Owner`s Manual
Palstar Incorporated
9676 N. Looney Rd.,
Piqua, OH 45356 USA
Customer Service and Sales Telephone:
1-800-773-7931
Fax:
1-937-773-8003
Email:
info@palstar.com
AT4K 2500 Watt Antenna Tuner
Owner’s Manual
© Copyright 2008 Palstar Inc.
Printed in the U.S.A.
VER 1.5 2008_04
2
Service and Warranty
Important Safeguards
An appliance and cart combination should
be moved with care. Quick stops, excessive force and uneven surfaces may cause
the appliance and cart combination to
overturn.
WARNING: TO PREVENT FIRE OR
ELECTRICAL SHOCK DO NOT
EXPOSE TO RAIN OR MOISTURE
The lightning flash with arrow head
symbol, within an equilateral triangle, is
intended to alert the user to the presence
of uninsulated “dangerous voltage” within
the product’s enclosure that may be of
sufficient magnitude to constitute a risk of
electric shock to persons.
The exclamation point within an equilateral
triangle is intended to alert the user to the
presence of important operating and
maintenance (servicing) instructions in the
literature accompanying the appliance.
WARNING: TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FIRE OR ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT
EXPOSE THIS APPLIANCE TO RAIN OR MOISTURE. DO NOT
OPEN THE CABINET WHILE OPERATING. REFER SERVICING TO
QUALIFIED PERSONNEL ONLY.
CAUTION: TO PREVENT ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT USE THE THREE WIRE
CORD WITH AN EXTENSION CORD RECEPTIACLE OR OTHER
OUTLET UNLESS THE BLADES CAN BE FULLY INSERTED TO
PREVENT BLADE EXPOSURE.
1. Read Instructions—All the safety and
operating instructions should be read before
the appliance is operated.
2. Retain Instructions—The safety and
operating instructions should be retained for
future reference.
3. Heed Warnings—All warnings on the
appliance should be adhered to.
4. Follow Instructions—All operating and
use instructions should be followed.
5. Cleaning—Unplug this unit from the wall
outlet before cleaning. Do not use liquid cleaners or aerosol cleaners. Use a damp cloth for
cleaning.
6. Do Not Use Attachments—not recommended by the manufacturer or they may
cause hazards.
7. Water and Moisture—Do not use this
product near water—for example, near a
bathtub, wash bowl, kitchen sink, laundry tub,
in a wet basement, or near a swimming pool—
and the like.
8. Accessories—Do not place this product on
an unstable cart, stand, tripod, bracket, or
table. The product may fall, causing serious
injury to a child or adult, and serious damage
to the appliance.
9. Ventilation—This product should never be
placed near or over a radiator or heat register.
This product should not be placed in a built-in
installation such as a bookcase or rack unless
1-800-773-7931
proper ventilation is provided or the manufacturer’s instructions have been adhered to. Any
slots or openings in the cabinet are provided
for ventilation. To ensure reliable operation of
the product and to protect it from overheating,
these openings must not be blocked or covered. The openings should never be blocked
by placing the product on a bed, sofa, rug, or
other similar surface.
10. Grounding or Polarization—if this product is equipped with a 3-wire line cord receptacle, it is intended for use with a 3-wire properly grounded power socket. Do not defeat the
safety purpose of the supplied line cord and
plug.
11. Power Sources—This product should be
operated only from the type of power source
indicated on the marketing label. If you are not
sure of the type of power supplied to your
home, consult your appliance dealer or local
power company.
12. Power-cord Protection—Power-supply
cords should be routed so they are not likely
to be walked on or pinched by items placed
upon or against them. Pay particular attention
to cords at plugs, convenience receptacles,
and the point where they exit.
13. Lightning—For added protection for this
product during a lightning storm, or when it is
left unattended and unused for long periods of
time, unplug it from the wall outlet.
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19
Repair Policy
When sending in a product for
service, please include a note
clearly describing the problem,
how you wish the item returned
and how you wish to pay for the
service.
Limited Warranty
Palstar Inc. warrants products
manufactured by it to be free from
defects in material and workmanship under normal use and service
for a period of one (1) year
from the date of delivery to
the first buyer (the “Warranty
Period”). Palstar Inc’s obligation
under this warranty is limited to
repair or replacement of the product; at its option at the Palstar
factory in Piqua, OH.
Our service rate is $30 per hour
(1/2 hr. minimum).
NOTE:
Keep the packing your
AT4K was shipped in
Effective only when the product is
case a return for repair
returned to the factory with all
transportation charges prepaid and is necessary.
Due to the high cost of
examination of the product discloses in Palstar’s judgment, to
the custom foam inserts,
have been defective during the
if you ship the tuner in
Warranty Period.
other than the original
packing, you will be
The Warranty Period shall not
charged $15 for replaceextend beyond its original term
with respect to interim in-warranty ment packing when we
repairs by Palstar. This Warranty
return it to you.
Period shall not apply to any product which has been repaired or
altered by anyone other than Palstar without prior written authorization. Warranty does not extend
to any products which have been
subject to damage from improper
installation, application or maintenance in accordance with the operating specification. Palstar neither
assumes nor authorizes any person
to assume for it any obligation or
liability other than herein stated.
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Return Policy
All returns must receive prior authorization from Palstar. Returned
items must be received in original—AS SHIPPED– condition including the original box, manuals,
accessories, and copy of sales receipt. Returns must be within 14
days of purchase. Returned items
are subject to a 25% restocking
fee. Shipping is not refundable.
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Important Safeguards (cont’d)
Meter Board Adjustments
Note: These adjustments control the calibration and accuracy of the
AT4K metering. Do not adjust unless you are sure the metering is
inaccurate, and you have accurate test equipment to check against.
Reverse
Low
Reverse
High
Forward
Low
Peak
Low
Peak
Hold
Peak
Forward
High
14. Power Lines—An outside antenna system should not be located in the vicinity of
overhead power lines, other electric light or
power circuits, where it can fall into such
power lines or circuits. When installing an
outside antenna system, extreme care should
be taken to keep from touching such power
lines or circuits as contact with them may be
fatal.
15. Overloading—Do not overload wall outlets and extension cords as this can result in a
risk of fire or electric shock.
16. Object and Liquid Entry—Never push
objects of any kind into this product through
openings as they may touch dangerous voltage points or short-out parts that could result
in a fire or electric shock. Never spill liquid of
any kind on the product.
17. Servicing—Do not attempt to service this
product yourself as opening or removing
covers may expose you to dangerous voltage
or other hazards. Refer all servicing to qualified service personnel.
18. Damage Requiring Service—Unplug this
product from the wall outlet and refer servicing
to qualified service personnel under the following conditions:
a. When the power-supply cord or plug is
damaged.
b. If liquid has been spilled, or objects have
fallen into the product.
c. If the product has been exposed to rain or
water.
d. If the product does not operate normally by
following the operating instructions. Adjust
only those controls that are covered by the
operating instructions. An improper adjustment may result in damage and will often
require extensive work by a qualified
Peak
High
Power
Range
technician to restore the product to its normal
operation.
e. If the product has been dropped or the
cabinet has been damaged.
f. When the product exhibits a distinct change
in performance—this indicates a need for
service.
19. Replacement Parts—when replacement
parts are required, be sure the service technician has used replacement parts specified by
the manufacturer or have the same characteristics as the original parts. Unauthorized substitutes may result in fire, electric shock or
other hazards.
20. Safety Checks—Upon completion of any
service or repairs to this product, ask the
service technician to perform safety checks to
determine that the product is in proper operating condition.
21. Outdoor Antenna Grounding—Before
attempting to install this product, be sure the
antenna or cable system is grounded so as to
provide some protection against voltage
surges and built-up static charges.
a. Use No.10 AWG copper, No.8AWG aluminum, No.17AWB copper-clad steel or bronze
wire or larger, as ground wire.
b. Secure antenna lead-in and ground wires to
house with stand-off insulators spaced from 4
feet to 6 feet apart.
c. Mount antenna discharge unit as close as
possible to where lead-in enters house.
d. A driven rod may be used as the grounding
electrode where other types of electrode
systems do not exist. Refer to the National
Electric Code, ANSI/NFPA 70-1990 for information.
e. Use jumper wire not smaller than No.6
AWG copper or equivalent, when a separate
antenna grounding electrode is used.
On/Off
Note: The adjustment pots on your meter board may differ in
appearance from the photograph.
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Specifications
Table of Contents
Thank you for purchasing a Palstar AT4K Antenna Tuner. This
antenna tuner has been designed and manufactured to high quality standards, and will provide reliable operation for many years.
Front Panel Indicators and Controls
Please carefully read the Owner’s Manual in order to take advantage of the many interesting features that will provide years of enjoyable amateur
Controls
Metering
17
Dual movement cross needle power and frequency
compensated coupler
Input Tuning
480 pF variable capacitor (6kV Peak)
Output Tuning
480 pF variable capacitor (6kV Peak)
Important safeguards
2
Inductance
28 µH roller ceramic body roller inductor wound
with 10 gauge wire
Table of Contents
4
Antenna Selector Switch
General Description
5
6 position:
Coax 1 tuned and tuner bypass
Coax 2 tuned and tuner bypass
Bypass and balanced antenna
Installation
Unpacking
Location
Installation Procedures
6
6
6
6
Power Range Switch
Rear Panel Connections
7
Coax connectors
SO239 connector (silver/gold/TFE)
Front Panel Description
8
Balanced Line
Dual, High Voltage Nylon66TM terminal posts
Wafer switches are ceramic (7kV/10A)
2 position 300 Watts-LO /3000 Watts-HI
Rear Panel Connectors
Other
AT4K Schematic
10
Operating Your AT4K
Before Operating
Tuning
Pre-tune Settings
Power Specifications
12
12
12
12
16
Troubleshooting
16
Specifications
17
Meter Board Adjustments
18
Service and Warranty
19
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Frequency Coverage
1.8 — 29.5 MHz
Power
2500 W single tone continuous, 4 kW PEP
Impedance Range
See chart of power/complex Z on page 16 for
per band ratings
Balanced Output
1:1 current type Balun at input-Ferrite
Dimensions
6.5”H x 15”W x 16”D (incl. terminals)
Weight
22 lbs.
Materials
Chassis parts, brackets and top cover are gold
chem-film coated aluminum (.090” thick). Powder
coating on painted parts.
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Operating Your AT4K
General Description
5
Power Specifications (assuming single tone key down)
Antenna Impedance
Max Power Rating
8 Ω − 15 Ω
500 watts (all bands)
15Ω − 25Ω
1000 watts (all bands)
25Ω − 50Ω
1500 watts (all bands)
50Ω − 2000Ω
160M — 2000 watts
80M - 15M — 2500 watts
10M — 1000 watts (29.5 MHz
max)
IF IN ANY DOUBT ABOUT YOUR ANTENNA
IMPEDANCE PLEASE MEASURE IT WITH A
PALSTAR ZM30 ANTENNA ANALYZER BEFORE
ATTEMPTING HIGH POWER OPERATION.
Troubleshooting
1500 Watts into a 25Ω load @3.5Mhz
If you hear a spitting sound while
tuning your AT4K at high power,
you are probably tuning into an impedance that is on the low side (20Ω –
40Ω).
Ant Cap Inductor Voltage
In this event, either reduce transmitter/amplifier power to a lower setting,
or change to a higher antenna impedance by using a different antenna or
modifying the existing antenna.
100 pF
11.7 µH
4550
16%
200 pF
6 µH
2400
8%
300 pF
4 µH
1600
6%
As seen in the chart to the right, an
antenna capacitance setting that is too
low under these conditions will result
in excessivly high voltages, high losses,
and poor efficiency.
The AT4K T-matching network
utilizes a 1:1 unbalanced-tobalanced transformer in the input of the network. When the
network is properly tuned, a 50
Ohm impedance will be presented to both the input and
output of the balun allowing it to
operate at maximum efficiency.
The AT4K optimizes the performance of your antenna and
transmitter by providing adjustable impedance matching using
a T type circuit configuration.
The AT4K also measures the
power and Voltage Standing
Wave Ratio (VSWR) which al-
In the first instance the tuner will arc
and suffer almost 16% loss, of which
80% will be dissipated in the roller
inductor.
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Loss
The Palstar AT4K Antenna
Tuner is an American made impedance matching network that
can provide unbalanced or balanced output.
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lows you to tune the SWR to the
lowest ratio for the selected
transmit frequency.
Integrated into the AT4K is a
frequency compensated, lighted
dial, dual-movement SWR meter. The meter features the ability to read True Active Peak and
Peak Hold.
Designed to handle both Balanced line feeds and coax
feeds, the AT4K features a
front panel mounted switch to
select between feeds.
Tuning is achieved with the front
panel mounted controls. The
dual Vernier dials allow for tuning with precision and accuracy,
while the Inductor crank handle
facilitates coarse adjustments.
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Installation
Operating Your AT4K
Unpacking
Carefully remove the AT4K from
the shipping carton and inspect
it for signs of damage. If any
damage is apparent, notify the
transportation carrier or dealer
immediately. We recommend
keeping the packing carton
for moving, storing or reshipping the tuner to us for repair
if required.
OUTPUT SELECTOR switch on
the front panel.
Location
Select a location for the AT4K
that allows the connectors to be
free from any possible contact
with people, pets or objects during operation and with unrestricted air flow for cooling.
For a balanced feed antenna,
connect a balanced feedline to
the white BALANCED OUTPUT
posts on the back panel and
make sure that the red TUNED
OUTPUT button on the lower
front panel is in the BALANCED
(IN) position.
For coax feed (unbalanced)
select the COAX (OUT) switch
position. This done by switching the red TUNED OUTPUT
button on the lower front
panel between the Output
knob and the Inductor knob to
the COAX (OUT) position.
WARNING: Balanced antennas will produce high
RF voltages at the output post connectors. RF
burns may result if touched during transmission.
- if you hear a spitting sound while tuning at high power you
are probably tuning into an impedance that is on the low
side (20Ω - 40Ω). (Please see page 16 for more detailed
instructions.)
4. Any time a new or different antenna is connected, it is
necessary to repeat the tuning procedure for the new antenna. Be sure to write down the new settings for future
use with that antenna
5. Once every 4-6 months clean the roller coil with 70%
isopropyl alcohol and a clean cotton cloth. Do not remove
the conducting grease on the rod that guides the roller
wheel. Do not transfer any of the conducting grease
from the rod to the roller coil body, as this will contaminate the windings .
Connect a dummy load to the
BYPASS connector using a
coax cable. This lets you select
the dummy load from the OUTPUT SELECTOR switch. Any
Keep the cable as short as pos- antenna that does not require
the use of an antenna tuner may
sible. If you use a linear amplifier, connect your transmitter to be connected to the BYPASS
the linear amplifier input and the connector if desired.
linear amplifier output to the
AT4K. Connect coax cable from Connect supplied 12VDC @
your antenna to the COAX 1 or 500ma wall adapter to rear
panel Power Jack. Power is
COAX 2 connector on the rear
necessary for metering, relay
panel. These connectors are
either direct from the transmitter and meter lamp to work.
or through the tuned circuit depending on the setting of the
Installation Procedures
Connect a coax cable from your
transmitter to the RF INPUT
connector on the rear panel.
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14
Operating Your AT4K
Operating Notes:
Installation
COAX 1 coaxial connector for
output to Antenna One.
1. An SWR of 1:1 is best, but an SWR as high as 2:1 may be
acceptable. Check your transmitter/amplifier manual for details.
2. If you cannot get an acceptable SWR, lengthen or shorten
your antenna and/or feedlines and retune.
7
COAX 2 coaxial connector for
output to Antenna Two.
BYPASS coaxial connector
for output to dummy load
or third coax output. Bypasses tuner, but meter
circuits are on if 12VDC
is connected to rear panel
jack.
RF INPUT coaxial
connector for input
from transmitter or
amplifier.
VERY HIGH OR VERY LOW IMPEDANCE LOADS ARE TO
BE APPROACHED WITH EXTRA CAUTION, ESPECIALLY
WHEN YOU ARE GOING TO USE HIGH POWER. THE
USE OF AN RF ANALYZER (E.G. A PALSTAR ZM-30 ANTENNA ANALYZER) WOULD BE ADVISABLE TO MEASURE AND UNDERSTAND THE KIND OF LOAD YOU ARE
ATTEMPTING TO USE.
3. If you get low SWR readings at more than one setting,
use the setting that gives:
•
highest FORWARD power reading
•
lowest REFLECTED power reading
•
uses the largest capacitance (highest number) on the
ANTENNA control
It is important to remember that consistent with low SWR
indicated on the tuner meter you must have, and adjust for:
- the largest capacitance (highest number) on the output
control to keep the losses low, and the voltage that would
appear on the antenna capacitor within the 5KV rating
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BALANCED OUTPUT two
nylon High Voltage post
connectors for output to RF
balanced twin-lead antennas.
Relay switched.
GROUND post/wing nut
ground connector.
12 VDC INPUT (2.1 mm
plug) for supplied
12VDC @ 500mA wall
adapter to power the
metering functions, meter lamp, and relay.
FIGURE 1 REAR PANEL CONNECTORS
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Front Panel Description
1
2
3
Operating Your AT4K
13
4. Set POWER RANGE switch to 300 W (Power Range Meter Switch button OUT).
4 5 6
5. Set OUPUT SELECTOR switch to the position matching
your antenna connection. To tune your antenna, the switch
selection must be set to: COAX 1 TUNED, COAX 2
TUNED or WIRE (BALANCED ANTENNA). Selecting
COAX 1 DIRECT, COAX 2 DIRECT or BYPASS bypasses
the tuning section. Also, the tuned output switch (#8 on pg.
8) must be set to the correct position: IN for balanced,
OUT for coax.
10
9
8
7
1. POWER/SWR METER Dual needle meter displays FORWARD and REFLECTED power in watts. SWR is measured
where the two needles intersect on the red scale.
2. DIRECT/TUNED MODE SWITCH Six-position rotary
switch selects an output coaxial connector with DIRECT mode
which bypasses the tuner, and TUNED mode which passes the
signal through the tuner components.
a. BYPASS Selects BYPASS COAX connector, bypassing the
tuner matching circuit but providing SWR, FORWARD & REFLECTED power meter readings. Many operators connect a
dummy load to the Bypass connector so it can be selected by
switch.
b. DIRECT COAX 1 Selects COAX 1 connector bypassing
the tuner matching circuit but providing SWR, FORWARD and
REFLECTED meter readings.
c. DIRECT COAX 2 Selects COAX 2 connector bypassing
the tuner matching circuit but providing SWR, FORWARD and
REFLECTED meter readings.
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CAUTION: When approaching the end stops (readings
of 0 and 228 on the turns counter) of the roller inductor,
SLOW DOWN. Slamming the roller wheel into the
mechanical end stops on either end of the roller inductor can damage it.
6. Key your transmitter and adjust the power level for a
reading of 100-150 watts on the FORWARD scale. Adjust
the INPUT, OUTPUT and INDUCTOR controls for a minimum REFLECTED reading control.
7. Read the SWR on the red scale at the point where the
two needles intersect. Repeat TUNING the input and antenna controls until the lowest SWR reading is obtained.
This procedure takes patience the first time. The input
and antenna controls vary the capacitors and provide
fine adjustments. The roller inductor crank control provides coarse adjustment.
8. When you have tuned your antenna to the best SWR,
record the settings of the INPUT, ANTENNA and INDUCTANCE controls on the chart above for future reference.
When you retune, use these settings as your starting point.
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Front Panel Description
Operating Your AT4K
CAUTION — Before Operating
1. To avoid possible damage to the AT4K set INPUT, OUTPUT, and INDUCTOR controls as outlined in the chart before applying transmitter power.
2. Begin tuning with your transmitter/amp into the tuner set
at a low output power setting (100-150 Watts).
WARNING: DO NOT OPERATE THE AT4K
WITH THE COVER OFF.
9
d. TUNED COAX 1 Selects COAX 1 connector through the
impedance matching T circuit.
e. TUNED COAX 2 Selects COAX 2 connector through the
tuner matching T circuit.
f. BALANCED OUT Selects the balanced output connectors
located after the impedance matching circuit.
3. PEAK HOLD Select (IN) to hold Peak readings for approximately 2 sec. on the SWR meter.
4. PEAK Select PEAK (IN) or AVGERAGE (OUT) power readings.
Tuning
1. Select the band and frequency of desired operation.
2. Set INPUT, OUTPUT, and INDUCTOR controls to the
suggested settings before applying transmitter power (see
chart below). Actual settings will vary from antenna to antenna.
3. Set your transmitter/amplifier to a low power output
(100-150 watts). If your transmitter/amplifier combination
has a LOW POWER position, select that position to obtain
the 100-150 watts for the initial tune-up.
INPUT
CAP
OUPUT CAP
BAND
Suggested
160 M
59
64
81
80 M
57
66
169
40 M
53
77
206
20 M
44
43
210
15 M
21
19
222
10M
21
12
229
Actual
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Suggested
INDUC TOR
Actual
Suggested
Actual
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5. RANGE Select metering range: 3000 Watts (IN) or 300
Watts (OUT).
6. POWER Select (IN) to turn on Peak/Hold metering with
backlight.
7. INDUCTOR 24 µH, continuously variable, steatite ceramic
core roller inductor driven by a crank handle. Maximum inductance is a turns counter reading of zero, minimum inductance is
228.
8. TUNED OUTPUT BALANCED (IN) lifts ground off roller
inductor for balanced line feed. Direct/Tuned switch must be in
the TUNED BALANCED LINE position. COAX (OUT) puts direct ground on roller inductor for coax feed. Direct/Tuned
switch must be set to TUNED Coax 1 or Coax 2.
9. OUTPUT Continuously adjustable output capacitor with
Vernier. Minimum capacitance is zero on dial and 100 is maximum
capacitance.
10. INPUT Continuously adjustable input capacitor with
Vernier. Zero is minimum capacitance and 100 is maximum capacitance.
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AT4K Schematic
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AT4K Schematic
11
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