S K Y L A N E INSTRUCTION MANUAL • Ultra Covering • Pre-Finished Fiberglass Cowl • Highest Quality Craftsmanship 90% PRE-BUILT ALMOST READY-TO-FLY Specifications TM WE GET PEOPLE FLYING Wingspan: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66" Wing Area:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579 sq. in. Weight (Approx.): . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–6.5 lbs. Recommended Engines: . . . . .40–.50 2-cycle .50–.65 4-cycle Table of Contents Introduction Adhesives, Tools and Supplies Required Kit Contents Field Equipment Required Optional Field Equipment Section 1: Hinging the Ailerons Section 2: Joining the Wing Halves Section 3: Installing the Aileron Servos Section 4: Installing the Aileron Linkage Section 5: Mounting the Wing Section 6: Installing the Tail Section 7: Hinging the Rudder and Elevator Section 8: Installing the Engine Section 9: Installing the Nose Gear Section 10: Installing the Landing Gear Section 11: Assembling & Mounting the Wheel Pants Section 12: Assembling & Installing the Fuel Tank Section 13: Installing the Radio Section 14: Installing the Linkages Section 15: Attaching the Cowl Section 16: Installing the Windows Section 17: Scale Detailing Section 18: Balancing the Cessna 182 Section 19: Control Throw Recommendation Section 20: Flying the Cessna 182 Pre-Flight Check Pre-Flight at the Field AMA Safety Code 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 13 15 17 20 23 24 26 27 28 31 34 36 42 43 44 45 45 45 46 47 48 Introduction Throughout aviation history, select few aircraft have achieved such a level of popularity that they transcend their eras. Such is the case of the Cessna 182. This timeless classic is perhaps even more famous today than when it was first introduced. Hangar 9’s Cessna 182 offers traditional scale appearance in a .40 size model aircraft and can be powered with any standard .40–.50 2-cycle engine. Or, for enhanced scale realism, a .50–.65 4-cycle engine can be used to power the Cessna 182. Hangar 9’s Cessna 182 comes 90% pre-built to a high level of craftsmanship and is pre-covered and trimmed in Ultra Covering. This means you can have a large (66″ span) high quality scale Cessna 182 to show to your friends at the field in 20 hours or less. Best of all, they’ll never know it’s an ARF, and chances are they’ll compliment you on your building and finishing skill. Don’t worry . . . we won’t tell! WARNING: An R/C aircraft is not a toy! If misused, it can cause serious bodily harm and damage to property. Fly only in open areas, preferably AMA (Academy of Model Aeronautics) approved flying sites, following all instructions included with your radio and engine. Special Note: Due to changes in weather, wrinkling of the covering may occur. This is the nature of the covering film of the model and can be easily eliminated using a heat gun or sealing iron. In case of wrinkle: Use a heat gun or sealing iron on the wrinkled area. Then rub the surface with a soft cloth until the surface is smooth again. Additional Equipment Required Radio Equipment Engine Recommendations 4 channels (minimum) 5 standard servos Standard 450-650 mAh receiver battery pack Y-harness 2 servo extensions .40–.50 2-Cycle Engines .50–.65 4-Cycle Engines MDS .46 Saito .56GK Recommended JR Systems Recommended 2-Cycle Engines JR F400 FM JR 642 FM JR XP783 JR XP8103 JR PCM10SxII MDS .46 Webra Speed .50 GT Recommended 4-Cycle Engines Saito .56-.65 GK Saito .50-.65 3 Adhesives, Tools and Supplies Required Adhesives Instant thin CA (Cyanoacrylate) glue Thick CA glue CA remover/debonder White canopy glue (e.g., R/C 56 or Formula 560) 6-minute epoxy 12-minute epoxy 30-minute epoxy Blue Locktite 242 Tools and Supplies Drill Drill bits: 1/4″, 1/8″, 1/16″, 3/32″ Small and medium Phillips screwdrivers Z-bend pliers Needle nose pliers Pliers Small round file Adjustable wrench Razor saw Heat gun Moto-Tool with sanding drum Hobby knife with #11 blade Mixing stick Epoxy brush Medium sandpaper Masking tape Straight edge Measuring device (e.g., ruler, tape measure) Scissors Paper Towels Wax paper Rubbing alcohol Pencil Felt tipped pen Fuel tubing String (18–24″ long) Radio packing foam Antenna tube (optional) Fueling valve (optional) 4 Kit Contents Main Parts Fuselage (1) Wing (2) Horizontal stabilizer (1) Vertical stabilizer (1) Accessories Main-gear (set)-2 Nose-gear (set)-1 Rubber wheel, 51mm (2″)-1 Rubber wheel, 64mm (21⁄2″)-2 Spinner, 51mm-1 Control horn-5 Threaded rod-5 Plywood wing-brace-1 Plywood wing locking pin-1 Plywood bearing-3 Plywood liner-6 Hardwood wing strut-2 Music wire, 1.5 × 380mm (1⁄16 × 15″)-1 Music wire, 1.5 × 450mm (1⁄16 × 173⁄4″)-1 Music wire, 1.5 × 120mm (1⁄16 × 43⁄4″)-2 Nylon clevis-5 Engine mount (set)-1 Fuel tank (set)-1 Plastic cowling (set)-1 Plastic wheel pants (set)-3 Wheel: 21⁄2″ (2) 2″ (1) Plastic wing strut (each)-2 Plastic cabin windows (set)-1 5 Field Equipment Required 6 Starter Airplane Fuel Propeller Glow Driver Glow Plug Manual Fuel Pump 12V Sealed Battery Glow Plug Wrench Optional Field Equipment 4-Way Wrench Extra Glow Plugs Field Box Misc. Tools Cleaner & Towels After-Run Fuel Power Panel 7 Section 1: Hinging the Ailerons Parts Needed • Right wing panel with aileron and hinges • Left wing panel with aileron and hinges Important: Only use thin CA on hinges. Note: The control surfaces, including the ailerons, elevators and rudder, are pre-hinged with the hinges installed; however, the hinges are not glued in place. It is imperative that you properly adhere the hinges and ailerons in place following the steps below using high quality thin CA. Tools and Adhesives Needed • Instant thin CA glue • CA remover/debonder • Paper towels Step 3: Turn the wing panel over and deflect the aileron in the opposite direction and from the opposite side. Apply thin CA glue to each aileron hinge, making sure the CA penetrates into both the aileron and the wing. Step 1: Carefully remove the aileron from one of the wing panels. Note the position of the hinges. The Cessna 182 comes with high quality CA-type hinges, which are manufactured in the U.S.A. Step 2: Replace the aileron, making sure the hinges slide in place. Deflect the aileron and apply a few drops of thin CA glue directly to the center of each of the hinges. The aileron’s front surface should lightly contact the wing during this procedure. Ideally, when the hinge is glued in place, a 1/32″ gap or less will be maintained throughout the length of the aileron. The hinge is constructed of a special material that allows the CA to wick, or penetrate, and distribute throughout the hinge, securely bonding it to the wood structure. 8 Step 4: Using CA remover/debonder and a paper towel, remove any excess CA glue that may have accumulated on the wing or in the aileron hinge area. Section 1: Hinging the Ailerons CONTINUED Step 5: Repeat this process with the other wing panel, securely hinging the aileron in place. Step 6: After both ailerons are securely hinged, firmly grasp the wing and aileron to check that the hinges are immovable. Do this by applying medium pressure, trying to separate the aileron from the wing. 9 Section 2: Joining the Wing Halves Parts Needed • • • • • Right wing panel from Section One Left wing panel from Section One Dihedral brace Trim tape Hardwood locking pin Step 1: Locate the dihedral brace (also called the wing joiner). Using a ruler, mark the exact center of the brace with a pencil as shown in the photo below. Tools and Adhesives Needed • • • • • • • • • 30-minute epoxy Masking tape Paper towels Rubbing alcohol Wax paper Ruler Pencil Medium sandpaper Mixing stick Step 3: Next, check for the correct dihedral angle. Place the wing on a large, flat surface with one wing panel resting on the flat surface. The opposite wing tip should be exactly 2″ from the surface (see illustration below). If necessary, sand the dihedral brace until this is achieved. 2″ Step 4: Mix up approximately three (3) ounces of 30-minute epoxy. Step 5: Smear a generous amount of epoxy into the wing joiner cavity of one wing half. A scrap piece of wood or mixing stick is handy here. Step 2: Trial fit the dihedral brace into one of the wing panels. It should insert smoothly up to the center line marked in Step 1. Now slide the other wing half onto the dihedral brace until the wing panels meet. If the fit is overly tight, it may be necessary to lightly sand the dihedral brace. 10 Note: It is extremely important to use plenty of epoxy when joining the wing halves. Section 2: Joining the Wing Halves CONTINUED Step 6: Coat one half of the dihedral brace with epoxy up to the pencil line drawn in Step 1. Note the orientation of the V side of the dihedral brace; the V must face up. Install the epoxy-coated side of the dihedral brace into the wing joiner cavity of the wing half up to the center line, making sure the V of the dihedral brace is positioned correctly. Step 8: Now apply epoxy to all sides of the exposed area of the dihedral brace and uniformly coat both wing roots with epoxy. Step 9: Carefully slide the two wing halves together. Firmly press the halves together, allowing the excess epoxy to run out. Using rubbing alcohol and a paper towel, clean off the excess epoxy. There should not be any gap between the wing halves. Step 7: Apply a generous amount of epoxy into the wing cavity of the other wing half. Note: It is a good idea to place a sheet of wax paper under the wing’s center joint so any excess epoxy doesn’t adhere to the surface of the work area. 11 Section 2: Joining the Wing Halves CONTINUED Step 10: Apply masking tape at the wing joint to hold the wing halves together securely. Place the wing on a large, flat surface. With one wing panel lying flat on the surface, the opposite wing tip should be propped up exactly 2″ from the surface. Apply more masking tape to the center wing joint and recheck the 2″ measurement. Allow the wing joint to dry overnight. Step 11: Install the hardwood wing locking block. Note: Using epoxy, glue to the lower portion of the wing cut-out, noting that it’s flush with the lower portion of the wing cut-out. Before gluing, trial fit the wing to the fuselage to establish how the locking pin is mounted in relationship to the wing and the cabin top. The diagram below shows all the parts making up the complete wing. Step 12: The white tape, plastic wing reinforcement and wing hold-down bolts will be installed later in Section 5. 12 Section 3: Installing the Aileron Servos Parts Needed • • • • Assembled wing Two standard size servos with mounting hardware Y-harness Servo extensions (2) Step 1: Now that the wing halves are joined and the epoxy has cured, it’s time to begin installation of the aileron servos. Note on each wing half the location of the servo. You will be able to identify this by a solid square shape with a rectangle cut-out in the wing under the covering. It’s roughly the size of the bottom of your servo. Using a sharp blade in your hobby knife, trim away the covering material where the aileron servos will be mounted. Next, find the round holes in each wing panel, near the wing center line. This is where the aileron extension wires will exit the wing. Cut out the opening in each wing half as well. Tools and Adhesives Needed • • • • • • • • • • • Hobby knife Small Phillips screwdriver Drill 1/16″ drill bit 1/16″ × 36″ music wire String Masking tape Scissors Pencil Felt tipped pen 30-minute epoxy Step 2: Install the recommended servo hardware supplied with your radio system onto your servos (grommets and eyelets). Install a minimum 6″ servo extension onto each of your aileron servos. Hint: It is always good procedure to tape together the extension connector and the servo lead connector to insure that they will not become unplugged inside the wing. Step 3: There are several options of how you pull the servo wires through the wing. You can feed music wire or an extra pushrod that you may have around (or take a coat hanger and straighten it) through the pre-cut servo opening in the wing, or start at one of the circular openings near the center of the wing. You will have to bend the wire at various points to feed it through the openings. We recommend you find some string, attach the prop nut of your engine to the one end and feed it through the servo opening and the openings in the wing until you can see it through the circular opening. We found this was one of the quickest methods to thread the servo wires through the wing. 13 Section 3: Installing the Aileron Servos CONTINUED Step 4: Next, take the string and tie the end to your servo extension lead, which is also connected to the servo lead. Make sure the connectors will not separate by temporarily using masking tape to secure the connectors together. Now you can feed the servo leads through the opening. Step 5: Install the servo into the aileron servo slot. Note: It does not matter which direction the servo is installed into the slot; in other words, if the servo horn is closer to the aileron. However, both wing servos should be mounted the same way. Step 6: Securely fasten the servo in the aileron slot with four of the servo mounting screws supplied with your radio system. 14 Step 7: Follow Steps 1-5 for the other aileron servo. Step 8: Plug both aileron servo connectors into a Y-harness and feed the excess servo lead wire back into the wing. Section 4: Installing the Aileron Linkage Parts Needed • Wing assembly from Section Three • Aileron linkages, 1/16″ × 77⁄8″ (2) • Control horns with linkages (2) Tools and Adhesives Needed • • • • • • • • Drill 1/16″ drill bit Z-bend pliers (optional) Small Phillips screwdriver Felt tipped pen Pencil Masking tape Fuel tubing (optional) Step 1: Turn the wing upside down. From the aileron servo control arm that is attached to your servo (if it’s not attached, do so now), use a felt tipped pen to mark the location of the control horn directly in-line with the control arm as shown. Remember to locate the control horn so the holes are directly above the hinge line of the aileron. Step 3: Remove the control horn and drill two 1/16″ holes through the aileron as marked. Step 2: Place the center of the control horn on the aileron at the mark made in the previous step. Mark the hole positions of the control horn. Step 5: Repeat the marking procedure for the other aileron Step 4: Attach the aileron control horn using the hardware provided (two long screws and back plate) and fasten it in place using a small Phillips screwdriver Step 6: Locate two of the short threaded rods (1/16″ x 77⁄8″). Thread a clevis at least 16 turns onto each rod. Be sure they are not the longer rods. 15 Section 4: Installing the Aileron Linkage CONTINUED Step 7: Install the clevis with the attached linkage to the aileron control horn. Center the servo horn as shown and, using a felt tipped pen, make a mark on the linkage where the Z-bend will be inserted into the horn. Step 9: Center the standard size servo horn and install the Z-bend into the outermost hole. Do the same for the other aileron linkage. Step 10: Attach the linkages onto their respective aileron horns. Step 11: With the servo arm centered as shown, adjust the aileron linkage until the aileron is exactly in the neutral position. Follow this procedure for both aileron linkages. Final adjustments will be made later as you adjust the control throws in Section 19. Note: It is a good idea to place a piece of fuel tubing over the clevises as shown. This will provide extra insurance against the clevises accidentally coming open. Step 8: Make a Z-bend in the linkage and cut off the excess linkage. SE RV OL EA 16 D Section 5: Mounting the Wing Parts Needed • • • • • Completed wing assembly Fuselage Wing hold-down plate Wing hold-down screws Blind nuts (2) Step 1: Trial fit the wing onto the fuselage. Be sure the wing properly rests on the wing saddle. Place a narrow strip of masking tape at exactly the center of the top of the fuselage just in front of where the vertical fin will be installed later. This tape will be used as a reference line in aligning the wing. Tools and Adhesives Needed • • • • • • • • Drill 1/4″ drill bit Medium Phillips screwdriver Small round file 12-minute epoxy Measuring device (e.g., 36″ ruler or tape measure) Masking tape Pliers Note: If the wing hold-down screw blind nuts are already installed, proceed to Step 4. Step 3: Press the blind nuts into position below the rear wing hold-down plate in the fuselage. Use pliers to squeeze the blind nuts so the “teeth” penetrate the wood and stay in place. Caution: It may be helpful to place a piece of wood on the top side of the hold-down plate before squeezing the pliers. This will keep the pliers from “crushing” the rear wing hold-down plate. Additionally, a small amount of epoxy or thick CA will permanently attach the blind nut to the rear wing hold-down plate. Step 2: With the wing trial fitted in place, measure the distance from the back of the wing tip where it meets the aileron to the tape mark. Compare the right and left distances and adjust the wing until both are the same. 17 Section 5: Mounting the Wing CONTINUED Step 4: Thread the wing hold-down screws into the bottom side of the blind nuts such that the ends of the screws extend 1/8″ of an inch above the wing saddle. Step 5: Fit the wing back into position on the fuselage, carefully sliding the leading edge hardwood locking block into the front bulkhead slot. Align the wing by measuring the distance from the wing tip to the center mark as in Step 2 of this section. When the wing is properly aligned, firmly press downward on the rear center section of the wing. The wing bolts will make an indentation in the covering of the wing at the proper location to drill. 18 Step 6: Using a 1/4″ drill bit, drill the exact center of the marked locations on the bottom of the wing. Be careful that the drill bit doesn’t tear the covering when it exits through the top surface of the wing. Step 7: Trial fit the wing into position on the fuselage. Thread the wing hold-down bolts into the wing and loosely tighten. Check the alignment of the wing by measuring from a fixed point on each wing tip to the narrow strip of tape on the fuselage as you did in Step 2. It may be necessary to slightly enlarge the holes with a small round file to obtain proper alignment. Section 5: Mounting the Wing CONTINUED Step 8: Remove the wing. Add the white tape to hide the wing joint seam. Step 9: Using 12-minute epoxy, glue the wing hold-down plate in place. Reattach the wing to the fuselage. The wing hold-down bolts will assist in holding the wing hold-down plate in position until dry. Also, use masking tape around the edges of the wing hold-down plate to help hold it in place until the epoxy dries. 19 Section 6: Installing the Tail Parts Needed • Fuselage and wing from Section 5 • Horizontal stabilizer with elevators • Vertical stabilizer with rudder Step 1: On the rear of the fuselage, slots are pre-cut in the wood structure for the horizontal and vertical stabilizers. The covering, however, must be carefully cut away. Using a hobby knife with a sharp #11 blade, carefully cut away the covering at the openings for the horizontal stabilizer. Tools and Adhesives Needed • • • • • • • • • • Instant thin CA glue CA remover/debonder 30-minute epoxy Hobby knife with #11 blade Razor saw Straight edge Pencil Masking Tape Paper towels Rubbing alcohol Step 3: Using a hobby knife, trim the covering on the top rear of the fuselage where the vertical fin inserts into the fuselage. Step 4: Trial fit the horizontal stabilizer into place in the fuselage. Use care in sliding the horizontal stabilizer in place — some trimming of the slot may be required. Step 2: Hold up the horizontal stabilizer to a strong light and note the cut-out notch on the leading edge of the stabilizer. The vertical fin keys into this notch when the tail is assembled. Using a hobby knife, carefully trim the covering from this notch. 20 Section 6: Installing the Tail CONTINUED Step 7: Double check the horizontal stabilizer and vertical fin alignment. It may be necessary to slightly trim the balsa wood on the fuselage with a sharp hobby knife to achieve exact alignment. Step 5: With the wing installed, check the alignment of the horizontal stabilizer by measuring from a fixed point on the wing to the hinge line at the tip of the horizontal stabilizer. Both right and left dimensions should be the same. Then sight the stabilizer alignment from the rear of the airplane, making sure the stabilizer is exactly level with the wing. Step 8: When you’re satisfied with the alignment, carefully mark the position with a pencil at the junction where the horizontal stabilizer meets the fuselage top and bottom and where the vertical fin meets the fuselage. The pencil should leave a light indentation in the covering. Step 6: Trial fit the vertical fin in position, making sure the base of the fin keys into the notch in the leading edge of the horizontal fin. Then carefully check the fin to be sure it is aligned 90 degrees to the horizontal stabilizer. Note: The back of the vertical fin and the back of the horizontal stabilizer must be even with the back of the fuselage. 21 Section 6: Installing the Tail CONTINUED Step 9: Remove the horizontal stabilizer and the vertical fin and carefully cut away the covering with a sharp hobby knife inside the lines you marked in Step 7. Caution: Be careful not to cut into the wood as doing so would weaken the structure. A straight edge is helpful here. Step 10: Insert the horizontal stabilizer into the fuselage and position it in the approximate location. By sliding the stabilizer slightly in and out of the opening, you can apply the epoxy. Mix up approximately 1/4 ounce of the 30-minute epoxy and apply it to the top and bottom of the horizontal stabilizer where the fuselage comes in contact with the stabilizer. Wipe away any excess epoxy with a paper towel and rubbing alcohol. 22 Step 11: Apply 30-minute epoxy to the vertical fin where the fuselage contacts the fin. Also apply epoxy to the base of the fin where it keys into the horizontal stabilizer. Insert the fin into the fuselage in approximately the correct position and wipe away any excess epoxy. Step 12: Precisely align the horizontal stabilizer and vertical fin as before, using masking tape to hold the stabilizer and fin in the correct alignment. Double check the alignment and allow to fully cure over night. Section 7: Hinging the Rudder and Elevator Parts Needed • Fuselage from Section 6 • Rudder • Rudder hinges (3) Step 1: Trial fit the rudder in position with the three (3) hinges in place. Tools and Adhesives Needed • Instant thin CA glue • CA remover/debonder • Paper towels Step 3: Work the rudder right and left, checking for free movement. Step 4: Repeat the procedure to install the elevators to the horizontal stabilizer. Step 2: With the rudder properly aligned (up and down), apply thin CA to the hinges on both sides, using the same hinging techniques learned in Section 1, Hinging the Ailerons. After the hinges are dry, check to be sure they are securely in place by attempting to pull the rudder from the vertical stabilizer. There should be a minimal gap between the rudder and the fin. Wipe away any excess CA using CA remover and a paper towel. 23 Section 8: Installing the Engine Parts Needed • .40–.50 2-cycle or .50–.65 4-cycle engine (not included) • Fuselage motor mount with hardware Note: The Hangar 9 Cessna 182 is designed for .40–.50 size 2-cycle or .50–.65 size 4-cycle engines. For the ultimate in scale sound and realism, we recommend and fly the 4-cycle Saito .50GK. Another option is the MDS .46 2-cycle engine. Step 1: Trial fit the motor mount to the firewall on the fuselage. Note that the proper orientation mounts the engine with the engine’s cylinder head to the right of the airplane (as viewed from the pilot’s perspective when sitting in the cockpit). When you are satisfied with the fit, use a generous amount of 30minute epoxy to glue the motor mount into position on the firewall. Be sure the motor mount is firmly pressed against the firewall. Set this assembly aside to dry. 24 Tools and Adhesives Needed • • • • • • Drill 1/8″ drill bit Pencil Measuring device 30-minute epoxy Epoxy brush Step 2: Locate the three balsa triangle stock pieces. These are used to reinforce the motor mount. Using 30-minute epoxy, glue these triangular pieces in place as shown. Step 3: Mix approximately 1/2 ounce of 30-minute epoxy. Epoxy the small rectangular wood pins on the motor mount beam in the slots provided. Step 4: Using an epoxy brush, coat the firewall and the entire motor mount with epoxy. This will fuel-proof the engine area. Allow the epoxy to fully cure. Section 8: Installing the Engine CONTINUED Step 5: Locate the engine mounting hardware included in the bag with the motor mount. You should find four 3 x 3mm screws, four 3mm locknuts, eight washers and two motor plates. This system gives you the greatest versatility, allowing you to mount many brands and sizes of engines. Step 9: Remove the engine and mount plates. Drill four holes in the engine mount plates for the motor. Step 10: Now, position the engine mount plates on the motor mount, in the position marked in Step 8. Mix 1/4 ounce of 6-minute epoxy and mount the plastic motor mount plates to the wood motor mount. Step 11: After the epoxy has cured, Use a 1/8” drill bit to drill four holes through the engine mount. Step 12: Now install the engine using the four screws, eight washers and four locknuts. Note: With some engines, it may be necessary to remove a small section of the engine mount side rail to allow clearance for the cowling at the top. Step 6: Rest the fuselage on its side with the right side of the fuselage facing up. Place the motor mount plates on the motor mount as shown in the diagram on the preceeding page. Step 13: After you have had an opportunity to trial fit your engine, it can be removed to make it easier to complete the following sections. It will be reinstalled in Section 14. Step 7: Set the engine on the motor mount plates and align the plates to properly line up with the engine flanges. The distance from the face of the prop hub to the firewall should be approximately 4-1⁄4 inches. Move the engine forward or backward until this distance is achieved. Some engines may have a large crankcase, requiring you to bevel the motor mount plates slightly to get a good fit. Step 8: With the engine plates properly aligned and the prop hub to firewall distance at approximately 4 1⁄4″, mark the location of the engine mount plates. You can also mark the engine location by marking through the engine mount flanges Note: The key is to mount your engine so the spinner or prop drive shaft does not rub on the cowl. Values given are only approximates. 25 Section 9: Installing the Nose Gear Parts Needed • • • • Tools and Adhesives Needed Nose gear Suspension spring Steering arm Wheel collar with screws (2) • Medium Phillips screwdriver • Blue Locktite 242 Step 2: Insert the nose gear assembly from Step 1 onto the nose gear mount (attached to the front of the fuselage). Be sure the spring stays in position and rests against the nose gear mount. Install the steering arm on the landing gear flush with the landing gear, and secure it into position with a screw and the Blue Locktite 242. You will remove one of the steering arms later, after you have determined the location where the steering rod exits the firewall. ng No se Ge ar Co llar aci Sp Ste eri ng Arm Step 1: The nose gear mount is pre-assembled onto the front firewall of the fuselage. Locate the nose gear and, on the straight end, slide on the collar (note the orientation as shown in the photo). Use Blue Locktite 242 and a medium Phillips screwdriver to secure the collar in place. Next, install the suspension spring. Note: The wheel and the wheel pants will be attached later in Section 11. 26 Section 10: Installing the Landing Gear Parts Needed • Aluminum landing gear • Landing gear hardware Step 1: Locate the main aluminum landing gear. Remove the balsa block on the fuselage bottom and trial fit the landing gear. Tools and Adhesives Needed • • • • • • • Medium Phillips screwdriver 30-minute epoxy Hobby knife Mixing stick Rubbing alcohol Paper towels Pencil Step 3: Attach the main aluminum landing gear using the two wood screws provided. Step 2: With the main aluminum landing gear in position, use a pencil to mark the screw holes. Step 4: Using your hobby knife, remove the plastic covering from the ends of the landing gear block so the epoxy will adhere. You will need to trim the balsa block to ensure a smooth fit. Mix up a 1/4 cup of 30-minute epoxy and apply it to the block. Insert the block into the cavity. Wipe off any excess epoxy using rubbing alcohol and a paper towel. 27 Section 11: Assembling and Mounting the Wheel Pants Parts Needed • • • • Tools and Adhesives Needed Wheel pants (3) Foam wheels (3) Wheel collars with screws (3) Wheel pant decal sheet • • • • • • • Step 1: Locate the three wheel pants. Note that of the three, two are main wheel pants and one is the nose wheel pant. Main Wheel Pants Nose Wheel Pant Step 2: Mark the center of the wheel opening of the pant as a reference point, then determine which side you want to attach the aluminum main gear to. From that reference mark, measure up 28 Drill 5/32″ drill bit 1/16″ drill bit Medium Phillips screwdriver Blue Locktite 242 Ruler Pencil approximately 1/4″ and use that as the point where you’ll drill the hole for the axle. Use that point as a guide for drilling a hole through the wheel pants with a 5/32″ drill bit. Section 11: Assembling and Mounting the Wheel Pants Step 3: Using a 1/16″ bit, drill a second hole 7/16″ above the axle hole. CONTINUED Step 7: The wheel can be centered in the wheel pant by making adjustments to the two sets of “double” nuts, which is the means of locking the nuts in position. One double nut set secures the wheel pant to the main gear, whereas the second set of double nuts helps position the wheel in the wheel pant cavity. Refer to the figure provided below for the parts sequence. main wheel pant main landing gear wheel plywood nut wheel pant bolt nut axle bolt 2 1/2″ Wheel nut Step 4: Locate the plywood rectangles used as reinforcement for the wheel pants. Mix up 1/4 ounce of 6-minute epoxy and epoxy one rectangle inside one of the main wheel pants. Use the same procedure to install the plywood rectangle in the other main wheel pant. Allow the epoxy to cure completely before proceeding to the next step. Step 5: Drill out the plywood for the axle and support screw holes. washer washer Step 8: The nose gear wheel pant and parts are shown below. Step 6: Position the wheel pant next to the main gear and proceed to mount the wheel inside the wheel pant. Screw the axle bolt into the wheel pant approximately 1/2″, then thread two bolts and washer on the axle. Continue to thread the axle into the wheel pant and attach the main wheel. Continue to screw the axle into the wheel pant, and as the axle protrudes from the wheel, attach the last washer and the two remaining nuts. 2″ wheel Collar Metal clip and two wood screws Plywood spacer 29 Section 11: Assembling and Mounting the Wheel Pants Step 9: Epoxy the plywood spacer to the inside of the pant, on either side of the indentation in the nose wheel pant. CONTINUED Step 11: Measure up approximately 1/4″ in the groove of the nose wheel pant and mark the location. Step 12: Drill a 5/32″ hole in the wheel pant. Step 13: Attach the wheel pant, with the wheel inside, to the nose gear. As the gear is threaded through to the wheel pant, attach the wheel collar to the axle. Once the wheel is centered in the opening, tighten the wheel collar screw. Use Blue Locktite 242 to secure it. Step 14: The metal clip and screws are used to hold the nose wheel pant in the proper position. Place the clip over the nose gear and mark the holes so they are on either side of the gear. Drill 1/16″ holes and attach the screws. Be sure the orientation of the wheel pant is parallel to the ground and that the wheels turn freely. Step 10: Once the epoxy has cured, mark the center line of the wheel opening by trial fitting the nose wheel in the opening of the wheel pant. 30 Section 12: Assembling and Installing the Fuel Tank Parts Needed • • • • • • • Brass clunk (fuel pickup) Cooper tube, long (vent) Cooper tube, short (pickup) Cooper tube, long (optional fill tube) Plastic caps (2) Rubber stopper 3mm screw and 3mm locknut Step 1: Locate the black rubber stopper. Insert the short copper tube into one of the open holes in the stopper so an equal amount of tube extends from each side. This tube will be the fuel tank pickup tube. Step 2: Locate the long copper tube and bend it using your fingers as shown. This tube will be the fuel tank vent tube. Tools and Adhesives Needed • Hobby knife • Small Phillips screwdriver Step 3: Slide this tube into the other open hold of the stopper as shown. Step 4: Slide the two white plastic caps over the copper tubes as shown. Note the orientation of the caps — the small inside cap and the three “pegs” face away from the black rubber stopper, the large outside cap and the “raised center” face away from the black rubber stopper. 31 Section 12: Assembling and Installing the Fuel Tank Step 5: Locate the small diameter fuel tubing and cut it to 3″ in length. This tubing will be used for the fuel pickup inside the fuel tank. Insert the brass clunk into one end of the fuel tubing. CONTINUED Step 8: Carefully insert the assembly into the fuel tank. Note the position of the vent tube; it must be at the top of the fuel tank to function properly. Step 9: Insert a 3mm screw into the center hole of the stopper and tighten. Step 6: Install the open tube end of the clunk and tubing assembly on the short copper tubing. Step 7: Press the 3mm nut between the three pegs on the inside white plastic cap as shown. 32 Important: Remember which tube is the fuel pickup and which is the vent so that you can properly connect the fuel tank to the engine. Section 12: Assembling and Installing the Fuel Tank Step 10: Note that the fuel stopper is mounted closer to one edge of the tank than the other. This “closer edge” is the top of the tank. Slide the tank into the fuselage stopper first, making sure the top of the tank is positioned toward the top of the fuselage. CONTINUED Step 12: Plumb the fuel tank and the engine accordingly. Connect the vent tube from the fuel tank to the muffler pressure fitting. The remaining tube should be attached to the carburetor fitting. Step 11: Press the tank into position until the stopper inserts into the hole in the firewall. 33 Section 13: Installing the Radio Parts Needed • 4-channel radio system with three remaining servos and hardware (not included) • Fuselage • Radio packing foam (not included) • Antenna tube (optional, not included) Step 1: Locate the remaining three servos and install the grommets and eyelets in all three per the instructions included with the radio. Place the servos in the servo tray in the fuselage as shown, noting the position of the output horns. Using a pencil, mark the 12 servo mounting hole positions. Step 2: Remove the servos and drill twelve (12) 1/16″ holes where marked. Re-install the servos noting the position of the output horns. Screw the servos in place using the twelve screws included with the servos. Be sure to install the rubber grommets and brass eyelets before you mount the servos. 34 Tools and Adhesives Needed • • • • • Drill 1/16” drill bit Small Phillips screwdriver Hobby Knife Pencil Step 3: Use radio packing foam (available at your local hobby dealer) when you install the receiver and battery. Using a sharp hobby knife, cut a solid layer of foam the size of the compartment that’s in front of the servo tray. Cut out another layer of foam that’s the same size, only this time cut out an open area in the center to accept a battery pack. Place another solid layer of foam on top. Cut an open area in the next layer of foam to accept the receiver. Top off with a final solid layer of foam which holds everything in place. Step 4: Place the pre-cut layers of foam with the battery and receiver in place in the front compartment of the fuselage. Route the antenna back through the fuselage using an antenna tube (not included) or route it outside the fuselage back to the vertical fin. Section 13: Installing the Radio CONTINUED Step 5: The switch can be installed in the left side of the fuselage (typical installation). Or a cut-out is provided in the radio tray, allowing you to mount the switch internally and permitting a small wire to extend through the fuselage side for an improved scale appearance. Step 6: Hook up the servos and switch harness to the receiver and the battery pack as per the instructions included with your radio system. Turn on your transmitter and receiver and center the trims on your transmitter. Turn off the receiver and then turn off the transmitter, in that order. Step 7: Reposition your servo horns so they are 90° to the center line of the fuselage. This will allow you to mark your control rods, knowing your servos are at their electrical center position. 35 Section 14: Installing the Linkages Parts Needed • • • • • • • Balsa dowels Fuselage Heat shrink tubing 1/16” threaded rod (4) 1/16” plain rod (2) Plastic clevis (4) Control horns with hardware (3) Tools and Adhesives Needed • • • • • • • • • • • Thick CA glue Drill 1/8″ and 1/16″ drill bit Heat gun Hobby knife Needle nose pliers Z-bend pliers Felt tipped pen Pencil Small Phillips screwdriver Measuring device Step 1: Turn the fuselage upside down and measure over 3/4″ from the rudder. At this point, make a mark on the elevator with a felt tipped pen. Mark the other elevator half in the same way, 3/4″ from the rudder. This marks the center position of the elevator control horn. Step 3: Attach the elevator control horn using the hardware provided (two screws and a back plate) and fasten it in place using a small Phillips screwdriver. Step 2: Place the control horn on the elevator at the mark made in Step 1, exactly in the center of the control horn. Mark the hole positions of the control horn with a pencil and drill two 1/16″ holes in each elevator half. The control horns should be positioned so the holes are over the center line of the hinge line. 36 Section 14: Installing the Linkages CONTINUED Step 4: Attach the other control horn to the opposite elevator half using the same method. Step 5: Next, install the rudder control horn on the left side of the rudder. Place a mark with a felt tipped pen 1/4” from the bottom of the rudder (left side) as shown. This mark represents where the center of the control horn will be located. Step 7: Drill these holes with a 1/16″ drill bit and install the rudder control horn using the two screws and back plate provided. Step 8: Locate the two balsa dowel pushrods (dowel pushrods are 19-1⁄2″ long). Step 9: Using either a pencil or felt tipped pen, mark 1″ from each end of both balsa dowel rods (4 places). Step 6: Center the control horn over the mark you just made and, using a pencil, mark the mounting hold locations through both holes onto the rudder. Make sure the horn is centered over the hinge line. 37 Section 14: Installing the Linkages CONTINUED Step 10: Drill a 1/16″ hole through the balsa dowel at the four marked positions as shown. Step 13: Locate the following rods: A) Four 7-7⁄8″ Threaded B) One 12″ Threaded C) Two 4-3⁄4″ Non-Threaded D) One 13-3⁄4″ Threaded E) One 17-3⁄4″ Threaded Step 11: Select one of the dowels, and at one end, make a second mark 13⁄4″ from the end. Step 14: Find the two 4 3⁄4″ non-threaded rods. Using needle nose pliers, bend a 90° angle 1/4″ from one end on each of the rods. Find the two 7 7⁄8″ threaded rods and bend a 90° angle in the unthreaded end. Step 15: Using the pattern provided as a reference, bend the two threaded 77⁄8″ rods the degrees the diagram shows. These are approximate angles and final adjustment will be made when fitting the control rods to the control horns. Locate the balsa pushrod that has the two holes in one end. One 77⁄8″ rod is inserted into each hole (refer to pattern). Step 12: Drill a 1/16″ hole at this mark. This end of the dowel will be used as the pushrod for the split elevator and will require two threaded rods to be installed in this end. 38 Section 14: Installing the Linkages CONTINUED Step 16: Saturate the balsa with thick CA glue where the threaded rods contact the balsa pushrod. Step 17: Slide a piece of the heat shrink tubing over the end of the balsa dowel and, using a heat gun, shrink it in place as shown. Step 18: Locate one of the unthreaded rods and insert the 90degree angle into the opposite end of the balsa dowel. Using thick CA, adhere the rod to the balsa dowel and heat shrink it in place using a heat gun. Step 19: Repeat this process to complete the rudder pushrod. Observe that only one threaded rod is necessary. Use the rudder pushrod diagram as a reference. 39 Section 14: Installing the Linkages CONTINUED Step 20: Carefully cut away the covering at the tail of the fuselage where the pushrods exit. Note there are two cut-outs on the left side and the right side for the elevator and one cut-out on the top of the fuselage, to the left side of rudder as you look at the aircraft from the rear. Step 21: Spread the two threaded pushrods apart approximately 11⁄2–2″. Insert the elevator pushrod into the fuselage so that each threaded rod comes out the elevator pushrod exit.Thread a clevis 16 turns onto each of the threaded rods. Attach the clevis to the outermost hole in the elevator control horns. As extra insurance, it’s a good idea to place a piece of fuel tubing over the clevis to prevent the clevis from accidentally coming open. Step 22: Insert the rudder pushrod into the fuselage, threaded end first. The threaded rod exits the fuselage at the top left opening in the fuselage. Thread a clevis onto the threaded rod 16 full turns, then attach the clevis to the rudder control horn at the second to the outermost hole. Step 23: Center the elevators and rudder and, using a felt tipped pen, place a mark on the unthreaded end of the pushrods where they pass the respective servo arms. If you have inadvertently moved the servo horns, recenter your servos as per Section 13 Step 6. Step 24: Using Z-bend pliers, make a Z-bend at the marked locations on both the elevator and rudder pushrods. Cut off the excess rod. 40 Section 14: Installing the Linkages CONTINUED Step 25: Insert the Z-bend into the servo arm as shown. It may be necessary to enlarge the holes in the servo arm slightly to accept the Z-bend. Step 27: To install the steering pushrod, locate the 12″ nonthreaded rod. Step 28: Carefully position the rod over the rudder servo arm and determine the appropriate exit through the firewall. Drill a 1/16″ hole in the firewall where the pushrod will exit. Step 29: Insert the steering pushrod through its respective 1/16″ guidance holes in the fuselage and firewall. Step 30: Bend the rod 90 degrees and insert it through the horn. Note: If you removed your engine in Section 8, reinstall it prior to completing Step 26. Step 26: Install the throttle pushrod (17 3⁄4”) using the same method. Note: It will be necessary to drill a 1/8″ hole in the firewall in the correct position to allow the pushrod to reattach to the throttle arm. Be careful not to drill into the fuel tank when you drill this hole. 41 Section 15: Attaching the Cowl Parts Needed • Fiberglass cowl • Sheet metal screws (4) • Fuselage Step 1: Using a Moto-Tool, grind out the prop and cooling openings in the front of the cowl as marked. Tools and Adhesives Needed • • • • • • • Moto-Tool with sanding drum Small Phillips screwdriver Drill 1/16″ drill bit Masking tape Felt tipped pen Ruler Step 3: Tape the cowl securely into position and check that it fits correctly. There should be ample clearance (1/8″) around the engine and muffler. Also check that the prop hub is centered in the opening in the cowl and that the prop hub extends approximately 3/16″ forward of the cowl. Step 2: Slide the cowl onto the fuselage. Note: It may be necessary to remove the muffler and needle valve to position the cowling in the proper position. With the cowling temporarily in position, you must now determine the openings for your cylinder head, needle valve and muffler. The photo in Step 3 can be used as a reference, however exact location depends upon the engine you use. We suggest you grind out these openings before you drill the cowl mounting holes. 42 Step 4: Drill four 1/16″ holes, two on each side of the cowl. Step 5: Remove the tape and attach the cowl to the fuselage using the four sheet metal screws provided. Section 16: Installing the Windows Parts Needed • Windshield and windows (6 pieces total) • Fuselage • Screws (4) Step 1: Using scissors, trim on the cut line etched in the windshield. Step 2: Trial fit the windshield and side windows in place. It may be necessary to slightly trim the edges of the windows so they fit properly. When you are satisfied with the fit, run a small bead of canopy glue around the side windows. Tape them in place until dry. Tools and Adhesives Needed • • • • Canopy glue (e.g., R/C 56 or Pacer Formula 560) Scissors Masking tape Small Phillips screwdriver Step 3: The front and rear windshields are further secured by using the screws provided. Holding the windshields in place with masking tape may be helpful. Note: Be sure the canopy glue has cured completely before attaching the screws. 43 Section 17: Scale Detailing Parts Needed • • • • • Pre-covered wing struts Sheet metal screws (4) Metal tabs (4) Clevis (4) Short threaded rods Note: Two pre-covered wing struts are included in the Cessna 182 kit. The struts are for aesthetics only; they are not a structural member of the airframe. You can choose to fly with them attached for a more true scale appearance, or you can choose to fly without them for convenience. Tools and Adhesives Needed • Small Phillips screwdriver • Drill • 1/16″ Drill bit Step 4: The attachment point for the wing strut mounts in the metal tab approximately 1 1⁄2″ from the leading edge of the wing in a line parallel to the servo opening. The clevis will be attached to the metal tab. Step 1: Insert one Clevis on a short threaded rod, approximately 12 turns. Repeat the process for the other rod. Step 5: The wing struts are mounted just forward 3 3⁄4″ of the landing gear on the fuselage parallel to the center line of the aircraft with a sheet metal screw. Step 2: Drill a 11⁄16″ hole, centered, in one end of each wing strut. Step 3: Mix 1/4 ounce of 6-minute epoxy. Apply epoxy to one end of threaded rod and insert it into the wing strut. Repeat this proceedure for the other threaded rod. Allow the epoxy to cure completely before attempting to connect the clevis to the wing metal tabs utilized for mounting the wing strut. 44 Section 18: Balancing the Cessna 182 An important part of preparing any aircraft for flight is properly balancing the model. Don’t inadvertently forget this crucial step. The recommended C.G. (Center of Gravity) location for the first flights with the Cessna 182 is 3″ to 33⁄4″ from the leading edge. With the Saito .50 installed, very little, if any, additional weight will be needed to balance the model. If you’re using a lighter 2-cycle engine, expect to add weight. Stick-on weights are available at your local hobby shop and work well for this purpose. Section 19: Control Throw Recommendation The control throws at right offer gentle response and are a good place to start. After you’re more comfortable with the flight characteristics, adjust the control throws to meet your style of flying. Aileron: 1/2″ up, 1/2″ down Elevator: 3/4″ up, 3/4″ down Rudder: 1″ right, 1″ left Section 20: Flying the Cessna 182 If you can successfully solo a trainer-type airplane, you’ll feel right at home with the Cessna 182. Its generous 579 square inch wing area offers excellent, nearly stall-proof slow speed stability. Its wide stance tricycle landing gear provides excellent stable ground handling. offers excellent visibility and presence in flight. Stalls are very soft with no tendencies to drop a tip. After you gain some experience, you will be able to do touch and go’s. Mild aerobatics, such as loops, rolls and even inverted flight, are quite easy if the control throws are increased. If you’re a first-time pilot, it’s imperative that you seek out an experienced flier to help you with your first flights—you should do this with any R/C aircraft. Your local hobby shop should be able to suggest pilots who can assist you. We hope you enjoy your Cessna 182 as much as we enjoy ours. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact the Horizon Service Center at: When set up as per the instructions, control response gives a gentle roll and pitch control, while the Cessna 182’s large size 4105 Fieldstone Road Champaign, IL 61821 (217) 355-9511 45 Pre-Flight Check Step 1: Check that all control functions move in the correct direction. If not, use the respective reversing switch to correct the direction. CARBURETOR ELEVATOR 1/16” THROTTLE RUDDER ELEVATOR AILERON AILERON RUDDER Step 2: Check that each clevis is securely snapped into position. AILERON Step 3: Check that all servo horn screws are tight. Note: Mode II Transmitter shown in diagrams Step 4: Charge the transmitter and receiver battery per the instructions included with the radio system. Step 5: Read and follow all instructions included with the engine and follow the recommended break-in procedure. Pre-Flight at the Field Range Testing Your Radio Adjusting the Engine Step 1: Before each flying session be sure to range check your radio. This is accomplished by turning on your transmitter with the antenna collapsed. Turn on the radio in your airplane. With your airplane on the ground, you should be able to walk 30 paces away from your airplane and still have complete control of all functions. If not, do not attempt to fly! Have your radio equipment checked out by the manufacturer. Step 1: Completely read the instructions included with your engine and follow the recommended break-in procedure. At the field, adjust the engine to a slightly rich setting at full throttle and adjust the idle and low speed needle so that a consistent idle is achieved. Before you fly, be sure that your engine reliably idles, transitions and runs at all throttle settings. Only when this is achieved should any plane be considered ready for flight. Step 2: Double check that all controls (aileron, elevator throttle, and rudder) move in the correct direction. Step 3: Be sure that your batteries are fully charged per the instructions included with your radio. 46 AMA Safety Code 1994 Official AMA National Model Aircraft Safety Code Effective January 1, 1994 Model flying must be in accordance with this Code in order for AMA liability protection to apply 9. General 1. I will not fly my model aircraft in sanctioned events, air shows, or model flying demonstrations until it has been proven to be airworthy by having been previously, successfully flight tested. 2. I will not fly my model higher than approximately 400 feet within 3 miles of an airport without notifying the airport operator. I will give right-of-way and avoid flying in the proximity of full-scale aircraft. Where necessary, an observer shall be utilized to supervise flying to avoid having models fly in the proximity of full-scale aircraft. 3. Where established, I will abide by the safety rules for the flying site I use, and I will not willfully and deliberately fly my models in a careless, reckless and/or dangerous manner. 4. At all flying sites a straight or curved line(s) must be established in front of which all flying takes place with the other side for spectators. Only those persons essential to the flight operations are to be permitted on the flying side of the line; all others must be on the spectator side. Flying over the spectator side of the line is prohibited, unless beyond the control of the pilot(s). In any case, the maximum permissible takeoff weight of the models is 55 pounds. 5. At air shows or model flying demonstrations a single straight line must be established, one side of which is for flying, with the other side for spectators. Only those persons accredited by the contest director or other appropriate official as necessary for flight operations or as having duties or functions relating to the conduct of the show or demonstration are to be permitted on the flying side of the line. The only exceptions which my be permitted to the single straight line requirements, under special circumstances involving consideration of side conditions and model size, weight, speed, and power, must be jointly approved by the AMA President and the Executive Director. 6. Under all circumstances, if my model weighs over 20 pounds, I will fly it in accordance with paragraph 5 of this section of the AMA Safety Code. 7. I will not fly my model unless it is identified with my name and address or AMA number, on or in the model. Note: This does not apply to models flown indoors. 8. I will not operate models with metal-bladed propellers or with gaseous boosts, in which gases other than air enter their internal combustion engine(s); nor will I operate models with extremely hazardous fuels such as those containing tetranitromethane or hydrazine. I will not operate models with pyrotechnics (any device that explodes, burns, or propels a projectile of any kind) including, but not limited to, rockets, explosive bombs dropped from models, smoke bombs, all explosive gases (such as hydrogen-filled balloons), ground mounted devices launching a projectile. The only exceptions permitted are rockets flown in accordance with the National Model Rocketry Safety Code or those permanently attached (as per JATO use); also those items authorized for Air Show Team use as defined by AST Advisory Committee (document available from AMA HQ). In any case, models using rocket motors as primary means of propulsion are limited to a maximum weight of 3.3 pounds and a G series motor. Note: A model aircraft is defined as an aircraft with or without engine, not able to carry a human being. 10. I will not operate any turbo jet engine (axial or centrifugal flow) unless I have obtained a special waiver for such specific operations from the AMA President and Executive Director and I will abide by any restriction(s) imposed for such operation by them. (Note: This does not apply to ducted fan models using piston engines or electric motors.) 11. I will not consume alcoholic beverages prior to, nor during, participation in any model operations. Radio Control 1. I will have completed a successful radio equipment ground range check before the first flight of a new or repaired model. 2. I will not fly my model aircraft in the presence of spectators until I become a qualified flier, unless assisted by an experienced helper. 3. I will perform my initial turn after takeoff away from the pit or spectator areas, and I will not thereafter fly over pit or spectator areas, unless beyond my control. 4. I will operate my model using only radio control frequencies currently allowed by the Federal Communications Commission. (Only properly licensed Amateurs are authorized to operate equipment on Amateur Band frequencies.) Further, any transmitters that I use at a sanctioned event must have a certified R/CMA-AMA gold sticker affixed indicating that it was manufactured or modified for operation at 20 kHz frequency separation (except 27 MHz and 53 MHz). 5. I will not knowingly operate an R/C system within 3 miles of a preexisting model club flying site without a frequency sharing agreement with that club. 47 © Copyright 1998, Horizon Hobby Distributors, Inc.
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