Operating and Service Manual Agilent 346A/B/C

Operating and Service Manual Agilent 346A/B/C
Operating and Service Manual
Agilent 346A/B/C Noise Source
(Including Options
001, 002, and 004)
Serial Numbers
This manual applies directly to instruments with
serial numbers prefixed 4124A and below.
Instruments with serial prefixes 4124A and above are
supplied with the noise source ENR data preloaded on diskette see Chapters 3 & 4.
With changes described in Chapter 2 Manual Changes, this
manual also applies to the following prefixes.
Agilent 346B - 2015A and 1935A
Manufacturing Part Number: 00346-90148
June 2009
Supersedes: 00346-90139
© Copyright 2001-2009 Agilent Technologies
Notice
Information contained in this document is subject to change without
notice. Agilent Technologies makes no warranty of any kind with regard
to this material, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of
merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. Agilent
Technologies shall not be liable for errors contained herein or for
incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishings,
performance, or use of this material. No part of this document may be
photocopied, reproduced, or translated to another language without the
prior written consent of Agilent Technologies.
Certification
Agilent Technologies certifies that this product met its published
specifications at the time of shipment from the factory. Agilent
Technologies further certifies that its calibration measurements are
traceable to the United States National Institute of Standards and
Technology and/or The United Kingdom National Physics Laboratories,
to the extent allowed by the Institution’s calibration facility, and to the
calibration facilities of other International Standards Organization
members.
Warranty
This Agilent Technologies instrument product is warranted against
defects in material and workmanship for a period of one year from date
of shipment. During the warranty period, Agilent Technologies will at its
option, either repair or replace products which prove to be defective. For
warranty service or repair, this product must be returned to a service
facility designated by Agilent Technologies. Buyer shall prepay shipping
charges to Agilent Technologies and Agilent Technologies shall pay
shipping charges, duties, and taxes for products returned to Aglent
ii
Technologies from another country. Agilent Technologies warrants that
its software and firmware designated by Agilent Technologies for use
with an instrument will execute its programming instructions when
properly installed on that instrument. Agilent Technologies does not
warrant that the operation of the instrument, or firmware will be
uninterrupted or error free.
Limitation of Warranty
The foregoing warranty shall not apply to defects resulting from
improper or inadequate maintenance by Buyer, Buyer-supplied software
or interfacing, unauthorized modification or misuse, operation outside of
the environmental specifications for the product, or improper site
preparation or maintenance. NO OTHER WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED
OR IMPLIED. AGILENT TECHNOLOGIES SPECIFICALLY
DISCLAIMS THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY
AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
Exclusive Remedies
THE REMEDIES PROVIDED HEREIN ARE BUYER’S SOLE AND
EXCLUSIVE REMEDIES. AGILENT TECHNOLOGIES SHALL NOT
BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL,
OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, WHETHER BASED ON
CONTRACT, TORT, OR ANY OTHER LEGAL THEORY.
Safety Notices
This guide uses warnings and cautions to denote hazards.
iii
WARNING
A warning calls attention to a procedure, practice or the like,
which, if not correctly performed or adhered to, could result in
injury or the loss of life. Do not proceed beyond a warning until
the indicated conditions are fully understood and met.
CAUTION
A caution calls attention to a procedure, practice or the like, which, if not
correctly performed or adhered to, could result in damage or the
destruction of part or all of the equipment. Do not proceed beyond a
caution until the indicated conditions are fully understood and met.
iv
Declaration of Comformity
A copy of the Manufacturer’s European Declaration
of Conformity for this instrument can be obtained by
contacting your local Agilent Technologies sales representative.
v
Table of Contents
Page
1. General Information
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Instruments Covered in This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Model Characteristics of Individual Noise Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Warranty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Equipment Available But Not Supplied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Handling Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Initial Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Original Packaging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Mating Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Storage and Shipping Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Operating Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Recommended Test Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Operator’s Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Operator’s Maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Performance Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Replaceable Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Replaceable Parts List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Principles of Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Returning a Noise Source for Calibration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2. Manual Changes
Manual Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Change A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
3. Using the ENR Data Diskette
vii
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Loading the ENR Data from Diskette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Saving the ENR Data to the Noise Figure Analyzer’s Internal Memory . . . . . . . . . . 40
Copying the ENR Data to the Noise Figure Analyzer’s Internal Memory . . . . . . . . . 41
4. ENR File Format
Format Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Comment Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Header Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
ENR Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Examples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
A. Caring for Connectors
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Connector Part Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Handling and Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Visual Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Obvious Defects and Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Mating Plane Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Precision 7 mm Connectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Sexed Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Compressed Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Cleaning Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Precision 7 mm Connectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Cleaning Interior Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Drying Connectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Mechanical Inspection: Connector Gages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Mechanical Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Precision 7mm Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Sexed Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
50 Ohm Type-N Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
75 Ohm Type-N Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Using Connector Gages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Inspecting and Cleaning the Gage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Zeroing the Gage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Making Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Align Connectors Carefully. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
To Make a Preliminary Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Final Connection Using a Torque Wrench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Disconnection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Principles of Microwave Connector Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
viii
1
General Information
1
General Information
Introduction
Introduction
This manual contains operating and service information for the Agilent
Technologies model 346A, 346B, and 346C Noise Sources.
Included in the manual is information necessary to operate the noise
sources.
Specifications
The “Specifications - Table 1-1” on page 3, page 4, and page 5 are
performance standards or limits against which the noise source may be
tested. These specifications for the noise source when used with a Noise
Figure Analyzer are ONLY valid if the analyzer has been allowed to meet
its specified warm up time of 60 minutes.
ENR expanded uncertainty analysis and supplemental characteristics
are not specifications but are typical characteristics included as
additional information for the user.
NOTE
Specifications are valid at ambient temperature 23 ±1 oCelsius only.
2
Chapter 1
General Information
Introduction
Specifications - Table 1-1
Frequency Range
346A/B
10 MHz — 18 GHz
346C
10 MHz — 26.5 GHz
Operating
Temperature
0 oC to 55 oC
Excess Noise
Ratio (ENR)
Range1
346A
4.5 - 6.5 dB
346B
14- 16 dB
346C
12 - 17 dB
1. ENR values are given at cardinal frequency points over the frequency range of each noise
source. Calibrated values at cardinal frequencies printed on each noise source label and on a
separate report supplied with each Agilent 346 Noise Source. Specifications are valid at
calibration temperature only.
Chapter 1
3
General Information
Introduction
Specifications - Table 1-1 Continued
Maximum
Standing Wave
Ratio (SWR) and
Reflection
Coefficient (r) for
Source ON/OFF
States
Instrument model
Frequency Range
(GHz)
Maximum
Standing Wave
Ratio (SWR)
Reflection
Coefficient
(Rho) (r)
346A/B1
0.01 - 0.03
<1.3:1
0.13
0.03 - 5.0
<1.15:1
0.07
5.0 - 18.0
<1.25:1
0.11
0.01-18.0
<1.25:1
0.11
18.0 - 26.5
<1.35:1
0.15
346C
1. Maximum change in complex reflection coefficient between source ON
and source OFF at all frequencies for 346A only: 0.01.
4
Chapter 1
General Information
Introduction
Specifications - Table 1-1 Continued
Impedance
50 ohm nominal
Maximum reverse
power
1 Watt
Power required
28 ±1 V
346A/B
60 mA peak, 30 mA average for source ON
346C
45 mA
Connectors1
346 Output
APC-3.5 (male) standard1
346 Input
Bias: BNC (f)
1. Also mates with female SMA connectors. See option information for
other connector styles.
Dimensions
140 x 21 x 31mm (5.5 x 0.8 x 1.2 in)
Net Weight
0.1 kg (3.5 oz.)
1. For correct connector usage, refer Table A-2 for the torque settings.
Chapter 1
5
General Information
Introduction
Excess Noise Ratio Expanded Uncertainty (U(Y)) - Table 1-2
ENR values are given at cardinal frequency points over the frequency
range of each noise source. These ENR values are printed on the noise
source label and on a separate printed report supplied with the 346
Noise Source. Included in the printed report is the measurement
uncertainty for each cardinal frequency point.
A significant proportion of the expanded uncertainty (U(Y)) is based on
the uncertainties provided by the United States National Institute of
Standards and Technology (NIST) and/or The United Kingdom National
Physics Laboratories (NPL). Agilent therefore reserve the right to
change the overall expanded uncertainties based on changes in
uncertainty values within the National Standards Institutes.
Uncertainties are valid at ambient temperature 23°C ±1°C (296K) only.
A typical characteristic plot of ENR (U(Y)) versus each cardinal
frequency point is shown in Figure 1-1. the uncertainties given are
typical - refer to the printed calibration report for the actual
uncertainties for your noise source.
Figure 1-1
Characteristic1ENR Plot versus Cardinal Frequency Points
1. Characteristic values are met or bettered by 90% of instruments with 90% confidence.
6
Chapter 1
General Information
Introduction
Excess Noise Ratio Expanded Uncertainty (U(Y)) - Table 1-2
Continued
Characteristic
ENR (U(Y))
Specification
Instrument model
Frequency
(GHz)
ENR Uncertainty (±dB)1
346A
0.01- 1.5
0.21
1.5 - 3.0
0.20
3.0 - 7.0
0.20
7.0 - 18.0
0.23
0.01- 1.5
0.20
1.5 - 3.0
0.19
3.0 - 7.0
0.20
7.0 - 18.0
0.23
0.01- 1.5
0.22
1.5 - 3.0
0.19
3.0 - 7.0
0.20
7.0 - 18.0
0.28
18.0 - 26.5
0.34
346B
346C
1. Characteristic values are met or bettered by 90% of instruments with
90% confidence.
Chapter 1
7
General Information
Introduction
Supplemental Characteristics - Table 1-3
Supplemental
Characteristics
ENR variation with
temperature:
<0.01 dB/°C for 30 MHz to 26.5 GHz
ENR variation with
voltage:
Internal current regulator for <0.02 dB variation
for 28 ±1 V
Switching speed:
For repetitive operation (in previous state for less than 5 seconds):
Turn-on: < 20 µs
Turn-off: <80 µs
For single-shot operation (in previous state more than 5 seconds):
Turn-on: < 3 ms
Turn-off: <80 µs
8
Chapter 1
General Information
Instruments Covered in This Manual
Instruments Covered in This Manual
The noise sources covered by this manual have a two-part serial number.
The first four digits and letter constitute the serial number prefix. The
last five digits form a sequential suffix that is unique to each noise
source. The prefix is the same for all noise sources of a particular
configuration. It will change when a design modification occurs. The
contents of this manual apply directly to those instruments having the
same serial number prefixes listed under SERIAL NUMBERS on the
title page.
A noise source manufactured after the printing of this manual may have
a serial number prefix which is not listed on the title page. This unlisted
serial number prefix indicates the noise source is different than those
documented in this manual. If manual changes are needed, the manual
for this newer noise source is accompanied by a Manual Changes
supplement. The supplement contains "change information" that
explains how to adapt this manual to the newer noise source.
In addition to change information, the supplement may contain
information for correcting errors in the manual. The supplement is
identified with the manual print date and part number, both of which
appear on the manual title page.
For information concerning a serial number prefix that is not listed on
the title page in the Manual Change supplement, contact your nearest
Agilent Technologies office.
Agilent/Hewlett-Packard 346 Noise Sources which were manufactured
before the printing of this manual will have a serial number prefix lower
than the one listed on the title page. Manual changes for these older
models are found in Chapter 2 “Manual Changes”.
NOTE
Agilent Technologies are migrating their existing product serial numbers
to a new format. All new products use this new format. The format is the
first two letters signify the country of manufacture, for example, US
representing the USA, the next four numbers,the serial number prefix,
and the last five numbers form a sequential suffix that is unique to each
product. For example, US123456789, where 1234 is the prefix and 56789
is the suffix. The two letters MY represent Malaysia.
Chapter 1
9
General Information
Description
Description
The noise source produces noise output (power-on) when +28 V is
applied. When it is off, there is residual noise due to thermal agitation in
the noise source (power-off). These two noise levels are used to measure
the gain and added noise of the device under test, and consequently, its
noise figure.
The Excess Noise Ratio (ENR) for each noise source has been measured
at major frequencies and recorded on a label attached to the noise source
(see Figure 1-2). ENR references power-on to the noise power that exists
at 290 Kelvin (17 °C). In addition, a separate calibration sheet showing
the complex reflection coefficient in both the on and off states is included
with each instrument.
All three models are provided with a BNC female connector for power
input. The output connector is a male APC-3.5 on the standard noise
sources. Type-N and APC-7 connectors are available as options for the
Agilent 346A and 346B Noise Sources. In addition to these general
characteristics, certain characteristics apply to the specific models.
These characteristics are listed in Table 1-4.
Figure 1-2
A Partial View of Typical Calibration Label
10
Chapter 1
General Information
Description
Table 1-4
Model Characteristics of Individual Noise Sources
Agilent 346A
Agilent 346B
Agilent 346C
Reflection coefficient differential
between on and off states is specified
to be no greater than 0.01.
Reflection coefficient
differential between on and off
states is not specified, but is
less than 0.1 typically.
Reflection coefficient
differential between on and off
states is not specified, but is
less than 0.1 typically.
Specified output noise spectrum
from 10 MHz to 18 GHz.
Specified output noise
spectrum from 10 MHz to
18 GHz.
Specified output noise
spectrum from 10 MHz to
26.5 GHz.
Nominal ENR is 6 dB over the
specified frequency range.
Nominal ENR is 15 dB over the
specified frequency range.
Nominal ENR is 15 dB over the
specified frequency range.
Not directly usable for
Agilent/HP 8970A IF attenuator
calibration (Special Function
33). 10 dB of gain is required.
Suitable for Agilent/HP 8970A
IF attenuator calibration
(Special Function 33).
Suitable for Agilent/HP 8970A
IF attenuator calibration
(Special Function 33).
Not directly usable for
Agilent/HP 8970B IF attenuator
calibration. Refer to
"Calibration, IF Attenuators" in
the Agilent/HP 8970B Operating
Manual.
Suitable for Agilent/HP 8970B
IF attenuator calibration.
Refer to "Calibration, IF
Attenuators" in the Agilent/HP
8970B Operating Manual.
Suitable for Agilent/HP 8970B
IF attenuator calibration.
Refer to "Calibration, IF
Attenuators" in the Agilent/HP
8970B Operating Manual.
Chapter 1
11
General Information
Description
Warranty
The noise sources are warranted and certified as indicated in this
manual. Connector damage resulting from improper use is not covered
under warranty.
Equipment Available But Not Supplied
The following equipment is available from Agilent Technologies for use
with the noise sources:
• 8710-1766: 3/4" Torque Wrench (APC-7)
• 5060-0344: 9/16" Torque Wrench (APC-3.5)
NOTE
Agilent/HP Model 346B Noise Sources with serial prefixes of 2037A and
below, have an APC-3.5 connector of a different configuration (See Figure
1-3). The 9/16" torque wrench will not fit these older models.
Figure 1-3
Agilent/HP Noise source with Older APC-3.5 Connector
Options
The Agilent 346A and 346B Noise Sources are available with the
following output connector options:
• Option 001, Type-N (male)
• Option 002, APC-7
• Option 004, Type-N (female)
Since the APC-7 and Type-N connectors do not operate up to 26.5 GHz,
no output connector options are available for the Agilent 346C.
12
Chapter 1
General Information
Installation
Installation
Handling Precautions
CAUTION
Do not disassemble the noise source. The diode module is static sensitive
and can be damaged or the calibration can be altered.
CAUTION
Do not drop the noise source. Dropping can damage the unit or alter the
calibration.
Proper connector care is essential. See Operator’s Maintenance in the
Operation section of this manual for more information.
Initial Inspection
Inspect the shipping container for damage. Inspect the noise source for
mechanical damage incurred in transit. If the shipping container or
cushioning material is damaged, it should be kept until the contents of
the shipment have been checked for completeness and the noise source
has been mechanically and electrically checked. If the contents are
incomplete, if there is mechanical damage or a defect, or if the noise
source does not work electrically, notify the nearest Agilent Technologies
office. If the shipping container is damaged, or the cushioning material
shows signs of unusual stress, notify the carrier as well as the Agilent
Technologies office. Keep the shipping materials for the carrier’s
inspection.
Chapter 1
13
General Information
Installation
Original Packaging
Container and materials identical to those used in factory packaging are
available through Agilent Technologies offices. If the noise source is
being returned to Agilent Technologies for servicing, attach a tag
indicating the name and address of the company, the technical contact
person, phone number and extension, the model number, serial number,
type of service being requested, and failure symptoms if applicable. Mark
the shipping container FRAGILE. In any correspondence, refer to the
noise sources by model number and serial number.
Mating Connectors
The noise sources can be mated with other instrumentation having the
connectors listed in Table 1-5.
Table 1-5
Connectors That Can Be Mated With the Noise Sources
Configuration
Mating Connector
Input: all units
BNC male1
Output: standard
APC-3.5 female
SMA female
Opt.001
Type-N female1
Opt.002
APC-7
Opt.004
Type-N male1
1Must
comply with U.S. Military Standard MII,C-39012
Storage and Shipping Environment
The noise sources should be stored in a clean, dry environment. The
following environmental limitations apply to both storage and shipment:
• Temperature: -55 °C to +75 °C
• Humidity: <95% relative
• Altitude: <15300 meters (50000 feet)
14
Chapter 1
General Information
Operation
Operation
This section refers to operation with noise figure meters. For more
detailed operating instructions, refer to the operating manual for the
noise figure meter used.
CAUTION
Use a dc blocking capacitor to protect the noise source from damage
when connected to any system where a dc voltage is present on the
output center conductor.
Noise figure measurements of devices (such as amplifiers, mixers,
transistors, and receivers) can be made using the noise source with a
noise figure meter. Figure 1-4 depicts a simple test setup for a noise
figure measurement.
NOTE
The noise figure meter must have a +28 ±1 V switched supply.
Figure 1-4
Typical Noise Figure Measurement Test Setup
Chapter 1
15
General Information
Operation
Operating Environment
The operating environment of the noise sources should be within the
following limitations:
• Temperature: 0 °C to +55 °C
• Humidity: <95% relative
• Altitude: <4600 metres (15 000 feet)
Recommended Test Equipment
Table 1-6 is a list of equipment that can be used to perform an
operational verification check.
Table 1-6
Check
No.
1
Recommended Test Equipment For Operator’s Checks
Instrument
Power Meter and Power
Sensor
Power Supply
Critical Specification
Recommended Model
Minimum Sensitivity: 0.1 nW
Agilent/HP E4418A
Frequency Range: 10 MHz to
18 GHz
with
Voltage: 28.0 ±1.0 V
Agilent/HP 6028A
Agilent/HP 8481D, or
E4412A, or E9300A
Current: 100 mA
2
Noise Figure Meter
16
Voltage Output: 28.0 ±1.0 V
Agilent/HP 8970B
Input Noise Figure:<7.4 FdB
at 100 MHz
or
Agilent N8972/3/4/5A
Chapter 1
General Information
Operation
Operator’s Check
The operator’s checks in this section should be performed if failure of the
noise source is suspected. The checks can be used only to verify that the
noise sources are producing a broadband noise spectrum. They cannot be
used to check the units against specifications. Only one of the checks is
necessary to verify operation. Table 1-6 shows the recommended test
equipment used for each check.
Operator’s Check with Power Meter (Check 1)
Step 1. Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 1-5.
Figure 1-5
Operator’s Check Test Setup 1
Step 2. Turn the power supply OFF. Zero the power meter.
Step 3. Turn the power supply ON (+28 V). Measure the power output with the
noise source on.
Step 4. Verify that the result of the measurement is within the following limits
and hence the noise source is operating correctly:
•
Agilent 346A Power output = -66 ±4 dBm.
•
Agilent 346B Power output = -56 ±4 dBm.
•
Agilent 346C Power output = -56 ±4 dBm.
Chapter 1
17
General Information
Operation
Operator’s Check with Agilent/HP 8970B Noise Figure Meter (Check 2a)
Step 1. Remove any cables from the noise figure meter input. Press PRESET.
After 5 seconds, verify the noise figure display shows --FdB and the left
display shows 30 MHz.
Step 2. Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 1-6.
Figure 1-6
Operator’s Check Test Setup 2a
Step 3. Enter a tuned frequency of 100 MHz. (See "Fixed Frequency Tuning" in
the Agilent/HP 8970B Operating Manual).
Step 4. Enter special function 5.3 to enable the instrument for spot ENR entry.
(See "Special Functions" in the Agilent/HP 8970B Operating Manual).
Step 5. Enter the ENR at 100 MHz from the noise source calibration label. (See
"Spot ENR, Thot, and TCold, in the Agilent/HP 8970B Operating Manual).
Step 6. Confirm that the noise source is operating correctly.
The noise figure measurement of the noise figure meter will appear in
the noise figure display. If the result of the measurement is less than 7.4
FdB, the noise source is operating.
Step 7. Press PRESET to return the instrument to preset conditions.
18
Chapter 1
General Information
Operation
Operator’s Check with Agilent N8972/3/4/5AB Noise Figure Analyzer (Check 2b)
Step 1. Remove any cables from the NFA input and the noise source drive.
Step 2. Press the Preset key.
Wait until the preset routine has completed before proceeding.
NOTE
The preset condition used is the NFA default of Preset (Factory).
Step 3. Connect the 346A/B/C to the NFA Input port using a BNC cable, as
shown in Figure 1-7.
Figure 1-7
Operator’s Check Test Setup 2b
Step 4. Press the ENR key.
Step 5. Press the ENR Table menu key.
Step 6. Press the Edit Table menu key.
Step 7. Press the Clear Table menu key.
Step 8. Enter 100 MHz in the Frequency column of the table: Press 1,0,0 on the
numeric keypad followed by the MHz menu key.
Chapter 1
19
General Information
Operation
Step 9. Press the Tab key to highlight the ENR Value column of the table.
Step 10. Enter the ENR value of the 346A/B/C at 100 MHz (0.1 GHz) using the
numeric keypad followed by the dB menu key.
Step 11. Press the Frequency/Points key.
Step 12. Press the Frequency Mode menu key.
Step 13. Press the Fixed menu key.
Step 14. Press the Fixed Frequency menu key.
Enter 100 MHz as a fixed frequency value, by pressing the 1, 0, 0
numeric keys followed by pressing the MHz menu key.
Step 15. Press the Sweep key.
Step 16. Press the Manual Meas menu key.
Step 17. Press the Manual State menu key and set it to Manual State (On).
Step 18. Press the Noise Source menu key and set it to Noise Source (On).
Step 19. Press the IF Att menu key and set it to IF Att (Hold).
Step 20. Monitor the power value which appears in the manual measurement
screen. Figure 1-8 shows a typical example of this.
20
Chapter 1
General Information
Operation
Figure 1-8
Typical example of power reading with Noise Source On
Step 21. Press the Noise Source menu key and set it to Noise Source (Off).
Step 22. Monitor the power value which appears in the manual measurement
screen. Figure 1-9 shows a typical example of this.
NOTE
The monitored value is only to be used to indicate if the 346A/B/C is
switching the Excess Noise “On” and “Off” by showing a change in power
value.
Chapter 1
21
General Information
Operation
Figure 1-9
Typical example of power reading with Noise Source Off
Step 23. If there is not a change in value, return the 346A/B/C to Agilent
Technologies for repair.
Operator’s Maintenance
Proper connector care is a vital part of the maintenance which should be
performed by the user. By following the general connector care practices
outlined below, the life of the connector can be greatly extended.
• Connectors should be properly torqued as shown below.
Connector Type
Torque Specifications
N
1.3 N m (l2 in.-lb.)
APC-7
1.3 N m (12 in.-lb.)
SMA to APC-3.5
0.9 N m (8 in.-lb.)
APC-3.5 to APC-3.5
0.9 N m (8 in.-lb.)
• Always tighten or loosen a connector by rotating only the nut. Never
rotate the noise source body.
22
Chapter 1
General Information
Operation
• Use isopropyl or ethyl alcohol on a swab to clean connectors.
Absorbent, lint-free paper wrapped around the end of tweezers is
recommended. Carefully clean the conductive surfaces and avoid
wetting the plastic parts inside the connector with alcohol. After
cleaning, be sure connector is blown dry before re-assembly.
• It is good practice to inspect a connector after cleaning. During the
inspection, check for contaminants and worn plating. Also check for a
misaligned center conductor or spread fingers on the APC-3.5 or
Type-N connectors.
• Support the cable or component attached to the connector.
• When using APC-7 connectors, the nut of one connector should
always be backed off completely and the nut on the mating connector
should be tightened. Never set an APC-7 connector on its mating
surface. Before storage, always screw the nut out to protect the
surfaces.
• Be sure the connectors are axially aligned before the nut is tightened.
• Use a connector gauge periodically to check the center pin depth. The
shoulder of the center conductor must never extend beyond the plane
of the outer conductor mating surface in an APC-3.5 connector.
• For more information, refer to Appendix A , “Caring for Connectors,”
on page 51.
Chapter 1
23
General Information
Performance Tests
Performance Tests
Due to the complex test equipment involved, there are no recommended
performance tests for the user to perform. Return the noise sources to
Agilent Technologies when tests are required to verify its performance
and for periodic re-calibration. The suggested interval before initial
re-calibration is one year.
24
Chapter 1
General Information
Adjustments
Adjustments
There are no adjustments that can be made on the noise sources by the
user.
Chapter 1
25
General Information
Replaceable Parts
Replaceable Parts
Table 1-7 lists all replaceable parts available for the Agilent 346A/B/C
Noise Sources. Figure 1-10 shows a typical Noise Source being prepared
for parts replacement at modular level by removing the four end screws
(two at each end).
NOTE
If the Agilent 346A/B/C is opened and parts replaced, the Noise Source
will require calibration.
NOTE
Due to a parts change, adjustment of the bias current may be necessary
for the product to meet its ENR specifications when parts are replaced in
older units. Installation Note 00346-90137 details the adjustment
process for the 346A and 346B. Installation Note 00346-90140 details the
adjustment process for the 346C. Both are supplied with their
appropriate replacement parts.
To order parts contact your local Agilent Technologies Sales and Service
Office.
26
Chapter 1
General Information
Replaceable Parts
Table 1-7
Replaceable Parts List
Agilent Part Numbers
Model/Option
Bulkhead RF
Replacement
Replacement Noise
Cartridge Assy
Replacement
Attenuator Assy
Replacement PC
Board Assy
346A Std
00346-60022
00346-60154
00346-60156
00346-60157
Option 001
00346-60023
00346-60154
00346-60156
00346-60157
Option 002
00346-60024
00346-60154
00346-60156
00346-60157
346B Std
00346-60026
00346-60154
00346-60027
00346-60157
Option 001
00346-60018
00346-60154
00346-60027
00346-60157
Option 002
00346-60019
00346-60154
00346-60027
00346-60157
00346-60020
00346-60154
00346-60027
00346-60157
00346-60021
00346-60155
00346-60027
00346-60158
Option 004
346C Std
Table 1-8
Replaceable Labels List
Part Number
Label Descriptions
00346-80006
346A Label Caution
00346-80007
346BA Label Caution
00346-80008
346C Label Noise
00346-80012
Label - Blank ENR
Chapter 1
27
General Information
Replaceable Parts
Figure 1-10
Preparing for Parts Removal/Replacement
28
Chapter 1
General Information
Service
Service
Principles of Operation
Figure 1-11 shows a simplified diagram of the noise source. When driven
by a +28V pulse, the 346 produces an output noise spectrum with an
ENR of approximately 5.0 dB for the 346A and approximately 15.0 dB
for the 346B and 346C. The noise generator is an avalanche diode
positioned into a 50 ohm system. The noise source is divided into a dc
section including a voltage converter and a current regulator, and an RF
section which includes the noise generator, a matching network and an
attenuator.
The +28 volts supplies a 5.6 kHz oscillator which is rectified as the
supply for the constant current source to produce a controlled noise level
output. The current regulator controls through the noise generator diode
producing a known level of broadband noise that is constant for a supply
voltage of 27 to 29 volts.
Figure 1-11
Simplified Diagram of the Noise Source
≈
5.6kHz
Oscillator
Voltage
Converter
Current
Regulator
Matching Network
and Noise Generator
Attenuator
DC Block
BNC
Input
Output
Troubleshooting
Check the connectors. If there is no apparent damage to the connectors,
perform one of the operator’s checks described in the Operation section of
this manual. If the noise source’s output does not fall within the stated
range, or if the connectors are damaged, return the unit to Agilent
Technologies for repair.
Chapter 1
29
General Information
Service
Repair
Repair by the user is not recommended because of the complex
equipment required for test and calibration.
Returning a Noise Source for Calibration
When returning a 346 or Noise Source to Agilent Technologies for repair
or calibration, please specify whether an ENR Data Diskette is needed.
When the 346 is used with an Agilent Noise Figure Analyzer NFA, the
ENR Data Diskette is used to automatically load the ENR values into
memory.
When the 346 is used with an 8970A/B Noise Figure Meter, you must
enter the ENR values manually, and the ENR Data Diskette is not
necessary.
30
Chapter 1
General Information
Service
Table 1-9
Agilent Technologies Sales and Service Offices
UNITED STATES
Agilent Technologies
(tel) 1 800 452 4844
CANADA
Agilent Technologies Canada Inc.
Test & Measurement
(tel) 1 877 894 4414
EUROPE
Agilent Technologies
Test & Measurement
European Marketing Organization
(tel) (31 20) 547 2000
JAPAN
Agilent Technologies Japan Ltd.
(tel) (81) 426 56 7832
(fax) (81) 426 56 7840
LATIN AMERICA
Agilent Technologies
Latin America Region Headquarters, USA
(tel) (305) 267 4245
(fax) (305) 267 4286
AUSTRALIA/NEW ZEALAND
Agilent Technologies Australia Pty Ltd.
(tel) 1-800 629 4852 (Australia)
(fax) (61 3) 9272 0749 (Australia)
(tel) 0-800 738 378 (New Zealand)
(fax) (64 4) 802 6881 (New Zealand)
ASIA PACIFIC
Agilent Technologies, Hong Kong
(tel) (852) 3197 7777
(fax) (852) 2506 9284
Chapter 1
31
2
Manual Changes
This chapter contains information for adapting this manual to
Agilent/HP 346B Noise Sources with serial number prefixes of 2015A
and 1935A.
33
Manual Changes
Manual Changes
Manual Changes
To adapt this manual to your instrument, refer to Table 2-1. Make all of
the manual changes listed opposite your instrument’s serial number
prefix. Perform these changes in the sequence listed.
Table 2-1 Manual Changes by Serial Number
Instrument
346B
Serial Number Prefix
1935A, 2015A
Make Manual Changes
A
If your instrument (all models) has a serial number prefix which is
higher in value than those listed on the title page of this manual, it may
be documented in a yellow MANUAL CHANGES supplement. For
additional information, refer to "Instruments Covered by Manual" in
the General Information section of this manual.
Change A
Table 1-2 Supplemental Characteristics
Change Switching Speed for both repetitive operation and single shot
operation to read: Turn off <140 µs.
34
Chapter 2
3
Using the ENR Data Diskette
35
Using the ENR Data Diskette
Introduction
Introduction
The Agilent 346 and 347 series of Noise Sources are supplied with the
noise source ENR data preloaded on diskette to allow easy downloading
into the Agilent NFA series Noise Figure Analyzers. This eliminates time
consuming and error prone manual keying of the ENR values.
Additionally you can easily open the ENR files using a standard text
editor and the files are easy to interpret and create.
This chapter covers the following:
• Loading the ENR Data from Diskette
• Saving the ENR Data to the Noise Figure Analyzer’s Internal
Memory
• Copying the ENR Data from Diskette to the Noise Figure Analyzer’s
Internal Memory
NOTE
The following procedures do not apply to noise sources used with the
Agilent 8970A/B Noise Figure Meter.
You must enter ENR values manually into the 8970A/B.
36
Chapter 3
Using the ENR Data Diskette
Loading the ENR Data from Diskette
Loading the ENR Data from Diskette
To load the ENR data from the diskette and use the data as the current
ENR table, proceed as follows:
Step 1. Power up the Noise Figure Analyzer and wait for the power-up sequence
to complete.
Step 2. Insert the diskette into the floppy drive of the Noise Figure Analyzer.
NOTE
Do not insert the diskette into the Noise Figure Analyzer until the
power-up sequence is complete.
Step 3. On the Noise Figure Analyzer, press the File key and press the Load
menu key to access the file system.
Step 4. Press the ENR menu key and select whether the ENR table is a Meas
Table (used for measurements) or a Cal Table (used for calibration). If you
intend to use the same ENR table for calibration and measurement, then
set the ENR table as Meas Table.
The Noise Figure Analyzer allows you to use the same or separate ENR
tables for calibration and measurement as required. For more details on
specifying Meas Table and Cal Table, see the Noise Figure Analyzer User’s
Guide .
Step 5. Press the Select menu key and use the arrow keys if necessary to
highlight [-A-]. If C: is the currently selected drive use the “..” directory
to reach the A: drive as directed on the screen. Press the Select menu key
again to read the diskette.
Step 6. Use the down arrow key (↓) to highlight the ENR file and press the Enter
key to load it.
When the file is successfully loaded a message, for example
A:A0100364.ENR file loaded appears on the display.
Note that ENR files with a large number of frequency points (for
example, up to 50 GHz) may take a few seconds to load.
Chapter 3
37
Using the ENR Data Diskette
Loading the ENR Data from Diskette
ENR filename
format
The ENR filename of the ENR file stored on the diskette, for example
A0100123.enr, has the following format:
• The first letter shows the noise source type and can be:
— A = 346A
— B = 346B
— C = 346C
— R = R347A
— Q = Q347A
• The next four digits, for example 0100, show the calibration date. For
example0100 shows a calibration date of January 2000.
• The last three digits, for example 123, are the last 3 digits of the
serial number of the Noise Source.
• The file extension is .enr to indicate ENR file format.
Once the ENR file is loaded from diskette, to verify that the ENR data is
correct, press the ENR key, then press the ENR Table> menu item to
display the ENR table.
Confirm that the Noise Source Serial Number and the Noise Source
38
Chapter 3
Using the ENR Data Diskette
Loading the ENR Data from Diskette
Model ID are correct and compare the Frequency and ENR values with
the supplied Calibration Sheet or the data printed on the body of the
Noise Source.
Chapter 3
39
Using the ENR Data Diskette
Saving the ENR Data to the Noise Figure Analyzer’s Internal Memory
Saving the ENR Data to the Noise Figure
Analyzer’s Internal Memory
To save the current Noise Source ENR data from the diskette (A: drive)
to the Noise Figure Analyzer’s internal memory (C: drive) proceed as
follows:
Step 1. Load the ENR table as described in “Loading the ENR Data from
Diskette” on page 37.
Step 2. Press the File key and press the Save menu key.
Step 3. The ENR menu key indicates whether the file is currently loaded as a
measuremnet table (Meas Table) or a calibration table (Cal Table). Press
the ENR menu key and select whether you want to store the ENR table as
a Meas Table or a Cal Table . If you intend to use the same common ENR
table for calibration and measurement, then set the ENR table as Meas
Table.
The Noise Figure Analyzer allows you to use the same or separate ENR
tables for calibration and measurement as required. For more details on
using ENR tables see the Noise Figure Analyzer User’s Guide .
When the ENR table is selected, the Alpha Editor is now presented to you,
allowing you to specify a name for the file. If required you can use the
numeric keypad to enter numbers in the filename. Note that you can also
use the default filename which is in the format TSTxxxx where x is a
sequentially allocated number. For details of the filename format used
for the ENR data supplied on the diskette, see “ENR filename format” on
page 38.
Step 4. Input the name of the ENR table using the Alpha Editor and numeric
keypad. Use the Tab key to move to the “..”: field.
Step 5. If the To: Path: field is currently A:, press the Select menu key and use
the arrow key to highlight [-C-], then press the Select menu key again.
With the To: Path: field set to C: press Enter to save the file with the
specified filename.
When the file is successfully saved, a message, for example:
C:A0100364.ENR file saved appears on the status line of the display.
40
Chapter 3
Using the ENR Data Diskette
Copying the ENR Data to the Noise Figure Analyzer’s Internal Memory
Copying the ENR Data to the Noise Figure
Analyzer’s Internal Memory
To copy the Noise Source ENR data from the diskette (A: drive) to the
Noise Figure Analyzer’s internal memory (C: drive) proceed as follows:
Step 1. Power up the Noise Figure Analyzer and wait for the power-up sequence
to complete.
Step 2. Insert the diskette into the floppy drive of the Noise Figure Analyzer.
NOTE
Do not insert the diskette into the Noise Figure Analyzer until the
power-up sequence is complete.
Step 3. Press the File key and press the File Manager menu key.
Step 4. Press the Copy> menu key.
The file system is now presented to you.
Step 5. Press the ENR menu key to set the file type and format to ENR.
Step 6. Set the From: Path: field to A:, use the down arrow key (↓) to highlight
the ENR file and the Select key to select it for copying.
The filename you are going to copy now appears in the From: Name:
field.
Step 7. Press the Tab key to navigate to the To: Path: field and ensure it is set
to C:
Step 8. Press the Enter key to copy the selected file from the diskette (A:) to the
Noise Figure Analyzer’s internal memory (C:).
When the file is successfully copied a message, for example
A:A0100364.ENR file copied appears on the status line of the display.
For details on the ENR filename format, see “ENR filename format” on
page 38.
Chapter 3
41
4
ENR File Format
43
ENR File Format
Format Details
Format Details
An ENR file:
• includes all data currently supplied on the printed noise source
Calibration Certificate
• can be viewed and edited using a standard text editor (for example
Notepad)
• is simple to create and interpret
• is easily printable
• is easily imported into Excel
The ENR file is read line by line. Each line is terminated by either a
linefeed character, or a carriage-return, linefeed pair. Each line must be
less then 100 characters long, excluding the terminator.
Lines containing only whitespace (tab or space character) are ignored.
Each line is interpreted as one of three types of record:
• Comment
• Header Field
• ENR Data
Comment Records
A comment record must have either a '#' or '!' as the first character in the
line. The entire line is ignored. Comment records can appear at any
point within the file.
Header Fields
General form
Header fields must have a '[' as the first character in the line. Each
header field has the general form:
• [FieldName OptionalValue]
• The '[' must be the first character on the line.
• The fieldname and optionalvalue, if present, must be separated by
44
Chapter 4
ENR File Format
Format Details
whitespace.
• Whitespace following the ']' is ignored.
• The file must start with one or more header fields (ignoring
comments and blank lines).
All header fields must appear at the beginning of the file before the ENR
data records. Mixing header fields and ENR data is not permitted.
Mandatory header Certain header fields must be present. These are:
fields
Table 4-1
Mandatory header fields
Fieldname
Description
OptionalValue
Description
Example
Filetype
Indicates the type of
file.
ENR
Only ’ENR’ is
allowed for ENR
data files.
[Filetype ENR]
Version
Indicates the version
of the file format
which applies to this
file.
versionnumber
(formatted as
major.minor)
Allows for future
changes in the file
format.
[Version 1.0]
NOTE
All mandatory fields must appear in the file before any optional header
fields.
Optional header
fields
The following header fields are also allowed. Note that only the first two,
Serialnumber and Model are currently used by the Noise Figure
Analyzer.
Table 4-2
Optional header fields
Fieldname
Description
OptionalValue
Description
Example
Serialnumber
the serial
number of the
noise source
serialtext
a string
containing the
serial number
[Serialnumber 3318A14223]
Chapter 4
45
ENR File Format
Format Details
Table 4-2
Optional header fields
Fieldname
Description
OptionalValue
Description
Example
Model
identifies the
noise source
model number
modelcode
model code
string
[Model 346B]
Option
Identifies any
model code
option
optioncode
option code
string
[Option 001]
Caldate
date of
calibration of
noise source
date&time
formatted date
and optional
time
[Caldate 19991202.09:15:30]
Calduedate
indicates date
when next
calibration of
noise source is
due
date&time
formatted date
and optional
time
[Calduedate 20001225]
Temperature
calibration
temperature
value
number
followed by
unit. Valid units
are C,F,K
[Temperature 24C]
Humidity
calibration
relative
humidity
value
number
followed by
optional ’%’
[Humidity 40%]
The format of date&time parameters is YYYYMMDD[.hh:mm:ss], i.e. a
four digit year, two digit month and two digit date, optionally followed by
a ’.’ then two digit hour ’:’ two digit minutes ’:’ two digit seconds.
Unknown header fields are ignored by the Noise Figure Analyzer. This
allows for future expansion.
ENR Data
ENR data records must be ordered from lowest to highest frequency.
General form
The Noise Figure Analyzer attempts to interpret lines which are not
46
Chapter 4
ENR File Format
Format Details
comments or header fields as ENR data. ENR data has the general form:
Freq [Funit] ENR [Eunit] [Euncert [on_mag on_phase
off_mag off_phase [Runcert]]]
Note that the square brackets denote optional fields.
Field separator
Each field is separated by whitespace. A single ’,’ is allowed within or
instead of the whitespace.
Numeric fields
With the exception of the two optional unit fields, the other fields are
numeric. Numbers are formatted as an optional sign, followed by a
sequence of one or more digits (which can include a single decimal point
within the sequence), followed by an optional exponent. The exponent
consists of the ’e’ or ’E’ followed by an optional sign followed by between
one and three digits.
Frequency fields
The frequency field (Freq) is the frequency at which the ENR amplitude
was measured.
The frequency unit field (Funit) is optional. The default unit is Hz.
Valid units are Hz, kHz, MHz, GHz, THz. Units are not case sensitive.
ENR fields
The ENR amplitude (ENR) is the measured ENR at the specified
frequency.
The ENR unit field (Eunit) is optional. The default unit is dB. Currently,
the only allowed unit is dB. Note that units K, C, F (temperature) are
reserved for possible future use, but are not supported by the Noise
Figure Analyzer at this time.
The uncertainty field for the ENR amplitude (Euncert) is optional.
However, this field must be present if reflection coefficient data is
supplied.
Chapter 4
47
ENR File Format
Format Details
Reflection
coefficient data
The reflection coefficient data is optional and is formatted as four fields
(on_mag, on_phase, off_mag, off_phase):
• reflection magnitude with noise source on
• reflection angle (in degrees) with noise source on
• reflection angle with noise source off
• reflection angle (degrees) with noise source off
If any reflection coefficient data is supplied, then all four fields must be
present. Note that the file format requires that the ENR uncertainty
field must be present before any reflection data.
The reflection coefficient uncertainty (Runcert) is an optional parameter.
Reflection coefficient data must be present if this field is supplied.
48
Chapter 4
ENR File Format
Examples
Examples
Example 1
This first example shows a simple ENR file where the Frequency and
ENR values have been entered manually into the Noise Figure Analyzer:
# ENR Data File
# Created by N8973A Agilent NFA Series Noise Figure
Analyzer
# Serial Number US00000012 Firmware Revision A.00.01
# 13:37:07 Mar 28, 2000
# Format is: Frequency (Hz), ENR (dB)
[Filetype ENR]
[Version 1.0]
10000000, 15.3500
100000000, 15.4230
1000000000, 15.2280
2000000000, 15.0900
3000000000, 14.9600
4000000000, 14.8400
5000000000, 14.7890
6000000000, 14.7500
7000000000, 14.7720
8000000000, 14.8570
9000000000, 14.9580
10000000000, 15.0600
11000000000, 15.0830
12000000000, 15.1950
13000000000, 15.2710
14000000000, 15.3430
15000000000, 15.4800
16000000000, 15.6750
17000000000, 15.8400
18000000000, 15.8940
Chapter 4
49
ENR File Format
Examples
Example 2
The second example is a typical ENR file supplied on diskette with a
Noise Source:
[Filetype ENR]
[Version 1.0]
[Serialnumber 3318A15364]
[Model 346B]
[Caldate 20000110.13:53:54]
[Temperature 24C]
[Humidity 40%]
!
!
Frequency
MHz
ENR
dB
Unc
dB
Refl. Coef. On Refl. Coef. Off
Mag
Phase Deg Mag
Phase Deg
10 MHz
15.281
.193
.0450
-136.0
.0330
-66.0
100 MHz
15.291
.190
.0358
+168.0
.0110
-24.6
1000 MHz
15.118
.151
.0398
+39.6
.0107
+164.5
2000 MHz
14.999
.168
.0377
-85.7
.0266
+.9
3000 MHz
14.879
.172
.0267
+150.6
.0390
-129.2
4000 MHz
14.795
.173
.0130
-18.1
.0313
+106.0
5000 MHz
14.818
.179
.0359
+169.5
.0104
-99.3
6000 MHz
14.846
.181
.0556
+63.7
.0451
+104.3
7000 MHz
14.895
.180
.0430
-37.0
.0579
-2.3
8000 MHz
15.016
.198
.0232
-160.3
.0491
-123.8
9000 MHz
15.134
.201
.0122
+71.4
.0407
+107.3
10000 MHz
15.253
.194
.0080
+116.2
.0248
-15.4
11000 MHz
15.249
.243
.0241
+65.7
.0259
+144.5
12000 MHz
15.349
.240
.0196
+8.8
.0457
+32.2
13000 MHz
15.383
.188
.0217
-5.4
.0362
-61.9
14000 MHz
15.355
.178
.0228
-66.6
.0075
+151.2
15000 MHz
15.367
.187
.0141
+141.6
.0136
-13.2
16000 MHz
15.421
.182
.0251
+6.4
.0030
-127.2
17000 MHz
15.418
.174
.0242
-100.5
.0148
-29.7
18000 MHz
15.464
.179
.0183
+124.4
.0198
-149.1
50
Chapter 4
A
Caring for Connectors
The material contained in this appendix may not be apply to the
connector you are using on the instrument.
51
Caring for Connectors
Introduction
Introduction
Recent advances in measurement capabilities have made connectors and
connection techniques more important than ever before. Damage to the
connectors on calibration and verification devices, test ports, cables, and
other devices represent an increasing burden in downtime and expense.
This Appendix will help you get the best performance from all coaxial
microwave connectors:
• To know what to look for when cleaning and inspecting them, in order
to preserve their precision and extend their life.
• To make the best possible microwave connections, improving the
accuracy and repeatability of all of your measurements, saving both
time and money.
Connector Part Numbers
Refer to the latest edition of the HP RF & Microwave Test Accessories
Catalog for connector part numbers.
Handling and Storage
Microwave connectors must be handled carefully, inspected before use
and when not in use, stored in a way that gives them maximum
protection. Avoid touching the connector mating plane surfaces and
avoid setting the connectors contact-end down, especially on a hard
surface.
Never store connectors with the contact end exposed. Plastic end caps
are provided with all Agilent connectors and these should be retained
after unpacking and placed over the ends of the connectors whenever
they are not in use. Extend the threads of connectors that have a
retractable sleeve or sliding connector nut, then put the plastic end cap
over the end of the connector.
Above all, never store any devices loose in a box or in a desk or a bench
drawer. Careless handling of this kind is the most common cause of
connector damage during storage.
52
Appendix A
Caring for Connectors
Visual Inspection
Visual Inspection
Visual inspection and, if necessary, cleaning should be done every time a
connection is made.
Metal and metal by-product particles from the connector threads often
find their way onto the mating plane surfaces when a connection is
disconnected and even one connection made with a dirty or damaged
connector can damage both connectors beyond repair.
Magnification is helpful when inspecting connectors, but it is not
required and may actually be misleading. Defects and damage that
cannot be seen without magnification generally have no effect on
electrical or mechanical performance. Magnification is of great use in
analyzing the nature and cause of damage and in cleaning connectors,
but it is not required for inspection.
Obvious Defects and Damage
Examine the connectors first for obvious defects or damage: badly worn
plating, deformed threads or bent, broken, or misaligned center
conductors. Connector nuts should move smoothly and be free of burrs,
loose metal particles, and rough spots.
Immediately discard, or mark for identification and send away for repair,
any connector that has obvious defects like these.
Mating Plane Surfaces
Flat contact between the connectors at all points on their mating plane
surfaces is required for a good connection. Therefore, particular attention
should be paid to deep scratches or dents, and to dirt and metal or metal
by-product particles on the connector mating plane surfaces.
Also look for bent or rounded edges on the mating plane surfaces of the
center and outer conductors and for any signs of damage due to excessive
or uneven wear or misalignment.
Appendix A
53
Caring for Connectors
Visual Inspection
Light burnishing of the mating plane surfaces is normal, and is evident
as light scratches or shallow circular marks distributed more or less
uniformly over the mating plane surface. Other small defects and
cosmetic imperfections are also normal. None of these affect electrical or
mechanical performance.
If a connector shows deep scratches or dents, particles clinging to the
mating plane surfaces, or uneven wear, clean it and inspect it again.
Damage or defects like dents or scratches, which are deep enough to
displace metal on the mating plane surface of the connector, may indicate
that the connector itself is damaged and should not be used. Try to
determine the cause of the damage before making further connections.
Precision 7 mm Connectors

Precision 7mm connectors, among them APC-7 connectors, should be
inspected visually with the center conductor collets in place, and
whenever the collet has been removed. See Figure A-1.
The collet itself should be inspected for edge or surface damage and for
any signs that the spring contacts are bent or twisted. If they are, replace
the collet. When the collet has been re-inserted, verify that it springs
back immediately when pressed with a blunt plastic rod or with the
rounded plastic handle of the collet removing tool. Never use a pencil or
your finger for this purpose.
54
Appendix A
Caring for Connectors
Visual Inspection
Figure A-1
Precision 7mm Connector
Outer Conductor
Center Conductor
Collet
Outer
Conductor
Mating Plane
Dielectric
Support bead
Sexed Connectors
On sexed connectors, especially precision 3.5mm and SMA connectors,
pay special attention to the female center conductor contact fingers
(Figure A-2 and Figure A-3). These are very easily bent or broken, and
damage to them is not always easy to see. Any connector with damaged
contact fingers will not make good electrical contact and must be
replaced.
Figure A-2
Precision 3.5mm connectors
MALE
Outer Conductor
Mating Plane
FEMALE
Appendix A
55
Caring for Connectors
Visual Inspection
Figure A-3
SMA connectors
MALE
Outer Conductor
Mating Plane
FEMALE
56
Appendix A
Caring for Connectors
Cleaning
Cleaning
Careful cleaning of all connectors is essential to assure long, reliable
connector life, to prevent accidental damage to connectors, and to obtain
maximum measurement accuracy and repeatability. Yet it is the one step
most often neglected or done improperly. Supplies recommended for
cleaning microwave connectors are as follows:
• Compressed Air.
• Alcohol.
• Cotton Swabs.
• Lint-Free Cleaning Cloth.
Compressed Air
Loose particles on the connector mating plane surfaces can usually be
removed with a quick blast of compressed air. This is very easy to do and
should always be tried first using compressed air from a small
pressurized can. The stream of air can be directed exactly where it is
wanted through a plastic (not metal) nozzle. No hoses or other
connections are needed. Hold the can upright, to avoid spraying liquid
along with the vapor.
Cleaning Alcohol
Dirt and stubborn contaminants that cannot be removed with
compressed air can often be removed with a cotton swab or lint free
cleaning cloth moistened with alcohol.
NOTE
Use the least amount of alcohol possible, and avoid wetting any plastic
parts in the connectors with the alcohol.
Appendix A
57
Caring for Connectors
Cleaning
Alcohol should be used in liquid rather than spray form. If a spray must
be used, always spray the alcohol onto a cloth or swab, never directly into
a connector.
Very dirty connectors can be cleaned with pure alcohol. Other solutions
that contain additives should not be used.
Carefully avoid wetting the plastic support bead (which is easily
damaged by alcohol) inside the connector and blow the connector dry
immediately with a gentle stream of compressed air.
Precision 7 mm Connectors
When precision 7mm connectors have been cleaned with the center
conductor collet removed, insert the collet and clean the mating plane
surfaces again.
When the connector is attached to a small component, or to a cable,
calibration, or verification standard, the easiest way to do this is to put a
lint-free cleaning cloth flat on a table and put a couple of drops of alcohol
in the center of the cloth. It should be noted that it is not necessary to
remove the collet to use this cleaning method.
Retract the connector sleeve threads so that the connector interface is
exposed. Gently press the contact end of the connector into the cloth
moistened with alcohol, then turn the connector.
Dirt on the connector interface will be scrubbed away by the cloth
without damaging the connector. Blow the connector dry with a gentle
stream of compressed air.
This cleaning method can be adapted even for fixed connectors such as
those attached to test ports. Simply fold the cloth into several layers of
thickness, moisten it, press it against the connector interface, and turn it
to clean the connector. Blow the connector dry with a gentle stream of
compressed air.
58
Appendix A
Caring for Connectors
Cleaning
Cleaning Interior Surfaces
Interior surfaces, especially on precision 3.5mm connectors, are very
difficult to reach, and it is easy to damage connectors in trying to clean
them. The openings are very small, and generally the center conductor is
supported only at the inner end, by a plastic dielectric support bead. This
makes it very easy to bend or break the center conductor.
One suitable method (Figure A-4) is to cut off the sharp tip of a round
wooden toothpick, or a smaller diameter wooden rod, and then to wrap it
with a single layer of lint-free cleaning cloth.
Figure A-4
Cleaning interior surfaces
NOTE
Metal must never be used (it will scratch the plated surfaces), and in
cleaning precision 3.5mm connectors the diameter must not exceed 0.070
in. (1.7 mm). The wooden handle of a cotton swab, for example, is too
large for this purpose. Even though the handle can sometimes be
inserted into the connector, even when wrapped in lint-free cloth,
movement of the handle against the center conductor can exert enough
force on the center conductor to damage it severely.
Appendix A
59
Caring for Connectors
Cleaning
Moisten the cloth with a small amount of alcohol and carefully insert it
into the connector to clean the interior surfaces. Use an illuminated
magnifying glass or microscope to see clearly the areas you wish to clean.
Drying Connectors
When you have cleaned a connector, always be sure that it is completely
dry before reassembling or using it. Blow the connector dry with a gentle
stream of clean compressed air and inspect it again under a magnifying
glass to be sure that no particles or alcohol residues remain.
60
Appendix A
Caring for Connectors
Mechanical Inspection: Connector Gages
Mechanical Inspection: Connector Gages
Even a perfectly clean, unused connector can cause problems if it is
mechanically out of specification. Since the critical tolerances in
microwave connectors are on the order of a few ten-thousandths of an
inch, using a connector gage is essential.
Before using any connector for the first time, inspect it mechanically
using a connector gage. How often connectors should be gaged after that
depends upon usage.
In general, connectors should be gaged whenever visual inspection or
electrical performance suggests that the connector interface may be out
of specification, for example due to wear or damage. Connectors on
calibration and verification devices should also be gaged whenever they
have been used by someone else or on another system or piece of
equipment.
Precision 3.5mm and SMA connectors should be gaged relatively more
often than other connectors, owing to the ease with which the center pins
can be pulled out of specification during disconnection.
Connectors should also be gaged as a matter of routine - after every 100
connections and disconnections initially, more or less often after that as
experience suggests.
Table A-1
Recommended connector gages
Connector gage kits containing all of the items required are included in many
Agilent calibration kits. They are also available separately. Part numbers are as
follows.
Type
Part Number/Ordering Information
Precision 7mm
(APC-7)
85050-80012
Precision 3.5mm
11752D
Precision 2.4mm
11752E
Type-N
85054-60047
Appendix A
61
Caring for Connectors
Mechanical Specifications
Mechanical Specifications
The critical dimension to be measured, regardless of connector type, is
the position (generally, the recession or setback) of the center conductor
relative to the outer conductor mating plane.
Mechanical specifications for connectors specify a maximum distance
and a minimum distance that the center conductor can be positioned
behind (or, in female Type-N connectors, in front of) the outer conductor
mating plane. Nominal specifications for each connector type exist, but
the allowable tolerances (and sometimes the dimensions themselves)
differ from manufacturer to manufacturer and from device to device.
Therefore, before gaging any connector, consult the mechanical
specifications provided with the connector or the device itself.
Precision 7mm Connectors
In precision 7mm connectors, contact between the center conductors is
made by spring-loaded contacts called collets. These protrude slightly in
front of the outer conductor mating plane when the connectors are apart.
When the connection is tightened, the collets are compressed into the
same plane as the outer conductors.
For this reason, two mechanical specifications are generally given for
precision 7mm connectors: the maximum recession of the center
conductor behind the outer conductor mating plane with the center
conductor collet removed; and a minimum and maximum allowable
protrusion of the center conductor collet in front of the outer conductor
mating plane with the collet in place.
The center conductor collet should also spring back immediately when
pressed with a blunt plastic rod or with the rounded plastic handle of the
collet removing tool. Never use a pencil or your finger for this purpose.
With the center conductor collet removed, no protrusion of the center
conductor in front of the outer conductor mating plane is allowable, and
sometimes a minimum recession is required. Consult the mechanical
specifications provided with the connector or the device itself.
62
Appendix A
Caring for Connectors
Mechanical Specifications
Sexed Connectors
In Type-N and precision 3.5mm connectors, the position of the center
conductor in the male connector is defined as the position of the shoulder
of the male contact pin - not the position of the tip. The male contact pin
slides into the female contact fingers and electrical contact is made by
the inside surfaces of the tip of the female contact fingers on the sides of
the male contact pin.
50 Ohm Type-N Connectors
NOTE
No Type-N connector should ever be used when there is any possibility of
interference between the shoulder of the male contact pin and the tip of
the female contact fingers when the connectors are mated. In practice
this means that no Type-N connector pair should be mated when the
separation between the tip of the female contact fingers and the shoulder
of the male contact pin could be less than zero when the connectors are
mated. Gage Type-N connectors carefully to avoid damage.
Type-N connectors differ from other connector types in that the outer
conductor mating plane is offset from the mating plane of the center
conductors. The outer conductor sleeve in the male connector extends in
front of the shoulder of the male contact pin. When the connection is
made, this outer conductor sleeve fits into a recess in the female outer
conductor behind the tip of the female contact fingers (Figure A-5).
Appendix A
63
Caring for Connectors
Mechanical Specifications
Figure A-5
Type-N connectors
MALE
Outer Conductor
Mating Plane
FEMALE
Therefore the mechanical specifications of Type-N connectors give a
maximum protrusion of the female contact fingers in front of the outer
conductor mating plane and a minimum recession of the shoulder of the
male contact pin behind the outer conductor mating plane.
As Type-N connectors wear, the protrusion of the female contact fingers
generally increases, due to wear of the outer conductor mating plane
inside the female connector. This decreases the total center conductor
contact separation and should be monitored carefully.
75 Ohm Type-N Connectors
75Ω Type-N connectors differ from 50Ω Type-N connectors most
significantly in that the center conductor, male contact pin, and female
contact hole are smaller. Therefore, mating a male 50Ω Type-N
connector with a female 75Ω Type-N connector will destroy the female
75Ω connector by spreading the female contact fingers apart
permanently or even breaking them.
NOTE
If both 75Ω and 50Ω Type-N connectors are among those on the devices
you are using, identify the 75Ω Type-N connectors to be sure that they
are never mated with any 50Ω Type-N connectors.
64
Appendix A
Caring for Connectors
Using Connector Gages
Using Connector Gages
Before a connector gage is used, it must be inspected, cleaned, and
zeroed.
Inspecting and Cleaning the Gage
Inspect the connector gage and the gage calibration block carefully,
exactly as you have inspected the connector itself. Clean or replace the
gage or the block if necessary (dirt on the gage or block will make the
gage measurements of the connectors inaccurate and can transfer dirt to
the connectors themselves, damaging them during gaging or when the
connection is made).
Zeroing the Gage
Zero the gage by following the steps described below. Be sure that you
are using the correct connector gage and correct end of the gage
calibration block for the connector being measured.
• Hold the gage by the plunger barrel (not the dial housing or cap) and,
for male connectors, slip the protruding end of the calibration block
into the circular bushing on the connector gage. For precision 7mm,
female precision 3.5mm use the flat end of the gage calibration block.
For female Type-N connectors, use the recessed end of calibration
block.
• Hold the gage by the plunger barrel only (Figure A-6). Doing so will
prevent errors in gage readings due to the application of stresses to
the gage plunger mechanism through the dial indicator housing.
• Carefully bring the gage and gage block together, applying only
enough pressure to the gage and gage block to result in the dial
indicator pointer settling at a reading.
Appendix A
65
Caring for Connectors
Using Connector Gages
• Gently rock the two surfaces together, to make sure that they have
come together flatly. The gage pointer should now line up exactly with
the zero mark on the gage. If it does not, inspect and clean the gage
and gage calibration block again and repeat this process. If the gage
pointer still does not line up with the zero mark on the gage, loosen
the dial lock screw and turn the graduated dial until the gage pointer
exactly lines up with zero. Then retighten the lock screw.
Figure A-6
Using the connector gage
NOTE
Gages should be checked often, to make sure that the zero setting has
not changed. Generally, when the gage pointer on a gage that has been
zeroed recently does not line up exactly with the zero mark, the gage or
calibration block needs cleaning. Clean carefully and check the zero
setting again.
66
Appendix A
Caring for Connectors
Using Connector Gages
Measuring Connectors
Measuring the recession of the center conductor behind the outer
conductor mating plane in a connector is done in exactly the same way as
zeroing the gage, except of course that the graduated dial is not re-set
when the measurement is made.
If the connector has a retractable sleeve or sliding connector nut precision 7mm connectors, for example - extend the sleeve or nut fully.
This makes it easier to keep the gage centered in the connector.
Hold the gage by the plunger barrel and slip the gage into the connector
so that the gage plunger rests against the center conductor. Carefully
bring the gage into firm contact with the outer conductor mating plane.
Apply only enough pressure to the gage so that the gage pointer settles
at a reading.
Gently rock the connector gage within the connector, to make sure that
the gage and the outer conductor have come together flatly. Read the
recession (or protrusion) from the gage dial. (For maximum accuracy,
measure the connector several times and take an average of the
readings.)
Rotate the gage relative to the connector between each measurement. To
monitor connector wear, record the readings for each connector over time.
Appendix A
67
Caring for Connectors
Making Connections
Making Connections
Making good connections is easy if a few simple principles are kept in
mind:
• Aall connectors must be undamaged, clean, and within mechanical
specification.
• The connectors must be precisely aligned with one another and in flat
physical contact at all points on the mating plane surfaces.
• The connection must not be too tight or too loose.
• Lateral or horizontal (bending) force must not be applied to the
connection, nor should any connection ever be twisted.
Align Connectors Carefully
Careful alignment of the connectors is critical in making a good
connection, both to avoid damaging connectors and devices and to assure
accurate measurements.
As you bring one connector up to the other and as you make the actual
connection, be alert for any sign that the two connectors are not aligned
perfectly. If you suspect that misalignment has occurred, stop and begin
again.
Alignment is especially important in the case of sexed connectors, such
as precision 3.5mm and SMA connectors, to avoid bending or breaking
the contact pins. The center pin on the male connector must slip
concentrically into the contact fingers of the female connector. This
requires great care in aligning the two connectors before and as they are
mated.
When they have been aligned, the center conductors must be pushed
straight together, not twisted or screwed together, and only the connector
nut (not the device itself) should then be rotated to make the connection.
(slight resistance is generally felt as the center conductors mate).
68
Appendix A
Caring for Connectors
Making Connections
Alignment of precision 7mm connectors is made easier by the fact that
the connector sleeve on one of the connectors must be extended fully (and
the sleeve on the other connector retracted fully) in order to make the
connection. Extending the sleeve creates a cylinder into which the other
connector fits.
If one of the connectors is fixed, as on a test port, extend that connector
sleeve and spin its knurled connector nut to make sure that the threads
are fully extended, while on the other connector, fully retract the
connector sleeve.
To Make a Preliminary Connection
Align the two connectors carefully and engage the connector nut over the
exposed connector sleeve threads on the other connector.
Gently turn the connector nut until a preliminary connection is made.
Let the connector nut pull the two connectors straight together. Do not
twist one connector body into the other (as you might drive a screw or
insert a light bulb) as this is extremely harmful and can damage the
connectors.
When the mating plane surfaces make uniform, light contact, the
preliminary connection is tight enough. Do not overtighten this
connection.
NOTE
At this stage all you want is a connection in which the outer conductors
make gentle contact at all points on both mating surfaces. Very light
finger pressure (no more than 2 inch-ounces of torque) is enough.
Appendix A
69
Caring for Connectors
Making Connections
Final Connection Using a Torque Wrench
When the preliminary connection has been made, use a torque wrench to
make the final connection. Tighten the connection only until the “break”
point of the wrench is reached, when the wrench handle gives way at its
internal pivot point. Do not tighten the connection further.
Also make sure that torque actually is being applied to the connection
through the torque wrench, not only to the wrench handle or in any way
that prevents the break point of the wrench from controlling the torque
applied to the connection. Suggestions to ensure that torque is actually
being applied are given in Table A-2 on page 71.
Using a torque wrench guarantees that the connection will not be too
tight, thus preventing possible damage to the connectors and impaired
electrical performance. It also guarantees that all connections will be
made with the same degree of tightness every time they are made.
Torque wrenches pre-set to the correct value for each connector type are
included in many Agilent calibration kits, and they are also available
separately. Torque settings are detailed in Table A-2.
When using a torque wrench, prevent rotation of anything other than the
connector nut that is being tightened with the torque wrench. Generally
this is easy to do by hand (all the more so if one of the connectors is fixed)
as on a test port. In other situations, an open-end wrench can be used to
keep the bodies of the connectors from turning.
Hold the torque wrench lightly by the knurled end of the handle only.
Apply force at the end of the torque wrench only, perpendicular to the
wrench and always in a plane parallel to the outer conductor mating
planes. This will result in torque being applied to the connection through
the wrench until the break point of the wrench is reached.
Avoid pivoting the wrench handle on the thumb or other fingers. This
results in an unknown amount of torque being applied to the connection
when the break point of the wrench is reached. Avoid twisting the head
of the wrench relative to the outer conductor mating plane. This results
in applying more than the recommended torque.
70
Appendix A
Caring for Connectors
Making Connections
Table A-2
Recommended Torque Settings
Type
Description
Precision
7mm
12 lb-in (136 N-cm.)
Precision
3.5mm
8 lb-in (90 N-cm)
SMA
5 lb-in (56 N-cm) Use the SMA wrench to connect male
SMA connectors to female precision 3.5min connectors.
Connections of male precision 3.5mm. connectors to female
SMA connectors can be made with the precision 3.5mm
torque wrench (8 lb-in).
Type-N
Type-N connectors may be connected finger tight. If a
torque wrench is used, 12 lb-in (136 N-cm) is
recommended.
To reiterate the main do’s and do not’s detailed previously:
• Avoid holding the wrench tightly, in such a way that the handle is not
pivoted but simply pushed downward the same amount throughout
its length. If this is done, an unlimited amount of torque can be
applied.
• Hold the wrench at the same point near the end of the handle every
time, and always in the same orientation. Whenever possible, begin
tightening the connection with the wrench held horizontally
Disconnection
Disconnect connectors by first loosening the connector nut that was
tightened in order to make the connection. If necessary, use the torque
wrench or an open-end wrench to start the process, but leave the
connection finger tight. At all times support the devices and the
connection to avoid putting lateral (bending) force on the connectors.
Complete the disconnection by disconnecting the connector nut
completely.
Appendix A
71
Caring for Connectors
Making Connections
NOTE
Never disconnect connectors by twisting one connector or device out of
the other as one might remove a screw or a light bulb. This is extremely
harmful and connector damage can occur whenever the device body
rather than the nut alone is being turned.
If the connection is between sexed connectors, pull the connectors
straight apart and be especially careful not to twist the body of any
device as you do so. Twisting the connection can damage the connector by
damaging the center conductors or the interior component parts to which
the connectors themselves are attached. It can also scrape the plating
from the male contact pin or even (in rare instances) unscrew the male or
female contact pin slightly from its interior mounting, bringing it out of
specification (this can also occur if the female contact fingers are
unusually tight).
72
Appendix A
Caring for Connectors
Adapters
Adapters
Adapters are used to connect a device with one connector interface to a
device or to test equipment that has another interface, or to reduce wear
on connectors that may be difficult or expensive to replace. Reducing
wear is possibly the most important use of adapters, especially when
devices that have SMA connectors are being used.
SMA connectors are low-cost connectors generally used up to about
23GHz. They are not precision mechanical devices and are not designed
for repeated connections and disconnections as they wear out quickly
and are very often found, upon assembly, to be out of specification, even
before they have been used. This makes them potentially destructive to
any precision 3.5mm connectors with which they might be mated.
CAUTION
Worn, damaged, or out-of-specification SMA connectors can destroy a
precision 3.5mm connector even on the very first connection. For this
reason it is recommended that you use high-quality precision adapters,
sometimes called “connector savers”, whenever more than a few
connections are to be made between SMA and precision 3.5mm
connectors.
In most applications two adapters will be required, one each at the input
and the output of the device. Male-female adapters cause no change in
the sex of the interface. The same interface is presented when the
adapter is in place as is presented in the original setup.
Same-sex adapters (male-male, female-female) change the sex of the
interface. For example, if the original interface presents a male
connector, attaching a female-female adapter will result in a female
interface to which devices or cables that have male SMA (or male
precision 3.5mm) connectors can be connected.
Adapters are included in many Agilent calibration kits and with many
Agilent devices, or they may be ordered separately.
Appendix A
73
Caring for Connectors
Adapters
Table A-3
Adapters
Type
Description
Precision 7mm and
Type-N
Precision 7mm/male 3.5mm
Precision 7mm/female 3.5 mm
Precision 7mm/male 50Ω Type-N Precision
7mm/female 50Ω Type-N
Precision 3.5mm
and SMA
Male 3.5mm/female 3.5mm
Male 3.5mm/female 3.5 mm
Female 3.5mm/female 3.5mm
Precision 7mm/male 3.5mm
Precision 7mm/female 3.5mm “Connector
saver” male 3.5mm/female 3.5 mm
“Connector saver” male 3.5mm/male 3.5mm
74
Appendix A
Caring for Connectors
Principles of Microwave Connector Care
Principles of Microwave Connector Care
Table A-4
Principles of Microwave Connector Care
Handling and Storage
DO
DO NOT
•
Keep connectors clean.
•
Touch mating plane surfaces.
•
Extend sleeve or connector nut.
•
Set connectors contact-end down.
•
Use plastic end caps during
storage.
Visual Inspection
DO
DO NOT
•
Inspect each connector carefully
before every connection.
•
Look for metal particles, scratches
and dents.
•
Use a damaged connector EVER.
Cleaning
DO
DO NOT
•
Try compressed air first.
•
Use any abrasives.
•
Clean connector threads.
•
Get liquid onto plastic support
beads.
Appendix A
75
Caring for Connectors
Principles of Microwave Connector Care
Table A-4
Principles of Microwave Connector Care
Gaging
DO
DO NOT
•
Clean and zero the gage before
using.
•
Use correct gage type.
•
Use correct end of calibration
block.
•
Gage all connectors before first
use.
•
Use an out-of-spec connector.
Making Connections
DO
DO NOT
•
Align connectors carefully.
•
•
Make preliminary connection
lightly.
Apply bending force to
connection.
•
Overtighten preliminary
connection.
•
Twist or screw in connectors.
•
Tighten past “break” point of
torque wrench.
•
Turn connector nut only to tighten.
•
Use a torque wrench for final
connection.
76
Appendix A
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising