2011 - MOTOR
TECH OVERVIEW OF THE
Ford Mustang
Photoillustration: Harold A. Perry; images: Wieck Media & Thinkstock
Ford Fiesta
2011
DOMESTICS
BY
Y PAUL
AUL WEISSLER
EISSLER
Ford F-Series Super Duty
Buick Regal
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November 2010
It’s been said that this country’s economic recovery
(and future prosperity) are directly connected to the
health of its auto industry. Based on the quantity of
new model introductions, things may be looking up.
T
he 2011 model year gives us Chrysler’s first new entry
since the trials of 2009; it’s the Jeep Grand Cherokee,
and it’s been worth waiting for. The first of the Fiats—
the 500 Sport—and a new Wrangler are coming very shortly.
Ford just doesn’t stop rolling out new products either, with four
major additions—the Fiesta economy car, the Ford F-Series
Jeep Wrangler
Fiat 500 Sport
Chevy Silverado
Chevy Cruze
Ford Explorer
November 2010
25
Super Duty and Mustang, each with two
new engines, and an all-new Explorer.
And General Motors has two significant
new entries out already—the Chevy
Cruze and Buick Regal—plus the upgraded Chevy Silverado/GMC Sierra.
The much-anticipated Chevy Volt plugin electric will be out shortly as well.
One of the most significant overall service developments is the increasing industrywide use of computer algorithms
to determine and post oil change service
recommendations on the instrument
panel display. For the 2011 model year,
Ford is across the board with an owner’s
manual statement that the interval could
be as high as 10,000 miles or one year.
So let’s see what the domestic automakers have been up to. Most of
these vehicles will be on the road in a
few months, and some of them will be
pulling into (or towed into) your service
bays eventually.
Chrysler
For those who thought Chrysler was a
dead duck, the Jeep Grand Cherokee
is evidence this company can put together a new model that we have to
cheer, on-road or off. Perhaps you’ve
heard that it’s really a Mercedes MClass under the skin. Sure, the two ve1
2
Photos: Paul Weissler; photoillustrations: Harold A. Perry; background images: Thinkstock
TECH OVERVIEW OF THE 2011 DOMESTICS
The Pentastar 3.6L V6 is Chrysler’s new engine and will first be installed in the
Jeep Cherokee. It will soon go in the Chrysler 200 (which replaces the Sebring)
and likely all other V6-equipped vehicles as production ramps up.
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The illustration on the left shows the belt routing for Chrysler’s 3.6L V6 with the power steering pump: 1. idler pulley; 2.
water pump; 3. power steering pump; 4. belt; 5. a/c compressor; 6. crankshaft pulley; 7. tensioner; 8. alternator. The illustration on the right shows the belt routing for the 3.6 V6 when an electrohydraulic power steering pump is used: 1. alternator; 2. idler pulley; 3. belt; 4. a/c compressor; 5. water pump; 6. crankshaft pulley; 7. tensioner.
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November 2010
TECH OVERVIEW OF THE 2011 DOMESTICS
hicles were developed at the same time
when Chrysler was under MercedesBenz ownership, but aside from the basic platform and some general sheet
metal shaping that it dictated, it’s a
Chrysler product. The engine is a
brand-new 3.6L V6, made in Trenton,
MI, and it’s pure Chrysler engineering.
The engine, all-aluminum with steel
cylinder liners, is a 60° V6, rated at 290
hp and 260 ft.-lbs. of torque, and it’s the
base engine for the vehicle. Called the
Pentastar, its firing order of 1-2-3-4-5-6
is based on numbering the left bank
(driver’s side) 2-4-6 and the passenger’s
side 1-3-5. The 290 hp is produced at
6400 rpm, the peak torque at 4800 rpm.
But the torque curve is pretty flat, so
that over 90% is available from fast idle
(1600 rpm) on.
The dual-overhead camshafts are
chain-driven and there are cam phasers
for variable valve timing on both the intake and exhaust camshafts. The valve
train uses rockers, with the hydraulic
lifters underneath them. The oil filter is
“Euro-enviro”—that is, a cartridge filter—and is located near the top front
of the engine.
The Pentastar has a serpentine belt
that you have to route carefully to avoid
having the water pump (driven off the
back of the belt) run backward. Sometime during the model year, Chrysler
will be dropping the belt-driven power
steering pump and switching to an electrohydraulic pump that will be mounted
away from the accessory belt drive. That
will call for a new belt routing.
Like all other engines installed in
Chrysler vehicles (including the 4cylinder it sources from Hyundai),
there’s no mass airflow (MAF) sensor.
No real surprise, because Chrysler is
the only domestic company, and probably one of only a handful worldwide,
that has never used one. There’s only a
manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor (up against the firewall on the right
side of the engine compartment); with
a well-developed computer algorithm,
that’s all Chrysler needs. It requires
more computer modeling of engines,
and more work developing the emissions control software, but it does mean
you don’t have to test for a defective
MAF sensor.
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November 2010
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This diagram shows the “air” suspension on
the Jeep Grand Cherokee: 1. nitrogen reservoir; 2. electronic control
module; 3. front strut; 4. compressor/valve block assembly; 5. front
height sensor; 6. nitrogen lines; 7. rear “air” spring; 8. rear height sensor.
Although the 1.4L turbo is the optional engine for the Chevy Cruze, it’s expected
to account for 70% of sales. The front cooling module has a computer-controlled
air flap to improve the coefficient of drag, for better highway fuel economy.
A Z-link with torsion beam is
used in the Cruze rear suspension.
Right: A twin-clutch
assembly, engaged by
motors, executes the
shifts in the Ford Fiesta’s dual-shift gearbox.
Below: The Fiesta’s
1.6L engine has a
“stretchy” belt—a serpentine belt with no tensioner. The car has electric power steering, but
the belt still must wrap
around the a/c compressor, alternator and
water pump, in addition
to the crankshaft pulley.
Although most Mustangs get the 3.7L V6, the new 5.0 V8 shown here
is the engine that gives the car its performance image. Notice the
bar that connects the strut towers, for improved handling.
The 5.7L Hemi V8 with “multiple
displacement” (cylinder deactivation) is
the optional engine, and five-speed automatics are the transmission choices.
The four-wheel-drive systems are
pure Jeep, and should be familiar: the
all-wheel-drive Quadra-Trac I, the goalmost-anywhere Quadra-Trac II (twospeed transfer case and instantaneous
torque transfer to the appropriate axle)
and the Quadra-Drive II, which adds a
rear electronic limited-slip differential
to Quadra-Trac II.
With Q-T II or Q-D II, the Grand
Cherokee will have a new optional “air”
suspension with a terrain-select switch,
an idea pioneered on the English Land
Rover line. Terrain-select adjusts throttle, braking, transmission shifting, hill
start assist and hill descent control with
ground clearance from the air suspension. The driver can pick from coordinated settings for sand/mud, snow, rockclimbing, sport (on-road handling) and
automatic response.
The “air” suspension is not quite
what it seems. First, it’s filled (up to
220 psi) with pure nitrogen, not air,
and operates in a closed loop from a
reservoir. There’s a compressor, but it’s
strictly for service situations, such as
following the installation of new parts.
If any nitrogen-filled component is
to be replaced, it first must be deflated
using a scan tool with appropriate software. The compressor is a small unit,
strictly for a one-component refill, and
using pure nitrogen from a service
tank. The filtered-hose assembly for
adding nitrogen to the reservoir is located behind the rear seat.
If you put the vehicle on a lift or
jack it up at any corner, the air suspension disables. If you’re doing a wheel
alignment, select “Sport” mode first on
the suspension menu; if you’re using a
scan tool, select the “Aero” mode.
The Fiat 500 Sport econocar is
due to reach dealerships before the
end of the year, if it’s not there already. It will be powered by a 1.4L
naturally aspirated 4-cylinder with
Multi-Air, the Fiat system that includes intake valve throttling instead
of a throttle plate, and, like Chrysler,
speed density fuel calibration instead
of mass airflow sensing.
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TECH OVERVIEW OF THE 2011 DOMESTICS
The Chrysler Sebring is being restyled
and gets a new name—Chrysler 200. It
will use the 2.4L 4-cylinder as the base
engine and the new 3.6L Pentastar as an
option. The 300 also gets a makeover,
but no details have surfaced yet.
General Motors
The Chevy Volt is getting all the publicity, but the technical details still were not
available as this issue of MOTOR was being readied for print. However, the
Chevy Cruze is the vehicle GM is
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Circle #17
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November 2010
counting on for significant sales. We’d
call it all-new, but it’s been on sale in 60
other countries for about two years, and
doing pretty well (about a quarter-million sold). The Cruze is a Corolla/Civicsize front-drive.
The engine choices are a 1.4L turbocharged Four that produces 138 hp and
125 ft.-lbs. of torque and a 1.8L naturally
aspirated Four (the base engine) that develops 136 ponies. It would hardly seem
worthwhile paying for the extra complexity and cost of a turbo, but the 1.4 develops 148 ft.-lbs. of torque at 1850 rpm, a
nice low number for a turbo. The 1.8
produces just 123 ft.-lbs. but not until
3800 rpm. Furthermore, the highway fuel
economy numbers of the 1.4 are likely to
be significantly better, although as of
now, the only model with a number is a
special “Eco” 1.4 with six–speed manual,
rated at 40 mpg. So the buyer is getting
both performance and fuel economy.
A surprising aspect of both engines is
that the blocks are cast-iron. But the 1.4
is a hollow-frame design that saves
about 20% in weight over a conventional cast-iron structure. The cylinder
heads are aluminum. Both engines have
cartridge oil filters.
The 1.4 turbo “Eco” model is aided
by a powertrain computer-controlled,
motor-actuated air flap in the front cooling module. It’s open until 38 mph for
cooling airflow, then closes to improve
aerodynamics and does not reopen until
road speed drops to 34 mph. The car
also has a full underbody pan for aerodynamic improvement, so there’s an issue for service access.
A fuel-saving feature called Neutral
Idle shifts the electronically controlled
six-speed automatic into Neutral when
the car is stopped with the brakes applied. It shifts back into Drive when the
pedal is released. Motorists are likely to
notice the slight rollback on a hill.
The most significant service aspect is
that the Chevy Cruze—as well as the
other newbie, the Buick Regal—has the
global electrical architecture introduced
on the Camaro and other 2010 GM
models. This system, which also requires the new MDI scan tool for full
diagnostics, among other things, does
not permit test-swapping of electronic
modules. Each has specific VIN data,
there’s no learn function and even a
temporary swap will introduce all kinds
of problems, including nearly-impossible-to-erase trouble codes.
All Cruze models get rack-mounted
electric power steering, which produces
a more precise response than the column-mount type. According to Chevy
engineering, it’s worth about .5 mpg on
the window sticker.
The spare tire is an option on this car,
so if you go out on a road service call for
a flat, ask first, or be prepared to find an
inflator kit. The front suspension is MacPherson struts, and the rear is a torsion
beam with a Watts linkage (Z-shaped
link setup). It goes along with a stiff body
structure and generous use of hydraulic
suspension bushings to soften the ride.
The front-drive 2011 Buick Regal is
a badge job. The car actually is an Opel
Insignia sports sedan. It’s a midsize
sedan with the 2.4 Ecotec direct-injection Four, rated at 182 hp/172 ft.-lbs. of
torque, and will carry a 30-mpg highway
fuel economy rating. The performance
engine is a turbo, the 2.0 Four, rated at
220 hp/258 ft.-lbs. of torque, and 29
mpg highway; there’s no V6. Both engines are all-aluminum, with variable
valve timing on intake and exhaust.
This model also has MacPherson
struts in front, but a multilink rear suspension and an optional driver-selectable electronic damping control with
the turbo. The transmission is the sixspeed automatic, with a six-speed manual coming shortly.
The Chevy Silverado/GMC Sierra
heavy-duty trucks get an upgraded DuraMax 6.6L diesel (rated at 397 hp/765
ft.-lbs. of torque) to meet the new emissions regs, which means they have the
urea solution tank. GM vans get the
DuraMax as well. If the 5.3-gal. tank is
empty, the vehicles are limited to 55
mph, and to 4 mph on a restart. The
DuraMax is rated for B20 biodiesel.
The engine has a single turbo, but it’s
a variable-nozzle type and a computer
software algorithm enables it to close
down for exhaust braking. This system
isn’t quite as effective as the flap type
used by the competition, but doesn’t
cost much to produce.
There’s a new DuraMax thermostat
with multiple air bleed holes. If you
have to replace it, be sure to install
the new one with the bleed holes facing the front of the engine. The air intake on vans has an oval air filter, the
pickups the conventional flat panel.
If you have to service the front
cooling module, note that the charge
air cooler duct connections are made
with plastic rings. Handle with care
to avoid breaking them.
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November 2010
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TECH OVERVIEW OF THE 2011 DOMESTICS
GM has a 2011 engine oil spec for
all models, in a classification system
called Dexos, and it’s designed to work
in combination with an enhanced oil
change algorithm in the powertrain
computer. The idea is to be able to extend oil change intervals where feasible.
If the engine oil that meets the Dexos
spec for a particular engine isn’t available, there are acceptable substitutions.
The 5W-30 with the American Petroleum Institute’s “starburst” symbol is allowed for all naturally aspirated engines
except the Camaro/Corvette/Cadillac
CTS with the small-block Corvette engine. For those engines, a super-premium synthetic (such as Mobil1) is permitted. The super-premium synthetic
also is acceptable for the turbos.
Ford
The Big Blue Oval just keeps rolling
out the new models, with an emphasis
on improving fuel economy. That in-
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November 2010
A knob on the Explorer’s console controls computer coordination of throttle, transmission shifting, hill descent
and stability control according to
road conditions. From the top counterclockwise, the icons are for snow,
sand, mud and normal driving.
cludes V6s in place of V8s and turbo
Fours in place of V6s. Perhaps the
most dramatic example is moving the
legendary Explorer off the truck frame
platform onto the crossover platform
also used by the Flex.
The new Fiesta, engineered in Europe but made in Mexico for the U.S.
market, is a 40-mpg model with a sixspeed automatic transmission. This is
no ordinary automatic, but rather a
dual-clutch transmission, also called a
dual-shift gearbox (so you’ll see such
acronyms as DCT or DSG). Named
the PowerShift by Ford, it’s a premium
design also used on some VW and Audi models, plus many racing cars. It’s
like two automated manual transmissions in one, with a twin-clutch assembly in place of a torque converter. The
gear changes are made by engaging
one clutch while disengaging the other,
so it’s instantaneous and smooth and,
as a variation on a manual transmis-
sion, more fuel-efficient. The transmission has a fluid-fill-for-life, not surprising for this type, because the gearbox
internals are similar to a manual’s. A
five-speed manual is the base gearbox.
The engine is an all-aluminum design (including the oil pan) 1.6L dualoverhead cam with variable intake
and exhaust timing, which develops
119 hp and 109 ft.-lbs. of torque, adequate for the size and weight. The
most noticeable underhood feature is
that there’s no belt tensioner; it’s a
“stretchy” belt, but for the first time,
this one covers three accessories—the
a/c compressor, alternator and water
pump. The replacement procedure
involves cutting off the old belt and
installing the new one using a hardware kit included with it.
Column-mounted electric power
steering is used, with a computer algorithm called Pull-Drift Compensation,
to make it easier to keep the car tracking straight even on crowned roads or
in crosswinds. It also can correct for
minor amounts of wheel imbalance.
This was introduced last year on the
Explorer. The Fiesta has discs in front,
drums in the rear, and a simple torsion
beam rear axle.
The 2011 Mustang gets a substantial
makeover, with a brand-new 5.0L (302cube) V8 heading the list of changes.
The engine is all-aluminum, with four
valves per cylinder operated by the
dual-overhead camshafts with intake
and exhaust cam phasers for variable
valve timing. At a time when fuel economy is getting increased emphasis, it
may seem surprising that Ford would
invest in a V8 when it already has the
modular V8. The answer is that a new,
more efficient V8 was needed to appeal
to a significant segment of the Mustang
world, even though it may not be an ultra-high-volume engine. Ford designed
an all-new engine that had the same
bore centers as the modular engines so
it could be built on the same assembly
line. That was a huge cost saving, and
there’s no doubt that the 5.0/302 engine
displacement has a historic ring to Ford
V8 enthusiasts.
This engine develops 412 hp at 7000
rpm (390 ft.-lbs. of torque). It develops
credible fuel economy numbers, too—
18 city/25 highway with the six-speed
automatic, 17/26 with the six-speed
manual. And for those who want better
mileage, there’s the 3.7L V6, which not
only develops 305 hp at 280 ft.-lbs. of
torque, but also delivers 31 mpg highway (19 city). Additionally, there’s a
naturally aspirated “Boss” version of
the 5.0 that adds 28 more horses (at a
screaming 7500 rpm), listed as a 2012
model.
November 2010
33
TECH OVERVIEW OF THE 2011 DOMESTICS
The 5.0 V8’s firing order is 1-5-4-8-63-7-2, and cylinder numbering is Ford’s
usual 1-2-3-4 on the right-side bank, 56-7-8 on the left (driver’s side). The oil
filter is a conventional spin-on type.
All new Mustangs have column-
mounted electric power steering with
the pull-drift compensating algorithm.
Will the public take to the new Explorer, built on a crossover platform,
with transverse front-drive powertrain,
no V8 and maximum tow capacity at
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November 2010
5000 lbs? Ford certainly thinks so, and
for those who really want fuel economy, the 3.5 turbo V6 (290 hp/255 ft.lbs. of torque) can be exchanged for a
2.0L direct-injection turbo Four,
which develops 237/250 but with tow
capacity dropping to 2000 lbs. V6 fuel
economy is 17/25; the 2.0 Four is expected to come in at 28 to 29 mpg
highway.
One appealing new feature is a simplified version of turn-a-knob terrain
selection, in this case operating without air suspension but with AWD. It
integrates throttle, stability control, hill
descent management and transmission
shifting for four modes: snow, sand,
mud and normal driving. In addition,
there’s “curve control,” which is an algorithm that reduces engine torque
and applies the antilock brakes to slow
the vehicle by up to 10 mph if it enters
a curve too fast. It’s based on steering
angle vs. how fast the vehicle is turning, so it basically functions as an enhancement to stability control.
Like other Ford products on the
crossover platform, the Explorer has
column-mounted electric power steering and a six-speed automatic.
The F-Series Super Duty is surely
the most technically new model in the
Ford lineup. Not only does it feature
the first Ford-engineered big diesel—a
6.7L Powerstroke V8, to replace the
long-used series of Navistar designs—
but it also has a brand-new 6.2L gasoline V8. That engine also will be used
in other Ford trucks, with the highperformance F-150 SVT Raptor the
first to get it.
The 6.2 is a two-valve, single-overhead cam V8 with two spark plugs per
cylinder. The primary is coil-on-plug
(C-O-P) ignition, and there’s a spark
plug wire from that ignition unit to the
second plug. Cylinder numbers are the
same as on the other V8s, and the firing order is 1-5-4-8-6-3-7-2.
The engine has variable cam timing,
and in case there’s ever an issue with
cam phaser operation, check for a
plugged oil filter in the unit. The rocker arms hold the hydraulic lifters.
The 6.7 diesel, rated at 390 hp/735
ft.-lbs. of torque, is extremely sophisti-
THE 2011 DOMESTICS
cated. First, it features an outboard intake system and an exhaust over the V,
a more compact layout that also is qui-
eter. Like others, it’s a four-valve with a
single in-block camshaft, but with a
separate pushrod and rocker arm for
The new 6.2L V8 for Ford trucks is a
two-valve, single-overhead-cam
design with two plugs per cylinder.
One plug is fired by a coil-on-plug
(C-O-P) setup; the other is connected by a conventional highvoltage plug wire from the C-O-P.
If a performance issue on the 6.2L V8 is traced to the cam
phaser, note that the filter is replaceable.
36
November 2010
If the chart
at right is
missing,
please circle
#40 on the
Product
Information
Card on
page 72.
TECH OVERVIEW OF THE 2011 DOMESTICS
each valve. Each pair of valves fits into
a single cam follower with separate hydraulic lifters. The separate rockers, vs.
the more common use of one doublerocker assembly for two valves, provide
smoother operation. The heads are
The Fordengineered
Powerstroke
6.7L engine
features two
separate
cooling
systems, each
with two
thermostats,
a specific
belt-driven
water pump
and a specific
radiator.
Unlike other four-valve pushrod diesels, the Ford Powerstroke V8 engine has a
separate pushrod and rocker arm actuating each valve.
aluminum, the block is a compacted
graphite iron and the oil pan is plastic
with a quarter-turn plastic drain plug.
The diesel has two separate cooling
systems, each with its own radiator (one
a two-stage design), and each with two
thermostats and one belt-driven water
pump. One system is a conventional
high-temperature circuit, which cools
the engine and turbo. The other is a
low-temperature circuit for the special
coolers (transmission, EGR, fuel and
charge air).
Although the smaller coolant hoses
have conventional clamps, the large
ones use quick-connects that contain
an internal sealing O-ring and incorporate a retaining wire clip.
The fuel system uses piezoelectric
injectors that pulse up to five times per
combustion cycle. If you ever have to
replace an injector, you’ll have to note
an injection quantity specification on
its label, and program the new injector
to that spec.
Like the competition, the 6.7 diesel
requires urea fluid injection to meet
the new emissions regulations.
The Super-Duty also has a new sixspeed automatic (the manual is gone).
And like a number of Ford automatics
over the years, it incorporates a Ravigneaux gearset, which is a combination
of two planetaries in one compact assembly, to provide four speeds. A planetary is added and the combination delivers the six forward speeds.
As we reported in the August 2010
issue, Ford has a companywide U.S.
coolant changeover underway,
switching to an orange dye organic
acid technology (OAT) antifreeze,
with any GM DexCool formula an acceptable choice. This is the type used
on all Ford of Europe models. Not all
Ford U.S. cooling systems have been
changed over yet, with some still using the yellow Zerex G-05 European
formula also used by Mercedes or a
deep green Mazda Asian formula. We
covered the subject in great detail in
that issue, which can be seen at
www.motor.com.
This article can be found online at
www.motormagazine.com.
November 2010
37
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