in Vpp. The
relationship between the different voltage magnitudes can be
seen from the following figure.
8
H between 0.5 and 8div, if possible 3.2 to 8div,
U between 0.5mVpp and 160Vpp,
D between 1mV/div and 20V/div in 1-2-5 sequence.
Examples:
Set deflection coefficient D = 50mV/div 0.05V/div,
observed display height H = 4.6div,
required voltage U = 0.05x4.6 = 0.23Vpp.
Input voltage U = 5Vpp,
set deflection coefficient D = 1V/div,
required display height H = 5:1 = 5div.
Signal voltage U = 230Vrmsx2√2 = 651Vpp
(voltage > 160Vpp, with probe 10:1: U = 65.1Vpp),
desired display height H = min. 3.2div, max. 8div,
Subject to change without notice
Type of signal voltage
max. deflection coefficient D = 65.1:3.2 = 20.3V/div,
min. deflection coefficient D = 65.1:8 = 8.1V/div,
adjusted deflection coefficient D = 10V/div.
The previous examples are related to the CRT graticule reading.
The results can also be determined with the aid of the DV
cursor measurement (please note “controls and readout”).
The input voltage must not exceed 400V, independent from
the polarity.
If an AC voltage which is superimposed on a DC voltage is
applied, the maximum peak value of both voltages must not
exceed + or - 400V. So for AC voltages with a mean value of zero
volt the maximum peak to peak value is 800Vpp.
If attenuator probes with higher limits are used, the probes limits
are valid only if the oscilloscope is set to DC input coupling.
If DC voltages are applied under AC input coupling conditions
the oscilloscope maximum input voltage value remains 400V.
The attenuator consists of a resistor in the probe and the 1MΩ
input resistor of the oscilloscope, which are disabled by the AC
input coupling capacity when AC coupling is selected. This
also applies to DC voltages with superimposed AC voltages.
It also must be noted that due to the capacitive resistance of
the AC input coupling capacitor, the attenuation ratio depends
on the signal frequency. For sinewave signals with frequencies
higher than 40Hz this influence is negligible.
Time Measurements
As a rule, most signals to be displayed are periodically
repeating processes, also called periods. The number of
periods per second is the repetition frequency. Depending
on the time base setting (TIME/DIV.-knob) indicated by the
readout, one or several signal periods or only a part of a period
can be displayed. The time coefficients are stated in ms/div,
µs/div or ns/div. The following examples are related to the
CRT graticule reading. The results can also be determined
with the aid of the ∆T and 1/∆T cursor measurement (please
note “ controls and readout”).
The duration of a signal period or a part of it is determined by
multiplying the relevant time (horizontal distance in div) by the
(calibrated) time coefficient displayed in the readout.
Uncalibrated, the time base speed can be reduced until a
maximum factor of 2.5 is reached. Therefore any intermediate
value is possible within the 1-2-5 sequence.
With the designations
L = displayed wave length in div of one period,
T = time in seconds for one period,
F = recurrence frequency in Hz of the signal,
Tc = time coefficient in ms, µs or ns/div and the relation
F = 1/T, the following equations can be stated:
With the above listed exceptions HAMEG 10:1 probes can be
used for DC measurements up to 600V or AC voltages (with a
mean value of zero volt) of 1200Vpp. The 100:1 probe HZ53
allows for 1200V DC or 2400Vpp for AC.
It should be noted that its AC peak value is derated at higher
frequencies. If a normal x10 probe is used to measure high
voltages there is the risk that the compensation trimmer
bridging the attenuator series resistor will break down causing
damage to the input of the oscilloscope. However, if for
example only the residual ripple of a high voltage is to be
displayed on the oscilloscope, a normal x10 probe is sufficient.
In this case, an appropriate high voltage capacitor (approx. 2268nF) must be connected in series with the input tip of the
probe.
However, these four values are not freely selectable. They
have to be within the following limits:
L
T
F
Tc
Tc
between 0.2 and 10div, if possible 4 to 10div,
between 10ns and 5s,
between 0.5Hz and 100MHz,
between 100ns/div and 500ms/div in 1-2-5 sequence
(with X-MAG. (x10) inactive), and
between 10ns/div and 50ms/div in 1-2-5 sequence
(with X-MAG. (x10) active).
With Y-POS. control (input coupling to GD) it is possible to use
a horizontal graticule line as reference line for ground potential
before the measurement. It can lie below or above the horizontal
central line according to whether positive and/or negative
deviations from the ground potential are to be measured.
Examples:
Displayed wavelength L = 7div,
set time coefficient Tc = 100ns/div,
required period T = 7x100x10-9 = 0.7µs
required rec. freq. F = 1:(0.7x10-6) = 1.428MHz.
Total value of input voltage
Signal period T = 1s,
set time coefficient Tc = 0.2s/div,
required wavelength L = 1:0.2 = 5div.
Displayed ripple wavelength L = 1div,
set time coefficient Tc = 10ms/div,
required ripple freq. F = 1:(1x10x10-3) = 100Hz.
TV-line frequency F = 15625Hz,
set time coefficient Tc = 10µs/div,
required wavelength L = 1:(15 625x10-5) = 6.4div.
The dotted line shows a voltage alternating at zero volt level.
If superimposed on a DC voltage, the addition of the positive
peak and the DC voltage results in the max. voltage (DC +
ACpeak).
Subject to change without notice
Sine wavelength L = min. 4div, max. 10div,
Frequency F = 1kHz,
max. time coefficient Tc = 1:(4x103) = 0.25ms/div,
min. time coefficient Tc = 1:(10x103) = 0.1ms/div,
set time coefficient Tc = 0.2ms/div,
required wavelength L = 1:(103x0.2x10-3) = 5div.
Displayed wavelength L = 0.8div,
set time coefficient Tc = 0.5µs/div,
9
Type of signal voltage
pressed X-MAG. (x10) button: Tc = 0.05µs/div,
required rec. freq. F = 1:(0.8x0.05x10-6) = 25MHz,
required period T = 1:(25x106) = 40ns.
If the time is relatively short as compared with the complete
signal period, an expanded time scale should always be applied
(X-MAG. (x10) active). In this case, the time interval of interest can
be shifted to the screen center using the X-POS. control.
When investigating pulse or square waveforms, the critical
feature is the risetime of the voltage step. To ensure that
transients, ramp-offs, and bandwidth limits do not unduly influence
the measuring accuracy, the risetime is generally measured
between 10% and 90% of the vertical pulse height. For
measurement, adjust the Y deflection coefficient using its variable function (uncalibrated) together with the Y-POS. control so
that the pulse height is precisely aligned with the 0% and 100%
lines of the internal graticule. The 10% and 90% points of the
signal will now coincide with the 10% and 90% graticule lines.
The risetime is given by the product of the horizontal distance in
div between these two coincident points and the calibrated time
coefficient setting. The fall time of a pulse can also be measured
by using this method.
The following figure shows correct positioning of the oscilloscope
trace for accurate risetime measurement.
With a time coefficient of 10ns/div (X x10 magnification active),
the example shown in the above figure results in a total measured
risetime of
ttot = 1.6div x 10ns/div = 16ns
When very fast risetimes are being measured, the risetimes of
the oscilloscope amplifier and of the attenuator probe has to be
deducted from the measured time value. The risetime of the
signal can be calculated using the following formula.
In this ttot is the total measured risetime, tosc is the risetime of the
oscilloscope amplifier (approx. 8.75ns), and tp the risetime of the
probe (e.g. = 2ns). If ttot is greater than 100ns, then ttot can be taken
as the risetime of the pulse, and calculation is unnecessary.
Calculation of the example in the figure above results in a
signal risetime
tr = √162 - 8.752 - 22 = 13.25ns
The measurement of the rise or fall time is not limited to the trace
dimensions shown in the above diagram. It is only particularly simple
in this way. In principle it is possible to measure in any display position
and at any signal amplitude. It is only important that the full height
of the signal edge of interest is visible in its full length at not too great
steepness and that the horizontal distance at 10% and 90% of the
amplitude is measured. If the edge shows rounding or overshooting,
the 100% should not be related to the peak values but to the mean
pulse heights. Breaks or peaks (glitches) next to the edge are also
not taken into account. With very severe transient distortions, the
rise and fall time measurement has little meaning. For amplifiers
10
with approximately constant group delay (therefore good pulse
transmission performance) the following numerical relationship
between rise time tr (in ns) and bandwidth B (in MHz) applies:
Connection of Test Signal
In most cases briefly depressing the AUTO SET causes a useful
signal related instrument setting. The following explanations
refer to special applications and/or signals, demanding a manual
instrument setting. The description of the controls is explained
in the section “controls and readout”.
Caution:
When connecting unknown signals to the oscilloscope
input, always use a x10 probe, automatic triggering
and set the input coupling switch to DC (readout). The
attenuator should initially be set to 20V/div.
Sometimes the trace will disappear after an input signal has
been applied. Then a higher deflection coefficient (lower input
sensitivity) must be chosen until the vertical signal height is
only 3-8div. With a signal amplitude greater than 160Vpp and
the deflection coefficient (VOLTS/DIV.) in calibrated condition,
an attenuator probe must be inserted before the vertical input.
If, after applying the signal, the trace is nearly blanked, the
period of the signal is probably substantially longer than the set
time deflection coefficient (TIME/DIV.). It should be switched
to an adequately larger time coefficient.
The signal to be displayed can be connected directly to the Yinput of the oscilloscope with a shielded test cable such as HZ32
or HZ34, or reduced through a x10 or x100 attenuator probe. The
use of test cables with high impedance circuits is only
recommended for relatively low frequencies (up to approx.
50kHz). For higher frequencies, the signal source must be of low
impedance, i.e. matched to the characteristic resistance of the
cable (as a rule 50Ω). Especially when transmitting square and
pulse signals, a resistor equal to the characteristic impedance
of the cable must also be connected across the cable directly
at the Y-input of the oscilloscope. When using a 50Ω cable such
as the HZ34, a 50Ω through termination type HZ22 is available
from HAMEG. When transmitting square signals with short rise
times, transient phenomena on the edges and top of the signal
may become visible if the correct termination is not used. A
terminating resistance is sometimes recommended with sine
signals as well. Certain amplifiers, generators or their attenuators
maintain the nominal output voltage independent of frequency
only if their connection cable is terminated with the prescribed
resistance. Here it must be noted that the terminating resistor
HZ22 will only dissipate a maximum of 2Watts. This power is
reached with 10Vrms or at 28.3Vpp with sine signal. If a x10 or
x100 attenuator probe is used, no termination is necessary. In
this case, the connecting cable is matched directly to the high
impedance input of the oscilloscope. When using attenuators
probes, even high internal impedance sources are only slightly
loaded (approx. 10MΩ II 12pF or 100MΩ II 5pF with HZ53).
Therefore, if the voltage loss due to the attenuation of the probe
can be compensated by a higher amplitude setting, the probe
should always be used. The series impedance of the probe
provides a certain amount of protection for the input of the
vertical amplifier. Because of their separate manufacture, all
attenuator probes are only partially compensated, therefore
accurate compensation must be performed on the oscilloscope
(see Probe compensation ).
Standard attenuator probes on the oscilloscope normally reduce
its bandwidth and increase the rise time. In all cases where the
oscilloscope bandwidth must be fully utilized (e.g. for pulses
Subject to change without notice
Controls and readout
with steep edges) we strongly advise using the probes HZ51
(x10) HZ52 (x10 HF) and HZ54 (x1 and x10). This can save the
purchase of an oscilloscope with larger bandwidth.
The probes mentioned have a HF-calibration in addition to low
frequency calibration adjustment. Thus a group delay correction
to the upper limit frequency of the oscilloscope is possible
with the aid of an 1MHz calibrator, e.g. HZ60.
In fact the bandwidth and rise time of the oscilloscope are not
noticeably changed with these probe types and the waveform
reproduction fidelity can even be improved because the probe can
be matched to the oscilloscopes individual pulse response.
If a x10 or x100 attenuator probe is used, DC input
coupling must always be used at voltages above 400V.
With AC coupling of low frequency signals, the
attenuation is no longer independent of frequency,
pulses can show pulse tilts. Direct voltages are
suppressed but load the oscilloscope input coupling
capacitor concerned. Its voltage rating is max. 400 V
(DC + peak AC). DC input coupling is therefore of quite
special importance with a x100 attenuation probe
which usually has a voltage rating of max. 1200 V (DC
+ peak AC). A capacitor of corresponding capacitance
and voltage rating may be connected in series with the
attenuator probe input for blocking DC voltage (e.g. for
hum voltage measurement).
B: Menu Display and Operation
Operation of some pushbuttons activates the display of menus.
There are Standard and Pulldown Menus.
Standard menus:
When a standard menu is displayed, all other readout
information (e.g. parameter settings) are switched off. The
readout then consists of the menu headline, and the respective
menu functions. At the bottom of the graticule are displayed
symbols and commands which can be operated by the
pushbuttons related to them below.
“Esc” switches one step back in the menu hierarchy.
“Exit” closes the menu and switches back to the operating
conditions present before calling the menu.
“Set” calls the selected menu item or starts a function.
“SAVE” results in storage.
“Edit” calls the edit menu.
The pushbuttons below the triangle and arrow symbols select
one item that is then highlighted. If in addition “Use INT./FOC.
knob to select” is displayed, the INT./FOC. knob can be used
to select within the item. Where a “[ ]” symbol appears in an
activated line, a “[x]/[ ]” symbol is displayed with the other
command symbols at the bottom of the screen. The
pushbutton below the symbol is used for switchover (toggle).
Pulldown menus:
With all attenuator probes, the maximum AC input voltage
must be derated with frequency usually above 20kHz.
Therefore the derating curve of the attenuator probe type
concerned must be taken into account. The selection of
the ground point on the test object is important when
displaying small signal voltages. It should always be as
close as possible to the measuring point. If this is not done,
serious signal distortion may result from spurious currents
through the ground leads or chassis parts. The ground
leads on attenuator probes are also particularly critical.
They should be as short and thick as possible. When the
attenuator probe is connected to a BNC-socket, a BNCadapter, should be used. In this way ground and matching
problems are eliminated. Hum or interference appearing
in the measuring circuit (especially when a small deflection
coefficient is used) is possibly caused by multiple
grounding because equalizing currents can flow in the
shielding of the test cables (voltage drop between the
protective conductor connections, caused by external
equipment connected to the mains/line, e.g. signal
generators with interference protection capacitors).
After pressing a pushbutton which calls a pulldown menu, the
instrument parameter settings are still displayed. The readout
only changes in respect to the called parameter (e.g. input
coupling) and now shows all selectable parameter options (in
case of input coupling: AC, DC and GND). The previously
displayed parameter doesn‘t change but is displayed
highlighted. Each time the pushbutton is briefly pressed the
next parameter becomes active and highlighted, as long as
the pulldown menu is displayed. Without further pressing of
the pushbutton, the pulldown menu extinguishes after a few
seconds and the selected parameter, the CURSOR line(s) and
the measuring result are displayed in the normal way.
C: READOUT Information
Controls and Readout
A: Basic settings
The following description assumes that:
1. “Component Tester” is switched off.
2. The following settings are present under
MAIN MENU > SETUP & INFO > MISCELLANEOUS:
2.1 CONTROL BEEP and ERROR BEEP activated (x),
2.2 QUICK START not activated.
3. The screen Readout is visible.
The LED indicators on the large front panel facilitate operation
and provide additional information. Electrical end positions of
controls are indicated by acoustic signal (beep).
All controls, except the power switch (POWER), are
electronically set and interrogated. Thus, all electronically set
functions and their current settings can be stored and also
remotely controlled.
Subject to change without notice
The readout alphanumerically displays the scope parameter
settings, measurement results and CURSOR lines. Which
information is displayed depends on the actual instrument
settings. The following list contains the most important display
information.
Top of the graticule from left to right:
1. time deflection coefficient and additionally the sampling
rate in digital mode.
11
Controls and readout
2. trigger source, slope and coupling.
3. operating condition of delay time base in analog mode;
or in digital mode, pre or post trigger time.
4. measuring results.
Bottom of the graticule from left to right:
1. probe symbol (x10), Y deflection coefficient and input
coupling channel I.
2. “+” symbol (addition).
3. probe symbol (x10), Y deflection coefficient and input
coupling channel II.
4. channel mode (analog) or signal display mode (digital).
The trigger point symbol is displayed at the left graticule border
line (analog mode). The CURSOR lines can take any position
within the graticule.
If the signal height is insufficient, the CURSOR lines do
not change. In DUAL mode the CURSOR lines are related
to the signal which is used for internal triggering.
Voltage CURSOR..
If voltage measurement is present, the CURSOR lines are
automatically set to the positive and negative peak value
of the signal. The accuracy of this function decreases with
higher frequencies and is also influenced by the signal‘s
pulse duty factor.
Time/Frequency CURSOR..
If complex waveforms such as video signals are applied,
the cursor lines may not align exactly with one period and
give a false reading.
D: Description of Controls
DIGITAL MODE ONLY
If ROLL (“rol”) or SINGLE (“sgl”) is active, AUTOSET
switches to the last used REFRESH mode.
Preliminary note:
For better identification all controls are numbered consecutively.
A number within a square indicates a control which is for digital
mode. The latter will be described at the end of the listing.
(3) INT./FOC. Knob for intensity and focus setting, with
associated LEDs and TRACE ROT. pushbutton.
The large front panel is, as usual with Hameg oscilloscopes,
marked with several fields.
The following controls and LED indicators are located
on the top, to the right of the screen, above the
horizontal line:
(1) POWER Pushbutton and symbols for ON (I) and OFF (O).
After the oscilloscope is switched on, all LEDs are lit and
an automated instrument test is performed. During this time
the HAMEG logo and the software version are displayed on
the screen. After the internal test is completed successfully,
the overlay is switched off and the normal operation mode is
present. The last used settings and the readout then become
activated. An LED (3) indicates the ON condition.
3.1 Briefly pressing the TRACE ROT. pushbutton switches
over the INT./FOC. knob to another function, which is
indicated by an LED. If the readout (RO) is not switched
off, the sequence is A, FOC, RO, A. In condition READOUT
deactivated, the switching sequence is A, FOC, A.
3.1.1 “A”:
The INT./FOC. knob controls the signal(s) intensity. Turning
this knob clockwise increases the intensity. Only the
minimum required trace intensity should be used,
depending on signal parameters, oscilloscope settings and
light conditions.
3.1.2 “FOC“:
The INT./FOC. knob controls both the trace and the readout
sharpness. Note: The electron beam diameter gets larger
with a higher trace intensity and the trace sharpness
decreases. This can be corrected to a certain extent.
Assuming that the trace sharpness was set to optimum in
the screen center, it is unavoidable that the trace sharpness
decreases with an increasing distance from the center.
Since the settings of the signal(s) intensity (A) and the
READOUT (RO) are usually different, the FOCUS should
be set for optimum signal(s) sharpness. The sharpness of
the READOUT then can be improved by reducing the
READOUT intensity.
(2) AUTOSET
(4) RM
Briefly pressing this pushbutton results in an automatic
instrument setting selecting Yt mode as the default. The
instrument is set to the last used Yt mode setting (CH I,
CH II or DUAL) and to a medium trace intensity, if less
intensity had been present before. The operation mode
(analog or digital) will not be changed.
The instrument is set automatically to normal (undelayed)
time base mode, even if the previous Yt mode included
search (“sea”), delay (“del”) or triggered delay (“dTr”) time
base mode.
Please also note ”AUTOSET” in section “First Time
Operation”.
Automatic CURSOR positioning:
If CURSOR lines are displayed and AUTOSET is chosen the
CURSOR lines are set automatically under suitable conditions
and the readout briefly displays “SETTING CURSOR”.
12
The remote control mode can be switched on or off (”RM”
LED dark) via the RS232 interface. When the ”RM” LED is
lit, all electronically selectable controls on the front panel
are inactive. This state can be cancelled by depressing the
AUTOSET pushbutton provided it was not deactivated via
the interface.
(5) RECALL / SAVE Pushbutton for instrument settings
The instrument contains 9 non volatile memories. These
can be used by the operator to save instrument settings
and to recall them.
SAVE:
Press and hold the RECALL/SAVE button to start a storage
process. This causes the SAVE menu (Standard menu, note
“B: Menu-Display and Operation”) to be displayed. Choose
the memory location cipher (highlighted) by pressing a
Subject to change without notice
Controls and readout
pushbutton underneath the triangle symbols. Briefly press
the pushbutton underneath “SET” to store the last
instrument setting and return from menu display to
previous mode. If the SAVE function was called inadvertently, it can be switched off with “Esc”.
coupling, a DC signal applied at the input changes the
trace position in vertical direction. The DC voltage then
can be determined by taking the deflection coefficient,
the probe factor and the trace position change with respect
to the previous 0 Volt position into account.
Switching the instrument off automatically stores the
current settings in memory location 9 (PWR OFF = Power
Off), with the effect that different settings previously stored
in this location get lost. To prevent this, RECALL 9 before
switching the instrument off.
”0 Volt” Symbol:
The READOUT indicates the “0 Volt” trace position of
channel I by a ” ⊥” symbol to the left of the screen‘s vertical
center line in CHI and DUAL mode. When Y position is
used, this symbol changes to an “arrow” symbol pointing
outside the graticule just before the trace goes outside
the graticule limits
RECALL:
Briefly pressing calls the RECALL menu. You can select
the required memory location using a “triangle” pushbutton. Recall the previously stored instrument settings
by briefly pressing the “SET” pushbutton or briefly press
“Esc” if the function was called inadvertently.
RECALL also offers the item DEFAULTS, which covers all
functions.
The setting controls and LED’s for the Y amplifiers,
modes, triggering and time base are located underneath the sector of the front panel described above.
If addition mode (“add”) is present just one ”? ⊥” symbol
is visible.
In XY mode the “0 Volt” trace position for channel I (X) and
channel II (Y) is symbolised by “triangle” symbols at the
right graticule border (Y) and above the Y deflection
coefficient display. The “triangle” symbol(s) point(s)
outside the graticule when the “0 Volt” trace position is
outside the graticule.
CURS.I:
The CURSOR lines marked by the symbol “I” can be shifted
by the Y-POS/CURS. I control knob, if the CURSOR POS
LED (7) is lit.
STORAGE MODE ONLY
In contrast to analog mode the Y-POS/CURS.I (6) knob must
be used for X position shift in XY mode and the X-POS.
knob is disabled.
The Y-POS/CURS.I (6) knob can also be used for shifting a
signal position although it is stored by HOLD (“hld“).
If a REFERENCE or MATH (mathematic) signal is displayed
and the M/R [38] LED is lit, the Y-POS/CURS.I (6) knob serves
as a MATHEMATIC or REFERENCE position control.
(7) CURSOR POS Pushbutton and LED.
Briefly pressing this pushbutton determines the function
of the Y POS/CURS.I (6) and Y POS/CURS.II (8) controls.
(6) Y-POS/CURS. I Control knob with several functions.
This knob allows position control of channel I trace or
CURSOR line(s). Briefly pressing the CURSOR POS
pushbutton (7) selects the function. If the CURSOR line(s)
are not displayed the CURS. I function is not selectable.
Y-POS:
The vertical trace position of channel I can be set with
this control knob, if the CURSOR POS (7) LED isn’t lit. In
addition (“add”) mode both (Y-POS/CURS. I (6) and Y POS/
CURS. II) control knobs are active. If the instrument is set
to XY mode this control knob is inactive and the X POS.
(12) knob must be used for horizontal positioning.
DC voltage measurement:
If no signal is applied at the INPUT CHI (25), the vertical trace
position represents 0 Volt. This is the case if INPUT CHI (25)
or in addition (ADD) mode, both INPUT CHI (25) and INPUT
CHII (28), are set to GND (ground) (26) (29) and automatic
triggering (AT (9)) is present to make the trace visible.
The trace can then be set to the vertical position best
suited for the following DC voltage measurement. After
switching GND (ground) off and selecting DC input
Subject to change without notice
If the CUR LED is not lit the Y position control function is
active.
Provided that the CURSOR lines are activated, the LED
can be switched on by briefly pressing the CURSOR POS
pushbutton. Then the controls (6) and (8) are switched
over from Y position to CURSOR position control (CURS.I
(6) and CURS.II (8)). Briefly pressing this pushbutton once
again switches back to the Y position control function.
STORAGE MODE ONLY
The CUR LED extinguishes after a REFERENCE or MATH
(mathematic) signal is displayed and the M/R LED is switched
on by the MATH/REF POS [38] pushbutton. Under these
conditions the Y-POS/CURS.I (6) knob serves as a REFERENCE
or MATH (mathematic) signal position control, while Y-POS/
CURS.II (8) affects the channel II signal if present.
(8) Y POS/CURS. II Control knob with two functions.
This knob enables position control of channel II trace or
CURSOR line(s). Briefly pressing the CURSOR POS
pushbutton (7) selects the function. If the CURSOR line(s)
are not displayed the CURS. I function is not selectable.
13
Controls and readout
Y POS:
The vertical trace position of channel II can be set with
this control knob, if the CURSOR POS LED isn’t lit. In
addition (“add”) mode both (Y POS/CURS. I (6) and Y
POS/CURS. II) control knobs are active. If the instrument
is set to XY mode, this control knob is inactive and the X
POS. (12) knob must be used for horizontal positioning.
DC voltage measurement:
If no signal is applied at the INPUT CHII (28), the vertical
trace position represents 0 Volt. This is the case if INPUT
CHII (28) or in addition (ADD) mode, both INPUT CHI (25)
and INPUT CHII (28), are set to GND (ground) (26) (29) and
automatic triggering (AT (9)) is present to make the trace
visible.
The trace can then be set to the vertical position best
suited for the following DC voltage measurement. After
switching GND (ground) off and selecting DC input
coupling, a DC signal applied at the input changes the
trace position in vertical direction. The DC voltage then
can be determined by taking the deflection coefficient,
the probe factor and the trace position change with respect
to the previous 0 Volt position into account.
”0 Volt” Symbol:
The READOUT indicates the “0 Volt” trace position of
⊥ ” symbol to the right of the screen‘s
channel II by a ”⊥
vertical center line in CHII and DUAL mode. When Y position
is used, this symbol changes to an “arrow” symbol
pointing outside the graticule just before the trace goes
outside the graticule limits
If addition mode (“add”) is present just one ”⊥” symbol is
visible.
In the automatic peak value triggering condition the LEVEL
control (11) range is limited to the trigger signal positive
and negative peak values. Automatic triggering without
peak value detection enables the trigger point to be set
outside the signal amplitude range. In the latter case,
although untriggered, there is still a signal display.
Whether the peak value detection is active or not depends
on the operating mode and the selected trigger coupling.
The actual state is recognised by the behaviour of the
trigger point symbol when changing the LEVEL setting.
NM:
Normal triggering disables both the automatic trigger and
the peak value detection so even low frequency signals
can be displayed in a stable manner. Without suitable input
signal height, trigger coupling and LEVEL settings, no trace
will be displayed.
Analog only:
The last LEVEL setting of the time base is stored, then the
control again becomes active when selecting triggering
after delay (DEL.MODE (“dTr”)) time base mode (quasi
2nd time base). In combination with In “dTr” mode the
LEVEL control is operative for the “2nd time base”.
/ \ (Slope selection):
Each time this pushbutton is briefly pressed, the slope direction
switches from falling edge to rising edge and vice versa. The
current setting is displayed in the readout by a slope symbol.
The last setting in undelayed time base mode is stored and
still active if triggered delay (“dTr”) time base mode is selected
(analog only). This allows for a different slope setting for the
triggered DELAY (dtr) time base mode.
In XY mode the “0 Volt” trace position for channel I (X) and
channel II (Y) is symbolised by “triangle” symbols at the
right graticule border (Y) and above the Y deflection
coefficient display. The “triangle” symbol(s) point(s)
outside the graticule when the “0 Volt” trace position is
outside the graticule.
CURS.II:
If the CUR (7) LED is lit, the CURSOR line(s) marked with
the symbol “II” can be shifted by the Y-POS/CURS. II (8)
control knob.
STORAGE MODE ONLY
The Y-POS/CURS.II (8) knob can also be used for shifting a
signal position although it is stored by HOLD (“hld“).
(9) NM AT Pushbutton with a double function and associated
NM LED.
NM AT selection:
Press and hold the pushbutton to switch over from
automatic (peak value) to normal triggering (NM LED
above the pushbutton lit) and vice versa. If the LED is
dark, automatic or automatic peak value triggering is
selected.
AT:
Automatic triggering can be carried out with or without
peak capture. In both cases the LEVEL control (11) is
effective and the trace is visible even if no signal is applied
or trigger settings are unsuitable. Signal frequencies
below the automatic trigger frequency can not be
triggered as the automatic trigger cycle starts to early for
such signals.
14
(10) TR Trigger indicator LED.
The TR LED is lit in Yt mode if the triggering conditions
are met for the first trigger unit used in undelayed time
base mode. Whether the LED flashes or is lit constantly
depends on the frequency of the trigger signal.
In XY mode the TR LED is switched off.
(11) LEVEL Control knob.
Turning the LEVEL knob causes a different trigger point
setting (voltage). The trigger unit starts the time base when
the edge of a trigger signal crosses the trigger point. In
most Yt modes the trigger point is displayed in the readout
by the symbol on the left vertical graticule line. If the trigger
point symbol would overwrite other readout information
Subject to change without notice
Controls and readout
or would be invisible when being set above or below the
screen, the symbol changes and an arrow indicates in
which vertical direction the trigger point has left the screen.
:”
e.g. ”Y1: deflection coefficient, input coupling”. The ”:”
symbolizes calibrated measuring conditions and is replaced
” symbol in uncalibrated conditions.
by the ”
”>”
The trigger point symbol is automatically switched off in
those modes where there is no direct relation between
the trigger signal and the displayed signal. The last setting
in undelayed time base mode is stored and still active if
triggered delay (“dTr”) time base mode is selected. This
allows for a different level setting for the triggered delay
(“dTr”) time base mode.
VAR.:
The vernier (variable) function is described under item VAR
(15).
STORAGE MODE ONLY
In storage mode the trigger point symbol also indicates
the pre or post trigger time by a horizontal position shift.
Please note “DEL. / TR. POS.” (21).
(12) X POS. Control knob.
This control knob enables an X position shift of the signal(s)
in Yt and XY mode. In combination with X magnification
x10 (Yt mode) this function makes it possible to shift any
part of the signal on the screen.
(15) CH I VAR. Pushbutton with two functions.
Pressing and holding this pushbutton selects the VOLTS/
DIV. (14) control knob function between attenuator and
vernier (variable). The current setting is displayed by the
VAR-LED located above the knob.
CH I mode:
Briefly pressing the CHI button sets the instrument to
channel I (Mono CH I) mode. The deflection coefficient
displayed in the readout indicates the current conditions
” ). If neither external nor line (mains) triggering was
(”Y1...”
active, the internal trigger source automatically switches
over to channel I and the READOUT displays “Y1, trigger
slope, trigger coupling”. The last function setting of the
VOLTS/DIV (14) knob remains unchanged.
STORAGE MODE ONLY
In XY mode the X-POS. knob is inoperative. The Y-POS/
CURS.I (6) knob must be used for X position shift.
(13) X-MAG Pushbutton and x10 LED.
Each time this pushbutton is pressed the x10 LED located
above is switched on or off. If the x10 LED is lit, the signal
display is expanded 10 fold in all time deflection settings except:
1. Analog mode with a time deflection coefficient of 50ns/
div. in combination with X-MAG. x10 yields 10ns/div. (5
fold expansion).
2. Storage mode with 100ns/div. yields 20ns/div. (5 fold).
As the X expansion results in a higher time base speed
(lower time deflection coefficient), all time and frequency
relevant information in the readout is switched over.
After activating X MAG. x10, the visible part of the signal is
that which was previously at the graticule centre. The
interesting part of the signal can be made visible with aid
of the X POS.. (12) control.
This pushbutton is not operative in XY mode.
(14) VOLTS/DIV.. Control knob for channel I with a double function.
This control is active only if channel I is enabled and it‘s
input coupling (AC or DC) is activated. Channel I is active in
CH I (Mono), DUAL, Addition (“add”) and XY mode. The
knob is automatically disabled if the channel related to it is
switched off, or if the input coupling is set to GND (ground).
Y deflection coefficient setting (input attenuator):
This function is available if the VAR. LED is dark.
All channel I related controls are active if the input (25) is
not set to GND (26).
VAR.:
After switching the VAR-LED (14) on, the deflection
coefficient is still calibrated. Turning the VOLTS/DIV. (14)
control knob counter clockwise reduces the signal height
and the deflection coefficient becomes uncalibrated.
The readout then displays e.g. ”Y1>...” indicating the
uncalibrated condition instead of ”Y1:...”. Pressing and
holding the CHI pushbutton again switches the LED off,
sets the deflection coefficient into calibrated condition
and activates the attenuator function. The previous vernier
setting will not be stored.
(16) DUAL MENU
Pushbutton with multiple functions.
As seen on the front panel, the DUAL-MENU (16)
pushbutton can be pressed together with the CHII (19)
pushbutton (INV). Information regarding “INV” can be f
ound under item 19.
1. Switchover on DUAL (two channel), ADDITION and
XY operation:
Briefly pressing selects DUAL mode if channel I (mono)
or channel II (mono) mode was present before, without
displaying a pulldown menu.
In DUAL mode the readout displays the deflection
coefficients of both channels. The display also indicates
the channel switching mode (alt or chp) on analog or the
signal display mode (rfr, rol etc) on store. The last used
trigger conditions (source, slope and coupling) remain
unchanged, but can be changed.
2. Choosing the channel switch over or sub menu:
Once DUAL mode is active, briefly pressing the (Dual)
pushbutton opens a pulldown menu with the current mode
highlighted. The menu depends on the actual operation:
Turning the control knob clockwise increases the sensitivity
(decreases the deflection coefficient) in a 1-2-5 sequence
and decreases the sensitivity (increases the deflection
coefficient) if turned in the opposite direction (ccw.). The
available range is from 1mV/div up to 20V/div.
2.1 Analog mode: “alt” (alternate DUAL mode), “add” (Addition
mode), “XY” (XY mode) and “chp” (chopped DUAL mode).
The deflection coefficients and additional information
regarding the active channel(s) are displayed in the readout,
2.2 Storage mode: “dual” (DUAL mode), “add” (Addition
mode) and “XY” (XY mode).
Subject to change without notice
15
Controls and readout
As long as the pulldown menu is displayed, briefly pressing
the pushbutton selects the next mode and highlights the
actual setting. Please note “B: Menu Display and
Operation“.
If “XY” or “add” (Addition) mode is activated, briefly
pressing the pushbutton switches over to DUAL mode,
without displaying the pulldown menu.
3. DUAL mode:
All channel related controls are effective as long as the
input coupling is not set to GND (26) (29).
3.1 Analog mode.
On the right of the channel II (Y2:...) deflection coefficient
the READOUT displays the channel switch over mode.
“alt” indicates alternate and “chp”, chopped switch over.
The channel switch over is automatically selected by the
time base setting, but can be changed in the pulldown
menu. The oscilloscope automatically determines the
channel switching mode after a change of the time base
setting.
“chp” (Chopped):
Indicates chopped mode, whereby the channel switching
occurs constantly between channel I and II during each
sweep. This channel switching mode occurs for time base
settings between 500ms/div and 500µs/div inclusive.
“alt” (Alternate):
Indicates alternate channel switching. After each time base
sweep the instrument internally switches over from
channel I to channel II and vice versa. This channel
switching mode is automatically selected if any time
coefficient from 200µs/div to 50ns/div is active.
3.2 Storage mode.
The channel switching modes mentioned above are not
required in storage mode. The readout now displays the
selected signal display mode: “rfr“ (Refresh), “env“
(Envelope), “avm“ (Average) and “rol“ (Roll mode).
4. “add” (Addition):
The readout indicates this mode by a ”+” sign located
between both channel deflection coefficients.
In addition mode, two signals (channel I and II) are displayed
as one signal. The Y position of the result can be influenced
by both Y-POS/CURS.I (6) and Y-POS/CURS.II (8) controls.
For correct measurements the deflection coefficients for
both channels must be equal. While the trigger mode is
not affected, the trigger point symbol is switched off.
Whether the algebraic sum (addition) or the difference
(subtraction) of both input signals is displayed, depends
on the phase relationship and the INV (invert function)
setting.
5. XY mode:
In XY mode the deflection coefficients are displayed as
”X...” for channel I and ”Y...” for channel II. In contrast to
Yt (time base) mode the following mode dependent
deviations must be noted:
5.1 Analog mode.
1. No time coefficient display, as the time base is switched
off.
2. Controls and readout display switched off for trigger
source, slope and coupling.
3. Y-POS/CURS.I knob inactive; for X shift, use X-POS. (12)
knob.
16
4. X-MAG. x10 is disabled.
5. “XY” is indicated instead of channel switching (“alt” or
“chp”).
5.2 Storage mode.
1. The readout displays the sampling rate without a time
coefficient.
2. Controls and readout display are switched off for trigger
source, slope and coupling.
3. Y-POS/CURS.I serves as an X position control; X-POS (12)
knob is deactivated.
4. X-MAG. x10 is disabled.
5. “rfr” is indicated instead of channel switching (“alt” or
“chp”).
(17) TRIG. SOURCE Pushbutton.
This pushbutton is for trigger source selection and
deactivated if line (mains) triggering is selected or XY
operation is chosen.
The term “trigger source” describes the source from which
the signal used for triggering originates. The measuring
amplifiers (internal triggering) or the BNC socket which
serves as an input for externally applied signals (external
triggering) can be used as a trigger source.
Single channel operation (CHI or CHII):
Briefly pressing switches the trigger source over without
displaying the pulldown menu. During single channel
operation the internal trigger signal (originating from
channel I or channel II) or the external trigger signal can be
chosen.
DUAL and Addition mode:
Briefly pressing opens the trigger source pulldown menu
with the actual setting highlighted. Please note “B: Menu
Display and Operation”.
The following listing shows the possible trigger sources
and how they are indicated by the READOUT. Their
availability depends on the actual channel operation
mode.
“Y1”: The measurement amplifier of channel I serves as
trigger source.
“Y2”: The measurement amplifier of channel II serves as
trigger source.
“alt”:
Alternate triggering can be chosen if DUAL mode is
present. In alternate trigger mode, the switch over of the
internal trigger sources “Y1” and “Y2” is carried out
synchronously with the alternate channel switching and
the trigger point symbol is switched off.
As alternate triggering requires alternate channel
operation, alternate channel switching remains active even
with change of the time coefficient. (Chopped channel
switching mode will not be automatically activated until
alt trigger is deselected).
The following trigger coupling settings cannot be chosen
in combination with alternate triggering: TVL, TVF and
line (mains).
If “add” (addition) or delayed time base mode (“sea”, “del”
or “dTr”) is present, alternate triggering is not available.
Therefore alternate triggering is automatically switched
off if one of these modes has been chosen.
Subject to change without notice
Controls and readout
“ext”:
External trigger mode is available in all time base and trigger
coupling modes except line/mains triggering. Then the
TRIG.EXT. (30) BNC socket serves as the external trigger
signal input. On external triggering mode, the intensity
modulation (Z), which might have been present before, is
automatically switched off.
Note: The trigger point symbol is always switched
off if external triggering is chosen.
STORAGE MODE ONLY.
In “rol” (ROLL) mode all trigger controls and readout
information are deactivated.
active, the internal trigger source automatically switches
over to channel II and the READOUT displays “Y2, trigger
slope, trigger coupling”. The last function setting of the
VOLTS/DIV (18)) knob remains unchanged.
All channel II related controls are active if the input (28) is
not set to GND (29).
VAR.:
After switching the VAR-LED (18) on, the deflection
coefficient is still calibrated. Turning the VOLTS/DIV. (18)
control knob counter clockwise reduces the signal height
and the deflection coefficient becomes uncalibrated.
The readout then displays e.g. ”Y2>...” indicating the
uncalibrated condition instead of ”Y2:...”. Pressing and
holding the CHI pushbutton again switches the LED off,
sets the deflection coefficient into calibrated condition
and activates the attenuator function. The previous vernier
setting will not be stored.
INV.:
Briefly and simultaneously pressing the CHII and the DUALMENU (16) pushbutton switches the channel II invert
function on or off. The invert ”on” condition is indicated
on the readout by a horizontal bar above “Y2” (Yt mode)
respectively “Y” (XY mode). The invert function causes
the signal display of channel II to be inverted by 180°.
(20) TRIG. MODE Pushbuttons.
(18) VOLTS/DIV. Control knob for channel II with a double
function.
This control is active only if channel II is enabled and it‘s
input coupling (AC or DC) is activated. Channel II is active
in CH II (Mono), DUAL, Addition (“add”) and XY mode. The
knob is automatically disabled if the channel related to it is
switched off, or if the input coupling is set to GND (ground).
Y deflection coefficient setting (input attenuator):
This function is available if the VAR. LED is dark.
Turning the control knob clockwise increases the sensitivity
(decreases the deflection coefficient) in a 1-2-5 sequence
and decreases the sensitivity (increases the deflection
coefficient) if turned in the opposite direction (ccw.). The
available range is from 1mV/div up to 20V/div.
The deflection coefficients and additional information
regarding the active channel(s) are displayed in the readout,
:”
e.g. ”Y2: deflection coefficient, input coupling”. The ”:”
symbolizes calibrated measuring conditions and is replaced
” symbol in uncalibrated conditions.
by the ” >”
VAR.:
The vernier (variable) function is described under item VAR (19).
Pressing one of these pushbuttons opens the trigger
coupling pulldown menu with the actual setting highlighted.
Briefly pressing a pushbutton selects the trigger coupling.
Please note “B: Menu Display and Operation”.
The term “trigger coupling” describes the way the trigger
signal is connected to the trigger unit.
AC
DC
HF
off
LF
TVL
TVF
~
DC content suppressed,
peak value detection inactive,
high pass filter cuts off frequencies below
approx. 50kHz, trigger point symbol switched
low pass filter cuts off frequencies above
approx. 1.5kHz,
TV signal, line pulse triggering,
trigger point symbol switched off,
TV signal, frame pulse triggering,
trigger point symbol switched off.
line/mains triggering,
trigger point symbol switched off.
Line/mains triggering inactivates the TRIG. SOURCE (17)
pushbutton.
In some trigger modes such as alternate triggering, some
trigger coupling modes are automatically disabled and
cannot be selected.
(19) CH II - VAR.. Pushbutton with several functions.
Pressing and holding this pushbutton selects the VOLTS/
DIV.. (18) control knob function between attenuator and
vernier (variable). The current setting is displayed by the
VAR-LED located above the knob.
Analog mode.
CH II mode:
Briefly pressing the CHII button sets the instrument to
channel II (Mono CH II) mode. The deflection coefficient
displayed in the readout indicates the current conditions
(”Y2...”). If neither external nor line (mains) triggering was
1. Hold off time.
The hold off time function can be activated if normal
(undelayed) time base mode is present. On condition that
the HO LED is not lit the hold off time is set to minimum.
The HO LED lights up and the hold off time increases as
Subject to change without notice
(21) DEL/TR. POS.. Control knob with several functions
and related HO LED.
The knob function depends on the actual mode setting.
17
Controls and readout
the knob is rotated clockwise. A signal sounds on reaching
the maximum hold off time. Similarly in the opposite
direction until minimum hold off time is reached (HO LED
extinguishes).
Simultaneously the time value increases and is marked
with a minus (-) sign, as post trigger is condition is
present. An acoustic signal indicates the maximum post
trigger setting.
The hold off time is automatically set to minimum when
the time base is changed. (For the application of hold off
time setting see the paragraph with the heading “HOLD
OFF time adjustment”).
On condition that the time base is set to 1µs/div and a
post trigger time of “-10µs” is chosen, 10µs must
elapse after the trigger event until the signal display
starts on the screen. This means that under these
conditions the first 10µs after the trigger event can`t
be displayed but the next 10µs can.
2. Delay time..
If the instrument is set to delayed time base mode, the
DEL/TR. POS. knob operates as a delay time control. See
DEL.MODE-ON/OFF (23).
STORAGE MODE ONLY
The knob can be used to set a continuously variable pre or
post trigger time (position on the X axis), if a valid (triggered)
signal display mode is chosen. Pre and post trigger enables
the display of the prehistory or posthistory of both “one
time events” and “repetitive signals”. The pre or post
trigger time is displayed to the right of the trigger source,
slope and coupling display.
If “rol” (ROLL) or “XY” mode (both untriggered) is chosen,
the DEL / TR. POS. knob and the pre and post trigger time
display is switched off.
In time base settings from 100s/div. to 50ms/div. the pre
or post trigger is available only in combination with “sgl”
(SINGLE) signal display mode. This is to avoid excessive
waiting times in “rfr” (REFRESH), “avm” (AVERAGE) or
“env” (ENVELOPE) mode.
The following description assumes that the X magnifier
(x10) is inactive and the signal display starts on the leftmost
vertical graticule line. It is also assumed that a trigger mode
(source, coupling) is chosen where the trigger point symbol
is displayed. In contrast to analog mode, the trigger point
symbol can be shifted in X-direction using the DEL / TR.
POS. knob.
PRE TRIGGER
The basic conditions for the explanation are that initially
neither pre nor post trigger is present and hence the trigger
time is “0s”, and the signal display starts at the left graticule
line as in analog mode.
Turning the DEL / TR. POS. knob clockwise increases the
trigger time value and the trigger point symbol shifts to
the right until the maximum is reached (acoustic signal).
In this case the display only shows the prehistory of the
trigger event. If e.g. a time coefficient of 1µs/div. is present,
the maximum prehistory is 10.2µs.
All values between “zero” and “maximum” can be set.
The signal displayed to the left of the trigger point symbol
shows the pre history; the right side displays the run of
the curve after the trigger event.
POST TRIGGER
As defined in PRE TRIGGER, the basic conditions for the
explanation are that initially neither pre nor post trigger is
present and hence the trigger time is “0s”, and the trigger
(time) point is at the left graticule line as in analog mode.
(22) TIME/DIV. Control knob with a double function.
Analog mode.
22.1 Time defelection coefficient.
If the VAR LED above the TIME/DIV knob isn‘t lit, the
knob functions as a switch for the undelayed or delayed
time base. Then the control can be used for time
coefficient selection in 1-2-5 sequence under calibrated
condition. Turning the knob clockwise causes a lower
time deflection coefficient (a higher [faster] time
deflection speed); consequently the time deflection
coefficient becomes higher (and the time deflection
slower) when turning the knob counter clockwise.
The time coefficient is displayed by the readout in the top
left position (e.g. “500ns”).
The availability of the following time base ranges depends
on the time base mode and is stated on condition that XMAG x10 is switched off:
22.1.1 undelayed time base from 500ms/div to 50ns/div.
22.1.2 delayed time base from maximum 20ms/div to
50ns/div.
Note: The delayed time base can‘t be set to a higher
deflection coefficient than the actual value of the undelayed
time base, as it makes no sense.
22.2 variable time deflection control.
On condition the VAR LED lit, the knob function is switched
over to time vernier control.
This function is described under item Z ON/OFF VAR (24).
Turning the DEL / TR. POS. knob counter clockwise,
shifts the trigger (time) point to the left, out of the
graticule so that the (+) symbol is no longer visible; it is
then replaced by an arrow pointing to the left.
18
Attention!
In analog XY mode the knob is deactivated, as the time
base is not required and therefore stopped.
Subject to change without notice
Controls and readout
Digital mode.
22.3 Time defelction coefficient setting in Yt (time base) mode.
In principle time coefficients from 100s/div to 100ns/div can be
set, conditional upon the signal display and the channel operating
mode. The switching sequence is 1-2-5.
It is recommended to capture and display the signals in
DUAL mode and choose a suitable time coefficient
which enables you to see the higher frequency signal
with at least one signal period and then to switch over
to XY mode.
As in analog mode the time coefficient is displayed by the
readout (e.g. “500ns”). Supplementary information is
displayed below with the following meaning:
With large frequency differences between two signals,
the digital XY mode becomes less suitable. The best
display quality is present in analog mode.
“r”
is displayed in those time base settings when the signal
capture is performed by random sampling. It enables the
capture and display of signals which can not be captured
in real time sampling mode, as the signal frequency is too
high. For single event capture (SINGLE) random sampling
is not available as random assumes continuously repeating
signals.
(23) DEL.MODE ON/OFF Pushbutton with several functions.
“....S”
indicates the sampling rate actually used by the A/D
converter (time base dependent). The sampling rate
indicates the number of samples per second.
“!”
is displayed as long as the signal capture is not completed.
“a”
The letter a indicates alternate real time signal capture in
DUAL mode in 2µs/div time base setting. In this case only,
the signal capture alternates between channel one and
two, after a complete signal capture for each channel is
accomplished.
“AL?”
replaces all other symbols, if aliasing (alias signal display)
appears. Aliasing occurs if a signal is sampled with less
then 2 samples per period.
22.3.1 Time deflection coefficient ranges.
22.4 Sampling rates in XY mode.
In digital XY mode the signals must be converted from
analog to digital. The sampling rate is displayed instead of
the time deflection coefficient and can be selected by the
TIME/DIV knob.
All functions are only available in analog mode!
ON/OFF function:
Pressing and holding this pushbutton switches over between
delayed and undelayed time base mode. The actual setting
is indicated by the READOUT. The delayed time base
operation enables a magnified display in X direction which is
otherwise only possible with a second time base.
1. Undelayed time base mode.
If on the right of the trigger READOUT information (source,
slope, coupling) neither “sea”, “del” nor “dTr” is indicated,
undelayed time base mode is present.
Note: When the intensity modulation function is switched
on, the letter “Z” is visible in this position on the screen.
2. Delayed time base mode.
Is indicated by the READOUT showing “sea”, “del” or
“dTr”. If intensity modulation was chosen before switching
over to delay time base mode, this function is automatically
switched off and consequently the letter “Z” deleted.
Switching over from undelayed to delayed time base
mode automatically selects “sea” (search) mode. Briefly
pressing the pushbutton then opens a pulldown menu
for operating mode selection. Please Note “B: Menu
Display and Operation”.
The following description assumes that in undelayed time
base mode the trace starts at left edge of the graticule,
with x10 X MAG.. switched off.
Note:
1.) *: indicates relative sampling rates
2.) repetitive: describes periodically repeating signals
Subject to change without notice
19
Controls and readout
Functions
“sea”:
In “sea” (SEARCH) mode, the hold off time is automatically
set to minimum and for the first few divisions the trace is
blanked. The point at which the trace is unblanked can be
varied with the DEL/TR. POS. (21) control (fine adjustment)
from about 2 to 7 divisions. The blanked section serves as a
guide to the delay time. The delay time is based on the current
time deflection coefficient setting and can also be coarsely
set with the TIME/DIV control (range: 20ms to 100ns).
The signal position at which the unblanking occurs marks
the trace start position that is present after switching over
from “sea” to “del”. This enables lower time deflection
coefficient settings for signal expansion.
coefficient switch to time vernier (fine adjustment)
control and vice versa.
The current function is indicated by the VAR LED. The
TIME/DIV. knob functions as a vernier when the VAR LED
is switched on, but the time base setting remains
calibrated until the (vernier) knob is operated. The readout
now indicates e.g. ”>10ms” instead of ”10ms”. Rotating
further anticlockwise increases the time deflection
coefficient (uncalibrated) until the maximum is reached
indicated by a beep. Rotating the knob clockwise has the
opposite effect. Now, the vernier is again in the calibrated
position and the symbol ” >” extinguishes.
Underneath the front panel sector described above,
the BNC sockets and two pushbuttons are located.
“del”:
In “del” (DELAY) mode, a trigger event does not start the
trace at once but only initiates the delay time. After the
delay time has elapsed the trace is started. Selecting lower
time deflection coefficients (higher time base speed)
causes a signal expansion in X direction.
The DEL/TR. POS. (21) control can still be used for
correcting the signal start position affected by the TIME/
DIV setting.
Note: With higher expansion rates the trace intensity may
reduce drastically.
“dTr”:
In “dTr” (triggered DELAY) mode the first trigger unit, used
for triggering in undelayed time base mode, starts the
delay time as in “del” mode. After the delay time has
elapsed the delay time base must be triggered by the
second trigger unit, to start and unblank the trace. The
latter requires suitable instrument settings (LEVEL, SLOPE)
to enable triggering.
Note: The trigger indicator LED (TR) (10) only indicates the
trigger condition of the first trigger unit. It may be lit although
the trigger conditions for the second time base are not
met and the trace remains blanked.
(25) INPUT CH I (X) BNC socket.
This BNC socket is the signal input for channel I. The outer
(ground) connection is galvanically connected to the
instrument ground and consequently to the safety earth
contact of the line/mains plug. The AC/DC/GND pushbutton
(26) is assigned to the input.
In XY mode, signals at this input are used for the X deflection.
As in “del” mode the DEL/TR. POS.. (21) control can still be
used. In contrast to complex signals the effect of this function
may not be noticed with simple repetitive signals as the trigger
point ‘hops’ from cycle to cycle, each being the same.
(24) Z ON/OFF VAR. Pushbutton with two functions.
(26) AC/DC/GND x1/x10 Pushbutton with several functions.
AC/DC/GND:
Briefly pressing this pushbutton opens the input coupling
pulldown menu if a channel mode is present in which
channel I is activated.
The functions are available only in analog mode!
Z ON/OFF:
Briefly pressing the pushbutton switches over the function
of the TRIG. EXT. (30) BNC socket from external trigger
input to intensity modulation input and vice versa. In
connection with external triggering, delay time base (“sea”,
“del” or “dTr”) and “Component Tester” mode, Z
modulation can not be enabled.
Z modulation is shown on the READOUT to the right of
“trigger source, slope and coupling” indicated by the letter
“Z”. High TTL level (positive logic) gives blanking, dark,
low level gives unblanking, bright. No higher voltages than
+5 Volt are permitted.
VAR.:
Pressing and holding the button changes the function
of the TIME/DIV. (22) knob from time deflection
20
The following input couplings are available: AC, DC and
GND (ground). Please note “B: Menu Display and
Operation”.
After the pulldown menu has extinguished, the READOUT
displays the present input coupling at the bottom right
hand of ”Y1: deflection coefficient”; the “ “ symbol
indicates AC, the “=” symbol DC and “GND” is for ground.
~
The GND setting disables the input signal and the VOLTS/
DIV (14) knob. Then in automatic trigger mode (Yt) the
undeflected trace is visible representing the 0 Volt trace
position; in XY mode the X deflection is deactivated.
x1/x10:
Probe factor selection is performed by pressing and
holding the pushbutton. This selects the indicated
deflection coefficient of channel I displayed in the
Subject to change without notice
Controls and readout
readout, between 1:1 and 10:1. In condition 10:1, the
probe factor is thus indicated by a probe symbol
displayed by the readout in front of the channel
information (e.g. ”probe symbol”, Y1...). In the case of
cursor voltage measurement, the probe factor is
automatically included.
(30) TRIG. EXT. / INPUT (Z) BNC socket with two functions.
Please note:
The symbol must not be activated unless a x10 (10:1)
attenuator probe is used.
Briefly pressing the Z ON/OFF VAR (24) pushbutton
switches over the function of this socket.
(27) Ground socket 4mm banana socket galvanically
connected to safety earth. This socket can be used as
reference potential connection for DC and low frequency
signal measurement purposes and in “Component
Tester” mode.
(28) INPUT CH II BNC socket.
This BNC socket is the signal input for channel II. The outer
(ground) connection is galvanically connected to the instrument ground and consequently to the safety earth contact
of the line/mains plug. The AC/DC/GND pushbutton (29)
is assigned to the input.
In XY mode, signals at this input are used for the Y
deflection.
The outer (ground) connection is galvanically connected
to the instrument ground and consequently to the safety
earth contact of the line/mains plug. The input impedance
is approx. 1M Ohm II 20pF.
TRIG. EXT:
The BNC socket serves as external trigger signal input, if
external triggering is selected.
The trigger coupling depends on the TRIG. MODE (20)
setting.
Z- Input:
If neither “Component Tester”, delayed time base mode
(“sea”, “del” or “dTr”) nor external trigger coupling
(“ext”) is chosen, the socket is operative as a Z (trace
intensity modulation) input.
High TTL level (positive logic) affects blanking, low level
gives unblanking. No higher voltages than +5 Volt are
permitted.
Below the CRT are the controls for the readout, the
component tester and the squarewave calibrator
with their outputs.
(31) MAIN MENU - READOUT Pushbutton with two functions.
Briefly pressing calls the MAIN MENU. It contains the
submenus ADJUSTMENT and SETUP & INFO partly
containing further submenus.
(29) AC/DC/GND x1/x10 Pushbutton with several functions.
A menu description can be found under “E: MAIN MENU”.
AC/DC/GND:
Briefly pressing this pushbutton opens the input coupling
pulldown menu if a channel mode is present in which
channel II is activated.
The following input couplings are available: AC, DC and
GND (ground). Please note “B: Menu Display and
Operation”.
After the pulldown menu has extinguished, the READOUT
displays the present input coupling at the bottom right hand
of ”Y2: deflection coefficient”; the “ “ symbol indicates
AC, the “=” symbol DC and “GND” is for ground.
~
The GND setting disables the input signal and the VOLTS/
DIV (18) knob. Then in automatic trigger mode (Yt) the
undeflected trace is visible representing the 0 Volt trace
position; in XY mode the Y deflection is deactivated.
x1/x10:
Probe factor selection is performed by pressing and
holding the pushbutton. This selects the indicated
deflection coefficient of channel II displayed in the
readout, between 1:1 and 10:1. In condition 10:1 the
probe factor is thus indicated by a probe symbol
displayed by the readout in front of the channel
information (e.g. ”probe symbol”, Y2...). In the case of
cursor voltage measurement, the probe factor is
automatically included.
Please note:
The symbol must not be activated unless a x10 (10:1)
attenuator probe is used.
Subject to change without notice
Although self explanatory, a description of the menu
selection and other operating functions can be found in
this part of the manual under “B: Menu Display and
Operation”.
READOUT pushbutton:
Pressing and holding the READOUT pushbutton
switches the readout on or off. With the readout
switched off, the INTENS/FOCUS function can
consequently not be set to RO.
It may be required to switch off the readout if interference
is visible on the signal(s). Such interference may also
originate from the chopper generator if the instrument is
operated in chopped DUAL mode.
(32) MEASURE SET
Pushbutton with double function.
MEASURE:
Briefly pressing calls the “AUTO MEASURE” menu, if
CURSOR lines are not activated. Otherwise the “CURSOR
MEASURE” menu is displayed. Pressing and holding the
SELECT ON/OFF (34) pushbutton activates or deactivates
the CURSOR lines.
Applicability of measuring functions
Where a measuring function is not supported in
conjunction with an operating mode, instead of a
measuring value, the READOUT indicates “n/a” (not
applicable). For example the READOUT displays “∆t: n/
a” if ∆t measurement is selected in combination with
XY mode.
21
Controls and readout
Uncalibrated Settings / Overflow Indication
If the deflection coefficient is uncalibrated the READOUT
indicates e.g. “Y1>2V=” or “>500µs”. Such conditions
are indicated by a “>” or “<” sign automatically put in
front of the displayed measuring value.
Measurement range overflow (exceeding) is indicated in
front of the measuring value by the “>” sign.
Non executability of measurements
A question mark (?) is displayed if the measuring unit can‘t
find a useful value (e.g. frequency measurement without a
signal).
32.1 AUTO MEASURE
The table shows all menu items, sources and display abilities.
Their availability depends on the actual operating mode.
Voltage measurement is enabled only in combination with
AC or DC trigger coupling. DC input coupling is required
for DC voltage measurement and voltages with DC
content.
To avoid measuring errors the complete signal must be
displayed within the vertical graticule limits; i.e. without
over ranging.
Trigger signal related measurement:
In the case of high frequency signals, the frequency
response of the trigger amplifier must be taken into
account; i.e. the measuring accuracy decreases at
increasing frequencies. Due to the different Y amplifier
and trigger amplifier frequency responses, there are also
deviations with respect to the signal display.
If relatively low frequency signals (< 20Hz) are present,
the measurement value continuously changes, following
the waveform. The pulse duty factor of such signals and
also the trigger slope setting will affect the measurement
result.
Frequency and Period measurement assume that the
trigger conditions are met (TR LED lit) and normal triggering
active for signals > 20Hz. Very low frequency signals require
a measurement time of several seconds.
Signal memory (storage mode) related measurement:
Each displayed signal can serve as source for measurement, except the reference signal or mathematic signal
in combination with addition (“add”) mode. The result is
calculated from the stored 8 bit signal data (memory
content). In contrast to analog signal based measurement
(trigger signal), this results in reduced measurement
accuracy.
Mean value (“avg”) and root mean square (“rms”)
calculation assume a minimum of one signal period of a
non complex waveform. In the case of complex signals,
the signal part (one period) must be determined by
CURSOR lines (CURSOR MEASURE).
1) Listing of all signal sources whose availability depends
on the operating conditions:
Y1 = trigger signal at trigger amplifier channel I output.
Y2 = trigger signal at trigger amplifier channel II output.
ext = trigger signal at external trigger amplifier output.
AUTO MEASURE
22
Subject to change without notice
Controls and readout
2) Measuring signal selection (trigger source):
Terms as under item 1).
3) Analysable signal displays:
CH1 = channel I, CH2 = channel II, ADD = signal display in
addition mode and MATx = mathematic signal.
To avoid CURSOR line and “+” symbol changes after each
change of a signal position in X and/or Y direction, a fixed
relation between signal and CURSOR display can be made
by activating the GLUE (33) function. GLUE is indicated by
a reduced number of dots in the CURSOR lines and the
“+” symbols.
4) Signal selection (memory content):
Y1 = channel I, Y2 = channel II, Y = ADD (addition mode)
and M = mathematic signal.
Further information about this item can be found in this
manual under “Type of signal voltage” in section “Rise
Time Measurement”.
32.2 CURSOR MEASURE:
Briefly pressing the MEASURE SET pushbutton on
condition CURSOR ON (34) calls this menu. The
measurement results of the different menu items relate
to the CURSOR settings relative to the signal.
32.2.4 ?V (display “??V: channel, measured value)
CURSOR supported voltage measurement. Analog and
digital mode. In Yt (time base) mode two horizontal CURSOR
lines are displayed:
Single channel (CH I or CH II) mode automatically
relates the CURSOR lines to one signal. The measurement
value is connected with the Y deflection coefficient.
DUAL mode requires selection between channel I and II
with the SOURCE (33) pushbutton. The CURSOR line must
be placed on the signal (channel) chosen by the SOURCE
function.
The Y POS/CURS.I (6) and Y POS/CURS.II (8) knobs enable
CURSOR line setting if the CURSOR POS LED is lit. Then
each CURSOR line is marked by a symbol (“I“, “II”)
indicating the relationship between each Y POS/CURS.
knob and CURSOR line. In cases where more than two
CURSOR lines or additionally “+” symbols are displayed,
the SELECT (34) function switches over the assignment. If
both CURSOR lines or “+” symbols have the same marking,
both can be shifted simultaneously (Tracking function).
In the case of signal amplitude measurement in combination with several displayed signals, the SOURCE (33)
pushbutton can be used to determine the signal (Y1 =
channel 1, Y2 = channel II, M = mathematic signal).
32.2.1 ?t (display “?t: measured value“)
Analog and digital mode.
Enables time measurement by aid of two vertical CURSOR
lines in Yt mode (not in XY mode). Briefly pressing the
UNIT (35) pushbutton directly switches over from ?t to 1/
?t (frequency) measurement and vice versa.
32.2.2 1/?t (display “1/?t: measured value“)
Analog and digital mode.
Two vertical CURSOR lines enable frequency
measurement in Yt mode (not in XY mode). Briefly pressing
the UNIT (35) pushbutton directly switches over from 1/?t
to ?t (time) measurement and vice versa.
32.2.3 Rise Time (display “tr 10: measured value”)
Analog and digital mode.
Rise time measurement by aid of two horizontal CURSOR
lines and two “+” symbols which have the following
meaning.
1. Lower CURSOR line = 0%.
2. Lower “+” symbol = 10% of the CURSOR lines distance.
3. Upper “+” symbol = 90% of the CURSOR lines distance.
4. Upper CURSOR line = 100%.
SET (32) enables an automatic signal related CURSOR line
setting (in DUAL mode related to the signal used for
triggering), which can later be changed manually.
The distance between the “+” symbols and the CURSOR
lines are set automatically. For rise time measurement the
horizontal position of the “+” symbols must be set
manually to the signal slope. This requires that the
CURSOR POS is active and each “+” symbol is marked
(“I”, “II”) by the aid of the SELECT (34) function.
Note:
For maximum “+” symbol positioning and measuring
accuracy first set the signal slope to the screen center (XPOS. (12)) and then activate X magnifier (X-MAG. x10 (13)).
Subject to change without notice
Addition (“add”) mode requires equal Y deflection
coefficients for both channels.
XY mode causes the display of two vertical or horizontal
CURSOR lines:
The SOURCE (33) pushbutton allows selection between X
(CH I) and Y (CH II) voltage measurement. In the case of X
voltage measurement, vertical CURSOR lines are
displayed.
32.2.5 V to GND (display “V: channel, measured value)
Analog and digital mode.
One CURSOR line is displayed for voltage measurement
related to the trace 0 Volt position. This is the only exception
to the description of item 32.2.4.
If the mathematic function (MATH [39]) is activated and a
calculation was made (CALC [39]) the result of the operation
is displayed as a “signal”, which can be measured by aid
of the cursor line. The SOURCE (33) function selects the
cursor line / signal assignment.
32.2.6 Ratio X (display “ratio:X, measured value, unit”)
Analog and digital mode.
Ratio X measurement causes the display of two long and
one short CURSOR lines and is enabled in Yt (time base)
mode only.
The unit to be displayed must be selected by briefly
pressing the UNIT (35) pushbutton to call the UNIT menu.
Then the following units are offered: ratio, %, ° (angle)
unit: degree of angle and pi.
The long CURSOR line in the left position always serves
as reference line. A “–“ (minus) sign indicates measurement results if the short CURSOR line is placed left of
the reference line.
Ratio:
Enables the measurement of pulse duty ratio. The distance
between the long CURSOR lines is equivalent to1 (whole
cycle).
Example for a pulse signal with 4 div. pulse and 1 div.
space:
The long CURSOR lines must coincide with the start
position of first and the second pulse (distance = 5 div.) as
the reference distance (1). Then the “I” symbol must be
23
Controls and readout
assigned to the short CURSOR line (SELECT (34)) which
must then be set to the pulse end position (4 div. after the
pulse start). Corresponding to the ratio of pulse duration
to period length (4:5 = 0.8) “0.8” will be displayed.
The distance between the long CURSOR lines serves as
the reference value. The measured value is calculated from
the distance between the short CURSOR lines compared
to the reference value.
%:
Same function as described before under “Ratio”. The
measurement result is displayed in % (unit).
This method is suitable to determine e.g. the oscilloscope‘s
frequency response.
°:
Angle measurement referring to the CURSOR line
distances. The distance between the long CURSOR lines
should cover one signal period, equivalent to 360°. Angle
measurement then can be performed by shifting the short
CURSOR line. Additional information can be found in
section “Operating modes of the vertical amplifiers in Yt
mode” under “Phase difference measurement in DUAL
mode”.
pi:
Determination of the value for “pi” referring to the
CURSOR line distances. The equivalent for “2 pi” is one
sine wave period; thus the distance between the long
CURSOR lines must be 1 period. If the distance between
the long CURSOR in left hand position and the short
CURSOR line referring to it is 1.5 periods, “3 pi” will be
indicated.
32.2.7 Ratio Y (display “ratio:Y, measured value, unit”)
Analog and digital mode.
Ratio Y measurement causes the display of two long and one
short CURSOR lines and is enabled only in Yt (time base) mode.
Briefly pressing the UNIT (35) pushbutton switches over
between the ratio (unnamed) and ratio in %.
The long CURSOR line in the lower position always serves
as the reference line. A “–“ (minus) sign indicates
measurement results if the short CURSOR line is placed
below the reference line.
Ratio:
The distance between both long CURSOR lines is
equivalent to1.
Example: If the distance between the long CURSOR lines
is 6 div. and the short CURSOR line is activated (SELECT
(34)) and set 4 div. above the reference CURSOR line, the
ratio is 4:6, causing “0.667” (without unit) to be displayed
%:
The only difference between previous item “Ratio” and
“%” is that the distance between the long CURSOR lines
is equivalent to100% and the measuring result is displayed
as a % value.
32.2.8 Gain (display “gain: measured value, unit”)
Analog and digital mode.
Ratio measurement of signal voltages by the aid of two
long and two short CURSOR lines; enabled only in Yt (time
base) mode.
Both long CURSOR lines must be placed on the channel I
signal while the short CURSOR lines must be set on the
channel II signal.
Briefly pressing the SOURCE pushbutton calls a menu
which offers “g1→2:“ and “g2→1:“. The selection of the
required setting can then be made by briefly pressing the
SOURCE pushbutton until the setting is highlighted. If
channel I is connected to the input and channel II the output
of the two ports, “g1→2:“ must be chosen. Conversely if
the channels are reversed choose “g2→1:“.
32.2.9 rms (display “rms: channel, measured value”)
Digital mode only.
This function calculates and displays the rms (effective)
value of any signal period between the CURSOR lines. To
ensure that there is exactly one signal period between the
CURSOR lines, the SET (32) function can be called.
In cases where a signal consists of several signal periods
with different heights, the CURSOR lines must be set
manually to select the desired period. The measured value
is related to the signal part between the CURSOR lines,
which must be exactly one period.
DC contents are taken into account if DC input coupling is
present.
The “channel” to which the measurement result relates,
can be selected by the SOURCE (33) function. The
“channels” are indicated as “Y1” (channel I), “Y2” (channel
II) and “M” (MATH signal); their availability depends on the
actual operating mode.
32.2.10 avg (display “avg: channel, measured value”)
Digital mode only.
This measurement function calculates and displays the
average value of the signal within the CURSOR lines. DC
contents are taken into account if DC input coupling is
present.
The “channel” to which the measurement result relates,
can be selected by the SOURCE (33) function. The
“channels” are indicated as “Y1” (channel I), “Y2” (channel
II) and “M” (MATH signal); their availability depends on the
actual operating mode.
The application of Gain measurement depends whether
one or two signals are displayed.
32.2.11 Peak Peak (display “pp: channel, measured value, unit”)
Digital mode only.
Automatically detects and marks (by triangle symbols) the
maximum amplitude difference in a sector determined by
two vertical CURSOR lines. The triangle symbols position
automatically and follow amplitude changes.
1. One signal (CH I, CH II or “add” mode).
A measurement can be made on one signal before and
after a signal frequency change.
The UNIT (35) pushbutton can be used to switch over to
time difference measurement. Then the time difference
between the triangle symbols is displayed.
Briefly pressing the UNIT (35) pushbutton selects ratio
(unnamed), % or dB.
24
2. DUAL mode.
Enables two port measurements (amplifier, attenuator) by
determination of the ratio of input and output voltages. For
correct measuring results you must determine which
channel is applied to the input and output ports respectively.
Subject to change without notice
Controls and readout
32.2.12 Peak + (display “p+: channel, measured value,
unit”)
Digital mode only.
A triangle symbol is automatically positioned on the most
positive signal value, within two vertical CURSOR lines.
The UNIT (35) pushbutton allows switching over to
“Peak –“.
32.2.13 Peak - (display “p-: channel, measured value, unit”)
Digital mode only.
A triangle symbol is automatically positioned on the most
negative signal value, within two vertical CURSOR lines.
The UNIT (35) pushbutton allows switching over to
“Peak +“.
32.2.14 Count (display “cnt: channel, measured value,
signal)
Digital mode only.
The readout shows two vertical and one horizontal
CURSOR line. The measured value can be determined as
the number of rising or falling slopes ( selected either
positive or negative), which cross the level of the horizontal
CURSOR line within the vertical CURSOR lines sector.
displayed. Briefly pressing SOURCE selects the channel
and it`s deflection coefficient for the measurement. The
CURSOR lines must be set to the signal according to the
selected channel.
2. DUAL mode in combination with “Gain“ (two port)
measurement allows you to determine the input and
output voltage ratio with two long and two short CURSOR
lines being visible. A correct measurement requires the
correct channel to be connected to the input and output
respectively.
GLUE
Pressing and holding switches this function on or off,
which is indicated by the way the CURSOR lines are
displayed. In GLUE on condition the number of dots
from which CURSOR lines and “+” symbols consist is
reduced.
GLUE combines the CURSOR lines and “+” symbol
position with the Y and X position controls. Y and X position
changes then affect both the signal and the CURSOR lines
and “+” symbols.
The slope or pulse direction can be determined by the
UNIT (35) pushbutton, which opens a pull down menu.
32.2.15 Vt Marker (display “mkr: channel, measured
value, unit”)
Digital mode only.
The Vt marker is a cross hair symbol, which follows the
signal if the Y-POS/CURS.I (6) acts as a CURSOR control.
The measured value is either the voltage height or the
time difference to the trigger point. Time difference measurement is not enabled for “M” (mathematic) signals.
Calling the UNIT (35) function, switches over from voltage
to time measurement and vice versa.
32.3 SET
Pressing and holding SET during CURSOR supported
voltage measurement, causes an automatic signal related
CURSOR line setting within certain limits. As it is the trigger
signal that is measured, (trigger source CH I or CH II) the
trigger coupling affects the measuring result. Without a
signal or with an untriggered signal, the CURSOR lines do
not change.
SET is activated on condition that:
1. The CURSOR lines are visible.
2. A CURSOR MEASURE menu function has been chosen
which causes the display of horizontal CURSOR lines (Rise
Time, ?V, V to GND, Ratio Y and Gain).
3. CH I, CH II or DUAL mode is activated.
(33) SOURCE GLUE Pushbutton with double function.
SOURCE
Briefly pressing selects the source (channel) that the
measurement display refers too.
The “channel” to which the measurement result relates,
can be selected by the SOURCE (33) function. The
“channels” are indicated as “Y1” (channel I), “Y2” (channel
II) and “M” (MATH signal); their availability depends on the
actual operating mode.
1. If DUAL or XY mode is present in combination with
CURSOR voltage measurement (CURSOR MEASURE:
∆ V“ and “V to GND“) two long CURSOR lines are
“∆
Subject to change without notice
(34) SELECT ON OFF Pushbutton with double function.
ON OFF
Pressing and holding switches the CURSOR lines on or
off.
When the CURSOR lines are activated, the READOUT
displays the last activated measuring function of the
CURSOR MEASURE menu. Briefly pressing MEASURE (32)
opens this menu.
Switching the CURSOR lines off additionally switches over
to last used AUTO MEASURE function. Briefly pressing
MEASURE (32) opens this menu.
SELECT
If the CURSOR lines are visible (CURSOR MEASURE) and
the CURSOR POS function (7) is active, the symbols “I”
and “II” are assigned to CURSOR lines or “+” symbols.
The “I” and “II” symbols indicate by which Y-POS/CURS. (I
or II) control the CURSOR line(s) position can be changed.
Briefly pressing the SELECT pushbutton changes the
assignment.
Only the CURSOR lines and “+” symbols which are
assigned can be shifted. Tracking mode is present when
two CURSOR line or “+”symbols have the same
assignment; i.e. they are shifted simultaneously by the
same control.
(35) UNIT CAL. SEL Pushbutton with double function.
UNIT
Briefly pressing changes the unit of the displayed
measuring value under some menu items. If CURSOR
MEASURE is active (CURSOR lines visible) and more then
two units are selectable, a menu opens; otherwise the
switch over appears directly without a menu.
On condition AUTO MEASURE the UNIT function selects
between frequency and period or PEAK+ and PEAK-.
25
Controls and readout
CAL. SEL.
Pressing and holding opens the CAL. FREQUENCY menu,
which offers DC and AC (1Hz to 1MHz) voltage signals.
The “0.2Vpp” (36) marked socket serves as an output for
the selected signal.
1Hz – 1MHz
These AC square wave signals can be used for probe
adjustment and judgement of the frequency response. As
the frequency and the pulse duty factor accuracy are not
important for such purposes, these values are not specified
and are therefore relatively inaccurate.
(36) 0.2Vpp Concentric socket
This socket serves as the output for the signals described
under item CAL. SEL. (35). The output impedance is
approx. 50 Ohm. For high impedance loads (Oscilloscope
approx. 1M Ohm, Digital Voltmeter approx. 10M Ohm)
the output voltage is either 0.2 Volt DC or 0.2Vpp (AC,
square wave).
Under “First Time Operation” section “Probe compensation and use” the most important applications of this
signal can be found.
(37) CT Pushbutton and 4mm banana jack
Briefly pressing the pushbutton switches the instrument
over from oscilloscope to “Component Tester” mode and
vice versa.
This mode is indicated by the READOUT which displays
”Component Tester”.
The pushbuttons below the arrow symbols select the
equation line and items within that line.
“Use INT./FOC. knob to select” describes the function of
this knob in respect to the equation item just highlighted.
The following listing shows all possibilities offered under
different items.
39.1.1 Result name:
“MAT1”, “MAT2”, “MAT3”. Each result is stored in a
volatile memory.
39.1.2 Functions:
„ADD“ (addition) operand 1 (addend) plus operand 2
(addend).
„SUB“ (subtraction) operand 1 (minuend) minus operand
2 (subtrahend).
„MUL“ (multiplication) operand 1 (multiplier) multiplied
by operand 2 (multiplicand).
„DIV“ (division) operand 1 (dividend) divided by operand 2
(divisor).
„SQ“ (square) square operand 1.
„INV“ (negation) reverse operand 1.
„1/“ (reciprocal value) 1 divided by operand 1.
„ABS“ (absolute value) negative signed operand 1
becomes positive (e.g. 4.3 instead of – 4.3).
„POS“ (positive value) result of operand 1 are numbers >
0. Numbers < 0 (negative) and 0 are displayed as 0.
„NEG“ (negative value) result of operand 1 are numbers <
0. Numbers >0 (positive) and 0 are displayed as 0.
Please note ”Component T
ester”.
Tester”.
39.1.3 Operand 1, Operand 2.
Depending on the selected function, the following
settings can be made for operand 1 and/or 2 if present and
highlighted:
The maximum test voltage is approx. 20Vpp under open
circuit conditions, while the max. test current under short
circuit condition is approx. 20mApp.
39.1.3 “MAT1”, “MAT2”, “MAT3”: A result which had
been calculated before under one of those names can be
used as an operand in this equation line.
Briefly pressing the CT pushbutton switches back to the
previous oscilloscope operating conditions.
39.1.3.2 “CH1”, “CH2”: Enables the use of one of these
signals as an operand.
One test lead is connected to the CT socket. The second
test lead uses the ground socket (27).
[38] MATH/REF POS Pushbutton with dedicated M/R LED.
STORAGE MODE ONLY
This pushbutton is active only if either a “mathematic
signal” (result of a mathematic operation) or a reference
signal is displayed.
Briefly pressing switches the M/R LED on or off. On
condition the M/R LED lit, the Y-POS/CURS.I (6) becomes
the Y position control for the “mathematic signal” or the
reference signal. The M/R LED extinguishes automatically
if the CUR (7) LED is switched on.
[39] CALC – MATH Pushbutton with double function.
STORAGE MODE ONLY
39.1 MATH.
Pressing and holding causes the display of the MATHE-MATIC
menu. It consists of 5 serially numbered lines (1. to 5.), in
which equations can be input. Each line is – from left to right
- structured in the following way: line number (e.g. “1.”),
26
status (“[x]” active or “[ ]” inactive), name of the result (e.g.
“MAT3”), “=”, function (e.g. “ADD” = addition), “(first
operand, second operand)”. Note: The display of the second
operand depends on the selected function.
39.1.3.3 “Number(s)” (with or without unit); the readout
additionally offers an “Edit” function. A number selected
by the aid of the “Edit” function becomes assigned to an
operand and serves as a constant.
After “Edit” has been called, the arrow keys and the INT./
FOC. (3) knob can be used to select “numbers, decimal
point and units”. Pressing the pushbutton allocated to
“Set”, switches back to the equation and inputs the
previous (edited) setting.
39.1.4 Mathematic ON/OFF and equation selection:
Pressing and holding the MATH [39] pushbutton automatically switches the mathematic function ON and shows
the MATHEMATIC menu.
Underneath the five equation lines one additional line
is displayed with the information “[ ] Display = MAT..”.
If this line is activated (one item highlighted) the
equation - to be displayed later – can be chosen (MAT1,
MAT2, MAT3) and the mathematic function can be
switched ON ([x]) or OFF ([ ]) by pressing the [x]/[ ]
pushbutton.
Subject to change without notice
Controls and readout
“Set” confirms the settings and switches the MATHEMATIC menu off. If the setting is “[x] Display .....” the last
calculated result is displayed on the screen. Briefly pressing
the CALC – MATH [39] pushbutton initiates a new
calculation and it`s display.
To the right of the mathematic signal, the information M1,
M2 or M3 is displayed depending on the selected MATH
(1, 2 or 3) function, if the identification (DISPLAY [45]) is
activated.
The mathematic signal can be switched off by calling
MATH, switching “x” off in the lowest line, and leaving
the menu with “Set”.
39.1.5 Calculation of equation(s).
If several equation lines are activated, to be displayed
as one result, batch processing is performed. If all
equation lines are activated, the processing sequence
is lines 1., 2., 3., 4. and 5.
In analog mode, the sampling rate information (“....S”) is
not shown (in the top left readout position) nor signal
display mode information (sgl, rfr, env, avm) (bottom right
readout position).
As the time coefficient ranges are not identical, they taken
into account if necessary when switching over from from
analog to digital (storage) mode and vice versa. The
differences are explained under item (22) TIME/DIV. where
description of the different signal capture modes can also
be found.
Attention!
The possibilities of delayed trace and the related operations
with delayed time base are not available in digital mode,
although the +/- 100% continuously variable pretrigger
function will achieve most requirements.
Additional information regarding digital mode can be
found in section “Storage mode”.
All 5 equations can be activated ([x]) but not more then one
result (MATH1, MATH2 or MATH3) can be displayed.
The result of an equation can be used in a subsequent
equation as an operand as long as both equations are
activated.
If for example the 5 equations are activated and each result
is defined as e.g. “MAT3”, equation line “5.” will later be
displayed under suited conditions.
HOLD
Inactivated equations will not be calculated and skipped, if
an active equation follows.
STORAGE MODE ONLY
Briefly pressing switches the HOLD function on or off.
39.2 CALC.
The following description presumes that the
MATHEMATIC menu settings are suited for “mathematic
signal” display.
Briefly pressing causes a new calculation under the actual
signal conditions, and consequently the display of the
updated result. Each time a signal or equation change has
been made, a new calculation must be made to start a
calculation under the new conditions and display the result.
The scaling of the mathematic signal displayed is made
automatically and is independent of the graticule and
deflection coefficients, and is not displayed. Thus the
determination of the mathematic signal height must be
performed by a CURSOR (V to GND). As a minimum of 2
signals are being displayed (CHI or CHII and MATH) the
measuring value display must be set by the SOURCE (33)
pushbutton for mathematic signal measurement (Y:M.....).
It is required to change the “V to GND” CURSOR position
after “CALC” (calculation) to update the measurement
display.
If a division by zero has been made, the readout briefly
displays the warning “DIVISION BY ZERO!” (incorrect
operation).
[40] HOLD – STOR. ON - Pushbutton with double function.
STOR. ON
Pressing and holding switches over from analog to storage
(digital) mode and vice versa. In the case of CT (Component
Tester) mode active, this mode must be left before it is
possible to switch over from analog to digital mode.
Subject to change without notice
The current contents of the memory are protected against
overwriting when “hld” is displayed in the readout, instead
of channel information (e.g. ”Y1“, ”Y2“ resp. ”X“ and
”Y“ in XY mode). This prevents a change of the Yt mode
setting, but it is possible to select between DUAL (Yt) and
XY display by pressing the DUAL (16) pushbutton if one of
these modes was selected before activating ”hld“ (HOLD).
Particularly when slow time base settings are present in
“rfr” (refresh) signal display modes (rfr, env, avm), one can
observe how the existing memory contents are successively
overwritten by new data, if HOLD is switched off. Protecting
the memory contents in the middle of a data acquisition
process can result in an irregularity at the junction of old
(right) and new data (left). This can be avoided by recording
in single shot mode (“sgl”), even though the input signal is
repetitive. At the end of a sweep, one can use “hld” (HOLD)
to protect the contents against being overwritten by an
unintentional actuation of RESET (RES).
The signal in each of the current memories can be shifted
in the vertical direction (+/- 4cm) with the corresponding YPOS rotary knob when “hld” is operative.
Attention!
The dynamic range limits of the A/D converter may
become visible if a Y-position shift is performed after
storage. This can affect those signal parts which were
originally above or below the screen.
[41] STOR. MODE - #AV - Pushbutton
[42] STOR. MODE - Pushbutton
STORAGE MODE ONLY
27
Controls and readout
41.1 STOR. MODE
On condition that Yt mode (CH I, CH II, DUAL, ADD) is
present and “hld” (HOLD) is inactive, briefly pressing of
one STOR. MODE pushbutton opens a pulldown menu. It
offers “rfr”, “env”, “avm” and “rol”. The selected mode
is displayed bottom right by the readout.
new value is shown on the right hand edge of the screen,
while the previously captured data are shifted to the left. The
leftmost value is shifted out of the memory and lost.
The following description assumes that the trigger
conditions are met in Refresh (“rfr”) and it`s submodes
Envelope (“env”) and Average (“avm”).
ROLL mode can only be used with time coefficients from
100s/div to 50ms/div, as lower time coefficients (faster
time base speeds) are impractical.
41.1.1 rfr (Refresh mode)
In this mode, as in analog mode, periodically repeating
signals can be captured and displayed.
If the time base is set to values between 20ms/div and
100ns/div and ROLL mode is selected, the time base will
be automatically set to 50ms/div.
The signal acquisition is started by triggering the digital
time base. Then the previously captured and displayed
signal will be overwritten with the current signal. This will
be displayed until the digital time base is triggered again.
This is in contrast to analog operation where the screen
remains blank when the time base is not triggered.
41.2 #AV
Pressing and holding the lower STOR. MODE [41]
pushbutton opens the AVERAGE menu.
The recording can be stopped at any time by selecting the
HOLD [40] function.
The actual setting is displayed highlighted. Changes can
be made by the pushbuttons related to the readout
information.
In refresh mode, the signal acquisition can be effected
with pre or post triggering when a time base between
20ms/div and 100ns/div is selected. The pre or post
triggering will be automatically switched off (0s), with larger
time coefficients (100s/div to 50ms/div) in order to avoid
excessive waiting times. If it is required to measure with
pre or post trigger in this time base range, one should
select single shot (SINGLE [43]).
41.1.2
env (Envelope mode).
In this mode the minimum and maximum values of the
signal during several signal acquisitions will be determined
and displayed. Except for the display, operation of the
envelope mode is identical to refresh operation.
[43] RESET – SINGLE - Pushbutton with two functions and
associated LED.
STORAGE AND ANALOG MODE
Changes in the signal are easier to measure and are more
visible in ENVELOPE operation. This is valid not only for
amplitude changes but also for frequency variations (Jitter).
The ENVELOPE evaluation begins anew when the RESET
- SINGLE [43] pushbutton is pressed briefly, to actuate
the RESET (RES) function.
41.1.3 avm (Average mode).
In this case also several signal acquisition scans are
required; hence, it is a submode of “rfr” (Refresh). The
signal is averaged over the several acquisitions so that
amplitude variations ( e.g. noise) and frequency variations
(Jitter) are minimized or eliminated in the display.
The accuracy of the mean value evaluation increases as
the number of signal acquisitions is increased. One can
select the number between 2 and 512 (please note item
“41.2.: #AV”). The selected setting is displayed in the
readout. Of course, with increasing accuracy the total
acquisition time also increases.
43.1 SINGLE
Pressing and holding this pushbutton switches the
SINGLE event capturing mode on or off. The readout
indicates SINGLE in bottom right position by “sgl”.
SINGLE mode is available in digital as well as in analog
mode and remains unchanged when switching over from
analog to digital mode or vice versa. The main purpose of
SINGLE is the capture of one time events, but it can also
be used in combination with repetitive signals.
SINGLE mode automatically selects normal triggering
(NM-LED lit). Otherwise the automatic trigger (AT) would
occur without an input (trigger) signal.
If the trigger circuit is activated by RESET, one time base
sweep (analog mode) or one complete data acquisition
(digital mode) is performed after a suitable signal caused
triggering. Switching over to SINGLE in analog mode
interrupts the time base sweep and blanks the beam.
STORAGE MODE ONLY
The AVERAGE calculation begins anew when the RESET SINGLE [43] pushbutton is pressed briefly, to actuate the
RESET (RES) function.
41.1.4 rol (ROLL mode).
In this mode, the memory contents and thus also the signal
display, are continuously updated. Because signal capture is
untriggered, no idle states arise while waiting for a new trigger
event to start signal capture. With each signal sampling the
28
The fastest time coefficients where random sampling is
used are not available in combination with “sgl” (SINGLE).
If such time base settings are selected, the time coefficient
setting is automatically changed, and the actual channel
mode is also taken in account.
43.2 RESET
Briefly pressing the RESET – SINGLE pushbutton causes a
reset. The effect depends on the actual signal display mode.
Subject to change without notice
Menu
STORAGE MODE ONLY
1. RESET in combination with SINGLE mode (one time
event capture):
If the readout indicates “sgl” and the RESET – SINGLE
pushbutton is pressed briefly, the RES - LED is lit. Whether
the RES LED just flashes or lit for a longer time depends
on,
a) if a signal is present that triggers immediately,
b) which time coefficient is chosen,
c) the pre or post trigger setting.
As soon as the RES LED lights, the signal capture starts.
Attention!
If time coefficients between 100s/div and 50ms/div
are present the signal acquisition becomes visible at
once as a ROLL display, but the signal acquisition has
nothing to do with ROLL mode.
In combination with pre trigger, the pre history must have
been recorded until a trigger event can effect the trigger
unit. After triggerring and completed recording the RES
LED extinguishes.
44.2 REF SAVE
Pressing and holding opens the SAVE menu and displays
the options “All displayed” and below that item a line in
which one of the 3 reference memories (REF1, REF2,
REF3) can be selected to store the content from one of 5
likewise selectable signal sources (CH1, CH2, MAT1,
MAT2, MAT3).
If “All displayed” is chosen and “Set” has been pressed,
all signals are stored into the reference memories that
were displayed before calling SAVE. The following
assignment is made automatically: If CH1 was visible it is
stored into REF1, CH2 ..... REF2, MAT1 or 2 or 3 ...... REF3.
This means that if e.g. mono channel mode CH2 is saved
on condition “All displayed” only the memory content of
REF2 is overwritten and the contents of REF1 and REF3
stay unchanged.
The line below “All displayed” follows the pattern: Target
= Source. REF1, REF2 or REF3 can be chosen as target in
which a signal can be stored. CH1, CH2, MAT1, MAT2 or
MAT3 can serve as sources.
[45] DISPLAY – PRINT - Pushbutton with double function.
STORAGE MODE ONLY
Signals captured in DUAL channel operation mode can
also be displayed in XY mode after they have been saved
by “hld” (HOLD).
45.1 DISPLAY
2. RESET in combination with “env” (ENVELOPE) or “avm”
(AVERAGE) mode.
Under item “DOT JOIN” you can choose whether the
channels and/or the reference and mathematic signals are
displayed with [x] or without [ ] a linear connection from
one sampling point to the next.
The signal display is reset by briefly pressing the RESET –
SINGLE pushbutton if “env” or “avm” signal display mode
is present, causing a new signal acquisition start.
STORAGE MODE ONLY
Capturing single events can also be carried out in analog
Yt (time base) mode (e.g. photographing).
Briefly pressing the SINGLE pushbutton activates the RESLED in “sgl” (SINGLE) mode. The next trigger event then
unblanks the beam and causes one time base sweep.
Only in chopped DUAL mode can both channels be
displayed during one time base sweep.
[44] REFERENCE – REF SAVE - Pushbutton with double
function.
STORAGE MODE ONLY
The instrument has three non volatile reference memories.
44.1 REFERENCE
Briefly pressing opens the SHOW menu. The operation is
described under “B: Menu Display and Operation”.
One of the reference memories REF1, REF2 or REF3 can be
chosen to be displayed after leaving the menu. To recall the
signal and the original instrument settings, the [x] must be set.
If “None” is selected no reference signal will be displayed.
Consequently call REFERENCE and select “None” to
switch the reference display off.
After selection press “Set” to activate the last setting and
to leave the menu.
Subject to change without notice
Briefly pressing the pushbutton opens the DISPLAY menu.
The signal source information can be activated or
deactivated in the same way. If activated the information
displayed has the meaning: Y1 = channel 1, Y2 = channel
2, R1 = REF1, R2 = REF2, R3 = REF3, M1 = MAT1, M2 =
MAT2 and M3 = MAT3.
45.2 PRINT
Pressing and holding the pushbutton starts a documentation (hardcopy) if the following preconditions are met:
1. The oscilloscope must be connected to the external
HAMEG interface HO79-6.
2. The software version installed in HO79-6 should not be
< V3.00.
The device used for documentation (e.g. printer, plotter)
must be connected with one of the HO79-6 ports. The
documentation includes the signal display, the graticule,
the measurement parameters and additional information
such as oscilloscope type and HO79-6 software version.
The PRINT function emulates the HO79-6 ”START”
pushbutton, which may not be accessible (e.g. rack mount).
For further information please note the HO79-6 manual.
E: MAIN MENU
The instrument software contains several menus. The
following menus, submenus and menu items are available:
1. ADJUSTMENT contains:
1.1 AUTO ADJUSTMENT with the items
1.1.1 SWEEP START POSITION
29
First Time Operation
1.1.2 Y AMP
1.1.3 TRIGGER AMP
1.1.4 X MAG POS
1.1.5 CT X POS
1.1.6 STORE AMP
Each item may be called only on condition that no signal is
applied at the BNC sockets. Further information can be found
under “Adjustments”.
1.2 MANUAL ADJUSTMENT
contains menu items which are available only for HAMEG
authorized workshops.
intensity immediately and check that the XY mode is not
selected (XY not displayed in the readout).
To obtain the maximum life from the cathode ray tube, the
minimum intensity setting necessary for the measurement in
hand and the ambient light conditions should be used.
Particular care is required when a single spot is displayed, as a
very high intensity setting may cause damage to the fluorescent
screen of the CRT. Switching the oscilloscope off and on at
short intervals stresses the cathode of the CRT and should
therefore be avoided.
The instrument is so designed that even incorrect operation
will not cause serious damage.
2. SETUP & INFO contains the submenus:
Trace Rotation TR
2.1 MISCELLANEOUS
Active functions are marked by “x”. “Set” changes
from active to inactive and vice versa.
2.1.1 CONTROL BEEP.
In OFF condition the acoustic signals actuated by the
control limits areswitched off.
2.1.2 ERROR BEEP.
Acoustic signals indicating faulty operation are suppressed
in OFF condition.
2.1.3 QUICK START.
In condition ON neither the HAMEG logo nor the check
and initialisation are displayed by the readout. Then the
instrument is quickly ready for operation.
2.2 FACTORY
contains menu items which are available only for HAMEG
authorized workshops.
2.3 INFO.
Displays information regarding the instrument’s hardware
and software.
First Time Operation
The following text assumes that the ”SAFETY” section of
this manual has been read carefully and understood.
Each time before the instrument is put into operation check that the
oscilloscope is connected to protective earth. For that reason the
power cable must be connected to the oscilloscope and the power
outlet. Then the test lead(s) must be connected to the oscilloscope
input(s). Check that the device under test is switched off and connect
the test lead(s) to the test point(s). Then switch on the instrument
and afterwards the device under test.
In spite of Mumetal shielding of the CRT, effects of the Earth’s
magnetic field on the horizontal trace position cannot be completely
avoided. This is dependent upon the orientation of the oscilloscope
on the place of work. A centred trace may not align exactly with the
horizontal center line of the graticule. A few degrees of misalignment
can be corrected. Please note “Controls and Readout” section “D:
Controls and readout item (3) TRACE ROT.”.
Probe compensation and use
To display an undistorted waveform on an oscilloscope, the probe
must be matched to the individual input impedance of the Y
amplifier.
For this purpose a square wave signal with a very fast rise time
and minimum overshoot should be used, as the sinusoidal
contents cover a wide frequency range.
The built in calibration generator provides a square wave signal
with selectable frequencies and a very fast risetime (<4ns)
from the output socket below the CRT screen.
As the squarewave signals are used for probe compensation
adjustments, neither the frequency accuracy nor the pulse duty
factor are of importance and therefore not specified. The output
provides 0.2Vpp ±1% (tr <4ns) for 10:1 probes. When the Y
deflection coefficient is set to 5mV/div, the calibration voltage
corresponds to a vertical display of 4 divisions (10:1 probe).
The output socket has an internal diameter of 4.9mm to
accommodate the internationally accepted shielding tube
diameter of modern probes and F series slimline probes. Only
this type of construction ensures the extremely short ground
connections which are essential for an undistorted waveform
reproduction of non sinusoidal high frequency signals.
Adjustment at 1kHz
The oscilloscope is switched on by depressing the red POWER
pushbutton. After a few seconds the HAMEG logo and the
instrument software release is displayed on the screen, if this
function is active. As long as the HAMEG logo is visible different
internal checks are made. Thereafter the instrument will revert
to its last used operating mode.
If after that no trace is visible, the AUTOSET pushbutton should
be pressed briefly. This selects the Yt mode and medium trace
and readout intensity (please note ”AUTOSET”). Adjust Y POS.I
and X POS.. controls to center the baseline. Set INT./FOC.. for
suitable brightness (intensity) and for optimum sharpness
(focus) of the trace. The oscilloscope is now ready for use.
The C-trimmer adjustment (low frequency) compensates the
capacitive loading on the oscilloscope input. By this adjustment,
the capacitive division assumes the same ratio as the ohmic
voltage divider to ensure the same division ratio for high and low
frequencies, as for DC. (For 1:1 probes or switchable probes set
to 1:1, this adjustment is neither required nor possible). A baseline
parallel to the horizontal graticule lines is essential for accurate
probe adjustments. (See also ”Trace rotation TR”).
If the AUTOSET function was not used and only a spot appears
(CAUTION! CRT phosphor can be damaged), reduce the
30
Subject to change without notice
Operating modes of the vertical amplifiers in Yt mode
Connect the 10:1 probe to the input of the channel it is to be adjusted
for and don‘t mix up the probes later (always use that particular probe
with the same channel). Set the deflection coefficient to 5mV/div
and the input coupling to DC. The time deflection coefficient should
be set to 0.2ms/div. All deflection coefficients should be calibrated
(Variable controls at CAL position). Plug the probe tip into the calibrator
output socket. Approximately 2 complete waveform periods are
displayed on the CRT screen. The compensation trimmer should be
adjusted. The location of the low frequency compensation trimmer
can be found in the probe information sheet. Adjust the trimmer
with the insulated screwdriver provided, until the tops of the square
wave signal are exactly parallel to the horizontal graticule lines (see
1kHz diagram). The signal height should then be 4div ± 0.16div (= 4
% (oscilloscope 3% and probe 1%). During this adjustment, the
signal edges will remain invisible.
Adjustment at 1MHz
Probes HZ51, 52 and 54 can also be HF compensated. They
incorporate resonance de-emphasing networks (R-trimmer in
conjunction with capacitor) which permit probe compensation in
the range of the upper frequency limit of the Y amplifier. Only this
compensation adjustment ensures optimum utilization of the
full bandwidth, together with constant group delay at the high
frequency end, thereby reducing characteristic transient distortion
near the leading edge (e.g. overshoot, rounding, ringing, holes or
bumps) to an absolute minimum.
not difficult for an experienced operator to build a suitable adapter,
it should be pointed out that most of these probes have a slower
risetime with the effect that the total bandwidth of scope together
with probe may fall far below that of the oscilloscope. Furthermore,
the HF adjustment feature is nearly always missing so that
waveform distortion can not be entirely excluded. The adjustment
sequence must be followed in the order described, i.e. first at
1kHz, then at 1MHz.
Prerequisites for precise and easy probe adjustments, as well
as checks of deflection coefficients, are straight horizontal pulse
tops, calibrated pulse amplitude, and zero-potential at the pulse
base. Frequency and duty cycle are relatively uncritical. For
interpretation of transient response, fast pulse risetimes and
low impedance generator outputs are of particular importance.
Providing these essential features, as well as selectable output
frequencies, the calibrator of the instrument can, under certain
conditions, replace expensive squarewave generators when
testing or compensating wideband attenuators or amplifiers.
In such a case, the input to an appropriate circuit will be
connected to the calibrator output via a suitable probe.
The voltage provided by the probe to a high impedance input
(1M Ohm II 15-30pF) will correspond to the division ratio of the
probe used (10:1 = 20mVpp output). Suitable probes are HZ51,
52, and 54.
Operating modes of the Y amplifiers in Yt mode.
The most important controls regarding the operating modes
of the Y amplifiers are the pushbuttons: CHI (15), DUAL (16)
and CH II (19). Their functions are described in the section
”Controls and Readout”.
Using the probes HZ51, 52 and 54, the full bandwidth of the
oscilloscope can be utilized without risk of unwanted
waveform distortion.
Prerequisite for this HF compensation is a square wave
generator with fast risetime (typically 4ns), and low output
impedance (approx. 50 Ohm), providing 0.2V at a frequency of
approx. 1MHz. The calibrator output of this instrument meets
these requirements.
Connect the probe to the input previously used when 1kHz
adjustment was made. Select 1MHz output frequency. Operate
the oscilloscope as described under 1kHz but select for 0.2µs/
div time deflection coefficient setting.
Insert the probe tip into the output socket. A waveform will be
displayed on the CRT screen, with leading and trailing edges clearly
visible. For the HF-adjustment now to be performed, it will be
necessary to observe the rising edge as well as the upper left
corner of the pulse top. The location of the high frequency
compensation trimmer(s) can also be found in the probe information
sheet. These R-trimmer(s) have to be adjusted such that the
beginning of the pulse is as straight as possible. Overshoot or
excessive rounding is unacceptable. The adjustment is relatively
easy if only one adjusting point is present. In case of several adjusting
points the adjustment is slightly more difficult, but causes a better
result. The rising edge should be as steep as possible, with a pulse
top remaining as straight and horizontal as possible.
After completion of the HF adjustment, the signal amplitude
displayed on the CRT screen should have the same value as
during the 1kHz adjustment.
Probes other than those mentioned above, normally have a larger
tip diameter and may not fit into the calibrator output. Whilst it is
Subject to change without notice
In most cases oscilloscopes are used to display signals in Yt
mode. Then the signal amplitude deflects the beam in vertical
direction while the time base causes an X deflection (from left
to right) at the same time. Thereafter the beam becomes
blanked and fly back occurs.
The following Yt operation modes are available:
Single channel operation of channel I (Mono CH I).
Single channel operation of channel II (Mono CH II).
Two channel operation of channel I and channel II (DUAL).
Two channel operation of channel I and channel II displaying
the algebraic result as the sum or difference (“add”).
The way the channel switching is determined in DUAL mode
depends on the time base setting and is described in the
section ”Controls and Readout”.
In ADD mode the signals of both channels are algebraically added
and displayed as one signal. Whether the resulting display shows
the sum or difference is dependent on the phase relationship or
the polarity of the signals and on the invert function.
In ADD mode the following combinations are possible for
In phase input voltages:
Channel II invert function inactive = sum.
Channel II invert function active = difference.
Antiphase input voltages:
Channel II invert function inactive = difference.
Channel II invert function active = sum.
In the ADD mode the vertical display position is dependent
upon the Y position setting of both channels. The same Y
deflection coefficient is normally used for both channels with
algebraic addition.
31
Triggering and time base
display if the test voltage leads or lags the reference
voltage. A CR network before the test voltage input of the
oscilloscope can help here. The 1M Ohm input resistance
can equally serve as R here, so that only a suitable capacitor
C needs to be connected in series. If the aperture width of
the ellipse is increased (compared with C short-circuited),
then the test voltage leads the reference voltage and vice
versa. This applies only in the region up to 90° phase shift.
Therefore C should be sufficiently large and produce only
a relatively small, just observable phase shift.
Please note that the Y position settings are also added but are
not affected by the invert function.
Differential measurement techniques allow direct measurement
of the voltage drop across floating components (both ends above
ground). Two identical probes should be used for both Y inputs.
In order to avoid ground loops, use a separate ground connection
and do not use the probe ground leads or cable shields.
X-Y Operation
The important control for this mode is the pushbutton labelled
DUAL and MENU (16).
In XY mode the time base is deactivated. The signal applied
to the input of channel I front panel marking INPUT CHI (X)
causes the X deflection. The input related controls (AC/DC/
GND pushbutton and the VOLTS/DIV knob) consequently
affect the X deflection. For X position alteration, the X-POS..
control knob must be used, as the Y-POS./CURS.I control is
automatically deactivated. The input deflection coefficient
ranges are the same for both channels, because the X x10
magnifier is inactive in XY mode.
The bandwidth of the X amplifier, is lower than the Y amplifier
and the phase angle which increases with higher frequencies,
must be taken into account (please note data sheet).
The Y signal applied at INPUT CHII can be inverted.
Lissajous figures can be displayed in the X-Y mode for certain
measuring tasks:
Comparing two signals of different frequency or bringing
one frequency up to the frequency of the other signal.
This also applies for whole number multiples or fractions
of the one signal frequency.
Phase comparison between two signals of the same
frequency.
Phase comparison with Lissajous figures
The following diagrams show two sine signals of the same
frequency and amplitude with different phase angles.
Should both input voltages be missing or fail in the XY mode, a
very bright light dot is displayed on the screen. This dot can burn
into the phosphor at too high a brightness setting (INTENS. setting)
which causes either a lasting loss of brightness, or in the extreme
case, complete destruction of the phosphor at this point.
Phase difference measurement in DUAL mode (Yt)
Phase differences between two input signals of the same
frequency and shape can be measured very simply on the
screen in Dual mode. The time base should be triggered by
the reference signal (phase position 0). The other signal can
then have a leading or lagging phase angle. In alternate
triggering condition, phase difference measurement is not
possible.
For greatest accuracy, adjust the time base for slightly over
one period and set approximately the same height of both
signals on the screen. The Y deflection coefficients, the time
base coefficient and the trigger level setting can be used for
this adjustment, without influence on the result. Both base
lines are set onto the horizontal graticule center line using the
Y POS. knobs before the measurement. With sinusoidal
signals, use the zero (crossover point) transitions; the sine
peaks are less accurate. If a sine signal is noticeably distorted
by even harmonics, or if a DC voltage is present, AC coupling
is recom-mended for both channels. If it is a question of pulses
of the same shape, read off at steep edges.
It must be noted that the phase difference cannot be
determined if alternate triggering is selected.
Phase difference measurement in DUAL mode
Calculation of the phase angle or the phase shift between the X
and Y input voltages (after measuring the distances a and b on the
screen) is quite simple with the following formula, and a pocket
calculator with trigonometric functions. Apart from the reading
accuracy, the signal height has no influence on the result.
t
T
= horizontal spacing of the zero transitions in div
= horizontal spacing for one period in div
In the example illustrated, t = 3div and T = 10div The phase
difference in degrees is calculated from
The following must be noted here:
32
Because of the periodic nature of the trigonometric
functions, the calculation should be limited to angles ≤90°
However here is the advantage of the method.
or expressed in radians
Due to phase shift, do not use too high a test frequency.
It cannot be seen as a matter of course from the screen
Subject to change without notice
Triggering and time base
Relatively small phase angles at not too high frequencies
can be measured more accurately in the X-Y mode with
Lissajous figures.
Measurement of an amplitude modulation
The momentary amplitude u at time t of a HF carrier voltage,
which is amplitude modulated without distortion by a
sinusoidal AF voltage, is in accordance with the equation
where
UT = unmodulated carrier amplitude
Ω
= 2?F = angular carrier frequency
ω = 2πf = modulation angular frequency
m = modulation factor.
As well as the carrier frequency F, a lower side frequency F-f
and upper side frequency F+f arise because of the modulation.
The display of an amplitude modulated HF oscillation can be
evaluated with the oscilloscope provided the frequency
spectrum is inside the oscilloscope bandwidth. The time base
is set so that several cycles of the modulation frequency are
visible. Strictly speaking, triggering should be external with
modulation frequency (from the AF generator or a demodulator).
However, internal triggering is frequently possible with normal
triggering using a suitable trigger level setting and possibly also
using the time vernier (variable) adjustment.
Triggering and time base
All controls regarding trigger and time base are located on the
TS/DIV
right of the VOL
VOLTS/DIV
TS/DIV.. knobs. They are described in the
section ”Controls and Readout”.
Time related amplitude changes on a measuring signal (AC
voltage) are displayable in Yt mode. In this mode the signal
voltage deflects the beam in vertical direction (Y) while the
time base generator moves the beam from the left to the right
of the screen (time deflection = t).
Normally there are periodically repeating waveforms to be
displayed. Therefore the time base must repeat the time
deflection periodically too. To produce a stationary display, the
time base must only be triggered if the signal height and slope
condition coincide with the former time base start conditions.
A DC voltage signal can not be triggered as it is a constant
signal with no slope.
Triggering can be performed by the measuring signal itself
(internal triggering) or by an external supplied but synchronous
voltage (external triggering).
The trigger voltage should have a certain minimum amplitude.
This value is called the trigger threshold. It is measured with a
sine signal. Except when external trigger is used the trigger
threshold can be stated as vertical display height in div, at
which the time base generator starts, the display is stable, and
the trigger indicator LED lights or flashes.
The internal trigger threshold of the oscilloscope is given as ≤
0.5div. When the trigger voltage is externally supplied, it can
be measured in Vpp at that input. Normally, the trigger threshold
may be exceeded up to a maximum factor of 20.
Figure 1:
Amplitude and fre-quency spectrum for AM display (m = 50%)
The instrument has two trigger modes, which are characterized
as Automatic Peak and Normal triggering.
Oscilloscope setting for a signal according to figure 2:
Automatic Peak (Value) Triggering
Instrument specific information can be drawn from the items
NM - AT - (9) LEVEL (11) and TRIG. MODE (20) in the section
”Controls and Readout”.
Y: CH. I; 20mV/div; AC.
TIME/DIV.: 0.2ms/div.
Triggering: Normal; with LEVEL-setting; internal
(or external) triggering.
This trigger mode is automatically selected after the AUTOSET
pushbutton is pressed. As the peak value detection makes no
sense in combination with DC and TV (television) signals, it is
switched off automatically in DC, TVL and TVF trigger
coupling conditions as well as in alternate trigger mode. In this
case the automatic is still present, but a wrong trigger level
setting causes an untriggered display.
Figure 2:
Amplitude modulated oscillation:
F = 1 MHz; f = 1 kHz; m = 50 %; UT = 28.3 mVrms
If the two values a and b are read from the screen, the
modulation factor is calculated from
where
a = UT (1+ m) and b = UT (1- m).
The variable controls for amplitude and time can be set
arbitrarily in the modulation factor measurement. Their position
does not influence the result.
Subject to change without notice
In automatic trigger mode the sweep generator can run without
an input signal or external trigger voltage. A base line will always
be displayed even with no signal. With an applied AC signal,
peak value triggering enables the user to select the trigger
point on the displayed signal, by the adjustment of the trigger
level control. The control range depends on the peak to peak
value of the signal. This trigger mode is therefore called
Automatic Peak (Value) Triggering.
Operation of the scope needs only correct amplitude and time
base settings, for a constantly visible trace. Automatic mode is
recommended for all uncomplicated measuring tasks.
However, automatic triggering is also the appropriate operation
mode for the ”entry” into difficult measuring problems, e.g.
when the test signal is unknown relating to amplitude,
frequency or shape. Presetting of all parameters is now possible
with automatic triggering; the change to normal triggering can
follow thereafter.
33
Triggering and time base
The automatic triggering works above 20Hz. The failure of
automatic triggering at frequencies below 20Hz is abrupt.
However, it is not signified by the trigger indicator LED which
may still be blinking. Break down of triggering is best
recognizable at the left screen edge (the start of the trace in
differing display height).
The automatic peak (value) triggering operates over all
variations or fluctuations of the test signal above 20Hz.
However, if the pulse duty factor of a square wave signal
exceeds a ratio of 100:1, switching over to normal triggering
will be necessary. Automatic triggering is practicable with
internal and external trigger voltage.
Normal Triggering
Information specific to the instrument is given in the sections
NM - AT - (9), LEVEL (11)) and TRIG. MODE (20) in the
paragraphs ”Controls and Readout”. The time fine adjustment
( VAR.), and the hold off time setting assist in triggering under
specially difficult signal conditions.
With normal triggering, the sweep can be started by AC
signals within the frequency range defined by the trigger
coupling setting.
In the absence of an adequate trigger signal or when the trigger
controls (particularly the trigger LEVEL control) are misadjusted,
no trace is visible.
When using the internal normal triggering mode, it is possible
to trigger at any amplitude point of a signal edge, even with
very complex signal shapes, by adjusting the trigger LEVEL
control. If the signal applied at the Y input is used for triggering
(internal trigger source), its adjusting range is directly
dependent on the display height, which should be at least
0.5div. If it is smaller than 1div, the trigger LEVEL adjustment
needs to be operated with a sensitive touch. In the external
normal triggering mode, the same applies to approx. 0.3Vpp
external trigger voltage amplitude.
Other measures for triggering of very complex signals are the
use of the time base variable control and HOLD OFF time
control, mentioned below.
/ \ SLOPE
Please note item (9) in section ”Controls and Readout”
for instrument specific information.
The actual slope setting is displayed in the readout. The
setting is not changed by the AUTOSET function. The slope
setting can be changed for the delay timebase trigger unit
in delay mode if the delay trigger function is active. The
previous slope setting for the undelayed time base trigger
is stored and still active. For further information please note
”Controls and Readout”.
The time base generator can be triggered by a rising or falling
edge of the test signal. Whether the rising or the falling edge
is used for triggering, depends on the slope direction setting.
This is valid with automatic and normal triggering. The positive
slope direction means an edge going from a negative potential
and rising to a positive potential. This has nothing to do with
zero or ground potential or absolute voltage values. The positive
slope may also lie in a negative part of a signal.
However the trigger point may be varied within certain limits
on the chosen edge using the LEVEL control. The slope
direction is always related to the input signal and the non
inverted display.
34
Trigger coupling
Instrument specific information regarding this item can be
noted in the ”Data Sheet”. The coupling setting (TRIG. MODE
(20)) and indication are described under ”Controls and
Readout”.
As the automatic triggering does not work below 20Hz, normal
triggering should be used in DC and LF trigger coupling mode.
The coupling mode and accordingly the frequency range of
the trigger signal should meet the signal requirements.
AC: This is the most frequently used trigger mode. The trigger
threshold increases below and above the frequency limits
mentioned in the data sheet. This filter cuts off both the
DC content of the trigger signal and the lowest frequency
range.
DC: In this coupling mode the trigger signal is coupled
galvanically to the trigger unit if normal triggering (NM) is
present. Therefore there is no low frequency limit.
DC triggering is recommended if the signal is to be
triggered with quite slow processes or if pulse signals
with constantly changing pulse duty factors have to be
displayed.
HF: In this coupling mode the transmission range equals a
high pass filter. It cuts off the DC content of the trigger
signal and the lower frequency range.
LF: LF trigger coupling has a low pass filter function
characteristic. As in DC trigger coupling, there is no limit
for the pass frequency range in connection with normal
triggering.
The LF trigger coupling is often more suitable for low
frequency signals than DC trigger coupling because the
noise components of the trigger signals are strongly
suppressed. This avoids or reduces, under borderline
conditions, jitter or double traces especially with very low
signal voltages. The trigger threshold rises continuously
above the pass band.
Tv-L:The built in active TV Sync Separator provides the
separation of line sync pulses from the video signal.
Even distorted video signals are triggered and displayed
in a stable manner. This mode is described under paragraph
”Triggering of video signals”.
Tv-F: The built in active TV Sync Separator also provides the
separation of frame sync pulses from the video signal.
Even distorted video signals are triggered and displayed
in a stable manner.
This mode is described under paragraph ”Triggering of
video signals”.
~: Indicates “line/mains triggering” and is described under
the paragraph of the same name.
Triggering of video signals
In Tv-L and Tv-F trigger coupling mode the instrument is
automatically set to automatic triggering and the trigger point
indicator is switched off. As only the separated synchronization
pulses are used for triggering the relationship between the
displayed signal and the trigger signal is lost. In TV-F mode
interference may occur if chopped DUAL mode is chosen or
the readout is active.
Subject to change without notice
Triggering and time base
Video signals are triggered in the automatic mode. The internal
triggering is virtually independent of the display height, but
the sync pulse must exceed 0.5div height.
The polarity of the synchronization pulse is critical for the slope
selection. If the displayed sync pulses are above the picture
(field) contents (leading edge positive going), then the slope
setting for positive going edges must be chosen. In the case
of sync pulses below the field/line, the leading edge is negative
and consequently the slope selection must be set for falling
edges. Since the invert function may cause a misleading
display, it must not be activated.
On the 2ms/div setting and field TV triggering selected, 1
field is visible if a 50 fields/s signal is applied. If the hold off
control is in fully ccw position, it triggers without line interlacing
affects caused by the consecutive field.
The display can be expanded by switching on the X-MAG.
x10 function so that individual lines are recognizable.
Commencing with a frame synchronizing pulse, the display
can also be expanded with the knob TIME/DIV.. But note that
this can result in an apparently unsynchronized display as
each frame (half picture) triggers. This is due to the off set of
half a line between frames.
The influence of the integrating network which forms a trigger
pulse from the vertical sync pulses may become visible under
certain conditions. Due to the integrating network time constant
not all vertical sync pulses starting the trace are visible.
On the 10µs/div setting and line TV triggering selected, approx.
1½ lines are visible. Those lines originate from the odd and
even fields at random.
The sync-separator-circuit also operates with external
triggering. It is important that the voltage range (0.3Vpp to
3Vpp) for external triggering should be noted. Again the correct
slope setting is critical, because the external trigger signal
may not have the same polarity or pulse edge as the test signal
displayed on the CRT. This can be checked, if the external
trigger voltage itself is displayed first (with internal triggering).
In most cases, the composite video signal has a high DC
content. With constant video information (e.g. test pattern or
colour bar generator), the DC content can be suppressed easily
by AC input coupling of the oscilloscope amplifier. With a
changing picture content (e.g. normal program), DC input
coupling is recommen-ded, because the display varies its
vertical position on screen with AC input coupling at each
change of the picture content. The DC content can be
compensated using the Y POS.. control so that the signal display
lies in the graticule area. Then the composite video signal
should not exceed a vertical height of 6div.
~)
Line/Mains triggering (
The instrument specific information regarding this
mode is part of the section ”Controls and Readout”
paragraph TRIG. MODE (20).
This trigger mode is present if the READOUT indicates the
“~” symbol instead of the “trigger source”, “slope” and
“coupling” information. The trigger point symbol is inactive in
line/mains trigger mode as there is no direct amplitude
relationship between the trigger voltage and the signal voltage.
A voltage originating from mains/line (50 to 60Hz) is used for
triggering purposes if the trigger coupling is set to ~ . This
trigger mode is independent of amplitude and frequency of
the Y signal and is recommended for all mains/line synchronous
Subject to change without notice
signals. This also applies within certain limits, to whole number
multiples or fractions of the line frequency. Line triggering can
also be useful to display signals below the trigger threshold
(less than 0.5div). It is therefore particularly suitable for
measuring small ripple voltages of mains/line rectifiers or stray
magnetic field in a circuit. In this trigger mode the slope
direction pushbutton selects the positive or negative portion
of the line/mains sinewave. The trigger level control can be
used for trigger point adjustment.
Magnetic leakage (e.g. from a power transformer) can be
investigated for direction and amplitude using a search or pick
up coil. The coil should be wound on a small former with a
maximum of turns of a thin lacquered wire and connected to a
BNC connector (for scope input) via a shielded cable. Between
cable and BNC center conductor a resistor of at least 100 Ohm
should be series connected (RF decoupling). Often it is
advisable to statically shield the surface of the coil. However,
no shorted turns are permissible. Maximum, minimum, and
direction to the magnetic source are detectable at the
measuring point by turning and shifting the coil.
Alternate triggering
This trigger mode can be selected in DUAL mode by the aid of
the TRIG. SOURCE (17) pushbutton (please note ”Controls
and Readout”). In the case of chopped DUAL mode, selecting
alternate trigger mode automatically sets the instrument to
alternate DUAL mode.
Under TV-L, TV-F and line/mains triggering conditions alternate
triggering can not be chosen. Thus only the following trigger
coupling modes are available in alternate trigger mode: AC,
DC, HF and LF. The trigger point symbol is not displayed in
alternate trigger mode.
With alternate triggering it is possible to trigger two signals
from different frequency sources (asynchronous). In this case
the oscilloscope must be operated in DUAL alternate mode
with internal triggering and each input signal must be of
sufficient height to enable trigger. To avoid trigger problems
due to different DC voltage components, AC input coupling
for both channels is recommended.
The internal trigger source is switched in alternate trigger mode
in the same way as the channel switching system in DUAL
alternate mode, i.e. after each time base sweep. Phase
difference measurement is not possible in this trigger mode
as the trigger level and slope setting are equal for both signals.
Even with 180° phase difference between both signals, they
appear with the same slope direction.
If signals are applied with a high frequency ratio (difference),
the trace intensity then becomes reduced if the time base is
set to smaller time coefficients (faster sweep). This happens
as the number of sweeps does not increase because it
depends on the lower frequency signal, but with a faster sweep
the phosphor becomes less activated.
External triggering
The external trigger input is activated with the aid of the TRIG.
SOURCE (17) pushbutton (see ”Controls and Readout”), if the
trigger coupling is not set to line/mains trigger coupling. Then
the internal trigger source is deactivated. As the external trigger
signal applied at the T
TRIG. EXT socket normally has no relation
to the signal height of the displayed signal, the trigger point
symbol is switched off. The external trigger voltage must have
a minimum amplitude of 0.3Vpp and should not increase above
3Vpp. The input impedance of the TRIG. EXT. socket is approx.
1M Ohm II 20pF.
35
Triggering and time base
The maximum input voltage of the input circuit is 100V
(DC+peak AC). The external trigger voltage may have a
completely different form from the test signal voltage, but
must be synchronous with the test signal. Triggering is even
possible in certain limits with whole number multiples or
fractions of the test frequency.
It must be noted that a different phase angle between the
measuring and the triggering signal may cause a display not
coinciding with the slope selection setting.
The trigger coupling selection can also be used in external
triggering mode.
Trigger indicator ”TR”
The following description applies to the ”TR” LED. Please
note item (10) under ”Controls and Readout”.
An LED on condition indicates that the trigger signal has a
sufficient amplitude and the trigger level control setting is
correct. This is valid with automatic and with normal triggering.
By observing the trigger LED, sensitive trigger level adjustment
is possible when normal triggering is used, particularly at very
low signal frequencies. The indication pulses are of only 100ms
duration. Thus for fast signals the LED appears to glow
continuously, for low repetition rate signals, the LED flashes at
the repetition rate or at a display of several signal periods not
only at the start of the sweep at the left screen edge, but also
at each signal period.
In automatic triggering mode the sweep generator starts
repeatedly without test signal or external trigger voltage. If the
trigger signal frequency decreases the sweep generator starts
without awaiting the trigger pulse. This causes an untriggered
display and a flashing trigger LED.
Fig. 1 shows a case where the holdoff control is in the minimum
position and various different waveforms are over-lapped on
the screen, making the signal observation unsuc-cessful.
Fig. 2 shows a case where only the desired parts of the signal
are stably displayed.
Delay / After Delay Triggering (Analog mode only!)
The instrument specific information regarding this mode is
part of the section ”Controls and Readout” paragraph DEL/TR.
POS. / HO LED (21) and DEL.MODE / ON OFF (23).
As mentioned before, triggering starts the time base sweep
and unblanks the beam. After the maximum X deflection to
the right, the beam is blanked and flies back to the (left) start
position. After the hold off period the sweep is started
automatically by the automatic trigger or the next trigger signal.
In normal triggering mode the automatic trigger is switched
off and will only start on receipt of a trigger signal.
HOLD OFF time adjustment
For instrument specific information please note DEL/TR. POS.
/ HO LED (21) in section ”Controls and Readout”.
If it is found that a trigger point cannot be found on extremely
complex signals, even after careful adjustment of the trigger
level control, a stable display may often be obtained using the
holdoff control. This facility varies the holdoff time between
two sweep periods approx. up to the ratio 10:1. Pulses or other
signal waveforms appearing during this off period cannot
trigger the time base.
Particularly with burst signals or aperiodic pulse trains of the
same amplitude, the start of the sweep can be delayed until
the optimum or required time.
A very noisy signal or a signal with a higher interfering frequency
is at times displayed double. It is possible that trigger level
adjustment only controls the mutual phase shift, but not the
double display. The stable single display of the signal, required
for evaluation, is easily obtainable by expanding the hold off
time until one signal is displayed.
A double display is possible with certain pulse signals, where
the pulses alternately show a small difference of the peak
amplitudes. Only a very exact trigger level adjustment makes
a single display possible. The use of the holdoff control
simplifies the right adjustment.
After specific use the holdoff control should be reset into its
calibration detent (fully ccw), otherwise the brightness of the
display may be reduced drastically. The function is shown in
the following figures.
36
As the trigger point is always at the trace start position, trace
expansion in X direction with the aid of the time base is limited
to the display on the left of the trace. Parts of the signal to be
expanded which are displayed near the trace end (right side of
the screen) are lost when the time base speed is increased
(time coefficient reduced).
The delay function delays the trace start by a variable time
from the trigger point. This allows the sweep to begin on any
portion of a signal. The time base speed can then be increased
to expand the display in X direction. With higher expansion
rates, the intensity reduces and within certain limits this can
be compensated by a higher intensity (INTENS) setting.
If the display shows jitter, it is possible to select for (second) triggering
after the elapsed delay time (“dTr”). As mentioned before, it is
possible to display video signals using the frame sync pulses for
triggering (Tv-F). After the delay time set by the operator, the next
line sync pulse or the line content may be used for triggering. So data
lines and test lines can be displayed separately.
Operation of the delay function is relatively simple. Without
delay function set the time coefficient setting (TIME/DIV) until
1 to 3 signal periods are displayed. Display of less than two
periods should be avoided as it limits the selection of the
signal section to be expanded.
The X MAG (x10) function should be switched off in the
beginning but may be activated later. The signal must be
triggered and stable.
The following explanation assumes that the trace starts on the
left vertical graticule line.
Subject to change without notice
Triggering and time base
Photo 1
(composite video signal)
mode is automatically set to the value used during “sea”
(search) operation.
Photo 3
MODE: “DEL. MODE” OFF
TIME/DIV: 5ms/div
Trigger coupling: TvF
Trigger slope: falling (-)
Switching over from undelayed to delayed time base automatically
sets the hold off time to minimum so that the HO LED extinguishes,
the DEL/TR. POS. knob function changes from hold off time to
delay time control and the READOUT indicates “sea”.
In search (“sea”) mode a part of the previously complete visible
trace becomes blank. The length of the blanked sector depends on
the delay time (DEL/TR. POS.) setting and can be set between
approx. two and seven divisions after the normal trace start position.
Consequently the trace is displayed with reduced length.
If the maximum delay time is not sufficient, the time coefficient
must be increased (TIME/DIV knob) and the DEL/TR. POS.
knob set to the later starting point.
Note:
Actually the trace start is not really delayed in “sea” (search)
condition, as the blank sector serves only as an adjusting
indicator making visible the delay time which will be active
after selecting “del” (delay time base) or “dTr” (delay time
base in triggered condition).
MODE: “del” (DELAY)
TIME/DIV: 5ms/div
Trigger coupling: TvF
Trigger slope: falling (-)
Delay time:
4div x 5ms/div = 20ms
Reducing the time coefficient (increasing the time base speed)
now expands the signal. If the signal start position is not set to
the optimum, it can still be shifted in the X direction by
changing the delay time.
Photo 4 shows a 50 fold X magnification caused by setting the
time coefficient to 0.1ms/div (5ms/div : 0.1ms/div = 50). The
reading accuracy also increases with higher X magnification.
Photo 4
MODE: “del” (DELAY)
TIME/DIV: 0.1ms/div
Trigger coupling: TvF
Trigger slope: falling (-)
Delay time: 20ms
Photo 2
MODE: “sea” (SEARCH)
TIME/DIV: 5ms/div
Trigger coupling: TvF
Trigger slope: falling (-)
Delay time:
4div x 5ms = 20ms
Figure 2 shows that the delay time can be measured. It is
identical with the displacement of the start of the trace. One
can calculate this by multiplying the blanked out section
(horizontal) by the time deflection coefficient setting.
The full length trace will be visible when switched from “sea”
(SEARCH) to “del” (DELAY), starting with the section previously
selected, providing the (stored) current time deflection
coefficient is not too small.
If the trace is invisible or hardly visible because of too much expansion
(too small deflection coefficient), the time deflection coefficient must
be increased with TIME / DIV knob. A larger deflection coefficient
than in the “sea” (SEARCH) mode cannot be set.
Example:
The SEARCH setting selected in figure 2 is 5ms/cm.
The display in “del” (DELAY) mode, also with 5ms/div
is delayed but unexpanded (1:1). A further increase in
the deflection coefficient, e.g. 10ms/div would be
meaningless and therefore automatically blocked.
Please note that the previous time coefficient chosen in
“del” and “dTr” mode is stored and automatically set after
activating one of those modes. If the stored time coefficient
in “del” / ”dTr” mode was higher than the actual value in
“sea” (search) mode, the time coefficient in “del” / ”dTr”
Subject to change without notice
The delayed and expanded signal display can be triggered again if
a signal slope suitable for triggering appears after the delay time.
For this, one must switch to “dTr” (2nd triggering after the expiry
of the delay time - after Delay Triggering). The settings selected
before switching, automatic Peak value triggering / Normal
triggering, trigger coupling, the trigger LEVEL setting and slope
setting, remain valid and trigger the start of the delay time.
The ”After Delay” Triggering automatically switches to normal
triggering (indicated by the NM LED) and DC trigger coupling. These
default conditions cannot be changed. But the trigger level (LEVEL)
and the trigger slope direction can be altered in order to enable the
triggering at the desired signal section. The trace does not start and
the screen remains blank if the signal amplitude is not sufficient for
triggering or if the setting of the trigger LEVEL is unsuitable.
The expanded display can also be displaced in the X direction by
changing the delay time (DEL/TR. POS.) under suitable settings.
However, the displacement is not continuous as in the untriggered
“del” (DELAY) operation but jumps from one trigger slope to another
- with most signals this is not evident. This means, in the case of TV
Triggering, that it is possible to trigger not only with line synchronizing
pulses but also on suitable slopes occurring within the line.
Of course, the magnification is not restricted to a factor 50 as
mentioned in the example. The limit is given by the increasing
loss of trace intensity as the magnification is increased.
The manipulation of time delay requires a certain experience,
especially with complicated signal combinations which are
difficult to display. The display of sections of simple signals is,
in contrast, fairly easy. The time delayed display is also possible
in the dual channel, addition and difference modes.
In chopped DUAL mode, if after switching over to “del” or “dTr”,
the time deflection coefficient is reduced (TIME/DIV.), the channel
switching mode doesn`t change automatically to alternate.
37
AUTOSET
Attention:
In chopped DUAL mode, using high expansion ratios in
“del” mode, chop interference may be visible. This can
be overcome by selecting alternate DUAL mode. A
similar effect can be caused by the READOUT with the
result that parts of a signal displayed in CH I, CH II or
DUAL mode are blanked (unsyn-chronised). In such a
case the READOUT can be switched off.
AUTOSET
The instrument specific information regarding this function
is part of the section ”Controls and Readout” paragraph
AUTOSET (2). As also mentioned in that section, all controls
are electronically selected with the exception of the POWER
pushbutton.
Thus automatic, signal related instrument set up in Yt (time
base) mode is possible. In most cases no additional manual
instrument setting is required.
Briefly pressing the AUTOSET pushbutton causes the
instrument to switch over to the last Yt mode settings
regarding CH I, CH II and DUAL. If the instrument was
operated in Yt mode, the actual setting will not be affected
with the exception of ADD mode which will be switched off.
At the same time the attenuator(s) (VOLTS/DIV) are
automatically set for a signal display height of approx. 6 div
in mono channel mode or if in DUAL mode for approx. 4 div
height for each channel. In the determination of the time
deflection coefficient, it is assumed that the pulse duty factor
of the input signal is approx. 1:1.
Mean Value Display
Attention!
If a signal is applied with a pulse duty factor of approx.
400:1 or larger, an automatic signal dis-play can not be
performed. The pulse duty factor causes too low a Y
deflection coefficient (sensi-tivity too high) and too high
a time deflection coefficient (time base speed to slow)
and results in a display in which only the baseline is
visible.
In such cases it is recommended to select normal triggering
and to set the trigger point approx. 0.5div above or below the
trace. If under one of these conditions the trigger indicator
LED is lit, this indicates the presence of a signal. Then both the
time coefficient and Y deflection coefficient should be reduced.
Please note that a reduction in intensity may occur, which could
result in a blank screen when the physical limits are reached.
Mean Value Display.
The DC Mean Value is displayed in place of the cursor line
measurement, if the cursor lines are switched off, the AUTO
MEASURE menu function “DC” is activated and further
condition are met:
The signal to be measured (AC > 20 Hz) must be applied at
input CH I (25) or CH II (28) with its DC content at the measuring
amplifier; DC input coupling (26) (29) required. Yt (time base)
mode in combination with internal triggering (trigger source
CH I or CH II; not alternated triggering) must be present. AC or
DC trigger coupling must be selected.
If the above conditions are not met, ”n/a” will be displayed.
The time deflection coefficient is also set automatically for a
display of approx. 2 signal periods. The time base setting occurs
randomly if complex signals consisting several frequencies
e.g. video signals are present. If cursor voltage measurement
is selected, AUTOSET also affects the position of the CURSOR
lines. Please note AUTOSET (2) in section ”Controls and
Readout”.
The mean value is acquired using the trigger signal amplifiers
used for internal triggering. With the exception of DUAL mode,
the indicated mean value is automatically related to the active
channel (CH I or CH II), as the channel selection also assigns the
trigger amplifier. In DUAL mode one can select between trigger
amplifier CH I or CH II for triggering. The indicated mean value
refers to the channel from which the trigger signal originates.
AUTOSET sets the instrument automatically to the following
operating conditions:
The DC mean value is displayed with an algebraic sign (e.g.
”dc:Y1 501mV” resp. ”dc:Y1 -501mV). Overranging is indicated
by ” < ” resp. ” > ” sign (e.g. ”dc:Y1 <1.80V” resp. ”dc:Y1
>1.80V”). Being dependent on a necessary time constant for
mean value creation, the display update requires a few seconds
after a voltage change.
AC or DC input coupling unaltered
or in GND condition the last used setting
Internal triggering (channel I or channel II)
Automatic triggering
Trigger level in electrical midrange position
Optimum calibrated Y deflection coefficient(s) 5mV 20mv/div
Optimum calibrated Time base deflection coefficient
AC trigger coupling (except if DC trigger coupling last
present
Undelayed time base mode
X x10 magnifier switched off
Optimum X and Y position settings
Trace and readout visible.
If DC trigger coupling had been selected, AC trigger coupling
will not be chosen and the automatic trigger is operative without
the peak value detection.
The reading accuracy is dependent on the instrument
specifications (Y deflection tolerance max. 3% from 5mV/div.
to 20V/div.). Although the tolerances are significantly smaller
in reality, other deviations such as unavoidable offset voltages
must be taken into account, which may cause a display
deviating from 0 Volt without signal applied at the input.
The display shows the arithmetic (linear) mean value. The DC
content is displayed if DC or AC superimposed DC voltages
are applied. In case of square wave voltages, the mean value
depends on the pulse duty factor.
Component Tester (Analog mode only!)
General
The X position is set to the CRT center as well as the Y position
in CH I or CH II mode. In DUAL mode the channel I trace is
set to the upper half and the channel II trace to the lower half
of the CRT.
The 1mV/div and 2mV/div deflection coefficient will not be
selected by AUTOSET as the bandwidth is reduced on
these settings.
38
The instrument specific information regarding the control and
terminals are part of item (37) in section ”Controls and Readout”.
The instrument has a built in electronic Component Tester, which
is used for instant display of a test pattern to indicate whether or
not components are faulty. It can be used for quick checks of
semiconductors (e.g. diodes and transistors), resistors,
Subject to change without notice
Testing Capacitors and Inductors
capacitors, and inductors. Certain tests can also be made to
integrated circuits. All these components can be tested
individually, or in circuit provided that it is unpowered.
The test principle is fascinatingly simple. A built in generator
provides a sine voltage, which is applied across the component
under test and a built in fixed resistor. The sine voltage across
the test object is used for the horizontal deflection, and the
voltage drop across the resistor (i.e. current through test object)
is used for Y deflection of the oscilloscope. The test pattern
shows the current/voltage characteristic of the test object.
The measurement range of the component tester is limited and
depends on the maximum test voltage and current (please note
data sheet). The impedance of the component under test is limited
to a range from approx. 20 Ohm to 4.7k Ohm. Below and above
these values, the test pattern shows only short circuit or open
circuit. For the interpretation of the displayed test pattern, these
limits should always be born in mind. However, most electronic
components can normally be tested without any restriction.
A horizontal ellipse indicates a high impedance or a relatively
small capacitance or a relatively high inductance.
A vertical ellipse indicates a low impedance or a relatively large
capacitance or a relatively small inductance.
A sloping ellipse means that the component has a considerable
ohmic resistance in addition to its reactance.
The values of capacitance of normal or electrolytic capacitors
from 0.1µF to 1000µF can be displayed and approximate values
obtained. More precise measurement can be obtained in a
smaller range by comparing the capacitor under test with a
capacitor of known value. Inductive components (coils,
transformers) can also be tested. The determination of the
value of inductance needs some experience, because inductors
have usually a higher ohmic series resistance. However, the
impedance value (at 50Hz) of an inductor in the range from 20
Ohm to 4.7k Ohm can easily be obtained or compared.
Testing Semiconductors
Using the Component Tester
After the component tester is switched on, the Y amplifier and the
time base generator are inoperative. A shortened horizontal trace will
be observed. It is not necessary to disconnect scope input cables
unless in circuit measurements are to be carried out.
For the component connection, two simple test leads with
4mm Ø banana plugs, and test prods, alligator clips or sprung
hooks, are required. The test leads are connected as described
in section ”Controls and Readout”.
Test Procedure
Caution!
Do not test any component in live circuitry, remove all
grounds, power and signals connec-ted to the component under test. Set up Compo-nent Tester as stated.
Connect test leads across component to be tested.
Observe oscilloscope display.
Only discharged capacitors should be tested!
Test Pattern Displays
The page ”Test patterns” shows typical patterns displayed by
the various components under test.
Open circuit is indicated by a straight horizontal line.
Short circuit is shown by a straight vertical line.
Testing Resistors
If the test object has a linear ohmic resistance, both deflecting
voltages are in the same phase. The test pattern expected
from a resistor is therefore a sloping straight line. The angle of
slope is determined by the value of the resistor under test.
With high values of resistance, the slope will tend towards the
horizontal axis, and with low values, the slope will move towards
the vertical axis. Values of resistance from 20 Ohm to 4.7k
Ohm can be approximately evaluated. The determination of
actual values will come with experience, or by direct
comparison with a component of known value.
Most semiconductor devices, such as diodes, Z-diodes,
transistors and FETs can be tested. The test pattern displays
vary according to the component type as shown in the figures
below. The main characteristic displayed during semiconductor
testing is the voltage dependent knee caused by the junction
changing from the conducting state to the non conducting
state. It should be noted that both the forward and reverse
characteristic are displayed simultaneously. This is a two
terminal test, therefore testing of transistor amplification is
not possible, but testing of a single junction is easily and quickly
possible. Since the test voltage applied is only very low, all
sections of most semiconductors can be tested without
damage. However, checking the breakdown or reverse voltage
of high voltage semiconductors is not possible. More important
is testing components for open or short circuit, which from
experience is most frequently needed.
Testing Diodes
Diodes normally show at least their knee in the forward
characteristic. This is not valid for some high voltage diode
types, because they contain a series connection of several
diodes. Possibly only a small portion of the knee is visible.
Zener diodes always show their forward knee and, depending
on the test voltage, their zener breakdown forms a second
knee in the opposite direction. If the breakdown voltage is
higher than the positive or negative voltage peak of the test
voltage, it can not be displayed.
The polarity of an unknown diode can be identified by comparison with a known diode.
Testing Transistors
Three different tests can be made to transistors: base-emitter,
base-collector and emitter-collector. The resulting test patterns
are shown below. The basic equivalent circuit of a transistor is
a Z-diode between base and emitter and a normal diode with
reverse polarity between base and collector in series
connection. There are three different test patterns:
For a transistor the figures b-e and b-c are important. The figure
e-c can vary; but a vertical line only shows short circuit condition.
Testing Capacitors and Inductors
Capacitors and inductors cause a phase difference between
current and voltage, and therefore between the X and Y
deflection, giving an ellipse shaped display. The position and
opening width of the ellipse will vary according to the
impedance value (at 50Hz) of the component under test.
Subject to change without notice
These transistor test patterns are valid in most cases, but there
are exceptions to the rule (e.g. Darlington, FETs). With the
COMPONENT TESTER, the distinction between a P-N-P to an
N-P-N transistor is discernible. In case of doubt, comparison
with a known type is helpful. It should be noted that the same
CT or ground) for the same terminal is
socket connection (CT
39
Storage mode
then absolutely necessary. A connection inversion effects a
rotation of the test pattern by 180 degrees about the center
point of the scope graticule.
In Circuit Tests
Caution!
During in circuit tests make sure the circuit is dead. No
power from mains/line or battery and no signal inputs are
permitted. Remove all ground connections including Safety
Earth (pull out power plug from outlet). Remove all
measuring cables including probes between oscilloscope
and circuit under test. Otherwise both COMPONENT
TESTER leads are not isolated against the circuit under test.
In circuit tests are possible in many cases. However, they are
not well defined. Complex displays may be caused by a shunt
connection of real or complex impedance, especially if they
are of relatively low impedance at 50Hz, to the component
under test, often results differ greatly when compared with
single components. In case of doubt, one component terminal
should be unsoldered. This terminal should then not be
connected to the ground socket avoiding hum distortion of
the test pattern.
Another way is a test pattern comparison to an identical circuit
which is known to be operational (likewise without power and
any external connections). Using the test prods, identical test
points in each circuit can be checked, and a defect can be
determined quickly and easily. Possibly the device under test
itself may contain a reference circuit (e.g. a second stereo
channel, push-pull amplifier, symmetrical bridge circuit), which
is not defective and can therefore be used for comparison.
Storage mode
Pay attention to the usual caution with single MOS components
relating to static discharge or frictional electricity!
In contrast to analog mode, the storage mode offers the
following advantages:
One time events can be captured easily. Even very low
frequency signals can be displayed as a complete curve. Narrow
pulses with low repetition rates do not cause intensity
reduction. Documentation and processing of captured signals
is easily possible.
In comparison with analog mode, the disadvantages of storage
mode are: The reduced X and Y resolution and a lower update
rate. Danger of alias signal display, caused by a sampling rate
(time base set-ting) which is relatively too low with respect to
the current signal.
The analog mode offers an unsurpassed faithful signal display.
With the combination of analog and digital oscilloscope,
HAMEG enables the user to select the most suitable mode for
the specific measurement.
Signal capture modes
The HM507 contains two 8 bit flash A/D converters with a maximum sampling rate of 50MSa/s each. The sampling rate, which
depends on the time base setting, is displayed by the readout.
Realtime sampling:
As to be seen from chart 22.3.1 under “Controls and Readout”,
the signal acquisition is performed in realtime if time base
settings from 100s/div. to 2µs/div (5µs/div if SINGLE is present
in combination with DUAL) are used. In principle there is no
difference between capturing repetitive signals and one time
events. Simplified, the trigger unit starts the signal acquisition
(sampling) which continues until the memory is complete.
With realtime sampling, a minimum of 10 samples must be
taken per period (please note “Horizontal resolution”). In
combination with the maximum sampling rate of 100MSa/s
the maximum signal frequency is 10MHz.
40
Subject to change without notice
Adjustments
Random sampling:
This sampling method enables time coefficients from 1µs/div
(sampling interval: 5ns) to 100ns/div. (sampling interval: 500ps),
which can‘t be realized with a maximum sampling rate of 100MSa/
s (sampling interval: 10ns) in realtime sampling mode. This allows
display of signals with higher frequencies as in realtime.
on the measurement task. After this procedure AC or DC input
coupling must be selected and the signal capture started after
pressing the RESET pushbutton.
For explanations regarding ROLL mode, please note this item
[41] (41.1.4) in section “Readout and Controls”.
Vertical resolution
Random sampling assumes repetitive signals without any
change. The sampling is performed randomly, but with respect
to the trigger point. Under these circumstances, only one
sample is taken during a signal period. A complete signal
capture therefore requires a high number of signal periods,
until a complete signal (2048 samples) can be displayed and
therefore this takes time.
Under the influence of signal jitter, noise, phase or amplitude
changes, random sampling causes faulty signal displays.
Signals captured and stored in storage mode can be called via
the built-in RS232 interface for documentation purposes. For
further information please note section “RS232 Interface Remote Control”.
The dot density in each operation mode is 8 bits = 28 = 256
dots displayed over a height of roughly 10 divisions. The
instrument is adjusted for 25 dots per division. This eases
processing and cursor measurement.
Insignificant differences between the (analog) screen display
and the (digital) data are unavoidable.
This concerns signal height as well as the position. The trace
position is defined in respect to the following horizontal
graticule lines:
Center line = 10000000 (binary) = 80 (hex) = 128 (dec).
Top line
= 11100100 (binary) = E4 (hex) = 228 (dec).
Bottom line = 00011100 (binary) = 1C (hex) = 28 (dec).
Signal display and recording modes
Signals can be recorded and displayed in six different modes:
REFRESH mode (“rfr” indicated by the readout)
ENVELOPE mode (“env” indicated by the readout)
AVERAGE mode (“avm” indicated by the readout)
SINGLE mode (“sgl” indicated by the readout)
ROLL mode (“rol” indicated by the readout)
XY mode (only the sampling rate is displayed by the readout;
top left position)
Except ROLL and XY mode, a signal recording in all other modes
requires a trigger signal.
In REFRESH, ENVELOPE and AVERAGE modes the instruments
behaves like an analog oscilloscope. The trigger circuit starts a
recording, overwriting the previous recording from the left to
the right side of the screen. After the recording has been
finished, the next trigger event starts the same procedure.
This can also be caused in automatic trigger mode without an
applied signal by the automatic circuitry. Then only the trace (YPOS. setting) is recorded.
In contrast to automatic trigger mode, in normal trigger
mode the automatic system is switched off and
consequently only a trigger signal can start a recording.
Unlike analog mode where the screen is dark until a trigger
signal starts the time base, in store mode the last recorded
signal remains visible as long as no new recording is
triggered by an input signal.
AVERAGE and ENVELOPE are REFRESH sub modes and
described in section “Controls and Readout” under item STOR.
MODE [41] [42].
SINGLE mode (“sgl”) enables the capture of one time events.
The recording is started by activating RESET (RES lit). After a
trigger event occurred and the recording is completed, the
RES LED extinguishes. SINGLE automatically switches over to
normal triggering, to avoid unwanted signal display caused by
the automatic trigger.
The Y-POS control can be used to shift the 0 Volt symbol ( ⊥ ) to
the required graticule position. The trigger point symbol then
should be set above or below the 0 Volt position line, according
to the expected voltage of the event to be captured. Whether
the slope selection is set for a rising or falling slope depends
Subject to change without notice
In contrast to analog mode with its theoretically unlimited resolution,
the vertical resolution has 25 possible trace positions per division.
If the signal is superimposed by noise or a critical Y-POS. setting
is used, the least significant bit (LSB) may change continuously.
This additionally reduces the vertical resolution in storage
mode, but is unavoidable. In contrast to the expensive flash A/
D converters used in this instrument, other converters such as
CCD cause more noise.
Horizontal resolution
The maximum number of signals to be displayed
simultaneously is three (2 channels in DUAL mode and a
reference or mathematic signal). Each signal consists of 2048
(211) byte (samples). Referred to the horizontal raster, the
resolution is 200 samples per division.
Pure (only) digital oscilloscope with VGA monitor type CRTs
offer only 50 samples per division. If LCD displays are used
the current resolution is 25 samples per division. For a given
time base setting the HAMEG instrument samples at a 4
(compared to VGA) or 8 ( referred to LCD) times higher sampling
rate. The higher number of samples/div results in a shorter
sampling interval. For the following example it must be kept in
mind, that the time base setting is related to the signal period
duration and consequently should enable the display of one
complete signal period. If e.g. a 50Hz signal has to be displayed
the time base should be set to 2ms/div. The maximum signal
frequency of a superimposed sine wave signal, which must
be sampled with at least 10 samples per period, depends on
the horizontal resolution:
samples/div sampling interval sampling rate max frequenc
200 2ms : 200 = 10µs
100kS/s
10kHz
50
2ms : 50 = 40µs
25kS/s
2.5kHz
25
2ms : 25 = 80µs
2.5kS/s
1.25kHz
Note:
1. The sampling interval is the time distance between two
samples. With low X resolution the sampling interval
increases.
2. The sampling rate is the reciprocal value of the sampling
interval (1/sampling interval = sampling rate).
41
RS232 Interface - Remote Control
3. The signal frequency value is related on the highest sine
wave signal frequency that can be captured with 10
samples per period (realtime sampling condition). With
less than 10 samples per period a sine wave can no longer
be distinguished from a triangle signal.
to 20V/div) become corrected. This value relates on open
but screened inputs.
The automatic adjustment affects both channels. After
execution the readout displays the AUTO ADJUSTMENT
MENU.
Alias signal display
If, due to the time base setting, the sampling rate is too low, the
display of an alias signal may occur. As described under “Controls
and Readout” item (22) TIME/DIV. “22.3”, “AL?”, the readout displays
a warning if less than 2 samples are taken per signal period.
The following example describes an alias signal display:
A sine wave signal may be sampled one time per signal period.
The sine wave signal frequency may be equal to the sampling
frequency and no phase shift may occur. Under these conditions
each sample is taken at the same signal position, which may be
the top of the positive sine wave. The result is a straight horizontal
line above the zero Volt position, which appears to be a dc voltage.
Alias signal display may also occur in the form of an apparent
untriggered waveform display of different frequency from the
true signal. Another aliasing condition is the display of signals
seeming to be amplitude modulated.
The easiest way to recognize alias signals is to switch to analog
mode, where the true waveform is displayed. Transfer from
analog to store mode without changing time base range must
produce the same frequency display.
Operating modes of the vertical amplifiers
In principle, the instrument can operate in digital storage mode
with the same operating modes as in analog mode. Thus, the
following can be displayed:
-
Channel I by itself
Channel II by itself
Channel I and II simultaneously
The sum or difference of both channels
XY mode
3. TRIGGER AMP
This adjustment reduces trigger amplifiers dc offset to a
minimum.
After completion the AUTO ADJUSTMENT MENU
becomes visible again.
4. X MAG POS
This adjustment coordinates the X-POS control setting
range in unmagnified and magnified (X-MAG. x10)
condition.
5. CT X POS
This adjustment adapts the setting range of the X-POS
control setting in “Component Tester” and Yt (X-MAG.
x1) mode.
6. STORE AMP
The adjustment adapts the trace position and gain of both
channels in respect to analog mode.
RS232 Interface - Remote Control
Safety
Caution:
All terminals of the RS232 interface are galva-nically
connected with the oscilloscope and subsequently with
protective (safety) earth potential.
Measurement on a high level reference potential is not
permitted and endangers operator, oscilloscope, interface and
peripheral devices.
Adjustments
In case of disregard of the safety warnings contained in this
manual, HAMEG refuses any liability regarding personal injury
and/or damage of equipment.
After calling MAIN MENU > ADJUSTMENT > AUTO ADJUSTMENT, several menu items are displayed. Each item can be
called and causes an automatic adjustment.
Operation
All items are subject to the instrument’s temperature response
under extreme environmental temperature conditions and
results are stored in a non volatile memory. Incorrect adjustment
settings can be caused by component failures as a result of the
application of excessive voltage inputs and therefore cannot be
compensated by the automatic adjustment procedure.
Before starting an automatic adjustment procedure a warm up
time of 20 minutes must be allowed. During these automatic
adjustments there must be no signal applied to any input.
The oscilloscope is supplied with a serial interface for control
purposes. The interface connector (9 pole D SUB female) is
located on the rear of the instrument. Via this bidirectional
port, the instrument parameter settings can be transmitted to,
or received from a PC.
RS-232 Cable
The maximum connecting cable length must be less then 3
meters and must contain 9 screened lines connected 1:1. The
oscilloscope RS232 connection (9 pole D SUB female) is
determined as follows:
The following items are available:
1. SWEEP START POSITIONS
In Yt (time base) mode the trace start position is affected
by time base setting. The automatic adjustment
minimises such effects. During execution the readout
indicates “WORKING”.
2. Y AMP (measuring amplifier CH I and CH II)
Different Y deflection coefficient settings cause minor Y
position changes. Changes higher than ± 0.2div (5mV/div
42
Pin
2
3
7
8
5
9
Tx data (data from oscilloscope to external device)
Rx data (data from external device to oscilloscope)
CTS (clear to send)
RTS (request to send)
Ground (reference potential - connected via the
oscilloscope’s power cord with protective earth)
+5V supply for external device (max. 400mA).
The maximum voltage swing at pin 2, 3, 7 and 8 is ± 12 Volt.
Subject to change without notice
Front Panel HM507
RS-232 protocol
Data Communication
N-8-2 (no parity bit, 8 data bits, 2 stop bits, RTS/CTS hardware
protocol).
After successfully being set to remote control mode, the
oscilloscope is prepared for command reception.
Baud-Rate Setting
A data carrier with programming examples, a command list
(tools) and a program executable under Windows 95, 98, Me,
2000 and NT 4.0 (with Service Pack 4 or higher) is part of the
delivery.
After the first POWER UP (switching on of the oscilloscope )
and the first command SPACE CR (20hex, 0Dhex) sent from
the PC, the baud rate is recognized and set automatically
between 110 baud and 115200 baud. The oscilloscope is then
switched over to REMOTE control mode. The oscilloscope then
transmits the RETURNCODE: 0 CR LF to the PC. In this status
all settings (with the exception of those functions mentioned
under ”Controls and Readout”) can be controlled via the interface
only.
The only ways to quit this status are:
Switching the oscilloscope off,
or transmitting the command
RM= 0 from the PC to the oscilloscope, or
depressing the AUTOSET ( LOCAL ) pushbutton,
if in unlocked condition (command LK=1... was not sent)
After the remote state has been switched off the RM LED is dark.
Please note:
A minimum time must elapse between the commands RM=1...
(remote on) and RM=0... (remote off) and vice versa.
The time can be calculated with the formula:
tmin = 2x (1/baud rate) + 60µs.
If at the beginning no SPACE CR command is recognizable, the
oscilloscope pulls the TxD line low for approx. 0.2ms and causes
a break on the PC.
Subject to change without notice
43
Oscilloscopes
Spectrum Analyzer
Power Supplies
Modular System
8000 Series
Programmable Instruments
8100 Series
41-0507-00E0
authorized dealer
www.hameg.com
Subject to change without notice
41-0507-00E0 / 20012007-gw
© HAMEG Instruments GmbH
A Rohde & Schwarz Company
® registrierte Marke
DQS-Zertifikation: DIN EN ISO 9001:2000
Reg.-Nr.: 071040 QM
HAMEG Instruments GmbH
Industriestraße 6
D-63533 Mainhausen
Tel +49 (0) 61 82 800-0
Fax +49 (0) 61 82 800-100
sales@hameg.de
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