Workshop Manual L200 - 4x4 Community Forum

Workshop Manual L200 - 4x4 Community Forum
ENGINE ELECTRICAL
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16-2
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Charging System
CHARGING SYSTEM
GENERAL INFORMATION
16100010228
The charging system uses the alternator output
to keep the battery charged at a constant level
under various electrical loads.
OPERATION
Voltage
Rotation of the excited field coil generates AC voltage in
the stator.
This alternating current is rectified through diodes to DC
voltage having a waveform shown in the illustration at left.
The average output voltage fluctuates slightly with the
alternator load condition.
Approx. 14.4 V
Time
When the ignition switch is turned on, current flows
in the field coil and initial excitation of the field
coil occurs.
When the stator coil begins to generate power after
the engine is started, the field coil is excited by
the output current of the stator coil.
The alternator output voltage rises as the field
current increases and it falls as the field current
decreases. When the battery voltage (alternator
S terminal voltage) reaches a regulated voltage
of approx. 14.4 V, the field current is cut off. When
the battery voltage drops below the regulated
voltage, the voltage regulator regulates the output
voltage to a constant level by controlling the field
current.
In addition, when the field current is constant, the
alternator output voltage rises as the engine speed
increases.
SYSTEM DIAGRAM
Stator coil
Charging
warning lamp
Ignition
switch
Field coil
Voltage
regulator
Battery
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Charging System
16-3
ALTERNATOR SPECIFICATIONS
Items
4G63, 4G64
4D56
Type
Battery voltage sensing
Battery voltage sensing
Rated output V/A
12/60
12/65, 12/75*
Voltage regulator
Electronic built-in type
Electronic built-in type
NOTE
*: Vehicles with over fender
SERVICE SPECIFICATIONS
16100030149
Items
Standard value
Limit
Alternator output line voltage drop (at 30A) V
–
max. 0.3
Regulated voltage ambient
temp. at voltage regulator V
tem
– 20_C
14.2 – 15.4
–
20_C
13.9 – 4.9
–
60_C
13.4 – 14.6
–
80_C
13.1 – 14.5
–
Output current
–
70% of normal output current
Rotor coil resistance Ω
Approx. 2 – 5
–
Maximum vacuum (at 3,000 r/min) <4D56> kPa
80
–
Protrusion length of brush mm
–
2
SPECIAL TOOL
Tool
16100060087
Number
Name
Use
MD998467
Alternator test
harness
Checking the alternator (S terminal voltage)
16-4
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Charging System
ON-VEHICLE SERVICE
16100090192
ALTERNATOR OUTPUT LINE VOLTAGE DROP TEST
Ammeter
Alternator
Voltmeter
Battery
B-terminal
This test determines whether the wiring from the
alternator “B” terminal to the battery (+) terminal
(including the fusible line) is in a good condition
or not.
(1) Always be sure to check the following before
the test.
D Alternator installation
D Alternator drive belt tension (Refer to
GROUP 11 – On-vehicle Service.)
D Fusible link
D Abnormal noise from the alternator while
the engine is running
(2) Turn the ignition switch off.
(3) Disconnect the negative battery cable.
(4) Disconnect the alternator output wire from the
alternator “B” terminal and connect a DC test
ammeter with a range of 0–100 A in series
between the “B” terminal and the disconnected
output wire. (Connect the (+) lead of the
ammeter to the “B” terminal, and then connect
the (–) lead of the ammeter to the disconnected
output wire.)
NOTE
An inductive-type ammeter which enables
measurements
to
be
taken
without
disconnecting the alternator output wire should
be recommended. Using this equipment will
lessen the possibility of a voltage drop caused
by a loose “B” terminal connection.
(5) Connect a digital-type voltmeter between the
alternator “B” terminal and the battery (+)
terminal. (Connect the (+) lead of the voltmeter
to the “B” terminal and the connect the (–) lead
of the voltmeter to the battery (+) cable.)
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Charging System
(11)If the value displayed on the voltmeter is above
the limit value, there is probably a malfunction
in the alternator output wire, so check the wiring
between the alternator “B” terminal and the
battery (+) terminal (including fusible link).
If a terminal is not sufficiently tight or if the
harness has become discolored due to
overheating, repair and then test again.
(12)After the test, run the engine at idle.
(13)Turn off all lamps and the ignition switch.
(14)Remove the tachometer.
(15)Disconnect the negative batter cable.
(16)Disconnect the ammeter and voltmeter.
(17)Connect the alternator output wire to the
alternator “B” terminal.
(18)Connect the negative battery cable.
(6) Connect a tachometer. (Refer to GROUP 11
– On-vehicle Service.)
(7) Reconnect the negative battery cable.
(8) Leave the hood open.
(9) Start the engine.
(10)With the engine running at 2,500 r/min, turn
the headlamps and other lamps on and off
to adjust the alternator load so that the value
displayed on the ammeter is slightly above 30
A.
Adjust the engine speed by gradually
decreasing it until the value displayed on the
ammeter is 30 A. Take a reading of the value
displayed on the voltmeter at this time.
Limit: max. 0.3 V
NOTE
When the alternator output is high and the value
displayed on the ammeter does not decrease
until 30 A, set the value to 40 A. Read the
value displayed on the voltmeter at this time.
When the value range is 40 A, the limit is max.
0.4 V.
OUTPUT CURRENT TEST
16100100192
Charging warning
lamp
Alternator
Ignition
switch
L
Alternator relay
B
S
Voltmeter
Ammeter
Battery
16-5
16-6
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Charging System
This test determines whether the alternator output
current is normal.
(1) Before the test, always be sure to check the
following.
D Alternator installation
D Battery (Refer to GROUP 54 – Battery.)
NOTE
The battery should be slightly discharged.
The load needed by a fully-charged battery
is insufficient for an accurate test.
D Alternator drive belt tension (Refer to
GROUP 11 – On-vehicle Service.)
D Fusible link
D Abnormal noise from the alternator while
the engine is running.
(2) Turn the ignition switch off.
(3) Disconnect the negative battery cable.
(4) Disconnect the alternator output wire from the
alternator “B” terminal. Connect a DC test
ammeter with a range of 0–100 A in series
between the “B” terminal and the disconnected
output wire. (Connect the (+) lead of the
ammeter to the “B” terminal. Connect the (–)
lead of the ammeter to the disconnected output
wire.)
Caution
Never use clips but tighten bolts and nuts
to connect the line. Otherwise loose
connections (e.g. using clips) will lead to
a serious accident because of high current.
NOTE
An inductive-type ammeter which enables
measurements
to
be
taken
without
disconnecting the alternator output wire should
be recommended.
(5) Connect a voltmeter with a range of 0–20 V
between the alternator “B” terminal and the
earth. (Connect the (+) lead of the voltmeter
to the “B” terminal, and then connect the (–)
lead of the voltmeter to the earth.)
(6) Connect the negative battery cable.
(7) Connect a tachometer. (Refer to GROUP 11
– On-vehicle Service.)
(8) Leave the hood open.
(9) Check that the reading on the voltmeter is equal
to the battery voltage.
NOTE
If the voltage is 0 V, the cause is probably
an open circuit in the wire or fusible link between
the alternator “B” terminal and the battery (+)
terminal.
(10)Turn the light switch on to turn on headlamps
and then start the engine.
(11)Immediately after setting the headlamps to high
beam and turning the heater blower switch to
the high revolution position, increase the engine
speed to 2,500 r/min and read the maximum
current output value displayed on the ammeter.
Limit: 70% of normal current output
NOTE
D For the nominal current output, refer to the
Alternator Specifications.
D Because the current from the battery will
soon drop after the engine is started, the
above step should be carried out as quickly
as possible in order to obtain the maximum
current output value.
D The current output value will depend on
the electrical load and the temperature of
the alternator body.
D If the electrical load is small while testing,
the specified level of current may not be
output even though the alternator is normal.
In such cases, increase the electrical load
by leaving the headlamps turned on for
some time to discharge the battery or by
using the lighting system in another vehicle,
and then test again.
D The specified level of current also may not
be output if the temperature of the alternator
body or the ambient temperature is too
high. In such cases, cool the alternator and
then test again.
(12)The reading on the ammeter should be above
the limit value. If the reading is below the limit
value and the alternator output wire is normal,
remove the alternator from the engine and
check the alternator.
(13)Run the engine at idle after the test.
(14)Turn the ignition switch off.
(15)Remove the tachometer.
(16)Disconnect the negative battery cable.
(17)Disconnect the ammeter and voltmeter.
(18)Connect the alternator output wire to the
alternator “B” terminal.
(19)Connect the negative battery cable.
16-7
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Charging System
REGULATED VOLTAGE TEST
Ignition
switch
Charging warning
lamp
16100110195
Load
MD998467
Alternator
L
Alternator relay
S
B
Ammeter
Voltmeter
Battery
Yellow
This test determines whether the voltage regulator
is correctly controlling the alternator output voltage.
(1) Always be sure to check the following before
the test.
D Alternator installation
D Check that the battery installed in the
vehicle is fully charged. (Refer to GROUP
54 – Battery.)
D Alternator drive belt tension (Refer to
GROUP 11 – On-vehicle Service.)
D Fusible link
D Abnormal noise from the alternator while
the engine is running
(2) Turn the ignition switch to the OFF position.
(3) Disconnect the negative battery cable.
(4) Use the special tool to connect a digital
voltmeter between the alternator S terminal and
earth. (Connect the (+) lead of the voltmeter
to the “S” terminal, and then connect the (–)
lead of the voltmeter to a secure earth or to
the battery (–) terminal.)
(5) Disconnect the alternator output wire from the
alternator “B” terminal.
(6) Connect a DC test ammeter with a range of
0–100 A in series between the “B” terminal
and the disconnected output wire. (Connect
the (+) lead of the ammeter to the “B” terminal.
Connect the (–) lead of the ammeter to the
disconnected output wire.)
(7) Reconnect the negative battery cable.
(8) Connect a tachometer or the MUT-II. (Refer
to GROUP 11 – On-vehicle Service.)
(9) Turn the ignition switch to the ON position and
check that the reading on the voltmeter is equal
to the battery voltage.
NOTE
If the voltage is 0 V, the cause is probably
an open circuit in the wire or fusible link between
the alternator “S” terminal and the battery (+)
terminal.
(10)Turn all lamps and accessories off.
(11)Start the engine.
(12)Increase the engine speed to 2,500 r/min.
(13)Read the value displayed on the voltmeter when
the alternator output current alternator
becomes 10 A or less.
16-8
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Charging System
(14)If the voltage reading conforms to the value
in the voltage regulation, then the voltage
regulator is operating normally.
If the voltage is not within the standard value,
there is a malfunction of the voltage regulator
or of the alternator.
(15)After the test, lower the engine speed to the
idle speed.
(16)Turn the ignition switch off.
(17)Remove the tachometer.
(18)Disconnect the negative battery cable.
(19)Disconnect the ammeter and voltmeter.
(20)Connect the alternator output wire to the
alternator “B” terminal.
(21)Remove the special tool, and return the
connector to the original condition.
(22)Connect the negative battery cable.
Voltage Regulation Table
Standard value:
Inspection terminal
Voltage regulator ambient temperature _C
Voltage V
Terminal “S”
– 20
14.2 – 15.4
20
13.9 – 14.9
60
13.4 – 14.6
80
13.1 – 14.5
16-9
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Charging System
Special
patterns
pickup
Alternator
Analyzer
WAVEFORM CHECK USING AN ANALYZER
16100120143
MEASUREMENT METHOD
Connect the analyzer special patterns pick-up to the alternator
B terminal.
B terminal
STANDARD WAVEFORM
Observation Conditions
FUNCTION
SPECIAL PATTERNS
PATTERN HEIGHT
VARIABLE
VARIABLE knob
Adjust while viewing the waveform.
PATTERN SELECTOR
RASTER
Engine speed
Curb idle speed
0.4
0.2
Voltage at
alternator
B terminal
0
– 0.2
– 0.4
Time
NOTE
The voltage waveform of the alternator B terminal can undulate
as shown at left. This waveform is produced when the regulator
operates according to fluctuations in the alternator load
(current), and is normal for the alternator.
In addition, when the voltage waveform reaches an
excessively high value (approx. 2 V or higher at idle), it often
indicates an open circuit due to a brown fuse between
alternator B terminal and battery, but not a defective alternator.
16-10
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Charging System
EXAMPLES OF ABNORMAL WAVEFORMS
NOTE
1. The size of the waveform patterns differs largely, depending on the adjustment of the variable knob
on the analyzer.
2. Identification of abnormal waveforms is easier when there is a large output current (regulator is not
operating). (Waveforms can be observed when the headlamps are illuminated.)
3. Check the conditions of the charging warning lamp (illuminated/not illuminated). Also, check the charging
system totally.
Abnormal waveforms
Problem
cause
Abnormal waveforms
Problem
cause
Example 1
D
Open
diode
Example 4
D
Short in
stator coil
Example 2
D
Short
diode
Example 5
D
Open
supplementary
diode
in
At this time, the charging warning lamp
is illuminated.
Example 3
D
Broken
wire
in
stator coil
Example 5
At this time, the charging warning lamp
is illuminated.
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Charging System
ALTERNATOR
16-11
16100140187
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Pre-removal Operation
D Under Cover Removal
Post-installation Operation
D Drive Belt Tension Adjustment (Refer to GROUP
11 – On-vehicle Service.)
D Under Cover Installation
<4G6>
8
14 Nm
9.8 Nm
20 – 25 Nm
12 – 15
Nm
2
1
7
20 – 25 Nm
3
<4D56>
14 Nm 9.8 Nm
8
6
3
7
12 – 15
Nm
2
4
44 Nm
17 Nm
5
1
Removal steps
1. Drive bolt (for A/C)
2. Drive belt (for power steering)
3. Drive belt (for alternator)
4. Oil pipe connection
5.
6.
7.
8.
Oil return hose connection
Vacuum hose connection
Alternator
Alternator brace assembly
16-12
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Charging System
DISASSEMBLY AND REASSEMBLY
16100160169
<4G6>
1
4
3
6
7
5
2
12
10
9
8
14
13
11
AA"
AB"
Disassembly steps
1. Front bracket assembly
2. Pulley
"BA 3. Rotor
4. Rear bearing
5. Bearing retainer
6. Front bearing
7. Front bracket
AC"
8.
9.
AC" "AA 10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Stator
Plate
Regulator assembly
Brush
Slinger
Rectifier assembly
Rear bracket
16-13
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Charging System
DISASSEMBLY AND REASSEMBLY
<4D56>
12
9
11
13
14
15
10
22
16
20
18
17
1
21
2
19
3
4
5
6
7
8
Disassembly steps
1. Check valve
2. Nipple
3. Vacuum pump housing
4. O-ring
"CA 5. Vane
"CA 6. Rotor
7. Vacuum pump plate
8. O-ring
AA"
9. Front bracket assembly
AB"
10. Pulley
"BA 11. Rotor
12.
13.
14.
15.
AC"
16.
17.
AC" "AA 18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
Rear bearing
Bearing retainer
Front bearing
Front bracket
Stator
Plate
Regulator assembly
Brush
Slinger
Rectifier assembly
Rear bracket
16-14
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Charging System
DISASSEMBLY SERVICE POINTS
AA" FRONT BRACKET REMOVAL
1. Remove the bolts.
2. Insert a flat-tipped screwdriver between front bracket and
stator core and pry downwards.
Caution
Do not insert a screwdriver too deep, as the stator
coil will be damaged.
AB" PULLEY REMOVAL
With the pulley side facing up, hold the rotor in a vice and
remove the pulley.
Caution
Use care not to damage the rotor.
Soldered
AC" STATOR REMOVAL/REGULATOR ASSEMBLY
REMOVAL
1. When removing stator, unsolder three stator leads
soldered to main diodes on rectifier.
2. When removing rectifier from brush holder, unsolder two
soldered points to rectifier.
Caution
1. When soldering or unsoldering, use care to make
sure that heat of soldering iron is not transmitted
to diodes for a long period. Finish soldering or
unsoldering in as short a time as possible.
2. Use care that no undue force is exerted to leads
of diodes.
REASSEMBLY SERVICE POINT
Wire
"AA REGULATOR ASSEMBLY INSTALLATION
Install the regulator assembly, insert a wire into the rear bracket
hole while pushing in the brush, and hold the brush.
NOTE
Inserting a wire holds the brush, so that the rotor can be
replaced easily.
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Charging System
16-15
Rear bracket
Brush
Wire
"BA ROTOR INSTALLATION
1. When installing the rotor on the alternator rear bracket,
wrap vinyl tape around the splined shaft to prevent
damage to the oil seal. <4D56>
Wind vinyl
tape
2. After rotor has been installed, remove the wire.
Wire
Vane
Round end
"CA ROTOR/VANES INSTALLATION <4D56>
1. Carefully check the housing, rotor, etc. for chips and
foreign matter. Then, apply engine oil and install.
2. Install the vanes with the round end facing outward.
3. Apply grease to the O-ring and fit in the housing groove
so that it will not come out from the groove when the
bolts are tightened.
4. When tightening the housing, lightly push it in the direction
of arrow so as to minimize the clearance at “A” and tighten
the bolts uniformly.
A
Push housing in
this direction
NOTE
After assembly, be sure to conduct a performance test
to check to see that the maximum vacuum is as specified
below.
Standard value of maximum vacuum:
80.00 kPa or greater at 3,000 r/min
16-16
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Charging System
INSPECTION
16100170162
ROTOR
1. Check rotor coil for continuity. Check that there is no
continuity between slip rings. If resistance is too small,
it means that there is a short circuit. If there is no continuity
or if there is a short circuit, replace rotor assembly.
Resistance value: Approx. 2 – 5 Ω
2. Check rotor coil for earthing. Check that there is no
continuity between slip ring and core. If there is continuity,
replace rotor assembly.
STATOR
1. Make continuity test on stator coil. Check that there is
continuity between coil leads. If there is no continuity,
replace stator assembly.
2. Check coil for earthing. Check that there is no continuity
between coil and core. If there is continuity, replace stator
assembly.
RECTIFIERS
1. Check for continuity between positive rectifier and stator
coil lead connection terminal with an ohmmeter. If there
is continuity in both directions, diode is shorted. Replace
rectifier assembly.
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Charging System
16-17
2. Check for continuity between negative rectifier and stator
coil lead connection terminal. If there is continuity in both
directions, diode is shorted, and rectifier assembly must
be replaced.
3. Check three diodes for continuity by connecting an
ammeter to both ends of each diode. If there is no
continuity in both directions, diode is faulty and heatsink
assembly must be replaced.
BRUSH
1. Replace the brush if its protrusion length is less than
the limit.
Limit: min. 2 mm
Protrusion
length
2. Unsolder pigtail and remove old brush and spring.
Soldered
Housing
VACUUM PUMP
Check the following and replace if defective.
1. Check the rotor ends for streaks or damage.
2. Check the housing surface in contact with the rotor for
streaks or damage.
3. Check the vanes for damage or breaks.
Rotor
O-ring
Vane
16-18
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Starting System
STARTING SYSTEM
16200010191
GENERAL INFORMATION
and M terminal to conduct. Thus, current flows to
engage the starter motor.
When the ignition switch is returned to the ”ON”
position after starting the engine, the starter clutch
is disengaged from the ring gear.
An overrunning clutch is provided between the
pinion and the armature shaft, to prevent damage
to the starter.
If the ignition switch is turned to the “START”
position, current flows in the pull-in and holding
provided inside magnetic switch, attracting the
plunger. When the plunger is attracted, the lever
connected to the plunger is actuated to engage
the starter clutch.
On the other hand, attracting the plunger will turn
on the magnetic switch, allowing the B terminal
SYSTEM DIAGRAM
Holding coil
Pull-in coil
Plunger
Lever
Over-running clutch
Pinion shaft
Ignition switch
Armature
Battery
Brush
Yoke
Field coil (4G63-Standard and M/T, 4D56)
STARTER MOTOR SPECIFICATIONS
<4G63, 4G64>
Items
4G63 – M/T – standard models
4G63 – A/T – models for cold climate,
4G64
Type
Direct drive
Reduction drive with planetary gear
Rated output kW/V
0.9/12
1.2/12
No. of pinion teeth
8
8
Items
Standard and M/T
Cold climate zone and A/T
Type
Reduction drive with planetary gear
Reduction drive with planetary gear
Rated output kw/V
2.0
2.2
No. of pinion teeth
10
10
<4D56>
16-19
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Starting System
SERVICE SPECIFICATIONS
Items
Standard value
Limit
Pinion gap mm
0.5 – 2.0
–
Commutator outer diameter mm
32.0
31.0
Commutator runout mm
0.05
0.1
Commutator undercut mm
0.5
–
STARTER MOTOR
Switch
16200110174
INSPECTION
B
S
M
Battery
Field coil wire
PINION GAP ADJUSTMENT
1. Disconnect field coil wire from M-terminal of magnetic
switch.
2. Connect a 12V battery between S-terminal and
M-terminal.
3. Set switch to “ON”, and pinion will move out.
Caution
This test must be performed quickly (in less than
10 seconds) to prevent coil from burning.
4. Check pinion to stopper clearance (pinion gap) with a
thickness gauge.
Pinion gap: 0.5 – 2.0 mm
Stopper
Pinion gap
Pinion
5. If pinion gap is out of specification, adjust by adding or
removing gaskets between magnetic switch and front
bracket.
16-20
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Starting System
MAGNETIC SWITCH PULL-IN TEST
1. Disconnect field coil wire from M-terminal of magnetic
switch.
2. Connect a 12V battery between S-terminal and
M-terminal.
B
S
M
Battery
Field coil wire
Caution
This test must be performed quickly (in less than
10 seconds) to prevent coil from burning.
3. If pinion moves out, then pull-in coil is good. If it doesn’t,
replace magnetic switch.
MAGNETIC SWITCH HOLD-IN TEST
1. Disconnect field coil wire from M-terminal of magnetic
switch.
2. Connect a 12V battery between S-terminal and body.
B
S
M
Battery
Field coil wire
Carbon-pile rheostat
B
Ammeter
S
M
Starter
motor
Battery
Voltmeter
Caution
This test must be performed quickly (in less than
10 seconds) to prevent coil from burning.
3. Manually pull out the pinion as far as the pinion stopper
position.
4. If pinion remains out, everything is in order. If pinion moves
in, hold-in circuit is open. Replace magnetic switch.
FREE RUNNING TEST
1. Place starter motor in a vise equipped with soft jaws
and connect a fully-charged 12-volt battery to starter motor
as follows:
2. Connect a test ammeter (100-ampere scale) and carbon
pile rheostat in series with battery positive post and starter
motor terminal.
3. Connect a voltmeter (15-volt scale) across starter motor.
4. Rotate carbon pile to full-resistance position.
5. Connect battery cable from battery negative post to starter
motor body.
6. Adjust the rheostat until the battery voltage shown by
the voltmeter is 11.5 V (for the direct drive type) or 11
V (for reduction drive type).
7. Confirm that the maximum amperage is within the
specifications and that the starter motor turns smoothly
and freely.
Current:
max. 60 Amps (Direct drive type)
max. 90 Amps (Reduction drive type)
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Starting System
MAGNETIC SWITCH RETURN TEST
1. Disconnect field coil wire from M-terminal of magnetic
switch.
2. Connect a 12V battery between M-terminal and body.
B
S
M
16-21
Battery
Starter
motor
Field coil wire
Caution
This test must be performed quickly (in less than
10 seconds) to prevent coil from burning.
3. Pull pinion out and release. If pinion quickly returns to
its original position, everything is in order. If it doesn’t,
replace magnetic switch.
Caution
Be careful not to get your fingers caught when pulling
out the pinion.
16-22
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Starting System
DISASSEMBLY AND REASSEMBLY <DIRECT DRIVE TYPE>
16200120214
2
12
13
4
3
15
17
1
5
11
6
16
14
7
8
9
10
AA"
Disassembly steps
1. Screw
2. Magnetic switch
3. Packing
4. Plate
5. Screw
6. Through bolt
7. Rear bracket
8. Rear bearing
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
AC" "AA 14.
AC" "AA 15.
16.
17.
Brush holder assembly
Yoke assembly
Armature
Lever
Washer
Snap ring
Stop ring
Overrunning clutch
Front bracket
16-23
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Starting System
DISASSEMBLY AND REASSEMBLY <REDUCTION DRIVE TYPE – 4G6>
2
12
13
14
16
11
15
1
21
20
19
18
4
17
3
22
8
5
7
6
9
10
AA"
AA"
AA"
Disassembly steps
1. Screw
2. Magnetic switch
3. Screw
4. Screw
5. Rear bracket
6. Brush holder
7. Brush
8. Rear bearing
9. Armature
10. Yoke assembly
11. Ball
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
AC" "AA 17.
AC" "AA 18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
Packing A
Packing B
Plate
Planetary gear
Lever
Snap ring
Stop ring
Overrunning clutch
Internal gear
Planetary gear holder
Front bracket
16-24
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Starting System
DISASSEMBLY AND REASSEMBLY <REDUCTION DRIVE TYPE – 4D56>
2
14
12
16
13
11
15
1
4
22
19
3
8
21
20
18
17
23
5
6
10
7
9
AA"
AB"
Disassembly steps
1. Screw
2. Magnetic switch
3. Screw
4. Screw
5. Rear bracket
6. Brush holder
7. Yoke assembly
8. Brush
9. Armature
10. Bearing
11. Packing A
12. Packing B
13.
14.
15.
16.
AC" "AA 17.
AC" "AA 18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
AB"
Plate
Ball
Planetary gear
Lever
Snap ring
Stop ring
Overrunning clutch
Internal gear
Washer
Planetary gear holder
Front bracket
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Starting System
Magnetic switch
“S” terminal
“B” terminal
16-25
DISASSEMBLY SERVICE POINTS
AA" MAGNETIC SWITCH REMOVAL
Disconnect field coil wire from “M” terminal of magnetic switch.
“M” terminal
Field coil wire
AB" ARMATURE/BALL REMOVAL
Caution
When removing the armature, take care not to lose the
ball (which is used as a bearing) in the armature end.
AC" SNAP RING/STOP RING REMOVAL
1. Press stop ring off snap ring with a suitable socket.
Socket
Stop ring
Armature
Pinion gear
Overrunning
clutch
2. Remove snap ring with snap ring pliers and then remove
stop ring and overrunning clutch.
Snap ring
Pinion gear
Snap ring
pliers
Overrunning
clutch
Armature
STARTER MOTOR PARTS CLEANING
1. Do not immerse parts in cleaning solvent. Immersing the
yoke and field coil assembly and/or armature will damage
insulation. Wipe motor assembly with a cloth only.
2. Do not immerse drive unit in cleaning solvent. Overrunning
clutch is pre-lubricated at the factory and solvent will wash
lubrication from clutch.
3. The drive unit may be cleaned with a brush moistened
with cleaning solvent and wiped dry with a cloth.
16-26
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Starting System
REASSEMBLY SERVICE POINTS
"AA STOP RING/SNAP RING INSTALLATION
Using a suitable pulling tool, pull overrunning clutch stop ring
over snap ring.
Stop ring
Overrunning
Stop ring clutch
Snap ring
INSPECTION
16200130194
COMMUTATOR CHECK
1. Place the armature in a pair of “V” blocks and check
the runout with a dial indicator.
Standard value: 0.05 mm
Limit: 0.1 mm
2. Measure the commutator outer diameter.
Standard value: 32.0 mm
Limit: 31.0 mm
Undercut
Mica
3. Check the undercut depth between segments.
Standard value: 0.5 mm
Segment
FIELD COIL OPEN-CIRCUIT TEST <DIRECT DRIVE
TYPE>, <REDUCTION DRIVE TYPE-4D56>
Check the continuity between field brushes. If there is
continuity, the field coil is in order.
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Starting System
16-27
FIELD COIL GROUND TEST <DIRECT DRIVE TYPE>,
<REDUCTION DRIVE TYPE-4D56>
Check the continuity between field coil brush and yoke. If
there is no continuity, the field coil is free from earth.
Field brush
Yoke
BRUSH HOLDER CHECK
Check the continuity between brush holder plate and brush
holder.
If there is no continuity, the brush holder is in order.
Insulated
brush holder
OVERRUNNING CLUTCH CHECK
1. While holding clutch housing, rotate the pinion. Drive
pinion should rotate smoothly in one direction, but should
not rotate in opposite direction. If clutch does not function
properly, replace overrunning clutch assembly.
2. Inspect pinion for wear or burrs. If pinion is worn or burred,
replace overrunning clutch assembly. If pinion is damaged,
also inspect ring gear for wear or burrs.
Free
Lock
FRONT AND REAR BRACKET BUSHING CHECK
Inspect bushing for wear or burrs. If bushing is worn or burred,
replace front bracket assembly or rear bracket assembly.
BRUSH AND SPRING REPLACEMENT
Wear limit line
<REDUCTION DRIVE TYPE-4G6>
1. Brushes that are worn beyond wear limit line, or oil-soaked,
should be replaced.
2. When replacing ground brush, slide the brush from brush
holder by prying retaining spring back.
16-28
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Starting System
<DIRECT DRIVE TYPE>, <REDUCTION DRIVE
TYPE-4D56>
1. Brushes that are worn beyond wear limit line, or are
oil-soaked, should be replaced.
2. When replacing field coil brushes, crush worn brush with
pliers, taking care not to damage pigtail.
New brush
Pigtail
Soldered (Make
sure that there is
no excess solder
on blush surface)
3. Sand pigtail end with sandpaper to ensure good soldering.
4. Insert pigtail into hole provided in new brush and solder
it.
Make sure that pigtail and excess solder do not come
out onto brush surface.
5. When replacing ground brush, slide the brush from brush
holder by prying retainer spring back.
Surface marked
Growler
ARMATURE TEST
ARMATURE SHORT-CIRCUIT TEST
1. Place armature in a growler.
2. Hold a thin steel blade parallel and just above while rotating
armature slowly in growler. A shorted armature will cause
blade to vibrate and be attracted to the core. Replace
shorted armature.
ARMATURE COIL EARTH TEST
Check the insulation between each commutator segment and
armature coil core.
If there is no continuity, the insulation is in order.
ARMATURE COIL OPEN-CIRCUIT INSPECTION
Check the continuity between segments. If there is continuity,
the coil is in order.
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Ignition System
IGNITION SYSTEM
16-29
16300010194
GENERAL INFORMATION
When the primary current stops suddenly in the
ignition coil, high voltage appears in the secondary
side of the coil. The distributor supplies the high
voltage to the applicable spark plug. The engine
firing order is 1-3-4-2 cylinders.
The high voltage ignites the compressed air fuel
mixture in the combustion chamber through the
spark plugs.
The engine-ECU makes and breaks the primary
current of the ignition coil to regulate the ignition
timing.
The engine-ECU detects the crankshaft position
by the crank angle sensor incorporated in the
distributor to provide ignition at the most appropriate
timing for the engine operating condition.
When the engine is cold or operated at a high
altitude, the ignition timing is slightly advanced to
provide optimum performance to the operating
condition.
SYSTEM DIAGRAM
Battery
Ignition switch
Ignition coil
Secondary coil
Primary coil
Air flow sensor (AFS)
Intake air temperature sensor
Power transistor
Barometric pressure sensor
Engine coolant temperature sensor
Idle position switch
Vehicle speed sensor
Enginge-ECU
Distributor
Inhibitor switch
Ignition switch-ST
Camshaft position sensor
Crankshaft angle sensor
Spark plugs
16-30
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Ignition System
DISTRIBUTOR SPECIFICATIONS
Items
Specifications
Type
Contact pointless
Advance mechanism
Electronic
Firing order
1–3–4–2
IGNITION COIL SPECIFICATIONS
Items
Specifications
Type
Molded single-coil
SPARK PLUG SPECIFICATIONS
Items
Specifications
NGK
BKR5E-11
NIPPON DENSO
K16PR-U11
SERVICE SPECIFICATIONS
16300030190
Items
Standard value
Limit
Primary coil resistance Ω
0.67 – 0.81
–
Secondary coil resistance
kΩ
11.3 – 15.3
–
Spark plug gap mm
1.0 – 1.1
–
Resistive cord resistance kΩ
–
Max. 22
Ignition coil
LUBRICANT
Items
Specified lubricant
Quantity
Distributor cupping
Multipurpose grease SAE J310,
NLGI No.3
2g
SPECIAL TOOL
Tool
16300060151
Number
Name
Use
MB991348
Test harness set
Inspection of ignition primary voltage (power
transistor connection)
16-31
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Ignition System
ON-VEHICLE SERVICE
High-voltage
terminal
16300120231
IGNITION COIL CHECK
1. Measurement of the primary coil resistance
Measure the resistance between (+) terminal and (–)
terminal.
Standard value: 0.67 – 0.81 Ω
2. Measurement of secondary coil resistance
Measure the resistance between the high-voltage
terminals and (+) terminal.
Standard value: 11.3 – 15.3 kΩ
POWER TRANSISTOR CONTINUITY CHECK
16300130159
NOTE
An analogue-type circuit tester should be used.
Voltage: 1.5V
Terminal No.
1
2
3
Applied
Ignition coil
Power transistor
Not applied
+
–
Replace the power transistor if there is a malfunction.
1.5V
–
+
RESISTIVE CORD CHECK
16300140091
Measure the resistance of the all spark plug cables.
1. Check cap and coating for cracks.
2. Measure resistance.
Limit: Max. 22 kΩ
16-32
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Ignition System
SPARK PLUG CHECK AND CLEANING
16300150056
1. Remove the spark plug cables.
Caution
When pulling off the spark plug cable from the plug
always hold the cable cap, not the cable.
2. Remove the spark plugs.
3. Check for burned out electrode or damaged insulator.
Check for even burning.
4. Remove carbon deposits with wire brush or plug cleaner.
Remove sand from plug screw with compressed air.
Plug gap gauge
5. Use a plug gap gauge to check that the plug gap is
within the standard value range.
Standard value: 1.0 – 1.1 mm
Measurement direction
If the plug gap is not within the standard value range,
adjust by bending the earth electrode.
6. Clean the engine plug holes.
Caution
Be careful not to allow foreign matter in cylinders.
7. Install the spark plugs.
CRANK ANGLE SENSOR, TOP DEAD SENSOR
CHECK
16300260308
Refer to GROUP 13A – Troubleshooting.
16-33
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Ignition System
WAVEFORM CHECK USING AN ANALYZER
16300170274
Ignition Secondary Voltage Check
MEASUREMENT METHOD
1. Clamp the high-tension cable with the secondary pickup.
2. Clamp the spark plug cable with the trigger pickup.
(Basically, clamp the spark plug cable of the No.1 cylinder.)
NOTE
The waveform of the cylinder clamped to the trigger pickup
appears at the left edge of the screen.
STANDARD WAVEFORM
Observation Conditions
FUNCTION
SECONDARY
PATTERN HEIGHT
HIGH (or LOW)
PATTERN SELECTOR
RASTER
Engine Speed
Curb idle speed
Spark line
(Point A)
kV
Ignition
voltage
(Point D)
Vibration damping
section (Point B)
Dwell
section
Ignition
secondary
voltage
waveform
(Point C)
Time
16-34
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Ignition System
WAVEFORM OBSERVATION POINTS
Point A: The height, length and slope of the spark line show the following trends (Refer to abnormal
waveform examples, 1, 2, 3 and 4).
Spark line
Length
Height
Plug gap
Condition of
electrode
Compression
force
Concentration of
air mixture
Ignition timing
Spark plug
cable
Long
Small
Normal
Low
Rich
Advanced
Leak
Short
Large
Large wear
High
Lean
Retarded
High
resistance
High
Large
Large wear
High
Lean
Retarded
High
resistance
Low
Small
Normal
Low
Rich
Advanced
Leak
Large
Plug is fouled
–
–
–
–
Slope
Point B: Number of vibration in reduction vibration section (Refer to abnormal waveform example 5)
Number of vibrations
Coil and condenser
Three or more
Normal
Except above
Abnormal
Point C: Number of vibrations at beginning of dwell section (Refer to abnormal waveform example 5)
Number of vibrations
Coil
5 – 6 or higher
Normal
Except above
Abnormal
Point D: Ignition voltage height (distribution per each cylinder) shows the following trends.
Ignition
voltage
Plug gap
Condition of
electrode
Compression
force
Concentration of
air mixture
Ignition timing
Spark plug cable
High
Large
Large wear
High
Lean
Retarded
High resistance
Low
Small
Normal
Low
Rich
Advanced
Leak
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Ignition System
16-35
EXAMPLES OF ABNORMAL WAVEFORMS
Abnormal waveform
Wave characteristics
Cause of problem
Example 1
Spark line is high and short.
Spark plug gap is too large.
Example 2
Spark line is low and long, and is
sloping.
Also, the second half of the spark line
is distorted. This could be a result of
misfiring.
Spark plug gap is too small.
Example 3
Spark line is low and long, and is
sloping. However, there is almost no
spark line distortion.
Spark plug gap is fouled.
Example 4
Spark line is high and short.
Difficult to distinguish between this
and abnormal waveform example 1.
Spark plug cable is nearly falling off.
(Causing a dual ignition)
Example 5
No waves in wave damping section.
Layer short in ignition coil
01P0215
16-36
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Ignition System
Ignition Primary Voltage Waveform Check
MEASUREMENT METHOD
1. Disconnect the power transistor connector and connect
the special tool (test harness: MB991348) in between.
(All of the terminals should be connected.)
Ignition coil
Power transistor
Analyzer
Power
transistor
connector
Primary
pickup
2. Connect the analyzer primary pickup to the power
transistor connector terminal 3.
3. Connect the primary pickup earth terminal.
4. Clamp the spark plug cable with the trigger pickup.
NOTE
The waveform of the cylinder clamped to the trigger pickup
will appear at the left edge of the screen.
16-37
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Ignition System
STANDARD WAVEFORM
Observation conditions
FUNCTION
SECONDARY
PATTERN HEIGHT
HIGH (or LOW)
PATTERN SELECTOR
RASTER
Engine Speed
Curb idle speed
(V)
Zener voltage
(Point C)
100
(Approx. 40×10V)
Spark line
(Point A)
Vibration damping
section (Point B)
Dwell
section
Ignition
primary
voltage
0
waveform
Time
Observation conditions
(Only the pattern selector shown below changes from the previous conditions)
PATTERN SELECTOR
DISPLAY
(V)
100
Centre
section
Ignition
primary
voltage
waveform
0
Time
16-38
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Ignition System
WAVEFORM OBSERVATION POINTS
Point A: The height, length and slope of the spark line (refer to abnormal waveform examples 1, 2,
3 and 4) show the following trends.
Spark line
Length
Height
Plug gap
Condition of
electrode
Compression
force
Concentration of
air mixture
Ignition timing
High tension
cable
Long
Small
Normal
Low
Rich
Advanced
Leak
Short
Large
Large wear
High
Lean
Retarded
High
resistance
High
Large
Large wear
High
Lean
Retarded
High
resistance
Low
Small
Normal
Low
Rich
Advanced
Leak
Large
Plug is fouled
–
–
–
–
Slope
Point B: Number of vibration in reduction vibration section
(Refer to abnormal waveform example 5)
Number of vibrations
Coil, condenser
3 or higher
Normal
Except above
Abnormal
Point C: Height of Zener voltage
Height of Zener voltage
Probable cause
High
Problem in Zener diode
Low
Abnormal resistance in
primary coil circuit
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Ignition System
16-39
EXAMPLES OF ABNORMAL WAVEFORMS
Abnormal waveform
Wave characteristics
Cause of problem
Example 1
Spark line is high and short.
Spark plug gap is too large.
Example 2
Spark line is low and long, and is
sloping.
Also, the second half of the spark line
is distorted. This could be a result of
misfiring.
Spark plug gap is too small.
Example 3
Spark line is low and long, and is
sloping. However, there is almost no
spark line distortion.
Spark plug gap is fouled.
Example 4
Spark line is high and short.
Spark plug cable is nearly falling off.
(Causing a dual ignition)
Example 5
No waves in wave damping section
Layer short in ignition coil
16-40
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Ignition System
DISTRIBUTOR
16300200140
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Post-installation Operation
D Engine Adjustment (Refer to GROUP 11A –
On-vehicle Service.)
6
9
8
Grease: SAE J310, NLGI No.3
2
10 – 12 Nm
3
1
4
10 Nm
24 Nm
13 Nm
9
6
7
5
Removal steps
1. Timing belt upper cover
2. Spark plug cable and high tension
cable
3. Distributor connector
4. Power transistor connector
8
"CA
"BA
"AA
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Ignition coil connector
Distributor assembly
Distributor bracket
Camshaft sprocket spacer
Oil seal
INSTALLATION SERVICE POINTS
"AA OIL SEAL INSTALLATION
Tap in the oil seal until it is flush with the camshaft sprocket
spacer.
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Ignition System
16-41
"BA CAMSHAFT SPROCKET SPACER INSTALLATION
Install the camshaft sprocket spacer so that the mating marks
on the camshaft sprocket spacer and the camshaft sprocket
are aligned.
Mating
marks
"CA DISTRIBUTOR ASSEMBLY INSTALLATION
1. Apply 2 grams of grease in the places shown in the
illustration.
Specified grease:
Multipurpose grease SAE J310, NLGI No.3
2. Turn the crankshaft clockwise to align the timing marks.
NOTE
The No.1 cylinder will be at compression top dead centre
if the timing mark on the camshaft sprocket is aligned
with the timing mark on the cylinder head.
Timing mark
Mating marks
3. Align the mating mark on the distributor housing side
with the mating mark on the coupling side.
4. Install the distributor to the engine while aligning the
distributor fixing bolt with the oblong hole on the distributor
mounting flange.
16-42
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Ignition System
DISASSEMBLY AND REASSEMBLY
16300220122
4
3
2
1
Disassembly steps
1. Distributor cap
2. Rotor
3. Cover
4. Distributor housing
16-43
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Glow System
GLOW SYSTEM
16400010029
GENERAL INFORMATION
SELF-REGULATING GLOW SYSTEM
The self-regulating glow system reduces the time
required for starting at low temperatures to provide
a degree of starting and operation that is identical
to petrol-engine vehicles by preheating the glow
plugs at super-quick speed.
The glow control unit controls both the time during
which current is supplied to the glow plugs after
the ignition switch is turned to the ON position and
also the glow indicator lamp illumination time in
accordance with the engine coolant temperature.
The resistances of the heating coils which are built
into the glow plugs increase as the glow plug
temperatures become higher. As a result of this,
the flow of current gradually decreases, thus
stabilizing the glow plug temperature at the
specified temperature.
Glow control unit
Glow plug relay
Pre-heat indicator lamp
Engine coolant
temperature sensor
Charge lamp
Glow plugs
ON
ST
Ignition switch
Alternator
Starter motor
Battery
16-44
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Glow System
SERVICE SPECIFICATIONS
16400030025
Item
Standard value
Resistance between glow plug plate and glow plug body
(parallel resistance for 4 glow plugs) (at 20 _C) Ω
0.10 – 0.15
Voltage between glow plug plate and
glow plug body V
Immediately after ignition switch is turned to
ON (without starting
the engine)
9 – 11 (Drops to 0 V after 4 – 8 seconds have passed)
While engine is cranking
6 or more
While engine is warming up
12 – 15 (Drops to 0 V when the engine coolant
temperature increases to 60 _C or more or if 180
seconds have passed since the engine was started)
Glow plug resistance (at 20 _C) Ω
0.4 – 0.6
SEALANT
16400050021
Item
Specified sealant
Remark
Engine coolant temperature sensor
3M Nut Locking Part No.4171 or equivalent
Drying sealant
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Glow System
ON-VEHICLE SERVICE
16-45
16400100023
SELF-REGULATING GLOW SYSTEM CHECK
1. Check that the battery voltage is 11 – 13 V.
2. Check that the engine coolant temperature is 40 _C or
less.
NOTE
If the engine coolant temperature is too high, disconnect
the engine coolant temperature sensor connector.
3. Measure the resistance between the glow plug plate and
the glow plug body (earth).
(+)
Standard value: 0.10 – 0.15 Ω (at 20 _C)
NOTE
The resistance value is the parallel resistance value for
the four glow plugs.
(–)
4. Connect a voltmeter between the glow plug plate and
the glow plug body (earth).
5. Measure the voltage immediately after the ignition switch
is turned to ON (without starting the engine).
Standard value:
9 – 11 V (Drops to 0 V after 4 – 8 seconds have
passed)
In addition, check to be sure that the glow indicator lamp
(red) illuminates immediately after the ignition switch is
turned to ON.
NOTE
The time during which the voltage appears (energizing
time) will depend on the engine coolant temperature.
6. Measure the voltage while the engine is cranking.
Standard value: 6 V or more
7. Start the engine and measure the voltage while the engine
is warming up.
However, if the engine coolant temperature rises above
60 _C or when 180 seconds have passed since the engine
was started, the voltage will always return to 0 V. (Refer
to the Glow Plug Energization Timing Chart.)
Standard value: 12 – 15 V
16-46
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Glow System
<Reference>
Glow Plug Energization Timing Chart
START
Ignition
switch
Glow
indicator lamp
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
Glow plug
relay
OFF
Alternator
L terminal
H
L
T1: Glow indicator lamp
T2: Glow plug relay drive time after ignition switch is turned ON
T3: Glow plug relay drive time after engine starts (after glow)
NOTE
After glow time T3 becomes longer as the engine coolant temperature drops.
GLOW CONTROL UNIT CHECK
Glow control unit
16400220033
Glow control unit
16-47
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Glow System
1. Measure the voltage at the control unit terminals.
NOTE
1. Inspect with the control unit connector connected.
2. When measuring the voltage, connect the control unit terminal (10) to the earth.
Terminal Voltage Reference Table
Inspection
terminal
Inspection item
Inspection condition
13
Engine coolant
temperature
tem
erature sensor
(Engine coolant
temperature detec
detection)
Ignition switch
ON “OFF”
OFF
“ON”
Standard value
Engine coolant temperature: – 20 _C
4.3 – 4.5 V
Engine coolant temperature: 0 _C
3.7 – 3.9 V
Engine coolant temperature: 20 _C
2.8 – 3.0 V
Engine coolant temperature: 40 _C
1.9 – 2.1 V
Engine coolant temperature: 80 _C
0.5 – 0.7 V
2
Ignition switch (power
supply)
Ignition switch “OFF” “START”
8 V or more
7
Glow plug relay
(glow time control)
Ignition switch “OFF” “ON”
Engine coolant temperature: 40 _C or less
(Pre-glow function inspection)
9 – 12 V
0 – 0.5 V after
approx. 8 sec.
(when engine
coolant temperature is 20 _C)
3
Glow indicator lamp
Ignition switch “OFF” “ON”
Engine coolant temperature: 40 _C or less
0–1V
11 – 13 V after
approx. 1 sec.
(when engine
coolant temperature is 20 _C)
6
Alternator charging
signal ((“L”
L terminal)
Ignition switch “OFF” “ON”
1–4V
Engine is idling
11 V or more
–
–
10
Earth
2. Remove the control unit connector and check the
continuity between the harness-side connector terminals.
Glow control unit harness-side connector as
seen from the terminal side
Inspection
terminal
Inspection item
Continuity
(resistance value)
7 – 10
Glow plug relay
Continuity
(approx. 3Ω)
16-48
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Glow System
GLOW PLUG RELAY CHECK
16400250032
1. Check to be sure that there is continuity (approx. 3 Ω)
between glow plug relay terminal (1) and the bracket
(earth).
2. Use jumper cables to connect terminal (1) of the glow
plug relay to the battery (+) terminal and the bracket
to the battery (–) terminal
Glow plug relay
Caution
(1) Always be sure to disconnect the harnesses
connected to glow plug relay terminals (2) and
(3) before using the jumper cables.
(2) The terminals of the disconnected harnesses must
not be shorted to earth.
(3) When connecting the jumper cables, be very
careful not to make a mistake in connecting the
terminals, as this will cause damage to the relay.
Battery
Glow plug
relay
Bracket
(earth)
3. Check the continuity between glow plug relay terminals
(2) and (3) while disconnecting and connecting the jumper
cable at the battery (+) terminal
Jumper cable at battery (+)
terminal
Continuity between terminals
(2) – (3)
Connected
Continuity (0.01 Ω or less)
Disconnected
No continuity (infinite
resistance)
GLOW PLUG CHECK
(+)
1. Remove the glow plug plate.
2. Measure the resistance between the glow plug terminals
and the body.
Standard value: 0.4 – 0.6 Ω (at 20 _C)
(–)
16400190051
16-49
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Glow System
Engine coolant temperature gauge unit
(engine coolant temperature sensor)
ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE SENSOR
CHECK
16400280031
1. Remove the engine coolant temperature sensor.
A
B
2. While the sensor section of the engine coolant
temperature sensor is immersed, measure the resistance
between (B) terminal and the body.
Temperature (_C)
Resistance value (kΩ)
0
8.6
20
3.25 ± 0.33
40
1.5
80
0.3
3. After applying specified sealant to the threaded portion,
tighten to the specified torque.
Specified sealant:
3M Nut Locking Part No. 4171 or equivalent
Tightening torque: 35 Nm
16-50
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Glow System
GLOW PLUG
16400180027
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
1.8 Nm
2
1.8 Nm
1
18 Nm
3
AA"
Removal steps
1. Connector connection
2. Glow plug plate
3. Glow plug
REMOVAL SERVICE POINT
AA" GLOW PLUG REMOVAL
Remove glow plug by hand after loosening with tool as its
ceramic part is fragile.
INSPECTION
D
D
16400190044
Check for rust on glow plug plate.
Check glow plug for damage.
Caution
Do not use a plug that has been dropped from a height
of 10 cm or more.
16-1
ENGINE
ELECTRICAL
CONTENTS
IGNITION SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Outline of Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
GENERAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
ON-VEHICLE SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Ignition Coil Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
IGNITION COIL AND POWER
TRANSISTOR <4G6> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
CRANK ANGLE SENSOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
CAMSHAFT POSITION SENSOR
<4G6> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
GLOW SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Power Transistor Continuity Check . . . . . . . . . . 3
GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Waveform Check Using an Analyzer . . . . . . . . 4
Outline of Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
16-2
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Ignition System
IGNITION SYSTEM
GENERAL
OUTLINE OF CHANGE
The following service procedures have been
established to correspond to the change of the
ignition system. Other procedures are the same
as before.
GENERAL INFORMATION
This system is provided with two ignition coils (A
and B) and two power transistors (A and B) for
the No. 1 and No. 4 cylinders, and No. 2 and No.
3 cylinders respectively.
Interruption of the primary current flowing in the
primary side of ignition coil A generates a high
voltage in the secondary side of ignition coil A.
The high voltage thus generated is applied to the
spark plugs of No. 1 and No. 4 cylinders to generate
sparks. At the time that the sparks are generated
at both spark plugs, if one cylinder is at the
compression stroke, the other cylinder is at the
exhaust stroke, so that ignition of the compressed
air/fuel mixture occurs only for the cylinder which
is at the compression stroke.
In the same way, when the primary current flowing
in ignition coil B is interrupted, the high voltage
thus generated is applied to the spark plugs of
No. 2 and No. 3 cylinders.
Air flow sensor
The engine-ECU controls the two power transistors
(A and B) to turn them alternately ON and OFF.
This causes the primary currents in the ignition
coils (A and B) to be alternately interrupted and
allowed to flow to fire the cylinders in the order
1-3-4-2.
The engine-ECU determines which ignition coil
should be controlled by means of the signals from
the camshaft position sensor which is incorporated
in the camshaft and from the crank angle sensor
which is incorporated in the crankshaft. It also
detects the crankshaft position in order to provide
ignition at the most appropriate timing in response
to the engine operation conditions.
When the engine is cold or operated at high
altitudes, the ignition timing is slightly advanced
to provide optimum performance.
Furthermore, if knocking occurs, the ignition timing
is gradually retarded until knocking ceases.
Power transistor unit
Ignition coil
Intake air temperature sensor
A
Barometric pressure sensor
B
Engine coolant temperature sensor
Idle position switch
Camshaft position sensor
Engine-ECU
A
B
Crank angle sensor
Vehicle speed sensor
Ignition switch-ST
Spark plug
Cylinder No.
3
2
4
1
16-3
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Ignition System
ON-VEHICLE SERVICE
IGNITION COIL CHECK
1. Measurement of the primary coil resistance
Measure the resistance between (+) terminal and (–)
terminal.
Standard value: 0.74 – 0.90 Ω
2. Measurement of secondary coil resistance
Measure the resistance between the high-voltage
terminals and (+) terminal.
Standard value: 20.1 – 27.3 kΩ
–
+
1.5 V
POWER TRANSISTOR CONTINUITY CHECK
NOTE
An analogue-type circuit tester should be used.
No. 1 – No. 4 cylinder side
Voltage:
g 1.5V
Terminal No.
3
7
8
2
3
Applied
Not applied
–
+
1.5 V
No. 2 – No. 3 cylinder side
Voltage:
g 1.5V
Terminal No.
1
Applied
Not applied
Replace the power transistor if there is a malfunction.
16-4
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Ignition System
WAVEFORM CHECK USING AN ANALYZER
Ignition Secondary Voltage Waveform Check
MEASUREMENT METHOD
1. Clamp the secondary pickup around the spark plug cable.
NOTE
(1) The peak ignition voltage will be reversed when the
spark cables No. 2 and No. 4, or No. 1 and No.
3 cylinders are clamped.
(2) Because of the two-cylinder simultaneous ignition
system, the waveforms for two cylinders in each group
appear during waveform observation (No. 1 cylinder
– No. 4 cylinder, No. 2 cylinder – No. 3 cylinder).
However, waveform observation is only applicable
for the cylinder with the spark plug cable clamped
by the secondary pickup.
(3) Identifying which cylinder waveform is displayed can
be difficult. For reference, remember that the
waveform of the cylinder attached to the secondary
pickup will be displayed as stable.
2. Clamp the spark plug cable with the trigger pickup.
NOTE
Clamp the trigger pickup to the same spark plug cable
clamped by the secondary pickup.
16-5
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Ignition System
STANDARD WAVEFORM
Observation Conditions
Function
Secondary
Pattern height
High (or Low)
Pattern selector
Raster
Engine revolutions
Curb idle speed
Spark line (point A)
kV
Ignition voltage
(point D)
Wave damping
reduction section
(point B)
Dwell
section
Secondary
ignition
voltage
waveform
Point C
Time
Observation Condition (The only change from above condition is the pattern selector.)
Pattern selector
Display
kV
No. 4 cylinder
No. 1 cylinder
No. 2 cylinder
ignition noise
Secondary
ignition
voltage
waveform
No. 3 cylinder
ignition noise
Time
0
2
Neutral section
16-6
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Ignition System
WAVEFORM OBSERVATION POINTS
Point A: The height, length and slope of the spark line show the following trends (Refer to abnormal
waveform examples, 1, 2, 3 and 4).
Spark line
Plug gap
Condition of
electrode
Compression
force
Concentration of
air mixture
Ignition timing
Spark plug
cable
Length
Long
Small
Normal
Low
Rich
Advanced
Leak
Short
Large
Large wear
High
Lean
Retarded
High
resistance
High
Large
Large wear
High
Lean
Retarded
High
resistance
Low
Small
Normal
Low
Rich
Advanced
Leak
Large
Plug is fouled
–
–
–
–
Height
Slope
Point B: Number of vibration in reduction vibration section (Refer to abnormal waveform example 5)
Number of vibrations
Coil and condenser
Three or more
Normal
Except above
Abnormal
Point C: Number of vibrations at beginning of dwell section (Refer to abnormal waveform example 5)
Number of vibrations
Coil
5–6 or higher
Normal
Except above
Abnormal
Point D: Ignition voltage height (distribution per each cylinder) shows the following trends.
Ignition
voltage
Plug gap
Condition of
electrode
Compression
force
Concentration of
air mixture
Ignition timing
Spark plug cable
High
Large
Large wear
High
Lean
Retarded
High resistance
Low
Small
Normal
Low
Rich
Advanced
Leak
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Ignition System
16-7
EXAMPLES OF ABNORMAL WAVEFORMS
Abnormal waveform
Wave characteristics
Cause of problem
Example 1
Spark line is high and short.
Spark plug gap is too large.
Example 2
Spark line is low and long, and is
sloping.
Also, the second half of the spark line
is distorted. This could be a result of
misfiring.
Spark plug gap is too small.
Example 3
Spark line is low and long, and is
sloping. However, there is almost no
spark line distortion.
Spark plug gap is fouled.
Example 4
Spark line is high and short.
Difficult to distinguish between this
and abnormal waveform example 1.
Spark plug cable is nearly falling off.
(Causing a dual ignition)
Example 5
No waves in wave damping section.
Layer short in ignition coil
01P0215
16-8
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Ignition System
Ignition Primary Voltage Waveform Check
MEASUREMENT METHOD
(1) Disconnect the power transistor connector and connect
the special tool (harness connector: MB991348) in
between. (Connect all the terminals.)
(2) Connect the analyzer primary pickup to the power
transistor connector terminal 8 when observing the No.
1 – No. 4 cylinder group, terminal 1 for the No. 2 – No.
3 cylinder group.
(3) Connect the primary pickup earth terminal.
(4) Clamp the spark plug with the trigger pickup.
NOTE
1. Clamp the spark plug cable for No.1 and No.3 cylinders
of the same group with the cylinder that is connected
to the primary pickup.
2. The wave pattern of either cylinder in the same group
will appear at the left edge of the screen.
STANDARD WAVEFORM
Observation Conditions
Function
Secondary
Pattern height
High (or Low)
Pattern selector
Raster
Engine revolutions
Curb idle speed
(V)
Zener voltage
(Point C)
100
(Approx.
40×10V)
Spark line (point A)
Wave damping reduction
section (point B)
Primary
ignition
voltage
waveform
Dwell
section
0
Time
16-9
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Ignition System
Observation Conditions (The only change from above condition is the pattern selector.)
Pattern selector
Display
(V)
100
No. 2 cylinder
ignition noise
No. 4 cylinder
No. 1 cylinder
Ignition
primary
voltage
wave
pattern 0
Time
Neutral section
WAVEFORM OBSERVATION POINTS
Point A: The height, length and slope of the spark line (refer to abnormal waveform examples 1, 2, 3
and 4) show the following trends.
Spark line
Length
Height
Plug gap
Condition of
electrode
Compression
force
Concentration
of air mixture
Ignition
timing
High tension
cable
Long
Small
Normal
Low
Rich
Advanced
Leak
Short
Large
Large wear
High
Lean
Retarded
High resistance
High
Large
Large wear
High
Lean
Retarded
High resistance
Low
Small
Normal
Low
Rich
Advanced
Leak
Large
Plug is fouled
–
–
–
–
Slope
Point B: Number of vibrations in reduction vibration section (Refer to abnormal waveform example 5)
Number of vibrations
Coil, condenser
3 or higher
Except above
Normal
Abnormal
Point C:Height of Zener voltage
Height of Zener voltage
Probable cause
High
Problem in Zener diode
Low
Abnormal resistance in primary coil circuit
16-10
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Ignition System
ABNORMAL WAVEFORMS EXAMPLES
Abnormal waveform
Wave characteristics
Cause of problem
Example 1
Spark line is high and short.
Spark plug gap is too large.
Example 2
Spark line is low, long, and sloping.
Also, the second half of the spark line
is distorted. This could be a result of
misfiring.
Spark plug gap is too small.
Example 3
Spark line is low, long, and sloping.
However, there is almost no spark line
distortion.
Spark plug gap is fouled.
Example 4
Spark line is high and short.
Spark plug cable is not properly
connected, creating more than one
spark from the plug.
Example 5
No waves in wave damping section
Layer short in ignition coil.
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Ignition System
16-11
IGNITION COIL AND POWER TRANSISTOR <4G6>
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
4
2
5
6
5.0 ± 1.0 N·m
3
10 ± 2 N·m
1
Ignition coil removal steps
1. Ignition coil connector connection
2. Spark plug cable connection
3. Ignition coil
D Resonance tank
4. Spark plug cable
Power transistor removal steps
5. Power transistor connector
connection
6. Power transistor
16-12
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Ignition System
CRANK ANGLE SENSOR
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Pre-removal and Post-installation Operation
D Timing Belt Removal and Installation <4G6> (Refer
to GROUP 11A.)
D Timing Belt Cover Removal and Installation
<4D56-Step III> (Refer to GROUP 11B.)
<4G6>
1
35 ± 6 N·m
8.8 ± 1.0 N·m
2
3
<4D56-Step III>
3
9.0 ± 1.0 N·m
Removal steps
1. Idler pulley <4G6>
2. Timing indicator bracket <4G6>
3. Crank angle sensor
ENGINE ELECTRICAL – Ignition System/Glow System
16-13
CAMSHAFT POSITION SENSOR <4G6>
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
8.8 ± 1.0 N·m
Camshaft position sensor
GLOW SYSTEM
GENERAL
OUTLINE OF CHANGE
Due to the introduction of the electronic-controlled injection system, the engine-ECU controls the glow
system. As for the ECU terminal voltage measurement, refer to GROUP 13I – Troubleshooting.
NOTES
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