Manual - Test Equipment Depot

Manual - Test Equipment Depot
99 Washington Street
Melrose, MA 02176
Phone 781-665-1400
Toll Free 1-800-517-8431
Visit us at www.TestEquipmentDepot.com
1.6GHz / 3GHz
Spectrum Analyzer
HMS-X
Manual
HMS-X
S p e k t r u m a n a ly s a t o r H M S - X
R Frequenzbereich:100 kHzbis1,6GHz/3 GHz*1
R SpektraleReinheitgrößer als -100 dBc/Hz(bei100 kHz)
R SWEEPvon20 msbis1000 s
General information concerning the CE marking
General information concerning the CE marking
KONFORMITÄTSERKLÄRUNG
DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY
DECLARATION DE CONFORMITE
Hersteller / Manufacturer / Fabricant:
HAMEG Instruments GmbH · Industriestraße 6 · D-63533 Mainhausen
Die HAMEG Instruments GmbH bescheinigt die Konformität für das Produkt
The HAMEG Instruments GmbH herewith declares conformity of the product
HAMEG Instruments GmbH déclare la conformite du produit
Bezeichnung / Product name / Designation:
Spektrumanalysator
Spectrum Analyzer
Analyseur de spectre
HMS-X
mit / with / avec: HO720
Optionen / Options / Options: HO730, HO740
1. Data cables
For the connection between instruments resp. their interfaces and
external devices, (computer, printer etc.) sufficiently screened cables
must be used. Without a special instruction in the manual for a reduced
cable length, the maximum cable length of a dataline must be less than
3 meters and not be used outside buildings. If an interface has several
connectors only one connector must have a connection to a cable.
2. Signal cables
mit den folgenden Bestimmungen / with applicable regulations /
avec les directives suivantes
EMV Richtlinie 89/336/EWG ergänzt durch 91/263/EWG, 92/31/EWG
EMC Directive 89/336/EEC amended by 91/263/EWG, 92/31/EEC
Directive EMC 89/336/CEE amendée par 91/263/EWG, 92/31/CEE
Niederspannungsrichtlinie 73/23/EWG ergänzt durch 93/68/EWG
Low-Voltage Equipment Directive 73/23/EEC amended by 93/68/EEC
Directive des equipements basse tension 73/23/CEE amendée par 93/68/CEE
Angewendete harmonisierte Normen / Harmonized standards applied / Normes
harmonisées utilisées:
Sicherheit / Safety / Sécurité: EN 61010-1:2001 (IEC 61010-1:2001)
Messkategorie / Measuring category / Catégorie de mesure: I
Überspannungskategorie / Overvoltage category / Catégorie de surtension: II
Verschmutzungsgrad / Degree of pollution / Degré de pollution: 2
Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit / Electromagnetic compatibility /
Compatibilité électromagnétique
EN 61326-1/A1 Störaussendung / Radiation / Emission:
Tabelle / table / tableau 4; Klasse / Class / Classe B.
Störfestigkeit / Immunity / Imunitée: Tabelle / table / tableau A1.
EN 61000-3-2/A14 Oberschwingungsströme / Harmonic current emissions /
Émissions de courant harmonique:
Klasse / Class / Classe D.
EN 61000-3-3 Spannungsschwankungen u. Flicker / Voltage fluctuations and flicker /
Fluctuations de tension et du flicker.
Datum / Date / Date
1. 10. 2009
Unterschrift / Signature /Signatur
Holger Asmussen
General Manager
Subject to change without notice
The measuring- and data lines of the instrument have much influence
on emission and immunity and therefore on meeting the acceptance
limits. For different applications the lines and/or cables used may
be different. For measurement operation the following hints and
conditions regarding emission and immunity should be observed:
Basically interconnections must have a double screening. For IEEE-bus
purposes the double screened cable HZ72 from HAMEG is suitable.
Typ / Type / Type:
38
HAMEG instruments fulfill the regulations of the EMC directive. The
conformity test made by HAMEG is based on the actual generic- and
product standards. In cases where different limit values are applicable,
HAMEG applies the severer standard. For emission the limits for
residential, commercial and light industry are applied. Regarding the
immunity (susceptibility) the limits for industrial environment have
been used.
Basically test leads for signal interconnection between test point and
instrument should be as short as possible. Without instruction in the
manual for a shorter length, signal lines must be less than 3 meters
and not be used outside buildings.
Signal lines must screened (coaxial cable - RG58/U). A proper ground
connection is required. In combination with signal generators double
screened cables (RG223/U, RG214/U) must be used.
3. Influence on measuring instruments
Under the presence of strong high frequency electric or magnetic fields,
even with careful setup of the measuring equipment an influence of
such signals is unavoidable.
This will not cause damage or put the instrument out of operation. Small
deviations of the measuring value (reading) exceeding the instruments
specifications may result from such conditions in individual cases.
4. Noise immunity of spectrum analyzers
In the presence of strong electric or magnetic fields it is possible that
they may become visible together with the signal to be measured. The
methods of intrusion are many: via the mains, via the signal leads, via
control or interface leads or by direct radiation. Although the spectrum
analyzer has a metal housing there is the large CRT opening in the
front panel where it is vulnerable. Parasitic signals may, however, also
intrude into the measuring object itself and from there propagate into
the spectrum analyzer.
HAMEG Instruments GmbH
General information concerning the CE
marking
Content
Deutsch
3
English
General information concerning the CE marking
38
Spectrum Analyzer: HMS Series 40
Specifications
41
1
Installation and safety instructions
1.1 Symbols 1.2 Setting up the instrument
1.3Safety
1.4 Intended Operation
1.4 Ambient conditions
1.5 Warranty and repair
1.6Maintenance
1.7 CAT I
1.8 Mains voltage
42
42
42
42
42
43
43
43
43
44
2
Differences within the HMS-X options
45
3
Controls and display
46
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
Quick introduction
How to measure a sine wave signal
Level measurement
Measurement of the harmonics of a sine wave signal
Setting of the reference level
Operation in the receiver mode
48
48
48
48
50
50
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
Setting of parameters
Display segmentation in sweep mode
Numerical keyboard
Rotary knob
Arrow buttons
51
51
51
51
51
6
6.1
6.2
Instrument functions
Setting of the frequency (FREQ)
Aktivating / parameterizing the built-in
tracking generator (TG) 5.5 Interactive softkeys
5.6 How to enter numerical values
6.3 Frequency range displayed (SPAN)
6.4 Setting of the amplitude parameters (AMPL)
6.5 Setting of the bandwidth (BANDW)
6.6 Setting of the SWEEP
6.7 Trace settings (TRACE)
6.8 The use of markers
6.9Peak-Search
6.10 Limit Lines
6.11 Measure Menu
6.12 Auto Tune
6.13 Receiver-Mode
52
52
52
52
52
52
53
53
54
55
56
58
59
59
59
60
60
7
Store and recall
instrument settings
Content
7.1 Instrument settings
7.2Traces
7.3Screenshots
61
61
62
63
8
8.1
8.2
8.3
64
64
64
8.4
Extended operating modes
Using the help function
Display settings
Selection of the standard instrument settings
(PRESET)
EMC Precompliance measurement
9
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
General instrument settings
Language settings
Basic settings
Interface settings
Printer settings
Reference frequency
Update (Firmware / Help)
Upgrade of software options (voucher)
65
65
65
66
66
66
66
66
10
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
Front panel connections
USB connector
PHONE connector
PROBE POWER
EXTERNAL TRIGGER
OUTPUT 50Ω (Tracking Generator)
67
67
67
67
67
67
11
11.1
11.2
11.3
10.6
Rear panel Connections
USB connector
DVI connector
REF IN / REF OUT
INPUT 50Ω
68
68
68
68
68
12
Remote Control
12.1RS-232
12.2USB
12.3 Ethernet (Option HO730)
12.4 IEEE 488.2 / GPIB (Option HO740)
69
69
69
69
70
13
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6
70
70
70
70
70
71
71
Optional accessories
19‘‘ Rack mount kit 4HE HZ46
Carrying case HZ99
VSWR bridge HZ547 Near field probe sets HZ530/HZ540/HZ550
Transient Limiter HZ560
75/50-Ω-Converter HZ575
72
72
72
14Appendix
14.1 List of figures
14.2Glossary
65
65
Subject to change without notice
39
Spectrum Analyzer: HMS Series
HMS-X
Spectrum Analyzer HMS-X
R Frequencyrange:100kHzto1.6GHz/3GHz*1
R Spectralpuritygreaterthan-100dBc/Hz(at100kHz)
R SWEEPfrom20msto1000s
1 GHz EMI near field probe set HZ530 R Detectors:auto-,min-/max.-peak,sample,RMS,average,quasi-peak*2
R Miscellaneousmarker/Δmarkerandpeakfunctions
R Trackinggenerator*3
Frequencyrange:5MHzto1.6GHz/3GHz*1
Outputlevel:-20dBmto0dBm
R D
irectlyexportdatatoUSBflashdrive,RS-232/USBdualinterface
forremotecontrol
3 GHz EMI near field probe set HZ550L
R Fanlessdesignandfastboottime
*1withHMS-3G(HV212)option|*2withHMS-EMC(HV213)option|*3withHMS-TG(HV211)option
Model overview:
HMS-X with EMC option
HMS-X basic unit
Amplitudemeasurementrange
-114dBmto+20dBm
-104dBmto+20dBm
DANL
typ.-135dBm
typ.-104dBm
100Hzto1MHz,200kHz(-3dB),
Resolutionbandwidth
Spectrum
Analyzer: HMS
Series
200Hz,9kHz,120kHz,1MHz(-6dB)
10kHzto1MHz,200kHz(-3dB)
Videobandwidth
10Hzto1MHz
1kHzto1MHz
HMS-X options
Option Code*4
Voucher Code*5
Unlockbuilt-intrackinggenerator
HMS-TG
HV211
VSWR test unit HZ547
Bandwidthupgradeto3GHz
HMS-3G
HV212
EMCoptionincl.preamplifier
HMS-EMC
HV213
*4availableonlywithpurchaseofHMS-Xbasicunit
*5activateHMS-XoptionsatanytimeafterpurchaseofHMS-Xbasicunit
40
Subject to change without notice
Specifications
Spectrum Analyzer HMS-X
Firmware:≥2.022
Alldatavalidat23°Cafter30minutewarm-up.
Frequency
Frequencyrange:
Temperaturestability:
Aging:
Frequencycounter*2:
Resolution
Accuracy
Spansettingrange:
100 kHz…1.6 GHz
100 kHz…3 GHz*1
±2 ppm (0…30 °C)
±1 ppm/year
1 Hz
±(Frequency x tolerance of reference)
0 Hz (zero span) and 100 Hz…1.6 GHz
0 Hz (zero span) and 100 Hz…3 GHz*1
Spectralpurity,SSBphasenoise:
30kHzfromcarrier
<-85 dBc/Hz*2
(500 MHz, +20…30 °C)
100kHzfromcarrier
<-100 dBc/Hz
(500M Hz, +20…30 °C)
1MHzfromcarrier
<-120 dBc/Hz
(500MHz, +20…30 °C)
Sweeptime:
2 ms…100 s
Span=0Hz
20 ms…1000 s, min. 20 ms/600 MHz
Span> 0Hz
Resolutionbandwidths(-3 dB): 10 kHz…1 MHz in 1–3 steps, 200 kHz
100 Hz…1 MHz in 1–3 steps, 200 kHz*2
Tolerance
±5 % typ.
≤300kHz
±10 % typ. Analyzer: HMS Series 1MHz
Spectrum
Resolutionbandwidths
32
2
200 Hz, 9 kHz, 120 kHz, 1 MHz*
(-6 dB):
1 kHz…1 MHz in 1–3 steps
Videobandwidths:
Specifications
10 Hz…1 MHz in 1–3 steps*2
Amplitude
Displayrange:
Amplitudemeasurement
range:
33
Average noise level displayed up to +20 dBm
Typ. -104…+20 dBm
Typ. -114…+20 dBm*2
Max.permissibleDC
80 V
atHFinput:
20 dBm, 30 dBm for max. 3 min.
Max.poweratHFinput:
Intermodulationfreerange:
TOI products, 2 x -20 dBm 66 dB typ. (-10 dBm ref. level)
(typ. +13 dBm third-order intercept)
(at distance between signals ≤2 MHz)
60 dB typ. (+10 dBm TOI)
(at distance between signals >2 MHz)
66 dB typ. (typ. +13 dBm TOI)
DANL(Displayed average noise level):
(RBW 10 kHz, VBW 1 kHz, ref. level ≤-30 dBm 10 MHz…1.6 GHz/3 GHz*1) -95 dBm, typ. -104 dBm
(RBW 100 Hz, VBW 10 Hz, Ref. Level ≤-30 dBm 10 MHz…1.6 GHz/3 GHz*1) -115 dBm*2, typ. -135 dBm*2
Preamp. deactivated
typ. -124 dBm*2
Inherentspurious:
(ref. level ≤-20 dBm, Specifications<-80 dBm
f >30 MHz, RBW ≤100 kHz)
Inputrelatedspurious:
(Mixer level ≤-40 dBm, carrier offset >1 MHz)
-70 dBc typ.
(2…3 GHz)
-55 dBc*1
2ndharmonicreceivefrequency:
(mixer level -40 dBm)
-60 dBc typ.
Leveldisplay:
-80…+20 dBm in 1 dB steps
Referencelevel
100 dB, 50 dB, 20 dB, 10 dB
Displayrange
linear*2
Logarithmic
dBm, dBµV, dBmV
displayscaling
Percentage of reference level*2
Lineardisplayscaling
1 curve and 1 memory curve
Measuredcurves:
A-B (curve-stored curve), B-A
Tracemathematics:
Auto-, Min-, Max-Peak, Sample, RMS, Detectors:
Average
Quasi-Peak*2
<1.5 dB, typ. 0.5 dB
Failureofleveldisplay:
(ref. level -50 dBm, 20…30 °C)
Marker/Deltamarker
Numberofmarker:
Markerfunctions:
Markerdisplays:
Inputs/Outputs
HFInput:
InputImpedance
VSWR
(10 MHz…1.6 GHz/3 GHz*1)
Outputtrackinggenerator*3:
OutputImpedance
Frequencyrange
Outputlevel
Triggerinput:
Triggervoltage
Ext.referenceinput/output:
Referencefrequency
Essentiallevel(50 Ω)
Supplyoutputforfield
probes:
Audiooutput(Phone):
Demodulation
Miscellaneous
Display:
Save/Recallmemory
Trigger
Interfaces:
Powersupply:
Powerconsumption:
Protectionclass:
Operatingtemperature:
Storagetemperature:
Rel.humidity:
Dimensions(W x H x D):
Weight:
8
Peak, next peak, minimum, center = marker, frequency, reference level = marker level, all marker on peak
Normal (level, log.), delta marker, noise marker
Normal (lin.), (frequency) counter*2
N socket
50 Ω
<1.5 typ.
N socket
50 Ω
5 MHz…1.6 GHz/3 GHz*1
-20…0 dBm, in 1 dB steps
BNC female
TTL
BNC females
10 MHz
10 dBm
6 Vdc, max. 100 mA (2.5 mm DIN jack)
3.5 mm DIN jack
AM and FM (internal speaker)
16.5 cm (6.5") TFT Color VGA Display
10 complete device settings
Free run, Single Trigger, external Trigger
Video Trigger*2
Dual-Interface USB/RS-232 (HO720), USB-Stick (frontside), USB-Printer (rear side), DVI-D for ext. monitor
105…253 V, 50…60 Hz, CAT II
Max. 40 W at 230 V, 50 Hz
Safety class I (EN61010-1)
+5…+40 °C
-20…+70 °C
5…80 % (non condensing)
285 x 175 x 220 mm
3.6 kg
*1 with activated HMS-3G option
*2 with activated HMS-EMC option
*3 with activated HMS-TG option
Accessories supplied: Line cord, printed operating manual, CD, Software
Recommended accessories:
HO730 Dual-Interface Ethernet/USB
HO740 Interface IEEE-488 (GPIB), galvanically isolated
HZ530 Near-Field Probe Set 1 GHz for EMI diagnostics
HZ540/550 Near-Field Probe Set 3 GHz for EMI diagnostics
HZ540L/550L Near-Field Probe Set 3 GHz for EMI diagnostics
HZ547 3 GHz VSWR Bridge for HMS1010, HMS3010
HZ13 Interface cable (USB) 1.8 m
HZ14 Interface cable (serial) 1:1
HZ46 4RU 19" Rackmount Kit
HZ72 GPIB-Cable 2 m
HZ99 Carrying Case for protection and transport
HZ520 Plug-in Antenna with BNC connection
HZ525 50 Ω-Termination, N plug
HZ560 Transient limiter
HZ575 75/50 Ω Converter
Subject to change without notice
41
HMS-XE/111013 · C&E · Subject to change without notice · © HAMEG Instruments GmbH® · DQS-certified in accordance with DIN EN ISO 9001:2008, Reg.-No.: 071040 QM08
HAMEGInstrumentsGmbH·Industriestr.6·D-63533Mainhausen·Tel +49(0)61828000·Fax +49(0)6182800100·www.hameg.com·[email protected]
1.2
Safety
gebaut,
geprüft
und
hat
das
Werk
in in
sicherheitstechnisch
eingebaut,
geprüft
und
hat
das
Werk
sicherheitstechnisch
eingebaut,
geprüft
und
hat
das
Werk
in sicherheitstechnisch
sicherheitstechnisch
einBestimmungen
derund
europäischen
Norm
EN161010-1
bzw.for
der
gebaut,
geprüft
hat
das
Werk
in
ein–
The
instrument
fulfi
lsverlassen.
the
VDE
0411
part
regulations
wandfreiem
Zustand
verlassen.
Es
entspricht
damit
auch
den
wandfreiem
Zustand
Es
entspricht
damit
auch
den
wandfreiem
Zustand
verlassen.
Es entspricht
entspricht
damit
auch
den
–
Entfernen/Anbringen
des
Tragegriffs:
In Position
F kann
der
internationalen
Norm
IEC
1010-1.
Um
diesen
Zustand
zu
erhalwandfreiem
Zustand
verlassen.
Es
damit
auch
den
electrical
measuring,
control
and
laboratory
instruments
and
Bestimmungen
der
europäischen
Norm
EN
61010-1
bzw.
der
Bestimmungen
der europäischen
europäischen
Norm
EN
61010-1 bzw.
bzw. der
der–
Bestimmungen
der
Norm
EN
61010-1
Griff
entfernt
werden,
in
dem
man
ihn
weiter
herauszieht.
Das
Bestimmungen
der
europäischen
Norm
EN
61010-1
bzw.
der
und
einen
gefahrlosen
Betrieb
sicherzustellen,
muss
der
ten
was
manufactured
and
tested
accordingly.
It Zustand
left
the factory
in
Norm
IEC
1010-1.
Um
diesen
zuzu
erhalI n s t a l l a t i o n a n d s a f e t y i n s t r u c t i o n s internationalen
internationalen
Norm
IEC
1010-1.
Um
diesen
Zustand
zu
erhalinternationalen
Norm
IEC
1010-1.
Um
diesen
Zustand
erhalAnbringen des Griffs
erfolgt
in umgekehrter
Reihenfolge.
internationalen
Norm
IEC
1010-1.
Um
diesen
Zustand
zu erhalperfect
safe
condition.
Hence
it also
corresponds
to European
und
einen
gefahrlosen
Betrieb
sicherzustellen,
muss
der
ten
und
einen
gefahrlosen
Betrieb
sicherzustellen,
muss
der–
ten
ten und einen gefahrlosen Betrieb sicherzustellen, muss der
1 Installation and safety instructions
1.1Symbols
(1)
(2)
Symbol 1:
Symbol 2:
Symbol 3:
(3)
Caution, general danger zone –
Refer to product documentation
Risk of electric shock
Ground terminal
1.2 Setting up the instrument
As shown in the illustrations, the handle can be pivoted into
different positions:
A and B = carrying
C = horizontal operating
D and E = operating at different angles
F = handle removal
G = operating using the feet‘s, batch use and for shipping in
original packaging
Caution!
To change the position of the handle, the oscilloscope
must be placed in a safe position so that it will not fall
down (e.g. on a table). Then the handle knobs must be
simultaneously pulled on both sides and pivoted in the
direction of the desired position. If the handle knobs are
not pulled out while pivoting them into the desired position, they may lock into the nearest locking position.
Removing/attaching the handle bar: The handle bar may be
removed in position F by pulling it out further. To attach the
handle bar, proceed in the reverse order.
1.3Safety
This instrument was built in compliance with VDE 0411 part 1,
safety regulations for electrical measuring instruments, control
units and Iaboratory equipment. It has been tested and shipped
from the plant in safe condition. It is in compliance with the
regulations of the European standard EN 61010-1 and the international standard IEC 1010-1. To maintain this condition and
to ensure safe operation, the user must observe all instructions
and warnings given in this operating manual. Casing, chassis
and all measuring ports/terminals are connected to a protective
earth conductor/safety ground of the mains. The exposed metal
parts have been tested against the main poles with 2200 VDC
voltage. The instrument is designed in compliance with the
regulations of protection class 0. For safety reasons, the instrument may only be connected to properly installed safety
socket outlets. The power plug must be inserted before signal
circuits may be connected.
Do not disconnect the safety ground either inside
or outside of the instrument.
If it is assumed that a safe operation is no longer possible,
the instrument must be shut down and secured against any
unintended operation.
42
Subject to change without notice
measu
ististun
ist uu
ist
wenn
d
be
ope
Signa
Sig
Sign
wenn
Sign
It isDer
prd
nach
lä
reic
plug
m
Der
S
Der
Der
(z.B.
im
Der
–
oscillo
reich
reic
nach
s
reic
reich
ten und einen gefahrlosen Betrieb sicherzustellen, muss der
–– In
manufa
––
Verpac
II
–
In
–– W
––
Bahn
oW
–– W
––– GG
– G
1.4
––– KA
K
–Bes
1.3Operat
1.4K
port
or
ACHTUNG
Der
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
sonen
bes
note
th
Der
z
reic
Der
Der
Der
z
verbunden
conden
reich
reic
port
reich
darfhas
nur
a
reich
rea
porte
por
Hat
port
we
trieben
B
porte
densat
Removal
of the handle
Griff entfernen (Pos. F)
Hat
ss
Hat
ser
ist
unzulä
Hat
Hat
(Pos. F)
this
wil
ggg
ser
ser
Signalstro
C
ser
bevo
ser
for use
bevz
bevo
ist
bevo
orbevor
chem
Der Spekt
ist
ist
zu
A
ist
zz
darf
ist
zu
explosi
ben
reichen
dar
darf
darf
darf
der n
– sufficie
Industr
G
der
der
LL
der
der
Einw
C
– require
WohnEin
Einw
Einw
Einw
aus
– Geschä
D
aus
ausre
ausr
ausr
– Kleinb
erbe
F
erb
erbet
erbe
erbe
E
(Auf
B
(Au
(Aufs
(Auf
(Aufs
1.4
D
A
G
E
Betriebspositionen
Operating positions
Tragepositionen
Carrying positions
Stapelposition
Stacking positions
38
Subject
to change
withoutfor
notice
Fig.
1.1:
Various
positions
HMS-X
Gerätepositionen
666
Änderungen
vorbehalten
Änderungen
vorbehalten
Änderungen
vorbehalten
6 6 Änderungen
vorbehalten
Änderungen vorbehalten
6
Änderungen vorbehalten
In case of doubt the power connector should be checked according to DIN VDE 0100/610:
– The line voltage of the instrument as shown on the type label
must correspond to the line voltage used.
– Only qualified personnel may open the instrument
– Prior to opening the instrument must be disconnected from
the line and all other inputs/outputs.
Safe operation can no longer be assumed:
––
––
––
––
If the instrument shows visible damage,
If the instrument includes loose parts,
If the instrument no longer functions properly,
After an extended period of storage under unfavorable
conditions (e.g. outdoors or in damp rooms),
–– After rough handling during transport (e.g. packaging that
does not meet the minimum requirements by post office,
railway or forwarding agency).
1.4 Intended Operation
CAUTION! The measuring instrument is intended only for use
by personnel familiar with the potential risks of measuring
electrical quantities. For safety reasons, the oscilloscope may
only be connected to properly installed safety socket outlets.
Separating the grounds is prohibited. The power plug must be
inserted before signal circuits may be connected.
Um
DerSpecifi
zuläss
reicht
von +
23°C(
Nen
darf
portes
Nen
Nen
Nenn
Nen
averag
Nenn
Hat sich
wä
von
von
von
von
m
von
m
ser gebilde
tur
tur
turvo
vv
tur
tur
v
bevor es in
Rich
RicW
Rich
1.5
Richt
Rich
ist zum Ge
insb
darfOur
nicht
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
derleaving
Luft,
be
HA
HAM
interm
HAM
HAM
HAM
Einwirkung
Jed
detecte
Jed
ausreichen
Jede
Jed
Jede
erbetrieb
eini
functio
eine
eine
einen
einen
eine
(Aufstellbü
rating
umm
umf
umfa
umfa
umf
The
wa
trieb
trie
trieb
trieb
trie
D
wer
wer
werd
werd
wer
Nenndaten
von minde
Installation and safety instructions
To disconnect from the mains, the rubber connector on
the back panel has to be unplugged.
The spectrum analyzer is designed for use in the following
sectors: industrial sector, home, business and commercial
sectors, small businesses.
The measuring instrument is designed for indoor use only.
Before each measurement, you need to verify at a known source if the measurement instrument functions properly.
Use the measurement instrument only with original HAMEG measuring equipment, measuring cables and power
cord. Before each measurement, measuring cables must
be inspected for damage and replaced if necessary. Damaged or worn components can damage the instrument
or cause injury.
1.4 Ambient conditions
Permissible operating temperatures during the operations
range from +5 °C to +40 °C. During storage or transportation
the temperature may be between –20 °C and +70 °C. In case of
condensation during transportation or storage, the instrument
will require approximately two hours to dry and reach the
appropriate temperature prior to operation. The oscilloscope
is designed for use in a clean and dry indoor environment. Do
not operate with high dust and humidity levels, if danger of
explosion exists or with aggressive chemical agents. Any operating position may be used; however, adequate air circulation
must be maintained. For continuous operation, a horizontal or
inclined position (integrated stand) is preferable.
Do not obstruct the ventilation holes!
The maximum operating altitude for the instrument is 2000m
above sea level. Specifications with tolerance data apply after
a warm up period of at least 30 minutes at a temperature of
23 °C (tolerance ±2 °C). Specifications without tolerance data
are average values.
1.5 Warranty and repair
HAMEG instruments are subject to strict quality controls.
Prior to leaving the manufacturing site, each instrument undergoes a 10-hour burn-in test. This is followed by extensive
functional quality testing to examine all operating modes and
to guarantee compliance with the specified technical data. The
testing is performed with testing equipment that is calibrated
to national standards. The statutory warranty provisions shall
be governed by the laws of the country in which the HAMEG
product was purchased. In case of any complaints, please
contact your supplier.
Applicable only in EU countries:
To accelerate claims, customers in EU countries may also contact HAMEG directly for repairs. The HAMEG customer service is
available for repair services even once the warranty period ends.
Return Material Authorization (RMA):
In any event, before returning an instrument, request a RMA
number either via Internet (http://www.hameg.com) or by fax.
If you need technical support or a suitable original packaging,
please contact the HAMEG service department:
HAMEG Instruments GmbH
Service
Industriestr. 6
D-63533 Mainhausen
Telefon: +49 (0) 6182 800 500
Telefax: +49 (0) 6182 800 501
E-Mail: [email protected]
The product may only be opened by authorized and
qualified personnel. Before any work is performed
on the product or before the product is opened, it
must be disconnected from the AC supply network.
Otherwise, personnel will be exposed to the risk
of an electric shock.
Any adjustments, replacements of parts, maintenance or repair
may be carried out only by authorized HAMEG technical personnel. Only original parts may be used for replacing parts relevant
to safety. A safety test must always be performed after parts
relevant to safety have been replaced. This helps to ensure the
continued safety of the product
1.6Maintenance
Clean the outer case of the instrument at regular intervals, using a soft, lint-free dust cloth. Before cleaning the
instrument, please make sure that it has been switched
off and disconnected from all power supplies. (e.g. mains
or battery supply).
No parts of the instrument may be cleaned with chemical
cleaning agents (such as alcohol, acetone or cellulose
thinner)!
The display may only be cleaned with water appropriate glass
cleaner (not with alcohol or other cleaning agents). Follow this
step by rubbing the display down with a dry, clean and lint-free
cloth. Do not allow cleaning fluid to enter the instrument. The
use of other cleaning agents may damage the labeling or plastic
and laquered surfaces.
1.7 CAT I
This spectrum analyzer is destined for measurements in
circuits not connected to the mains or only indirectly. Direct
measurements, i.e. with a galvanic connection to circuits
corresponding to the categories II, III, or IV are prohibited! The
measuring circuits are considered not connected to the mains
if a suitable isolation transformer fulfilling safety class II is
used. Measurements on the mains are also possible if suitable
probes like current probes are used which fulfill the safety class
II. The measurement category of such probes must be checked
and observed. The measurement categories were derived
corresponding to the distance from the power station and the
transients hence to be expected. Transients are short, very fast
voltage or current excursions which may be periodic or not.
Measurement Categories
The measurement categories refer to transients from the power
system. Transients are short, very fast (steep) current and voltage variations which may occur periodically and non-periodically. The level of potential transients increases as the distance to
the source of the low voltage installation decreases.
Measurement CAT IV: Measurements at the source of the low
voltage installations (e.g. meters)
Subject to change without notice
43
Installation and safety instructions
Measurement CAT III: Measurements in building installations
(e.g. power distribution installations, power switches, firmly
installed sockets, firmly installed engines etc.).
Measurement CAT II: Measurements on circuits electronically
directly connected to the mains (e.g. household appliances,
power tools, etc.)
Measurement category 0 (previously Measurement CAT I):
Electronic devices and fused circuits in devices.
1.8 Mains voltage
The instrument has a wide range power supply from 105 to
253 V, 50 or 60 Hz ±10%. There is hence no line voltage selector.
The line fuse is accessible on the rear panel and part of the line
input connector. Prior to exchanging a fuse, the line cord must
be pulled out. Exchange is only allowed if the fuse holder is
undamaged. It can be taken out using a screwdriver put into the
slot. The fuse can be pushed out of its holder and exchanged.
The holder with the new fuse can then be pushed back in place
against the spring. It is prohibited to ”repair“ blown fuses or to
bridge the fuse. Any damages incurred by such measures will
void the warranty.
Type of fuse:
Size 5 x 20 mm; 250V~, C; IEC 127, Bl. III;
DIN 41 662 (or DIN 41 571, Bl. 3).
Cut off: slow blow (T) 2A.
44
Subject to change without notice
Differences within the HMS-X options
2 Differences within the HMS-X options
The basic unit HMS-X can be upgraded with different options.
All options are combinable with each other. The following options (resp. voucher) are available in combination with the
spectrum analyzer HMS-X:
Type
HMS-X Options*4
Upgrade Voucher*5
Unlock built-in
Tracking Generator
HMS-TG
HV211
Bandwidth Upgrade to
3 GHz
HMS-3G
HV212
HMS-EMC
HV213
EMC option incl.
preamplifier
Fig. 2.1: Starting display HMS-X with activated TG
The inactive options are marked with a red X. Additionally the
activated options can be verified in the SETUP-Menü with the
softkey Device info.
Tab. 2.1: Overview HMS-X Options / Voucher
*4
*5
available only with purchase of HMS-X basic unit
activate HMS-X options at any time after purchase of HMS-X basic unit
The HMS-EMC resp HV213 option is the most extensive option.
With the HMS-EMC resp HV213 option the EMC software, the
preamplifier, diverse resolution bandwidths and an advanced
amplitude measurement range are activated.
Please find the most important differences at the following
table 2.1. For each instrument find the complete technical data
at www.hameg.com.
The options HMS-TG, HMS-3G and HMS-EMC can be purchased
ex factory in combination with an HMS-X basic unit. The upgrade
voucher HV211, HV212 and HV213 allow an instrument upgrade
at any later point in time via licence key. If an instrument option
resp. upgrade voucher is activated, the HMS-X will show the
activated options with a green hook on the starting display.
Type
Span setting range:
HMS-X basic unit
0 Hz (Zero Span)
and 1 MHz to 1.6 GHz
Resolution bandwidths
(-3 dB):
Resolution bandwidths
(-6 dB):
HMS-X basic unit
+ option HMS-TG / HV211
(unlock TG)
0 Hz (Zero Span)
and 1 MHz to 1.6 GHz
HMS-X basic unit
+ option HMS-3G / HV212
(upgrade 3GHz)
0 Hz (Zero Span)
and 1 MHz to 1.6 GHz
10 kHz to 1 MHz in 1–3 steps, 200 kHz
Video bandwidth:
Amplitude measurement range:
DANL (Displayed average noise level):
Detectors:
HMS-X basic unit
+ option HMS-EMC / HV213
(EMC)
0 Hz (Zero Span)
and 100 Hz to 3 GHz
100 Hz to 1 MHz
in 1–3 steps, 200 kHz
–
200 Hz, 9 kHz, 120 kHz, 1 MHz
1 kHz to 1 MHz in 1-3 steps
10 Hz to 1 MHz
in 1-3 steps
typ. -104 dBm to +20 dBm
typ. -114 dBm to +20 dBm
typ. -104 dBm
typ. -135 dBm
Auto-, Min-, Max-Peak, Sample, RMS, Average
Auto-, Min-, Max-Peak, Sample, RMS, Average,
Quasi-Peak
–
Percentage of reference level
Linear display scaling
(level):
Tracking Generator
Bandwidth 3GHz
Preamplifier
–
–
–
yes
–
–
–
yes
–
Normal (level & log.), delta
marker, noise marker,
frequency counter
Free run, Single Trigger,
ext.Trigger, Video Trigger
–
–
yes
EMC Software
–
–
–
yes
Marker displays:
Normal (level & log.), delta marker, noise marker
Trigger:
Free run, Single Trigger, ext. Trigger
Tab. 2.2: Specifications overview HMS-X with available options
Subject to change without notice
45
Controls and display
3 Controls and display
Area B (Data):
This area includes the possibility of setting parameters via
numerical keyboard and unit keys.
B
Front panel
1 Display (TFT)
6,5“ VGA TFT Display
2 Interaktive Softkeys
Direct access of all relevant functions
Power switch turns the instrument on/off
Set of all operating parameters
Set back of inputs
21 CANCEL
5 SPAN (illuminated button)
Setting of the Span
6 FREQ (illuminated button)
Setting of the frequency
7 TRACE (illuminated button)
Configuration of data aquisition and analysis
8 SWEEP (illuminated button)
Setting of the sweep time and the trigger source
9 BANDW (illuminated button)
Setting of the resolution and video bandwidth
10 LINES (illuminated button)
Configuration of displayed and limit lines
11 MEAS (illuminated button)
Implementation of extended measurements
12 DISPLAY (illuminated button)
Setting of the display
22
20 BACK
4 AMPL (illuminated button)
Setting of amplitude parameters
21
19 Numerical keyboard (buttons)
Area A :
This area includes the parameter settings.
20
19
3 POWER
Terminate the editing mode
22 ENTER
Confirm the values via keyboard in text mode
C
Area C (Variation):
This area includes the settings via
rotary knob and arrow buttons
23 Rotary knob
Knob to adjust and activate the
values or menu items by pushing
24 Arrow buttons s t (buttons)
Zoom-In / Zoom-Out functionality
24 23 24
Area D (General):
This area includes the general intrument settings
D
13 PEAK SEARCH (illuminated button)
Measuring value peak display
14 MARKER > (illuminated button)
Search function of marker
15 MARKER (illuminated button)
Selection and arrangement of the absolute and relative
marker
25
17 PRESET
18 AUTO TUNE
Factory reset
Automatically setting of instrument settings
46
Subject to change without notice
28
29
The key FILE/PRINT on the front panel allows you to store
instrument settings,
curves, screenshots or printing.
26 SETUP (illuminated button)
Switching between SWEEP- and RECEIVER-Mode
27
25 FILE/PRINT
16 MODE (illuminated button)
26
Display of general instrument settings
27 HELP
Including display help
28 SAVE/RECALL (illuminated button)
Store and restore of instrument settings, curves and
screenshots
Controls and display
1
2
3
4
5
6
11
8
7
9
10
12
14
13
15
17
16
18
A
B
C
D
E
30
31
32
33
29 REMOTE
Toggling between front panel and external operation
Area E :
This area includes a series of connectors.
30 USB port
Front USB port for storing parameters
(connector)
31 PHONE
Headphone connector 3,5 mm jack;
Impedance > 8 Ω
34
35
38 DVI-D (connector)
Display of the instrument display 1:1 on an external DVI
monitor or projector with DVI-D connector
39 USB port
Additional USB port
40 REF IN (BNC socket)
Reference input
41 REF OUT (BNC socket)
Reference output
32 PROBE POWER (connector)
Power supply (6 VDC) for field probes
(2,5 mm jack)
33 External TRIGGER (BNC socket)
36
37
38
39
BNC input for external trigger signal
34 OUTPUT 50 Ω
Tracking Generator (N connector)
Input N connector
29 INPUT 50 Ω
Rear panel
36 Mains input connector with fuse
37 Interface
HO720 Dual-Interface (USB/RS-232) is provided as standard
40
41
Subject to change without notice
47
Quick introduction
4 Quick introduction
The following chapters are intended to introduce you to the most
important functions and settings of your new HAMEG HMS-X
spectrum analyzer (in this example HMS-X with all available
options) in order to enable you to immediately use it. You find
more detailled explanations in the chapters following these ones.
4
5
6
7
8
11
14
9 10
12 13
15 16
17
18
A
Fig. 4.1: Area A of the control panel
4.1 How to measure a sine wave signal
The fundamental measurement with a spectrum analyzer is the
measurement of the level and the associated frequency of a sine
wave signal. The following measurement example demonstrates
the steps to be taken for the settings which allow to effectively
perform this measurement with the HMS-X. The signal source
is a hf synthesizer, e.g. the HM8135. Connect the hf output
of the synthesizer to the hf input of the spectrum analyzer.
tor signal will be discernible as a line. Harmonics of the oscillator
are also displayed at multiples of 100 MHz (not visible here). In
order to analyze the generator signal further, use the frequency
settings menu (key FREQ 6 ) to set the start frequency to 50 MHz
and the stop frequency to 250 MHz. The spectrum analyzer now
displays the signal with a higher resolution.
In order to determine the level of the signal, the HMS-X offers up
to 8 markers. The marker is always attached to the measuring
curve. The instrument indicates the level and the frequency at
the relevant position on the screen.
Press the key MARKER 15 to enter the marker settings menu.
Marker [1] will be activated by the soft key DISPLAY, it will be
automatically positioned to the center frequency of the actual
curve. The marker frequency is indicated by a cross resp. arrow
symbol (next to the activated marker). The spectrum analyzer
displays the level and the frequency of the marker position
numerically at the top of the screen.
Now move the marker [1] to the displayed level at 100 MHz by
pressing the soft key Position and, after selecting the
marker (the marker indication will turn to orange), use the knob
to move it to the left; you may also enter the desired frequency
of 100 MHz directly via the keyboard.
Settings on the synthesizer:
– Frequency 100 MHz
– Level –10 dBm
Press the AUTO TUNE key 18 in order to cause the instrument
to scan the whole measuring range in order to find the highest
signal peak and to display it at the screen center together with
the proper RBW and span settings. This procedure may take
several seconds.
Fig. 4.3: Level measurement with marker
4.3 Measurement of the harmonics of a sine wave
signal
Due to the property of a spectrum analyzer to resolve different
signals in the frequency range, it is well suited to measure
harmonics or the distance between harmonics and the fundamental. The HMS-X offers extended marker functions which
allow to arrive at a result after just a few key pressures.
Fig. 4.2: Display with the AUTO TUNE function
4.2 Level measurement
In order to now perform the previouly automatically taken
steps manually, press the key PRESET 17 which resets the
instrument to its initial settings.
The analyzer displays the frequency spectrum of its full frequency
range from 100 kHz to 1.6 GHz resp. 3 GHz. At 100 MHz the genera48
Subject to change without notice
Due to the previous settings in chapter 4.2, the first marker is
already located on the fundamental which should stand clearly out
of the noise floor in the lefthand screen area. The marker should
also display the selected level of –10 dBm in the upper screen area.
The first harmonic of the sine wave should now appear at 200 MHz.
Depending on the purity of the signal this harmonic may be well
or hardly visible with the presently active settings.
In order to measure the distance of the first harmonic to the
fundamental proceed as follows:
Press the soft key Marker and move the knob by one detent
position to the right in order to select a second marker (M2).
Activate the marker by pressing the soft key DISPLAY. The
Quick introduction
second marker will now appear in the center of the display.
Select the marker by pressing the soft key DISPLAY (the
marker indication will turn to orange) and move it with the knob
(to the right) or via the keyboard by directly entering the value
200 MHz.
Another means of spectrum analysis is the socalled video
bandwidth (VBW). This is nothing else but a low pass filter which
filters high frequency components from the signal. Using this
filter can also cause a massive increase of the sweep time, and
again a sound compromise has to be found between display quality and measurement time. Activate the manual VBW selection
by pressing the associated soft key and use the knob to select
a 10 kHz filter from the list in the menu which will appear. Both
levels (fundamental and harmonic) should now be well visible
on the HMS display.
4.3.2How to measure the harmonic
In chapter 4.3.1 already two markers were positioned on the
fundamental and the harmonic, the second one on the harmonic.
Open the marker menu by pressing the key MARKER 15 . The
marker [2] is still selected (shown as an entry on the top soft
key) Change the active marker [2] from an “absolute” marker
to a “relative” delta marker by pressing the soft key Delta.
The marker display will change from an absolute frequency
and level display to a relative frequency and level display; the
values shown refer always to the main marker (marker [1]).
Fig. 4.4: Measurement of the harmonic of a sine wave signal
4.3.1Selection of the proper filter settings
In order to better resolve the harmonic from the noise, the RBW
and the VBW filters should be adapted to the measurement task
by using the bandwidth menu (key BANDW 9 ). The HMS-X
standard procedure is to automatically set the RBW and VBW
filters such that a first approximation of a measurement of the
input signal will be possible. Manual selection of the filters will
be always superior to an automatic presetting.
Activate the key BANDW 9 to enter the filter menu of the
spectrum analyzer. Due to the presettings, the RBW and the
Fig. 4.6: Measuremen of the harmonic using the delta marker
4.3.3 Extended marker functions (PEAK SEARCH)
Press the key PEAK SEARCH in order to reach the extended
marker functions. Select the marker to be used with the key
(MARKER > 14 ).
Fig. 4.5: Selection of the proper filter settings
VBW will be set to Auto. Activate manual setting by pressing
the top soft key, then use the knob to select the 100 kHz filter
from the list in the menu which will appear. The noise band
displayed formerly should now be markedly reduced such
that the first harmonic will be better visible. A further reduction of the RBW would display the harmonic still better at the
expense of a massively extended sweep time. Here, a compromise must be found between display quality and measurement time, optimum for the actual measurement task.
Fig. 4.7: PEAK SEARCH function
Subject to change without notice
49
Quick introduction
In the top screen area (where the level and frequency values
of the markers can be read) the lettering of the marker selected will be shown pronounced bright. Select the marker
[2] and press the soft menu key Peak. The second marker
should now jump to the same spot where marker [1] already
resides (that is the position of the fundamental), because the
level of this is the highest. The values displayed for (Delta-)
frequency and level should be “0”.
Press the soft menu key Next Peak in order to cause the
active marker to position again on the first harmonic. The values
displayed for (Delta-) frequency and level should be identical
to the original ones.
4.4 Setting of the reference level
The reference level in spectrum analyzers is always the level
of the top graticule line. In order to realize the maximum dynamic range in spectrum measurement, the level display range
of the spectrum analyzer should be fully used. This means that
the highest level in the actual spectrum should be as close to
the top graticule line (= reference level) as possible. The maximum value of the level display (Y axis) of the measurement
display is determined by the reference level. However, take care
that the top graticule line is not exceeded as this would cause
overdrive of the spectrum analyzer input stage.
Fig. 4.9: Receiver mode with a center frequency set
In the receiver mode the same bandwidths are available as in
the analyzer mode. Additionally, the bandwidths 200 Hz, 120 kHz,
and 1 MHz (–6 dB) for emi measurements according to CISPR
are provided (only available in combination with HMS-EMC resp.
HV213). These can be chosen by pressing the key BANDW and
using the knob.
The HMS-X receiver mode offers peak, average, rms and
quasi-peak detectors. The detector is selected in the main menu
of the receiver mode with the soft key Detector.
The quasi-peak detector is only available in combination
with HMS-EMC resp. HV213 option.
The measuring time is the time during which the spectrum
analyzer collects measurement results and combines them
for a result, depending on the detector selected. With the knob
the measuring time may be varied, or it can be entered directly
via the keyboard.
If the quasi-peak detector is selected, the measuring time
should be >100 ms in order to measure varying or pulsed
signals correctly.
Fig. 4.8: Setting of the reference level
In order to prevent overdriving the input, the input attenuators
of the spectrum analyzer are independently selectable and
linked to the reference level. If the reference level in the amplitude selection menu (key AMPL 4 ) is increased by 20dB (0 to
20 dBm), the input attenuator will be automatically switched to
30 dBm.This will cause the first harmonic of the signal (marker
2) to disappear in the noise floor.
4.5 Operation in the receiver mode
For the measurement of levels of a signal frequency the HMS-X
offers the receiver mode. The spectrum analyzer operates like a
receiver which is tuned to a frequency and measures the level.
The menu of the measurement functions will open by pressing
the key MEAS 11 , If the soft key CF>RX is activated, the HMS
will switch to the receiver mode and measures the level of
the center frequency set. The most important settings of the
measurement parameters are directly accessible in the main
menu of the receiver mode and can be activated by pressing
the appropriate keys.
50
Subject to change without notice
Setting of parameters
5 Setting of parameters
5.1 Display segmentation in sweep mode
Fig. 5.1:
Display segmentation in sweep modes
Three methods of setting signal parameters are offered:
– numerical keyboard
–knob
– arrow buttons
Please use the soft menu keys for selecting the respective
menu item.
window will remain open. The CANCEL key will terminate
the entry of parameters and close the window. In text mode
characters can be confirmed with the ENTER key.
5.3 Rotary knob
C
5.2 Numerical keyboard
The simplest method of entering parameters quickly and
exactly is the entry via the numerical keyboard with the number keys (0...9), the decimal point key (.) and the minus key (-).
B
24
19
20
21
22
Fig. 5.2: Section B with
numerical keyboard, unit
and command keys
When entering parameters via the keyboard the value will be
accepted upon pushing the respective unit key GHz (-dBm),
MHz (dBm), kHz (dB..) or Hz (dB..). The keys have multiple assignments. Prior to pushing any key an entry may be
deleted by pushing the key BACK. During the operations the
23
24
Fig. 5.3: Rotary
knob with arrow
buttons
It is possible to only use the knob for all settings. Values can
also be entered with the rotary knob. The entry is changed
in steps and the spectrum analyzer immediately sets the appropriate entry parameter. Turning the knob CW will increase
the value, turning it CCW will decrease it. Such parameters
can be modified only by using the knob (for example display
settings).
5.4 Arrow buttons
The arrow buttons allow the Zoom-In resp. Zoom-Out functionality. The r button will double the span, the s button will
halve the span.
Subject to change without notice
51
Setting of parameters
5.5 Interactive softkeys
The grey soft menu keys at the righthand side of the screen are
used for the menu field displayed. Use the knob or the numerical
keyboard for setting the parameter selected. If a menu field was
selected via the soft menu keys, this item will be marked in blue,
it is now activated for entering a parameter. If an instrument
function should not be available due to a specific setting, the
associated soft menu key will be deactivated, the lettering will
be shown in grey.
5.6 How to enter numerical values
– Use the grey soft menu keys for the selection of a menu
item.
– Enter the value of the parameter using the numerical keyboard or modify it with the knob.
– After a keyboard entry push the respective unit key.
6 Instrument functions
6.1 Setting of the frequency (FREQ)
Pushing the FREQ key will call the menu for setting the frequency. The setting is performed as described in chapter 5.
Spectrum display needs to be parameterised before measurement is started. The two most important parameters are start
and stop frequency of the sweep. The frequency can be specified
in terms of the center frequency (center freqency = frequency at
the center of the frequency axis in the measurement diagram)
or the start and stop frequency for a particular span. The start
frequency sets the frequency at the left border of the trace,
the stop frequency sets the highest frequency at the right hand
border. In some applications it is easier to modify the center
frequency. In this case start and stop frequencies are automatically adapted.
It is best to enter the center frequency when a signal is to be
measured at a known frequency. When you are investigating
signals, e.g. harmonics, that are within a particular frequency
range, the best option is entering a start and stop frequency to
define the span.
The step size of the center frequency can be modified with CFSTEPSIZE. By pushing this soft menu key the settings menu
will open.
–
0.1 x Span (Basic setting): The step size is always 1/10 of
the currently selected span (= 1 vertical division).
– 0.5 x Span: The step size is always 1/2 of the currently
selected span (= 5 vertical divisions).
– Set to Center: The step size of the frequency is equal to the
present center frequency. This mode is especially useful
for the measurement of harmonics because each step will
move the center frequency to the next harmonic.
–Manual: Any step size is available. This allows the easy
measurement of spectra with regular frequency steps.
6.2 Aktivating / parameterizing the built-in
tracking generator (TG) *)
„Tracking“ of a tracking generator means the generator fundamental frequency is in the center of the analyzer passband
at every instant of time. The tracking generator sweeps the
entire available frequency range depending on the current
measurement frequency of the spectrum analyzer.
The tracking generator is not a precise RF generator.
The waveform and level varies over the frequency range
The tracking generator allows the user to perform frequency
measurements for filters, amplifiers or mixers, for instance.
With this system, it is also possible to measure reflection coefficients or return loss and consequently also investigate voltage
standing wave ratios (VSWR). The output signal of the tracking
generator is transmitted at the component to be examined, and
the output voltage is applied to the spectrum analyzer input.
The output of the tracking generator is nominal 0 dBm. It can be
reduced via an adjustable TG attenuator (TG Att) in 1 dB steps
up to –20 dBm (tracking generator attenuation). The tracking
*) only available in combination with HMS-TG resp. HV211
52
Subject to change without notice
Instrument functions
generator generates an output signal on the same frequency
which is currently received by the analyzer.
It is recommended to deactivate the tracking generator,
whenever it is not required for the measurement. With activated
tracking generator, the instrument is not able to compensate
all imperfections anymore. This will be indicated with a red „TG
on“ message on the bottom right of the display, as well as a
UNCAL message at the top of the display.
range on both sides of the center frequency which a spectrum
analyzer displays on its screen. The span to be selected depends
on the signal to be analyzed, in general, it should be at least
twice as wide as the bandwidth of the signal. With the span the
bandwidth of the signal to be analyzed is set. Mathematically
the span is the difference between stop and start frequency. In
simple terms, the span is the magnitude of the spectral range
and the center frequency defines the position in the spectrum.
The UNCAL message disappears, once the trace mathematics
(please refer to chapter 6.7.1) of the HMS is used to compensate
the effects described above.
6.2.1Performing measurements with the TG *)
One of the most common application for TG measurements is
the spectral investigation of hardware components. For this
purpose, the DUT (device-under-test) is looped into the signal
path between TG output and receiver input.
In order to compensate any influences caused by cables, adaptors etc. used at the application, these will be directly connected
to the spectrum analyzer without the DUT in the loop. The resulting trace shows the interference of the cables, connectors,
etc. and needs to be stored in the trace memory of the spectrum
analyzer. Afterwards the trace mathematics (Trace - Mem)
shall be activated. Due to the mathematical compensation of
all interferences, necessarily a straight line is displayed and
the UNCAL message is removed. After connection of the DUT
into the signal path, the frequency response of the DUT is shown
at the display, based on the selected frequency range.
The UNCAL message disappears by using the trace math.
The signal output of the tracking generator does not show a
“true” sine wave signal. The output signal of the TG is generally not sinusoidal in even spectrum analyzers from other
manufacturers. A generator which can generate a uniform
sinusoidal signal from 5 MHz to 1.6 GHz/3 GHz, is not absolutely necessary to provide the desired function. The shape of
the signal output is frequency dependend. A sinusoidal signal
curve is not required for the “interpretation” at the HMS input.
Through the reduction of the TG output signal to the input and
the use of HMS (view in relation) narrow-band filter, neither the
shape nor the signal harmonics of the signal are evaluated. The
correct function of the TG by using the HMS is ensured at any time.
Since the existing tracking generator has to display frequencies
in a very broad context, it is usually that the tracking generator
can not display low frequency signals (frequency range 5 MHz
to 1.6 GHz resp. 3 GHz).
Further information about the TG in combination with the trace
math you can find in chapter 6.7.2.
6.3 Frequency range displayed (SPAN)
The span is the frequency range centered on the center frequency which a spectrum analyzer displays on the screen. In
principal there are two methods to define the displayed frequency range: defining start and stop frequency or center
frequency and span. The frequency range called span is the
*) only available in combination with HMS-TG resp. HV211
Fig. 6.1: Hf signal modulated by a sine wave signal and the
resultant video signal vs. time
The HMS-X resp. the HMS-X incl. options offers the following
frequency ranges (spans):
HMS-X (basic unit)
HMS-X + HMS-3G / HV212
1 MHz to 1.6 GHz
1 MHz to 3 GHz
In zero span mode (0 Hz - Zero) the spectrum analyzer acts
similar to a receiver tuned to the center frequency. In this case
the trace display does not represent a spectrum, but the amplitude over time. In other words the spectrum analyzer acts
like a selective oscilloscope. For example the zero span mode
can be used to determine the maximum of fluctuating signals
at a specific frequency more detailed or to represent parts of
an amplitude modulation.
Use the softkey Full to select the full span from 1MHz (100Hz)
to 1.6 GHz resp. 3 GHz. The softkey Last will restore the last
span setting. The setting is performed as described in chapter 5.
6.4 Setting of the amplitude parameters (AMPL)
The key AMPL is used for all settings of the displayed amplitude. The reference level (soft menu item Ref. Level) is
identical to the top graticule line of the display. The setting is
performed as described in chapter 5. The reference level represents the amplitude level which is displayed at the upper
trace screen. The RF attenuation setting at the input of the
spectrum analyzer is directly coupled to the reference level.
Lowering the reference level increases the sensitivity. Normally the reference level is chosen to display the whole dynamic
range on screen. If the input signals are strong, a high reference
level must be set to prevent the analyzer signal path from being
overdriven and to keep the signal display within the display
range. When displaying the spectrum of a composite signal, the
reference level should be at least high enough to ensure that
all the signals are within the measurement diagram.
The receiver input will be overloaded by a disadjusted
reference level.
The RF attenuation setting at the input of the spectrum analyzer is directly coupled to the reference level. If the reference
level is high, RF attenuation is switched on in steps according
to the table 6.1, so that the input mixer always remains in the
linear range.
Subject to change without notice
53
Instrument functions
The basic unit (Unit) of the reference level is dBm. Alternatively, the unit dBµV or the linear unit V and W can be selected
by pushing the softkey and using the knob. The scaling of the
linear units V and W is set dynamically. Unit selection is of most
relevance to the marker level display as the marker level is
displayed in the unit of the reference level.
If the linear unit V or W is selected, the reference level is
adjusted automatically. The linear scaling is only available
in combination with HMS-EMC resp. HV213.
The measurement range (Range) determines the resolution
along the level axis in the measurement diagram. The basic
scaling is in dB. The standard scaling is 10 dB/DIV. The spectrum analyzer also provides the level ranges 5 dB/DIV, 2 dB/
DIV and 1 dB/DIV which enhance resolution along the level
axis. A higher resolution does not increase the accuracy, it
only improves the readability. An appropriate combination of
reference level and vertical scale can be used to get a more
detailed display of the trace. If the Unit is set to dBm or dBµV,
the scaling of the reference level can be set to LIN% (linear
percentage display). This means that a logarithmic unit is
represented as a percentage value of the reference level. This
mode is useful if you want to display, for example, a carrier
being amplitude modulated in the time domain (Span = 0 Hz).
The RF attenuation setting at the input of the HMS-X is directly
coupled to the reference level. The attenuation setup menu is
used to influence the thresholds used for automatic attenuator
selection when the reference level is adjusted. The instrument
offers two different modes of coupling which are selected via
the softkey Att-Setup:
– LOW NOISE:
When adjusting reference level switching thresholds for attenuator and gain are optimised to get the best signal/noise
ratio.
– LOW DISTORTION:
When adjusting reference level switching thresholds for
attenuator and gain are optimised for lowest possible distortion.
If the spectrum analyzer contains the HMS-EMC resp. HV213
option incl. preamplifier the softkey Preamplifier activate
or deactivate the preamplifier. The preamplifier increases the
signal/noise ratio by 10 dB.
6.4.1Reference Offset
The reference offset is used to vertically shift the trace if trace
math is switched on. The reference offset adds a selectable
value to the reference level. This is useful when prior to the RF
input, an attenuator or an amplifier is used. The spectrum
analyzer automatically takes the loss or gain into account when
the level is displayed and no manual calculations are necessary. A loss introduced at the RF input must be entered as a positive number and a gain as a negative number. The value input
of the reference offset (Ref. Offset) is always given in dB,
even if the reference level is set to a different unit.
The reference offset function is only selectable if the trace
math is activated (TRACE). If the trace math is activated
the reference offset function is not greyed out anymore.
6.5 Setting of the bandwidth (BANDW)
Spectrum analyzers resolve the spectral content of a signal
and display a frequency spectrum. The quality of the resolution is determined by the resolution bandwidth (RBW).
Additionally, the spectrum analyzer offers a selectable video
bandwidth. The instrument will automatically (or, if desired,
manually) choose a slower sweep time if the span was set too
wide for the selected RBW (provided that the user did not set
the span to manual).
The video bandwidth (VBW) affects that the video voltage is
smoothed by video filtering to, say, reduce noise on the trace.
It is determined by the bandwidth of the low pass filter inserted
between the video signal and the display. In contrast to the
resolution bandwidth the video bandwidth has no influence on
the resolution properties of the spectrum analyzer.
By pushing the BANDW key the setting menu of the bandwidths
will open. Both the resolution bandwidth (RBW) and the video
bandwidth (VBW) may be set within the specified limits. The
table 6.2 shows the step sizes which are available:
Preamplifier OFF
Preamplifier ON
ATT-Setup
Low Noise
ATT-Setup
Low Distortion
ATT-Setup
Low Noise
ATT-Setup
Low Distortion
Preamplifier
20 dBm
30 dB
30 dB
30 dB
30 dB
OFF
15 dBm
30 dB
30 dB
30 dB
30 dB
OFF
10 dBm
20 dB
30 dB
20 dB
30 dB
OFF
5 dBm
20 dB
30 dB
20 dB
30 dB
OFF
0 dBm
10 dB
20 dB
10 dB
20 dB
OFF
–5 dBm
10 dB
20 dB
10 dB
20 dB
OFF
–10 dBm
0 dB
10 dB
0 dB
10 dB
OFF
–15 dBm
0 dB
10 dB
10 dB
10 dB
ON
–20 dBm
0 dB
0 dB
10 dB
10 dB
ON
≤ –25 dBm
0 dB
0 dB
0 dB
0 dB
ON
Reference Level
Table 6.1: Relation between reference level and automatic setting of RF attenuation
54
Subject to change without notice
Instrument functions
RBW
100 Hz *)
200 Hz *)
1 kHz
3 kHz
10 kHz
30 kHz
100 kHz
200 kHz
300 kHz
1MHz
VBW
10 Hz *)
30 Hz *)
100 Hz *)
300 Hz *)
1 kHz
3 kHz
10 kHz
30 kHz
100 kHz
200 kHz
300 kHz
1 MHz
3 MHz *)
Table 6.2: Available RBW and VBW settings
sweep was completed, a new one will be started and the display refreshed. If continuous sweeping is not desired (e.g., if
a single event shall be recorded upon a trigger), there is also
the possibility of selecting Single sweep. If single sweep
is selected, the spectrum analyzer will sweep the frequency
range once or it displays the video signal vs. time if the span is
set to zero. The instrument will only repeat the measurement
after the softkey Single was pushed again.
Additionally the soft menu Trigger offers diverse trigger
functions in order to react to events.
6.6.1Source
*) only available in combination with HMS-EMC resp. HV213
If a wide span was set manually or the sweep time was
too high, the amplitudes will be displayed with incorrect
level; in such cases a red UNCAL message will warn. The
span must then be reduced until the UNCAL message
disappears.
Additionally automatic selection for both bandwidths (AUTO
RBW/AUTO VBW) may be chosen with the respective softkey.
The knob is used for the setting of the parameters.
Fig. 6.3: Signal with AM modulation 50% in zero span with linear
scaling
With the softkey Source an internal / external trigger source
or the video trigger (Video) can be selected.
The video trigger can be only activated in zero span
(span = 0 Hz).
Fig. 6.2: The selections offered in the RBW menu
If the internal source is selected (int), the spectrum analyzer
is in the continuous sweep mode, i.e. when one sweep of the
span has been completed, the sweep is automatically repeated
from the start of the span. If the external source is selected
(ext), the sweep is started by an external trigger signal.
6.6 Setting of the SWEEP
With a frequency spectrum of f 1 0 Hz the sweep time is the
time the spectrum analyzer requires for sweeping the selected
frequency range to measure the spectrum. Certain limits have
to be observed (e.g. the resolution bandwidth set) in order to
obtain a correct display.
Pushing the key Sweep will open the selection menu. The
Sweep Time can be varied within the specified limits. The
setting of the parameters is performed as described in chapter 5. In order to assist the user when setting the sweep time,
an automatic selection of the sweep time with respect to the
RBW and the span settings may be chosen with the softkey
Auto. The automatic mode will always set the sweep time to
the shortest possible value consistent with the correct display
of the spectrum content.
The HMS spectrum analyzer will sweep the selected frequency range continuously (softkey Continuous), i.e., after a
Fig. 6.4: Signal with AM modulation 50% in zero span with
logarithmic scaling
Subject to change without notice
55
Instrument functions
The video trigger (Video) allows to trigger on a defined
signal level. A sweep starts when the video voltage exceeds a
settable value. When a frequency spectrum is being displayed
(for example span 100 kHz), there is no guarantee that a signal
to generate a video voltage is present at the start frequency.
Under these circumstances the spectrum analyzer would never
perform a sweep.
– HOLD: freezes the presently displayed trace. The measurement is aborted. This allows subsequent evaluation of
spectra with the aid of the marker.
With a span setting of 0 Hz (zero span) the spectrum analyzer
changes the display from spectrum versus time to discrete
voltage versus time. The X-axis of the measurement diagram
represents the time axis, starting with time 0s and ends with
the selected sweep time. The minimum sweep time in zero span
mode is 2 ms, the maximum is 1000 s.
This so-called edge trigger works reliably up to a delta of at least
3 dB between the selected level (trigger line) and the maximum
applied signal amplitude. The level of the video trigger (y-axis)
can be set with the softkey Level.
6.6.2Slope
Fig. 6.5: Simultaneous display of 3 traces
With the softkey Slope the sweep will be started by a positive
or negative edge of an external trigger signal. The external
trigger signal is applied via the BNC connector EXTERNAL
TRIGGER (TTL logic levels).
The selected trace mode function will be displayed at the bottom
right on the display (for example C/W for Clear/Write).
The sweep can only be started by an external trigger
signal. A trigger delay can be not defined.
6.7 Trace settings (TRACE)
The trace menu can be opened by pressing the Trace button.
The HMS-X can simultaneously display up to 3 waveforms on
the screen. The trace mode of trace 2 and 3 is fixed and can not
be changed by the user.
Trace 1 = normal Sweep (yellow / free configurable)
Trace 2 = Max hold trace (purple)
Trace 3 = Min hold trace
(green)
Trace 2 and 3 are each based on the freely configurable trace
1. Trace 2 and 3 can only be turned on (On) or off (Off). If all
traces are enabled, it is possible to analyze the signal „progression“ by the resulting min-max graph (please refer to figure 6.5).
There are several modes of curve display (Trace Mode):
– Clear / Write (default setting): clears the old trace during a
new sweep
– Max Hold: the trace indicates the maximum value that has
been measured up to that point in time. Intermittent signals
in the spectrum or the maximum of fluctuating signals are
easy to find with Max Hold.
– Min Hold: the trace indicates the minimum value that has
been measured up to that point in time. With Min Hold,
sine signals within the noise can be highlighted or intermittent
signals suppressed.
– AVERAGE: the HMS-X takes the level average over consecutive traces. In the default setting, averaging is on a pixelby-pixel basis, sliding over the previous traces. The average
mode makes it easy to display sine signals in the vicinity of
noise.
56
Subject to change without notice
6.7.1 Detector
A detector converts the video signal of a spectrum analyzer before it will be displayed. It functions pixel-by-pixel, determining
how the value of a pixel will be measured.
The HMS-X always measures the whole spectrum. The trace
only has 500 pixels in the x direction for displaying results. If a
large span is selected, all the spectrum information must
somehow be represented using only 500 points. Each pixel
represents a frequency range equal to span/500. For example,
if the span is 3 GHz: 3 GHz/500 = 6 MHz. With a span of 3 GHz
the minimum space between two pixels is 6MHz.
The smaller the span, the smaller the space between
two pixels.
Pushing the softkey Detector will open the detector settings
menu. Following detector types are available:
– Auto Peak: the spectrum analyzer will display the maximum
and minimum level at each pixel for the frequency range
represented by that pixel, no signals will be lost. If the signal
level fluctuates (noise), the width of the trace will indicate
the width of the signal fluctuations (default setting).
– Sample: Only displays an arbitrary point within a display
pixel. The sample detector should always be used for
measurements with span = 0 Hz, as this is the only way
of correctly representing the timing of the video signal.
The sample detector can also be used to measure noise
power as noise usually has a uniform spectrum with a
normal amplitude distribution. If the sample detector
is used for signal spectrum measurements with a span
that is greater than (resolution bandwidth x 501), signals
may be lost.
– Max Peak: In contrast to the auto peak detector this detector
only finds the maximum value within the frequency range
associated with one trace pixel. Its use is recommended for
measurements on pulse-like signals or FM signals.
Instrument functions
– Min Peak: yields the minimum value of the spectrum within
a pixel of the trace. Sine signals are displayed with correct
level, but noise-like signals are suppressed. The Min Peak
detector can be used to highlight sine signals in the noise
spectrum.
6.7.2 Trace memory (Memory)
With the softkey Trace > Memory in the submenu Memory a trace can be transferred into the background curve
memory. By pushing the softkey Show Memory the stored
trace will be displayed and can be compared with the presently displayed curve. The stored curve will always be shown in
white and thus can be easily differentiated from the presently
displayed curve. In order to let the stored curve disappear,
push the Show Memory softkey again.
signal path between TG output and receiver input. Creating this
loop requires one or more RF cables.
The trace mathematics of the HMS spectrum analyzer allow
you to compensate the characteristics of the RF cable(s) used.
This is done by subtracting a stored trace from an active trace
and display the difference.
To measure the characteristics of the RF cable and to compensate
the connector the tracking generator output will be connected to
the input of the spectrum analyzer. Now, the tracking generator
function in the FREQ menu will be activated. After activating the
tracking generator (softkey Tracking Gen.) the red UNCAL
message will appear. This message indicates that the measurement with the tracking generator is unaligned.
The spectrum analyzer shows the following trace:
Fig. 6.6: Display of a measured and a stored reference curve
Fig. 6.7: Tracking generator measurement unaligned
6.7.2 Trace mathematics
Fig. 6.7 shows the transmission characteristics of the cable and
the connector. This curve will be stored with the softkey Trace
> Memory in the Memory menu (TRACE button). The stored
memory curve will be displayed by pushing the Show Memory
softkey.
The spectrum analyzer can subtract a stored trace from an
active trace and display the difference. If a trace is stored
under Trace > Memory the difference between the stored
an the active trace will be displayed by pushing the softkey
Trace Math. In order to let the stored curve disappear push
the key Trace Math and select Off.
The spectrum analyzer shows the following trace:
The trace math function can not be used in HOLD mode.
Pushing the softkey Trace Math will open the menu of
the trace mathematics. After saving a trace in memory (via
the softkey Trace > Memory) the difference between the
stored trace and the actual trace can be displayed using the
Trace - Mem button. If there a trace is stored the difference
between the stored an the active trace will be displayed by
pushing the softkey Mem-Trace. With the softkey Off the
stored trace can be faded out.
The trace in the trace memory will be stored as bitmap file.
The HMS-X will not adapt the stored curve if the reference level
or the displayed frequency range are changed.
Fig. 6.8: Display of the stored trace (Show Memory)
6.7.3 Trace math functionality example with TG
Using the tracking generator (only available with HMS-TG resp.
HV211 option) a spectral analysis of hardware components
should be done. For this purpose, the DUT is looped into the
Subject to change without notice
57
Instrument functions
The following result will be displayed if you activate the trace
mathematics (Trace Math softkey) and choose the softkey
Trace - Mem:
Fig. 6.11: Loosening of the RF cable completely
Removing the connection at this point will create a delta so big that
the curve is outside of the display area (please refer to figure 6.11):
Fig. 6.9: Aktivation of the trace math
By calculating the difference between the recorded and the
stored curve, there is a differential curve of approximately zero,
because the two curves are nearly identical (except the noise).
The characteristics of the RF cable are now compensated which
will make UNCAL message disappear.
In this case, using the reference offset function in the Ampl
menu the zero point can be moved and you get the following image:
Now that we have compensated the characteristics of the RF
cable we can make a little change in the measurement setup by
loosening the RF cable. By doing this we simulate an antenna
transmission which will result in the following image:
Fig. 6.12: Trace shifting with reference offset
Fig. 6.12 just only shows the noise at the input. But you can see
that the properties of the connection cable, which had previously
been connected, will be included.
6.8 The use of markers
Fig. 6.10: Loosening of the RF cable
As expected, less power will be transmitted from the tracking
generator to the input of the spectrum analyzer. The delta to the
previous zero line will be displayed.
The HMS-X offers several markers and delta markers for the
evaluation of curves. The markers are always tied to the curve
and indicate the frequency and the level at that. The frequency
position of the marker is marked by an arrow icon. The nurmerical values of the frequency and the level are shown as a
“M” at the top of the screen. The unit of the level is the same
as the unit selected for the reference level.
The knob allows to choose up to 8 different markers via the
MARKER menu. The individual markers can be switched on
and off with the softkey Display. The softkey Position
is used to set the frequency position of the marker along the
trace. The marker will be calculated from the display values
(pixel).
For example, if marker 1 is activated, a frequency counter function can be enabled for this marker by pushing the the softkey
Counter. The corresponding frequency value of the marker is
58
Subject to change without notice
Instrument functions
–Peak: this function places the marker or the delta marker
on the highest peak of the trace. The function acts on the
active marker which is activated in the marker menu.
– Next Peak: this function places the marker or the delta
marker relative to their current positions on the next lower
peak of the trace. The function acts on the active marker
which is activated in the marker menu.
– Next Left: this function places the marker or the delta marker relative to their current positions on the next left peak
of the trace. The function acts on the active marker which
is activated in the marker menu.
Fig. 6.13: Frequency counter
now shown at the top of the display marked with an „F“ (please
refer to fig. 6.13).
The values for the frequency marker will be calculated by
hardware (TCXO). When frequency measurements are being
made, the HMS-X briefly stops the sweep at the marker position and measures the frequency using the frequency counter
(resolution 1 Hz). The frequency counter only gives completely
accurate readings for sine signals that are at least 20 dB above
the noise floor. If the signal noise ratio is less, noise affects
the results.
If two different markers are activated (for example Marker1
and Marker2), you can calculate the delta between the two
markers with the softkey Delta. The delta marker level is
always relative to the level of the main marker (Marker1).
The delta marker unit is always dB. If a marker is set to delta
mode it is marked by a “D” in the read out to distinguish it from
a standard marker designated by a leading “M”.
– Next Right: this function places the marker or the delta
marker relative to their current positions on the next right
peak of the trace. The function acts on the active marker
which is activated in the marker menu before.
–Minimum: this function places the marker or the delta
marker on the lowest value of the trace. The function acts
on the active marker which is activated in the marker menu.
– All to Peak: This function will set all markers to the highest
peak. From this point a new arrangement can be realized
easily.
6.10 Limit Lines
Limit lines are used to set limits for level characteristics
versus time or versus frequency on the display. They must
not be exceeded. For instance, the upper limits of permissible
spurious or harmonics of a DUT are marked by limit lines. In
the HMS-X the upper and lower limit value can be preset by
way of limit lines.
The submenu Set To offers addition marker functions.
Marker to center (Mkr To Cent) allows to set the activated
marker to the center frequency. In contrast to marker to center
allows center to marker (Cent To Mkr) to set the center
frequency to an activated marker. A noise marker displays the
noise at the marker position. The Ref To Mkr softkey allows
to set the reference level to the value of the current marker.
This makes it easy to optimize the HMS-X level display range if
the levels being investigated are low.
Pushing the key LINES will open the setting menu to set
limit lines. The softkey Upper Limit activates / deactivates
the upper limit line which is displayed as a red line. After
activating the softkey Upper Pos the amplitude value for
the upper limit line can be set via the knob. The softkey Lower Limit activates / deactivates the lower limit line which
is displayed as a red line. After activating the softkey Lower
Pos the amplitude value for the lower limit line can be set via
the knob.
The Noise function is used to calculate the noise power
density at the marker position.The spectrum analyzer calculates the noise power density in dBm/Hz from the trace pixel
values, the selected resolution bandwidth and the detector.
Noise power density can provide useful information when
measurements are made on noise or digitally modulated
signals. Valid results are only obtained, if the spectrum in
the vicinity of the marker has a flat frequency response. The
function gives incorrect results if measurements are made
on discrete signals. Noise marker mode is designated by a
leading “N” in the marker readout. The noise marker can be
switched on/off by pressing the softkey.
Staged limit lines are not possible with the HMS-X directly.
In this case the EMC software resp. the EMC option (HMSEMC / HV213) is needed to create limit lines as CSV file.
The softkey All Off can be used to turn off all previous
activated markers simultaneously.
6.9 Peak-Search
The PEAK SEARCH key activates a menu which is used to
detect peaks in the trace and assign markers to them:
Additionally, the softkey Beep activates an acoustic signal
which warns as soon as the trace leaves the amplitude range
defined by the upper and lower limit line. The softkey Message activates a message in the upper left corner of the trace
display which shows if the whole trace is inside (pass/green)
or outside (fail/red) the amplitude range defined by the upper
and lower limit line.
6.11 Measure Menu
The key MEAS opens the measure menu with different options. The softkey CF>RX opens the receiver mode tuned to
the actual center frequency. The softkey M1>RX opens the
receiver mode tuned to the actual frequency of marker 1. The
softkey Reflection Cal starts the calibration wizard of
the reflection measurement.
Subject to change without notice
59
Instrument functions
To use the wizard the HAMEG VSWR bridge HZ547 is recommended. The VSWR bridge HZ547 allows the measurement of
the voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) and the reflection
coefficient of 50 Ω devices. The frequency range of the HZ547
is 100 kHz to 3 GHz.
ation of the device under test to a zero measurement will be
shown.
Before starting the wizard you have to select a trace
detector. The selected detector will be used during the
measurement automatically.
The measured reflected energy by the spectrum analyzer
which will now indicate the algebraic difference between both
measurements in dB which is the desired return loss. Once the
return loss has been determined use the table on the VSWR
measuring bridge to read the Reflection Coefficient and the
VSWR. More detailed information about the VSWR measuring
bridge HZ547 you can find in the appropriate manual which
can be downloaded from our homepage www.hameg.com.
6.12 Auto Tune
Fig. 6.14: Calibration menu of the VSWR wizard
The wizard for the reflection measurement is only available with the TG option HMS-TG resp. HV211.
The HMS-X with activated TG option (HMS-TG / HV211) guides
the user through all steps of the reflection measurement sequentially. Concerning the reflection measurement you have to
connect the VSWR measuring bridge to the spectrum analyzer.
The tracking generator (TG) will be switched on automatically,
if you don‘t have activated it already.
The signal source (tracking generator / OUTPUT) needs to be
connected to the IN connector of the VSWR bridge. The OUT
terminal of the bridge needs to be connected to the input
(INPUT) of the spectrum analyzer. At first, you have to let the
DUT terminal open which equals total mismatch. Afterwards,
a short calibration measurement will perform. A review of
these two signals with the trace math will illustrate that both
measurements are phase shifted by 180°. The white waveform
describes the open calibration measurement, the yellow
waveform describes the short calibration measurement.
Based on the trace math (Trace - Mem) a total compensation of the measurement deviation is archieved and the devi-
Dispaly of measurement time (MT)
Display of reference level (Ref)
and attenuator(Att)
Display of frequency
and amplitude
Fig. 6.15:
Display layout in receiver mode
60
Subject to change without notice
By pushing the AUTO TUNE key the instrument performs a
scan at full span, locate the maximum peak value and center
it in combination with applicable RBW and span settings on
the display. This is a comfort function to assist the user. The
closer the signal level is located to the general noise floor, the
harder the peak is detectable for the AUTO TUNE algorithm.
Therefore, it is possible that the settings must be slightly
adjusted by the user. This process can hold up few seconds.
6.13 Receiver-Mode
By pushing the MODE key a setting menu will be opened which
allows to switch between sweep mode (analyzer mode) and receiver mode. The spectrum analyzer acts like a receiver which
measures the level at a preselected frequency. The most important parameters such as e.g. frequency, amplitude, resolution
bandwidth may be set using the appropriate keys and can be
vary via knob or numerical keyboard.
In the receiver mode the same bandwidths are available as in the
spectrum analyzer mode. Additionally, the bandwidths 200 Hz,
9 kHz, 120 kHz and 1 MHz are available with avtivated EMC option HMS-EMC resp. HV213 for EMI emission measurements
according to CISPR.
Following detectors are available in the receiver mode and can
be set with the softkey menu Detector:
Display of bandwidth
Softkey inscription in
receiver mode
Store and recall instrument settings
–
PEAK: the peak detector displays the highest level during
the set measurement time.
–AVG: the average detector displays the linear average of
the measurement signal within the selected measurement
time.
–QPEAK: the quasi-peak detector evaluates the measurement signal according to the evaluation curves defined in
the CISPR standard (only available with HMS-EMC resp.
HV213).
– RMS: the RMS detector takes the rms value of the measurement signal during the set measurement time.
The measurement time is the amount of time during which the
spectrum analyzer collects measured values and compiles them
into a display result for the selected detector.
With the soft menu Audio the HMS-X offers an AM and a
FM demodulator allowing listening to modulated signals. The
demodulated signal can be listened with a headphone and an
intern speaker. The headphone is connected to the headphone
connector 31 (3.5 mm female connector). If the headphone is
activated, the intern speaker will be deactivated. The respective
softkey allows to switch the demodulator on or off and to set
the volume (0% to 100%).
7 Store and recall instrument settings
Push the key SAVE/RECALL for opening the main menu for
storage and load functions. The spectrum analyzer can store
different kinds of data:
– Device settings
–Traces
–Screenshots
Traces and screenshots can only be stored on USB sticks.
Device settings can be stored either on a USB stick or in the
instrument’s non-volatile memories.
The USB stick should be FAT (FAT32) formatted. It
should be avoided to store a large number of files on
the USB stick.
7.1 Instrument settings
The soft menu Device settings allows you to save current instrument settings or load saved settings resp. to export/
import instrument settings. Additionally, the softkey Default
Sett. will reset the instrument to the factory settings.
If an AM or FM demodulation is activated, the device
demodulates the signal and can not perform a level
measurement simultaneously. The unit shows n/a dBm
on the display.
Fig. 7.1: Basic menu for instrument settings
Press the softkey Save to open the storage menu. You can use
the softkey Storage to select a possible location (internal
memory or front/rear USB connection) where you would like to
Fig. 7.2: Saving instrument settings
Subject to change without notice
61
Store and recall instrument settings
save the instrument settings. Pressing this key opens the file
manager. The File Name can be changed or adjusted to the
corresponding setting (SET is the default label). You can use the
softkey Comment to enter a comment which will be displayed
in the file manager footer once a file has been selected. The
softkey Save will store the settings.
To load stored instrument files press the softkey Load to open
the soft menu. Once the storage location and the respective
settings file has been selected, you can load the file by pressing
the softkey Load.
7.2Traces
In addition to references, the waveform data can be stored only
on external USB sticks, not internally. Following formats to save
the trace data are possible:
HAMEG Binary format: A binary data set may contain bytes
of any length. The traces will be stored without any time information.
FLT: A FLT file contains the captured data as voltage values.
Compared to a FLT file, the captured amount of data for a CSV
file is 16 times greater. The voltage values are stored in the
Float format (4 Byte Float, binary, Big Endian). This file can be
reused in programs written by users, for instance.
CSV (Comma Separated Values): In CSV files, curve data is
stored in table format. Each table row is separated by a comma.
Example for CSV file:
[Hz],Trace1[dBm]
9.253540000E+08,-1.00890E+02
9.253540000E+08,-7.39215E+01
9.253560000E+08,-1.05031E+02
9.253560000E+08,-7.21179E+01
9.253580000E+08,-9.49329E+01
9.253580000E+08,-7.41840E+01
9.253600000E+08,-8.93787E+01
9.253600000E+08,-7.76752E+01
Fig. 7.3: Loading instrument settings
To remove files select the respective settings file and remove
it by pressing the softkey Remove file. If an USB stick is
connected and the storage location Front is selected, you
can also change or delete directories.
Device settings from a previous firmware version cannot
be loaded with a new firmware version.
The soft menu Import/Export allows you to copy a file from
an internal memory to an external storage medium (USB stick)
or vice versa. Source and Destination must be selected for copying. By pushing the softkey next to Import/Export
the selected settings file will be copied as previously chosen. It
is possible to copy from the internal memory to the external
memory and also between two USB sticks (front/rear).
Fig. 7.4: IMPORT / EXPORT menu for instrument settings
TXT: TXT files are ASCII files that only contain amplitude values
(no time values). Amplitude values are separated by a comma.
The value pairs are listed as single values without identification.
Example for TXT file:
-1.07915E+02,-7.80322E+01,-1.05590E+02,-7.59998E+01,9.59735E+01,-7.28748E+01,-1.04189E+02,-7.37231E+01
The soft menu Storage allows you to use the USB connection
on the front or rear side of the instrument as storage location.
Selecting the respective storage location is possible when a
USB stick has been recognized. If a USB stick is connected, you
can also change, create or delete directories. Press ACCEPT
DIR. to confirm the target directory and you will automatically return to the trace main menu. With the softkey Trace the
trace can be also saved as a reference (Ref1) or a math trace
(Math).
Fig. 7.5: Menu to save a waveform
The softkey File Name opens the menu for the name entry,
where you can use the universal knob to enter a name and con62
Subject to change without notice
Store and recall instrument settings
firm your entry by pressing Accept (TRC is the default name).
The trace main menu will display automatically. You can use the
softkey Comment to enter a comment which will be displayed
in the file manager footer once a file has been selected.
Pushing the softkey Save will store the trace according to the
selected settings.
7.3Screenshots
The most important format to store information for documentation purposes is the screenshot. A screenshot is an image file
which shows the current screen content at the time that storage
takes place.
where you can select the paper format and the color mode. The
paper formats A4, A5, B5, B6, and Executive are possible. The
menu item Color Mode allows the selection of the modes
Grayscale, Color or Inverted. The Grayscale
mode converts a color display to a greyscale display which can
be printed on a Black-and-White printer. The Color Mode
will print the display in color as it is shown on the screen (black
background). In the Inverted Mode the color display will be
printed in color with a white background on a color printer in
order to save toner and ink. With the softkey MENU OFF you
can jump back to the last menu.
The free software HMScreenshot (software module of the HMExplorer software) enables the transfer of screenshots in BMP
format via interface to a connected PC where the screenshots
can be be saved or printed. For additional information on the
software, refer to the internal HMExplorer help at www.hameg.
com.
7.3.1 Screenshot example
In order to store data you have to define the kind of data and the
destination. First attach a USB stick (refer to 10.1 USB connector)
to the front panel connector. Press SAVE/RECALL in order
to call the respective menu.
Fig. 7.6: Menu for screenshots
The softkey Storage allows you to use the USB connection
on the front or back of the instrument as storage location. Selecting the respective storage location is possible when a USB
stick has been recognized. If a USB stick is connected, you can
also change, create or delete directories. Press Accept to
confirm the target directory and you will automatically return
to the screenshot main menu.
The soft menu key FILE NAME opens the menu for the name
entry where you can use the knob to enter a name and confirm
your entry by pressing ACCEPT (SCR is the default name).
The screenshot main menu will display automatically. The file
format of a graphics file determines the color depth and the type
of compression. The quality of the various formats is identical
for the spectrum analyzer graphics. You can choose from the
following file formats in the soft menu Format:
Fig. 7.7: Save/Load menu
Select the kind of data by pressing the respective softkey (in this
example the softkey Screenshot) in order to access the settings menu.
–– BMP = Windows Bitmap Format
–– GIF = Graphics Interchange Format
–– PNG = Portable Network Graphic
Press the softkey Color Mode to to choose from Grayscale, Color or Inverted with the knob. If Grayscale is selected, the colors are converted to gray scales
when the data is stored, if Color is selected, the data is
stored as it displays in the screen, and if Inverted is activated, data will be stored in color with a white background.
If you press the key Save, the current screen will be saved
immediately to the selected storage location with the selected
name and format.
The softkey Print contains settings for PCL or PCLX printers. If a printer is detected the soft menu key Print is no
longer grayed out. Pushing this softkey will open a submenu
Fig. 7.8: Menu with the settings for screenshots
Subject to change without notice
63
Store and recall instrument settings
Please verify that the USB connector into which you plugged the
USB stick (front or rear) is written in the top softmenu. You can
change the destination by opening the respective menu if you
press the softkey Storage.
You can save a screenshot if you press the softkey Save using
the predefined name written in the menu below File Name.
You may name the destination memory with up to 7 characters;
in order to do this select the menu File Name and define the
name by using the knob. After pressing the softkey Accept
the instrument has stored the name and return to the settings
menu. Now you can store the actual screen display by pressing
the Save softkey.
8 Extended operating modes
8.1 Using the help function
The integrated help function can be activated by pressing the
key HELP. A window will open. The text of the window box is
dynamically updated depending on the key (including softkey’s)
you are pushing. Additionally, the appropriate SCPI interface
command is displayed. If you don‘t need the help function
anymore, you can switch off the help window by pushing the
HELP key.
Alternatively, you can select the menu FILE/PRINT. In the
following menu press the softkey Screenshot: this will
assign the function screenshot to the key FILE/PRINT with
the settings chosen. This enables you to store a screenshot file
on your USB stick by just pressing FILE/PRINT at any time
and in any menu.
Fig. 8.1: Internal help function
8.2 Display settings
Fig. 7.9: Settings of the button FILE/PRINT
By pushing the key Display the display settings menu will
be opened. Following display settings are available:
– Trace: Adjustment of the trace intensity (0%...100%) of the
displayed spectrum.
– Backlight: Adjustment of the backlight intensity (10%...100%).
– Grid: Adjustment of the raster intensity (0%...100%). The
soft menu item Grid Setup allows to select a cross,
raster lines or no raster with the respective soft menu
keys. Also the raster designations (Scale) can be switched on or off. The soft menu key LED Brightness
Fig. 8.2: Display settings menu
64
Subject to change without notice
General instrument settings
changes the LED intensity from dark to light, this is effective for all backlighted keys and all other display LED’s on
the front panel.
– Transparency: Adjustment of the transparency (0%...100%)
of the raster inscriptions.
If a soft menu item is activated, its background will be blue
highlighted. The setting of the value parameter is performed
with the knob. If a submenu is selected you can jump back to
the last menu by pushing the Display key.
8.3 Selection of the standard instrument
settings (PRESET)
By pushing the key PRESET the spectrum analyzer will resume its preset standard settings. This allows to generate a new
configuration, starting from defined parameters, no parameter
from a former setting will be active anymore.
9 General instrument settings
Basic settings like language of the user interface and miscellaneous settings can be set using the menu Misc. Pushing
the softkey MENU OFF you can jump back to the last menu.
9.1 Language settings
The HMS-X provides four different languages for the menu
and help text:
German, English, French and Spanish
By pushing the soft menu key Language you can select the
language. The selected language is active if the menu item text
is blue highlighted. Pushing the softkey MENU OFF you can
jump back to the last menu.
9.2 Basic settings
8.4 EMC Precompliance measurement
To perform EMC measurements, a free of charge software is
necessary. The software can be downloaded from www.hameg.
com. For further information to the HAMEG EMC software
please refer to the software built-in help-sytem.
An EMC software is only available in combination with the
option HMS-EMC resp. HV213.
9.2.1Date & Time
Pushing the softkey Date & Time will open the time and date
settings menu. These settings will be used for adding a time and
date stamp on print-outs and stored files. The user can modify
the time and date with the knob. The respective soft menu item
is active if it its menu text is blue highlighted. The time and date
settings will be accepted by pushing Save. Pushing the softkey
MENU OFF you can jump back to the last menu.
9.2.2Sound
The HMS-X offers the possibility to sound a warning which can
be switched on or off using the submenu which opens after
pressing the softkey Sound. The control resp. warning tone
will be active if the respective menu text is blue highlighted.
Pushing the softkey MENU OFF you can jump back to the last
menu.
9.2.3Device Name
In this menu item you can set a name for the HMS-X. By pressing the softkey a key panel will show. You can choose the
character via the knob. The character will confirm with the enter
button. Pushing the softkey MENU OFF you can jump back to
the last menu.
Fig. 8.3: EMC report
During EMC measurement the REMOTE key lights up and
the front panel controls of the spectrum analyzer are locked.
To unlock the front panel controls use the softkey Unlock Keys .
Fig. 9.1: Instrument Informations
Subject to change without notice
65
General instrument settings
9.2.4Device Infos
Choosing this soft menu item will call instrument information
such as serial number, software version etc. Pushing the softkey
MENU OFF you can jump back to the last menu.
9.3 Interface settings
This menu item is used for the settings of the diverse interfaces:
– Dual Interface HO720 USB/RS-232 (baud rate, number of
stop bits, parity, handshake on/off)
– LAN Interface HO730 (IP address, sub net mask etc., see
the manual of the HO730) and
– the IEEE-488 GPIB interface HO740 (GPIB-address)
The desired interface can be selected with the respective soft
menu key. Use the soft menu item Parameter to set the
necessary interface parameters. More information about the
selected interface you can find in chapter 12 or in the appropriate
interface manuals on www.hameg.com. Pushing the softkey
MENU OFF you can jump back to the last menu.
9.4 Printer settings
The HMS-X supports printing of the screen contents on a
connected printer (USB printers with postscript). The menu
item Print contains settings for PCL or PCLX printers. If
a printer is detected the soft menu key Print is no longer
grayed out. Pushing this softkey will open a submenu where
you can select the paper format and the colour mode. The
paper formats A4, A5, B5, B6, and Executive are possible. The
menu item Color Mode allows the selection of the modes
Grayscale, Color or Inverted. The Grayscale
mode converts a color display to a greyscale display which can
be printed on a Black-and-White printer. The Color Mode
will print the display in color as it is shown on the screen (black
background). In the Inverted Mode the color display will
be printed in color with a white background on a color printer
in order to save toner and ink.
Fig. 9.2: Updating menu
Pressing the softkey to update the instrument firmware will
result in a search for the corresponding file on the USB stick.
The information for the new firmware to be installed will then
be displayed on the stick below the row labeled NEW:. The
version number will be displayed in red in case the existing
firmware on the instrument is identical to the latest version;
otherwise the version number will be shown in green. Only if
this is the case, press the soft menu Execute to start the
update. Choose the HELP menu item in the Update menu if
you intend to update the help or add a new language for help.
With the softkey Exit you can close the update menu.
9.5 Reference frequency
This submenu is used to switch between the internal (TCXO) and
external reference source. The softkey Internal switches
to the built in TCXO. The softkey External is used to select
a 10 MHz reference source which will be input via Ref In BNC
connector on the backside of the instrument.
Fig. 9.3: Info display of help update
9.6 Update (Firmware / Help)
If a new firmware version of the HMS-X is available you can
download the actual firmware under www. hameg.com. The
firmware is packed into a ZIP data packet. After downloading
the ZIP data unpack it into the basic directory of a FAT or FAT32
formated USB stick (.hfu file). Afterwards insert the stick into
the USB port on the HMF front panel and push the key SETUP. After selecting the menu item Update a window will
open which displays the actual firmware version indicating the
version number, the date and build information
Attention!
At the time of the update the unit will not respond on
any inputs and the display will be resettet. Does not
switch off the unit during the update process. A interruption of power supply can destroy the unit!
66
Subject to change without notice
9.7 Upgrade of software options (voucher)
The HMS-X can be upgraded with options (voucher) which will
become accessible after inputting a licence key. Following
voucher are available for the HMS-X:
– HV211: Unlock built-in tracking generators (TG)
– HV212: Bandwidth upgrade to 3 GHz
– HV213: EMC option incl. preamplifier
After purchasing the voucher the licence key can be generated
via http://vaoucher.hameg.com. This file is an ASCII file and
can be opened with an editor, then the true key can be read.
There are two methods for employing the key to use the desired
option: the automatic or the manual input. The fastest and
simplest method is the automatic input: first store the file on
an USB stick, then conect the stick with the front panel USB
connections
port and press the key SETUP. The SETUP menu will open.
Select page 2|2 and the softkey Upgrade to open the upgrade
menu.
10 Front panel connections
USB Stick
Phone
Probe External
Power Trigger
Output
50 Ohm
Input
50 Ohm
Fig. 10.1: Front panel connections
10.1 USB connector
Using the USB connector on the front or the rear side a software
update of the HMS-X firmware can be performed or screenshots
can be strored. Please use only FAT or FAT32 formatted mass
memory (chapter 9.6). Additional information about the firmware
update or the storage of data you can find in chapter 7 and 9.
Fig. 9.4: Manual licence key input
The softkey Read Licence file opens the data manager.
Use the knob to select the correct file and press the softkey
Load. This will load the licence key; the option will be ready
to use immediately after a restart of the instrument.
Alternatively, you can use the manual input of the licence key.
Select the menu Upgrade and press the softkey Manual
key input. Use the knob and the ENTER-key to input the
licence key.
After input of the complete key please press the softkey Accept in order to input the key into the system. The option will
be activated after a restart of the instrument.
10.2 PHONE connector
The signal available at this connector comes from an AM detector and it helps to identify the sources of interference e.g.
when making precompliance measurements. If an headphone is
connected to the analyzer input, selecting Center and using
the knob the analyzer can be tuned to a transmitter (Receiver
mode chapter 6.13). The demodulation has to activated. Please
note that this operational mode may be subject to national
restrictions. A 3.5 mm jack is provided for headphones. The
internal impedance of the connector is approx. 10 E.
10.3 PROBE POWER
This connector can be used as a supply (6 VDC) e.g. for HAMEG
probes HZ540 or HZ550. The inner contact is +6 V, the outer
contact is connected to the instrument housing and thus with
the measurement inputs’ ground potential and also protective
earth (PE).
10.4 EXTERNAL TRIGGER
The external trigger input connector is used for the control of
measurements by an external signal. The external trigger signal
is applied via the BNC connector EXTERNAL TRIGGER. The
trigger threshold is similar to TTL signals.
The sweep will be started via the external trigger signal.
A trigger delay can not be defined.
More information about the external trigger signal you can find
in chapter 6.
10.5 OUTPUT 50Ω (Tracking Generator)
The tracking generator output has to be connected to the
measuring object with a N connector cable. The tracking generator function is only available in combination with HMS-TG
resp. HV211. A test signal with a spectrum from 5 MHz to 1.6 GHz
resp. 3 GHz is available.
Subject to change without notice
67
connections
Caution!
The output is AC-coupled and a voltage that does
not exceed the voltage stated on the HMS-X housing can be fed into the output; if this voltage is
exceeded, the output may be destroyed.
11 Rear panel Connections
Mains input
connector
Interface
DVI-D
USB
10.6 INPUT 50 Ω
Connect the RF input via a cable with an N connector to the
DUT. Make sure that it is not overloaded. The maximum permissible continuous power with an attenuation of 10 dB to 50 dB
at the RF input is +20 dBm (100 mW). Without attenuation (Att
0 dB) 80 VDC must not be exceeded. The outer contact is connected to the instrument chassis and thus to safety ground (PE).
The maximum input levels resp. voltages must not be exceeded.
Danger of destruction!
Caution!
The RF input is AC-coupled. The DC input voltage
must never exceed the value specified on the
housing; otherwise the input may be destroyed.
REF IN / REF OUT
Fig. 11.1: Rear panel connections
11.1 USB connector
The USB connector on the rear panel can be used to connect a
printer (see chapter 9.4).
11.2 DVI-D connector
The rear panel of the spectrum analyzer includes a standard
DVI-D connector to connect external monitors and projectors.
The DVI-D connector can only send digital signals. This means
it is impossible to connect monitors or beamers via their analog
inputs. The HMS-X yields a DVI signal with VGA resolution
(640x480). This design enables connectivity with all standard
TFT monitors. Modern flat screens extrapolate the signal,
allowing users to see a full screen. Beamers can also be
connected to the HMS. Ideal beamers in this case are those
designed to be connected to computers/ notebooks as these
are also able to process a 640x480 pixel resolution.
DVI-VGA adapters as well as DVI-composite adapters
are not supported. You might encounter difficulties when
connecting the HMS to an HDTV set through an HDMI
adapter, as most HDTV sets expect an HDMI signal of
720p and higher.
11.3 REF IN / REF OUT
In order to further increase the frequency stability, the internal
oscillator may be replaced by an external oscillator which can be
connected to the REF IN/ REF OUT BNC connectors on the
rear panel. The external 10MHz reference frequency signal must
comply with the specifications given with respect to frequency
accuracy and amplitude.
The switching between internal and external reference frequency can be effected via the SETUP key and the softkey
Ref. Freq.
68
Subject to change without notice
Remote Control
12 Remote Control
The HMS-X is basically supplied with an HO720 USB/RS-232
interface. The respective drivers are available on the enclosed
product CD or can be downloaded at http://www.hameg.com.
To establish a basic communication a serial cable (1:1) as well
as a terminal program like Windows HyperTerminal is required.
The Windows HyperTerminal program is part of any Windows
operating systems. A detailed instruction how to setup a basic
communication using HyperTerminal is available at the HAMEG
Knowledge Base at http://www.hameg.com/hyperterminal.
The HMS-X uses SCPI (= Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments) for remote control. Remote control is possible
via the built-in dual interface USB/RS-232 (options: Ethernet/
USB, IEEE-488). This allow access to nearly all functions which
are available on the front panel. A detailed document about the
provided SCPI commands is available at http://www.hameg.
com.
12.1 RS-232
The RS-232 interface is made as a 9 pole D-SUB connecter.
Over this bidirectional interface you can transfer settings, data
and screen dumps from an external device (PC) to the spectrum
analyzer or vice versa. The direct physical link between the
instrument and serial port of the PC can be done via an 9 pole
cable with shielding (1:1 wired). The maximal length must below
3 meter. The exact pinning oft he plug is as follow:
12.2USB
All descriptions regarding the USB interface are true
for the HO720 interface card as well as for the optional
HO730 USB part. All currently available USB driver are
fully tested, functional and released for 32 Bit and 64 Bit
Windows™ systems.
The USB interface must be chosen in the instrument and does
not need any setting. At the first connection Windows™ ask for
a driver. The driver you can find on the enclosed product CD or
on our homepage www.hameg.com at the download area for
the HO720/HO730. The connection can be done via the normal
USB or via the virtual COM port (VCP). The description how to
install the driver you can find in the HO720/HO730 installation
manual.
If the virtual COM port (VCP) will be used, you must set
USB as interface at the spectrum analyzer. On PC side the
VCP has to be activated in the device manager.
12.3 Ethernet (Option HO730)
In addition to the USB interface, the interface card HO730 includes an Ethernet interface. Configure the settings in the
oscilloscope for all necessary parameters after you select
ETHERNET as interface and press the soft menu key
PARAMETER. You can specify all parameters and assign a
fixed IP address. You can also assign a dynamic IP address with
the activated DHCP function. Please contact your IT management to con-figure the settings properly.
If DHCP is used and the HMS does not get any IP adress
(f.e. if no ethernet cable is connected to the scope or the
network does not support DHCP) it may take up to three
minutes until a time out make the interface available again
for configuration.
Fig. 12.1: Pin Assignment RS-232
If the device has an IP address, it can be accessed via web
browser at this IP since the HO730 includes an integrated web
server. Enter the IP address in the location bar on your browser
(http//xxx.xxx.xxx.xx). This opens a window that includes the device name and type, serial number and interfaces with technical
information and configured parameters.
The pin assignment:
2 Tx Data (Data from the HAMEG device to the PC)
3 Rx Data (Data from the PC to the HAMEG device)
7 CTS Ready to send
8 RTS Ready to receive
5 Ground (Reference potential connected via the HAMEG
instrument of safety class I with the line cord and thus to
the safety earth of the wall outlet)
9 +5 V Supply voltage for external devices (max. 400 mA)
The maxiaml amplitude at Tx, Rx, RTS und CTS is ±12 Volt. The
standard RS-232 settings are:
8-N-1 (8 data bits,no parityt, 1 stop bit),
RTS/CTS-Hardwareprotocol: none.
In order to set these parameter at the instrument, please press
the SETUP key and choose the menu item Interface.
Make sure that the RS-232 interface is chosen. The softmenu
Parameter opens a menu where you can set all parameters
for the RS-232 communication.
Fig. 12.2: Webserver
To the left, you can use the link Screen Data to transfer
a screenshot of the HMS (Right-click to copy to the clipboard
for further use).
Subject to change without notice
69
Remote Control
The link SCPI Device Control opens a site with a console
to send remote SCPI commands to the oscilloscope.
For further information, consult the HO730 manual at www.
hameg.com.
The HO730 works with a RAW-Socket communication to
control the instrument and to request the measurement
values. Therefore, a TMC or similar protocol is not supported.
12.4 IEEE 488.2 / GPIB (Option HO740)
The optional interface card HO740 includes a IEEE488.2 interface. Configure the settings of the HMS-X for all necessary
parameters after you select IEEE488 as interface and press
the softkey Parameter. For further information, consult the
HO740 manual at www.hameg.com.
13 Optional accessories
13.1 19‘‘ Rack mount kit 4HE HZ46
For the application in rack systems we provides a kit for the
HMS-X Technical details and a description about the mounting
you can find in the manual HZ46 on our homepage http://www.
hameg.com/downloads.
13.2 Carrying case HZ99
The carrying case HZ99 is used to transport your spectrum
analyzer and is available “on stock”.
Fig. 13.1: Carrying case HZ99
13.3 VSWR bridge HZ547
(usable with option HMS-TG resp HV211)
The VSWR bridge HZ57 allows the measurement of the voltage
standing wave ratio (VSWR) and the reflection coefficient of 50Ω
devices. Typical objects are e.g. 50 Ω attenuators, load resistors,
amplifiers, cables, mixers, frequency selective devices. The
frequency range is 100 kHz to 3 GHz. The technical specifications
and the measurement set-up are decribed in the HZ547 manual on our homepage http://www.hameg.com/downloads.
Fig. 13.2: VSWR bridge HZ547
13.4 Near field probe sets HZ530/HZ540/HZ550
The set includes 3 hand-held probes with a built-in preamplifier covering the frequency range from 100 kHz to 1 GHz resp.
!1 MHz to 3 GHz. When used in conjuction with a spectrum
analyzer or a measuring receiver, the probes can be used to
locate and qualify EMI sources, as well as evaluate EMC problems at the breadboard and prototype level. The power can
70
Subject to change without notice
Optional accessories
be supplied either from batteries (HZ530) or through a power
cord directly connected to an spectrum analyzer (HZ540).
Signal feed is via a BNC-cable or SMA/N-cable. They enable
the user to evaluate radiated fi elds and perform shield effectiveness comparisons.
The HZ530 or HZ540 probes – one magnetic field probe, one
electric field probe and one high impedance probe – are all
matched to the 50 Ω inputs of spectrum analyzers. The technical specifications are described in the HZ530/HZ540 manual
on our homepage http://www.hameg.com/downloads.
13.5 Transient Limiter HZ560
The transient limiter HZ560 protects the input circuit of spectrum analyzers and measurement receivers, in particular in
combination with the use of a Line Impedance Stabilization
Network (i.e. LISN HM6050). The technical specifications are
decribed in the HZ560 manual on our homepage http://www.
hameg.com/downloads.
Fig. 13.3: Transient Limiter HZ560
13.6 75/50-Ω-Converter HZ575
The converter HZ575 has a 75 Ω AC coupled input and a 50Ω
DC coupled output. Using HZ575, spectrum analyzers with
50 Ω input can be used for measurement in 75 Ω environment.
HZ575 can be used reversed too. A 50 Ω signal applied at the
50 Ω “output“ is present at the 75 Ω BNC “input“ socket with
an impedance of 75 Ω. The technical specifications are decribed
in the HZ575 manual on our homepage http://www.hameg.
com/downloads.
Fig. 13.4: 75/50-Ω-Converter HZ575
Subject to change without notice
71
Appendix
14Appendix
14.1 List of figures
Fig. 1.1: Fig. 2.1: Fig. 4.1: Fig. 4.2: Fig. 4.3: Fig. 4.4: Various positions for HMS-X
42
Starting display HMS-X with activated TG
45
Area A of the control panel
48
Display with the AUTO TUNE function
48
Level measurement with marker
48
Measurement of the harmonic of a sine wave
signal49
49
Fig. 4.5: Selection of the proper filter settings
Fig. 4.6: Measuremen of the harmonic using the delta marker49
49
Fig. 4.7: PEAK SEARCH function
50
Fig. 4.8: Setting of the reference level
Fig. 4.9: Receiver mode with a center frequency set
50
51
Fig. 5.1: Display segmentation in sweep modes
Fig. 5.2: Section B with numerical keyboard, unit and
command keys
51
Fig. 5.3: Rotary knob with arrow buttons
51
Fig. 6.1: Hf signal modulated by a sine wave signal and
the resultant video signal vs. time
53
Fig. 6.2: The selections offered in the RBW menu
55
Fig. 6.3: Signal with AM modulation 50% in zero span
with linear scaling
55
Fig. 6.4: Signal with AM modulation 50% in zero span
with logarithmic scaling
55
Fig. 6.5: Simultaneous display of 3 traces
56
Fig. 6.6: Display of a measured and a stored reference
curve57
Fig. 6.7: Tracking generator measurement unaligned
57
57
Fig. 6.8: Display of the stored trace (Show Memory)
Fig. 6.9: Aktivation of the trace math
58
Fig. 6.10: Loosening of the RF cable
58
Fig. 6.11: Loosening of the RF cable completely
58
Fig. 6.12: Trace shifting with reference offset
58
59
Fig. 6.13: Frequency counter
Fig. 6.14: Calibration menu of the VSWR wizard
60
Fig. 6.15: Display layout in receiver mode
60
Fig. 7.1: Basic menu for instrument settings
61
Fig. 7.2: Saving instrument settings
61
Fig. 7.3: Loading instrument settings
62
Fig. 7.4: IMPORT / EXPORT menu for instrument settings62
Fig. 7.5: Menu to save a waveform
62
Fig. 7.6: Menu for screenshots
63
Fig. 7.7: Save/Load menu
63
Fig. 7.8: Menu with the settings for screenshots
63
64
Fig. 7.9: Settings of the button FILE/PRINT
Fig. 8.1: Internal help function
64
Fig. 8.2: Display settings menu
64
Fig. 8.3: EMC report
65
Fig. 9.1: Instrument Informations
65
Fig. 9.2: Updating menu 66
66
Fig. 9.3: Info display of help update
Fig. 9.4: Manual licence key input
67
Fig. 10.1: Front panel connections
67
Fig. 11.1: Rear panel connections
68
Fig. 12.1: Pin Assignment RS-232
69
Fig. 12.2: Webserver
69
Fig. 13.1: Carrying case HZ99
70
Fig. 13.2: VSWR bridge HZ547
70
Fig. 13.3: Transient Limiter HZ560
71
Fig. 13.4: 75/50-Ω-Converter HZ575
71
72
Subject to change without notice
14.2Glossary
A
amplitude: 46, 53, 59, 60, 68
Amplitude measurement range: 45
attenuator: 50, 52, 54
AUTO PEAK: 56
auto peak detector: 56
Auto Tune: 60
Average: 56, 61
Average detector: 61
B
backlight intensity: 64
bandwidth: 46, 53, 54, 55, 60
C
center frequency: 52, 53, 59
CISPR: 60, 61
D
DANL: 45
data manager: 67
delta marker: 49, 58, 59
delta mode: 59
Detectors: 45, 72
display: 66
DVI-D connector: 47, 68
E
EMC measurement: 65
EMC Precompliance measurement: 39, 65
EMC Software: 45
Ethernet: 69
EXTERNAL TRIGGER: 56, 67
F
Firmware: 66
FM demodulation: 61
frequency range: 46, 48, 53, 55, 56, 57, 70
frequency spectrum: 54, 55
frequency stability: 68
G
graticule line: 50, 53
Greyscale mode: 63, 66
H
headphone: 61
HELP: 46, 64, 66
help update: 66
HMExplorer: 63
HMScreenshot: 63
I
IEEE 488: 70
interface: 66, 68, 69
L
Language: 65
licence key: 45 , 66, 67
Limit Lines: 59
LOW DISTORTION: 54
LOW NOISE: 54
low pass filter: 49, 54
M
Marker: 45, 48, 59
MAX HOLD: 56
Appendix
measuring curve: 48
measuring range: 48
memory: 57, 62, 64, 67
MIN HOLD: 56
MIN PEAK: 57
N
noise: 54, 56
noise floor: 48, 50, 60
noise marker: 59
Noise marker mode: 59
noise power density: 59
numerical keyboard: 46, 51, 52
V
video bandwidth: 46, 54
video trigger: 55, 56
VSWR bridge: 60, 70
W
waveform: 62
Windows HyperTerminal: 69
Z
zero span: 45, 53, 55, 56, 72
zero span mode: 53, 56
P
peak: 46, 48, 50, 59, 60, 61
peak detector: 61
Peak-Search: 59
preamplifier: 54, 70
printer: 66, 68
Q
Quasi-Peak: 45
quasi-peak detector: 61
R
receiver mode: 39, 50, 59, 60, 72
Reference frequency: 39, 66, 68
reference level: 50, 53, 54, 57, 58
reference offset: 54, 58, 72, 73
reflection coefficient: 60
Remote Control: 69
repair: 43
resolution bandwidth: 45, 54, 55, 59, 60
return loss: 60
RMS: 61
RMS detector: 61
RS-232: 47, 69
S
SAMPLE: 56
SCPI: 69
screenshot: 46, 63, 64
serial number: 66
signal source: 60
SLOPE: 56
software: 66, 67
source: 55
span: 52, 53, 54, 55
Span setting range: 45
sweep: 52, 54, 55, 56, 60
sweep time: 46, 49, 54, 55
T
TRACE: 46, 56, 57
trace intensity: 64
trace mathematics: 53, 57, 58
tracking generator: 39, 45, 46, 47, 52, 53, 57, 58, 60, 67, 73
Transient Limiter: 71
transparency: 65
Trigger: 45
trigger functions: 55
trigger source: 46, 55
U
USB connector: 63, 64, 67, 68
USB port: 47
USB stick: 61, 62, 63, 64, 66, 73
Subject to change without notice
73
Appendix
74
Subject to change without notice
Appendix
Subject to change without notice
75
Oscilloscopes
Spectrum Analyzer
Power Supplies
Modular System
Series 8000
43-2030-2010
42-1000-0020
*43-2030-2010*
*42-1000-0020*
Programmable Instruments
Series 8100
authorized dealer
www.hameg.com
Subjecttochangewithoutnotice
43-2030-2010(10)21092011
©HAMEGInstrumentsGmbH
ARohde&SchwarzCompany
DQS-Certification:DINENISO9001:2000
Reg.-Nr.:071040QM
HAMEGInstrumentsGmbH
Industriestraße6
D-63533Mainhausen
Tel+49(0)6182800-0
Fax+49(0)6182800-100
[email protected]
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement