Nikon Polarizing Microscope LABOPHOT-POL INSTRUCTIONS NIPPON KOGAKU K.K. CAUTIONS Gb Avoid sharp knocks! Handle the microscope gently, taking care to avoid sharp knocks. @ when carrying the microscope When carrying the microscope, hold its arm with one hand, supporting the bottom of the microscope base with the other. The instrument weighs about 8 kg. © Place for using Avoid the use of the microscope in a dusty place, where it is subject to vibrations or exposed to high temperatures, moisture or direct sunlight. O Power source voltage —For European districts only— Make sure of the power source voltage, 220V or 240V, by means of the input voltage change-over switch which is on the bottom of the microscope base. © Exchanging the lamp bulb and fuse Before replacing the lamp bulb (6V-20W) or fuse, turn OFF the power switch and disconnect the plug of the power source cord. In such cases as of replacement, do not touch the lamp bulb with bare hands, im- mediately after putting out the lamp. © Dirt on the lens Do not leave dust, dirt or finger marks on the lens surfaces. They will prevent you from clear observa- tion of the specimen image. 7) Strain-free glasses The optical elements of this microscope being constructed of strain-free glasses, take particular caution in handling the objectives and condenser lenses not to cause strain to them. 8) Focus knobs Never attempt to adjust the tightness of the right- and lefthand focus knobs by turning the one, while holding the other in this model microscope, because of causing disorder. CARE AND MAINTENANCE GA Cleaning the lenses To clean the lens surfaces, remove dust using a soft hair brush or gauze. Only for removing finger marks or grease, should soft cotton cloth, lens tissue or gauze lightly moistened with absolute alcohol (methanol or ethanol) be used. For cleaning the objectives and immersion oil use only xylene. Observe sufficient caution in handling alcohol and xylene. © Cleaning the painted surfaces Avoid the use of any organic solvent (for example, thinner, ether, alcohol, xylene etc.) for cleaning the painted surfaces and plastic parts of the instrument. © Never attempt to dismantle! Never attempt to dismantle the instrument so as to avoid the possibility of impairing the operational efficiency and accuracy. O When not in use When not in use, cover the instrument with the accessory vinyl cover, and store it in a place free from moisture and fungus. It is especially recommended that the objectives and eyepieces be kept in an airtight container containing desiccant. @ Periodical checking To maintain the performance of the instru- ment, we recommend to check the instru- ments periodically. (For details of this check, contact our agency.) CONTENTS I. NOMENCLATURE ............... 4 Il. ASSEMBLY ......... «i... 6 HI. PREPARATION ................. 8 1. Interpupillary Distance Adjustment... 8 2. Diopter Adjustment . . . .......... 8 3. Optical Path Change-over in the Trinocular Eyepiece Tube “TP . ... 8 4. Centering the Objectives . . . . . ..... 8 5. Centering the Condenser Lens. . . . . .. 9 6. Orientation of the Dia-polarizer ..... 9 IV. MICROSCOPY ......… ......220 10 1. Operating Procedure. ............ 10 2. Manipulation of Each Element ...... 11 1) Focusing - «+ «vo vii iii. . 11 2) Condenser aperture diaphragm . . . . 11 3) Field diaphragm. .. ........... 11 4) Circular graduated stage ........ 11 5) Objectives « « « «ve cv mame « 3 owe 11 B) Evenioces.: : s sons is snes is sine 12 7) Achromat strain-free condenser ... 12 8) Bertrand lens: - ==. «==... ... 12 9) 1/4 A R tint plate ............ 13 10) Dia-polarizer and analyzer ....... 13 Fl Filters cv s sos mms ss pes = 2 5 www 14 12) Illumination system .........e.. 14 V. PHOTOMICROGRAPHY. ........... 15 VI. ACCESSORIES. ......... seee, 17 1. Sénarmont Compensator . ......... 17 2. Quartz Wedge .. ............... 17 3. Monocular Eyepiece Tube “AP” ..... 18 4. Universal epi-illuminator . ......... 18 5. Attachable Mechanical Stage Type “E”. 19 VII. TROUBLE SHOOTING TABLE....... 20 ВЕРЕВЕМСЕ . .. ...... 5... 126.96.36.199... 23 ELECTRIC SPECIFICATIONS. . ......... 23 I. NOMENCLATURE Binocular eyepiece tube “BP” Interpupillary distance scale Eyepiece tube clamp screw Diopter ring CF eyepiece Eyeguard Bertrand lens flip-in/out ring Analyzer in/out knob Centering nosepiece CF Achromat P objective (strain-free) Intermediate tube Circular graduated stage clamp screw Circular graduated stage Coarse focus knob clamp screw Fine focus knob Vernier Achromat strain-free condenser BER ed . TT Orientation plate Filter receptacle Filters (B& GIF) Dust cap Fig. 1 Analyzer rotation ring Intermediate tube “P” Compensator slot Analyzer clamp screw 1/4 À & tint plate Nosepiece centering screw Condenser focus knob -— mi | | \ % Specimen clip A . — UN Stage rotation clamp screw Condenser centering screw Lamp socket Condenser aperture diaphragm control ring Field diaphragm control ring Dia-polarizer Condenser clamp screw Y -POL stand Field lens Brightness control dial (including power switch) Fig. 2 II. ASSEMBLY e To assemble the microscope, follow the procedure in the order given: Bottom of the Base CF eyepiece Insert the eyepiece CFW 10X CM into the right-hand sleeve, fitting the pin of the eyepiece in the right-hand notch of the sleeve. Into the left-hand sleeve, insert © Eyepiece tube MER, Attach the eyepiece tube on the intermediate tube "P”, fitting the notch of the circular dovetail on the end of the clamp screw. 1/4 À & tint plate Remove the screw by the side of plate and insert it into the com- Fasten the clamp screw. Eyepiece tube clamp screw (5) Intermediate tube “P” Attach the intermediate tube “P” on the arm of the Y -POL stand, fitting the notch of the circular dovetail on the end of the clamp screw. Fasten the clamp screw. the 1/4 A plate of the 1/4 A € tint pensator slot of the intermediate tube “P”, facing the positioning groove toward the operator side. Reattach the removed screw. | Input voltage change-over switch (For European districts only) Make sure of the power source voltage, 220V or 240V, by means of the input voltage change-over switch on the bottom of the microscope base. CF Achromat P objective Mount the objectives on the nose- piece in such positions that their magnifying power increases as the nosepiece is revolved clockwise. Intermediate tube clamp screw ottom of the Base se this BI 220 Thea MD | p, — E | Halogen lamp bulb (6V-20W) DIES O1 the siege surEee. : ы = 3 Insert the lamp bulb with its pins into the accepting holes in the socket. Note Don't touch the bulb sur- face directly with the fin- ger. Stage clamp screw | Circular graduated stage PEER TON e TOA eN E CE e E Releasing the stage clamp screw sufficiently, mount the stage on the circular dovetail of the sub- Leveling foot screw stage. Clamp the screw. For stable installation of the microscope, manipulate the adjust- ing screw at one foot on the bottom of the microscope base. Achromat strain-free condenser Insert the condenser into the con- = denser carrier, facing the aperture ‘ ы | | | Quo ee number plate toward the operator. Е >< Fasten the clamp screw on the left =. i side of the carrier. © Aperture number plate Y-POL stand Power source cord— Dia-polarizer ~ ) Lamp socket After centering. the objec- To | Insert the socket into the recep- tives and condenser, insert Filter tacle on the rear of the base. the dia-polarizer into the bottom of the condenser. | Place the filter on the field lens. 6 = 45 Fig. 3 Ill. PREPARATION | 1. Interpupillary Distance Adjustment | Place a specimen on the stage, and focus on the specimen. As shown in Fig. 4, adjust the interpupillary distance, so that both the right and left view- fields become one. 2 Diopter Adjustment = Rotate the diopter ring on the eyepiece CFW 10X CM until the cross lines are seen clear. (Fig. 5) Diopter ring Fig. 5 (For binocular observation) 1) Mount the specimen on the stage. Swing the objective 10 x into position, and bring the.specimen image into focus looking into the right-hand eyepiece. 2) Without manipulating the coarse-and-fine focus knob, turn the diopter ring on the left-hand eyepiece to focus on the speci- men. 3. Optical Path Change-over in the — Trinocular Eyepiece Tube (Fig. 6) Vertical photo tube: 86% Observation Observation tube: 100% tube: 14% <— ===> a \— Optical path change-over knob Fig. 6 % Since the CF eyepieces are of high eye- point type, it is not necessary for the user putting on his spectacles to remove them. Only fold down the eyeguard rubber. (Fig. 8) : 4. Centering the Objectives 2-2 1) Place the specimen on the stage, and focus on the specimen. Bring an appropriate tar- get to the center of the cross lines in the eyepiece. 2) Insert the centering tools in the centering screws on the nosepiece. (Fig. 9) 1 _ Cy С Та | 7 Centering screw Fig. 9 3) Rotate the stage about 180°, and the target is displaced from the center of the cross lines. Move the objective using the center- ing tools so that the center of the cross lines comes to one half position of the displacement of the target. (Fig. 10) Rotate 180° A half position of the displacement Target- (11 № 21 diaphragm diaphragm Image of field 45 of field Eyepiece viewfield stop viewfield stop Fig. 10 Repeat the above procedure two or three times, and the rotation center of the stage coincides with the cross lines center. Carry out centering for each objective. 2) 3) Close the field diaphragm in the micro- scope base to its smallest size by means of the field diaphragm control ring. Rotate the condenser focus knob to move the condenser vertically so that a sharp image of the field diaphragm is formed on the specimen surface. Bring the field diaphragm image to the center of the field of view by means of the condenser centering screws. (Fig. 11 —1 ) Change over to the objective 40X, and adjust the field diaphragm so that the image of the diaphragm is about the same as the eyepiece viewfield stop, as shown in Fig. 11-21). If not centered, use the con- denser centering screws again. Fig. 11 1) Place the specimen on the stage, focus on “the specimen using objective 40 X. 2) Set the analyzer scale on the intermediate tube “P” to 0. 3) Insert the dia-polarizer into the bottom of the condenser as shown in Fig. 12. Dia-polarizer Fig. 12 4) Remove the eyepiece from the sleeve. Observing the exit pupil of objective inside, rotate the dia-polarizer so as to form a dark cross image on the exit pupil as shown in Fig. 13. | Dark cross image Fig. 13 IV. MICROSCOPY 1) Turn the brightness control dial (including power switch) to light the lamp. 2) Bring the analyzer and the Bertrand lens out of the optical path. (Refer to P. 12 & 13) 3) Place the specimen on the stage and swing the 10X objective into position. Focus on specimen. 4) Adjust the interpupillary distance and diopter. (Refer to P. 8) 5) Place the filter on the field lens. 6) Carry out the centering procedure for the objective. (Refer to P. 8) 7) Carry out the centering procedure for the con- denser. (Refer to P. 9) 8) Bring the analyzer into the optical path. 9) Swing in the objective to be used and refocus on specimen. 10) Brightness is adjusted by changing the lamp voltage. Table 1 Orthoscopic Conoscopic microscopy microscopy 10X or higher IN Top lens of '9 IN condenser eo OUT ower Bertrand lens OUT IN 9 — ono Circumscribed 10X or 70% 80% of the the circumfer- В numerical aperture Aperture higher of the aldo the diaphragm conoscopic AX or field of view eur Fully opened (or fully opened) Circumscribed the | Circumscribed 10X or | circumference of | the circumfer- Field higher | the eyepiece field ence of the diaphragm of view orthoscopic 4X or field of view | Fully opened ower 10 2. Manipulation of Each Element Focusing The relation between the direction of rota- tion of the focus knobs and that of vertical movement of the stage is as indicated in Fig. 14. Fine focus knob Coarse focus knob 2) (1) objective, a good Fig. 14 One rotation of the fine focus knob moves the stage 0.2mm. The graduation on this focus knob is divided into 2um. One rotation of the. coarse focus knob moves the stage 4.7mm. Tightness of the coarse-fine focus knob having been properly adjusted by the manufacturer, it should never be readjusted in this model microscope by turning the one knob while holding the other. Condenser aperture diaphragm (A dia- phragm) Orthoscopic microscopy The condenser aperture diaphragm is provided for adjusting the numerical aperture (N.A.) of the illuminating system of microscope. In general, when it is stopped down to 70 ~ 80% of the numerical aperture of the image of appropriate contrast will be obtained. (Fig. 15) Exit pupil of objective Size of the condenser aperture diaphragm Fig. 15 11 (2) 3) 4) 5) Remove the eyepiece from the eyepiece tube, adjust the size of the diaphragm, observing the image of the diaphragm which is visible on the bright circle of exit pupil of objective inside. When swinging out the top lens of the con- denser (for microscopy using 4X or lower objective), fully open the condenser aperture diaphragm. Conoscopic microscopy In conoscopic microscopy, the condenser aperture diaphragm works as a field dia- phragm on the conoscopic image surface. Stop down .the diaphragm to such an extent that it circumscribes the circumfer- ence of the field of view of the conoscopic image (exit pupil of objective) to shut out the stray light. Field diaphragm (F diaphragm) The field diaphragm is used for determin- ing the illuminated area on the specimen surface in relation to the field of view of the microscope. Generally, it is stopped down to such an extent that the circum- ference of the illuminated area circum- scribes that of the eyepiece field of view. [Note] This diaphragm does not work as the field diaphragm when the condenser top lens is swung out of the optical path. In this case the diaphragm is recommended to be fully opened because the numerical aperture of the illumi- nator will be cut off when this diaphragm is excessively stopped down. Circular graduated stage The rotation angle of the stage is readable with the accuracy of 0.1” via a vernier scale. The stage can be clamped at any position using the stage rotation clamp screw on the vernier. Objectives The CF Achromat P objectives (Strain-free) and CF eyepieces adopted in the Nikon POLARIZING MICROSCOPE LABO- PHOT-POL are designed on the basis of a concept “Chromatic Aberration Free", (1) (2) 6) In every case use the CF objectives in com- bination with the CF eyepieces. Oil immersion objectives (Oil) Objective CF Achromat P 100X (Oil), an oil-immersion type, is to be immersed in oil between the specimen and front of the objective. To see if air bubbles are present in the im- mersion oil, which deteriorate the image quality, pull out the eyepiece from the eyepiece tube to examine the objective exit pupil Inside the tube. To remove air bub- bles, revolve the nosepiece slightly to and fro several times, apply additional oil, or replace the oil. Be careful not to rotate the nosepiece too far as to soil the ends of the other objectives with oil. To clean off the oil, pass lens tissue or soft cloth moistened with xylene lightly two or three times over the lens. It is essential at this time to avoid touching the lens with the part of tissue or cloth once used. Coverglass With the objectives engraved ''160/0.17”, use a coverglass of 0.17mm in thickness. The indication ‘160/—" on the objective means that no matter whether a coverglass is used or not, no decrease of image defini- tion or of contrast will result. Eyepieces To take full advantage of the CF eyepieces use them objectives. By inserting the eyepiece with cross lines and graduation (CFW 10XCM) into the eyepiece sleeve fitting the protractor pin into the right-hand side groove of the sleeve, the O-direction of the analyzer and dia-polarizer are aligned with the cross lines direction. If the protractor pin is fitted to the upper right side groove of the sleeve, the cross lines will be aligned with the diagonal posi- tion of the polarizaiton. CF PL Projection lenses are exclusively designed for photomicrography. Do not use them for observation. a For focusing with the observation tube of the trinocular eyepiece tube for photo- LA in combination with the CF 12 7) micrography, use the eyepiece incorporat- ing the photo mask. Achromat strain-free condenser The top lens of the condenser is to be placed in the optical path for the ortho- scopic and conoscopic microscopy provid- ed that it is to be swung out when an objective of 4X or lower magnification is in use. [Note] For the orthoscopic microscopy, a lower numerical aperture illumi- nation with the top lens swung in condenser was used to be recom- mended, however, this method is not effective especially for high magnification observation because of the lowered resolution. Hence, for the latter case, use of the top lens may rather be recommend- able except the retardation mea- surement or the interference color observation for which it is neces- sary to make the illumination light flux as parallel as possible to the optical axis by swinging out the top lens or stopping down the aperture diaphragm. ® Thickness of the glass slide must be 1.7mm 8) or less, otherwise, the field diaphragm might fail to focus its image on the speci- men. Bertrand lens (with the trinocular eyepiece tube “TP” or the binocular eyepiece tube “BP” in use) ® Bring the Bertrand lens into the optical path by turning the Bertrand lens ring leftward to observe the conoscopic image. (Fig. 16) Bertrand lens flip-in/out ring Fig. 16 ® The conoscopic view field is as large as about 1/4 of the orthoscopic view field. (Fig. 17) > _—Conoscopic image of this area can be observed — Orthoscopic viewfield Fig. 17 ® The conoscopic image may also be observ- ed overlapping on the orthoscopic image through the binocular observation, one of the paired eyepieces being replaced with the accessory pin hole eyepiece and with- out the Bertrand lens in the optical path. (Fig. 18) Pin hole eyepiece Fig. 18 In the above simultaneous observation of the conoscopic and orthoscopic images, the former image may appear deviated from the orthoscopic view field center, however, the deviated image represents the conoscopic light flux that covers the central part of the orthoscopic view field to the extent of about 1/18. 9) 1/4 \ & tint plate ® Removing the 1/4 A plate side screw, hold the 1/4 NX € tint plate, the click-stop groove facing the operator and insert it forward into the compensator slot. Then screw-in the above screw as it was. (Fig. 19) 13 N JAPAN Empty hole Ds g = ZN N= —Sensitive tint plate — 1/4X & = = & tint plate x joues TE SE Groove X % | Le, 5 ZN Fig. 19 ® Ihe test plate has an empty hole at the center. By pushing it through the slot, the sensitive tint plate (530nm) is brought into the optical path and by pulling it out the 1/4 À plate is brought into the optical path. off 10) Dia-polarizer and analyzer ® When the both are set at 0 reading on the protractor scale, position of the polariza- tion plane coincides with the orientation plate (X-direction for polarizer, Y-direction for analyzer) on the microscope base. (Fig. 20) [Note] Some of the reference books or special works about polarizing microscope available in the market explain that X-direction is for analyzer and Y-direction for polarizer. ~~ o er rss Lp Orientation plate Fig. 20 ® As the orientation of the dia-polarizer slightly changes when centering the con- denser, check the orientation after center- ing the condenser. e The analyzer rotates 180” via the rotation ring the left-hand side clamp being releas- ed. The rotation angle is readable with accuracy of 0.1° via the vernier. Analyzer clamp screw Analyzer rotation ring Fig. 21 11) Filters e Place the filter on the field lens. Table 2 Type of filter Use B . (Day light) For general microscopy GIF For retardation measure- (Green interference) ment 12) Illumination system e The optical system for illumination in the LABOPHOT-POL microscope is construct- ed to fulfill the Koehler illumination requirements perfectly, and offers a bright, uniform field without any change-over manipulation. Halogen lamp 6V—20W (PHILIPS 7388) is used as a light source. 14 V. PHOTOMICROGRAPHY Prepare the following equipments in addition to the LABOPHOT-POL microscope main body. * Nikon Microflex * Trinocular eyepiece tube “TP” * CF PL Projection Lens The combined use of the CF P objectives and CF PL Projection lenses is essential. For the same total magnification, select a com- bination of the highest possible objective power and lowest possible projection lens power to achieve the utmost image definition and contrast. 1) Checking the illumination Unevenness in the illumination will show up more conspicuously in photomicro- "graphy than in observation. Consequently, before taking a photograph, recheck the positioning and centering of the lamp and the correct adjustment of the condenser. 2) Selection of voltage and filter The color temperature of the light source varies with the voltage being used. There- fore, in color photomicrography, the selection of voltage and filter is essential (for the result to be obtained). In color photomicrography, set the bright- ness control dial to 5.5, and use NCB10 filter. Depending upon the make of the film, different color renditions may result. It is recommended that in addition to the NCB 10 filter a color compensation filter (CC filter), available from the film manufac- turer, be used. Desirable shutter speeds for least vibration are 1/4 ~ 1/15 sec. Adjustment of the image bright- ness for color photomicrography should be made by means of the ND filters. Some specimens require, on account of their 15 insufficient brightness, longer exposure times, and consequently poor color reproducibility owing to the “Reprocity Law Failure” of film may result. So, when taking picture of such specimens, it is recommended to use the Nikon Polarizing Microscope OPTIPHOT-POL. 4. Manipulation of Field and Aperture Diaphragm In photomicrography, the adjustment of the field diaphragm is important for the purpose of limiting extraneous light which causes flare in the microscope image. Stop down the dia- phragm so as to get an illuminated area slightly larger than that of the picture field. By adjust- ing the aperture diaphragm, a change of depth of focus, contrast and resolution of image is attainable. Select a size suited to the purpose. Generally speaking, the aperture diaphragm, is properly stopped down to 70 ~ 80% of the aperture of the objective being used. Focusing for photomicrography can be done with the observation tube of the trinocular eyepiece tube “TP” or by using the Microflex finder. 1) For focusing with the Microflex finder Refer to the Instruction Manual for the Nikon Microflex. 2) Focusing with the observation tube For focusing with the observation tube, use the eyepiece incorporating the photo mask. Before proceeding to focusing, the bino- cular diopter adjustment should have been finished. (1) Insert the eyepiece with photo mask into the eyepiece sleeve on the side of the user's dominant eye, and the viewing eyepiece into the other side sleeve. Turning the diopter ring, bring the double cross lines in the mask eyepiece into sharp focus, and then, turning the coarse-fine focus knob, focus the specimen image onto the focused surface at the center of the mask. For diopter adjustment in the other eyepiece, do not manipulate the focus knob, but the diopter ring to bring the image into focus, with the objective 4X or 10x. (2) Turning the eyepiece as a whole, set it in such a position that the photo mask ap- pears as shown in Fig. 22. Inner frame _— Intermediate frame — Outer frame Mask eyepiece viewfield Fig. 22 (3) Furthermore, when using a low power 3) objective, place the focusing telescope over the mask eyepiece, thus constructing an eyepiece of higher magnification, to per- form precise focusing. Magnifications of CF PL Projection lenses suitable for each frame size of photo mask Refer to Table 3. Table 3. Magnifications of CF PL Projection lenses Suitable for Frame Size of Photo Mask CF PL P Large format Type of fim | CE PEFRO- | adapter jection lens magnification © E 35 mm 2.5x 56 O+| 41 XD" 2.5% 4 X © 35mm 4 X o 5 E 4" x 5" 4 Xx 4X © | Зи” ох ду” 2.5 x 4X = 6x9 2,5 x 4x 5 35 mm 5X ФЕ Esl 4x5" 5X 4x 3%" x 4%" 4 x 4 x For photomicrography, when focusing with the binocular observation tube, use the CF eyepiece, CF PL Projection lens and 16 CF Photo Mask eyepiece, with the magnifi- cation and other indications engraved in yellow, or in white with a white dot in addition. As the intermediate tube “P” of LABO- PHOT-POL microscope builts in the depolarizer, it's not necessary to give care to the relation between the orientation of the polarizer, analyzer and the position of the Microflex. For the use of other photomicrographic attachments refer to the pertinent instruc- tion manuals. VI. ACCESSORIES | 1. Senarmont Compensator = To be inserted into the compensator slot of the intermediate tube “P” in place of the 1/4 \ & tint plate to measure the retardation with the accuracy of the A unit. (Fig. 23) —— Sénarmont compensator Fig. 23 1) Detecting of extinction position 2) 3) Rotate the stage with the specimen under the crossed Nicols to find out the direction where the specimen part for measurement appears darkest. Detecting of subtraction position Rotate the stage 45° to bring it to the dia- gonal position from the extinction position and confirm that the interference color of the specimen part for measurement changes toward the lower order side by inserting the 1/4 À & tint plate into the optical path. If the color changes toward higher order side, rotate the stage further by 90”. Measurement Inserting the filter GIF into the filter receptacle, replace the 1/4 À & tint plate by the compensator. Rotate the analyzer so as the specimen part for measurement becomes as dark as possi- ble. Let the angle of the above analyzer rota- tion be 6° then the retardation R (nm) will be obtained as follows: 0 = === 180 where A : wave length of the light used for the measurement When the filter GIF is used: À = 546nm 17 The quartz wedge is used instead of the 1/4 X & tint plate that is in the compensator slot of the intermediate tube “P”. (Fig. 24) With this wedge the retardation in the range of 1A ~ BA can roughly be measured. 1) 2) 3) Detecting of extinction position Detect the position where the specimen part for measurement becomes darkest by rotating the stage under the crossed Nicols. Detecting of subtraction position Rotate the stage 45° to bring it to the dia- gonal position from the extinction position and confirm that the interference color of the specimen part for measurement changes toward the lower order side by inserting the quartz wedge into the optical path. If the color changes toward the higher order side, rotate the stage further by 90”. Measurement By sliding the quartz wedge along the slot, the interference color changes consequent- ly. The wedge sliding is to be stopped when the specimen part for measurement comes under the dark stripe, then compare the interference color of the view field beyond the specimen but under the same dark stripe with the Interference Color Chart to assume the amount of retardation. If the view field is entirely filled with the specimen around the part to be measured, restrict the illumination of the view field except around the part for measurement by means of the field diaphragm; remove the specimen away the optical path and then compare the interference color with the chart. Monocular Eyepiece Tube “AP” | Pin hole swing-in/out knob Monocular eyepiece tube “AP” 1) ® Bertrand lens in/out turret Lao (M) Bertrand lens focus turret (2) Fig. 25 1) Bertrand lens 2) a The Bertrand lens is brought in and out of 3) the optical path by turning the Bertrand lens turret. The lens is in the optical path when the indication on the turret is B. The Bertrand lens can be focused by turn- ing the focus turret located under the Bertrand lens turret. Pin hole knob The pin hole can be put in or out of the optical path by operating the pin hole knob located right-hand side of the eye- piece sleeve. By means of the pin hole, the conoscopic image covering the area of 10um¢ on the specimen surface (when a 100 X objective is used) can be observed. © D Used for mounted between the Y-POL stand and the intermediate tube “P”. episcopic polarizing microscopy, Nomenclature Referring to Fig. 26, assemble in the order given. Remove the eyepiece tube and the inter- mediate tube ““P" from the Y-POL stand. Mount the universal epi-illuminator on the microscope arm, positioning the illumi- nator nearly parallel to the arm. Clamp the screw. After releasing sufficiently the clamp screw on the lamp housing, to which the lamp bulb (12V —50W Halogen lamp) and socket is attached, insert the lamp housing into the universal epi-illuminator and clamp the screw. Connect the lamp cord to the transformer. Remove the accessory ND32 filter slider from the illuminator. Push in the polarizer slider until it clicks twice. Place the filters. Mount the intermediate tube “P”” on the illuminator, fitting the notch of the cir- cular dovetail on the end of the clamp screw. Fasten the clamp screw. Referring to p.7, mount the eyepiece tube on the intermediate tube “P”. Intermediate tube 14 P 7 Various Universal epi-illuminator Optical-path change-over knob Dust-tight 2) slider Microscope arm filters gris o Intermediate tube clamp screw Lamp housing clamp screw Socket sleeve clamp screw Lamp lateral centering screw Transformer Lamp vertical centering ring Field diaphragm ring Polarizer rotation ring Polarizer slider 18 Fig. 26 9 3) 4) Preparation Centering the lamp Make certain that the optical-path change- over knob is pushed to the limit. Turn ÓN, the power switch on the trans- former, set the voltage to OV. If the L900C filter is in the optical-path, remove this. Fully open the aperture diaphragm. Place the ND filter on the stage and focus on it using objective 10X. Remove the eyepiece from the sleeve, looking into the exit pupil of objective, move the lamp housing back and forth to form a sharp image of the lamp filament on the diffuser of exit pupil. Manipulate the lamp centering screws to center the filament image on the exit pupil. Place the L900C filter. If the image is found too dark with an objective of 40X or higher, remove the L900C filter. Orientation of polarizer (intermediate tube “pr ) Nearly focus on the ND filter on the stage using objective 40X. ) Set the polarizer graduation to “0”. Remove one eyepiece from the observation tubes. Looking into the exit pupil of the objective, rotate the polarizer rotation ring to form the dark cross image on the exit pupil. (Refer to Fig. 13) Note: Take care not to touch the pola- rizer rotation ring while observing the specimen, or the orientation of the polarizer will get out of order. IT it is touched by mistake, read- just the orientation. Objectives Use the objectives CF M Plan Achromat P series (Strain-free, 210/45). For manipulation and microscopy, refer to diascopic polarizing microscopy. 19 Attachable Mechanical Stage Type 1“ E = To attach the attachable stage on the graduated stage, fit the two positioning pins on the rear side of the attachable stage into the two pin holes on the graduated stage surface, and clamp the screw using a driver or a coin. Attachable mechanical stage is equipped with point counters, which are 0.2mm or 0.3mm in pitch. These counters can be replaced by releas- ing the head of the point counters by means of a coin and removing the milled part of the counters. To make the click of the point counter free, release the click spring nut. (Fig. 27) Point— > counter , — Click spring nut Attachable mechanical | stage type E : Clamp screw Fig. 27 Vii. TROUBLE SHOOTING TABLE Although nowhere the user can find any disorder or derangement in the instrument, if he encounters some difficulty or dissatisfaction, recheck the use, referring to the table below: Optical Failures . Causes i Actions Darkness at the periphery or uneven bright- ness of view- field (No appearance of viewfield) Optical path in trinocular tube > Changing-over to the limit not fully changed-over (Refer to P. 8) Centering nosepiece not in click- —— Revolve it to click-stop position stop position (Objective not centered in optical path) Condenser not centered > Centering by using field diaphragm (Refer to P. 9) Open it properly > Cleaning Field diaphragm too much closed Dirt or dust on the lens (Condenser, objective, eyepiece, slide) Improper use of condenser — Correct use (Refer to P. 10) Bertrand lens in the optical path=———— Flip out (Refer to P. 12 € 18) Pin hole in the optical path > Swing out (Refer to P. 18) (in monocular eyepiece tube “AP”') Top lens of condenser incorrectly ——— Swing in to the limit positioned 1/4 A € tint plate, compensator —— Correct setting or quartz wedge incorrectly positioned Dirt or dust in the viewfield Dirt or dust on the lens (Condenser, objective, eyepiece, field lens) Dirt or dust on the slide Too low position of condenser — Cleaning > Cleaning Correct positioning (Refer to P. 9) No good image obtained (low resolution or contrast) No coverglass attached to slide —— Correct use (Refer to P. 12) or NCG objective used with coverglass Too thick or thin coverglass > Use specified thickness (0.17mm) coverglass (Refer to P. 12) Immersion oil soils the top of dry ———— Cleaning system objective (especially 40 X) Dirt or dust on the lens (condenser, —— Cleaning objective, eyepiece, slide) No immersion oil used on immersion— Use immersion oil system objective (Refer to P. 12) Air bubbles in immersion oil — Remove bubbles Not specified immersion oil used ——— Use Nikon immersion oil Condenser aperture or field — Open properly (Refer to P. 11) diaphragm too much opened Dirt or dust on the entrance lens ——— Cleaning 20 Failures Causes — > Actions Image quality e Condenser aperture too much closed Open properly (Refer to P. 11) deteriorated e [oo low position of condenser — Bring it up to coincidence with field diaphragm image (Refer to P. 9) Oneside dim- ® Centering nosepiece not in click-stop —— Revolve it to click-stop position ness of image position Image moves e Specimen rises from stage surface ——— Place it stable while being e Centering nosepiece not in click-stop —— Revolve it to click-stop position focused position e Condenser not correctly centered Correct centering (Refer to P. 9) e Optical path in trinocular — Changing-over to the limit tube not fully changed-over (Refer to P. 8) Image tinged e B filter not used — Use B filter yellow 2. Manipulation Failures Causes Actions No focused ® Upside down of slide > Turn over the slide image obtained | ® Too thick coverglass > Use specified thickness (0.1/7mm) with high pow- coverglass (Refer to P. 12) er objectives High power ob- À Upside down of slide > Turn over the slide jective touches = ® Too thick coverglass — Use specified thickness (0.17mm) the slide, when | 5 coverglass (Refer to P. 12) changed-over e Eyepiece diopter not adjusted ————— Diopter adjustment from low power (Especially when changing-over (Refer to P. 8) low power objective 2 Xx) Insufficient e Evyepiece diopter not adjusted—— Diopter adjustment parfocality of (Refer to P. 8) objective (when changed-over Movement of ® Attachable mechanical stage not—— Fix it tightly image not tightly fixed smooth by mov- ing the slide No fusion of e Interpupillary distance not — Adjustment (Refer to P. 8) binocular adjusted images Fatigue of ob- e Incorrect diopter adjustment > Correct adjustment serving eyes (Refer to P. 8) ® |nadequate brightness of —— Change power voltage illumination 21 3. Electrical Failures Causes > Actions Lamp does not | ® No electricity obtained > Connect the cord to socket light even e No lamp bulb attached > Attaching though switch- | ® Lamp bulb blown > Replacement ed ON ® Fuse blown > Replacement Unstable e House current voltage fluctuates —— Use transformer or the like (for brightness of too much adequate voltage) illumination Lamp bulb e Not specified lamp bulb used—— Use 6V—20W specified lamp promptly bulb: (Halogen bulb: PHILIPS blown 7388) e Too high voltage of house current —— Use transformer for adjustment Insufficient e Condenser not centered > Centering (Refer to P. 9) brightness of ® Condenser aperture too much closed —— — Open it properly (Refer to P. 11) illumination e loo low position of condenser—— Correct positioning (Refer to P. 9) e Not specified lamp bulb used ——— Use 6V—20W specified Halogen bulb (PHILIPS 7388) e Dirt on lens (condenser, objective, —— Cleaning eyepiece, field lens, filter) e Too low voltage — Raise the voltage Fuse blown ® Not specified fuse used > Use 1A/250V or 0.5A/250V Flickering or unstable brightness of lamp bulb Lamp bulb going to be blown—— — — —> Lamp socket not inserted > sufficiently Fuse holder not firmly fastened —— > Irregular change of house current ——— > voltage Lamp bulb insufficiently inserted —— -— into the socket Replacement Secure connection Firm fastening Use stabilizer Positive connection 22 REFERENCE This manual instructs only how to manipulate the LABOPHOT- POL microscope. For the practical explanation on polarizing microscopy, refer to the following spe cial works: e “AN INTRODUCTION TO THE METHODS OF OPTICAL CRYSTALLOGRAPHY" — F. Donald Bloss — Holt, Rinehart and Winston e “ORE MICROSCOPY"" — Eugene N. Cameron — John Wiley & Sons. Inc. ® “THE POLARIZING MICROSCOPE" ELECTRIC SPE — A. F. Hallimond — Vickers Instruments CIFICATIONS Power source 100V 120V 50/60Hz 220/240V Halogen lamp 6V—20W PHILIPS 7388 Fuse 120V 220/240V 0.5A/250V 100V } 1A/250V 23 We reserve the right to make such alterations in design as we may consider necessary in the light of experience. For this reason, particulars and illustrations in this handbook may not conform in every detail to models in current production.