Liability 4_Motorcycle Dynamics

Liability 4_Motorcycle Dynamics
• 3 or less wheels
• Seat or saddle
• 150cc engine or greater
• Motorcycle with engine less than 150cc
**NOTE: Under 150cc not allowed on
• 3 or less wheels
• 30 mph max
• Fully operative pedals for human propulsion
• Motor producing less than 4 HP
• Automatic transmission
• No pedals if powered solely by electrical energy
• Fully operation pedals
• Electric motor less than 750 watts
• Class 1 and 2 speeds no more than 20 mph
• Class 3 speeds no more than 28 mph, must
be at least 16 years old, with bicycle helmet
• 2 wheeled “device”
• Electric motor, handlebars, and floorboard
for standing
• Option of having a driver seat which does not
interfere with standing
• Option of being powered by human
M1 Class:
• Motorcycle
• Motor Driven Cycle
• Any vehicle listed under Class M2
M2 Class:
• Motorized Bicycle/Moped (30 mph max)
• Motorized Scooter
Any Class:
• Motorized Scooter
Not Required:
• Electric bicycle
• Class C may operate a motorcycle with a side car or
any 3-wheel motorcycle
• A person holding a valid CA license of any class may
operate a short-term (48 hrs. or less) rental motorized
bicycle without having an M2 endorsement
• All electric bicycles classes are exempt from motor
vehicle financial responsibility, driver license, and
license plate
Getting Your license
Under 21:
• 15½ to 17;
• Must have driver education and behind-the-wheel
driver training certificates.
• Parent(s) or guardian(s) signature.
• 15½ to 20;
• Certificate of Completion of Motorcycle Training.
• Pass the applicable knowledge and skills tests
(may be waived from training course).
• Held a motorcycle permit for at least 6 months.
Permit Restrictions
• Driving you motorcycle at night.
• Driving you motorcycle on the freeway.
• Carrying any passengers on you motorcycle.
Getting Your license
Over 21:
• Pass the applicable knowledge and skills tests.
(not required, but encouraged to enroll in safety program)
* NOTE: An observation road test is required for applicants
who have never been licensed for any class of motor vehicle
and apply for a motorcycle only license.
Must wear a helmet.
Helmet must:
• Meet DOT and state motorcycle
safety requirements
• Show DOT label on rear (label
must not be removable)
• Fit snugly
• Not have defects (cracks, loose
padding, or frayed straps)
• Recommended to be replaced
after 5 years
Original Law:
• January 1st, 1985
• Ages 15 ½ or younger (Partial Law)
Change to Universal Law:
• January 1st, 1992
• All riders
** A must for motorcycles, motordriven cycle, or motorized bicycle
Source: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
Source: Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
Source: Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety
At minimum, a motorcycle must be equipped with:
Daytime headlight required 1978 and up
Turn signals, taillight, brake light
Front and rear brakes
Handlebars, height must keep hands no more
than 6 inches above shoulders
Eye protection not required
Single speaker earplug allowed
Right and left mirror
Muffler required, max 80 dba after 1985
No age restriction on passenger
Allowed in HOV lanes
Not illegal if done in a safe and prudent manner:
• No more than 10 mph faster than other traffic
• Not advisable with traffic flow over 30 mph
• More desirable between No. 1 and No. 2 lanes
• Be alert and anticipate possible vehicle movements
• Consider total environment:
• widths of lanes
• size of vehicles
• roadway conditions (surface, weather, lighting)
Rake, Trail, Wheelbase, Seat Height
Less comfort
More agile
Better handling
Higher acceleration
Higher performance
• Higher performance
• Shorter handlebars
More comfort
Feet more forward
Back more upright
Lower seat position
Less agile
Limited cornering
• Larger rake angle
• Designed for comfort
• Much larger/heavier
• Bigger engine
• Even less agile and
cornering ability
• Luggage area, radios,
• Street legal bikes
designed to handle
off-road terrain
• Less cornering ability
on dual sport tires
• Taller motorcycles
• Much more
suspension travel
• Typically based on
dirt bike chassis.
• Smaller design with
smaller wheels
• Typically have
floorboards instead
of pegs
• Has low power and
• Low top speed
• For short commute or
recreational riding
Counterweighing Posture
(low speeds ~15mph)
Aligned/Leaned Posture
(intermediate and high speeds)
Why lean when turning?
Lateral forces when turning:
• Inertial Force (rider)
• Cornering Force (ground)
Æ Motorcycle must lean to balance the
lateral forces.
Lean Angle
How do you lean a motorcycle??
• Turning in one direction
by momentarily steering
in the opposite direction.
• Necessary for twowheeled vehicles
• Needed to attain the
necessary lean angle
Rear Brake Only
Front Brake Only
Both Brakes
Stopping Distance
Braking – Rear Only
Motorcycle Brake Testing; 43 mph, 201 ft.
Vehicle: 2002 Kawasaki ZRX 1200R
Braking – Both Brakes
Motorcycle Brake Testing; 44 mph, 75 ft.
Vehicle: 2002 Kawasaki ZRX 1200R
• Both brakes ~ 0.7g
• Sport bikes can peak at over 1g
• Sport bikes will begin to pitch up rear wheel around 1g
• Rear only braking ~0.35g
Good reference: SAE Paper# 2012-01-0610
Braking: Combined Braking Systems
Integrated system (INT)
• Front brake operated independently (right hand)
• Rear brake applies both rear brakes and “some” of the front
Linked brake system (LBS – i.e. Honda VFR800)
• Front brake application will apply most front caliper pistons and
at least one of the rear pistons.
• Rear brake application will apply at least one piston in both front
calipers and one to three pistons in rear caliper
Braking and Steering Combined:
• Only a given amount of friction is
• Friction is divided among turning and
braking forces.
Tire in
Friction Allocation Examples
Forward Motion
No friction used for
turning; most friction
used for braking
Wide Turn
Some friction used for
Sharp Turn
Much friction is used
for turning; less friction
available for braking
Braking and Steering Combined:
Dependent on speed and severity of curve
• Typically taught to straighten bike first to fully apply
• Not always able to straighten bike, therefore;
• Apply brakes lightly
• As you slow, reduce the lean angle, and
progressively apply more brake pressure
Falling Terminology: High-Side
Falling Terminology: High-Side
• Typically at higher speeds when rear wheel locks/slows,
allowing the bike to yaw.
• The rear wheel will then essentially ‘spin back up’.
• Inertial properties of the ‘faster’ wheel spin wants to straighten
the bike back up.
• Typically taught if the rear wheel locks to KEEP it locked and
avoid any potential high-side situation.
Falling Terminology: Low-Side
Falling Terminology: Low-Side
• Typically at higher speeds when front wheel loses traction.
• Or rear wheel may initiate the fall ultimately causing front
wheel to lose traction.
• Rider and bike will simply fall to the leaning side of the
Falling Terminology: Pitch-Up
Falling Terminology: Pitch-Up
• Typically at higher speeds under heavy front wheel braking.
• More common with sport bike type.
• Rider is vault over and ahead of motorcycle.
Obstacle Avoidance
Study was performed:
“Do I brake or do I swerve?”
By Karl F. Shuman
Sport bike comparison:
• Braking vs. swerving when
• encountering a fixed obstacle.
• Typically lower speeds – Brake
• Typically higher speeds - Swerve
• Role of time/skill/distance??
Good Reference: SAE Paper# 2014-01-0478
Obstacle Avoidance
Literature: Motorcycle Dynamics
Inst. of Police Tech. and Mgmt.
Lateral distance of 3.2 ft. to avoid a barrier
Skill Factor: Most Significant
• Low-skilled riders take more time to decide and
execute maneuver
Æ they require 15%-20% more distance to avoid
an obstacle.
Obstacle Avoidance
MEC Testing: Yamaha V-Star
T = 0.0 s
Obstacle Avoidance
MEC Testing: Yamaha V-Star
T = 0.033 s
Obstacle Avoidance
MEC Testing: Yamaha V-Star
T = 0.066 s
Obstacle Avoidance
MEC Testing: Yamaha V-Star
T = 0.100 s
Obstacle Avoidance
MEC Testing: Yamaha V-Star
T = 0.133 s
Obstacle Avoidance
MEC Testing: Yamaha V-Star
T = 0.166 s
Obstacle Avoidance
MEC Testing: Yamaha V-Star
T = 0.200 s
Obstacle Avoidance
MEC Testing: Yamaha V-Star
T = 0.233 s
Obstacle Avoidance
MEC Testing: Yamaha V-Star
T = 0.266 s
Obstacle Avoidance
MEC Testing: Yamaha V-Star
T = 0.300 s
Obstacle Avoidance
MEC Testing: Yamaha V-Star
T = 0.333 s
Obstacle Avoidance
MEC Testing: Yamaha V-Star
T = 0.366 s
Obstacle Avoidance
MEC Testing: Yamaha V-Star
T = 0.400 s
Sliding Motorcycle
Typical range between 0.35g – 0.55g
Good Reference: SAE Paper# 970963
155 ft.
43 ft.
30݂ଵ ݀ଶ + 30݂ଶ ݀ଶ + … … ܵimp
30 .35 43 + 30 .45 (155) + 10ଶ
S = 451.5 + 2092.5 + 100
S = 51 ݉‫݄݌‬
Emergency Braking to a Stop
d = 124 ݂‫ݐ‬.
74 ft.
124 ft.
• How did you brake?
• Used front only, rear only, or both?
• Where they applied simultaneously?
• If rider has no recollection, what do they typically do?
• If the motorcycle was laid down;
• Was it intentional?
• Rider’s experience;
• How many years licensed?
• Any safety courses taken?
• How many motorcycles owned?
• Ride daily, weekly , monthly, etc.?
• Off road experience?
Kawasaki specific model lines 2013-up.
• Need court order/warrant to access data.
• Manufacture typically downloads.
Honda Goldwing
• Only if equipped with airbag option.
Can-Am Spyder
• Manufacturer/dealer to download.
Kawasaki EDR (US sold)
2013; Ninja 300, ZX-6
2014: Ninja 300, ZX-6, Z1000, Ninja 1000
2015: Ninja 300, ZX-6, Z1000, Ninja 1000, Versys 650,
Versys 1000, Vulcan S, Ninha H2
2016: Ninja 300, ZX-6, Z1000, Ninja 1000, Versys 650,
Versys 1000, Vulcan S, Ninha H2, Ninja ZX-10,
Ninja ZX-14, Z800
2017: ???
Kawasaki EDR (US sold)
2013; Ninja 300, ZX-6
2014: Ninja 300, ZX-6, Z1000, Ninja 1000
2015: Ninja 300, ZX-6, Z1000, Ninja 1000, Versys 650,
Versys 1000, Vulcan S, Ninha H2
2016: Ninja 300, ZX-6, Z1000, Ninja 1000, Versys 650,
Versys 1000, Vulcan S, Ninha H2, Ninja ZX-10,
Ninja ZX-14, Z800
2017: ???
NO SHOWS: Ninja 650, Concours 14, Vulcan 900, Vulcan 1700,
Ninja H2R
Kawasaki EDR – Data Triggering
NOT from a DTC
NOT from a deceleration (M/C or wheel lock up)
Not from a simple tip-over
• i.e. M/C rolls to a stop and falls over
Has to be a specific circumstance
• Involves engine shutdown from tip-over and rear
• Involves engine shutdown from tip-over and rear
wheel stopped after sudden deceleration
Kawasaki EDR – Pre-shutdown Data (Ninja 300)
At 10 Hz
At 2 Hz
Throttle position
Clutch In/Out
Fuel Injector Time
Timing BTDC
Fuel Cutout
Gear Position
Inlet Air Temperature
Coolant Temperature
Battery Voltage
DTC (s)
Total of 8 seconds of data
Good Reference: SAE Paper# 2017-01-1436
Kawasaki EDR – Number of Events
Three place holders for event
• If first place holder is taken, data will be written to second
place holder
• If second place holder is taken, data will be written to third
place holder
Events can not be overwritten, once all three events are
recorded, the ECU will not record any new events
*** Safety + Familiarity + Skill = Performance***
Edward C. Fatzinger Jr., MS, PE
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