null  null
AVA L O N
P URE C LASS A
DESIGN
M USIC R ECORDING S YSTEMS
AD2022
Pure Class A Dual Mono Discrete
Microphone & Instrument Preamplifier
M5
Pure Class A Mono Discrete
Microphone & Instrument Preamplifier
Operation Manual
© 2002 Avalon Industries Incorporated. Release 1.0.
AVA L O N
DESIGN
PURE CLASS A MUSIC RECORDING SYSTEMS
AD2022 & M5
Operation Manual
Avalon Industries, Inc., PO Box 5976, San Clemente, CA 92673
Tel: 949-492-2000 Fax: 949-492-4284 www.avalondesign.com
AVA L O N
DESIGN
PURE CLASS A MUSIC RECORDING SYSTEMS
AD2022 and M5 Table of Contents
1.0 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 Unpacking and Inspection
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.4
.4
.5
.6
2.0 Quick Start-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
2.1 Useful Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
6.0 Recording Applications . . . . . .
6.1 Using Microphones . . . . . . .
6.2 Acoustic Guitar/Upright Bass
6.3 Direct Bass Guitar . . . . . . . .
6.4 Keyboards & Synths . . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.21
.21
.21
.22
.22
7.0 FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions) .23
3.0 Safety and Grounding . . . . . . . . . . .8
3.1 Safety Instructions . . . . . . . . . . .8
3.2 Grounding Instructions . . . . . . . .8
3.3 AC Voltage Selection . . . . . . . . .8
3.4 Fuse Replacement . . . . . . . . . . .9
3.5 Rack mounting and Cooling . . .10
3.6 AC Power and Warm-up . . . . . .10
8.0 Trouble Shooting . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
4.0 AD2022 Operation and Controls . .11
4.1 Rear Panel Description . . . . . . .13
4.2 Using the AD2022 . . . . . . . . . . .14
4.3 Basic Operation . . . . . . . . . . . .14
4.4 Instrument Input (DI) . . . . . . . . .14
4.5 Balanced & Unbalanced Output 14
4.6 Input Source (Impedance) . . . . .15
4.7 Microphone Tests . . . . . . . . . . .15
11.0 M5 Technical Information . . . . . .29
11.1 M5 Recall Sheet . . . . . . . . . . .30
11.2 M5 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . .31
5.0 M5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
Appendix A - Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
Operation and Controls
Rear Panel Description .
Using the M5 . . . . . . . .
Basic Operation . . . . . .
Instrument Input (DI) . . .
Unbalanced Output . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.18
.19
.20
.20
.20
.20
9.0 Service & Contact Information . .25
10.0 AD2022 Technical Information . .26
10.1 AD2022 Recall Sheet . . . . . . .27
10.2 AD2022 Block Diagram . . . . .28
12.0 Warranty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
12.1 Returns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
13.0 Safety Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
AVA L O N
DESIGN
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Overview
Welcome to Avalon and the world of high
performance analog signal processing! The
Avalon AD2022 and M5 pure Class A
microphone and instrument preamplifiers
have been designed for optimal signal
integrity, ease of use and sonic excellence.
The AD2022 (M5) incorporates the most
advanced high-performance microphone
transformer available. Split low-ratio primary
windings are carefully combined within a
custom mu-metal core for an extended
smooth frequency response and very low
distortion. Sealed silver relays are used for all
routing and have minimal signal invasion. The
input selector, high pass filter, polarity-phase
reverse, +48v power and the 20dB input
attenuator (pad) all utilize these sealed silver
relays. A variable passive high pass filter
provides a minimum phase shift design while
eliminating low frequency rumble, wind noise
and mechanical vibration at subsonic levels.
This
operation
manual
incorporates
instructions for the AD2022 and M5
preamplifiers. These preamplifiers share the
same Pure Class A, synergistic design. The
AD2022 and M5 include many professional
features including high-voltage Class A
regulated power supplies, HI-Z instrument
inputs, variable-passive high pass filter and a
low-ratio microphone input transformer. This
unique design combination culminates into a
dynamically neutral preamplifier capable of
unmatched musicality.
Hand built in the U.S.A., the AD2022 (M5) uses
only the finest active and passive components
available. Many parts have been custommanufactured exclusively to Avalon’s
specifications. A "no compromise" approach in
every stage of design and production ensures
that your AD2022 (M5) will give many years of
dependable high-quality service.
Twin 100% discrete, high-voltage, Pure
Class A amplifiers are utilized in each channel
of the AD2022 and M5. The first amplifier
operates in a cascaded-cascode FET
configuration while the second stage amplifier
is fully bipolar. The twin amplifiers share the
total available gain requirement. This shared
architecture increases the high level
headroom capability, improves transient
response and doubles the internal bandwidth
of the ultra high performance Pure Class A
amplifiers.
Please take a moment to read this manual
and enjoy your Avalon experience!
Page 4
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
AVA L O N
High-current DC coupled, Class A amplifiers
are utilized for the output drive interface giving
the AD2022 headroom of +36dB (M5 = +30dB)
capability into all known loads. Two large, highquality analog VU meters indicate accurate
signal readings while bi-color LED’s offer fast
peak indication at 0dB and +20dB.
DESIGN
Introduction
1.2 Features
AD2022 & M5
Deep, musical sound-stage
Transparent amplification
100% Discrete pure Class A amplifiers
The AD2022 & M5 are world-class
preamplifiers designed to deliver smooth
detailed highs, delicate liquid midrange and
extended low frequency control. All
microphones, acoustic instruments and bass
guitars will benefit from these preamplifiers
and enable you to capture the full potential of
your creative performance. They are the
perfect partners for analog tape and digital
audio workstations (DAW’s).
Ultra high-quality custom input transformer
Sealed silver relays for all signal routing
Dual microphone and Hi-Z inputs
Gain switched in 4dB steps
Variable passive high pass filter
Low noise -126dB EIN
Large accurate analog VU meter(s)
Fast acting bi-color peak LED’s
Regulated phantom power supply (+48V)
Input polarity (phase) reverse
Discrete Class A regulated power supplies
Transformerless DC coupled outputs
External power supply 100-240V AC
Rugged stainless steel hardware
AD2022 Only
Selectable input impedance matching
Dual mono matched channels
+/-3dB fine output trim
Ultra high operating headroom +36dB
Inside view of AD2022
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
Balanced and unbalanced outputs
Page 5
Introduction
AVA L O N
DESIGN
1.3 Unpacking and Inspection
Your AD2022 (M5) was packed carefully at
the factory and includes the following items:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
AD2022 (M5) Preamplifier
B2T power supply
IEC AC power cable
4-pin PC-1 power supply cable for B2T
Registration card
(must be returned to activate warranty)
6. Operation Manual
We suggest that you keep the packing
materials should your unit ever require
service.
Note: Please complete and mail your
registration card to Avalon in order to
activate the warranty and receive
technical support.
AD2022 contents and packaging
Page 6
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
AVA L O N
2.0 Quick Start-up
The following chapter is designed to help you
get started using your AD2022 (M5) without
having to read the entire manual. Please
take time to read the manual at a later date as
there are many safety aspects and features
that will not be discussed here.
Hook it up, turn it on and play:
1. Check that the voltage selector card on
your B2T power supply is set for your local
AC voltage. (120V in U.S.) Refer to
Chapter 3.3 page 8 for details.
DESIGN
Quick Start-up
6. Plug your microphone into the Channel 1
XLR on the back of the unit and the
Channel 1 balanced (or unbalanced)
output to your monitoring system. (M5 plug mic into XLR input on back of unit and
the output to your monitoring system.)
7. If your microphone requires phantom
power, press in +48V. (M5 phantom +48V
switch is located on back of unit).
8. Talk into microphone. Disengage the -20dB
pad, and adjust gain as needed.
2.1 Useful Tips
Unity Level - The AD2022 (M5) is calibrated
for unity level where +4dBu output equals
zero on the VU meter (+4dBu=0VU). The bicolor signal LED turns green (on peaks) at
0dBu and red at +20dBu (clip at +36dBu on
AD2022 and +30dBu on M5).
INPUT - Use the input knob as the main gain
control. Each position gives +4dB of gain.
2. Connect the 4-pin cable from the B2T to
your AD2022 (M5) then plug the AC power
cable to your power source. Note: there is
NO power switch on the AD2022 (M5) or
the B2T. If you prefer a switched supply,
plug your unit into a switched AC power strip.
3. Turn the Preamp Gain to the lowest setting
(fully counter clockwise.) Press in the -20dB
pad. (a safety option if you have a high output
level microphone.)
4. Set the Output control to 0dB center position
(AD2022 only).
5. Set the source input selector to MIC (1,500
ohms) (AD2022 only).
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
OUTPUT (AD2022 only) - Use the output
control as a fine trim control or for gain riding
while recording.
BALANCED OUTPUT (AD2022 only) - The
electronic balanced output is transformerless
and DC-coupled, pin 2 hot and pin 3 cold.
UNBALANCED OUTPUT - The unbalanced
output is DC-coupled and single ended, pin 2
hot and pin 3 ground.
SOURCE INPUT (AD2022 only) - Use input
impedance settings for alternate sounds from
your microphones. See chapter 4, page 15 for
more details on input impedance.
Page 7
Safety and
Grounding
AVA L O N
DESIGN
3.0 Safety and Grounding
3.3 AC Voltage Selection
The following chapter describes how to
safely install your AD2022 (M5).
Before connecting the AD2022 to the AC
supply, check the operating voltage
located on the front of the B2T power
supply in the AC inlet connector.
3.1 Safety Instructions
This unit contains voltages that can cause
serious injury or death. Do not operate
with the covers removed. Improper
connection of the equipment-grounding cable
can result in a risk of electric shock.
Check with a qualified electrician or
serviceman if you are in doubt about your
electrical power or ground connection. The
AD2022 (M5) is for use with an AC supply as
selected by the AC voltage selector (located
within the AC inlet on the front of the B2T
power supply). Voltages are 100-120-220240 VAC +/-5%, 50-60Hz (85 watts for the
AD2022 and 28 watts for the M5.)
3.2 Grounding Instructions
Voltages available are 100-120-220-240VAC
+/-5%, 50-60Hz.
To change the AC voltage for your location:
1. Check that the AC power cable is NOT
connected to the AC inlet on the B2T.
2. Slide the plastic cover to the left to expose
the fuse and AC selector card.
Always connect the AD2022 (M5) to a
grounded AC power circuit.
If the unit should malfunction or become
"live", the chassis ground will provide the path
of least resistance for electric current to
reduce the risk of fatal shock.
The AC power cable must be plugged into an
appropriate outlet that is correctly installed
and grounded in accordance with all local
electrical safety codes and ordinances.
Warning! No ground adapter should ever
be used with this unit.
Page 8
3. Carefully remove the fuse by pulling the
lever labeled “FUSE PULL.”
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
AVA L O N
4. With a pair of needle nose pliers, carefully
pull the AC selector card straight out.
DESIGN
Safety and
Grounding
3.4 Fuse Replacement
The fuse on the AD2022 (M5) is located within
the AC plug assembly on the front of the B2T.
A fuse can blow if the AC selector card is
incorrectly set or if your unit malfunctions.
The B2T is supplied with a 250V, 1 amp slow
blow fuse.
To change the fuse:
1. Remove the AC power cable.
5. Turn the voltage selector card so that you
can read the correct voltage on top left. Then
carefully slide the card back into the slot.
2. Slide the plastic cover on the AC inlet to the
left to expose the fuse.
3. Pull the fuse lever to remove the fuse
(labeled FUSE PULL).
6. Connect your PC-1 (4 pin XLR) cable from
the B2T to your AD2022 (M5) then connect
the B2T to the IEC inlet connector via the
grounded AC power cable.
4. Replace fuse into fuse holder. Slide fuse
cover to the right. Connect grounded AC
power cable.
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
Page 9
Safety and
Grounding
AVA L O N
DESIGN
3.5 Rack Mounting and Cooling
The AD2022 is designed to be mounted in a
standard 19" equipment rack. You may purchase
an RM-1 rack mounting kit for your M5 (RM-2 for
racking two M5’s). Because Class A circuitry
generates heat, it is recommended that an
additional rack space above and below the unit
remain open for extra cooling. Avalon Design
has a 1U ventilation panel (VP-1) to keep your
rack mounted gear cool.
The AD2022 (M5) is shielded against
moderate electrical and magnetic fields, care
should be taken to avoid areas that are in
proximity to large motors or power
transformers. Locations near sources of high
radio frequency interference (RFI) such as
computers or digital effects devices should be
avoided.
M5 with RM-1 rack mounting kit
Be sure that the ventilation slots (located on
the top and bottom of the unit) are not
obstructed and air is allowed to flow easily
through the chassis. Never leave any
obstruction on top of the unit (such as papers
or books) blocking the ventilation slots. Also,
be sure that the heat sink mounted on the
rear panel of the AD2022 chassis has
adequate clearance.
Excessive heat is the primary cause
of component failures in electronic
equipment!
Good ventilation can help avoid premature
equipment breakdowns and assure a long
and consistent life for your equipment!
Always use all four front panel-mounting
holes when mounting the AD2022 (M5) in a
rack enclosure.
Page 10
VP1- 1U ventilation panels
3.6 AC Power and Warm-up
There is no AC power (on/off) switch on
the AD2022 (M5). This minimizes induced AC
noise and eliminates intermodulation
distortion created by stray magnetic fields.
Should you require AC switching, plug the AC
cord into a power strip or line conditioner.
For the best sonic performance,
allow your AD2022 (M5) to warm-up
for 30 minutes prior to recording.
This warm-up gives the electronics
time to stabilize and reach optimal
operating level.
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
AVA L O N
1
5
2
6
7
8
3
9
10
DESIGN
4
11
4.0 AD2022 Operation & Controls
The following chapter describes the front
panel controls and functions for the AD2022.
The AD2022 is a dual mono (two channel)
preamplifier. The functions on the left side
control Channel 1 (1-12) while the functions
on the right side control Channel 2 (13-24).
Operation and
Controls
13
12 17
14
18
19 20
15
16
21
22
23 24
4
& 13 HI-Z INSTRUMENT INPUT
1/4" unbalanced jack. High impedance input
selected when INPUT SOURCE is in DI
position (also known as DI direct injection).
Instruments such as electric/bass guitars,
and keyboards can be plugged into this jack
via a standard shielded instrument cable.
WARNING: DI maximum input +18dB.
1
& 14 INPUT (Gain Control)
Discrete resistor-loaded rotary switch controls
preamplifier gain (11 position). The gain
range on the input is +20dB to +64dB in +4dB
steps.
2
& 15 VU METER
The VU meter indicates the output level in dB.
Calibrated: +4dBu = 0 VU (balanced output).
5
& 17 -20dB (Pad)
Sealed silver relay selects a -20dB resistive
attenuator pre the microphone input
transformer (Pad only on microphone input.)
6
3
& 16 OUTPUT (Fine Adjustment)
Fine adjustment of the output level. Variable
conductive plastic potentiometer +/-3dB
range. The output control can also be used
for gain riding while recording.
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
& 18 INPUT SOURCE (impedance)
Transformer balanced low-ratio, 50, 150, 600
and 1,500 ohm (MIC) input load selection.
Use this for achieving alternate sounds from
your microphones and cables. As you lower
the input impedance you place a load on
the microphone and cable. For more details
see page 15 on impedance selection.
Page 11
Operation and
Controls
AVA L O N
7
& 19 +48V (phantom power)
+48V phantom power is applied to the
microphone input XLR on pins 2 and 3.
Phantom power is necessary for condenser
microphones that do not use their own
external power supply.
Notes: Microphones that require phantom
power will not work unless the +48V switch is
engaged. Be careful, ribbon microphones can
be damaged by using +48V phantom power.
DESIGN
10
& 22 POLARITY (Phase Reverse)
Reverses the input polarity of the
microphone input only. Experiment with the
phase switch to change the phase in multiple
microphone and instrument applications. The
AD2022 operates in "true phase" from the
input source to the output. A positive
voltage on input pin 2 yields a positive
voltage on output pin 2.
11
& 23 FILTER (Variable Frequency)
Continuously variable rotary control adjusts
the cut-off frequency measured in Hertz (Hz)
of the passive high-pass filter. This sonically
transparent filter rolls off the low-end
frequencies at 6dB per octave (gentle slope)
and works well for reducing room rumble,
muddiness or microphone handling noise.
8
& 20 SIGNAL (Output LED)
Bi-color LED flashes green at 0dBu and red
at +20dBu. Red signal LED does not
indicate clipping, the AD2022 clips at
+36dBu.
9
& 21 DC (Power Indicator)
Blue LED indicates the DC power is
operational.
Page 12
12
& 24 FILTER (In)
Engages the high pass filter. When the
FILTER switch is out, the filter is hard wire
bypassed.
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
AVA
LL
OO
NN
AVA
Operation and
Controls
DD
EE
SS
IG
NN
IG
1
2
3
8
4
5
6
7
4.1 Rear Panel Description
1
B2T POWER CONNECTION
PC-1 (XLR-4) cable connects to the power
input connector on the external B2T power
supply.
4
& 6 UNBALANCED LINE OUTPUT
Male XLR-3. Unbalanced DC coupled, +30dB
maximum output into 600 ohms.
Pin 1 ground
Pin 2 hot (+)
Pin 3 ground
Note: When using unbalanced equipment,
always use the dedicated unbalanced XLR
output. This output can also be used with
balanced input devices.
5
2
& 3 MICROPHONE INPUT
Female XLR-3. Balanced microphone input
when INPUT SOURCE is set to 50, 100, 150
or MIC. Accepts microphone level signals to
+30dB maximum (with -20dB pad engaged)
and provides +48V when phantom power
switch is engaged.
& 7 BALANCED LINE OUTPUT
Male XLR-3. Balanced DC coupled, +36dB
maximum into 600 ohms.
Pin 1 ground
Pin 2 hot (+)
Pin 3 cold (-)
Note: Do not use this balanced output with
unbalanced inputs as the circuit design is
optimized for balanced lines only.
8
HEATSINK
Solid aluminum heatsink. Allow adequate air
flow for cooling.
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
Page 13
Operation and
Controls
AVA L O N
DESIGN
4.2 Using the AD2022
4.4 Instrument Input (DI)
The AD2022 is simple to operate and can be
used with a variety of microphones including
dynamics, condensers and ribbons.
You can use the AD2022 as an instrument
preamplifier for guitars, bass, synths or
keyboards. The AD2022 DI input can also be
used as an unbalanced line level input signal
conditioner.
4.3 Basic Operation
WARNING: DI maximum input +18dB.
IMPORTANT!
ALWAYS CHECK YOUR CABLES FIRST!
1. Connect the PC-1 (XLR 4 pin) cable from
the B2T to your AD2022 then plug the AC
power cable to your power source.
2. Turn INPUT fully counter clockwise
3. Select INPUT SOURCE to MIC
4. Plug microphone into Channel 1 input
(microphone XLR) on rear of unit.
WARNING: Turn down your monitors
when changing microphones, cables
and activating +48V.
5. Connect Channel 1 balanced (or unbalanced)
output into desired channel on recording device
(or monitoring system for testing).
6. If your mic requires phantom power, press
in +48V. Never use +48V on ribbon
microphones.
CH 1
Input
CH 1
Balanced
Output
8. Talk into mic and adjust INPUT level.
9. Set OUTPUT at 0dB position and adjust
fine trim as required.
10. Engage High Pass Filter switch and select
low frequency roll-off to reduce rumble and
sub-harmonic noise (if required).
Page 14
Plug the instrument into the 1/4” jack on the
front and select the INPUT SOURCE to DI.
The -20dB pad and phase reverse do not
affect the DI instrument input.
4.5 Balanced & Unbalanced Output
The AD2022 provides balanced and
unbalanced outputs to optimize the absolute
minimum signal path design. The balanced
output is +6dB higher than the unbalanced
output. (Both outputs can be used
simultaneously.)
CH 1
Unbal
Output
CH 1
Balanced
Output
The balanced output is transformerless and
DC coupled. The unbalanced output is
“single-ended” and is the most direct signal
path. For optimum performance in an
unbalanced system, use the unbalanced
output.
Having balanced and unbalanced outputs
is a feature that enables you to choose
between two high performance output
stages!
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
AVA L O N
4.6 Input Source (Impedance)
The AD2022 includes a rotary switch that
enables you to change the preamplifier’s
input impedance. The switch labeled INPUT
SOURCE selects between four different input
impedance values: 50, 150, 600, and 1,500
ohms (MIC).
DESIGN
Operation and
Controls
Impedance Matching
Most microphone specifications do not list an
optimal
source
impedance. Typically
microphone specifications list their “nominal
output impedance” (usually 50 ohms) in which
the microphone will meet its specified
performance.
4.7 Microphone Tests
To help you better understand the effects of the
input impedance selector, Avalon conducted
a range of tests with over twenty microphones
including condensers, dynamics, tube, and
ribbons.
Most professional microphone preamplifiers
have an input impedance between 600 ohms
and 2K (2,000) ohms. With a higher input
impedance, the signal is hotter and often the
frequency range is more extended. As you
lower the INPUT SOURCE impedance, a
“load” is placed across the microphone. This
causes the sound characteristics of the
microphone to change while some mics may
change dramatically. Lowering the input
impedance can reduce the output level of the
microphone. The input gain can be increased
to make up for any loss in level.
Cable capacitance is also a factor when the
impedance changes. Lowering the input
impedance can in some cases “tune” your
cable. Some lower quality cables and long
cables have higher amounts of capacitance
and helps balance the high to low frequency
filtering effects caused by high-capacitance
cables. The input load selector enables you to
“swamp” or “dampen” the non-musical effects
of poor cables.
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
The following microphones were used in the
tests:
AKG C414EB / C12VR / 451EB / 451W / D112,
Audio Technica ATM25, DPA (B&K), Brawner
Valvet, Neumann TLM 103 / TLM 147 / U67 /
U87 / KM84, Royer SF-1/ 121, RCA 77,
Sennheiser 441 / 421, Shure SM57 / SM58
and Sound Deluxe Gold.
Typical microphone and equalized speaker
placement used in impedance tests.
Page 15
Operation and
Controls
AVA L O N
DESIGN
A selection of the microphones used in the “input impedance” evaluation tests.
Microphone Tests
Our test results showed that changing the input
impedance alters the sound of some
microphones. There are three main audible
elements that effect the sound of a microphone
when the input impedance is changed:
(i) frequency response, (ii) distortion, and
(iii) cable capacitance (filtering effects).
These sonic differences can be explained
technically with mathematical formulas.
However, for simplicity we have taken a
musical approach to show the results of
changing the transformer balanced input
impedance on the AD2022 microphone
preamp.
Test Procedure
Each microphone was tested by sending a
20Hz to 20kHz swept tone through a
reference monitor. The microphone output
was connected to the input of the AD2022.
The AD2022 output was the connected to an
FFT frequency analyzing device. For this
summary, each microphone was tested with
an input impedance of (1) 1,500 ohms
(highest setting) and (2) 50 ohms (lowest
setting).
Frequency Response
The frequency response or overall bandwidth
of a microphone can change when the input
impedance is lowered (or raised).
Page 16
The following graph shows the Amplitude
(dBu vertical axis) vs. Frequency (Hz
horizontal axis) for a popular large
Lower curve is 50 ohm impedance
diaphragm condenser microphone.
The top curve is the plot of the input impedance
set to “MIC” (1,500) ohms (nominal response is
flat). While the lower curve is the input
impedance set to 50 ohms. As you can see,
there is a low frequency (-3dB at 400Hz) roll off
to -20dB at 50Hz. This indicates a 10dB
reduction below 400Hz with consistent tracking
to 50Hz. In this case the lower impedance
setting may sound clearer and more detailed
on a muddy or boomy acoustic guitar. This
reduced low frequency output could be caused
by the microphone’s coupling devices which
are acting as a high pass filter when driving a
lower impedance input. Not all microphones
follow the same patterns when the input
impedance is lowered.
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
AVA L O N
DESIGN
Operation and
Controls
As seen in the graph the lower the input
impedance the higher the harmonic distortion in
the upper midrange between 3kHz and 4kHz.
This may give the microphone a “harder” and
more “electric” sound at these frequencies. The
graph also indicates this microphone’s active
electronics and output drive capability are
directly limited by the lower input impedance.
Lower curve is 50 ohm impedance
The next example is a plot from a dynamic
microphone. As the input impedance is lowered, there is a roll-off in the high frequencies
beginning around 5kHz and rolling off approximately 3dB above 12kHz. The bass frequencies are also affected. A lower impedance
setting in the above example may achieve a
slightly “softer” tone. However the higher
impedance setting will make the source more
“open” and have greater presence.
Distortion(THD)
Distortion is a measurable and audible factor
on some microphones when the input impedance on the AD2022 is changed.
The following graph plots total harmonic
distortion (THD) vs. Frequency (Hz) for a
popular small diaphragm condenser
microphone.
Higher curve is 50 ohm impedance
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
Cable Capacitance
All cables have a fixed resistance and
capacitance. When these two elements are
included in a circuit, a low pass (high cut) filter
is created. The frequency of where the low
pass filter begins is a function of the resistance
and capacitance. As the input impedance is
lowered (in most cases) the capacitance effect
is also reduced. The net result is that the
frequency where the low pass filter begins is
raised thus delivering more of the high
frequencies than the higher input impedance.
This is sometimes inaudible but can be a factor
when using microphones with longer lengths or
low quality cables. Take time to compare your
cables. They can often provide the final “sonic
solution” for a particular recording application.
Conclusion
Our test results concluded that every
microphone reacts differently when the
impedance is changed. We found no patterns
in microphone types (ie. dynamics,
condensers, ribbons.) There is not always a
“best setting” for a particular microphone, but
rather a multitude of hidden “voices” within
each microphone-cable combination.
Trust your ears and use the input
impedance control as a “creative tone
shaper” to enhance the sonic signature
from your microphones and cables!
Page 17
Operation and
Controls
AVA L O N
1
4
DESIGN
2
5
6
5.0 M5 Operation and Controls
The following chapter describes the front
panel controls and functions for the M5.
1
MICROPHONE (Gain Control)
Discrete resistor-loaded rotary switch controls
the preamplifier gain (11 position). The gain
range is +20dB to +64dB in +4dB steps.
2
VU METER
The VU meter indicates the output level in dB.
Calibrated: +4dBu = 0 VU.
3
FILTER (Variable Frequency High-pass)
Continuously variable rotary control adjusts
the cut-off frequency measured in Hertz (Hz)
of the passive high-pass filter. This sonically
transparent filter rolls off low-end frequencies
at 6dB per octave (gentle slope) and works
well for reducing room rumble, muddiness or
microphone handling noise.
3
7
8
9
5
-20dB (pad)
Sealed silver relay selects a -20dB pretransformer resistive attenuator (pad).
Microphone input only!
6
SIGNAL-LED
Bi-color LED flashes green at 0dBu and red
at +20dBu. Red signal LED does not
indicate clipping, the M5 clips at +30dBu.
7
DC-LED
Blue LED indicates the DC power is operational.
8
HI-Z INPUT (Instrument)
Selects 1/4" unbalanced jack on the rear of
the chassis. Instruments, acoustic guitars,
electric/bass guitars, synths and keyboards
can be plugged into this jack via a standard
shielded instrument cable.
WARNING: DI maximum input +18dB.
4
POLARITY (Phase Reverse)
Reverses the input polarity of the
microphone input only. Experiment with the
phase switch to defeat phase cancellation
and create musical effects.
The M5 operates in "true phase" from the
input source to the output. A positive voltage
on input pin 2 yields a positive voltage on
output pin 2.
Page 18
9
FILTER (In)
Engages the high pass 6dB per octave
variable filter. When the FILTER switch is not
engaged, the filter is hard wire bypassed with
a sealed silver relay.
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
AVA L O N
1
DESIGN
2
3
5
5.1 Rear Panel Description
1
B2T POWER CONNECTION
PC-1 (XLR-4) cable connects to the power input
connector on the external B2T power supply.
2
+48V / 130V (phantom power)
Three position toggle switch.
Left: 130 Volt DPA (B&K) power (optional)
Middle: Off - Use when using instrument jack
or dynamic/ribbon microphones.
Right: +48V phantom power for condenser
microphones.
Note: Phantom power is applied to the
microphone input XLR. Both pins 2 and 3
carry the phantom power. Microphones that
require phantom power will not work
unless the +48V switch on rear of M5 is
selected.
3
MICROPHONE INPUT
Female XLR-3 for microphone level signal.
(+30dB maximum with -20dB pad engaged).
Also provides +48V phantom power when
+48V switch on rear is selected to right position.
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
Operation and
Controls
4
6
4
UNBALANCED LINE OUTPUT
Male XLR-3 unbalanced DC coupled, +30dB
maximum into 600 ohms.
Pin 1 ground
Pin 2 hot (+)
Pin 3 ground
Note: The M5 output is supplied as
unbalanced. The optional JT-1 Jensen output
transformer can be factory fitted for balanced
output operation. The JT-1 option does not
alter or improve the sonic performance of the
M5. If you are using cables in excess of 100
feet (30 meters) the JT-1 may be a worthwhile
consideration.
5
DPA (B&K) MICROPHONE INPUT
Female XLR-4 for DPA (B&K) microphones that
require +130V power. (Optional BK-1 power
card available, but not included in standard M5.)
6
HIGH Z INSTRUMENT INPUT
1/4" unbalanced jack. High impedance input
selected when HIGH-Z push button is
engaged on front panel. Also known as DI
(direct injection). Instruments, electric/bass
guitars and keyboards can be directly
plugged into this jack via a standard shielded
instrument cable.
WARNING: DI maximum input +18dB.
Page 19
Operation and
Controls
AVA L O N
DESIGN
5.2 Using the M5
5.4 Instrument Input (DI)
The M5 is simple to operate and can be used
with a variety of microphones including
dynamics, condensers and ribbons.
You can use the M5 as an instrument
preamplifier for guitars, bass, synths or
keyboards. The M5 DI input can also be used
as an unbalanced line level input signal
conditioner.
5.3 Basic Operation
IMPORTANT!
WARNING: DI maximum input +18dB.
ALWAYS CHECK YOUR CABLES FIRST!
1. Connect the PC-1 (XLR 4) pin cable from
the B2T to your M5 then plug the AC power
cable to your power source.
2. Turn MICROPHONE input fully counter
clockwise.
WARNING: Turn down your monitors
when changing microphones, cables
and activating +48V.
3. Plug your microphone into the XLR input
connector on the rear of the unit.
4. Connect output into desired channel on
your recording device (or monitoring system
for testing).
5. If your mic requires phantom power, select
+48V on rear. Never use +48V on ribbon
microphones.
6. Talk into mic and adjust MICROPHONE
input level.
8. Press in High Pass Filter and select low
frequency roll-off to reduce rumble and subharmonic noise (if required).
Page 20
Plug your instrument into the 1/4” jack on the
rear of the chassis and engage the HI-Z
switch on the front panel. The -20dB pad is
not available for the DI instrument input.
5.5 Unbalanced Output
The M5 output is single-ended and DC
coupled. This simple design minimizes the
signal path and provides the most natural
sound possible with the lowest noise.
Note: Always connect pin 3 to ground to
ensure correct loading on balanced line
inputs following the M5 in the signal chain.
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
AVA L O N
DESIGN
Recording
Applications
6.0 Recording Applications
6.2 Acoustic Guitar/Upright Bass
The following diagrams show you how to use
your AD2022 in a recording session.
Two channel recording - Direct signal from
pick-up and microphone to capture both
direct signal and room ambience.
6.1 Using Microphones
Microphones direct to Digital Audio
Workstation (DAW) or tape machine. Use this
set up for vocals (typically one microphone),
simultaneous two channel recording such as
kick and snare drum, or capturing the stereo
image of an acoustic instrument, eg. piano or
drum overheads.
Microphones
Input Source
set to MIC
Ch1 Input on rear
Instrument cable
from guitar
Microphone placed
in front of guitar
Ch2 Input on rear
Ch1 1/4” input on front
Input set to DI
Ch2 Input on rear
Input set to MIC
AD2044
Compressor
(optional)
Tape machine or
DAW
AD2055
Equalizer
(optional)
Route AD2022 directly into
recording device, and use
console for monitoring only
A/D converters
Line Inputs
Monitors
Monitors
DAW
or Tape machine
Mixing console
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
Page 21
Recording
Applications
AVA L O N
DESIGN
6.3 Direct Bass Guitar
6.4 Keyboards & Synths
Direct signal from bass to recording device.
Keyboard preamplifier
keyboards and synths.
for
low
output
WARNING: DI maximum input +18dB.
Note: many newer keyboards deliver linelevel outputs and do not require the AD2022
preamp for boosting to line level. To use your
AD2022 for line level signal conditioning,
connect line-level source to XLR microphone
input on rear of AD2022 and press in -20dB
pad (maximum input +36dB).
Ch1 1/4” input on front
Instrument cable
from bass guitar
Input Source set to DI
Ch1, Ch2 1/4” inputs on front
AD2044
Compressor
(optional)
AD2055
Equalizer
(optional)
AD2055
Equalizer
(optional)
AD2044
Compressor
(optional)
Tape machine or
DAW
Route AD2022 directly into
recording device, and use
console for monitoring only
Input Source set to DI
Tape machine or
DAW
Tape Channel Output
Line Input
Route AD2022 directly into
recording device, and use
console for monitoring only
Line Inputs
Monitors
Mixing console
Monitors
Page 22
Mixing console
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
AVA L O N
7.0 FAQs
The following are answers to Frequently
Asked Questions about the AD2022 & M5:
Q: Is the AD2022 (M5) durable enough for
the road?
A: Yes. the AD2022 (M5) and all Avalon
equipment is literally “built like a tank.” Steel
chassis, 1/4” thick metal faceplate, metal
knobs, all circuit boards are mounted to
chassis with stainless steel hardware.
Q: Will the AD2022 (M5) continue to work
when I travel to different countries?
A: Yes. The B2T power supply for the AD2022
(M5) has selectable voltages: 100V, 120V,
220V, and 240V. It is easy to change the
voltage. See chapter 3.3 (page 8).
Q: Will the AD2022 (M5) work with my
unbalanced inputs on my recording
device?
A: Yes. The AD2022 features both balanced
and unbalanced outputs. Make sure that your
cables are wired the same (pin 2 hot). You can
use a cable with an XLR on one end and an
RCA or 1/4” on the other. This will work fine for
the unbalanced system, as long as the cables
are not more than 20 ft (6 meters) in length.
The M5 output is unbalanced only and works
well with both balanced and unbalanced input
devices.
Q: Will the AD2022 (M5) work with a
recording device designed for -10dB
operation?
A: Yes. However the signal coming from the
AD2022 (M5) may be too hot. You may need
to press the -20dB pad so the signal more
closely matches the -10dB machine. If you
have a choice, always run at +4dB.
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
DESIGN
FAQs
Q: What kind of microphones work best
with the AD2022 (M5)?
A: The AD2022 (M5) was designed to work
with all types of microphones. (ie. condensers,
dynamics, ribbons, etc.) It works great with
FET condensers as well as tube condensers.
Microphone choice and selection is a matter of
taste.
Q: Can I use the AD2022 (M5) live as a
microphone preamp and as a DI box?
A: Yes. Many touring artists are currently using
the AD2022 (M5) as the primary vocal mic
preamp as well as a preamp for bass and
guitars.
Q: Will the AD2022 (M5) “enhance” the
signal going to a digital recorder?
A: Yes. The AD2022 (M5) will give the signal a
rich and deep sound. The low frequencies will
be more extended and your recording will
sound bigger. It will bring your digital
recordings to life!
Q: What are the main differences between
the microphone preamplifiers in the
Vt-737sp and the AD2022 (M5)?
A: The Vt-737sp is a vacuum tube preamp
(uses four dual triode tubes) and includes an
opto-compressor and equalizer. The AD2022
(dual channel) and M5 (mono), are Avalon’s
“top of the line” ultra-high performance solid
state microphone preamps. The AD2022 (M5)
preamp features 100% discrete electronics
and no tubes. All Avalon Design preamps run
in Class A mode and have enormous
headroom and wonderful musicality. Sonically,
the Vt-737sp has a more “close-up” sound
whereas the AD2022 (M5) has a larger and
more extended sound stage giving a deeper
and more detailed three dimensional image
(you hear more of “the room”).
Page 23
Trouble Shooting
AVA L O N
8.0 Trouble Shooting
If you experience any problems with your
AD2022 (M5) always make sure you isolate
the cause to your preamp. In many cases
a bad cable or another piece of equipment
in the signal path can produce less than
excellent results.
To isolate the problem, remove as many
pieces of extraneous gear in the signal path
as possible. If you believe that your AD2022
(M5) has a problem, set up the following test
system:
ALWAYS CHECK YOUR CABLES FIRST!
DESIGN
2. Connect the output of the AD2022 (M5)
directly to your powered speakers or monitor
system. Use the INPUT gain control to adjust the
volume.
If you have isolated the problem to the
AD2022 (M5) please check the table below for
suggested solutions.
Other problems
If you have any technical questions or are
experiencing problems not listed in our Trouble
Shooting Table, please call your nearest dealer
or the Avalon factory at 949-492-2000 or fax to
949-492-4284. You can also email Avalon at
[email protected]
1. Plug your input source (microphone or
instrument) into the AD2022 (M5).
Problem
Cause
Solution
No Power
Power cable on B2T not securely
attached into connector
Check PC-1 power cable, AC source
and IEC power cable
No Power
Fuse blown due to power surge or
improper AC voltage setting
Replace fuse and check AC voltage
setting on B2T power supply (p. 8)
Lights dim /
no sound
Improper AC voltage setting
Check AC voltage setting on B2T
power supply (p. 8)
No sound
Incorrect input selector position
Make sure input source selector
switch is set to the correct position
(DI for HI-Z input) (M5 check Hi-Z)
No sound
Bad cable or connectors
Check cables on input and output
No sound
+48v not selected for a microphone
that requires phantom power
Turn on +48V to supply microphone
with phantom power
Hum or buzzing
noise
bad cables, ground loop or wire
missing from connector link
check all cables and grounding. Isolate
chassis of preamp from equipment rack.
Distorted sound
Microphone or input source
overloading
Change microphone or input source;
lower input gain, press -20dB pad
Distorted sound
AD2022 (M5) may be overheating
Make sure AD2022 (M5) has good
ventilation (p. 10)
Recording device is -10dB device,
Overloading
recording device AD2022 (M5) is +4dB device
Page 24
Press in -20dB pad to attenuate to a
usable level.
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
AVA L O N
DESIGN
Service Information
Trouble Shooting Continued
Problem
Cause
Solution
Drop in level
/ Low ouput
Pin 2 or 3 not connected on XLR mic
cable
Check / change XLR mic cables
No bass or Low
Frequencies
Pin 2 or 3 not connected on XLR mic
cable
Check / change XLR mic cables
Hiss or HF noise Bad cable, dirty XLR connector pins
bad microphone
Check / change XLR mic cables
Check / change microphone
Clip LED Red,
VU small
movement
Make sure device following AD2022
(M5) can handle the high output
High content of peak transients and
low average signal level
9.0 Service and
Contact Information
Your AD2022 (M5) is built to withstand many
years of high performance music making. If
you experience any malfunctions or
problems, please contact the dealer where
your unit was purchased. If your AD2022
(M5) has outlasted your dealer, please
contact Avalon directly.
External Cleaning
The AD2022 (M5) can be cleaned using a
mild cleaner such as 409 or Windex. Do not
use abrasive cleaners or petroleum-based
solvents.
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
Contact Information
Avalon Design
PO Box 5976
San Clemente, CA 92673
United States of America
Tel: 949-492-2000
Fax: 949-492-4284
Email: [email protected]
Website: www.avalondesign.com
Page 25
Technical
Information
AVA L O N
DESIGN
10.0 AD2022 Technical Information
Output type: XLR connector, pin 2 hot
Specifications
Noise EIN unweighted: -126dB 150 ohm
Circuit topology: Twin Cascode FET and
bipolar low level signal amplifiers, highvoltage, 100% discrete, symmetrical Pure
Class A
Noise 20-20kHz unweighted: -102dBu
Distortion (THD, IMD) @ 1kHz: 0.05%
Frequency Response -3dB: 1 to 120kHz
Input type and load: Transformer balanced
low-ratio, 50, 150, 600 and 1k5 ohm input
load selection
Maximum mic level: +36dB balanced XLR
pin 2 hot (with -20dB passive attenuator)
Maximum instrument level: +18dB at 100k
ohms instrument input level, standard mono
1/4 inch jack.
Input attenuator: -20dB resistive pretransformer primary, sealed silver relay
Phantom power: +48v regulated 50mA
capability, sealed silver relay
High pass filter: Passive, variable from 30Hz
to 185Hz @ 6dB per octave, sealed silver
relay by-pass
Polarity reverse: sealed silver relay on
microphone input only
Bandwidth (-3dB): DC to 1MHz
Output meter: Illuminated analog VU meter
0dB=+4dBu (balanced output)
Peak meter: Bi-color LED’s 0dB and +20dB
peak detection circuit
AC power supply B2T: External toroidal
100v to 240v, 50-60Hz selectable, 85 watts
maximum. Internal DC regulation on AD2022.
Cables: 1 x 8 ft 4-pin AC cable (PC-1),
1 x 8 ft AC standard IEC cable included
AD2022 Dimensions: 19 x 12 x 3.5 inches
482 x 305 x 89 mm
AD2022 Weight: 15 lbs (6.8kg)
B2T Dimensions: 5 x 7 x 3.25 in
127 x 177 x 83mm
B2T Weight: 7lbs (3.2kg)
Gain range input: +20dB to +64dB in 4dB
steps
Gain range output: +/-3dB
conductive plastic potentiometer
variable
Dimensions - shipping carton:
24 x 21.5 x 7.5 inches
610 x 546 x 190 mm
Weight packed: 25 lbs. ( 11.4 kg)
Maximum output level: +36dB balanced 600
ohms, (+30dB unbalanced) DC coupled,
discrete symmetrical Pure Class A
Page 26
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
2
PREAMPLIFIER
2022
AD
Pure Class A
1
PREAMPLIFIER
2022
AD
Pure Class A
62
3
DC
18
62
+48V
58
600
MIC
SOURCE
2
150
INPUT
50
DI
-20dB
+dB
54
26
-
VU
0
CHANNEL TWO
decibels
7 5
1
+
2
3
DC
2
AD2022
Avalon Design is a division of Avalon Industries, Inc. c 2001
3
80
35
40
0
1
80
180
140
100
120
Hz
FILTER
30
50
2
2.5
FILTER
3
1.5
180
140
100
120
-dB+
1
POLARITY
2.5
1.5
30
50
2
2.5
FILTER
3
1.5
DESIGN
MICROPHONE PREAMPLIFIER
Pure Class A
PURE CLASS A PREAMPLIFIER
SIGNAL
20
10
3 2 1
AVALON
35
40
1
-dB+
POLARITY
3
0
OUTPUT
42
50
22
+
2
2.5
2
1
INPUT
38
46
CHANNEL ONE
decibels
VU
1
PURE CLASS A PREAMPLIFIER
-
10
0
1.5
OUTPUT
Hz
FILTER
600
MIC
SIGNAL
20
7 5
3 2 1
AVALON
SOURCE
1
150
+48V
58
30
34
+dB
INPUT
50
DI
-20dB
22
54
26
46
50
18
42
30
34
38
INPUT
AVALON AD2022 PREAMPLIFIER RECALL SHEET
AVA L O N
Technical
Information
10.1 AD2022 Recall Sheet
Page 27
Page 28
BALANCED
600 OHM
+36dB MAX
LINE
OUTPUT
+12v
MIC
600
150
50
DI
INPUT
SELECTOR
HI-CURRENT
DISCRETE
LINE DRIVER
SERVO
HI-CURRENT
DISCRETE
LINE DRIVER
150
OHM
SERVO
RELAY
600
OHM
INST.
INPUT
RELAY
MIC ~ INST
RELAY
HI-Z
FILTER
+48v
+36v -36v
B~P
2010 DISCRETE
PURE CLASS A
AMPLIFIER
50
OHM
RELAY
ON
2022
ON
LED
DRIVER
+
-
METER
BUFFER
-O
//
+36v
0dB=+4dBu
2010 DISCRETE
PURE CLASS A
AMPLIFIER
+36v
green 0dB
red +20dB
SIGNAL
vu
VU METER
+18dB ~ +62dB
INPUT GAIN
RELAYS
+12v
VU
LAMPS
80v AC (B2T)
+48v
+12v
HIPASS
IN
RELAY
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
TRIM
0v
+36v
-36v
0v2
+20v
40vAC
TO CH.2
0v
+36v
-36v
0v2
+20v
40vAC
PSU
IN
-3dB~+3dB
Avalon Industries, Inc. San Clemente, California. U.S.A.
Avalon Design is a division of Avalon Industries, Inc. c 2001
Pure Class A Microphone & Instrument Preamplifier
1
2
3
4
5
6
DC
OUTPUT
DESIGN
-36v +36v
-15v +15v
+20v
FREQUENCY
30~185Hz
FILTER
ON
HI-PASS
+36v
AVALON AD2022 SIGNAL DIAGRAM
AVALON
+20v
40v-0-40v
DC REGULATOR
SERVO
2012
DISCRETE
FET CLASS A
AMPLIFIER
FET
-36v
18 22 26 30 34 38 42 46 50 54 58 62
-36v
B~P
MICROPHONE
TRANSFORMER
+20v -15v +12v
RELAY
0v3
ON
PHANTOM POLARITY
+48v
REVERSE
+48v
POWER
RELAY
-20dB
PAD
RELAY
-20dB PAD
INPUT
AVA L O N
UNBALANCED
600 OHM
+30dB MAX
LINE
OUTPUT
BALANCED
50~1k5 OHM
+36dB MAX
MICROPHONE
INPUT
UNBALANCED
100k OHM
+18dB MAX
DI ~ INST.
INPUT
Technical
Information
DESIGN
10.2 AD2022 Block Diagram
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
AVA L O N
DESIGN
Technical
Information
11.0 M5 Technical Information
Noise EIN unweighted: -126dB 150 ohm
Specifications
Noise 20-20kHz unweighted: -102dBu
Circuit topology: Twin Cascode FET and
bipolar low level signal amplifiers, highvoltage, 100% discrete, symmetrical Pure
Class A
Distortion (THD, IMD) @ 1kHz: 0.05%
Frequency Response -3dB: 1 to 120kHz
Bandwidth (-3dB): DC to 1MHz
Input type and load: Transformer balanced
low-ratio 1k5 ohm input load selection
Maximum mic level: +36dB balanced XLR
pin 2 hot (with -20dB passive attenuator)
Maximum instrument level: +18dB at 100k
ohms instrument input level, standard mono
1/4 inch jack.
Input attenuator: -20dB resistive pretransformer primary, sealed silver relay
Phantom power: +48v regulated 50mA
capability, sealed silver relay. (BK-1 +130V
DPA (B&K) option available.)
High pass filter: Passive, variable from 30Hz
to 185Hz @ 6dB per octave, sealed silver
relay by-pass
Polarity reverse: sealed silver relay on
microphone input
Gain range input: +20dB to +64dB in 4dB
steps
Maximum output level: +30dB unbalanced
600 ohms, DC coupled, discrete symmetrical
pure Class A
Output meter: Illuminated analog VU meter
0dB=+4dBu
Peak meter: Bi-color LED’s 0dB and +20dB
peak detection circuit
AC power supply B2T: External toroidal
100v to 240v, 50-60Hz selectable, 28 watts
maximum. Internal DC regulation on M5.
Cables: 1 x 8 ft 4-pin AC cable (PC-1),
1 x 8 ft AC standard IEC cable included
M5 Dimensions: 8.5 x 3.5 x 12 inches
216 x 88 x 305 mm
M5 Weight: 15 lbs (6.8kg)
B2T Dimensions: 5 x 7 x 3.25 in
127 x 177 x 83mm
B2T Weight: 7lbs (3.2kg)
Dimensions - shipping carton:
24 x 21.5 x 7.5 inches
610 x 546 x 190 mm
Weight packed: 25 lbs. ( 11.4 kg)
Output type: XLR connector, pin 2 hot
(optional balanced JT-1 Jensen transformer)
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
Page 29
Page 30
+dB
-20dB
INPUT
SIGNAL
20
-
10
VU
3 2 1
0
M5
OUTPUT LEVEL
decibels
7 5
1
+
2
POWER
3
HI-Z
20
INPUT
35
40
50
Hz
70
85
185
130
100
95
FILTER
FILTER
-20dB
INPUT
SIGNAL
20
-
10
VU
0
M5
OUTPUT LEVEL
decibels
7 5
3 2 1
1
+
2
AVA LO N
POWER
3
HI-Z
20
INPUT
35
40
50
70
Hz
85
185
130
100
95
FILTER
FILTER
Avalon Design is a division of Avalon Industries, Inc. c 2001
M5
MICROPHONE PREAMPLIFIER
Pure Class A
PURE CLASS A - HIGH VOLTAGE - PREAMPLIFIER
PAD
POLARITY
54
26
58
46
50
+dB
42
30
22
34
38
MICROPHONE
PURE CLASS A - HIGH VOLTAGE - PREAMPLIFIER
PAD
POLARITY
58
54
26
46
50
22
42
AVA LO N
DESIGN
AVALON
DESIGN
AVALON
AVA L O N
2
1
38
30
34
MICROPHONE
AVALON M5 MONO PREAMPLIFIER RECALL SHEET
Technical
Information
DESIGN
11.1 M5 Recall Sheet
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
600 OHM
+30dB MAX
LINE
OUTPUT
BALANCED
50~1k5 OHM
+36dB MAX
MICROPHONE
INPUT
BPA MIC
INPUT
UNBALANCED
100k OHM
+18dB MAX
DI ~ INST.
INPUT
0v
+12v
JT-1 OPTION
HI-CURRENT
DISCRETE
LINE DRIVER
SERVO
130v
OFF
48v
MIC
BPA
RELAY
PHANTOM
JENSEN OUTPUT
TRANSFORMER
+12v HV
BPA MIC
130v HV
POWER
BK-1 OPTION
HI-Z
FILTER
+48v
HI-Z
INPUT
HI-Z
RELAY
0dB=+4dBu
+24v -15v +12v
2022
green 0dB
red +20dB
SIGNAL
vu
VU METER
12v LAMPS
+36v
-36v
B~P
MICROPHONE
TRANSFORMER
ON
POLARITY
REVERSE
+18dB ~ +62dB
INPUT GAIN
2010 DISCRETE
PURE CLASS A
AMPLIFIER
+36v
RELAYS
+12v
80v AC (B2T)
40v-0-40v
DC REGULATOR
+48v
+12v
FREQUENCY
30~185Hz
FILTER
ON
HI-PASS
HV
RELAY
+24v
-36v +36v
-15v +15v
DC
+36v
DESIGN
DC REG
DC REG
6dB/oct
HIPASS
IN
Avalon Industries, Inc. San Clemente, California. U.S.A.
Avalon Design is a division of Avalon Industries, Inc. c 2001
Pure Class A Microphone & Instrument Preamplifier
AVALON M5 SIGNAL DIAGRAM
AVALON
SERVO
2012
DISCRETE
FET CLASS A
AMPLIFIER
FET
-36v
DESIGN
LED
DRIVER
+
-
-36v
-O
//
-20dB
PAD
RELAY
RELAY
ON
RELAY
+48v
POWER
METER
BUFFER
0v3
ON
-20dB PAD
INPUT
AVA L O N
Technical
Information
11.2 M5 Block Diagram
Page 31
Warranty and
Safety Standards
AVA L O N
DESIGN
12.0 Warranty
12.1 Returns
Avalon Industries, Inc. warrants this product
against defects in material or workmanship as
follows:
1. For a period of one (1) year from the date
of purchase Avalon will pay the labor charges
to repair the defective product. After this one
(1) year period, all labor charges will be paid
by the customer.
2. Avalon will supply at no charge, new or
rebuilt replacements for any defective
mechanical switches, potentiometers or
moving parts for a period of one (1) year from
original date of purchase.
3. This warranty is void if the product has
been found to be subjected to misuse, abuse
or unauthorized service.
4. This warranty does not cover cosmetic
damage, and damage due to acts of God,
accident or transit damage.
5. Proof of purchase in the form of a bill of
sale or invoice to provide evidence that the
unit is within the warranty period must be
presented to obtain warranty service.
6. This warranty is only valid if the serial
number appears on the product.
If your AD2022 (M5) has become defective
within the one (1) year period as specified
above, please contact the place of purchase to
arrange for warranty repair. If you would rather
work directly with Avalon, please call the factory
at 949-492-2000, send a fax to 949-492-4284
or email at [email protected]
To return a unit to Avalon for repair or
exchange, you will need to obtain a Return
Authorization Number (RA) from Avalon. Do
not send your unit to Avalon without an
RA number.
13.0 Safety Standards
Avalon Industries, Inc. declares that the
AD2022 (M5) conforms to standards
EN55013 (Emissions), EN55020 (Immunity),
and EN60065 (Product Safety).
Outside of the USA
Please check www.avalondesign.com for
your nearest authorized service center.
Page 32
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
AVA L O N
Appendix A - Glossary
amplification – The process by which a
signal level is increased.
amplitude – The distance above or below the
centerline of a signal’s waveform. The greater
the distance from the centerline, the larger
the pressure variation or electrical signal.
attack – The initial transient or first part of the
envelope of a signal. The beginning of a note.
DESIGN
Glossary
channel – A single functional path in an audio
circuit.
clipping – A cause of audio distortion that is
the result of excessive gain requiring the
peaks of the audio signal to rise above the
capabilities of the circuit.
compressor – In effect, an automatic fader.
When the input signal exceeds a
predetermined level (called the threshold),
the gain is reduced by the compressor and
the signal is attenuated.
attenuate – To reduce the signal level.
balanced – In a classic balanced audio
circuit, the two legs of the circuit (+ and -) are
isolated from the circuit ground by exactly the
same impedance. Additionally, each leg
carries the signal at exactly the same level
but with opposite polarity. Balanced input
circuits can offer excellent rejection of noise
and grounding loops.
balanced line – A cable having two
conductors and a ground connection and
often surrounded by a shield. With respect to
ground, the conductors are at equal potential
but opposite polarity. These lines are often
used in professional setting to reduce or
eliminate induced noise and interference from
external electromagnetic sources.
bandwidth – The band of frequencies that
pass through a device with a loss of less than
3dB, expressed in hertz or in musical
octaves.
capacitance – Capacitance is the ability of
an object to store an electrical charge.
compression ratio – The ratio of signal
dynamic range between the compressor input
and the output above the device’s set
threshold point (such as 2:1, 4:1, 20:1).
console – A term for a sound mixer, usually a
large desk-type mixing board used to mix
together multiple track musical material.
crosstalk – The unwanted leakage of a
signal from one channel or track onto another.
decibel (dB) – A unit of audio measurement
of sound pressure level (SPL), signal level,
and changes of difference in signal level. The
decibel is a logarithmic (log) mathematical
function that reduces large numeric values
into smaller, more manageable numbers.
Decibel is calculated as 10 times the log of
the ratio of two powers, and 20 times the log
of the ratio of two voltages.
dBm: Decibels referenced to 1 milliwatt.
dBu or dBv: Decibels referenced to 0.775
volt.
dBV: Decibels referenced to 1 volt.
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
Page 33
Glossary
AVA L O N
de-ess – Using a frequency-dependent
function in a compressor to reduce excessive
sibilance ("sss”, "sh," and "ch") sounds.
detent – A point of slight physical resistance
(a click stop) in the travel of a knob or slide
control.
dynamic range – The range between the
maximum and minimum sound levels of an
audio system. It is usually expressed in
decibels as the difference between the level
at peak clipping and the level of the noise
floor.
equalizer – A frequency-dependent amplifier
that controls the relative amplitude of various
frequencies in the audible bandwidth. The
equalizer lets you exercise tonal control over
the harmonic content or timbre of a sound.
EQ curve – A graph of the response of an
equalizer, with frequency on the x (horizontal)
axis and amplitude (level) on the y (vertical)
axis. Equalizer types and effects are often
named after the shape of the graphed
response curve, such as peak, dip, shelf,
notch, knee and so on.
DESIGN
filter – A simple equalizer designed to
remove certain ranges of frequencies. A highpass filter (also called a low-cut filter) reduces
or eliminates frequencies below the cutoff
frequency. There are also high-cut (low-pass)
filters, bandpass filters, which cut both high
and low frequencies but leave a band of
frequencies in the middle untouched, and
notch filters, which remove a narrow band but
leave the high and low frequencies alone.
flanging – A process whereby a delayed
signal is combined with itself undelayed. The
delay is varied to create continual changes in
sound.
frequency – The rate at which a sound wave
repeats a cycle. The number of cycles that
occurs over the period of one second is called
hertz (Hz). Often , the perceived range of
hearing is from 20Hz to 18,000Hz.
gain – The measure of how much a circuit
amplifies a signal. Gain may be stated as a
ratio of input to output values, such as
decibels from line amplifier.
gain riding – Adjusting the preamp gain
while recording.
fade – A slow change in volume.
fader – A linear attenuation device or linear
volume control.
gain stage – An amplification point in a signal
path, either within a system or a single
device. Overall system gain is distributed
between the various gain stages.
feedback – The returning of a loudspeaker
signal back into a microphone feeding the
loudspeaker. Excessive feedback results in
unpleasant, screaming sounds usually at
particular high frequencies.
graphic EQ – A type of equalizer where the
frequency bands for cut/boost and
bandwidths are fixed. Graphic EQs are
usually controlled by faders instead of knobs.
ground – The point of zero voltage in a circuit
or electrical system.
Page 34
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
AVA L O N
ground loop – Exists in an improper
grounding situation, whereby a DC current
differential exists between one signal path and
another, resulting in a 50Hz or 60Hz hum.
headroom – The difference between nominal
operating level and peak clipping in an audio
system.
hertz – The unit of measure for frequency of
oscillation, equal to 1 cycle per second.
Abbreviated Hz. kHz is an abbreviation for
kilohertz, or 1000 Hertz.
impedance – The opposition of current flow
in a circuit.
knee – A sharp bend in an EQ response
curve. Also used in describing dynamic
processors.
LED – Acronym for light emitting diode.
line level – A signal level that is referenced to
either +4dB (professional) of –10dB (semipro/consumer).
mastering – The processing and transfer of a
final, sequenced or mixed audio tape to a
medium for duplication.
mixdown – The process in which the
separate audio tracks of a multiple track
recording are combined, balanced, and
routed through the recording console. During
mixdown, volume, tone, special effects and
spatial positioning can be artistically set by
the engineer to create a stereo or surround
sound mix that is then recorded to a master
recording device, such as a DAT recorder.
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
DESIGN
Glossary
monaural – Confined to a single channel.
One microphone is a mono pickup; many
microphones mixed to one channel is a mono
mix. Several mono sources, however, can be
panned into a stereo (or two-channel) mix.
mono – short for monaural.
noise – Unwanted sounds. Hum, buzz or
hiss; could be crosstalk or digital hiss.
noise floor – The residual level of noise in
any system. The lower the noise floor and the
higher the headroom, the more usable
dynamic range a system has.
overload – The distortion that occurs when
an applied signal exceeds a system’s
maximum input level.
pad – A switch circuit that attenuates the level
by a specified amount (such as -20dB).
parametric EQ – A parametric EQ allows
continuous control of each of the three
primary EQ parameters (frequency, gain and
bandwidth) independently.
passive EQ - A filter topology similar to early
equalizer designs (such as pultec) where
passive components (capacitors) are only used
to filter the signal. In a passive EQ, amplifiers are
only used as make-up gain devices. The
capacitors used to filter the signal are not
incorporated in the active feedback stage of the
circuit. Passive EQ’s have a distinctively smooth
and musical sound.
peak amplitude – The maximum instantaneous
amplitude of a signal.
Page 35
Glossary
AVA L O N
peak LED – A light that flashes when a
maximum signal level is reached.
phantom power – Polarizing supply voltage
for condenser microphones supplied directly
through the microphone cable (usually +48V).
phase – The degree of progression in the
cycle of a wave, where one complete cycle is
360 degrees. Phase is measured in degrees
of a cycle and will result in audible variations
of a combined signal’s amplitude and overall
frequency response.
phase shift – The difference in degrees of
phase angle between corresponding points
on two waves.
polarity – See phase.
potentiometer (pot) – A rotary gain, pan, or
other type of continuously variable signal
control.
preamplifier - A piece of equipment that
boosts the signal level so that the signal
operates at a higher and more desired level
enabling greater frequency and dynamic
range.
DESIGN
of magnetic flux. As sound-pressure
variations displace the metal diaphragm in
accordance with air-particle velocity, the
ribbon cuts across the magnetic lines of flux.
This induces a current in the ribbon of
proportional amplitude and frequency to the
acoustic waveform.
shelving filter – A rise or drop in frequency
response at a selected frequency that tapers
off to a preset level and continues at the level
to the end of the audio spectrum.
side chain - A function on a compressor
where a specified frequency range is
compressed more than the overall musical
program. Many compressors have a jack for
an equalizer to be inserted into the
compressor drive electronics.
signal LED - Light flashed when signal of a
specified level occurs. On AD2022 (M5)
green light flashes at 0dB, then flashes red at
+20dB.
spectral control - The use of a side chain in
a compressor to compress selected
frequencies of a musical program. One
example of spectral control is removing the
“sss” sounds of a vocal (de-essing).
PSU - Power supply unit
release time – Once compression has begun,
the time taken for the attenuated signal to return
to 63% of its original (unprocessed) level.
resistance – The opposition to the flow of
DC current in a wire or circuit.
ribbon microphone – A microphone that
uses a diaphragm of extremely thin,
aluminum ribbon suspended in a strong field
Page 36
sweep EQ – An equalizer that allows you to
"sweep" or continuously vary the frequency of
one or more sections.
unbalanced – An electrical circuit in which
the two legs of the circuit are not balanced
with respect to ground. Unbalanced circuit
connections require only two conductors
(signal "hot" and ground). Unbalanced audio
circuitry is less expensive to build, but under
certain circumstances is more susceptible to
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
AVA L O N
DESIGN
Glossary
noise. An unbalanced audio cable has only
one conductor plus a surrounding shield, in
which the shield is at ground potential. The
conductor and the shield carry the signal.
VU meter - Volume unit meter. A meter that
reads audio voltage levels in or out of a piece
of equipment and is designed to match the
ear's response to sudden changes in level.
volume – Electrical or sound level in an audio
system.
waveform – A graph of a signal’s sound
pressure or voltage level versus time.
Avalon AD2022 & M5 Operation Manual
Page 37
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement