848 Titrino plus - Login
848 Titrino plus
Manual
8.848.8008EN / 2015-01-19
Metrohm AG
CH-9100 Herisau
Switzerland
Phone +41 71 353 85 85
Fax +41 71 353 89 01
info@metrohm.com
www.metrohm.com
848 Titrino plus
Manual
8.848.8008EN / 2015-01-19
jb/ebe
Technische Dokumentation
Metrohm AG
CH-9100 Herisau
techdoc@metrohm.com
This documentation is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This document has been prepared with great care. However, errors can
never be entirely ruled out. Please send comments regarding possible
errors to the address above.
Documentation in additional languages can be found on
http://documents.metrohm.com.
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Table of contents
Table of contents
1 Introduction
1
1.1
Instrument description ......................................................... 1
1.1.1
Titration and measuring modes ................................................ 1
1.1.2
Connectors .............................................................................. 2
1.1.3
Intended use ........................................................................... 2
1.2
About the documentation ................................................... 2
1.2.1
Symbols and conventions ........................................................ 3
1.3
Safety instructions ................................................................ 4
1.3.1
General notes on safety ........................................................... 4
1.3.2
Electrical safety ........................................................................ 4
1.3.3
Tubing and capillary connections ............................................. 5
1.3.4
Flammable solvents and chemicals ........................................... 5
1.3.5
Recycling and disposal ............................................................. 5
2 Overview of the instrument
7
3 Installation
9
3.1
Setting up the instrument .................................................... 9
3.1.1
Packaging ................................................................................ 9
3.1.2
Checks .................................................................................... 9
3.1.3
Location .................................................................................. 9
3.2
Connecting a sensor ............................................................. 9
3.3
Connecting a stirrer ............................................................ 11
3.4
Connecting a balance ......................................................... 12
3.5
Connecting a keyboard, printer and other USB devices ........................................................................................ 12
3.6
Connecting instruments to the remote connector .......... 15
3.7
Attaching the exchange unit ............................................. 16
4 Titrations
17
4.1
Dynamic equivalence point titration (DET) ....................... 17
4.2
Monotonic equivalence point titration (MET) .................. 17
4.3
Endpoint titration (SET) ..................................................... 18
5 Operation
5.1
19
Switching the instrument on and off ............................... 19
5.2
Fundamentals of operation ............................................... 20
5.2.1
The keypad ............................................................................ 20
5.2.2
Structure of the dialog windows ............................................ 21
848 Titrino plus
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Table of contents
5.2.3
5.2.4
5.2.5
5.3
Navigating in the dialog ......................................................... 21
Entering text and numbers ..................................................... 22
Selecting from a selection list ................................................. 23
Formula editor .................................................................... 23
5.4
Methods .............................................................................. 25
5.4.1
Creating a new method ......................................................... 25
5.4.2
Saving a method ................................................................... 26
5.4.3
Loading a method ................................................................. 27
5.4.4
Exporting a method ............................................................... 28
5.5
Control ................................................................................. 29
5.6
Sample data ........................................................................ 30
5.6.1
Entering sample data in the main dialog ................................ 30
5.6.2
Requesting sample data at the start of the determination ...... 31
5.7
Sample table ....................................................................... 32
5.7.1
General ................................................................................. 32
5.7.2
Editing the sample data ......................................................... 33
5.7.3
Sending the sample size from a balance ................................. 35
5.8
Carrying out a determination ............................................ 35
5.9
Live modifications .............................................................. 37
5.9.1
Editing the sample data of the running determination ............ 37
5.9.2
Editing the sample table while a determination is running ...... 38
5.9.3
Editing the live parameters ..................................................... 39
5.10
Results ................................................................................. 40
5.11
Statistics .............................................................................. 41
5.12
Printing a report manually ................................................. 43
5.13 Manual control ................................................................... 44
5.13.1 Dosing ................................................................................... 45
5.13.2 Measuring ............................................................................. 49
5.13.3 Stirring .................................................................................. 50
6 System settings
6.1
52
Basic settings ...................................................................... 52
6.2
Managing sensors .............................................................. 56
6.2.1
General ................................................................................. 56
6.2.2
Editing the sensor data .......................................................... 56
6.3
Managing solutions ............................................................ 58
6.3.1
General ................................................................................. 58
6.3.2
Editing the solution data ........................................................ 58
6.4
Managing common variables ............................................ 60
6.4.1
General ................................................................................. 60
6.4.2
Editing common variables ...................................................... 61
6.5
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File management ................................................................ 62
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Table of contents
6.6
Configuring external devices ............................................. 63
6.7
Instrument diagnosis .......................................................... 66
6.7.1
Loading program versions and language files ......................... 66
6.7.2
Diagnosis functions ............................................................... 67
7 Parameters
68
7.1
Dynamic equivalence point titrations (DET) ..................... 68
7.1.1
Start conditions ..................................................................... 68
7.1.2
Titration parameters .............................................................. 69
7.1.3
Stop conditions ..................................................................... 75
7.1.4
Evaluation ............................................................................. 76
7.1.5
Calculation ............................................................................ 79
7.1.6
Statistics ................................................................................ 81
7.1.7
Reports .................................................................................. 81
7.2
Monotonic equivalence point titrations (MET) ................ 83
7.2.1
Start conditions ..................................................................... 83
7.2.2
Titration parameters .............................................................. 84
7.2.3
Stop conditions ..................................................................... 89
7.2.4
Evaluation ............................................................................. 90
7.2.5
Calculation ............................................................................ 93
7.2.6
Statistics ................................................................................ 95
7.2.7
Reports .................................................................................. 95
7.3
Endpoint titrations (SET) .................................................... 97
7.3.1
Conditioning ......................................................................... 97
7.3.2
Start conditions ..................................................................... 98
7.3.3
Titration parameters ............................................................ 100
7.3.4
Control parameters EP1 ....................................................... 102
7.3.5
Control parameters EP2 ....................................................... 105
7.3.6
Stop conditions ................................................................... 105
7.3.7
Calculation .......................................................................... 106
7.3.8
Statistics .............................................................................. 108
7.3.9
Reports ................................................................................ 108
7.4
pH calibration (CAL) ......................................................... 110
7.4.1
Calibration parameters ........................................................ 110
7.4.2
Buffers ................................................................................. 112
7.4.3
Reports ................................................................................ 113
8 Operation and maintenance
8.1
Quality management and qualification with Metrohm 114
9 Troubleshooting
848 Titrino plus
114
115
9.1
SET titration ...................................................................... 115
9.2
Miscellaneous ................................................................... 116
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Table of contents
10 Appendix
117
10.1 Exchange unit ................................................................... 117
10.1.1 Maximum dosing and filling rate .......................................... 117
10.1.2 Parameters for the preparing (PREP) ..................................... 117
10.2
Stirring rate ....................................................................... 118
10.3
Balance .............................................................................. 118
10.4 USB devices ....................................................................... 119
10.4.1 6.2147.000 numerical USB keypad ...................................... 119
10.4.2 Key assignment of a USB keyboard ...................................... 120
10.4.3 PC mouse ............................................................................ 120
10.4.4 Printer ................................................................................. 121
10.5
System initialization ......................................................... 121
10.6 Remote interface .............................................................. 122
10.6.1 Pin assignment of the remote interface ................................ 122
10.6.2 Status diagram of the remote interface ................................ 124
10.7 Remote control via an RS-232 connection ..................... 125
10.7.1 Commands and variables ..................................................... 126
10.8
Arithmetic algorithms in the 848 Titrino plus ............... 127
11 Technical specifications
130
11.1 Measuring inputs .............................................................. 130
11.1.1 Potentiometry ...................................................................... 130
11.1.2 Polarizer .............................................................................. 130
11.1.3 Temperature ........................................................................ 131
11.2
Dosing drive ...................................................................... 132
11.3
Interfaces .......................................................................... 132
11.4
Power connection ............................................................ 132
11.5
Safety specifications ........................................................ 132
11.6
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) ............................. 133
11.7
Ambient temperature ...................................................... 133
11.8
Reference conditions ........................................................ 134
11.9
Dimensions ........................................................................ 134
12 Accessories
Index
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135
137
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Table of figures
Table of figures
Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 7
Figure 8
Figure 9
Figure 10
Figure 11
Figure 12
Figure 13
Figure 14
Figure 15
Figure 16
Figure 17
Figure 18
Figure 19
Figure 20
Figure 21
Figure 22
Figure 23
Figure 24
Figure 25
Figure 26
848 Titrino plus
Front 848 Titrino plus ........................................................................ 7
Rear 848 Titrino plus ......................................................................... 8
Connecting pH or redox electrodes ................................................... 9
Connecting a reference electrode .................................................... 10
Connecting a temperature sensor .................................................... 10
Connecting a polarizable electrode .................................................. 11
Connecting a stirrer ......................................................................... 11
Connecting a balance ...................................................................... 12
Connecting USB devices .................................................................. 13
Connecting the USB stick ................................................................ 14
Connecting the 6.2147.000 USB keyboard with USB stick and
printer ............................................................................................. 14
Connecting the USB hub with USB stick, printer and the 6.2148.030
RS-232/USB Box (for connecting balances). ...................................... 15
Connecting a remote cable ............................................................. 15
Attaching the exchange unit ........................................................... 16
Reagent dosing for DET ................................................................... 17
Reagent dosing for MET .................................................................. 17
Reagent dosing for SET ................................................................... 18
Keypad 848 Titrino plus ................................................................... 20
Directory structure on the USB flash drive ........................................ 62
Tubbs method for determining the equivalence point ...................... 79
Rotational speed depending on stirring rate .................................. 118
Pin assignment of remote socket and remote plug ........................ 122
Remote status diagram DET/MET ................................................... 124
Remote status diagram SET ........................................................... 124
Remote status diagram CAL .......................................................... 125
Connecting the RS-232/USB Box to the PC .................................... 125
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1 Introduction
1 Introduction
1.1
Instrument description
The 848 Titrino plus is a titrator for volumetric titrations for universal applications. Methods can be created and saved under a new name. The methods can be exported to a connected USB flash drive. This function allows
you to copy methods quickly and easily from one device to another. The
remote connector makes it possible to integrate the device into a
Metrohm automation system.
1.1.1
Titration and measuring modes
The following titration and measuring modes are supported:
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848 Titrino plus
DET
Dynamic equivalence point titration. The reagent is added in variable
volume steps.
Measuring modes:
– pH (pH measurement)
– U (potentiometric voltage measurement)
– Ipol (voltametric measurement with selectable polarization current)
– Upol (amperometric measurement with selectable polarization
voltage)
MET
Monotonic equivalence point titration. The reagent is added in constant volume steps.
Measuring modes:
– pH (pH measurement)
– U (potentiometric voltage measurement)
– Ipol (voltametric measurement with selectable polarization current)
– Upol (amperometric measurement with selectable polarization
voltage)
SET
Endpoint titration at one or two specified endpoints.
Measuring modes:
– pH (pH measurement)
– U (potentiometric voltage measurement)
– Ipol (voltametric measurement with selectable polarization current)
– Upol (amperometric measurement with selectable polarization
voltage)
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1.2 About the documentation
CAL
Electrode calibration.
Measuring mode:
– pH (calibration of pH electrodes)
■
1.1.2
Connectors
The instrument is equipped with the following connectors:
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■
■
■
1.1.3
MSB connector (Metrohm Serial Bus)
For connecting a stirrer.
USB (OTG) connector
The 6.2151.100 adapter can be used to connect, for example, a
printer, a USB flash drive or a USB keyboard.
Sensor connectors
Four connectors for the following sensor types:
– pH or redox electrodes
– Reference electrodes
– Polarizable electrodes
– Temperature sensors (Pt1000 or NTC)
Remote connector
For connecting a Dosimat or sample changer. The Dosimat enables
automatic addition of an auxiliary solution.
Intended use
The 848 Titrino plus is designed for usage as a titrator in analytical laboratories. Its main application field is volumetric titration.
This instrument is suitable for processing chemicals and flammable samples. Therefore, the use of the 848 Titrino plus requires the user to have
basic knowledge and experience in handling toxic and caustic substances.
Knowledge with respect to the application of the fire prevention measures
prescribed for laboratories is also mandatory.
1.2
About the documentation
CAUTION
Please read through this documentation carefully before putting the
instrument into operation. The documentation contains information
and warnings which the user must follow in order to ensure safe operation of the instrument.
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1.2.1
1 Introduction
Symbols and conventions
The following symbols and formatting may appear in this documentation:
Cross-reference to figure legend
The first number refers to the figure number, the second to the instrument part in the figure.
Instruction step
Carry out these steps in the sequence shown.
Method
Dialog text, parameter in the software
File ▶ New
Menu or menu item
[Next]
Button or key
WARNING
This symbol draws attention to a possible life-threatening hazard or risk of injury.
WARNING
This symbol draws attention to a possible hazard due
to electrical current.
WARNING
This symbol draws attention to a possible hazard due
to heat or hot instrument parts.
WARNING
This symbol draws attention to a possible biological
hazard.
CAUTION
This symbol draws attention to possible damage to
instruments or instrument parts.
NOTE
This symbol highlights additional information and
tips.
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1.3 Safety instructions
1.3
Safety instructions
1.3.1
General notes on safety
WARNING
This instrument may only be operated in accordance with the specifications in this documentation.
This instrument has left the factory in a flawless state in terms of technical
safety. To maintain this state and ensure non-hazardous operation of the
instrument, the following instructions must be observed carefully.
1.3.2
Electrical safety
The electrical safety when working with the instrument is ensured as part
of the international standard IEC 61010.
WARNING
Only personnel qualified by Metrohm are authorized to carry out service
work on electronic components.
WARNING
Never open the housing of the instrument. The instrument could be
damaged by this. There is also a risk of serious injury if live components
are touched.
There are no parts inside the housing which can be serviced or replaced
by the user.
Mains voltage
WARNING
An incorrect mains voltage can damage the instrument.
Only operate this instrument with a mains voltage specified for it (see
rear panel of the instrument).
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1 Introduction
Protection against electrostatic charges
WARNING
Electronic components are sensitive to electrostatic charges and can be
destroyed by discharges.
Do not fail to pull the mains cable out of the mains connection socket
before you set up or disconnect electrical plug connections at the rear
of the instrument.
1.3.3
Tubing and capillary connections
CAUTION
Leaks in tubing and capillary connections are a safety risk. Tighten all
connections well by hand. Avoid applying excessive force to tubing
connections. Damaged tubing ends lead to leakage. Appropriate tools
can be used to loosen connections.
Check the connections regularly for leakage. If the instrument is used
mainly in unattended operation, then weekly inspections are mandatory.
1.3.4
Flammable solvents and chemicals
WARNING
All relevant safety measures are to be observed when working with
flammable solvents and chemicals.
■
■
■
■
1.3.5
Set up the instrument in a well-ventilated location (e.g. fume cupboard).
Keep all sources of flame far from the workplace.
Clean up spilled liquids and solids immediately.
Follow the safety instructions of the chemical manufacturer.
Recycling and disposal
This product is covered by European Directive 2002/96/EC, WEEE – Waste
from Electrical and Electronic Equipment.
The correct disposal of your old equipment will help to prevent negative
effects on the environment and public health.
848 Titrino plus
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1.3 Safety instructions
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More details about the disposal of your old equipment can be obtained
from your local authorities, from waste disposal companies or from your
local dealer.
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2 Overview of the instrument
2 Overview of the instrument
1
2
3
4
5
Figure 1
Front 848 Titrino plus
1
Piston rod
Of the dosing drive.
2
Contact pins
For the data chip.
3
Coupling
For switching the flat stopcock.
4
Display
5
Keypad
848 Titrino plus
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1
5
2
6
3
7
4
8
9
Figure 2
Rear 848 Titrino plus
1
Electrode connector (Ind.)
For connecting pH or redox electrodes with
integrated or separate reference electrode.
Socket F.
2
Type plate
Contains specifications concerning mains
voltage and serial number.
3
Electrode connector (Ref.)
For connecting reference electrodes. Socket
B, 4 mm.
4
Mains connection socket
5
USB (OTG) connector
For connecting printers, USB sticks, USB
hubs, etc.
6
MSB connector
Metrohm Serial Bus.
7
Temperature sensor connector (Temp.)
For connecting temperature sensors of the
Pt1000 or NTC types. Two B sockets, 2 mm.
8
9
Electrode connector (Pol.)
For connecting polarizable electrodes, e.g.
double Pt electrodes. Socket F.
8 ■■■■■■■■
For connecting a stirrer. Mini DIN, 9-pin.
Remote connector
For connecting instruments with a remote
interface. D-Sub, 9-pin.
848 Titrino plus
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3 Installation
3 Installation
3.1
Setting up the instrument
3.1.1
Packaging
The instrument is supplied in highly protective special packaging together
with the separately packed accessories. Keep this packaging, as only this
ensures safe transportation of the instrument.
3.1.2
Checks
Immediately after receipt, check whether the shipment has arrived complete and without damage by comparing it with the delivery note.
3.1.3
Location
The instrument has been developed for operation indoors and may not be
used in explosive environments.
Place the instrument in a location of the laboratory which is suitable for
operation, free of vibrations, protected from corrosive atmosphere, and
contamination by chemicals.
The instrument should be protected against excessive temperature fluctuations and direct sunlight.
3.2
Connecting a sensor
Connecting pH or redox electrodes
Figure 3
848 Titrino plus
Connecting pH or redox electrodes
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3.2 Connecting a sensor
NOTE
The electrode cable is protected against accidental disconnection of the
cable by means of a pull-out protection feature. If you wish to remove
the plug, then you must first retract the outer plug sleeve.
Connecting a reference electrode
Figure 4
Connecting a reference electrode
Connecting a temperature sensor or an electrode with integrated temperature sensor
Temperature sensors of the Pt1000 or NTC type can be connected to the
Temp. connector.
Figure 5
Connecting a temperature sensor
NOTE
The red plug must always be plugged into the red socket at the temperature sensor for the purpose of shielding against disruptions.
If you use an electrode with an integrated NTC probe, then you must
plug the red plug into the red socket.
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848 Titrino plus
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3 Installation
Connecting a polarizable electrode
Figure 6
Connecting a polarizable electrode
NOTE
The electrode cable is protected against accidental disconnection of the
cable by means of a pull-out protection feature. If you wish to remove
the plug, then you must first retract the outer plug sleeve.
3.3
Connecting a stirrer
You can connect the following stirrers:
■
■
■
801 Stirrer
803 Ti Stand
804 Ti Stand (requires rod stirrer)
Figure 7
Connecting a stirrer
CAUTION
Make sure that the flat side of the plug matches the marking on the
socket.
848 Titrino plus
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3.4 Connecting a balance
3.4
Connecting a balance
Balances are equipped with a serial RS-232 interface as a rule. To connect
a balance, you require a 6.2148.030 RS-232/USB Box.
Figure 8
Connecting a balance
When a 6.2151.020 USB cable is used, then the 6.2148.030 RS-232/USB
Box can be connected to the 848 Titrino plus by means of a USB hub or a
6.2151.100 adapter (see Chapter 3.5, page 12).
Connect the 9-pin plug of the respective balance connecting cable to the
RS 232/1 connector. Consult the user manual of the balance in order to
select the correct connecting cable.
The parameters for the RS-232 interface on the instrument must match
those on the balance (see "Editing the COM1 settings", page 64). Additionally consult the user manual of the balance.
3.5
Connecting a keyboard, printer and other USB devices
The 848 Titrino plus has a USB (OTG) connector. Use the provided
6.2151.100 adapter USB MINI (OTG) - USB A for connecting USB devices
as e.g. printers, keyboards or USB sticks, see the following figure.
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3 Installation
6.2151.100
Figure 9
Connecting USB devices
CAUTION
Switch the instrument off before connecting or disconnecting a USB
device or a USB stick.
The 848 Titrino plus can only recognize the device immediately after
switching on.
The following devices can be operated directly on the USB connector
with the 6.2151.100 adapter:
■
■
■
■
USB sticks (for the backup or storing of methods)
6.2147.000 numerical USB keypad
6.2148.030 RS-232/USB Box (for connecting balances or for the
RS-232 remote control)
USB hub (with or without an own power supply)
The 6.2147.000 numerical USB keypad serves for comfortable numerical input and for navigating in the dialog. In addition, it provides two USB
connectors. Connect additional USB devices to the keypad.
NOTE
Most of the USB devices need a so-called hub in order to work correctly.
A USB hub is a distributor to which several USB devices can be connected. USB hubs are available in specialty stores in a number of different models.
The USB (OTG) connector of the 848 Titrino plus has no such hub. The
6.2147.000 numerical USB keypad has a USB hub and two USB connectors.
848 Titrino plus
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3.5 Connecting a keyboard, printer and other USB devices
The following devices can only be connected to a 6.2147.000
numerical keypad or to a USB hub:
■
■
■
Printer (with USB connector, use the 6.2151.020 connecting cable)
Barcode reader (with USB cable)
Mouse (PC mouse with USB cable, for navigating in the dialog)
The following devices can only be connected to a USB hub:
■
■
PC keyboard (with USB cable, for the comfortable input of letters and
numbers)
Keypad with numerical keypad (with USB cable)
If you wish to connect several different instruments without own
power supply, then you must possibly use a USB hub with own power
supply (self powered). The USB (OTG) connector of the 848 Titrino plus is
not designed for supplying power to several devices with elevated electricity requirements.
Also observe the instructions in chapter 10.4, page 119.
Examples:
USB MINI (OTG)-USB
USB stick
6.2151.100
Connecting the USB stick
USB MINI (OTG)-USB
6.2151.100
Figure 11
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USB stick
Figure 10
Printer
Keypad
6.2147.000
Connecting the 6.2147.000 USB keyboard with USB stick and
printer
848 Titrino plus
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3 Installation
USB MINI (OTG)-USB
USB-Hub
USB stick
6.2151.100
Figure 12
3.6
RS-232/USB Box
6.2148.030
Printer
Connecting the USB hub with USB stick, printer and the
6.2148.030 RS-232/USB Box (for connecting balances).
Connecting instruments to the remote connector
The 848 Titrino plus can be integrated in an automation system with the
aid of a remote cable.
Figure 13
Connecting a remote cable
A variety of different connecting cables are available for connecting
Metrohm instruments (e.g. sample changers) (see Optional Accessories
chapter).
848 Titrino plus
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3.7 Attaching the exchange unit
3.7
Attaching the exchange unit
Figure 14
Attaching the exchange unit
To attach the exchange unit, proceed as follows:
1 Slide the exchange unit from the front onto the 848 Titrino plus and
push all the way to the rear.
It must snap in audibly.
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848 Titrino plus
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4 Titrations
4 Titrations
4.1
Dynamic equivalence point titration (DET)
Dynamic equivalence point titration is a titration mode for all standard
titrations. The reagent is added in variable volume steps. The volume steps
vary as a function of the slope of the curve. An attempt is made to reach
constant measured value changes with each dosing. The optimal volume
for dosing is determined from the measured value changes of the previous
dosings. Measured value acceptance is drift-controlled (equilibrium titration) or after a waiting time. Equivalence points are evaluated automatically.
U/mV
V/mL
Figure 15
4.2
Reagent dosing for DET
Monotonic equivalence point titration (MET)
Monotonic equivalence point titration is a titration mode for titrations
with relatively high signal fluctuations or suddenly occurring potential
jumps and for slow titrations or slow-response electrodes. The reagent is
added in constant volume steps. Measured value acceptance is drift-controlled (equilibrium titration) or after a waiting time. Equivalence points are
evaluated automatically.
U/mV
V/mL
Figure 16
848 Titrino plus
Reagent dosing for MET
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4.3 Endpoint titration (SET)
4.3
Endpoint titration (SET)
Endpoint titration is a titration mode for rapid routine determinations to a
preset endpoint (e.g. titrations in accordance with special standards) and
titrations for which reagent overflow must be avoided. The titration termination at the endpoint takes place either drift-controlled or after a waiting
time. The volume dosed until the endpoint is used for calculating the content of the sample.
U/mV
EP
Control range
V/mL
t/s
Initial
dosing
Figure 17
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Continuous
dosing
V/mL
Reagent dosing for SET
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5 Operation
5 Operation
5.1
Switching the instrument on and off
Switching on the instrument
Proceed as follows:
1
■
■
■
Press the red [STOP] key.
The instrument is initialized and a system test performed. This process takes some time.
If a buret unit has been attached, then a request appears to carry
out the PREP function:
All tubings and the cylinder are rinsed with the PREP (Preparing)
function. The preparing of the buret unit is described in chapter
"Preparing the buret unit (PREP)", page 45.
Confirm the message with [OK].
The display of this message can be deactivated in the system settings (see "PREP warning", page 54).
The main dialog is displayed:
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5.2 Fundamentals of operation
Switching off the instrument
The instrument is switched off with the [STOP] key. The fact that the key
needs to be pressed down for an extended time prevents accidental
switch off.
Proceed as follows:
1
■
Keep the red [STOP] key pressed down for at least 3 s.
A progress bar is displayed. If the key is released during this time,
then the instrument will not be switched off.
5.2
Fundamentals of operation
5.2.1
The keypad
Figure 18
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Keypad 848 Titrino plus
BACK
Apply the input and exit the dialog.
⇧⇩
Move the selection bar either up or down by one
line at a time. Select the character to be entered
in the text editor.
⇦⇨
Select the character to be entered in the text and
number editor. Select the individual functions in
the function bar.
OK
Confirm the selection.
STOP
Stop an ongoing method run or a manual function. Switch the instrument on or off.
START
Start a method run or a manual function.
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5.2.2
5 Operation
Structure of the dialog windows
The current dialog title is displayed on the left-hand side of the title bar.
The current status of the system is displayed in the upper right-hand corner:
ready
The instrument is in normal status.
cond.busy
The working medium is being conditioned.
cond.ok
The working medium is conditioned.
busy
A method has been started.
hold
A method has been paused.
Some dialogs have a so-called function bar on the bottom line. The functions contained therein can be selected with the arrow keys [⇦] or [⇨]
and executed with [OK].
5.2.3
Navigating in the dialog
The selection bar is displayed in inverted style. Use the arrow keys [⇧] and
[⇩] to move the selection bar upward or downward one line at a time. If
a dialog text is marked with ">", then additional settings are available in
a subordinate dialog. Use [OK] to access this dialog.
Example: System settings
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5.2 Fundamentals of operation
Use the [BACK] key to return to the next higher level.
5.2.4
Entering text and numbers
In the editing dialog for text input or numerical input, select the individual
characters with the arrow keys. Use [OK] to apply the character in the
input field. The following functions are available:
Editing function
Description
Accept
The modification is applied and the editing dialog
is exited.
Cancel
The editing dialog is exited without applying the
modification.
Clear
The content of the input field is deleted completely.
The character left of the cursor is deleted (backspace).
Text editor only
The cursor within the input field is shifted to the
left by one character each time that [OK] is
pressed.
Text editor only
The cursor within the input field is shifted to the
right by one character each time that [OK] is
pressed.
[BACK]
The modification is applied and the editing dialog
is exited.
The [BACK] key has the same function as Accept.
A commercially available USB keyboard can be connected to make it easier to enter text and numbers. The assignment of the keys on the PC keyboard is described in chapter 10.4.2, page 120.
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5.2.5
5 Operation
Selecting from a selection list
In a selection list, select the individual entries with the arrow keys [⇧] and
[⇩]. Accept the selection with [OK] or [BACK].
5.3
Formula editor
The formulas for the calculations are entered with the formula editor. The
formula editor is equipped with an automatic syntax check. This is triggered as soon as a formula is applied. The generally valid rules of priority
apply for the calculation operations.
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Variable
Description
C00
Sample size
EP#
Volume of endpoint EP# (# = 1…9)
CI#
Sample identification (# = 1…2)
R#
Result (# = 1…5)
FP#
Volume of fixed endpoint FP# (# = 1…9)
CV0#
Common variable (# = 1…5)
SMN#
Mean value of result R# (# = 1…5)
TITER
Titer of selected solution
CONC
Concentration of selected solution
Var
List of additional variables (see "Variables", page 24)
Templates
List of predefined calculation formulas (see "Calculation
templates", page 24)
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5.3 Formula editor
"#" stands for a sequential number that you must enter manually. Example: if you apply the variable EP# in the formula, only EP is entered. You
will still need to enter the number yourself.
The meanings of the editing functions are explained in chapter 5.2.4,
page 22.
Variables
Pressing Var displays a list with additional variables. You can enter these
variables either directly into the formula or also by selecting them from the
list and applying them with [OK].
Variable
Description
MIM
Initial measured value, i.e. measured value prior to the
processing of the start conditions
MSM
Start measured value, i.e. measured value after the processing of the start conditions
MCV
End volume, i.e. total dosed volume at the end of the
titration
ET#
Temperature at endpoint EP# (# = 1…9)
EM#
Measured value of endpoint EP# (# = 1…9)
ED#
Time at endpoint EP# (# = 1…9)
MSV
Start volume
MEN
Electrode zero point pH(0)
MSL
Electrode slope
DD
Duration of the entire determination
MST
Start temperature
MCT
End temperature
FT#
Temperature at fixed endpoint FP# (# = 1…9)
FM#
Measured value of fixed endpoint FP# (# = 1…9)
FD#
Time at fixed endpoint FP# (# = 1…9)
For Molw, see the following section.
Calculation templates
Pressing Templates displays a list with calculation templates. You can
apply these templates directly with [OK].
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5 Operation
NOTE
Some templates contain the wildcard Molw, which stands for the
molar mass of the sample. You must replace this wildcard with the correct value in the calculation formula.
The templates available:
Template
Description
Content %
Content in %
Unit of the sample size = g
Content mmol/L
Content in mmol/L
Unit of the sample size = mL
Content mol/L
Content in mol/L
Unit of the sample size = mL
Content g/L
Content in g/L
Unit of the sample size = mL
Content ppm
Content in ppm
Unit of the sample size = g
Titer
Titer calculation
Unit of the sample size = g
Blank mean value
Blank value as mean value of single results
Blank single value
Blank value as single value
5.4
Methods
5.4.1
Creating a new method
Proceed as follows to create a new method:
1 Open the method table
■
In the main dialog, select Method and press [OK].
The method table opens:
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5.4 Methods
2 Select a titration and measuring mode
■
In the function bar, select New and press [OK].
■
Select Mode and press [OK].
Select the desired titration mode in the selection list and apply
with [OK].
Select Measured quantity and press [OK].
Select the desired measuring mode in the selection list and apply
with [OK].
Press [BACK].
■
■
■
■
The method is now loaded and is displayed in the main dialog under
Method.
If a new method has been created, then the individual parameters can be
modified under Menu ▶ Parameters.
5.4.2
Saving a method
If you modify method parameters, then you can save these as your own
method. A maximum of 100 methods can be saved.
To save a method, proceed as follows:
1 Opening the method table
■
In the main dialog, select Method and press [OK].
The method table opens:
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5 Operation
2 Modifying/applying the method name
■
In the function bar, select Store and press [OK].
A method name will be suggested for new methods. If the
method has already been saved once, then the method name will
be displayed:
Applying the name:
■
Press [BACK].
The method will be saved and the method table is displayed.
Entering a new name:
■
■
■
Press [OK].
The text editor opens.
Enter a method name (max. 12 characters) and apply with
Accept or [BACK].
Press [BACK].
The method will be saved and the method table is displayed.
5.4.3
Loading a method
To load a method, proceed as follows:
1 Open the method table
■
In the main dialog, select Method and press [OK].
The method table with the stored methods opens:
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5.4 Methods
2 Select a method
■
Select the desired method.
3 Load the method
■
In the function bar, select Load and press [OK].
The method is now loaded and is displayed in the main dialog under
Method.
5.4.4
Exporting a method
The methods can be exported to a connected USB flash drive.
NOTE
This function is possible only if a USB flash drive is connected as an
external storage medium.
To export a method, proceed as follows:
1 Opening the method table
■
In the main dialog, select Method and press [OK].
The method table with the stored methods opens:
2 Selecting the method
■
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Select the desired method.
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5 Operation
3 Exporting the method
■
In the function bar, select Export and press [OK].
The method is being exported. The directory structure on the USB
flash drive is listed in chapter 6.5, page 62.
5.5
Control
Menu ▶ Control
In the dialog Control, the settings for the execution of a single determination or of one sample series are defined.
Sample table
If this parameter is activated, the sample data for a sample series can be
entered in a table (see Chapter 5.7, page 32).
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Autostart
If this parameter is activated, a new determination is started automatically
at the end of a determination. This continues until the number specified
has been reached (see Number of autostarts).
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Number of autostarts
This parameter is visible only when Autostart = on.
Number of automatic starts.
Input range
Selection
Default value
1 - 50
table
table
table
The number of automatic starts corresponds to the number of samples
in the sample table.
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5.6 Sample data
NOTE
It may be necessary to reset the autostart counter manually before the
quantity defined above has been reached. Proceed as follows:
■
■
■
5.6
Deactivate autostart.
Exit the Control dialog.
Activate autostart again.
Sample data
You can enter the sample data (identification, sample size, etc.) in a variety of ways:
■
■
■
Directly in the main dialog.
Using the sample table. This is particularly useful with sample series.
The sample table is a table in which the sample data for up to 99 samples can be entered (see Chapter 5.7, page 32).
Automatic request immediately after the start of the determination (see
Chapter 5.6.2, page 31).
You can also send the sample size and the unit from a connected balance
in any case. With some balances, the sample identification and method
can be also sent (see Chapter 10.3, page 118).
5.6.1
Entering sample data in the main dialog
For a sample, you can enter the sample data directly in the main dialog,
even while the determination is running (see Chapter 5.9, page 37).
ID1
Sample identification. The sample identification can be used in calculations
as the variable CI1.
Entry
Default value
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max. 10 characters
empty
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5 Operation
ID2
Sample identification. The sample identification can be used in calculations
as the variable CI2.
Entry
Default value
max. 10 characters
empty
Sample size
Sample size. The value of the sample size can be used in calculations as
the variable C00.
Input range
Default value
–999999999 - 9999999999
1.0
Unit
Unit of the sample size.
Selection
Default value
g | mg | µg | mL | µL | pieces | User-defined
g
User-defined
A user-defined unit can be created. This will be added to the selection
list. The previous entry will be overwritten as soon as the new unit has
been defined.
5.6.2
Requesting sample data at the start of the determination
The sample data can be requested immediately after the start of the determination in order to ensure that the sample data entry is not forgotten.
This automatic request is indispensable when you reweigh your samples.
The corresponding parameters must be activated under Start conditions
for this purpose. If the parameter Hold at request is activated, then the
run will be paused and must be continued with [START] after the input
of the sample data. If Hold at request is deactivated, then the titration
will be started in the background. This dialog will be displayed until the
entering of the sample data is confirmed with [START], even if the the
titration is already completed. This ensures that the sample data is available for calculations.
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5.7 Sample table
5.7
Sample table
5.7.1
General
The sample table is a table in which the sample data for up to 99 samples
can be entered. The sample data can also be entered while a determination is running (see Chapter 5.9.2, page 38).
Activating the sample table
Proceed as follows to activate the sample table (parameter Sample table
= on).
1 Opening the main menu
■
In the main dialog, select Menu and press [OK].
2 Opening the control dialog
■
Select the menu item Control and press [OK].
3 Activating the sample table
■
■
■
Select Sample table and press [OK].
Select the entry on in the selection list and apply with [OK].
Press [BACK].
The menu item Sample table is displayed in the main menu:
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5 Operation
The sample table contains numbered lines. The identification (ID1) and
the sample size of each sample are displayed.
Edit
Edit the data of the selected line, see following chapter.
Delete
Delete the selected line from the sample table.
Insert
Insert a new line above the line selected.
New
Delete the sample table completely. This function is visible only if the
instrument is in ready status.
5.7.2
Editing the sample data
You will see at the very bottom the line number of the selected line and
the line number of the last line containing data. In this example, the first
line is opened and the sample table contains four lines.
One can scroll between the individual data sets with the keys [⇦] and [⇨].
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5.7 Sample table
Inserting a new line
If you find yourself on the last line (i.e. Line 4 of 4 in the above example),
you can add a new line to the sample table by pressing [⇨] again. The
sample data of the previous sample will be applied thereby.
Method
Method used for processing the sample.
Selection
Default value
Selection of stored methods | empty
empty
empty
The currently loaded method is used.
ID1
Sample identification. The sample identification can be used in calculations
as the variable CI1.
Entry
Default value
max. 10 characters
empty
ID2
Sample identification. The sample identification can be used in calculations
as the variable CI2.
Entry
Default value
max. 10 characters
empty
Sample size
Sample size. The value of the sample size can be used in calculations as
the variable C00.
Input range
Default value
–999999999 - 9999999999
1.0
Unit
Unit of the sample size.
Selection
Default value
g | mg | µg | mL | µL | pieces | User-defined
g
User-defined
A user-defined unit can be created. This will be added to the selection
list. The previous entry will be overwritten as soon as the new unit has
been defined.
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5.7.3
5 Operation
Sending the sample size from a balance
If the sample size is sent directly from the balance, then it will always be
entered in a new line at the end of the sample table. It does not matter
which line is selected or whether the sample table is even opened. In the
above example, the sample size is entered in line 5.
NOTE
If you would like to enter the sample size in a particular line, then you
must open the corresponding editing dialog (i.e. the Sample data dialog is displayed).
If the editing dialog for the sample size is opened, then the sent value
will be ignored.
5.8
Carrying out a determination
The sample size can be entered in the following ways when a determination is carried out:
■
■
Enter manually on the instrument.
Send automatically from a connected balance. To do so, consult the
operating instructions for your balance.
The following instructions describe how to enter the sample size on the
848 Titrino plus.
1 Loading the method
■
See Chapter "Loading a method", Page 27.
2 Preparing the sample
NOTE
Calculate the amount of the sample so that it results in titrant consumption of 10 to 90% of the cylinder volume.
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5.8 Carrying out a determination
■
■
■
■
Weigh in or measure the sample in a sample vessel.
Add solvent.
Place the sample vessel on the stirrer.
Immerse the electrode and buret tip in the solution.
3 Entering the sample size
■
■
In the main dialog, select Sample size and press [OK].
The editing dialog opens.
Enter the sample size and apply with Accept or [BACK].
4 Starting the titration
■
Press [START].
The titration starts and the curve is displayed:
The axes are scaled automatically. Using Hold pauses the run. Continue then takes its place on the display. It can be used to resume
the run.
The stirring rate can be modified during titration with the Stirrer
function. The following dialog is opened by pressing [OK]:
Stir- can be used to decrease the stirring rate while Stir+ increases
it. Off switches off the stirrer. On then takes its place on the display.
This can be used to switch the stirrer back on. The [BACK] key closes
this dialog.
After the completion of the titration, the results dialog is displayed:
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5 Operation
Canceling a determination manually
A determination can be canceled at any time with the [STOP] key.
5.9
Live modifications
5.9.1
Editing the sample data of the running determination
The sample data can be entered or modified in the main dialog while a
determination is running. In calculations always the sample data entered
at the end of the titration in the main dialog is used.
Proceed as follows to edit the sample data:
1 Displaying the main dialog
■
Press [BACK].
The main dialog is displayed. The determination continues to run in
the background.
2 Editing the sample data
■
Edit the sample data and apply with Accept or [BACK].
3 Displaying the live dialog
■
Press [BACK].
or
■
Select Menu and press [OK].
■
Select the menu item Live dialog and press [OK].
The live dialog is displayed once again.
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5.9 Live modifications
NOTE
If the determination is finished while an editing dialog is opened (e.g. of
the sample size), then this will be closed automatically and the results
dialog will be displayed. The value entered must be entered once more
and the determination must be recalculated.
Make sure that the editing dialogs are closed before the determination
is finished.
5.9.2
Editing the sample table while a determination is running
You can insert new lines or delete existing ones or edit sample data while
a determination is running.
NOTE
We recommend that the editing dialogs always be closed in order to
ensure that no problems occur during the run and that the current data
is always available for calculation purposes.
Editing the sample table
Proceed as follows to edit the sample table:
1 Displaying the main dialog
■
Press [BACK].
The main dialog is displayed. The determination continues to run in
the background.
2 Opening the main menu
■
Select Menu and press [OK].
3 Selecting the sample data
■
■
38 ■■■■■■■■
Select the menu item Sample table and press [OK].
Select the desired line.
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5 Operation
In the function bar, select Edit and press [OK].
■
4 Editing the sample data
Edit the sample data and apply with Accept or [BACK].
■
NOTE
In addition to the sample data, the method can also be modified,
except in cases where the determination is running.
5 Displaying the live dialog
■
Select the menu item Live dialog in the main menu and press
[OK].
or
■
Press [BACK] in the main dialog.
The live dialog is displayed once again.
Editing the sample data of the running determination
When you use the sample table, the editing of the sample data of the running determination proceeds as described in chapter 5.9.1, page 37. In
addition, you have the option of editing these in the sample table. The
first line always contains the sample data of the running determination.
Simply select for this purpose the Sample table(see "Editing the sample
table", page 38) menu item in the main menu.
5.9.3
Editing the live parameters
Certain method parameters can be edited while a determination is being
carried out. The only parameters that can be modified are those that can
be selected. Nevertheless, all of the parameters are visible. The modified
parameters are taken into account at once. If you modify, for instance,
the start conditions after the start volume has been dosed, then these
modifications will not be taken into account until the next determination.
Proceed as follows to edit the parameters:
1 Displaying the main dialog
■
Press [BACK].
The main dialog is displayed. The determination continues to run in
the background.
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5.10 Results
2 Opening the main menu
■
Select Menu and press [OK].
3 Editing the method parameters
■
■
Select the menu item Parameters and press [OK].
Change the desired parameters accordingly.
4 Displaying the live dialog
■
Select the menu item Live dialog in the main menu and press
[OK].
or
■
Press [BACK] in the main dialog.
The live dialog is displayed once again.
5.10
Results
Menu ▶ Results
After the completion of the titration, the results dialog is displayed:
The calculated result and details concerning the endpoint are shown in
the overview.
Curve
Display the curve of the current determination.
Recalculate
Recalculate the current determination. The procedure will be executed
immediately.
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5 Operation
Statistics
Display the statistical overview of a determination series (see Chapter
5.11, page 41).
Displaying the curve
The curve of the current determination can be displayed with the Curve
function.
The arrow keys [⇦] and [⇨] can be used to move to the individual measuring points. A cross hair is used to show the current position on the curve.
The data (volume, measured value, time, etc.) for the respective measuring point is indicated on the right-hand side.
Recalculating
NOTE
Recalculation cannot be undone.
All of the results are recalculated with the Recalculate function. This is
necessary if, for example, the calculation, the titer or the sample size has
been modified.
5.11
Statistics
Menu ▶ Results ▶ Statistics
The statistical overview of a determination series can be displayed in the
Results dialog with the Statistics function.
NOTE
This function is visible only if statistics has been activated.
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5.11 Statistics
The mean value (Mean), the absolute and the relative standard deviation
(s abs and s rel) are displayed in the overview. For the mean value, the
number of individual results from which it has been calculated is displayed
in parentheses. In this example, it is 3. The Statistics line shows how
many determinations have already been carried out and how many determinations are to be carried out in total. All three determinations were carried out in this example.
Details
Display additional data.
Reset
Delete all statistics data.
Increase
Add a further determination to the determination series.
Displaying statistical details
Additional data from the determination series can be displayed with the
Details function.
The result and the sample size of each determination are shown.
On/Off
Remove the selected determination from the statistics. The line will then
be marked with an asterisk (*), the statistics will be recalculated automatically. If several calculations are defined in the method, then all the results
will be removed from the statistics.
Deleting statistical data
All statistical data is deleted with the Reset function. The statistics data is
deleted automatically in the following cases:
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5 Operation
■
■
When all of the determinations of the determination series have been
carried out and a new determination has been started afterwards.
When a new method is loaded.
Adding a determination to a determination series
You can use the function Increase to add an additional sample to a
determination series, e.g. because a determination was faulty and had to
be removed from the statistics. The second number in the Statistics line
will be increased automatically by one.
5.12
Printing a report manually
Menu ▶ Print reports
Proceed as follows to print a report manually:
1 Opening the main menu
■
In the main dialog, select Menu and press [OK].
2 Opening the print dialog
■
Select the menu item Print reports and press [OK].
The dialog window with the available reports opens:
3 Selecting the report
■
Select the desired report and press [OK].
The report is printed out.
The following reports can be printed out manually:
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5.13 Manual control
5.13
Results
Result report with determination properties,
sample data, calculated results, etc.
Curve
Curve report. The width of the curve is defined in
the system settings (see "Graphics width", page
64).
Measuring point
list
Measuring point list report.
Parameters
Report with all method parameters of the loaded
method.
System
System report with system settings, solution list,
external devices, etc.
Calculations/Statistics
Calculation report. The statistics are also printed
out in the case of multiple determinations. The
individual determinations with the respective
sample size, the mean value, the absolute and
the relative standard deviation are printed out
for each result.
PC/LIMS
Machine-readable report with all of the data for
a determination. This report can be saved as a
TXT file to a connected USB flash drive or sent to
a terminal program or a LIMS via an RS-232
interface. The definition is made in the system
settings (see "PC/LIMS report", page 63).
Report as in
method
The reports that are defined in the method will
be printed out.
Manual control
Menu ▶ Manual control
The following functions are available in the manual control:
■
■
■
Dosing
Measuring
Stirring
The available subfunctions are listed for each function in the function bar.
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5 Operation
NOTE
The Stirrer function can only be selected if a stirrer is connected.
5.13.1
Dosing
The following dosing functions are available in the manual control:
Prepare the buret
unit (PREP)
Rinse the cylinder and tubings of the buret unit
(see Chapter 10.1.2, page 117).
Continuous dosing
(DOS)
Dose while the [START] key is pressed.
Dose a fixed volume (ADD)
Dose a specified volume.
Preparing the buret unit (PREP)
The PREP function is used to rinse the cylinder and tubings of the buret
unit and fill them air bubble-free. You should carry out this function
before the first determination or once per day.
Proceed as follows:
1 Open the manual control
■
■
In the main dialog, select Menu and press [OK].
The main menu opens.
Select the menu item Manual control and press [OK].
Manual control opens.
2 Select the dosing function
■
Select the Dosing item.
■
In the function bar, select PREP and press [OK].
The following message is displayed:
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5.13 Manual control
3 Start the preparing
CAUTION
Make sure that the buret tip is directed into a vessel that can
accommodate the cylinder volume of your buret unit several times
over.
■
Select Yes and confirm the message with [OK].
Preparing is carried out.
Continuous dosing (DOS)
Continuous dosing will be carried out with the DOS function for as long
as you keep the [START] key pressed down.
Proceed as follows:
1 Open the manual control
■
■
In the main dialog, select Menu and press [OK].
The main menu opens.
Select the menu item Manual control and press [OK].
Manual control opens.
2 Select the dosing function
46 ■■■■■■■■
■
Select the Dosing item.
■
In the function bar, select DOS and press [OK].
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5 Operation
3 Configure the dosing function
NOTE
■
■
■
■
The dosing and filling rates should be decreased for viscous liquids.
The maximum dosing and filling rates depend on the cylinder
volume (see Chapter 10.1.1, page 117).
Enter the dosing rate.
Enter the filling rate.
4 Start dosing
■
Press [START].
The status changes to busy, the dosed volume is displayed. When
the volume of one cylinder has been dosed, the dosing cylinder will
be refilled automatically.
5 Fill the cylinder
■
Press [STOP] or [BACK].
The dosing cylinder is filled. If you start the filling with [BACK], then
the dialog will also be exited.
Dosing a particular volume (ADD)
You can dose a particular volume with the ADD function.
Proceed as follows:
1 Open the manual control
■
■
In the main dialog, select Menu and press [OK].
The main menu opens.
Select the menu item Manual control and press [OK].
Manual control opens.
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5.13 Manual control
2 Select the dosing function
■
Select the Dosing item.
■
In the function bar, select ADD and press [OK].
3 Configure the dosing function
NOTE
■
■
■
■
■
The dosing and filling rates should be decreased for viscous liquids.
The maximum dosing and filling rates depend on the cylinder
volume (see Chapter 10.1.1, page 117).
Enter the desired volume.
Enter the dosing rate.
Enter the filling rate.
4 Start dosing
■
Press [START].
The status changes to busy, the dosed volume is displayed. When
the volume of one cylinder has been dosed, the dosing cylinder will
be refilled automatically.
5 Fill the cylinder
■
Press [STOP] or [BACK].
The dosing cylinder is filled. If you start the filling with [BACK], then
the dialog will also be exited.
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5.13.2
5 Operation
Measuring
Open the dialog for manual measurement as follows:
1 Open the manual control
■
■
In the main dialog, select Menu and press [OK].
The main menu opens.
Select the menu item Manual control and press [OK].
Manual control opens.
2 Select a measuring mode
■
Select the Measure item.
■
In the function bar, select the measuring mode and press [OK].
3 Configure the measuring mode
■
■
Select the desired electrode from the sensor list.
The selection depends on the measuring mode. Sensors are
defined under System ▶ Sensors.
Enter the measuring temperature if no temperature sensor is connected. If a temperature sensor is connected, then the temperature will be measured automatically.
This temperature is used for automatic temperature compensation
with pH measurements.
4 Start the measurement
■
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Press [START].
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5.13 Manual control
The status changes to busy. The current measured value and the
measuring temperature are displayed.
5 Stop the measurement
■
Press [STOP] or [BACK].
The measurement is stopped. The status changes back again to
ready. If you stop the measurement with [BACK], then the dialog
will also be exited.
5.13.3
Stirring
You can control a connected stirrer manually.
Proceed as follows:
1 Opening the manual control
■
■
In the main dialog, select Menu and press [OK].
The main menu opens.
Select the menu item Manual control and press [OK].
Manual control opens.
2 Setting the stirring rate
50 ■■■■■■■■
■
Select the Stirrer item.
■
In the function bar, select Stir- or Stir+.
The stirring rate will be increased or decreased by one step each
time the [OK] key is pressed.
The algebraic sign changes the direction in which the stirring is
done. When viewing the stirrer from above, this means:
– "+": counterclockwise rotation
– "–": clockwise rotation
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5 Operation
3 Switching on the stirrer
■
In the function bar, select On and press [OK].
The stirrer is started and stirs at the rate which has been set. Off is
now displayed in the function bar.
4 Switching off the stirrer
■
In the function bar, select Off and confirm with [OK].
The stirrer is stopped.
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6.1 Basic settings
6 System settings
6.1
Basic settings
Menu ▶ System ▶ Settings
This chapter contains a description of general instrument settings.
User name
A user name can be entered here for the report. This parameter will only
be printed if a user has been defined.
Entry
Default value
max. 12 characters
empty
Instrument name
A instrument name can be entered here for the report. This parameter will
only be printed if a designation has been defined.
Entry
Default value
max. 10 characters
empty
Serial number
Serial number of the instrument. This is printed as a part of the instrument
identification in the report header.
Program version
Version number of the instrument software. This is printed as a part of the
instrument identification in the report header.
Time
Current time. Only valid numbers can be entered.
Format: hh:mm:ss
Date
Current date. Only valid numbers can be entered.
Format: YYYY:MM:DD
Language
Setting the dialog language. An additional language can be selected
besides English.
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6 System settings
NOTE
In order to ensure that a second language can be selected, it must first
be installed. This installation must be carried out by specialist personnel.
In chapter Language files, page 66, you will find details regarding the
installation of a second language.
Dialog type
The user dialog can be limited for routine operations. One can operate
normally with methods in the limited dialog. However, no settings can be
made or methods deleted.
The resetting of the dialog will take effect as soon as you exit the main
menu.
The limitation of the dialog results in the following:
■
■
The menu items System, Parameters and Control are not shown in
the main menu.
Methods can only be loaded, but not deleted, exported or created.
NOTE
If the limited dialog for routine operation is activated, then the expert
dialog cannot be activated during ongoing operation. To change the
dialog type, the 848 Titrino plus must be switched off and then back on
again. The expert dialog can be forced as soon as the instrument is
started up again. Then it is possible to enter whatever settings one
wishes, e.g. the changing of the dialog type. If the instrument is
switched off again without changing the dialog type, then the routine
dialog will remain activated.
Forcing the expert dialog:
■
■
■
■
Switch on the instrument.
Wait for the display of the instrument logo with the lettering easy,
safe, precise.
Press the [STOP] key once again and hold it down while also briefly
pressing the [BACK] key.
Release both keys once again.
Selection
Default value
Expert | Routine
Expert
Expert
Complete dialog.
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6.1 Basic settings
Routine
Limited dialog for routine operations.
Contrast
The contrast of the display can be adjusted with the arrow keys [⇦] and
[⇨].
■
■
[⇦]: the contrast will be decreased by one step each time the key is
pressed.
[⇨]: the contrast will be increased by one step each time the key is
pressed.
Input range
Default value
150 - 240
212
NOTE
Alternatively, the contrast can also be modified in the following manner:
Keep the red [STOP] key pressed down. As soon as the progress bar
appears, also press the arrow key [⇩] or [⇧] repeatedly.
This method will, however, cause the contrast to be modified by several
steps.
Beep
If this parameter is activated, then a short beep will sound in the following
cases:
■
■
■
When a key is pressed.
At the end of the determination.
When the system remains conditioned without interruption for 10 seconds.
Selection
Default value
on | off
on
PREP warning
If this parameter is activated, then the recommendation will be made to
carry out the function PREP (Preparing):
■
■
After the instrument is switched on.
Each time a buret unit is attached.
All tubing and the cylinder are rinsed with this function (see Chapter
10.1.2, page 117).
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6 System settings
Selection
Default value
on | off
on
Temperature sensor
The instrument supports the use of two different temperature measurement techniques:
■
■
NTC (Negative Temperature Coefficient)
Pt1000 (platinum resistance)
Select the type here that has been connected to the instrument. If you use
an NTC sensor, it is required that two characteristics for the sensor be
entered in addition. These characteristics are listed in the specifications of
the sensor.
Selection
Default value
Pt1000 | NTC
Pt1000
R (25 °C)
This parameter is visible only when Temperature sensor = NTC.
Nominal resistance of the NTC sensor at 25 °C.
Input range
Default value
1000 - 99999 ohm
30000 ohm
B value
This parameter is visible only when Temperature sensor = NTC.
Material constant of the NTC sensor. B values of NTC sensors are frequently based on different reference temperatures (usually 25 °C and
50…100 °C).
Input range
Default value
848 Titrino plus
1000 - 9999 K
4100 K
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6.2 Managing sensors
6.2
Managing sensors
6.2.1
General
Menu ▶ System ▶ Sensors
Three standard sensors are defined in the sensor list: pH electrode,
Metal electrode and Temperature sensor. These sensors cannot be
deleted or renamed. The sensor list can contain a maximum of 10 sensors.
Every sensor is identified with a unique name. This means that it is not
possible to use the same name twice, e.g. for a pH electrode and for a
metal electrode.
Edit
Edit the data of the selected sensor, see following chapter.
New
Add a new sensor to the list, see following chapter.
The following sensor types can be selected:
■
■
■
■
pH electrode
Metal electrode
Temperature sensor
Other sensor, e.g. Spectrosense
Delete
Delete the selected sensor from the list.
6.2.2
Editing the sensor data
Name
The designation of the sensor is used for unambiguous identification.
Entry
Default value
max. 24 characters
empty
Type
The sensor type is displayed.
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6 System settings
Slope
This parameter is only visible with pH electrodes.
Slope of the pH electrode. With a 1-point calibration, only pH(0) can be
calculated, 100.0% is used as the slope.
Input range
Default value
–999.9 - 999.9 %
100.0 %
pH(0)
This parameter is only visible with pH electrodes.
pH value of the pH electrode at 0 mV. Apart from the slope, pH(0) is the
second characteristic of the calibration curve.
Input range
Default value
–20.000 - 20.000
7.000
Calibration temp.
This parameter is only visible with pH electrodes.
Temperature at which the last calibration was carried out.
Input range
Default value
–20.0 - 150.0 °C
25.0 °C
Calibration date
This parameter is only visible with pH electrodes.
Date of the last calibration.
Monitoring
This parameter is only visible with pH electrodes.
Activating and deactivating the calibration monitoring.
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Time interval
This parameter is visible only when Monitoring = on.
You will be notified that this time interval (in days) has elapsed when starting a method. You can then select whether or not you would still like to
start the method.
Input range
Default value
848 Titrino plus
1 - 999 d
999 d
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6.3 Managing solutions
6.3
Managing solutions
6.3.1
General
Menu ▶ System ▶ Solutions
Solutions can be used in intelligent buret units or in non-intelligent buret
units. Intelligent buret units have a built-in data chip on which the data for
the reagent is stored. This data is automatically read out during attachment and entered in the solution list.
The name and the type are specified for each solution in the solution list.
The asterisk (*) on the right-hand side indicates that this buret unit is
attached (only for intelligent buret units). An unlimited number of solutions in buret units with data chip can be added to the solution list. The
number of solutions in buret units without data chip is limited to 10 items.
Meaning of the type:
■
■
EU: exchange unit without data chip
IEU: exchange unit with integrated data chip
Edit
Edit the data of the selected solution, see following chapter.
New
Add a new solution to the list, see following chapter.
Delete
Delete the selected solution from the list.
6.3.2
Editing the solution data
Name
The designation of the solution is used for unambiguous identification.
Entry
Default value
max. 24 characters
empty
Type
The model of the buret unit is displayed.
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6 System settings
Cylinder volume
Cylinder volume of the buret unit in mL. The cylinder volume is automatically read out with intelligent buret units.
Selection
Default value
1 | 5 | 10 | 20 | 50
20
Concentration
Concentration of the solution.
Input range
Default value
–999999999 - 9999999999
1.000
Concentration unit
Unit of the concentration.
Selection
Default value
µmol/mL | mmol/L | mol/L | g/L | mg/L | mg/mL |
µg/L | ppm | % | mEq/L | User-defined
mol/L
User-defined
A user-defined unit can be created. This will be added to the selection
list. The previous entry will be overwritten as soon as the new unit has
been defined. A blank entry can be generated this way as well.
Titer
Titer of the solution.
Input range
Default value
–999999999 - 9999999999
1.000
Titer unit
Unit of the titer.
Selection
Default value
µmol/mL | mmol/L | mol/L | g/L | mg/L | mg/mL |
µg/L | ppm | % | mEq/L | empty | User-defined
empty
User-defined
A user-defined unit can be created. This will be added to the selection
list. The previous entry will be overwritten as soon as the new unit has
been defined. A blank entry can be generated this way as well.
Date titer det.
Date of the last titer determination.
Monitoring
Activating and deactivating the titer monitoring.
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6.4 Managing common variables
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Time interval
This parameter is visible only when Monitoring = on.
You will be notified that this time interval (in days) has elapsed when starting a method. You can then select whether or not you would still like to
start the method.
Input range
Default value
1 - 999 d
999 d
6.4
Managing common variables
6.4.1
General
Menu ▶ System ▶ Common variables
The instrument offers the possibility of saving five method-independent
variables, so-called common variables. These variables remain saved in
the instrument and can be used in future calculations. Common variables
are useful, e.g. for the following applications:
■
■
Determination of a blank value which will be taken into account during
the content determination of the sample.
Determination of the content of a standard solution, which will be
taken into account during the content determination of the sample.
The common variables have the non-changeable designation CV01…
CV05. The value is displayed for every variable. No unit can be assigned
to the common variables.
Edit
See the following chapter for editing the data of the selected common
variable.
Delete
Set the selected common variable to invalid.
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6.4.2
6 System settings
Editing common variables
The common variables can be modified as follows:
■
■
Manually in this dialog.
Automatic assignment from the determination run. A calculation result
must be configured accordingly for this purpose (see below).
Assigning a result automatically to a common variable
Proceed as follows:
1 Opening the editing dialog of the result
■
■
■
Select the menu item Parameters ▶ Calculation and press
[OK].
Select the result whose value is to be assigned to a common variable.
In the function bar, select Edit and press [OK].
2 Adjusting the result properties
■
■
Select the parameter Save as CV and press [OK].
Select the entry on in the selection list and apply with [OK].
The assignment of the result to a common variable occurs automatically
according to the following scheme:
■
■
■
Result R1 ⇨ Common Variable CV01
Result R2 ⇨ Common Variable CV02
etc.
NOTE
If you have set the parameter Statistics to on, then the mean value of
the results will be assigned to the respective common variable.
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6.5 File management
6.5
File management
Menu ▶ System ▶ File management
NOTE
This menu item is visible only if a USB flash drive has been connected as
an external storage medium.
Methods can be imported and deleted from a USB flash drive in this dialog. Only methods located in the Files directory are displayed in the list
(see "Directory structure on the USB flash drive", page 62).
A backup of the system can be created (all data and settings). Similarly, an
existing backup can be reloaded.
Import
Import the selected method.
Delete
Delete the selected method.
Backup
Create a backup of all data and settings on the USB flash drive.
NOTE
Only one backup can be created on the same USB flash drive.
If a backup is already stored on the flash drive, then this will be overwritten as soon as the function is performed once again.
Restore
Load the backup from a connected USB flash drive.
Directory structure on the USB flash drive
A directory with the instrument number will be created on the USB flash
drive. The structure within this directory appears as follows:
Figure 19
62 ■■■■■■■■
Directory structure on the USB flash drive
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6 System settings
Backup
All of the files of the backup are stored in this
directory. The directory is created as soon as a
backup is created for the first time.
Files
Exported methods are stored in this directory.
The directory is created as soon as a backup is
exported for the first time.
Only methods located in this directory can be
imported.
pc_lims_report
6.6
PC/LIMS reports are stored in this directory as
TXT files. The directory is created as soon as a
PC/LIMS report is printed for the first time.
Configuring external devices
Menu ▶ System ▶ External devices
PC/LIMS report
Specification of the storage location for the PC/LIMS report. The PC/LIMS
report is a machine-readable report with all of the important data for a
determination. It can be saved as follows:
■
■
as a TXT file on a USB flash drive.
to a LIMS via an RS-232 interface. The 6.2148.030 RS-232/USB Box is
required for this purpose.
Selection
Default value
COM2 | USB Stick
USB Stick
COM2
The report is sent via the serial COM2 interface. The interface parameters set in the dialog COM2 settings are used (see "Editing the COM2
settings", page 65).
USB Stick
The report will be saved as a TXT file on the USB flash drive in the
folder pc_lims_report.
Printer
If a printer is connected, then the printer type needs to be defined here in
order for the reports to be printed out correctly.
The printers that have the designation ESC-POS are so-called POS printers
(point-of-sale printers), i.e. they print on continuous paper.
Selection
Default value
848 Titrino plus
Citizen (ESC-POS) | Custom (ESC-POS) | Epson |
Epson (ESC-POS) | HP DeskJet | HP LaserJet |
Seiko (ESC-POS)
HP DeskJet
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6.6 Configuring external devices
Graphics width
Adjust the width of the curve to be printed out to the paper width of the
printer to be used. The default value depends on the selected printer. The
height of the curve is 2/3 of the width.
Input range
100 - 3000 Pixels
Keyboard layout
A commercially available USB keyboard can be connected to make it easier to enter text and numbers. Specify the country-specific keyboard layout.
Selection
Default value
English US | French FR | German CH | German
DE | Spanish ES
English US
Balance
If you have connected a balance, then you must define the balance type
here.
Selection
Default value
AND | Mettler | Mettler AT | Mettler AX |
Ohaus | Precisa | Sartorius | Shimadzu
Sartorius
The following table indicates the balance type that needs to be selected
for the balance model:
Balance
Balance type
AND
AND
Mettler AB, AE, AG, AM,
AJ, PE, PM, PJ, PR, XP, XS
Mettler
Mettler AT
Mettler AT
Mettler AX, MX, UMX, PG,
AB-S, PB-S
Mettler AX
Ohaus Voyager, Explorer,
Analytical Plus
Ohaus
Precisa
Precisa
Sartorius
Sartorius
Shimadzu BX, BW
Shimadzu
Editing the COM1 settings
Menu ▶ System ▶ External devices ▶ COM1 settings
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6 System settings
The interface parameters for the connected balance are set under COM1
settings.
Baud rate
Transfer rate in characters per second.
Selection
Default value
1200 | 2400 | 4800 | 9600 | 19200 | 38400 |
57600 | 115200
9600
Data bits
Number of data bits.
Selection
Default value
7|8
8
Stop bits
Number of stop bits.
Selection
Default value
1|2
1
Parity
Type of parity testing.
Selection
Default value
even | none | odd
none
Handshake
Type of the data transfer protocol.
Selection
Default value
hardware | software | none
hardware
NOTE
If communications problems occur, set the parameter Handshake to
software, and make another attempt.
Editing the COM2 settings
Menu ▶ System ▶ External devices ▶ COM2 settings
The interface parameters for instruments connected to the RS-232/2 connector of the RS-232/USB Box (e.g. PC) are set under COM2 settings.
The parameters and input ranges are identical to those for the COM1
interface.
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6.7 Instrument diagnosis
6.7
Instrument diagnosis
6.7.1
Loading program versions and language files
Menu ▶ System ▶ Diagnosis
New program versions or language files can be loaded from a USB flash
drive. The corresponding file must be saved on the USB flash drive in a
directory with the instrument number (e.g. 848 or 863).
You can distinguish between language files and program files by noting
how the file name is constructed.
Program files
They are instrument-specific. The file name has the following structure:
5XXXyyyy.bin where
XXX =
Instrument type (e.g. 848 for the 848 Titrino plus)
yyyy =
Program version
Language files
They can be recognized by means of the two-digit language code in the
file name. A language file contains the dialog texts for various instrument
types. It is not instrument-specific. The file name has the following structure:
5848xxxxYY.bin where
xxxx =
YY =
Version number
Language, e.g. DE (German), FR (French), ES (Spanish)
Loading a file
Proceed as follows:
1 Connecting the USB flash drive
■
■
Plug in the USB flash drive with the 6.2151.100 adapter (USB
MINI (OTG) - USB A) at the instrument's USB port.
Switch on the instrument.
2 Opening the update dialog
■
■
66 ■■■■■■■■
Under Menu ▶ System ▶ Diagnosis, select the menu item
Software update.
Press [OK].
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6 System settings
3 Opening the file selection
■
Press [OK].
The selection list with the program and language files present on the
USB flash drive opens.
4 Selecting the file
■
■
Use the arrow keys to select the required file.
Press [OK].
5 Starting the update
■
Press [START].
The update process is started, it runs automatically. At the end of the
process, the instrument will be switched off automatically and
switched back on again. No user intervention is required.
6.7.2
Diagnosis functions
Electronic and mechanical functional groups in Metrohm instruments can
and should be checked as part of regular maintenance by specialist personnel from Metrohm. Please ask your local Metrohm representative
regarding the precise terms and conditions involved in concluding a corresponding maintenance agreement.
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7 Parameters
7.1
Dynamic equivalence point titrations (DET)
7.1.1
Start conditions
Menu ▶ Parameters ▶ Start conditions
The parameters that are carried out before the start of titration are
defined under Start conditions.
Activation pulse
Output of an activation pulse on a remote line. This activation pulse starts
a connected Dosimat.
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Start delay time
Waiting time after the start of the determination, before titration is
started. During this period, substances such auxiliary solution can be
added with a Dosimat (parameterization on the Dosimat). However, this
requires that the Activation pulse be enabled.
Input range
Default value
0 - 999,999 s
0s
Start volume
Volume that is dosed prior to the start of the titration.
Input range
Default value
0.00000 - 9,999.99 mL
0.00000 mL
Dosing rate
Rate at which the start volume is dosed. The maximum dosing rate
depends on the cylinder volume (see Chapter 10.1.1, page 117).
Input range
Selection
Default value
0.01 - 166.00 mL/min
max.
max.
Pause
Waiting time, e.g. for the electrode to settle down after the start or a
reaction time after the dosing of a start volume.
Input range
Default value
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0 - 999,999 s
0s
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Request sample ID
Selection of the sample identification that is queried in the method run.
Selection
Default value
off | ID1 | ID2 | ID1&ID2
off
Request sample size
If this parameter is activated, then the value for the sample size will be
requested.
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Request sample unit
If this parameter is activated, then the unit for the sample size will be
requested.
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Hold at request
If this parameter is activated, then the run will be paused during the
request. If the parameter is switched off, the titration will be started in the
background.
Selection
Default value
7.1.2
on | off
on
Titration parameters
Menu ▶ Parameters ▶ Titration parameters
Under Titration parameters, the parameters influencing the run of the
entire titration are defined.
Titration rate
Three predefined sets of parameters can be selected for the titration rate.
Selection
Default value
slow | optimal | fast | user
optimal
slow
For titrations in which the finest details are also to be visible. This
could, however, also lead to an increase in noise, which could result in
unwanted equivalence points.
optimal
For all standard titrations. The parameters have been optimized for the
most frequent applications.
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7.1 Dynamic equivalence point titrations (DET)
fast
For fast and less critical titrations.
user
The individual titration parameters can be modified.
NOTE
Select optimal as titration rate when you are developing a new titration method. This parameter is suitable for virtually all titrations and
only needs adaptation in special cases.
The settings of the individual titration rates are listed in table 1, page
72.
Meas. point density
This parameter is visible only when Titration rate = user.
A small value means small volume increments, i.e. a high measuring point
density. The curve then shows all the finest details which also include
noise; this could cause unwanted equivalence points to be found. A larger
value, i.e. a smaller measuring point density, permits quicker titrations. If
you are using a dosing device with a small cylinder volume then a smaller
measuring point density value may be beneficial. However, you should
also set a smaller signal drift and a higher EP criterion at the same time.
Input range
Default value
0-9
4
Min. increment
This parameter is visible only when Titration rate = user.
This smallest permitted volume increment is added at the start of the titration and with steep curves in the region of the equivalence point. Very
small values should only be used if a low titrant consumption is expected;
otherwise unwanted equivalence points could be evaluated.
Input range
Default value
0.05 - 999.90 µL
10.00 µL
Max. increment
This parameter is visible only when Titration rate = user.
A maximum volume increment should be selected in the following cases:
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when titration consumption is very low up until the equivalence point
is reached.
when a start volume is dosed up until shortly before the equivalence
point is reached.
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7 Parameters
when the change of direction in the jumping range is very abrupt,
because otherwise it is easily possible that an excessively large volume
could be dosed in the region of the equivalence point.
The value should not be less than 1/100 cylinder volume.
Input range
Selection
Default value
0.1 - 9,999.9 µL
off
off
NOTE
It is not advisable to select similar volumes for the minimum and the
maximum increment. Monotonic equivalence point titration (MET) is
appropriate for these applications.
Dosing rate
This parameter is visible only when Titration rate = user.
Rate at which the volume increments are dosed. The maximum dosing
rate depends on the cylinder volume (see Chapter 10.1.1, page 117).
Input range
Selection
Default value
0.01 - 166.00 mL/min
max.
max.
Signal drift
This parameter is visible only when Titration rate = user.
Maximum permissible drift for the measured value acceptance, i.e. maximum change of the measured value per minute. This type of titration is
often referred to as equilibrium titration.
NOTE
A constant measured value is often only reached after a certain time, as
mixing and the reaction itself require a certain time. The response time
of an electrode can also increase with time, i.e., reaching a constant
measured value takes longer and longer. Drift-controlled measured
value acceptance is particularly advisable in such cases, as the measured
values are only accepted when equilibrium has almost been reached.
Measuring mode pH, U and Ipol:
0.1 - 999.0 mV/min
Input range
Default value
50.0 mV/min
Selection
off
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7.1 Dynamic equivalence point titrations (DET)
off
Measured value acceptance will take place after the maximum waiting
time has elapsed. This can be useful when the titration reaction proceeds slowly or the electrode is slow to respond.
Measuring mode Upol:
Input range
0.01 - 99.90 µA/min
Default value
50.00 µA/min
Selection
off
off
Measured value acceptance will take place after the maximum waiting
time has elapsed. This can be useful when the titration reaction proceeds slowly or the electrode is slow to respond.
Min. waiting time
This parameter is visible only when Titration rate = user.
The measured value is not accepted until the minimum waiting time has
elapsed, even if the signal drift has already been reached. The minimum
waiting time is only important for drift-controlled measurements.
Input range
Default value
0 - 999,999 s
0s
Max. waiting time
This parameter is visible only when Titration rate = user.
If the signal drift has been switched off or has not yet been reached, then
the measured value will be accepted when the maximum waiting time has
elapsed.
Input range
Default value
Table 1
0 - 999,999 s
26 s
Default values of the predefined titration rates for DET
Titration rate
slow
optimal
fast
Meas. point density
2
4
6
Min. increment
10.00 µL
10.00 µL
30.00 µL
Max. increment
off
off
off
Dosing rate
max.
max.
max.
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Titration rate
slow
optimal
fast
– pH, U and Ipol
20.0 mV/min
50.0 mV/min
80.0 mV/min
– Upol
20.0 µA/min
50.0 µA/min
80.0 µA/min
Min. waiting time
0s
0s
0s
Max. waiting time
38 s
26 s
21 s
Signal drift
Temperature
Manually entered titration temperature. If a temperature sensor is connected then the temperature will be measured continuously. This value is
used for temperature correction in pH measurements.
Input range
Default value
–20.0 - 150.0 °C
25.0 °C
Sensor
Selection of the sensor from the sensor list. The selection depends on the
measuring mode. Sensors are defined under System ▶ Sensors.
Selection
Selection of configured sensors
Solution
Selection of the solution from the solution list. We recommend always
selecting the solution. This ensures that the correct data (titer, concentration, etc.) is always used for the calculation. Solutions are defined under
System ▶ Solutions.
For buret units with integrated data chip, a check is made in the method
run to verify whether the correct solution has been attached and whether
the type of dosing drive matches. For buret units without integrated data
chip, the cylinder volume and the type of dosing drive are checked. The
validity of the titer is checked for the selected solution at the start of the
determination.
Selection
Default value
Selection of configured solutions | not defined
not defined
not defined
No check takes place.
I(pol)
The polarization current is the current that is applied to a polarizable electrode during voltametric measurement. This parameter is available only
with I(pol) determinations.
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7.1 Dynamic equivalence point titrations (DET)
Input range
Default value
–125 - 125 µA (Increment: 1)
5 µA
U(pol)
The polarization voltage is the voltage applied to the polarizable electrode
during an amperometric measurement. This parameter is available only
with U(pol) determinations.
Input range
Default value
–1,250 - 1,250 mV (Increment: 10)
400 mV
Electrode test
In the case of polarizable electrodes, an electrode test can be carried out.
A check is made that the electrode is properly connected and that no
short-circuit is present. The electrode test is carried out when the determination is started. This parameter is available only with I(pol) and U(pol)
determinations.
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Stirrer
The stirrer is switched on at the start of the determination when this parameter is activated.
Selection
Default value
on | off
on
Stirring rate
Setting the stirring rate. It can be set in steps of –15 to +15. The default
setting 8 corresponds to 1,000 rpm. The formula for calculating the rotational speed is specified in chapter 10.2, page 118. The optimum stirring
rate can be tested in the manual control.
The algebraic sign of the stirring rate changes the stirring direction. When
the stirrer is viewed from above, this means:
■
■
"+": counterclockwise rotation
"–": clockwise rotation
Input range
Default value
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–15 - 15
8
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7.1.3
7 Parameters
Stop conditions
Menu ▶ Parameters ▶ Stop conditions
The conditions for canceling the titration are defined under Stop conditions.
Stop volume
The titration is canceled when the specified volume has been dosed since
the start of the titration. This volume should be adjusted to the size of the
titration vessel in order to prevent the contents from running over.
Input range
Default value
Selection
0.00000 - 9,999.99 mL
100.000 mL
off
Stop meas. value
The titration is canceled when the specified measured value has been
reached since the start of the titration.
Measuring mode pH:
Input range
–20.000 - 20.000
Selection
off
Default value
off
Measuring mode U, Ipol:
Input range
–1,250.0 - 1,250.0 mV
Selection
off
Default value
off
Measuring mode Upol:
–125.0 - 125.0 µA
Input range
Selection
off
Default value
off
Stop EP
The titration is canceled when the specified number of equivalence points
has been found.
Input range
Default value
Selection
1-9
9
off
Volume after EP
This volume will be added when the number of equivalence points
defined under Stop EP has been found. The curve shape after the equivalence point can also be seen this way.
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7.1 Dynamic equivalence point titrations (DET)
Input range
Selection
Default value
0.01000 - 9,999.99 mL
off
off
Stop time
The titration is canceled when the specified time has elapsed since the
start of the titration.
Input range
Selection
Default value
0 - 999,999 s
off
off
Filling rate
Rate at which the dosing cylinder is filled after the titration. The maximum
filling rate depends on the cylinder volume (see Chapter 10.1.1, page
117).
Input range
Selection
Default value
7.1.4
0.01 - 166.00 mL/min
max.
max.
Evaluation
Menu ▶ Parameters ▶ Evaluation
The parameters for the evaluation of the titration curve are defined under
Evaluation.
Window
Activate this parameter if equivalence points are to be recognized only in
a specific measured value range (window). Only one window can be
defined.
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Lower limit
This parameter is visible only when Window = on.
Measured value for the lower limit.
Measuring mode pH:
Input range
–20.000 - 20.000
Default value
–20.000
Measuring mode U, Ipol:
Input range
–1,250.0 - 1,250.0 mV
Default value
–1,250.0 mV
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Measuring mode Upol:
Input range
–125.00 - 125.00 µA
Default value
–125.00 µA
Upper limit
This parameter is visible only when Window = on.
Measured value for the upper limit.
Measuring mode pH:
Input range
–20.000 - 20.000
Default value
20.000
Measuring mode U, Ipol:
Input range
–1,250.0 - 1,250.0 mV
Default value
1,250.0 mV
Measuring mode Upol:
–125.00 - 125.00 µA
Input range
Default value
125.00 µA
EP criterion
The equivalence point criterion found (ERC = Equivalence point Recognition Criterion) is compared with this value. Equivalence points whose ERC
is less than the value defined here will be ignored.
Input range
Default value
0 - 200
5
EP recognition
This parameter allows you to filter out only the equivalence points that are
being sought.
for Window = off
Selection
Default value
all | greatest | last | off
all
all
All equivalence points will be recognized.
greatest
Only the equivalence point with the greatest ERC value, i.e. the steepest jump, will be recognized.
last
Only the last equivalence point will be recognized.
off
No evaluation takes place.
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for Window = on
Selection
Default value
first | greatest | last
first
first
Only the first equivalence point will be recognized.
greatest
Only the equivalence point with the greatest ERC value, i.e. the steepest jump, will be recognized.
last
Only the last equivalence point will be recognized.
Fixed EP1 at
The associated volume will be interpolated from the measuring point list
for the measured value entered. The fixed endpoint must lie between the
first and the final entry in the measuring point list.
Measuring mode pH:
Input range
–20.000 - 20.000
Selection
off
Default value
off
Measuring mode U, Ipol:
Input range
–1,250.0 - 1,250.0 mV
Selection
off
Default value
off
Measuring mode Upol:
–125.00 - 125.00 µA
Input range
Selection
off
Default value
off
Fixed EP2 at
See Fixed EP1 at.
Evaluation and equivalence point criterion with DET
The equivalence points (EP) are localized in a way similar to the Tubbs
method [1][2]. The volume value of the equivalence point (VE) is shifted
from the inflection point (see arrow) towards the smaller circle of curvature for real asymmetric titration curves.
[1] C. F. Tubbs, Anal. Chem. 1954, 26, 1670–1671.
[2] E. Bartholomé, E. Biekert, H. Hellmann, H. Ley, M. Weigert, E. Weise,
Ullmanns Encyklopädie der technischen Chemie, Vol. 5, Verlag Chemie,
Weinheim, 1980, p. 659.
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7 Parameters
pH
VE
Figure 20
V/mL
Tubbs method for determining the equivalence point
The figure shows that the evaluation still requires measured values from
the measuring point list also after the equivalence point.
For the recognition of the EPs found, the set EP criterion is compared to
the ERC (Equivalence point Recognition Criterion) found. The ERC is the
first derivative of the titration curve combined with a mathematical function which is more sensitive for flat jumps than for steeper ones. EPs
whose ERC is smaller than the defined EP criterion will not be recognized.
The ERC is displayed in the results dialog for each discovered and recognized EP. If you adjust the EP criterion after the fact in order to recognize
more or fewer EPs, then you can initiate the reevaluation in the results dialog with the [Recalculate] key.
7.1.5
7.1.5.1
Calculation
General
Menu ▶ Parameters ▶ Calculation
A maximum of five calculations can be defined in one method. A series of
variables (raw data from the determination, previously calculated results) is
available for the calculations. A definition can be made for each calculation as to whether the result is to be saved as a titer or as a common variable.
The result name is specified in the list for each calculation.
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7.1 Dynamic equivalence point titrations (DET)
Edit
See the following chapter for editing the data of the selected calculation.
Delete
Delete the selected calculation.
7.1.5.2
Editing a calculation
Menu ▶ Parameters ▶ Calculation ▶ Edit
Result name
The result name is the text which will be shown in the results display and
in the report.
Entry
Default value
12 characters
empty
R1=…R5=
Shows the calculation formula. A special editor is opened for the definition (see Chapter 5.3, page 23).
Entry
Default value
44 characters
empty
Decimal places
Number of decimal places used to display the result.
Input range
Default value
0-5
2
Result unit
The result unit is displayed and saved along with the result.
Selection
Default value
% | mol/L | mmol/L | g/L | mg/L | mg/mL | ppm |
g | mg | mL | mg/piece | °C | µL | mL/min | Userdefined
%
User-defined
A user-defined unit can be created. This will be added to the selection
list. The previous entry will be overwritten as soon as the new unit has
been defined. A blank entry can be generated this way as well.
Save as titer
The result can be saved as titer for the selected solution. If statistics has
been switched on, then the current mean value of the determination
series will be saved.
Selection
Default value
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on | off
off
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7 Parameters
Save as CV
The calculated result can be saved as a method-independent variable,
called a common variable. The result is then also available in other methods for calculations. If statistics has been switched on, then the current
mean value of the determination series will be saved.
Selection
Default value
7.1.6
on | off
off
Statistics
Menu ▶ Parameters ▶ Statistics
The statistics calculation of a multiple determination is activated under
Statistics and definition is made as to how many determinations the
series contains.
Statistics
If this function is activated, then statistics calculations will be carried out
for all of the defined results.
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Number of determinations
The number of determinations that are carried out for the statistics calculations.
If an additional determination has to be added to the determination
series, because one determination has been incorrect, for example, then
this can be accomplished in the statistical overview (see Chapter 5.11,
page 41).
Input range
Default value
7.1.7
2 - 20
3
Reports
Menu ▶ Parameters ▶ Reports
The reports that will be printed out automatically in connection with a
determination are defined under Reports.
Results
The result report contains the calculated results, equivalence points and
endpoints, sample data, etc.
Selection
Default value
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off
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7.1 Dynamic equivalence point titrations (DET)
Curve
Curve report. The width of the curve is defined in the system settings (see
"Graphics width", page 64).
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Calculations/Statistics
Output of the calculation formulas for the individual results. Results are
specified with full accuracy. This makes recalculation with an external program possible (see Chapter 10.8, page 127). If Statistics has been activated, then the following data will be printed out as well:
■
■
Result and sample size of the individual determinations
Mean value as well as absolute and relative standard deviation
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Measuring point list
Output of the measuring point list.
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Parameters
All of the parameters of the current method are printed out in the parameter report.
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
PC/LIMS
The PC/LIMS report is a machine-readable report with all of the data
important for a determination. The PC/LIMS report can be saved as a TXT
file on a USB storage medium or sent via an RS-232 interface to a LIMS.
The output location is defined in the system settings (see "PC/LIMS
report", page 63).
The file name of the TXT file is constructed as follows: PC_LIMS_ReportID1-YYYYMMDD-hhmmss.txt.
Selection
Default value
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off
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7 Parameters
7.2
Monotonic equivalence point titrations (MET)
7.2.1
Start conditions
Menu ▶ Parameters ▶ Start conditions
The parameters that are carried out before the start of titration are
defined under Start conditions.
Activation pulse
Output of an activation pulse on a remote line. This activation pulse starts
a connected Dosimat.
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Start delay time
Waiting time after the start of the determination, before titration is
started. During this period, substances such auxiliary solution can be
added with a Dosimat (parameterization on the Dosimat). However, this
requires that the Activation pulse be enabled.
Input range
Default value
0 - 999,999 s
0s
Start volume
Volume that is dosed prior to the start of the titration.
Input range
Default value
0.00000 - 9,999.99 mL
0.00000 mL
Dosing rate
Rate at which the start volume is dosed. The maximum dosing rate
depends on the cylinder volume (see Chapter 10.1.1, page 117).
Input range
Selection
Default value
0.01 - 166.00 mL/min
max.
max.
Pause
Waiting time, e.g. for the electrode to settle down after the start or a
reaction time after the dosing of a start volume.
Input range
Default value
0 - 999,999 s
0s
Request sample ID
Selection of the sample identification that is queried in the method run.
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7.2 Monotonic equivalence point titrations (MET)
Selection
Default value
off | ID1 | ID2 | ID1&ID2
off
Request sample size
If this parameter is activated, then the value for the sample size will be
requested.
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Request sample unit
If this parameter is activated, then the unit for the sample size will be
requested.
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Hold at request
If this parameter is activated, then the run will be paused during the
request. If the parameter is switched off, the titration will be started in the
background.
Selection
Default value
7.2.2
on | off
on
Titration parameters
Menu ▶ Parameters ▶ Titration parameters
Under Titration parameters, the parameters influencing the run of the
entire titration are defined.
Titration rate
Three predefined sets of parameters can be selected for the titration rate.
Selection
Default value
slow | optimal | fast | user
optimal
slow
For titrations in which the finest details are also to be visible. This
could, however, also lead to an increase in noise, which could result in
unwanted equivalence points.
optimal
For all standard titrations. The parameters have been optimized for the
most frequent applications.
fast
For fast and less critical titrations.
user
The individual titration parameters can be modified.
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7 Parameters
NOTE
Select optimal as titration rate when you are developing a new titration method. This parameter is suitable for virtually all titrations and
only needs adaptation in special cases.
The settings of the individual titration rates are listed in table 2, page
87.
Volume increment
This parameter is visible only when Titration rate = user.
Volume dosed at each dosing increment. High accuracy requires using the
correct volume increment. A good guideline is 1/20 of the expected endpoint volume. The volume increment should be closer to 1/100 of the
endpoint volume for steep jumps and closer to 1/10 for flat jumps.
Small volume increments are used for determining blank values or with
very asymmetrical curves. The accuracy of the evaluation cannot be
increased by using smaller increments as the measured value changes
between two measuring points are then of the same order of magnitude
as the noise.
Input range
Default value
0.00005 - 999.900 mL
0.10000 mL
Dosing rate
This parameter is visible only when Titration rate = user.
Rate at which the volume increments are dosed. The maximum dosing
rate depends on the cylinder volume (see Chapter 10.1.1, page 117).
Input range
Selection
Default value
0.01 - 166.00 mL/min
max.
max.
Signal drift
This parameter is visible only when Titration rate = user.
Maximum permissible drift for the measured value acceptance, i.e. maximum change of the measured value per minute. This type of titration is
often referred to as equilibrium titration.
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7.2 Monotonic equivalence point titrations (MET)
NOTE
A constant measured value is often only reached after a certain time, as
mixing and the reaction itself require a certain time. The response time
of an electrode can also increase with time, i.e., reaching a constant
measured value takes longer and longer. Drift-controlled measured
value acceptance is particularly advisable in such cases, as the measured
values are only accepted when equilibrium has almost been reached.
Measuring mode pH, U and Ipol:
0.1 - 999.0 mV/min
Input range
Default value
50.0 mV/min
Selection
off
off
Measured value acceptance will take place after the maximum waiting
time has elapsed. This can be useful when the titration reaction proceeds slowly or the electrode is slow to respond.
Measuring mode Upol:
Input range
0.01 - 99.90 µA/min
Default value
50.00 µA/min
Selection
off
off
Measured value acceptance will take place after the maximum waiting
time has elapsed. This can be useful when the titration reaction proceeds slowly or the electrode is slow to respond.
Min. waiting time
This parameter is visible only when Titration rate = user.
The measured value is not accepted until the minimum waiting time has
elapsed, even if the signal drift has already been reached. The minimum
waiting time is only important for drift-controlled measurements.
Input range
Default value
0 - 999,999 s
0s
Max. waiting time
This parameter is visible only when Titration rate = user.
If the signal drift has been switched off or has not yet been reached, then
the measured value will be accepted when the maximum waiting time has
elapsed.
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7 Parameters
Input range
Default value
Table 2
0 - 999,999 s
26 s
Default values of the predefined titration rates for MET
Titration rate
slow
optimal
fast
Volume increment
0.05000 mL
0.10000 mL
0.20000 mL
Dosing rate
max.
max.
max.
– pH, U and Ipol
20.0 mV/min
50.0 mV/min
80.0 mV/min
– Upol
20.0 µA/min
50.0 µA/min
80.0 µA/min
Min. waiting time
0s
0s
0s
Max. waiting time
38 s
26 s
21 s
Signal drift
Temperature
Manually entered titration temperature. If a temperature sensor is connected then the temperature will be measured continuously. This value is
used for temperature correction in pH measurements.
Input range
Default value
–20.0 - 150.0 °C
25.0 °C
Sensor
Selection of the sensor from the sensor list. The selection depends on the
measuring mode. Sensors are defined under System ▶ Sensors.
Selection
Selection of configured sensors
Solution
Selection of the solution from the solution list. We recommend always
selecting the solution. This ensures that the correct data (titer, concentration, etc.) is always used for the calculation. Solutions are defined under
System ▶ Solutions.
For buret units with integrated data chip, a check is made in the method
run to verify whether the correct solution has been attached and whether
the type of dosing drive matches. For buret units without integrated data
chip, the cylinder volume and the type of dosing drive are checked. The
validity of the titer is checked for the selected solution at the start of the
determination.
Selection
Default value
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7.2 Monotonic equivalence point titrations (MET)
not defined
No check takes place.
I(pol)
The polarization current is the current that is applied to a polarizable electrode during voltametric measurement. This parameter is available only
with I(pol) determinations.
Input range
Default value
–125 - 125 µA (Increment: 1)
5 µA
U(pol)
The polarization voltage is the voltage applied to the polarizable electrode
during an amperometric measurement. This parameter is available only
with U(pol) determinations.
Input range
Default value
–1,250 - 1,250 mV (Increment: 10)
400 mV
Electrode test
In the case of polarizable electrodes, an electrode test can be carried out.
A check is made that the electrode is properly connected and that no
short-circuit is present. The electrode test is carried out when the determination is started. This parameter is available only with I(pol) and U(pol)
determinations.
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Stirrer
The stirrer is switched on at the start of the determination when this parameter is activated.
Selection
Default value
on | off
on
Stirring rate
Setting the stirring rate. It can be set in steps of –15 to +15. The default
setting 8 corresponds to 1,000 rpm. The formula for calculating the rotational speed is specified in chapter 10.2, page 118. The optimum stirring
rate can be tested in the manual control.
The algebraic sign of the stirring rate changes the stirring direction. When
the stirrer is viewed from above, this means:
■
■
"+": counterclockwise rotation
"–": clockwise rotation
Input range
Default value
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8
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7.2.3
7 Parameters
Stop conditions
Menu ▶ Parameters ▶ Stop conditions
The conditions for canceling the titration are defined under Stop conditions.
Stop volume
The titration is canceled when the specified volume has been dosed since
the start of the titration. This volume should be adjusted to the size of the
titration vessel in order to prevent the contents from running over.
Input range
Default value
Selection
0.00000 - 9,999.99 mL
100.000 mL
off
Stop meas. value
The titration is canceled when the specified measured value has been
reached since the start of the titration.
Measuring mode pH:
Input range
–20.000 - 20.000
Selection
off
Default value
off
Measuring mode U, Ipol:
Input range
–1,250.0 - 1,250.0 mV
Selection
off
Default value
off
Measuring mode Upol:
–125.0 - 125.0 µA
Input range
Selection
off
Default value
off
Stop EP
The titration is canceled when the specified number of equivalence points
has been found.
Input range
Default value
Selection
1-9
9
off
Volume after EP
This volume will be added when the number of equivalence points
defined under Stop EP has been found. The curve shape after the equivalence point can also be seen this way.
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7.2 Monotonic equivalence point titrations (MET)
Input range
Selection
Default value
0.01000 - 9,999.99 mL
off
off
Stop time
The titration is canceled when the specified time has elapsed since the
start of the titration.
Input range
Selection
Default value
0 - 999,999 s
off
off
Filling rate
Rate at which the dosing cylinder is filled after the titration. The maximum
filling rate depends on the cylinder volume (see Chapter 10.1.1, page
117).
Input range
Selection
Default value
7.2.4
0.01 - 166.00 mL/min
max.
max.
Evaluation
Menu ▶ Parameters ▶ Evaluation
The parameters for the evaluation of the titration curve are defined under
Evaluation.
Window
Activate this parameter if equivalence points are to be recognized only in
a specific measured value range (window). Only one window can be
defined.
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Lower limit
This parameter is visible only when Window = on.
Measured value for the lower limit.
Measuring mode pH:
Input range
–20.000 - 20.000
Default value
–20.000
Measuring mode U, Ipol:
Input range
–1,250.0 - 1,250.0 mV
Default value
–1,250.0 mV
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7 Parameters
Measuring mode Upol:
Input range
–125.00 - 125.00 µA
Default value
–125.00 µA
Upper limit
This parameter is visible only when Window = on.
Measured value for the upper limit.
Measuring mode pH:
Input range
–20.000 - 20.000
Default value
20.000
Measuring mode U, Ipol:
Input range
–1,250.0 - 1,250.0 mV
Default value
1,250.0 mV
Measuring mode Upol:
–125.00 - 125.00 µA
Input range
Default value
125.00 µA
EP criterion
The equivalence point criterion found (ERC = Equivalence point Recognition Criterion) is compared with this value. Equivalence points whose ERC
is less than the value defined here will be ignored.
Measuring mode pH:
Input range
0.10 - 9.99
Default value
0.50
Measuring mode U, Ipol:
Input range
1 - 999 mV
Default value
30 mV
Measuring mode Upol:
0.1 - 99.9 µA
Input range
Default value
2.0 µA
EP recognition
This parameter allows you to filter out only the equivalence points that are
being sought.
for Window = off
Selection
Default value
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7.2 Monotonic equivalence point titrations (MET)
all
All equivalence points will be recognized.
greatest
Only the equivalence point with the greatest ERC value, i.e. the steepest jump, will be recognized.
last
Only the last equivalence point will be recognized.
off
No evaluation takes place.
for Window = on
Selection
Default value
first | greatest | last
first
first
Only the first equivalence point will be recognized.
greatest
Only the equivalence point with the greatest ERC value, i.e. the steepest jump, will be recognized.
last
Only the last equivalence point will be recognized.
Fixed EP1 at
The associated volume will be interpolated from the measuring point list
for the measured value entered. The fixed endpoint must lie between the
first and the final entry in the measuring point list.
Measuring mode pH:
Input range
–20.000 - 20.000
Selection
off
Default value
off
Measuring mode U, Ipol:
Input range
–1,250.0 - 1,250.0 mV
Selection
off
Default value
off
Measuring mode Upol:
–125.00 - 125.00 µA
Input range
Selection
off
Default value
off
Fixed EP2 at
See Fixed EP1 at.
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7 Parameters
Evaluation and equivalence point criterion with MET
The equivalence points (EPs) are localized by a method based on the Fortuin method which has been adapted by Metrohm for numerical methods.
A search is made for the largest measured value change ( ). The exact EP
is determined by using an interpolation factor which depends on the
Δ values before and after .
:
:
Dosed total volume before
:
:
EP volume
Volume increment
Interpolation factor according to Fortuin
For the recognition of the EPs found, the set EP criterion is compared to
the ERC (Equivalence point Recognition Criterion) found. The ERC is the
sum of the measured value changes before and after the jump:
In certain cases only three or only a single summand are taken into
account.
EPs whose ERC is smaller than the defined EP criterion will not be recognized. The ERC is displayed in the results dialog for each discovered and
recognized EP. If you adjust the EP criterion after the fact in order to recognize more or fewer EPs, then you can initiate the reevaluation in the
results dialog with the [Recalculate] key.
7.2.5
7.2.5.1
Calculation
General
Menu ▶ Parameters ▶ Calculation
A maximum of five calculations can be defined in one method. A series of
variables (raw data from the determination, previously calculated results) is
available for the calculations. A definition can be made for each calculation as to whether the result is to be saved as a titer or as a common variable.
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7.2 Monotonic equivalence point titrations (MET)
The result name is specified in the list for each calculation.
Edit
See the following chapter for editing the data of the selected calculation.
Delete
Delete the selected calculation.
7.2.5.2
Editing a calculation
Menu ▶ Parameters ▶ Calculation ▶ Edit
Result name
The result name is the text which will be shown in the results display and
in the report.
Entry
Default value
12 characters
empty
R1=…R5=
Shows the calculation formula. A special editor is opened for the definition (see Chapter 5.3, page 23).
Entry
Default value
44 characters
empty
Decimal places
Number of decimal places used to display the result.
Input range
Default value
0-5
2
Result unit
The result unit is displayed and saved along with the result.
Selection
Default value
% | mol/L | mmol/L | g/L | mg/L | mg/mL | ppm |
g | mg | mL | mg/piece | °C | µL | mL/min | Userdefined
%
User-defined
A user-defined unit can be created. This will be added to the selection
list. The previous entry will be overwritten as soon as the new unit has
been defined. A blank entry can be generated this way as well.
Save as titer
The result can be saved as titer for the selected solution. If statistics has
been switched on, then the current mean value of the determination
series will be saved.
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Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Save as CV
The calculated result can be saved as a method-independent variable,
called a common variable. The result is then also available in other methods for calculations. If statistics has been switched on, then the current
mean value of the determination series will be saved.
Selection
Default value
7.2.6
on | off
off
Statistics
Menu ▶ Parameters ▶ Statistics
The statistics calculation of a multiple determination is activated under
Statistics and definition is made as to how many determinations the
series contains.
Statistics
If this function is activated, then statistics calculations will be carried out
for all of the defined results.
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Number of determinations
The number of determinations that are carried out for the statistics calculations.
If an additional determination has to be added to the determination
series, because one determination has been incorrect, for example, then
this can be accomplished in the statistical overview (see Chapter 5.11,
page 41).
Input range
Default value
7.2.7
2 - 20
3
Reports
Menu ▶ Parameters ▶ Reports
The reports that will be printed out automatically in connection with a
determination are defined under Reports.
Results
The result report contains the calculated results, equivalence points and
endpoints, sample data, etc.
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7.2 Monotonic equivalence point titrations (MET)
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Curve
Curve report. The width of the curve is defined in the system settings (see
"Graphics width", page 64).
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Calculations/Statistics
Output of the calculation formulas for the individual results. Results are
specified with full accuracy. This makes recalculation with an external program possible (see Chapter 10.8, page 127). If Statistics has been activated, then the following data will be printed out as well:
■
■
Result and sample size of the individual determinations
Mean value as well as absolute and relative standard deviation
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Measuring point list
Output of the measuring point list.
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Parameters
All of the parameters of the current method are printed out in the parameter report.
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
PC/LIMS
The PC/LIMS report is a machine-readable report with all of the data
important for a determination. The PC/LIMS report can be saved as a TXT
file on a USB storage medium or sent via an RS-232 interface to a LIMS.
The output location is defined in the system settings (see "PC/LIMS
report", page 63).
The file name of the TXT file is constructed as follows: PC_LIMS_ReportID1-YYYYMMDD-hhmmss.txt.
Selection
Default value
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7 Parameters
7.3
Endpoint titrations (SET)
7.3.1
Conditioning
Menu ▶ Parameters ▶ Conditioning
The conditions required for conditioning are defined under Conditioning.
Conditioning
If this parameter is switched on, then the first time the titration is started
the working medium will be titrated to the endpoint with the specified
control parameters. The status is kept stable. The actual method run does
not begin until [START] has been pressed once more. Conditioning will
be carried out again automatically after the titration.
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Start drift
Conditioning OK will be displayed as soon as this volume drift has been
reached and the titration can be started.
Input range
Default value
1 - 999 µL/min
20 µL/min
Drift correction
The endpoint volume can be corrected for drift. This involves multiplying
the volume drift by the drift correction time and then subtracting the
resulting value from the endpoint volume. The drift correction time is the
time interval between the end of the conditioning process and the end of
the determination.
Selection
Default value
auto | manual | off
off
auto
The value of the current volume drift is automatically applied at the
start of the titration.
manual
If the volume drift is known throughout a longer period of time, this
can be entered manually.
off
No drift correction takes place.
Drift value
This parameter is visible only when Drift correction = manual.
Volume drift for manual drift correction.
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Input range
Default value
0.0 - 99.9 µL/min
0.0 µL/min
Cond. stop volume
Maximum permissible volume that can be dosed during conditioning.
Conditioning is stopped when the specified volume is dosed. If conditioning is continued by pressing [START] once again, then the titrant volume
that has already been dosed will not be taken into account; i.e. the dosing
starts again at zero. The stop volume should be adjusted to the size of the
titration cell in order to prevent any overflow.
Input range
Default value
Selection
0.00000 - 9,999.99 mL
20.0000 mL
off
Cond. stop time
Maximum permissible time over which conditioning may take place. Conditioning is stopped when the specified time has elapsed.
Input range
Selection
Default value
7.3.2
0 - 999,999 s
off
off
Start conditions
Menu ▶ Parameters ▶ Start conditions
The parameters that are carried out before the start of titration are
defined under Start conditions.
Activation pulse
Output of an activation pulse on a remote line. This activation pulse starts
a connected Dosimat.
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Start delay time
Waiting time after the start of the determination, before titration is
started. During this period, substances such auxiliary solution can be
added with a Dosimat (parameterization on the Dosimat). However, this
requires that the Activation pulse be enabled.
Input range
Default value
0 - 999,999 s
0s
Start volume
Volume that is dosed prior to the start of the titration.
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Default value
7 Parameters
0.00000 - 9,999.99 mL
0.00000 mL
Dosing rate
Rate at which the start volume is dosed. The maximum dosing rate
depends on the cylinder volume (see Chapter 10.1.1, page 117).
Input range
Selection
Default value
0.01 - 166.00 mL/min
max.
max.
Pause
Waiting time, e.g. for the electrode to settle down after the start or a
reaction time after the dosing of a start volume.
Input range
Default value
0 - 999,999 s
0s
Request sample ID
Selection of the sample identification that is queried in the method run.
Selection
Default value
off | ID1 | ID2 | ID1&ID2
off
Request sample size
If this parameter is activated, then the value for the sample size will be
requested.
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Request sample unit
If this parameter is activated, then the unit for the sample size will be
requested.
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Hold at request
If this parameter is activated, then the run will be paused during the
request. If the parameter is switched off, the titration will be started in the
background.
Selection
Default value
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7.3 Endpoint titrations (SET)
7.3.3
Titration parameters
Menu ▶ Parameters ▶ Titration parameters
Under Titration parameters, the parameters influencing the run of the
entire titration are defined.
Solution
Selection of the solution from the solution list. We recommend always
selecting the solution. This ensures that the correct data (titer, concentration, etc.) is always used for the calculation. Solutions are defined under
System ▶ Solutions.
For buret units with integrated data chip, a check is made in the method
run to verify whether the correct solution has been attached and whether
the type of dosing drive matches. For buret units without integrated data
chip, the cylinder volume and the type of dosing drive are checked. The
validity of the titer is checked for the selected solution at the start of the
determination.
Selection
Default value
Selection of configured solutions | not defined
not defined
not defined
No check takes place.
Sensor
Selection of the sensor from the sensor list. The selection depends on the
measuring mode. Sensors are defined under System ▶ Sensors.
Selection
Selection of configured sensors
I(pol)
The polarization current is the current that is applied to a polarizable electrode during voltametric measurement. This parameter is available only
with I(pol) determinations.
Input range
Default value
–125 - 125 µA (Increment: 1)
5 µA
U(pol)
The polarization voltage is the voltage applied to the polarizable electrode
during an amperometric measurement. This parameter is available only
with U(pol) determinations.
Input range
Default value
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–1,250 - 1,250 mV (Increment: 10)
400 mV
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7 Parameters
Electrode test
In the case of polarizable electrodes, an electrode test can be carried out.
A check is made that the electrode is properly connected and that no
short-circuit is present. The electrode test is carried out when the determination is started. This parameter is available only with I(pol) and U(pol)
determinations.
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Stirrer
The stirrer is switched on at the start of the determination when this parameter is activated.
Selection
Default value
on | off
on
Stirring rate
Setting the stirring rate. It can be set in steps of –15 to +15. The default
setting 8 corresponds to 1,000 rpm. The formula for calculating the rotational speed is specified in chapter 10.2, page 118. The optimum stirring
rate can be tested in the manual control.
The algebraic sign of the stirring rate changes the stirring direction. When
the stirrer is viewed from above, this means:
■
■
"+": counterclockwise rotation
"–": clockwise rotation
Input range
Default value
–15 - 15
8
Temperature
Manually entered titration temperature. If a temperature sensor is connected then the temperature will be measured continuously. This value is
used for temperature correction in pH measurements.
Input range
Default value
–20.0 - 150.0 °C
25.0 °C
Titration direction
The titration direction is normally determined automatically from the initial
measured value and the set endpoint. It is recommended that you specify
whenever possible whether the change of the measured value is positive
or negative. If two endpoints have been set then the titration direction will
be defined automatically. In this case the setting will be ignored.
Selection
Default value
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7.3 Endpoint titrations (SET)
+
Positive measured value change, i.e. in the direction of a higher pH
value, greater voltage or greater current.
Negative measured value change, i.e. in the direction of a lower pH
value, lesser voltage or lesser current.
auto
The titration direction is determined automatically from the initial measured value and the set endpoint.
Extraction time
Minimum duration of the titration. The titration will not be canceled during the extraction time, even if the endpoint has already been reached.
The titration is, however, canceled if a stop condition is fulfilled during this
time (see Chapter 7.3.6, page 105). The entry of an extraction time may
be advisable, for instance, for the titration of sparingly soluble samples.
Input range
Default value
0 - 999,999 s
0s
Time interval MP
Time interval for entering a measuring point in the measuring point list.
The measuring point list is limited to 1000 measuring points.
Input range
Default value
7.3.4
0.1 - 999,999.0 s
2.0 s
Control parameters EP1
Menu ▶ Parameters ▶ Control parameters EP1
The control parameters for the first endpoint are defined under Control
parameters EP1.
Endpoint 1 at
Measured value for the first endpoint.
Measuring mode pH:
Input range
–20.000 - 20.000
Selection
off
Default value
off
Measuring mode U and Ipol:
Input range
–1,250.0 - 1,250.0 mV
Selection
off
Default value
off
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Measuring mode Upol:
Input range
–125.00 - 125.00 µA
Selection
off
Default value
off
Titration rate
Three predefined sets of parameters can be selected for the titration rate.
Selection
Default value
slow | optimal | fast | user
optimal
slow
For steep titration curves for which dosing must be carried out in small
steps at the endpoint.
optimal
For all standard titrations. The parameters have been optimized for the
most frequent applications.
fast
For flat titration curves for which the endpoint is reached only slowly.
user
The individual titration parameters can be modified.
The settings of the individual titration rates are listed in table 3, page
104.
Dynamics
This parameter is visible only when Titration rate = user.
This parameter defines the control range before the specified endpoint.
Individual volume steps are dosed in the control range, the dosing is finely
controlled. The closer the endpoint, the slower the dosing until the dosing
rate defined under Min. rate has been reached. The larger the control
range, the slower the titration. Outside the control range, dosing is carried
out continuously, and the dosing rate is defined under Max. rate.
Measuring mode pH:
Input range
0.001 - 20.000
Default value
2.000
Selection
off
Measuring mode U and Ipol:
0.1 - 1,250.0 mV
Input range
Default value
100.0 mV
Selection
off
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Measuring mode Upol:
Input range
0.01 - 125.00 µA
Default value
10.00 µA
Selection
off
Max. rate
This parameter is visible only when Titration rate = user.
Rate at which dosing is carried out outside of the control range. The maximum dosing rate depends on the cylinder volume (see Chapter 10.1.1,
page 117).
Input range
Default value
Selection
0.01 - 166.00 mL/min
10.00 mL/min
max.
Min. rate
This parameter is visible only when Titration rate = user.
Rate at which dosing is carried out at the very beginning of the titration
and in the control range at the end of the titration. This parameter has a
decisive influence on the titration rate and thus also on the accuracy. The
smaller the selected minimum rate, the slower the titration.
Input range
Default value
Table 3
0.01 - 9999.00 µL/min
25.00 µL/min
Default values of the predefined titration rates for SET
Titration rate
slow
optimal
fast
– pH
5.000
2.000
0.500
– U und Ipol
300.0 mV
100.0 mV
30.0 mV
– Upol
40.00 µA
10.00 µA
5.00 µA
Max. rate
1.00 mL/min
10.00 mL/min
maximum
Min. rate
5.00 µL/min
25.00 µL/min
50.00 µL/min
Dynamics
Stop criterion
The titration is canceled when the endpoint has been reached and this
stop criterion has been fulfilled. If no stop criterion has been selected then
the titration will not be canceled. The stop conditions (see Chapter 7.3.6,
page 105) always lead to a stop, even if the stop criterion has not been
reached.
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Selection
Default value
drift | time | off
drift
drift
The titration is canceled when the stop drift has been reached.
time
The titration is canceled if the endpoint has been exceeded during a
certain time period (Delay time).
off
The titration will not be canceled until the stop conditions have been
fulfilled.
Stop drift
This parameter is visible only when Stop criterion = drift.
The titration is canceled when the endpoint and the stop drift have been
reached.
Input range
Default value
1 - 999 µL/min
20 µL/min
Delay time
This parameter is visible only when Stop criterion = time.
When the endpoint has been reached, the specified time is allowed to
elapse after the last dosing and the titration is then stopped.
Input range
Default value
7.3.5
0 - 999 s
10 s
Control parameters EP2
Menu ▶ Parameters ▶ Control parameters EP2
The control parameters for the second endpoint are defined under Control parameters EP2. The parameters and input ranges are identical
with those for the first endpoint.
7.3.6
Stop conditions
Menu ▶ Parameters ▶ Stop conditions
The conditions for canceling the titration are defined under Stop conditions, if this does not occur automatically. This could be the case when
the endpoint set is not reached or if the stop criterion (see "Stop criterion", page 104) is not fulfilled.
Stop volume
The titration is canceled when the specified volume has been dosed since
the start of the titration. This volume should be adjusted to the size of the
titration vessel in order to prevent the contents from running over.
848 Titrino plus
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7.3 Endpoint titrations (SET)
Input range
Default value
Selection
0.00000 - 9,999.99 mL
100.000 mL
off
Stop time
The titration is canceled when the specified time has elapsed following the
termination of the start conditions.
Input range
Selection
Default value
0 - 999,999 s
off
off
Filling rate
Rate at which the dosing cylinder is filled after the titration. The maximum
filling rate depends on the cylinder volume (see Chapter 10.1.1, page
117).
Input range
Selection
Default value
7.3.7
7.3.7.1
0.01 - 166.00 mL/min
max.
max.
Calculation
General
Menu ▶ Parameters ▶ Calculation
A maximum of five calculations can be defined in one method. A series of
variables (raw data from the determination, previously calculated results) is
available for the calculations. A definition can be made for each calculation as to whether the result is to be saved as a titer or as a common variable.
The result name is specified in the list for each calculation.
Edit
See the following chapter for editing the data of the selected calculation.
Delete
Delete the selected calculation.
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7.3.7.2
7 Parameters
Editing a calculation
Menu ▶ Parameters ▶ Calculation ▶ Edit
Result name
The result name is the text which will be shown in the results display and
in the report.
Entry
Default value
12 characters
empty
R1=…R5=
Shows the calculation formula. A special editor is opened for the definition (see Chapter 5.3, page 23).
Entry
Default value
44 characters
empty
Decimal places
Number of decimal places used to display the result.
Input range
Default value
0-5
2
Result unit
The result unit is displayed and saved along with the result.
Selection
Default value
% | mol/L | mmol/L | g/L | mg/L | mg/mL | ppm |
g | mg | mL | mg/piece | °C | µL | mL/min | Userdefined
%
User-defined
A user-defined unit can be created. This will be added to the selection
list. The previous entry will be overwritten as soon as the new unit has
been defined. A blank entry can be generated this way as well.
Save as titer
The result can be saved as titer for the selected solution. If statistics has
been switched on, then the current mean value of the determination
series will be saved.
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Save as CV
The calculated result can be saved as a method-independent variable,
called a common variable. The result is then also available in other meth-
848 Titrino plus
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7.3 Endpoint titrations (SET)
ods for calculations. If statistics has been switched on, then the current
mean value of the determination series will be saved.
Selection
Default value
7.3.8
on | off
off
Statistics
Menu ▶ Parameters ▶ Statistics
The statistics calculation of a multiple determination is activated under
Statistics and definition is made as to how many determinations the
series contains.
Statistics
If this function is activated, then statistics calculations will be carried out
for all of the defined results.
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Number of determinations
The number of determinations that are carried out for the statistics calculations.
If an additional determination has to be added to the determination
series, because one determination has been incorrect, for example, then
this can be accomplished in the statistical overview (see Chapter 5.11,
page 41).
Input range
Default value
7.3.9
2 - 20
3
Reports
Menu ▶ Parameters ▶ Reports
The reports that will be printed out automatically in connection with a
determination are defined under Reports.
Results
The result report contains the calculated results, equivalence points and
endpoints, sample data, etc.
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Curve
Curve report. The width of the curve is defined in the system settings (see
"Graphics width", page 64).
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7 Parameters
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Calculations/Statistics
Output of the calculation formulas for the individual results. Results are
specified with full accuracy. This makes recalculation with an external program possible (see Chapter 10.8, page 127). If Statistics has been activated, then the following data will be printed out as well:
■
■
Result and sample size of the individual determinations
Mean value as well as absolute and relative standard deviation
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Measuring point list
Output of the measuring point list.
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Parameters
All of the parameters of the current method are printed out in the parameter report.
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
PC/LIMS
The PC/LIMS report is a machine-readable report with all of the data
important for a determination. The PC/LIMS report can be saved as a TXT
file on a USB storage medium or sent via an RS-232 interface to a LIMS.
The output location is defined in the system settings (see "PC/LIMS
report", page 63).
The file name of the TXT file is constructed as follows: PC_LIMS_ReportID1-YYYYMMDD-hhmmss.txt.
Selection
Default value
848 Titrino plus
on | off
off
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7.4 pH calibration (CAL)
7.4
pH calibration (CAL)
7.4.1
Calibration parameters
Menu ▶ Parameters ▶ Calibration parameters
Under Calibration parameters, the parameters influencing the run of
the entire calibration are defined.
Signal drift
Maximum permissible drift for the measured value acceptance, i.e. maximum change of the measured value per minute.
Input range
Default value
Selection
0.1 - 999.0 mV/min
2.0 mV/min
off
off
Measured value acceptance will take place after the maximum waiting
time has elapsed. This can be useful when the electrode is slow to
respond.
Min. waiting time
The measured value is not accepted until the minimum waiting time has
elapsed, even if the signal drift has already been reached. The minimum
waiting time is only important for drift-controlled measurements.
Input range
Default value
0 - 999,999 s
10 s
Max. waiting time
If the signal drift has been switched off or has not yet been reached, then
the measured value will be accepted when the maximum waiting time has
elapsed.
Input range
Default value
0 - 999,999 s
110 s
Temperature
Manually entered calibration temperature. If a temperature sensor is connected then the temperature will be measured continuously.
The temperature can also be entered during the run.
Input range
Default value
110 ■■■■■■■■
–20.0 - 150.0 °C
25.0 °C
848 Titrino plus
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7 Parameters
Sensor
Selection of the sensor from the sensor list. The selection depends on the
measuring mode. Sensors are defined under System ▶ Sensors.
Selection of configured sensors
Selection
Stirrer
The stirrer is switched on at the start of the determination when this parameter is activated.
Selection
Default value
on | off
on
Stirring rate
Setting the stirring rate. It can be set in steps of –15 to +15. The default
setting 8 corresponds to 1,000 rpm. The formula for calculating the rotational speed is specified in chapter 10.2, page 118. The optimum stirring
rate can be tested in the manual control.
The algebraic sign of the stirring rate changes the stirring direction. When
the stirrer is viewed from above, this means:
■
■
"+": counterclockwise rotation
"–": clockwise rotation
Input range
Default value
–15 - 15
8
Sample changer
This parameter must be switched on for automatic calibrations with sample changers (e.g. 869 Compact Sample Changer). Because the buffers are
changed by the sample changer, the run is not paused in order to request
values. The 848 Titrino plus sends a signal (EOD) to the sample changer
via the remote connection as soon as the measurement of one buffer has
been completed (see Figure 25, page 125). The sample changer switches
to the next buffer at that time.
The parameterization of the sample changer is described in the corresponding manual.
NOTE
When calibrating with a sample changer, we recommend connecting
the stirrer to the sample changer. However, the Stirrer parameter has
to be disabled in this case.
Selection
Default value
848 Titrino plus
on | off
off
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7.4 pH calibration (CAL)
7.4.2
Buffers
Menu ▶ Parameters ▶ Buffers
The buffer type and the number of buffers is defined under Buffers.
Buffer type
Selection of a predefined buffer series or definition of special buffers. In
the case of predefined buffer series, the instrument automatically recognizes which buffer is involved.
Selection
Baker | Beckman | DIN | Fisher | Fluka Basel |
Hamilton | Merck CertiPUR | Merck Titrisol |
Metrohm | Mettler | NIST | Precisa | Radiometer | Special
Merck CertiPUR
Reference temperature = 25 °C. When using Merck CertiPUR buffers
(20 °C) the buffer type Merck Titrisol must be selected.
Special
Up to five calibration buffers can be defined in the method. The automatic buffer recognition is not activated in this case. The buffers must
be measured precisely in the specified sequence.
Number of buffers
Number of buffers that are used for calibration. If calibration is accomplished with more than two buffers, then they can be used repeatedly in
order to give them more statistical weight. The first two buffers must,
however, always be different from one another.
Selection
Default value
1|2|3|4|5
2
Buffer 1 pH
This parameter is visible only when Buffer type = Special.
Input range
Default value
–20.000 - 20.000
7.000
Buffer 2 pH
This parameter is visible only when Buffer type = Special.
Input range
Default value
Selection
–20.000 - 20.000
4.000
off
Buffer 3 pH
This parameter is visible only when Buffer type = Special.
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7 Parameters
Input range
Selection
Default value
–20.000 - 20.000
off
off
Buffer 4 pH
See Buffer 3 pH.
Buffer 5 pH
See Buffer 3 pH.
7.4.3
Reports
Menu ▶ Parameters ▶ Reports
The reports that will be printed out automatically in connection with a calibration are defined under Reports.
Results
The result report contains the specifications for the calibration (slope,
pH(0), etc.).
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
Parameters
All of the parameters of the current method are printed out in the parameter report.
Selection
Default value
on | off
off
PC/LIMS
The PC/LIMS report is a machine-readable report with all of the data
important for a determination. The PC/LIMS report can be saved as a TXT
file on a USB storage medium or sent via an RS-232 interface to a LIMS.
The output location is defined in the system settings (see "PC/LIMS
report", page 63).
The file name of the TXT file is constructed as follows: PC_LIMS_ReportID1-YYYYMMDD-hhmmss.txt.
Selection
Default value
848 Titrino plus
on | off
off
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8.1 Quality management and qualification with Metrohm
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8 Operation and maintenance
8.1
Quality management and qualification with
Metrohm
Quality management
Metrohm offers you comprehensive support in implementing quality management measures for instruments and software.
Qualification
Please contact your local Metrohm representative for support in qualification of instruments and software. The Installation Qualification (IQ)
and Operational Qualification (OQ) are offered by Metrohm representatives as a service. They are carried out by trained employees using standardized qualification documents and in accordance with the currently
applicable requirements of the regulated industry.
Maintenance
The electronic and mechanical functional groups of Metrohm instruments
can and should be checked by specialist personnel from Metrohm as part
of a regular preventive maintenance schedule. Please ask your local
Metrohm representative regarding the precise terms and conditions
involved in concluding a corresponding maintenance agreement.
For detailed information on this topic, please visit www.metrohm.com.
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9 Troubleshooting
9 Troubleshooting
9.1
SET titration
Problem
Cause
Remedy
The titration will not
be finished.
The minimum dosing rate
is too low.
Define Titration rate = user and increase the
minimum rate (Min. rate) (see Chapter 7.3.4,
page 102).
The stop criterion is unsuitable.
Adjust the control parameters (see Chapter
7.3.4, page 102):
■
■
The sample is overtitrated.
The control parameters are
unsuitable.
Adjust the control parameters (see Chapter
7.3.4, page 102):
■
■
■
■
■
■
The titration time is
too long.
Replace the electrode.
The control parameters are
unsuitable.
Adjust the control parameters (see Chapter
7.3.4, page 102):
■
■
■
848 Titrino plus
Select Titration rate = slow.
Define Titration rate = user and increase
the control range.
Define Titration rate = user and reduce
the maximum rate (Max. rate).
Define Titration rate = user and reduce
the minimum rate (Min. rate).
Stir faster.
Arrange the electrode and buret tip to an
optimum.
The electrode responds too
slowly.
■
The results are
spread widely.
Increase the stop drift.
Select a short delay time.
The minimum dosing rate
is too high.
Select Titration rate = optimal or fast.
Define Titration rate = user and reduce
the control range.
Define Titration rate = user and increase
the maximum rate (Max. rate).
Define Titration rate = user and increase
the minimum rate (Min. rate).
Define Titration rate = user and reduce the
minimum rate (Min. rate) (see Chapter 7.3.4,
page 102).
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9.2 Miscellaneous
Problem
9.2
Cause
Remedy
The electrode responds too
slowly.
Replace the electrode.
Miscellaneous
Problem
Cause
Remedy
No report is printed.
The printer is not recognized by the instrument.
■
■
Switch the 848 Titrino plus off and then
back on again.
Use a USB hub and connect the printer to
the USB hub.
The printer model is not
compatible.
Use a printer which fulfills the required specifications (see Chapter 10.4.4, page 121).
The keyboard or mouse is
not recognized by the
instrument.
■
The keyboard or the mouse
is not compatible.
Use a model which fulfills the required specifications (see Chapter 10.4, page 119).
The display is no
longer readable.
The contrast is set incorrectly.
Adjust the contrast correctly (see Chapter 6.1,
page 52).
Mettler XP balances
send "R" or "O ----"
as ID1.
The automatic calibration
of the balance is activated.
Deactivate the automatic calibration.
Message 020-511
"Action not possible" is displayed.
The USB flash drive is no
longer connected.
1. Connect the USB flash drive.
2. Switch the instrument off and then back
on again.
The USB flash drive is full.
■
The USB keyboard
or the PC mouse
does not function.
■
■
116 ■■■■■■■■
Switch the 848 Titrino plus off and then
back on again.
Use a USB hub and connect the keyboard
and mouse to the USB hub.
Use a different USB flash drive.
Delete files with the aid of a PC.
848 Titrino plus
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10 Appendix
10 Appendix
10.1
Exchange unit
10.1.1
Maximum dosing and filling rate
The maximum dosing rate and maximum filling rate for the exchange unit
depend on the cylinder volume:
Cylinder volume
Maximum rate
1 mL
3.00 mL/min
5 mL
15.00 mL/min
10 mL
30.00 mL/min
20 mL
60.00 mL/min
50 mL
150.00 mL/min
Independent of the cylinder volume, values ranging from 0.01 to 166.00
mL/min can always be entered. When the function is carried out the rate
will be, if necessary, decreased automatically to the highest possible value.
10.1.2
Parameters for the preparing (PREP)
The PREP function (Preparing) is used to rinse the cylinder and tubings of
the exchange unit and fill them air bubble-free. You should carry out this
function before the first determination or once per day.
Preparing is carried out with the following, non-alterable settings:
■
848 Titrino plus
The entire cylinder volume is dosed twice with the maximum dosing
rate.
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10.2 Stirring rate
10.2
Stirring rate
The stirring rate can be adjusted in steps of –15 to +15.
The approximate rotational speed can be calculated with the following
formula:
Rotational speed/min (r/min) = 125 · stirring rate
Example:
Stirring rate set: 8
Rotational speed in rpm = 125 · 8 = 1000
r/min
2000
1500
1000
500
-15
Figure 21
10.3
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
Rotational speed depending on stirring rate
Balance
The sample size and the associated unit can be sent from a connected balance. The sample size is transmitted as a number with up to ten characters (including algebraic sign and decimal point).
Sample size and unit are sent as a single character string. They are separated by a space character. The string is terminated with the ASCII characters CR and LF.
If the balance sends a negative sample size (e.g. when you are reweighing
a sample), then the algebraic sign is adopted. The algebraic sign is, however, ignored for the calculations.
NOTE
With some balances, the sample identification and the method can be
sent in addition to the sample size.
Make sure that the balance does not send the sample size until the end.
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10 Appendix
Mettler AX
For the Mettler AX balance, the fields that contain the sample identification or the method must be designated as follows:
■
■
■
10.4
Designation for the field with the method name: METHOD
Designation for the field with sample identification 1: ID1
Designation for the field with sample identification 2: ID2
USB devices
NOTE
USB peripheral devices that are to be connected must support either
the USB 1.0/1.1 (Full Speed) or the USB 2.0 (High Speed) standard. The
maximum data transfer rate is however in any case 12 MBit/s.
Keyboards, PC mice and barcode readers are so-called HID devices
(Human Interface Device) and can be connected via a USB hub only.
Printers should also be connected via a USB hub. Depending on the
manufacturer or printer type a direct connection is however possible.
10.4.1
6.2147.000 numerical USB keypad
The [Num Lock] key must be pressed for navigating in the dialog. The
arrow keys are effective in conjunction with it.
The respective editing dialog must be opened for the numerical input.
Table 4
Key assignment
Key of the 848 Titrino plus or
function in the editing dialog
Key on the numerical USB
keypad
[BACK]
[Home]
[⇧] [⇩]
[↑] [↓]
[⇦] [⇨]
[←] [→]
[OK]
[Enter]
[BS] (backspace)
848 Titrino plus
Clear
[Del]
Accept
[Home]
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10.4 USB devices
10.4.2
Key assignment of a USB keyboard
A commercially available USB keyboard can be connected to make it easier to enter text and numbers.
The respective editing dialog must be opened for the text input and
numerical input.
Table 5
Key assignment
Key of the 848 Titrino plus or
function in the editing dialog
Key on the USB keyboard
[BACK]
[Esc]
[⇧] [⇩]
[↑] [↓]
[⇦] [⇨]
[←] [→]
[OK]
[↲] (enter key)
or
[Enter] on the numerical keypad
[STOP]
[Ctrl] + [S]
[START]
[Ctrl] + [G]
[←] (backspace)
Clear
[Delete]
Cancel
[Ctrl] + [Q]
Accept
[Esc]
NOTE
The lettering of the USB keyboard may differ from above lettering,
depending on the country-specific keyboard used.
10.4.3
PC mouse
In order to make navigating in the dialog of the 848 Titrino plus easier, a
PC mouse can be connected.
Table 6
120 ■■■■■■■■
Mouse functions
Key of the 848 Titrino plus
Mouse function
[OK]
Left mouse button
[BACK]
Right mouse button
848 Titrino plus
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10.4.4
10 Appendix
Key of the 848 Titrino plus
Mouse function
[⇧] [⇩] [⇦] [⇨]
Mouse movement vertical/horizontal
[⇧] [⇩]
Scroll wheel vertical
Printer
The range of USB printers available is extremely varied and constantly
changing. The following points must be taken into account when selecting a printer:
■
■
USB interface necessary
Printer language: HP-PCL, Canon BJL Commands, Epson ESC P/2 or
ESC/POS
NOTE
Inexpensive printers are often designed solely for use with a PC and
may not be equipped with one of the printer languages listed above.
Such models are not suitable for this reason.
10.5
System initialization
In very rare instances, a faulty file system (e.g. because of a program
crash) may lead to an impairment of program functioning. The internal file
system must be initialized in such cases.
CAUTION
All user data (methods, solutions, etc.) are deleted if a system initialization is carried out. Afterwards, the instrument will have the factory settings again.
We recommend creating a backup of the system at regular intervals in
order to avoid data losses.
After a system initialization the program versions and language files do
not have to be reloaded. Only the selection of the dialog language may
have to be reset in the system settings.
Proceed as follows for the system initialization:
1 Switching off the instrument
■
848 Titrino plus
Keep the red [STOP] key pressed down for at least 3 s.
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10.6 Remote interface
A progress bar is displayed. If the key is released during this time,
then the instrument will not be switched off.
2 Switching on the instrument
Keep the red [STOP] key pressed down for approx. 10 s.
■
The dialog for confirmation of the initialization is displayed for 8 s.
The initialization must be confirmed during this time.
3 Confirming the initialization
NOTE
If the request is not confirmed within 8 s, then the procedure will
be canceled.
Press [BACK] twice.
■
Initialization is started. The process takes approximately 80 s. The
instrument will be automatically restarted after successful initialization.
10.6
Remote interface
10.6.1
Pin assignment of the remote interface
5
9
1
6
Figure 22
1
6
5
9
Pin assignment of remote socket and remote plug
The above figure of the pin assignment applies for all Metrohm instruments with 9-pin D-Sub remote connector.
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10 Appendix
Table 7
Inputs and outputs of the remote interface
Pin No.
Assignment
Function
1
Output 0
Ready/EOD
2
Output 1
Activate/Dosimat
3
Output 2
Titration
4
Output 3
Cond OK
5
Output 4
Error
6
0 volt (GND)
7
+5 volts
8
Input 0
Start
9
Input 1
Stop
Inputs
+5 V
approx. 5 kΩ Pull-up
tp
tp > 100 ms
active = low, inactive = high
Outputs
Open Collector
tp
tp > 200 ms
active = low, inactive = high
IC = 20 mA, VCEO = 40 V
+5 V: maximum load = 20 mA
848 Titrino plus
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10.6 Remote interface
10.6.2
Status diagram of the remote interface
Titration mode DET/MET
[START]
EOD
ready/EOD
Output 0
Activ./Dos.
Output 1
Titr/Determ
Output 2
condOK
Output 3
Error
Output 4
Start
Input 0
Stop
Input 1
[STOP]
Figure 23
Remote status diagram DET/MET
Titration mode SET
[START]
[START]
EOD
ready/EOD
Output 0
Activ./Dos.
Output 1
Titr/Determ
Output 2
condOK
Output 3
Error
Output 4
Start
Input 0
Stop
Input 1
[STOP]
Figure 24
124 ■■■■■■■■
Remote status diagram SET
848 Titrino plus
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10 Appendix
Measuring mode CAL
[START]
ready/EOD
[START]
1. Buffer EOD
2. Buffer
EOD
Output 0
Activ./Dos.
Output 1
Titr/Determ
Output 2
condOK
Output 3
Error
Output 4
Start
Input 0
Stop
Input 1
[STOP]
Figure 25
Remote status diagram CAL
EOD = End of Determination
10.7
Remote control via an RS-232 connection
The 848 Titrino plus can be remote controlled via an RS-232 connection.
For this, a 6.2148.030 RS-232/USB Box is necessary. Connect the
RS-232/USB Box to the USB interface of the instrument.
The RS-232/USB Box has two connectors for RS-232 instruments. The
RS-232 remote control functions only through the connector RS-232/2.
The connector RS-232/1 is designed for connection with a balance. Connect the RS-232/2 connector of the RS-232/USB Box to a serial interface
(COM interface marked with the symbol IOIOI) of a PC. Use a
6.2134.040 connection cable.
6.2134.040
Figure 26
848 Titrino plus
Connecting the RS-232/USB Box to the PC
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10.7 Remote control via an RS-232 connection
Interface parameters
We recommend the following parameters for the RS-232 interface
COM2:
■
■
■
■
■
Baud rate: 19200
Data bits: 8
Stop bits: 1
Parity: none
Handshake: software
On the 848 Titrino plus, adjust the interface parameters under
Menu ▶ System ▶ External devices ▶ COM2 settings.
Transfer protocol
The data communication is synchronous. On each command there is an
acknowledgement by the instrument.
A command must be sent to the instrument with the control characters
CR LF as terminator. The acknowledgements of the instrument will also
be transferred with CR LF as terminator.
The instrument does not send spontaneous messages.
10.7.1
Commands and variables
Command
Function
Comment
$G
Start/Continue
Corresponds to the key [START] or [Continue]
$S
Stop
Corresponds to the key [STOP]
$H
Hold
Hold the method run
$D
Scan instrument status
Acknowledgements: Ready;0, Busy;0 or
Hold;0 (0 = no message)
If a message on the instrument requires
the interaction of the user, the acknowledgement of the status scan displays the
corresponding message number. Example:
Busy;010-119
= "Check buret unit"
The message can be confirmed with [OK]
or [Cancel], see below.
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10 Appendix
Command
Function
Comment
$A
Confirm message
Confirm the message on the instrument
with [OK]
A mandatory status scan providing the
message number must take place immediately before confirming the message, see
above.
$A(OK), $A(CANCEL)
Confirm message
Confirm the message with [OK] or [Cancel]
$A(YES), $A(NO)
Confirm message
Confirm the message with [Yes] or [No]
$L(method name)
Load method
The method name has to be known and
unique.
$Q(variable)
Request variable value
Examples for variables: EP1, R1, C00.
Complete list of the variables, see page
23.
The values of the variables are only available after the end of a determination (in the status 'ready').
Acknowledgement of
the instrument
Comment
OK
Command executed
E1
Method not found
E2
Invalid variable
E3
Invalid command
10.8
Arithmetic algorithms in the 848 Titrino plus
Numerical format
The software of the 848 Titrino plus calculates in accordance with the
widespread standard IEEE 754 (IEEE Standard for Binary Floating-Point
Arithmetic for Microprocessor Systems). This means that the numbers are
used in calculations in "double precision" (64 bit). Decimal numbers are
converted into binary numbers in the computer and used in this form for
calculations. The output on the display and in reports once again contains
decimal numbers; the binary numbers are thus converted back into decimal numbers. In order to be able to check the internal calculations performed by the computer yourself in accordance with IEEE 754, the numbers are reproduced in the calculation report in complete accuracy. A min-
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10.8 Arithmetic algorithms in the 848 Titrino plus
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imal difference may arise between an originally entered decimal number
and the internal computer representation in complete accuracy in the
range of the rear decimal places. This difference results from the fact that
an exact binary equivalent does not exist for every decimal number. If, for
example, you enter the sample size 50.3 mg, this will be depicted in the
calculation report in "double precision" with 5.02999999999999E+01.
Rounding-off process
Measured values and results are rounded to the defined number of decimal places (commercial rounding, in accordance with the US Pharmacopeia USP). If the digit at the first dropped decimal place is 1, 2, 3 or 4,
then it will be rounded off; if this digit is 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9, then it will be
rounded up. Negative digits will be rounded in accordance with their
amount, i.e. away from zero.
Examples:
2.33 yields 2.3
2.35 yields 2.4
2.47 yields 2.5
–2.38 yields –2.4
–2.45 yields –2.5
Statistics
The arithmetic mean value and the absolute and relative standard deviations of results are calculated:
You can statistically evaluate a maximum of five results (1 ≤ k ≤ 5) calculated in a determination. A statistical series can contain a maximum of 20
determinations (1 ≤ n ≤ 20).
The following convention applies to the subsequent formulas:
1 ≤ n ≤ 20 and 1 ≤ k ≤ 5.
Mean value:
Absolute standard deviation:
Relative standard deviation (in %):
Explanations
The individual values are incorporated in the statistics with full accuracy.
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10 Appendix
15 significant places are yielded when the 64 bit numerical format is
applied for the floating-point number in decimal presentation.
The accuracy can be controlled by the selection of the prefix of the unit
(milli, micro) and the number of decimal places.
Example:
The result displayed, 1234.56789158763 mg/L, has 15 significant places. It should be rounded off to three decimal places according to the
above rounding-off process:
■
1234.568 mg/L.
If the same result is expressed in "g/L" (1.23456789158763 g/L), and is
also rounded off to three decimal place, this yields
■
1.235 g/L.
I.e. you obtain the lowest losses in accuracy with rounding when you
select the application and the numerical format in such a way that the
numbers displayed have as many places before the decimal point as possible.
A complete recalculation of the statistics using a pocket calculator or PC
calculation programs may exhibit deviations. This can be explained by the
different binary numerical formats used by these computers.
NOTE
The above losses of accuracy by rounding off in the range of significant
places are only relevant theoretically. They are generally several orders
of magnitude less than measurement technique uncertainties (balance
errors, dosing errors, measuring errors).
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11.1 Measuring inputs
11 Technical specifications
11.1
Measuring inputs
The measuring cycle is 100 ms for all measuring modes.
11.1.1
Potentiometry
A high-ohm measuring input (Ind.) for pH electrodes and redox electrodes
and a measuring input for separate reference electrodes (Ref.).
Input resistance
> 1 · 1012 Ω
Offset current
< 1 · 10–12 A
Measuring mode
pH
Measuring
range
–13 - +20
Resolution
0.001
Measuring
accuracy
±0.003
(±1 digit, without sensor error, under reference conditions)
Measuring mode
U
Measuring
range
–1,200 - +1,200 mV
Resolution
0.1 mV
Measuring
accuracy
±0.2 mV
(±1 digit, without sensor error, under reference conditions)
11.1.2
Polarizer
One measuring input (Pol.) for polarizable electrodes.
Measuring mode
Ipol
Determination with adjustable polarization current.
Polarization
current
–120 - +120 µA (increment: 1 µA)
–125 - –121 µA / +121 - +125 µA: non-guaranteed values, dependent
on reference voltage +2.5 V
Measuring
range
–1,200 - +1,200 mV
Resolution
0.1 mV
Measuring
accuracy
±0.2 mV
(±1 digit, without sensor error, under reference conditions)
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Measuring mode
Upol
11 Technical specifications
Determination with adjustable polarization voltage.
Polarization
voltage
–1,200 - +1,200 mV (increment: 10 mV)
–1,250 - –1,210 mV / +1,210 - +1,250 mV: non-guaranteed values,
dependent on reference voltage +2.5 V
Measuring
range
–120 - +120 µA
Resolution
0.01 µA
Measuring
accuracy
–
11.1.3
Temperature
A measuring input (Temp.) for temperature sensors of the Pt1000 or NTC
type with automatic temperature compensation.
R (25 °C) and B value can be configured for NTC sensors.
Measuring range
Pt1000
–150 - +250 °C
NTC
–5 - +250 °C
(For an NTC sensor with R (25 °C) = 30,000 Ω and B (25/50) = 4,100 K)
Resolution
Pt1000
0.1 °C
NTC
0.1 °C
Measuring accuracy
Pt1000
±0.2 °C
(applies for measuring range –20 - +150 °C)
NTC
±0.6 °C
(applies for measuring range +10 - +40 °C)
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11.2 Dosing drive
11.2
Dosing drive
10,000 steps per cylinder volume
Resolution
Exchange unit
Cylinder volume
■
■
■
■
■
Fulfills ISO/DIN standard 8655-3
Accuracy
11.3
1 mL
5 mL
10 mL
20 mL
50 mL
Interfaces
USB (OTG) connector
For connecting USB devices.
MSB connector
For connecting a stirrer.
Remote connector
For connecting instruments with a remote interface.
11.4
Power connection
Supply voltage
100 - 240 V (±10%)
Frequency
50 - 60 Hz
Power consumption
45 W
Fuse
2 × 2.0 ATH, electronic overload protection
11.5
Safety specifications
This instrument fulfills the following electrical safety requirements:
CE marking in accordance with the EU directives:
■ 2006/95/EC (Low Voltage Directive, LVD)
■ 2004/108/EC (EMC Directive, EMC)
Federal Inspectorate for Heavy Current Installations ESTI (Accreditation
Number SCESp 033)
■ Safety mark for certification type 2 in accordance with NEV (type
testing with market monitoring, EMC conformity)
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11 Technical specifications
ETL Listed Mark:
■ Control number 3144965
■ UL 61010-1
■ CSA-C22.2 No. 61010-1
Design and testing
According to EN/IEC/UL 61010-1, CSA-C22.2 No. 61010-1, protection
class I, EN/IEC 60529, degree of protection IP40.
Safety instructions
This document contains safety instructions which have to be followed
by the user in order to ensure safe operation of the instrument.
11.6
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
Emission
Standards fulfilled
■
■
■
EN/IEC 61326-1
EN/IEC 61000-6-3
EN 55022 / CISPR 22
Immunity
Standards fulfilled
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
11.7
EN/IEC 61326-1
EN/IEC 61000-6-2
EN/IEC 61000-4-2
EN/IEC 61000-4-3
EN/IEC 61000-4-4
EN/IEC 61000-4-5
EN/IEC 61000-4-6
EN/IEC 61000-4-11
EN/IEC 61000-4-14
Ambient temperature
Nominal function
range
+5 - +45 °C
(at a maximum of 85% humidity)
Storage
–20 - +60 °C
Transport
–40 - +60 °C
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11.8 Reference conditions
11.8
Reference conditions
Ambient temperature
+25 °C (±3 °C)
Relative humidity
≤ 60%
Operating temperature status
Instrument in operation at least 30 min
Validity of the
data
After adjustment
11.9
Dimensions
Material of housing
Poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT)
Material of display
cover
Glass
Width
142 mm
Height
164 mm
Depth
310 mm
Weight
2,950 g
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12 Accessories
12 Accessories
Up-to-date information on the scope of delivery and optional accessories
for your instrument can be found on the Internet.
NOTE
When you receive your new instrument, we recommend downloading
the accessories list from the Internet, printing it out and keeping it
together with the manual for reference purposes.
Instruments currently sold
If you do not know the article number of your instrument, proceed as follows:
Downloading the accessories list
1 Go to the Metrohm website http://www.metrohm.com/com.
2
Click on
.
The Search webpage will be displayed.
3 Enter a search term relating to the instrument into the search field
and click on Find.
The search results will be displayed.
4 In the search results, select the Devices tab (if it is not already
selected) and then click on the Metrohm article number of the
required instrument (e.g. 2.852.0050).
The page with information pertaining to the searched article is displayed.
5 Select the Parts tab.
The complete list of accessories with the scope of delivery and the
optional accessories will be displayed.
6
848 Titrino plus
Click on
.
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The Partslists webpage will be displayed.
7 Select the desired output language.
8 With the article number entered, click on the command Generate
PDF.
The PDF file with the accessories data will be created in the language
selected.
Direct access for all instruments
If you are unable to find your instrument using the search as described
above, this may be due to the instrument not being sold anymore. Using
the article number, you can download accessories lists for all instruments
as follows:
Downloading the accessories list
1 Type http://partslists.metrohm.com into your Internet browser.
The Partslists webpage will be displayed.
2 Select the desired output language.
3 Enter the article number and click on the Generate PDF command.
The PDF file with the accessories data will be created in the language
selected.
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Index
Index
A
Adapter
Connect ............................. 12
B
Backup ..................................... 62
Balance ............................ 35, 118
Connect ............................. 12
Interface parameters ........... 64
Balance type ............................. 64
Buffers
CAL .................................. 112
Buret unit
Prepare (PREP) .................... 45
C
CAL
Parameters ....................... 110
Calculation ................. 79, 93, 106
Delete .................. 80, 94, 106
Edit ...................... 80, 94, 106
Numerical format ............. 127
Rounding-off process ....... 128
Calibration parameters
CAL .................................. 110
Common variable ..................... 60
Edit .................................... 60
Common Variable
Delete ................................ 60
Set to invalid ...................... 60
Conditioning
SET ..................................... 97
Contrast ................................... 54
Control ..................................... 29
Autostart ............................ 29
Sample table ...................... 29
Control parameters
SET ................................... 102
Curve ....................................... 41
D
DET ...................................... 1, 17
Parameters ......................... 68
Determination
Cancel ................................ 37
Carry out ............................ 35
Result ................................. 40
Diagnosis ................................. 67
Dialog language ....................... 52
Load ................................... 66
848 Titrino plus
Dialog type ............................... 53
Directory structure .................... 62
Dosing
Continuous (DOS) ............... 46
Fixed volume (ADD) ............ 47
Dosing rate
Maximum ......................... 117
E
Electrode
Connect ............................... 9
Electrode connector
pH electrode ........................ 8
Polarizable electrode ............. 8
Redox electrode ................... 8
Reference electrode .............. 8
Electrostatic charge .................... 5
End of Determination EOD ..... 125
ERC .................................... 79, 93
Evaluation
DET .............................. 76, 78
MET ............................. 90, 93
Exchange unit
Attach ................................ 16
Expert dialog ............................ 53
F
Filling rate
Maximum ......................... 117
Formula editor .......................... 23
G
Graphics width ......................... 64
I
Initialization ............................ 121
Installation qualification .......... 114
Instrument
Switch off ........................... 20
Switch on ........................... 19
Instrument diagnosis ................ 66
K
Keyboard
Connect ............................. 12
Key assignment ........ 119, 120
Keyboard layout ....................... 64
L
Language ................................. 52
Language file
Load ................................... 66
Live modifications ..................... 37
Live parameters ........................ 39
M
Mains voltage ............................. 4
Maintenance agreement ........ 114
Manual control
Dosing ............................... 45
Measuring .......................... 49
Stirring ............................... 50
MET ..................................... 1, 17
Parameters ......................... 83
Method .................................... 25
Create ................................ 25
Delete ................................ 62
Export ................................ 28
Import ................................ 62
Load ................................... 27
Save ................................... 26
MSB
Connector ............................ 8
N
Navigate ................................... 21
Numerical input ........................ 22
O
Operation
General .............................. 20
Operational qualification ........ 114
P
Parameters
CAL .................................. 110
DET .................................... 68
MET ................................... 83
Modify live ......................... 39
SET ..................................... 97
PC/LIMS report ......................... 63
Pin assignment ....................... 122
PREP
Parameters ....................... 117
Preparing
Parameters ....................... 117
Print ......................................... 43
Printer .............................. 63, 121
Connect ............................. 12
Program crash ........................ 121
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Index
Program version
Update ............................... 66
Q
Quality management .............. 114
R
Recalculate ............................... 40
Remote
Connector ............................ 8
Interface ........................... 122
Pin assignment ................. 122
Status diagram ................. 124
Remote cable
Connect ............................. 15
Remote control ...................... 125
Report
Print manually .................... 43
Select ................... 81, 95, 108
Reports .................................. 113
Result ....................................... 40
Recalculate ......................... 41
Rounding-off process ....... 128
Save as a common variable . 61
Save as CV ............ 81, 95, 107
Save as titer .......... 80, 94, 107
Result report
Define .................. 81, 95, 108
Routine dialog .......................... 54
RS-232
Interface parameters ........... 65
RS-232 connection ................. 125
S
Safety instructions ...................... 4
Sample data
Enter .................................. 30
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Modify live ......................... 37
Sample size
Send from a balance ... 35, 118
Sample table ............................ 32
Insert line ........................... 34
Modify live ......................... 38
Sensor ...................................... 56
Add .................................... 56
Connect ............................... 9
Delete ................................ 56
Edit .................................... 56
Sensor connector
pH electrode ........................ 8
Polarizable electrode ............. 8
Redox electrode ................... 8
Reference electrode .............. 8
Temperature sensor .............. 8
Service ....................................... 4
SET ....................................... 1, 18
Parameters ......................... 97
Solution .................................... 58
Add .................................... 58
Delete ................................ 58
Edit solution ....................... 58
Start conditions
DET .................................... 68
MET ................................... 83
SET ..................................... 98
Statistics ............... 41, 81, 95, 108
Stirrer
Connect ............................. 11
Stirring rate ............................ 118
Stop conditions
DET .................................... 75
MET ................................... 89
SET ................................... 105
Switch off ................................. 20
Switch on ................................. 19
System initialization ................ 121
System settings ......................... 52
T
Temperature sensor
Connect ............................... 9
Text input ................................. 22
Titration mode
DET ...................................... 1
MET ..................................... 1
SET ....................................... 1
Titration parameters
DET .................................... 69
MET ................................... 84
SET ................................... 100
U
Update
Dialog language ................. 66
Program version ................. 66
USB ........................................ 119
Numerical keypad ............. 119
PC keyboard ..................... 120
PC mouse ......................... 120
Printer .............................. 121
USB (OTG)
Connector ............................ 8
USB device
Adapter .............................. 12
Connect ............................. 12
USB flash drive
Directory structure .............. 62
User name ................................ 52
848 Titrino plus
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