Model X3C25P1-02S

Model X3C25P1-02S
`
Model X3C25P1-02S
Rev B
Coupler
2 dB, 90
Description
The X3C25P1-02S is a low profile, high performance 2dB coupler in a new
easy to use, manufacturing friendly surface mount package. It is designed
for Doherty applications. The X3C25P1-02S is designed particularly for
Doherty amplifiers, plus signal distribution and other applications where low
insertion loss and tight amplitude and phase balance is required. It can be
used in high power applications up to 70 watts.
Parts have been subjected to rigorous qualification testing and they are
manufactured using materials with coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE)
compatible with common substrates such as FR4, G-10, RF-35, RO4003
and polyimide. Produced with 6 of 6 RoHS compliant tin immersion finish.
Electrical Specifications **
Features:
 2300-2700 MHz
 Doherty Amplifier
 High Power
 Very Low Loss
 Tight Amplitude Balance
 High Isolation
 Production Friendly
 Tape and Reel
 Lead-Free
Frequency
Isolation
Insertion
Loss
VSWR
MHz
dB Min
dB Max
Max : 1
dB
2300-2700
23
0.18
1.15
1.9 ± 0.15
Phase
Power
Degrees
Avg. CW Watts
ºC/Watt
ºC
90 ± 4.0
70
48.03
-55 to +95
JC
Coupling
Operating
Temp.
**Specification based on performance of unit properly installed on Anaren Test Board 54147-0001 with small
signal applied. Specifications subject to change without notice. Refer to parameter definitions for details.
Mechanical Outline
.095±.009
[2.40±0.24]
.250±.010
Gnd
Pin 4
RR
Orientation Mark
Denotes Pin 1
- 02 S
CC
[6.35±0.25]
Pin 1
Pin 2
.200±.010
[5.08±0.25]
Pin 3
Denotes Array Row (RR)
& Column (CC)
.020±.004
[0.51±0.10]
Pin 2
Gnd
.120±.004
[3.05±0.10]
Pin 3
Dimensions are in Inches [Millimeters]
X3C25P1-02S Mechanical Outline
Pin 1
.020±.004
[0.51±0.10]
4x .034±.004 Sq
[0.86±0.10]
.170±.004
[4.32±0.10]
Pin 4
Tolerances are Non-Cumulative
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Model X3C25P1-02S
Rev B
Coupler Pin Configuration
The X3C25P1-02S has an orientation marker to denote Pin 1. Once port one has been identified the other ports are
known automatically. Please see the chart below for clarification:
Configuration
Splitter
Splitter
Splitter
Splitter
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Pin 1
Input
Isolated
Pin 2
Isolated
Input
-5dB   90
-2dB 
-2dB 
-5dB   90
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Pin 3
-5dB   90
-2dB 
Input
Isolated
Pin 4
-2dB 
-5dB   90
Isolated
Input
`
Model X3C25P1-02S
Rev B
Insertion Loss and Power Derating Curves
Insertion Loss Derating:
Power Derating:
The insertion loss, at a given frequency, of a group of
couplers is measured at 25C and then averaged. The
measurements are performed under small signal
conditions (i.e. using a Vector Network Analyzer). The
process is repeated at 85C and 150C. A best-fit line
for the measured data is computed and then plotted
from -55C to 150C.
The power handling and corresponding power derating
plots are a function of the thermal resistance, mounting
surface temperature (base plate temperature),
maximum continuous operating temperature of the
coupler, and the thermal insertion loss. The thermal
insertion loss is defined in the Power Handling section of
the data sheet.
As the mounting interface temperature approaches the
maximum continuous operating temperature, the power
handling decreases to zero.
If mounting temperature is greater than 95C, Xinger
coupler will perform reliably as long as the input power
Is derated to the curve above.
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Model X3C25P1-02S
Rev B
Typical Performance (-50°C, 25°C & 95°C): 2300-2700 MHz
Return Loss for X3C25P1-02S (Feeding Port 1)
Return Loss for X3C25P1-02S (Feeding Port 2)
0
-20
-30
-20
-30
-40
-40
-50
2300
-55ºC
25ºC
95ºC
110ºC
-10
Return Loss (dB)
-10
Return Loss (dB)
0
-55ºC
25ºC
95ºC
110ºC
2350
2400
2450
2500
2550
Frequency (MHz)
2600
2650
-50
2300
2700
2350
2400
2450
2500
2550
Frequency (MHz)
2600
2650
2700
Return Loss for X3C25P1-02S (Feeding Port 4)
0
Return Loss for X3C25P1-02S (Feeding Port 3)
0
-55ºC
25ºC
95ºC
110ºC
-10
Return Loss (dB)
Return Loss (dB)
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
2300
-55ºC
25ºC
95ºC
110ºC
-20
-30
-40
2350
2400
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2450
2500
2550
Frequency (MHz)
2600
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2650
2700
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-50
2300
2350
2400
2450
2500
2550
Frequency (MHz)
2600
2650
2700
`
Model X3C25P1-02S
Rev B
Typical Performance (-50°C, 25°C & 95°C): 2300-2700 MHz
Coupling for X3C25P1-02S (Feeding Port 1)
Insertion Loss for X3C25P1-02S (Feeding Port 1)
-1.5
-1.6
-0.1
Insertion Loss (dB)
-1.7
Coupling (dB)
0
-55ºC
25ºC
95ºC
110ºC
-1.8
-1.9
-2
-0.2
-55ºC
25ºC
95ºC
110ºC
-0.3
-2.1
-0.4
-2.2
2450
2300
2350
2400
2450
2500
2550
Frequency (MHz)
2600
2650
Isolation for X3C25P1-02S (Feeding Port 1)
2550
2600
Frequency (MHz)
2650
2700
Phase Balance for X3C25P1-02S (Feeding Port 1)
0
-55ºC
25ºC
95ºC
110ºC
-10
2500
2700
-55ºC
25ºC
95ºC
110ºC
4
Phase Balance (deg)
Isolation (dB)
2
-20
-30
0
-2
-40
-4
-50
2300
2350
2400
2450
2500
2550
Frequency (MHz)
2600
2650
2700
2300
2350
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2400
2450
2500
2550
Frequency (MHz)
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2700
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Model X3C25P1-02S
Rev B
Definition of Measured Specifications
Parameter
Definition
VSWR
(Voltage Standing Wave
Ratio)
The impedance match of
the coupler to a 50
system. A VSWR of 1:1 is
optimal.
Return Loss
Insertion Loss
Isolation
Phase Balance
Amplitude Balance
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The impedance match of
the coupler to a 50
system. Return Loss is
an alternate means to
express VSWR.
The input power divided
by the sum of the power
at the two output ports.
The input power divided
by the power at the
isolated port.
The difference in phase
angle between the two
output ports.
The power at each output
divided by the average
power of the two outputs.
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Mathematical Representation
VSWR =
Vmax
Vmin
Vmax = voltage maxima of a standing wave
Vmin = voltage minima of a standing wave
Return Loss (dB)= 20log
VSWR  1
VSWR - 1
Insertion Loss(dB)= 10log
Pin
Pcpl  Pdirect
Isolation(dB)= 10log
Pin
Piso
Phase at coupled port – Phase at direct port
10log
Pcpl
Pdirect
and 10log
 Pcpl  Pdirect 
 Pcpl  Pdirect 




2
2




`
Model X3C25P1-02S
Rev B
Notes on RF Testing and Circuit Layout
The X3C25P1-02S Surface Mount Couplers require the use of a test fixture for verification of RF performance. This
test fixture is designed to evaluate the coupler in the same environment that is recommended for installation.
Enclosed inside the test fixture, is a circuit board that is fabricated using the recommended footprint. The part being
tested is placed into the test fixture and pressure is applied to the top of the device using a pneumatic piston. A four
port Vector Network Analyzer is connected to the fixture and is used to measure the S-parameters of the part. Worst
case values for each parameter are found and compared to the specification. These worst case values are reported to
the test equipment operator along with a Pass or Fail flag. See the illustrations below.
2, 3 dB and 5dB
Test Board
Test Board
In Fixture
Test Station
Test Board
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Rev B
The effects of the test fixture on the measured data must be minimized in order to accurately determine the
performance of the device under test. If the line impedance is anything other than 50 and/or there is a discontinuity
at the microstrip to SMA interface, there will be errors in the data for the device under test. The test environment can
never be “perfect”, but the procedure used to build and evaluate the test boards (outlined below) demonstrates an
attempt to minimize the errors associated with testing these devices. The lower the signal level that is being
measured, the more impact the fixture errors will have on the data. Parameters such as Return Loss and
Isolation/Directivity, which are specified as low as 27dB and typically measure at much lower levels, will present the
greatest measurement challenge.
The test fixture errors introduce an uncertainty to the measured data. Fixture errors can make the performance of the
device under test look better or worse than it actually is. For example, if a device has a known return loss of 30dB and
a discontinuity with a magnitude of –35dB is introduced into the measurement path, the new measured Return Loss
data could read anywhere between –26dB and –37dB. This same discontinuity could introduce an insertion phase
error of up to 1.
There are different techniques used throughout the industry to minimize the affects of the test fixture on the
measurement data. Anaren uses the following design and de-embedding criteria:

Test boards have been designed and parameters specified to provide trace impedances of 50
1. Furthermore, discontinuities at the SMA to microstrip interface are required to be less than
–35dB and insertion phase errors (due to differences in the connector interface discontinuities
and the electrical line length) should be less than 0.50 from the median value of the four
paths.

A “Thru” circuit board is built. This is a two port, microstrip board that uses the same SMA to
microstrip interface and has the same total length (insertion phase) as the actual test board. The
“Thru” board must meet the same stringent requirements as the test board. The insertion loss
and insertion phase of the “Thru” board are measured and stored. This data is used to
completely de-embed the device under test from the test fixture. The de-embedded data is
available in S-parameter form on the Anaren website (www.anaren.com).
Note: The S-parameter files that are available on the anaren.com website include data for frequencies that are
outside of the specified band. It is important to note that the test fixture is designed for optimum performance through
2.3GHz. Some degradation in the test fixture performance will occur above this frequency and connector interface
discontinuities of –25dB or more can be expected. This larger discontinuity will affect the data at frequencies above
2.3GHz.
Circuit Board Layout
The dimensions for the Anaren test board are shown below. The test board is printed on Rogers RO4003 material
that is 0.032” thick. Consider the case when a different material is used. First, the pad size must remain the same to
accommodate the part. But, if the material thickness or dielectric constant (or both) changes, the reactance at the
interface to the coupler will also change. Second, the linewidth required for 50 will be different and this will introduce
a step in the line at the pad where the coupler interfaces with the printed microstrip trace. Both of these conditions will
affect the performance of the part. To achieve the specified performance, serious attention must be given to the
design and layout of the circuit environment in which this component will be used.
If a different circuit board material is used, an attempt should be made to achieve the same interface pad reactance
that is present on the Anaren RO4003 test board. When thinner circuit board material is used, the ground plane will
be closer to the pad yielding more capacitance for the same size interface pad. The same is true if the dielectric
constant of the circuit board material is higher than is used on the Anaren test board. In both of these cases,
narrowing the line before the interface pad will introduce a series inductance, which, when properly tuned, will
compensate for the extra capacitive reactance. If a thicker circuit board or one with a lower dielectric constant is used,
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Model X3C25P1-02S
Rev B
the interface pad will have less capacitive reactance than the Anaren test board. In this case, a wider section of line
before the interface pad (or a larger interface pad) will introduce a shunt capacitance and when properly tuned will
match the performance of the Anaren test board.
Notice that the board layout for the 3dB and 5dB couplers is different from that of the 10dB and 20dB couplers. The
test board for the 3dB and 5dB couplers has all four traces interfacing with the coupler at the same angle. The test
board for the 10dB and 20dB couplers has two traces approaching at one angle and the other two traces at a different
angle. The entry angle of the traces has a significant impact on the RF performance and these parts have
been optimized for the layout used on the test boards shown below.
2, 3 dB and 5dB Test Board
Testing Sample Parts Supplied on Anaren Test Boards
If you have received a coupler installed on an Anaren produced microstrip test board, please remember to remove the
loss of the test board from the measured data. The loss is small enough that it is not of concern for Return Loss and
Isolation/Directivity, but it should certainly be considered when measuring coupling and calculating the insertion loss
of the coupler. An S-parameter file for a “Thru” board (see description of “Thru” board above) will be supplied upon
request. As a first order approximation, one should consider the following loss estimates:
Frequency Band
869-894 MHz
925-960 MHz
1805-1880 MHz
1930-1990 MHz
2110-2170 MHz
2300-2900 MHz
Avg. Ins. Loss of Test Board @ 25C
~0.064dB
~0.068dB
~0.119dB
~0.126dB
~0.136dB
~0.173dB
The loss estimates in the table above come from room temperature measurements. It is important to note that the
loss of the test board will change with temperature. This fact must be considered if the coupler is to be evaluated at
other temperatures.
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Model X3C25P1-02S
Rev B
Peak Power Handling
High-Pot testing of these couplers during the qualification procedure resulted in a minimum breakdown voltage of
1.28Kv (minimum recorded value). This voltage level corresponds to a breakdown resistance capable of handling at
least 12dB peaks over average power levels, for very short durations. The breakdown location consistently occurred
across the air interface at the coupler contact pads (see illustration below). The breakdown levels at these points will
be affected by any contamination in the gap area around these pads. These areas must be kept clean for optimum
performance. It is recommended that the user test for voltage breakdown under the maximum operating conditions
and over worst case modulation induced power peaking. This evaluation should also include extreme environmental
conditions (such as high humidity).
Orientation Marker
A printed circular feature appears on the top surface of the coupler to designate Pin 1. This orientation marker is not
intended to limit the use of the symmetry that these couplers exhibit but rather to facilitate consistent placement of
these parts into the tape and reel package. This ensures that the components are always delivered with the same
orientation. Refer to the table on page 2 of the data sheet for allowable pin configurations.
Test Plan
Xinger III couplers are manufactured in large panels and then separated. All parts are RF small signal tested and DC
tested for shorts/opens at room temperature in the fixture described above . (See “Qualification Flow Chart” section
for details on the accelerated life test procedures.)
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Model X3C25P1-02S
Rev B
Power Handling
The average power handling (total input power) of a Xinger coupler is a function of:




Internal circuit temperature.
Unit mounting interface temperature.
Unit thermal resistance
Power dissipated within the unit.
All thermal calculations are based on the following assumptions:






The unit has reached a steady state operating condition.
o
Maximum mounting interface temperature is 95 C.
Conduction Heat Transfer through the mounting interface.
No Convection Heat Transfer.
No Radiation Heat Transfer.
The material properties are constant over the operating temperature range.
Finite element simulations are made for each unit. The simulation results are used to calculate the unit thermal
resistance. The finite element simulation requires the following inputs:





Unit material stack-up.
Material properties.
Circuit geometry.
Mounting interface temperature.
Thermal load (dissipated power).
The classical definition for dissipated power is temperature delta ( T) divided by thermal resistance (R). The
dissipated power (Pdis) can also be calculated as a function of the total input power (P in) and the thermal insertion loss
(ILtherm):
 ILtherm


T
Pdis 
 Pin  1  10 10 
R


(W )
(1)
Power flow and nomenclature for an “X” style coupler is shown in Figure 1.
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Model X3C25P1-02S
Rev B
PIn
Input Port
POut(RL)
POut(ISO)
Isolated Port
Pin 1
Coupled Port Pin 4
Direct Port
POut(CPL)
POut(DC)
Figure 1
The coupler is excited at the input port with Pin (watts) of power. Assuming the coupler is not ideal, and that there are
no radiation losses, power will exit the coupler at all four ports. Symbolically written, Pout(RL) is the power that is
returned to the source because of impedance mismatch, Pout(ISO) is the power at the isolated port, Pout(CPL) is the
power at the coupled port, and Pout(DC) is the power at the direct port.
At Anaren, insertion loss is defined as the log of the input power divided by the sum of the power at the coupled and
direct ports:
Note: in this document, insertion loss is taken to be a positive number. In many places, insertion loss is written as a
negative number. Obviously, a mere sign change equates the two quantities.


Pin


IL  10  log10
P

 out( CPL)  Pout( DC ) 
(dB)
(2)
In terms of S-parameters, IL can be computed as follows:
IL  10  log10  S31  S41

2
2



(dB)
(3)
We notice that this insertion loss value includes the power lost because of return loss as well as power lost to the
isolated port.
For thermal calculations, we are only interested in the power lost “inside” the coupler. Since P out(RL) is lost in the
source termination and Pout(ISO) is lost in an external termination, they are not be included in the insertion loss for
thermal calculations. Therefore, we define a new insertion loss value solely to be used for thermal calculations:
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Model X3C25P1-02S
Rev B


Pin

ILtherm  10  log10 
P


P

P

P
out( DC )
out( ISO )
out( RL ) 
 out(CPL)
(dB)
(4)
In terms of S-parameters, ILtherm can be computed as follows:
2
2
2
2
ILtherm  10  log10  S11  S 21  S31  S 41 


(dB)
(5)
The thermal resistance and power dissipated within the unit are then used to calculate the average total input power
of the unit. The average total steady state input power (Pin) therefore is:
Pin 
Pdis

1  10


 ILtherm
10





T
R

1  10


 ILtherm
10




(W )
(6)
Where the temperature delta is the circuit temperature (T circ) minus the mounting interface temperature (T mnt):
T  Tcirc  Tmnt
( oC )
(7)
The maximum allowable circuit temperature is defined by the properties of the materials used to construct the unit.
Multiple material combinations and bonding techniques are used within the Xinger III product family to optimize RF
performance. Consequently the maximum allowable circuit temperature varies. Please note that the circuit
temperature is not a function of the Xinger case (top surface) temperature. Therefore, the case temperature cannot
be used as a boundary condition for power handling calculations.
Due to the numerous board materials and mounting configurations used in specific customer configurations, it is the
end users responsibility to ensure that the Xinger III coupler mounting interface temperature is maintained within the
limits defined on the power derating plots for the required average power handling. Additionally appropriate solder
composition is required to prevent reflow or fatigue failure at the RF ports. Finally, reliability is improved when the
mounting interface and RF port temperatures are kept to a minimum.
The power-derating curve illustrates how changes in the mounting interface temperature result in converse changes
of the power handling of the coupler.
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Model X3C25P1-02S
Rev B
Mounting
Coupler Mounting Process
In order for Xinger surface mount couplers to work
optimally, there must be 50Ω transmission lines leading
to and from all of the RF ports. Also, there must be a
very good ground plane underneath the part to ensure
proper electrical performance. If either of these two
conditions is not satisfied, electrical performance may not
meet published specifications.
The process for assembling this component is a
conventional surface mount process as shown in Figure
1. This process is conducive to both low and high volume
usage.
Overall ground is improved if a dense population of
plated through holes connect the top and bottom ground
layers of the PCB. This minimizes ground inductance
and improves ground continuity. All of the Xinger hybrid
and directional couplers are constructed from ceramic
filled PTFE composites which possess excellent electrical
and mechanical stability having X and Y thermal
o
coefficient of expansion (CTE) of 17-25 ppm/ C.
When a surface mount hybrid coupler is mounted to a
printed circuit board, the primary concerns are; ensuring
the RF pads of the device are in contact with the circuit
trace of the PCB and insuring the ground plane of neither
the component nor the PCB is in contact with the RF
signal.
Mounting Footprint
Figure 1: Surface Mounting Process Steps
Storage of Components: The Xinger III products are
available in either an immersion tin or tin-lead finish.
Commonly used storage procedures used to control
oxidation should be followed for these surface mount
components. The storage temperatures should be held
between 15OC and 60OC.
Substrate: Depending upon the particular component,
the circuit material has an x and y coefficient of thermal
expansion of between 17 and 25 ppm/°C. This coefficient
minimizes solder joint stresses due to similar expansion
rates of most commonly used board substrates such as
RF35, RO4003, FR4, polyimide and G-10 materials.
Mounting to “hard” substrates (alumina etc.) is possible
depending upon operational temperature requirements.
The solder surfaces of the coupler are all copper plated
with either an immersion tin or tin-lead exterior finish.
Solder Paste: All conventional solder paste formulations
will work well with Anaren’s Xinger III surface mount
components. Solder paste can be applied with stencils or
syringe dispensers. An example of a stenciled solder
paste deposit is shown in Figure 2. As shown in the
figure solder paste is applied to the four RF pads and the
entire ground plane underneath the body of the part.
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Model X3C25P1-02S
Rev B
Reflow: The surface mount coupler is conducive to most of
today’s conventional reflow methods. A low and high
temperature thermal reflow profile are shown in Figures 5
and 6, respectively. Manual soldering of these components
can be done with conventional surface mount non-contact
hot air soldering tools. Board pre-heating is highly
recommended for these selective hot air soldering methods.
Manual soldering with conventional irons should be avoided.
Figure 2: Solder Paste Application
Coupler Positioning: The surface mount coupler can be
placed manually or with automatic pick and place
mechanisms. Couplers should be placed (see Figure 3
and 4) onto wet paste with common surface mount
techniques and parameters. Pick and place systems
must supply adequate vacuum to hold a 0.069 gram
coupler.
Figure 5 – Low Temperature Solder Reflow Thermal Profile
Figure 3: Component Placement
Figure 4: Mounting Features Example
Figure 6 – High Temperature Solder Reflow Thermal Profile
Available on Tape
and Reel for Pick and
Place Manufacturing.
USA/Canada:
Toll Free:
Europe:
(315) 432-8909
(800) 411-6596
+44 2392-232392
Model X3C25P1-02S
Rev B
Qualification Flow Chart
Xinger III Product
Qualification
Visual Inspection
n=55
Mechanical Inspection
n=50
Solderability Test
n=5
Initial RF Test
n=50
Visual Inspection
n=50
V-TEK Testing
n=45
Loose Control Units
n=5
Visual Inspection
n=50
Post V-TEK Test RF Test
n=50
Loose Control Units
n=5
Visual Inspection
n=50
Resistance to Solder MIL 202G
Method 210F, Condition K Heat
n=20
Solder Units to Test
Board
n=25
Post Resistance Heat RF
Test
n=20
Loose Control Units
n=5
Post Solder Visual
Inspection
n=25
Initial RF Test Board
Mounted
n=25
Control Units RF Test
25°C only
n=5
Mechanical Inspection
n=20
Visual Inspection
n=25
RF Test at -55°C, 25°C,
95°C
n=20
USA/Canada:
Toll Free:
Europe:
(315) 432-8909
(800) 411-6596
+44 2392-232392
Voltage Breakdown Test MIL
202F, Method 301 25°C 5KV
n=40
Visual Inspection
n=25
Visual Inspection
n=50
Control Units
n=5
Available on Tape and
Reel for Pick and Place
Manufacturing.
`
Model X3C25P1-02S
Rev B
Control Units
n=10
Post Voltage RF Test
n=50
Thermal Cycle100 cycles -55° to
125°C. Dwell time= 30 min
n=40
Visual Inspection
n=50
Post Thermal RF Test
n=50
Control Units
n=10
Moisture Resistance Testing -25° to 65°C for 2
hrs @ 90% humidity. Soak for 168 hrs at 90% to
85% humidity. Ramp temp to 25°C in 2 hrs @
90% humidity. Then soak @ -10°C for 3 hrs.
n=40
Post Moisture Resistance
RF Test n=50
Post Moisture Resistance
RF Test
n=50
Control Units
n=10
Visual Inspection
n=50
Bake Units for 1 hour at
100° to 120°C
n=40
Post Bake RF Test
n=50
Visual Inspection
n=30
125% Power
Life Test 72 hrs
n=3
Final RF Test @ 25°C
n=25
Microsection
3 test units 1 control
Microsection
2 Life, 1 high power and
1 control
Available on Tape
and Reel for Pick and
Place Manufacturing.
USA/Canada:
Toll Free:
Europe:
(315) 432-8909
(800) 411-6596
+44 2392-232392
Model X3C25P1-02S
Rev B
Packaging and Ordering Information
Parts are available in reels and packaging follows EIA 481-D. Parts are oriented in tape and reel as shown
below. Minimum order quantities are 2000 per reel.
.157
[4.00]
.012
[0.30]
.079
[2.00]
TYP Ø.059
[Ø1.50]
A
.217
[5.50] .472
[12.00]
.264
[6.70]
.100
[2.54]
A
.217
[5.50]
SECTION A-A
.315
[8.00]
Direction of Part
Feed (Unloading)
Dimensions are in Inches [MM]
ØA
ØC
TABLE 1
REEL DIMENSIONS (inches [mm])
USA/Canada:
Toll Free:
Europe:
.069
[1.75]
ØA
13.0 [330.0]
B
.472 [12.0]
ØC
4.017 [102.03]
ØD
0.512 [13.0]
(315) 432-8909
(800) 411-6596
+44 2392-232392
Available on Tape and
Reel for Pick and Place
Manufacturing.
B
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