ML Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Series Solar Charge

ML Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Series Solar Charge
ML Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Series
ML2420—ML2430—ML2440
Solar Charge and Discharge Controller User Manual
Model
Battery voltage
Max. solar panel voltage
Charging current
Discharging current
ML2420
20A
ML2430
12V/ 24V
ML2440
100V (25°C), 90V (-25°C)
30A
20A
40A
Dear users,
Thank you for choosing our product!
Safety Instructions
1. As this controller deals with voltages that exceed the top limit for human safety, do not
operate it before reading this manual carefully and completing safety operation training.
2. The controller has no internal components that need maintenance or service, thus do
not attempt to disassemble or repair the controller.
3. Install the controller indoors, and avoid component exposure and water intrusion.
4. During operation, the radiator may reach a very high temperature, therefore install the
controller at a place with good ventilation conditions.
5. It's recommended that a fuse or breaker be installed outside the controller.
6. Before installing and wiring the controller, make sure to disconnect the photovoltaic
array and the fuse or breaker close to the battery terminals.
7. After installation, check if all connections are solid and reliable so as to avoid loose
connections that may give rise to dangers caused by heat accumulation.
Warning: means the operation in question is dangerous, and you
should get properly prepared before proceeding.
Note: means the operation in question may cause damage.
Tips: means advice or instruction for the operator.
Table of Contents
1. Product Introduction ............................................................................................................. 4
1.1 Product Overview ......................................................................................................... 4
1.2 Product Features ........................................................................................................... 4
1.3 Exterior and Interfaces .................................................................................................. 6
1.4 Introduction to Maximum Power Point Tracking Technology ....................................... 7
1.5 Charging Stages Introduction ........................................................................................ 9
2. Product Installation ............................................................................................................. 12
2.1 Installation Precautions ............................................................................................... 12
2.2 Wiring Specifications .................................................................................................. 13
2.3 Installation and Wiring ................................................................................................ 14
3. Product Operation and Display ........................................................................................... 18
3.1 LED Indicators ........................................................................................................... 18
3.2 Key Operations ........................................................................................................... 21
3.3 LCD Startup and Main Interface ................................................................................. 21
3.4 Load Mode Setting Interface ....................................................................................... 23
3.5 System Parameter Settings .......................................................................................... 24
4. Product Protection Function and System Maintenance ........................................................ 25
4.1 Protection Functions ................................................................................................... 25
4.2 System Maintenance ................................................................................................... 27
4.3 Abnormality Display and Warnings ............................................................................ 28
5. Product Specification Parameters ........................................................................................ 28
5.1 Electric Parameters ..................................................................................................... 28
5.2 Battery Type Default Parameters (parameters set in monitor software) ........................ 29
6. Conversion Efficiency Curve .............................................................................................. 31
6.1 12V System Conversion Efficiency ............................................................................ 31
6.1 24V System Conversion Efficiency ............................................................................ 31
7. Product Dimensions ............................................................................................................ 32
1. Product Introduction
1.1 Product Overview
This product can keep monitoring the solar panel's generating power and tracking the
highest voltage and current values (VI) in real time, enabling the system to charge the
battery in maximum power. It's designed to be used in off-grid solar photovoltaic
systems to coordinate operation of the solar panel, battery and load, functioning as the
core control unit in off-grid photovoltaic systems.
This product features an LCD screen which can dynamically display the operating
status, operating parameters, controller logs, control parameters, etc. Users can
conveniently check parameters by the keys, and modify control parameters to cater to
different system requirements.
The controller utilizes standard Modbus communication protocol, making it easy for
users to check and modify system parameters on their own. Besides, by providing free
monitoring software, we give users the maximum convenience to satisfy their varied
needs for remote monitoring.
With comprehensive electronic fault self-detecting functions and powerful electronic
protection functions built inside the controller, component damage caused by
installation errors or system failures can be avoided to the greatest extent possible.
1.2 Product Features
With the advanced dual-peak or multi-peak tracking technology, when the solar panel
is shadowed or part of the panel fails resulting in multiple peaks on the I-V curve, the
controller is still able to accurately track the maximum power point.
A built-in maximum power point tracking algorithm can significantly improve the
energy utilization efficiency of photovoltaic systems, and raise the charging efficiency
by 15% to 20% compared with the conventional PWM method.
A combination of multiple tracking algorithms enables accurate tracking of the
optimum working point on the I-V curve in an extremely short time.
The product boasts an optimum MPPT tracking efficiency of up to 99.9%.
Advanced digital power supply technologies raise the circuit's energy conversion
efficiency to as high as 98%.
Charging program options are available for different types of batteries including gel
batteries, sealed batteries, open batteries, lithium batteries, etc.
The controller features a limited current charging mode. When the solar panel power
exceeds a certain level and the charging current is larger than the rated current, the
controller will automatically lower the charging power and bring the charging current to
the rated level.
Instantaneous large current startup of capacitive loads is supported.
Automatic recognition of battery voltage is supported.
LED fault indicators and an LCD screen which can display abnormality information
help users to quickly identify system faults.
Historical data storage function is available, and data can be stored for up to a year.
The controller is equipped with an LCD screen with which users can not only check
device operating data and statuses, but also modify controller parameters.
The controller supports standard Modbus protocol, fulfilling the communication needs
of various occasions.
The controller employs a built-in over-temperature protection mechanism. When
temperature surpasses the set value, the charging current will decline in linear
proportion to the temperature so as to curb the temperature rise of the controller,
effectively keeping the controller from being damaged by overheat.
Featuring a temperature compensation function, the controller can automatically adjust
charging and discharging parameters in order to extend the battery's service life.
TVS lighting protection
1.3 Exterior and Interfaces
1
○
2
○
3
○
4
○
7
○
5
○
6
○
14 ○
8 ○
9 ○
13 ○
10 ○
15
12 ○
11 ○
○
No.
Definition
2
○
4
○
Receiving terminal RX
Power supply grounding /Signal grounding
6
○
Power supply positive
1
○
3
○
5
○
No.
Power supply grounding /Signal grounding
Power supply positive
Fig. 1-1 Product appearance and interfaces
Item
1
○
Charging indicator
3
○
Load indicator
2
○
Transmitting terminal TX
Battery indicator
No.
10
○
11
○
12
○
Item
Battery "+" interface
Battery "-" interface
Load "+" interface
4
○
5
○
Abnormality indicator
LCD screen
6
○
Operating keys
7
○
Installation hole
8
○
9
○
13
○
Load "-" interface
14
○
External temperature
15
○
RS232 communication
sampling interface
interface
Solar panel "+" interface
Solar panel "-" interface
1.4 Introduction to Maximum Power Point Tracking Technology
Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is an advanced charging technology that
enables the solar panel to output more power by adjusting the electric module's
operating status. Due to the nonlinearity of solar arrays, there exists a maximum
energy output point (maximum power point) on their curves. Unable to continuously
lock onto this point to charge the battery, conventional controllers (employing
switching and PWM charging technologies) can't get the most of the power from the
solar panel. But a solar charge controller featuring MPPT technology can
continuously track arrays' maximum power point so as to get the maximum amount
of power to charge the battery.
Take a 12V system as an example. As the solar panel's peak voltage (Vpp) is
approximately 17V while the battery's voltage is around 12V, when charging with a
conventional charge controller, the solar panel's voltage will stay at around 12V,
failing to deliver the maximum power. However, the MPPT controller can overcome
the problem by adjusting the solar panel's input voltage and current in real time,
realizing a maximum input power.
Compared with conventional PWM controllers, the MPPT controller can make the
most of the solar panel's max. power and therefore provide larger charging current.
Generally speaking, the latter can raise the energy utilization ratio by 15% to 20% in
contrast with the former.
VP曲线
VP
curve
VI曲线
VI curve P(W)
I(A)
5.0
4.5
MPPT点point
MPPT
I (A)
94.5
81.0
4.0
3.5
67.5
3.0
54.0
2.5
P (W)
2.0
1.5
40.5
PWM
charging
PWM充电
27.0
1.0
13.5
0.5
0.0
0.0
2.8
5.6
8.4
11.2
14.0
16.8
19.6
U(V)
Fig. 1-2 Solar panel output characteristic curve
Meanwhile, due to changing ambient temperature and illumination conditions, the
max. power point varies frequently, and our MPPT controller can adjust parameter
settings according to the environmental conditions in real time, so as to always keep
the system close to the max. operating point. The whole process is entirely automatic
without the need of human intervention.
Current decreases with dwindling light
Open-circuit voltage decreases with dwindling light
Fig. 1-3 Relation between solar panel output characteristics and illumination
Solar panel temperature
With temperature dropping, current
stays stable and power increases
Open-circuit voltage decreases with rising temperature
Fig. 1-4 Relation between solar panel output characteristics and temperature
1.5 Charging Stages Introduction
As one of the charging stages, MPPT can not be used alone, but has to be used
together with boost charging, floating charging, equalizing charging, etc. to
complete charging the battery. A complete charging process includes: fast charging,
sustaining charging and floating charging. The charging curve is as shown below:
Battery voltage
Equalizing charging voltage
Boost charging voltage
Fast
charging
Sustaining
charging
Floating
charging
Floating charging voltage
Charging return voltage
Battery voltage
Max.
current
Duration: 2h
(range: 10 to
600min)
Cumulative
time: 3h
Time
Time
Fig. 1-5 Battery charging stages diagram
a) Fast charging
At the fast charging stage, as the battery voltage has not reached the set value of full voltage (i.e. equalizing/ boost
voltage) yet, the controller will perform MPPT charging on the battery with the maximum solar power.
When the
battery voltage reaches the preset value, constant voltage charging will begin.
b) Sustaining charging
When the battery voltage reaches the set value of sustaining voltage, the controller
will switch to constant voltage charging. In this process, no MPPT charging will be
performed, and meanwhile the charging current will also gradually decrease. The
sustaining charging stage itself consists of two sub-stages, i.e. equalizing charging
and boost charging, the two of which are not carried out in a repeated manner, with
the former getting activated once every 30 days.
Boost charging
By default, boost charging generally lasts for 2h, but users can adjust preset values
of duration and
boost voltage point according to the actual needs. When the
duration reaches the set value, the system will then switch to floating charging.
Equalizing charging
Warning: risk of explosion!
In equalizing charging, an open lead-acid battery can produce explosive gas, therefore
the battery chamber shall have good ventilation conditions.
Note: risk of equipment damage!
Equalizing charging may raise the battery voltage to a level that may cause
damage to sensitive DC loads. Check and make sure that allowable input voltages
of all the loads in the system are greater than the set value for battery equalizing
charging.
Note: risk of equipment damage!
Overcharge or too much gas generated may damage battery plates and cause
active material on the battery plates to scale off. Equalizing charging to an
excessively high level or for too long a period may cause damage. Read carefully
the actual requirements of the battery deployed in the system.
Some types of batteries benefit from regular equalizing charging which can stir the
electrolyte, balance the battery voltage and finish the electrochemical reaction.
Equalizing charging raises the battery voltage to a higher level than the standard supply
voltage and gasify the battery electrolyte. If the controller then automatically steers the
battery into equalizing charging, the charging duration is 120 mins (default). In order to
avoid too much generated gas or battery overheat, equalizing charging and boost
charging won’t repeat in one complete charging cycle.
Note:
1) When due to the installation environment or working loads, the system can't
continuously stabilize the battery voltage to a constant level, the controller will initiate a
timing process, and 3 hours after the battery voltage reaches the set value, the system
will automatically switch to equalizing charging.
2) If no calibration has been done to the controller clock, the controller will perform
equalizing charging regularly according to its internal clock.
Floating charging
When finishing the sustaining charging stage, the controller will switch to floating
charging in which the controller lowers the battery voltage by diminishing the
charging current and keeps the battery voltage at the set value of floating charging
voltage. In the floating charging process, very light charging is carried out for the
battery to maintain it at full state. At this stage, the loads can access almost all the
solar power. If the loads consume more power than the solar panel could provide, the
controller will not be able to keep the battery voltage at the floating charging stage.
When the battery voltage drops to the set value for returning to boost charging, the
system will exit floating charging and reenter into fast charging.
2. Product Installation
2.1 Installation Precautions
Be very careful when installing the battery. For open lead-acid batteries, wear a pair
of goggles during installation, and in case of contact with battery acid, flush with
water immediately.
In order to prevent the battery from being short-circuited, no metal objects shall be
placed near the battery.
Acid gas may be generated during battery charging, thus make sure the ambient
environment is well ventilated.
Keep the battery away from fire sparks, as the battery may produce flammable gas.
When installing the battery outdoors, take sufficient measures to keep the battery
from direct sunlight and rain water intrusion.
Loose connections or corroded wire may cause excessive heat generation which
may further melt the wire's insulation layer and burn surrounding materials, and even
cause a fire, therefore make sure all connections are tightened securely. Wires had
better be fixed properly with ties, and when needs arise to move things, avoid wire
swaying so as to keep connections from loosening.
When connecting the system, the output terminal's voltage may exceed the top limit
for human safety. If operation needs to be done, be sure to use insulation tools and
keep hands dry.
The wiring terminals on the controller can be connected with a single battery or a
pack of batteries. Following descriptions in this manual apply to systems employing
either a single battery or a pack of batteries.
Follow the safety advice given by the battery manufacturer.
When selecting connection wires for the system, follow the criterion that the
current density is not larger than 4A/mm2.
Connect the controller's earth terminal to the ground.
2.2 Wiring Specifications
Wiring and installation methods must comply with national and local electrical
specifications.
The wiring specifications of the battery and loads must be selected according to
rated currents, and see the following table for wiring specifications:
Model
ML2420
ML2430
Rated
charging
current
Rated
discharging
current
Battery wire Load wire
diameter
diameter
20A
30A
20A
20A
5
6
(mm2)
(mm2)
5
5
ML2440
40A
20A
10
5
2.3 Installation and Wiring
Warning: risk of explosion! Never install the controller and an open
battery in the same enclosed space! Nor shall the controller be installed in an
enclosed space where battery gas may accumulate.
Warning: danger of high voltage! Photovoltaic arrays may produce a
very high open-circuit voltage. Open the breaker or fuse before wiring, and be
very careful during the wiring process.
Note: when installing the controller, make sure that enough air flows
through the controller's radiator, and leave at least 150 mm of space both above
and below the controller so as to ensure natural convection for heat dissipation.
If the controller is installed in an enclosed box, make sure the box delivers
reliable heat dissipation effect.
Hot air
Cold air
Fig. 2.1 Installation and heat dissipation
Step 1: choose the installation site
Do not install the controller at a place that is subject to direct sunlight,
high temperature or water intrusion, and make sure the ambient
environment is well ventilated.
Step 2: first place the installation guide plate at a proper position, use a
marking pen to mark the mounting points, then drill 4 mounting holes at the
4 marked points, and fit screws in.
Step 3: fix the controller
Aim the controller's fixing holes at the screws fit in Step 2 and mount the
controller on.
Step 4: wire
First remove the two screws on the controller, and then begin wiring
operation. In order to guarantee installation safety, we recommend the
following wiring order; however, you can choose not to follow this order
and no damage will be incurred to the controller.
1 Connecting to external temperature sampling interface
○
2 Connecting communication cable
○
3 Connecting power cable
○
Warning: risk of electric shock! We strongly recommend that fuses or
breakers be connected at the photovoltaic array side, load side and battery side so as to
avoid electric shock during wiring operation or faulty operations, and make sure the
fuses and breakers are in open state before wiring.
Warning: danger of high voltage! Photovoltaic arrays may produce a very
high open-circuit voltage. Open the breaker or fuse before wiring, and be very careful
during the wiring process.
Warning: risk of explosion! Once the battery's positive and negative terminals
or leads that connect to the two terminals get short-circuited, a fire or explosion will
occur. Always be careful in operation.
First connect the battery, then the load, and finally the solar panel. When wiring, follow
the order of first "+" and then "-".
4 Power on
○
Tips: ML Series controllers can only be started through wiring of the battery terminals,
but ML-LI Series controllers can be started by switching on the power supply of the
photovoltaic array. The latter case applies to starting the controller and activating the
lithium battery when the lithium battery BMS is in protection state and therefore can't
output power.
After connecting all power wires solidly and reliably, check again whether wiring is
correct and if the positive and negative poles are reversely connected. After confirming
that no faults exist, first close the fuse or breaker of the battery, then see whether the
LED indicators light up and the LCD screen displays information. If the LCD screen
fails to display information, open the fuse or breaker immediately and recheck if all
connections are correctly done.
If the battery functions normally, connect the solar panel. If sunlight is intense enough,
the controller's charging indicator will light up or flash and begin to charge the battery.
After successfully connecting the battery and photovoltaic array, finally close the fuse or
breaker of the load, and then you can manually test whether the load can be normally
turned on and off. For details, refer to information about load working modes and
operations.
Warning: when the controller is in normal charging state, disconnecting the
battery will have some negative effect on the DC loads, and in extreme cases, the loads
may get damaged.
Warning: within 10 minutes after the controllers stops charging, if the
battery's poles are reversely connected, internal components of the controller may get
damaged.
Note:
1) The battery's fuse or breaker shall be installed as close to the battery side as
possible, and it's recommended that installation distance be not more than
150mm.
2) If no remote temperature sensor is connected to the controller, the battery
temperature value will stay at 25 °C.
3) If an inverter is deployed in the system, directly connect the inverter to the
battery, and do not connect it to the controller's load terminals.
3. Product Operation and Display
3.1 LED Indicators
1 ---PV array indicator
○
2 ---BAT indicator
○
3 ---LOAD indicator
○
 PV array indicator:
4 ---ERROR indicator
○
Indicating the controller's current charging
mode.
Indicating the battery's current state.
Indicating the loads' On/ Off and state.
Indicating whether the controller is
functioning normally.
Steady on, charging in max. power
Slow flashing, boost charging
Single flashing, floating charging
Quick flashing, equalizing charging
Double flashing, current-limited charging
No.
Indicator state
1
○
Steady on
2
○
Slow flashing
3
○
(a cycle of 2s with on and off each
lasting for 1s)
Charging
state
MPPT
charging
Boost
charging
Single flashing
(a cycle of 2s with on and off Floating
lasting respectively for 0.1s and charging
4
○
5
○
1.9s)
Quick flashing
(a cycle of 0.2s with on and off
each lasting for 0.1s)
Equalizing
charging
Double flashing
(a cycle of 2s with on for 0.1s, off Current-limited
for 0.1s, on again for 0.1s, and off charging
6
○
again for 1.7s)
Off
No charging
 BAT indicator:
Indicator state
Steady on
Slow flashing
(a cycle of 2s with on and off
each lasting for 1s)
Quick flashing
(a cycle of 0.2s with on and off
Battery state
Normal battery voltage
Battery
over-discharged
Battery over-voltage
each lasting for 0.1s)
 LOAD indicator:
Off
Indicator state
Quick flashing
(a cycle of 0.2s with on and off
each lasting for 0.1s)
Steady on
Battery state
Load turned off
Load overloaded/
short-circuited
Load functioning
normally
 ERROR indicator:
Off
Indicator state
Battery state
System operating
normally
System malfunctioning
Steady on
3.2 Key Operations
Page up; increase the parameter value in
setting
Up
Page down; decrease the parameter value in
setting
Return to previous menu (exit without
saving)
Down
Return
Set
3.3 LCD Startup and Main Interface
Charging
Nighttime Daytime Solar panel
Charging stage System voltage
Enter into sub-menu; set/ save
Turn on/ off loads (in manual mode)
Battery
Discharging
Setting Serial port Bluetooth Abnormality
3.3.1 Startup interface
Load
Battery type
Parameter value
Unit
During startup, the 4 indicators will first flash successively, and after
self-inspection, the LCD screen starts and displays the battery's voltage level
which will be either a fixed voltage selected by the user or a voltage
automatically recognized.
3.3.2 Main interface
Main monitoring page
Component voltage
Battery voltage
Charging current
Battery capacity
Abnormality code
Load current
Device temperature
Load mode
Charging capacity
Discharging capacity
3.4 Load Mode Setting Interface
3.4.1 Load modes introduction
This controller has 5 load operating modes which will be described below:
No.
0
1 to 14
Mode
Sole
light
control
(nighttime
on
and
daytime off)
Light control + time
control 1 to 14 hours
15
Manual mode
16
Debugging mode
Descriptions
When no sunlight is present, the solar panel voltage is lower than the light control on
voltage, and after a time delay, the controller will switch on the load; when sunlight
emerges, the solar panel voltage will become higher than the light control off voltage,
and after a time delay, the controller will switch off the load.
When no sunlight is present, the solar panel voltage is lower than the light control on
voltage, and after a time delay, the controller will switch on the load. The load will be
switched off after working for a preset period of time.
In this mode, the user can switch the load on or off by the keys, no matter whether it's
day or night. This mode is designed for some specially purposed loads, and also used in
the debugging process.
Used for system debugging. With light signals, the load is shut off; without light
signals, the load is switched on. This mode enables fast check of the correctness of
system installation during installation debugging.
17
Normal on mode
The energized load keeps outputting, and this mode is suitable for loads which need
24-hour power supply.
3.4.2 Load mode adjustment
Users can adjust the load mode as needed on their own, and the default mode
is debugging mode (see " load modes introduction" ). The method for adjusting
load modes is as follows:
Load mode
Press and hold the Tap the Up or Down Press and hold the Set key
Set key to enter
key to set the mode
to save and exit
Tap the Return key to
exit without saving
3.4.3 Manual load on/ off page
Manual operation is effective only when the load mode is manual mode (15), and tap the Set key to switch on/
off the load under any main interface.
3.5 System Parameter Settings
Under any interface other than load modes, press and hold the Set key to enter into the parameter setting interface.
Battery type
System voltage
Over-discharge voltage
Equalizing voltage
Over-discharge return voltage
Boost voltage
Floating charging voltage
After entering into the setting interface, tap the Set key to switch the menu for setting, and tap the Up or Down key
to increase or decrease the parameter value in the menu. Then tap the Return key to exit (without saving parameter
setting), or press and hold the Set key to save setting and exit.
Note: after system voltage setting, power supply has to be switch off and
then on again, otherwise the system may work under an abnormal system
voltage.
The controller enables users to customize the parameters according to the actual conditions, but parameter
setting must be done under the guidance of a professional person, or else faulty parameter settings may
render the system not able to function normally. For details about parameter settings, see table 3.
Parameter setting cross-reference table
No.
Displayed item
Description
Parameter range
1
TYPE OF BAT
Battery type
User/flooded/Sealed/Gel
2
VOLT OF SYS
System voltage
3
EQUALIZ CHG
4
BOOST CHG
5
FLOAT CHG
6
LOW VOL RECT
7
LOW VOL DISC
Equalizing
charging voltage
Boost charging
voltage
Floating charging
voltage
Over-discharge
recovery voltage
Over-discharge
voltage
Default
setting
Sealed
12V/ 24V
AUTO
9.0 to 17.0V
14.6V
9.0 to 17.0V
14.4V
9.0 to 17.0V
13.8V
9.0 to 17.0V
12.6V
9.0 to 17.0V
11.0V
Table 3
4. Product Protection Function and System Maintenance
4.1 Protection Functions
Waterproof
Waterproof level: IP32
Input power limiting protection
When the solar panel power exceeds the rated power, the controller will limit the
solar panel power under the rated power so as to prevent excessively large currents
from damaging the controller and enter into current-limited charging.
Battery reverse connection protection
If the battery is reversely connected, the system will simply not operate so as to
protect the controller from being burned.
Photovoltaic input side too high voltage protection
If the voltage on the photovoltaic array input side is too high, the controller will
automatically cut off photovoltaic input.
Photovoltaic input side short-circuit protection
If the photovoltaic input side gets short-circuited, the controller will halt charging,
and when the short circuit issue gets cleared, charging will automatically resume.
Photovoltaic input reverse-connection protection
When the photovoltaic array is reversely connected, the controller will not break
down, and when the connection problem gets solved, normal operation will resume.
Load overpower protection
When the load power exceeds the rated value, the load will enter into delay
protection.
Load short-circuit protection
When the load is short-circuited, the controller can implement protection in a quick and timely manner, and will try to
switch on the load again after a time delay. This protection can be carried out up to 5 times a day. Users can also manually
address the short circuit problem when finding the load is short-circuited via the abnormality codes on the system data
analysis page.
Reverse charging protection at night
This protection function can effectively prevent the battery from discharging through
the solar panel at night.
TVS lighting protection.
Over-temperature protection
When the controller temperature exceeds the set value, it will decrease the charging
power or halt charging. See the following diagram:
Fig. 4-1
4.2 System Maintenance
In order to always keep the controller's performance at its optimum level, we
recommend that the following items be checked twice a year.
Make sure the airflow around the controller is not blocked and clear away any dirt
or debris on the radiator.
Check if any exposed wire gets its insulation undermined due to exposure to
sunlight, friction with other adjacent objects, dry rot, damage by insects or rodents,
etc. Repair or replace those affected when necessary.
Verify that indicators function in line with device operations. Note any faults or
displayed errors and take corrective measures if necessary.
Check all wiring terminals for any sign of corrosion, insulation damage, overheat,
combustion/ discoloration, and tighten the terminal screws firmly.
Check if there are any dirt, nesting insects or corrosion, and clean as required.
If the lightening arrester has lost its efficacy, replace it with a new one timely to
prevent the controller and even other devices owned by the user from being damaged
by lightening.
Warning: risk of electric shock! Before carrying out the above checkings or
operations, always make sure all power supplies of the controller have been cut off!
4.3 Abnormality Display and Warnings
No.
1
Error display
Description
EO
Battery
over-discharge
3
E2
System
over-voltage
4
E3
5
E5
7
E6
9
E8
11
E10
12
E13
BAT indicator
flashing slowly
ERROR indicator
steady on
BAT indicator
flashing quickly
ERROR indicator
steady on
Battery
under-voltage
ERROR indicator
steady on
warning
E4
6
ERROR indicator
off
No abnormality
E1
2
LED indication
Load short circuit
LOAD indicator
flashing quickly
ERROR indicator
steady on
Load overloaded
Over-temperature
ERROR indicator
steady on
inside controller
Photovoltaic
component
overloaded
Photovoltaic
component
over-voltage
LOAD indicator
flashing quickly
ERROR indicator
steady on
ERROR indicator
steady on
Photovoltaic
component
reversely connected
ERROR indicator
steady on
ERROR indicator
steady on
5. Product Specification Parameters
5.1 Electric Parameters
Parameter
Value
ML2420
Model
System voltage
ML2430
12V/24V Auto
ML2440
0.7 W to 1.2W
No-load loss
Battery voltage
9 to 35
100V (25°C), 90V (-25°C)
Max. solar input voltage
Max. power point voltage
range
Rated charging current
20A
Battery voltage +2V to 75V
30A
Rated load current
40A
20A
10000uF
Max.
capacitive
load
capacity
Max. photovoltaic system
input power
260W/ 12V
520W/ 24V
Conversion efficiency
400W/ 12V
800W/ 24V
98%
550W/ 12V
1100W/ 24V
> 99%
MPPT tracking efficiency
-3.0mv/ °C/ 2V (default)
Temperature compensation
factor
Operating temperature
-35°C to +45 Protection degree
Weight
IP32
2kg
1.4kg
Communication method
Altitude
Product dimensions
2kg
RS232
3000m
210*151*59.5mm
238*173*72.5
238*173*72.5
5.2 Battery Type Default Parameters (parameters set in monitor software)
Parameters cross-reference table for different types of batteries
Voltage to set
Battery type
Over-voltage cut-off voltage
Sealed
lead-acid
Gel lead-acid
Open lead-acid
battery
User
(self-customized)
16.0V
16.0V
16.0V
9 to 17V
battery
Equalizing voltage
14.6V
Floating charging voltage
13.8V
Boost voltage
Boost return voltage
Low-voltage cut-off return
voltage
14.4V
13.2V
12.6V
battery
——
14.2V
13.8V
13.2V
12.6V
14.8V
14.6V
13.8V
13.2V
12.6V
9 to 17V
9 to 17V
9 to 17V
9 to 17V
9 to 17V
Under-voltage warning
12.2V
12.2V
12.2V
9 to 17V
12.0V
12.0V
12.0V
9 to 17V
Low-voltage cut-off voltage
11.1V
11.1V
11.1V
9 to 17V
Discharging limit voltage
10.6V
10.6V
10.6V
9 to 17V
Over-discharge time delay
5s
5s
5s
1 to 30s
120 minutes
0 to 600 minutes
return voltage
Under-voltage warning
voltage
Equalizing charging
duration
120 minutes
Equalizing charging interval
30 days
0 days
30 days
Boost charging duration
120 minutes
120 minutes
120 minutes
——
0 to 250D (0 means
the equalizing
charging function
is disabled)
10 to 600 minutes
When selecting User, the battery type is to be self-customized, and in this case, the default
system voltage parameters are consistent with those of the sealed lead-acid battery. When
modifying battery charging and discharging parameters, the following rule must be followed:
Over-voltage cut-off voltage> Charging limit voltage Equalizing voltage Boost voltage
Floating charging voltage > Boost return voltage;
Over-voltage cut-off voltage > Over-voltage cut-off return voltage;
Low-voltage cut-off return voltage > Low-voltage cut-off voltage Discharging limit
voltage;
Under-voltage warning return voltage > Under-voltage warning voltage Discharging
limit voltage;
Boost return voltage > Low-voltage cut-off return voltage
6. Conversion Efficiency Curve
6.1 12V System Conversion Efficiency
MPPT 12V conversion efficiency (12V battery)
Conversion efficiency
Output power(W)
6.1 24V System Conversion Efficiency
MPPT 24V conversion efficiency (24V battery)
Conversion efficiency
Output power(W)
7. Product Dimensions
Product dimensions
Hole positions
/ML2440
Hole diameter
Applicable wire: max. 8 AWG
Product dimensions
Hole positions
Hole diameter
Applicable wire: max. 8 AWG
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