PSM 1 ~2 -1 DHC -2 BEAVER FLIGHT MANUAL THIS AIRCRAFT

PSM 1 ~2 -1 DHC -2 BEAVER FLIGHT MANUAL THIS AIRCRAFT
PSM 1-2-1
DHC -2
BEAVER
FLIGHT MANUAL
=
THIS AIRCRAFT MUST BE OPERATED IN COMPLIANCE
WITH THE LIMITATIONS CONTAINED IN SECTION IV OF
THIS MANUAL.
THIS MANUAL IS LISTED AS AN APPROVED DOCUMENT
IN D.0.T. AIRCRAFT TYPE APPROVAL A-22 AND
F.A.A. AIRCRAFT SPECIFICATION NO. А-806.
THE PRESENT ISSUE DATE OF THIS MANUAL IS 31
MARCH 1956
7
а
Approved: D7/l Ao.
Director, Airworthiness Branch
Department of Transport
Date: LE geil IS
| +. THE DE HAVILLAND AIRCRAFT OF CANADA, LIMITED
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A A ) - A "eg ee SE Ab 2
FLIGHT MANUA
THE DE HAVILLAND AIRCRAFT OF CANADA LIMITED
Downsview Ontario
a ) ~~ 31 MARCH 1956
Oio|s [05 |u |[& Та ва | —
ma ly el ee le
{inserted |.
Revised Page's |
DHC-2 BEAVER FLIGHT MANUAL
1
+
D
51° By. | REV.DATE
№
Table of Contents
TABLE OE CONTENTS |
SECTION В TITLE ВЕ ~~... PAGE.
I Description of Aircraft. . . + + + ++ + + + 1
Ix Normal Procedures , . +. 0 + + 00 + e e e 19
III . Emergency Procedures . . . + + + + + + + 29°
iv Operating Limits, Performance Data and | a
Flight Characteristics . . + + « » e ee. 35
V General Operating Instructions and AU |
Weather Operation. . . . ess + + 0 + 2 + 43
VI Special Installations . . FE 4 070 0 0 0 53
A ppendix Operating Data Charts ee ee ee В e... APP,
Supplement 1 Agricultural Installations. Cee ee eee ele 51-1
Supplement2 R- 985- AN-1, AN- 3, -39 and -39A \ Engine о
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
FIGURE | TITLE PAGE =
Frontispiece The Airplane . + « e e» e . e. e e e + + =
1-1 Control Quadrant . . « « + e» + + + + + + o 1
1-2 Three View Dimensional Diagram - Seaplane. 2
1-3 Three View Dimensional Diagram- Landplane . 3
1-4 Flight Compartment « . « + e e « e +» + + + 4
1-5 Flight Compartment, Indexed. , . « « « . . 5
1-6 Fuel System Diagram . . + + + + +. + + + 8
1-7 Long Range Wing Tip Tanks . + + + + + . + 9
1-8 Electrical Switch Panel . . + + + + + + + + 11
1-9 Flight Control Locks, . . . . о в ево 12
1-10 Flight Instrument Panel and Engine Instrument
Panel + J . « + + + + + + +4 + + + + o » 14
1-11 Engine Fire Extinguisher Panel. . . . . . . 15
1-12 Heating System . . . + + + + + + eo ooo 16
1-13 Routine Servicing Points . . + + + + +. + + + 17
2-1] Exterior Inspection Diagram . . . . . Facing Page 19
2-2 Seaplane Mooring and Beaching Provisions. . 20
3-1 Gliding Distances . + . + + + + = + + + + + . 30
4-1 Instrument Limit Markings. . « . + « + « . 34
4-2 Balances Diagram. . + e e « « e ooo eo 37
Revised 13 July 1976 Lo i
List of Illustrations
11
APPENDIX
Al
I
II
III
IV
IVA
y
VI
VIA
VII
VIII
TITLE
Airspeed Installation Correction Table .
Total Take-off Distance to 50 ff « Landplagfe ВЕ
Total Landing Distance from 50 ft - Landplane
Take-off and Landing Distances - Skiplane a
Total Take-off Distance to 50 ft - Seaplane _
Total Landing Distance from 50 ft - Seaplane Ш
Cruise Power Chart
Payload vs Cruising Power - Landplane
Payload vs Cruising Power - Seaplane
Safe Moments Limits _
Operational Loads Diagram
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Cont'd)
Operating Flight Strength Diagram. eo
Combination Wheel-ski Installation
Amphibious Floats Installation
OPERATING DATA CHARTS
PAGE
39
54
Revised 13 July 1976
Sa?
и
INTRODUCTION
This manual has been compiled to
familiarize pilots, in all.relevant aspects,
with the aircraft. For convenience of use the
manual has been divided into six sections and
an Appendix as follows:i-~
INTRODUCTION
SECTION! DESCRIPTION OF AIRCRAFT
This section describes in detail, the
aircraft, its systems and all controls that are
essential for flight.
SECTION OU NORMAL PROCEDURES
“This section contains operating in-
structions arranged in sequence from the time
the pilot approaches the aircraft until he leaves
at the end of a flight,
The instructions refer mainly to the
landplane, except when otherwise stated.
SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
This section contains instructions
for handling of the aircraft in emergencies,
such as engine and propeller failure, fire etc.
The instructions are given in proper sequence
of operation.
SECTION IV OPERATING LIMITS, PERF-
ORMANCE DATA AND FLIGHT CHARACTER -
ISTICS |
This section deals with operating
limitations, flight characteristics and perfor-
mance data which must be adhered to for safe
operation of the aircraft.
e
SECTION Y GENERAL OPERATING INST-
RUCTIONS ANDALLWEATHER OPERATION.
This section deals with the general
operating instructions which should be obser -
“ved to ensure the maximum efficiency from
the engine and its accessories, the airframe
and systems during operation in all types of
weather. |
SECTION VI SPECIAL INSTALLATIONS
This section contains information on
special installations which can be fitted to in-
crease the operating facilities of the aircraft.
The handling of the aircraft, when equipped
with these installations,is dealt with in detail,
APPENDIX OPERATING DATA CHARTS
These charts should be consulted
before any flight sothat thebest use of the air-
craft can be gained in respect to the fuel and
payload it is intended to carry for that flight,
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DESCRIPTIO:
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Section I
SECTION 1
DESCRIPTION OF AIRCRAFT
de] GENERAL
The DHC.-2 Beaver aircraft is an
all-metal high-wing monoplane, designed to
carry a pilot and seven passengers, Addi-
tional roles include that of cargo transport,
ambulance, rescue operations, supply drop-
ping, aerial survey, crop spraying and dust-
ing.
The fixed landing gear may be re-
placed by a twin-float installation, Retract-
able wheel-skis may be installed, or a ski
installation can replace the wheels,
1.2 — DIMENSIONS See Figure 1-3.
1,3 GROSS WEIGHT See Figure 1.3,
1.4 ENGINE
The aircraft is powered by a Pratt
and Whitney "Wasp Junior" Model R-985SB3
nine -cylinder single-row radial engine, rated
at- 400 BHP at 5000 ft altitude. The engine
drives a Hamilton-Standard constant-speed
propeller; crankshaft and propeller rotation
— being clockwise, The supercharger is an
engine -driven single-stage centrifugal type,
1.5 ENGINE CONTROLS
The angine control quadrants are
> located at the top of the pedestal, Depending
on the installation date, either of two con-
figurations are provided, see Figure 1-1,
Friction control knobs, one below each con-
trol lever, increase lever friction when то-
tated clockwise,
1.5.1 THROTTLE LEVER
The throttle lever moves in a quad- |
rant marked OPEN and CLOSED, The lever
is connected to the throttle valve by means
of púsh-rods and torque-tube linkage.
1.5.2 MIXTURE LEVER
The mixture lever moves ina quad-
rant marked as follows: AUTO LEAN - AUTO
RICH - FULL RICH - FULL LEAN - IDLE
CUT-OFF. The lever is connected ‘to the
carburettor by means of push-rods and torque-
tube linkage,
1.5.3 CARBURETTOR HEAT CONTROL
LEVER
The carburettor heat control lever
is located below the engine instrument panel
and is cable-connected to a gate valve in
the carburettor air intake duct, :
When the lever is selected up to the
COLD position, cold ram air enters the car.
.. FIG 1-1 CONTROL QUADRANT (later installation on right)
15 April 1961
Section I
2° CIHEDRAL
WING AREA
WING LOADING
SPAN LOADING
ты)
250 50 FT.
. 20-4 LB/SO FT.
POWER LOADING -
GROSS WEIGHT. SEAPLANE 5090 LBS.
—
PROPELLER DIA. BFT. EIN.
2'2LB/SQ.FT,
3 LB/H.P. x
32FT SIN — - НО
FIG 1-2 THREE VIEW DIMENSIONAL DIAGRAM - SEAPLANE
. Ч .
Le и
ES CL
Section | 1 -
4 PROPELLER DIA. BFT GIN
| do Le 7 A —
Ka ; | | nu |
DIHEDRAL 20
ZE
IO FT. 2 IN. —
TRACK. UNDER
STATIC. LOAD 7
-WING.AREA.... 250SQFT
WING. LOADING 20-4 LB/SOFT
SPAN LOADING . - 2-2 LB/SQ.FT. |
POWER LOADING 11-3 LB/ HP’
GROSS у WEIGHT". LANDPLANE E: SKIPLANE 5100 LES.
30FT 4IN
FIG 1-3 THREE VIEW DIMENSIONAL DIAGRAM - LANDPLANE
Section I
Md Lei 1 ;
Section I
TACOS
| e, -
frit firs nnn
засос
fi te
peo
t. COLO AIR DUCT 19. RADIO PANEL 35. FLAP SELECTOR
2. GUTIDE AIR TEMP. GAUGE 20. ELECTRICAL SWITCH PANEL . 36, FLAP HYDRAULIC RESERVOIR
J. FLIGHT INSTRUMENT PANEL 21. CONTROL COLUMN THROW- AND FILLER
4. RULER TRIM WHEEL OVER LOCK - 37. ATTACHMENT POINT FOR
5, DEFROSTER 22. ENGINE INSTRUMENT PANEL PILOT'S SEAT
6, FLAP INDICATOR 23. OIL TANK FILLER 38. PARKING BRAKE
7. ELEYATOR TRIM 24, CO-PILOT'S RUDLER PEDALS 39, RUDDER PEDALS
INDICATOR 25. FUEL AND OIL EMERGENCY 40. HAND FIRE EXTINGUISHER
3. COWL SHUTTER CONTROL SHUT-OFF LEVER 41. PRIMER
9. ELEYATOR TRIM WHEEL 26. OIL CONTENTS LABEL 42. BRAKE TOE PEDALS
10. ALTERNATE COMP ASS 27. STARTER BRUSH RELEASE 43. HOT AIR FOOT DUCT
= POSITION : LEVER 44. FIRE EXTINGUISHER PANEL
il. COMPASS POSITION о 28. ASH TRAY 35. ALTERNATE COMP ASS
t2. RADIO COMPASS о 29. ATTACHMENT POINT FOR POSITION .
13. PROPELLER LEVER В CO-PILOT'S SEAT 46. STARTER PANEL
14. COLD AIR DUCT 30. CABIN HEAT GRILL 47, FUEL SELECTOR
... 15. THROTTLE LEVER 31. WOBBLE PUMP 48. OIL DILUTION SWITCH
ta. LE FROSTER A2. FLAP HYURAULIC HAND PUMP 49. STARTER CLUTCH
17. MIXTURE LEVER 33. CARBURETTOR AIR LEVER 50. FLIGHT CONTRO! SWITCH
18. FRICTION DAMPERS 34. CABIN HEAT CONTROL 51. MASTER SWITCH
FIG 1-5 FLIGHT COMPARTMENT, INDEXED
Section I
burettor through the air intake duct, As the
lever is moved down towards the HOT position,
the gate valve progressively closes the cold
air intake while opening the warm air duct,
This second duct allows heated air, from in-
side a heat exchanger muff surrounding a sec-
tion of the engine exhaust collector, to mix
with the cold ram air before delivery to the
carburettor, Intermediate positions of the lever
between fully up and fully down will therefore
give varying degrees of carburettor air intake
temperature, | В
With the lever in the HOT position
the ram air intake is fully closed and heated
air only is ducted to the carburettor. For op-
eration in desert areas a dust filter for the ram
air intake can be installed,
A carburettor mixture temperature
gauge in the engine instrument panel indicates
the resulting mixture temperatures. В
1.5.4. CARBURETTOR AIR INDUCTION
SYSTEMS
§ (a) LOWER AIR INDUCTION SYSTEM
. The lower air induction system can-
$ sists of an air scoop in the lower engine cowl-
N ing feeding unfiltered air through a duct and into
ÿ the carburettor,
On special order, this system can be
© equipped with a hinged, dry air filter mech
à anically connected to a carburettor air filter
Ÿ control installed above and to the right of the
ÿ engine controls quadrant, The control is mark-
Я ed CARB AIR, IN-RAM, OUT-FILTER and arrow-
# ed counterclockwise with”
dl At the RAM position the filter lies flush with
8 ed ram air to enter the carburettor, At the
| FILTER position, the forward end of the filter
WARNING ;
circumstances must the CARS
AIR control remain in any intermediate .
position between IN-RAM and OUT-FIL-
TER. In an intermediate position the fil-
ter will cause a blockage in the air in-
duction system,
Under no
The effect of the filter is to reduce the
с -
“power loss is small, The engine may be started B
dust, sand or dirt entering the: intake, the con- @
off, and during flight if necessary, Take-ofí а
: from a short field, at or above the new criticalB
| altitude,
TURN TO UNLOCK. -
M the bottom of the air scoop and allows unfilter-
| is raised so that air entering the scoop must
Y pass through the filter before entering the car-
4 burettor, The control must de turned clockwise
# to lock in either position. |
- stem,
y 3000 foot critical altitude by approximately 800
feet, Below this new critical altitude there is no §
loss in engine power, while above this altitude the i
with the CARB AIR control in the RAM position §
to avoid damage to the filter in case of back- o
fires, Immediately after starting the engine, Е
in areas wherever there is a possibility of i
trol should ‘Pe moved to and remain at FILTER у
position for all ground running, taxiing and take- N
should be made with‘ the CARB AIR 5
control. at RAM position.
dusty or sandy areas,
ected to FILTER and remain in
while the aircraft is on the ground, except when §
starting the engine as previously
(b) UPPER AIR INDUCTION SYSTEM (FULLY B
FILTERED) y
The upper air induction system (Mode. E
ification 2/1164) consists of an air scoop on the §
top right of the engine rear cowling feeding air §
through a duct, at the right side of the engine,
and through a filter to the carburettor. In this ÿ
installation the induction air ‘is filtered at all |
times and there is no pilot control, except dur- §
ing emergency operation when the filter is by- В 3
| passed. (See below.) К 1
An emergency air handle, marked EM- §
ERGENCY CARB AIR-PULL & LOCK, is provided jf
at the left of the engine controls pedestal, Op- ji
eration of the handle mechanically opens a flap El
valve in the duct directly below, and leading into, E
the carburettor, The flap valve is opened by}
turning the handle counterclockwise, thus break- §
ing ‘the lockwire,:
fully out and turned clockwise to lock the flap o
valve fully open, In this position an emergency a
air inlet to the carburettor is provided, in the E
event of a blockage in the main induction sy- E
NOTE
When the emergency air handle is operated
to open the flap valve, the air enters the
‘carburettor direct and unfiltered, and its
temperature cannot be adjusted by the car-
— burettor heat control lever.
CAUTION
On entering the aircraft check that the
handle 15 ~ pushed fully in and secured by
lockwire,
Revised 1 Oct 1962
и
‘Before landing in 1
the control must be sel-#
this position B
explained. §
The ‘handle is then pulled @
To maintain the carburettor mixture
temperature within the limits shown in Figure
4-1, heated air can be admitted at the left side
of the air scoop duct by selection of the car-
burettor heat control lever. The air is heated
by passing through a heater muff surrounding
part of the exhaust manifold,
1.5.5 ENGINE IGNITION SWITCHES
A rotary four position ignition switch,
located on the STARTER PANEL below the
flight instrument panel, is marked OFF, L, R
and BOTH,
1.5.6 BOOST COIL SWITCH
A boost coil switch, located on the
starter panel, is spring-loaded to the OFF
position,
When the switch is held to the BOOST
COIL position, high tension electrical current
1s supplied to the engine spark plugs to initiate
starting,
1,5,7 PRIMER PUMP
The hand-operated cylinder primer
pump is on the floor to the left of the pilot's
seat, The pump handle is pushed down and ro-
tated anti-clockwise to unlock and, after use,
relocked by pushing it down and rotating it
clockwise,
1.5.8 STARTER
The engine is started either by an
electrical direct cranking starter motor or by
an electrical inertia, direct-cranking starter
with hand cranking facilities,
Revised 1 Oct 1962
‘electrical
‚1.5.10
Section I
1,5,9 STARTER SWITCH
The starter switch for the electrical
direct cranking starter motor and the starter
clutch and boost coil switches required for the
inertia starter are located on the
starter panel below the flight instrument panel,
HAND STARTING CONTROLS
When hand-cranking, the starter com-
mutator brushes must be raised from the com-
mutator in order to reduce the frictional loads
involved, This is accomplished by inserting the
Starter Brush Release Lever, which is normally
secured by a clip to the pedestal base, into the
brush release lever socket on the engine in-
strument panel, and rotating the lever from
ELECTRIC to HAND TURNING position, |
“ — When starting the engine by hand.
cranking, the starter is engaged at its maxi-
mum speed to the engine by pulling out the:
Starter Clutch handle located to the left of the
flight instrument panel,
To lock the handle in the engaged
position, pull out fully then rotate a 1/4 turn
clockwise,
1.5.11 ENGINE INSTRUMENTS
Conventional engine instruments are
mounted on a panel below the engine controls
quadrant on the pedestal, The engine instru-
ments consist of: Tachometer, Manifold Press-
ure Gauge, Cylinder Head Temperature Gauge,
Carburettor Mixture Temperature Gauge, com-
bined Oil and Fuel Pressure and Qil Tempera
ture Gauge, The starter Brush Release Socket
EEE
x,
is also located on the engine instrument panel.
1.6 PROPELLER
The engine drives a Hamilton-Stan-
dard two- -bladed 8 ft 6 ins. diameter constant
speed, (counter weight type propeller having 2 a |
pitch’ range from 11. 5° to 24°.
1.641 PROPELLER LEVER
The propeller lever is located to the
left of the throttle lever in the engine controls
quadrant on the top of the pedestal and slidesin
a gate marked RPM, DECREASE and IN-
CREASE, It is connected by a push/pull rod
— linkage to the propeller governor.
~The governor retains the selected
rpm constantly, within the operating range of
the propeller, regardless of variations in air
„' on the forward left-hand side of the fuselage,
adjacent to the cockpit door. |
loads. or flight attitudes.
“When INCREASE RPM is selected
the governor directs oil from its own engine
driven pump to the propeller, at pressure,
which hydraulically moves the propeller-
blades, in opposition to the counterweight, to
lower angles.
a When DECREASE RPM is selected
the governor aliows oil from the propeller to
return to the engine sump and the counter-
weights move the blades to higher angles,
A friction control knob, below the
propeller lever, increases the friction when
rotated clockwise. |
1.7 OIL SYSTEM
The oil tank is located aft of the fire-
wall and is serviced from inside the cockpit
through a filler at the base of the pedestal. The
capacity is 5 1/4 IMPERIAL GAL. (1 gal. air
space), the air space may be reduced during
oil dilution. Oil returned from the engine passes
through a line to a combined oil temperature
valve and cooler.
1.7.1 OIL SPECIFICATION
3-GP-80 3-GP-100
MIL-O-6082 (1080) MIL-O-6082 (1100)
DED 2472 A/O DED 2472 B/O —
| 1.7.2
Section I
OIL DILUTION
x When a start in cold weather is an- ©
- ticipated, the oil may be diluted with gasoline …
‘before stopping the engine. The oil dilution
Valve is operated by a solenoid which is con-
trolled by a spring-loaded switch to the left of
the instrument panel. For dilution percentages
“Pad timies see Section V, para 5. 6. a
Oil dilution shouldnot be used inter-
mittently, because of oil filter sludging, but
should be continued during the season once it
has been started.
1.8 FUEL SYSTEM
Fuel is contained inthreetanksunder -
the cabin floor whichare used separately. They
are seryiced through three filler necks in a
filler dompartment protected by a hinged door
For long range operation non-jetti-
sonable wing tip tanks may be installed to re-
place conventional wing tips. Fuel from these
tanks is gravity fed to the front tank. For fuel
‘transfer procedures see para 2.11.1.
A long range belly tank may also be
installed, on special order.
1.8.1 FUEL SPECIFICATION
3-GP-25A MIL-F-5572 DED 2485
1.8.2 — FUEL CAPACITIES
Front tank 29 Imp. (35 U.S. gal.
Centre tank 29 Imp.(35 U.S.) gal.
Rear tank 21 Imp.(25 U.S.) gal.
Wing tip tanks 36 Imp. (43 U.S.) gal. -
(2 x 18 Imp. gals)
Total without wing 79 Imp.(95 U.S. ) gal.
tip tanks
Total with wing tip 115 Imp.(138 U.S.)gal.
tanks
1.9 FUEL SYSTEM CONTROLS
1.9.1 FUEL SELECTOR
Fuelis supplied from any one of the
7
Section 1.
Pala
OTE 1 | — WING TANKS
7 FUEL... В ‘ FUEL TRANSFER
NT аЫ,
ОР
_ ВЕ SELECTOR
NK
SELECTOR 7 ©
VALVE 9 . ВО
F -
=D wim
FUEL .
QUANTITY
GAGE
ENGINE ©
PRIMER
10
[NGINE р
ns Tr ar
ZZ LONG RANGE.
’ 4h EMERG — PRIME |
„” ) SHUT-OFF
e 7 VALVE EX — EMERGENCY
p—[Ñ ENGINE == AIR PRESSURE .
wWEBL E CUSED .
Fume Î == VENT
DO NOT
CHECK VALVE
> Pa suut = à cr ли ELECTRICAL
PRESSE M FUEL ACTUATION
OPEN PRESSURE - == MECHANICAL
GAGE ACTUATION
- CARBURETOR
f 10
| OIL LINE -
OF
À CILUTION
PRESSURE
SWITCH
OIL NELUTION FUEL PRESSURE
WARNI
OIL DILUTION NG LIGHT
SWITCH 7
OFF 4
FIG 1-6 FUEL SYSTEM DIAGRAM
Section I
7 DETAIL A,
FROM L.H. TANK
NB RIN = | NE TO TRANSFER VALVE
— 2 a \ [atic ATTACHMENT —
“To FRONT TANK a KA
FROM R.H. TANK | |
FUEL TRANSFER CONTROL IN COCKPIT
INSULATING PAD
HAND HOLE
ASSEMBLY
що FFT “NAVIGATION LIGHT
: ATTACHMENT
Г
К
ELECTRICAL CONDUIT— =
FILLER CAP ASSEMBLY —
© FIG 1-7 LONG RANGE WING TIP TANKS
Section I
“three fuel tanks by selecting FRONT TANK,
CENTRE TANK or REAR TANK. on the fuel
selector, located *o the left of the flight in-
strument panel.
1.9.2 FUEL TRANSFER. SELECTOR
(WING TIP TANKS)
| “The fuel transfer selector, for use
when wing tip tanks are installed, is located
to the left of the pilot, above the cockpit door
window. It has four positions marked LH, RH,
BOTH and OFF.
1.9,3 FUEL BOOSTER PUMP
| (Special Order Only)
| To assist the engine driven fuel
pump, a booster pump may be incorporated
into the fuel system. .
The use of the booster pump should
normally be confined to engine starting and
flight at high altitude, when its operation would
help to prevent fuel vapor locks.
1.9.4 FUEL WOBBLE PUMP LEVER
| A fuel wobble pump lever, below the
engine instrument panel onthe pedestal, is used
to build up the fuel pressure to5 psi, for start-
ing the engine.
In an emergency the fuel pressure
can be maintained by the wobble pump should
the engine. driven pump fail.
1.9.5 FUEL AND OLL EMERGENCY
SHUT-OFF LEVER
The emergency shut- offlever, onthe
right side of the pedestal, below the engine in-
strument panel, is normally wirelocked in the
down position. When pulied sharply up to break
“the wire lock, and moved to the closed position,
it cuts off the supply of both fuel and oil to the
engine. After use it can be returned to its down
position for normal operation but should be wire
locked as soon as possible to prevent inadver-
tent operation. ВЕ
1.9.6 FUEL CONTENTS GAUGE
“A triple indicator fuel contents
gauge, located on the right side of the engine
instrument panel, is graduated in Imperial gal-
lons, in white and red figures for in-flight and
10
tail down positions respectively.
1.9.7 FUEL PRESSURE GAUGE
A combined fuel pressure, oil pre-
ssure and oil temperature gauge is located on
the left side of the engine instrument panel.
Ae
1.9.8 FUEL PRESSURE WARNING
LIGHT
On some aircraft ared warning light,
which lights up when the fuel pressure drops
to 3 psi, is positioned above the flight instru-
ment panel. :
1. 10 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Electrical DC ener gy is supplied by
a 50 amp 28-30 Wolt generator in conjunction
with a 24 volt 17 amp/hr. battery. The genera-
tor output is regulated by a carbon pile voltage
regulator. A reverse-current relay is used to
protect the generator when it is not charging.
The generator is selectedby a gene-
rator field switchonthe electrical switch panel
to the right of the pedestal.
The battery is stowed in a compart-
ment on the left side of the fuselage, aft of the
cabin door, and is accessible through a hinged
panel on the outside of the aircraft,
1.10.1 ELECTRICALLY OPERATED
EQUIPMENT
The following equipment and controls
are operated by the electrical system:
Starter
Qil dilution system
Booster pump (if installed)
- Engine indicators
Fuel contents gauge
Interior lights
- Navigation lights
Landing light a
Anchor lights (seaplane)
Fuel pressure warning light
Electronic equipment
Pitot head heater
Fire warning system
1.10.2 GENERATOR FIELD SWITCH
The generator field switch, located
“дай”
.. 1
: 4
x 3
on the electrical switch panel, is of f the single-
pole, single throw type.
1.10.3 BATTERY MASTER SWITCH:
The battery master switch is loca-
ted in the left-hand upper corner of the flight
instrument mounting panel, It is of the double
“ pole, single-throw type and interrupts the
battery output to the electrical system.
The circuits controlling the dis-
charge of the fire extinguisher and the cabin
Section 1
and anchor lights are independent of the master ;
switch. |
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
1.10.4
INDICATOR
A volt-ammeter, locatedinthe elec-
trical switch panel, indicates the amperage of :
the generator supply. The voltage ofthe genera~ |
tor supply is indicated when charging by press-
ing the stud at the lower left of the instrument.
When the generator isnot operating, the battery
‘voltage only will be indicated.
y BRL
GENERATOR
=
OFF
we S PITOT CAR Nav. D
CONTENTS HEAT AIR TEMR RADIO INT LIGHTS
anchor?) CABIN © | O
LIGHT | LIGHT
LAND. COMP.
LIGHT LIGHT
Г
COCKPIT
LIGH
OFF
FIG 1-8 ELECTRICAL SWITCH PANEL
1.11 . FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
| - The contr ol surfaces are convention-
ally operated by a control column and rudder
pedals. The upper portion of the control column
carrying the handwheel, may be "thrown-over"
for use by a co-pilot in conjunction with the
rudder pedals on the right side of the cockpit.
The ailerons are differentially rigged to give
a larger upward then downward displacement
and are drooped when the wing flaps are lowered
through the first 15°,
Trim tabs, adjustable in flight, are
fitted to the elevator and rudder.
CONTROL COLUMN THROW -
OVER AND LOCK
1.11.1
A lock plunger at the hinge point of
‘the control column locks the hinged upper por-
tion of the column in position. |
The control column can be thrown
over during level cruising flight without dis-
turbing the balance of the aircraft by grasping
the upper portion of the column and allowing
the handwheel free movement as the upper
portion is “thrown-over" for use ‚by the co-
pilot .
11
Se ction I
1,11.2 ELEVATOR TRIM
The elevator trimis adjustedby twin
handwheels on the cockpit roof, operating in the
natural sense. A pointer and scale, between
the handwheels, marked NOSE UP, NOSE
DOWN, indicate the direction and degree of
trim =ppiied.. ВЕ
1. il. 3 RUDDER TRIM
“The rudder. trim is adjusted by a
handwheel on the cockpit roof, just aft of the
elevator trim handwheels. À pointer and a
scale, marked LEFT and RIGHT indicate the |
direction and degree of the trim applied.
SPIGOT INSERTED IN HOLE IN FLOOR
FIG 1-9 FLIGHT CONTROL LOCKS
1.11.4 CONTROL LOCKS
The control column and handwheel
are locked by strapping them to the pilot’ s seat
with the safety belt. The rudder pedals are
locked by a pedal lock which, when not in use,
is stowed in the baggage compartment behind
the cabin rear partition.
To lock the pedals, the channel por-
tion of the lock must be fitted over the pedals
andthe spigots at the end of the lock-rod, which
12
1.12.1
—1.12.2
1.12.3
is attached to the channel portion by a chain,
must be inserted into a hole in the. channel and
in a corresponding hole in the cockpit floor,
forward of the pilot's seat. ..
12 ео — WING FLAPS ;
“The wing flaps are of the slotted type
and extend from the wing roots to the inboard .
ends of the ailerons which also droop in con-
junction with the flap movement. The flaps are
operated by an actuating cylinder located in the
fuselage at the left-hand wing root. Hydraulic
fluid is supplied to the actuating cylinder by a
handpump, under the pilot's seat, This hand-
pump has an integral reservoir, a selector
valve, and a relief valve, The relief valve is
set at 1,000 psi,
E
WING FLAPS HAND PUMP
LEVER
The wing flap hand pump lever is at
the right-hand side of the pilot's seat and is
operated in a fore- and-aft direction,
WING FLAPS SELECTOR LEVER
The wing flaps selector lever is lo-
cated on the right-hand side of the pilot's seat.
It has two marked positions, UP and DOWN,
Intermediate positions of the wing flaps are
selected by moving the selector lever to UF or
DOWN then pumping the wing flaps with the
hand pump lever to the desired position, as
shown on the wing flaps indicator.
WARNING
If the flaps are in any lowered posi-
tion, it is essential that the selector
lever is retained in the DOWN posi-
tion. When the flaps are retracted, ~
the selector lever must be" retained: in
the UP position. Once the selector
lever is set to DOWN and the flaps are
pumped to the desired position, the
— selector lever must not be moved un-
til it is. desired to change the fap
position. |
WING FLAPS INDICATOR
A wing flaps position indicator is
e
situated above the flight instrument panel, It
is marked FULL FLAP,
OFF, CLIMB and CRUISE. FULLFLAP is only
required for emergency landing 1 in very re-
stricted areas,
1.13 LANDING. GEAR SYSTEM.
The main: | wheel - units and the tail-
wheel unit are not retractable. For water based : = = |
operations the wheel units are replaced by two ure l-4) is pulled, after the toe pedals have.
floats which are attached to the > fuselage oF a ©
struts.
For winter o per ations the main 3
wheels and tailwheel may be reparos by skis. |
1.13.1 (TAILWHEEL STEERING
The tailwheelis steerable by opera=..
tion of the rudder pedals, for 25” each side of...
the longitudinal centre line of the aircraft. Out-:
side of these limits, the tailwheel automati- .
cally disengages from the steering range and
becomes fully castoring. The tailwheel is
brought back into steering range by taxiing
straight forward and centering the rudder
pedals at the same time. Engagement of the
steering mechanism has been achieved when a
slight resistance tothe movement of the rudder _
pedals is feit.
1.13.2 BRAKE SYSTEM
The main landing gear wheels are ..
each fitted with a hydraulic brake unit which
is individually actuated through an independent -
hydraulic line and brake master cylinder. Each
brake master cylinder has an integral fluid re-. -
servoir and is connected by an adjustable link-
age to its relative toe pedal, Depression of the =
toe pedal operates the piston in the relevent =
master cylinder which causes pressure tobe °°.
applied, through flexible and rigid fluid lines
and a brake valve, to the wheel brake unit con-
cerned. A parkingbrake is incorporated in the -—
“brake system, Operation of the parking brake... ..
handle in the cockpit after the toe pedals have:
been depressed, locks the brake units in the ©
"on" position.
1.13.3 TOE PEDALS
Pressure on the toe pedals, which.
are the upper portions of the rudder pedals,
actuates the pistons in the master cylinders
and displaces hydraulic fluid into the brake =
LANDING, TAKE-
ml, 13.4
Section I
units where the’ shoes are applied to the brake
discs, The toe pedals are adjustable relative .
to the rudder pedals by adjusting the lengths of :
the master cylinder connecting rods. |
- The removable rudder pedals for the
e - | co-pilot. are not connected to the brake system.
| PARKING BRAKE
When the parking brake handle (fig-
been depressed to build up pressure in the brake
system, pressurized fluidis trapped in the low-
- er part. of the brake system and locks the brake
If the air craft is fitted with the new |
type parking valve (Part No, C2-CF-1711A)and ‘
— the brake toe pedals are operated while the
parkigg brake is set, hydraulic pressure great- |
er than that existing in the system below the
parking valves is created inthe master cylin-
ders and this additional pressure will push back |
the locking plunger of the parking valve and
| disengage the parking brake.
WARNING
In the event of a defective parking
brake valve permitting loss of press-
ure after the brakes have been on for
6 to 10 minutes, the brakes will slip;
and, if the engine is running, the air-
craft will move forward.
‘If the aircraft is fitted with a Scott Pat
~ No, 4200 parking valve, it isthen nec-
essary to release the parking brake
“handle before the toe brakes can be
used to stop the aircraft. The parking -
~ brake with above valve will hold the
— aircraft at engine speeds upto 1900
— rpm, ifnormal toe pressure was app-
lied when locking the brake system.
1.14 INSTRUMENTS
E A shock-mounted flight instrument
| = panel i is provided for the pilot and incorporates.
an altimeter,turn-and-bank indicator, rate-of-
climb indicator, air speed indicator, directional
gyro and artificial horizon. |
1.14.1 PITOT STATIC OPERATED
INSTRUMENTS
The airspeed indicator, altimeter,
13
Section I
ARTIFICIAL
HORIZON. ——
AIRSPEED
INDICATOR
RATE OF CLIMB
INDICATOR
ALTIMETER «
TURN AND BANK
—" INDICATOR
A >
DIRECTIONAL GYRO
TACHOMETER
MANIFOLD PRESSURE
GAUGE
NOTE: | |
THE POSITIONS: OF THE TACHOMETER AND
MANIFOLD PRESSURE GAUGE ARE REVERSEC
ON LATER INSTALLATIONS.
OIL TEMPÉRATURE -
: — FUEL AND OIL PRESSURE
GAUGE |
FUEL CONTENTS
GAUGE"
я 25 :
CARBURETTOR MIXTURE о”
TEMP ERATURE GAUGE
CYLINDER HEAD
TEMPERATURE GAUGE
FIG 1-10. FLIGHT INSTRUMENT
PANEL AND ENGINE INSTRUMENT PANEL
15 April 1961
Suda?
and the rate-of-climb indicator, are operated
by the pitot static system. The static opening
is incorporatedin the left-hand side of the rear
: - fuselage.
VACUUM-OPERATED
INSTRUMENTS
1.14.2
| The dir ectional gyro, artificial hori-
zon and turn-and-bank indicator, are operated
by the vacuum system. A vacuum gauge on the
right of the electrical switch panel indicates
the vacuum in In.Hg. being applied to the in-
struments.
OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE
GAUGE
1.14.3
| The outside air temperature gauge
is locatedinthe cockpit roof. It is of the direct-
reading bulb type and the dial is graduated in
both Fahrenheit and Centigrade scales.
1.14.4 ARTIFICIAL HORIZON
The artificial horizon is powered by-
the vacuum system. Its horizon bar gives a
dive, climb and angle of bank indication. А
knob at the bottom of the instrument dial per-
mits adjustment of the instrument to any fore-
and-aft attitude of the airplane within limits of
plus or minus 7°,
„а
A caging knob on the instrument
erects the gyroandlocks the horizon bar in the
horizontal position. This knob must be in the
uncaged position before take-off to insure pro-
per indications fr om the instrument. —
The operating limits are set to per-
mit 709 climbs and glides, and 1009 right or
left banks before the limit stops are reached.
If exceeded, the caging knob provides a rapid
means for resetting the artificial horizon.
“1.14.5 MAGNETIC COMPASS
The magnetic compass is mounted
on a bracket attached to the windshield center
post. The switch for the compass light is on
the electric switeh panel, A compass deviation
card is mounted above the compass.
1.15. EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT
HAND OPERATED FIRE.
1.15.1
EXTINGUISHER
Section I’
A hand operated fire extinguisher is
stowed in a quick release clip on the floor, in :
front of the pilot's seat, a
1.15.2 ENGINE FIRE EXTINGUISHER
SYSTEM
> The engine fire extinguisher system
is controlled from the fire extinguisher panel.
below the flight instrument panel, The system.
incorporates a fire extinguisher bottle, a flame
switch and a length of fuse wire located in the
engine accessories compartment, |
5 WAIT FOR ENGINE
ILE TEE
BO ;
„LT. BRKR: |(.”.
FIG 1-11 ENGINE FIRE EXTINGUISHER
: "PANEL
In the event of fire, the red fire
warning light on the extinguisher panel is illu-
minated. The engine should then be switched
off before switching the EXTINGUISHER
SWITCH-ON to discharge the contents of the
bottle inside the engine cowling,
Both the warning light and the ex-:
tinguisher circuits are protected by push-to-
reset button type circuit breakers on the fire
extinguisher panel,
15
Section I
DETAIL A
DISTRIBUTION
OUCT UNIT
CABIN OUFLET SO Que
- WINDSHIELO
DEFROSTER
(a
|," CAR OUTLET |
— DETALB —-
HEAT CONTROL
/ \ HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE
EXHAUST TAILPIPE
FIG 1- 12 HEATING SYSTEM
1.15.3 © FIRST AD KIT
A fir st aid Kit is located on the back
of the pilot's seat. село |
1.16 — SEATING ARRANGEMENT
The seating arrangement, with the
exception of the pilot's seat, varies with the
internal. loading requirements of the light.
1 16. 1 PILOT'S SEAT
“The pilot's seat is simultaneously
adjustable fore-and-aft and for height by means
Of a screw jack on the front of the seat; a lap
type safety belt is provided. The seat cushion
has grab-lines and may be used as a life-pre-
server when abandoning the aircraft in or over
water,
16
| The seat and its. support pede stal can
be removed temporarily from the aircraft by
releasing three turn screws which secure the
pedestal to the floor in conjunction with four
hooks engaging in slotted holes in the floor.
1. „16 . 2 PASSENGER SEATS
All passenger seats,. including the
co-pilot's seat, are fitted with lap type safety |
belts. AL seats are removable.
1,17 = a HEATING SYSTEM
Hot air for heating the interior of
the cabinis supplied by ramair passing through -
a heat exchanger tube in the engine exhaust
system. From a four-way outlet at the centre
of the cockpit floor, the heated air is ducted |
to the pilot's seat and front seat passengers’
Pr
feet and to two outlet grills in the cabin floor.
A heated air outlet at the top of the
“instrument panel permits defrosting of the
- pilot's windshield. A second outlet can be in-
stalled for the co-pilot's windshield.
| All hot air outlets are controlled
simultaneously by a push-pull control, on the
- base of the pedestal which permits intermediate
positions between fully ON in itsup position and
fully OFF, |
1.18 VENTILATION SYSTEM
Two ventilation louvers, one on each
side of the cockpit roof, to the left and right of
the pilot and co-pilot, supply ram air to the
cabin from screened openings in the leading
‚edge of each wing root.
| An exhaust type circular grill and
shutter ventilator in the cabin roof exhausts
air from the cabin, Necessary suction is pro-
‘vided by a rearward facing air scoop on top of
the fuselage.
Section 1
The ventilation louvers are adjust-
able. They open when the knob, on the side of
the louver, is turned clockwise. Intermediate |
positions between OPEN and SHUT are poss-
ible. To control the direction of airflow from
the louver, its body can be moved to point in
any required direction. Two additional louvers
can be installed in the rear of the cabin rooi,
on request.
1.19 ENGINE WINTER SHUTTERS
For operation in extreme cold con-
ditions, engine winter shutters may be in-
stalled. The shutter assembly consists of a
fixed outer shutter mounted on the engine rocker .
tubes and an inner shutter which rotates on |
pulleys attached to the outer shutter. The win-
ter shutters control handle is located to the
left of the engine controls. When the handle is
in, the” shutters are OPEN; when fully out the
shutters are SHUT. The handle, when rotated
clockwise, engages a pawl which locks the
shutter s inthe OPEN, SHUT or any intermediate
position. See Section 5.4 for suggested operat-
ing instructions.
— WING TIP TANK
HYDRAULIC RESERVOIR FLUID:
|| MIL-0-5606; 3-GP-260 >
1 {DO NOT FILL HYDRAULIC RESERVOIR
ABOVE 34 IN. FROM TOP, OR OVER-
SPILLING WILL OCCUR THROUGH
VENT HOLE IN DIPSTICK)
OIL. TANK FILLER
IN COCKPIT
AND REAR FUEL TANKS
~~
LONG RANGE FUEL
TANK FILLER
RANGE FUEL
FILLERS FOR FRONT CENTER
/
REAR FUEL TANK
FRONT FUEL TANK
EXTERNAL LONG
GROUND SOCKET
< STATIC PORT
EXTERNAL POWER
RECEPTACLE
“WING TIP TANK
CENTER FUEL TANK
TIRE PRESSURES:
MAIN WHEELS 25 PSI
TAN WHEEL 35 PSI
TANK
SPECIAL ORDER
FIG 1-13 ROUTINE SERVICING POINTS
17
[a
2 TT
EN
FE
af Un
ь NIN o e Er ar qu yoy
ENTE AZ on Tata E SE RE rE ag
Tab
CANADA
mm
Section Ц
Starting at the pilot's. cockpit, E. o Check that wheels are a
| make the following checks: JE chocked. Check security of
PE landing gear, fairings, tires
for cuts, bruises and slip- .
page. Check tire pressures. ~~
‚. and wheel brakes hose —-
— and pipes for oil leaks.
— While meking exterior inspec-
tion, check all surfaces for —
cracks, distortion, loose rivets O Check that carburettor and:
and indication of damage... ... oil cooler intakes are dear. |
Check all access doors for =~ a |
security. Check surfaces and В o Check propeller. for nicks В
hinges of all flight control В and oil leaks. Check cowl
surfaces. oo - “and panels for dents, -
scratches and for security.
o Check security of fuel filler | © © Check tailwheel tire for cuts,
caps and access panel. | bruises and slippage. Check
Check that the aircraft has tire pressure.
been serviced with required |
quantities of fuel, oil and О Check that pitot head cover
hydraulic fluid. is removed.
F1G.2-1 EXTERIOR INSPECTION DIAGRAM
Section II
SECTION IT
NORMAL PROCEDURES
2.1 BEFORE ENTERING AIRCRAFT
Carry out an EXTERIOR INSPEC-
TION of the airplane as detailed in Figure 2-1.
Also check storage of cargo and
baggage and determine load distribution and
— CG position.
2.2 ON ENTERING AIRCRAFT
Check the following:
(2) Ignition - OFF.
(b) Parking brake - set.
(c) Controls - unlocked.
{а} Controls for « free, correctand full move-
ment.
{(e) Adjust pilot's seat.
(fy Trims - as required.
(g) All switches - OFF (except generator field
switch which should be ON),
(h) Battery master switch ON,
(j) Fuel quantities - check.
(k) Altimeter and clock - set.
(1) Communication equipment - test (if external
power is not available, make test during final
period of engine warm-up). |
When night flying is anticipated, make the foll-
owing checks, possibly with the help of an out-
side observer:
(a) Landing light.
(b) Navigation lights, identification lights, if
fitted.
- Уре :
(c) Check panel lights, interior lights.
(d) Flashlight - on board.
2.3 BEFORE STARTING ENGINE
E Make the following checks:
>
(a) Fire guard - in position,
(b) Propeller area - clear.
(c) All switches - OFF (except generator Held.
switch).
(d) Throttle lever - 1/4 to 1/2 in. open.
(e) Propeller lever fully DECREASE RPM.
(f} Mixture lever IDLE CUT-OFF,
(g) Carburettor hot air lever - COLD,
(h) Ask ground crew or use starter to turn pro-
peller ‘to make sure that an excessive amount
of oil is not trapped in the lower cylinders,
forming a hydraulic lock. o
NOTE
- If à hydraulic lock is indicated, drain :
the excess oil fromthe lower cylinders, ;
‘by removing their spark plugs. |
2.3.1 SEAPLANE ENGINE STARTING -
If it is intended to start the engine
before casting off from a buoy: |
(a) Untie the mooringrope knot and reposition
the rope around the forward spreader bar be-
tween floats.
(b} Pull seaplane forward until thebuoy is be-
hind the pr opeller, near the spreader bar
19
Section IN
. MANE UVERING
| HANDLE /
WOOD BLOCK POSITION- €
—FITING BEACHING GEAR
BEACHING GEAR FITTED
FIG 2-2 SEAPLANE MOORING AND BEACHING PROVISIONS ~~ © 5
и
3 :
, a .. - -
Ny?
The buoy must be of the flagless type
to allow the spreader bar toclear it when taxi-
ing away.
2.4 STARTING ENGINE
2.4.1 NORMAL ENGINE START
(a) Propeller area - clear.
(b) Battery master switch - ON.
(c) Fuel and oil emergency cut-off lever -
OPEN.
— (d) Fuel selector to fullest tank.
(e) Mixture lever - AUTO RICH.
{f) Throttle lever - 1/4 to 1/2 in. OPEN.
(g) Buildup fuel pressure with wobble pump to
maximum 5 psi,
(h) Prime 4 strokes,
(j) Both ignition switches to ON position.
- Direct cranking starter motor
(k) Hold starter switch to STARTER position.
Electrical Inertia Starter
(1) Hold starter switch to STARTER position
until starter whine ceases to rise in pitch.
{m} Release starter switch and simultaneously:
(n) Hold clutch enga gement switch to STARTER
'CLUTCH position.
NOTE
A hot engine may be cranked directly
for starting by energizing the starter
and clutch together.
(o) Hold Booster Coil switch to BOOSTER COIL :
position.
As soon as engine fires:
(p) Release Starter switchor Starter and Start-
er Clutch switches to OFF position. —
{q) Release Boost coil switch.
Section IL.
{r) Priming Pump - locked OFF,
CAUTION
l. As soon as engine fires, throttle
back to about 500 to 800 rpm.
2. Donot pump throttle to catch a dy |
ing" engine.
3. Hoil pressure does not register on
gauge within 30 seconds, stop engine
and investigate.
WARNING
If a booster pump is installed make
sure that the primer pump is shut-off
completely after priming, or raw fuel
will be injected into the cylinders when
the booster pump is switched on.
(s) As soon as oil pressure reaches 50 psi
steady indication select propeller lever to full
INCREASE RPM position. |
2.4.2 FAILURE IN STARTING
Engine fails to start at first attempt
(Starter run down)
(a) Release boost coil switch.
(b) Ignition - OFF.
(¢) Throttle lever 1/4 to 1/2 in OPEN,
(d) Disengage starter clutch, if necessary, by
having propeller rocked between 1/4 and 1/2
revolutions, {Inertia Starter only).
(e) Repeat normal starting procedure, using
little or no priming.
Engine over-primed
(a) Ignition - OFF.
(b) Mixture lever - IDLE CUT-OFF,
{c) Throttle lever fully open.
(d) Clear excess fuel from induction system by
having propeller turned clockwise, by hand,
through 3 to 5 revolutions.
(e) Repeat normal starting procedure.
21
A
Section II
CAUTION
Insure propeller is turned in a clock-
wise direction. Turning the propeller
- counter -clockwise will return the ex-
cess fuel into the induction system
and, consequently, hamper starting,
create a fire hazard and increase the
risk of hydraulicing.
2.4.3 STARTING BY HAND CRANK
(a) Ignition : switches - OFF.
(b) Battery master switch - ON,
(c) All other switches - OFF,
(d) Starter brush release control - HAND
TURNING. |
(e) Raise fuel pressure with wobble pump to 5
psi. (Booster pump on if installed),
(f) Have propeller turned 3 or 4 revolutions by
hand.
(g) Prime 3 to 5 strokes while propeller is
being turned. |
(h) Throttle 1/4 open. (Booster pump OFF if
installed).
(j) Propeller fully DECREASE RPM...
(k) Mixture lever - AUTO RICH,
(1) Carburettor hot-air lever - COLD,
(m) Have starter hand crank rotated until max-
imum possible starter speed is reached, and
remove the hand crank, В
(п) Ignition switches - ON.
(0) Hold boost coil switch to - BOOST COIL
position,
(p) Pull out mechanical starter clutch handle
and hold.
As soon as engine fires:
(q) Release mechanical starter clutch handle.
(г) Actuate primer until carburettor takes
Over.
22
(s) Release boost coil switch.
(t) Observethat oil pre ssure is indicated with-
in 30 seconds. 3
— NOTE
Before attempting an electrical start
after handcranking, move the starter
brush release control to ELECTRIC
to bring the starter commutator
brushes into contact with the commu- |
tator. ‘
2.5 ENGINE WARM-UP
(a) Throttle to give 1000 rpm.
(Bb) Move prope Yer. lever fully forward to IN-
CREASE RPM, as soon as oil pressure reaches
50 psi. |
(c) After oil temperature has reached 100°F
(40°C), adjust to smoothest engine speed be-
tween 1000 to 1400 rpm. Mixture lever FULL
RICH.
{d} Select propeller lever to coarser pitch at
1000 rpm, to circulate the oil in the constant
— speed unit and propeller cylinder, then return
to INCREASE RPM,
NOTE
Never rush engine warm-up.
(Engine fire during starting procedure see Sec-
tion III, para 3.4.1}.
(e) Checkoil pressure, fuel pressure and tem-
perature.
(f} Tank feeds - check by rotating fuel selector
to each tank.
2.6 ENGINE GROUND TESTS |
| The engine oil inlet temperature
should be above 100°F (40°C) yet never rise
above 200°F (90°C). Cylinder head tempera-
tures must not exceed 450% (230%c),
Head air craft into wind
(a) Parking brake ON,
control column fully
back. пени.
(b) Fuel selector to fullest tank (if wing tip
tanks are installed, select FRONT TANK or if
belly tank is installed select CENTRE TANK).
(с) Propeller lever full INCREASE RPM.
(d) Set throttle lever to give 1750 rpm.
(e) Select magneto switch to"L" Return switch -
to "BOTH" to allow engine speed to stabilize
itself before switching to "RM, Return to
"BOTH",
The drop in rpm should not exceed
100 rpm; it is normally in the region of 50 to
75 rpm, {In cold weather keep the carburettor
mixture temperature at 40 °F (4°C) for this
check).
(f) I£ magneto drop is more than 100 rpm re-
check at aerodrome pressure.
(g) Set throttle lever to give 600 rpm.
(h) Momentarily turn ignition switch OFF.The
engine should stop firing completely.
NOTE
This last check should be carried out
with the minimum delay in the OFF
positionto prevent backfiring when the
switch is returned to "BOTH",
WARNING
If the engine does not momentarily
stop firing completely, stopthe engine
by selecting the mixture lever toIDLE
CUT-OFF. Warn personnel to stay
clear of the propeller and have igni-
tion switch and magneto ground lead
| checked.
| (j) Open throttle until manifold pressure is
| equal to aerodrome pressure,
- (x) Check that generator cuts: in at 1400 rpm
© approximately.
(1) Check rpm 2100 plus or minus 20 approxi-
mately. |
(m) Check oil, fuel and vacuum pressures, cy-
‘ linder head and oil temperatures within ranges.
Section II
(n) Retard throttle to give 1600 rpm.
(6) Move propeller lever to COARSE PITCH
then return to full INCREASE RPM position. )
Note recover of rpm to 1600 rpm.
2.7 TAXIING
4a) Flaps at CRUISE POSITION.
(b) Propeller lever - full INCREASE rpm.
(c) Watch oil and cylinder temperatures. lí
necessary, run engine at higher rpm to pro-
vide additional cooling during taxiing.
(d) Make brake test as soon as aircraft starts
moving. |
(e) Operate rudder pedals to steer aeroplane
by megns of steerable tailwheel (259 to each
side). Use brakes for larger tailwheel angles.
(£ Run engine at 1200 - 1400 rpm when air-
craftis stopped during taxiing, to prevent spark
plug fouling and tocreate a propeller blast for
engine cooling.
WARNING
While on the ground, avoid prolonged
engine running above 1400 rpm, par-
ticularly in hot weather, to prevent
overheating of the installation.
2.8 TAKE-OFF CHECK
(a) All doors and windows closed,
{b} Elevator trim to meet CG requirements,
(c} Mixture lever - AUTO RICH.
(d) Propeller lever - INCREASE RPM,
(e) Fuel selector to desired tank position. |
(1) Flaps - TAKE-OFF position.
(g) Directional gyro and artificial horizon -
uncaged and set. |
(bh) Pitot heat ON if necessary in cold weather
or when icing conditions are anticipated.
{j) Carburettor heat - COLD,
. EY
La)
Section I
(a) Make sure cylinder head temperature is
below 450°F (230 с).
(b) Adjust | throttle lever friction knob.
(c) Line up on take-off runway.
(d) Open the throttle smoothly to maximum
permissible take-off power. See Figure 4-1,
(e) Anticipate: tendency of aircraft to swing to
the left. | | В
() Allow aircraft to fly itself off at 55 to 65
mph, in a tail down attitude and climb at 65
mph. | |
(g). As soon as safe height has been attained,
reduce power to 33.5 In.Hg. and 2200 rpm if
aircraft is fully loaded, or 30 In.Hg. and 2000
rpm for normal weight.
(h) Slowly i increase air speed to 80 mph and re-
trim.
(j} At altitude of 500 ft, - flaps to CLIMB and
retrim.
2.10 CLIMB
Best rate of climb is obtained using
Maximum Continuous Power (2200 rpm, 33.5
In.Hg.). Speed for best rate of climb is 95 mph
IAS; speed for best angle of climb is 80 mph
LAS. | o |
Where circumstances warrant, Max-
imum Continuous Power may be used giving
the rates of climb as stated in paragraph 4.10.
However, the engine manufacturer
recommends, for reduced engine wear, that
2000 rpm and 30 In.Hg. AUTO RICH be used.
The rates of climb will then be 540 fpm for
the landplane, 460 fpm for the seaplane,
Refer to Cruise Power Chartin
Appendix for recommended settings.
Keep cylinder head temperatur e con-
sistent with limits in Figure 4-1, Low rpm
at High Manifold Pressure helps to maintain
climbing mixture strength and ‘materially
assists engine and oil cooling.
24
2.11 CRUISE
- For continuous cruise, use Maximum
Weak Mixture Power or less, taking the foliow-
ing steps: | o :
(a) Flaps to "Cruise".
(b) Throttle=back to 29.7 mg. or less Mani-
fold Fressure. |
(с) Propeller lever to give 2000 rpm or less.
(d) Mixture lever to AUTO LEAN. Carburettor
mixture temperature 40°F (4°C).
(e) Keep cylinder head temperature and oil in-
let temperature consistent with limits in Fi ig-
ure 4-1.
For Cruising powep “reduced below that obtained
at maximum we mixture use settings in
Cruise Power Chart on page V in Appendix.
2.11.1 FUEL MANAGEMENT
For favourable CG travel, without
long-range tanks:
(a) Empty rear tank first, if aircraft is fully
loaded, in order to move the CG progressively
forward. | 2e
Operation on long range tanks
Since both long range belly tank and
wing tip tanks contain more fuel (5 Imp. - 7
U.S. gal.) than the front or centre fuselage
tank will hold (see para 1.8.2), fuel from long
range tanks must be transferred in two stages,
When Ling tip tanks are installed
CAUTION -
On aircraft having rubber liners in
the main fuel tanks ( Modification 2/
1376) and equipped with C2-PT-445A
and C2-PT-446A wing tip tanks, trans -
fer of fuel to the front main tank should
be avoided during flight through snow
or ice conditions, The air scoopateach
tank vent may become blocked iinthese
conditions and prevent fuel transfer,
Transfer offuelis dependent on gravity
feed assisted by air pressure fromthe
wing tip tank air scoops,
Revised 1 Oct 1962
(a) Take-off, climb and cruise with the FRONT
main tank selected until it is almost empty,
(b) Move main fuel tank selector to CENTRE
or REAR TANK position,
{c) Move wing tanks fuel transfer selector to
BOTH and leave at that position until the fuel
quantity gage shows an increase of 20 gallons"
in the front tank, then move the transfer sel-
ector to OFF. |
(d) Reselect FRONT TANK until tank is again
almost empty, then repeat steps (b) and (c)
to transfer the remaining 16 gallons to the
FRONT main tank, After transfer of all the wing
tanks fuel move the transfer selector to OFF,
and resume normal tank selection, |
CAUTION
If the aircraft is laterally unbalanced after
transfer of the initial 20 gallons of fuel,
then the wing tanks fuel selector should
be positioned at LH or RH as appropriate
during the transfer of the remaining 16
gallons of fuel to correct the unbalance,
When belly tank is installed
(a) Take-off and climb on centre fuselage tank
to cruising altitude,
(b) When contents of centre tank are nearly
exhausted, select FRONT TANK or REAR TANK
on fuselage tank selector,
(c) Select TRANSFER on long “range tank trans»
fer selector, |
(d) Turn off long-range transfer selector when
centre tank is nearly full, |
— (e) Repeat procedure to empty belly tank into
centre tank,
NOTE
loss of speed at cruising is 6 mph with
belly tank installed,
2.11.2 AIRSPEED CORRECTION
To correct indicated airspeed to cal-
ibrated airspeed:
| Subtract 5 mph from all indicated
cruising speeds,
Subtract 5 mph from the indicated
— Revised 1 Oct 1962
Section II
airspeed when flaps in DOWN position,
2.11.3 WEAK MIXTURE OPERATION
Refer to Section V,
2.12 DESCENT
Ya) Reduce airspeed and power as required.
(b) Fuel selector to fullest tank,
(с) Instruments in correct ranges,
2.13 APPROACH
(a} Reduce airspeed to 90 mph IAS,
(b) Propeller lever to INCREASE rpm,
(с) Мите lever - AUTO RICH,
(d) Flaps to LANDING or as desired,
(e) Maintain a normal approach airspeed of 80
mph IAS, (Rate of descent with be approxi-
mately 1000 ft, per min,),
NOTE
Open throttle several times during ap-
proach to clear engine and to prevent
too rapid engine cooling,
NOTE
When carburettor heat is used during ap-
proach, select "COLD" late on the final
approach, This is to insure that full power
will be available in case of a baulked
landing, |
2.14 LANDINC
(a) Trim as required,
(b) Increase power to decrease rate of descent,
NOTE
With flaps at landing, the "Power -Off"
approach produces a marked nose down
attitude,
(ce) Pull back gently on the control column for |
three-point touch-down,
(d) There is no tendency to swing after touch-
down except in crosswinds, -
| 25.
Section II
NOTE
In normal stalled landing the tailwheel will
touch first, when landing without fap.
(e) After touch-down hold control column fully
back,
(1) Use rudder and steerable tailwheel to main-
tain straight path, |
(g) Apply wheel brakes, as necessary, to con~ -
trol landing run,
2.14.1 MINIMUM RUN LANDING
Minimum run landings may be nece-
ssary under extraordinary circumstances, |
Pilots familiar with the aircraft and
experienced in short landing technique may per-
form minimum run landings by using full flap
and reducing the airspeed on the final approach
to 65 - 68 mph and maintaining that speed to
the point of flare-out,
2,14,2 CROSS-WIND TAKE-OFF & LANDING
The lateral component of wind velo-
city at and below which it is safe to take off
and land is not more than 10 mph at 90° for
landplane, skiplane and seaplane.
2.14.3 NIGHT LANDING
At night a "Power-On" landing is re-
commended so that a go-around is facilitated.
2.14.4 SEAPLANE LANDING
(a) Use same procedure as for landplane,
(b} Do not lower water rudders until aircraft
has stopped planing.
2.14.5 SKIPLANE LANDING
Prior to landing skiplane make sure:
(a) Snow does not deceptively cover uneven
ground, | | | |
(b) Ice is thick enough to support the aircraft,
NOTE —.
Blue ice is generally quite thick, White
ice is nearly always thin, especially on
fast flowing riVers, uc. A
6
2.15
"R" momentarily,
(ce) Use power approach {or landing on un-
marked snow,
(à) Do not make turns: when close to: snow-
covered ground. =
GO-AROUND AND BAULKED В
“BANDING e
Decide carly i in approach to go around, |
using procedure as follows: |
(а) Open throttle lever slowly to fu take-off
power,
(b) Keep nose down, re-trimming if necessary,
to maintain normal flap down airspeeds - 65
mph for TAKE-OFF flap, 75 to 90 mph for:
CLIMB or CRUISE ‘Zap settings. |
{¢) Retract ah slowly when safe altitude is
reached, | |
(d) Retrim as required,
2.16 AFTER THE LANDING
{a} Flaps to CRUISE when landing run is coma
pleted,
(b) Elevator trim to neutral,
POST FLIGHT CHECKS
(Last flight of day only)
2.17
(a) Set parking brakes,
(5) Carburettor heat - COLD,
Ignition safety check
(a) Engine at idling speed,
(b} Switch OFF ignition switch momentarily -.
engine must stop fir ing completely.
(с) Ignition ON as soon as possible to prevent
backfiring. Ignition system and power check,
(d) Control column fully back.
(e) Advance throttle lever to aerodrome baro-
metric pressure. - | |
(0 RPM should be 2100 plus or minus 20,
e) Check magnetos by selecting. "L” momen-
tarily and return to "BOTH" before selecting
Revised 1 May 1981
=
si
Ta
E
NOTE
When running on one magneto, the
drop in rpm should not exceed 100
rpm.
Idle speed check
(a) Retard throttle lever to idling position.
~ {b) Engine rpm should be 450 - 550.
(c) Oil pressure and fuel pressure should re-
main within operating limits,
2.18 STOPPING THE ENGINE
(a) Allow engine to idle for a short period to
assist it in gradually cooling down.
(b) Open throttle to give 1000 - 1200 RPM.
(c) Propeller lever to full DECREASE RPM.
(d) The RPM will drop off as the propeller
changes pitch but should be maintained at 800
rpm with the throttle,
(e) Whencold weather start is anticipated, en-
gine oil may be diluted.
Section II
(f) Mixture lever - IDLE CUT-OFF.
(g) Switch ignition OFF after propeller has
stopped turning.
(h) Check wing tip tank selector OFF, if tanks
are fitted,
E
(3) Main fuel tank selector OFF,
(k) All switches OFF except generator field _
switch,
If engine fails to stop proceed as follows:
(a) Check magnetos again,
(b) Close throttle to idling.
é |
(c) Turn fuel selector OFF.
(d) Maintain 800 rpm.
(e) Wait until engine has stopped through fuel
starvation,
(f) Switch ignition OFF,
(g) Throttle lever fully CLOSED,
27
5 pur
ETA
1 REE . i
NE Dee =
Gee at BE
ill NOLLD3S
SEY ELO
PTA
=
H
CANADA:
- Section I -
SECTION III
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
3.1 ENGINE FAILURE
ENGINE FAILURE DURING
TAKE-OFF RUN |
Remaining length of runway is suffi-
‘cient for stopping safely.
(a) Apply brakes - control column fully back
all the time.
(b) Mixture lever - IDLE CUT-OFF.
(c) Pump flaps fully DOWN,
(d) Ignition - OFF,
(e) Fuel selector - OFF,
(f} Battery master switch - OFF,
Space ahead is insufficient.
(a) Take steps as above.
(b) Turn the aircraft by momentarily applying
differential braking in the desired direction,
rudder pedals in neutral, then apply differen-
tial braking inthe rever se direction to counter-
act ground looping tendency.
ENGINE FAILURE AFTER
TAKE-OFF.
3.1.2
(a) Lower nose immediately, to maintain air-
speed at 65 mph.
(b) Mixture lever - IDLE CUT-OFF.
(с) Propeller lever to DECREASE RPM posi-
tion.
(а) Fuel and oil emergency shut- off - pull
sharply CLOSED, | |
(e) Ignition - OFF,
(£ Battery master switch - OFF.
(g) Fuel selector - OFF,
(h) Warn passengers to brace feet against
supports and protect their heads by placing an
arm across forehead, gripping fuselage struc-
ture with the same hand.
(3) КР STRAIGHT AHEAD AND CHANGE
DIRECTION ONLY ENOUGH TO MISS OB ST A-
CLES. USE RUDDER ONLY,
CAUTION
- Always maintain enough airspeed to
assure full control of aircraft to point |.
of touchdown. Coarse use of ailerons
near the stall airspeed precipitates
wing dropping. | |
CAUTION
It is better to ride an aircraft with a
dead engine safely to a crash landing
straight ahead, than to turn back to
the field. Attempts to turn back have,
in many instances, ended with an un-
controlled roll or spin intothe ground.
3.1.3 ENGINE FAILURE ABOVE 800
FT. AFTER TAKE-OFF
{a) Depress nose to gliding attitude.
(b) Flaps to CRUISE.
(с) Propeller lever to full DECREASE REM
position.
(d) Maintainairspeedoí 95 mph IAS (glide gra-
dient is 11% rate of descent 890 ft. per minute.)
(e} Decide whether tocrashland straight ahead
or complete the circuit and attempt to land on
the air field.
29
. Section III
(f) Proceed as described in DEAD ENGINE
LANDING,
3.1.4 ENGINE FAILURE DURING
FLIGHT
If sufficient altitude is available:
Attempt to re-start the engine as
follows:
(a) Lower nose and maintain airspeed at 95
mph. mos |
(b) Check fuel selector at fullest tank,
{c) Check fuel pressure within normal range.
(d) Check that some oil pressure is indicated.
Do not attempt to re-start if there is no oil
pressure.
(e) Throttle - 1/3 open,
(£) Check ignition switches - BOTH,
(g) If no fuel pressure is indicated,
(h) Booster pump - ON (if installed) or:
Use wobble pump to build up fuel pressure and
prime for a maximum of 4 strokes, If still no
fuel pressure do not attempt a re-start.
If re-start fails:
(a) Ignition switch - OFF,
o.
(5) Propeller lever full DECREASE RPM posi-
tion.
(c) Fuel selector - OFF,
(d) Maintainair speed of 95 mph IAS with flaps
at CRUISE for maximum glide distance,
(e) Throttle lever - CLOSED,
(1) Make a dead engine landing.
1
3.2 DEAD ENGINE LANDING
(a) Maintain air speed of 95 mph IAS, flaps at
CRUISE for maximum glide distance.
(b) Propeller lever - COARSE PITCH.
(c) Mixture lever - IDLE CUT-OFF.
(d) Throttle lever - CLOSED.
ALTITUDE |
10,000 8
9,000 в
8.000 ©
7,000
- 6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
- 0
2 4 6
Duna: LANDPLANE “5, The
| 92 mph
— CSA SEAPLANE CE
FOR MAXIMUM GLIDE DISTANCE
— KEEP FLAPS UP
ta _ STATUTE MILES
AN lé NN в
16
NAUTICAL MILES
For every 2,000 feet, L ondplane will giide cppreximstely 3% statute miles and Seaplane 3! statute miles in “still air.
"FIG 3-17 GLIDING DISTANCES
“30
Close to ground:
(e) Ignition switch - OFF. ©
(ff Order occupants to brace themselves.
(g) Flaps to LANDING and maintain final
approach speed of 65 - 68 mph.
| (b) Touch down slightly tail fir st, as nearly
— into the wind as circumstances permit.
(j) Leave aircraft immediately it has stopped
moving.
IN CASE THE AIRCRAFT
NOSES OVER.
(a) Discharge fire extinguisher as soon as
turn-over movement begins.
(b) Warn passengers to wait to be released
from their safety belts, |
(c) Leave aircraft as soon as circumstances
permit.
3.3 PROPELLER FAILURE
Failure of the constant speed unit
will result in the propeller going into coarse
pitch and remaining there. No attempt should
be made to clear the failure by increasing en-
gine power as this will overload the engine and
lead to possible engine failure.
It is recommended that a landing be
made at the nearest airfield, using limited
power with propeller lever in COARSE PITCH
position, to have the trouble rectified.
3.3.1 PROPELLER F AILURE DURIN G
TAKE-OFF RUN -
Abandon take-off as follows: . .
(a) Close the thróttle .
-(b) Mixture lever - IDLE CUT-OFF. |
(c) Pump Наре fully « down. -
(d) Apply brakes.
(e) When speedis low and remaining space in-
sufficient, turn the aircraft by differential
73.3.2
Section III -
($) Fuel selector - OFF.
(g) Ignition switch - OFF.
(h) Master switch - OFF.
rel
PROPELLER FAILURE AFTER
TAKE-OFF
1. (a) If RPM too high manipulate propeller
lever in attempt tobring propeller within lim-
its.
(b) If no response, thr ottle back to keep the
RPM below 2350 rpm. Leave flaps at TAKE-
OFF and maintain ‘airspeed at 65 mph r mini-
mum.
(c) éffunsuc cessful, return to field maintain-
ing nose up attitude and regulate the rate oí
descent by gentle throttle lever manipulation.
Resume normal attitude on the approach to land
and make a power off landing.
2. (a) If RPM too low (propeller in full coarse
pitch.) |
(b) Increase air speed without losing alti-
tude, |
(с) If possible reduce throttle to 30 In, Hg.
(d) Raise flaps to CLIMB in stages, main-
tain maximum air speed and climb at the slow-
est rate to gain sufficient altitude to complete
a safe circuit and landing. Jettison external
loads, if nece ssary. |
3.3.3 PROPELLER FAILURE
DURING FLIGHT |
Overspeeding Propeller (Sticking in low pitch)
(a) Reduce throttle setting and pull the aircraft
into a climbing altitude to decrease engine
speed and increase the load on the propeller.
(b) Manipulate propeller lever in attempt to ‘
bring propeller within operating limitations.
(c) Maintain constant check on oil pressure,
Oil supply breakdown -
(a) Check oil pressure; ifnone is indicated pull
propeller lever to COARSE PITCH.
31
Section in
(b) Keep RPM to a minimum and make an
emergency landing with limited power on.
(c) If oil pressure is indicated after selecting
CLARSE PITCH it can be assumed that the
propeller oil line has fractured so proceed as
in 3.3.2.2.
3.4 ENGINE FIRE =
3.4.1 ENGINE FIRE ON THE GROUND
When an engine fire occurs during
starting, it cannot be established at once and
with certainty, whether the fire is inthe induc-
tion system or of a more serious nature. With
any type of oil or fuel fire, other than induction
fire, the effect of opening the throttle wide to
have the fire sucked through the engine, may
increasethe engine fireto disastrous severity.
NOTE
An induction system fire may not give
an indication on the fire warning light.
Thus, in any case of engine fire on
the ground, the engine should be stop-
ped as quickly as possible, taking the
following steps:
{a} Mixture lever IDLE CUT-OFF,
(b) Fuel and oil emergency shut-off - pull
sharply CLOSED,
Wait until the engine speed has. slowed down,
then:
(c) Ignition switch - OFF a
(d) Master switch - OFF,
As soon as the engine has stopped:
ен (e). Dischar ge engine fire extinguisher . " |
- WARNING
Make sure that t the flame switch fuse
is replaced, fire switch re-set and a
fully charged fire extinguisher bottle
is fitted before any attempt is made
to re-start the engine. | В
If the fire does not go out:
.. 32
(a) Have rear bottom cowling panel removed.
(b) Have portable fire extinguisher discharged
towards the engine accessories.
(c) Release brakes.
(d) Leavewmircraft.
(e) Stand by to push aircraft away from air-
craft or buildings in 1 neighbourhood if necess-
ary.
NOTE
After an engine has been on fire, no
attempt must be made to re-start un-
til the caust has been found and rem-
— edied and engine damage, if any, has
been repaired. | | :
An exception, however, can be made in the
case of an intake fire which has been success-
fully sucked in without the fire extinguisher
having been used.
3.4.2 ENGINE FIRE IN THE AIR
As soon as the fire warning light comes on:
(a) Stop the engine immediately, proceeding in
accordance with placa ard near fire warning
light, |
(b) Fuel and oil emer gency shut-off - pull
3 sharply CLOSED. |
+"
| (c) Propeller lever - fall DECREASE REM.
(a) Throttle lever - CLOSED,
(e) Mixture lever - IDLE CUT-OFF.
(£) Reduce airspeed to 95 mph.
(р) Operate fire extinguisher.
(h) Maintain maximum glide speed of 95 mph
with flaps at CRUISE.
(J) Radio state of emergency and | position.
(k) Instruct other occupants of aircraft for -
cr ash landing.
(1) Make a “dead engine landing.
Should the fire show no sign of abating, side |
slip the aircraft to a crash landing, preferably
into soft ground, sand or shallow water using
wing and tail to absorb impact.
WARNING
Do not attempt to re-start the engine
in flight after the fire extinguisher
has been used successfully, as the
fire is liable to recur on re-starting
when the extinguisher is exhausted.
3.4.3 ACCIDENTAL OPERATION OF
THE FIRE EXTINGUISHER
If the fire extinguisher has been
accidentally dischar ged:
(a) Continue flight with throttle lever at least
2/3 open.
(b) After two to thr ee minutes return tonormal
flight conditions. Throttle opening minimizes
engine corrosion and spark plug fouling,as the
methyl-bromide is rapidly dispersed,its boil-
ing point being close to 40°C.
WARNING
Methyl-bromide has an odour of
onions.If the fumes enter the aircraft
all ventilators should be opened until
the odour disappears,
(c) Report use of the engine fire extinguisher
after landing to ensure engine check and re-
plenishing of the extinguisher,
3.4.4 FUSELAGE FIRE
A fuselage fire is usually indicated
by smoke which will immediately warn passen~
gers and/or crew,
(a} Use fire extinguisher, in front of the pilot's
seat, if the source of the fire can be located
and is accessible,
If the source of the fuselage fire cannot be lo-
cated, or is not accessible:
(a) Select all electrical switches EXCEPT IG-
NITION - OFF,
(b} Close all windows, pull ventilators and ca-
bin air extractor, if fitted.
Section II]
When the fire has been extinguished, yet its;
source not clearly established: |
(a) Leave all switches EXCEPT IGNITION in
the OFT position.
(b) Land at nearest airfield for investigation.
3.5 DITCHING
Any high-wing monoplane should be ;
ditched only as a last resort because even in
the exceptional case where the pilot succeeds
in ditching his airplane under favourable con-
ditions, there is the almost certain possibility
that the aircraft will submerge to the cabin
roof in a very short time.
E
If, however, the aircraft has to be
ditched, proceed as follows:
(a) Keep approach speed sufficient for control
down to the impact with the water, |
(b} Instruct other occupants of the aircraft.
(c) Make approach into wind, at right angles
to the swell,
(d) Unlock cabin and cockpit doors,
(e) Ditch on the falling side of a wave crest or
swell top, |
(Ñ Touch down tail first to prevent the nose |
from striking a wave crest or swell top which
might cause the aircraft to nose in, or dive
under.
Other occupants of the aircraft should be in-
structed as follows:
(a) Unfasten collar and tie.
{b) Hold on to life preserver cushions,
(c) Be prepared for a double impact when first
the tail, and then the engine strike water.
(d) Not to move until the aircraft has come to
rest. |
(e) Helpeach other through the door s as quick-
ly as possible,
33
Ma E E ET NO di > NEC" ,
4 pacs TS a pue TE Lo e Es Ah Ё DE ott E e E E ee ER - E a Y Za
S
OPERATING LIMITS,
PERFORMANCE DATA AND
FLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS
CANADA
+ Sa
7 - Section IV
FUEL
B 250 q
LBS.
SQ.IN. - A
0
О
FUEL AND OIL PRESS., OIL TEMP, CYLINDER HEAD TEMP.
INS. MERCURY ABS.
10
MANIFOLD PRESS.
TAKE-OFF POWER TIME LIMIT:
| MIN, AT 2300 RPM-
36.5 IN. HG.
CAUTION
AT AMBIENT TEMPERATURES BELOW
STANDARD ALTITUDE TEMPERATURE
{15°C (59°F) AT S.L.) WITH
CARBURETOR AIR AT COLD, OVER-.-
BOOSTING AND DETONATION ARE >
— POSSIBLE AT MAP SETTINGS BE-
LOW THE NORMAL MAXIMUM PER-
MISSIBLE. THEREFORE, TAKE-OFF
| MAP MUST BE REDUCED BY 2% PER
11°C (20°F) BELOW STANDARD,
IF ENGINE LIFE i$ TO BE PRE-
—. SERVED. — a |
MAX. CONTINUOUS POWER o |
TACHOMETER
ВО FULL RICH
— POWER LIMITS BASED ON FUEL GRADE 80/87
TEEN] YELLOW--CÁUTION DANGER MAY EXIST UNDER
EEES CERTAIN CONDITIONS.
SN GREEN REGION FOR CONTINUOUS OPERATION. [| BLUE “LEAN” OPERATION IS PERMITTED.
ME RED-DANGER WARNING. MINIMUM AND/OR -
E MAXIMUM LIMITATIONS.
NE] REQUIRING “RICH MIXTURE
[| BLANK SPACE REGION THAT SHOULD BE AVOIDED
OR IN WHICH OPERATION IS LIMITED.
FIG 4-1 INSTRUMENT LIMIT MARKINGS
34 |
Revised 31 Jan 1961
ger
a
Section IV
SECTION IV
OPERATING LIMITS, PERFORMANCE
DATA AND F LIGHT CHARACTERISTICS
— 4.1 GENERAL REMARKS
The aircraft must be operated acc-
: ording tothe following limitations and instruc-
tions.
Instrument readings, illustrating the
operating limitations, are shown on Figure
4-1, The instrument markings shown should
‘be given close attention since they contain op-
erational limits information which is not nec-
essarily repeated in the following text.
4.1.1 The aircraft has been classified in
the normal Category of BCAR Airworthiness .
standards in accordance with the Type Appro-
val,
ALL AEROBATIC MANOEUVRES, INCLUDING
SPINS ARE PROHIBITED,
Stalls are permitted for demonstration pur-
poses only, —
4,2. ENGINE LIMITATIONS
~~ Refer to: Instrument Markings {Figure 4-1).
- CAUTION
If engine over-speeding occurs, land
at nearest airfield and have engine
and propeller inspected before further
flight. If the engine has exceeded
— 2,750 rpm for more than 30 seconds,
an engine change is indicated. |
4,3 PROPELLER LIMITATIONS
Provided that the engine is operated
within engine limitations,the propeller will be
within its safe limits.Excessive run-up on the
| ground is to be avoided.
4.4 FUEL GRADES AND RESIDUAL
FUEL QUANTITIES
Recommended fuel: Aviation Fuel
Grade 80/87. Alternate fuel grades with a
higher lead content are permissible only when:
80/87 fuel is not available and if the following
precaytionary ı measure is observed.
CAUTION
When highly leaded fuel grades are
used, operate engine at slightly higher
cruise power settings and apply rated
power for one minute after approxi-
mately each hour of cruising and
PRIOR to landing approach.
Oil Specification: 100
(80 for extreme cold)
(120 for extreme hot weather)
Residual Fuel Quantities
Fuel remaining in tanks when the
fuel contents gauge indicates zero, cannot be |
used safely in flight. : |
4.5 AIRSPEED LIMITS
For AIRSPEED LIMITATIONS as
marked on Airspeed Indicator refer to Figure
4-1, В |
4.5.1 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE
DIVING SPEED
Landplane) |
Skiplane ) 180 mph IAS
Seaplane ) —
The maximum permissible speed is
the never-exceed speed of flight. A higher
speed may result in structural failure, flutter
or loss of control.
> 35
„Section IV
4.5.2 NORMAL OPERATING
LIMIT SPEED
Landplane) |
Skiplane ) 145 mph IAS
Seaplane )
Normal cruising flight operations
should be confined to speeds below this value,
The range of speed between normal
operating limit speed and the maximum per-
missible diving speed should be intentionally
entered only with due regard to the prevailing
“flight and: atmospheric conditions »in particular
turbulence. -. LE er CT, | | :
4.5.3 MANOEUVRING SPEED
125 mph LAS, Manoeuvres which in-
volve an approach to. stall conditions, or full
application of rudder or aileron control, should
be confined to speeds below this value.
4.5:4-. E. MAXIMUM SPEED FOR
~~ LOWERING FLAPS -
105 mph LAS.
4.6 ACCELERATION LIMITS
Limit load factors are the maximum
values which the airframe may safely be sub-
jected to in flight, |
| When flying in very rough air, or if
it is necessary to perform forcible manoeuvres
including full application of aileron and rudder,
the airspeed should not be permitted to exceed
145 mph LAS, ET
4.6.1 LOAD FACTORS
In tight turns, fight load factors
may reach the limit loads, and may also in-
crease the danger of an unintentional stall.
© The variation of flaps-up stalling
speed and load factors with angle of bank are
= given below: |
Angle of Bank . Stalling Speed Load Factor
mph [AS .. В
yo 60 1.0
50° — 85 1.5
60% ges a
gO YET
3.0
70° 130
4.7 . WEIGHT AND BALANCE
LIMITATIONS
4.7.1 GENERAL
The Design Gross Weight of the air-
-. Craft is 5, 100 Ib, At this weight it complies
-. with the géñeral performance and strength
criteria.
In the interest of airworthiness it is
important that the weight and balance limits
tor this airplane be adhered to in accordance
with the recommendations. and information
given in the following paragraphs, tables : and
diagrams e
4.7.2 + WEIGHT DEFINITIONS
The raté Weight: is the weight of the
- aircraft with the minimum equipment essential
to airworthiness, e.g. pilot's seat, flight and
engine instruments, battery and the like.
| Hence equipment changes in the .
field will not normally change the tare weight
figure.
The tare weight will be appropriate
to the configuration, i.e. the landplane, ski-
plane and seaplane values will differ.
The Basic Weight includes all other
installed equipment both fixed and removable,
e.g. radio, exterior finish {paint), furnishings
and such equipment is defined by the item
ticked off in the Weight and Balance Report
under the heading "Equipment Check List" and
"Basic Weight Change Record",
The Operational Load comprises
crew, oil and fuel, and payload weights.
The Payload consists only of passen-
ger(s), ‘baggage and car go. Maximum values
of payload vs. range for various basic weights
are given in the Appendix pages VI and VIA.
The All-Up Weight (A.U.W .) is the
sum of basic weight plus operational load and
must not exceed 5,100 lbs. for the landplane
and skiplane, 5,090 for the seaplane.
4.7.3 — FUEL ALLOWANCES ;
It should be noted that fuel allowan-
ces are included for‘ 10 minutes warm- up,
Ress De
Section IV
+100. + 50 o - 50 -100 —150 -200 | - 250
1
—— RUDDER
LEADING TRAILING -=— —— ВАбССАСЕ 2309
EDGE | EDGE i BLKHD -76.5
+17.5 -45 2 tm
—— BAGGAGE -94
t ?
i 1
ll BATTERY-96.5
! - «МАС. 62.5 a |
|
|
|
|
|
|
i
|
|
|
|
|
|
| ,
TAIL LIFT TUBE TAILWHEEL
—_—— -188.6 -244
FUEL TANKS. o
PASSENGERS
PILOT ‘ `
+ 7
-2
1
f
|
|
i
|
!
MAIN WHEELS
+25.2
+100 +50 О - 50 - 100 -150 -200 -250
FIG 4-2 BALANCES DIAGRAM
37
if
Section IV
take-off and climb to 5,000 ft. altitude, and
reserve fuel for 45 minutes flying time at
cruising power.
4.7.4 WEIGHT AND BALANCE
REPORT
This report defines the equipment
that was in the aircraft "as weighed" and "as
delivered" and gives weights, arms and move-
ments as well as the Tare and Basic Moment.
It may be found in the envelope on the inside
of the rear cover of this Flight Manual.
If the equipment is changed, the
Basic Weight changes too. Changes should be
recorded in the "Basic Weight Change Record'',
which must be kept up-to-date at all times.
The "Equipment Check List" should
be ticked off.
If the configuration of the aircraft
is altered at any time, e.g. changing from
floats to skis, such alterations must be duly
recorded in the "Basic Weight Change Record".
The obligation that all changes must
be recorded, applies also to modifications of
all sorts, e.g. repair of damages suffered in
the field, in which case all parts removed
from, or added to, the aircraft must be separ-
4.7.6 CENTRE OF GRAVITY
The С.С. datum lies 17. 45 inches
Figure 4-2,
Extreme forward C.G. position at 3, 800 lb.
Extreme forward C,G. position at 5,090 Ib.
Extreme forward C.G. position at 5, 100 ib.
Extreme Aft GG, position at 5,090 lb.
Extreme Aft c.G. position at 5, 100 Ib,
38
ately weighed and their Moment Arms mea-
sured so that the Weight and Balance Report”
may be properly brought up to date.
The Balance Diagram (Figure 4- 2),
may be used to determine the Arms of any
‘equipment not yet listed.
- ne
4.7.5 PREPARATION FOR FLIGHT
The A.U.W ,and Total Moment (i.e.
C.G. position) should be checked for conditions
at the beginning and at the end of the flight by
using the current Basic Weight found in the
"Basic Weight Change Record" and the Opera
tional Load Diagram. I
The A.U.W. maximum must not ex-
ceed 5, 100 Ibs.for the landplane and skiplane;
5,090 for the seaplane.
The sum total of all moment values
must conform to the safe moment limits given
for different All-Up Weights in the Safe Mo-
ment Table. |
For establishing conditions at the
beginning of the flight, use ALU. W,
To arrive at conditions prevailing at
the end of flight, subtract from A.U.W,. and
total moment, the moments and weights of fuel
and oil consumed during flight if such changes
in weights and moments may cause the C.G.
position to fall beyond the permitted limits.
behind the wing leading edge .See Balance Diagram
landplane Seaplane
& Skiplane
Station + 6.6 Station + 6.6
Station - 1.25.
Station - 1.25
Station - 6.1
Station - 7 7 a
(Refer to Note facing
Appendix VID
Section IV
4.7.6 CENTRE OF GRAVITY (Cont'd) — Landplane — Seaplane
— E Skiplane | ВЕ
Extreme Aft C.G. position at 5, 100 lb. Station - 8.8
(Refer to Note facing
Appendix VII}
| For safe Moment Limits refer to table on page VÍ in Appendix
4.7.7 CARGO LOAD CONSIDERATIONS 4.8 MINIMUM FLIGHT CREW
Refer to: One Pilot.
(a) Balance Diagram.
—(b) Operational Loads Diagram.
(c) Freight Moments Table. 4.9 — MISCELLANEOUS
(d) Safe Moment Limits Table. Smoking is authorized for cockpit and cabin.
fe
“BEAVE
GHT ENVELOP
-g) DIAGRAM
DPLANE & SEAP
GROSS WE 5100 LB.
PROHIBITED AREA
-OF OPERATION
FIG 4-3 OPERATING FLIGHT STRENGTH DIAGRAM
Section IV
4,10 PERFORMANCE AT MAXIMUM
GROSS WEIGHT
STANDARD CONDITIONS
4.10.1 GENERAL |
PS — Landplane Skiplane
(5,100 1b) (5,100 15)
Seaplane
(5,090 15)
Max. True Level Speed
Sea Level mph (kmh) a 156 (251) - | 144 (232)
5,000 а o mph (mb) - ВЕ - ; 163 (262) i 18] (243)
True Cruising Speed (300 BHP) E a a
Sea Level | mph Gnd) (219) 123 (199
5,000 #.. mph (kmb) ; _ SE, ) 183230) 127 (204)
a Economic True Cruising Speed (240 BHP) | SA © Е 7 ‘ | |
Sea Level mph (mb) o -_ - 125 201) “10 (177
„о Ц a | wh demo : | o - В 50 (209 au лаз
Flapsup mph (kmh) | В 000060 (96) 60 (96)
| Flaps "Landing' mph fmm о4(3) 457)
Take-off distance to clear 50 ft. obstacle LS RE =
(Flaps "Take-off", still air - но
- Landing distance over so a obstacio : o Л |
© ; (Flaps "Landing", still air
— ICAO technique) - ) = (m) ; | - - ‘ - : В ' 1,250 (381) 1,510 (460)
| Flapsup fem(m/sed L020(5.2) 92005)
Flaps "Take-off" fpm (m/sec) —. 730 (3.7) 650 (3.3).
Service Ceiling Di гт о fe. im) De - Do 18,000 (5490) | 15,750 (4800)
40
Rate of Climb at Max. Cont. Power
| Sealevel fpm(m/sec)
© 5,000 ft. © fpm (m/sec) |
10,000 ft. fpm (m/sec)
Cruising Range at 5,000 ft. (240. BHP)
With normal fuel capacity mi {km}
(79 Imp. Gal.) ..
(95 U.S. Gal.)
- With wing tip tanks: mi (km) Е | Ш
(115 Imp. Gal)
. (138 U.5. Gal.)
Landplane
(5, 100 1b)
840 (4.3)
795 (4)
530 (2.7)
0455 (732)
§ |
740 (1190)
Cruising Endurance at 5,000 &. (240 BHP)
With normal fuel capacity (79 Imp. Gal.)
— With wing tip tanks (115 Imp. Gal.)
(138 U.S. Gal.)
3.54 hrs.
5.7 hrs.
Note: Range and endurance results make allowance for:
i) 10 min. warm up and take-off
ii) Climb to 5,000 tt.
iii) Fuel for 45 min. flight at cruise power (240 BHP)
4.10.2 MAX. INDICATED SPEEDS oe
Flaps mph (kmb) |
Diving 5,100 A.U.W. mph (kmh)
Structural
Cruising 5, 100 A.U.W ,mph {kmbh)
105 (169)
180 (290)
145 (233)
Section IV
Slopiane "
(5,100 1b}
Seaplane a
(5,090 1b)
740 (3.8) |
685 (3.5)
410 (2.1)
405 (652)
655 (1053)
3.52 hrs.
5.68 hrs.
105 (169)
180 (290)
145 (233)
<1
Section IV
4.11 FLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS
4.111 GENERAL
Stability is good about all axes. The
aircraft is easy to fly and is docile down to the
stall, Controls are normally effective through-
out the airspeed range. The aircraft can be
trimmed to fly hands - off from climb to maxi-
mum speeds.
4.11.2. TAKE-OFF
When trimmed appropriate to CG
position, stick forces are moderate. Weight
and Balance must be carefully checked, espe-
cially when CG is at, or near, the forward li-
mit. The aircraft will fly itself off at airspeeds
of 50 to 60 mph IAS in a tail low attitude.
4.11.3 SLOW FLYING
It is possible to retain full control
of the aircraft at:-
75 mph IAS with flaps at CRUISE
65 mph IAS with flaps at LANDING
4.11.4 SPINS
Intentional spinning of the aire raft
is prohibited.
4.11.5 ”STALL
The stall is gentle at all normal
conditions of load and flap and may be antici-
pated by a slight vibration, which increases as
flap is lowered. The aircraft will pitch if no
yaw is present. If yawis permitted, the aire raft
has atendency to roll. Prompt corrective action
must be initiated to prevent the roll from de-
veloping. |
4.12. WING4 LOAD : LIMITATIONS ON
LANDING
On aircraft equipped with either
wing-tip tanks, or wing-tip tanks and external
wing ‘racks, the maximum permissible load
combinations on landing for each wing for the
various aircraft configurations are as follows:
* WITHOUT MOD 2/1381 * WITH MOD. 2/1381 INCORP.
WING-TIP INCORPORATED (Eng. Bulletin "B" No. 10)
TANKS ВЕ
EXTERNAL STORES - EXTERNAL STORES
OX 2501b 5001b | 0ib = 2501 500 1b
WHEEL 0 Fuel Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
OR Half Fuel Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
SKI Full Fuel No No No | Yes Yes = Yes
0 Fuel Yes Yes | Yes Yes Yes Y es
FLOAT Half Fuel Yes No No Yes Yes No
Full Fuel “No — No No. — Yes No a No
* Mod 2/1381 (Engineering Bulletin "В No. 10) revises the rivet pitch |
on the bottom skin of the wing,
15 May 1959
LE -
SE
E
ele
CANADA
Е Е
A NO1LD3S =
T1
GENERAL OPERATING
INSTRUCTIONS AND
ALL WEATHER OPERATIONS
Section У.
SECTION V
GENERAL OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
AND ALL WEATHER OPERATION
5.1 — ENGINE
MAXIMUM ENGINE EFFICIENCY
— FOR CRUISING
— Maximum engine efficiency and, as
arule, maximum propeller efficiency in cruis-
ing is generally obtained when power is re-
duced by:
(a) Keeping the manifold pressure up to the
maximum permitted for cruising at critical
altitude.
(b) Reducing the engine speed with the prop-
eller lever until the desired lower air speed is
x obtained,
Operation atlow engine speed redu-
ces engine losses due to the higher internal
friction and horsepower consumption by the
supercharger at higher engine speeds,
Cruising at low rpm and high boost
— gives maximum fuel economy if combined with
proper mixture leaning.
On reaching the lowest usable rpm,
“use the throttle lever to keep the: manifold
pressure below the maximum allowable for
"cruising, or at the desired pressure. ..
Above the full throttle altitude, con-
stant power .can be maintained by increasing
the engine speed approximately 75 rpm for
each inch Hg. loss in manifold pressure.
- Conversely, in descending, a gain
of one inch Hg. in manifold pressure can be
cancelled in its effect on engine power by de-
creasing the engine speed by approximately 75
rpm.
- NOTE
| When cruising at sustained low rpm .
—... withlow boost, it is advisable to clear .
“the engine at least once an hour by
increasing power to rated or maxi-
mum continuous power . Engine clear-
ing should be carried out before en-
tering the landing circuit at the con-
clusion of a flight. This procedure
will minimize plug fouling and ensure
full power is available when required.
E ~~ NOTE
Engine speeds below 1,500 rpm are |
undesirable as the generator may cut
out. o
DETONATION AND BACK-
FIRING
5.1.2
— Inengine operation the following se-
quence should always be remembered:
(a) Whenever increasing power, first advance
propeller lever, then throttle lever.
(b) To decrease power, first retard throttie
lever, then propeller lever.
| . By following this procedure, most
occurrences of detonation in engine operation
can be avoided. Serious detonation may be
caused if the engine is run continuously on one
magneto, with manifold pressures as high as
25 to 30 In.Hg.
The main cause of backfiring is
throttle pumping during starting operation.
Once the engine has started and reached,
through positioning. of the throttle lever, an
engine speed of 500 to 60C rpm, the throttle
lever should be left alope, Throttle pumping at
engine speeds above 500 rpm is the frequent
cause of backfiring when the engine is cold.
5.1.3 COOLING AND OVERHEATING
While the aircraft is on the ground,
continuous running of the engine at high rpm
43
Section Y
will produce excessive temperatures in engine
accessories and should, therefore, be avoided.
NOTE
To insure that the maximum cylinder
temperatures are not exceeded during
the take-off, make sure, especially
in hot weather, that cylinder head
temperatures prior to take-off are
well below the maximum for ground
tests 450°F (232°C).
Before leaningthe mixture after each
climb, it is important to give the engine time
to cool down, preferably to temperatures below
cruising temperatures. A well cooled engine
will have less tendency towards detonation
when leaning the mixture, than will an engine
where the cylinder temperatures are already
at the maximum permissible value for cruis-
ing. —- a
A tendency towards overheating,
noticeable in the increase of both oil and cylin-
der temperatures, can be checked by:
(a) Reducing engine speed with the propeller
lever, rather than by throttling alone and by:
(b) (During climbs) Climbing at an indicated
air speed higher than the speed given for best
climb.
5.1.4 ENGINE PRIMING
Engine priming requires some ex-
perience to obtain good starting under various
conditions. Excessive priming will load the
cylinders withraw gasoline and has a tendency
to wash the oil off the cylinder walls,
NOTE
After unsuccessful attempts have been.
made to start the engine, the cylinder
— wails must be recoated with oil by:
turning the propeller through 3 revo-
lutions with the fuel selector OFF,
The piston rings and cylinder walls;
thus ‘coated, will not rust if left for
one or two days,
5.1.5 MIXTURE CONTROL
Efficient engine operation depends
on careful control of the fuel/air mixture and
44
maintenance of carburettor mixture tempera-
ture at 40°F (4°C) at all times except take-off,
With the mixture lever in the RICH
position, the fuel supplied is not completely
‘burned. The unburned fuel acts as an internal
coolant to Prevent detonation, AUTO RICH
position should, therefore, only be used for
starting, take-off, climb, and when power in
excess of that obtainable .at maximum lean
mixture position is required.
To obtain economical fuel consump-
tion for cruising operation, the carburettor is
equipped with an automatic mixture control to
provide for mixtur e leaning at the proper fuel/
air ratios for all altitudes.
rs | o
When dperating in the lean mixture
range, constant checks of all temperatures are
necessary.
5.1.6 ENGINE ICING
Engine icing occurs in two forms:
impact icing and carburettor icing.These ‘phe-
nomena may be experienced either individu-
ally, or in combination with each other, be-
tween free air temperatures of 5°F and 78%
(-15°C and 25°C).
(i) Impact Icing
Under certain conditions, particu- x
larly when descending through clouds, snow or
heavy rain, impact ice from super-cooled
- water droplets freezing on metal surfaces will |
form in the vicinity of the air intake.The gra- .
‘ dual blocking of the air intake causes rough -
engine running, a drop in manifold pressure
and finally, as the intake blockage becomes
complete, an engine stop. This is nearly always
accompanied by severe airframe. icing.
(ii) Carburettor Icing
Formation of ice in the carburettor
is of two kinds; throttle icing and evaporation |
ices 7
(iii) Throttle Icing
The local increase in the velocity of
the air flow at the throttle valve and the choke -
venturi causes a drop in pressure and tempe-
rature which leads, under certain atmospheric
conditions, to the formation of throttle ice.
. „ir
Ls y
Since each grain of ice constricts the air flow
‘and lowers the temperature still further,
throttle ice builds up more and more rapidly.
ВЕ (i) Evaporation Ice
The temperature of the fuel/air mix-
ture is also reduced by fuel evaporation taking
‚place when fuel is drawn into the carburettor
air stream, The heat required for evaporation
is taken from the surrounding air and metal.
The mixture temperature drop so caused by
evaporation alone may be as much as 25°C.
Ice, therefore, may be formed in the carburettor
even when the outside air temperature is well
above the freezing point.
| The boost reading will drop immed-
iately as soon as ice accretion in the carbure-
ttor starts. This is sometimes accompanied
by a slight flickering of both the manifold pre-
ssure and tachometer needles. |
NOTE
It requires much more heat to melt
— ice already formed in a carburettor
‘than to prevent its formation.
;… For best engine operation, the temperature of
the carburettor air mixture should be main-
tained at 40°%to 45°F (4° to 7°C) under all cir-
cumstances,
NOTE
Engine operation at more than 45°F
79C) carburettor mixture temperature
causes a loss of engine power due to
the reduced weight of the cylinder
charge.
I wi Carburettor mixture heat should, there-
fore, beused at all times with automatic selec-
tions. When manual mixture control is used
‘carburettor mixture heat should be used when-
ever there is the slightest possibility of the
occurrence of carburettor icing.
Anticipated Air Temp. | a Dilution %
| Section V
Under these conditions it is a good
practice to apply carburettor heat for one or
two minutes every half hour during flight in
order to preclude the possibility of icing.
Carburettor icing is likely to be en-
countered at free air temperatures of 20°F to |
60°F (-7° to 16°C).
(a) Adjust carburettor heat to keep clear of the.
icing danger zone, which extends between car-
burettor mixture temperatures of 28°F and.
36°F (-2°C and 4°C).
{vi) Carburettor heat should further be used:
(a) When rough engine operation occurs in
cold, clear air with low cylinder head and car-
burettor air temperatures. |
A
Increase carburettor heat only enough to elimi-
nate engine roughness,
(b) When the fuel/air mixture may be too cold
for proper vaporization and fuel economy dur i ing
low power cruising,
Use carburettor heat as necessary to obtain
smooth engine operation and to eliminate plug
fouling.
5.2 OIL DILUTION
5.2.1 GENERAL
For starting in cold weather, the en=
gine oil may be diluted by adding" fuel.
— The amount of fuel to be added to the
engine oil depends on the air temperature an-
ticipated at the time of the next start, Re-
commended dilution percentages and dilution
times for various temperatures are given in
the table below, To achieve the recommended -
Max. Oil Tank Con- Dilution Time
At Next Start by Vol. tents before starting at 1000 RPM -
| | | Dilution |
CT FY Imp. gal. U.S.gal.
5 to -25 40 to -10 10 4 — 48 2 min.
-25to-30 -l0to-20 20 4 4.8 3 min.
| =30 ава -20 and Do 30 a 3.5 4.2 4 min.
below ~~ below °°° 30 3.5 4.2 5 min.
45
Section V
percentages, the dilution switch is to be held
"ON" for the time of the dilution Tun.
5.2.2 REDILUTION:
If a short ground-run is made with
an engine which has previously been prepared
for cold weather starting, it is necessary to
redilute the engine oil before shutting down.
To arrive at the correct time ¿or redilution
proceed a as follows: o ue
(a) Divide ground-run time in minutes by 60.
(b) Multiply the time in the Dil, Table by the
fraction found through step (a).
Example: Ground-run’ time is 15 minutes. Dil-
ution percentage requires 20% .Normal dilution
time given in Dilution Table: 3 minutes.
(a) 15/60 2 1/4 | (5) 3 x 1/4 » 3/4 minute.
NOTE
In extreme cold weather only a ne gli-
gible amount of fuel is "boiled off"
during -a: short ground-run. Under .
these conditions there may be no need _
for redilution of the engine oil.
5.2.3 OIL TANK LEVELS
During the dilution run, approxi-
mately | gallon of fuel is added to the engine
oil in 4 to 5 minutes. Thus, additional volume
is required in the oil tank and may have to be
provided by draining the oil tank down to the
maximum permissible level before oil dilution
‘is started. On the other hand, the addition of
fuel causes the oil level to rise above the filler
| inlet le vel.
The oil tank filler cap should not be
removed when an aircraft has been prepared
for cold weather starting.
© 5.2.4 OIL DILUTION PROCEDURE.
.. To insure that recommended oil dil-
ution ‘percentages are obtained proceed as
follows:
(a) Allow oil temperature to drop to between
85°F and 100°F (30°C to 40°C) during shut-
down run of engine.
| „46 —-
(Ifan oil temperature of less than 125°F (50°C)
: cannot be obtained with the engine rumning,the _
engine should be shut-off until the oil has
cooled to below 100°F (40°C).
(b) Select the dilution percentage required
from the Oil Dilution Table and corre sponding
‘maximum permis sible tank contents.
(o) Make sure oil level in the tank is down to
permissible maximum, Stop the engine to have |
oi drained or added, if necessary.
a Propeller lever at DECREASE RPM.
(e) Throttle lever to give 1000 RPM,
“(£) Holdoil dilution switch ON for the recomm-
ended dilution time о |
(e) Move propelléf léver several times to IN.
CREASE RPM during the last two minutes of
the dilution run to inject diluted oil into the
propeller cylinder and governor pipelines,
(h) When the oil dilution period has elapsed,
hold dilution switch in the ON position until the
engine has stopped. Stop the engine with pro-
peller in the DECREASE RPM Position and
mixture lever at IDLE CUT-OFF.
The diluted oil tends to loosen carbon and
sludge deposits within the engine. The oil.
screen shouldtherefore be removed and cleaned
immediately after the first use of the dilution
system each season, and inspected daily until
carbon collection on the screen returns to nor-
mal. Thereafter the usual screen. inspection
will be adequate. The oil pressure should be
| watched closely for indications of oil screen
clogging.’ a
- NOTE
Oil dilution should not be used inter -
— mittently during the season but con-
‘tinued once it has been started.QOther-
wise, Oil screen cleaning, as recom- _
-- mended above, must be repeated, |
The fuel content in a diluted engine
oil system is "boiled-off" within 3/4 to one
hour at normal operating temperatures, High |
oil inlet temperatures of 160°F (70°C) and -
above will shorten fuel evaporation time,
=
When preparing for a long flight, it
should be borne in mind that dilution decreases
the amount of oil available for engine lubrica-
tion, depending on the engine condition and the
extent of dilution. The pilot will have to rely
upon experience in arriving at sate limits for
each particular Tight. |
53 INSTRUMENT FLIGHTS |
© Before undertaking any. instrument
flight:
(a) Ensure proper operation of all flight in-
struments. -
(b) Checknavigation and communication e quip-
(с) Check Pitot heater and carburettor heat.
(d) (Night flying) Check panel tights, navigation
Lights and landing light, iE
5.3.1 FLIGHT IN TURBULENCE |
AND THUNDER STORMS
(a) Attain manoceuvering speed as given in Sec-
tion 1V and maintain a steady flight attitude
without changing airspeed and rate of climb in-
dications.
(5) Flight in thunderstorms should be avoided
if possible.
5.4 OPERATION IN SUB-ARCTIC
CLIMATES
5.4.1. METEOROLOGICAL PHENOMENA
| Meteorological phenomena peculiar
|: «60 cold. weather are:
Ice crystals result from the sublimation of
. water vapour and are a form of precipitation.
Their concentration is never heavy, so that the
| — horizontal vi sibility seldom. falls below 5
a miles, |
Prevailing ice crystals, however,
can rapidly produce the much more dangerous
ice fog by the mere operation of an aircraft
engine. When landing at an airfield reporting
ice crystals, it is recommended: |
- (a} To do a minimum of low flying:
Section Y
(b) To come in ona straight approach.
Ice fog is a heavy concentrationof ice particles
forming on nuciei in the air. It is most preva-
lent in industrial areas but can be caused, at
very low temperatures, by the running of an
engine.
EY
The propeller wash and combustion
products from an aircraft engine can provide
the disturbance and nuclei, under certain at-
mospheric conditions, to fog an aerodrome to
a height of approximately 50 feet.
Horizontal visibility may then be
down to a few hundred feet, while downward
visibility is generally adequate.
At night, glare will be reduced, if |
landing and navigation lights are left "OFF".
Thin mist may often occur in the sub-arctic
when the sun does not dissipate fog and low
clouds, | | |
Vertical visibility remaining good,
the horizontal visibility is poor .The formation .
of ice and frost should always be anticipated.
under these conditions.
Blowing snow may obscure the land-
ing strip and make a safe landing doubtful.
Landing lights should be left "OFF" in : blowing
snow during night landing. a.
5.4,2 EFFECT ON AIRCRAFT AND
© EQUIFMENT a
Low temperatures adversely affect
aircraft and equipment, fuel and oil as follows:
Plastics become brittle and may crack when
the aircraft is moved from a warm hangar ! to
an outside dispersal point.
(a) Look for smallcracks at edges of mounting
frames or at small radii on curved panels, |
{b) Check cockpit windshield carefully as
cracks may lead to its disintegration in flight.
{c) Handle doors with caution,
Synthetic Rubber of certain types used in flex-
ible oil and fuel lines and for coating electrical
| cables may lose flexibility.
47
Section V
(a) Avoid ‘bending to prevent cracking of mate
erial,
Control cables tensioned inside a hangar be-
come slack as the airframe contracts more
than the steel cables, with a given temperature
drop.
Batteries lose as much as 50% of their charge
at 09 (- 18°C) and cannot be char ged at normal
rate.
(a) Leave only fully charged batteries outside.
They will not freeze, but their usefulness is
very limited.
(b) If forecast 5 teláperatace le below -22°F
(-30°C), keep battery in a. warm place to en-
sure. use when required.
. NOTE
If batteries are not fully charged and
left outside there is danger of freez-
ing of the. electrolyte and Splitting of
the battery case. Ш
Tires on dispersed air craft may stiffen with a
flat spot frozen.on them.
(a) Taxi aircraft and fat spot will Cisappear.
Hydraulic and pneumatic leaks may appear
more frequently,
(a) Decide whether corrective action should be
taken as small leaks or seepage will usually
disappear. with increasing temperatures .
Snow and frost can be brushed off the exterior
of aircraft withou. difficulty. Co
(a) Always remove snow from aircraft when a
thaw is forecast in order to prevent later
freezing. Le
Ice may require heat for its removal, making
ita necessary to: | Be
(a) Fit covers on aircraft removed from a
warm hangar during precipitation.
(b) Fit blanking plates to air intakes after
shutting down. 5
(с) Watch for ice, in the vicinity of fuel tank
vents, caused by condensation.
48
(a) Remove ice or snow from the inside of thé
. propeller spinner as resulting unbalance. may
cause dangerous vibration, :
High static charges can develop during remov-
al of snow or ice. As the fuel/air mixture
which is produced when gasoline evaporates at
temperatures from 14°F (-10°C) to -40°F
(-40°C)is explosive , refueling presents a much
greater fire hazard in very cold weather;
It is therefore recommended:
(a) Ground aircraft electrically, as well as
possible,
(b) Wait for 30 minutes for electric charge on
rubber and plastic parts to leak off.
(c) Make sure that ¢ char ges ; built up in the body
of refueling crew dre discharged by having
them touch metal surface with bare hands.
(Wipe moist hands dry if necessary as moist
skin will stick to the metal instantly) ‘
Fuel in drums from a cache necessitates pre-
cautions as under:
(a) Always filter fuel from drums,
(b) Do not use fuel from a drum which has
~ been partly used, as the remaining fuel may
be contaminated.
NOTE
The octane value of cached fuel may
‘be lower than marked, as" fuel slowly
deteriorates in storage.
Short Engine runs, Engines should be run only
to be brought up to operating temperature. If
run only for a short period, water vapour in
| combustion products escaping past the piston
will condense inside the crankcase and be dis-
tributed throughout the oil system. Split oil
coolers, choked oil lines and possible engine
failure may be the result,
(a) Avoid short engine ground runs, Ш )
5.4.3 FPREFLICHT CHECKS
In addition to checks called for in
paragraph 2.1.8 of Section II, the following
checks must be carried out before starting the
engine.
(a) Inspect hydraulic brake lines for cracks,
| breaks or leaks. |
(5) Fuel tank vents free from ice.
(c) Snow, ice or hoar frost removed from
wings and tailplane.
{d) Hinges of all control surfaces free from
particles of ice or hard snow liable to cause
jamming,
{e) Testall main and auxiliary controls to en-
sure they have not become stiff or blocked with
ice and snow. |
(O Defrost windows, as necessary but do not
scrape off.Use alcohol to remove light film of
frost forming during warm-up.
(g) Keepwindow open during run-up to prevent
misting of windshield.
(h} Check cold weather emergency equipment
for completeness and proper stowage.
(j} Position engine winter shutter s{if installed)
to suit temperature conditions.
5.4.4 ENGINE STARTING
If time and equipment are available,
engine and accessories should be preheated.
Cold starting, if necessary during very cold
weather, will be easier if the following action
is taken: |
(a) Keep batteries and battery cart warm, in-
doors, until just before they are required.
(b} Apply heat tothe engine if it is not possible
to pull the engine through by using the starter
{starter clutch slipping}.
(c) For priming use normal fuel downto out-
side air temperatures of -13°F (-25°C). Pre-
heat engine below this temperature.
WARNING
As a large amount of priming is nec-
essary, cold starting creates an add-
itional fire hazard resulting from ex-
cess fuel which might flow from eng-
ine drains .
Section V
(d) If first attempt to cold start fails, allow 5
or 10 minutes before making another attempt
sothat the heat generated during the false start
can vaporize priming fuel which may have
made spark plugs wet.
woe) Apply heat to the oil pressure line if oil |
pressure does not begin to show within 30 sec-
onds, and congealed oil in the line to the pre-
ssure gauge is suspected as the cause of the .
trouble. I
(f) Heat oil feed line if zero oil pressure is
indicated and a clogged feed line is suspected
of stopping the oil flow from the tank (there is
a possibility that undiluted oil from the tank
body has flowed into the feed line to the oil
pump. after the oil system has been diluted).
a
(g) Exercise great care in operating electric
starters at low temperatures.
(h) Check suction indicator to make sure that
drive shaft has not sheared off during acold
start.
When using external heat, it should be directed
onto the cylinders, accessories, oil feed line
and oil cooler. The amount of heat required
will depend upon the air temperature, wind
velocity, oil dilution percentage and whether
engine covers are being used.
5.4.5 WARMING UP
To aid smooth running during warm
up: |
(a) Use carburettor heat and/or protected air.
(b) Adjust engine winter shutters to maintair
cylinder heat temperatures within operating
limits.
(c) If engine tends to fade out, operate primer
pump intermittently.
(d) Maintain suitable engine speed until mini-
‘mum oil temperature is reached,
(e) Wateh for oil foam seeping through the
crankcase breather, and stop spewing by re-
ducing power.
5.4.6 TAXIING
During taxiing the following precau-
tions should be observed.
+9
Section Y
(a) Do not stop aircraft on slush, continue
moving until dry snow or ice is reached,
(b» Look out for obstacles, after a recent
snowfall covering air field markers.
(c) Taxi slowly in icy conditions, To bring high
idling rpm down, try low rpm setting and car-
burettor heat toreduce power(in extreme cold,
nowever, the use of carburettor heat results
in ‘a power increase). Adjust engine winter
shutters (if installed). a
(d) Ensure engine is warm on reaching take-
off position as taxiing will allow the engine and
carburettor to cool.
(e) Switch on pitot heat when taxiing to ensure
that the pitot is warm before taking off.
5.1.7 TAKE-OFF
Some of the precautions to be ob-
served when taking off are: |
(a) At ambient temperatures below standard
altitude temperature (15°C (59°F) at S.L),
maximum permissible take-off MAP is re-
duced by 2% per 11°C (20°F) below standard.
See: Figure 4- À.
(5) Сагту out a precautionary type of take-off
from unpacked smow or slush as the rate of
acceleration - is poor under these circumstan-
Ces. `
(с) Expect sudden frosting of windshield during
a climb from the field in an inversion.
(d) Open engine winter shutters to maintain
cylinder head temperature within limits,
WARNING
Do not attempt to take- off with Snow,
ice or frost on the wings.
5,+4.8 CRUISE
During flights in very cold weather
the following precautions should be observed:
(a) Expect vacuum operated flight instrument
{directional gyro,turn and bank indicator, ar-
tificial horizon) to be unreliabie because of
bearing friction caused by congealed lubri-
canis. a
0
(b) Operate flaps several times to prevent
freezing in the "CRUISE" position.
(c) Above 60° to 65°N. latitude expect magne-
tic compass to be generally unreliable, so
steer by gyro only, - o
(d) Operate propeller lever(every 30 minutes)
to give 300 7 rpm decrease from cruise rpm and
return to cruise rpm.
(e) Adjust engine winter shutters (if installed)
to maintain engine and oil temperatures within
operating limitations.
5.4.9 LANDING
. When landing under cold and extreme
cold weather conditions observe precautions as
follows: - E
(a) Approach and land at higher speeds as the |
stalling speed is increased when there 1s ice
on the aircraft.
(b) Judge height by reference to trees, fences,
other aircr aft or hangar s when landing on cle an
SNOW. `
(c) Apply brakes earlier than normal, depend-
ing on conditions, | | |
NOTE
Maintain engine temperatures during:
descent to avert engine failure or
choking in the event of a baulked land- -
ing. Aa Во
5.4.10 AFTER LANDING -
(a) Fill fuel tanks as soon as possible after
landing to prevent condensation.
(b) Donot leave parking brakes on as they may -
freeze in this position, if moisture is present.
(c) Leave throttle lever partially open after
shutting down to permit starting, if the engine
controls become too stiff, and to prevent free-
zing of the butter fly valve.
(d) Have all covers fitted immediately if the
aircraft is to be disper sed; ‘blowing snow will
enter any opening.
Revised 31 Jan 196]
D.5
OPERATING IN TROPICAL
CLIMATES
Aircraft operated under tropical
conditions require protection from heat and
humidity Sand and dust filters may be necess-
ary for operation in desert areas.
Heat affects components in various
ways. Fuel intanks tends to expand and vapor-
ize, Flight control cables should be watched
for tension as the material used in the con-
struction of the aircraft will expand farther
than the steel cables, thus tightening them.
Always shade aircraft if possible,
including wing tip tanks if fitted. Cover plastic
materials only, if necessary, for sand protec-
tion.
Close fitting covers are undesirable
as they increase the temperature and may
cause permanent t de formation of Plexiglas pan-
els.
5.5.1 STARTING AND TAXING
(a) Check tire pressures.
(b) Drain moisture from fuel tanks and fuel
system.
(с) Underprime first in starting.Increase am-
ount of priming as required.
(d) Keep warming-up time to a minimum.
(e) Avoid long taxiing runs and delayed take-
offs tokeep cylinder head and oil temperatures
below their maximums. (Use tractors for air-
craft dispersal).
(f§ Avoidunnecessary braking as brake drums
overheat quickly.
5.5.2 TAKE-OFF
In tropical climates take-off dis-
stances will be longer because the air is less
dense,
Section V
5.5.3 CLIMB
In hot weather generally:
(a) Allowa greater distancetoclear obstacles.
“Satisfactory cooling is provided for operation
in a standard atmosphere with a ground tem-
perature of 100°F (40°C). If this temperature -
ig exceeded it may become necessary to climb
the aircraft at airspeeds higher than those
quoted in Section II, |
5.5.4 CRUISE
To avoid over-heating during flight
under extreme conditions it may be necessary:
e u
(а) To operate in "rich" mixture and/or with
increased power.
(b) Toconfine low flying to take-offs and land-
ings. |
Under extremely hot conditions the
pilot should:
(2) Expect greater landing distances as the
true airspeed will be higher than the indicated
air speed.
(b) Use ground objects for judgement of height
because rising heat may produce a false hori-
zon due to mirage effect.
5.5.5 AFTER LANDING
(a) Refuel at the coolest time of the 24 hour
period.
(b) Keep fuel tanks filled in order to reduce
condensation to a minimum. '
(c) Apply parking brakes only after brake
drums have cooled. |
(а) Leave windows slightly open to induce air
circulation in the cabin.
51
Set
sj
—
a
Section VI
SECTION VI
“ SPECIAL INSTALLATIONS...
COMB INATION WHEEL-SKI INSTALLATION _ -
6.1 The de Havilland combination wheel-
ski installation Permits normal operation on
of the handpump: are required to raise the skis
y.
NOTE
| wheels or skis at the discretion of the pilot. В |
ПОЛЕ 15. possible to taxi immediately from snow =
Ce covered ground onto. cleared счпуау 5 ог @15-
persal areas and vice versa since the skis can
‘be raisedor lowered while the aircraft is being
“ taxied. Partial retraction of the skis facilitates
o the use of wheel brakes, for ground. manoeuv-
o ering.
Cea (GENERAL |
o | The skis are. raised or lowered in
o relation to the wheels by means of a hydraulic
"control unit located on the cockpit floor to the
right of the pilot's seat. The skis are raised
“by selecting UP on the selector lever then op-
erating the hydraulic handpump which supplies
hydraulic pressure to extend an actuator and
cause the ski linkage to swivel on the axle
‘attachments. The hydraulic pressure works in
opposition to a compressed air char ge, inthe
upper portion of the actuator housing, which is
used as a pneumatic. spring to cushion the land-
ing impact,
_ To lower the skis, select DOWN on
В the selector lever which will release the hy-
draulic pressure and allow the pneumatic pre-
ssure in the upper portion of the actuator hous-
ing, to return the skis to the DOWN position
as shown on the indicator in the selector unit.
6.1.2 “OPERATION
To lower skis select DOWN on the ‘
ski selector lever.After a few seconds the in-
dicator will show that the skis are in the DOWN
position.
To raise the skis select UP on the
ski selector lever. Operate the hand pump un-
til the skis are fully UP as shown by the needle
on the indicator, . Approximately 100 strokes
| The skis trim safely in flight at any
“degree of retraction, Therefore, the
pumping may be completed at the pi-
¿tots convenience, and in. stages if -
desired. | | т
6.1.3 — TAXIING
| Manoeuvering on snow. can often be
assisted through partial retraction of the skis
: as follows:
(a) Select UP on the ski selector lever and re-
tract skis by operating the handpump until the
brakes become effective,
(b) On firm ground skis should be retracted
fully to avoid accidental damage of the skis by
unobserved rough ground,
(с) On cleared runway s,taxiing strips and dis-
persal aprons, satisfactory taxiing may be
carried out with the skis two thirds retracted:
if it is desired to avoid complete retraction, -
6.1.4 AFTER TAKE-OFF
The ski position has no significant
effect on airspeed, CG position or flight char-
acteristics, The skis, therefore, may be left
in either UP or DOWN position as dictated by
conditions at the arrival landing field.
6.1.5 BEFORE LANDING
Prior to the approach to land the
pilot should decide whether to raise or lower
the skis, depending on the forecast conditions .
of the landing field, Select skis as de sired and
when the action is complete check the ski posi-.
tion visually and on the indicator .
53
Section VI
nr A .} LT e A. DET чо
rr rh To. SE ЧРае:
ge
41 pa AA na Tr
ry
e o sE
pi a a Ei ра E I а -
E Ee A. rs ip mr ir EP
E o. e as сен
52e =
TRIM UNIT ==
FIG 6-1 COMBINATION WHEEL-SKI INSTALLATION
6.1.6 LANDING
Make a normal approach at the
speeds recommended in Section 2.13,
A tail-down or three point landing
attitude should be attained on the final stage of
the approach to reduce the landing run, and,
when skis are extended, to ensure that raised
lumps of snow or ice do not foul the ski tips on
touchdown. a An В
| 61.7 CROSSWIND LANDINGS
When landing » with skis extended the
crosswind component should be carefully con-
sidered against the pilot's experience and the
condition of the landing area at that time.
Landings with crosswind components equal to
2 mph at 90% are not recommended,
6.1.8 AFTER LANDING
As soon as possible, after touch-
down, ease the control column fully back to
54
“ensure directional control via the rudder ped-
als and tailwheel or tail ski and proceed as in
Section 2. 16.
6.1.9 ON GROUND a
If the tires freeze to the ground;
lower the skis to free them. If the skis "freeze
| in'retract the skis to break free from the ice.
6.1.10 PREF LIGHT CHECKS
When the aircraft has been parked’
with the skis UP check: that the running sur-.
faces of the skis are free of ice which may
have formed by re-freezing of melted snow or
slush sprayed up while taxiing on wheels,
Heavy frost conditions will sometimes encrust .
the running surfaces of the skis.
If the main ski. running surfaces are -
left unclean a subsequent ski landing may re-’ |
sult ih an abrupt’ stop or, if one ‚ski only is:
encrusted, a ground loop. Visually check in-
E
flation of actuator. Under normal operating
conditions at full load, with skis down, lto
1,5 inches of the actuator shaft should be ex-
posed. - -
NOTE
Actuator pressure changes of 60 to 70
psi due to temperature variations,
etc,, have only a minor effect on ski
operations and do not require com-:
pensation. a |
6.2 ~ AMPHIBIOUS FLOATS
The de Havilland amphibious floats .:
installation enables routine flights to be made,
from airfield to airfield, water to water, air-
field to water and water toairfield conveniently ;
and simply without delays in re-equipping the
aircraft,
6.2.1 GENERAL
The floats installation replaces the
complete landplane landing gear system. The
floats are equipped with retractable water
rudders, main and nose wheels, The retraction
and extension of the wheels is accomplished by
means of hydraulic pressure emanating from
a hydraulic control unit, located on the floor
to the right of the pilot's seat. The main wheel
braking system is also operated hydraulically
through actuation of the rudder toe pedals.The
water rudders are actuated through a cable and
pulley system for ‘retraction, extension and
steering. | | |
6.2.2 OPERATION
Before Flight Inspection
On Land
Check the contents of the starboard |
hydraulic tank then, starting at the nose of the _
starboard float, check the following:
(a) Wheel chocks in position.
(b) Nosewheel tire pressure 30 psi, creepage
and general condition,
(c) Shock strut extension,
(d) General condition of nose bumper and nose-
wheel retraction cable.
Section VI
(e) Condition of float planing surfaces.
(f) Condition of mainwheel well, inspect hy-
draulic actuation and brake pipe lines, for
condition and leakage,
a) Mainwheel tire pressure 45 psi, creepage
and general. condition, С
(h) w ater rudder reir action and actuation ca-
‘bles for security and condition.
{j) Water rudder for retracted position and ys
neral condition.
G
©
I
(к) Repeat checks in “the reverse order on. the
port float.
(1) C#eral condition and security of spreader
bars, water rudder cables and pulleys, elec-
trical and hydraulic connections on the floats
and entry points into fuselage. о
Before Flight Inspection
On Water
Repeat checks as above omitting а, -
e, and if,
6.2.3 ON ENTERING THE AIRCRAFT
In addition to the normal airplane
checks:
(a) Observe selected position of the wheels on
the amphibious floats hydraulic control unit,
located on the cockpit floor to the right of the
В pilot! s seat, also the position of the water
rudders retraction handle, on the floor to the
left of the pilot's heel,
mo) Ensure that the U/C WARN circuit breaker |
switch, on the right hand electrical panel, is
selected ON (Red diagonal lines show on indi-
cator when circuit is broken).
6.2.4 TAXING
Seaplane
Ensure that the wheels are retracted
(UP) then cast off the mooring rope. Extend the
water rudders and proceed to take-off point,
Allow the sea plane to weathercock into the wind
and complete engine checks, if not already
done, Retract water rudders and take-off into
55.
Section VI
ym Ek
”
56
= pes e me E A
sey aco o NN 2
Нани arts Jr
_ etry 0 A я
Ovid OB PA
FIG 6-2 AMPHIBIOUS FLOATS INSTALLATION
Revised 13 July 1976
age
Cpr
the wind, The water rudders may be left exten-
ded to assist in crosswind take-ofts.
| Landple ane
In addition to the checks in Section
.- 2, para. 7, make sure that the wheels are se-
—lected DOWN and check that the indication on
the hydraulic control unit indicator is a wheel,
Before commencing taxiing, check that the
water rudders retraction handle is in the re-
tracted position. Test the brakes as soon as the
a. aircraft starts moving. |
NOTE
Although the aircraft is ina tricycle
undercarriage attitude giving better
taxiing visibility more care should be
taken to avoid rough or uneven ground
in order toaveid damageto the floats.
Furthermore, when manoeuvering, the
pilot must keep in mind the additional
area required for the length of the
floats.
6.2.5 TAKE-OFF
Landplane
In addition to the checks in Section
2.9 check the following:
(a) Wheels DOWN - Wheel indication.
(b} Water rudders - Retracted.
(¢) Brakes - OFF,
(d) Open throttle slowly to take-off power and
note that the aircraft accelerates more rapid-
ly, because of the tricycle attitude. Maintain
directional control by coarse use of the rudder
initially.
(e) Allow the speed to increase to 60 or 65
mph before applying a slight backward press-
ure to the control column toassist the airplane
in unsticking.
(f) As the nose wheels lift clear of the ground
a slight forward pressure should be applied to
the control column to maintain the take- off
attitude.
Seaplane
Complete the normal checks in Sec-
tion 2.9 with the addition of the following:
“tion with the airplane rudder.
Section VI
(a) Wheels-up - UP.
(b) Water rudders - Retracted.
(c) Openthrottle smoothly and maintain direc-
Allow the sea-
plane to fly itself off at approximately 65 mph.
6.2. 6 CLIMBING, CRUISING AND
DESCENDING
In flight whether climbing, cruising
or descending, the effects of the amphibious
floats are the same as those encountered with
normal floats. However, to improve the flight
characteristics, the wheels should be retracted
during, flight. The water rudders should be re-
tractéd during take-off and remain retracted
until after a water landing has been completed.
6.2.7 LANDING
Before approaching to land at the
termination of the flight, the pilot must consi-
der his intended landing area and take action
accordingly,
If the landing is to be made:
(a) On water, the wheels and water rudders
must be retracted (UP),
(b) Onland, the wheels must be selected DOWN
and locked and the water rudders retracted.
The water rudders retraction is
simply amatter of checking that the retraction
handle on the floor to the left of the pilot's left
heel, is in the retracted position where it
should have been before take-off and during the
flight.
The wheels, however, require that;
(a) The selector lever on the amphibious floats
hydraulic control unit be selected as desired.
(b) The handpump is operated until the desired
position UP or WHEEL, is shown on the hy-
draulic control indicator. o
NOTE
Press in the quadrant engaging arm
on the selector lever to release the Ш
catch from the quadrant before mov-~
ing the selector lever from the for-
Section VI
ward UP position tc the rear DOWN posi-
tion or vice versa and ensuring that the
catch re-engages with the quadrant at the
completion of the selection, It should be
noted that with the selector lever in the
DOWN position an extension on the low-
er part of the selector lever engages a
protruding solenoid plunger, which pre-
vents the wheels from being selected up
when the weight of the aircraft is on the
wheels, |
When the aircraft weight is not on the
wheels a switch on the main gear ret-
racts the solenoid plunger allowing the
lever to be selected up, If, when airborne,
the plunger does not retract and it is de-
sired to operate the gear, the plunger can
‚be depressed manually, - |
6.2.8 OPERATING LIMITS
| The All-Up Weight of the amphibian
(with amphibious gear Part No, C2-UF 2455)
when operating on water must not exceed 5000
lb, this reduction in A,U.W, from the standard
seaplane version is necessary due to the de.
creased buoyancy of the amphibious floats, Re-
fer to paragraph 6,3,12 for the allowable increase
in A,U,W, of the amphibian when using water-
dropping tanks,
NOTE
Handling and performance are unchanged,
except as stated below,
Handling
On wheels, if take-off is attempted at the mini-
mum speed 58-60 mph [AS, the nose, once lifted
will tend to rise and must be checked, This is a
normal nose wheel airplane characteristic and
is easily controlled by elevator. If the nose is
left down until 80 mph [AS, this characteristic
is absent,
Performance
There is negligibledifference between the wheels
up and down performance,
Runway take-off = Add 50 feet to landplane e -
ure {Chart I).
Runway landing - Add 95 feet to landplane fig-
ure (Chart ii), |
Rate of climb - Subtract 50 fpm from seaplane
values (Para, 4,10.1),
38 |
Speed at maximum weak mixture power (300
BHP) - Subtract 2-1/2 mph from seaplane
(Para, 4,10,1).
Speed at standard cruise (240 BHP) - Subtract
5 mph from seaplane (Para, 4, 10,1).
6.3 .- “WATER-DROPPING TANKS (STAND:
ARD SEAPLANE AND AMPHIBIAN)
The de Havilland water -d ropping tanks
installation, fitted to the standard seaplane or
amphibian on special order, is used for fire-
fighting, The tanks will automatically fill whilst
in motion on the water after touchdown or during
the take-off run, This permits rapid replenish-
ment for fighting forest fires when time is the
important factor and where the length of water
run is restricted, At a speed of 40 mph the tanks.
can be fully refiljdd 1 in 18 seconds,
6.3.1 GENERAL
The water tanks installation consists
of a five feet long, 17 inch diameter, tank mount.
ed on top of each float, Each tank has a capacity
of 49,1 Imp. gals with a limit load of 45 gallons
each. A filler tube attached by brackets to the
inboard side of each float, extends down into the
water to a point approximately 3 inches above
the keel of the float, The tube discharges into
a 7-1/2 inch wide opening along the top of the
tank, A graduated scale in each tank is visible
to the pilot through the rear view mirror and.
enables him to check the quantity, A control
lever, located centrally beneath the alternate
compass position in front of the pilot, is con-
nected by means of cables and pulleys to the
forward end of each tank, Pulling this control
lever. towards the pilot disengages a lock and
rotates. each tank in an inboard direction ap-
proximately 130° to empty the contents, The
tanks are mass balanced and will returnto their
normal locked positions when the control lever
18 released,
6.3.2 OPERATION
6.3,3 Before Flight Inspection
In addition to. the checks detailed in -
Section II, ensure that the water tanks are se.
curely mounted on the floats and that the pulleys.
and cables are unrestricted in movement, En-
sure that the. aircraft loading with the water
tanks empty is such that, on take-off, the CG
limits will not be exceeded as the tanks become
full, Ensur e that the ventral fin is installed,
1 NOV 1902
ОД
6.3.4 On Entering the Aircraft
In addition to the checks detailed in
Section II, ensure that the water tanks control
lever is pushed fully in and, ifnecessary, adjust
the external rear view mirror on each door so
that the tank quantities can be readily seen by.
the pilot.
6.3.5 — Taxiing
Take care during taxiing to avoid
weeds so that the tank inlet tube willnot become
obstructed, During taxiing and engine tests, the
water tanks will begin to fillif the speed is above
40 mph, (Refer to paragraph 6.3.12).
6.3.6 Filling and Take-off
Complete the checks detailed inpara-
graph 6,2.5. During the take-off run, maintain
40 mph until the tanks are filled (45 gal,) then
increase power and complete normal take-off,
The tanks will fill in approximately 18 seconds,
6.3.7 Climb
— Restrict the angle of climb to avoid
spilling water from the tanks,
6.3.8 Cruise
When water tanks are installed, the
cruising airspeed is approximately 10 mph less
than that shown in paragraph 4.10.1 for the sea-
plane,
6.3.9 Emptying: Water Tanks
When emptying the water tanks over
a forest fire etc, the direction and speed of the
wind has very little efiect on the water coverage
pattern since the greatest percentage of the
water falls very rapidly. Adriftallowanceofap-
proximately seven feet for every one mph of
wind speed effective at 100 feet altitude has
been found satisfactory, This formula applies
regardless of the direction of flight since the
pattern and density of the falling water is de-
pendent on the altitude of the aircraft at the
time of release, High altitude dumping results
in a light widespread pattern, whereas low alti-
tude dumping results in a heavy concentrated
pattern, The wing flaps should be lowered to
CLIMB setting and a steady airspeed of 85 to
90 mph IAS should be maintained at the desired
altitude when dropping the water, The dumping
of the water should be completed one second be~
fore the center ofthe targetis reached, Approxi-
mately two seconds are required to empty the
1 NOV 1962
Section VI
tanks completely, The tanks will return fo their
normal positions and lock when the control lever
is released,
6.3.10 Refilling the Tanks
Refilling the water tanks is accom-
| plished by making a normal seaplane landing
using TAKE-OFF flaps setting, maintaining a
- taxi speed of 40 mph until the tanks are filled
(45 gal,) then increasing power to become : aire
borne again,
6.3.11 Handling
At all times the pilot should consider
the aircraft as being fully loaded, observing the
normal precautions, To maintain the CG within
limits, if loaded CG aft, empty the rear fuel tank
first? loaded CG forward, empty the frontíuel
tank first, Reduction in A.U,W, can be accom- 5
plished by removal of the rear seats or by re-
ducing the fuel load. :
NOTE
The Safe Moment Limits must be main-
tained within the limits shown in paragraph
6.3.13.
6.3.12 WEIGHT LIMITATIONS
1. Standard Seaplane A, U,W. - 50901b
This A. U.W. is applicable under all conditions.
2. Amphibian A, U,W, - 5000 1b
This A.U.W, may be increased to a maximum _
of 5090 1b when the excess weight above 5000 1b.
is picked up while taxiing (on the step) at a
speed in excess of 40 mph,
CAUTION
Should a take-off be aborted after the
water dropping tanks are full (at A.U.W,
5090 1b), then the water contents must be
jettisoned immediately in order to reduce
the A.U.W.
NOTE
Do not taxi or manoeuvre the amphibian
on the water at an A,U,W, in excess of
5000 1b, | |
6.3.13 WEIGHT AND MOMENT TABLE
When equipped with the water tanks
| | 59
Section VI
installation, the aircraft basic weightis affected as follows:
) ‘ | Weight Arm © | e,
Add to Basic Aircraft | LU o | o
Water tanks (2) - empty a. 118 о elé - © | „1888
Filler assembly = | 20 о -10.5 = | = 2107
Miscellaneous oz ET | 4 140
Total = 140 -2084
Water tanks (2) - full — 900 | -16 14400.
Total as flown o .1040
When equipped with the water tank installation the cg limits of the seaplane and amphibian are +0,44
to. =3.5, ВЕ | НО. 1 В
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OPERATING
DATA CHARTS
===
Е
САМАРА
MODEL: DHC-2 BEAVER
AIRSPEED INSTALLATION CORRECTION TABLE
All Configurations and Loading Conditions
Correction to be Applied to Instrument Reading to Obtain CAS
The take-off and landing distances on
the following charts assume ICAO tech-
- nique during take -off and landing, name-
ly, holding the aircraft down until the
airspeed builds up to 1.2 times the stal-
ling speed before climbing on take-off,
~~ and holding 1.3 times the stalling speed
—- during the approach to land.
WITH FLAPS UP WITH FLAPS DOWN ‘CLIMB’ or ‘LANDING’
Indicated Airspeed Correction Indicated Airspeed Correction
MPH (KNOTS) MPH (KNOTS) MPH (KNOTS) MPH (KNOTS)
E
115 (100) -4 (-3) 80 (70) -5 (-4)
172 (150) 4 (-3) 120 (105) -5 (-4)
202 (175) 4 (3
NOTE
Al AIRSPEED INSTALLATION CORRECTION TABLE
Revised 13 July
A
1976
TOTAL TAKE ~ OFF DISTANCE TO 58 FT — LANDPLANE
REMARKS:
1, Runway: Hard surface
2. Flaps: “Take-off”
3. Ground run is approximately 55% of total distance
4. Data: Estimated {ICAO technique)
PRESSURE ALTITUDE — FT
1
эй
tn
!
un
+
en
RATURE BASE LINE
+
mad
un
TEMPERATURE —"C
+
+35
+45
+55
HEADWIND — MPH
900 . 1100 | - 1300: 1500
TOTAL TAKE — OFF DISTANCE TOCLEAR 50 FT OBSTACLE FT
EXAMPLE:
1. Follow Pressure Altitude line (3000 ft) horizontally to Gross Weight contour (4600 Ib}
2. Drop vertical line to Temperature Base Line
3. Foliow closest Temperature contour to existing temperature line (40%)
4, Drop vertical line to zero wind line
5. Follow closest Headwind contour to existing headwind line (10 mph)
6. Drop vertical line to Distance axis and read:
Total take-off distance to clear 50 ft obstacie = 1000 ft
TAKE-OFF DISTANCE - LANDPLANE |
Revised 13 July 1976 "от :
=
TOTAL LANDING DISTANCE FROM 50 FT — LANDPLANE
REMARKS:
1. Runway: Hard surface
2. Flaps: “Landing”
3. Ground run is approximately 50% of total distance
4. Data: Estimated (ICAO technique)
6000
2000
PRESSURE ALTITUDE — FT
SL
—15
—
с:
+ 15
TEMPERATURE °C
+354
+45 4——=
HEADWIND — MPH
C0
10
20
30 - a =. - * - - {= же — 43m 4 . = м - A — — .
— 300 ~~ 500 700 . 90 1100. ©1300: ‘1500. 1700.
TOTAL LANDING DISTANCE FROM 50 er OBSTACLE - — FT | ВЕ a
EXAMPLE:
Follow example line using procedure given for landplane take-off and read:
Total landing distance from 50 ft obstacle = 1070 ft |
LANDING DISTANCE - LANDPLANE
II | a am. Revised 13 July 1976
SKIP LANE TAKE.OFF AND LANDING DISTANCES
Snow conditions being extremely variable, the sliding coefficient of friction
which has an important effect on Take- off and Landing ground distances, may
vary between wide limits, - o | ВЕ
‚ (и = 0.02 ко д = 1.2),
TAKE.OFF
(1) Under doubtful snow conditions:
(a) Expect "sticky snow" ground run ( # >0. 3).
(2) If the pilot is sufficiently familiar withtthe snow conditions to know that
‘the sliding friction is normal (4<0. 3): |
(a) Add 1000 feet to the landplane figures to tad eng of ground run,
(3) On very "slippery" snow or ice (и< 0. D:
(a) Add 100 feet to the landplane figures.
(4). In very sticky” snow (4 > 0, 3):
(a) Expect a take-off ground run in excess of 2000 to 3000 feet.
LANDING В
Since weather conditions may change rapidly, there is a possibility that snow
which was '"sticky" on take-off may prove very “slippery” on landing. |
(1) Under doubtful conditions:
(a) Allow fora ground run in excess of 2000 feet (4<0.1).
(2) If conditions are known to be favourable: |
(a) Add 400 feet to ground run values for the landplane (H>0. 1). |
— Revised 13 July 1976 I
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- Revised 13 July 1976
HdW — GNIMGVIH-
Jo— FHNLVYHIALNIL
TAKE-OFF DISTANCE - SEAPLANE
14 — 3dNLILTY IHNSS3 HJ
ENGINE: Pratt & Whitney WASP JUNIOR Е - 385 (АВЕ MODELS)
MIXTURE CONTROL: Auto Lean
FUEL CONSUMPTION
Imp.Gal/hr|l4.1 15.2 BE 165 18.4 20.8 | 23.1
U.S.Gal/hr 16.9 18.2 19.8 22 | 25 28.5
B.H.P. 200 220 240 | 260 280 300
Altitude R.P.M. and MANIFOLD PRESSURE
S.L. 1600-26.7 |1600-28.5 | 1650-29.5 | 1750-29:7 | 1900-29.2 | 2000-29.
1000 1600-26.5 |1600-28.5 |1650-29.2 1760-29.7 | 1900-29.2 | 2000-29.
2000 1600-26 |1600-27.7 | 1650-29 |1750-29.2 | 1960-28.7 | 2000-29.
3000 1600-25 .7 11600-27.5 1650-28.7 {1750-29 1900-28.5 | 2000-29
4000 1600-25.5 |1600-27 1650-28.2 |1750-28.7 | 1900-28.2 | 2000-28.
5000 1600-25.2 |1600-26.7 | 1650-28 |1750-28.2 {1900-28 | 2000-28.
6000 1600-25.2 11600-26.5 | 1700-27.5 |1780-27.7 | 1900-27-7 | 2000-28
7000 1600-25 |1600-26.2 | 1700-27 |1750-27.2 | 1960-27.5 | 2000-27.
8000 1600-24.7 1600-26 1700-26.5 |1800-26.7 1900-27.2 | 2000-27.
NOTE: Do not operate at above R.P.M. Manifold Pressure Combinations ВЕ |
unless carburettor mixture temperature 1S between
40 to 45°F (+4 to +7°C). 5
This will insure the attainment of the stated fuel consumption . Co
If it is not possible to obtain the desired temperature, operate ee
: below 28°F (-2° Che
— CRUISE POWER CHART
Revised 13 July 1976 o CRUISE POWER CHART
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LANDPLANE
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vi
TOTAL LANDING DISTANCE FROM 50 FT — SEAPLANE
REMARKS:
1. Water: Calin
2. Flaps: “Landing”
3. Water run is approximately 58% of total distance
4. Data: Estimated (ICAO technique)
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HEADWIND — MPH
500 700 900 1100 1300 1500 1700 1900
TOTAL LANDING DISTANCE FROM 50 FT OBSTACLE — FT
EXAMPLE:
Follow example line using procedure given for landplane take-off and read:
Total landing distance from 50 ft obstacle = 1280 ft
LANDING DISTANCE - SEAPLANE
Revised 13 July 1976 a IVA
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PAYLOAD (LB)
PAYLOAD vs CRUISING RANGE
VIA
SEAPLANE
SAFE MOMENTS LIMITS
Landplane and Skiplane | Seaplane
Gross | |
Weight Forward aft (See Note) ;
Column À Colums B Forward | Aft
3000 +19800 -23100 2640€ — +19800 - 18300
3100 —+20500 -23900 7300...) +20500 -18900
3200 +21100 -24600 - 28201 21100 -19500
3300 +21800 -25400 25001 +21800 -20100
3400 +22400 —-26200 | 225500 +22400 -20700
3500 <+23100 -27000 | -3080( +23100 -21400
3600 +23800 -27700 |. -3170 +23800 -22000
3700 +24400 -28500 260 +24400 -22600
3800 +25100 | --29300 | -33400 +25 100 -23200
3900 +23400 -30000 | -34300: +23400 -23800
‘4000 | +21600 | -30800 |. -35200 | +21600 -24400
4100 +19600 |. -31600 -36100 | +19600 | -25000
4200 +17600 - -32300 -37000 +17690 -25600
4300 +15400 -33100 ‘37800: | +15400 -26200
4400 +13100 -33906 | ---38700-" +13100 -26800
4500 +10700 -34600 |. „39600 +10700 „27400
4600 + 8100 -35400 | :: „40500 + 8100 -28100
4700 + 5500 -36200 | -41400 + 5500 -28700
4800 + 2700 -37000 |= -42200 + 2700 -29300
4900 —- 200 -37700 -43100 - 200 -29900
5000 - 3200 -38500 -44000 - 3200 -30500
5090 HO ------- | -=-=-- | ---- - - 6000 -31100
5100 - 6400 -39300 -44900 | ------ | TT
FREIGHT FUEL
Weight Mom.in. lb. BELLY TANK
lb. Fwd.Arm Aft Arm La ci -361.C.
719 in. —57 in. Capacity |
o . Arm = -8.0 in.
25 - 475 - 1425 -
50 - 950 - 2850
| Imp. | Wet. | Mom
19 |7 1825 - 4275. Gal. | Ib. in. 1b.
100 - 1900 - 5700 To 75 LT
200 - 3800 -11400 50 144 1152
300 Ш 5700 -17100 | 30 516 -1728
400 -- 7600 -22800 36 | 259 _2072
500 —- 9500 -28500 .
600 | -11400 | -34200
700 -13300 „39900 Ä
900 —-17100 -51300 For uniformiy distributed load
1000 … -19000 -57000 В 100 1b/sq.ft.
1100 -20900 - -62700 For concentrated load
1200 | -22800 - 68400 (penetration strength)
1250 -23750 -71250 200 1b/sa- ft.
VI
Appendix
“NOTE
_ A
SAFE MOMENT LIMITS - AFT. -'
Land and Ski Plane
COLUMN A Applies to aircraft in
which the rigging recommendations
outlined in Engineering Bulletin Ser-
ies B No. 1 have not been incorpora-
| e o
ted. |
COLUMN B Applies to aircraft in.
which the rigging recommendations
outlined in Engineering Bulletin Ser-
ies B No. 1 have been incorporated,
VILA
BASIC WEIGHT OF AIRCRAFT. ... LB¥ Ye (Insert actual weight and basic moment
given in weight and balance report found
BASIC M O MENT а в ово ча фз = + = + + +» = I in envelope on inside of rear cover)
PILOT/PASSENGER STD. WEIGHT 170 LB.
ARM IN INS. +7 29 | 62 | LITTER = -33
à + 4 =
CARGO MEAN ARM IN INS. FORE -19 | AFT-57 | LITTER+PATIENT=250LB
BAGGAGE
BATTERY
| |
+50 0 0 -100
1) ADD TO BASIC WEIGHT AND TO BASIC MOMENT:
WING TI P TANKS | A. PILOT(S) AND PASSENGER(S) WEIGHTS
36 GAL. 259LB. -2590 MOM B. FREIGHT AND BAGGAGE AND
C. FUEL AND OIL MOMENTS
“ OIL TANK 2) MAKE SURE:
САР. 5.2 ARM A. TAKE OFF WEIGHT IS NOT OVER 5,1000 LB.
IMP. GAL. #370 IN. B. TOTAL MOMENT VALUE IS WITHIN SAFE
5 тя 666 C. AVAILABLE TAKE OFF DISTANCE PERMITS
4 36 +1332 TAKE-OFF AT THIS WEIGHT.
| 52 468 +1732 |)
"FRONT TANK Y ( CENTRE TANK \( REAR TANK \
CAP. 29 ARM CAP. 29 ARM CAP. 21 ARM .
IMP. GAL. +45IN.| |IMP.GAL. — -196IN. | [IMP.GAL. 400mN..| [BAGGAGE COMP
GAL. LB. MOM GAL. LB. MOM GAL. LB. MOM АКМ -94 O IN.
5 36 +162 5 36. - 706 1 36 -1440 LB. MOM
10 72 +324 10 72-1411 10 72 -2880 25 -2350
15 108 +486 15 108 -2117 15 108 4320 20 4700
20 144 +648 20 144 -2822 20 144 -5760 75 -7050
25 180 +810 25 180 -3528 | 21 151 -6040 }
q 29 209 +940 J | 29 209 -4096 |
NOTE: Imp. Gal. x 1.2 = US Gal
VIT OPERATIONAL LOADS DIAGRAM
Supplement No 1
FLIGHT MANUAL
Zr
AIRCRAFT
Agricultural Installations
15 APRIL 1953
Em
УР
der
es в :
15 April 1959
PARAGRAPH No.
ФФ к а +
HH ww БЫ ee
.
=
Bob hh WW NNN NN
Lo NE
FIGURE
51-3
S1+-4
51-5
SUPPLEMENT 1
= ре
AGRICULTURAL INSTALLATIONS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE -
Fa
©
GENERAL
AGRICULTURAL MODEL
FEEDER AND SEEDER INSTALLATION
SPRAYER INSTALLATION
ALTERNATIVE SPRAYER INSTALLATION
SUPPLY DROPPING INSTALLATION
SPRAYER MODEL
SPRAYER INSTALLATION
OPERATION
OPERATING LIMITS
WEIGHT AND MOMENT TABLE
OPERATIONAL TABLES
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
TITLE
FEEDER AND SEEDER INSTALLATION
AGRICULTURAL MODEL SPRAYER
INSTALLATION
SUPPLY DROPPING INSTALLATION
SPRAYER MODEL INSTALLATION
PAGE
S1-1
S1-1
Sl-1
Sl-1
51-1
51-4
51-5
51-5
51-5
51-7
51-7
51-9
PAGE
51-
[+
51-3
51-4
51-5
51-6
E
AGRICULTURAL INSTALLATIONS
|. GENERAL
The de Havilland agricultural in-
stallations are fitted to two types of Beaver
aircraft, one being a special version of the
Beaver Landplane known as the Agricultural
model and the other a Standard Beaver Land-
plane, seaplane or amphibian known as the
Sprayer model.
2. AGRICULTURAL MODEL
The equipment fitted to the agri-
cultural model comprises a feeder and seeder
installation for fertilizer and seeder applica-
tion, a sprayer installation for crop spraying,
and wing mounted external racks for supply
dropping. Removable seats are provided for a
loading crew of three, to be used when ferry- ©
ing from base to dropping zone, Conversion to
any of these roles canbe accomplished readily,
NOTE
Range and endurance are reduced by ap-
proximately 33% of those stated in para.
4.10.1 of the Flight Manual, since the
agricultural model is not fitted with a
centre fuel tank,
2.1 Feeder and Seeder Installation -|
(See Figure S1- -1)|-
This installation consists of a 35”
cubic foot capacity hopper which protrudes
through the cabin floor and fuselage skin to an
unloading chute operated by a leveratthe right
side of the pilot's seat. A roof hatch facilitates
loading of the hopper. An emergency release
catch, located aft of the chute and operated by
a push button on the left grip of the pilot's con-
trol wheel, enables the entire hopper load to be
Jettisoned in a few seconds,
ing or loss of fluid,
2.2 ‘Sprayer Installation,
The sprayer installation consists of
the hopper, with a rubber bag inserted to con-
tain the fluid, and a sump in place of the chute
used on the feeder and seeder installation. The
liquid capacity of the hopper is 220 Imperial
(265 U.S.) gallons, the liquid contents being
released by means of a spray control lever
located immediately to the left of the engine.
controls quadrant. Adjacent tothe controllever
___ (See Figure 51 - 2)].
Supplement 1
1s an adjustable stop, which can be locked at a
pre-determined position with a pip-pin, en-
abling movement of the control lever to be
limited according to the desired amount of fluid
flow,
E
The fluid contents are jettisonable
in an emergency by depression of a push button
on the left grip of the pilot's control wheel
which allows a jettison door to open on the
sump. A wind-driven centrifugal pump and
valve system, mounted on the centre line of
the aircraft forward of the sump, feeds fluid
under pressure to a span length spray boom
extending laterally from the pump. The boom
sections, attached to the wings by vee struts
and tothe fuselage by brackets, canbe equipped
with tee jet or whirl jet type nozzles as re-
quired by the operator, To prevent over-spray-
the boorn incorporates
diaphragm check valves which close when the
fluid pressure drops below 7 psi. À pressure
gauge is connected to the boom to provide the
pilot with visual indication of the fluid pres-
sure being supplied to the boom and spray
nozzles when the system is in operation, An
idling circuit is incorporated in the valve sys-
tem so that an excessive fluid pressure will
not be imposed in the boom or spray nozzles.
For ferrying flights, the boom sections can be
stowed under the rear fuselage.
2,3 Alternative Sprayer Installation !
(See Figure Si - -3)L
An alternative sprayer installation
to the span length boom utilizes two ICD rotor
units, giving a swath width and concentration
less than the boom installation. The gravity
fed rotor units are fitted to the ends of the
spray booms which are braced to the airframe
and extend laterally from the sump, terminating
outboard of the propeller arc, Each ICD rotor
unit consists of a wind-driven fan at the for-
ward end of a rotor shaft, with a wire brush at
the aft end which disperses the fluid from the’
- rotor unit in droplets, at a controllable rate of
l to 50 gallons per minute, into the airstream.
The rate of dispersal of the fluid is dependent
on the selected position of the spray control
lever in the cockpit, the size of the wire
brushes, rotor unit valve opening and the pitch
and diameter of the fans which determine the
rotational speed of the rotors.
Sl-1
Supplement 1
>
LOADING HATCH
CIN CABIN ROOF
CHUTE OPERATING
LEVER
EMERGENCY .
RELEASE
CATCH —
UNLOADING CHUTE - Ш
IN JETTISON. о | >
POSITION OPERATING CABLE
FIG S1-1 FEEDER AND SEEDER INSTALLATION
.S1-2
Supplement 1
и
ADJUSTABLE [em
SPRAY BOOM
FIG 51-2 AGRICULTURAL MODEL SPRAYER INSTALLATION
51-3
Supplement 1
HOPPER
ICO ROTOR UNIT
SPRAYER BOOM
WIND DRIVEN FAN
| WIRE BRUSH
ps
©
FIG S1-3 ALTERNATIVE SPRAYER INSTALLATION
2. 4- ~ Supply Dropping Installation
(See Figure 51-4)
NOTE |
It is essential to check with the airwor-
thiness authority of the State in which the
aircraft is operating to ensure that it is
permissible to carry or dropstores, us-
ing external racks, within the area of
their jurisdiction. |
The supply dropping installation cone
sists of up to six Mark III external racks,cap-
able of carrying 300 Ib each, mounted three
each side of the wing undersurface and out-
board of the wing attachment struts, Alterna-
tively, an installation consisting of four light-
weight wing racks with a carrying capacity of
250 Ib each, and a fuselage ventral rack with
a carrying capacity of 1800 1b may be fitted,
provided the total weight of the supplies to be
dropped does not exceed 1800 Ib, Installation
of the fuselage rack necessitates removal of
51-4
rack may also be fitted in conjunction with the
Mark III wing racks provided the total weight
of the supplies to be dropped does not exceed
1800 1b, An electrical switch panel inthe cabin
‘roof permits selection of any or all of the
stores to be dropped. The release of the se-
- lected stores is accomplished by depression of
the push button on the left grip of the pilot's:
control wheel, provided that the RACK MASTER
switch on the electrical switch panel is ON, In
the event of an electrical failure, or in an
emergency, the wing stores can be jettisoned
— by pulling the two jettison handles, one above
each cockpit door.
CAUTION
To maintain the lateral trim of the air-
craft, the wing stores should be released
in handed pairs, never from one side
only. Release of all the wing stores at
the same time should be restricted to
emergency jettisoning. 0 |
NOTE
The dimensions of the stores on each
wing rack should not exceed 1 ft. dia-
meter nor be longer than 5 ft. 6 inches.
The dimensions of the stores on the fuse-
lage rack should not exceed 1 ft. dia-
meter or 7 ft. in length,
3 SPRAYER MODEL
The equipment fitted to the sprayer
model (Standard Beaver landplane, seaplane, or
amphibian) consists of à sprayer installation
and, if equipped with C2-W-587A and 588A
type wings, can be used for supply dropping,
Removal of the sprayer equipment and replace-
ment of the cabin doors permits conversion to
Standard Beaver duties.
3.1 Sprayer Installation
(See Figure 51-5)
The sprayer installation consists of
a 200 Imperial (240 U.S.) gallon cylindrical
tank mounted athwartships in the cabin from
doorway to doorway, necessitating removal of
the doors and the fitting of special panels which
serve to support the tank and close offthe door-
ways.
Supplement 1
A filler neck is on each side of the
tank which is connected to forward facing air
pressure intakes on top of the fuselage. A pipe
at the bottom of the tank allows the contents
to pass to a centrifugal wind-driven pressure
_ pump and valve system under the fuselage
“from which a span length boom originates, The
boom sections are similar to those used in
the Agricultural model and have similar fittings
and furnishings, The liquid contents of the tank
are released and controlled by selection of a
control valve between the pilot's and co-pilot's
seats. The tank canbe emptiedinanemergency
by pulling the jettison handle adjacent to the
flight instrument panel, which opens the tank
dump valves, A gauge in the forward face of
the tank indicates the quantity of fluid in the
tank, For ferrying flights the boom sections can
be stówed under the rear fuselage.
4. OPERATION
Complete the checks detailed in Sec-
tion II of the Flight Manual, and before any
flight ensure that all equipment is properly
. secured, - E
NOTE
Ensure that the C, G. of the external wing :
PANEL
Ze
ELECTRICAL
JETTISON
HANDLES
CG POSITION
6 AFT OF
WING STORES
a FORWARD CHAIN
VENTRAL STORE
CG POSITION AT CHAIN
FIG 51-4 SUPPLY DROPPING INSTALLATION
51-5
Supplement 1
stores is located six inches aft of the for-
ward anchor chain of each load.
CAUTION
Before any ferrying flight on spray air-
craft, the fan of the pump should be re-
— moved if there is no fan brake, other-
— wise the shaft may seize in its bearings.
7 The recommended airspeed during
operation, with flaps at CRUISE, is 100 to 105
mph (87 to 91 knots) IAS with a maximum limit
of 120 mph (104 knots) IAS. At 100 mph (87
knots) IAS, a fertilizer or feeder coverage
100 feet by 2000 feet, from an altitude of 100
feet, can be obtained at a rate of 200 to 300 Ib
‘per acre which will discharge an 1850 1b load
in 10 to 15 seconds. | ВЕ
At an altitude of 10 feet the boom
sprayer installation will give a swath width of
90 feet, using 1/2 to 3 1/2 gallons of liquid per
acre, depending on control lever setting and
system pressure, Increase of altitude to 100
feet will increase the swath width to approxi-
mately 140 feet. | В
- TE
NOTE
To improve aircraft handling character-
istics when operating at the lower alti-
—tude, the flaps can be lowered to CLIMB
position and the airspeed reduced to 90
mph (78 knots) IAS. This will provide a
higher rate of climb when operating in
hilly areas. | о
To.
>.
. u. .
ak \
“e
e
+
En
| WS
be ГД
WIND DRIVEN \ | DUMP VALVE
PUMP Y
JETTISON
HANDLE
© “SPRAY BOOM =
51-6
FIG S1-5 SPRAYER MODEL INSTALLATION
nd ‘ :
CAUTION
It is important to wash out the spray in-
stallation daily to prevent corrosion and
deterioration caused by the spray fluid.
The rear of the aircraft should be washed
down after spraying and after cropfertil-
izing or seeding. Checking for heavy ac-
cumulation of dust onthe control surfaces
~~ and hinges is highly desirable.
The flight altitude during dropping
of stores is dependent on local air regulations,
the type of stores being dropped, and the sur-
rounding terrain, Normally the airspeed should
Supplement |
be reduced to 100 mph (87 knots) IAS and the
flaps lowered to CLIMB setting before the
stores drop is commenced, and altitude re-
duced to approximately 100 feet above ground
level, a
2
4,1 Operating Limits
The operating limits for the Agri-
cultural model and Sprayer model are the
same as in Section IV of the Flight Manual
except that in the Agricultural model removal
of the centre fuel tank, to provide space for
the hopper, will reduce the range and endur-
ance by approximately 33%. |
. 0
A
§ о
4.2 WEIGHT AND MOMENT TABLE
With the agricultural installations the aircraft basic weight is affected as follows:
AGRICULTURAL MODEL
Add to Basic Agricultural Aircraft
For fertilizer and seeder operation:
Hopper assembly - empty
Chute
Cockpit control levers and fittings
Total |
Hopper - loaded (e.g. 1600 1b)
Total as flown
For spray boom operations, with hopper 1 installed:
Hopper assembly - empty
Hopper lining and sump
Span length boom
Wind-driven pump assy. and piping
Y struts Ш
Cockpit control levers and fittings
Hopper - loaded (e.g. 160 Imp. gal, water).
Total as flown
Mom
For ICD rotor spray operations, with hopper installed:
Hopper assembly - empty
; Hopper liner and sump
+ Rotor units (2) plus piping and fitting
. Bracing struts (4)
Cockpit control levers and fittings
Total
‘Hopper - loaded {e.g. 160 Imp. gal. water)
Total as flown
Weight Arm |
1b | in В lb in
83 -25.5 -2116
20.8 -20.3 - 422
4 - 3 - 12
107.8 - | -2550
1600 e 23.9 -38240
1707.8 a -40790
83 -25.5 „2116
31 „23 - 713
36 | - 8 - 288
30.5. . --16 - 488
18 -12 - 216
4 A - 12
202,5 — -3833
1600 „23.9 -38240
1802.5 «42073
83 | -25,5 | -2116
31 | -23 В - 713.
40,8 „36,9 -1504
9.3 -16.6 - 154
4 | - 3 - 12
168.1 | Е 714499
1600 „23,9 „38240
1768.1 -42739
51-7
Supplement 1
Weight Arm
1b В in
For supply dropping ope rations, with hopper installed: ВЕ
Hopper assembly - empty o 83 oo -25.5
External wing rack channels (6) - - Mk. II and bracing 12 a a -9
Mk, IIT rack release (6) 8 4
Cockpit control levers and fittings 4 =3
Cockpit rack controls 15 EU | 4
Total | | o em
External wing racks (6) - loaded Co
| | (300 1b each rack) 1800 4
Total as flown .. tes | - 1992
Fuselage rack ~~ Co 3. — -28
Fuselage rack - loaded o | TS 800. .. ВЕ -32 Le
SPRAYER MODEL
For Simplex spray boom operations, with spray tank installed:
SH
add to Basic Weight (see note) | e o | © |
- Spray tank assembly - empty 75. | -28.5
Elbow assembly and dump valve 11 _57
Pump assembly and impeller 26 -15
Span length boom | | 36 | - 8
V struts and misc. fittings 23 -17.5
Cockpit control levers, valves and fittings 4 - 3
Total 175 | В
Spray tank - loaded (e. в. 160 Imp. gal. water) 1600 | -28
Total as flown 1775 |
—- NOTE
Since some items of equipment are removed from
the aircraft before installation of the agricultural
equipment, reference to the weight and balance
report should be made for correct basic weight
and C.G, values.
CAUTION
To ensure that the gross weight of the aircraft does
‘not exceed the gross weight permitted by local PE
licencing authorities, restrict the fuel or cargo
load as necessary... | О
For supply dropping operations, with Simplex spray tank and
lightweight wing racks installed:
Spray tank assembly - empty 75 | 28.5
Lightweight wing rack channels (4) a. Cog 6
Lightweight wing rack releases (4) | 28 - 6
Cockpit control levers and fittings | 4 - 3
Cockpit rack controls 15 +4
Total | ВЕ 130
External wing racks (4) - loaded ВЕ |
|| (250 16 еась гаск) —. 1000 | - 4
Total as flown o | | 1130
51-8
Mom
lb in
-2116
- 108
312
- 12
+ 60
-2488
«7200
„9688
- 84
-25600
-2138
- 627
392
288
402
| T3859
-44800
748659
2138
- 168
2
+60
772306
-4000
Gauge
Reading
Imp. Gal.
0
.10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
OPERATIONAL TABLES
AGRICULTURAL MODEL
SPRAYING FLUID WEIGHT & MOMENT
Note on Usg_ ol Table
The weights and moments shown below are for water.
To obtain the weights and moments of the spraying
fluid being used, multiply the weights and moments
shown below by the specific gravity of the fluid
being used. ‚ =.
Amount Weight Arm
in tank lb. in
Imp. Gal.
30 300 _ -20.3
40 400 ~~ & -20.4
50 500 -20,6
60 600 -20.9
70 700 | -21,2
80 800 „21.4
90 900 21,7
100 1000 -22.0
110 1100 „22.2
120 1200 „22.5
130 1300 -22,7
140 1400 «22,9
150 1500 . -23.1
160 1600 -23.3
170 1700 -23,4
180 1800 -23,5
190 1900 -23.7
200 2000 | -23.8
210 2100 -23.9
220 2200 | =23.9
MOMENTS OF POWDER IN HOPPER
To determine moment of powder in hopper:
(1) Estimate to what level on the gauge glass the
surface of the powder corresponds. .
(2) From the above Spraying Fluid table find the
moment arm which is given for this reading on the
gauge glass,
(3) Multiply the number of pounds of powder in
the hopper by this arm to obtain the moment.
Supplement }
Moment
Ib in
- 6090
- 8160
-10310-
-12540
-14810
-17140
-19530
-21980
-24410
-26970
-29490
-32067
34644
-37221
«39798
-42375
-44952
„47529
- 50106
-52683
Supplement 1
WING RACK LOAD MOMENTS VENTRAL RACK LOAD MOMENTS
Arm = -4.0 Arm = -32,0
Total Wt Total Moment Total Wt. Total Moment
1b a 1b in 1b lb in
50 = 200 50 | - 1600
100 | | - 400 100 > - 3200
200 AT > 800. 200. 1 = - 6400
300 77 1200 7 300 = ee - 9600
500 | 2000: : 500: 7. - 16000
600 -2400 600 oro -19200
700 | „2800 700 „22400
800 -3200 800 a | -25600
“900 a 3600: e : LE
1000 -4000
1100 CL — -4400 |
1200 В -4800 E.
1300 | -5200 ST
1400 | -5600
1500 -6000
1600 -6400
1700 | -6800
1800 -7200
SPRAYER MODEL
SPRAYING FLUID WEIGHT & MOMENT
Note on Use of Table
The weights and moments shown below are for
water, To obtain the weights and moments of the
spraying fluid being used, multiply the weights and
moments shown below by the specific gravity of
the fluid being used.
Arm of Tank = -28,1
U.S. Gal. Imp. Gal. a Weight Moment
Water Water 00006 | bin
10 8.3 83 - 2332
20 16,7 | 167 | 4693
30 1101 25.0 o 250 - 70e5
40 AB E 333 - 9357
50 a 41.6 | 417 - -11718
60 50.0 | 5005 -14050
70 | o 58.3 00000 | 583 -16382
80 a BBB 666 -18715
90 | 75.0 3 750 — | -21075
100 | | 83.3 | 833 -23407
110 a | 91.6 916 | — =25740
120 | | 100.0 | - 1000 -28100
: 81-10 |
Supplement 1 |
U.S, Gal, Imp. Gal, Weight Moment
Water Water lb ; lb in
130 | 108.3 a. 1083 „30432
140 116.6 1166 -32765
150 125.0 me 1250 -35125
160 133.3 1333 „37457 -
170 141.6 1416 -39790
180 150,0 1499 -42122
190 158.3 1583 -44482
200 166.6 | 1666 | -46815
210 | 175.0 1749 „49147
220 183.3 1833 -51507
230 191.6 1916 -53840
240 200.0 1999 -56172
Example of Use of Table
Suppose spraying fluid has spetific gravity of .95
and there are 100 Imp. gal. of fluid in tank,
From the above table 100 Imp. gal. of water weigh
1000 1b and have a moment of -28100,
Thus 100 Imp. gal. of spraying fluid weigh .95 x
1000 = 950 1b and have a momentof .95 x -28100 =
-26695.
WING RACK LOAD MOMENTS
Arm = -4.0
Total Wt Total Moment Total Wt Total Moment: —
lb 1b in 1b Ib in |
50 - 500 550 - 5500
100 - 1000 600 - 6000
150 - 1500 650 u - 6500
200 - 2000 700 - 7000
250 - 2500 750 = 7500
300 - 3000 800 - 8000
350 - 3500 850 - 8500
400 - 4000 300 - - 9000
450 | - 4500 950 | - 9500 .
500 | | - 5000 1000 - 10000 |
51-11
Lm
ATA
PSM 1-2-1 | Supplement 2
DOT Approved
~ Supplement No. 2 —
FLIGHT MANUAL
DHE-2 = E
AIRCRAFT
5 — R-583-AN-1, AN-3, -39 and -39A Engine Installations
LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES IN THIS SUPPLEMENT:
S2.1 thru S2.3'
| ‘ Approved: KZ foci
Chief, Airworthiness |
Aeronautical Licensing and Inspection Board.
— Department of Transport
Date: 72 Иа 75
| 852.1
Issue 2
A a Lt
"
p=
aL
. x ` a “a
date
зы ds
Supplement 2 | PSM 1-2-1
DOT Approved
SUPPLEMENT 2
R-985-AN- 1, AN-3, -39 AND - "398 ENGINE INSTALLATIONS
E
SECTION I DESCRIPTION OF AIRCRAFT
Add to Section I of the Flight Manual the following alternative engines:
Engine; Pratt and Whitney: R- 985- AN-1, AN- 3; -39 and «39 А.
SECTION II NORMAL PROCEDURES SE | é
Section II of the Flight Manual applies, with the exception of the following:
Para 2.9 (g) As soon as safe height has been attained, reduce
power to 33.5 in. Hg and 2200 rpm if R-985 SB3
engine is installed (34.5 in. Hg and 2200 rpm if
an R-985-AN-1, AN-3, -39 and -39A engine is -
installed) and the aircraft is fully loaded. Use | |
30 in. Hg and 2000 rpm for normal weight.
Para 2. 10 Best rate of climb is obtained using Maximum
(First Para) Continuous Power 2200 rpm, 33.5 in. Hg if an
R-985 SB3 engine is installed (34.5 in. Hg and
2200 rpm if an R-985-AN-1, AN-3, -39 and
-39A engine is installed) . Speed for best rate of
climb is 95 mph IAS; speed for best angle of
climb is 80 mph IAS.
SECTION OI EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
Section III of the Flight Manual applies.
52-2 a | | Issue 2
L'LILVL 4767 A EA RA и лава der
DOT Approved
SECTIONIV OPERATING LIMITS, PERFORMANCE DATA AND
FLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS
Add to Section IV of the Flight Manual the following alternative engine
limits: |
—_— |
Engine: Pratt and Whitney R-985-AN-1, AN-3, -39 and -39A
MP- ALTITUDE
Limits: HP RPM In. Hg IN FEET
Take-off 450 2300 37.5 SL
Maximum continuous 400 2200 =34.5 SL
Maximum continuous 400 2208 33.0 5000
* Straight line manifold pressure varies with altitude to 5000 ft.
All performance data given in paragraph 4.10.1 of the Flight Manual apply
except that the rate of climb above 5000 ft altitude should be reduced by
approximately 50 fpm and the service ceiling by approximately 600 ft.
SECTION V GENERAL OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS AND ALL WEATHER
OPERATION | Ш
- Section Y of the Flight Manual applies.
SECTION VI SPECIAL INSTALLATIONS
Section VI of the Flight Manual applies.
APPENDIX OPERATING DATA CHARTS
Data given in the Appendix to the Flight Manual apply except that the take-
off distance above 3000 ft altitude should be increased by approximately 5%.
Issue 2 — S2-3
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