Achieving carrier-grade Wi-Fi in the 3GPP world

Achieving carrier-grade Wi-Fi in the 3GPP world
284 23-3183 | Uen
Achieving carrier-grade
Wi-Fi in the 3GPP world
Users switch between cellular and Wi-Fi networks regularly. The process is not always as seamless
as it could be, sometimes requiring several painful steps. Hotspot 2.0 is starting to change all that.
S T E P H E N R AY M E N T A N D JOA K I M BE RG S T RÖM
Shortly after the close of the
2012 Mobile World Congress,
the GSMA announced a plan to
collaborate with the Wireless
Broadband Alliance (WBA) to
simplify Wi-Fi-hotspot access
for smartphones and tablets1.
Intended to provide subscribers
with seamless cellular-to-Wi-Fi
roaming, this joint GSMA/WBA
initiative is based on the WBA
Next Generation Hotspot (NGH)
program2 and the Wi-Fi Alliance
Passpoint certification3 – known
in the industry as Hotspot 2.0.
The need for such an initiative has
risen out of the rapid rise in mobile
BOX A subscriptions and explosive growth
in demand for mobile broadband.
Numbering 6 billion at the end of 2011,
mobile subscriptions are expected to hit
the 9 billion mark by the end of 20174.
Mobile-data usage is expected to grow
15 times between 2011 and 20174. To provide this massive number of users with
good service, Hotspot 2.0 will build on
the roaming principles that have successfully supported global growth in the
mobile industry.
Now that the first phase of the initiative – Hotspot 2.0 Release 1 – has been
launched, Ericsson and other telecom
vendors are setting their sights on the
next step – network-directed roaming,
which will be developed in Hotspot 2.0
Release 2 and in the ANDSF enhancements in 3GPP Rel 12.
TheHotspot2.0standardusesoperatorprovided information stored in a subscriber’s SIM to automate the search for
available networks and the associated
login procedure – removing the need for
cumbersome manual steps, and improving user experience. However, the decision to switch is still determined by the
device. To implement Wi-Fi that is truly
carrier-grade, control needs to be handed back to the network operator.
The existing 3GPP ANDSF standard
provides operators with a mechanism
for handling traffic on public data networks. Operators can list their preferred
networks and provide policies for how
Terms and abbreviations
AAA
authentication, authorization
and accounting
AC
access controller
AES
Advanced Encryption Standard
ANDSF access network discovery and
selection function
ANQP
Access Network Query Protocol
AP
access point
BNG
Broadband Network Gateway
BPCF
Broadband Policy Control Function
BSS
Business Support Systems
CAPWAP Control and Provisioning of Wireless
Access Points
CoA
Change of Authorization
DPI
deep packet inspection
DSMIPv6 Dual-stack Mobile IPv6
EAP
Extensible Authentication Protocol
EAP-AKA EAP-Authentication and
Key Agreement
EAP-TLS EAP-Transport Layer Security
EAP-TTLSEAP-Tunneled TLS
EPC
Evolved Packet Core
EPS
Evolved Packet System
ePDG
Evolved Packet Data Gateway
GBA
Generic Bootstrapping Architecture
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GTP
GPRS Tunneling Protocol
HESSID Homogenous Extended Service Set ID
HLR
home location register
hPCRF home PCRF
HSS
Home Subscriber Server
IKEv2
Internet Key Exchange version 2
IP-CAN IP connectivity access network
IPsec
IP Security
I-WLAN interworking wireless LAN
ISMP inter-system mobility policies
LBO
local breakout
LI
Lawful Interception
MCC Mobile Country Code
MNC Mobile Network Code
MO
management object
MSCHAP Microsoft Challenge Handshake
Authentication Protocol
NAI
network address identifier
NGH
Next Generation Hotspot
OCS
online charging system
OFCS
offline charging system
OMA-DM Open Mobile Alliance –
Device Management
PCRF
policy and charging rules function
PDN GW packet data network gateway
PLMN
PMIP
PMIPv6
RAT
RF
SaMOG
SSID
TWAN
UAM
UE
USIM
vPCRF
WAN
WAG
WBA
WFA
Wi-Fi
WISPr
WLAN
WPA2
XML
Public Land Mobile Network
Proxy Mobile IP
Proxy Mobile IPv6
radio-access technology
radio frequency
S2a mobility-based on GTP
Service Set Identifier
trusted WLAN access network
Universal Access Method
user equipment
Universal Subscriber Identity Module
visited PCRF
wide area network
wireless access gateway
Wireless Broadband Alliance
Wi-Fi Alliance
trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance
Wireless Internet Service
Provider roaming
wireless local area network
Wi-Fi Protected Access v2
Extensible Markup Language
3
to use them. For the moment, this information is relatively static and is prepared without taking real-time network
conditions into consideration.
The goal is to enable carrier-grade
Wi-Fi that provides a secure and
seamless experience for users, where
roaming to and from 3G/LTE to Wi-Fi
networks is operator-controlled and
network-directed. To fulfill this vision,
Ericsson is working with the industry to
align both the Hotspot 2.0 Release 2 and
ANDSF specifications.
Vision for heterogeneous networks
As an integral part of the complete
mobile-broadband solution, Wi-Fi is
a key element of heterogeneous networks. Just like any other radio-access
technology (RAT), Wi-Fi needs to be connected to the core network. Viewed in
this way, it can be used to deliver the full
suite of services available on the cellular
data network, becoming more than just
an offloading alternative for capacitychallenged networks.
Wi-Fi networks are consistently high
performing owing to their inherent
small-cell architecture and their use of
widely available unlicensed spectrum.
Thus, adding Wi-Fi to the set of accessible radios can help to optimize user
experience. But integration of Wi-Fi
into the cellular network, requires that
a number of elements be considered:
pico base stations house Wi-Fi and multimode small-cell licensed-band radios;
common network nodes perform aggregation of cellular and Wi-Fi networks;
unified network management; and
many integrated back-end network elements, including HSS/HLR, OCS/OFCS
and PCRF/BCRF, enable unified services
and features.
The enablement of industry standardization and solutions that push performance beyond standards to enable
leading-edge services are important
aspects of the vision for fully integrated
Wi-Fi and cellular networks. Figure 1
shows an architecture for interworking Hotspot 2.0 access networks with
a 3GPP-based core network using wellestablished protocols for access and core
network interworking. The architecture is based on Wi-Fi Alliance and 3GPP
R11 specifications. For completeness,
the illustration shows how untrusted
Wi-Fi (residential) can interwork with
FIGURE 1 Wi-Fi and 3GPP
IMS
HSS
HLR
S14
ANDSF
External
IP networks
Rx
RADIUS
DIAMETER
AAA
SWx
SWd
OCS
SGi
PCRF
BPCF
S6b
OFCS
Gz
Gy
LBO
RADIUS
CoA
S9
S9a
Gx
PDN
GW
S2b
ePDG
WAG
GBA
S2a
S2a
LBO
SWu
STa
Control
Data
Auth
Policy
L2/L3
AC
BNG
Trusted
Wi-Fi
L2/L3
Auth
Untrusted
Wi-Fi
CAPWAP
AP
AP
Wi-Fi
the EPC, to, for example, support voice
when only Wi-Fi coverage is available,
however this is not elaborated further
in this article.
Use case
The following use case is based on a typical dual-mode smartphone scenario
where a subscriber is using the cellular data network of their service provider to browse the web while walking
around a busy downtown area. The user
enters a shopping mall where carrier
Wi-Fi coverage is available. As data usage
in the area is high, the cellular network
signals the smartphone to switch to
Wi-Fi. The Wi-Fi radio in the smartphone detects a Hotspot 2.0 access point
(AP) which it queries, using the Access
Network Query Protocol (ANQP) to find
out whether or not the user’s home network can be reached through this Wi-Fi
network. If it can, the cellular network
takes the decision to switch the user’s
internet connection from cellular to
Wi-Fi, based on ANDSF-provisioned policy for this location. Using the EAP-AKA
mechanism, the smartphone switches
and starts authentication with the AAA
server of the cellular network using
the user’s SIM card credentials. On successful authentication, the access controller (AC) sets up a GTP tunnel to the
PDN GW to access a carrier-managed
connection to the internet, and the user
continues to browse, enjoying good
service performance.
Hotspot 2.0
The WFA, which is responsible for the
certification of Wi-Fi products, has created Hotspot 2.0 – a technical specification that brings together a number of
industry standards. Targeting service
providers in the hotspot Wi-Fi market,
the specification tries to apply the simplicity of cellular roaming to Wi-Fi. The
program run by WFA is called Wi-Fi
E R I C S S O N R E V I E W • 2012
Shifting control
4
FIGURE 2 Table 1: ANQP information elements
Wi-Fi selected over cellular
ANQP elements
Data rate
[Mbps]
Service-provider identification
3GPP cellular network information
NAI realm list
Roaming consortium list
Hotspot identification
Domain name list
Venue name
Venue information
Cellular
Operator-friendly name
Cellular
Network characteristics
IP address-type availability
WAN metrics
Wi-Fi
Connection capability
Operating class
Network authentication type
CERTIFIED Passpoint, and Ericsson
has been a key contributor to it, providing equipment as part of the certification test bed.
Today, connecting to a hotspot can
be an awkward and inconsistent experience for subscribers who may need
to go through several manual steps to
switch network. These steps can include
searching for a network, enabling a connection to that network and entering
account credentials by launching a web
browser. Some mobile-device operating systems, such as iOS, have already
automated parts of the switching process using a captive portal method –
WISPr or UAM – and some third-party
applications called connection managers embed this capability. However,
these solutions are only available for certain devices, and are offered by a limited range of carriers; they are far from
widespread.
The aim of Hotspot 2.0 is to change
this – supporting widespread automatic switching to Wi-Fi. As an industrywide solution, Hotspot 2.0 will drive
network interoperability and standardized network association, authentication, security, sign-up and policy control
for mobile devices in a way that is completely transparent to the user. Release
1 – completed in June 2012 – specified
the capabilities for network discovery and selection, and secure authentication. Certified handsets and access
E R I C S S O N R E V I E W • 2012
points supporting theses capabilities are
now starting to appear on the market.
Release 2, planned for 2013, will include
additional capabilities to deliver operator policy to devices and enable immediate account provisioning.
Release 1
Network discovery and selection
– which enables mobile devices to
­discover and select networks automatically without subscriber intervention – is a key element of the initial
release. Using ANQP (specified in the
IEEE 802.11u-2011 amendment5) mobile
devices can query hotspots for a range
of parameters that are useful in the
process of selecting a network. The
complete list of information elements
supported by the protocol is provided
in Table 1, and includes parameters
such as the hotspot operator’s domain
name, the roaming partners accessible via the hotspot and IP address-type
(IPv4 or IPv6) availability. All of these
parameters are useful for determining
which available network best fits the
­subscriber. There are several credential
types that can be used to grant a device
access to the network, including:
SIM/USIM-based authentication, which
is widely used in cellular networks today;
a username-password key; and
certificate-based credentials for fixed
operators and Wi-Fi-only devices.
In all these cases, users will no longer
Beacon frame elements
HESSID
Access network type
Internet available
BSS load
need to enter credential information
manually to establish a connection.
Ericsson’s Virtual AP capability
already enables multi-operator roaming – where a single hotspot broadcasts
multiple beacons (SSIDs) so that several
service providers can offer connections
to the same AP. The Virtual AP ensures
full traffic-segregation and individual
operator-defined AAA rules and policy
application. However, the multiple-SSID
approach limits the maximum number
of roaming operators – typically to eight
– and the transmitted beacons occupy
excessive amounts of radio airtime.
To establish a connection to their
preferred provider automatically in
Hotspot 2.0, mobile devices can use
ANQP to determine which service providers are available via a given hotspot.
This protocol identifies providers
through their MCC and MNC numbers,
realm information or roaming consortium element, enabling a wide range of
roaming capabilities without having to
broadcast provider information.
Naturally, security is of great importance. All Passpoint devices use WPA2Enterprise security to authenticate and
5
secure the air link between the device
and the hotspot. WPA2 uses four-way
handshaking and AES encryption, offering a level of security that is comparable
to cellular networks.
The Hotspot 2.0 specification supports four standard protocols commonly deployed in the industry:
EAP-SIM – for devices with SIM
credentials;
EAP-AKA – for devices with USIM
credentials;
EAP-TLS – for use on both the client and
server side, with a trusted root certificate; and
EAP-TTLS with MSCHAPv2 – for username-password credentials.
The specification adds to WPA2Enterprise security by incorporating
features to mitigate common attack
threats in public Wi-Fi deployments,
including layer-2 traffic inspection, filtering and broadcast/multicast control.
Release 2
The second release of the specification
is currently being drafted – adding
operator policy control and immediate
account provisioning. The certification
program for this release is planned for
late 2013.
While Release 1 supports automatic
network selection based on user preferences, pre-provisioned operator policy,
and network availability, it does not support the capability to deliver operatorspecific policies – this will be included
in Release 2.
Immediate account provisioning,
also referred to as online sign-up, is a
standardized and secure process that
enables new user accounts to be created
at the time of connection. By supporting this process, a cross-vendor subscription-provisioning methodology can be
adopted for non-subscribers – providing, easy access to people using Wi-Fionly (non-SIM) devices who have no
other means of signing up, hence creating value for the operator.
Shifting control
To ensure the best user experience,
subscribers should be connected to
the most appropriate network given
the time of day, their current location
and account preferences. To prioritize
the list of networks correctly for a given user, the ability to apply operator
BOX B Wi-Fi
handover
behavior
Today
All handsets
switch to Wi-Fi
when it is
available.
Wanted
Possibility for
access selection
in operator
public hotspots,
depending on:
radio characteristics and
load situation;
subscription
parameters;
services;
other policies.
FIGURE 3 Interface architecture
Wi-Fi
Trusted
WLAN access
S2a
PDN GW
S2c
S2c
S2c
S2b
S2c
SWu
(IPsec)
Untrusted
WLAN access
policies is essential. Operators need
to be able to control whether a device
uses cellular or Wi-Fi, and in the case
of Wi-Fi, which network would ensure
the best user experience. Users still have
control over when they connect to a residential or enterprise network by manually selecting the local Wi-Fi network.
Operator policy has been included for
some time in the 3GPP interworking
wireless local area network (I-WLAN)
specification6. The ANDSF7 mechanism
provides devices with additional information to expedite discovery and selection. Mobile WLAN devices use PLMN
selection – based on operator-defined
priorities that are preprogrammed into
the SIM – to choose the appropriate
operator network6. Such priorities can
be further modified according to management objects (MOs), as specified in
3GPP TS24.2358.
The ANDSF mechanism augments
PLMN selection, providing improved
control over the network-access decisions made by devices. Through a set of
operator-defined rules, ANDSF guides
devices through the decision-making
process of where, when and how to
choose a non-3GPP network. Interaction
between a device and the ANDSF server uses the S14 IP interface, and data
– MOs in OMA-DM compatible XML –
can be transported over any available
network. Typically, operator policies
are pre-stored in devices before they
are shipped. However, the controlling
ANDSF server can push policies to devices and devices can use the pull mechanism to access policies at any time.
When roaming, the ANDSF server of
the visited network takes precedence.
S2c
SWu
(IPsec)
ePDG
When a device sends location information – which may include geographical, cellular area and WLAN SSID
descriptors – to the ANDSF server, discovery information is sent back to the
device providing it with a list of alternative access networks, such as a list
of Wi-Fi network SSIDs within the current cell ID. At the same time, intersystem mobility policies (ISMPs) are sent
to the mobile device, providing prioritized rules that control which network
should be chosen. Each rule specifies a
location and/or time – for example, a certain Wi-Fi network can be valid when a
device is in a particular cell at a certain
time of day. The device will choose the
network with the highest priority.
Ericsson’s role in the standardization
work currently being carried out by the
WFA is to ensure that ANQP network
parameters, specified in Release 1, are
included in Release-2 policies in such
a way that operators maintain control
over devices when they choose a network. Ericsson is also responsible for
ensuring that operator policies defined
in Hotspot 2.0 are fully integrated into
3GPP Rel 12 policy.
Choosing the right RAT
The policy tools described so far are
valuable to the operator as they support control over user experience and
take static or slowly changing network
parameters into account. However,
they do not cater for the rapidly fluctuating RF environment experienced by
a mobile device. To illustrate the point,
when a mobile device moves into an
area covered by both Wi-Fi and 3G, it
may decide to switch to Wi-Fi, even
E R I C S S O N R E V I E W • 2012
Shifting control
6
FIGURE 4 S2a session mobility
Roaming scenarios
UE
TWAN
PDN
GW
S-GW
vPCRF
AAA
proxy
hPCRF
0. GTP/
PMIPv6
tunnel
1. Non-3GPP
specific procedures
2. EAP
authentication
2. Authentication and authorization
3. Create session request
4. PCEF initiated IP-CAN session
modification procedure
5. Create session response
6. GTP tunnel
7. L3 attach
8. L3 attach completion
9. 3GPP EPS bearer release
though the coverage offered by the
3G network is better.
Policies defined by ANDSF and
Hotspot 2.0 will help to overcome some
of the problems associated with automatic handover to Wi-Fi networks.
However, tracking of rapid changes in
the RF environment requires much
tighter integration of the Wi-Fi and cellular networks, and is not part of the
scope defined for Hotspot 2.0. To help
overcome this issue and include realtime RF-environment information to
improve the cellular/Wi-Fi decisionmaking process, Ericsson’s concept
for heterogeneous-network solutions
makes use of information from both
the cellular and Wi-Fi networks.
The concept supports integration
for legacy devices as well as performance-enhancing features identified
for future device types. By using network load data from the cellular and
Wi-Fi network in the decision-making
E R I C S S O N R E V I E W • 2012
9. 3GPP EPS bearer release
process, for example, integrated Wi-Fi
solutions can make informed real-time
RAT-selection decisions. The concept,
for example, enables the network to
control Wi-Fi acceptance thresholds for
legacy devices. In the example illustrated in Figure 2 both Wi-Fi and 3G coverage are available. In such situations,
devices will not be allowed to connect
to the Wi-Fi network if signal strength
is below a given level – a parameter that
can be updated by the network in real
time.
To improve performance and consequently user experience even further,
the long-term goal is to improve devices so they can receive instructions from
any access network to switch to a different network, and to spread information
across networks about signal condition
and location.
Session mobility
Referring back to the use case, imagine
HSS/
AAA
that our user is watching a streaming
video over the cellular network while
walking into the mall. When the device
switches from one network to ­another,
the video should continue to play without any user intervention. To implement this successfully, full IP-session
­continuity and IP-address preservation between the cellular and the Wi-Fi
­network are required.
I-WLAN, which determines how
IP-interworking between cellular and
non-cellular networks takes place, has
been part of 3GPP specifications since
Release 67. This type of interworking allows operators to integrate non-­
cellular access into the cellular packet
core network, providing harmonized
traffic handling for cellular and Wi-Fi
access. With packet core network integration, operators gain improved visibility and control over non-cellular traffic
and consequently over the user experience. Subscribers will be able to use
their favorite services independent of
the access network and without interruption. As such, WLAN is an integral
part of mobile-broadband access and the
interworking enables subscribers to use
WLAN access and still be linked to operator functions including charging, policy control, deep packet inspection (DPI),
QoS and Lawful Interception (LI).
Session mobility between 3GPP (such
as UMTS and LTE) and non-3GPP (such
as WLAN) access networks was first
introduced to 3GPP specifications in
Release 8, with continuous enhancements to this capability included in subsequent releases.
There are two ways to distinguish
mobility in non-3GPP networks –
depending on whether the target network is trusted or not and whether the
mobility mechanisms used are network
based or client based.
Trusted or untrusted
Determining whether or not a Wi-Fi network is trusted in terms of 3GPP standards depends largely on whether the
subscriber’s home operator trusts the
security of the WLAN deployment.
The business relationship between the
WLAN provider and the home operator is often a factor in this equation. For
example, when a subscriber connects to
a WLAN provided by an operator other
than their home operator, this WLAN
7
might be considered untrusted – particularly if the provider uses the public
internet to connect to the home operator. In such a case, the specifications
allow the device to establish a secure
tunnel to an ePDG before the traffic is
routed to the core network of the operator. In contrast, when subscribers connect to their operator’s own Wi-Fi, it is
considered to be trusted and a secure
tunnel is not required.
Network- or client-based
Both network-based and client-based
mobility between 3GPP and WLAN (non3GPP) networks are supported by 3GPP
specifications. The 3GPP to WLAN interfaces are S2a, S2b and S2c. The architecture showing the three interfaces is
illustrated in Figure 3. In all cases, session mobility is provided between the
3GPP network and the WLAN network
with the PDN GW acting as the userplane anchor between the two.
S2a: The mobile device connects
to the Wi-Fi network using standard
WLAN authentication procedures without any need for mobility or tunneling
support in the mobile device. PMIPv6
or (as of Release 11) GTP protocols can
be used for the S2a interface between
the WLAN and the PDN GW, but GTP is
already widely deployed in mobile networks and offers a range of performance
advantages over PMIP. Either IPv4 or
IPv6 may be used in the transport layer.
S2b: The wireless network is considered an untrusted non-3GPP access
network. The mobile device must establish a secure IPsec/IKEv2 tunnel to an
additional network element, the ePDG,
through which the PDN GW is then
accessed. Either PMIPv6 or (as of Release
10) GTP protocols can be used for the
interface between the ePDG and the
PDN GW, and either IPv4 or IPv6 transport may be used.
S2c: This option can be used over
both trusted and untrusted non-3GPP
access networks. The mobile device
must connect to the PDN GW using
DSMIPv6. In Release 10, the S2c option
added support for IP mobility per flow
in addition to IP session mobility. The
drawback of this solution is that new clients would be needed, whereas S2a can
operate in clientless mode compatible
with today’s devices.
For operator-deployed and fully
integrated Wi-Fi networks, the trusted WLAN model is most appropriate.
In this case, the S2a interface is the
most cost-effective solution, allowing
unmodified mobile devices to access the
PDN GW via S2a.
Ericsson has held a leading role in the
Release 12 SaMOG project, which aims
to add full mobility across the S2a interface, including support from appropriately enabled dual-mode devices. A
typical message sequence for session
mobility is shown in Figure 4.
Conclusion
For most operators, Wi-Fi has become an
integral part of their mobile-broadband
strategy. Ericsson’s concept for heterogeneous networks incorporates Wi-Fi,
­fully integrating it into mobile-access
and core networks.
The evolution of Wi-Fi technology
– through Hotspot 2.0, application of
operator policy, intelligent RAT selection and GTP session mobility – will
bring about a world where people no
longer know or care whether they are
connected using a cellular or Wi-Fi data
network, and operators will be able to
control the choice of connectivity to
optimize the user experience. Ericsson
has a leading role in standardization
efforts to ensure that the key elements
of Wi-Fi are implemented in 3GPP.
Stephen Rayment
is chief technology
officer for Wi-Fi products
at Ericsson. Previously, as
CTO of BelAir Networks,
he led the definition and delivery of the
industry’s first carrier Wi-Fi solutions.
He has over 30 years of product
experience in the telecommunications
industry and has been active in
industry standardization as an officer
in IEEE 802.11 and in the Wi-Fi Alliance.
Stephen is author of over 25 patents. He holds a B.Sc. and an M.Sc. in
electrical engineering, from Queen’s
University in Kingston, Canada and a
diploma in administration, from the
University of Ottawa, Canada.
Joakim Bergström
is an expert in new radioaccess networks at
Design Unit Radio. He has
more than 10 years of
experience in standardization within
the 3GPP RAN area working with
HSPA, LTE and their evolution. He
holds an M.Sc. in electrical engineering
from the Royal Institute of Technology
(KTH), Stockholm. Within the radio
area, he has coordinated all of
Ericsson’s standardization activities
and projects since 2011.
References
1. WBA and GSMA, March 2012, Press Release,
GSMA and WBA collaborate to simplify
Wi-Fi hotspot access for smartphones and
tablets, available at: http://www.wballiance.
com/2012/03/20/gsma-and-wbacollaborate-to-simplify-wi-fi-hotspot-access-forsmartphones-and-tablets/
2.Wireless Broadband Alliance, Next Generation
Hotspot Program, available at: http://
www.wballiance.com/wba-initiatives/
next-generation-hotspot/
3.Wi-Fi organization, 2012, White Paper, Wi-Fi
CERTIFIED Passpoint: A new program from the
Wi-Fi Alliance to enable seamless Wi-Fi access
in hotspots, available at: http://www.wi-fi.org/
register.php?file=wp_20120619
_Wi-Fi_CERTIFIED_Passpoint.pdf
4.Ericsson, June 2012, Traffic and Market Report,
available at: http://www.ericsson.com/res/
docs/2012/traffic_and_market
_report_june_2012.pdf
5.IEEE, 802.11u-2011 - IEEE Standard for
Information Technology-Telecommunications
and information exchange between
systems-Local and Metropolitan networksspecific requirements-Part II, available
at: http://standards.ieee.org/findstds/
standard/802.11u-2011.html
6.3GPP, Technical Specification 24.234, 3GPP
system to Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)
interworking, available at: http://www.3gpp.org/
ftp/Specs/html-info/24234.htm
7.3GPP, Technical Specification 24.312, 3GPP
Access Network Discovery and Selection
Function (ANDSF) Management Object (MO)
available at: http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/
html-info/24312.htm
8.3GPP, Technical Specification 24.235, 3GPP
System to Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)
interworking Management Object (MO), available
at: http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/htmlinfo/24235.htm
E R I C S S O N R E V I E W • 2012
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