Noise Figure Measurement Personality Guide

Noise Figure Measurement Personality Guide
Noise Figure Measurement Personality Guide
Agilent Technologies
PSA Series Spectrum Analyzers
Option 219
This manual provides documentation for the following instruments:
PSA Series
E4440A (3 Hz - 26 GHz)
E4443A (3 Hz - 6.7 GHz)
E4445A (3 Hz - 13.2 GHz)
E4446A (3 Hz - 44 GHz)
E4447A (3 Hz - 42.98 GHz)
E4448A (3 Hz - 50 GHz)
Manufacturing Part Number: E4440-90353
Supersedes E4440-90326
Printed in USA
May 2007
© Copyright 2002 - 2007 Agilent Technologies, Inc.
Notice
The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice.
Agilent Technologies makes no warranty of any kind with regard to this material,
including but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness
for a particular purpose. Agilent Technologies shall not be liable for errors
contained herein or for incidental or consequential damages in connection with the
furnishing, performance, or use of this material.
Where to Find the Latest Information
Documentation is updated periodically. For the latest information about
PSA spectrum analyzers, including firmware upgrades, software upgrades,
application information, and product information, please visit the Internet URL
listed below.
http://www.agilent.com/find/psa
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Contents
Table of Contents
Getting Started
What You will Find in this Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing Optional Measurement Personalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Do You Have Enough Memory to Load All Your Personality Options? . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Predict Your Memory Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loading an Optional Measurement Personality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Obtaining and Installing a License Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing a License Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Delete License Key on PSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ordering Optional Measurement Personalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting the Noise Figure Personality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saving the Instrument State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Keeping Your Measurement Data and Instrument Setups Secure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Making Basic Measurements
What You will Find in this Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entering Excess Noise Ratio (ENR) Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting a Common ENR Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entering ENR Table Data for Noise Sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saving an ENR Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Measurement Frequencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Sweep Frequency Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using List Frequency Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Fixed Frequency Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Bandwidth and Averaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Effect of Bandwidth and Averaging on Speed, Jitter, and Measurement Accuracy .
Selecting the Resolution Bandwidth Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Averaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calibrating the Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To perform a calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the Input Attenuation Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying the Measurement Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the Display Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting Result Types to Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Graphical Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indicating an Invalid Result . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example of a Basic Amplifier Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calibrating the Noise Figure Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Making Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Further Information on Noise Figure Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Advanced Features
What You will Find in this Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Setting up Limit Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Creating a Limit Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Using Loss Compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Examples where Loss Compensation is applied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Configuring Fixed Loss Compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Configuring Table Loss Compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Setting Temperature of Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Noise Figure Uncertainty Calculator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Example Calculation: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
What You will Find in this Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Overview of Frequency Converter Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
DUT Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Basic Measurement — No Frequency Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Frequency Downconverting DUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Frequency Upconverting DUT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
System Downconverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Comparison of the 8970B, the NFA Analyzer,
and the Option 219 Noise Figure Measurement Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Choosing and Setting Up the Local Oscillator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Selecting a Local Oscillator for Extended Frequency
measurements with Opt. 219. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Selecting a Local Oscillator for Option 219 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Connecting the System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Setting Up the Noise Figure Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Measuring a Frequency Converting DUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Sidebands and Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Signal Leakage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
LO Leakage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
LO Harmonics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Single Sideband Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Double Sideband Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Fixed LO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Making Frequency Converting DUT Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Making Downconverting DUT Measurements using a Fixed LO and Fixed IF
(Equivalent to Mode 1.4 on an 8970B Noise Figure Analyzer) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Making Upconverting DUT Measurements using a Fixed LO and Variable IF
(Equivalent to Mode 1.4 with SUM on an 8970B Noise Figure Meter). . . . . . . . . . . 142
Measurements with a System Downconverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
USB, LSB or DSB? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
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Table of Contents
Measurement Modes with a DSB System Downconverter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measurement Modes with an SSB System Downconverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FIXED LO, LSB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FIXED LO, USB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Frequency Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Glossary of Restricted Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Frequency Downconverting DUT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Frequency Upconverting DUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Downconverter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Menu Maps
What You Will Find in This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Key to this chapter’s menu map diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Amplitude Menu - Monitor Spectrum Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Amplitude Menu - Noise Figure Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BW/Avg Menu - Monitor Spectrum Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BW/Avg Menu - Noise Figure Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Det/Demod Menu - Monitor Spectrum Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Det/Demod Menu - Noise Figure Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Display Menus - Monitor Spectrum Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Display Menus - Noise Figure Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File Type Menu - Monitor Spectrum Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File Type Menu - Noise Figure Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Frequency Menu - Monitor Spectrum Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Frequency Menu - Noise Figure Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input Output Menu - Monitor Spectrum Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input Output Menu - Noise Figure Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marker Menu - Monitor Spectrum Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marker Menu - Noise Figure Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Meas Setup Menu - Monitor Spectrum Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Meas Setup Menu - Noise Figure Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MEASURE Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mode Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mode Setup Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mode Setup - DUT Setup Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Source Menu - Noise Figure Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Span Menu - Monitor Spectrum Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Span Menu - Noise Figure Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Sweep Menu - Monitor Spectrum Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Sweep Menu - Noise Figure Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Trace/View Menu - Monitor Spectrum Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Trace/View Menu - Noise Figure Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Uncertainty Calculator Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Front-Panel Key Reference
Key Descriptions and Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
AMPLITUDE Y Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
BW/Avg. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Det/Demod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
FREQUENCY Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Input/Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Peak Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Meas Setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
MEASURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
MODE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Mode Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Mode Setup — DUT Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Mode Setup - Uncertainty Calculator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Preset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
SPAN X Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Sweep Menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Trace/View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Language Reference
CALCulate Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Test Current Results Against all Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Noise Figure Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
CONFigure Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Configure the Selected Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Configure Query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
DISPlay Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Full Screen Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Set the Display Line Level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Set the Display Line State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Set the Y-Axis Scale per Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Set the Reference Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Set Display Annotation On/Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Date and Time Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
6
Contents
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Table of Contents
Date and Time Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Noise Figure Corrections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Select Results for Display (A). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Select Results for Display (B). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Select Results Format. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Graticule On or Off. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Graph View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Noise Figure - Set the Y-Axis Scale per Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Noise Figure - Set the Y-Axis Reference Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Noise Figure - Set the Y-Axis Reference Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Zoom Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FETCh Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fetch the Current Measurement Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FORMat Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Byte Order. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Numeric Data Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INITiate Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Take New Data Acquisition for Selected Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Continuous or Single Measurements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Take New Data Acquisitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pause the Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restart the Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resume the Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INPut Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RF Attenuation Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum Microwave Attenuation Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minimum Microwave Attenuation Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum RF Attenuation Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minimum RF Attenuation Setting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RF Input Port Coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTrument Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Select Application by Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Select Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MEASure Group of Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Command Interactions: MEASure, CONFigure, FETCh, INITiate and READ . . .
Monitor Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Noise Figure Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Noise Figure Measurement - Gain Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
Table of Contents
Contents
Noise Figure Measurement - Noise Factor Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Noise Figure Measurement - Noise Figure Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
Noise Figure Measurement - Cold Power Pcold Density Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
Noise Figure Measurement - Hot Power Phot Density Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
Noise Figure Measurement - Effective Temperature Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Noise Figure Measurement - Tcold Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
Noise Figure Measurement - Y Factor Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
MMEMory Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
Load a Noise Figure ENR Table from a File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
Load a Noise Figure Frequency List Table from a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
Load a Limit Line from Memory to the Instrument. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
Load a Noise Figure Loss Compensation Table from a File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
Store a Noise Figure ENR Table to a File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
Store a Limit Line in a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
Store a Noise Figure Frequency List Table to a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
Store a Noise Figure Loss Compensation Table to a File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Store a Measurement Results in a File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Store a Trace in a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
READ Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
Initiate and Read Measurement Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
SENSe Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
Bandwidth Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
Configure Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Default Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Monitor Spectrum or Monitor Band/Channel Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
Noise Figure Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
SOURce Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Noise Source Preference. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
TRACe Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Query Trace Maximum Amplitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Query Trace Minimum Amplitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
Query Trace Amplitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
Query Trace Delta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
Query Trace Peak to Peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
Troubleshooting Guide
Common Problems and their Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
Problems Measuring Above 3 GHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
Contacting Agilent Technologies
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
8
List of Commands
:CALCulate:CLIMits:FAIL? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:DUT:GAIN <value>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:DUT:GAIN? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:DUT:MATCh:INPut <value> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:DUT:MATCh:INPut?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:DUT:MATCh:OUTPut <value> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:DUT:NFIGure <value> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:DUT:NFIGure? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:INSTrument:GAIN <value> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:INSTrument:GAIN? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:INSTrument:MATCh <value> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:INSTrument:MATCh? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:INSTrument:NFIGure <value> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:INSTrument:NFIGure:UNCertainty <value> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:INSTrument:NFIGure:UNCertainty? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:INSTrument:NFIGure?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:RSS? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:SOURce:ENR <value> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:SOURce:ENR? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:SOURce:MATCh <value> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:SOURce:MATCh? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:SOURce:TYPE <value> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:SOURce:TYPE? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:LLINe[1]|2|3|4:COUNT? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:LLINe[1]|2|3|4:DISPlay[:STATe] OFF|ON|0|1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:LLINe[1]|2|3|4:DISPlay[:STATe]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:LLINe[1]|2|3|4:TEST[:STATe] OFF|ON|0|1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:LLINe[1]|2|3|4:TEST[:STATe]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:LLINe[1]|2|3|4:TYPE UPPer|LOWer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:LLINe[1]|2|3|4:TYPE? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
9
List of Commands
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:DUT:MATCh:OUTPut? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
List of Commands
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:LLINe[1]|2|3|4[:DATA]<frequency>,
<amplitude>,<connected>[<frequency>,<amplitude>,<connected>] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:LLINe[1]|2|3|4[:DATA]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:LLINe[1]|2|3|4[:STATe] OFF|ON|0|1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:LLINe[1]|2|3|4[:STATe]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:MARKer[1]|2|3|4:[:STATe] OFF|ON|0|1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235
List of Commands
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:MARKer[1]|2|3|4:[:STATe]?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:MARKer[1]|2|3|4:BPAir:MODE NORMal:REFerence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:MARKer[1]|2|3|4:BPAir:MODE? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:MARKer[1]|2|3|4:MODE POSition|DELTa|BPAir. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:MARKer[1]|2|3|4:MODE? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:MARKer[1]|2|3|4:SEArch:CONTinuous OFF|ON|0|1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .234
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:MARKer[1]|2|3|4:SEArch:CONTinuous? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .234
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:MARKer[1]|2|3|4:SEArch:TYPE MAXimum|MINimum|PEAK . . . . . .234
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:MARKer[1]|2|3|4:SEArch:TYPE? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .234
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:MARKer[1]|2|3|4:X <freq> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:MARKer[1]|2|3|4:X? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:MARKer[1]|2|3|4:Y? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .236
:CONFigure:<measurement> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .241
:CONFigure:MONitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .268
:CONFigure?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .241
:CONFigure[:NFIGure] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .269
:DISPlay:[NFIGure]:ZOOM:WINDow OFF|UPPer|LOWer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .250
:DISPlay:[NFIGure]:ZOOM:WINDow? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .250
:DISPlay:FSCReen[:STATe] OFF|ON|0|1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .242
:DISPlay:FSCReen[:STATe]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .242
:DISPlay:FSCREEN|FULLSCREEN[:STATe] ON|OFF|1|0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .242
:DISPlay:FSCREEN|FULLSCREEN[:STATe]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .242
:DISPlay:MONitor:WINDow:TRACe:Y:DLINe <power> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .242
:DISPlay:MONitor:WINDow:TRACe:Y:DLINe:STATe ON|OFF|1|0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .243
:DISPlay:MONitor:WINDow:TRACe:Y:DLINe:STATe? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .243
10
List of Commands
:DISPlay:MONitor:WINDow:TRACe:Y:DLINe? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
:DISPlay:MONitor:WINDow:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:PDIVision <dB> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
:DISPlay:MONitor:WINDow:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:PDIVision?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
:DISPlay:MONitor:WINDow:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:RLEVel <dB>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
:DISPlay:MONitor:WINDow:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:RLEVel? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:ANNotation:CLOCk:DATE:FORMat MDY|DMY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:ANNotation:CLOCk[:STATe] OFF|ON|0|1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:ANNotation:CLOCk[:STATe]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:ANNotation[:STATe] ON|OFF|1|0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:ANNotation[:STATe]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:DATA:CORRections[:STATe] ON|OFF|1|0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:DATA:CORRections[:STATe]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:DATA:TRACe[1]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:DATA:TRACe[1]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:DATA:TRACe[1]NFIGure|NFACtor
|GAIN|YFACtor|TEFFective|PHOT|PCOLd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:DATA:TRACe2 NFIGure|NFACtor
|GAIN|YFACtor|TEFFective|PHOT|PCOLd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:FORMat GRAPh|TABLe|METer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:FORMat?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:GRATicule[:STATe] ON|OFF|1|0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:GRATicule[:STATe]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:TRACe:COMBined[:STATe] ON|OFF|1|0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:TRACe:COMBined[:STATe]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:PDIVision <result>, <value> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:PDIVision?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:RLEVel:VALue <result>, <value> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:RLEVel:VALue?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:RPOSition <result>, <value> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:RPOSition? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
:FETCh:<measurement>[n]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
11
List of Commands
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:ANNotation:CLOCk:DATE:FORMat?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
List of Commands
:FETCh:MONitor[n]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .268
:FETCh[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA](:CORRected|:UNCorrected):NFACtor? . . . . . . .271
:FETCh[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA](:CORRected|:UNCorrected):NFIGure? . . . . . . .272
:FETCh[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA](:CORRected|:UNCorrected):PCOLd? . . . . . . . .273
:FETCh[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA](:CORRected|:UNCorrected):PHOT? . . . . . . . . .274
List of Commands
:FETCh[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA](:CORRected|:UNCorrected):TEFFective? . . . . .275
:FETCh[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA]:CORRected:GAIN?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .270
:FETCh[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA]:TCOLd? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .276
:FETCh[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA]:UNCorrected :YFACtor? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .277
:FETCh[:NFIGure]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .269
:FORMat:BORDer NORMal|SWAPped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .252
:FORMat:BORDer? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .252
:FORMat[:TRACe][:DATA] ASCii|REAL[,32] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .252
:FORMat[:TRACe][:DATA]?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .252
:INITiate:<measurement> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .255
:INITiate:CONTinuous OFF|ON|0|1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .255
:INITiate:CONTinuous?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .255
:INITiate:PAUSe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .256
:INITiate:RESTart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .256
:INITiate:RESume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257
:INITiate[:IMMediate] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .256
:INITiate[:NFIGure]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .269
:INPut:COUPling AC|DC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .260
:INPut:COUPling? AC|DC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .260
:INPut[:NFIGure]:ATTenuation <power>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .258
:INPut[:NFIGure]:ATTenuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .258
:INPut[:NFIGure]:ATTenuation:MWAVe:MAXimum <integer> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .258
:INPut[:NFIGure]:ATTenuation:MWAVe:MAXimum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .258
:INPut[:NFIGure]:ATTenuation:MWAVe:MINimum <integer> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .258
:INPut[:NFIGure]:ATTenuation:MWAVe:MINimum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .258
:INPut[:NFIGure]:ATTenuation[:RF]:MAXimum <integer> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .258
12
List of Commands
:INPut[:NFIGure]:ATTenuation[:RF]:MAXimum <integer> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
:INPut[:NFIGure]:ATTenuation[:RF]:MAXimum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
:INPut[:NFIGure]:ATTenuation[:RF]:MINimum <integer>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
:INPut[:NFIGure]:ATTenuation[:RF]:MINimum <integer>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
:INPut[:NFIGure]:ATTenuation[:RF]:MINimum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
:INSTrument:NSELect <integer> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
:INSTrument[:SELect] SA|PNOISE|BASIC|CDMA|CDMA2K
|EDGEGSM|NADC|PDC|WCDMA|CDMA1XEV|NFIGURE|WLAN
|TDSCDMA|TDDEMOD|MRECEIVE|EMC|DMODULATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
:INSTrument[:SELect]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
:MEASure:MONitor[n] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
:MEASure[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA](:CORRected|:UNCorrected):NFACtor? . . . . 271
:MEASure[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA](:CORRected|:UNCorrected):NFIGure? . . . . 272
:MEASure[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA](:CORRected|:UNCorrected):PCOLd? . . . . . . 273
:MEASure[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA](:CORRected|:UNCorrected):PHOT?. . . . . . . 274
:MEASure[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA](:CORRected|:UNCorrected):TEFFective? . . 275
:MEASure[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA]:CORRected:GAIN? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
:MEASure[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA]:TCOLd? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
:MEASure[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA]:UNCorrected :YFACtor? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
:MEASure[:NFIGure]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
:MMEMory:LOAD:ENR CALibration|MEASurement, <file_name> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
:MMEMory:LOAD:LIMit LLINe1|LLINe2|LLINe3|LLINe4,<file_name>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
:MMEMory:LOAD:LOSS BEFore|AFTer, <file_name> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
:MMEMory:STORe:ENR CALibration|MEASurement, <file_name>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
:MMEMory:STORe:LIMit LLINe1|LLINe2,<file_name> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
:MMEMory:STORe:LIMit LLINe1|LLINe2|LLINe3|LLINe4,<file_name> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
:MMEMory:STORe:LOSS BEFore|AFTer, <file_name> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
:MMEMory:STORe:RESults filename.csv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
:MMEMory:STORe:TRACe TRACe1|TRACe2|ALL, <file_name> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
:MMEMory:STORe:TRACe TRACe1|TRACe2|TRACE3|ALL, <file_name> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
:MMEMory[:NFIGure]:LOAD:FREQuency, <file_name>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
13
List of Commands
:INSTrument:NSELect? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
List of Commands
:MMEMory[:NFIGure]:STORe:FREQuency, <file_name>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .279
:READ:<measurement>[n]?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .282
:READ:MONitor[n] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .268
:READ[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA](:CORRected|:UNCorrected):NFACtor? . . . . . . . .271
:READ[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA](:CORRected|:UNCorrected):NFIGure? . . . . . . . .272
List of Commands
:READ[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA](:CORRected|:UNCorrected):PCOLd? . . . . . . . . .273
:READ[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA](:CORRected|:UNCorrected):PHOT? . . . . . . . . . .274
:READ[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA](:CORRected|:UNCorrected):TEFFective? . . . . . .275
:READ[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA]:CORRected:GAIN? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .270
:READ[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA]:TCOLd? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .276
:READ[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA]:UNCorrected :YFACtor? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .277
:READ[:NFIGure]?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .269
:SENSe:NFIGure:MANual:RF|:MWAVe:FIXed <power> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .258
:SOURce[:NFIGure]:NOISe[:PREFerence] NORMal|SNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .322
:SOURce[:NFIGure]:NOISe[:PREFerence]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .322
:TRACe[:NFIGure][:DATA]:CORRected|:UNCorrected:AMPLitude :MAXimum? <trace> . . . . . .323
:TRACe[:NFIGure][:DATA]:CORRected|:UNCorrected:AMPLitude [:VALue]? <trace>,<freq>. . .324
:TRACe[:NFIGure][:DATA]:CORRected|:UNCorrected:AMPLitude:MINimum? <trace> . . . . . . .324
:TRACe[:NFIGure][:DATA]:CORRected|:UNCorrected:DELTa? <trace>,<freq1>,<freq2> . . . . . .325
:TRACe[:NFIGure][:DATA]:CORRected|:UNCorrected:PTPeak? <trace>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .326
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:DOWNconv:FREQuency:CONText RF|IF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .286
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:DOWNconv:FREQuency:CONText?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .286
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:DOWNconv:LOSCillator:FREQuency <value> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .286
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:DOWNconv:LOSCillator:FREQuency? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .286
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:DOWNconv:LOSCillator:OFFSet LSB|USB|DSB . . . . . . . . . . . . .287
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:DOWNconv:LOSCillator:OFFSet? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:DUT AMPLifier|DOWNconv|UPConv. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:DUT? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:SYSTem:DOWNconv[:STATe] ON|OFF|1|0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .288
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:SYSTem:DOWNconv[:STATe]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .288
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:SYSTem:FREQuency:CONText RF|IF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .289
14
List of Commands
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:SYSTem:FREQuency:CONText?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:SYSTem:LOSCillator:FREQuency <value> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:SYSTem:LOSCillator:FREQuency? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:SYSTem:LOSCillator:OFFSet LSB|USB|DSB. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:SYSTem:LOSCillator:OFFSet? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:UPConv:FREQuency:CONText RF|IF. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:UPConv:LOSCillator:FREQuency <value> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:UPConv:LOSCillator:FREQuency? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:UPConv:LOSCillator:OFFSet LSB|USB. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:UPConv:LOSCillator:OFFSet? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
[:SENSe]:DEFaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
[:SENSe]:FREQuency:SPAN:BANDwidth[:RESolution]:RATio:AUTO OFF|ON|0|1 . . . . . . . . . 297
[:SENSe]:FREQuency:SPAN:BANDwidth[:RESolution]:RATio:AUTO? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
[:SENSe]:FREQuency:SPAN:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution] :RATIO?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
[:SENSe]:FREQuency:SPAN:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]:RATio <val> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
[:SENSe]:MONitor:AVERage:COUNt <integer> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
[:SENSe]:MONitor:AVERage:COUNt? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
[:SENSe]:MONitor:AVERage:TCONtrol EXPonential|REPeat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
[:SENSe]:MONitor:AVERage:TCONtrol? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
[:SENSe]:MONitor:AVERage[:STATe] OFF|ON|0|1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
[:SENSe]:MONitor:AVERage[:STATe]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo <freq> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo <freq> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo:AUTO OFF|ON|0|1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo:AUTO OFF|ON|0|1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo:AUTO? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo:AUTO? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo:RATio <numeric>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo:RATio <numeric>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo:RATio? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
15
List of Commands
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:UPConv:FREQuency:CONText? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
List of Commands
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo:RATio? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .294
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .284
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .294
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution] <freq> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .284
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution] <freq> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .293
List of Commands
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]:AUTO OFF|ON|0|1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .293
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]:AUTO? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .293
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .284
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .293
[:SENSe]:MONitor:DETector[:FUNCtion] NORMal |POSitive|NEGative|AVERage . . . . . . . . . .294
[:SENSe]:MONitor:DETector[:FUNCtion]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .294
[:SENSe]:MONitor:FREQuency:OFFSet <freq> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .295
[:SENSe]:MONitor:FREQuency:OFFSet:AUTO ON|OFF|1|0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .296
[:SENSe]:MONitor:FREQuency:OFFSet:AUTO?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .296
[:SENSe]:MONitor:FREQuency:OFFSet?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .295
[:SENSe]:MONitor:FREQuency:SPAN <freq> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .296
[:SENSe]:MONitor:FREQuency:SPAN:FULL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .298
[:SENSe]:MONitor:FREQuency:SPAN:ZERO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .298
[:SENSe]:MONitor:FREQuency:SPAN? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .296
[:SENSe]:MONitor:FREQuency:STARt <freq> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .298
[:SENSe]:MONitor:FREQuency:STARt?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .298
[:SENSe]:MONitor:FREQuency:STOP <freq> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .299
[:SENSe]:MONitor:FREQuency:STOP? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .299
[:SENSe]:MONitor:FREQuency[:CENTer] <freq> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .295
[:SENSe]:MONitor:FREQuency[:CENTer]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .295
[:SENSe]:MONitor:POWer[:RF]:ATTenuation <rel_power> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .299
[:SENSe]:MONitor:POWer[:RF]:ATTenuation:AUTO ON|OFF|1|0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .299
[:SENSe]:MONitor:POWer[:RF]:ATTenuation:AUTO? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .299
[:SENSe]:MONitor:POWer[:RF]:ATTenuation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .299
[:SENSe]:MONitor:POWer[:RF]:GAIN:[:STATe]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .300
[:SENSe]:MONitor:POWer[:RF]:GAIN[:STATe] ON|OFF|1|0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .300
16
List of Commands
[:SENSe]:MONitor:POWer[:RF]:RANGe:AUTO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
[:SENSe]:MONitor:SWEep:POINts? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
[:SENSe]:MONitor:SWEep:TIME <value> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
[:SENSe]:MONitor:SWEep:TIME:AUTO OFF|ON|0|1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
[:SENSe]:MONitor:SWEep:TIME:AUTO?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
[:SENSe]:MONitor:SWEep:TIME? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:AVERage:COUNt <integer> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:AVERage:COUNt? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:AVERage:TCONtrol? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:AVERage[:STATe] OFF|ON|0|1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:AVERage[:STATe]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution] <freq> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]:AUTO OFF|ON|0|1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]:AUTO? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:COLLect[:ACQuire] STANdard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR:CALibration:TABLe:COUNt? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR:CALibration:TABLe:DATA
<frequency, <amplitude>[,<frequency>, <amplitude>] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR:CALibration:TABLe:DATA? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR:CALibration:TABLe:ID :DATA <string> . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR:CALibration:TABLe:ID :DATA? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR:CALibration:TABLe:SERial :DATA <string> . . . . . . . . . 306
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR:CALibration:TABLe:SERial :DATA? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR:COMMon[:STATe] ON|OFF|1|0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR:COMMon[:STATe]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR:MODE TABLe|SPOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR:MODE?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR:SPOT <value> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR:SPOT? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
17
List of Commands
[:SENSe]:SWEep:POINts? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
List of Commands
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR:THOT <value> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .309
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR:THOT? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .309
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR[:MEASurement]:TABLe :SERial:DATA <string> . . . . . . .307
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR[:MEASurement]:TABLe :SERial:DATA?. . . . . . . . . . . . . .307
List of Commands
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR[:MEASurement]
:TABLe:COUNt?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .307
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR[:MEASurement]:TABLe:DATA
<frequency, <amplitude>[,<frequency>, <amplitude>] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .308
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR[:MEASurement]:TABLe:DATA? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .308
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR[:MEASurement]:TABLe:ID :DATA <string>. . . . . . . . . . .307
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR[:MEASurement]:TABLe:ID :DATA? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .307
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:AFTer:MODE FIXed|TABLe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .309
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:AFTer:MODE? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .309
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:AFTer:TABLe:COUNt? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .310
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:AFTer:TABLe:DATA
<frequency>, <amplitude>[,<frequency>, <amplitude>] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .310
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:AFTer:TABLe:DATA? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .310
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:AFTer:VALue <value>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .311
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:AFTer:VALue? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .311
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:AFTer[:STATe] ON|OFF|1|0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .310
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:AFTer[:STATe]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .310
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:BEFore:MODE FIXed|TABLe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .311
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:BEFore:MODE?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .311
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:BEFore:TABLe:COUNt? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:BEFore:TABLe:DATA
<frequency>, <amplitude>[,<frequency>, <amplitude>] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:BEFore:TABLe:DATA? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:BEFore:VALue <value> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .313
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:BEFore:VALue? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .313
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:BEFore[:STATe] ON|OFF|1|0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:BEFore[:STATe]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:SPOT:MODE ENR|THOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .313
18
List of Commands
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:SPOT:MODE? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:TCOLd:USER:VALue <temperature> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:TCOLd:USER:VALue? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:TCOLd:USER[:STATe] ON|OFF|1|0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:TCOLd:USER[:STATe]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:TEMPerature:AFTer <temperature> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:TEMPerature:BEFore <temperature> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:TEMPerature:BEFore? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:DETector[:FUNCtion] AVERage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:DETector[:FUNCtion]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:FREQuency:CENTer <frequency> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:FREQuency:CENTer? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:FREQuency:FIXed <frequency> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:FREQuency:FIXed? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:FREQuency:LIST:COUNt? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:FREQuency:LIST:DATA <frequency>[,<frequency>] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:FREQuency:LIST:DATA? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:FREQuency:MODE SWEep? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:FREQuency:MODE SWEep|FIXed|LIST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:FREQuency:SPAN <span> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:FREQuency:SPAN? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:FREQuency:STARt <start frequency> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:FREQuency:STARt?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:FREQuency:STOP <stop frequency> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:FREQuency:STOP? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:MANual:MWAVe:FIXed <attenuation> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:MANual:MWAVe:FIXed? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:MANual:RF:FIXed <attenuation> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:MANual:RF:FIXed? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:POWer[:RF]:GAIN[:STATe] ON|OFF|1|0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
19
List of Commands
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:TEMPerature:AFTer? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
List of Commands
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:POWer[:RF]:GAIN[:STATe]? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .319
List of Commands
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:SWEep:POINts <integer>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .320
20
Getting Started
1
Getting Started
This chapter describes how to install the Noise Figure measurement
personality (Option 219) in PSA Series analyzers. It also shows how to
license the option so you can make your noise figure measurements.
21
Getting Started
What You will Find in this Chapter
What You will Find in this Chapter
This chapter takes you through all the necessary steps to install and
license the Noise Figure Measurement personality in PSA Series
analyzers. This chapter covers:
“Introduction” on page 23
“Installing Optional Measurement Personalities” on page 25
“Starting the Noise Figure Personality” on page 32
“Saving the Instrument State” on page 33
Getting Started
“Keeping Your Measurement Data and Instrument Setups Secure”
on page 34
22
Chapter 1
Getting Started
Introduction
Introduction
The Option 219 Noise Figure Measurement Personality is a
downloadable program (DLP) that is used with the PSA Series
spectrum analyzers. You need the following equipment to use the
utility:
Table 1-1
Firmware
Hardware, Firmware and Software
Requirements
Software
Hardware
Revision
Number
Noise Figure
Measurement
Personality
Front
End
Driver
Board
Option 1DS
Internal
Preamp
(100 kHz to
3 GHz)
Option 110
Internal
Preamp
(100 kHz to
50 GHza)
A.10.00 or
later
Option 219
Rev. ‘b’ or
later
Recommended
for best
performance
in the
100 kHz to
3 GHz range.
Recommended if
you need to make
measurements
above 3 GHz.
a. The maximum frequency of the Option 110 Preamp is limited
by the frequency range of your spectrum analyzer.
Agilent Technologies recommends that you install either Option 1DS
(Internal 100 kHz - 3 GHz Preamp) or Option 110 (Internal 100 kHz 50 GHz Preamp), depending on your measurement needs. Option 1DS
gives best performance in the 100 kHz to 3 GHz range. Option 110
enables you to perform measurements above 3 GHz up to the frequency
limits of your analyzer. If you ever have to measure above 3 GHz, then
choose Option 110. The preamp is required for specified performance at
all frequencies.
Chapter 1
23
Getting Started
NOTE
Getting Started
Introduction
NOTE
The Noise Figure Measurement personality (Option 219) requires
Revision b or later of the Front End Driver assembly. This supplies the
+28 V output (labelled “NOISE SOURCE DRIVE OUT +28 V
(PULSED)” on the rear panel), which is needed to drive the noise
source. To see which version is installed in your PSA, press System,
Show Hdwr. If you have an earlier revision than Revision b, contact your
Agilent Technologies representative. Refer to
http://www.agilent.com/find/psa for further information.
NOTE
Model E4445A HA5 - the Noise Figure Measurement personality
(Option 219) can not be installed on the E4445A HA5 model PSA
analyzer. These analyzers have the HA5 Low Cost Option installed, and
cannot be upgraded to make noise figure measurements. Press System,
More, Show System to list the installed options.
Getting Started
The next sections describe how to install and access the Noise Figure
personality.
24
Chapter 1
Getting Started
Installing Optional Measurement Personalities
Installing Optional Measurement
Personalities
When you install a measurement personality, you need to follow a three
step process:
1. Determine whether your memory capacity is sufficient to contain all
the options you want to load. If not, decide which options you want to
install now, and consider upgrading your memory. Details follow in
“Do You Have Enough Memory to Load All Your Personality
Options?” on page 25.
2. Install the measurement personality firmware into the instrument
memory. Details follow in “Loading an Optional Measurement
Personality” on page 29.
3. Enter a license key that activates the measurement personality.
Details follow in “Obtaining and Installing a License Key” on
page 29.
Adding measurement personalities requires the purchase of an upgrade
kit for the desired option. The upgrade kit contains the measurement
personality firmware and an entitlement certificate that is used to
generate a license key from the internet website. A separate license key
is required for each option on a specific instrument serial number and
host ID.
Getting Started
For the latest information on Agilent Spectrum Analyzer options and
upgrade kits, visit the following web location:
http://www.agilent.com/find/sa_upgrades
Do You Have Enough Memory to Load All Your
Personality Options?
If you do not have memory limitations then you can skip ahead to the
next section “Loading an Optional Measurement Personality” on
page 29. If after installing your options you get error messages relating
to memory issues, you can return to this section to learn more about
how to optimize your configuration.
If you have 64 MBytes of memory installed in your instrument, you
should have enough memory to install at least four optional
personalities, with plenty of memory for data and states.
The optional measurement personalities require different amounts of
memory. So the number of personalities that you can load varies. This is
also impacted by how much data you need to save. If you are having
memory errors you must swap the applications in or out of memory as
needed. If you only have 48 MBytes of memory, you can upgrade your
Chapter 1
25
Getting Started
Installing Optional Measurement Personalities
hardware to 64 MBytes.
Additional memory can be added to any PSA Series analyzer by
installing Option 115. With this option installed, you can install all
currently available measurement personalities in your analyzer and
still have memory space to store more state and trace files than would
otherwise be possible.
To see the size of your installed memory for PSA Series Spectrum
Analyzers:
1. Ensure that the spectrum analyzer is in spectrum analyzer mode
because this can affect the screen size.
2. Press System, More, Show Hdwr.
Getting Started
3. Read Flash Memory size in the table. If Option 115 is installed, the
table will also show Compact Flash Type and Compact Flash
Size.
PSA Flash
Memory Size
Available Memory
Without Option
B7J and Option
122 or 140
Available Memory With
Option B7J and Option 122 or
140
64 Mbytes
32.5 MBytes
30.0 MBytes
48 Mbytes
16.9 MBytes
14.3 MBytes
PSA Compact Flash
Memory Size
Available Additional Memory for
Measurement Personalities
512 Mbytes (Opt. 115)
512 MBytes
If you have 48 MBytes of memory, and you want to install more than 3
optional personalities, you may need to manage your memory
resources. The following section, “How to Predict Your Memory
Requirements” on page 27, will help you decide how to configure your
installed options to provide optimal operation.
26
Chapter 1
Getting Started
Installing Optional Measurement Personalities
How to Predict Your Memory Requirements
If you plan to install many optional personalities, you should review
your memory requirements, so you can determine whether you have
enough memory (unless you have a PSA Series with Option 115). There
is an Agilent “Memory Calculator” available online that can help you do
this, or you can make a calculated approximation using the information
that follows. You will need to know your instrument’s installed memory
size and then select your desired applications.
NOTE
If you have a PSA Series analyzer with Option 115, there is adequate memory
to install all of the available optional personalities in your instrument.
To calculate the available memory on your PSA, see:
http://sa.tm.agilent.com/PSA/memory/
Select the “Memory Calculator” link. You can try any combination of
available personalities to see if your desired configuration is compatible
with your installed memory.
NOTE
After loading all your optional measurement personalities, you should have a
reserve of ~2 MBytes memory to facilitate mode switching. Less available
memory will increase mode switching time. For example, if you employ
excessive free memory by saving files of states and/or data, your mode
switching time can increase to more than a minute.
1. Program memory - Select option requirements from the table
“Measurement Personality Options and Memory Required” on
page 28.
2. Shared libraries require 7.72 MBytes.
3. Recommended mode swap space is 2 MBytes.
4. Screens - .gif files need 20-25 kBytes each.
5. State memory - State file sizes range from 21 kB for SA mode to
40 kB for W-CDMA. The state of every mode accessed since power-on
will be saved in the state file. File sizes can exceed 150 kB each when
several modes are accessed, for each state file saved.
TIP
State memory retains settings for all states accessed before the Save State
command. To reduce this usage to a minimum, reduce the modes accessed
before the Save State is executed. You can set the PSA to boot into a selected
mode by accessing the desired mode, then pressing the System, Power
On/Preset, Power On keys and toggle the setting to Last.
Chapter 1
27
Getting Started
You can manually estimate your total memory requirements by adding
up the memory allocations described in the following steps. Compare
the desired total with the available memory that you identified in the
previous section.
Getting Started
Installing Optional Measurement Personalities
Getting Started
Measurement Personality Options and Memory Required
Personality Options
for PSA Series Spectrum Analyzers a
Option
File Size
(PSA Rev: A.10)
cdmaOne measurement personality
BAC
1.91 Mbytes
NADC and PDC measurement personalities (not
available separately)
BAE
2.43 Mbytes
W-CDMA or W-CDMA, HSDPA, HSUPA
measurement personality
BAF, 210
5.38 Mbytesb
cdma2000 or cdma2000 w/ 1xEV-DV measurement
personality
B78, 214
4.00 Mbytesb
1xEV-DO measurement personality
204
5.61 Mbytesb
GSM (with EDGE) measurement personality
202
3.56 Mbytesb
Shared measurement libraryb
n/a
7.72 Mbytes
Phase Noise measurement personality
226
2.82 Mbytesc
Noise Figure measurement personality
219
4.68 Mbytesc
Basic measurement personality with digital demod
hardware
B7J
Cannot be deleted
(2.64 Mbytes)
Programming Code Compatibility Suited (8560
Series, 8590 Series, and 8566/8568)
266
1.18 Mbytesc
TD-SCDMA Power measurement personality
211
5.47 Mbytesc
TD-SCDMA Modulation Analysis or TD-SCDMA
Modulation Analysis w/ HSDPA/8PSK measurement
personality
212, 213
1.82 Mbytes
Flexible Digital Modulation Analysis
241
2.11 Mbytesb
WLAN measurement personality
217
3.24 Mbytesb
External Source Control
215
0.72 Mbytesc
Measuring Receiver Personality
233
2.91 Mbytesb
239
4.06 Mbytesb
(available with Option 23A - Trigger support for
AM/FM/PM and Option 23B - CCITT filter)
EMC Analyzer
a. Available as of the print date of this guide.
b. Many PSA Series personality options use a 7.72 Mbyte shared measurement library. If
you are loading multiple personalities that use this library, you only need to add this
memory allocation once.
c. Shared measurement library allocation not required.
d. This is a no charge option that does not require a license key.
28
Chapter 1
Getting Started
Installing Optional Measurement Personalities
Memory Upgrade Kits
The PSA 64 MByte Memory Upgrade kit part number is
E4440AU-ANE. The PSA Compact Flash Upgrade kit part number is
E4440AU-115.
For more information about memory upgrade kits contact your local
sales office, service office, or see:
http://www.agilent.com/find/sa_upgrades
Loading an Optional Measurement Personality
You must use a PC to load the desired personality option into the
instrument memory. Loading can be done from a firmware CD-ROM or
by downloading the update program from the internet. An automatic
loading program comes with the files and runs from your PC.
You can check the Agilent internet website for the latest PSA firmware
versions available for downloading:
http://www.agilent.com/find/psa_firmware
NOTE
When you add a new option, or update an existing option, you will get the
updated versions of all your current options as they are all reloaded
simultaneously. This process may also require you to update the instrument
core firmware so that it is compatible with the new option.
Obtaining and Installing a License Key
If you purchase an optional personality that requires installation, you
will receive an “Entitlement Certificate” which may be redeemed for a
license key specific to one instrument. Follow the instructions that
accompany the certificate to obtain your license key.
To install a license key for the selected personality option, use the
following procedure:
NOTE
You can also use this procedure to reinstall a license key that has been deleted
during an uninstall process, or lost due to a memory failure.
Chapter 1
29
Getting Started
Depending on your installed hardware memory, you may not be able to
fit all of the available measurement personalities in instrument
memory at the same time. You may need to delete an existing option file
from memory and load the one you want. Use the automatic update
program that is provided with the files. Refer to the table showing
“Measurement Personality Options and Memory Required” on page 28.
The approximate memory requirements for the options are listed in this
table. These numbers are worst case examples. Some options share
components and libraries, therefore the total memory usage of multiple
options may not be exactly equal to the combined total.
Getting Started
Installing Optional Measurement Personalities
1. Press System, More, More, Licensing, Option to accesses the alpha
editor. Use this alpha editor to enter letters (upper-case), and the
front-panel numeric keys to enter numbers for the option
designation. You will validate your option entry in the active
function area of the display. Then, press the Enter key.
2. Press License Key to enter the letters and digits of your license key.
You will validate your license key entry in the active function area of
the display. Then, press the Enter key.
3. Press the Activate License key.
Viewing a License Key
Measurement personalities purchased with your instrument have been
installed and activated at the factory before shipment. The instrument
requires a License Key unique to every measurement personality
purchased. The license key is a hexadecimal number specific to your
measurement personality, instrument serial number and host ID. It
enables you to install, or reactivate that particular personality.
Use the following procedure to display the license key unique to your
personality option that is already installed in your PSA:
Getting Started
Press System, More, More, Licensing, Show License. The System,
Personality key displays the personalities loaded, version
information, and whether the personality is licensed.
NOTE
You will want to keep a copy of your license key in a secure location. Press
System, More, then Licensing, Show License, and print out a copy of the
display that shows the license numbers. If you should lose your license key, call
your nearest Agilent Technologies service or sales office for assistance.
Using the Delete License Key on PSA
This key will make the option unavailable for use, but will not delete it
from memory. Write down the 12-digit license key for the option before
you delete it. If you want to use that measurement personality later,
you will need the license key to reactivate the personality firmware.
NOTE
Using the Delete License key does not remove the personality from the
instrument memory, and does not free memory to be available to install
another option. If you need to free memory to install another option, refer to
the instructions for loading firmware updates located at the URL :
http://www.agilent.com/find/psa/
1. Press System, More, More, Licensing, Option. Pressing the Option key
will activate the alpha editor menu. Use the alpha editor to enter the
letters (upper-case) and the front-panel numeric keyboard to enter
the digits (if required) for the option, then press the Enter key. As you
30
Chapter 1
Getting Started
Installing Optional Measurement Personalities
enter the option, you will see your entry in the active function area of
the display.
2. Press Delete License to remove the license key from memory.
Ordering Optional Measurement Personalities
When you order a personality option, you will receive an entitlement
certificate. Then you will need to go to the Web site to redeem your
entitlement certificate for a license key. You will need to provide your
instrument serial number and host ID, and the entitlement certificate
number.
Required Information:
Front Panel Key Path:
Model #: (Ex. E4440A)
Host ID:
__________________
System, Show System
Instrument
Serial Number:
__________________
System, Show System
Getting Started
Chapter 1
31
Getting Started
Starting the Noise Figure Personality
Starting the Noise Figure Personality
The noise figure personality can be started easily once the program has
been licensed and installed.
Getting Started
Press MODE, then Noise Figure to start the utility.
32
Chapter 1
Getting Started
Saving the Instrument State
Saving the Instrument State
Saving an instrument state when in Noise Figure mode will save the
entire measurement mode and measurement setup with the exception
of trace and limit lines. This means that when you save the state (press
File, then Save, and set Type to State), you can save all current settings,
including:
• ENR data
• Frequency Lists
• Loss Compensation Lists
• Resolution Bandwidth settings
• Calibration data
Loading a state that has been saved at any time from the Noise Figure
mode will force the analyzer to switch to Noise Figure mode, and will
overwrite any existing settings with those that were valid when the
state was last saved.
Limit lines and trace data are not saved in the instrument state. They
must be explicitly saved using the File and Save keys, and setting Type
to the appropriate setting.
Table 1-2
Saving the Instrument State
Table /
Parameter
Saved
in
Statea
Saved
as a
file
Survives
Preset
Survives
Mode
Switch
Survives
Power
Cycle
ENR Tables
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Freq List
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
Loss Comp Table
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
Limit Lines
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Correction data
(Calibration)
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
a. Settings saved in a Save State operation can be recalled by
pressing the File, Load and Type keys. They can also be recalled
using a Power On Last or a User Preset operation.
Chapter 1
33
Getting Started
NOTE
Getting Started
Keeping Your Measurement Data and Instrument Setups Secure
Keeping Your Measurement Data and
Instrument Setups Secure
There are three different levels of security which you can use to protect
your data from unauthorized access or viewing. These are:
• Blanking the display
• Erasing your user files
• Erasing all memory, including the operating system
Refer to http://www.agilent.com/find/security for further information on
these facilities.
If you need to use any of these security functions, Agilent Technologies
strongly recommend that you read all the relevant instructions first.
Failure to follow the instructions exactly may render your analyzer
inoperable. You will then have to return your analyzer to an Agilent
Service Center to have it restored to a working condition.
Getting Started
CAUTION
34
Chapter 1
Making Basic Measurements
This chapter describes how to make basic noise figure measurements
using your analyzer using Option 219, the Noise Figure Measurement
application, and also covers the most common measurement related
tasks.
35
Making Basic Measurements
2
Making Basic Measurements
What You will Find in this Chapter
What You will Find in this Chapter
This chapter describes the procedures to set up Option 219, the Noise
Figure Measurement application, and uses a basic example to
demonstrate measuring the noise figure and gain of a device such as an
amplifier which performs no frequency conversion. This chapter covers:
“Entering Excess Noise Ratio (ENR) Data” on page 37
“Setting the Measurement Frequencies” on page 46
“Setting the Bandwidth and Averaging” on page 50
“Calibrating the Analyzer” on page 52
“Displaying the Measurement Results” on page 59
“Indicating an Invalid Result” on page 75
Making Basic Measurements
“Example of a Basic Amplifier Measurement” on page 76
36
Chapter 2
Making Basic Measurements
Entering Excess Noise Ratio (ENR) Data
Entering Excess Noise Ratio (ENR) Data
You can enter ENR data for the noise source you are using as a table of
values or as a single spot value. The values held in the table can be used
for measurements at a range of frequencies as well as at a fixed
frequency.
The single spot value is used either for measurements at a single
frequency, or for measurements across a range of frequencies that is
narrow enough such that the ENR value does not change significantly
across that range.
There are two types of noise source. The first type, for example, an
Agilent 346B, is a normal noise source that is powered by a pulsed
+28 V supply. These need their ENR data to be entered manually, either
by using the ENR data stored previously on a diskette (such as that
supplied with Agilent noise sources) or by using the keypad.
The other type of noise source, for example, an Agilent N4000A, is
known as a Smart Noise Source (SNS). These Smart Noise Sources
require a special socket to connect to the analyzer. Because the Agilent
PSA spectrum analyzers do not have this connector, Smart Noise
Sources can not be used with any of the PSA Series analyzers.
Selecting a Common ENR Table
You can use the same, Common, ENR table both for calibration and for
making measurements, or you can use separate Measurement ENR and
Calibration ENR tables. You need separate measurement and
calibration tables when separate noise sources are used for DUT
measurements and for calibration. An example of this is when you are
using frequency converters, and the calibration range is different than
the measurement range.
NOTE
ENR tables can contain up to 401 frequency points.
To use the same ENR table for calibration and measurement, press the
Meas Setup key and then the ENR key. Press the Common Table key to
select On. This configures the analyzer to use a common ENR table both
for measurements and for calibration.
To use different ENR tables for calibration and measurement, press the
Common Table key to select Off.
When Common Table is set to Off, the Cal Table... key is accessible. Cal
Table... gives you access to the ENR table of the noise source used to
calibrate your analyzer.
Chapter 2
37
Making Basic Measurements
The default setting for Common Table is On. In this mode the Cal Table...
is not accessible.
Making Basic Measurements
Entering Excess Noise Ratio (ENR) Data
When Common Table is set to Off, the Meas & Cal Table... key is also
accessible. This gives you access to the ENR data table for the noise
source used to make measurements.
When Common Table is set to On, the Meas Table... is used as the
Common Table, and is used for both calibration and measurement. The
analyzer’s keys will then refer to the Meas & Cal Table... instead of the
Meas Table....
Entering ENR Table Data for Noise Sources
You can manually enter ENR data in the form of an ENR table in four
different ways:
• You can load the ENR data from a diskette on which the data has
been previously stored. The diskette supplied with every Agilent
noise source contains the ENR data for that particular noise source.
• You can load the ENR data from the internal memory, where the
data has been previously stored.
• You can manually input the required frequencies and corresponding
ENR values.
• You can load the ENR data over a GPIB connection. See the PSA
User’s and Programmer’s Reference Volume 1 for more details.
NOTE
Normal noise sources from Agilent Technologies have the ENR values
printed on the body of the device. These ENR values are also provided
in the form of a calibration report, and on a diskette which is supplied
with every Agilent noise source. The values printed on the noise source
itself are only shown to two decimal places. The values stored on a
diskette are correct to three decimal places.
To load ENR data from diskette or from memory
If the noise source you are using has its ENR data supplied or
previously stored on a diskette or internal memory, you can load this
ENR data into the analyzer as follows.
Making Basic Measurements
Step 1. If the ENR file is on diskette, insert the diskette into the floppy drive of
the analyzer.
Step 2. Press the File key.
Step 3. Press the Load key to access the file system.
Step 4. Select the type of file you wish to load by pressing the Type key and then
either the ENR Meas/Common Table key or the ENR Cal Table key.
A list of available files on the [-A-] or [-C-] drive is displayed.
Step 5. Select the drive from which you wish to load ENR data by pressing the
Dir Up key, and then selecting the drive by using the up and down
38
Chapter 2
Making Basic Measurements
Entering Excess Noise Ratio (ENR) Data
arrows and pressing the Dir Select key.
A list of available files on the specified [-A-] or [-C-] drive is displayed.
Use the arrow keys to access the appropriate file.
Step 6. Select the file from which to load the data by using the up and down
arrows. Once you have highlighted the correct file, press the Load Now
key.
To enter ENR table data manually
NOTE
When you are entering ENR data for the first time, the ENR table is
empty. You can create this condition in Option 219 Noise Figure
Measurement which has been used previously by pressing the Meas
Setup key, followed by ENR. Look at the Common Table softkey to check
whether Common Table is On or Off. If Common Table is On, press
Meas & Cal Table..., and Tab down to any point in one of the rows in the
table. Press More, Delete All.
If Common Table is Off, press ENR, Meas Table... or Cal Table..., and Tab
down to any point in one of the rows in the table. Press More, and Delete
All. The typical display is shown in Figure 2-1.
Enter the ENR data manually as follows:
Step 1. Press the Meas Setup key, followed by the ENR key, and then the Meas
Table... key, the Cal Table... key, or the Meas & Cal Table... key.
Step 2. Now select the ENR table for which you wish to enter data.
To enter common measurement and calibration ENR data, make sure
that Common Table is set to On, and press the Meas and Cal Table key.
To enter either measurement ENR data or calibration ENR data, make
sure that Common Table is set to Off, and then select your table by
pressing either Meas Table... or Cal Table....
An ENR Table appears on the display with the first frequency point in
the table highlighted (see Figure 2-1).
Making Basic Measurements
Chapter 2
39
Making Basic Measurements
Entering Excess Noise Ratio (ENR) Data
Figure 2-1
An Empty ENR Table
Step 3. Optional Step
Tab to the Serial # field, or Tab to any of the rows of data in the table
and press the Serial # key, and enter the noise source serial number
using the numeric keys and the Alpha Editor.
Step 4. Optional Step
Tab to the Model ID field, or Tab to any of the rows of data in the table
and press the Model ID key, and enter the noise source model number
using the numeric keys and the Alpha Editor.
Step 5. Tab to the first column (Row number) in the ENR data table.
The table editing and navigation menu items now appear.
Step 6. Either press the Tab —> key or press the Frequency key to move the
highlight to the Frequency column. Enter the frequency value in the
table using the numeric keys. Terminate it using the unit menu keys.
Making Basic Measurements
Step 7. Either press the Tab —> key or press the ENR Value key to move the
highlight to the ENR Value column. Enter the corresponding ENR
value of the ENR list.
When terminating the ENR value you can use either dB, K (Kelvin),
C (degrees Centigrade), or F (degrees Fahrenheit) menu keys. The K, C,
or F entry is converted to appear in the table as dB.
Step 8. Either press the Tab —> key or press the Frequency key to move the
highlight to the Frequency column. Enter the next frequency value on
the ENR list.
Step 9. Read the note (below) or repeat steps 7 to 8 until all the frequency and
ENR values you need are entered.
40
Chapter 2
Making Basic Measurements
Entering Excess Noise Ratio (ENR) Data
NOTE
The ENR Table data is stored in CSV (Comma Separated Value) format.
It is sometimes more convenient to use a text editor on a PC to edit or
enter this data rather than to enter the data manually using the
analyzer. Start by saving at least one ENR value to diskette, and then
edit or add to the saved file using your PC.
Step 10. After completing the ENR table entries, press the Return key or ESC key
to return to the ENR menu.
Step 11. Optional Step
Once you have completed entering the ENR data, you can save the ENR
table using the File key.
For details on saving files, see “Saving an ENR Table” on page 42.
A Typical ENR Table after data entry
NOTE
ENR table data survives a power cycle and preset. You only need to
explicitly save ENR data if you have more than one noise source.
NOTE
You can insert the frequencies into the ENR Table entry in any order, as
the analyzer automatically sorts the frequency list into ascending order.
NOTE
When results are needed at frequencies between those entered in the
ENR tables, a linearly interpolated value is automatically used at those
frequencies.
Chapter 2
41
Making Basic Measurements
Figure 2-2
Making Basic Measurements
Entering Excess Noise Ratio (ENR) Data
Saving an ENR Table
You can save an ENR table either to the analyzer’s internal memory or
to floppy disk as follows:
Step 1. Press the File key.
Step 2. Press the Save key.
Step 3. Select the type of file you wish to save by pressing the Type key and
then either the ENR Meas/Common Table key or the ENR Cal Table key.
A list of existing files on the [-A-] or [-C-] drive is displayed.
Step 4. Select the drive to which you wish to save the ENR data by pressing the
Dir Up key, and then selecting the drive by using the up and down
arrows and pressing the Dir Select key.
A list of existing files on the specified [-A-] or [-C-] drive is displayed.
Step 5. You can either accept the default filename that the analyzer has
displayed at the top of the screen, or you can specify your own. To
specify your own filename press the Name key, and then specify the
name using the Alpha editor and the numeric keys on the front panel.
NOTE
Although the file extension is shown in the default filename, you must
not include the file extension when specifying your own filename. The
file extension is determined by the type of file you tell the analyzer you
are saving. It is added automatically to the filename you specify.
Making Basic Measurements
Step 6. Press the Save Now key to save the file.
42
Chapter 2
Making Basic Measurements
Entering Excess Noise Ratio (ENR) Data
Entering a Spot ENR Value
A Spot ENR value can be applied across the whole measurement
frequency range, or when making a measurement in fixed frequency
mode, you can enter a specific spot ENR value corresponding to the
fixed frequency.
To enter a Spot ENR value:
Step 1. Press the Meas Setup key and the ENR key.
Step 2. Press the Spot key.
Step 3. Press the Spot ENR key.
Step 4. Enter an ENR value using the numeric keys and terminate it using the
unit termination menu keys. The default value is 15.20 dB.
NOTE
If you are using a noise source with a calibrated ENR list and the
frequency you want to measure is not a listed ENR value, then you need
to interpolate the ENR list to an appropriate value.
To Enable Spot ENR Mode
Step 1. Press the Meas Setup key and the ENR key.
Step 2. Press the ENR Mode key to select Spot.
Making Basic Measurements
Chapter 2
43
Making Basic Measurements
Entering Excess Noise Ratio (ENR) Data
Entering a Spot Thot Value
When making measurements you can enter a specific Spot Thot value.
The Spot Thot value is applied across the whole measurement frequency
range
To enter a Spot Thot value:
Step 1. Press the Meas Setup key, the ENR key, then the Spot key.
Step 2. Press the Spot T hot key.
Step 3. Enter a Thot value using the numeric keys and terminate it using the
unit termination menu keys. The default value is 9892.80 K.
NOTE
You can enter Thot temperatures in degrees centigrade (C), in degrees
Fahrenheit (F), or in Kelvin (K). Whatever units you use when entering
the Thot temperature, the temperature will be converted automatically
and displayed in K.
To Enable Spot Thot Mode
Step 1. Press the Meas Setup key and the ENR key.
Step 2. Press the ENR Mode key to select Spot.
Step 3. Press the Spot key.
Making Basic Measurements
Step 4. Press the Spot State key and select Thot.
44
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Making Basic Measurements
Entering Excess Noise Ratio (ENR) Data
Setting the Tcold value
When making measurements in different ambient temperature
conditions you can change the Tcold value manually.
The default temperature value is set at 296.50 K (23.25° C or 73.85° F).
The T cold key is set to Default to confirm this default temperature.
Changing the User Tcold value manually
To change the User Tcold value:
Step 1. Press the Meas Setup key and the ENR key.
Step 2. Press the T cold key so that User is underlined.
Step 3. Enter the Tcold temperature using the numeric keys on the front panel,
and terminate it by selecting the unit termination menu keys.
NOTE
You can enter Tcold temperatures in degrees centigrade (C), in degrees
Fahrenheit (F), or in Kelvin (K). Whatever units you use when entering
the Tcold temperature, the temperature will be converted automatically
and displayed in K.
Making Basic Measurements
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Making Basic Measurements
Setting the Measurement Frequencies
Setting the Measurement Frequencies
Before you set the frequencies you want to measure, you need to select a
frequency mode. Three frequency modes are available:
• Sweep — the measurement frequencies are obtained from the start
and stop (or equivalent center and span) frequencies and the number
of measurement points.
• List — the measurement frequencies are obtained from the
frequency list entries.
• Fixed — the measurement frequency is taken at a single fixed
frequency.
Using Sweep Frequency Mode
In sweep frequency mode you set the start and stop frequencies (or
equivalent center and span frequencies) over which the sweep is made.
You also need to set the number of measurement points. These
measurement points are equally spaced over the frequency span. The
maximum number of points is 401 and the default number of points
is 11.
NOTE
If you change the span after a calibration, and the calibration has been
made over a narrower frequency range, the calibration is invalid.
To make a measurement over a specific frequency range:
Step 1. Press the FREQUENCY/Channel key.
Step 2. Press the Freq Mode key.
Step 3. Press Sweep to select Sweep mode.
Step 4. Set the frequency range by either entering the Start Freq and Stop Freq
frequencies, or the Center Freq and the Freq Span key.
Making Basic Measurements
Use the numeric key pad to enter the value you want. Use the unit
menu keys to terminate the number.
Step 5. Press the Points key.
Step 6. Enter the number of measurement points using the numeric keys.
Press the Enter key to terminate.
NOTE
The time required to make a measurement or to calibrate is
proportional to the number of measurement points that you specify.
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Setting the Measurement Frequencies
Using List Frequency Mode
List frequency mode allows you to enter the frequency points where
measurements are made. This allows you to specify measurement
points, for example, in areas of interest that would otherwise have less
coverage in the sweep mode. List Frequency mode can also be used to
avoid making measurements at frequencies where spurs are known to
exist.
Frequency lists are limited to 401 entries.
To set the analyzer to use the data in the frequency list table:
Step 1. Press the FREQUENCY/Channel key and the Freq Mode key.
Step 2. Press the List key to set the frequency mode to List.
You can create a frequency list in the following ways:
• Manually, by specifying each individual point.
• From the swept points, by specifying the measurement frequency
range and setting the analyzer to generate equally spaced points
within that range, using the Fill key. This list of frequencies can be
edited later if required.
• Loading a list from the internal memory or from a diskette where
the data has been previously stored. Lists stored an a diskette can be
edited using your text editor of your PC.
• Loading a list over GPIB; see Chapter 7 , “Language Reference,” on
page 229 if you want to use this method.
To Create a Frequency List Manually
Step 1. Press the FREQUENCY/Channel key.
Step 2. Press the Freq List... key.
A Frequency List table appears on the display.
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Making Basic Measurements
Setting the Measurement Frequencies
Figure 2-3
An Empty Frequency List
NOTE
You do not need to enter the frequency values in ascending order, as the
analyzer continually sorts the values into ascending order.
Step 3. Press the Delete All key.
You are prompted to press this key again, this feature ensures you do
not accidently clear a valid Frequency list table. Press the Delete All key
again. Clearing the table allows you to start entering points knowing
there are no previous entries remaining.
The first frequency point in the table is highlighted.
Step 4. Enter the frequency value you want using the numeric keys. Terminate
it using the unit menu keys which are presented to you.
Step 5. The next frequency point in the table is automatically highlighted.
Enter the next frequency value by using the numeric key pad and the
unit termination keys.
Making Basic Measurements
Step 6. Repeat step 5 until your list is complete.
Step 7. Save the Frequency List to the analyzer internal memory or to a
diskette if required using the File key. See “Saving an ENR Table” on
page 42 for an explanation of this.
NOTE
If you do not save the frequency list, you may lose the data. This
depends on your Power On/Preset condition. Table 1-2 on page 33 gives
you more details.
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Setting the Measurement Frequencies
Creating a Frequency List from Swept Points
You can create a frequency list from the swept mode frequency and
points data.
To set the analyzer to use the swept mode data:
Step 1. Press the FREQUENCY/Channel key.
Step 2. Press the Freq List... key.
Step 3. Press the Fill key.
This clears the current frequency list and fills the list with the
frequencies generated by the sweep frequency mode. This results in the
same frequency list as setting Frequency Mode to Swept. You can use
this list as a starting point, and then edit the frequencies as required.
Using Fixed Frequency Mode
The fixed frequency mode is used when you want to make a
measurement at a single frequency.
NOTE
If you have not entered the noise source ENR data which you intend
using for the fixed frequency mode measurement, you may specify a
spot ENR value and set the ENR mode to Spot.
To set a fixed frequency:
Step 1. Press the FREQUENCY/Channel key.
Step 2. Press the Freq Mode key to set the frequency mode to Fixed.
The Fixed Freq key is now available.
Step 3. Press the Fixed Freq key and enter the frequency value using the
numeric keys and the unit termination menu keys.
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Making Basic Measurements
Setting the Bandwidth and Averaging
Setting the Bandwidth and Averaging
Effect of Bandwidth and Averaging on Speed, Jitter, and
Measurement Accuracy
Jitter is a natural occurrence when measuring noise. To reduce jitter
you must increase the number of averages or increase the measurement
bandwidth.
If the bandwidth is reduced, you need to increase the number of
averages to maintain the same uncertainty.
The greater the number of averages chosen, the more accurate the
measurement, as this reduces jitter on the measurement. However, this
has to be considered against how long it takes to complete the
measurement.
There is therefore a trade off between speed and the
accuracy/uncertainty of a measurement.
Selecting the Resolution Bandwidth Value
When the Res BW is set to Auto, the bandwidth is set automatically, and
is dependent on measurement frequency.
At measurement frequencies of 3 MHz or above, the Resolution
Bandwidth is set automatically to 1 MHz.
At measurement frequencies less than 3 MHz, the Resolution
Bandwidth is set automatically to 10% of the measurement frequency.
Making Basic Measurements
When the Res BW is set to Man, you can manually specify the Resolution
Bandwidth from a minimum of 1 Hz to a maximum of 8 MHz. The lower
the Resolution Bandwidth setting, the longer the measurement will
take. With a Res BW setting of 1 Hz, each measurement point may take
up to 6000 secs.
CAUTION
Do not switch to DC Coupling if your input signal contains a DC
component. You risk permanently damaging your analyzer’s front end
components if you do this.
NOTE
Agilent model numbers E4443A, E4445A, and E4440A only: For greater
accuracy in your noise figure measurements, Agilent recommends that
you use DC Coupling for measurement frequencies below 20 MHz, and
AC coupling for frequencies greater than 20 MHz. When setting your
analyzer to DC Coupled, make sure you do not have a DC component
being fed into the analyzer input as you will permanently damage your
analyzer. Press the Input/Output key, and then the RF Coupling key to set
your analyzer to AC or DC Coupled.
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Setting the Bandwidth and Averaging
Step 1. Press the BW/Avg key.
The current resolution bandwidth is shown on the Res BW key.
Step 2. Press the Res BW key and select whether the resolution bandwidth is to
be set automatically, or to be set manually by you.
Step 3. Enter your resolution bandwidth using the numeric keys on the front
panel, and terminate by using the unit termination keys.
Setting Averaging
Increased averaging reduces jitter and provides more accurate
measurement results. However, the measurement speed is sacrificed.
The maximum number of averages allowed is 1000, and the default
value is 10. The default setting, however, is Off.
Enabling
averaging
Averaging can be enabled by setting the Averaging to On. To disable
averaging set Averaging to Off.
Setting the Number of Averages
To set the number of averages you want:
Step 1. Press the Meas Setup key, and then press the Avg Number key so that
Averaging is set to On.
Step 2. Enter the numeric value you want using the numeric key pad.
Terminate it with the Enter key.
Selecting the Averaging Mode
Averaging Mode is permanently set to Repeat. No other form of
averaging is available.
With Repeat averaging, each point in a sweep is measured an Avg
Number of times and the average figure evaluated, before moving on to
the next point in the sweep.
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Making Basic Measurements
Calibrating the Analyzer
Calibrating the Analyzer
To compensate for the noise contribution of the analyzer and associated
cabling in the measurement path, a calibration is necessary. The
calibration measures the analyzer’s noise contribution with no DUT
(device under test) in place. This correction is often referred to as the
second stage calibration. The correction is then applied to the
measurement with the DUT in place.
To perform calibration you need to enter the ENR values and set up the
frequency range, number of measurement points, the bandwidth, the
averaging, and measurement mode to be used during the measurement.
NOTE
If you alter the frequency range after you have calibrated the analyzer,
it changes the analyzer’s status to either the uncorrected or the
interpolated corrected state. Before you can make another
measurement to the specified accuracy, you will need to either
recalibrate the analyzer, or to recall a previously saved state file in
which the calibration data has been saved.
Corrected
measurements
You can make corrected measurements only at frequencies which are
covered by the current calibration. Attempting to make corrected
measurements at frequencies less than the lowest calibration frequency
or greater than the highest calibration frequency will generate an error
and invalidate the calibration.
To proceed you must either:
• perform a calibration over the desired measurement frequency range
• change the measurement frequency to one covered by the existing
calibration
• perform uncorrected measurements. Uncorrected measurements
actually measure the noise figure of the analyzer and any associated
components in the input path. This can be useful if you wish to use
the Uncertainty Calculator.
Making Basic Measurements
NOTE
If you perform a measurement outside the calibrated range of the
analyzer, Noise Figure Correction is automatically set to Off and a
message is displayed stating User Cal invalidated, freq outside
cal range. If you then change your measurement frequency back to a
frequency within the calibrated range, the previous error message will
be replaced by a message stating User Cal valid. Noise Figure
Correction, however, will still be set to Off. You will need to switch it On
again to make a corrected measurement.
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Calibrating the Analyzer
When to perform To make corrected measurements, you must calibrate the analyzer
calibration
whenever:
• You power cycle the analyzer
• You Preset the analyzer
• You select a measurement frequency or frequency range outside the
currently calibrated range
• You change the RBW setting across the 1.5 MHz boundary. That is, if
you change from an RBW value less than or equal to 1.5 MHz to one
that is greater, or from an RBW value greater than 1.5 MHz to one
that is at 1.5 MHz or lower.
• There is a large temperature variation since the last calibration
• The input signal level can no longer be measured using one of the
calibrated input attenuator ranges
• When an invalid result is detected and the condition is indicated by a
“xx”. See “Indicating an Invalid Result” on page 75 for an
explanation of these conditions.
Interpolated
results
When the number of measurement points is changed without exceeding
the range of frequencies being measured, interpolation between
calibration points is used and a new calibration is not required.
Similarly, when the RBW is changed without crossing the 1.5 MHz
boundary, the power at each calibration point is re-estimated, and a
new calibration is not required. Interpolation, however, is not perfect; it
is therefore always better to perform a new calibration.
The locations of the measurement points, that is, the frequencies at
which measurements are made, change whenever the start frequency,
the stop frequency, or the number of points is changed.
Whenever anything within the analyzer changes to invalidate the
current calibration, the message UnCorr is displayed in red at the top
left-hand corner of the display. If the analyzer has been successfully
calibrated for the current frequency and measurement settings, the
message Corr is displayed in green text at the top right-hand corner of
the display.
Interpolated
calibration
Whenever anything within the analyzer changes to force the current
calibration to interpolate the calibration data, the green Corr message
at the top right-hand corner of the display switches to a yellow ~Corr
message at the top center of the display. This would happen, for
example, if you change the RBW after calibrating but before measuring.
Chapter 2
53
Making Basic Measurements
Calibration
indicator
Making Basic Measurements
Calibrating the Analyzer
To perform a calibration
Step 1. Verify that the correct ENR table is loaded in the analyzer, or input the
ENR values of the noise source into the analyzer’s Common or
Calibration Table.
See “Entering ENR Table Data for Noise Sources” on page 38 for more
details.
Step 2. Configure the measurement parameters (frequency range, number of
points, bandwidth, averages, and measurement mode) you want to use
for the measurement.
Step 3. Connect the noise source output directly to the analyzer input, as
shown in Figure 2-4.
Figure 2-4
PSA Calibration
NOISE SOURCE DRIVE
OUT +28 V (PULSED)
NOISE SOURCE
Making Basic Measurements
NOTE
You may need to use connector adaptors to connect the noise source
output to the analyzer input during calibration. The connectors you use
need to be included in the measurement. If you remove these connectors
for the measurement, you need to apply Loss Compensation to
compensate for any loss caused by the connectors’ removal. “Using Loss
Compensation” on page 90 has an explanation of this.
Step 4. If required, select an input attenuator range by pressing the
Input/Output key, followed by the Noise Figure Corrections key and the
Input Cal key to set the minimum and maximum input attenuation.
See “Selecting the Input Attenuation Range” on page 56 for mode
details on input attenuation.
Step 5. Press the Calibrate key twice to initiate the calibration.
The first time you press the key you are prompted to press it again.
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Chapter 2
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Calibrating the Analyzer
This two-stroke key press feature prevents you from accidentally
pressing Calibrate and erasing the existing calibration data.
The analyzer performs the calibration, displaying a percentage counter
while this is happening.
When the calibration is finished the calibration indicator changes from
a red UnCorr display to a green Corr display. Also the Noise Figure
Corrections key (Input/Output key, Noise Figure Corrections key and again
the Noise Figure Corrections key) is now available to you. This allows
you to make corrected or uncorrected measurements by switching
between On and Off respectively.
NOTE
Measurement performance above 3 GHz is not specified. If you do not
have either Option 110, High Band Preamp, or an external preamp and
you are calibrating above 3 GHz, the calibration data will vary
significantly. Measurements made with this calibration data might be
valid, but only if the device you are testing has a high gain. If this is not
the case, the measurement accuracy will be poor. See the PSA Series
Specifications Guide for more detail on operating above 3 GHz.
NOTE
When using external preamps or high-gain DUTs, ensure that neither
the external preamp (or the high-gain DUT) nor the internal preamp go
into compression as this will affect the accuracy of your measurements.
If you suspect that one or other of the preamps is going into
compression, use attenuation prior to that preamp to prevent
compression. Note that the analyzer’s internal attenuator will only
affect compression occurring in the internal preamp. It will not have
any effect on any compression occurring in the external preamp.
Making Basic Measurements
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55
Making Basic Measurements
Calibrating the Analyzer
Selecting the Input Attenuation Range
The Noise Figure Measurement Personality (Option 219), in PSA Series
analyzers, has a default input attenuation calibration range of 0 dB to 8
dB, and a step size of 4 dB.
In the Option 219 Noise Figure application, the attenuators cannot
autorange. There is therefore a risk of overdriving the analyzer. If the
signal power level is greater than –35 dBm on the PSA Series
analyzers, the preamp will go into compression and the accuracy of your
results will be adversely affected. In most cases, 0 dB attenuation is
adequate. A guide to the input powers that can be handled by PSA
Series analyzers at each frequency range is shown in Table 2-1 on
page 57.
Making Basic Measurements
To check for overdriving of the analyzer, that is, compression occurring
at the preamp stage, set the attenuation to 0 dB and note the noise
figure of your DUT. Now increase the attenuation by one step by
pressing the up-arrow key. If your noise figure changes by more than
0.5 dB, attenuation is required. Repeat this process until you have
found the lowest level of attenuation that gives you a stable noise figure
result, and use this attenuation level for your measurements.
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Calibrating the Analyzer
Table 2-1
Power Detection and Ranging on PSA Series Analyzersa
Frequency
Attenuation
Setting
Maximum
Input Power
for High
Accuracy
Approximate DUT
Characteristics
200 kHz to
3 GHzb
0 dB
–35 dBm
Over the full bandwidth, a
DUT with NF = 5 dB and
Gain = 36 dB, or a DUT
with NF = 15 dB and Gain
= 29 dB
200 kHz to
3 GHzb
4 dB
–39 dBm
Over the full bandwidth, a
DUT with NF = 5 dB and
Gain = 40 dB, or a DUT
with NF = 15 dB and Gain
= 33 dB
200 kHz to
3 GHzb
8 dB
–43 dBm
Over the full bandwidth, a
DUT with NF = 5 dB and
Gain = 44 dB, or a DUT
with NF = 15 dB and Gain
= 37 dB
200 kHz to
3 GHzb
12 dB
–47 dBm
Over the full bandwidth, a
DUT with NF = 5 dB and
Gain = 48 dB, or a DUT
with NF = 15 dB and Gain
= 41 dB
3 GHz to
50.0 GHzc
0 dB
–12 dBm
Chapter 2
Making Basic Measurements
a. The figures given in the table (above) for 200 kHz to 3 GHz assume
a 5 dB ENR noise source and that the preamp is On. The figures
for 3 GHz to 50.0 GHz assume a 15 dB ENR noise source.
b. If the DUT has a narrower bandwidth than the 200 kHz to 3 GHz
specified here, the DUT characteristics can be increased accordingly. For example, if the DUT has a bandwidth of 100 MHz, the
DUT characteristics can be increased by a factor of
10 x log(3 x 109 / 100 x 106), that is, by 15 dB. In this example with
an attenuation setting of 0 dB, the Gain of a DUT with a 15 dB
Noise Figure can be increased from 29 dB to 44 dB.
c. In the 3 – 50.0 GHz frequency range, Option 110 High Band
Preamp is highly recommended. If you do not have Option 110
installed, then an external preamp is recommended. For this reason, attenuation levels greater than 0 dB have been omitted from
the table (above). Any external preamp you are using and the DUT
will be the limiting factors for compression. The analyzer attenuators are after the external preamp and the DUT, and would therefore not improve the compression. The preselector has a
bandwidth of between 30 MHz and 70 MHz, depending on frequency (higher frequencies have higher bandwidths).
57
Making Basic Measurements
Calibrating the Analyzer
To select the input attenuation calibration range:
Step 1. Press the Input/Output key.
Step 2. Press the Noise Figure Corrections key.
Step 3. Press the Input Cal key and select the attenuation range you want
Step 4. Set the attenuator range using the Min Atten and Max Atten keys, and
enter the required attenuation calibration range using the numeric
keys on the front panel. Terminate the attenuator range entry by
pressing the dB key. Use Table 2-1 on page 57 as a guide to what range
you require.
Setting the Input Attenuation after a Calibration
The attenuators cannot autorange. Hence, when making a
measurement you must manually set the input attenuation to avoid
overdriving the analyzer. To set the input attenuation:
Step 1. Press the Input/Output key.
Making Basic Measurements
Step 2. Press the Attenuation menu key and enter the desired measurement
attenuation using the numeric keys on the front panel. Press the dB key
to complete the attenuation setting.
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Displaying the Measurement Results
Displaying the Measurement Results
The analyzer features a color display and a comprehensive set of
display features to allow you to analyze the measurement results in
detail, or to quickly obtain pass/fail indication.
The following display format features are available:
• Graph, Table, or Meter mode display
• Single or dual-graph display allowing any two available result types
to be displayed simultaneously
• Zoom to display only one result graph on the display
• Combine option to display two result types on the same graph
• Markers for searching a trace, and for displaying point data more
accurately than can be done with a trace alone
• Save the current active trace data to memory
• Switch the graticule on or off
• Switch display annotation on or off
Selecting the Display Format
You can display the measurement results in either:
• Graph format
• Table format
• Meter format
The default display provides a display of noise figure and gain on the
dual-graph display. The upper graph is noise figure and the lower graph
is gain.
In all formats you can choose two result parameters you want to
display.
To set the display format:
Step 2. Select the Graph, Table, or Meter key to select the display mode you
want.
Navigating Around the Display
Active Graph
The active graph is highlighted by a green border. Noise Figure is the
active graph by default.
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59
Making Basic Measurements
Step 1. Press the Trace/View key.
Making Basic Measurements
Displaying the Measurement Results
Dual-graph display
Changing the
Active Graph
To change the active graph, press the Next Window key below the
display. This key allows you to set the upper or lower graph as the
active graph.
Viewing the Full
Screen
You can fill the entire display and remove the menu keys, the active
function area annotation, and the display status line annotation from
the display. Press the Display key and the Full Screen key to view the full
screen. Pressing any key except Save, Print or the numeric keys returns
to the previous display.
NOTE
The Full Screen key also functions in table or meter format.
Making Basic Measurements
Figure 2-5
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Displaying the Measurement Results
Selecting Result Types to Display
You can choose to display any pair of measurement results in all of the
display format modes.
The measurement result types are as follows, with their units in
parentheses:
• Noise Figure (dB)
• Noise Factor (linear power, measured in watts)
• Gain (dB)
• Y Factor (dB)
• T effective (Kelvin, K)
• P hot (dB)
• P cold (dB)
To specify which measurement results are displayed
Step 1. Press the Trace/View key.
Step 2. Press the Result A key and select the result type that you want to
display. These results will be displayed in the upper display window
when Meas View is set to Graph, and in the left-hand column when Meas
View is set to Table.
Step 3. Press the Result B key and select the result type that you want to
display. These results will be displayed in the lower display window
when Meas View is set to Graph, and in the right-hand column when
Meas View is set to Table.
NOTE
If you press the AMPLITUDE/Y Scale key while Meas View is set to Graph,
the scale menu keys for the active measurement are shown.
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Graphical Features
Viewing a single graph
While in graph format mode, you can press the Zoom key located below
the display and the active graph fills the display as a single graph, as
shown in Figure 2-6. Pressing the Zoom key again returns the display
to dual-graph.
Displaying a single graph
NOTE
When in single graph mode, pressing the Next Window key displays the
other single graph.
Making Basic Measurements
Figure 2-6
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Displaying the Measurement Results
Combining two traces on the same graph
You can combine the upper and lower graphs from a dual-graph display
into a single combined display. By default, the Combined setting is Off
and the graphs are not combined.
NOTE
When combining two graphs, the Y-scale result limits are not re-scaled.
Both graphs have their own Y-scale result limits which are indicated in
different colors. These colors correspond to the colors of the traces in the
combined graph.
To combine the two graphs:
Step 1. Press the Trace/View key and ensure Graph is selected.
Step 2. Press the Combined key and toggle to the On setting to combine the two
currently displayed graphs on the same graph.
Figure 2-7
Typical display with two traces combined on the same graph
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Displaying the Measurement Results
Turning the Graticule On and Off
When Graticule is set to On, the graticule divisions are displayed on the
screen. This is the default setting. When Graticule is set to Off, the
graticule lines are not displayed on the screen.
To turn the graticule on or off:
Step 1. Press the Display key.
Step 2. Press the Preferences key.
Step 3. Press the Graticule key to select the Off or On as required.
Typical Graph with Graticule Switched Off
Making Basic Measurements
Figure 2-8
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Displaying the Measurement Results
Turning the Display Annotation On or Off
When Annotation is set to On, the annotation is displayed on the screen.
This is the default setting. When Annotation is set to Off, the annotation
is not displayed on the screen.
To turn the annotation on or off:
Step 1. Press the Display key.
Step 2. Press the Preferences key.
Step 3. Press the Annotation key to select the Off or On as required.
Figure 2-9
Typical Graph with Annotation Switched Off
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Displaying the Measurement Results
Setting the Scaling
You can set the result’s scale parameters in the active graph. To set the
scale, press the AMPLITUDE/Y Scale key.
NOTE
To change the active graph, press the Next Window key.
Figure 2-10
Typical Noise Figure Displayed on a Graph
Press the AMPLITUDE/Y Scale key to display the Y Scale menu. You can
set the scale for the measurement display manually, or press the Auto
Scale key. Pressing Auto Scale selects the optimum values for Ref Value
and Scale/Div.
If limit line Display is set to On, and Autoscale is pressed or the scale is
changed, the limit lines may no longer appear in the display.
Making Basic Measurements
NOTE
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Displaying the Measurement Results
Setting Noise Figure Scale
NOTE
The following procedure can also be applied to other result types.
To make Noise Figure the active screen and set up the noise figure
parameters, use the following procedure.
Step 1. Press the Next Window key so that your desired graph (upper or lower)
is highlighted with a green border.
Step 2. Press the Trace/View key.
Step 3. Press the Result A or the Result B key, depending on whether you want
the Noise Figure results displayed in the upper (Result A) or lower
(Result B) graph.
Step 4. Press the Noise Figure key.
Step 5. Press the Noise Figure (dB) key.
NOTE
If you press the Noise Factor (Linear) key, the graph will display Noise
Factor instead of Noise Figure results. Noise Factor results are
displayed on a power (watts) scale.
Step 6. Press the AMPLITUDE/Y Scale key.
Step 7. Press the Scale/Div key. Change the scale per division value using the
knob or the numeric keys. Values entered using the numeric keys can
be terminated by pressing the dB or the linear key.
NOTE
Instead of setting the Scale/Div manually, you can let the analyzer
choose a suitable value that will cause the measurement trace to be
displayed over the full height of the display window. To do this, press
the Auto Scale key.
Setting the Reference Level
Step 1. Press the Ref Value key. Change the reference value using the knob or
the numeric keys. Values that are entered using the numeric keys can
be terminated using either the dB key or the linear key. If you press the
linear key, the figure you entered is automatically converted to dB.
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Working with Markers
NOTE
The marker functions only apply when you are working in graph
format.
Marker functions measure the frequency and measurement results by
placing a diamond-shaped marker at a point on the trace. The
measurement results displayed depend on the result type selected.
The analyzer has four markers, Marker(1), Marker(2), Marker(3), and
Marker(4). The markers are coupled to both the lower graph trace and
upper graph trace.
Each marker can be enabled as a normal, delta, or delta pair marker.
The active marker’s frequency is displayed in the active function area,
and at the bottom of the screen. The enabled marker’s results are
displayed under the Markers tab bar at the bottom of the screen.
NOTE
The active Tab at the bottom of the screen can be changed by pressing
the left-arrow and right-arrow keys.
Selecting Markers
To select a marker:
Step 1. Press the Marker key.
Step 2. Press the Select Marker key to select the marker of interest.
The active marker is identified by being underlined in the Marker key
label.
Step 3. Press the Normal, Delta or Delta Pair key to select your type of marker(s).
A Normal State Marker
Making Basic Measurements
Figure 2-11
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Chapter 2
Making Basic Measurements
Displaying the Measurement Results
A marker is now placed on each trace. Turn the knob or use the up- and
down-step keys to place the markers at the point on the trace you want
to measure, or use the numeric keys to enter the frequency of interest.
The marker frequency and marker result are displayed against the
Marker tab bar which is below the graph display. Their frequency values
are also displayed in the active function area.
NOTE
A marker can only be placed on a point where a measurement has been
made. It is not possible to place a marker at an interpolated position on
the graphs.
To turn an active To turn an active marker off, press the Off key. This also removes the
marker off
marker annotation from the marker tab at the bottom of the screen,
and the marker frequency from the active function area.
To change the
active marker
The default active marker setting is Marker(1). To change the active
marker, press the Select Marker key. This moves the active marker from
Marker(1) to Marker(2). Press it again and it moves the active marker
from Marker(2) to Marker(3). This process is repeated until it returns to
the Marker(1).
Figure 2-12
Four Normal State Markers
Changing the Marker States
To use Delta
Markers
The Delta key places a reference marker at the current position of the
active marker. The delta markers enable you to measure the difference
between the reference marker and the delta marker position on the
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69
Making Basic Measurements
To Switch all the To switch all the markers off press Marker All Off. This turns off all the
markers and associated annotation.
Markers Off
Making Basic Measurements
Displaying the Measurement Results
trace. Turn the knob to place the delta marker to the point on the trace
you want to measure. The position of the reference marker remains
fixed. The delta marker has its frequency and measurement result
value differences annotated relative to the reference marker on the
marker tab at the bottom of the screen. The delta marker has its actual
frequency value is displayed in the active function area. See Figure
2-13.
Figure 2-13
The Delta Marker State enabled
To activate a Delta marker:
Step 1. Press the Marker key.
Step 2. Press the Select Marker key to select the marker of interest.
Making Basic Measurements
Step 3. Press the Delta key to highlight it. Use the knob to move the Delta
marker from the reference marker. The annotation on the marker tab
at the bottom of the screen displays the difference between the
reference marker and the delta marker. The frequency of the delta
marker is displayed in the active function area at the top of the screen.
To use Delta Pair The Delta Pair key places two markers allowing you to choose to move
Markers
either the normal marker or the reference marker. This feature is
similar to the Delta marker, except you can choose to move either the
reference or the delta marker.
When you first select a marker as a Delta Pair, the active marker is the
reference marker. Ref will be underlined on the Delta Pair key to indicate
this. The reference marker is indicated by the letter ‘R’ beside the
marker’s number on the display. Once you have positioned the reference
marker, press the Delta Pair key again to underline the delta marker
(∆). Your delta marker is now the active marker. You can position this on
any of the measurement points on the graph by using the knob, the
step-up or the step-down keys, or the numeric keys. The position of the
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Making Basic Measurements
Displaying the Measurement Results
reference marker remains fixed until the reference marker is
re-activated by pressing the Delta Pair key again. The active marker
has its frequency and measurement result value differences annotated
below the graph. Its actual frequency value is displayed in the active
function area. See Figure 2-14.
Figure 2-14
Delta Pair with Reference Marker Enabled
To activate the Delta Pair markers:
Step 1. Press the Marker key.
Step 2. Press the Select Marker key to select the marker of interest.
Step 3. Press the Delta Pair key to highlight it. Make sure that Ref is underlined
on the Delta Pair key.
Step 4. Use the knob, or the step-up or step-down keys, to move the reference
marker to the required position on the traces.
Step 5. Pressing the Delta Pair key again fixes the position of the reference
marker, and allows you to move the reference marker using the knob,
the step-up or step-down keys, or the numeric keys.
Making Basic Measurements
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71
Making Basic Measurements
Displaying the Measurement Results
Figure 2-15
Delta Pair with Delta Marker Enabled
Searching with Markers
The Peak Search key accesses a further menu which allows you to place
an active marker on the minimum or maximum points of a trace when
using a Normal marker. When using Delta or Delta Pair markers, you
can search for the Minimum Peak to Maximum Peak on the trace. You
can set these to repeat continuously, or by manually pressing the Find
key as required.
It should be noted that the Search function operates on the active trace.
The active trace is always indicated by underlining of the name of the
measurement, for example, the NFIG measurement shown in Figure
2-16 on page 73. When two measurements are shown in two separate
windows on the display, that is, when Combined is set to Off, the active
trace is also indicated by a green border surrounding the graph. This is
also shown with the NFIG measurement in Figure 2-16 on page 73.
Making Basic Measurements
The marker on the second trace, that is, the marker on the inactive
trace, is positioned at the same frequency position as the marker on the
active trace.
Searching for
You need to have activated a Normal marker to perform a minimum or
Min or Max point maximum search.
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Chapter 2
Making Basic Measurements
Displaying the Measurement Results
Figure 2-16
Typical Trace showing Maximum Point Found
To search for the maximum point:
Step 1. Press the Peak Search key.
Step 2. Press the Search Type key to select the Maximum.
Step 3. Press the Find key.
The marker is now placed at the maximum point of the active trace.
If you want to continuously find the maximum point on the trace, set
Continuous to On.
Searching for
Peak to Peak
points
You need to have activated Delta or Delta Pair markers to perform a
Peak to Peak search.
Making Basic Measurements
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73
Making Basic Measurements
Displaying the Measurement Results
Figure 2-17
Peak to Peak Found
Step 1. Press the Peak Search key.
Step 2. Press the Search Type key to select Pk-Pk.
Step 3. Press the Find key.
The markers are now on the maximum and minimum points of the
trace.
If you want to continuously find the maximum and minimum points on
the trace, set Continuous to On.
Making Basic Measurements
The annotation displays the difference between the two points.
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Chapter 2
Making Basic Measurements
Indicating an Invalid Result
Indicating an Invalid Result
When an invalid result is detected while in graph display format, the
graph is drawn at the top of the screen for the current measurement
point and a special marker indicator is displayed. Also in table and
meter formats the same special indicators are used to display an invalid
result.
Several invalid result conditions may exist simultaneously. These
conditions are ranked in order of severity and only the most severe
condition present is displayed.
The ranking order is:
Table 2-2
Ranking Order of Invalid Result Conditions
Ranking
Order
Invalid Result Condition
Marker
Indicator
1
Hot power ≤ cold power
“==”
2
Corrected calculation not possible
“xx”
3
Measurement result calculation
invalid
“--”
The ranked order 2 only occurs if a corrected measurement is requested
and either:
• The input range used at this measurement point is not calibrated.
• The input range is calibrated, but the calibration data is invalid at
this point.
Making Basic Measurements
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75
Making Basic Measurements
Example of a Basic Amplifier Measurement
Example of a Basic Amplifier Measurement
Noise figure measurements are made by measuring the output power of
the DUT for two different input noise power levels. The high and low
power inputs come from a calibrated noise source. The noise source is
switched on and off in rapid succession. High power input to the
analyzer uses the noise power generated when the noise source is
switched on, and low power input uses the noise power generated at
ambient temperature with the noise source switched off.
This section uses a DUT to show how a basic noise figure measurement
and various basic operations are performed. The DUT used is a low
noise amplifier with a usable frequency range of 20 MHz to 3.0 GHz.
The specifications of interest to the example are listed in Table 2-3.
Table 2-3
The Example DUT Specifications
Frequency
Range
Typical
Gain
Minimum
Gain
Typical Noise
Figure
20 MHz to
3 GHz
20 dB
14 dB
4.8 dB
The example sets a frequency range of interest of 1.0 GHz to 2.0 GHz.
The purpose of the measurement is to verify the specified table results
are as stated over the frequency range of interest.
When you are making measurements, follow the procedure and change
the values to meet your needs.
NOTE
For these basic measurements confirm the analyzer Meas Mode is in the
default setting. This status is displayed above the graphs as follows:
• DUT: Amplifier
Making Basic Measurements
• Sys Downconv: Off
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Chapter 2
Making Basic Measurements
Example of a Basic Amplifier Measurement
Calibrating the Noise Figure Analyzer
The first step is to calibrate the analyzer to obtain the corrected
measurement you wish to make.
Step 1. Turn the instrument on and wait for the power-up process to complete.
NOTE
To obtain greater accuracy, it is recommended the analyzer warm up for
at least one hour with Alignment, Auto Align set to On.
Step 2. Press System, Power On/Preset, Preset Type set to Mode and press the
green Preset key to return the analyzer to its factory-default state.
Step 3. Press the Mode key and set the measurement mode to Noise Figure.
Step 4. Press the MEASURE key and set the measurement to Noise Figure.
Step 5. Press Meas Setup, ENR, and set ENR Mode to Table.
Step 6. On the same menu, press Common Table and set it to On.
Step 7. Again on the same menu, press Meas & Cal Table... to enter the ENR
values of the noise source.
In this example, a 346B noise source is used which has the following
Frequency/ENR pairs up to 2 GHz (covering the required frequency
range of 1.0 GHz to 2.0 GHz):
Table 2-4
Example Noise Source ENR/Frequency values
Frequency
(GHz)
ENR
(dB)
.01
15.13
.10
15.39
1.0
15.21
2.0
15.02
Step 8. Press the FREQUENCY/Channel key to set the frequency parameters of
the measurement:
• Freq Mode — Sweep
Making Basic Measurements
• Start Freq — 1.0 GHz
• Stop Freq — 2.0 GHz
• Points — 15
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Making Basic Measurements
Example of a Basic Amplifier Measurement
Step 9. Press the Meas Setup key to set the averaging you want.
This example uses the following settings:
• Averaging — On
• Averages — 5
Step 10. Press the BW/Avg key to set the resolution bandwidth you want.
This example uses the following settings:
• Bandwidth — 1 MHz, Auto
Step 11. Press the Input/Output key, the Noise Figure Corrections key and the
Input Cal key to change the minimum and maximum input attenuation,
if required.
This example uses the default minimum input attenuation of 0 dB, and
the default maximum input attenuation of 8 dB.
Step 12. Connect the noise source input to the Noise Source Output port on the
rear of the analyzer using the appropriate cable, and connect the noise
source output to the RF INPUT 50 Ω port as shown in Figure 2-18.
Figure 2-18
PSA Calibration Setup with Normal Noise Source
NOISE SOURCE DRIVE
OUT +28 V (PULSED)
Making Basic Measurements
NOISE SOURCE
Step 13. Press the Meas Setup key and the Calibrate key twice to calibrate the
analyzer.
A graph similar to Figure 2-19 is now displayed.
With calibration completed and no device under test inserted, both gain
and noise figure with Corrected set to On are near 0 dB. This shows that
the analyzer has removed the noise contribution from the measurement
system. Since the input is noise, which is random in its nature, there is
some variation above and below zero.
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Chapter 2
Making Basic Measurements
Example of a Basic Amplifier Measurement
NOTE
Measurement performance above 3 GHz is not specified. If you do not
have either Option 110 High Band Preamp or an external preamp, and
you are calibrating above 3 GHz, the calibration data will vary
significantly. Measurements made with this calibration data might be
valid, but only if the device you are testing has a high enough gain and
noise figure, such that the sum of these is about 35 dB or more.
Otherwise, the measurement accuracy will be poor.
Figure 2-19
Typical Graph after calibration is complete
Press the Trace/View key to select Table. A result similar to Figure 2-20
is now displayed. The expectation is approximately 0 dB of noise figure
and gain. It may be better to view these results using table format
mode.
Figure 2-20
Typical Tabulated Results after Calibration
Making Basic Measurements
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79
Making Basic Measurements
Example of a Basic Amplifier Measurement
Making Measurements
To make noise figure measurements once calibration is complete:
Step 1. Disconnect the noise source from the 50Ω input of the analyzer
Step 2. Connect the DUT to the 50Ω input of the analyzer.
Step 3. Connect the noise source output to the DUT input as shown in Figure
2-21.
Figure 2-21
Connecting the DUT to make a measurement on a PSA
NOISE SOURCE DRIVE
OUT +28 V (PULSED)
DUT
NORMAL NOISE SOURCE
After the DUT and noise source are connected, the measurement result
appears on the analyzer’s display. If it does not, press Restart. If you
want to get a continuous update, ensure Sweep is set to Cont. This is
located under the Sweep key menu. This is the default setting.
Making Basic Measurements
A result similar to Figure 2-22 is now displayed.
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Chapter 2
Making Basic Measurements
Example of a Basic Amplifier Measurement
Figure 2-22
Typical Tabulated Results after Measurement
Step 4. Press the Trace/View key and select Graph. A graphical result similar to
Figure 2-23 is now displayed.
Figure 2-23
Typical Graphical Results after Measurement
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81
Making Basic Measurements
The results shown in Figure 2-22 and Figure 2-23 show the DUT has an
average noise figure of 4.8 dB, an average gain of 23 dB and a minimum
gain of 14.4389 dB. The device under test therefore meets its
manufacturer’s specification over the frequency range of interest.
Making Basic Measurements
Further Information on Noise Figure Measurements
Further Information on Noise Figure
Measurements
Agilent Technologies produces three application notes about noise
figures and their measurement. These are:
• Application Note 57-1
Fundamentals of RF and Microwave Noise Figure Measurements
• Application Note 57-2
Noise Figure Measurement Accuracy - the Y-Factor Method
• Application Note 57-3
10 Hints for Making Successful Noise Figure Measurements
All three application notes are available from the Agilent website at
Making Basic Measurements
http://www.agilent.com/find/psa
82
Chapter 2
Advanced Features
3
Advanced Features
This chapter describes how to use the Limit Lines and Loss
Compensation features on your Noise Figure Analyzer.
83
Advanced Features
Advanced Features
What You will Find in this Chapter
What You will Find in this Chapter
This chapter covers:
“Setting up Limit Lines” on page 85 and using them for pass/fail
testing of the measurements.
“Using Loss Compensation” on page 90 and using this to correct for
system losses in cabling, switches, or connectors and system
components.
“Noise Figure Uncertainty Calculator” on page 100 and how to use
it.
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Chapter 3
Setting up Limit Lines
Limit lines can be set to mark lower or upper boundaries of the active
traces and they can also be set to notify you of a failure when a trace
passes over a limit line. Two limit lines can be applied to a single trace,
for example, allowing an upper and lower boundary limit to be
specified.
The Noise Figure application (Option 219) features four independent
Limit Lines. The Limit Line (1›) and Limit Line (2›) are applied to the
upper graph, and Limit Line (3?) and Limit Line (4?) are associated with
the lower graph.
To change the
Limit Line
The default limit line setting is Limit Line (1›). To change the active
indicator, press the Limit Line key. This moves the active indicator from
Limit Line (1›) to Limit Line (2›), press it again and it moves the active
indicator from Limit Line (2›) to Limit Line (3?). This process is repeated
until it returns to the Limit Line (1›).
Setting the Type
of Limit Line
You can set the Limit Line to be an upper limit or lower limit and test
the trace against this limit line setting.
To set the limit line type, select your Limit Line, then press Edit to
display the Limit Line form, and set Type to Upper if you want it to be
above the trace or Lower if you want it to be below the trace. Each of the
four limit lines needs to be set up separately.
Enabling Testing You can set the Limit Line to test against the trace. If a result fails
against a Limit
testing it is reported in the upper right hand corner of the display. In
Line
table mode you also see the reported result failure.
To set the testing of the trace against the limit line, set Test to On if you
want the result reported or set Test to Off if you do not want the result
reported. Each of the four limit lines needs to be set up separately.
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85
Advanced Features
Advanced Features
Setting up Limit Lines
Advanced Features
Advanced Features
Setting up Limit Lines
NOTE
After a failure the LIMITS FAIL: indicator remains displayed until:
• a complete sweep has been performed with the Limit Line test
passing at every point
• you switch Test to Off
• you change the limit line type
• you press Restart
To Display a
Limit Line
You can choose to display a Limit Line.
To display the limit line on the graph, set Display to On. To not display
the limit line on the graph, set Display to Off. Each of the four limit lines
needs to be set up separately.
To Switch all the To switch all the Limit Lines off, press Disable All Limits. This
simultaneously switches off all Limit Lines, regardless of what graph or
Limit Lines Off
trace they are associated with. Both Test and Display settings remain
unaffected.
NOTE
When a limit line is switched off the limit line data is not affected.
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Chapter 3
Creating a Limit Line
To set up limit lines, you need to specify the frequencies, the Y-axis
value and whether or not it is to be connected to the previous limit line
point. The limit line consists of a table of entries, each of which is a
frequency-limit-connected group.
The Limit or Y-axis value is a dimensionless unit, hence you need to
know what Y-axis scale you are working in before you set this.
NOTE
When you change the result parameter, the Limit or Y-axis values are
not converted. This is due to the value being dimensionless.
To create a limit line:
Step 1. Press the Display key, then the Limit Lines key and select the limit line
you want to create.
Step 2. Press the Edit... key.
You are presented with a Limit Line table with two entries. These two
entries are at frequencies of 10 Hz and 26.5 GHz, that is, at the
minimum and maximum extremities of the Noise Figure Measurement
personality’s frequency range.
Figure 3-1
Limit Line Table before Limit Lines Values are Added
Step 3. Set the State to On to display the limit line.
Step 4. Tab down to the Type field, and set your line type. When you set Type to
Upper, any limit line test is deemed to have failed if the trace goes above
the line. If you set Type to Lower, any limit line test is deemed to have
failed if the trace falls below this limit line.
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Advanced Features
Advanced Features
Setting up Limit Lines
Advanced Features
Advanced Features
Setting up Limit Lines
Step 5. Tab down to the Display field, and set Display to On to display your limit
line
Step 6. Tab down to the Test field. Set Test to On to test the trace against the
limit line. Set Test to Off to omit the test.
Step 7. Tab down to the first Frequency value (or to the first empty frequency
field if you wish to keep the existing frequency values) and enter the
frequency using the numeric front panel keys. Finish by pressing the
unit of measurement terminator key.
Step 8. Enter the Limit or Y-axis unit value corresponding the frequency you
just entered. Again, finish by pressing the unit of measure terminator
key.
A limit line unit value to be useful is derived from the scale values you
are using to display the trace.
Step 9. Set Connected to Yes or No. When Connected is set to Yes it connects
that point to the previous point to form a continuous line. To disconnect
a point, set Connected to No, this disconnects it from the previous point.
Figure 3-2 shows the connections and Figure 3-3 shows the graphical
result with limit line Display set to On.
NOTE
When the Limit Line Test is set to On, and a trace crosses over the limit
line, the test is only performed between connected points. Also, if you
are making a fixed frequency measurement, you only need to specify
that frequency value. The limit line will be tested on that single point.
Step 10. Repeat this process until the limit line is defined. Limit line tables can
have a maximum of 101 entries.
The limit line is now defined. Press the Return key to return to the limit
line menu. When saving a limit line table you need to specify the limit
line number to which the table applies.
NOTE
You can load a previously saved Limit Line table. However, you need to
specify which limit line number you want loaded. See the PSA Series
Spectrum Analyzers User’s and Programmer’s Reference Volume 1 for
more details on loading a file.
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Chapter 3
Figure 3-2
Typical Limit Line Connections in Table
Figure 3-3
Limit Line Connections Displayed
Limit Line Not Connected to Previous point
Connected Limit Line
Connected Limit Line
Trace
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Advanced Features
Advanced Features
Setting up Limit Lines
Advanced Features
Advanced Features
Using Loss Compensation
Using Loss Compensation
You can configure the Noise Figure application (Option 219) to
compensate for losses due to cabling and connectors, and those due to
temperature effects that occur in the measurement setup. These can be
between the Noise Source and the DUT (Before DUT), or between the
DUT and the analyzer input (After DUT), or both. Loss compensation can
be set either by specifying a single, fixed loss value which gets applied
at all frequencies, or using various loss values, specified in a table,
applied across the frequency span. In the table mode, linearly
interpolated values are used between each table entry.
Any device that causes loss will also generate excess noise, and this
excess noise is proportional to the absolute temperature of the device
causing the loss. You can compensate for this extra noise by specifying
the temperature of the device causing the loss. This temperature
dependent compensation is applied at all frequencies.
Examples where Loss Compensation is applied
This is important in cases such as:
1. Amplifiers with waveguide input, where a lossy waveguide-to-coax
adapter is needed.
2. Transistors, where input and output tuners are required.
3. Non-50Ω converters (such as TV tuners and amplifiers) where
matching pads or transformers are required.
4. Compensation for fixed attenuators used to improve SWR.
5. Double sideband measurement modification (of receivers and
mixers) to approximate single sideband results.
Configuring Fixed Loss Compensation
To configure fixed loss compensation follow the example below:
Step 1. Press the Input/Output key.
Step 2. Press the Loss Comp key.
Step 3. Press the Setup... key to access the Loss Compensation Setup form, see
Figure 3-4
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Chapter 3
Figure 3-4
Typical Limit Line Connections in Table
Step 4. When configuring loss compensation before the DUT, use the Tab key to
navigate to the Loss Compensation Before DUT field and set Loss
Compensation Before DUT to Fixed by selecting the Fixed key to highlight
it.
NOTE
A fixed loss compensation value cannot be entered or changed if the
Before DUT field or the After DUT field is not set to Fixed. It is selected by
highlighting the Fixed key.
Step 5. To set the loss compensation value before the DUT, use the Tab key to
navigate to the Fixed Value field and input the required value for the
loss occurring before the DUT, see Figure 3-5.
Enter a value using the numerical keypad and terminate it using the
unit keys presented to you which are either Linear or dB.
The lower limit is –100.000 dB, the upper limit is 100.000 dB, and the
default is 0.000 dB.
Step 6. Use the Tab key to navigate to the Temperature field, and use the
numeric keys or the knob to enter the temperature of the device where
the loss is occurring. This will normally be room temperature, which is
296.5 K.
NOTE
It is important that you enter the correct temperature. Leaving the
Temperature set to the default value of 0.00K will result in incorrect
noise figure measurements.
Step 7. When configuring loss compensation after the DUT, use the Tab key to
navigate to the Loss Compensation After DUT field and set Loss
Compensation After DUT to Fixed by selecting the Fixed key to highlight
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Using Loss Compensation
Advanced Features
Advanced Features
Using Loss Compensation
it, see Figure 3-5.
Step 8. To set the loss compensation value after the DUT, use the Tab key to
navigate to the Fixed Value field and input the required value for the
loss occurring after the DUT.
Enter a value using the numerical keypad and terminate it using the
unit keys presented to you which are either Linear or dB.
The lower limit is –100.000 dB, the upper limit is 100.000 dB and the
default is 0.000 dB.
Step 9. Use the Tab key to navigate to the Temperature field, and use the
numeric keys or the knob to enter the temperature of the device where
the loss is occurring. This will normally be room temperature, which is
296.5 K.
NOTE
It is important that you enter the correct temperature. Leaving the
Temperature set to the default value of 0.00K will result in incorrect
noise figure measurements.
Figure 3-5
Loss Compensation Setup Form with Fixed Selected
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Chapter 3
Configuring Table Loss Compensation
To configure table loss compensation proceed as follows.
Step 1. Press the Input/Output key.
Step 2. Press the Loss Comp key
Step 3. Press the Setup... key to access the Loss Compensation Setup form, see
Figure 3-6.
Figure 3-6
Loss Compensation Setup Form
Step 4. When configuring table loss compensation before the DUT, use the Tab
key to navigate to the Loss Compensation Before DUT field and select the
Table key to highlight it, see Figure 3-7.
The table loss compensation used is as specified in the Loss
Compensation Before DUT Table. See “Creating a Loss Compensation
Table” on page 95.
Step 5. Use the Tab key to navigate to the Temperature field, and enter the
temperature of the devices which are causing the loss. Room
temperature requires a value of 296.5 K.
NOTE
It is important that you enter the correct temperature. Leaving the
Temperature set to the default value of 0.00K will result in incorrect
noise figure measurements.
Step 6. When configuring table loss compensation after the DUT, use the Tab
key to navigate to the Loss Compensation After DUT field and select the
Table key to highlight it, see Figure 3-7.
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Advanced Features
Advanced Features
Using Loss Compensation
Advanced Features
Advanced Features
Using Loss Compensation
The table loss compensation used is as specified in the Loss
Compensation After DUT Table. See “Creating a Loss Compensation
Table” on page 95.
Figure 3-7
Loss Compensation Setup Form with Table Selected
NOTE
You can load a previously saved Loss Compensation table. However, you
need to specify whether the Loss Compensation table is an After Table or
a Before Table. See the PSA Series Spectrum Analyzers User’s and
Programmer’s Reference Volume 1 for more details on loading a file.
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Chapter 3
Creating a Loss Compensation Table
Loss Compensation tables can have a maximum of 401 entries. To
create a loss compensation table proceed as follows.
NOTE
The example shows how to enter a Before DUT Table. If you want to
enter an After DUT Table follow the procedure, changing the Before
DUT Table... key presses to After DUT Table... key presses.
NOTE
If you want to enter new loss compensation data and there is previous
loss compensation data in the Noise Figure application (Option 219),
you can delete the previous data by pressing the Delete All key. An
empty table is shown in Figure 3-8.
NOTE
The Loss Compensation table frequency limits in the Before DUT Table...
are specified in terms of the DUT’s input frequencies and the
After DUT Table... are specified in terms of the DUT’s output frequencies.
This is important when making frequency converting DUT
measurements or using a system downconverter.
Step 1. Press the Input/Output key.
Step 2. Press the Loss Comp key, and the Before DUT Table... key.
A Loss Compensation Before DUT Table appears on the display with the
first loss frequency point in the table highlighted, see Figure 3-8. The
table editing and navigation menu items now appear. For details on
working with tables, see the PSA Series Spectrum Analyzers User’s and
Programmer’s Reference Volume 1.
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Advanced Features
Advanced Features
Using Loss Compensation
Advanced Features
Advanced Features
Using Loss Compensation
Figure 3-8
An Empty Loss Compensation Table
Step 3. To enter or amend the first row of compensation data, press the Tab key
to move to the Frequency column. To amend a different row in an
existing table, enter the required row number using the numeric keys,
and then press the Index key. This will highlight the index number of
the required row. Now Tab to the Frequency column.
Step 4. Enter the Loss Frequency value in the table using the numeric keys.
Terminate it using the unit menu keys.
Step 5. Press the Tab key to move the highlight to the Loss Value column and
enter the corresponding Loss Value.
When terminating the Loss Value you can use either dB or linear keys.
However, the result always appears in the table in dB.
Step 6. Press the Tab key to move the highlight to the Loss Frequency column
and enter the next Loss Frequency Value.
Step 7. Repeat steps 4 to 6 until all the Loss Frequency and Loss Values you
need are entered.
Step 8. After completing the Loss Compensation table entries, press the Return
key or ESC key to return to the Loss Compensation menu.
Step 9. Once you have completed entering the Loss Compensation data, save
the Loss Compensation table using the File key.
See the PSA Series Spectrum Analyzers User’s and Programmer’s
Reference Volume1 for more details on loading and saving a file.
96
Chapter 3
NOTE
You can insert the Loss Frequency/Loss Values in the Loss
Compensation Table entry in any order, as the Noise Figure application
(Option 219) automatically sorts the table list into ascending frequency
order.
NOTE
If you do not save the Loss Compensation table, you may lose the data.
The data can be saved either by saving the instrument state (File, Save,
Type, State) or by saving the table itself (File, Save, Type, Loss Comp
Before DUT).
NOTE
The Loss Compensation Table data is stored in CSV (Comma Separated
Value) format. It is sometimes more convenient to use a text editor on a
PC to edit or enter this data rather than to enter the data manually
using the analyzer. Start by saving a table with at least one loss
compensation value to diskette, and then edit or add to the saved file
using your PC.
Chapter 3
97
Advanced Features
Advanced Features
Using Loss Compensation
Advanced Features
Advanced Features
Using Loss Compensation
Setting Temperature of Loss
Any device (cables, connectors and so forth) that causes a loss will also
generate excess noise. The amount of excess noise so generated is
proportional to the absolute temperature of the device causing the loss.
You must compensate for this excess noise in the measurement, and
this is done by specifying the temperature of the device. To set the
temperature of the device causing the loss, proceed as follows:
NOTE
The temperature you specify here is used both for Fixed loss
compensation, and for all frequencies specified in a loss compensation
Table.
Step 1. Press the Input/Output key.
Step 2. Press the Loss Comp key
Step 3. Press the Setup... key to access the Loss Compensation Setup form, see
Figure 3-9.
Step 4. To set the temperature value before the DUT, use the Tab key to
navigate to the Temperature field and input the required temperature of
loss value occurring before the DUT.
Enter a value using the numeric keypad and terminate it using the unit
keys presented to you, either in degrees K, C or F. Entries terminated
using the C or F keys are converted to K.
The lower limit is 0.0 K, the upper limit is 29,650,000.0 K. The default
is 0.0 K.
Step 5. To set the temperature value after the DUT, use the Tab key to navigate
to the Temperature field and input the required temperature of loss
value occurring after the DUT.
Enter a value using the numerical keypad and terminate it using the
unit keys presented to you, either in degrees K, C or F. Entries
terminated using the C or F keys are converted to K.
The lower limit is 0.0 K, the upper limit is 29,650,000.0 K. The default
is 0.0 K. Room temperature is usually given as 296.5 K.
98
Chapter 3
Figure 3-9
Loss Compensation Setup Form with Temperature Selected
Chapter 3
99
Advanced Features
Advanced Features
Using Loss Compensation
Advanced Features
Advanced Features
Noise Figure Uncertainty Calculator
Noise Figure Uncertainty Calculator
The measurement uncertainty calculator can be used to calculate the
RSS (root sum square) measurement uncertainty. Measurement
uncertainty is caused by device mismatch and other properties of the
noise source, the device under test, and the spectrum analyzer. Once
you measure or identify the various device characteristics, they can be
entered into the analyzer and it will calculate the RSS uncertainty.
This makes a frequency-independent calculation using one ENR
uncertainty value. While it provides a good estimation of the
measurement uncertainty, you may want more accuracy. You may want
to use more accurate values for ENR, gain and VSWR, or calculate
values at a specific frequency of interest or at multiple frequencies.
Refer to Application Note 57-2, Agilent part number 5952-3706E, for
more information about calculating noise figure uncertainties. This
document can be found at:
http://www.agilent.com/find/nfa
Figure 3-10
Noise Figure Uncertainty Calculator Screen
Noise Source
100
For the highest accuracy, and therefore the most
meaningful results, you should select ‘User Defined’ as
the Noise Source whenever the actual value of the noise
source calibration data is available. This allows you to
enter the uncertainty of the Excess Noise Ratio (ENR)
and the 50 Ω match (in dB, VSWR, or Reflection
Chapter 3
Coefficient), which can be from any noise source from
any manufacturer. In addition, default values are
provided giving typical parameters for noise sources
from Agilent Technologies.
DUT
The device under test will be either an amplifier,
upconverter, or downconverter. You will have to enter
the measured (or documented) values for its noise
figure, input match, output match, and gain into the
fields in the calculator. (Gain is only required for an
amplifier.)
Instrument
Spectrum analyzer default values are provided. These
are reasonable defaults for measurements below 3 GHz
using the built-in preamp (Option 110 or Option 1DS).
For more accurate calculations, you will need to input
the values that are appropriate for your particular
measurement and setup.
RSS value
The calculator provides the square root of the sum of
the squares (RSS) of the various contributions to
uncertainty. This is the recommended way to calculate
the total measurement uncertainty since each of the
contributing factors are random in nature.
System up/down
converters
The calculator is designed to calculate uncertainty for a
measurement where the DUT is either an amplifier, a
downconverter or an upconverter. It is not designed to
calculate the uncertainty when measuring a DUT that
is in a measurement setup that includes a system
downconverter or system upconverter.
Example Calculation:
Step 1. Access the uncertainty calculator by pressing Mode Setup, Uncertainty
Calculator.
Step 2. Suppose that you are testing an amplifier. You must enter the device
characteristics into the appropriate DUT fields on the calculator form.
Use the arrow keys to tab to the required field. Enter the desired value
and terminate your entry by pressing one of the units keys (if provided)
or the Enter key.
•
•
•
•
gain = 20 dB
noise figure = 4 dB
input match = 1.4
output match = 1.4
Step 3. Now read out the calculated RSS uncertainty from the results field at
the bottom of the display, as shown in Figure 3-10 on page 100. If you
would like more detail about the calculations and factors that
Chapter 3
101
Advanced Features
Advanced Features
Noise Figure Uncertainty Calculator
Advanced Features
Advanced Features
Noise Figure Uncertainty Calculator
contribute to this total uncertainty, use the arrow keys to tab down to
the results field and press the View Calculations key. You will see a
screen similar to that shown in Figure 3-11 on page 102.
Figure 3-11
Noise Figure Uncertainty Calculations Screen
102
Chapter 3
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
4
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
This chapter describes how to make measurements outside the
baseband frequency range of the PSA Series of analyzers.
103
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
What You will Find in this Chapter
What You will Find in this Chapter
This chapter covers:
“Overview of Frequency Converter Measurements” on page 105
“DUT Types” on page 107
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
“Comparison of the 8970B, the NFA Analyzer, and the Option 219
Noise Figure Measurement Application” on page 118
“Choosing and Setting Up the Local Oscillator” on page 119
“Connecting the System” on page 121
“Measuring a Frequency Converting DUT” on page 123
“Making Frequency Converting DUT Measurements” on page 135
“Measurements with a System Downconverter” on page 143
“Measurements with a System Downconverter” on page 143
“Frequency Restrictions” on page 150
104
Chapter 4
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Overview of Frequency Converter Measurements
Overview of Frequency Converter
Measurements
Configuring extended frequency measurements involves four steps.
Step 1. Press the Mode Setup hard key and the DUT Setup... key to select the
type of DUT being measured.
For more details on the available DUT types, see “DUT Types” on
page 107.
• System Downconverter When measuring an amplifier type DUT, this
allows you to specify whether or not the system downconverter is to
be used in the measurement.
NOTE
System Downconverter is only applicable when the DUT Type is
Amplifier. The system downconverter can not be used with
Upconverters and Downconverters.
• Ext LO Frequency When measuring an upconverting DUT, or a
downconverting DUT, this allows you to specify the fixed LO
frequency being fed into the DUT. It also allows you to specify the
LO frequency from the system downconverter.
• Sideband This allows you to specify whether the measurement is to
measure the lower sideband (LSB), the upper sideband (USB), or
both upper and lower sideband (double sideband, or DSB).
NOTE
When measuring Upconverter noise, only upper and lower sidebands
can be measured at any one time. Double sidebands (DSB) are not
applicable.
When measuring Downconverter noise, or an amplifier type DUT with
the System Downconverter, you can measure upper sideband (USB),
lower sideband (LSB), or double sideband (DSB).
• Frequency Context When the DUT is a downconverter or an
upconverter, or you are using the system downconverter with an
amplifier, you can select whether the frequencies displayed on the
analyzer represent the frequencies before or after conversion.
Selecting a Frequency Context of IF Analyzer Input specifies that the
frequencies displayed are after the conversion, that is, the
frequencies leaving the DUT or the system downconverter, and
entering the analyzer. Selecting a Frequency Context of RF DUT Input
specifies that the frequencies displayed are the frequencies before
the conversion, that is, the frequencies entering the DUT. These are
Chapter 4
105
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
Step 2. Selecting the type of DUT displays the DUT Setup form. Set the
remaining parameters for the measurement.
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Overview of Frequency Converter Measurements
the same Start and Stop Frequencies that are displayed on the
Frequency menu.
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
• Diagram This setting does not affect the measurement directly, but
determines whether the diagram displayed on the screen is for
calibration or for a measurement. The diagram represents the
connections you need to make to perform either a calibration or a
measurement using the current settings. The small blue icon of an
eye indicates whether the Frequency Context is RF DUT Input (the icon
is beside the DUT input in the diagram) or IF Analyzer Input (the eye
icon is beside the analyzer input).
Step 3. Configure the measurement (measurement frequency range, number of
measurement points and averages and so forth) using the
FREQUENCY/Channel and BW/Avg keys.
For more details on configuring measurements, including calibration,
see Chapter 2 , “Making Basic Measurements,” on page 35.
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Chapter 4
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
DUT Types
DUT Types
Available modes The Noise Figure measurement personality (Option 219) allows you to
measure the following types of DUT. You set the DUT Type by pressing
the Mode Setup key on the front panel and the DUT Setup... key:
• Amplifier: The DUT is an amplifier-type device with no frequency
conversion. This is the basic measurement mode where the
measurement frequency is within the analyzer’s frequency range.
The Amplifier DUT is for any DUT that does not perform frequency
conversion and includes amplifiers, filters, attenuators and so forth.
If you wish to measure the noise figure of an amplifier at a frequency
outside the range of the analyzer, set DUT to Amplifier, and set
System Downconverter to On. The LO must be fixed.
• Downconv: The DUT is a frequency downconverter (that is,
frequency downconversion occurs in the DUT itself). The LO must be
fixed.
• Upconv: The DUT is a frequency upconverter (that is, frequency
upconversion occurs in the DUT itself). The LO must be fixed.
Noise figure measurements involving frequency converters are
necessary when:
• The frequency conversion is part of the DUT. For example, the DUT
is a mixer or a receiver.
• The frequency conversion is part of the measurement test set-up.
The DUT is to be measured at a higher frequency than the
analyzer’s frequency range covers, hence an external mixer and local
oscillator are added to the measurement test set-up to convert this
frequency to a frequency within the analyzer's range.
The Noise Figure measurement personality (Option 219) can make a
single frequency conversion, either in the DUT, or as an added System
Downconverter, which configures the analyzer as a frequency range
extender.
NOTE
The Noise Figure measurement personality (Option 219) can not
control an external LO source remotely. You can only specify a fixed
frequency for that LO, so any sweeping must be done by the internal
LO under the control of the analyzer.
Chapter 4
107
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
NOTE
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
DUT Types
Basic Measurement — No Frequency Conversion
The basic measurement setup is shown in Figure 4-1, allowing you to
compare more complex setups with it.
Figure 4-1
PSA Basic Noise Figure Measurement - No Frequency
Conversion
NOISE SOURCE DRIVE
OUT +28 V (PULSED)
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
NOISE SOURCE DRIVE
OUT +28 V (PULSED)
DUT
NORMAL NOISE SOURCE
NORMAL NOISE SOURCE
CALIBRATION SETUP
MEASUREMENT SETUP
When you are performing an uncorrected measurement, the result is
the measured Noise Figure of all of the components after the noise
source. When the calibration setup is connected and the calibration
performed, the Noise Figure measurement personality (Option 219)
measures its own noise figure and that of the connection setup. If you
then make a corrected measurement, the contribution of the calibration
setup is subtracted from the uncorrected result, giving a corrected
measurement of the DUT only.
Press the Mode Setup key, followed by the DUT Setup... key to access the
DUT Setup form. Set the DUT and the System Downconverter as shown
in the following table.
108
DUT
Amplifier
System Downconverter
Off
Chapter 4
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
DUT Types
Frequency Downconverting DUT
In this mode, the DUT contains a frequency downconverting device, for
example, a mixer or receiver.
Making this measurement, the external Local Oscillator (LO) remains
locked at one frequency and the Noise Figure measurement personality
(Option 219) does the sweeping. It is not possible to control a variable
frequency on the external LO.
Variable IF Fixed LO (equivalent to Mode 1.4 on an 8970B Noise
Figure Meter)
Press the Mode Setup key, followed by the DUT Setup... key to access the
DUT Setup form. Set the values on the DUT Setup form as shown in
the following table.
DUT
DownConv
System
Downconverter
Disabled
Ext LO
Frequency
Enter a value
Sideband
LSB, USB or DSB. See the important notes on
page 110.
Frequency
Context
Diagram
IF Analyzer Input or RF DUT Input. This determines
whether you specify the measurement frequencies
at the DUT input (RF DUT Input) or at the analyzer’s
input (IF Analyzer Input). See Frequency Context
(below) for a more detailed description.
Calibration or Measurement. This does not affect the
measurement or calibration, but indicates how the
noise source, the DUT and the analyzer should be
set up. The blue eyeball icon acts as a visual
reminder of the Frequency Context setting you have
selected.See Frequency Context (below) for a more
detailed description. See also the important note on
page 110.
Frequency
Context
You can select whether to specify the frequencies at the DUT input (RF
DUT Input) or at the analyzer’s input (IF Analyzer Input). The setting you
select is indicated visually on the setup diagram by the blue ‘eye’ icon.
Chapter 4
109
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
This is an overview of the key presses needed to set up this type of
measurement, see “Frequency Restrictions” on page 150, and “Making
Frequency Converting DUT Measurements” on page 135 for an
example of this measurement. This shows how to make an LSB
measurement. However, you need to change the settings and apply the
appropriate filtering. For greater detail on this see “Measuring a
Frequency Converting DUT” on page 123.
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
DUT Types
• IF Analyzer Input: You specify the frequencies at the analyzer’s input,
that is, at the DUT output after downconversion has taken place.
You specify the Start frequency and Stop Frequency using the
Frequency menu, which is accessed by pressing the
FREQUENCY/Channel key. The frequencies you specify are the
frequencies at which the analyzer will make its measurements.
These are the same frequencies that are shown on the results graph,
in the results table, and on the results meter.
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
The DUT Setup form (Mode Setup, DUT Setup...) has a blue ‘eye’ icon
just above the IF Start and the IF Stop frequencies, which indicates
that you have specified the frequencies at the analyzer input.
The RF Start and RF Stop frequencies are also displayed on the
setup diagram. These are calculated from the specified IF Start and
IF Stop frequencies, and the external LO frequency.
• RF DUT Input: You specify the frequencies at the DUT input, that is,
before downconversion has taken place.
You specify the Start frequency and Stop Frequency using the
Frequency menu, which is accessed by pressing the FREQUENCY
Channel key. The frequencies you specify are the frequencies at the
input to the DUT. These frequencies are then converted by the
downconverter before being measured by the analyzer, and
consequently do not represent the frequencies actually being
measured by the analyzer.
The frequencies displayed on the results graph, in the results table,
and on the results meter are the DUT input frequencies that you
have specified. These displayed result frequencies do not represent
the actual frequencies being measured by the analyzer.
The DUT Setup form (Mode Setup, DUT Setup...) has a blue ‘eye’ icon
just above the RF Start and the RF Stop frequencies, which indicates
that you have specified the frequencies at the DUT input.
The IF Start and IF Stop frequencies are also displayed on the setup
diagram. These are calculated from the specified RF Start and RF
Stop frequencies, and the external LO frequency.
NOTE
When making a Double Side Band (DSB) measurement with RF DUT
Input Frequency Context, the frequencies you specify as the RF Start
and RF Stop frequencies refer to the Lower Side Band only. There is no
ambiguity when making Upper Side Band (USB) or Lower Sideband
measurements (LSB), or when specifying frequencies at the analyzer
input, that is, with Frequency Context of IF Analyzer Input.
110
Chapter 4
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
DUT Types
NOTE
When making Double Sideband (DSB) measurements, it is important
that the IF frequency is much smaller than the LO frequency. This is
because the ENR values in the ENR table can only be applied to one
frequency, which is the LO frequency. The ENR values can not be
applied simultaneously to both the upper sideband and to the lower
sideband. The ENR values are therefore applied to the midpoint
between the upper sideband and the lower sideband, and this equates
to the LO frequency.
Another potential source of error is the frequency response of the DUT.
If the frequency response varies over the measurement range, from
lower to upper frequency, the noise figure results will only represent an
average value.
It is recommended for greatest accuracy that the IF frequency be no
greater than 1% of the LO frequency when making double sideband
measurements. When making a swept measurement, no frequency in
the swept frequency band should exceed 1% of the LO frequency.
NOTE
Filtering is needed to remove the unwanted sideband when making
single-sideband measurements. Filtering is also needed to filter out any
LO leakage in the IF path. Ideally any filters should be included in the
calibration path. However, if they are not in the path, you can enter loss
compensation to account for any additional error.
The PSA Series of spectrum analyzers have a 3.0 GHz Low Pass Filter
which needs to be taken into account when planning the filter
requirements during measurement and calibration.
Chapter 4
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Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
Consequently, the higher the IF frequency is in comparison to the LO
frequency, the further apart the upper and lower sidebands will be. The
further these upper and lower sidebands are from the LO frequency, the
less accurate will the ENR value be.
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
DUT Types
Frequency Upconverting DUT
In this mode, the DUT contains a frequency upconverting device, for
example, a mixer used in the transmit path of a radio.
Making this measurement, the external Local Oscillator (LO) remains
locked at one frequency and the Noise Figure measurement personality
(Option 219) does the sweeping. It is not possible to control a variable
frequency on the external LO.
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
NOTE
Filtering is needed to remove the unwanted sideband when making
single-sideband measurements. Filtering is also needed to filter out any
LO leakage in the IF path. Ideally any filters should be included in the
calibration path. However, if they are not in the path, you can enter loss
compensation to account for any additional error.
The PSA Series of spectrum analyzers have a 3.0 GHz Low Pass Filter
which needs to be taken into account when planning the filter
requirements during measurement and calibration.
Variable IF Fixed LO (equivalent to Mode 1.4 with SUM
Sideband on an 8970B Noise Figure Meter)
This is an overview of the key presses needed to set up this type of
measurement. For further details on frequency restrictions, see
“Frequency Restrictions” on page 150.
For an example of this measurement, see “Making Frequency
Converting DUT Measurements” on page 135. This shows you how to
make an LSB measurement. However, you need to change the settings
and apply the appropriate filtering. For further details on this, see
“Measuring a Frequency Converting DUT” on page 123.
Press the Mode Setup key, followed by the DUT Setup... key to access the
DUT Setup form. Set the values on the DUT Setup form as shown in
the following table.
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Chapter 4
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
DUT Types
DUT
UpConv
System
Downconverter
Disabled
Ext LO
Frequency
Enter a value
Sideband
LSB or USB
Frequency
Context
IF Analyzer Input or RF DUT Input. This determines
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
Diagram
whether you specify the measurement frequencies
at the DUT input (RF DUT Input) or at the analyzer’s
input (IF Analyzer Input). See Frequency Context
(below) for a more detailed description.
Calibration or Measurement. This does not affect the
measurement or calibration, but indicates how the
noise source, the DUT and the analyzer should be
set up. The blue eyeball icon acts as a visual
reminder of the Frequency Context setting you have
selected.See Frequency Context (below) for a more
detailed description.
Frequency
Context
You can select whether to specify the frequencies at the DUT input (RF
DUT Input) or at the analyzer’s input (IF Analyzer Input). The setting you
select is indicated visually on the setup diagram by the blue ‘eye’ icon.
• IF Analyzer Input: You specify the frequencies at the analyzer’s input,
that is, at the DUT output after upconversion has taken place.
You specify the Start frequency and Stop Frequency using the
Frequency menu, which is accessed by pressing the FREQUENCY
Channel key. The frequencies you specify are the frequencies at
which the analyzer will make its measurements. These are the same
frequencies that are shown on the results graph, in the results table,
and on the results meter.
The DUT Setup form (Mode Setup, DUT Setup...) has a blue ‘eye’ icon
just above the IF Start and the IF Stop frequencies, which indicates
that you have specified the frequencies at the analyzer input.
The RF Start and RF Stop frequencies are also displayed on the
setup diagram. These are calculated from the specified IF Start and
IF Stop frequencies, and the external LO frequency.
• RF DUT Input: You specify the frequencies at the DUT input, that is,
before upconversion has taken place.
You specify the Start frequency and Stop Frequency using the
Frequency menu, which is accessed by pressing the FREQUENCY
Channel key. The frequencies you specify are the frequencies at the
input to the DUT. These frequencies are then converted by the
upconverter before being measured by the analyzer, and
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113
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
DUT Types
consequently do not represent the frequencies actually being
measured by the analyzer.
The frequencies displayed on the results graph, in the results table,
and on the results meter are the DUT input frequencies that you
have specified. These displayed result frequencies do not represent
the actual frequencies being measured by the analyzer.
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
The DUT Setup form (Mode Setup, DUT Setup...) has a blue ‘eye’ icon
just above the RF Start and the RF Stop frequencies, which indicates
that you have specified the frequencies at the DUT input.
The IF Start and IF Stop frequencies are also displayed on the setup
diagram. These are calculated from the specified RF Start and RF
Stop frequencies, and the external LO frequency.
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Making Frequency Converter Measurements
DUT Types
System Downconverter
The DUT is a non-frequency converting device, for example an
amplifier or filter, and its frequency is higher than the analyzer’s
measurement range. Frequency downconversion is required within the
measurement system, using a mixer external to the DUT, to convert the
signal of interest to the frequency range of the analyzer.
Making this measurement, the external Local Oscillator (LO) remains
locked at one frequency and the Noise Figure measurement personality
(Option 219) does the sweeping. It is not possible to control a variable
frequency on the external LO.
Filtering is needed to remove the unwanted sideband when making
single-sideband measurements. Filtering is also needed to filter out any
LO leakage in the IF path. Ideally any filters should be included in the
calibration path. However, if they are not in the path, you can enter loss
compensation to account for any additional error.
The PSA Series of spectrum analyzers have a 3.0 GHz Low Pass Filter
which needs to be taken into account when planning the filter
requirements during measurement and calibration of any
measurement made at or below 3 GHz.
Fixed LO Variable IF (equivalent to Mode 1.2 on an 8970B Noise
Figure Meter)
These are an overview of the key presses needed to set up this type of
measurement. See “Frequency Restrictions” on page 150 for the
restrictions applicable to this measurement. See “Measurements with a
System Downconverter” on page 143 for an example of this type of
measurement. You will need to change the settings and apply the
appropriate filtering. For greater detail on this, see “Measurements
with a System Downconverter” on page 143.
Press the Mode Setup key, followed by the DUT Setup... key to access the
DUT Setup form. Set the values on the DUT Setup form as shown in
the following table.
Chapter 4
115
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
NOTE
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
DUT Types
DUT
Amplifier
System
Downconverter
On
Ext LO
Frequency
Enter a value
Sideband
LSB, USB or DSB
Frequency
Context
IF Analyzer Input or RF DUT Input. This determines
Diagram
whether you specify the measurement frequencies
at the DUT input (RF DUT Input) or at the analyzer’s
input (IF Analyzer Input). See Frequency Context
(below) for a more detailed description.
Calibration or Measurement. This does not affect the
measurement or calibration, but indicates how the
noise source, the DUT and the analyzer should be
set up. The blue eyeball icon acts as a visual
reminder of the Frequency Context setting you have
selected.See Frequency Context (below) for a more
detailed description.
Frequency
Context
You can select whether to specify the frequencies at the DUT input (RF
DUT Input) or at the analyzer’s input (IF Analyzer Input). The setting you
select is indicated visually on the setup diagram by the blue ‘eye’ icon.
• IF Analyzer Input: You specify the frequencies at the analyzer’s input,
that is, at the DUT output after upconversion has taken place.
You specify the Start frequency and Stop Frequency using the
Frequency menu, which is accessed by pressing the FREQUENCY
Channel key. The frequencies you specify are the frequencies at
which the analyzer will make its measurements. These are the same
frequencies that are shown on the results graph, in the results table,
and on the results meter.
The DUT Setup form (Mode Setup, DUT Setup...) has a blue ‘eye’ icon
just above the IF Start and the IF Stop frequencies, which indicates
that you have specified the frequencies at the analyzer input.
The RF Start and RF Stop frequencies are also displayed on the
setup diagram. These are calculated from the specified IF Start and
IF Stop frequencies, and the external LO frequency.
• RF DUT Input: You specify the frequencies at the DUT input, that is,
before upconversion has taken place.
You specify the Start frequency and Stop Frequency using the
Frequency menu, which is accessed by pressing the FREQUENCY
Channel key. The frequencies specified are the frequencies at the
input to the DUT. These frequencies are then converted by the
upconverter before being measured by the analyzer, and
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Making Frequency Converter Measurements
DUT Types
consequently do not represent the frequencies actually being
measured by the analyzer.
The frequencies displayed on the results graph, in the results table,
and on the results meter are the DUT input frequencies that you
have specified. They are also used to determine the ENR values used
in the calculations. These displayed result frequencies do not
represent the actual frequencies being measured by the analyzer.
The DUT Setup form (Mode Setup, DUT Setup...) has a blue ‘eye’ icon
just above the RF Start and the RF Stop frequencies, which indicates
that the frequencies have been specified at the DUT input.
NOTE
When making a Double Side Band (DSB) measurement with RF DUT
Input Frequency Context, the frequencies you specify as the RF Start
and RF Stop frequencies refer to the Lower Side Band only. There is no
ambiguity when making Upper Side Band (USB) or Lower Sideband
measurements (LSB), or when specifying frequencies at the analyzer
input, that is, with Frequency Context of IF Analyzer Input.
NOTE
When making Double Sideband (DSB) measurements, it is important
that the IF frequency is much smaller than the LO frequency. This is
because the ENR values in the ENR table can only be applied to one
frequency or, in the case of a swept measurement, to one set of
frequencies. The ENR values can not be applied simultaneously to both
the upper sideband and to the lower sideband. The ENR values are
therefore applied to the midpoint between the upper sideband and the
lower sideband, and this equates to the LO frequency.
Consequently, the higher the IF frequency is in comparison to the LO
frequency, the further apart the upper and lower sidebands will be. The
further these upper and lower sidebands are from the LO frequency, the
less accurate will the ENR value be.
Another potential source of error is the frequency response of the DUT.
If the frequency response varies over the measurement range, from
lower to upper frequency, the noise figure results will only represent an
average value.
It is recommended for greatest accuracy that the IF frequency be no
greater than 1% of the LO frequency when making double sideband
measurements. When making a swept measurement, no frequency in
the swept frequency band should exceed 1% of the LO frequency.
Chapter 4
117
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
The IF Start and IF Stop frequencies are also displayed on the setup
diagram. These are calculated from the specified RF Start and RF
Stop frequencies, and the external LO frequency.
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Comparison of the 8970B, the NFA Analyzer, and the Option 219 Noise Figure Measurement
Application
Comparison of the 8970B, the NFA Analyzer,
and the Option 219 Noise Figure Measurement
Application
Table 4-1 shows the relationship between the 8970B Noise Figure
Analyzer, the NFA Series, and the PSA Series Option 219 Noise Figure
Measurement application.
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
Table 4-1
8970B / NFA / Option 219 Measurement Cross Reference
8970B
NFA Series
PSA Option 219
Mode 1.1: Swept LO
System
Downconverter
Fixed IF Variable LO
Not supported
Mode 1.2: Fixed LO
System
Downconverter
Variable IF Fixed LO
System downconverter
Fixed LO
Mode 1.3: Swept LO
Downconverting
Fixed IF Variable LO
Not supported
Mode 1.4: Fixed LO
Downconverting
Variable IF Fixed LO
DUT = Downconv
Fixed LO
Mode 1.3 with SUM
Sideband: Swept LO
Upconverting
Fixed IF Variable LO,
USB
Not supported
Mode 1.4 with SUM
Sideband: Fixed LO
Upconverting
Variable IF Fixed LO,
USB
DUT = Upconv
Fixed LO
Sideband = USB
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Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Choosing and Setting Up the Local Oscillator
Choosing and Setting Up the Local Oscillator
Selecting a Local Oscillator for Extended Frequency
measurements with Opt. 219
Because of reciprocal mixing, noise components in the LO are converted
into the IF band applied to the analyzer. This converted LO noise
causes the measured noise figure to be higher than the noise figure of
the mixer.
For testing of extended frequency measurements, the LO must have a
low noise floor over frequencies equal to the LO ± IF. It is also
important that the LO has low broad-band noise because any noise at
the IF frequency will pass through to the IF and distort the results.
Effect of high LO spurious signals and noise on mixer
measurements with low L-to-I rejection.
The spurious level of the LO also has to be low. At frequencies where
there is a high spurious signal, the noise figure measured will have a
peak at that IF. For example, ideally the LO’s noise, including spurious,
needs to be below –90 dBm. If a mixer has higher isolation, then the
noise of the LO can be higher since the mixer will be better able to
reject the LO’s noise.
This is especially necessary if the mixer has a poor balance, or L-to-I
isolation. With low isolation, the mixer is more likely to pass the LO
noise through and thus increase the measured noise figure.
NOTE
L-to-I rejection is the mixer’s ability to reject the fundamental,
harmonics and spurious signals of the LO, and not allow them to pass
through to the IF output.
Chapter 4
119
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
If the mixer is to be used with a particular LO in its final application,
its noise figure should be measured with the same LO. The
measurement then gives the noise figure for the combination of
extended frequency device and LO in the final system.
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Choosing and Setting Up the Local Oscillator
Selecting a Local Oscillator for Option 219
Here are several criteria that must be met when choosing the LO:
1. It should have a frequency appropriate to the DUT’s frequency
range, IF range, and sideband chosen.
2. It should have sufficient power to drive mixers (typically, +7 dBm).
3. It should have excellent frequency accuracy and repeatability
(typically, the same as the analyzer you are using.)
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
The last point, frequency accuracy, deserves further comment. There
are three frequency-dependent components in a noise figure
measurement that must all be aligned to make an accurate
measurement at the IF. The need for frequency accuracy is the main
reason for recommending a synthesized source for the LO, such as the
Agilent 83712B Synthesized CW Generator.
Other LOs may be used, but should be tested to determine that their
noise is sufficiently low, as LO noise can cause an increase in noise
figure for the mixer/LO combination, and calibration of the system may
not be possible. A broad-band, high gain amplifier at the LO output
usually generates unacceptable noise. This is almost always the case
when a heterodyne-type sweep oscillator or signal generator is used.
NOTE
When making Double Sideband (DSB) measurements, it is important
that the IF frequency is much smaller than the LO frequency. This is
because the ENR values in the ENR table can only be applied to one
frequency or, in the case of a swept measurement, to one set of
frequencies. The ENR values can not be applied simultaneously to both
the upper sideband and to the lower sideband. The ENR values are
therefore applied to the midpoint between the upper sideband and the
lower sideband, and this equates to the LO frequency.
Consequently, the higher the IF frequency is in comparison to the LO
frequency, the further apart the upper and lower sidebands will be. The
further these upper and lower sidebands are from the LO frequency, the
less accurate will the ENR value be.
Another potential source of error is the frequency response of the DUT.
If the frequency response varies over the measurement range, from
lower to upper frequency, the noise figure results will only represent an
average value.
It is recommended for greatest accuracy that the IF frequency be no
greater than 1% of the LO frequency when making double sideband
measurements. When making a swept measurement, no frequency in
the swept frequency band should exceed 1% of the LO frequency.
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Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Connecting the System
Connecting the System
Figure 4-2 shows the connection diagram options you use to calibrate
the PSA analyzer with Option 219, and after calibration, to measure a
DUT, whether it is a downconverter, an upconverter, amplifier, or a
filter. It does not show where to place a filter to remove any unwanted
sideband or input noise.
Setting Up the Noise Figure Analyzer
To connect the 10 MHz reference output from a PSA Series analyzer to
the LO, you need to ensure that the 10 MHz OUT (SWITCHED) connector
on the rear of the analyzer is switched on. Press System, Reference, and
check that 10 MHz Out is set to On.
Connect the 10 MHz OUT (SWITCHED) to the 10 MHz Ref In of the LO.
To connect the 10 MHz reference output from the LO to a PSA Series
analyzer, you need to ensure that External Reference is selected. Press
System, Reference, and check that Freq Ref is set to 10 MHz and to Ext.
Connect the 10 MHz Ref Out of the LO to the EXT REF IN of the analyzer.
To connect the analyzer and make your measurements:
Step 1. Turn the analyzer on and press the Preset key to return the analyzer to
a known state. Go into the Noise Figure mode if the preset is not set to
Mode.
Step 2. Enter the ENR values in to the analyzer. See “Entering Excess Noise
Ratio (ENR) Data” on page 37 for the procedures to do this.
Step 3. Follow the procedure to calibrate the system, and measure the DUT.
Chapter 4
121
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
You can connect the 10 MHz timebase references, thus locking the
analyzer and the LO to the same frequency reference.
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Connecting the System
Figure 4-2
Setting Up a PSA for Frequency Converting DUT Measurement
NOISE SOURCE DRIVE
OUT +28 V (PULSED)
NORMAL NOISE SOURCE
NOISE SOURCE DRIVE
OUT +28 V (PULSED)
NORMAL NOISE SOURCE
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
LO
CALIBRATION SETUP
122
LO
DUT
MEASUREMENT SETUP
Chapter 4
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Measuring a Frequency Converting DUT
Measuring a Frequency Converting DUT
Figure 4-3
PSA Frequency Converting DUT Measurement
NOISE SOURCE DRIVE
OUT +28 V (PULSED)
NORMAL
NOISE SOURCE
NOISE SOURCE DRIVE
OUT +28 V (PULSED)
LO
CALIBRATION SETUP
DUT
MEASUREMENT SETUP
In this measurement, the DUT performs frequency conversion in the
measurement setup. However, there is no frequency conversion in the
calibration setup, as is shown in Figure 4-3. The purpose of the
calibration setup is to allow the analyzer to measure its own noise
figure and sensitivity with the noise source. This must be performed
across the frequency range to which the analyzer will tune when
performing the measurement.
For both calibration and for measurement, a normal noise source must
be connected to the NOISE SOURCE DRIVE OUT+28 V (PULSED) on the
back of a PSA Series analyzer.
The LO frequency reference may be connected to the 10 MHz OUT
(SWITCHED) on the back of a PSA Series analyzer. This locks the LO and
the analyzer together for greater measurement accuracy.
For these measurements you must access the DUT Setup... screen (Mode
Setup, DUT Setup...), and set the following parameters:
DUT
Upconv or Downconv
System
Downconverter
Not accessible
Ext LO
Frequency
Enter a value for the LO’s frequency
Sideband
LSB, USB or DSB (Downconverters only)
Frequency
Context
IF Analyzer Input or RF DUT Input. This determines
Chapter 4
whether you specify the measurement frequencies
at the DUT input (RF DUT Input) or at the analyzer’s
input (IF Analyzer Input). See Frequency Context
(below) for a more detailed description.
123
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
NORMAL
NOISE SOURCE
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Measuring a Frequency Converting DUT
Diagram
Calibration or Measurement. This does not affect the
measurement or calibration, but indicates how the
noise source, the DUT and the analyzer should be
set up. The blue ‘eye’ icon acts as a visual reminder
of the Frequency Context setting you have
selected.See Frequency Context (below) for a more
detailed description.
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
Frequency
Context
You can select whether to specify the frequencies at the DUT input (RF
DUT Input) or at the analyzer’s input (IF Analyzer Input). The setting you
select is indicated visually on the setup diagram by the blue ‘eye’ icon.
• IF Analyzer Input: You specify the frequencies at the analyzer’s input,
that is, at the DUT output after upconversion has taken place.
You specify the Start frequency and Stop Frequency using the
Frequency menu, which is accessed by pressing the FREQUENCY
Channel key. The frequencies you specify are the frequencies at
which the analyzer will make its measurements. These are the same
frequencies that are shown on the results graph, in the results table,
and on the results meter. When the measurement is made, the
analyzer calculates the input frequency to the DUT, and using the
appropriate values from the noise source ENR table, interpolates as
necessary and measures the DUT.
The DUT Setup form (Mode Setup, DUT Setup...) has a blue ‘eye’ icon
just above the IF Start and the IF Stop frequencies, which indicates
that you have specified the frequencies at the analyzer input.
The RF Start and RF Stop frequencies are also displayed on the
setup diagram. These are calculated from the specified IF Start and
IF Stop frequencies, and the external LO frequency.
• RF DUT Input: You specify the frequencies at the DUT input, that is,
before upconversion has taken place.
You specify the Start frequency and Stop Frequency using the
Frequency menu, which is accessed by pressing the FREQUENCY
Channel key. The frequencies you specify are the frequencies at the
input to the DUT. These frequencies are then converted by the
upconverter before being measured by the analyzer, and
consequently do not represent the frequencies actually being
measured by the analyzer. When the measurement is made, the
analyzer calculates the input frequency to the analyzer, and using
the appropriate values from the noise source ENR table, interpolates
as necessary and measures the DUT.
The frequencies displayed on the results graph, in the results table,
and on the results meter are the DUT input frequencies that you
have specified. These displayed result frequencies do not represent
the actual frequencies being measured by the analyzer.
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Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Measuring a Frequency Converting DUT
The DUT Setup form (Mode Setup, DUT Setup...) has a blue ‘eye’ icon
just above the RF Start and the RF Stop frequencies, which indicates
that you have specified the frequencies at the DUT input.
The IF Start and IF Stop frequencies are also displayed on the setup
diagram. These are calculated from the specified RF Start and RF
Stop frequencies, and the external LO frequency.
When making a Double Side Band (DSB) measurement with RF DUT
Input Frequency Context, the frequencies you specify as the RF Start
and RF Stop frequencies refer to the Lower Side Band only.
NOTE
The Upconverter and Downconverter modes include any DUT that
performs frequency conversion, whether a simple single mixer or a
complex receiver structure.
Chapter 4
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
NOTE
125
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Measuring a Frequency Converting DUT
Sidebands and Images
For any measurement involving frequency conversion, you need to
consider the exact frequency ranges involved, and make decisions about
the filtering requirements for the specific measurement. For example,
there may be several different methods of measuring a mixer, and the
method chosen may be set by the choice of available filters.
Figure 4-4
Sidebands and Images with Downconversion
Amplitude
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
Fusb-Flo
mixing
FLO
Flo-Flsb
mixing
Broad-band Noise
PSA Input
Band
Frequency
LSB Input
USB Input
Simple, ideal, mixers output signals on both the sum and difference of
their RF and LO frequencies. Hence, for a fixed output frequency and a
fixed LO frequency, there are two different input frequencies that are
converted to the output frequency. This is shown in Figure 4-4.
The noise sources used in noise figure measurements are broad-band.
When using a downconverter, there is a probability that noise will be
presented to a simple mixer in both the upper and lower input
frequency bands that are converted into the same IF output band to
which the analyzer is tuned. The analyzer receives mixer-created noise
from the two frequency bands which are superimposed. The noise is
random, and hence the two power levels combine by simple addition.
Similarly, the analyzer receives noise-source-created noise from the two
frequency bands combined as added power. Any measurement where
two mixing products are combined like this is usually termed
Double-Sideband, DSB.
It is conventional to call the higher frequency band of an image pair the
Upper-Sideband, USB, and the lower frequency band of an image pair
the Lower-Sideband, LSB.
Non-ideal mixers exhibit some unwanted behaviors:
1. Some of the input signal leaks directly to the output.
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Chapter 4
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Measuring a Frequency Converting DUT
2. Some of the LO signal, and its harmonics, leak directly to the output.
3. Mixing products are created between the input signal and the
harmonics of the LO.
There are other unwanted products involving input signal harmonics,
but these tend to be less troublesome than those above, provided the
mixer is operated at a level within its linear range.
Signal Leakage
LO Leakage
The LO power is normally greater than the largest input signal that a
mixer is intended to operate with. The LO power leaking from the
mixer's output is at a high level compared to the signal levels involved
in the noise figure measurement. Hence, LO leakage needs to
considered when measuring noise figure of a frequency converting DUT.
If the LO frequency is low enough to be passed by the input filter of the
analyzer's RF section (a 3.0 GHz Low Pass Filter), the LO leakage can
prevent successful measurement of the DUT noise figure.
Desensitization by LO leakage can be avoided by adding a filter
between the DUT and the analyzer to remove the LO frequency
component.
Low pass filters with cutoffs at low frequencies, may exhibit spurious
resonances and leakage at low microwave frequencies. It may be
necessary to use a pair of lowpass filters, one microwave, one RF, in
order to assure a stopband attenuation over a wide frequency range.
Chapter 4
127
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
Direct signal leakage of input signal through to a mixer's output can
occur, because the noise sources cover a broad frequency range. Signal
leakage is not normally a problem unless the noise source has a large
variation in ENR, or the mixer's RF-to-IF leakage is high.
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Measuring a Frequency Converting DUT
LO Harmonics
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
Many mixers are operated by sinusoidal LO signals. LO harmonics can
be formed in the mixer at significantly high levels. It is common for the
specified LO input level for a diode mixer to be chosen to operate the
diodes between saturation and off conditions, hence making the mixer
act as a switch. LO harmonic derived products from industry standard
double-balanced mixers may be similar in level to what they would
have been with a square-wave LO signal. Instead of just being sensitive
at one pair of frequencies [ FLO ± FIF ] , the mixer input is sensitive at a
series of pairs:
Equation 4-1
[ F LO ± F IF ] + [ 2F LO ± F IF ] + [ 3F LO ± F IF ] + [ 4F LO ± F IF ] + [ 5F LO ± F IF ] + …
Filtering is needed to eliminate the noise input to the DUT at these
higher order frequencies. However, their frequencies may be great
enough that the mixer attenuates them, making them insignificant.
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Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Measuring a Frequency Converting DUT
Single Sideband Measurements
Items to be considered are:
1. Decide the frequency ranges that must be covered; Input, LO, and
Output.
2. Calculate the frequency range that the unwanted image will cover.
3. Calculate the frequency range that the LO harmonic modes will
cover.
4. Choose a filter to go between the noise source and the DUT, that will
pass the wanted input band and stop the unwanted input bands.
5. Consider the LO frequency range (and harmonics), and whether or
not a filter is needed to protect the analyzer input from being
desensitized by LO leakage in the 0 - 3.5 GHz range.
6. Choose a filter, if necessary, to go between the DUT and the analyzer.
If any of these ranges conflict, making the filter requirements
impossible, the measurement could be split into a group of smaller
ranges, with different filters for each.
If the DUT is a complicated mixer, it may already contain filters to
operate the mixer in single sideband mode over the frequency range of
interest. A mixer in its final application exhibits the same problems
that make noise figure measurement difficult, hence the application
will need similar filtering to that needed during noise figure
measurement.
Chapter 4
129
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
Most mixer applications involve single sideband (SSB) mixing - either
LSB or USB, hence it is ideal to make noise figure measurements on a
mixer in the circumstances in which it is used. Making an SSB
measurement requires suitable filters to remove the unwanted image,
any LO leakage, and other unwanted mixer products. This may require
filters that are not readily available, or that are expensive, and a DSB
measurement may be chosen as a compromise when measuring a
downconverter or using the System Downconverter. There is no general
guidance on what filtering is needed. Each case needs individual
consideration.
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Measuring a Frequency Converting DUT
Figure 4-5
Single Sideband Mixer Measurements
Amplitude
FLO
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
Flo-Flsb
mixing
Depending on Flo, a DUT
output filter may be needed
to reject LO leakage
Noise reaching mixer from
the DUT Input filter
Frequency
PSA Input
Band
LSB Input
USB Input
Figure 4-5 shows an SSB mixer measurement (Downconverter, LSB)
where a filter makes it single sideband. If the IF frequency is lowered,
the analyzer is tuned to a lower frequency, and the USB and LSB bands
will move closer to the LO frequency. This makes filtering more
difficult. If the IF is lowered further, a point is reached where filtering
is not possible and SSB measurements cannot be made. The width of
the filter limits where the LO or IF frequencies sweep to make a
measurement.
The analyzer performs frequency calculations and controls the
frequency for a variety of mixer modes. However, you have to determine
the filter requirements, and provide those filters in the measurement
setup.
‘Downconverter’ means that the output frequency, (IF) is lower than the
input, (RF).
‘Upconverter’ means that the output frequency, (IF) is higher than the
input (RF).
The analyzer can handle SSB mixer measurements in modes defined by
the following combinational choices:
• DUT: Upconverter, Downconverter, or Amplifier with System
Downconverter On.
• Sideband: LSB or USB.
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Chapter 4
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Measuring a Frequency Converting DUT
Double Sideband Measurements
Double Sideband (DSB) measurements can only be made when the
DUT is a downconverter, or when the DUT is an amplifier and the
system downconverter is On. DSB techniques can be useful when
making noise figure measurements under the following conditions:
• When adequate filters for image-free SSB measurements are not
available
• When frequency ranges have to be covered that make SSB filters
impractical or impossible
Figure 4-6
Double Sideband Measurements
Amplitude
Fusb-Flo
mixing
FLO
Flo-Flsb
mixing
Frequency
PSA Input
Band
LSB Input
USB Input
Figure 4-6 shows a double sideband, downconversion, mixing. Noise
from two separated RF bands are mixed into the IF band, where the
power addition takes place.
DSB measurements are made with the noise from a pair of separate
bands, symmetrically arranged about the LO frequency. The IF
frequency value should be low, ideally no larger than 1% of the LO
frequency. As the two sidebands, the USB and the LSB, are generated
at frequencies equal to LO±IF, this technique maintains the two bands
close together. This is necessary because the assumption is made that
the variations in noise source ENR, gain and noise figure are constant
between the two bands. ENR values are applied to the mid-point
between the upper and lower sidebands, and this equates to the
frequency of the LO.
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131
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
DSB measurements do not eliminate the need for filtering. However,
they can greatly simplify the filtering needed. This benefit is achieved
at the loss of frequency resolution.
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Measuring a Frequency Converting DUT
Figure 4-6 shows that noise from two bands are combined during the
measurement, while during calibration, when the DUT was not
connected, only one band (at the IF frequency) was used.
If the assumptions about the parameters being flat over frequency
between the two sidebands are valid, your results will show a doubling
in power (3 dB increase) in noise level during the measurement of any
downconverting DUTs. There is also a doubling of measured power
when using the system downconverter, but compensation is not
required because the calibration power is also doubled.
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
This 3 dB increase in measured power with downconverting DUTs can
be corrected using the Loss Compensation Setup screen (Input/Output,
Loss Comp). Set Loss Compensation Before DUT to Fixed, enter a Fixed
Value of –3 dB, and set Temperature to the noise source’s cold
temperature. The DSB power addition occurs for both the Hot and Cold
noise from the noise source, and the noise created in the input of the
DUT. A temperature value can be assigned to this loss using the
Before Temp. Using the Cold temperature of the noise source (often
assumed to be 290 Kelvin) corrects for this, and the analyzer will give
corrected results comparable to those that would have been given by an
SSB measurement.
DSB measurements are not appropriate for making measurements
where DUT performance, or noise source ENR, have significant
variation over the frequency range [ F LO ± FIF ] .
DSB measurements need care to determine their filtering needs.
NOTE
When making a Double Side Band (DSB) measurement with RF DUT
Input Frequency Context, the frequencies you specify as the RF Start
and RF Stop frequencies refer to the Lower Side Band only.
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Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Measuring a Frequency Converting DUT
LO Leakage (with specific DSB information)
LO leakage is a problem when working in the 200 kHz to 3 GHz range.
It can be avoided by tuning the LO to frequencies greater than 3.5 GHz.
Above 3.0 GHz, the analyzer's input filter progressively attenuates the
LO signal. For a DSB downconverter measurement with the LO
frequency below about 3.5 GHz, a lowpass filter will be needed. The
cutoff frequency must be chosen to pass the IF frequency of the
measurement. The amount of attenuation over the LO frequency range
has to be sufficient to reduce the LO leakage down to the broad-band
(10.0 MHz - 3 GHz) noise level presented to the analyzer input.
NOTE
Low pass filters with cutoffs at low frequencies, may exhibit spurious
resonances and leakage at low microwave frequencies. It may be
necessary to use a pair of lowpass filters, one microwave, one RF, in
order to assure a stopband attenuation over a wide frequency range.
LO Harmonics (with specific DSB information)
Many mixers have product pairs associated with harmonics of the LO.
Depending on the mixer, these could be at a sufficient level to distort
the measured noise figure results. To avoid this insert an input filter
between the noise source and the DUT. A Highpass filter may also be
needed in this location if signal leakage is a problem.
There is no general guidance on what filtering is needed. Each case
needs individual consideration:
1. Decide the frequency ranges that have to be covered; Input, LO, and
Output.
2. Calculate the frequency range that the LO harmonic modes will
cover.
3. If LO harmonic related products are a problem, choose a filter to go
between the noise source and the DUT, that will pass the wanted
input band and stop the LO harmonic modes. If the frequency ranges
are wide, the measurement may have to be split into frequency
ranges with different filters for each.
4. Consider the LO frequency (and harmonics). Is a filter needed to
protect the analyzer input being desensitized by LO leakage in the
0 to 3.5 GHz range?
5. Choose a filter, if necessary, to go between the DUT and the analyzer.
The analyzer can handle DSB mixer measurements when using a
Downconverter, or when the System Downconverter is On.
Chapter 4
133
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
With most DSB Downconverter measurements, the IF is made low, with
respect to, the RF and LO frequencies, so filter needs are not complex.
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Measuring a Frequency Converting DUT
Fixed LO
As the LO frequency is fixed, there is no sweep at the DUT input. This
means that as the two sideband input pairs diverge, their average
remains fixed. This feature can be useful for measuring a complex DUT
where the effect of variation of performance of the post-mixer stage over
IF frequency is of interest.
Because the LO frequency is held constant, it is the IF frequency at the
analyzer input that is swept. Figure 4-7 illustrates this mode.
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
Figure 4-7
Fixed LO Measurements
Sweep Point
Fixed LO
Stop
Fusb-Flo
mixing
Flo-Flsb
mixing
LSB Input
USB Input
Start
FIF
134
FLO
Frequency
Chapter 4
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Making Frequency Converting DUT Measurements
Making Frequency Converting DUT
Measurements
Calibration of the measurement system is similar to a basic calibration,
the noise source is connected directly to the RF input of the analyzer
and a calibration is made. The DUT is then placed between the noise
source and the analyzer, and a corrected measurement is made.
NOTE
The RF input section on all PSA models has a built-in 3.0 GHz Low
Pass Filter. This filter needs to be accounted for when planning the
filter requirements during calibration and measurement.
Chapter 4
135
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
An example is provided on the following pages using the analyzer to
make a fixed frequency measurement. The LO is locked at a specified
frequency, and a lower sideband (LSB) measurement of a mixer is
made. The example can be modified to make measurements where the
IF is swept. Also, from the example, upper and double side band
measurements can be made. The changes in the example’s procedure
are explained in each case.
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Making Frequency Converting DUT Measurements
Making Downconverting DUT Measurements
using a Fixed LO and Fixed IF
(Equivalent to Mode 1.4 on an 8970B Noise Figure
Analyzer)
Both double and single sideband measurements may be made in
this mode. This measurement may be useful to choose the
optimum IF for a mixer or receiver, or to measure how a mixer’s or
a receiver’s noise figure and gain vary with IF.
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
Lower Sideband Measurement
The example lower sideband measurement is made using a PSA
model E4445A analyzer. A signal generator is used to supply an
LO at 970 MHz. Setting the RF frequency of interest to 900 MHz,
with the LO of 970 MHz gives an IF of 70 MHz. This also meets
with the need to maintain the LO frequency out of the analyzer’s
passband.
See Figure 4-8.
NOTE
In the example, a 900 MHz Band Pass Filter is used between the
noise source and the DUT to remove the upper sideband (see
Figure 4-8).
A 70 MHz Band Pass Filter is used between the DUT and the
analyzer to remove all signals except the 70 MHz signal in which
we are interested.
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Chapter 4
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Making Frequency Converting DUT Measurements
Figure 4-8
Fixed LO (970 MHz) and Fixed IF (70 MHz), LSB Spectrum
dB
Rejected
USB
70 MHz
band pass filter
LO
970 MHz
900 MHz
band pass filter
IF
(70 MHz)
RF (LSB)
900 MHz
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2 (GHz)
Initial Setup Procedure Follow the overview procedure of the initial
setup.
Step 1. Power Up the analyzer and the LO. You need to wait for the
recommended warm up time to get accurate measurement results.
Step 2. Connect the 10 MHz reference, if required. See “Connecting the
System” on page 121 for more details.
Step 3. Load the ENR values for the chosen noise source. See “Entering Excess
Noise Ratio (ENR) Data” on page 37 for more details.
Step 4. Set up the LO. See “Choosing and Setting Up the Local Oscillator” on
page 119 for more details.
Step 5. Connect the system and add filtering where required. Figure 4-10 on
page 139 shows the connections.
Setting Up the DUT
Step 1. Press the Mode Setup key, and the DUT Setup... key. The DUT Setup
form is displayed (Figure 4-9). Confirm that the DUT field is set to
DownConv (select the DownConv key to highlight it).
The default Device Under Test setting is Amplifier.
NOTE
The System Downconverter field is no longer accessible to you when the
DUT is a downconverter.
Step 2. Press the Tab key to navigate to the Ext LO Frequency field. Enter the
LO frequency of 970 MHz.
Step 3. Press the Tab key to navigate to the Sideband field. Select the lower
sideband by pressing the LSB key.
Step 4. Press the Tab key to navigate to the Frequency Context field, and select
IF Analyzer Input. This means that we will specify the frequency at the
analyzer’s input (70 MHz), and the RF frequency will be calculated by
Chapter 4
137
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
0.2
RF (USB)
1.04 GHz
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Making Frequency Converting DUT Measurements
the noise figure application.
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
Step 5. Press the Tab key to navigate to the Diagram field, and select Calibration.
This will then display the setup diagram for measurement calibration.
Check that the system is setup as shown in the diagram.
NOTE
In this example measurement, 70 MHz bandpass and 200 MHz
low-pass filters have been used between the DUT and the analyzer.
These filters have been added at this Calibration stage to remove any
errors that they might contribute from the final result.
Figure 4-9
DUT Setup Form
Setting Frequency, Frequency Mode, and Averaging
Step 1. Press the FREQUENCY Channel key. Use the keys presented to you
specify the Frequency Mode and Frequency parameters. In this
example of a fixed frequency noise figure measurement on a
downconverter, the appropriate settings are:
• Freq Mode: Fixed
• Fixed Freq: 70 MHz
NOTE
There are two possible frequencies you can enter - the RF frequency
(before downconversion) or the IF frequency (after downconversion). In
this example, we previously specified that the Frequency Context was IF
Analyzer Input, so a value of 70 MHz is used.
Step 2. To configure the rest of the measurement, press the Meas Setup key. Use
the keys presented to you to specify the remaining measurement
138
Chapter 4
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Making Frequency Converting DUT Measurements
parameters. In this example, the appropriate settings are:
• Averaging: ON
• Number of averages: 10
• Internal preamp: ON
Calibration of the Measurement Setup
Calibration of the setup for a noise figure measurement is specific to the
frequency you have set. If you change the frequency after calibration,
you will have to recalibrate the measurement.
Figure 4-10
PSA Frequency Converting DUT Calibration and Measurement
NOISE SOURCE DRIVE
OUT +28 V (PULSED)
NORMAL
NOISE SOURCE
NOISE SOURCE DRIVE
OUT +28 V (PULSED)
LO
NORMAL
NOISE SOURCE
CALIBRATION SETUP
DUT
MEASUREMENT SETUP
Step 1. Press the Meas Setup key, and the Calibrate key twice.
The first time you press the Calibrate key you are prompted to press it
again. This two-stroke calibration is a safety feature to prevent you
from accidentally pressing Calibrate and erasing the current calibration
data.
When calibration is complete the measurement system is calibrated at
the mixer input. The red Uncorr text changes to green Corr text in the
top right hand side of the display.
Step 2. Press the Trace/View key and the Meter key to see the calibration results.
Chapter 4
139
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
To connect the noise source and analyzer for calibration. (See Figure
4-10.) Connect any After DUT filtering prior to calibration.
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Making Frequency Converting DUT Measurements
Figure 4-11
Typical Calibration Results
NOTE
After calibration the instrument will not be jittering near 0 dB with no
DUT inserted. This is because the instrument is now using the ENR
value for the RF, while the input is tuned to the IF. When DUT is added,
the NFA measures the noise figure of the DUT. If the configuration is
arranged to reject one sideband, the SSB result is displayed. If both
sidebands are converted by the mixer the DSB result is displayed.
Making the Corrected Noise Figure and Gain Measurement
A measurement corrected for the noise contributed by the analyzer may
now be made. Insert the DUT into the system as shown in Figure 4-10.
Press the Trace/View key and the Meter key to display the results. A
typical display of noise figure and gain (conversion loss) is shown in
Figure 4-12.
NOTE
The filtering used for this example measurement comprised:
• 900 MHz bandpass filter between the noise source and the DUT
• 70 MHz bandpass and 200 MHz low-pass filters between the DUT
and the analyzer
140
Chapter 4
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Making Frequency Converting DUT Measurements
Typical Microwave Results
NOTE
Once you have successfully made the measurement you may want to
save the setup for future measurements. This can be done by saving the
state. For more details, see the PSA Series Spectrum Analyzers User’s
and Programmer’s Reference Volume 1.
Upper Sideband Measurement
The upper sideband measurement setup is similar to the LSB
measurement procedure described in “Lower Sideband Measurement”
on page 136. However, the filtering requirements will be different
because the LSB has to be filtered out. Follow the LSB procedure, and
in the DUT Setup... form select USB in the sideband option.
Double Sideband Measurement
The double sideband measurement setup is similar to the LSB
measurement procedure described in “Lower Sideband Measurement”
on page 136. Follow the LSB procedure, and in the DUT Setup... form
select the DSB in the sideband option.
If the assumptions about the parameters being flat over frequency
between the two sidebands are valid, your results will show a doubling
in power (3 dB increase) in noise level during a DSB measurement.
This can be corrected using the Loss Compensation Setup screen
(Input/Output, Loss Comp). Set Loss Compensation Before DUT to Fixed,
enter a Fixed Value of –3 dB, and set Temperature to the noise source’s
cold temperature. The DSB power addition occurs for both the Hot and
Cold noise from the noise source, and the noise created in the input of
the DUT. A temperature value can be assigned to this loss using the
Before Temp. Using the Cold temperature of the noise source (often
assumed to be 290 Kelvin) corrects for this, and the analyzer will give
corrected results comparable to those that would have been given by an
SSB measurement.
Chapter 4
141
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
Figure 4-12
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Making Frequency Converting DUT Measurements
Making Upconverting DUT Measurements using a
Fixed LO and Variable IF
(Equivalent to Mode 1.4 with SUM on an 8970B Noise
Figure Meter)
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
Lower Sideband Measurement
The lower sideband measurement setup is similar to the LSB
measurement procedure described in “Lower Sideband Measurement”
on page 136. However, with an upconverting measurement, the RF is
the lower frequency, and the IF is the higher frequency to which you
will convert. Follow the LSB procedure, and in the DUT Setup... form
ensure the LSB is the sideband option is selected, and select Upconv
instead of Downconv as the DUT. The filtering requirements will be
different as you need to remove the LO signal from the IF path.
Upper Sideband Measurement
The upper sideband measurement setup is similar to the LSB
measurement procedure described in “Lower Sideband Measurement”
on page 136. However, with an upconverting measurement, the RF is
the lower frequency, and the IF is the higher frequency to which you
will convert. Follow the LSB procedure, and in the DUT Setup... form
ensure the LSB is the sideband option is selected, and select Upconv
instead of Downconv as the DUT. The filtering requirements will be
different as you need to remove the LO signal from the IF path.
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Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Measurements with a System Downconverter
Measurements with a System Downconverter
A system downconverter can be thought of as a frequency extender for
the analyzer, to allow measurements to be made on DUTs at
frequencies the analyzer does not cover in its frequency range.
This measurement discussion uses an unspecified external
downconverter. So there are no warranted specifications or
characteristics provided for the measurement system.
Figure 4-13
PSA System Downconverter Calibration and Measurement
NOISE SOURCE DRIVE
OUT +28 V (PULSED)
NORMAL NOISE SOURCE
LO
CALIBRATION SETUP
NOISE SOURCE DRIVE
OUT +28 V (PULSED)
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
NOTE
NORMAL NOISE SOURCE
LO
DUT
MEASUREMENT SETUP
A system downconverter is part of the measuring system, and is
present in both the calibration setup and the measurement setup. See
Figure 4-13. During calibration the noise performance of both the
analyzer and the system downconverter are measured. Because of this,
when corrected measurements are performed, the results then apply to
the DUT only. ENR data for the same frequency range is used for both
calibration and measurements
The analyzer has the capability to control a single frequency
conversion, so system downconverter measurements under the
analyzer's control are limited to non-frequency converting DUTs.
The analyzer can be used in much more complex systems, with multiple
frequency conversions between the DUT and measurement system.
However, the control of such systems is application-specific. You need to
perform frequency calculations to suit that particular system, account
for the effects of any DSB conversions, determine filter requirements,
and calculate the appropriate ENR values for calibration and
measurement.
USB, LSB or DSB?
If the DUT is broad-band, a system downconverter could operate in
USB, LSB, or DSB mode, and the same circumstances occur in both
calibration and measurements, hence DSB sideband power addition
Chapter 4
143
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Measurements with a System Downconverter
corrections are not needed. Corrected measurements cancel any
sideband summation effects.
If the DUT is narrowband and a DSB system downconverter is used,
the calibration setup will operate in true DSB mode. However, the
measurement setup mode will be influenced by the DUT’s selectivity.
The possibilities fit into two groups and a third situation which should
be avoided:
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
1. The DUT bandwidth is much greater than the LSB-USB separation,
so a normal DSB measurement results.
2. The DUT bandwidth is much less than the LSB-USB separation,
and the sweep width is less than the USB-LSB separation, so an
SSB measurement results. This needs a gain correction factor due to
the DSB calibration
NOTE
There is a third situation and this must be avoided. This is where the
DUT selectivity can resolve the individual sidebands of the DSB
measurement and the sweep is wide enough to scan the DUT across
them. Different parts of the measurement plot are in different modes.
USB, LSB and DSB could occur in different places on the same plot,
with gradual changes between them, set by the shape of the DUT's
frequency response. Variable gain correction would be needed across
the plot and the corrections needed would change if adjustments to the
DUT changed its shape.
Measurement Modes with a DSB System
Downconverter
PSA Series analyzers only support the use of a fixed LO, with any
frequency sweeping being done by the analyzer. The benefits of a DSB
measurement are minimal filter requirements, and wide frequency
coverage. DSB measurements are appropriate for wideband DUTs.
Their disadvantages, covered in the “USB, LSB or DSB?” section, make
them inappropriate for narrowband DUTs. The usual aim is to choose
as low a frequency IF as possible, in order to minimize the separation
between the sidebands, and thus get the optimum resolution possible.
Figure 4-14 shows this.
NOTE
When making Double Sideband (DSB) measurements, it is important
that the IF frequency is much smaller than the LO frequency. This is
because the ENR values in the ENR table can only be applied to one
frequency or, in the case of a swept measurement, to one set of
frequencies. The ENR values cannot be applied simultaneously to both
the upper sideband and to the lower sideband. The ENR values are
therefore applied to the midpoint between the upper sideband and the
lower sideband, and this equates to the LO frequency.
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Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Measurements with a System Downconverter
Consequently, the higher the IF frequency is in comparison to the LO
frequency, the further apart the upper and lower sidebands will be. The
further these upper and lower sidebands are from the LO frequency, the
less accurate will the ENR value be.
Another potential source of error is the frequency response of the DUT.
If the frequency response varies over the measurement range, from
lower to upper frequency, the noise figure results will only represent an
average value.
Figure 4-14
DSB System Downconverter Measurements
Amplitude
Fusb-Flo
Flo-Flsb
LSB Input
USB Input
FLO
Broad-band Noise
Frequency
analyzer Input
Band
DSB system downconverter measurements have implicit linear
averaging of DUT characteristics. The same ENR values are used for
both the USB and LSB frequencies, and are taken from the average
frequencies of the USB and the LSB. This corresponds to the LO
frequency. Results returned are the average of the two sideband
powers.
For microwave measurements, above 3.5 GHz, the analyzer's input
filter will reject LO leakage from the downconverter, otherwise a filter
is needed between the system downconverter and the analyzer. Also,
considerations about mixer LO harmonic modes apply.
Chapter 4
145
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
It is recommended for greatest accuracy that the IF frequency be no
greater than 1% of the LO frequency when making double sideband
measurements. When making a swept measurement, no frequency in
the swept frequency band should exceed 1% of the LO frequency.
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Measurements with a System Downconverter
Measurement Modes with an SSB System
Downconverter
The analyzer can perform frequency calculations for USB, for LSB, or
for USB system downconverter conversions.
The filtering requirements will be measurement-specific.
Figure 4-15 shows how filtering makes an LSB measurement, and
Figure 4-16 shows a USB downconversion measurement.
Figure 4-15
LSB System Downconverter Measurements
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
Amplitude
FIF
FRF
FLO
Flo-Flsb
mixing
Depending on Flo, a
downconverter output filter
may be needed to reject
LO-IF leakage
Noise reaching mixer from
the DUT Input filter
Frequency
analyzer Input
Band
Figure 4-16
LSB Input
USB Input
USB System Downconverter Measurements
Amplitude
Fusb-Flo
mixing
FLO
Noise reaching System
Downconverter is band
limited by filtering
Depending on Flo, a
downconverter output filter
may be needed to reject
LO-IF leakage
Frequency
analyzer Input
Band
146
LSB Input
USB Input
Chapter 4
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Measurements with a System Downconverter
Ideally, choose a high IF frequency for the conversion to separate the
USB and LSB bands, thus simplifying the filter requirements.
The filter needed to make an SSB measurement could be part of the
DUT, or a measurement-specific filter must be obtained and applied at
the input to the system downconverter.
The bandwidth of the SSB filter limits the maximum frequency range
over which a measurement can be swept. Therefore SSB measurements
are not suited to very wideband DUTs.
Chapter 4
147
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
Filtering is needed to select the wanted sideband. A swept noise figure
measurement is then possible even if the though LO cannot be swept.
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Measurements with a System Downconverter
FIXED LO, LSB
The main benefit of the fixed LO system downconverter modes is that a
programmable synthesized LO is not needed.
Figure 4-17
LSB Measurements
Sweep
Point
Filter passband
FIF
LSB
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
Stop
LO USB
FLO-FLSB mixing
Start
Frequency
Figure 4-17 shows how the analyzer sweeps its own input frequency so
that as the LSB tunes, the frequency increases across the sweep. The
filter required is either a lowpass or a bandpass. The maximum sweep
width is now limited to the maximum IF frequency, less an allowance
for the filter transition band.
148
Chapter 4
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Measurements with a System Downconverter
FIXED LO, USB
Figure 4-18
USB Measurements
Sweep
Point
Filter passband
FIF
LSB
Stop
LO
USB
FUSB-FLO
mixing
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
Start
Frequency
Figure 4-18 shows that as the analyzer is tuned in the normal direction,
that is, from a low frequency to a high frequency, the USB and the IF
vary with the same phase and rate of change. The filter can be a
bandpass or highpass, and the sweep width is again limited to the
maximum IF frequency, less an allowance for the filter transition band.
Chapter 4
149
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Frequency Restrictions
Frequency Restrictions
To assist you in troubleshooting problems that you may have
encountered when setting up these measurement modes, the
restrictions that apply to the different types of measurements are
detailed on the following pages.
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
NOTE
The analyzer will only return messages if the frequencies used at the
ports of the frequency converter fall outside the valid range that the
analyzer can handle. Under such conditions, a valid measurement
cannot be performed. Within these limits, it is up to you to specify valid
frequencies at all ports for the type of DUT currently selected.
Glossary of Restricted Terms
Table 4-2 is a description of the terms used in the restrictions
Table 4-2
150
Restricted Terms
Term
Description
IF
The output from DUT
frequency or the tuned
frequency of the analyzer
IFSTART
IF Start frequency. IFSTART is
lower than IFSTOP.
IFSTOP
IF Stop frequency. IFSTOP is
higher than IFSTART.
RF
The input to DUT frequencies
RFSTART
RF Start frequency. RFSTART is
lower than RFSTOP.
RFSTOP
RF Stop frequency. RFSTOP is
higher than RFSTART.
FLO
External LO
Chapter 4
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Frequency Restrictions
General Restrictions
In noise figure measurements, the following general restrictions apply:
• The IF frequency range is limited to a minimum of 10 kHz, and a
maximum of your analyzer’s maximum frequency. This maximum
frequency is dependent on the model of analyzer.
• The RF frequency range is from 1 Hz to 325 GHz, depending on the
DUT setup.
NOTE
• The minimum frequency separation between consecutive points is
10 Hz.
Chapter 4
151
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
Regardless of whether the input frequencies are RF frequencies or IF
frequencies, the FREQUENCY/Channel menu is used to enter these
frequency values.
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Frequency Restrictions
Frequency Downconverting DUT
In this measurement, the DUT contains a frequency downconverting
device. Two examples are a mixer or receiver. These are the applicable
restrictions:
LSB Restrictions
With LSB measurements, the following restrictions apply:
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
• RFSTOP < FLO
• RFSTART > IFSTOP
• FLO - RFSTOP ≥ 10 kHz
USB Restrictions
With USB measurements, the following restrictions apply:
• RFSTART > FLO
• IFSTOP < FLO
• RFSTART - FLO ≥ 10 kHz
DSB Restrictions
With DSB measurements, the following restrictions apply:
• RFSTART > IFSTOP
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Chapter 4
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Frequency Restrictions
Frequency Upconverting DUT
In this measurement, the DUT contains a frequency upconverting
device. One example is a mixer used in a transmitter.
LSB Restrictions
With LSB measurements, following restrictions apply:
• IFSTOP < FLO
• IFSTART > RFSTOP
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
USB Restrictions
With USB measurements, the following restrictions apply:
• IFSTART > FLO
• RFSTOP < FLO
Chapter 4
153
Making Frequency Converter Measurements
Frequency Restrictions
System Downconverter
The DUT is a non-frequency converting device, for example an
amplifier or filter measurement, and its frequency is outside the
analyzer’s measurement range or outside its range of maximum
accuracy. Frequency downconversion is required within the
measurement system, in other words, using a mixer, external to the
DUT, to convert the signal of interest to the frequency range of the
analyzer.
Making Frequency Converter
Measurements
LSB Restrictions
With LSB measurements, the following restrictions apply:
• RFSTOP < FLO
• RFSTART > IFSTOP
• FLO - RFSTOP ≥ 10 kHz
USB Restrictions
With USB measurements, the following restrictions apply:
• RFSTART > FLO
• IFSTOP < FLO
• RFSTART - FLO ≥ 10 kHz
DSB Restrictions
With DSB measurements, the following restrictions apply:
• RFSTART > IFSTOP
154
Chapter 4
Menu Maps
5
Menu Maps
This chapter provides a visual representation of the front-panel keys
and their associated menu keys. Refer to Chapter 6 , “Front-Panel Key
Reference,” on page 187 for descriptions of the key functions.
155
Menu Maps
What You Will Find in This Chapter
What You Will Find in This Chapter
This chapter provides menu maps for the front-panel keys that have
menus associated with them. The key menus are listed in alphabetical
order.
Key to this chapter’s menu map diagrams
In this chapter of menu map diagrams, the following key has been used:
AMPLITUDE
Y Scale
Ref Level
-20.00 dBm
This represents a hardkey, that is, a raised key on the front
panel.
This represents a softkey on a menu, that is, a key that
is displayed only on the screen.
Menu Maps
A bar on the left of two or more keys indicates that the keys
are a set of mutually exclusive choices.
†
A dagger to the left of the key indicates that this is an active
function.
‡
A double-dagger to the left of the key indicates a function that
is not always available. It is dependent on other instrument
settings.
156
Chapter 5
Menu Maps
Menus
Menus
Amplitude Menu - Monitor Spectrum Measurement
AMPLITUDE
Y Scale
Amplitude
†
Ref Level
-20.00 dBm
†
Attenuation
10.00 dB
Auto
Man
†
Scale/Div
10.00 dB
Optimize
Ref Level
†
A dagger to the left of the key indicates that this is an active function.
Menu Maps
Chapter 5
157
Menu Maps
Menus
Amplitude Menu - Noise Figure Measurement
AMPLITUDE
Y Scale
Active Window
(has Green Border)
Noise Figure
Y Scale
†
Scale/Div
†
Ref Value
†
Menu Maps
Y Scale
Y Scale
†
Scale/Div
†
1.00 dB
†
Ref Value
15.00 dB
Scale/Div
200.0 K
†
Ref Value
5.00 dB
1000.0 K
Ref Position
Top Ctr Bot
Ref Position
Top Ctr Bot
Ref Position
Top Ctr Bot
Ref Position
Top Ctr Bot
Auto Scale
Auto Scale
Auto Scale
Auto Scale
P Cold
Y Scale
Scale/Div
Ref Value
Noise Factor
Y Scale
†
1.00 dB
†
Y Scale
Ref Value
P Hot
†
T Effective
5.00 dB
4.00 dB
Active Window
(has Green Border)
Y-Factor
Scale/Div
1.00 dB
†
Gain
Scale/Div
Y Scale
†
1.00 dB
†
Ref Value
Scale/Div
0.71489
†
Ref Value
5.00 dB
5.00 dB
2.51189
Ref Position
Top Ctr Bot
Ref Position
Top Ctr Bot
Ref Position
Top Ctr Bot
Auto Scale
Auto Scale
Auto Scale
†
A dagger to the left of the key indicates that this is an active function.
158
Chapter 5
Menu Maps
Menus
BW/Avg Menu - Monitor Spectrum Measurement
BW/
Avg
BW/Avg
†
†
†
†
†
Res BW
3.00000 MHz
Auto
Man
Video BW
3.00000 Hz
Man
Auto
VBW/RBW
1.00000
Span/RBW
106
Man
Auto
A dagger to the left of the key indicates that this is an active function.
Menu Maps
Chapter 5
159
Menu Maps
Menus
BW/Avg Menu - Noise Figure Measurement
BW/
Avg
BW/Avg
†
A dagger to the left of the key indicates that this is an active function.
Menu Maps
†
Res BW
1 MHz
Auto
Man
160
Chapter 5
Menu Maps
Menus
Det/Demod Menu - Monitor Spectrum Measurement
Det/Demod
This hardkey will direct you
to the Spectrum Analyzer
Mode Det/Demod Menu.
Menu Maps
Chapter 5
161
Menu Maps
Menus
Det/Demod Menu - Noise Figure Measurement
Det/Demod
Det/Demod
‡
Detector
Average
Menu Maps
‡
A double-dagger to the left of the key indicates a function that is not
always available. In this case, the ‘Detector’ softkey is always grayed out
and unavailable for selection.
162
Chapter 5
Menu Maps
Menus
Display Menus - Monitor Spectrum Measurement
Display
Display
Full Screen
†
Preferences
On
Graticule
Off
Display Line
-25.00 dBm
On
Off
Preferences
†
A dagger to the left of the key indicates that this is an active function.
Menu Maps
Chapter 5
163
Menu Maps
Menus
Display Menus - Noise Figure Measurement
Display
Display
Preferences
Full Screen
Limits
Graticule
On
Off
Limit
1^ 2^ 3v 4v
Annotation
On
Edit...
Off
Limits
Disable All
Limits
Preferences
Menu Maps
Active Window
(has cyan blue or
yellow background)
State
Type
Display
Test
State
Type
Display
Test
Table of Limit
Line Data
On
Upper
On
On
Off
Lower
Off
Off
†
Point
3
†
Frequency
10 Hz
†
Limit Value
5.0000
Connected To
Previous Pt
No
Yes
New Entry
Delete Row
Delete All
†
164
A dagger to the left of the key indicates that this is an active function.
Chapter 5
Menu Maps
Menus
File Type Menu - Monitor Spectrum Measurement
File
Catalog
Type
State
Type
Type
All
‡
Corrections
State
Trace
‡
Measurement
Results
Limits
Screen
More
More
1 of 2
2 of 2
‡
A double-dagger to the left of the key indicates a function that is not
always available. It is dependent on other instrument settings.
Chapter 5
165
Menu Maps
A bar on the left of two or more keys indicates that the keys are a set
of mutually exclusive choices.
Menu Maps
Menus
File Type Menu - Noise Figure Measurement
File
Catalog
Type
State
Type
Type
All
‡
Corrections
Type
Freq List
ENR Meas/
Common Table
State
Menu Maps
‡
ENR Cal Table
Trace
Measurement
Results
Limits
Loss Comp
Before DUT
Screen
Loss Comp
After DUT
More
1 of 3
More
2 of 3
More
3 of 3
A bar on the left of two or more keys indicates that the keys are a set
of mutually exclusive choices.
‡
A double-dagger to the left of the key indicates a function that is not
always available. It is dependent on other instrument settings.
166
Chapter 5
Menu Maps
Menus
Frequency Menu - Monitor Spectrum Measurement
Frequency
Frequency
†
Center Freq
1.505 GHz
†
Start Freq
10.0000 MHz
†
Stop Freq
3.0000 GHz
†
Freq Offset
Auto
†
0.0000 Hz
Man
A dagger to the left of the key indicates that this is an active function.
Menu Maps
Chapter 5
167
Menu Maps
Menus
Frequency Menu - Noise Figure Measurement
Frequency
Frequency
Freq Mode
Sweep
Freq Mode
Sweep
Start Freq
10.0000000 MHz
Freq List
Index
101
Frequency
Fixed
10.0000 kHz
Stop Freq
3.00000000 GHz
List
Center Freq
1.50500000 GHz
Points
11
Fill
New Entry
Fixed Freq
14.7500000 GHz
Freq List...
Delete Row
Delete All
Menu Maps
A bar on the left of two or more keys indicates that the keys are a set
of mutually exclusive choices.
168
Chapter 5
Menu Maps
Menus
Input Output Menu - Monitor Spectrum Measurement
Input/
Output
This hardkey will direct you
to the Spectrum Analyzer
Mode Input/Output Menu.
Menu Maps
Chapter 5
169
Menu Maps
Menus
Input Output Menu - Noise Figure Measurement
Input/
Output
Input/Output
Noise Figure
Corrections
Loss Comp
Loss Comp
Setup...
NF Corr
Noise Figure
Corrections
On
Before DUT
Table...
Off
Input Cal
Input Cal
Min Atten
0.00 dB
Max Atten
8.00 dB
After DUT
Table...
Attenuation
0 dB
This softkey will direct
you to the Spectrum
Analyzer Mode Input/
Output Menu.
Menu Maps
Input/Output
CAUTION
When you switch to DC Coupling, you risk permanently damaging the
analyzer’s front end mixer if the input signal contains a DC component.
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Chapter 5
Menu Maps
Menus
Marker Menu - Monitor Spectrum Measurement
Marker
Peak
Search
Marker ->
These hardkeys will direct
you to the Spectrum Analyzer
Mode Instrument Marker
Menus.
Marker
Fctn
Menu Maps
Chapter 5
171
Menu Maps
Menus
Marker Menu - Noise Figure Measurement
Marker
Peak
Search
Marker
Marker ->
Peak Search
Search Type
Select Marker
1 2 3 4
Select Marker
1 2 3 4
Maximum
Normal
Search Type
Maximum
Minimum
Delta
Continuous
On
Off
Pk-Pk
Delta Pair
(Tracking Ref)
Ref
Find...
Inactive key
Freq
Count
Off
Inactive key
Marker All Off
Menu Maps
A bar on the left of two or more keys indicates that the keys are a set
of mutually exclusive choices.
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Chapter 5
Menu Maps
Menus
Meas Setup Menu - Monitor Spectrum Measurement
Meas Setup
Meas Setup
Meas Setup
Avg Number
†
10
On
Off
Exp
On
Avg Mode
Repeat
Int Preamp
Off
Restore Meas
Defaults
More 1 of 2
†
More 2 of 2
A dagger to the left of the key indicates that this is an active function.
Menu Maps
Chapter 5
173
Menu Maps
Menus
Meas Setup Menu - Noise Figure Measurement
Meas
Setup
Meas Setup
†
‡
ENR
Meas Setup
Avg Number
10
On
Off
Avg Mode
Exp
ENR Mode
Spot
Table
Common Table
Off
On
Repeat
Meas & Cal
Table...
Calibrate...
‡
ENR
Menu Maps
On
Int Preamp
Off
Restore Meas
Defaults
More
1 of 2
More
2 of 2
Cal Table...
† A dagger to the left of the key indicates that this is an active function.
‡ A double-dagger to the left of the key indicates a function that is not
always available. It is dependent on other instrument settings.
174
Chapter 5
Menu Maps
Menus
MEASURE Menu
MEASURE
Measure
Monitor
Spectrum
Noise Figure
Menu Maps
Chapter 5
175
Menu Maps
Menus
Mode Menu
Mode
Mode
Spectrum
Analysis
Menu Maps
Noise Figure
176
Chapter 5
Menu Maps
Menus
Mode Setup Menu
Mode
Setup
Mode Setup
DUT
Setup...
Displays the DUT Setup
form
Uncertainty
Calculator...
Properties...
Displays the Uncertainty
Calculator
Restore Mode
Defaults
Displays the Properties
menu that shows versioning
information
Menu Maps
Chapter 5
177
Menu Maps
Menus
Mode Setup - DUT Setup Menu
DUT
DUT
System
Downconv
SysDownconv
Amplifier
On
UpConv
Off
DownConv
Ext LO Freq
Sideband
Ext LO Freq
Sideband
Ext LO Freq
30.000000 GHz
LSB
USB
Freq Context
Diagram
Freq Context
Diagram
IF
Analyzer Input
RF
DUT Input
Calibration
Measurement
DSB
Menu Maps
A bar on the left of two or more keys indicates that the keys are a set of
mutually exclusive choices.
In the DUT Setup form represented in the diagram above, a different
softkey menu is presented to you every time you Tab to a fresh field on the
form. The diagram above shows the menu shown at each stage of your
input. For example, when the form first displays, the cursor is in the DUT
field (shown above at top left), and the menu displayed to you is that shown
above underneath DUT. You can then Tab to the System Downconverter
field, at which point the System Downconv menu (second from left) is
displayed to you.
178
Chapter 5
Menu Maps
Menus
Source Menu - Noise Figure Measurement
Source
Source
Noise Source
On
Off
Menu Maps
Chapter 5
179
Menu Maps
Menus
Span Menu - Monitor Spectrum Measurement
SPAN
X Scale
Span
†
Span
5 MHz
Full Span
Zero Span
A dagger to the left of the key indicates that this is an active function.
Menu Maps
†
180
Chapter 5
Menu Maps
Menus
Span Menu - Noise Figure Measurement
Span
Span
Span
2.99000000 GHz
Menu Maps
Chapter 5
181
Menu Maps
Menus
Sweep Menu - Monitor Spectrum Measurement
Sweep
Sweep
Sweep Time
†
1.0000 ms
Man
Auto
Single
†
Points
601
A dagger to the left of the key indicates that this is an active function.
Menu Maps
†
Sweep
Cont
182
Chapter 5
Menu Maps
Menus
Sweep Menu - Noise Figure Measurement
Sweep
Sweep
†
Sweep Time
64.00 ms
Sweep Mode
Single
Cont
†
A dagger to the left of the key indicates that this is an active function.
Menu Maps
Chapter 5
183
Menu Maps
Menus
Trace/View Menu - Monitor Spectrum Measurement
This hardkey will direct you
to the Spectrum analysis
Mode View/Trace Menu.
Menu Maps
Trace/
View
184
Chapter 5
Menu Maps
Menus
Trace/View Menu - Noise Figure Measurement
Trace/
View
Meas View
Graph
On
Result A
Result B
Noise Figure
Noise Figure
Noise Figure
Noise Figure
(dB)
Noise Factor
(Linear)
Table
Gain
Gain
Meter
Y-Factor
Y-Factor
Combined
Off
T effective
T effective
P hot
P hot
P cold
P cold
Result A
Noise Figure
Result B
Gain
A bar on the left of two or more keys indicates that the keys are
a set of mutually exclusive choices.
Menu Maps
Chapter 5
185
Menu Maps
Menus
Uncertainty Calculator Menus
All of these menus are all accessed from the Uncertainty Calculator
screen. As you tab from field to field on the screen, you will see each of
these menus displayed in sequence.
Noise Source
ENR
Uncertainty
Noise Source
Model
ENR Uncert
NS Model
User Defined
†
Noise Figure
NS Match
ENR Uncert
0.10 dB
†
NS Match
1.15000
†
Instrument
Noise Figure
Uncertainty
Instrument
Noise Figure
DUT
Noise Figure
Noise Source
Match
NF Uncert
Noise Figure
Noise Figure
3.00 dB
†
Noise Figure
6.00 dB
†
NF Uncert
0.15 dB
Agilent 346A
Agilent 346B
Agilent 346C
Instrument
Gain
Uncertainty
DUT
Gain
Menu Maps
Gain
†
Gain
20.00 dB
Gain Uncert
†
Instrument
Input Match
DUT
Input Match
Input Match
Gain Uncert
0.07 dB
†
Input Match
1.50000
DUT
Output Match
Input Match
†
Input Match
1.60000
Menu visible
when tabbed
to '...'
Uncertainty
Calculations
menu
Output Match
†
Output Match
1.50000
View
Calculations
View
Calculator
A bar on the left of two or more keys indicates that the keys are a set
of mutually exclusive choices.
†
A dagger to the left of the key indicates that this is an active
function.
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Chapter 5
6
Front-Panel Key Reference
187
Front-Panel Key Reference
This chapter details the front-panel and menu keys that appear on the
menu maps presented in the previous chapter. The front-panel keys are
listed alphabetically and are described with their associated menu
keys. The menu keys are arranged as they appear in the analyzer
menus.
Front-Panel Key Reference
Key Descriptions and Locations
Key Descriptions and Locations
Front-Panel Key Reference
This chapter provides information on Phase Noise mode functions only.
Some keys are described that are either not available in Spectrum
Analysis (SA) mode, or that provide functions which differ from those
provided by the same keys in SA mode. Other keys are described which
provide fewer functions than the same key in SA mode, but the
functions that are provided are identical in both modes. For those keys
not described here, refer to the PSA Spectrum Analyzers User’s and
Programmer’s Reference Volume 1.
AMPLITUDE Y Scale
Page 189
BW/Avg
Page 191
Det/Demod
Page 192
Display
Page 194
FREQUENCY Channel
Page 198
Input/Output
Page 201
Marker
Page 204
Peak Search
Page 205
Meas Setup
Page 207
MEASURE
Page 213
MODE
Page 214
Mode Setup
Page 215
Mode Setup — DUT Setup
Page 216
Mode Setup - Uncertainty Calculator
Page 218
Preset
Page 221
Source
Page 222
SPAN X Scale
Page 223
Sweep Menu
Page 224
Trace/View
Page 225
188
Chapter 6
Front-Panel Key Reference
AMPLITUDE Y Scale
AMPLITUDE Y Scale
Accesses the Amplitude menu keys and the Reference Level functions.
Amplitude menu keys are used for setting functions that affect the way
data on the vertical axis is displayed or corrected.
Scale/Div
Sets the units per vertical graticule division in the measurement
window on the display. If more than one measurement window is
displayed (for example, when making Noise Figure measurements), the
active window is indicated by a green border. The active window can be
changed by pressing the Next Window key.
Ref Value
Allows you to specify the amplitude level represented by the Ref
Position (see below) on the graticule display. The units of measurement
are either dB or Kelvin, depending on the measurement being displayed
in the active window.
Ref Position
The reference position on each trace is indicated by a small chevron (the
‘>’ and ‘<’ signs) at either side of the graticule. The value of this
reference position on the graticule is specified with the Ref Value key
(see above). The Ref Position key allows you to vary the position of the
reference trace between top, center, and bottom of the graticule. This
key is only available in Noise Figure measurements.
Top
Sets the reference position to the top line of the
graticule. Its position is indicated by a small chevron on
either side of the graticule.
Ctr
Sets the reference position to the center of the
graticule. Its position is indicated by a small chevron on
either side of the graticule.
Bot
Sets the reference position to the bottom line of the
graticule. Its position is indicated by a small chevron on
either side of the graticule.
Automatically sets both the Scale/Div and the Ref Value to values that
are suitable for the current trace data. This key and function is only
available when Noise Figure is selected on the Measure menu.
Ref Level
Allows you to specify the absolute amplitude level represented by the
top line on the graticule display. The units of measurement are dB.
Attenuation
Allows you to adjust the input attenuation in 2 dB increments. The
analyzer input attenuator reduces the power level of the input signal
delivered to the input mixer. If set manually, the attenuator is
recoupled when Attenuation (Auto) is selected. This key and function is
only available when Spectrum Monitor is selected on the Measure menu.
Chapter 6
189
Front-Panel Key Reference
Auto Scale
Front-Panel Key Reference
AMPLITUDE Y Scale
Optimize Ref Level Optimizes the Reference Level and Attenuation settings for the current
Front-Panel Key Reference
signal. The Reference Level will be set to a value that keeps the signal
as close as possible to the top of the display. Attenuation will be set to a
level that maintains a maximum mixer level of –20 dBm.
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Chapter 6
Front-Panel Key Reference
BW/Avg
BW/Avg
Activates the resolution bandwidth function, and displays the menu
keys that control both the bandwidth and averaging functions.
Res BW
Allows you to specify the RBW manually, or to set it to Auto.
Sweep time is coupled to RBW. As the RBW changes, the sweep time (if
set to Auto) is changed to maintain amplitude calibration.
Manual
Allows you to select the 3 dB filter bandwidth (RBW) of
the analyzer’s resolution bandwidth filter.
You can specify the resolution bandwidth in 10% steps
from 1 Hz to 3 MHz, plus bandwidths of 4, 5, 6, or 8
MHz.
If an unavailable bandwidth is entered with the
numeric keypad, the closest available bandwidth is
selected.
Auto
The resolution bandwidth is automatically set for the
best results.
At measurement frequencies greater than 3 MHz, the
resolution bandwidth will be set to 1 MHz. For
measurement frequencies below 3 MHz, the resolution
bandwidth will be set to 10% of the measurement
frequency.
NOTE
After the PSA analyzer has been calibrated, changing the RBW setting
to a value which crosses the 1.5 MHz boundary will invalidate the
calibration data. This will happen if your RBW setting is changed from
a value above 1.5 MHz to one that is lower than or equal to 1.5 MHz, or
if it is changed from a value below or equal to 1.5 MHz to one that is
higher. You must recalibrate the analyzer for the new setting.
Video BW
Enables you to change the analyzer post-detection filter.
Video BW (Auto) selects automatic coupling of the Video BW filter to the
resolution bandwidth filter using the VBW/RBW ratio set by the
VBW/RBW key.
VBW/RBW
Sets the ratio between the video and resolution bandwidths.
Span/RBW
Allows you to select the ratio of the span to the resolution bandwidth. A
factory preset sets the ratio to 106:1.
Chapter 6
191
Front-Panel Key Reference
The available range is from 1 Hz to 8 MHz in approximately 10% steps.
In addition, a wide-open video filter bandwidth (VBW) may be chosen
by selecting 50 MHz.
Front-Panel Key Reference
Det/Demod
Det/Demod
Displays a menu where you can set the controls and parameters
associated with the detector modes. When making Noise Figure
measurements, only Average detection is available.
Detector
Selects a specific detector, or uses the system to pick the appropriate
detector (through Auto) for a particular measurement.
When discussing detectors, it is important to understand the concept of
a trace “bucket.” For every trace point displayed, there is a finite time
during which the data for that point is collected. The analyzer has the
ability to look at all of the data collected during that time and present a
single point of trace data based on the detector mode. We call the
interval during which the data for that trace point is being collected,
the “bucket.” Thus, a trace is more than a series of single points. It is
actually a series of trace “buckets.” The data may be sampled many
times within each bucket.
When the Detector choice is Auto, the detector selected depends on
marker functions, trace functions, and the trace averaging function.
When you manually select a detector (instead of selecting Auto), that
detector is used regardless of other analyzer settings.
The detector in use is indicated on the left side of the display. If the
detector has been manually selected, a # appears next to it.
Auto
When set to Auto, the type of detector selected depends
on marker functions, trace functions, and the trace
averaging function.
In PSA Series analyzers, Normal detection is the
default.
Front-Panel Key Reference
If a condition arises where a different type of detection
scheme would be better utilized, the system uses the
alternate scheme. For example, when in Auto mode, the
Marker Noise function uses Average detection because
the system determines that the data is more accurate
for noise-type signals.
Sample
The Sample detector displays the instantaneous level of
the signal at the center of the bucket represented by
each display point.
Normal
The Normal detector displays the peak of CW-like
signals and maximums and minimums of noise-like
signals.
Average
The Average detector is the only type of detector
available when making Noise Figure measurements.
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Chapter 6
Front-Panel Key Reference
Det/Demod
The Average detector displays the average of the signal
within the bucket. The averaging method depends upon
Avg/VBW Type selection of either Log-Pwr Avg (Video) or
Pwr Avg (RMS).
NOTE
Peak
The Peak detector displays the maximum of the signal
within the bucket.
Negative Peak
The Negative Peak detector displays the minimum of the
signal within the bucket.
Because they may not find a spectral component's true peak, neither
average nor sample detectors measure amplitudes of CW signals as
accurately as peak or normal, but they do measure noise without the
biases of peak detection.
Front-Panel Key Reference
Chapter 6
193
Front-Panel Key Reference
Display
Display
This front-panel key accesses the menu key that allows you to see and
setup different measurement displays.
Full Screen
Extends the measurement window over the entire analyzer display,
removing the key menu as it does so. To restore the key menu, press
any key except Print, Save, or any of the data entry keys.
Display Line
Allows you to adjust the vertical position of the horizontal display line,
or to remove it altogether.
Preferences
Limits
On
Switches the display of a horizontal green line on. This
line can be used as a visual reference line, and can be
used for trace arithmetic.
Off
Switches the display of the horizontal reference line off.
This displays a further menu giving you control over some aspects of
the display’s appearance.
Graticule
Allows you to display or hide the graticule lines on the
display.
Annotation
Allows you to display or hide some of the annotation
pertaining to the current display.
The limit lines mark boundary limits of a trace. Limit lines feature four
independent lines numbered from 1 to 4. Limit lines 1 and 2 are
associated with the upper graph, and limit lines 3 and 4 are associated
with the lower graph. The limit lines can be set to inform you when the
trace of interest crosses one of the limit lines. The limit lines can be set
as an upper or lower limit. They can also be displayed on the associated
graph.
Front-Panel Key Reference
The Limits key selects one of the four possible limit lines. Limit Line 1⇑
and Limit Line 2⇑ are associated with the upper graph, and Limit Line 3⇓
and Limit Line 4⇓ are associated with the lower graph. The selected limit
line is underlined and the Edit... key in the limit line menu then applies
to that limit line.
Edit...
Displays a form which allows you to enter a table of limit line data for
the limit line that was underlined in the previous menu. It also displays
a series of key menus, each of which allows you change the setting of
the field highlighted on the form.
State
194
Allows you to switch the limit line On or Off.
On
Switches the limit line on.
Off
Switches the limit line off.
Chapter 6
Front-Panel Key Reference
Display
Type
Display
Test
Allows you to set the selected limit line to either an
Upper or a Lower limit. The limit line is tested against
the trace if Test is set to On.
Upper
The limit line you have specified is an
upper limit. Measurement results that
are lower than the limit line are
deemed to have passed.
Lower
The limit line you have specified is a
lower limit. Measurement results that
are higher than the limit line are
deemed to have passed.
Allows you to switch the limit line display On or Off.
Limit line checking still takes place when the trace is
switched off. Switching the limit line display off is
simply a convenient way of tidying up the display.
On
Switches the limit line display on.
Off
Switches the limit line display off.
Allows you to switch the limit line test On or Off. Limit
line testing only takes place when Test is switched On,
and the limit state is on.
On
Switches the limit line test on.
Off
Switches the limit line test off.
The Limit Lines
Point Table
The table allows you to define the limit line by entering
up to 101 different pairs of frequency and limit values.
Specifies the point number. The point
number is the same as the row number
within the limit line table.
Frequency
Specifies the frequency for which you
want to set a limit.
Limit Value
Sets the limit at the specified
frequency. Limit values have no
explicitly defined unit of measure. The
unit of measure is derived from the
measurement being made, so changing
the measurement will also change the
unit of measure.
When entering the limit value, you
must use the numeric keys on the front
panel. Once you have entered the first
numeric value, the key menu changes
to allow you to set the magnitude of the
Chapter 6
195
Front-Panel Key Reference
Point
Front-Panel Key Reference
Display
limit value.
x1e9 (G)
The limit value is set as the number
you entered multiplied by 109
(Giga-units).
x1e6 (M)
The limit value is set as the number
you entered multiplied by 106
(Mega-units).
x1e3 (k)
The limit value is set as the number
you entered multiplied by 103
(kilo-units).
x1
The limit value is set exactly as the
number you entered.
x1e–3 (m)
The limit value is set as the number
you entered multiplied by 10–3
(milli-units).
x1e–6 (µ)
The limit value is set as the number
you entered multiplied by 10–6
(micro-units).
x1e–9 (n)
The limit value is set as the number
you entered multiplied by 10–9
(nano-units).
Front-Panel Key Reference
Connected To
Previous Pt
Determines whether or not the current
limit point is connected to the previous
point. When set to Yes, the limit line
passes in a straight line from the
previous point to the current point.
When set to No, the limit line is set to
an infinitely large value (either
negative or positive, depending on the
type of limit line) between this point
and the previous point. The trace will
196
Chapter 6
Front-Panel Key Reference
Display
therefore never fail a limit test between
these points.
Delete Row
Deletes the current row from the table
of limit line data.
Delete All
Deletes the entire limit line table.
When you press this key, you will be
asked to press it again to confirm that
you wish to delete the entire table.
Either press Delete All again to confirm
the deletion, or press ESC to abort the
action.
New Entry
Selects the last row in the table ready
for input.
NOTE
You are allowed to enter a maximum of two sets of limit line data for
any one frequency value.
Disable All
Limits
This switches off all of the limit lines, including any result testing and
annotation.
NOTE
When a limit line is switched off, the limit line data is unchanged and
can be reset if the limit line is switched on again.
Front-Panel Key Reference
Chapter 6
197
Front-Panel Key Reference
FREQUENCY Channel
FREQUENCY Channel
Accesses the menu of frequency functions.
Center Freq
This allows you to set the frequency at which the measurement
frequency range is centered. When you change the Center Frequency,
the Start and Stop Frequencies are adjusted without modifying the
Span setting. When Center Freq is selected, its value is displayed above
the graticule.
Start Freq
This allows you to set the frequency at which the measurement sweep
starts. In the graphical format, the trace starts at the left side of the
graticule. When Start Freq is selected its value is displayed above the
graticule.
When measuring at frequencies below 20 MHz on analyzers that
support both AC and DC coupling, that is, on PSA Series model
numbers E4440A, E4443A and E4445A, Agilent recommends that you
switch to DC coupling for greater measurement accuracy.
CAUTION
Do not switch to DC Coupling if the input signal contains a DC
component. You risk permanently damaging the analyzer’s front end
mixer if you do this.
Stop Freq
This allows you to set the frequency at which the measurement sweep
stops. In the graphical format, the trace stops at the right side of the
graticule. When you change the Stop frequency, the Span, and Center
Frequencies will be adjusted to keep the measurement frequency range
centered. When Stop Freq is selected its value is displayed above the
graticule.
Freq Offset
The default setting for Freq Offset is Man. When set to Man, the
frequency offset can be set by using the numeric keypad, the knob, or
the step keys.
Front-Panel Key Reference
You can also set the Freq Offset to Auto. When set to Auto, the frequency
offset settings are calculated automatically using the settings under
DUT Setup.
The frequency offset is used to account for frequency conversions
external to the analyzer. This value is added to the display readout of
the marker frequency, center frequency, start frequency, stop frequency,
and all other absolute frequency settings in the analyzer. When a
frequency offset is entered, the value appears below the center of the
graticule. To eliminate an offset, perform a Factory Preset or manually
set the frequency offset to 0 Hz.
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Chapter 6
Front-Panel Key Reference
FREQUENCY Channel
NOTE
The frequency offset entered does not affect any bandwidths or the
settings of relative frequency parameters such as delta markers or
span. It does not affect the current hardware settings of the analyzer,
but only the displayed frequency values. Offsets are not added to the
frequency count readouts. Entering an offset does not affect the trace
display.
NOTE
Frequency Context (Mode Setup, DUT Setup...) must be set to RF for the
Auto setting of Freq Offset to have any effect. When the Frequency
Context is set to IF, and Freq Offset is set to Auto, the frequency offset
will be set to 0 Hz. All frequencies are displayed as they are at the
analyzer input, that is, after the DUT.
Freq Mode
This selects between swept, list and fixed frequency modes. The
selected frequency mode is displayed in the menu key.
The frequency modes available are:
Sweep
The measurements are made at frequencies generated
from the selected frequency range and the number of
measurement points.
Fixed
The measurements are made at a fixed frequency.
List
The measurements are made at the frequencies
specified in the frequency table.
This allows you to set the frequency point used in fixed frequency
measurements. When Fixed Freq is selected its value is displayed in the
left and right lower annotation as start and stop values respectively.
Points
This allows you to set the number of discrete equidistant frequency
points at which measurements are made during Sweep frequency mode.
The maximum number of points allowed is 401. The default value is 11.
The number of points is shown at the bottom of the display.
NOTE
The maximum number of 401 points is conditional, as this number is
limited by the frequency span. Where the minimum resolution between
any two points is set at 10 kHz, the frequency’s measurement range
must be greater than 4 MHz to achieve 401 points.
Freq List…
This allows you access to a form to enter or edit a frequency list.
The frequency list allows you to enter a list of frequencies at which
measurements are to be made. Frequency lists are limited to 401 entry
points. The number of points is shown at the bottom of the display.
The frequencies are automatically sorted in ascending order, and
duplicate frequencies are allowed. When a frequency is duplicated in
Chapter 6
199
Front-Panel Key Reference
Fixed Freq
Front-Panel Key Reference
FREQUENCY Channel
the table, that frequency will be measured once for each entry.
This allows you to enter the index number (that is, the
row number) of the table entry that you wish to edit.
This gives you quick access to that row.
Frequency
This allows you to specify a frequency at which a
measurement will be made. If you enter the same
frequency more than once in the table, that frequency
will be measured once for each entry in the table.
Fill
This clears the existing frequency table, and then
automatically generates a new table of frequencies. The
number of entries in the new table is determined by the
Points setting (see page 199). The frequencies will be
linearly distributed from the Start Freq to the Stop Freq
(see page 198).
New Entry
Selects the last row in the table ready for input.
Delete Row
This deletes the currently highlighted row entry from
the table.
Delete All
This deletes all entries from the table. When you press
this key, you will be asked to press it a second time to
confirm that you wish to delete all the entries in the
table. To cancel this action and keep all the table’s
entries, press the ESC key.
Front-Panel Key Reference
Index
200
Chapter 6
Front-Panel Key Reference
Input/Output
Input/Output
Displays a menu that allows you to control the input and output signals
to and from the analyzer.
Noise Figure
Corrections
This key accesses menus that allow you to set Noise Figure Correction On
or Off, and to enter the minimum and the maximum attenuation values
used in calibration.
Noise Figure
Corrections
NOTE
This allows you to select between corrected and
uncorrected results.This key is grayed out unless a
valid calibration (Meas Setup, Calibration...) has been
performed.
On
The display shows corrected data.
Off
The display shows uncorrected data.
If you change the frequency range to greater than the current
calibration, the message “User Cal invalidated; Freq outside cal
range” is displayed. If you want corrected measurements over a greater
range, you need to calibrate the analyzer again before making this
measurement.
If you change the frequency range to less than the current calibration,
the message “User Cal will be interpolated” is displayed. This
demonstrates that the analyzer is using interpolated results and
interpolation errors may be introduced.
Input Cal
Min Atten
This menu key allows you to change the
RF attenuator’s minimum input
attenuation during calibration. The
range is from 0 dB to 40 dB. It can be set
in 4 dB steps. The default value is 0 dB.
Max Atten
This menu key allows you to change the
RF attenuator’s maximum input
attenuation during calibration. It can
be set in 4 dB steps. The default value
is 8 dB.
This key accesses features which allow the analyzer to compensate for
losses. For example, the losses could be due to additional cabling either
before or after the DUT’s measurement or both. You can compensate for
this loss either by using the same fixed value over the whole frequency
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Loss Comp
The menu key gives you access to menu keys allowing
you to set the maximum and minimum attenuator
values.
Front-Panel Key Reference
Input/Output
span, or by using values that vary across the frequency span and which
have been specified in a table.
Setup...
Brings up the Loss Compensation form, allowing you to
specify the parameters associated with loss
compensation.
Loss Compensation Before DUT Allows you to specify
what type of Loss Compensation is
used before the Device Under Test.
• Off - No loss compensation is made
before the DUT.
• Fixed - Loss Compensation is at a
fixed value over the entire frequency
span.
• Table - Loss Compensation varies
across the frequency span, using
values specified in a table.
Before DUT Fixed Value This sets the amount of
compensation, before the device under
test, as a fixed value. This is only valid
if the Before DUT(Fixed) is enabled. You
can enter the value as dB or linear.
However, the linear value is converted
to dB. The lower limit is –100.000 dB
and the upper limit is 100.000 dB. The
default value is 0.000 dB.
Before DUT Temperature This sets the temperature of
loss compensation, before the device
under test, as a fixed value. This is only
valid if Before DUT is enabled. You can
enter the value as K (Kelvin), C
(degrees Celsius), or F (degrees
Fahrenheit). However, the C and F
values are converted to K. The lower
limit is 0.00K and the upper limit is
29,650,000.00 K. The default value is
0.00K.
Front-Panel Key Reference
Loss Compensation After DUT Allows you to specify
what type of Loss Compensation is
used after the Device Under Test.
• Off - No loss compensation is made
after the DUT.
• Fixed - Loss Compensation is at a
fixed value over the entire frequency
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Input/Output
span.
• Table - Loss Compensation varies
across the frequency span, using
values specified in a table.
After DUT Fixed Value This sets the amount of
compensation, after the device under
test, as a fixed value. This is only valid
if the After DUT(Fixed) is enabled. You
can enter the value as dB or linear.
However, the linear value is converted
to dB. The lower limit is –100.000 dB
and the upper limit is 100.000 dB. The
default value is 0.000 dB.
After DUT Temperature This sets the temperature of loss
compensation, after the device under
test, as a fixed value. This is only valid
if After DUT is enabled. You can enter
the value as K, C, or F. However, the C
and F values are converted to K. The
lower limit is 0.00K and the upper limit
is 29,650,000.00 K. The default value is
0.00K.
Before DUT Table... Brings up the Loss Compensation Before DUT
editor.
After DUT Table... Brings up the Loss Compensation After DUT editor.
Attenuation
Allows you to adjust the input attenuation. The range of settings is
limited by the Min Atten and Max Atten settings (see page 201). Within
this range, it can be set in 4 dB steps. The analyzer input attenuator
reduces the power level of the input signal delivered to the input mixer.
Input/Output
Displays the basic spectrum analyzer’s Input/Output menu. Refer to
the PSA Series Spectrum Analyzers User’s and Programmer’s Reference
Volume 1.
CAUTION
Do not switch to DC Coupling if the input signal contains a DC
component. You risk permanently damaging the analyzer’s front end
mixer if you do this.
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Front-Panel Key Reference
Marker
Marker
Displays a menu that allows you to set each of the four markers to mark
and measure at particular points on the traces.
Select Marker
Allows you to select one of the four possible markers. Having selected
one of the markers, use the other keys on this menu to specify the type
of marker or measurement.
Normal
Places a marker at the beginning of each graph's trace. If a marker has
been displayed previously and is reactivated, the marker is enabled at
the marker's previously selected position. The marker number is
indicated above the marker.
Use the knob to control the position of the marker. Its frequency value
is displayed in the active function area and frequency and
measurement parameter values are reported above the graph.
Pressing Normal when the Delta or Band Pair function is enabled,
switches off the reference marker.
Delta
Activates a second marker at the position of the first marker. It is
identified as a reference marker and its position is fixed. (If no marker
is present, the marker appears at the center of the graph, or if the
marker has been previously active, it appears in the last marker
position.) The marker number is indicated above the delta marker, and
the same number is indicated with an R (for example, 1R) above the
reference marker. Use the knob to position the delta marker.
The delta marker’s frequency value is displayed in the active function
area. The frequency and measurement parameter values are reported
above the graph to indicate the difference between the two markers.
The reference marker's position remains fixed until delta is disabled.
Front-Panel Key Reference
Delta Pair
(Tracking Ref)
Allows adjustment of the two markers independently. It is similar to
the delta marker mode, except you can choose to move the normal
marker or the reference marker. Pressing Delta Pair allows you to toggle
between the Reference Marker and the Delta Marker. The reference
marker number is indicated with a number and an R (for example, 1R)
and the normal marker is indicated with a marker number.
The band pair marker’s frequency value is displayed in the active
function area. The frequency and measurement parameter values are
reported below the graph to show the difference between the markers.
Off
Switches the specified marker off.
Marker All Off
Switches all markers off. All markers are removed from the graticule
display.
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Peak Search
Peak Search
Displays a menu that allows you to set each of the four markers to
mark, or display, a particular measurement.
Select Marker
Allows you to select one of the four possible markers. Having selected
one of the markers, use the other keys on this menu to specify the type
of peak search to be performed by this marker.
Search Type
Allows you to select the type of peak search to be performed. The peak
search is performed on the active measurement or trace. When you
have two traces displayed in two separate graphs on the display, the
active trace or measurement is indicated by a green border around the
graph, and by underlining the measurement name to the left of the
graticule. To change the active trace or measurement, press the Next
Window key on the front panel.
When you are displaying combined traces in one graph, the green
border disappears, and the active trace or measurement is indicated
solely by the underlining of the measurement name.
Minimum
The marker will be placed at the minimum point on the
trace. This key is grayed out when the marker has been
defined as a Delta Pair (Tracking Ref) marker (see
page 204).
Maximum
The marker will be placed at the maximum point on the
trace. This key is grayed out when the marker has been
defined as a Delta Pair (Tracking Ref) marker (see
page 204).
Pk-Pk
When Peak to Peak is enabled, the active two markers
are placed on the highest and lowest trace points. The
reference marker is placed on the highest peak while
the normal marker is placed on the lowest trough. Its
frequency and measurement parameter values are
reported below the graph to indicate the difference
between the two markers.
Continuous
Sets the continuous peak search On or Off. When Continuous is enabled,
the active marker continuously finds the maximum, minimum, or
peak-to-peak on the trace as successive sweep results are reported. This
is dependent on which search type is selected. When Continuous is
disabled, the marker search is controlled by the Find menu key.
Find
Pressing the Find menu key manually places an active search marker.
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Front-Panel Key Reference
This key is only available when the marker has been
defined as a Delta Pair (Tracking Ref) marker (see
page 204).
Front-Panel Key Reference
Peak Search
Front-Panel Key Reference
This functions when Continuous has been set to Off, and a Marker has
been enabled. The annotation displays the frequency and measurement
parameter differences. Also in the Find mode the marker’s frequency
value is displayed in the active function area.
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Meas Setup
Meas Setup
Displays a menu that allows you to enter custom setup parameters for a
measurement. The setup menu displayed depends on whether the
Monitor Spectrum or the Noise Figure measurement was selected in
the MEASURE menu. Some keys are the same as in the basic Spectrum
Analyzer mode. Refer to the PSA Series Spectrum Analyzers User’s and
Programmer’s Reference Volume 1 for more information on these keys.
Avg Number
Avg Mode
Int Preamp
Allows you to specify the number of measurements that will be
averaged. After the specified number of average counts, the Avg Mode
setting determines the averaging action. You can also set the averaging
function to On or Off.
On
Enables the measurement averaging.
Off
Disables the measurement averaging.
Allows you to select the type of termination control used for the
averaging function. This determines the averaging action after the
specified number of measurements (average count) is reached.
Exp
After the average count is reached, each successive
data acquisition is exponentially weighted and
combined with the existing average.
Repeat
After the average count is reached, the averaging is
reset and a new average is started.
Allows you to turn the internal preamplifier On or Off manually.
On
Switches the internal preamp On.
Off
Switches the internal preamp Off.
Sets up the analyzer parameters for the measurement using the factory
default analyzer settings. (This only affects measurement parameters
for this measurement and does not affect any mode parameters.) If you
have made any manual changes to the measurement parameters,
restoring the measurement defaults will ensure valid measurements.
Calibrate
This performs the internal calibration routine. The calibration is
similar to a measurement except that the device under test is not in the
measurement path. It is used to correct any noise added by the second
stage test system.
You must press the Calibrate key twice before calibration starts. After
the first press you are presented with a popup dialogue box that
prompts you to press the calibrate key a second time to start the
calibration, or to press ESC to abandon the calibration.
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Front-Panel Key Reference
Restore Meas
Defaults
Front-Panel Key Reference
Meas Setup
The values generated during a calibration are used to correct
subsequent measurements as long as the calibration remains valid or
until the next calibration.
ENR
This accesses a menu which allows you to select a noise source
preference, enter the ENR tables, specify a Tcold temperature, specify a
spot Thot temperature, or select a spot frequency ENR value.
ENR Mode
This allows you to select the ENR (Excess Noise Ratio)
mode for the measurement.
Table
Sets the ENR mode to Table. All ENR
data is taken from the table of data.
Spot
Sets the ENR mode to Spot. All ENR
table data is ignored, and a single value
specified in SPOT ENR or SPOT Thot is
used instead.
Common Table This allows you to turn the Common ENR Data Table
On or Off.
On
When Common Table is On, the same
noise source ENR data is used during
both the measurement and the
calibration.
Off
When Common Table is Off, separate
noise source ENR data is used for the
measurement and the calibration.
Meas and Cal Table This displays the form allowing you to enter the
Front-Panel Key Reference
ENR table data that is used for both measurement and
calibration.
208
Serial #
This allows you to enter the serial
number of the noise source associated
with the ENR table. To enter a value,
you use the Alpha Editor which is
presented and the numerical keypad.
Its value is displayed in the highlighted
area and in the active function area. To
complete the entry press the Return key
or the ESC key, or use the Tab key to
move to the next field.
Model ID
This allows you to enter the model
number of the noise source associated
with the ENR table. To enter a value,
you use the Alpha Editor which is
presented and the numerical keypad.
Its value is displayed in the highlighted
area and in the active function area. To
Chapter 6
Front-Panel Key Reference
Meas Setup
complete the entry press the Return key
or the ESC key, or use the Tab key to
move to the next field.
Meas Table...
This allows you to enter the index
number (that is, the row number) of the
table entry that you wish to edit. This
gives you quick access to that row.
Frequency
This allows you to specify a frequency
at which an ENR value can be entered.
ENR Value
This allows you to enter an ENR value
for the specified frequency. The valid
units of measurement are dB, K, C, or
F
Delete Row
This deletes the currently highlighted
row entry from the table.
Delete All
This deletes all entries from the table.
When you press this key, you will be
asked to press it a second time to
confirm that you wish to delete all the
entries in the table. To back out of this
action and keep all the table’s entries,
press the ESC key.
New Entry
Selects the last row in the table ready
for input.
This displays the form allowing you to enter the ENR
table data that is used for measurement. This
measurement ENR table is used for measurements
when Common Table (see page 208) is switched Off.
When Common Table is switched On, this same table of
ENR data is used both for measurements and for
calibration.
Serial #
This allows you to enter the serial
number of the noise source associated
with the ENR table. To enter a value,
you use the Alpha Editor which is
presented and the numerical keypad.
Its value is displayed in the highlighted
area and in the active function area. To
complete the entry press the Return key
or the ESC key, or use the Tab key to
move to the next field.
Model ID
This allows you to enter the model
number of the noise source associated
with the ENR table. To enter a value,
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Chapter 6
Index
Front-Panel Key Reference
Meas Setup
you use the Alpha Editor which is
presented and the numerical keypad.
Its value is displayed in the highlighted
area and in the active function area. To
complete the entry press the Return key
or the ESC key, or use the Tab key to
move to the next field.
Front-Panel Key Reference
Cal Table...
210
Index
This allows you to enter the index
number (that is, the row number) of the
table entry that you wish to edit. This
gives you quick access to that row.
Frequency
This allows you to specify a frequency
at which an ENR value can be entered.
ENR Value
This allows you to enter an ENR value
for the specified frequency. The valid
units of measurement are dB, K, C, or F
Delete Row
This deletes the currently highlighted
row entry from the table.
Delete All
This deletes all entries from the table.
When you press this key, you will be
asked to press it a second time to
confirm that you wish to delete all the
entries in the table. To back out of this
action and keep all the table’s entries,
press the ESC key.
This displays the form allowing you to enter the ENR
table data that is used for calibration. This calibration
ENR table is used for calibration when Common Table
(see page 208) is switched Off. When Common Table is
switched On, the table of ENR data that is used for
measurements will also be used for calibration, and the
data in this calibration table will therefore not be used.
Serial #
This allows you to enter the serial
number of the noise source associated
with the ENR table. To enter a value,
you use the Alpha Editor which is
presented and the numerical keypad.
Its value is displayed in the highlighted
area and in the active function area. To
complete the entry press the Return key
or the ESC key, or use the Tab key to
move to the next field.
Model ID
This allows you to enter the model
number of the noise source associated
with the ENR table. To enter a value,
Chapter 6
Front-Panel Key Reference
Meas Setup
you use the Alpha Editor which is
presented and the numerical keypad.
Its value is displayed in the highlighted
area and in the active function area. To
complete the entry press the Return key
or the ESC key, or use the Tab key to
move to the next field.
Spot
Index
This allows you to enter the index
number (that is, the row number) of the
table entry that you wish to edit. This
gives you quick access to that row.
Frequency
This allows you to specify a frequency
at which an ENR value can be entered.
ENR Value
This allows you to enter an ENR value
for the specified frequency. The valid
units of measurement are dB, K, C, or F
Delete Row
This deletes the currently highlighted
row entry from the table.
Delete All
This deletes all entries from the table.
When you press this key, you will be
asked to press it a second time to
confirm that you wish to delete all the
entries in the table. To back out of this
action and keep all the table’s entries,
press the ESC key.
New Entry
Selects the last row in the table ready
for input.
This allows you to select a specific ENR value or Thot
value. The selected value is applied across the entire
frequency range during calibration and measurement.
This switches between the ENR and the
Thot modes. The default is ENR.
Spot ENR
This allows you to enter a spot ENR
value which is applied across the entire
frequency range during calibration and
measurement. The value is applied
when Spot State of ENR and ENR Mode
of Spot are enabled. The default value
is 15.200 dB.
The ENR value is entered using the
numeric key pad and terminated by
selecting unit menu keys.
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Front-Panel Key Reference
Spot State
Front-Panel Key Reference
Meas Setup
NOTE
The dB limits have a lower limit of –7.0 dB and an upper limit of
50.0 dB.
The K, C, and F limits are converted to the dB limits.
Spot Thot
This allows you to enter a spot Thot
value which is applied across the entire
frequency range during calibration and
measurement. The value is applied
when Spot State of Thot and ENR Mode
of Spot are enabled. The default value
is 9892.80 K.
The Thot value is entered using the
numeric key pad and terminated by
selecting unit menu keys.
NOTE
The K limits have a lower limit of 0.00K and an upper limit of
29,650,000.0 K.
The C and F limits are converted to the K limits.
This key allows you to select the default Tcold value of
296.50 K, or to enter the own Tcold value.
Front-Panel Key Reference
T cold
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MEASURE
MEASURE
Accesses menu keys that allow you to make Monitor Spectrum, and
Noise Figure measurements.
Monitor
Spectrum
Displays the frequency spectrum.
Noise Figure
Gives you access to the range of Noise Figure measurements and
parameters.
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Chapter 6
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Front-Panel Key Reference
MODE
MODE
Accesses menu keys allowing you to select the measurement mode of
the analyzer. Additional measurement personality software must be
installed and activated in the analyzer for the other mode keys to be
labeled and functional.
Accesses the spectrum analyzer menu keys and associated functions.
Noise Figure
Accesses the Noise Figure measurement personality menu keys and
associated functions. This allows you to setup and make valid Noise
Figure measurements.
NOTE
This menu will have additional entries if other personalities have been
installed, for example GSM Option 202 or cdmaOne Option BAC.
Front-Panel Key Reference
Spectrum
Analysis
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Front-Panel Key Reference
Mode Setup
Mode Setup
Accesses a menu allowing you to view information about the Noise
Figure application and to set the noise figure measurement parameters
back to their factory default settings.
DUT Setup...
Displays the DUT Setup Form. See Mode Setup — DUT Setup
(page 216) for further details.
Uncertainty
Calculator...
Displays the Uncertainty Calculator. You can choose between
displaying and specifying the individual parameters, or of displaying
the calculations used to arrive at the noise figure uncertainty.
View
Calculations
View
Calculator
Pressing this key displays the calculations used to
derive the uncertainty figure. See Mode
Setup — Uncertainty Calculator (page 218) for further
details.
Pressing this key displays form allowing you to enter
and view the individual parameters that contribute to
the noise figure uncertainty. See Mode
Setup — Uncertainty Calculator (page 218) for further
details.
Properties...
Displays the Noise Figure application version number.
Restore Mode
Setup Defaults
Sets up the spectrum analyzer’s parameters for the mode using the
factory default mode settings.
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Front-Panel Key Reference
Mode Setup — DUT Setup
Mode Setup — DUT Setup
The DUT Setup form allows you to prepare the analyzer to make noise
figure measurements on specific devices. The keys you will see depend
on the parameter that you are setting.
DUT
System
Downconverter
This allows you to specify the type of DUT that you are testing.
Amplifier
Set the DUT to Amplifier when you are testing a device
that performs no frequency conversion of its own. The
device can be used with or without an external system
downconverter.
UpConv
Set the DUT to UpConv when you are testing a device
that performs internal frequency upconversion.
DownConv
Set the DUT to DownConv when you are testing a
device that performs internal frequency
downconversion.
This selects whether or not the System Downconverter is On or Off. This
is only accessible if the Device Under Test is set to Amplifier.
On
Set the System Downconverter On.
Off
Set the System Downconverter Off.
Ext LO Freq
This allows you to specify the LO frequency of the device specified
under DUT.
Sideband
This allows you to set the measurement side-band selection, where the
selected measurement mode allows, to either lower side-band (LSB),
upper side-band (USB), double side-band (DSB).
LSB
Lower Sideband (signal frequency < LO Frequency).
USB
Upper Sideband (signal frequency > LO Frequency).
DSB
Double Sideband. DSB is only available for DUTs of type
DownConv
Front-Panel Key Reference
Freq Context
This allows you to determine how frequencies are interpreted when
using a frequency converting device.
IF Analyzer Input The frequencies are displayed as they are when
entering the DUT, that is before any frequency
conversion has taken place.
RF DUT Input
216
The frequencies are displayed as they are when leaving
the DUT or the system downconverter, that is after any
frequency conversion has taken place. These are the
frequencies that the analyzer is actually measuring.
Chapter 6
Front-Panel Key Reference
Mode Setup — DUT Setup
Diagram
A diagram is displayed at the bottom of the screen to help you set up
the measurement or the calibration. This key allows you to determine
whether the diagram represents the measurement setup, or the
calibration setup.
Calibration
The diagram represents a calibration setup when using
the DUT that you have specified.
Measurement
The diagram represents a measurement setup when
using the DUT that you have specified.
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217
Front-Panel Key Reference
Mode Setup - Uncertainty Calculator
Mode Setup - Uncertainty Calculator
Displays the Uncertainty Calculator. This makes a
frequency-independent calculation using one ENR uncertainty value.
While it provides a good estimation of the measurement uncertainty,
you may want more accuracy. You may want to use more accurate
values for ENR, gain and VSWR, or calculate values at a specific
frequency of interest or at multiple frequencies. Refer to Application
Note 57-2, Agilent part number 5952-3706E, for more information
about calculating noise figure uncertainties. This document can be
found at:
http://www.agilent.com/find/nfa
View Calculations
Pressing this key displays the calculations used to derive the
uncertainty value.
View Calculator
Pressing this key displays a form allowing you to enter and view the
individual parameters that contribute to the noise figure uncertainty.
Front-Panel Key Reference
Noise Source Model Allows you to select a predefined noise source
model using the displayed default values, or to define
your own noise source.
218
User Defined
Select User Defined to define your own
noise source, and to specify its
parameters manually.
Agilent 346A
Select Agilent 346A if you are using an
Agilent Technologies 346A noise source.
The ENR Uncertainty and Match for
this noise source will be set
automatically.
Agilent 346B
Select Agilent 346B if you are using an
Agilent Technologies 346B noise source.
The ENR Uncertainty and Match for
this noise source will be set
automatically.
Agilent 346C
Select Agilent 346C if you are using an
Agilent Technologies 346C noise source.
The ENR Uncertainty and Match for
this noise source will be set
automatically.
Chapter 6
Front-Panel Key Reference
Mode Setup - Uncertainty Calculator
ENR Uncertainty Allows you to set the set and view the Excess Noise
Ratio (ENR) Uncertainty of the noise source.
NS Match
Noise Figure
Allows you to set the set and view the 50 ohm Match of
the User Defined noise source. The Match can be
entered as Return Loss, VSWR, or as a Reflection
Co-efficient. You do not need to specify the unit of
measurement, if any. The value you enter is used to
determine the what the entry is, as described below:
<0
Return Loss, unit of measurement is
dB
≥ 0 and < 1
Reflection coefficient, no unit of
measurement
≥1
VSWR, no unit of measurement
Allows you to enter the noise figure of the DUT and the
analyzer.
DUT
Enter the noise figure of the DUT.
Instrument
Enter the noise figure of the analyzer.
Noise Figure Uncertainty Allows you to enter the noise figure
uncertainty of the analyzer.
Gain
Allows you to enter the gain of the DUT.
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219
Front-Panel Key Reference
Mode Setup - Uncertainty Calculator
Gain Uncertainty Allows you to enter the gain uncertainty of the
analyzer.
Input Match
Allows you to enter the 50 ohm input match of the DUT
and of the analyzer.
DUT
Enter the 50 ohm input match of the
DUT.
Instrument
Enter the 50 ohm input match of the
analyzer.
Output Match Allows you to enter the 50 ohm output match of the
DUT.
Front-Panel Key Reference
RSS Noise Figure Meas Uncertainty This displays the RSS (Root Sum
Squared) Noise Figure Measurement Uncertainty value
as calculated from the parameters that you entered.
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Preset
Preset
Provides a convenient starting point for making most measurements.
Depends on the preset type setting (user, mode, or factory) in the
System keys. If the preset type is set to Factory, pressing Preset results
in an immediate analyzer preset to the factory defaults. If it is set to
User, pressing Preset accesses a menu that allows you choose the preset
settings from either the factory default values or the settings you have
previously defined as the User preset state.
User Preset
Restores the analyzer to a user defined state. The state was defined
from the System menu when the Power On/Preset function was selected
and Save User Preset was pressed. If you did not save a user state, then
the current power-up state is stored as the user preset file for use when
Preset is pressed.
Factory Preset
A full factory preset is executed so the analyzer is returned to the
factory default state. The preset type can be set to Factory from the
Power On/Preset function in the System menu.
Mode Preset
Restores the mode defaults of the current mode, or of the mode that was
in use when the analyzer was turned off or powered down. See the PSA
Series Spectrum Analyzers User’s and Programmer’s Reference
Volume 1 for more details.
NOTE
Limit lines and trace data are not saved in the instrument state. They
must be explicitly saved using the File and Save keys, and setting Type
to the appropriate setting.
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Front-Panel Key Reference
Source
Source
This front-panel key allows you to turn the noise source On or Off
manually. It only works when you are making a Monitor Spectrum
measurement.
Pressing this key toggles between the On and the Off settings.
On
Switches the noise source on.
Off
Switches the noise source off.
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Noise Source
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Chapter 6
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SPAN X Scale
SPAN X Scale
Span
Allows you to set the frequency range symmetrically about the center
frequency.
Full Span
This changes the measurement span to the full span of the analyzer.
The full span of the analyzer is model dependent.
Zero Span
This changes the measurement span of the analyzer to 0 Hz.
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Front-Panel Key Reference
Sweep Menu
Sweep Menu
Sweep Time
Sweep
Manual
This allows you to enter the sweep time manually using
the knob, the numeric front panel keys, or the step
keys.
Auto
The analyzer will determine the sweep time
automatically. The sweep time will be affected by the
RBW setting
Specifies whether the analyzer sweeps (or measures) continually, or
whether it performs a single sweep and then stops.
Single
The analyzer performs one single measurement and
then stops. You have to press the Restart button every
time you want to make another measurement.
Cont
The analyzer continuously measures the signal it is
receiving and repeatedly updates the plots and the
measurements.
Allows you to specify the number of data points used to generate the
display. This is only available when performing a Monitor Spectrum
measurement.
Front-Panel Key Reference
Points
Allows you to specify the sweep time for the measurement or to let the
analyzer set it automatically.
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Front-Panel Key Reference
Trace/View
Trace/View
Accesses the view menu keys that allow you to set the way
measurement result information is displayed. The menu options will
vary depending on the measurement that is selected under the Measure
menu.
Trace
Allows you to select one of the three different traces. Trace 1 displays in
yellow, Trace 2 in cyan (blue), and Trace 3 in magenta (pink).
Clear Write
Erases any data previously stored in the selected trace and
continuously displays signals during the sweep of the analyzer.
Max Hold
Maintains the maximum level for each trace point of the selected trace
(1, 2 or 3), and updates each trace point if a new maximum level is
detected in successive sweeps.
Min Hold
Maintains the minimum level for each trace point of the selected trace
(1, 2 or 3), and updates each trace point if a new minimum level is
detected in successive sweeps.
View
Holds and displays the amplitude data of the selected trace. The trace
is not updated as the analyzer sweeps.
Blank
Stores the amplitude data for the selected trace and removes it from the
display. The selected trace register will not be updated as the analyzer
sweeps.
Graph
Displays the measurement results in the form of a graph.
Table
Displays the measurement results in the form of a table.
Meter
Displays the measurement results in the form of a textual display.
Combined
When you have chosen to view the measurement results in the form of a
Graph, you can refine the view further by choosing either to combine the
results in one graph, or to display the results in two separate graphs.
Select On to combine the measurement results in one
graph on the display.
Off
Select Off to display the measurement results in two
separate graphs on the display.
Determines the type of measurement result to be displayed in the upper
graph window in Graph view, and in the left hand column in the Table
and Meter views. The type of measurement result can be selected from
the following list:
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Front-Panel Key Reference
Result A
On
Front-Panel Key Reference
Trace/View
Noise Figure
This selects Noise Figure as the measurement result.
Noise Figure (dB) Selects Noise Figure as the
measurement result, and dB as the
unit of measurement
Noise Factor (Linear) Selects Noise Factor as the
measurement result, which is a
unitless measurement
NOTE
Gain
This selects Gain as the measurement result.
Y-Factor
This selects Y-Factor as the measurement result.
T effective
This selects equivalent temperature as the
measurement result.
Phot
This selects hot power density as the measurement
result.
Pcold
This selects cold power density as the measurement
result.
Noise Factor measurements lack a unit of measurement as the results
represent the ratio of two ratios, that is, they represent the ratio of the
signal to noise ratio at the input signal to the signal to noise ratio at the
output. Ref Level and Scale/Div values can still be entered in dB, but
these values will be converted to linear values, and displayed in the
results graph/table as linear values.
Conversely, Noise Figure, Gain, Y-Factor, Phot, and Pcold all use dB as the
unit of measurement, but Scale/Div and Ref Level can all be entered as a
unitless ratio. This ratio will be automatically converted to dB for
display in the Graph, Table or Meter views.
T effective results are always displayed in Kelvin. For T effective
measurements, Scale/Div and Ref Level can be entered in Celsius (C) or
Fahrenheit (F), but will be converted to Kelvin for display in the Graph,
Table or Meter views.
Front-Panel Key Reference
Result B
Determines the type of measurement result to be displayed in the lower
graph window in Graph view, and in the right hand column in the Table
Meter views. The type of measurement result can be selected from the
following list:
Noise Figure
This selects Noise Figure as the measurement result.
Noise Figure (dB) Selects Noise Figure as the
measurement result, and dB as the
unit of measurement
Noise Factor (Linear) Selects Noise Factor as the
measurement result, which is a
unitless measurement
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Front-Panel Key Reference
Trace/View
NOTE
Gain
This selects Gain as the measurement result.
Y-Factor
This selects Y-Factor as the measurement result.
T effective
This selects equivalent temperature as the
measurement result.
Phot
This selects hot power density as the measurement
result.
Pcold
This selects cold power density as the measurement
result.
Noise Factor measurements lack a unit of measurement as the results
represent the ratio of two ratios, that is, they represent the ratio of the
signal to noise ratio at the input signal to the signal to noise ratio at the
output. Ref Level and Scale/Div values can still be entered in dB, but
these values will be converted to linear values, and displayed in the
results graph/table as linear values.
Conversely, Noise Figure, Gain, Y-Factor, Phot, and Pcold all use dB as the
unit of measurement, but Scale/Div and Ref Level can all be entered as a
unitless ratio. This ratio will be automatically converted to dB for
display in the Graph, Table or Meter views.
T effective results are always displayed in Kelvin. For T effective
measurements, Scale/Div and Ref Level can be entered in Celsius (C) or
Fahrenheit (F), but will be converted to Kelvin for display in the Graph,
Table or Meter views.
Front-Panel Key Reference
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Trace/View
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7
Language Reference
These commands are only available when the Noise Figure mode has been selected
using analyzer:SELect or analyzer:NSELect. If the Noise Figure mode is selected,
commands that are unique to another mode are not available.
229
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate Subsystem
This subsystem is used to perform post-acquisition data processing. In effect, the
collection of new data triggers the CALCulate subsystem. In this instrument, the
primary functions in this subsystem are markers and limits.
The SCPI default for data output format is ASCII. The format can be changed to
binary with FORMat:DATA which transports faster over the bus.
Test Current Results Against all Limits
:CALCulate:CLIMits:FAIL?
Queries the status of the current measurement limit testing. It returns a 0 if the
measured results pass when compared with the current limits. It returns a 1 if the
measured results fail any limit tests.
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Noise Figure Measurement
Noise Figure—Number of Points on a Limit Line
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:LLINe[1]|2|3|4:COUNT?
Queries and returns the number of sets of points in the selected limit line. One set
of points comprises a frequency value (in Hz), an amplitude limit value (unitless),
and a 1 or a 0 determining connectivity to the previous point.
Factory Preset:
2
Range:
0 - 101 point-sets.
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Display, Limits, Limit Line, Edit...
Noise Figure—Specifying Point Values for a Limit Line
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:LLINe[1]|2|3|4[:DATA]<frequency>,
<amplitude>,<connected>[<frequency>,<amplitude>,<connected>
]
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:LLINe[1]|2|3|4[:DATA]?
Specify the limit line values.
The amplitude values of the limit lines have no units of their own. Instead they
take on the units of the graph to which the limit line is applied. If the units of the
graph are changed then the limit line values take on the new units without
rescaling.
•
•
•
<frequency> - is a frequency in Hz. Frequency values do not allow units (for
instance, MHz) to be specified. They are always in Hz.
<ampl> - amplitude values are unitless.
<connected> - connected values are either 0 or 1. A 1 means this point is
connected to the previously defined point to define the limit line. A 0 means
this is a point of discontinuity and is not connected to the preceding point.
Limit lines 1 and 2 apply to the trace that is displayed in the upper graph. Limit
lines 3 and 4 apply to the trace that is displayed in the lower graph.
Factory Preset:
10,0,1,2.65e+10,0,1
Range:
0 - 101 point-sets.
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Chapter 7
Display, Limits, Limit Line, Edit...
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Noise Figure—Limit Line Display Control
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:LLINe[1]|2|3|4:DISPlay[:STATe]
OFF|ON|0|1
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:LLINe[1]|2|3|4:DISPlay[:STATe]?
Turns the display of a limit line On or Off. Limit line checking still occurs even
when the limit line display has been turned off.
Factory Preset:
On
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
NOTE
Display, Limits, Limit Line, Edit...
A Limit Line Display State of On will be overridden if the Limit Line State is set to
Off.
Noise Figure—Limit Line State Control
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:LLINe[1]|2|3|4[:STATe] OFF|ON|0|1
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:LLINe[1]|2|3|4[:STATe]?
Turn the limit line state On or Off. When the limit line state (this command) is Off,
both the display and the testing of the limit line are disabled, regardless of their
individual ON|OFF settings. When the limit line state is set to On, the display and
the testing of the limit line are both enabled, and their individual ON|OFF settings
then come into effect.
Factory Preset:
Off
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Display, Limits, Limit Line, Edit...
Noise Figure—Limit Line Test Control
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:LLINe[1]|2|3|4:TEST[:STATe] OFF|ON|0|1
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:LLINe[1]|2|3|4:TEST[:STATe]?
Turn the limit line trace testing On or Off for the specified limit line.
Factory Preset:
Off
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
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Front Panel
Access:
NOTE
Display, Limits, Limit Line, Edit...
A Limit Line Test State of On will be overridden if the Limit Line State is set to
Off.
Noise Figure—Limit Line Type Control
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:LLINe[1]|2|3|4:TYPE UPPer|LOWer
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:LLINe[1]|2|3|4:TYPE?
Set the limit line type. An upper limit line defines the maximum allowable value
when comparing with the data, and a lower limit line defines the minimum
allowable value.
Factory Preset:
UPPer
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Display, Limits, Limit Line, Edit...
Noise Figure—Marker Band Pair Mode
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:MARKer[1]|2|3|4:BPAir:MODE
NORMal:REFerence
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:MARKer[1]|2|3|4:BPAir:MODE?
Specify which marker within a pair of linked markers (the band pair) is to be
controlled using the step key and the knob.
Factory Preset:
NORMal
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Marker, Delta Pair
Noise Figure—Marker Mode
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:MARKer[1]|2|3|4:MODE
POSition|DELTa|BPAir
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:MARKer[1]|2|3|4:MODE?
Set the marker mode for the specified marker. The three valid marker modes are:
Normal (POSition) Activates a single marker on the displayed traces. The
marker’s number is displayed above the marker on the display.
The marker’s position can be changed using the knob, the step
keys, or the numeric keypad. The marker’s amplitudes are
updated automatically.
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CALCulate Subsystem
DELTa
Activates a pair of delta markers on the displayed traces. Once
you activate the DELTa markers, the position of the reference
marker is fixed. Only the position of the delta marker can be
changed.
Band Pair (BPAir) Activates a pair of delta markers on the displayed traces. When
band pair (BPAir) markers are activated, both the reference
marker’s position and the delta marker’s position can be
changed.
Factory Preset:
OFF
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Marker
Noise Figure—Marker Search Continuous
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:MARKer[1]|2|3|4:SEArch:CONTinuous
OFF|ON|0|1
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:MARKer[1]|2|3|4:SEArch:CONTinuous?
Specify whether to search continuously for maximum, minimum, or peak-to-peak
points for the current marker. When set to On, a peak search is performed after
every measurement sweep.
Factory Preset:
OFF
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Peak Search
Noise Figure—Marker Search Type
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:MARKer[1]|2|3|4:SEArch:TYPE
MAXimum|MINimum|PEAK
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:MARKer[1]|2|3|4:SEArch:TYPE?
Specify the type of search performed by the specified marker. The three valid types
of search are:
MAXimum
Searches for and finds the highest peak on the trace. This is not
valid when the marker mode is set to Band Pair.
MINimum
Searches for and finds the lowest trough on the trace. This is not
valid when the marker mode is Band Pair
PEAK
When a peak search is performed, the Band Pair markers are
placed on the highest and the lowest points of the trace. The
reference marker is placed on the highest point of the trace, and
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the delta marker on the lowest.
Factory Preset:
MAXimum
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
All of these searches can be made continuous by switching
Continuous to ON ( “Noise Figure—Marker Search
Continuous” on page 234.), or by repeatedly pressing the
‘Find...’ softkey.
Front Panel
Access:
Peak Search
Noise Figure—Marker State
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:MARKer[1]|2|3|4:[:STATe] OFF|ON|0|1
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:MARKer[1]|2|3|4:[:STATe]?
Turn the specified marker On or Off.
Factory Preset:
Marker 1 - On
Markers 2, 3, and 4 - Off
Remarks:
Front Panel
Access:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Marker
Noise Figure—Marker X Position
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:MARKer[1]|2|3|4:X <freq>
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:MARKer[1]|2|3|4:X?
Set the X-axis position of the specified marker on the trace. When setting the
X-axis position, the unit of measurement is assumed to be Hz unless you specify
otherwise. When querying the X-axis position, the result is always returned in Hz.
Factory Preset:
None
Range
Same as the measurement range
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Chapter 7
Peak Search
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CALCulate Subsystem
Noise Figure—Marker Y Position
:CALCulate[:NFIGure]:MARKer[1]|2|3|4:Y?
Return two comma-separated values representing the current marker’s positions on
the two traces. Each value is in the Y-axis unit of the relevant trace.
Factory Preset:
None
Range
Same as the measurement range
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
TAB (until the marker table becomes visible)
Noise Figure—DUT Gain
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:DUT:GAIN <value>
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:DUT:GAIN?
Specify the measured gain of the Device Under Test (DUT).
Factory Preset:
20.00 dB
Range
–100 dB to 100 dB
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Mode Setup, Uncertainty Calculator...
Noise Figure—DUT Input Match
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:DUT:MATCh:INPut <value>
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:DUT:MATCh:INPut?
Specify the measured Input Match of the Device Under Test (DUT).
Factory Preset:
1.500
Range
–100 to 100
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
NOTE
Mode Setup, Uncertainty Calculator...
The unit of measurement, which can be dB, VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio)
or Reflection Coefficient, is calculated from the input value.Negative values are
assumed to be return loss in dB, values equal to or greater than 1 represent VSWR,
and values greater than or equal to zero and less than 1 represent the reflection
coefficient.
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Chapter 7
Noise Figure—DUT Output Match
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:DUT:MATCh:OUTPut <value>
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:DUT:MATCh:OUTPut?
Specify the measured Output Match of the Device Under Test (DUT).
Factory Preset:
1.500
Range
–100 to 100
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
NOTE
Mode Setup, Uncertainty Calculator...
The unit of measurement, which can be dB, VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio)
or Reflection Coefficient, is determined by the input value. Negative values are
assumed to be return loss in dB, values equal to or greater than 1 represent VSWR,
and values greater than or equal to zero and less than 1 represent the reflection
coefficient.
Noise Figure—DUT Noise Figure
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:DUT:NFIGure <value>
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:DUT:NFIGure?
Specify the measured Noise Figure of the Device Under Test (DUT).
Factory Preset:
3.0 dB
Range
–100 dB to 100 dB
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Mode Setup, Uncertainty Calculator...
Noise Figure—Instrument Gain
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:INSTrument:GAIN <value>
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:INSTrument:GAIN?
Specify the gain of the spectrum analyzer. The Instrument Gain is set by default to
a pre-calculated value of 0.17 dB.
Factory Preset:
0.17 dB
Range
–100 dB to 100 dB
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
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CALCulate Subsystem
Front Panel
Access:
Mode Setup, Uncertainty Calculator...
Noise Figure—Instrument Match
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:INSTrument:MATCh <value>
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:INSTrument:MATCh?
Specify the measured Match of the spectrum analyzer. The Instrument Match is set
by default to a pre-calculated VSWR value of 1.60.
Factory Preset:
1.6000
Range
–100 to 100
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
NOTE
Mode Setup, Uncertainty Calculator...
The unit of measurement, which can be dB, VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio)
or Reflection Coefficient, is determined by the input value. Negative values are
assumed to be return loss in dB, values equal to or greater than 1 represent VSWR,
and values greater than or equal to zero and less than 1 represent the reflection
coefficient.
Noise Figure—Instrument Noise Figure
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:INSTrument:NFIGure <value>
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:INSTrument:NFIGure?
Specify the measured Noise Figure of the spectrum analyzer. The default setting is
6.0 dB. More appropriate values can be found in the relevant specifications guides.
Factory Preset:
6.0 dB
Range
–100 dB to 100 dB
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Mode Setup, Uncertainty Calculator...
Noise Figure—Instrument Noise Figure Uncertainty
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:INSTrument:NFIGure:UNCertainty
<value>
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:INSTrument:NFIGure:UNCertainty?
Specify the measured Noise Figure Uncertainty of the spectrum analyzer. The
default setting of 0.05 dB is good for most measurements.
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Chapter 7
Factory Preset:
0.05 dB
Range
–100 dB to 100 dB
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Mode Setup, Uncertainty Calculator...
Noise Figure—RSS Uncertainty
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:RSS?
Query and return the Root Sum Squared (RSS) Uncertainty value. The RSS
Uncertainty value, expressed in dB, is a measure of the overall uncertainty of your
noise figure measurement. It is calculated from all the individual uncertainty
parameters known to the analyzer. An indicated RSS Uncertainty value of x dB
means that your measurement’s uncertainty is ± x dB.
Factory Preset:
Calculated
Range
Any positive value < 100 dB
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Mode Setup, Uncertainty Calculator...
Noise Figure—Noise Source ENR Uncertainty
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:SOURce:ENR <value>
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:SOURce:ENR?
Set the Excess Noise Ratio (ENR) Uncertainty of your noise source.
Factory Preset:
0.20 dB
Range
–100 dB to 100 dB
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
NOTE
Mode Setup, Uncertainty Calculator...
The ENR Uncertainty can only be modified when your noise source is User
Defined. For greatest accuracy, set your noise source to User Defined, and enter
the value specific to your noise source.
Noise Figure—Noise Source Match
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:SOURce:MATCh <value>
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:SOURce:MATCh?
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CALCulate Subsystem
Set the Match of your noise source.
Factory Preset:
1.1500
Range
–100 to 100
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Mode Setup, Uncertainty Calculator...
NOTE
The unit of measurement, which can be dB, VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio)
or Reflection Coefficient, is determined by the input value. Negative values are
assumed to be return loss in dB, values equal to or greater than 1 represent VSWR,
and values greater than or equal to zero and less than 1 represent the reflection
coefficient.
NOTE
The Noise Source Match can only be modified when your noise source is User
Defined.
Noise Figure—Noise Source Type
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:SOURce:TYPE <value>
:CALCulate:UNCertainty:SOURce:TYPE?
Specify the type of noise source you will be using for your measurements. The
three pre-defined noise sources (Agilent Technologies noise source models 346A,
346B, and 346C) have pre-defined match and uncertainty figures which cannot be
changed. Only by selecting a source type of USER (user defined) can you change
the match and uncertainty figures.
Factory Preset:
346B
Range
USER|346A|346B|346C
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
240
Mode Setup, Uncertainty Calculator...
Chapter 7
CONFigure Subsystem
The CONFigure commands are used with several other commands to control the
measurement process. The full set of commands is described in the section
“MEASure Group of Commands” on page 264.
Selecting measurements with the CONFigure/FETCh/MEASure/READ
commands sets the instrument state to the defaults for that measurement and to
make a single measurement. Other commands are available for each measurement
to allow you to change: settings, view, limits, etc. Refer to:
SENSe:<measurement>, SENSe:CHANnel, SENSe:CORRection,
SENSe:DEFaults, SENSe:DEViation, SENSe:FREQuency, SENSe:PACKet,
SENSe:POWer, SENSe:RADio, SENSe:SYNC
CALCulate:<measurement>, CALCulate:CLIMits
DISPlay:<measurement>
TRIGger
The INITiate[:IMMediate] or INITiate:RESTart commands will initiate the taking
of measurement data without resetting any of the measurement settings that you
have changed from their defaults.
Configure the Selected Measurement
:CONFigure:<measurement>
A CONFigure command must specify the desired measurement. It will set the
instrument settings for that measurement’s standard defaults, but should not
initiate the taking of data. The available measurements are described in the
MEASure subsystem.
NOTE
If CONFigure initiates the taking of data, the data should be ignored. Other SCPI
commands can be processed immediately after sending CONFigure. You do not
need to wait for the CONF command to complete this 'false' data acquisition.
Configure Query
:CONFigure?
The CONFigure query returns the name of the current measurement.
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DISPlay Subsystem
DISPlay Subsystem
The DISPlay controls the selection and presentation of textual, graphical, and
TRACe information. Within a DISPlay, information may be separated into
individual WINDows.
Full Screen Display
:DISPlay:FSCReen[:STATe] OFF|ON|0|1
:DISPlay:FSCReen[:STATe]?
For Noise Figure Mode only:
:DISPlay:FSCREEN|FULLSCREEN[:STATe] ON|OFF|1|0
:DISPlay:FSCREEN|FULLSCREEN[:STATe]?
When the full screen function is activated, the measurement window expands
horizontally over the entire instrument display. That is, it turns off the display of
the softkey labels. Pressing any other key that results in a new menu will cancel the
full screen function.
State Saved:
Not saved in state.
Factory Preset:
OFF
Factory
Default:
OFF
Front Panel
Access:
Display
Example:
DISP:FSCR ON
History:
Added with firmware revision A.02.00
Set the Display Line Level
:DISPlay:MONitor:WINDow:TRACe:Y:DLINe <power>
:DISPlay:MONitor:WINDow:TRACe:Y:DLINe?
Sets the vertical position of the display line.
Factory Preset:
–25 dBm
Range:
–170 dBm to 30 dBm
Default Unit:
dBm
Remarks:
You must be in Noise Figure to use this command. Use
:INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
242
When in Monitor Spectrum measurement, Display
Chapter 7
Set the Display Line State
:DISPlay:MONitor:WINDow:TRACe:Y:DLINe:STATe ON|OFF|1|0
:DISPlay:MONitor:WINDow:TRACe:Y:DLINe:STATe?
Enables or disables the display line.
Factory Preset:
OFF
Remarks:
You must be in Noise Figure to use this command. Use
:INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
When in Monitor Spectrum measurement, Display
Set the Y-Axis Scale per Division
:DISPlay:MONitor:WINDow:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:PDIVision <dB>
:DISPlay:MONitor:WINDow:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:PDIVision?
Set the Y-axis scale per division.
Factory Preset:
10 dB
Range:
0.1 dB to 20 dB
Remarks:
You must be in Noise Figure to use this command. Use
:INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
When in Monitor Spectrum measurement,
AMPLITUDE/Y Scale
Set the Reference Level
:DISPlay:MONitor:WINDow:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:RLEVel <dB>
:DISPlay:MONitor:WINDow:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:RLEVel?
Set the amplitude reference level for the Y-axis. The reference level is the
amplitude power represented by the top graticule on the display.
Factory Preset:
with no preamp present: –20 dBm
with preamp (either On or Off): –50 dBm (automatically
adjusted according to power)
Range:
without preamp, or preamp OFF: –170 dBm to 30 dB
with preamp ON: –170 dBm to –10 dBm
Remarks:
Front Panel
Access:
Chapter 7
You must be in Noise Figure to use this command. Use
:INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
When in Monitor Spectrum measurement, Amplitude
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DISPlay Subsystem
Set Display Annotation On/Off
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:ANNotation[:STATe] ON|OFF|1|0
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:ANNotation[:STATe]?
Turns the display of the annotation on or off.
Factory Preset:
ON
Remarks:
You must be in Noise Figure to use this command. Use
:INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Display, Preferences
Date and Time Display
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:ANNotation:CLOCk:DATE:FORMat MDY|DMY
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:ANNotation:CLOCk:DATE:FORMat?
Allows you to set the format for displaying the real-time clock. To set the date time
use :SYSTem:DATE <year>,<month>,<day>.
Factory Preset:
DMY
Remarks:
This parameter is persistent, which means that it retains the
setting previously selected, even through a power cycle.
Front Panel
Access:
System, Time/Date, Date Format MDY DMY
Date and Time Display
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:ANNotation:CLOCk[:STATe] OFF|ON|0|1
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:ANNotation:CLOCk[:STATe]?
Turns on and off the display of the date and time on the spectrum analyzer screen.
The time and date pertain to all windows.
Factory Preset:
On
Remarks:
This parameter is persistent, which means that it retains the
setting previously selected, even through a power cycle.
Front Panel
Access:
System, Time/Date, Time/Date On Off
Noise Figure Corrections
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:DATA:CORRections[:STATe] ON|OFF|1|0
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:DATA:CORRections[:STATe]?
Enables or disables the display of corrected data. An error will be returned if a user
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calibration has not been performed prior to issuing this command.
Factory Preset:
ON
Remarks:
You must be in Noise Figure to use this command. Use
:INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Input, Noise Figure Corrections
Select Results for Display (A)
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:DATA:TRACe[1]NFIGure|NFACtor
|GAIN|YFACtor|TEFFective|PHOT|PCOLd
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:DATA:TRACe[1]?
Selects the type of measurement results to be displayed in the upper display
window when in graph view, or in the center column in the table or meter views.
The seven types of result are:
NFIGure - Noise figure
NFACtor - Noise factor (linear noise figure)
GAIN - Gain
YFACtor - Y-factor
PHOT - Hot power density
PCOLd - Cold power density
Factory Preset:
NFIGure
Range:
NFIGure, NFACtor, GAIN, YFACtor, TEFFective, PHOT or
PCOLd
Remarks:
You must be in Noise Figure to use this command. Use
:INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
View, Result A
Select Results for Display (B)
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:DATA:TRACe2 NFIGure|NFACtor
|GAIN|YFACtor|TEFFective|PHOT|PCOLd
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:DATA:TRACe[1]?
Selects the type of measurement results to be displayed in the lower display
window when in graph view, or in the right column in the table or meter views.
The seven types of result are:
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NFIGure - Noise figure
NFACtor - Noise factor (linear noise figure)
GAIN - Gain
YFACtor - Y-factor
PHOT - Hot power density
PCOLd - Cold power density
Factory Preset:
NFIGure
Range:
NFIGure, NFACtor, GAIN, YFACtor, TEFFective, PHOT or
PCOLd
Remarks:
You must be in Noise Figure to use this command. Use
:INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
View, Result B
Select Results Format
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:FORMat GRAPh|TABLe|METer
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:FORMat?
Selects the format in which the measurement results will be displayed. It is not
necessary to capture new data when you change the results format. This means that
you can capture data in a single sweep, and then view this data in any of the three
views.
GRAPh - Displays the results graphically
TABLe - Displays the results in a table with one line per discrete frequency
METer - Displays the results at one specified frequency
Factory Preset:
GRAPh
Remarks:
You must be in Noise Figure to use this command. Use
:INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
View
Set Graticule On or Off
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:GRATicule[:STATe] ON|OFF|1|0
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:GRATicule[:STATe]?
Specifies whether or not the graticule lines will be displayed.
Factory Preset:
246
ON
Chapter 7
Remarks:
Front Panel
Access:
You must be in Noise Figure to use this command. Use
:INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Display, Preferences
Set Graph View
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:TRACe:COMBined[:STATe] ON|OFF|1|0
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:TRACe:COMBined[:STATe]?
Specifies whether the two graph traces are displayed on separate graphs or in one
combined graph with two scales.
ON - Both traces are displayed on one graph with two scales
OFF - The two graphs are displayed separately on the screen
Factory Preset:
OFF
Remarks:
You must be in Noise Figure to use this command. Use
:INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
View
Noise Figure - Set the Y-Axis Scale per Division
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:PDIVision <result>,
<value>
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:PDIVision?
Set the Y-axis scale per division for the specified graph window. The graph
window is determined by the <result> setting, which can be one of:
NFIGure — Noise Figure
NFACtor — Noise Factor
GAIN — Gain
YFACtor — Y-Factor
TEFFective — Effective Temp
PHOT — Hot Power Density
PCOLd — Cold Power Density
If the graph window that you have specified with this command is not visible, the
new scaling will take effect the next time that the window is displayed.
Factory Preset:
Chapter 7
Presets are dependent on the <result> setting as follows:
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Noise Figure — 1.0 dB
Noise Factor — 0.74189
Gain — 5.0 dB
Y Factor — 1.0 dB
Effective Temp — 200 K
Hot Power Density — 1.0 dB
Cold Power Density — 1.0 dB
Range:
The ranges are dependent on the <result> setting as follows:
Noise Figure — 0.001 dB to 20 dB
Noise Factor — 0.001 to 100
Gain — 0.001 dB to 20 dB
Y Factor — 0.001 dB to 20 dB
Effective Temp — 0.1 K to 20,000,000 K
Hot Power Density — 0.001 dB to 20 dB
Cold Power Density — 0.001 dB to 20 dB
Remarks:
Front Panel
Access:
You must be in Noise Figure to use this command. Use
:INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
AMPLITUDE/Y Scale
Noise Figure - Set the Y-Axis Reference Value
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:RLEVel:VALue <result>,
<value>
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:RLEVel:VALue?
Set the Y-axis reference value for the specified graph window. The graph window
is determined by the <result> setting, which can be one of:
NFIGure — Noise Figure
NFACtor — Noise Factor
GAIN — Gain
YFACtor — Y-Factor
TEFFective — Effective Temp
PHOT — Hot Power Density
PCOLd — Cold Power Density
If the graph window that you have specified with this command is not visible, the
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new reference value will take effect the next time that the window is displayed.
Factory Preset:
Presets are dependent on the <result> setting as follows:
Noise Figure — 4.0 dB
Noise Factor — 2.51189
Gain — 15.0 dB
Y Factor — 5.0 dB
Effective Temp — 1000 K
Hot Power Density — 5.0 dB
Cold Power Density — 5.0 dB
Range:
The ranges are dependent on the <result> setting as follows:
Noise Figure — –100 dB to 100 dB
Noise Factor — 0 to 1 × 109
Gain — –100 dB to 100 dB
Y Factor — –100 dB to 100 dB
Effective Temp — –100,000,000 K to 100,000,000 K
Hot Power Density — –100 dB to 100 dB
Cold Power Density — –100 dB to 100 dB
Remarks:
Front Panel
Access:
You must be in Noise Figure to use this command. Use
:INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
AMPLITUDE/Y Scale
Noise Figure - Set the Y-Axis Reference Position
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:RPOSition <result>,
<value>
:DISPlay[:NFIGure]:TRACe:Y[:SCALe]:RPOSition?
Set the Y-axis reference position for the specified graph window. The graph
window is determined by the <result> setting, which can be one of:
NFIGure — Noise Figure
NFACtor — Noise Factor
GAIN — Gain
YFACtor — Y-Factor
TEFFective — Effective Temp
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PHOT — Hot Power Density
PCOLd — Cold Power Density
If the graph window that you have specified with this command is not visible, the
new reference position will take effect the next time that the window is displayed.
Factory Preset:
CENTer for all <result> settings
Range:
TOP|CENTer|BOTTom for all <result> settings
Remarks:
You must be in Noise Figure to use this command. Use
:INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
AMPLITUDE/Y Scale
Zoom Window
:DISPlay:[NFIGure]:ZOOM:WINDow OFF|UPPer|LOWer
:DISPlay:[NFIGure]:ZOOM:WINDow?
Selects the upper or lower window and expands it to fill the entire display.
OFF — Returns the display to dual display.
UPPer — Zoom the upper window.
LOWer — Zoom the lower window.
Factory Preset:
OFF
Remarks:
You must be in Noise Figure to use this command. Use
:INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
250
Next Window, Zoom
Chapter 7
FETCh Subsystem
The FETCh? queries are used with several other commands to control the
measurement process. These commands are described in the section on the
“MEASure Group of Commands” on page 264. These commands apply only to
measurements found in the MEASURE menu.
This command puts selected data from the most recent measurement into the
output buffer (new data is initiated/measured). Use FETCh if you have already
made a good measurement and you want to look at several types of data (different
[n] values) from the single measurement. FETCh saves you the time of re-making
the measurement. You can only fetch results from the measurement that is
currently active.
If you need to make a new measurement, use the READ command, which is
equivalent to an INITiate[:IMMediate] followed by a FETCh.
:FETCh <meas>? will return valid data only when the measurement is in one of
the following states:
idle
initiated
paused
Fetch the Current Measurement Results
:FETCh:<measurement>[n]?
A FETCh? command must specify the desired measurement. It will return the
valid results that are currently available, but will not initiate the taking of any new
data. You can only fetch results from the measurement that is currently selected.
The code number n selects the kind of results that will be returned. The available
measurements and data results are described in the “MEASure Group of
Commands” on page 264.
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FORMat Subsystem
FORMat Subsystem
The FORMat subsystem sets a data format for transferring numeric and array
information. The TRACe[:DATA] command is affected by FORMat subsystem
commands.
Byte Order
:FORMat:BORDer NORMal|SWAPped
:FORMat:BORDer?
Selects the binary data byte order for numeric data transfer. In normal mode the
most significant byte is sent first. In swapped mode the least significant byte is
first. (PCs use the swapped order.) Binary data byte order functionality does not
apply to ASCII.
This command selects the binary data byte order for data transfer. It controls
whether binary data is transferred in normal or swapped mode. This command
affects only the byte order for setting and querying trace data for the command
:TRACe[:DATA] and query :TRACe[:DATA]?
NOTE
Normal mode is when the byte sequence begins with the most significant byte
(MSB) first, and ends with the least significant byte (LSB) last in the sequence:
1|2|3|4. Swapped mode is when the byte sequence begins with the LSB first, and
ends with the MSB last in the sequence: 4|3|2|1.
Factory Preset:
Normal
Remarks:
You must be in the Spectrum Analysis, Basic, cdma2000,
1xEV-DO, W-CDMA, GSM (w/EDGE), NADC, PDC, or Noise
Figure mode to use this command. Use INSTrument:SELect to
set the mode.
Numeric Data Format
:FORMat[:TRACe][:DATA] ASCii|REAL[,32]
:FORMat[:TRACe][:DATA]?
This command controls the format of data input/output, that is, any data transfer
across any remote port. The REAL and ASCII formats will format data in the
current display units. The format of state data cannot be changed. It is always in a
machine readable format only.
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NOTE
This command specifies the formats used for trace data during data transfer across
any remote port.
For corrected trace data (:TRACe[:DATA] with parameter <trace_name>), REAL
and ASCii formats will provide trace data in the current amplitude units. INTeger
format will provide trace data in mdBm. The fastest mode is INTeger,32.
For uncorrected trace data (:TRACe[:DATA] with parameter RAWTRACE),
UINTeger and INTeger formats apply to RAWTRACE queries, and return
uncorrected ADC values. The fastest mode is UINTeger,16.
For state data, the format cannot be changed. It is always in a machine readable
format only.
Corrected Trace Data Types
:TRACe:DATA?<trace_name>
Data Type
Result
ASCii
Display Units
INT,32 (fastest)
Internal Units
REAL,32
Display Units
REAL,64
Display Units
Uncorrected Trace Data Types
:TRACe:DATA? RAWTRACE
Data Type
Result
INT,32
Uncorrected ADC Values
UINT,16 (fastest)
Uncorrected ADC Values
ASCII - Amplitude values are in ASCII, in amplitude units, separated by
commas. ASCII format requires more memory than the binary formats.
Therefore, handling large amounts of this type of data, will take more time and
storage space.
Integer,16 - Binary 16-bit integer values in internal units (dBm), in a definite
length block. **PSA, SA mode only.
Integer,32 - Binary 32-bit integer values in internal units (dBm), in a definite
length block.
Real,32 or Real,64 - Binary 32-bit (or 64-bit) real values in amplitude unit, in a
definite length block. Transfers of real data are done in a binary block format.
UINTeger,16 - Binary 16-bit unsigned integer that is uncorrected ADC values,
in a definite length block. This format is almost never applicable with current
measurement data.
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FORMat Subsystem
A definite length block of data starts with an ASCII header that begins with # and
indicates how many additional data points are following in the block. Suppose the
header is #512320.
•
The first digit in the header (5) tells you how many additional digits/bytes there
are in the header.
•
The 12320 means 12 thousand, 3 hundred, 20 data bytes follow the header.
•
Divide this number of bytes by your selected data format bytes/point, either 8
(for real 64), or 4 (for real 32). In this example, if you are using real 64 then
there are 1540 points in the block.
Example:
FORM REAL,64
Factory Preset:
Real,32 for Spectrum Analysis mode
ASCII for Basic, cdmaOne, cdma2000, 1xEV-DO, W-CDMA,
GSM with EDGE, NADC, PDC and Noise Figure modes
Remarks:
254
The acceptable settings for this command change for the
different modes as described above.
Chapter 7
INITiate Subsystem
The INITiate subsystem is used to initiate a trigger for a measurement. These
commands only initiate measurements from the MEASURE front panel key or the
“MEASure Group of Commands” on page 264. Refer also to the TRIGger and
ABORt subsystems for related commands.
Take New Data Acquisition for Selected Measurement
:INITiate:<measurement>
This command initiates a trigger cycle for the measurement specified, but does not
return data. The valid measurement names are described in the MEASure
subsystem.
If your selected measurement is not currently active, the instrument will change to
the measurement in your INIT:<meas> command and initiate a trigger cycle.
This command is not available for the one-button measurements in the Spectrum
Analysis mode.
Example:
INIT:NFIG
Continuous or Single Measurements
:INITiate:CONTinuous OFF|ON|0|1
:INITiate:CONTinuous?
Selects whether a trigger is continuously initiated or not. Each trigger initiates a
single, complete, measurement operation.
When set to ON another trigger cycle is initiated at the completion of each
measurement.
When set to OFF, the trigger system remains in the “idle” state until an
INITiate[:IMMediate] command is received. On receiving the
INITiate[:IMMediate] command, it will go through a single trigger/measurement
cycle, and then return to the “idle” state.
This command affects sweep in normal spectrum analyzer mode, and affects
trigger when in a measurement. A “measurement” refers to any of the functions
under the MEASURE key. This corresponds to continuous sweep or single sweep
operation when not in a measurement, and continuous measurement or single
measurement operation when in a measurement.
Example:
INIT:CONT ON
Factory Preset:
On
*RST:
Off (recommended for remote operation)
Front Panel
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INITiate Subsystem
Access:
Meas Control, Measure Cont Single
Take New Data Acquisitions
:INITiate[:IMMediate]
The instrument must be in the single measurement mode. If INIT:CONT is ON,
then the command is ignored. The desired measurement must be selected and
waiting. The command causes the system to exit the “waiting” state and go to the
“initiated” state.
The trigger system is initiated and completes one full trigger cycle. It returns to the
“waiting” state on completion of the trigger cycle. Depending upon the
measurement and the number of averages, there may be multiple data acquisitions,
with multiple trigger events, for one full trigger cycle.
This command triggers the instrument, if external triggering is the type of trigger
event selected. Otherwise, the command is ignored. Use the
TRIGer[:SEQuence]:SOURce EXT command to select the external trigger.
Example:
INIT:IMM
Remarks:
See also the *TRG command and the TRIGger subsystem.
Use :FETCh? to transfer a measurement result from memory to
the output buffer. Refer to individual commands in the FETCh
subsystem for more information.
Front Panel
Access:
Sweep, Sweep Cont Single
Single
Meas Control, Measure Cont Single
Pause the Measurement
:INITiate:PAUSe
Pauses the current measurement by changing the current measurement state from
the “wait for trigger” state to the “paused” state. If the measurement is not in the
“wait for trigger” state, when the command is issued, the transition will be made
the next time that state is entered as part of the trigger cycle. When in the paused
state, the spectrum analyzer auto-align process stops. If the analyzer is paused for a
long period of time, measurement accuracy may degrade.
Example:
INIT:PAUS
Front Panel
Access:
Meas Control, Pause
Restart the Measurement
:INITiate:RESTart
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This command applies to measurements found in the MEASURE menu. It restarts
the current measurement from the “idle” state regardless of its current operating
state. It is equivalent to:
INITiate[:IMMediate]
ABORt (for continuous measurement mode)
Example:
INIT:REST
Front Panel
Access:
Restart
or
Meas Control, Restart
Resume the Measurement
:INITiate:RESume
Resumes the current measurement by changing the current measurement state
from the “paused state” back to the “wait for trigger” state. If the measurement is
not in the “paused” state, when the command is issued, an error is reported.
Example:
INIT:RES
Front Panel
Access:
Meas Control, Resume
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INPut Subsystem
INPut Subsystem
The INPut subsystem controls the characteristics of all the instrument input ports.
RF Attenuation Setting
:INPut[:NFIGure]:ATTenuation <power>
:INPut[:NFIGure]:ATTenuation
Sets the attenuation value for the RF/Microwave input.
NOTE
This command has the same effect as
:SENSe:NFIGure:MANual:RF|:MWAVe:FIXed <power>
Factory Preset:
0 dB
Range:
0 dB to 40 dB in 4 dB steps
Never lower than the Min. RF Attenuation setting, and never
higher than the Max. RF Attenuation.
Front Panel
Access:
Input, Attenuation
Maximum Microwave Attenuation Setting
:INPut[:NFIGure]:ATTenuation:MWAVe:MAXimum <integer>
:INPut[:NFIGure]:ATTenuation:MWAVe:MAXimum
“Maximum RF Attenuation Setting” on page 259.
NOTE
This command gives backwards compatibility with Agilent Tecnologies’ Noise
Figure Analyzers (NFAs). It is functionally identical to the command
:INPut[:NFIGure]:ATTenuation[:RF]:MAXimum <integer>
Minimum Microwave Attenuation Setting
:INPut[:NFIGure]:ATTenuation:MWAVe:MINimum <integer>
:INPut[:NFIGure]:ATTenuation:MWAVe:MINimum
“Minimum RF Attenuation Setting” on page 259.
NOTE
This command gives backwards compatibility with Agilent Tecnologies’ Noise
Figure Analyzers (NFAs). It is functionally identical to the command
:INPut[:NFIGure]:ATTenuation[:RF]:MINimum <integer>
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Maximum RF Attenuation Setting
:INPut[:NFIGure]:ATTenuation[:RF]:MAXimum <integer>
:INPut[:NFIGure]:ATTenuation[:RF]:MAXimum
Sets the maximum RF attenuation setting when a calibration is performed.
Use this command and the minimum RF attenuation command to limit the
attenuation range used during calibration. “Minimum RF Attenuation Setting” on
page 259.
Factory Preset:
0 dB
Range:
0 dB to 40 dB in 4 dB steps
Never lower than the Min. RF Attenuation setting.
Front Panel
Access:
Input, Noise Figure Corrections, Input Cal
Minimum RF Attenuation Setting
:INPut[:NFIGure]:ATTenuation[:RF]:MINimum <integer>
:INPut[:NFIGure]:ATTenuation[:RF]:MINimum
Sets the minimum RF attenuation setting when a calibration is performed.
Use this command and the maximum RF attenuation command to limit the
attenuation range used during calibration. “Maximum RF Attenuation Setting” on
page 259.
Factory Preset:
0 dB
Range:
0 dB to 40 dB in 4 dB steps
Never higher than the Max. RF Attenuation.
Front Panel
Access:
Chapter 7
Input, Noise Figure Corrections, Input Cal
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INPut Subsystem
RF Input Port Coupling
:INPut:COUPling AC|DC
:INPut:COUPling? AC|DC
Selects AC or DC coupling for the front panel RF INPUT port. A blocking
capacitor is switched in for the ac mode.
CAUTION
Instrument damage can occur if there is a DC component present at the RF INPUT
and DC coupling is selected.
Factory Preset:
Model E4443A (3 Hz - 6.7 GHz) - AC
Model E4445A (3 Hz - 13.2 GHz) - AC
Model E4440A (3 Hz - 26.5 GHz) - AC
Model E4446A (3 Hz - 44 GHz) - DC
Model E4447A (3 Hz - 42.98 GHz) - DC
Model E4448A (3 Hz - 50 GHz) - DC
Front Panel
Access:
260
Input/Output (or Input), Coupling AC DC
Chapter 7
INSTrument Subsystem
This subsystem includes commands for querying and selecting instrument
measurement (personality option) modes.
Select Application by Number
:INSTrument:NSELect <integer>
:INSTrument:NSELect?
Select the measurement mode by its instrument number. The actual available
choices depends upon which applications are installed in the instrument.
1 = SA
4 = CDMA (cdmaOne)
5 = NADC
6 = PDC
8 = BASIC
9 = WCDMA (W-CDMA with HSDPA/HSUPA)
10 = CDMA2K (cdma2000 with 1xEV-DV)
13 = EDGEGSM
14 = PNOISE (phase noise)
15 = CMDA1XEV (1xEV-D0)
18 = WLAN
211 = TDSCDMA
212 = TDDEMOD
219 = NFIGURE (noise figure)
233 = MRECEIVE
239 = EMC (EMC Analyzer)
241 = DMODULATION
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INSTrument Subsystem
NOTE
If you are using the SCPI status registers and the analyzer mode is changed, the
status bits should be read, and any errors resolved, prior to switching modes. Error
conditions that exist prior to switching modes cannot be detected using the
condition registers after the mode change. This is true unless they recur after the
mode change, although transitions of these conditions can be detected using the
event registers.
Changing modes resets all SCPI status registers and mask registers to their
power-on defaults. Hence, any event or condition register masks must be
re-established after a mode change. Also note that the power up status bit is set by
any mode change, since that is the default state after power up.
Example:
INST:NSEL 4
Factory Preset:
Persistent state with factory default of 1
Range:
1 to x, where x depends upon which applications are installed.
Front Panel
Access:
MODE
Select Application
:INSTrument[:SELect] SA|PNOISE|BASIC|CDMA|CDMA2K
|EDGEGSM|NADC|PDC|WCDMA|CDMA1XEV|NFIGURE|WLAN
|TDSCDMA|TDDEMOD|MRECEIVE|EMC|DMODULATION
:INSTrument[:SELect]?
Select the measurement mode. The actual available choices depend upon which
modes (measurement applications) are installed in the instrument. A list of the
valid choices is returned with the INST:CAT? query.
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Once an instrument mode is selected, only the commands that are valid for that
mode can be executed.
1 = SA
4 = CDMA (cdmaOne)
5 = NADC
6 = PDC
8 = BASIC
9 = WCDMA (W-CDMA with HSDPA/HSUPA)
10 = CDMA2K (cdma2000 with 1xEV-DV)
13 = EDGEGSM
14 = PNOISE (phase noise)
15 = CMDA1XEV (1xEV-D0)
18 = WLAN
211 = TDSCDMA
212 = TDDEMOD
219 = NFIGURE (noise figure)
233 = MRECEIVE
239 = EMC (EMC Analyzer)
241 = DMODULATION
NOTE
If you are using the status bits and the analyzer mode is changed, the status bits
should be read, and any errors resolved, prior to switching modes. Error conditions
that exist prior to switching modes cannot be detected using the condition registers
after the mode change. This is true unless they recur after the mode change,
although transitions of these conditions can be detected using the event registers.
Changing modes resets all SCPI status registers and mask registers to their
power-on defaults. Hence, any event or condition register masks must be
re-established after a mode change. Also note that the power up status bit is set by
any mode change, since that is the default state after power up.
Example:
INST:SEL CDMA
Factory Preset:
Persistent state with factory default of Spectrum Analyzer mode
Front Panel
Access:
MODE
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MEASure Group of Commands
MEASure Group of Commands
This group includes the CONFigure, FETCh, MEASure, and READ commands
that are used to make measurements and return results. The different commands
can be used to provide fine control of the overall measurement process, like
changing measurement parameters from their default settings. Most measurements
should be done in single measurement mode, rather than measuring continuously.
The SCPI default for the format of any data output is ASCII. The format can be
changed to binary with FORMat:DATA which transports faster over the bus.
Command Interactions: MEASure, CONFigure, FETCh,
INITiate and READ
Figure 7-1
Measurement Group of Commands
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Measure Commands:
:MEASure:<measurement>[n]?
This is a fast single-command way to make a measurement using the factory default instrument settings. These
are the settings and units that conform to the Mode Setup settings (e.g. radio standard) that you have currently
selected.
•
Stops the current measurement (if any) and sets up the instrument for the specified measurement using the
factory defaults
•
Initiates the data acquisition for the measurement
•
Blocks other SCPI communication, waiting until the measurement is complete before returning results.
•
After the data is valid it returns the scalar results, or the trace data, for the specified measurement. The type
of data returned may be defined by an [n] value that is sent with the command.
The scalar measurement results will be returned if the optional [n] value is not included, or is set to 1. If the
[n] value is set to a value other than 1, the selected trace data results will be returned. See each command for
details of what types of scalar results or trace data results are available.
ASCII is the default format for the data output. (Older versions of Spectrum Analysis and Phase Noise mode
measurements only use ASCII.) The binary data formats should be used for handling large blocks of data
since they are smaller and faster than the ASCII format. Refer to the FORMat:DATA command for more
information.
If you need to change some of the measurement parameters from the factory default settings you can set up the
measurement with the CONFigure command. Use the commands in the SENSe:<measurement> and
CALCulate:<measurement> subsystems to change the settings. Then you can use the READ? command to
initiate the measurement and query the results. See Figure 7-1.
If you need to repeatedly make a given measurement with settings other than the factory defaults, you can use
the commands in the SENSe:<measurement> and CALCulate:<measurement> subsystems to set up the
measurement. Then use the READ? command to initiate the measurement and query results.
Measurement settings persist if you initiate a different measurement and then return to a previous one. Use
READ:<measurement>? if you want to use those persistent settings. If you want to go back to the default
settings, use MEASure:<measurement>?.
Configure Commands:
:CONFigure:<measurement>
This command stops the current measurement (if any) and sets up the instrument for the specified measurement
using the factory default instrument settings. It sets the instrument to single measurement mode but should not
initiate the taking of measurement data unless INIT:CONTinuous is ON. After you change any measurement
settings, the READ command can be used to initiate a measurement without changing the settings back to their
defaults.
The CONFigure? query returns the current measurement name.
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Fetch Commands:
:FETCh:<measurement>[n]?
This command puts selected data from the most recent measurement into the output buffer. Use FETCh if you
have already made a good measurement and you want to return several types of data (different [n] values, e.g.
both scalars and trace data) from a single measurement. FETCh saves you the time of re-making the
measurement. You can only FETCh results from the measurement that is currently active, it will not change to a
different measurement.
If you need to get new measurement data, use the READ command, which is equivalent to an INITiate followed
by a FETCh.
The scalar measurement results will be returned if the optional [n] value is not included, or is set to 1. If the [n]
value is set to a value other than 1, the selected trace data results will be returned. See each command for details
of what types of scalar results or trace data results are available. The binary data formats should be used for
handling large blocks of data since they are smaller and transfer faster then the ASCII format. (FORMat:DATA)
FETCh may be used to return results other than those specified with the original READ or MEASure command
that you sent.
INITiate Commands:
:INITiate:<measurement>
This command is not available for measurements in all the instrument modes:
•
Initiates a trigger cycle for the specified measurement, but does not output any data. You must then use the
FETCh<meas> command to return data. If a measurement other than the current one is specified, the
instrument will switch to that measurement and then initiate it.
For example, suppose you have previously initiated the ACP measurement, but now you are running the
channel power measurement. If you send INIT:ACP? it will change from channel power to ACP and will
initiate an ACP measurement.
•
Does not change any of the measurement settings. For example, if you have previously started the ACP
measurement and you send INIT:ACP? it will initiate a new ACP measurement using the same instrument
settings as the last time ACP was run.
•
If your selected measurement is currently active (in the idle state) it triggers the measurement, assuming the
trigger conditions are met. Then it completes one trigger cycle. Depending upon the measurement and the
number of averages, there may be multiple data acquisitions, with multiple trigger events, for one full trigger
cycle. It also holds off additional commands on GPIB until the acquisition is complete.
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READ Commands:
:READ:<measurement>[n]?
•
Does not preset the measurement to the factory default settings. For example, if you have previously
initiated the ACP measurement and you send READ:ACP? it will initiate a new measurement using the
same instrument settings.
•
Initiates the measurement and puts valid data into the output buffer. If a measurement other than the current
one is specified, the instrument will switch to that measurement before it initiates the measurement and
returns results.
For example, suppose you have previously initiated the ACP measurement, but now you are running the
channel power measurement. Then you send READ:ACP? It will change from channel power back to ACP
and, using the previous ACP settings, will initiate the measurement and return results.
•
Blocks other SCPI communication, waiting until the measurement is complete before returning the results
If the optional [n] value is not included, or is set to 1, the scalar measurement results will be returned. If the
[n] value is set to a value other than 1, the selected trace data results will be returned. See each command for
details of what types of scalar results or trace data results are available. The binary data formats should be
used when handling large blocks of data since they are smaller and faster then the ASCII format.
(FORMat:DATA)
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Monitor Spectrum
This measures the power levels across the specified spectral band using one of
three traces. By default, the analyzer’s entire range is measured.
The general functionality of CONFigure, FETCh, MEASure, and READ are
described at the beginning of this section. See the SENSe:MONitor commands for
more measurement related commands.
:CONFigure:MONitor
:FETCh:MONitor[n]
:READ:MONitor[n]
:MEASure:MONitor[n]
Front Panel
Access:
MEASURE, Monitor Spectrum
After the measurement is selected, press
Restore Meas Defaults to restore factory defaults.
Measurement Results Available
n
Results Returned
n=1 (or not specified)
Trace 1 data if available, otherwise nothing
2
Trace 2 data if available, otherwise nothing
3
Trace 3 data if available, otherwise nothing
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Noise Figure Measurement
This returns a set of thirteen noise figure measurement results in a specified order
and separated by commas. The order in which the thirteen results are returned is
shown in the table below, and they represent the last data measured in the last
measurement sweep that was made.
You must be in Noise Figure mode to use these commands. Use
INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
The general functionality of CONFigure, FETCh, MEASure, and READ are
described at the beginning of this section.
:CONFigure[:NFIGure]
:INITiate[:NFIGure]
:FETCh[:NFIGure]?
:READ[:NFIGure]?
:MEASure[:NFIGure]?
Front Panel
Access:
MEASURE, Noise Figure, Trace/View
After the measurement is selected, press Restore Meas
Defaults to restore factory defaults.
Measurement Results Returned
Returns the following scalar results, in order.
1. Tcold scalar value
2. Corrected scalar result for Noise Figure
3. Corrected scalar result for Noise Factor
4. Corrected scalar result for Gain
5. Corrected scalar result for Effective Temperature
6. Corrected scalar result for Hot Power Density
7. Corrected scalar result for Cold Power Density
8. Uncorrected scalar result for Noise Figure
9. Uncorrected scalar result for Noise Factor
10. Uncorrected scalar result for Gain
11. Uncorrected scalar result for Effective Temperature
12. Uncorrected scalar result for Hot Power Density
13. Uncorrected scalar result for Cold Power Density
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Noise Figure Measurement - Gain Results
Returns the Gain values used in calculating the measurement results. The returned
values are in the default units of dB.
Sweep results are returned as a list of comma separated values, one value for each
measurement frequency.
You must be in Noise Figure mode to use these commands. Use
INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
The general functionality of CONFigure, FETCh, MEASure, and READ are
described at the beginning of this section.
:FETCh[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA]:CORRected:GAIN?
:READ[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA]:CORRected:GAIN?
:MEASure[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA]:CORRected:GAIN?
Front Panel
Access:
MEASURE, Noise Figure, Trace/View
After the measurement is selected, press Restore Meas
Defaults to restore factory defaults.
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Noise Figure Measurement - Noise Factor Results
Returns the Noise Factor values used in calculating the measurement results. The
returned values are linear.
Sweep results are returned as a list of comma separated values, one value for each
measurement frequency.
You must be in Noise Figure mode to use these commands. Use
INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
The general functionality of CONFigure, FETCh, MEASure, and READ are
described at the beginning of this section.
:FETCh[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA](:CORRected|:UNCor
rected):NFACtor?
:READ[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA](:CORRected|:UNCorr
ected):NFACtor?
:MEASure[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA](:CORRected|:UNC
orrected):NFACtor?
Front Panel
Access:
MEASURE, Noise Figure, Trace/View
After the measurement is selected, press Restore Meas
Defaults to restore factory defaults.
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MEASure Group of Commands
Noise Figure Measurement - Noise Figure Results
Returns the Noise Figure values used in calculating the measurement results. The
returned values are in the default units of dB.
Sweep results are returned as a list of comma separated values, one value for each
measurement frequency.
You must be in Noise Figure mode to use these commands. Use
INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
The general functionality of CONFigure, FETCh, MEASure, and READ are
described at the beginning of this section.
:FETCh[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA](:CORRected|:UNCor
rected):NFIGure?
:READ[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA](:CORRected|:UNCorr
ected):NFIGure?
:MEASure[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA](:CORRected|:UNC
orrected):NFIGure?
Front Panel
Access:
MEASURE, Noise Figure, Trace/View
After the measurement is selected, press Restore Meas
Defaults to restore factory defaults.
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Noise Figure Measurement - Cold Power Pcold Density Results
Return the Cold Power values from the most recently completed swept frequency
measurement. The returned values are in the default units of dB.
The instrument makes cold power measurements with the noise source switched
off. The reported value is a power level which is relative to the power at the input.
Sweep results are returned as a list of comma separated values, one value for each
measurement frequency.
You must be in Noise Figure mode to use these commands. Use
INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
The general functionality of CONFigure, FETCh, MEASure, and READ are
described at the beginning of this section.
:FETCh[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA](:CORRected|:UNCor
rected):PCOLd?
:READ[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA](:CORRected|:UNCorr
ected):PCOLd?
:MEASure[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA](:CORRected|:UNC
orrected):PCOLd?
Front Panel
Access:
MEASURE, Noise Figure, Trace/View
After the measurement is selected, press Restore Meas
Defaults to restore factory defaults.
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Noise Figure Measurement - Hot Power Phot Density Results
Return the Hot Power values from the most recently completed swept frequency
measurement. The returned values are in the default units of dB.
The instrument makes hot power measurements with the noise source switched on.
The reported value is a power level which is relative to the power at the input.
Sweep results are returned as a list of comma separated values, one value for each
measurement frequency.
You must be in Noise Figure mode to use these commands. Use
INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
The general functionality of CONFigure, FETCh, MEASure, and READ are
described at the beginning of this section.
:FETCh[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA](:CORRected|:UNCor
rected):PHOT?
:READ[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA](:CORRected|:UNCorr
ected):PHOT?
:MEASure[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA](:CORRected|:UNC
orrected):PHOT?
Front Panel
Access:
MEASURE, Noise Figure, Trace/View
After the measurement is selected, press Restore Meas
Defaults to restore factory defaults.
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Noise Figure Measurement - Effective Temperature Results
Return the Effective Temperature values from the most recently completed swept
frequency measurement. The returned values are in the default units of degrees
Kelvin.
Sweep results are returned as a list of comma separated values, one value for each
measurement frequency.
You must be in Noise Figure mode to use these commands. Use
INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
The general functionality of CONFigure, FETCh, MEASure, and READ are
described at the beginning of this section.
:FETCh[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA](:CORRected|:UNCor
rected):TEFFective?
:READ[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA](:CORRected|:UNCorr
ected):TEFFective?
:MEASure[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA](:CORRected|:UNC
orrected):TEFFective?
Front Panel
Access:
MEASURE, Noise Figure, Trace/View
After the measurement is selected, press Restore Meas
Defaults to restore factory defaults.
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Noise Figure Measurement - Tcold Results
Return the Tcold values used in calculating the measurement results. The results
returned are from the most recently completed swept measurement if :ARRay has
been selected, or from the most recently completed fixed measurement if :SCALar
has been selected. The returned values are in the default units of degrees Kelvin.
Sweep results are returned as a list of comma separated values, one value for each
measurement frequency.
You must be in Noise Figure mode to use these commands. Use
INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
The general functionality of CONFigure, FETCh, MEASure, and READ are
described at the beginning of this section.
:FETCh[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA]:TCOLd?
:READ[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA]:TCOLd?
:MEASure[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA]:TCOLd?
Front Panel
Access:
MEASURE, Noise Figure, Trace/View
After the measurement is selected, press Restore Meas
Defaults to restore factory defaults.
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Noise Figure Measurement - Y Factor Results
Return the Y Factor values from the most recently completed swept frequency
measurement. The results returned are from the most recently completed swept
measurement if :ARRay has been selected, or from the most recently completed
fixed measurement if :SCALar has been selected. The returned values are in the
default units of dB.
Sweep results are returned as a list of comma separated values, one value for each
measurement frequency.
You must be in Noise Figure mode to use these commands. Use
INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
The general functionality of CONFigure, FETCh, MEASure, and READ are
described at the beginning of this section.
:FETCh[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA]:UNCorrected
:YFACtor?
:READ[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA]:UNCorrected
:YFACtor?
:MEASure[:NFIGure]([:ARRay]|:SCALar)[:DATA]:UNCorrected
:YFACtor?
Front Panel
Access:
MEASURE, Noise Figure, Trace/View
After the measurement is selected, press Restore Meas
Defaults to restore factory defaults.
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MMEMory Subsystem
MMEMory Subsystem
The purpose of the MMEMory subsystem is to provide access to mass storage
devices such as internal or external disk drives. If mass storage is not specified in
the filename, the default mass storage will be used.
NOTE
Refer also to :CALCulate and :TRACe subsystems for more trace and limit line
commands.
The MMEMory command syntax term <file_name> is a specifier having the form:
drive:name.ext, where the following rules apply:
•
“drive” is “A:” or “C:”
•
“name” is a DOS file name of up to eight characters, letters (A-Z, a-z) and
numbers (0-9) only (lower case letters are read as uppercase)
•
“ext” is an optional file extension using the same rules as “name,” but consists
of up to three characters total. (The default file extension will be added if it is
not specified.)
Load a Noise Figure ENR Table from a File
:MMEMory:LOAD:ENR CALibration|MEASurement, <file_name>
Loads the ENR data in the file <file_name> to the specified correction set.
Example:
Front Panel
Access:
:MMEM:LOAD:ENR MEASurements, “A:TEST.ENR”
File, Load, Type, More, ENR Cal Table or
File, Load, Type, More, ENR Meas/Common Table
Load a Noise Figure Frequency List Table from a File
:MMEMory[:NFIGure]:LOAD:FREQuency, <file_name>
Loads the frequency data in the file <filename> to the frequency table.
Example:
:MMEM:LOAD:FREQuency, “A:TEST.LST”
Front Panel
Access:
File, Load, Type, More, More, Freq List
Load a Limit Line from Memory to the Instrument
:MMEMory:LOAD:LIMit LLINe1|LLINe2|LLINe3|LLINe4,<file_name>
Loads a limit line, from the specified file in mass storage to the instrument.
Loading a time limit line deletes any frequency limit lines. Similarly, loading a
frequency limit line deletes any time limit lines. If you do not specify the file
extension, the instrument will assume your file has an extension of .LIM. If your
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file has no extension, the instrument will not find the file.
Example:
:MMEM:LOAD:LIM LLIN2,“C:mylimit.lim”
Front Panel
Access:
File, Load, Type, Limits
Load a Noise Figure Loss Compensation Table from a File
:MMEMory:LOAD:LOSS BEFore|AFTer, <file_name>
Loads the Loss Compensation data in the file <file_name> to the specified loss
compensation table.
Example:
Front Panel
Access:
:MMEM:LOAD:LOSS BEFore, “A:TEST.LOS”
File, Load, Type, More, Loss Comp Before DUT or
File, Load, Type, More, Loss Comp After DUT
Store a Noise Figure ENR Table to a File
:MMEMory:STORe:ENR CALibration|MEASurement, <file_name>
Stores the ENR calibration or measurement data to the file <file_name>.
Example:
Front Panel
Access:
:MMEM:STORe:ENR MEASurement, “A:TEST.ENR”
File, Store, Type, More, ENR Cal Table or
File, Store, Type, More, ENR Meas/Common Table
Store a Limit Line in a File
:MMEMory:STORe:LIMit LLINe1|LLINe2,<file_name>
:MMEMory:STORe:LIMit
LLINe1|LLINe2|LLINe3|LLINe4,<file_name>
Stores the current limit line to the specified file in memory. If you do not specify
the file extension, the instrument will assign an extension of .LIM.
Example:
MMEM:STOR:LIM LLIN2,”C:mylimit.lim”
Remarks:
This command will fail if the <file_name> already exists. There
is no SCPI short form for parameters LLINE1|LLINE2.
Front Panel
Access:
File, Save, Type
Store a Noise Figure Frequency List Table to a File
:MMEMory[:NFIGure]:STORe:FREQuency, <file_name>
Stores the frequency data in the specified Frequency table to the file <file_name>.
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MMEMory Subsystem
Example:
:MMEM:STORe:FREQuency, “A:TEST.LST”
Front Panel
Access:
File, Save, Type, More, More, Freq List
Store a Noise Figure Loss Compensation Table to a File
:MMEMory:STORe:LOSS BEFore|AFTer, <file_name>
Stores the Loss Compensation data in the specified Loss Compensation table to the
file <file_name>.
Example:
Front Panel
Access:
:MMEM:STORe:LOSS BEFore, “A:TEST.LOS”
File, Save, Type, More, Loss Comp Before DUT or
File, Save, Type, More, Loss Comp After DUT
Store a Measurement Results in a File
:MMEMory:STORe:RESults filename.csv
Saves the measurement results to a file in memory. The file name must have a file
extension of .csv and will be in the CSV (comma-separated values) format.
Example:
MMEM:STOR:RES ‘C:mymeas.csv’
Front Panel
Access:
File, Save, Type, Measurement Results
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Store a Trace in a File
For Signal Analysis mode:
:MMEMory:STORe:TRACe TRACe1|TRACe2|TRACE3|ALL, <file_name>
For Noise Figure mode:
:MMEMory:STORe:TRACe TRACe1|TRACe2|ALL, <file_name>
Stores the specified trace or traces to the specified file in memory. The file is in
comma separated value (CSV) format, with the data stored in
<frequency>/<amplitude> pairs.
Example:
MMEM:STOR:TRAC TRACE2,“C:mytrace.trc”
Front Panel
Access:
File, Save, Type
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READ Subsystem
READ Subsystem
The READ? commands are used with several other commands and are
documented in the section on the “MEASure Group of Commands” on page 264.
Initiate and Read Measurement Data
:READ:<measurement>[n]?
A READ? query must specify the desired measurement. It will cause a
measurement to occur without changing any of the current settings and will return
any valid results. The code number n selects the kind of results that will be
returned. The available measurements and data results are described in the
“MEASure Group of Commands” on page 264.
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SENSe Subsystem
These commands are used to set the instrument state parameters so that you can
measure a particular input signal. Some SENSe commands are only for use with
specific measurements found under the MEASURE key menu or the “MEASure
Group of Commands” on page 264. The measurement must be active before you
can use these commands.
The SCPI default for the format of any data output is ASCII. The format can be
changed to binary with FORMat:DATA which transports faster over the bus.
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Bandwidth Commands
Resolution Bandwidth
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution] <freq>
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]?
Enables you to select the 3.01 dB resolution bandwidth (RBW) of the analyzer in
10% steps from 1 Hz to 3 MHz, plus bandwidths of 4, 5, 6, or 8 MHz.
If an unavailable bandwidth is specified, the closest available bandwidth is
selected.
Sweep time is coupled to RBW. As the RBW changes, the sweep time (if set to
Auto) is changed to maintain amplitude calibration.
Factory Preset:
3 MHz
Range:
1 Hz to 8 MHz.
Default Unit:
Hz
Front Panel
Access:
BW/Avg
Video Bandwidth
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo <freq>
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo?
Specifies the video bandwidth.
You can change the analyzer post-detection filter from 1 Hz to 8 MHz in
approximately 10% steps. In addition, a wide-open video filter bandwidth (VBW)
may be chosen by selecting 50 MHz.
Factory Preset:
Automatically calculated
Range:
1 Hz to 8 MHz, plus 50 MHz.
Default Unit:
Hz
Front Panel
Access:
BW/Avg
Video Bandwidth Automatic
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo:AUTO OFF|ON|0|1
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo:AUTO?
Couples the video bandwidth to the resolution bandwidth, using the VBW/RBW
ratio that you have set.
Factory Preset:
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Front Panel
Access:
BW/Avg
Video to Resolution Bandwidth Ratio
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo:RATio <numeric>
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo:RATio?
Specifies the ratio of the video bandwidth to the resolution bandwidth. The knob
and the step keys change the ratio in a 1, 3, 10 sequence.
Factory Preset:
1.0
Range:
0.00001 to 10
Front Panel
Access:
BW/Avg
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SENSe Subsystem
Configure Commands
Downconverter Fixed LO Frequency
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:DOWNconv:LOSCillator:FREQuency
<value>
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:DOWNconv:LOSCillator:FREQuency?
Sets the down converter fixed LO frequency.
NOTE
This noise figure application (Option 219) can only measure fixed LO devices.
Factory Preset:
30 GHz
Range:
1 Hz to 325 GHz
Default Unit:
Hz
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Mode Setup, DUT Setup
Downconverter Frequency Context
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:DOWNconv:FREQuency:CONText RF|IF
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:DOWNconv:FREQuency:CONText?
Determines whether the frequencies are displayed before any downconversion has
taken place (RF), or after any downconversion (IF). It is only when the frequency
context is set to IF that the displayed frequencies represent the actual frequencies
that the analyzer is measuring.
RF - Frequencies are displayed as they are when they enter the DUT, that is,
before any frequency conversion has taken place.
IF - Frequencies are displayed as they are when they leave the DUT, that is,
after any frequency conversion has taken place. These are therefore the
frequencies entering the analyzer.
Factory Preset:
IF
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
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Downconverter LO Offset
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:DOWNconv:LOSCillator:OFFSet
LSB|USB|DSB
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:DOWNconv:LOSCillator:OFFSet?
Sets the type of offset for the downconverter.
LSB - Lower Sideband (Signal frequency < LO frequency).
USB - Upper Sideband (Signal frequency > LO frequency).
DSB - Double sideband (no offset).
Factory Preset:
LSB
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Remarks:
You must have specified the DUT type as Downconverter to use
this command. Use [:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:DUT to set
the DUT type.
Front Panel
Access:
Mode Setup, DUT Setup
Select DUT type
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:DUT AMPLifier|DOWNconv|UPConv
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:DUT?
Sets the type of DUT whose noise figure is to be measured.
AMPLifier - The DUT is an amplifier that performs no frequency conversion.
It can be used with or without an external system downconverter.
DOWNconv - The DUT performs its own frequency downconversion. A
DOWNconverter cannot be used with an external system downconverter.
UPConv - The DUT performs its own frequency upconversion. An upconverter
cannot be used with an external system downconverter.
Factory Preset:
AMPLifier
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Chapter 7
Mode Setup, DUT Setup
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System Downconverter Control
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:SYSTem:DOWNconv[:STATe] ON|OFF|1|0
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:SYSTem:DOWNconv[:STATe]?
Specifies whether or not there is a system downconverter. A system
downconverter reduces high frequencies that are beyond the range of the analyzer
to a lower frequency which the analyzer can measure.
ON or 1 - You are using a system downconverter.
OFF or 0 - You are not using a system downconverter.
Factory Preset:
OFF
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Remarks:
Your DUT must be set to type AMPLifier. Use
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:DUT to set the DUT type.
Front Panel
Access:
Mode Setup, DUT Setup
System Fixed LO Frequency
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:SYSTem:LOSCillator:FREQuency
<value>
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:SYSTem:LOSCillator:FREQuency?
Sets the system fixed LO frequency.
NOTE
This noise figure application (Option 219) can only measure fixed LO devices.
Factory Preset:
30 GHz
Range:
1 Hz to 325 GHz
Default Unit:
Hz
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
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System Frequency Context
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:SYSTem:FREQuency:CONText RF|IF
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:SYSTem:FREQuency:CONText?
Determines whether the frequencies are displayed before any conversion has taken
place (RF), or after any conversion (IF). It is only when the frequency context is
set to IF that the displayed frequencies represent the actual frequencies that the
analyzer is measuring.
RF - Frequencies are displayed as they are when they enter the DUT, that is,
before any frequency conversion by the system downconverter has taken place.
IF - Frequencies are displayed as they are when they leave the DUT, that is,
after any frequency conversion has taken place. These are therefore the
frequencies entering the analyzer.
Factory Preset:
RF
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Mode Setup, DUT Setup
System LO Offset
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:SYSTem:LOSCillator:OFFSet
LSB|USB|DSB
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:SYSTem:LOSCillator:OFFSet?
Sets the type of offset for the system.
LSB - Lower Sideband (Signal frequency < LO frequency).
USB - Upper Sideband (Signal frequency > LO frequency).
DSB - Double sideband (no offset).
Factory Preset:
LSB
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Remarks:
Double Sideband (DSB) is only available when the System
Downconverter is On.
Front Panel
Access:
Chapter 7
Mode Setup, DUT Setup
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Upconverter Fixed LO Frequency
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:UPConv:LOSCillator:FREQuency
<value>
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:UPConv:LOSCillator:FREQuency?
Sets the upconverter fixed LO frequency.
NOTE
This noise figure application (Option 219) can only measure fixed LO devices.
Factory Preset:
30 GHz
Range:
1 Hz to 325 GHz
Default Unit:
Hz
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Mode Setup, DUT Setup
Upconverter Frequency Context
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:UPConv:FREQuency:CONText RF|IF
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:UPConv:FREQuency:CONText?
Determines whether the frequencies are displayed before any upconversion has
taken place (RF), or after any upconversion (IF). It is only when the frequency
context is set to IF that the displayed frequencies represent the actual frequencies
that the analyzer is measuring.
RF - Frequencies are displayed as they are when they enter the DUT, that is,
before any frequency conversion by the upconverter has taken place.
IF - Frequencies are displayed as they are when they leave the DUT, that is,
after any frequency conversion has taken place. These are therefore the
frequencies entering the analyzer.
Factory Preset:
IF
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
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Upconverter LO Offset
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:UPConv:LOSCillator:OFFSet LSB|USB
[:SENSe]:CONFigure:MODE:UPConv:LOSCillator:OFFSet?
Sets the type of offset for the system.
LSB - Lower Sideband (Signal frequency < LO frequency).
USB - Upper Sideband (Signal frequency > LO frequency).
Factory Preset:
LSB
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Mode Setup, DUT Setup
Default Reset
[:SENSe]:DEFaults
Restores personality Mode Setup defaults.
Front Panel
Access:
Remarks:
Chapter 7
Mode Setup
This command sets all the SENSe defaults but has no effect on
the MEASure default settings. Use the
CONFigure:<measurement> command to set measurement
defaults.
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Monitor Spectrum or Monitor Band/Channel Measurement
Commands for querying the monitor spectrum or monitor band/channel
measurement results and for setting to the default values are found in the
“MEASure Group of Commands” on page 264. The equivalent front panel keys
for the parameters described in the following commands are found under the Meas
Setup key, after the Monitor Spectrum or Monitor Band/Channel measurement
has been selected from the MEASURE key menu.
Monitor Spectrum or Monitor Band/Channel—Average Count
[:SENSe]:MONitor:AVERage:COUNt <integer>
[:SENSe]:MONitor:AVERage:COUNt?
Set the number of data acquisitions that will be averaged.
Factory Preset:
10
Range:
1 to 1,000
Remarks:
You must be in the Phase Noise or Noise Figure mode to use this
command. Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Meas Setup, Avg Number
Monitor Spectrum or Monitor Band/Channel—Averaging State
[:SENSe]:MONitor:AVERage[:STATe] OFF|ON|0|1
[:SENSe]:MONitor:AVERage[:STATe]?
Turn averaging on or off.
Factory Preset:
On for GSM
Off for cdmaOne, Modulation Analysis, Phase Noise and Noise
Figure.
Remarks:
Front Panel
Access:
You must be in the Phase Noise or Noise Figure mode to use this
command. Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Meas Setup, Avg Number
Monitor Spectrum or Monitor Band/Channel—Averaging Termination
Control
[:SENSe]:MONitor:AVERage:TCONtrol EXPonential|REPeat
[:SENSe]:MONitor:AVERage:TCONtrol?
Select the type of termination control used for the averaging function. This
determines the averaging action after the specified number of data acquisitions
(average count) is reached.
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Exponential - After the average count is reached, each successive data
acquisition is exponentially weighted and combined with the existing average.
Repeat - After reaching the average count, the averaging is reset and a new
average is started.
Factory Preset:
Exponential
Remarks:
You must be in the Phase Noise or Noise Figure mode to use this
command. Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Meas Setup, Avg Mode
Monitor Spectrum Or Monitor Band/channel—Resolution Bandwidth
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution] <freq>
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]?
Enables you to select the 3.01 dB resolution bandwidth (RBW) of the analyzer in
10% steps from 1 Hz to 3 MHz, plus bandwidths of 4, 5, 6, or 8 MHz.
If an unavailable bandwidth is specified, the closest available bandwidth is
selected.
Sweep time is coupled to RBW. As the RBW changes, the sweep time (if set to
Auto) is changed to maintain amplitude calibration.
Factory Preset:
1 MHz
Range:
1 Hz to 8 MHz
Default Unit:
Hz
Front Panel
Access:
BW/Avg
Monitor Spectrum Or Monitor Band/channel—Resolution Bandwidth
Automatic
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]:AUTO
OFF|ON|0|1
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]:AUTO?
Couples the resolution bandwidth to the frequency span.
When set to Auto, resolution bandwidth is autocoupled to span. The ratio of span
to RBW is set by Span/RBW. The factory default for this ratio is approximately
106:1 when auto coupled. When Res BW is set to Man, bandwidths are entered by
the user, and these bandwidths are used regardless of other analyzer settings.
Factory Preset:
ON
Front Panel
Access:
BW/Avg
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Monitor Spectrum Or Monitor Band/channel—Video Bandwidth
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo <freq>
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo?
Specifies the video bandwidth.
You can change the analyzer post-detection filter from 1 Hz to 8 MHz in
approximately 10% steps. In addition, a wide-open video filter bandwidth (VBW)
may be chosen by selecting 50 MHz.
Factory Preset:
3 MHz
Range:
1 Hz to 8 MHz, plus 50 MHz
Default Unit:
Hz
Front Panel
Access:
BW/Avg
Monitor Spectrum Or Monitor Band/channel—Video Bandwidth Automatic
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo:AUTO OFF|ON|0|1
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo:AUTO?
Couples the video bandwidth to the resolution bandwidth, using the VBW/RBW
ratio that you have set.
Factory Preset:
ON
Front Panel
Access:
BW/Avg
Monitor Spectrum Or Monitor Band/channel—Video to Resolution
Bandwidth Ratio
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo:RATio <numeric>
[:SENSe]:MONitor:BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo:RATio?
Specifies the ratio of the video bandwidth to the resolution bandwidth. The knob
and the step keys change the ratio in a 1, 3, 10 sequence.
Factory Preset:
1.00000
Range:
0.00001 to 10
Front Panel
Access:
BW/Avg
Monitor Spectrum Or Monitor Band/channel—Type of Detection
[:SENSe]:MONitor:DETector[:FUNCtion] NORMal
|POSitive|NEGative|AVERage
[:SENSe]:MONitor:DETector[:FUNCtion]?
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Specifies the detection mode.
Normal detection displays the peak of CW-like signals and maximums and
minimums of noise-like signals.
Positive peak detection displays the highest sample level measured during each
sampling period.
Negative peak detection displays the lowest sample level measured during each
sampling period.
Average detection displays the average of the samples taken during each
sampling period. The averaging method depends upon AVG Type selection
(voltage, power or log scales).
Factory Preset:
AVERage
Range:
NORM | POS | NEG | AVER
Front Panel
Access:
Det/Demod, Detector
Monitor Spectrum Or Monitor Band/channel—Center Frequency
[:SENSe]:MONitor:FREQuency[:CENTer] <freq>
[:SENSe]:MONitor:FREQuency[:CENTer]?
Sets the center frequency.
Factory Preset:
1.5 GHz
Range:
E4443A: 0 Hz to 6.7 GHz
E4445A: 0 Hz to 13.2 GHz
E4440A: 0 Hz to 26.5 GHz
E4446A: 0 Hz to 44.0 GHz
E4447A: 0 Hz to 42.98 GHz
E4448A: 0 Hz to 50.0 GHz
Remarks:
The center frequency range shifts up or down depending on the
Frequency Offset settings.
Default Unit:
Hz
Front Panel
Access:
FREQUENCY/Channel, Center Freq
Monitor Spectrum Or Monitor Band/channel—Frequency Offset
[:SENSe]:MONitor:FREQuency:OFFSet <freq>
[:SENSe]:MONitor:FREQuency:OFFSet?
Enables you to input a frequency offset value to account for frequency conversions
external to the analyzer. This value is added to the display readout of the marker
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frequency, center frequency, start frequency, stop frequency and all other absolute
frequency settings in the analyzer. When a frequency offset is entered, the value
appears below the center of the graticule. To eliminate an offset, perform a Factory
Preset or set the frequency offset to 0 Hz.
This command does not affect any bandwidths or the settings of relative frequency
parameters such as delta markers or span. It does not affect the current hardware
settings of the analyzer, but only the displayed frequency values. Offsets are not
added to the frequency count readouts. Entering an offset does not affect the trace
display.
Factory Preset:
0 Hz
Range:
–325 GHz to +325 GHz
Default Unit:
Hz
Front Panel
Access:
FREQUENCY/Channel, Freq Offset
Monitor Spectrum Or Monitor Band/channel—Frequency Offset Auto
[:SENSe]:MONitor:FREQuency:OFFSet:AUTO ON|OFF|1|0
[:SENSe]:MONitor:FREQuency:OFFSet:AUTO?
Allows you to specify whether the spectrum analyzer compensates automatically
for a frequency changing device, or whether you wish to set the compensation
manually. Setting a value on ‘ON’ or ‘1’ makes the compensation automatic, and
setting to ‘OFF’ or ‘0’ set the compensation to manual.
NOTE
Manually setting the Frequency Offset to 0 Hz is equivalent to disabling the
feature.
Factory Preset:
On
Front Panel
Access:
FREQUENCY/Channel, Freq Offset
Monitor Spectrum or Monitor Band/Channel—Frequency Span
[:SENSe]:MONitor:FREQuency:SPAN <freq>
[:SENSe]:MONitor:FREQuency:SPAN?
Set the frequency span. Setting the span to 0 Hz puts the analyzer into zero span.
Factory Preset:
2.9900 GHz
Range:
E4443A: 10 Hz to 6.78 GHz
E4445A: 10 Hz to 13.3 GHz
E4440A: 10 Hz to 27.0 GHz
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E4446A: 10 Hz to 44.0 GHz
E4447A: 0 Hz to 42.98 GHz
E4448A: 10 Hz to 50.0 GHz
Default Unit:
Hz
Front Panel
Access:
SPAN/X Scale, Span
or SPAN/X Scale, Zero Span
Monitor Spectrum or Monitor Band/Channel—Automatic Frequency Span to
RBW Ratio
[:SENSe]:FREQuency:SPAN:BANDwidth[:RESolution]:RATio:AUTO
OFF|ON|0|1
[:SENSe]:FREQuency:SPAN:BANDwidth[:RESolution]:RATio:AUTO?
Selects between automatic and manual coupling of the span to the resolution BW
ratio that will be used for displaying signals.
Factory Preset:
On (Auto)
Range:
Off|On|0|1
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
BW/Avg, Span/RBW
Monitor Spectrum or Monitor Band/Channel—Ratio of Frequency Span to
RBW
[:SENSe]:FREQuency:SPAN:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]:RATio
<val>
[:SENSe]:FREQuency:SPAN:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]
:RATIO?
Sets the automatic coupling of the span to the resolution BW to be used for
displaying signals. The value is entered as the ratio of span:RBW.
Factory Preset:
106
Range:
2 to 1000
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Chapter 7
BW/Avg, Span/RBW
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Monitor Spectrum or Monitor Band/Channel—Full Frequency Span
[:SENSe]:MONitor:FREQuency:SPAN:FULL
Set the frequency span to full scale.
Factory Preset:
E4443A: 6.78 GHz
E4445A: 13.3 GHz
E4440A: 27.0 GHz
E4446A: 44.0 GHz
E4447A: 42.98 GHz
E4448A: 50.0 GHz
Front Panel
Access:
SPAN/X Scale, Full Span
Monitor Spectrum or Monitor Band/Channel—Zero Frequency Span
[:SENSe]:MONitor:FREQuency:SPAN:ZERO
Set the frequency span to zero.
Front Panel
Access:
SPAN/X Scale, Zero Span
Monitor Spectrum or Monitor Band/Channel—Start Frequency
[:SENSe]:MONitor:FREQuency:STARt <freq>
[:SENSe]:MONitor:FREQuency:STARt?
Set the start frequency.
Factory Preset:
10 MHz
Range:
E4443A: –100 MHz to 6.78 GHz
E4445A: –100 MHz to 13.3 GHz
E4440A: –100 MHz to 27.0 GHz
E4446A: –100 MHz to 44.0 GHz
E4447A: –100 MHz to 42.98 GHz
E4448A: –100 MHz to 50.0 GHz
NOTE
The valid range of Frequency Start settings (above) applies when Frequency Offset
is set to 0 Hz. Frequency Offset settings greater than 0 Hz have the effect of
shifting the entire range up by the Frequency Offset.
Default Unit:
Hz
Front Panel
Access:
FREQUENCY/Channel, Start Freq
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Monitor Spectrum or Monitor Band/Channel—Stop Frequency
[:SENSe]:MONitor:FREQuency:STOP <freq>
[:SENSe]:MONitor:FREQuency:STOP?
Set the stop frequency.
Factory Preset:
3.0 GHz
Range:
E4443A: –99.99999 MHz to 6.78 GHz
E4445A: –99.99999 MHz to 13.3 GHz
E4440A: –99.99999 MHz to 27.0 GHz
E4446A: –99.99999 MHz to 44.0 GHz
E4447A: –99.99999 MHz to 42.98 GHz
E4448A: –99.99999 MHz to 50.0 GHz
NOTE
The valid range of Frequency Start settings (above) applies when Frequency Offset
is set to 0 Hz. Frequency Offset settings greater than 0 Hz have the effect of
shifting the entire range up by the Frequency Offset.
Default Unit:
Hz
Front Panel
Access:
FREQUENCY/Channel, Stop Freq
Monitor Spectrum Or Monitor Band/channel—RF Port Input Attenuation
[:SENSe]:MONitor:POWer[:RF]:ATTenuation <rel_power>
[:SENSe]:MONitor:POWer[:RF]:ATTenuation?
Sets the RF input attenuator. This value is set at its auto value if RF input
attenuation is set to auto.
Factory Preset:
10 dB
Range:
0 to 70 dB
Default Unit:
dB
Front Panel
Access:
AMPLITUDE/Y Scale, Attenuation
Monitor Spectrum Or Monitor Band/channel—RF Port Input Attenuator
Auto
[:SENSe]:MONitor:POWer[:RF]:ATTenuation:AUTO ON|OFF|1|0
[:SENSe]:MONitor:POWer[:RF]:ATTenuation:AUTO?
Selects the RF input attenuator range to be set either automatically or manually.
ON - Input attenuation is automatically set as determined by the reference level
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setting.
OFF - Input attenuation is manually set.
Factory Preset:
ON (auto)
Front Panel
Access:
AMPLITUDE/Y Scale, Attenuation
Monitor Spectrum Or Monitor Band/channel—Internal Preamp
[:SENSe]:MONitor:POWer[:RF]:GAIN[:STATe] ON|OFF|1|0
[:SENSe]:MONitor:POWer[:RF]:GAIN:[:STATe]?
Turns the internal preamp on or off. This requires you to have Option 1DS or
Option 110 installed.
Factory Preset:
ON (if available)
Front Panel
Access:
Meas Setup, Int Preamp
Monitor Spectrum Or Monitor Band/channel—Optimize Reference Level
[:SENSe]:MONitor:POWer[:RF]:RANGe:AUTO
This optimizes the reference level and the attenuator settings for the current signal
in the current span. To prevent possible damage to the spectrum analyzer, the
values are set with the noise source turned ON.
The Reference Level is set so that the signal is kept as close as possible to the top
of the display. Attenuation is set to a level such that the mixer input never exceeds
–20 dBm. All attenuation settings are allowed, including 0 dB.
Factory Preset:
Front Panel
Access:
AMPLITUDE, Optimize Ref Level
Monitor Spectrum or Monitor Band/Channel—Trace Points
[:SENSe]:MONitor:SWEep:POINts?
Allows you to query the number of trace points.
Factory Preset:
601
Range:
101 to 8192
Front Panel
Access:
Sweep
Monitor Spectrum or Monitor Band/Channel—Sweep Time
[:SENSe]:MONitor:SWEep:TIME <value>
[:SENSe]:MONitor:SWEep:TIME?
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Specifies the sweep time of the measurement.
Factory Preset:
Automatically calculated
Range:
1 µs to 2 ksecs in zero span
1 ms to 2 ksecs in swept mode
Front Panel
Access:
Sweep
Monitor Spectrum or Monitor Band/Channel—Time Mode
[:SENSe]:MONitor:SWEep:TIME:AUTO OFF|ON|0|1
[:SENSe]:MONitor:SWEep:TIME:AUTO?
Specifies whether the sweep time is set automatically or manually.
Factory Preset:
ON (Auto)
Remarks:
If set to Auto, the sweep time will be affected by the RBW
setting.
Front Panel
Access:
Chapter 7
Sweep
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Noise Figure Measurement
Commands for querying the noise figure measurement results and for setting to the
default values are found in the MEASure group of commands. The equivalent
front panel keys for the parameters described in the following commands are found
under the Meas Setup key, after the Noise Figure measurement has been selected
from the MEASURE key menu.
Noise Figure—Average Count
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:AVERage:COUNt <integer>
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:AVERage:COUNt?
Set the number of data acquisitions that will be averaged. After the specified
number of average counts, the averaging mode (terminal control) setting
determines the averaging action.
Factory Preset:
10
Range:
1 to 1000
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Meas Setup, Avg Number
Noise Figure—Averaging State
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:AVERage[:STATe] OFF|ON|0|1
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:AVERage[:STATe]?
Turn averaging on or off.
Factory Preset:
OFF
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Remarks:
The SCPI command :CONFigure:NFIGure does not switch
averaging ON, but rather sets averaging to the factory default of
OFF.
Front Panel
Access:
Meas Setup, Avg Number
Noise Figure—Averaging Termination Control
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:AVERage:TCONtrol?
Queries the type of termination control used for the averaging function. This
determines the averaging action after the specified number of data acquisitions
(average count) is reached.
REPeat - After reaching the average count, the averaging is reset and a new
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average is started.
Factory Preset:
REPeat
Range:
REPeat only
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Remarks:
It is not possible to perform exponential averaging on noise
figure measurements, so repeat averaging is always used.
Front Panel
Access:
Front Panel access is disabled (grayed out) as REPeat is the only
option.
Noise Figure—Resolution Bandwidth
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution] <freq>
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]?
Enables you to select the 3.01 dB resolution bandwidth (RBW) of the analyzer in
10% steps from 1 Hz to 3 MHz, plus bandwidths of 4, 5, 6, or 8 MHz.
If an unavailable bandwidth is specified, the closest available bandwidth is
selected.
Sweep time is coupled to RBW. As the RBW changes, the sweep time (if set to
Auto) is changed to maintain amplitude calibration.
Factory Preset:
1 MHz
Range:
1 Hz to 8 MHz
Default Unit:
Hz
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Chapter 7
BW/Avg
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Noise Figure—Resolution Bandwidth Automatic
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]:AUTO
OFF|ON|0|1
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]:AUTO?
Couples the resolution bandwidth to the frequency span.
When set to Auto, the RBW is set to a value that gives you the best results. The
actual RBW settings used for various frequencies are shown in the table below.
Table 7-1
RBW Auto Settings for the PSA Series of Analyzers
Measurement Frequency
Resolution Bandwidth
< 3 MHz
Measurement Frequency / 10
3 MHz or higher
1 MHz
When set to Auto, resolution bandwidth is autocoupled to span. The ratio of span
to RBW is set by Span/RBW. The factory default for this ratio is approximately
106:1 when auto coupled.
When Res BW is set to Man, bandwidths are entered by the user, and these
bandwidths are used regardless of other analyzer settings.
Factory Preset:
ON (Auto)
Range:
ON (Auto) | OFF (Manual)| 1 | 0
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
For valid results below 10 MHz, the analyzer must be DC
coupled.
Front Panel
Access:
CAUTION
BW/Avg
Instrument damage can occur if there is a DC component present at the RF INPUT
and DC coupling is selected.
Noise Figure—Calibrate
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:COLLect[:ACQuire] STANdard
Calibrates your measurement for use with a specific noise source. When issuing
this command, the ENR (Excess Noise Ratio) data must already have been entered
into the ENR table, or into the Calibration Table if Common Table has been
switched off.
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NOTE
When performing this calibration using the front panel keys, the Calibrate...
softkey has to be pressed twice. The first time you press the Calibrate... softkey, a
warning message is displayed asking you to confirm that you want to calibrate the
measurement. This safety feature is not present when issuing the remote SCPI
command. The SCPI command only needs to be issued once to be effective.
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Example:
CORR:COLL STAN
Front Panel
Access:
Meas Setup, Calibrate..., Calibrate...
Noise Figure—Number of Entries in Calibration ENR Table
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR:CALibration:TABLe:COUNt?
Returns the number of pairs of entries (that is, frequency and amplitude pairs) in
the calibration ENR (Excess Noise Ratio) table.
Factory Preset:
Not applicable
Range:
1 to 401 frequency/amplitude point pairs.
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Meas Setup, ENR, Cal Table...
Noise Figure—Calibration ENR Table Data
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR:CALibration:TABLe:DATA
<frequency, <amplitude>[,<frequency>, <amplitude>]
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR:CALibration:TABLe:DATA?
Enters data into the current calibration ENR table. Once entered the table can be
stored in a file.
It is not possible to specify units with this command and values are taken to be in
Hz and dB. The query returns values in Hz and dB.
Factory Preset:
Not applicable
Range:
1 to 401 pairs of frequency and amplitude figures.
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
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Front Panel
Access:
Meas Setup, ENR, Cal Table...
Noise Figure—Noise Source ID for Calibration ENR Table
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR:CALibration:TABLe:ID
:DATA <string>
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR:CALibration:TABLe:ID
:DATA?
Enters the ID of the noise source associated with the ENR table used for
calibration. The ID is stored with the ENR table when saving it to file.
Factory Preset:
Not applicable
Range:
Quoted string of up to 12 characters (for example, ’346B’).
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Meas Setup, ENR, Cal Table...
Noise Figure—Noise Source Serial Number for Calibration ENR Table
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR:CALibration:TABLe:SERial
:DATA <string>
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR:CALibration:TABLe:SERial
:DATA?
Enters the serial number of your noise source into the calibration table. This
uniquely identifies the specific noise source associated with this calibration data.
Factory Preset:
Not applicable
Range:
Quoted string of up to 20 characters (for example,
’2037A00729’).
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Meas Setup, ENR, Cal Table...
Noise Figure—Common ENR Table Control
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR:COMMon[:STATe] ON|OFF|1|0
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR:COMMon[:STATe]?
Enables and disables the common ENR table. When enabled, the measurement
ENR table is used for both calibration and measurement. When disabled,
calibration uses its own table.
Factory Preset:
306
ON
Chapter 7
Range:
ON|OFF|1|0
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Meas Setup, ENR, Common Table
Noise Figure—Number of Entries in Measurement ENR Table
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR[:MEASurement]
:TABLe:COUNt?
Queries the number of entries in the measurement ENR (Excess Noise Ratio)
table.
Factory Preset:
Not applicable
Range:
0 to 401 frequency/amplitude point pairs.
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Meas Setup, ENR, Meas Table...
Noise Figure—Noise Source ID for Measurement ENR Table
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR[:MEASurement]:TABLe:ID
:DATA <string>
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR[:MEASurement]:TABLe:ID
:DATA?
Enters the ID of the noise source associated with the ENR table used for
measurement. The ID is stored with the ENR table when saving it to file.
Factory Preset:
Not applicable
Range:
Quoted string of up to 12 characters (for example, ’346B’).
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Meas Setup, ENR, Meas Table...
Noise Figure—Noise Source Serial Number for Measurement ENR Table
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR[:MEASurement]:TABLe
:SERial:DATA <string>
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR[:MEASurement]:TABLe
:SERial:DATA?
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Enters the serial number of the noise source associated with the ENR table used for
measurement. The serial number is stored with the ENR table when saving it.
Factory Preset:
Not applicable
Range:
Quoted string of up to 20 characters (for example,
’2037A00729’).
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Meas Setup, ENR, Meas Table...
Noise Figure—Measurement ENR Table Data
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR[:MEASurement]:TABLe:DATA
<frequency, <amplitude>[,<frequency>, <amplitude>]
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR[:MEASurement]:TABLe:DATA?
Enters data into the current measurement ENR table. Once entered the table can be
stored in a file.
It is not possible to specify units with this command and values are taken to be in
Hz and dB. The query returns values in Hz and dB.
Factory Preset:
Not applicable
Range:
0 to 401 frequency/amplitude point pairs
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Meas Setup, ENR, Meas Table...
Noise Figure—ENR Mode
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR:MODE TABLe|SPOT
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR:MODE?
Selects between table and spot ENR operation.
TABLe – ENR values are taken from the ENR table.
SPOT – A single ENR value is applied at all frequencies.
Factory Preset:
TABLe
Range:
TABLE or SPOT
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
308
Meas Setup, ENR, ENR Mode
Chapter 7
Noise Figure—ENR Spot Value
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR:SPOT <value>
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR:SPOT?
Set the ENR value used when spot ENR is enabled.
The ENR data can be entered in units of dB, Kelvin (K), degrees Celsius (CEL) or
degrees Fahrenheit (FAR). The default unit is dB.
For Thot values below 290K see the commands in “Noise Figure—Spot ENR
Mode” on page 313 and “Noise Figure—ENR THot Value” on page 309.
Factory Preset:
15.2 dB
Default Unit:
dB
Range:
–7.0 dB to 50 dB
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Meas Setup, ENR, Spot
Noise Figure—ENR THot Value
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR:THOT <value>
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:ENR:THOT?
Set the ENR value used when spot ENR is enabled.
The ENR data can be entered in units of Kelvin (K), degrees Celsius (CEL) or
degrees Fahrenheit (FAR). The default unit is Kelvin.
This command would normally be used to enter ENR values below 290K. See the
commands under “Noise Figure—ENR Spot Value” on page 309 and “Noise
Figure—ENR Spot Value” on page 309.
Factory Preset:
9892.8K (equivalent to the Spot ENR default of 15.2 dB)
Default Unit:
K
Range:
0K to 29,650,000K
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Meas Setup, ENR, Spot T Hot
Noise Figure—After DUT Loss Compensation Mode
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:AFTer:MODE FIXed|TABLe
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:AFTer:MODE?
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Sets the mode of operation for the After DUT Loss Compensation.
TABLe – The After DUT Loss Compensation table is used.
FIXed – A single, fixed After DUT Loss Compensation value is used for all
frequencies.
Factory Preset:
FIXed
Range:
FIXed or TABLe
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Input/Output, Loss Comp, After DUT Table...
Noise Figure—After DUT Loss Compensation State
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:AFTer[:STATe] ON|OFF|1|0
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:AFTer[:STATe]?
Enables or disables the After DUT Loss Compensation.
Factory Preset:
OFF
Range:
ON|OFF|1|0
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Input/Output, Loss Comp, Setup...
Noise Figure—Number of Entries in After DUT Loss Compensation Table
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:AFTer:TABLe:COUNt?
Returns the number of frequency/amplitude pairs of entries in the After DUT Loss
Compensation table.
Factory Preset:
0
Range:
0 to 401 frequency/amplitude point pairs
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Input/Output, Loss Comp, After DUT Table...
Noise Figure—After DUT Loss Compensation Table Data
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:AFTer:TABLe:DATA
<frequency>, <amplitude>[,<frequency>, <amplitude>]
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:AFTer:TABLe:DATA?
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Enters frequency/loss pairs into the After DUT loss table. This can be up to a
maximum of 401 pairs.
NOTE
You cannot specify units with this command. Frequencies are assumed to be in Hz
and loss values are in dB.
Factory Preset:
None
Range:
Frequency: 10 Hz to upper frequency limit of your spectrum
analyzer
Amplitude: –200 dB to 200dB
Remarks:
Front Panel
Access:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Input/Output, Loss Comp, After DUT Table...
Noise Figure—After DUT Loss Compensation Fixed Value
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:AFTer:VALue <value>
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:AFTer:VALue?
Specifies the single After DUT Loss Compensation value that is applied at all
frequencies. You cannot specify units with this command. All loss values are given
in dB.
NOTE
This compensation loss value will only be applied if the Compensation After DUT
State is set to On, and if the Compensation After DUT is set to Fixed.
Factory Preset:
0 dB
Range:
–100 dB to +100 dB
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Input/Output, Loss Comp, Setup..., Fixed
Noise Figure—Before DUT Loss Compensation Mode
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:BEFore:MODE FIXed|TABLe
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:BEFore:MODE?
Sets the mode of operation for the Before DUT Loss Compensation.
TABLe – The Before DUT Loss Compensation table is used.
FIXed – A single, fixed Before DUT Loss Compensation value is used for all
frequencies.
Factory Preset:
Chapter 7
FIXed
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Range:
FIXed or TABLe
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Input/Output, Loss Comp, Before DUT Table...
Noise Figure—Before DUT Loss Compensation State
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:BEFore[:STATe]
ON|OFF|1|0
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:BEFore[:STATe]?
Enables or disables the Before DUT Loss Compensation.
Factory Preset:
OFF
Range:
ON|OFF|1|0
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Input/Output, Loss Comp, Setup...
Noise Figure—Number of Entries in Before DUT Loss Compensation Table
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:BEFore:TABLe:COUNt?
Returns the number of frequency/amplitude pairs of entries in the Before DUT
Loss Compensation table.
Factory Preset:
0
Range:
0 to 401 frequency/amplitude point pairs
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Input/Output, Loss Comp, Before DUT Table...
Noise Figure—Before DUT Loss Compensation Table Data
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:BEFore:TABLe:DATA
<frequency>, <amplitude>[,<frequency>, <amplitude>]
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:BEFore:TABLe:DATA?
Enters frequency/loss pairs into the Before DUT loss table. This can be up to a
maximum of 401 pairs.
NOTE
You cannot specify units with this command. Frequencies are assumed to be in Hz
and loss values are in dB.
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Factory Preset:
None
Range:
Frequency: 10 Hz to upper frequency limit of your spectrum
analyzer
Amplitude: –200 dB to 200dB
Remarks:
Front Panel
Access:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Input/Output, Loss Comp, Before DUT Table...
Noise Figure—Before DUT Loss Compensation Fixed Value
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:BEFore:VALue <value>
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:LOSS:BEFore:VALue?
Specifies the single Before DUT Loss Compensation value that is applied at all
frequencies. You cannot specify units with this command. All loss values are given
in dB.
NOTE
This compensation loss value will only be applied if the Compensation Before
DUT State is set to On, and if the Compensation Before DUT is set to Fixed.
Factory Preset:
0 dB
Range:
–100 dB to +100 dB
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Input/Output, Loss Comp, Setup..., Fixed
Noise Figure—Spot ENR Mode
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:SPOT:MODE ENR|THOT
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:SPOT:MODE?
The command “Noise Figure—ENR Spot Value” on page 309 cannot be used to
enter values below 290K. The command “Noise Figure—ENR THot Value” on
page 309 can enter temperature values below 290K. This command selects which
value is used in making measurements.
Factory Preset:
ENR
Range:
ENR or THOT
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Chapter 7
Meas Setup, ENR, Spot, Spot State
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Noise Figure—User Tcold Control
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:TCOLd:USER[:STATe] ON|OFF|1|0
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:TCOLd:USER[:STATe]?
Turns manual control of the TCold value On or Off. When set to Off, the default
value of 296.5 K is used.
Factory Preset:
Off
Range:
ON|OFF|1|0
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Meas Setup, ENR, T cold
Noise Figure—User Tcold Value
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:TCOLd:USER:VALue
<temperature>
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:TCOLd:USER:VALue?
Sets the Tcold value in units of Kelvin (K), degrees Celsius (CEL) or degrees
Fahrenheit (FAR). This is the applied value when User Tcold is enabled.
Factory Preset:
296.5 K
Range:
0 K to 29,650,000 K
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Meas Setup, ENR, T cold
Noise Figure—Correction After DUT Temperature
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:TEMPerature:AFTer
<temperature>
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:TEMPerature:AFTer?
Sets the after DUT temperature in units of Kelvin (K), degrees Celsius (CEL) or
degrees Fahrenheit (FAR).
Factory Preset:
0K
Range:
0 K to 29,650,000 K
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
314
Meas Setup, ENR, T cold
Chapter 7
Noise Figure—Correction Before DUT Temperature
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:TEMPerature:BEFore
<temperature>
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:CORRection:TEMPerature:BEFore?
Sets the before DUT temperature in units of Kelvin (K), degrees Celsius (CEL) or
degrees Fahrenheit (FAR).
Factory Preset:
0K
Range:
0 K to 29,650,000 K
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Meas Setup, ENR, T cold
Noise Figure—Detector
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:DETector[:FUNCtion] AVERage
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:DETector[:FUNCtion]?
Sets and returns the current Detector mode settings.
NOTE
AVERage is the only valid setting for this command.
Factory Preset:
AVERage
Range:
AVERage
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Det/Demod
Noise Figure—Center Frequency Value
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:FREQuency:CENTer <frequency>
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:FREQuency:CENTer?
Sets the center frequency when Frequency Mode is set to Sweep.
The frequency can be entered in units of Hz, kHz, MHz or GHz. The query always
returns the value in Hz.
Factory Preset:
1.505 GHz
Range:
10 kHz to 325 GHz
Remarks:
You will need to use a frequency downconverter to reach the
spectrum analyzer’s maximum center frequency of 325 GHz.
Without a frequency downconverter, your center frequency will
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be limited to the analyzer’s own minimum and maximum. This
is dependent on the model number, as shown below.
E4443A: 10 kHz to 6.78 GHz
E4445A: 10 kHz to 13.2 GHz
E4440A: 10 kHz to 27.0 GHz
E4446A: 10 kHz to 44.0 GHz
E4447A: 10 kHz to 42.98 GHz
E4448A: 10 kHz to 50.0 GHz
Remarks:
Front Panel
Access:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
FREQUENCY/Channel
Noise Figure—Fixed Frequency Value
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:FREQuency:FIXed <frequency>
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:FREQuency:FIXed?
Sets the frequency used when fixed frequency mode is enabled.
The frequency can be entered in units of Hz, kHz, MHz or GHz. The query always
returns the value in Hz.
Factory Preset:
E4401B only: 755 MHz
All other analyzers: 1.505 GHz
Range:
0 Hz to 325 GHz
Remarks:
You will need to use a frequency downconverter to reach the
spectrum analyzer’s maximum fixed frequency of 325 GHz.
Without a frequency downconverter, your maximum fixed
frequency will be limited to the analyzer’s own maximum. This
is dependent on the model number, as shown below.
E4443A: 0 Hz to 6.78 GHz
E4445A: 0 Hz to 13.2 GHz
E4440A: 0 Hz to 27.0 GHz
E4446A: 0 Hz to 44.0 GHz
E4447A: 0 Hz to 42.98 GHz
E4448A: 0 Hz to 50.0 GHz
Remarks:
316
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Chapter 7
Front Panel
Access:
FREQUENCY/Channel
Noise Figure—Frequency List Data
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:FREQuency:LIST:DATA
<frequency>[,<frequency>]
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:FREQuency:LIST:DATA?
Enters frequency values into the frequency table. These values represent the
frequencies at which the noise figure will be measured. The frequency table can
hold up to 401 values. Once loaded, the table can be stored in a file.
You cannot specify units with this command and values are assumed to be Hz. The
query returns values in Hz.
Factory Preset:
Not applicable
Range:
1 to 401 frequencies (in Hz)
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode, and your Frequency
Mode must be set to List.
Front Panel
Access:
FREQUENCY/Channel
Noise Figure—Number of Entries in the Frequency List
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:FREQuency:LIST:COUNt?
Returns an integer representing the number of frequency values in the frequency
table.
Factory Preset:
Not applicable
Range:
1 to 401
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
FREQUENCY/Channel, Freq List
Noise Figure—Frequency Mode
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:FREQuency:MODE SWEep|FIXed|LIST
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:FREQuency:MODE SWEep?
Selects the method by which measurement frequencies are generated.
SWEep - Frequency values are generated from the start frequency, the stop
frequency, and the number of points parameters
FIXed - The fixed frequency value is used
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LIST - Frequencies are taken from a User defined frequency list
Factory Preset:
SWEep
Range:
SWEep, FIXed or LIST
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
FREQUENCY/Channel
Noise Figure—Frequency Span
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:FREQuency:SPAN <span>
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:FREQuency:SPAN?
Selects the frequency span.
The frequency can be entered in units of Hz, kHz, MHz or GHz. The query always
returns the value in Hz.
Factory Preset:
2.990000 GHz
Range:
100 Hz to 325 GHz
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
SPAN/X Scale
Noise Figure—Start Frequency Value
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:FREQuency:STARt <start frequency>
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:FREQuency:STARt?
Selects the start frequency that is used when the Frequency Mode has been set to
SWEep, or when you are using the Fill... option in the Frequency List Form.
The frequency can be entered in units of Hz, kHz, MHz or GHz. The query always
returns the value in Hz.
Factory Preset:
10 MHz
Range:
10 kHz to (325 GHz minus the minimum span setting)
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
318
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Chapter 7
Noise Figure—Stop Frequency Value
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:FREQuency:STOP <stop frequency>
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:FREQuency:STOP?
Selects the stop frequency that is used when the Frequency Mode has been set to
SWEep, or when you are using the Fill... option in the Frequency List Form.
The frequency can be entered in units of Hz, kHz, MHz or GHz. The query always
returns the value in Hz.
Factory Preset:
E4401B only: 1.5 GHz
All other analyzers: 3 GHz
Range:
(10 Hz plus the minimum span setting) to 325 GHz
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
FREQUENCY/Channel
Noise Figure—Internal Preamp Control
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:POWer[:RF]:GAIN[:STATe] ON|OFF|1|0
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:POWer[:RF]:GAIN[:STATe]?
Turns the internal preamp On or Off.
If the preamp is switched On, a correction is applied to compensate for the gain of
the preamp so that the results still show the value at the INPUT connector. If you
are using Option 1DS, the preamp is removed from the circuit, and the correction
is not applied. If you are using Option 110, the correction is applied at all
frequencies from 100 kHz up to the maximum frequency of your analyzer.
Using your internal preamp (if available) dramatically improves the noise figure
over the 100 kHz to 3 GHz frequency range (Option 1DS), or at all frequencies
above 100 kHz (Option 110). If you are measuring within the range of your
preamp, you should always have the internal preamp switched On unless either
you are using an external preamp, or your DUT has sufficient gain.
If the internal preamp is On, this is indicated by “PA” being displayed on the left
side of the screen. The internal preamp is not available if Input Mixer (Int) has
been selected (Option AYZ).
Factory Preset:
ON (if available)
Range:
ON or OFF, 1 or 0
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Chapter 7
Meas Setup
319
Language Reference
Language Reference
SENSe Subsystem
Language Reference
Language Reference
SENSe Subsystem
Noise Figure—Number of Points in a Sweep
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:SWEep:POINts <integer>
[:SENSe]:SWEep:POINts?
Sets the number of points in a sweep.
Factory Preset:
11
Range:
2 to 401
Default Unit:
Points
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
Frequency
Noise Figure—Microwave Attenuation
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:MANual:MWAVe:FIXed <attenuation>
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:MANual:MWAVe:FIXed?
Sets the attenuation to be used. The attenuation can be set in 4 dB increments.
Factory Preset:
0 dB
Range:
0 dB to 40 dB, but within the minimum and maximum
attenuation range.
Default Unit:
dB
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
NOTE
Input/Output
This command has the same effect as
:INPut[:NFIGure]:ATTenuation:VALue <power>. See “RF Attenuation Setting”
on page 258.
320
Chapter 7
Noise Figure—RF Attenuation
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:MANual:RF:FIXed <attenuation>
[:SENSe][:NFIGure]:MANual:RF:FIXed?
Sets the attenuation to be used. The attenuation can be set in 4 dB increments.
Factory Preset:
0 dB
Range:
0 dB to 40 dB, but within the minimum and maximum
attenuation range.
Default Unit:
dB
Remarks:
You must be in the Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Use INSTrument:SELect to set the mode.
Front Panel
Access:
NOTE
Input/Output
This command has the same effect as
:INPut[:NFIGure]:ATTenuation:VALue <power>. See “RF Attenuation Setting”
on page 258.
Chapter 7
321
Language Reference
Language Reference
SENSe Subsystem
Language Reference
Language Reference
SOURce Subsystem
SOURce Subsystem
The SOURce subsystem controls the signal characteristics of the source.
Noise Source Preference
:SOURce[:NFIGure]:NOISe[:PREFerence] NORMal|SNS
:SOURce[:NFIGure]:NOISe[:PREFerence]?
Sets the noise source to be either a NORMal type, or a Smart Noise Source (SNS).
As the PSA analyzer does not support Smart Noise Sources, the noise source will
always be NORMal, and this command will have no effect on a PSA analyzer.
Factory Preset:
NORMal
Front Panel
Access:
No front panel access
322
Chapter 7
TRACe Subsystem
TRACe subsystem controls access to the instruments internal trace memory.
NOTE
Refer also to :CALCulate and :MMEMory subsystems for more trace and limit
line commands.
Query Trace Maximum Amplitude
:TRACe[:NFIGure][:DATA]:CORRected|:UNCorrected:AMPLitude
:MAXimum? <trace>
Returns the maximum amplitude of the given trace and the frequency at which it
occurs. The returned values are comma separated and the amplitude value
precedes the frequency.
When corrected results are requested, <trace> can be one of:
GAIN, returning results in dB
NFACtor, returning linear results
NFIGure, returning results in dB
PCOLd, returning results in dB
PHOT, returning results in dB
TEFFective, returning results in degrees K
When uncorrected results are requested, <trace> can be one of:
NFACtor, returning linear results
NFIGure, returning results in dB
PCOLd, returning results in dB
PHOT, returning results in dB
TEFFective, returning results in degrees K
YFACor, returning results in dB
You must be in Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Front Panel
Access:
Chapter 7
Not available
323
Language Reference
Language Reference
TRACe Subsystem
Language Reference
Language Reference
TRACe Subsystem
Query Trace Minimum Amplitude
:TRACe[:NFIGure][:DATA]:CORRected|:UNCorrected:AMPLitude:MI
Nimum? <trace>
Returns the minimum amplitude of the given trace and the frequency at which it
occurs. The returned values are comma separated and the amplitude value
precedes the frequency.
When corrected results are requested, <trace> can be one of:
GAIN, returning results in dB
NFACtor, returning linear results
NFIGure, returning results in dB
PCOLd, returning results in dB
PHOT, returning results in dB
TEFFective, returning results in degrees K
When uncorrected results are requested, <trace> can be one of:
NFACtor, returning linear results
NFIGure, returning results in dB
PCOLd, returning results in dB
PHOT, returning results in dB
TEFFective, returning results in degrees K
YFACor, returning results in dB
You must be in Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Front Panel
Access:
Not available
Query Trace Amplitude
:TRACe[:NFIGure][:DATA]:CORRected|:UNCorrected:AMPLitude
[:VALue]? <trace>,<freq>
Returns the amplitude value of the given trace at the specified frequency.
When corrected results are requested, <trace> can be one of:
GAIN, returning results in dB
NFACtor, returning linear results
NFIGure, returning results in dB
PCOLd, returning results in dB
PHOT, returning results in dB
324
Chapter 7
TEFFective, returning results in degrees K
When uncorrected results are requested, <trace> can be one of:
NFACtor, returning linear results
NFIGure, returning results in dB
PCOLd, returning results in dB
PHOT, returning results in dB
TEFFective, returning results in degrees K
YFACor, returning results in dB
You must be in Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Front Panel
Access:
Not available
Query Trace Delta
:TRACe[:NFIGure][:DATA]:CORRected|:UNCorrected:DELTa?
<trace>,<freq1>,<freq2>
Returns the value obtained by subtracting the amplitude at frequency1 from that at
frequency2.
When corrected results are requested, <trace> can be one of:
GAIN, returning results in dB
NFACtor, returning linear results
NFIGure, returning results in dB
PCOLd, returning results in dB
PHOT, returning results in dB
TEFFective, returning results in degrees K
When uncorrected results are requested, <trace> can be one of:
NFACtor, returning linear results
NFIGure, returning results in dB
PCOLd, returning results in dB
PHOT, returning results in dB
TEFFective, returning results in degrees K
YFACor, returning results in dB
You must be in Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Front Panel
Access:
Chapter 7
Not available
325
Language Reference
Language Reference
TRACe Subsystem
Language Reference
Language Reference
TRACe Subsystem
Query Trace Peak to Peak
:TRACe[:NFIGure][:DATA]:CORRected|:UNCorrected:PTPeak?
<trace>
Returns the difference between the maximum and minimum amplitude values on
the given trace and the frequency difference between the two frequency points
where the maximum and minimum occur. The returned values are comma
separated and the amplitude value precedes the frequency.
When corrected results are requested, <trace> can be one of:
GAIN, returning results in dB
NFACtor, returning linear results
NFIGure, returning results in dB
PCOLd, returning results in dB
PHOT, returning results in dB
TEFFective, returning results in degrees K
When uncorrected results are requested, <trace> can be one of:
NFACtor, returning linear results
NFIGure, returning results in dB
PCOLd, returning results in dB
PHOT, returning results in dB
TEFFective, returning results in degrees K
YFACtor, returning results in dB
You must be in Noise Figure mode to use this command.
Front Panel
Access:
326
Not available
Chapter 7
Troubleshooting Guide
8
Troubleshooting Guide
327
Troubleshooting Guide
Common Problems and their Resolution
Common Problems and their Resolution
Below is a list of some of the more common problems associated with
making noise figure measurements, and hints on their resolution.
• Results are wrong at low frequencies
Troubleshooting Guide
If you are using a PSA analyzer model number E4440A, E4443A or
E4445A, the AC/DC coupling needs to be set to DC Coupling. DC
Coupling is required for greatest accuracy when measuring
frequencies below 20 MHz.
CAUTION
When changing to DC Coupling, make sure there is no DC component
being fed into the PSA’s input port as this could seriously damage the
hardware.
• Spurs in the Frequency Band you are Measuring
If there are any spurs in the frequency band that you are measuring,
these can affect the measurement. Signals as low as –60 dBm can
affect your noise figure measurement. Use the Monitor Spectrum
measurement with Preamp switched On and Attenuation set to 0 dB to
look for spurs. The Agilent Technologies application note 57-2 Noise
Figure Measurement Accuracy - the Y-Factor Method has more
information in the Preventing Interfering Signals section. This
application note is available from the Agilent website at
http://www.agilent.com.
• DSB Measurement on a Downconverter - Measurement are too Low
If you are making a DSB measurement on a downconverting DUT,
you must enter a Loss Compensation of –3 dB at a Temperature of
290 K. This is because both double sidebands fold down to the same
IF frequency, thus doubling the measured power.
NOTE
This does not apply if you are using the System Downconverter because
both sidebands are present in the calibration and in the measurement.
• Does the LO Signal Contain Broadband Noise at the IF?
When testing Frequency Converters, make sure that the LO signal
does not contain broadband noise at the IF frequency. To eliminate
broadband noise at the LO, insert a high-pass filter on the LO port
when measuring a downconverter. When measuring an upconverter,
insert a low-pass filter on the LO port. These filters must pass
signals at the LO frequency, but not at the IF frequency.
• My Results are too High or too Low
When you are using Loss Compensation, it is important to set the
correct DUT temperature. Setting the Temperature to 290 K will
328
Chapter 8
Troubleshooting Guide
Common Problems and their Resolution
compensate for the noise as well as the gain. Leaving the DUT
Temperature at 0 K will result in only the gain being compensated.
• What Sort of Tolerances Should I Expect in my Measurement?
If you are not sure what level of tolerance to expect in your results,
you can use the Uncertainty Calculator (See “Noise Figure Uncertainty
Calculator” on page 100.) to calculate the expected result tolerances.
This will give you a guide to your expected measurement accuracy.
• The Measurement Accuracy is not what I Expected
• Is the DUT Overdriving the Analyzer?
Check that the DUT is not overdriving the analyzer. Table 2-1,
“Power Detection and Ranging on PSA Series Analyzers,” on page 57
gives some guidance on the levels required.
To check for overdriving of the analyzer, that is, compression
occurring at the preamp stage, set the attenuation to 0 dB and note
the noise figure of your DUT. Now increase the attenuation by one
step (4 dB) by pressing the up-arrow key. If your noise figure
changes by more than 0.5 dB, attenuation is required. Repeat this
process until you have found the lowest level of attenuation that
gives you a stable noise figure result, and use this attenuation level
for your measurements.
When using external preamps or high-gain DUTs, ensure that
neither the external preamp (or the high-gain DUT) nor the internal
preamp go into compression as this will affect the accuracy of your
measurements. If you suspect that one or other of the preamps is
going into compression, use attenuation prior to that preamp to
prevent compression. Note that the analyzer’s internal attenuator
will only affect compression occurring in the internal preamp. It will
not have any effect on any compression occurring in the external
preamp.
• Measurements are Taking too Long
If your measurements are taking too long, you can reduce the time
taken by switching Averaging to Off, by increasing the Resolution
Bandwidth, and by reducing the Number of Points on a swept
measurement.
NOTE
If the measurement is taking longer than about 8 minutes, it is
advisable to switch Alignments to Off because the measurement will
restart itself every time the analyzer realigns itself.
• Calibration is Taking too Long
Chapter 8
329
Troubleshooting Guide
For maximum accuracy, it is advisable not to attempt to measure
noise figures greater than 10 dB above the relevant ENR value of
the noise source.
Troubleshooting Guide
Common Problems and their Resolution
If you find that your calibration is taking too long, you can reduce
the calibration time by reducing the frequency span or the
attenuation range. This reduces the number of frequency points at
which the analyzer is calibrated. Either increase the minimum
frequency in the calibration range, or decrease the maximum
frequency.
Troubleshooting Guide
• Calibration Data > 3 GHz is not what I Expected
Measurement performance > 3 GHz is not specified. If you do not
have a preamp and you are calibrating above 3 GHz, the calibration
data will vary significantly. Measurements made with this
calibration data might be valid, but only if the device you are testing
has a high enough gain and noise figure, such that the sum of these
is about 35 dB or more. The measurement accuracy will be poor. See
“Problems Measuring Above 3 GHz” on page 331.
330
Chapter 8
Troubleshooting Guide
Problems Measuring Above 3 GHz
Problems Measuring Above 3 GHz
A preamp is needed for measurements > 3 GHz. Agilent Option 110
(100 kHz to 50 GHz Internal Preamp) is ideal for this purpose. While it
is possible to make valid measurements without a preamp,
measurement accuracy is usually poor. The following curves describe
the PSA noise figure measurement error for DUTs with various gains
and noise figures.
Figure 8-1
Without Preamp - Nominal NF Error vs. DUT Gain
Troubleshooting Guide
PSA Frequency Range: >3 GHz (Non-Warranted)
Assumptions: Measurement Frequency 12 GHz, Instrument NF = 26.5 dB,
Instrument VSWR = 1.4, Instrument Gain Uncertainty = 2.2 dB, Instrument
NF Uncertainty = 0.05 dB, Agilent 346B Source with Uncertainty = 0.2 dB,
Source VSWR = 1.25, DUT input/output VSWR = 1.5
Curves for Positive Error Ranges for DUT NFs of 5, 10, and 15 dB
— To use these curves you must be able to estimate the NF and Gain
performance of the device that you want to test. Use these values to
estimate the amount of measurement error.
— For Example, if your DUT has NF = ~5 dB and gain = 20 dB.
Plotting these values on the curves will give you an estimated error
between ± 3 dB. This amount of measurement uncertainty is
probably too large for the your measurement needs.
Chapter 8
331
Troubleshooting Guide
Problems Measuring Above 3 GHz
— Now add a preamp to the measurement system. Assume this
external preamp has NF = 6 dB and gain = 23 dB.
— Assume that the measurement is being made at 12 GHz where the
PSA NF = 26.5 dB. Then the combined NF of the preamp + PSA is
~8 dB. The following curves describe the noise figure measurement
error for various DUTs, when the preamp is being used with the
spectrum analyzer
Troubleshooting Guide
Note that the Friss equation can be used to figure out what level of
preamp performance is needed for the desired PSA frequency range.
See also Figure 8-3 below for nominal PSA noise figure values.
Figure 8-2
Computed Noise Figure Uncertainty versus DUT Gain,
Non-warranted Frequency Range
PSA Frequency Range: >3 GHz (Non-Warranted)
Assumptions: Same as above, with the addition of an external preamp.
With an external preamp, the preamp/analyzer combination NF is 7.93 dB;
the external preamp alone has a gain of 23 dB and an NF of 6 dB.
Instrument VSWR is now that of the external preamp; VSWR = 2.6
Curves for Positive Error Ranges for DUT NFs of 5, 10, and 15 dB
— Now suppose you have the same DUT with NF = ~5 dB and gain =
20 dB. Plotting these values on the curves will give you an estimated
error that is very small, so the PSA can be used for this
measurement.
332
Chapter 8
Troubleshooting Guide
Problems Measuring Above 3 GHz
— Suppose you measure a different DUT that has no gain and has
NF = 5 dB. Plotting these DUT values on the above curves gives
about 4 dB measurement error. So this second DUT’s measurement
results would have an unacceptable measurement error.
Figure 8-3
No Preamp - Nominal Noise Figure1
Troubleshooting Guide
1. Graph shows measurements made with one sample analyzer
Chapter 8
333
Troubleshooting Guide
Troubleshooting Guide
Problems Measuring Above 3 GHz
334
Chapter 8
Contacting Agilent Technologies
9
Contacting Agilent Technologies
335
Contacting Agilent Technologies
By internet, phone, or fax, get assistance with all your test and
measurement needs.
Table 9-1 Contacting Agilent
Online assistance: www.agilent.com/find/assist
United States
(tel) 1 800 452 4844
Latin America
(tel) (305) 269 7500
(fax) (305) 269 7599
Canada
(tel) 1 877 894 4414
(fax) (905) 282-6495
Europe
(tel) (+31) 20 547 2323
(fax) (+31) 20 547 2390
New Zealand
(tel) 0 800 738 378
(fax) (+64) 4 495 8950
Japan
(tel) (+81) 426 56 7832
(fax) (+81) 426 56 7840
Australia
(tel) 1 800 629 485
(fax) (+61) 3 9210 5947
Contacting Agilent Technologies
Asia Call Center Numbers
Country
Phone Number
Fax Number
Singapore
1-800-375-8100
(65) 836-0252
Malaysia
1-800-828-848
1-800-801664
Philippines
(632) 8426802
1-800-16510170 (PLDT
Subscriber Only)
(632) 8426809
1-800-16510288 (PLDT
Subscriber Only)
Thailand
(088) 226-008 (outside Bangkok)
(662) 661-3999 (within Bangkok)
(66) 1-661-3714
Hong Kong
800-930-871
(852) 2506 9233
Taiwan
0800-047-866
(886) 2 25456723
People’s Republic
of China
800-810-0189 (preferred)
10800-650-0021
10800-650-0121
India
1-600-11-2929
000-800-650-1101
336
Chapter 9
Index
DANL floor
Numerics
110
option, 23, 55, 57, 79, 101, 300,
319, 331
1DS
option, 23, 101, 300
346A noise source, 240
346B noise source, 240
346C noise source, 240
8970B mode comparison, 118
8970B modes, 118
Index
B
bad calibration data, 331
bandwidth, 50
resolution BW, 293, 304
setting resolution BW, 284, 293,
303
setting video BW, 284, 294
video BW, 284, 294
video BW ratio, 285, 294
before DUT loss compensation
noise figure, 311, 312, 313
binary data order, 252
blank
View/Trace, 225
BW/Avg
front-panel key, 191
menu map, 159, 160
Res BW, 191
Auto, 191
Manual, 191
Span/RBW, 191
VBW/RBW, 191
Video BW, 191
byte order of data, 252
C
cal table
entering data, 54
SNS, 54
CALCulate commands, 230
calibrate, 304
calibration, 52
input attenuation range, 56
maximum microwave
attenuation, 259
maximum microwave
attenuation input, 320
maximum RF attenuation, 259,
321
microwave attenuation, 258
minimum microwave
attenuation, 259
minimum RF attenuation input,
259
performing calibration, 54
reasons for calibration, 53
RF attenuation input, 258
using interpolated results, 53
calibration data is bad, 331
calibration table
data, 305, 306
ID, 306
noise figure, 305
serial number, 306
carrier frequency drift
average count, 302
center freq menu key, 198
center frequency setting, 295, 315
changing
instrument settings, 283
Choose Option key, 29
clear write
View/Trace, 225
cold power, 273
cold temperature, 276
combined
View/Trace, 225
combined graph
display, 247
commands
CALCulate, 230
CONFigure, 265
DISPlay, 242
FETCh, 266
FORMat, 252
INITiate, 266
INPut, 258
INSTrument, 261
MEASure, 265
MMEMory, 278
READ, 267
SENSe, 283
SOURce, 322
TRACe, 323
compatibility, 23
compensation
loss after DUT, 309, 310, 311
loss before DUT, 311, 312, 313
configure
downconverter, 286
DUT amplifier mode, 287
frequency downconverter, 286
frequency upconverter, 290
IF frequency downconverter,
287
IF frequency upconverter, 291
local oscillator, 287, 289, 291
337
Index
A
ac input coupling, 260
accuracy
above 3 GHz, 331
greater, 23
active license key, 30
how to locate, 30
after DUT loss compensation
noise figure, 309, 310, 311
Agilent Technologies URL, 2, 82
amplitude
delta trace, 325
trace, 324
trace delta, 325
trace maximum, 323
trace minimum, 324
AMPLITUDE Y Scale
Attenuation, 189
Auto Scale, 189
front-panel key, 189
menu, 157, 158
Optimize Ref Level, 190
Ref Position, 189
Ref Value, 189
Scale/Div, 189
analyzer
noise figure, 238
analyzer uncertainty
noise figure, 238
annotation, 244
display, 194
application notes, 82
noise figure, 82
applications, selecting, 261, 262
ASCII data format, 252
attenuation, 189, 320, 321
maximum microwave input,
259, 320
maximum RF input, 259, 321
minimum microwave input, 259
minimum RF input, 259
noise figure, 203
RF input, 258
setting, 299
auto scale
AMPLITUDE Y Scale, 189
auto sweep time, 224
average count
carrier frequency drift, 302
average detection, 294
average mode, 207
average state
noise figure, 302
averaging, 50
monitor band/channel, 292
noise figure, 302
avg mode key, 207
avg number
Meas Setup, 207
Index
Index
mode IF frequency
downconverter, 286, 288,
290
mode system downconverter,
288
oscillator, 289
system, 289
upconverter, 290
CONFigure command use, 264
CONFigure commands, 265
configuring
frequency converter
measurements, 105
loss compensation
fixed value, 90
table value, 93
temperature loss, 98
connecting
for extended measurements,
121
continuous
Peak Search, 205
continuous measurement, 224
continuous sweep, 224
continuous vs. single
measurement mode, 255
control measurement commands,
255
corrected data
display, 244
correction
enter after DUT temperature,
314
enter before DUT temperature,
315
enter T cold temperature, 314
enter Tcold temperature, 314
setting ENR spot mode, 313
count
frequency list, 317
coupling
ac/dc, 260
creating
frequency list, 47
limit line, 87
current measurement, 241
D
data format, 252
data from measurements, 264
data security, 34
date display, 244
dc input coupling, 260
default settings
restoring, 207, 215
default values, setting remotely,
265
338
defaults, 291
deleting an
application/personality, 25
delta
marker, 69, 204
delta pair markers, 70, 204
demodulation functions, 192
Det/Demod
Detector
Auto, 192
Average, 192
Negative Peak, 193
Normal, 192
Peak, 193
Sample, 192
front-panel key, 192
Det/Demod menu map, 162
detection type, 294
detector key, 192
diagram
DUT setup
Mode Setup, 217
Disable All Limits menu key, 197
disk drive commands, 278
Display, 194
annotation, 194
display line, 194
edit., 194
front-panel key, 194
full Screen, 194
graticule, 194
menu, 194
preferences, 194
display
annotation, 244
combined graph, 247
combining graph, 63
corrected data, 244
date, 244
display reference, 67
format, 59, 246
full screen, 60
graph view, 247
graticule, 64, 65
graticule lines, 246
limits, 194
markers, 68
reference position, 249
reference value, 248
result type, 61
scaling, 66
single graph, 62
trace data, 245
DISPlay commands, 242
display commands, 242
display line
display, 194
reference level, 243
scale/div, 243, 247
setting, 242
state, 243
Display menu map, 163, 164
displaying results, 59
downconverter
frequency representation, 286
IF frequency, 286, 288, 290
offset, 287
Downconverter description, 130
downconverter system, 288
Downconverting
Variable IF Fixed LO, 109
DUT
amplifier configure mode, 287
correct after temperature, 314
correct before temperature, 315
DUT
Mode Setup, 216
Frequency-Downconverting,
109
gain, 236
input match, 236
noise figure, 237
output match, 237
setup, 215, 216
DUT types
Frequency-Upconverting, 112
overview, 107
E
E4445 HA5, 24
edit
Display, 194
editor
limit line, 87
ENR, 37, 38, 39
mode, 308
setting spot mode, 313
spot, 308
spot mode, 309
spot T hot, 309
spot value, 43
table, 308
uncertainty, 239
ENR data
extract ENR from SNS, 54
load from diskette, 38
manual entry, 39
ENR table
calibrate, 37
common, 37
data entry, 38
measurement, 38
entering normal ENR data, 38
equipment required, 23, 24
Index
Index
example
making a basic amplifier
measurement, 76
Excess Noise Ratio, 37, 38, 39
ext LO freq
DUT Setup, 216
Index
option, 24
hardware
requirements, 23, 24
hot power, 274, 275
G
gain, 270
analyzer, 237
DUT, 236
instrument, 237
graph
view display, 247
View/Trace, 225
zoom window, 250
graticule, 64, 65
display, 194
graticule lines
display, 246
I
IF frequency downconverter, 286,
288, 290
offset, 287
IF frequency upconverter
offset, 291
INITiate commands, 266
initiate measurement, 255, 256
input
attenuation, 299
attenuation range RF, 56
calibration, 56
configuration, 258
coupling, 260
maximum microwave
attenuation, 259
maximum RF attenuation, 259
microwave attenuation, 258
minimum microwave
attenuation, 259
minimum RF attenuation, 259
RF attenuation, 258
INPut commands, 258
Input front-panel key, 201
input match
DUT, 236
Input/Output
attenuation, noise figure, 203
input/output, 203
Input/Output front-panel key, 201
Input/Output menu map, 169,
170
Install Now key, 29
Installing and Obtaining a license
key, 29
installing measurement
personalities, 25
instrument
configuration, 261
gain, 237
match, 238
noise figure, 238
noise figure uncertainty, 238
saving state, 33
INSTrument commands, 261
internal preamp, 300, 319
meas setup, 207
interpolated corrected state, 52
invalid result, 75
H
HA5
K
key presses
339
Index
F
Factory Preset key, 221
FAQs, 328
FETCh command use, 264
FETCh commands, 266
File Type menu map, 165, 166
files
ENR data, 278, 279
frequency list data, 278, 279
limit lines, 278, 279
loss compensation data, 279,
280
filter requirements, 130
Find
Peak Search, 205
fixed ENR, 43
Fixed Freq menu key, 199
Fixed value loss compensation, 90
format, 59
display, 246
FORMat commands, 252
format, data, 252
freq context
DUT setup
Mode Setup, 216
Freq List menu key, 199
freq mode
fixed, 46
list, 46
sweep, 46
Freq Mode menu key, 199
frequency
center, 295
center setting, 315
fixed setting, 316, 317
list count, 317
measurement mode, 317
offset, 295, 296
span, 296, 297, 298, 318
start, 298, 318
stop, 299, 319
FREQUENCY Channel
front-panel key, 198
FREQUENCY Channel menu
map, 167, 168
frequency downconverter
offset, 287
representation, 286, 289
Frequency Downconverting DUT,
109
frequency list
creating, 47
using swept points, 49
using the fill, 49
Frequency Restrictions, 150
frequency span
full, 298
setting, 296, 297
zero, 298
frequency upconverter
offset, 291
representation, 290
Frequency-Converting
description, 123
front-panel key
AMPLITUDE Y Scale, 189
BW/Avg, 191
Det/Demod, 192
Display, 194
FREQUENCY Channel, 198
Input, 201
Input/Output, 201
Marker, 204
Meas Setup, 207
MEASURE, 213
MODE, 214
Mode Setup, 215, 216, 218
Peak Search, 205
Preset, 221
Source, 222
SPAN X Scale, 223
Sweep Menu, 224
Trace/View. See front panel key
View/Trace
View/Trace
full screen, 60
display, 194
Full Screen key, 242
further information on noise
figure, 82
Index
Fixed IF Variable LO (System
Downconvert), 115
Variable IF Fixed LO
(Downconvert), 109
variable IF fixed LO
(upconvert), 112
Index
L
license key
obtaining and installing, 29
limit line
editor, 87
line 1, 85
line 2, 85
line 3, 85
line 4, 85
lower, 233
points on line, 231
specifying points, 231
state, 232
storing, 279
test, 232
testing, 230
upper, 233
use of, 85
limits
display, 194
loading
ENR data from an SNS, 38
ENR data from file, 278
frequency list data to file, 278
limit lines from file, 278
loss compensation data from
file, 279
loading an
application/personality, 25
local oscillator
offset, 287, 289, 291
loss compensation, 201
after DUT, 309, 310, 311
before DUT, 311, 312, 313
loss compensation configuring,
90, 93
loss compensation use, 90
lower limit line, 233
M
making measurements, 264
manual sweep time, 224
Marker, 204
marker, 68
all off, 204
band pair, 233
delta, 204, 233
delta pair, 70, 204
mode, 233
normal, 204, 233
340
off, 204, 235
on, 235
search, 234
search type, 234
searching, 72
select marker, 204
selecting, 68
state, 235
states, 69
X position, 235
Y position, 236
marker 1, 68
marker 2, 68
marker 3, 68
marker 4, 68
Marker front-panel key, 204
Marker menu map, 172
marker state
delta, 69, 70
noise figure, 235
mass storage commands, 278
match
analyzer, 238
instrument, 238
max hold
View/Trace, 225
maximum amplitude
trace, 323
Meas, 207
Meas Setup
avg number, 207
internal preamp, 207
menu map, 173, 174
restore meas defaults, 207
Meas Setup front-panel key, 207
Measure
Monitor Spectrum, 213
measure, 213
noise figure, 213
MEASure command use, 264
MEASure commands, 265
MEASURE front-panel key, 213
MEASURE menu map, 171, 175
measurement, 213
DUT type, 287
frequency mode, 317
points, 224
query current, 241
sweep, 76
measurement modes
8970B comparison, 118
NFA comparison, 118
selecting, 261, 262
measurement table, 307
data, 308
ID, 307
serial number, 307
measurement uncertainty, 100
measurements
CONF/FETC/MEAS/READ
commands, 264
control of, 255
getting results, 264
monitor band/channel, 292
monitor spectrum, 268
noise figure, 269, 270, 271, 272,
273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 302
setting default values remotely,
265
single/continuous, 255
memory commands, 278
menu map
Amplitude Y Scale, 157, 158
BW/Avg, 159, 160
Det/Demod, 162
Display, 163, 164
File Type, 165, 166
FREQUENCY Channel, 167,
168
Input/Output, 169, 170
Marker, 172
Meas Setup, 173, 174
MEASURE, 171, 175
Mode Setup, 177, 178
Model, 176
MonitorSpectrum, 161
Source, 179
SPAN X Scale, 180, 181
Sweep, 182, 183
Trace/View, 184, 185
Uncertainty Contributions, 186
View/Trace
see menu map
Trace/View
meter
View/Trace, 225
methods of normal ENR data
entry, 38
microwave
input attenuation
microwave input, 258
maximum input attenuation,
259, 320
minimum input attenuation,
259
microwave attenuation, 320
min hold
View/Trace, 225
minimum amplitude
trace, 324
missing options, 25
MMEMory commands, 278
mode
fixed frequency, 49
Index
Index
noise figure, 214
spectrum analysis, 214
MODE front-panel key, 214
Mode menu map, 176
Mode Preset key, 221
Mode Setup
DUT Setup, 216
freq context, 216
Sideband, 216
System Downconverter, 216
DUT setup, 215, 216
diagram, 217
ext LO freq, 216
properties, 215
restore Mode Setup defaults,
215
Uncertainty Calculator, 218
uncertainty calculator, 215
view calculations, 218
view calculator, 218
Mode Setup front-panel key, 215,
216, 218
Mode Setup menu map, 177, 178
monitor
sweep time, 300, 301
trace points, 300
monitor band/channel
average count, 292
averaging state, 292
measurement, 292
monitor band/channel - averaging
termination control, 292
Monitor Spectrum
Measure, 213
monitor spectrum measurement,
268
Index
serial number, 40
smart, 37
noise source selection
normal or sns, 322
normal
marker, 204
noise source selection, 322
normal noise source, 37
O
offset frequency setting, 295, 296
optimize ref level
AMPLITUDE Y Scale, 190
option
110, 23, 55, 57, 79, 101, 300,
319, 331
1DS, 23, 101, 300
HA5, 24
options
loading/deleting, 25
options not in instrument
memory, 25
oscillator
offset, 287, 289, 291
output match
DUT, 237
overview
DUT types, 107
frequency converter
measurements, 105
P
pass/fail test, 230
pause
measurement, 256
restart, 257
Pcold, 273
Peak, 205
Peak Search
continuous, 205
Find, 205
search type, 205
select marker, 205
Peak Search front-panel key, 205
peak to peak
trace, 326
personalities
selecting, 261, 262
personality options not in
instrument, 25
Phot, 274
points
in sweep, 320
menu key, 199
sweep, 224
positive peak detection, 294
power cycle, 33
341
Index
N
negative peak detection, 294
NFA mode comparison, 118
NFA modes, 118
noise factor, 271
noise figure, 272, 304
after DUT loss compensation,
309, 310, 311
analyzer, 238
analyzer uncertainty, 238
average state, 302
averaging termination control,
302
before DUT loss compensation,
311, 312, 313
calibration, 304
calibration table, 305
data, 305
calibration table data, 306
calibration table ID, 306
calibration table serial number,
306
cold power, 273
cold temp., 276
corrections, 201, 244
DUT, 237
DUT gain, 236
DUT input match, 236
DUT output match, 237
ENR mode, 308
ENR spot mode, 309
ENR spot T hot, 309
ENR uncertainty, 239
further information, 82
gain, 270
hot power, 274, 275
instrument, 238
instrument gain, 237
instrument match, 238
instrument uncertainty, 238
limit line
display, 232
type, 233
limit line data, 231
limit line state, 232
limit line test, 232
limit lines, 231
marker band pair, 233
marker mode, 233
marker search, 234
marker search type, 234
marker state, 235
marker X position, 235
marker Y position, 236
measure, 213
measurement, 269, 302
measurement table data, 308
measurement table ID, 307
measurement table serial
number, 307
mode, 214
noise factor, 271
RSS uncertainty, 239
source ENR uncertainty, 239
source match, 239
source type, 240
uncertainty, 100
Y factor, 277
noise figure measurement
noise figure, 272
noise figure measurement table,
307
noise figure measurements
further information, 82
noise source, 222
model number, 40
normal, 37
Index
Index
preamp
internal, 300, 319
preferences
display, 194
preset, 33
factory, 33, 221
mode, 221
user, 33, 221
Preset front-panel key, 221
problems with measurement, 328
properties
Mode Setup, 215
R
READ command use, 264
READ commands, 267
real number data format, 252
ref level, 67
Ref Position
AMPLITUDE Y Scale, 189
Ref Value
AMPLITUDE Y Scale, 189
reference position
display, 249
reference value
display, 248
requirements
hardware, 23, 24
Res BW
BW/Avg, 191
Res BW key, 191
resolution bandwidth, 191
adjusting, 191
auto man, 191
on/off, 293, 304
setting, 284, 293, 303
restart measurement, 256, 257
restore meas defaults
Meas Setup, 207
restore Mode Setup defaults
Mode Setup, 215
restricted terms, 150
result A
View/Trace, 225
result B
View/Trace, 226
result invalid, 75
result type, 61
results displaying, 59
resume measurement, 257
RF
input attenuation, 258
maximum input attenuation,
259, 321
minimum input attenuation,
259
RF attenuation, 321
342
RF input attenuation range, 56
RMS detection, 294
RSS uncertainty
noise figure, 239
S
sample detection, 294
saving
ENR table data, 42
instrument state, 33
limit lines, 279
setup settings, 33
state settings, 33
traces, 280
saving instrument state, 33
saving traces, 281
scale/div
AMPLITUDE Y Scale, 189
display line, 247
scaling, 66
search type
Peak Search, 205
searching markers, 72
security, 34
select marker, 204
Peak Search, 205
selecting
averaging, 51
bandwidth, 50
fixed freq, 49
freq list, 47
freq sweep, 46
markers, 68
SENSe commands, 283
SENSe defaults, 291
setting
avg mode, 207
limit lines, 85
microwave input attenuation,
58
RF input attenuation, 58
T cold, 45
T hot, 44
setup
saving, 33
Sideband
DUT Setup
Mode Setup, 216
Single measurement, 224
single sideband (SSB), 129
Single Sweep, 224
single vs. continuous
measurement mode, 255
Smart Noise Source (SNS), 37
SNS, 37
noise source selection, 322
source
menu map, 179
noise source, 222
SOURce commands, 322
source ENR uncertainty
noise figure, 239
Source front-panel key, 222
source match
noise figure, 239
source type
noise figure, 240
span, 318
Span key
start offset, 223
stop offset, 223
span setting, 296, 297, 298
SPAN X Scale
menu map, 180, 181
SPAN X Scale front-panel key,
223
Span/RBW
BW/Avg, 191
spectrum analysis mode, 214
spectrum, monitor
Measure, 213
spot ENR, 43
spot T hot, 44
start, 318
Start Freq menu key, 198
start frequency, 298
start measurement, 255, 256, 257
starting
noise figure measurements, 32
option 219, 32
state
changing, 283
saving, 33
stop, 319
Stop Freq menu key, 198
stop frequency, 299
storing
ENR data to file, 279
frequency list data to file, 279
limit lines, 279
limit lines from file, 279
loss compensation data to file,
280
traces, 280, 281
Sweep, 224
continuous, 224
menu map, 182, 183
points, 224
Single, 224
Sweep Menu front-panel key, 224
sweep points, 320
Sweep Time, 224
manual, 224
sweep time
Index
Index
auto, 224
monitor, 300, 301
system
frequency representation, 289
offset, 289
System Downconverter
DUT Setup Mode Setup, 216
System Downconverter
description, 143
System Downconvertor, 115
Fixed IF Variable LO, 115
Index
result A, 225
result B, 226
table, 225
trace, 225
Y
Y factor, 277
Z
zero span, 298
zoom graph window, 250
V
VBW/RBW
BW/Avg, 191
video bandwidth, 191
adjusting, 191
BW/Avg, 191
on/off, 284, 294
setting, 284, 294
video bandwidth, adjusting, 191
Video BW, 191
Video BW key, 191
video BW key, 191
video/resolution bandwidth ratio,
285, 294
view
Trace/View, 225
view calculations
uncertainty calculator
Mode Setup, 218
view calculator
uncertainty calculator, 218
view commands, 242
View/Trace
blank, 225
clear write, 225
combined, 225
front-panel key
graph, 225
max hold, 225
menu map, 184, 185
meter, 225
min hold, 225
Index
T
T cold, 276
changing data, 45
setting, 45
temperature correction, 314
T hot, 275
noise figure, 309
T hot spot value, 44
table
View/Trace, 225
table value loss compensation, 93
Tcold
temperature correction, 314
temperature
cold, 276
configuring loss, 98
correction, 45
enter after DUT correction, 314
enter before DUT correction,
315
enter T cold correction, 314
enter Tcold correction, 314
test limits, 230
time display, 244
trace
amplitude, 324
amplitude delta, 325
display data, 245
minimum amplitude, 323, 324
peak to peak, 326
storing, 280
View/Trace, 225
TRACe commands, 323
trace format, 252
trace points
monitor, sweep
trace points, 300
Trace/View
see View/Trace
view, 225
traces
storing, 281
trigger measurement, 255, 256
troubleshooting, 328
U
unauthorized access
preventing, 34
uncertainties above 3 GHz, 331
uncertainty
noise figure, 238
uncertainty calculator, 100
Mode Setup, 215
mode setup, 218
uncertainty contributions
menu map, 186
uncorrected state, 52
Uninstall Now, 30
uninstalling measurement
personalities, 25
upconverter
frequency representation, 290
offset, 291
upconverter description, 130
upconverting
variable IF fixed LO, 112
upper limit line, 233
URL (Agilent Technologies), 2
user preset key, 221
343
Index
Index
344
Index
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