Polarizing Microscope
Gb Avoid sharp knocks!
Handle the microscope gently, taking care
to avoid sharp knocks.
@ when carrying the microscope
When carrying the microscope, hold its arm
with one hand, supporting the bottom of
the microscope base with the other. The
instrument weighs about 8 kg.
© Place for using
Avoid the use of the microscope in a dusty
place, where it is subject to vibrations or
exposed to high temperatures, moisture or
direct sunlight.
O Power source voltage
—For European districts only—
Make sure of the power source voltage,
220V or 240V, by means of the input
voltage change-over switch which is on the
bottom of the microscope base.
© Exchanging the lamp bulb and fuse
Before replacing the lamp bulb (6V-20W)
or fuse, turn OFF the power switch and
disconnect the plug of the power source
In such cases as of replacement, do not
touch the lamp bulb with bare hands, im-
mediately after putting out the lamp.
© Dirt on the lens
Do not leave dust, dirt or finger marks on
the lens surfaces.
They will prevent you from clear observa-
tion of the specimen image.
7) Strain-free glasses
The optical elements of this microscope
being constructed of strain-free glasses,
take particular caution in handling the
objectives and condenser lenses not to
cause strain to them.
8) Focus knobs
Never attempt to adjust the tightness of
the right- and lefthand focus knobs by
turning the one, while holding the other in
this model microscope, because of causing
GA Cleaning the lenses
To clean the lens surfaces, remove dust
using a soft hair brush or gauze. Only for
removing finger marks or grease, should
soft cotton cloth, lens tissue or gauze
lightly moistened with absolute alcohol
(methanol or ethanol) be used.
For cleaning the objectives and immersion
oil use only xylene.
Observe sufficient caution in handling
alcohol and xylene.
© Cleaning the painted surfaces
Avoid the use of any organic solvent (for
example, thinner, ether, alcohol, xylene
etc.) for cleaning the painted surfaces and
plastic parts of the instrument.
© Never attempt to dismantle!
Never attempt to dismantle the instrument
so as to avoid the possibility of impairing
the operational efficiency and accuracy.
O When not in use
When not in use, cover the instrument with
the accessory vinyl cover, and store it in a
place free from moisture and fungus.
It is especially recommended that the
objectives and eyepieces be kept in an
airtight container containing desiccant.
@ Periodical checking
To maintain the performance of the instru-
ment, we recommend to check the instru-
ments periodically. (For details of this
check, contact our agency.)
I. NOMENCLATURE ............... 4
Il. ASSEMBLY ......... «i... 6
HI. PREPARATION ................. 8
1. Interpupillary Distance Adjustment... 8
2. Diopter Adjustment . . . .......... 8
3. Optical Path Change-over in the
Trinocular Eyepiece Tube “TP . ... 8
4. Centering the Objectives . . . . . ..... 8
5. Centering the Condenser Lens. . . . . .. 9
6. Orientation of the Dia-polarizer ..... 9
IV. MICROSCOPY ......… ......220 10
1. Operating Procedure. ............ 10
2. Manipulation of Each Element ...... 11
1) Focusing - «+ «vo vii iii. . 11
2) Condenser aperture diaphragm . . . . 11
3) Field diaphragm. .. ........... 11
4) Circular graduated stage ........ 11
5) Objectives « « « «ve cv mame « 3 owe 11
B) Evenioces.: : s sons is snes is sine 12
7) Achromat strain-free condenser ... 12
8) Bertrand lens: - ==. «==... ... 12
9) 1/4 A R tint plate ............ 13
10) Dia-polarizer and analyzer ....... 13
Fl Filters cv s sos mms ss pes = 2 5 www 14
12) Illumination system .........e.. 14
V. PHOTOMICROGRAPHY. ........... 15
VI. ACCESSORIES. ......... seee, 17
1. Sénarmont Compensator . ......... 17
2. Quartz Wedge .. ............... 17
3. Monocular Eyepiece Tube “AP” ..... 18
4. Universal epi-illuminator . ......... 18
5. Attachable Mechanical Stage Type “E”. 19
ВЕРЕВЕМСЕ . .. ...... 5... 23
Binocular eyepiece tube “BP”
Interpupillary distance scale
Eyepiece tube clamp screw
Diopter ring
CF eyepiece
Bertrand lens flip-in/out ring
Analyzer in/out knob
Centering nosepiece
CF Achromat P objective
Intermediate tube
Circular graduated stage clamp screw
Circular graduated stage
Coarse focus knob
clamp screw
Fine focus knob
Achromat strain-free condenser
BER ed
. TT Orientation plate
Filter receptacle
(B& GIF)
Dust cap
Fig. 1
Analyzer rotation ring
Intermediate tube “P”
Compensator slot
Analyzer clamp screw
1/4 À & tint plate
Nosepiece centering screw
Condenser focus knob -— mi | | \ % Specimen clip
A . — UN Stage rotation clamp screw
Condenser centering screw
Lamp socket
Condenser aperture
diaphragm control ring
Field diaphragm
control ring
Condenser clamp screw
Y -POL stand
Field lens
Brightness control dial
(including power switch)
Fig. 2
e To assemble the microscope, follow the procedure in the order given:
Bottom of the Base CF eyepiece
Insert the eyepiece CFW 10X CM
into the right-hand sleeve, fitting
the pin of the eyepiece in the
right-hand notch of the sleeve.
Into the left-hand sleeve, insert
© Eyepiece tube
MER, Attach the eyepiece tube on the intermediate tube "P”, fitting
the notch of the circular dovetail on the end of the clamp screw.
1/4 À & tint plate
Remove the screw by the side of
plate and insert it into the com-
Fasten the clamp screw.
Eyepiece tube clamp screw
(5) Intermediate tube “P”
Attach the intermediate tube “P” on the arm of the Y -POL stand,
fitting the notch of the circular dovetail on the end of the
clamp screw. Fasten the clamp screw.
the 1/4 A plate of the 1/4 A € tint
pensator slot of the intermediate
tube “P”, facing the positioning
groove toward the operator side.
Reattach the removed screw.
| Input voltage change-over
(For European districts only)
Make sure of the power source
voltage, 220V or 240V, by means
of the input voltage change-over
switch on the bottom of the
microscope base.
CF Achromat P objective
Mount the objectives on the nose-
piece in such positions that their
magnifying power increases as the
nosepiece is revolved clockwise.
Intermediate tube clamp screw
ottom of the Base
se this BI 220 Thea MD | p, — E | Halogen lamp bulb (6V-20W)
DIES O1 the siege surEee. : ы = 3 Insert the lamp bulb with its pins
into the accepting holes in the
Note Don't touch the bulb sur-
face directly with the fin-
Stage clamp screw
| Circular graduated stage
PEER TON e TOA eN E CE e E Releasing the stage clamp screw
sufficiently, mount the stage on
the circular dovetail of the sub-
Leveling foot screw stage. Clamp the screw.
For stable installation of the
microscope, manipulate the adjust-
ing screw at one foot on the
bottom of the microscope base.
Achromat strain-free condenser
Insert the condenser into the con- =
denser carrier, facing the aperture ‘ ы | | | Quo ee
number plate toward the operator. Е ><
Fasten the clamp screw on the left =. i
side of the carrier.
Aperture number plate Y-POL stand Power source cord—
Dia-polarizer ~ ) Lamp socket
After centering. the objec- To | Insert the socket into the recep-
tives and condenser, insert Filter tacle on the rear of the base.
the dia-polarizer into the
bottom of the condenser. | Place the filter on the field
lens. 6 = 45
Fig. 3
| 1. Interpupillary Distance Adjustment |
Place a specimen on the stage, and focus on the
As shown in Fig. 4, adjust the interpupillary
distance, so that both the right and left view-
fields become one.
2 Diopter Adjustment =
Rotate the diopter ring on the eyepiece CFW
10X CM until the cross lines are seen clear.
(Fig. 5)
Diopter ring
Fig. 5
(For binocular observation)
1) Mount the specimen on the stage. Swing
the objective 10 x into position, and bring
the.specimen image into focus looking into
the right-hand eyepiece.
2) Without manipulating the coarse-and-fine
focus knob, turn the diopter ring on the
left-hand eyepiece to focus on the speci-
3. Optical Path Change-over in the
— Trinocular Eyepiece Tube
(Fig. 6)
Vertical photo
tube: 86%
Observation Observation
tube: 100% tube: 14%
<— ===>
a \— Optical path
change-over knob
Fig. 6
% Since the CF eyepieces are of high eye-
point type, it is not necessary for the user
putting on his spectacles to remove them.
Only fold down the eyeguard rubber.
(Fig. 8)
: 4. Centering the Objectives 2-2
1) Place the specimen on the stage, and focus
on the specimen. Bring an appropriate tar-
get to the center of the cross lines in the
2) Insert the centering tools in the centering
screws on the nosepiece. (Fig. 9)
1 _ Cy
С Та | 7 Centering screw
Fig. 9
Rotate the stage about 180°, and the target
is displaced from the center of the cross
lines. Move the objective using the center-
ing tools so that the center of the cross
lines comes to one half position of the
displacement of the target. (Fig. 10)
A half
of the
(11 № 21
Image of field 45 of field
viewfield stop viewfield stop
Fig. 10
Repeat the above procedure two or three
times, and the rotation center of the stage
coincides with the cross lines center.
Carry out centering for each objective.
Close the field diaphragm in the micro-
scope base to its smallest size by means of
the field diaphragm control ring. Rotate
the condenser focus knob to move the
condenser vertically so that a sharp image
of the field diaphragm is formed on the
specimen surface.
Bring the field diaphragm image to the
center of the field of view by means of
the condenser centering screws.
(Fig. 11 —1 )
Change over to the objective 40X, and
adjust the field diaphragm so that the
image of the diaphragm is about the same
as the eyepiece viewfield stop, as shown in
Fig. 11-21). If not centered, use the con-
denser centering screws again.
Fig. 11
1) Place the specimen on the stage, focus on
“the specimen using objective 40 X.
2) Set the analyzer scale on the intermediate
tube “P” to 0.
3) Insert the dia-polarizer into the bottom
of the condenser as shown in Fig. 12.
Fig. 12
4) Remove the eyepiece from the sleeve.
Observing the exit pupil of objective
inside, rotate the dia-polarizer so as to
form a dark cross image on the exit pupil
as shown in Fig. 13. |
Dark cross image
Fig. 13
1) Turn the brightness control dial (including
power switch) to light the lamp.
2) Bring the analyzer and the Bertrand lens out of
the optical path. (Refer to P. 12 & 13)
3) Place the specimen on the stage and swing the
10X objective into position. Focus on specimen.
4) Adjust the interpupillary distance and diopter.
(Refer to P. 8)
5) Place the filter on the field lens.
6) Carry out the centering procedure for the
objective. (Refer to P. 8)
7) Carry out the centering procedure for the con-
denser. (Refer to P. 9)
8) Bring the analyzer into the optical path.
9) Swing in the objective to be used and refocus on
10) Brightness is adjusted by changing the lamp
Table 1
Orthoscopic Conoscopic
microscopy microscopy
10X or
higher IN
Top lens of '9 IN
eo OUT
Bertrand lens OUT IN
9 — ono Circumscribed
10X or 70% 80% of the the circumfer-
В numerical aperture
Aperture higher of the aldo the
diaphragm conoscopic
AX or field of view
eur Fully opened (or fully
Circumscribed the | Circumscribed
10X or | circumference of | the circumfer-
Field higher | the eyepiece field ence of the
diaphragm of view orthoscopic
4X or field of view
| Fully opened
2. Manipulation of Each Element
The relation between the direction of rota-
tion of the focus knobs and that of vertical
movement of the stage is as indicated in
Fig. 14.
Fine focus
Coarse focus
objective, a good
Fig. 14
One rotation of the fine focus knob moves
the stage 0.2mm.
The graduation on this focus knob is
divided into 2um.
One rotation of the. coarse focus knob
moves the stage 4.7mm.
Tightness of the coarse-fine focus knob
having been properly adjusted by the
manufacturer, it should never be readjusted
in this model microscope by turning the
one knob while holding the other.
Condenser aperture diaphragm (A dia-
Orthoscopic microscopy
The condenser aperture diaphragm is
provided for adjusting the numerical
aperture (N.A.) of the illuminating system
of microscope.
In general, when it is stopped down to 70
~ 80% of the numerical aperture of the
image of appropriate
contrast will be obtained. (Fig. 15)
Exit pupil
of objective
Size of the condenser aperture diaphragm
Fig. 15
Remove the eyepiece from the eyepiece
tube, adjust the size of the diaphragm,
observing the image of the diaphragm
which is visible on the bright circle of exit
pupil of objective inside.
When swinging out the top lens of the con-
denser (for microscopy using 4X or lower
objective), fully open the condenser
aperture diaphragm.
Conoscopic microscopy
In conoscopic microscopy, the condenser
aperture diaphragm works as a field dia-
phragm on the conoscopic image surface.
Stop down .the diaphragm to such an
extent that it circumscribes the circumfer-
ence of the field of view of the conoscopic
image (exit pupil of objective) to shut out
the stray light.
Field diaphragm (F diaphragm)
The field diaphragm is used for determin-
ing the illuminated area on the specimen
surface in relation to the field of view of
the microscope. Generally, it is stopped
down to such an extent that the circum-
ference of the illuminated area circum-
scribes that of the eyepiece field of view.
[Note] This diaphragm does not work as
the field diaphragm when the
condenser top lens is swung out
of the optical path. In this case
the diaphragm is recommended
to be fully opened because the
numerical aperture of the illumi-
nator will be cut off when this
diaphragm is excessively stopped
Circular graduated stage
The rotation angle of the stage is readable
with the accuracy of 0.1” via a vernier scale.
The stage can be clamped at any position
using the stage rotation clamp screw on
the vernier.
The CF Achromat P objectives (Strain-free)
and CF eyepieces adopted in the Nikon
PHOT-POL are designed on the basis of a
concept “Chromatic Aberration Free",
In every case use the CF objectives in com-
bination with the CF eyepieces.
Oil immersion objectives (Oil)
Objective CF Achromat P 100X (Oil), an
oil-immersion type, is to be immersed in oil
between the specimen and front of the
To see if air bubbles are present in the im-
mersion oil, which deteriorate the image
quality, pull out the eyepiece from the
eyepiece tube to examine the objective exit
pupil Inside the tube. To remove air bub-
bles, revolve the nosepiece slightly to and
fro several times, apply additional oil, or
replace the oil. Be careful not to rotate the
nosepiece too far as to soil the ends of the
other objectives with oil.
To clean off the oil, pass lens tissue or soft
cloth moistened with xylene lightly two or
three times over the lens. It is essential at
this time to avoid touching the lens with
the part of tissue or cloth once used.
With the objectives engraved ''160/0.17”,
use a coverglass of 0.17mm in thickness.
The indication ‘160/—" on the objective
means that no matter whether a coverglass
is used or not, no decrease of image defini-
tion or of contrast will result.
To take full advantage of the CF eyepieces
use them
By inserting the eyepiece with cross lines
and graduation (CFW 10XCM) into the
eyepiece sleeve fitting the protractor pin
into the right-hand side groove of the
sleeve, the O-direction of the analyzer and
dia-polarizer are aligned with the cross lines
If the protractor pin is fitted to the upper
right side groove of the sleeve, the cross
lines will be aligned with the diagonal posi-
tion of the polarizaiton.
CF PL Projection lenses are exclusively
designed for photomicrography. Do not
use them for observation. a
For focusing with the observation tube of
the trinocular eyepiece tube for photo-
in combination with the CF
micrography, use the eyepiece incorporat-
ing the photo mask.
Achromat strain-free condenser
The top lens of the condenser is to be
placed in the optical path for the ortho-
scopic and conoscopic microscopy provid-
ed that it is to be swung out when an
objective of 4X or lower magnification is
in use.
[Note] For the orthoscopic microscopy,
a lower numerical aperture illumi-
nation with the top lens swung in
condenser was used to be recom-
mended, however, this method is
not effective especially for high
magnification observation because
of the lowered resolution. Hence,
for the latter case, use of the top
lens may rather be recommend-
able except the retardation mea-
surement or the interference color
observation for which it is neces-
sary to make the illumination
light flux as parallel as possible to
the optical axis by swinging out
the top lens or stopping down the
aperture diaphragm.
® Thickness of the glass slide must be 1.7mm
or less, otherwise, the field diaphragm
might fail to focus its image on the speci-
Bertrand lens
(with the trinocular eyepiece tube “TP” or
the binocular eyepiece tube “BP” in use)
® Bring the Bertrand lens into the optical
path by turning the Bertrand lens ring
leftward to observe the conoscopic image.
(Fig. 16)
Bertrand lens
flip-in/out ring
Fig. 16
® The conoscopic view field is as large as
about 1/4 of the orthoscopic view field.
(Fig. 17)
> _—Conoscopic image
of this area can be
— Orthoscopic viewfield
Fig. 17
® The conoscopic image may also be observ-
ed overlapping on the orthoscopic image
through the binocular observation, one of
the paired eyepieces being replaced with
the accessory pin hole eyepiece and with-
out the Bertrand lens in the optical path.
(Fig. 18)
Pin hole eyepiece
Fig. 18
In the above simultaneous observation of
the conoscopic and orthoscopic images,
the former image may appear deviated
from the orthoscopic view field center,
however, the deviated image represents
the conoscopic light flux that covers the
central part of the orthoscopic view field
to the extent of about 1/18.
9) 1/4 \ & tint plate
® Removing the 1/4 A plate side screw, hold
the 1/4 NX € tint plate, the click-stop
groove facing the operator and insert it
forward into the compensator slot.
Then screw-in the above screw as it was.
(Fig. 19)
Empty hole
Ds g
= ZN N= —Sensitive tint plate
— 1/4X &
= = & tint plate
TE SE Groove X % |
5 ZN
Fig. 19
® Ihe test plate has an empty hole at the
center. By pushing it through the slot, the
sensitive tint plate (530nm) is brought
into the optical path and by pulling it out
the 1/4 À plate is brought into the optical
10) Dia-polarizer and analyzer
® When the both are set at 0 reading on the
protractor scale, position of the polariza-
tion plane coincides with the orientation
plate (X-direction for polarizer, Y-direction
for analyzer) on the microscope base.
(Fig. 20)
[Note] Some of the reference books or
special works about polarizing
microscope available in the
market explain that X-direction is
for analyzer and Y-direction for
er rss
Lp Orientation
Fig. 20
® As the orientation of the dia-polarizer
slightly changes when centering the con-
denser, check the orientation after center-
ing the condenser.
e The analyzer rotates 180” via the rotation
ring the left-hand side clamp being releas-
ed. The rotation angle is readable with
accuracy of 0.1° via the vernier.
clamp screw
rotation ring
Fig. 21
11) Filters
e Place the filter on the field lens.
Table 2
Type of filter Use
B .
(Day light) For general microscopy
GIF For retardation measure-
(Green interference) ment
12) Illumination system
e The optical system for illumination in the
LABOPHOT-POL microscope is construct-
ed to fulfill the Koehler illumination
requirements perfectly, and offers a bright,
uniform field without any change-over
Halogen lamp 6V—20W (PHILIPS 7388)
is used as a light source.
Prepare the following equipments in addition to
the LABOPHOT-POL microscope main body.
* Nikon Microflex
* Trinocular eyepiece tube “TP”
* CF PL Projection Lens
The combined use of the CF P objectives and
CF PL Projection lenses is essential.
For the same total magnification, select a com-
bination of the highest possible objective power
and lowest possible projection lens power to
achieve the utmost image definition and
1) Checking the illumination
Unevenness in the illumination will show
up more conspicuously in photomicro-
"graphy than in observation. Consequently,
before taking a photograph, recheck the
positioning and centering of the lamp and
the correct adjustment of the condenser.
2) Selection of voltage and filter
The color temperature of the light source
varies with the voltage being used. There-
fore, in color photomicrography, the
selection of voltage and filter is essential
(for the result to be obtained).
In color photomicrography, set the bright-
ness control dial to 5.5, and use NCB10
Depending upon the make of the film,
different color renditions may result. It is
recommended that in addition to the NCB
10 filter a color compensation filter (CC
filter), available from the film manufac-
turer, be used.
Desirable shutter speeds for least vibration are
1/4 ~ 1/15 sec. Adjustment of the image bright-
ness for color photomicrography should be
made by means of the ND filters.
Some specimens require, on account of their
insufficient brightness, longer exposure times,
and consequently poor color reproducibility
owing to the “Reprocity Law Failure” of film
may result. So, when taking picture of such
specimens, it is recommended to use the Nikon
Polarizing Microscope OPTIPHOT-POL.
4. Manipulation of Field and Aperture
In photomicrography, the adjustment of the
field diaphragm is important for the purpose of
limiting extraneous light which causes flare in
the microscope image. Stop down the dia-
phragm so as to get an illuminated area slightly
larger than that of the picture field. By adjust-
ing the aperture diaphragm, a change of depth
of focus, contrast and resolution of image is
attainable. Select a size suited to the purpose.
Generally speaking, the aperture diaphragm, is
properly stopped down to 70 ~ 80% of the
aperture of the objective being used.
Focusing for photomicrography can be done
with the observation tube of the trinocular
eyepiece tube “TP” or by using the Microflex
1) For focusing with the Microflex finder
Refer to the Instruction Manual for the
Nikon Microflex.
2) Focusing with the observation tube
For focusing with the observation tube, use
the eyepiece incorporating the photo mask.
Before proceeding to focusing, the bino-
cular diopter adjustment should have been
(1) Insert the eyepiece with photo mask into
the eyepiece sleeve on the side of the user's
dominant eye, and the viewing eyepiece
into the other side sleeve.
Turning the diopter ring, bring the double
cross lines in the mask eyepiece into sharp
focus, and then, turning the coarse-fine
focus knob, focus the specimen image onto
the focused surface at the center of the
mask. For diopter adjustment in the other
eyepiece, do not manipulate the focus
knob, but the diopter ring to bring the
image into focus, with the objective 4X or
(2) Turning the eyepiece as a whole, set it in
such a position that the photo mask ap-
pears as shown in Fig. 22.
Inner frame
_— Intermediate
— Outer frame
Mask eyepiece viewfield
Fig. 22
(3) Furthermore, when using a low power
objective, place the focusing telescope over
the mask eyepiece, thus constructing an
eyepiece of higher magnification, to per-
form precise focusing.
Magnifications of CF PL Projection lenses
suitable for each frame size of photo mask
Refer to Table 3.
Table 3. Magnifications of CF PL Projection
lenses Suitable for Frame Size of
Photo Mask
CF PL P Large format
Type of fim | CE PEFRO- | adapter
jection lens magnification
© E 35 mm 2.5x
O+| 41 XD" 2.5% 4 X
© 35mm 4 X
5 E 4" x 5" 4 Xx 4X
| Зи” ох ду” 2.5 x 4X
= 6x9 2,5 x 4x
5 35 mm 5X
Esl 4x5" 5X 4x
3%" x 4%" 4 x 4 x
For photomicrography, when focusing
with the binocular observation tube, use
the CF eyepiece, CF PL Projection lens and
CF Photo Mask eyepiece, with the magnifi-
cation and other indications engraved in
yellow, or in white with a white dot in
As the intermediate tube “P” of LABO-
PHOT-POL microscope builts in the
depolarizer, it's not necessary to give care
to the relation between the orientation of
the polarizer, analyzer and the position of
the Microflex.
For the use of other photomicrographic
attachments refer to the pertinent instruc-
tion manuals.
| 1.
Senarmont Compensator
To be inserted into the compensator slot of the
intermediate tube “P” in place of the 1/4 \ &
tint plate to measure the retardation with the
accuracy of the A unit. (Fig. 23)
—— Sénarmont
Fig. 23
1) Detecting of extinction position
Rotate the stage with the specimen under
the crossed Nicols to find out the direction
where the specimen part for measurement
appears darkest.
Detecting of subtraction position
Rotate the stage 45° to bring it to the dia-
gonal position from the extinction position
and confirm that the interference color of
the specimen part for measurement changes
toward the lower order side by inserting
the 1/4 À & tint plate into the optical path.
If the color changes toward higher order
side, rotate the stage further by 90”.
Inserting the filter GIF into the filter
receptacle, replace the 1/4 À & tint plate
by the compensator.
Rotate the analyzer so as the specimen part
for measurement becomes as dark as possi-
Let the angle of the above analyzer rota-
tion be 6° then the retardation R (nm) will
be obtained as follows:
= ===
where A : wave length of the
light used for the
When the filter GIF is used: À = 546nm
The quartz wedge is used instead of the 1/4 X
& tint plate that is in the compensator slot of
the intermediate tube “P”. (Fig. 24)
With this wedge the retardation in the range of
1A ~ BA can roughly be measured.
Detecting of extinction position
Detect the position where the specimen
part for measurement becomes darkest by
rotating the stage under the crossed Nicols.
Detecting of subtraction position
Rotate the stage 45° to bring it to the dia-
gonal position from the extinction position
and confirm that the interference color of
the specimen part for measurement changes
toward the lower order side by inserting
the quartz wedge into the optical path.
If the color changes toward the higher
order side, rotate the stage further by 90”.
By sliding the quartz wedge along the slot,
the interference color changes consequent-
The wedge sliding is to be stopped when
the specimen part for measurement comes
under the dark stripe, then compare the
interference color of the view field beyond
the specimen but under the same dark
stripe with the Interference Color Chart to
assume the amount of retardation.
If the view field is entirely filled with the
specimen around the part to be measured,
restrict the illumination of the view field
except around the part for measurement
by means of the field diaphragm; remove
the specimen away the optical path and
then compare the interference color with
the chart.
Monocular Eyepiece Tube “AP” |
Pin hole swing-in/out knob
Monocular eyepiece
tube “AP”
Bertrand lens
in/out turret
Lao (M)
Bertrand lens
focus turret
Fig. 25
1) Bertrand lens
The Bertrand lens is brought in and out of 3)
the optical path by turning the Bertrand
lens turret.
The lens is in the optical path when the
indication on the turret is B.
The Bertrand lens can be focused by turn-
ing the focus turret located under the
Bertrand lens turret.
Pin hole knob
The pin hole can be put in or out of the
optical path by operating the pin hole
knob located right-hand side of the eye-
piece sleeve.
By means of the pin hole, the conoscopic
image covering the area of 10um¢ on the
specimen surface (when a 100 X objective
is used) can be observed.
Used for
mounted between the Y-POL stand and the
intermediate tube “P”.
episcopic polarizing microscopy,
Referring to Fig. 26, assemble in the order
Remove the eyepiece tube and the inter-
mediate tube ““P" from the Y-POL stand.
Mount the universal epi-illuminator on the
microscope arm, positioning the illumi-
nator nearly parallel to the arm. Clamp the
After releasing sufficiently the clamp
screw on the lamp housing, to which the
lamp bulb (12V —50W Halogen lamp) and
socket is attached, insert the lamp housing
into the universal epi-illuminator and
clamp the screw.
Connect the lamp cord to the transformer.
Remove the accessory ND32 filter slider
from the illuminator. Push in the polarizer
slider until it clicks twice.
Place the filters.
Mount the intermediate tube “P”” on the
illuminator, fitting the notch of the cir-
cular dovetail on the end of the clamp
screw. Fasten the clamp screw.
Referring to p.7, mount the eyepiece tube
on the intermediate tube “P”.
tube 14 P 7
Dust-tight 2)
Intermediate tube
clamp screw
Lamp housing
clamp screw
Socket sleeve
clamp screw
Lamp lateral
centering screw
Lamp vertical
centering ring
Field diaphragm ring
Polarizer rotation ring
Polarizer slider
Fig. 26
Centering the lamp
Make certain that the optical-path change-
over knob is pushed to the limit.
Turn ÓN, the power switch on the trans-
former, set the voltage to OV.
If the L900C filter is in the optical-path,
remove this.
Fully open the aperture diaphragm.
Place the ND filter on the stage and focus
on it using objective 10X.
Remove the eyepiece from the sleeve,
looking into the exit pupil of objective,
move the lamp housing back and forth to
form a sharp image of the lamp filament
on the diffuser of exit pupil.
Manipulate the lamp centering screws to
center the filament image on the exit pupil.
Place the L900C filter.
If the image is found too dark with an
objective of 40X or higher, remove the
L900C filter.
Orientation of polarizer (intermediate tube
) Nearly focus on the ND filter on the stage
using objective 40X.
) Set the polarizer graduation to “0”.
Remove one eyepiece from the observation
Looking into the exit pupil of the objective,
rotate the polarizer rotation ring to form
the dark cross image on the exit pupil.
(Refer to Fig. 13)
Note: Take care not to touch the pola-
rizer rotation ring while observing
the specimen, or the orientation
of the polarizer will get out of
IT it is touched by mistake, read-
just the orientation.
Use the objectives CF M Plan Achromat P
series (Strain-free, 210/45).
For manipulation and microscopy, refer to
diascopic polarizing microscopy.
Attachable Mechanical Stage Type
1“ E
To attach the attachable stage on the graduated
stage, fit the two positioning pins on the rear
side of the attachable stage into the two pin
holes on the graduated stage surface, and clamp
the screw using a driver or a coin.
Attachable mechanical stage is equipped with
point counters, which are 0.2mm or 0.3mm in
pitch. These counters can be replaced by releas-
ing the head of the point counters by means of
a coin and removing the milled part of the
To make the click of the point counter free,
release the click spring nut. (Fig. 27)
Point— >
counter , —
mechanical |
stage type E :
Clamp screw
Fig. 27
Although nowhere the user can find any disorder or derangement in the instrument, if he
encounters some difficulty or dissatisfaction, recheck the use, referring to the table below:
Failures .
Causes i Actions
Darkness at the
periphery or
uneven bright-
ness of view-
(No appearance
of viewfield)
Optical path in trinocular tube > Changing-over to the limit
not fully changed-over (Refer to P. 8)
Centering nosepiece not in click- —— Revolve it to click-stop position
stop position (Objective not
centered in optical path)
Condenser not centered
> Centering by using field
diaphragm (Refer to P. 9)
Open it properly
> Cleaning
Field diaphragm too much closed
Dirt or dust on the lens
(Condenser, objective, eyepiece, slide)
Improper use of condenser — Correct use (Refer to P. 10)
Bertrand lens in the optical path=———— Flip out (Refer to P. 12 € 18)
Pin hole in the optical path > Swing out (Refer to P. 18)
(in monocular eyepiece tube “AP”')
Top lens of condenser incorrectly ——— Swing in to the limit
1/4 A € tint plate, compensator —— Correct setting
or quartz wedge incorrectly
Dirt or dust in
the viewfield
Dirt or dust on the lens
(Condenser, objective, eyepiece,
field lens)
Dirt or dust on the slide
Too low position of condenser
— Cleaning
> Cleaning
Correct positioning
(Refer to P. 9)
No good image
obtained (low
resolution or
No coverglass attached to slide —— Correct use (Refer to P. 12)
or NCG objective used with coverglass
Too thick or thin coverglass > Use specified thickness (0.17mm)
coverglass (Refer to P. 12)
Immersion oil soils the top of dry ———— Cleaning
system objective (especially 40 X)
Dirt or dust on the lens (condenser, —— Cleaning
objective, eyepiece, slide)
No immersion oil used on immersion— Use immersion oil
system objective (Refer to P. 12)
Air bubbles in immersion oil — Remove bubbles
Not specified immersion oil used ——— Use Nikon immersion oil
Condenser aperture or field — Open properly (Refer to P. 11)
diaphragm too much opened
Dirt or dust on the entrance lens ——— Cleaning
Failures Causes — > Actions
Image quality e Condenser aperture too much closed Open properly (Refer to P. 11)
deteriorated e [oo low position of condenser — Bring it up to coincidence with
field diaphragm image
(Refer to P. 9)
Oneside dim- ® Centering nosepiece not in click-stop —— Revolve it to click-stop position
ness of image position
Image moves e Specimen rises from stage surface ——— Place it stable
while being e Centering nosepiece not in click-stop —— Revolve it to click-stop position
focused position
e Condenser not correctly centered Correct centering (Refer to P. 9)
e Optical path in trinocular — Changing-over to the limit
tube not fully changed-over (Refer to P. 8)
Image tinged e B filter not used — Use B filter
2. Manipulation
Failures Causes Actions
No focused ® Upside down of slide > Turn over the slide
image obtained | ® Too thick coverglass > Use specified thickness (0.1/7mm)
with high pow- coverglass (Refer to P. 12)
er objectives
High power ob- À Upside down of slide > Turn over the slide
jective touches = ® Too thick coverglass — Use specified thickness (0.17mm)
the slide, when | 5 coverglass (Refer to P. 12)
changed-over e Eyepiece diopter not adjusted ————— Diopter adjustment
from low power (Especially when changing-over (Refer to P. 8)
low power objective 2 Xx)
Insufficient e Evyepiece diopter not adjusted—— Diopter adjustment
parfocality of (Refer to P. 8)
objective (when
Movement of ® Attachable mechanical stage not—— Fix it tightly
image not tightly fixed
smooth by mov-
ing the slide
No fusion of e Interpupillary distance not — Adjustment (Refer to P. 8)
binocular adjusted
Fatigue of ob- e Incorrect diopter adjustment > Correct adjustment
serving eyes (Refer to P. 8)
® |nadequate brightness of —— Change power voltage
3. Electrical
Failures Causes > Actions
Lamp does not | ® No electricity obtained > Connect the cord to socket
light even e No lamp bulb attached > Attaching
though switch- | ® Lamp bulb blown > Replacement
ed ON ® Fuse blown > Replacement
Unstable e House current voltage fluctuates —— Use transformer or the like (for
brightness of too much adequate voltage)
Lamp bulb e Not specified lamp bulb used—— Use 6V—20W specified lamp
promptly bulb: (Halogen bulb: PHILIPS
blown 7388)
e Too high voltage of house current —— Use transformer for adjustment
Insufficient e Condenser not centered > Centering (Refer to P. 9)
brightness of ® Condenser aperture too much closed —— — Open it properly (Refer to P. 11)
illumination e loo low position of condenser—— Correct positioning
(Refer to P. 9)
e Not specified lamp bulb used ——— Use 6V—20W specified Halogen
bulb (PHILIPS 7388)
e Dirt on lens (condenser, objective, —— Cleaning
eyepiece, field lens, filter)
e Too low voltage — Raise the voltage
Fuse blown ® Not specified fuse used > Use 1A/250V or 0.5A/250V
Flickering or
brightness of
lamp bulb
Lamp bulb going to be blown—— — — —>
Lamp socket not inserted >
Fuse holder not firmly fastened —— >
Irregular change of house current ——— >
Lamp bulb insufficiently inserted —— -—
into the socket
Secure connection
Firm fastening
Use stabilizer
Positive connection
This manual instructs only how to manipulate the LABOPHOT-
POL microscope.
For the practical explanation on polarizing microscopy, refer
to the following spe
cial works:
— F. Donald Bloss —
Holt, Rinehart and Winston
— Eugene N. Cameron —
John Wiley & Sons. Inc.
— A. F. Hallimond —
Vickers Instruments
Power source
120V 50/60Hz
Halogen lamp
220/240V 0.5A/250V
} 1A/250V
We reserve the right to make such alterations in design
as we may consider necessary in the light of experience.
For this reason, particulars and illustrations in this
handbook may not conform in every detail to models in
current production.
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