linde - ESAB
FORM 9847-G
|. Introduction
This booklet contains general information on Tig
(HELIARC) manual welding equipment which will be
of interest to new users of Linde apparatus. De-
tailed information on specific torches will be found
in the individual instruction booklets which are sup-
plied with LINDE Tig torches. Abbreviated tables
covering simple butt welds in aluminum, carbon steel,
and stainless steel have been provided to give new
users typical welding conditions for some commonly
encountered butt joints.
More complete process information will be found in
Form 51-006, "How to do Tig (HELIARC) Welding."
This booklet discusses the fundamentals of the Tig
process, joint and backup design, handling the torch,
the welding of aluminum and aluminum alloys, stain-
less steel, magnesium, copper and copper alloys,
plain carbon and low alloy steels, cast iron, dissim-
ilar metals, and hard facing and surfacing. This
bookiet may be obtained from your local Linde dis-
tributor or region office,
Il. Equipment Requirements
The basic equipment requirements for manual Tig
welding consist of the welding torch plus additional
apparatus to supply (1) electrical power, (2) shielding
gas, and {3) water, unless air cooled torches are used.
Also, certain protective equipment should be employ-~
ed to protect the operator from the arc rays during
welding operations.
Be sure this information reaches
the operator. You can get extra
copies through your supplier.
A. Electrical Equipment
The welding current is supplied through either a
welding generator or rectifier for d.c, welding, or
a welding transformer for a.c. welding. These can
be obtained from Linde, When buying a generator or
rectifier, it is important to obtain one which has good
current contrel at the lower end of its current range,
Arc stability is essential, particularly for welding
thin-gauge materials. Without it, operation becomes
difficult. If you plan to use an older direct current
welding machine which operates inefficiently in the
lower current range, a resistor should be used in
the ground line between the generator and workpiece.
These resistors are marketed by most manufacturers
of direct current generating equipment, Through
their use, it is possible to obtain very low, stable cur-
rent from a generator that ordinarily would be too
large for the job.
Linde also sells transformers which are suitable for
welding, some with built-in high-frequency stabiliza-
tion, Bear in mind that some transformers are de-
signed to produce a balanced wave and can be used at
the full rated capacity, Others are not, and should not
be used for Tig welding at over 70% maximum capac-
ity, to avoid overloading the primary, Be certain
that you know which type you are using.
A high-frequency generator, Part No. 22N36, which
can be used with any Tig welding installation can also
be obtained from Linde, Automatic and semi-auto-
matic controls, simultaneously controlling the argon
and water flows, and the welding and high-frequency
currents, are available, For detailed information
consult the nearest Linde office,
B. Argon Supply
High-purity LINDE argon is supplied in steel cylin-
ders, each containing approximately 233 cubic feet
('K' Cylinder) of argon at a pressure of 2200 psi;
or 330 cubic feet ("T" Cylinder) at a pressure of
2640 psi. Argon is also available inLC-3 cylinders.
The LC~3 cylinder contains liquid argon and is equiv-
alent to about 12 "K" Cylinders. A regulator is re-
quired to reduce the gas cylinder pressure down to
that required for welding, generally around 20 psi.
In addition, a flowmeter is required at every weld-
ing station, since different materials need different
flows or amounts of argon for adequate protection.
The R-502 Argon Regulator or R-5007 Argon Regu-
lator is recommended for all Tig welding, as it com-
bines in a single unit the functions of both a flowmeter
and a regulator, However, separate standard oxygen
flowmeters and regulators may be used if desired.
In cases where a large amount of welding is being
done continually, it is advisable ifo connect a mani-
fold to a bank of cylinders (either gas cylinders or
L.C-3 cylinders), and pipe the argon to each indi-
vidual work station. Again, a flowmeter is required
for each station. For information on manifolds for
argon cylinders, consult the nearest Linde office,
C. Water Supply
The iremendous heat of the arc and the high current
often used usually necessitate water cooling of the
torch and power cable, Thus, adequate protection
from heat is afforded, and the equipment islight-
weight and flexible for easy handling. The cooling
water must be clean. Otherwise restricted or block-
ed passages may cause excessive overheating and
damage to the equipment. It is, therefore, advisable
to use a suitable water strainer or filter at the water
supply source.
Most shops have an adequate supply of cooling water
available, However, where welding is done in large
shops or outdoor locations, a supply of cooling waier
may not be readily accessible without using exces-
sively long water hose. *In such cases, we recom-
mend the use of a completely self-contained unit,
including a pump unit and tank large enough to ful-
fill the job requirements. LINDE sells a WC-1
water cooling unit which will circulate cooling water
through the torch at the rate of two gallons per minute.
*xPRESTONE is recommended for use in the cooling system of
self contained, portable welding units. However, if the unit
is used for Tig welding with high frequency, Methanol should
be used instead of PRESTONE.
Because the various LINDE Tig torches aredesigned
for different current ranges, the cooling
quirements will vary. Specific data on flows, water
temperatures, etc., are given inthe instruction book-
let supplied with the torch. If water supply pressure
is greater than 55 psi, a suitable water regulator
should be installedto prevent possible damage to the
lll. Apparatus Check
Before starting to weld, the entire welding sctup
should be thoroughly checked. It is extremely im-
portant to use the proper size electrode, gas cup, etc.,
and that all components of the setup are functioning
properly to realize the full advantages of Tig welding,
A. Check all connections inthe argon supply line for
tightness. Be sure that good seals are obtained
between the torch body, the cap. and the gas cup,
as any air leakage into the argon stream will
contaminate both the weld and the electrode. Be
sure that any gaskets required are in good con-
dition and firmly in place. After welding, the
electrode should have aclean silvery appearance
upon cooling. A dirty and rough electrode sur-
face usually signifies air leakage in the torch or
argon supply system.
8. Checkthe welding current and argon flow settings.
They should be preset to the approximate values
recommended for the material being welded, as
given in Section IV of this booklet.
C. Select the proper gas cup and electrode size,
as recommended in the torch instruction book-
D, Check the rate of water flow through the torch.
Flow rates lower then those recommended de-
crease torchefficiency and may result in damage
tothe torch, particularly if thetorch is being used
at or near its maximum capacity. Safe flow re-
quirements for each LINDE torch depend on the
design and current capacity. Consult the torch
instruction booklet,
E. Check the ground connection to be sure it is
securely clamped io the workpiece, The work-
piece should be cleaned at the point of contact,
preferably by grinding, to assure good contact.
The terms HFLIARC, LINDE and PRESTONE are registered trade marks of Union Carbide Corporation.
=. ee an
Y de AP a TE
IV. Typical Welding Conditions
The tables below provide typical welding conditions for simple butt joints in the most
commonly encountered weldable metals. For more complete process information, con-
sult Form 51-006, "How to do Tig (HELIARC) Welding."
TABLE I~ Conditions for Welding Aluminum and Alloys
THICKNESS |TYPE OF EDGE 1 DIA. GAS (cfh) | no.op | SPEED Flat Vertical Overhead
(Inches) JOINT | PREPARATION |* (Inches) Argon PASSES | tipm) ACHF ACHF ACHF
1/16 Butt Square None 15 1 12 60-80 | 60-80 Dn| 60-80
(.063) or 1/16
Cas) Butt | Square | 3/32, 1/8 17 | 12 125-145 | 115-135 Dn | 120-140
Clee Butt Square 1/8 21 i 11 190-220 | 190-220 180-210
(550) Butt Square 1/8, 3/16 25 2 10 260-300 | 220-260 Up | 210-250
NN Butt Single -V 3/16, 1/4 29 2 5 330-380 | 250-300 250-300
Co Butt | Single-V | 3/16,1/4 31 2,3 3 400-450 | 290-350 Up| 250-300
* LINDE 1100 rod for 1100 and 3003; LINDE 4043 rod for all other aluminum alloys.
Xx Welding speed for flat position.
TABLE II — Conditions for Welding Low-Alloy, Killed, or Rimmed Steel
(inches) | JOINT EDGE PREPARATION |A ‘Inches) Argon SPEED (ipm) SSP
.035 Butt Square 1/16 9-11 12-15 100
049 Butt Square 1716 9-11 12-18 100-125
‚060 Butt Square 1/16 ENT 12-16 100-140
DES Butt Square 1/16 9-11 12-18 140-170
A LINDE 65 Welding Rod.
TABLE HI - Conditions for Welding Stainless Steel
(Inches) JOINT PREPARATION {Inches) T Argon PASSES (ipm) $ Flat Y erticol Overhead
1/16 Butt Square 1/16 11 1 12 80-100 | 70-90 Up | 70-90
3/32 Butt Square 1/16, 3/32| 11 1 12 100-120 | 90-110 Up | 90-110
1/8 Butt Square 3/32 11 1 12 120-140 [110-130 Up | 105-125
3/16 Butt Square or 1/8 13 1 10 200-250 | 150-200 Up | 150-200
(.188) Single Y
1/4 Butt single - V 3/16 13 1,2 - 275-350 |200-250 Up | 200-250
(.250) or Square
1/2 Butt | ~ingle-vor 1/4 15 2,3 - 350-450 |225-275 Up | 225-275
(.500) Double-V
Ÿ À rod having characteristics which match those of the base metal is generally recommended.
¢ Welding speed for flat position.
In Canada
Lithographed in U.S.A.
F-9847-G 87-0440
(0:1:1:1107:38 PRODUCTS
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