Hydra Manual.cdr - Leema Acoustics

Hydra Manual.cdr - Leema Acoustics
Leema Acoustics Hydra Power Amplifier
HYDRA
HANDBOOK
HYDRA
Index
Index
General Information ..................................................................................................................................... 2
Conformity Statement, Environmental, Made in the UK, Contact Us ........................................................ 2
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 3
Safety Advice ................................................................................................................................................ 4
Hydra Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 5
Installation .................................................................................................................................................... 6
Connections ................................................................................................................................................. 7
AV Direct................................................................................................................................................. 7
Multi 1,Multi 2, Pre-Out, Bi-Amp, Loudspeakers ......................................................................................... 9
Controls ................................................................................................................................................... 9-10
Bi-Amp Connection Drawing ....................................................................................................................... 11
Technical Discussion .............................................................................................................................. 12-13
LIPS ........................................................................................................................................................ 14-15
Audio Specifications ................................................................................................................................... 16
1
HYDRA
General
Declaration of Conformity
We hereby declare that the product to which this declaration relates, is in conformity with the following standards:
EN60065, EN55013, EN55020, EN61000-3-2, EN61000-3-3. The product design also follows the provisions of 73/23/EEC,
89/336/EEC and 93/68/EEC Directives.
Environmental Issues
Leema operates a 100% recycling program. All waste materials generated as part of the manufacturing process at Leema’s
headquarters are recycled via a licensed specialist company.
Although Leema electronics operate in standby mode as opposed to being fully switched off, the power drain has been
optimised to a negligible level. Contrary to popular audiophile practice, we do not recommend leaving our power amplifiers
permanently powered. All Leema amplifiers have been designed to attain full operational specifications and sound quality
within a few minutes of switch-on.
Made in the UK
Leema products are designed and manufactured in the UK. This includes all metalwork, printed circuit boards and power
transformers.
Contact Us
Leema may be contacted via our website: www.leema-acoustics.com or by telephone: +44 (0)1938-811900
2
Introduction
HYDRA
Introduction
Congratulations on your purchase of a Leema Hydra amplifier.
The Leema range of products has been painstakingly engineered in the United Kingdom to offer genuine state-of-the-art
performance.
Partnered with suitable equipment, Leema amplification will provide audio performance far beyond that of their competitors
and will equal or better the performance of products costing many times their purchase price.
A notable feature of all Leema amplification is incredible bass power and control, due to massive current capability, together
with superb clarity and finesse in the upper frequencies with stunning realism in the midband.
Purchasers should read and follow this instruction manual, paying particular attention to the user installation and safety advice
section.
This manual has been written to enable you to achieve the very best performance and maximum listening pleasure from your
investment.
We wish you many years of pleasurable listening... Move Your World!
With best regards
The Leema Team.
3
HYDRA
Warning
VERY IMPORTANT
Before connecting your new Leema Hydra to the rest of your system, please ensure that the loudspeaker cables are correctly
and firmly attached to the binding posts on the rear of the unit. All required sources and LIPS cables should also be connected
BEFORE inserting the mains power leads to the system and powering for the first time. The Hydra amplifier has no output short
circuit protection since such circuits limit the output current capability of the amplifier and even complex protection circuits have
undesirable and audible side effects. Short circuiting the amplifier with power applied will damage the amplifier and can be
dangerous.
User installation and safety advice
Please ensure that the mains voltage of your new Hydra amplifier is correct for your region. The setting is displayed on a label
below the mains power inlet. The mains voltage setting is not user adjustable, therefore the amplifier must be returned to the
manufacturer if any changes are required.
Ensure the mains supply is switched off at the wall socket, or unplugged before installing or moving the amplifier.
Do not use near water, for example do not place a potted plant on top of the unit or allow drinks to be placed near the unit. If
liquid is spilt in to the cabinet, remove the mains lead from the wall immediately. The amplifier should then be returned to your
dealer for safety testing before re-use. Failure to do so may result in electric shock or even fire! Do not use the amplifier in damp
conditions, e.g. outside of the house.
Keep away from direct sunlight and other heat sources and ensure adequate ventilation around the amplifier to maintain proper
cooling. Units MUST NOT be stacked directly on top of each other.
Avoid touching the amplifier cabinet after prolonged use as the case and heatsinks may become hot to the touch.
4
Overview
HYDRA
Never attempt to open the cabinet. There are no user adjustable parts inside and doing so will invalidate the amplifier’s warranty.
In the event of an electrical storm, remove the mains power lead from the wall outlet.
As with all high-powered amplifiers, high voltages can occur at the output binding posts. Loudspeaker connection should only
be carried out with the unit switched off. Care should be taken to ensure there is no possibility of a short circuit behind the unit
when in use, for example, metal framed hi-fi units may be a hazard.
Leema amplifiers do not have any output short circuit protection so extreme care must be taken.
Hydra overview
The Leema Hydra is a very high power output, microprocessor controlled, stereo power amplifier. Thanks to the LIPS (Leema
intelligent protocol system) interface, it can be used to bi-Amplify a Tucana in an audiophile stereo system, act as the power
amplifier in a stereo pre-power combination or become part of a stunning home cinema or surround music system. Each
component in your system will dynamically re-configure in real time depending on your individual system requirements. The
microprocessor control gives an unprecedented degree of sophistication, making the Leema constellation series easy to use for
all the family. No longer will only one member of the family know how to play a CD or watch a movie. The built-in intelligence
learns your preferences without menus and confusing options.
5
HYDRA
Installation
Loudspeaker Outputs
‘LIPS’ bus connectors
The loudspeakers connect here.
Ensure correct polarity:
Red terminal is +, Black terminal is -.
This allows communication
between various Leema
system components.
Power Inlet
WARNING:
Do not make connections with unit
connected to the mains supply.
Ensure that the
specification indicated
below the connector is
correct for your area.
This will either be
230VAC or 115VAC.
SHORTING THE LOUDSPEAKER
OUTPUTS WILL DAMAGE THE
AMPLIFIER
DO NOT EXPOSE THIS UNIT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE
DO NOT USE IN DAMP CONDITIONS
NO USER SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE
REFER TO QUALIFIED SERVICE PERSONNEL
THIS UNIT MUST BE EARTHED
230 VAC 50/60Hz MAX 600W
OUT
IN
IN
OUT
IN
LEFT SURROUND
RIGHT SURROUND
CAUTION
VORSICHT
REMOVE POWER
VOR DEM ÖFFNEN
BEFORE OPENING
NETZSTECKER ZIEHEN
PRECISION AUDIO COMPONENT MANUFACTURED IN THE UNITED KINGDOM BY LEEMA ELECTRO ACOUSTICS LIMITED
BI-AMP OUTPUT
INPUTS
PRE-AMP Output
This output is a duplicate of the
PRE OUT and is used to feed
another Hydra for BI-AMPING.
MULTI 1 and MULTI 2 are
normally used for the surround
channels of multi-channel
sources, e.g. DVD players etc.
This output may be
used for bi-amping or
for bass extraction
when used with a
Leema Corvus.
AV DIRECT
The AV Direct input is
intended for connection of
an AV processor or similar.
WARNING:
Any source connected
here MUST have it’s own
volume control. When the
AV input is selected, the
volume level is preset. If a
fixed level source is
connected here e.g. a CD
player, the resulting
volume level will be
extremely high.
6
SERIAL No.:
When the Hydra is used as a
slave in a Pre-Power or Bi-Amp
configuration, the AV input
becomes the power-amp input.
No other inputs are then used.
Connections
HYDRA
Connections
Input connection
WARNING: The AV DIRECT input must not be used with sources that are not equipped with an independent volume control e.g.
most CD players and DVD players. This input is designed to be used only with an external surround sound processor that has an
independent volume control, or when the Hydra is used as a fixed level power amplifier, e.g. in a pre-power or bi-amp
configuration. The Hydra has an internal link which must be correctly set either by the factory or by your dealer, to configure the
unit for fixed level or for normal operation.
AV DIRECT> The Hydra’s AV DIRECT input is provided for those using a dedicated external multi-channel decoder or processor
equipped with a volume control. Sources with fixed output levels such as CD or DVD players MUST NOT be connected here.
When AV is selected, the volume level defaults to a low setting and then slowly rises to a preset unity gain point. The volume of
the Corvus and the Hydra will track the system’s volume. Great care should be taken when using the AV direct input since an
excessive volume level could easily result. However, unlike other systems, the volume control on the Leema system is still active
and can be adjusted away from the pre-set point as a safety feature. Selecting another input on the Tucana then re-selecting
the AV input will reset the unity gain point. In a surround system, the Tucana’s AV inputs should be connected to the surround
processor’s left and right analogue outputs. The processor’s left and right surround outputs should then be connected to the
Hydra’s left and right AV inputs. The remaining centre and subwoofer outputs from the processor should connect to their
respective inputs on the Corvus. For a more detailed explanation of how to connect the system in AV mode please see the
Corvus manual.
The AV DIRECT input becomes the power amp input when the Hyrda is optionally configured for fixed level operation.
Great care should be taken when using the AV DIRECT inputs since an excessive volume level could easily result.
For a more detailed description of bi-amplifying please see the next page.
7
HYDRA
Connections
MULTI 1> In a full surround system consisting of a Tucana, Hydra and Corvus, Multi 1 is used to connect the analogue outputs of
a multi-channel source such as a DVD-A, SACD or DVD player equipped with onboard multi-channel decoding. In such a system
the front left and right outputs from the source machine would connect to the Multi 1 inputs of the Tucana. The machine’s
surround left and right outputs would then connect to the Hydra’s Multi 1 inputs. The remaining centre and subwoofer outputs
from the source machine connect to the corresponding inputs on the Corvus.
MULTI 2> The Multi 2 inputs operate in the same way as Multi 1and may be used for a second multi-channel machine.
OUTPUTS:
PRE OUT> The Pre out connections mirror the selected system input e.g CD, or Multi 1. These outputs are controlled by the
Tucana’s volume control and can be used for a variety of uses. In a surround system they would be used to feed the Corvus’
side surround extraction inputs. Other examples include feeding a second amplifier in another room for a simple multi-room
system, or as a line level feed to one or two subwoofers.
BI-AMP> This connection is provided for those who may wish to bi-amplify a Hydra, for instance the surround channel Hydra in a
home cinema system could be bi-amplified. In this scenario use the Bi-amp outputs to connect the second Hydra’s AV inputs.
In a bi-amp Leema system, Tucana is used to drive the tweeters in the loudspeakers and a Hydra is used to drive the woofers.
This offers an increase in clarity by reducing intermodulation distortion. The loudspeaker no longer draws bass current from the
amplifier feeding the tweeter, resulting in cleaner high frequencies etc.
The loudspeakers must be suitable for bi-amping, this is normally the case where there are two pairs of binding post connections
available on the rear of the loudspeaker cabinets. When bi-amping, it is Vital to remove the bridging links from the connection
panel on the rear of the speakers, otherwise the outputs of the two stereo amplifiers will be connected together which will result in
considerable damage. If you are considering bi-amping, please contact your dealer or Leema Electro Acoustics Ltd. for
advice.
8
Connections
HYDRA
Loudspeaker terminals
There are two pairs of shrouded loudspeaker terminals on the Hydra's rear panel, one pair for the left loudspeaker and one pair
for the right loudspeaker. They can accept 4mm banana type plugs or bare wire connections, however the 4mm banana plug
holes are fitted with plastic plugs to comply with BSEN60065 safety regulations. Removal of these plugs will invalidate any
electrical safety approval of this product, but is necessary if banana plugs are to be used.
When using bare wires, strip about 10mm of insulation from the end of the cable, insert it in to the hole revealed by unscrewing
the binding post heads. Gently screw down the head until finger tight. Do not use excessive force to tighten the posts since this
can cause multi-strand cables to fray and, in extreme cases, to bridge the loudspeaker terminals causing a short circuit, which
could seriously damage the amplifier.
Cables
Never underestimate the importance of good quality speaker cables, bell wire or lighting flex will simply not do. Speaker cables
can be very synergistic. The better the system resolution, the more easily the differences between cables can be discerned. To
offer the best possible signal flow, Leema electronics are internally wired with NORDOST mono-filament cable. NORDOST speaker
cables and interconnects will provide superb results. For those with a tighter budget, Leema’s own LynX cables will fully
complement the system.
Front panel controls
Standby button
The standby button will be illuminated in standby mode. By default, Hydra will automatically turn on if the Tucana controlling the
system has any of its multi-channel inputs selected, or if it is being used for bi-amping a system. However, the possible
permutations for bi-amplified Hydras in a large scale system are potentially quite complex. For instance you could have a whole
9
HYDRA
Controls
surround system which is bi-amplified, consisting of a Tucana with it’s partnering Hydra covering front left and right duties, a pair
of Hydras for the surround left and right channels and a Corvus and Hydra for the front centre. The Hydras would then need to
power on and off in the correct sequence with their partnering units. Thankfully, their power on status can very easily be reprogrammed. Simply select the required input on the Tucana, then press and hold the standby button on each Hydra you wish
to associate with that input until it’s information ring flashes once and the desired Hydra powers up. Repeat the Hydra reprogramming sequence for each input selection on the Tucana. The Hydras will now power on correctly for each input source
selection as desired.
Volume control
The volume control is in fact a high quality Burr Brown precision attenuator operating under microprocessor control. The ring of
blue LEDs, act as a visual indication of the volume setting. This has the advantage that it is clearly visible when viewed from a
distance or when using the remote control. This method of volume control permanently ensures the highest fidelity without the
gradual degeneration of conventional motorised volume controls. The volume attenuator also controls the Pre-out and Bi-amp
out volume levels.
10
HYDRA
Remote control
DO NOT EXPOSE THIS UNIT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE
DO NOT USE IN DAMP CONDITIONS
NO USER SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE
REFER TO QUALIFIED SERVICE PERSONNEL
THIS UNIT MUST BE EARTHED
230 VAC 50/60Hz MAX 600W
OUT
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
OUT
LEFT
LEFT
RIGHT
CAUTION
RIGHT
VORSICHT
REMOVE POWER
VOR DEM ÖFFNEN
BEFORE OPENING
NETZSTECKER ZIEHEN
PRECISION AUDIO COMPONENT MANUFACTURED IN THE UNITED KINGDOM BY LEEMA ELECTRO ACOUSTICS LIMITED
SERIAL No.:
TUCANA
DO NOT EXPOSE THIS UNIT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE
DO NOT USE IN DAMP CONDITIONS
NO USER SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE
REFER TO QUALIFIED SERVICE PERSONNEL
THIS UNIT MUST BE EARTHED
230 VAC 50/60Hz MAX 600W
OUT
IN
IN
OUT
IN
LEFT SURROUND
RIGHT SURROUND
CAUTION
VORSICHT
REMOVE POWER
VOR DEM ÖFFNEN
BEFORE OPENING
NETZSTECKER ZIEHEN
PRECISION AUDIO COMPONENT MANUFACTURED IN THE UNITED KINGDOM BY LEEMA ELECTRO ACOUSTICS LIMITED
SERIAL No.:
HYDRA
BI-AMPING A TUCANA USING A HYDRA
11
HYDRA
Topology
Technical Discussion
Topology
Starting with the pre-amp and control stage, input selection is performed by gold over silver contact relays under control of the
microprocessor. The audio is then buffered by audiophile quality OP275 amplifiers in order to present the Burr Brown precision
attenuators with a low impedance drive signal. Next, the controlled signal passes to the dual-mono class AB power amplifiers
and also to the buffered preamp outputs.
The left and right power amplifiers are totally separate and have their own power transformers, rectifiers and reservoir capacitors.
A third transformer powers the control electronics, thus completely separating the microprocessor from the audio electronics.
The power amplifiers use a well established topology comprising differential input stage, class A voltage amplifier stage with
constant current load and class B output stage. Each stage is highly optimised following the general teachings of design guru
Doug Self, with notable exceptions drawn from our own design research.
Each output stage uses a class A driver stage and has three pairs of very high performance, hand matched output transistors.
Recently, some reviewers have been critical of the use of multiple output devices. This is completely unfounded as multiple
devices offer many benefits over single pairs of devices:
Distortion is greatly reduced at lower load impedances due to reduced beta droop.
Output impedance is reduced due to multiple parallel-connected emitter resistors.
Device electrical and thermal stresses are reduced offering increased reliability.
Output current capability is increased.
Safe operating area of the output stage is increased.
12
HYDRA
Topology
Contrary to another common misconception, ‘timing’ cannot be compromised.
The square wave performance of an amplifier is the ultimate timing test. A look at the square wave performance of a Hydra is
testament to the time domain performance of the design. If multiple devices did cause errors in the time domain, the resultant
square wave would be significantly degraded. This is simply not the case. Apart from the gentle rounding of the corners,
caused by amplifier input bandwidth filtering, the square wave response is virtually perfect and has no overshoot or ringing.
On the subject of ringing, if the amplifier is tested in to a load including a capacitive element, inaccurately trying to simulate an
electrostatic loudspeaker, ringing will be observed at the output in response to transient signals. In fact, this ringing is not caused
by the amplifier. It is simply the resonant combination of the amplifier output inductor and load capacitance. No notice should
be taken of any test reports including the level and makeup of this ringing, as the results are totally dependant upon load type
and applied stimuli.
The power amplifiers incorporate no output stage protection circuits. Leema designers feel that even quite complicated
protection schemes remain audible. If the output stage fails due to a short circuit or component failure, power supply fuses offer
safety protection and an auto-detect and disconnect circuit protects the loudspeakers from damage.
The resulting amplifier has the following characteristics:
Low noise
Very low distortion, typically better than class leading class A designs
High output current delivery
Low output impedance
Fast and detailed yet silky smooth audio presentation
Very robust and reliable if used correctly
Tucana 1KHz Square Wave
13
HYDRA
LIPS
The following section is intended for installers, system integrators and third party manufacturers.
What is LIPS?
LIPS or Leema Intelligent Protocol System, facilitates communication between various items in a Leema audio system. It allows
units such as Tucana, to control other items in a chain. Leema’s 5.2 surround system is a good example, where a Tucana
controls a Hydra and Corvus. Key information including volume level, input selection and power control is passed through the
bus enabling other units to operate in synchronisation. Intelligence is added within each receiving unit, for example, a Hydra
installed as part of a surround system ‘knows’ that it won’t be required when listening to a stereo source such as CD. Therefore,
when the Hydra ‘sees’ the CD input, it powers itself down.
Each Leema unit can be controlled via the LIPS bus. Controlling a Tucana externally for example, enables it to be used within a
home automation system.
LIPS Specifics
The LIPS bus is driven by an open-drain output. Leema can supply interface modules as required. The communication standard
follows the common RS232 format of No Parity, 8 data bits and 1 stop bit. The baud rate is 38400.
LIPS Packets
Each communication on the LIPS bus contains a packet of four data bytes as follows:
First a header is sent with a value of 255. This alerts the receivers to incoming data.
Next, a command header is sent. For a volume command, this would be 40. (see below for details).
Next, a value relating to the command is sent. For volume this would be 0 to 248.
Finally a tail byte is sent with a value of 0.
14
HYDRA
LIPS
LIPS Protocol Headers For further information, please contact Leema Technical Support.
Value = 20 ID header. This header is private and must not be issued by any controlling software.
Value = 30 This is a general command header. The command values are as follows:
10 = Infra Red control OFF. These commands control the local IR receiver
20 = Infra Red control ON.
100 = Power ON.
101 = Power OFF.
103 = Select Input CD
104 = Select Input TUNER
105 = Select Input AUX
106 = Select Input MULTI 1
107 = Select Input MULTI 2
108 = Select Input AV DIRECT
109 = Select Input TAPE
110 = LED ring ON
111 = LED ring OFF
Value = 40 Volume header. Valid command values are 0(mute) to 248(maximum volume)
Value = 50 Serial Pass Through. When a Tucana, Hydra or Corvus receives this header, the header and value are passed on up
the bus. This enables future expansion options.
Value = 60 This is issued by Corvus. The command value contains the sub filter frequency.
Value = 70 As 60. The command value contains the sub filter slope.
Value = 80 As 60. The command value contains the extract status.
Value = 90 Spare header for future use.
Value = 100 Spare header for future use.
15
HYDRA
Audio Specifications
Power Output: 8 ohms: 148 Watts RMS per channel, 4 ohms: 285 Watts RMS per channel
Minimum load impedance: 2 ohms.
Output Current: greater than +/- 50 Amps
Frequency response +0/-3dB @ 1W: 5Hz - 80KHz
Noise (A weighted, volume control minimum): -100dBm
Signal to Noise ratio (A weighted, ref: 285 Watts RMS 4 ohms): -104dB
THD (10 Watts RMS 4 ohms, 1KHz): 0.004%
THD (Max output before clipping, 4 ohms, 1KHz): 0.004%
Maximum DC offset: +/- 15mV
Sensitivity for maximum output (CD input): 565mV RMS
Sensitivity for maximum output (other inputs): 311mV RMS
Output Impedance: 0.057 ohms Damping Factor (8 ohms): 140
Specifications subject to change without notice.
16
Audio Specifications
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