User`s Manual scout light GigE

User`s Manual scout light GigE
Basler scout light
USER’S MANUAL FOR SCOUT LIGHT GigE
VISION CAMERAS
Document Number: AW001047
Version: 01 Language: 000 (English)
Release Date: 30 November 2011
For customers in the U.S.A.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device,
pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection
against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This
equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used
in accordance with the instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio
communications. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause harmful
interference in which case the user will be required to correct the interference at his own expense.
You are cautioned that any changes or modifications not expressly approved in this manual could
void your authority to operate this equipment.
The shielded interface cable recommended in this manual must be used with this equipment in
order to comply with the limits for a computing device pursuant to Subpart J of Part 15 of FCC Rules.
For customers in Canada
This apparatus complies with the Class A limits for radio noise emissions set out in Radio
Interference Regulations.
Pour utilisateurs au Canada
Cet appareil est conforme aux normes Classe A pour bruits radioélectriques, spécifiées dans le
Règlement sur le brouillage radioélectrique.
Life Support Applications
These products are not designed for use in life support appliances, devices, or systems where
malfunction of these products can reasonably be expected to result in personal injury. Basler
customers using or selling these products for use in such applications do so at their own risk and
agree to fully indemnify Basler for any damages resulting from such improper use or sale.
Warranty Note
Do not open the housing of the camera. The warranty becomes void if the housing is opened.
All material in this publication is subject to change without notice and is copyright
Basler AG.
Contacting Basler Support Worldwide
Europe:
Basler AG
An der Strusbek 60 - 62
22926 Ahrensburg
Germany
Tel.: +49-4102-463-515
Fax.: +49-4102-463-599
bc.support.europe@baslerweb.com
Americas:
Basler, Inc.
855 Springdale Drive, Suite 203
Exton, PA 19341
U.S.A.
Tel.: +1-610-280-0171
Fax.: +1-610-280-7608
bc.support.usa@baslerweb.com
Asia:
Basler Asia Pte. Ltd
8 Boon Lay Way
# 03 - 03 Tradehub 21
Singapore 609964
Tel.: +65-6425-0472
Fax.: +65-6425-0473
bc.support.asia@baslerweb.com
www.baslerweb.com
AW00104701000
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
1 Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1
Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2
General Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.3
Spectral Response for Mono Cameras. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.4
Spectral Response for Color Cameras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.5
Mechanical Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5.1 Camera Dimensions and Mounting Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5.2 Maximum Thread Length on Color Cameras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5.3 Mechanical Stress Test Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6
Software Licensing Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.7
Avoiding EMI and ESD Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.8
Environmental Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.8.1 Temperature and Humidity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.8.2 Ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.9
Precautions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
12
12
14
15
2 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3 Tools for Changing Camera Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.1
The pylon Viewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.2
The IP Configuration Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.3
The pylon API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4 Basler Network Drivers and Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.1
The Basler Filter Driver. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4.2
The Basler Performance Driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.3
Transport Layer Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
5 Network Related Camera Parameters and Managing Bandwidth . . . . . . . . 39
5.1
Network Related Parameters in the Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
5.2
Managing Bandwidth When Multiple Cameras Share a Single Network Path . . . . . . . 46
5.2.1 A Procedure for Managing Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
6 Camera Functional Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
6.1
Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
7 Physical Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
7.1
General Description of the Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
7.2
Connector Pin Assignments and Numbering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.1 12-pin Receptacle Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.2 RJ-45 Jack Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.3 Pin Numbering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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56
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7.3
Connector Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
7.3.1 8-pin RJ-45 Jack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
7.3.2 12-pin Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
7.4
Cabling Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4.1 Ethernet Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4.2 Standard Power and I/O Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4.3 PLC Power and I/O Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5
Camera Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
7.6
Ethernet GigE Device Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
7.7
Input and Output Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7.1 Input Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7.1.1
Voltage Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7.1.2
Line Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7.2 Output Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7.2.1
Voltage Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7.2.2
Line Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7.3 Output Line Response Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
59
59
59
61
64
64
64
66
67
67
67
69
8 I/O Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
8.1
Configuring the Input Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
8.1.1 Assigning the Input Line to Receive a Hardware Trigger Signal . . . . . . . . . . . 71
8.1.2 Using an Unassigned Input Line to Receive a User Input Signal . . . . . . . . . . 72
8.2
Configuring the Output Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.1 Assigning a Camera Output Signal to the Physical Output Line . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.2 Setting the State of the User Settable Output Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.3 Setting the Output Line for Invert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4 Working with the Timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4.1
Setting the Trigger Source for the Timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4.2
Setting a Timer Delay Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4.3
Setting a Timer Duration Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3
Checking the State of the I/O Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
8.3.1 Checking the State of the Output Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
8.3.2 Checking the State of Both Lines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
73
73
74
75
76
76
77
78
9 Image Acquisition Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
ii
9.1
Image Acquisition Control Modes: Legacy and Standard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
9.2
Means for Controlling Image Acquisition in Standard Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
9.3
Acquisition Start and Stop Commands and the Acquisition Mode
(Legacy and Standard Mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
9.4
The Acquisition Start Trigger in Standard Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4.1 Acquisition Start Trigger Mode (Standard Mode). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4.1.1
Acquisition Start Trigger Mode = Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4.1.2
Acquisition Start Trigger Mode = On . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4.2 Acquisition Frame Count (Standard Mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4.3 Setting the Acquisition Start Trigger Mode and Related Parameters
(Standard Mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
91
92
92
92
93
94
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9.4.4
9.4.5
Table of Contents
Using a Software Acquisition Start Trigger (Standard Mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4.4.1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4.4.2
Setting the Parameters Related to Software Acquisition Start
Triggering and Applying a Software Trigger Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a Hardware Acquisition Start Trigger (Standard Mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4.5.1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4.5.2
Setting the Parameters Related to Hardware Acquisition Start
Triggering and Applying a Hardware Trigger Signal . . . . . . . . . . . .
95
95
95
96
96
97
9.5
The Frame Start Trigger in Standard Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
9.5.1 Frame Start Trigger Mode (Standard Mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
9.5.1.1
Frame Start Trigger Mode = Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
9.5.1.2
Frame Start Trigger Mode = On . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
9.5.1.3
Setting the Frame Start Trigger Mode and Related Parameters . . 101
9.5.2 Using a Software Frame Start Trigger (Standard Mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
9.5.2.1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
9.5.2.2
Setting the Parameters Related to Software Frame Start
Triggering and Applying a Software Trigger Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
9.5.3 Using a Hardware Frame Start Trigger (Standard Mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
9.5.3.1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
9.5.3.2
Exposure Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
9.5.3.3
Frame Start Trigger Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
9.5.3.4
Setting the Parameters Related to Hardware Frame Start
Triggering and Applying a Hardware Trigger Signal . . . . . . . . . . . 107
9.6
The Acquisition Start Trigger in Legacy Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.6.1 Acquisition Start Trigger Mode (Legacy Mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.6.1.1
Acquisition Start Trigger Mode = Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.6.1.2
Acquisition Start Trigger Mode = On . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.6.1.3
Setting the Acquisition Start Trigger Mode and Related
Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.6.2 Using a Software Acquisition Start Trigger (Legacy Mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.6.2.1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.6.2.2
Setting the Parameters Related to Software Acquisition Start
Triggering and Applying a Software Trigger Signal . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.6.3 Using a Hardware Acquisition Start Trigger (Legacy Mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.6.3.1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.6.3.2
Exposure Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.6.3.3
Acquisition Start Trigger Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.6.3.4
Setting the Parameters Related to Hardware Acquisition Start
Triggering and Applying a Hardware Trigger Signal . . . . . . . . . . .
109
110
110
111
112
113
113
114
115
115
116
118
119
9.7
Exposure Time Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
9.7.1 Setting the Exposure Time Using "Raw" Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
9.7.2 Setting the Exposure Time Using "Absolute" Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
9.8
Use Case Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
9.9
Overlapping Exposure and Sensor Readout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
9.9.1 Guidelines for Overlapped Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
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9.10 Acquisition Monitoring Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.10.1 Exposure Active Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.10.2 Acquisition Status Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.10.3 Trigger Ready Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.10.4 Acquisition Trigger Wait Signal (Standard Mode Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
135
135
136
136
139
9.11 Acquisition Timing Chart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
9.12 Maximum Allowed Acquisition Frame Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
10 Pixel Data Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
10.1 Setting the Pixel Data Format. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
10.2 Pixel Data Formats for Mono Cameras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.1 Mono 8 Format (Equivalent to DCAM Mono 8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.2 Mono 16 Format (Equivalent to DCAM Mono 16) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.3 Mono 12 Packed Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.4 YUV 4:2:2 Packed Format (Equivalent to DCAM YUV 4:2:2) . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.5 YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
151
151
152
154
156
156
10.3 Pixel Data Output Formats for Color Cameras. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.1 The Bayer Color Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.1.1 Color Filter Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.2 Bayer BG 8 Format (Equivalent to DCAM Raw 8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.3 Bayer BG 16 Format (Equivalent to DCAM Raw 16) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.4 Bayer BG 12 Packed Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.5 YUV 4:2:2 Packed Format (Equivalent to DCAM YUV 4:2:2) . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.6 YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.7 Mono 8 Format (Equivalent to DCAM Mono 8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
157
157
158
159
161
163
165
168
170
10.4 Pixel Transmission Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
11 Standard Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
11.1 Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
11.2 Black Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
11.3 White Balance (on Color Models). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
11.4 Digital Shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4.1 Digital Shift with 12 Bit Pixel Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4.2 Digital Shift with 8 Bit Pixel Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4.3 Precautions When Using Digital Shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4.4 Enabling and Setting Digital Shift. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
178
178
180
182
183
11.5 Integrated IR Cut Filter (on Color Models) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
11.6 Area of Interest (AOI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
11.6.1 Changing AOI Parameters "On-the-Fly" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
11.7 Reverse X. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
11.8 Disable Parameter Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
11.9 Debouncer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
11.10 Trigger Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
11.11 Acquisition Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
iv
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Table of Contents
11.12 Test Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
11.13 Device Information Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
11.14 Configuration Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.14.1 Saving User Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.14.2 Selecting a Factory Setup as the Default Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.14.3 Loading a Saved Set or the Default Set into the Active Set. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.14.4 Selecting the Startup Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
203
204
205
206
207
12 Troubleshooting and Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
12.1 Tech Support Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
12.2 Obtaining an RMA Number. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
12.3 Before Contacting Basler Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Revision History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
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Table of Contents
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AW00104701000
Basler scout light GigE
AW00104701000
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
1 Specifications, Requirements,
and Precautions
This chapter lists the camera models covered by the manual. It provides the general specifications
for those models and the basic requirements for using them.
This chapter also includes specific precautions that you should keep in mind when using the
cameras. We strongly recommend that you read and follow the precautions.
1.1
Models
The current Basler scout light GigE Vision camera models are listed in the top row of the
specification tables on the next pages of this manual. The camera models are differentiated by their
sensor size, their maximum frame rate at full resolution, and whether the camera’s sensor is mono
or color.
Unless otherwise noted, the material in this manual applies to all of the camera models listed in the
tables. Material that only applies to a particular camera model or to a subset of models, such as to
color cameras only, will be so designated.
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Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
1.2
AW00104701000
General Specifications
Specification
slA640-74gm/gc
slA780-54gm/gc
slA1390-17gm/gc
Sensor Size
(H x V pixels)
gm: 659 x 494
gm: 782 x 582
gm: 1392 x 1040
gc:
gc:
gc:
Sensor Type
Sony ICX414 AL/AQ
658 x 492
780 x 580
1390 x 1038
Sony ICX415 AL/AQ
Sony ICX267 AL/AK
Progressive scan CCD
Optical Size
1/2"
1/2"
1/2"
Pixel Size
9.9 µm x 9.9 µm
8.3 µm x 8.3 µm
4.65 µm x 4.65 µm
Max. Frame Rate
(at full resolution)
79 fps
55 fps
17 fps
Mono/Color
All models available in mono or color
Data Output Type
Fast Ethernet (100 Mbit/s) or Gigabit Ethernet (1000 Mbit/s)
Pixel Data Formats
Mono Models:
Mono 8 ( = DCAM Mono 8)
Mono 16 ( = DCAM Mono 16)
Mono 12 Packed
YUV 4:2:2 Packed ( = DCAM YUV 4:2:2)
YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed
Color Models:
Mono 8 ( = DCAM Mono 8)
Bayer BG 8 ( = DCAM Raw 8)
Bayer BG 16 ( = DCAM Raw 16)
Bayer BG 12 Packed
YUV 4:2:2 Packed ( = DCAM YUV 4:2:2)
YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed
ADC Bit Depth
12 bits
Synchronization
Via external trigger signal or via software
Exposure Control
Programmable via the camera API
Camera Power
Requirements
+12 to +24 VDC, (min. +11.3 VDC, absolute max. +30.0 VDC), < 1% ripple
I/O Ports
1 opto-isolated input port and 1 opto-isolated output port
Lens Adapter
C-mount
2
3.0 W @ 12 V
3.0 W @ 12 V
3.5 W @ 12 V
Basler scout light GigE
AW00104701000
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
Specification
slA640-74gm/gc
slA780-54gm/gc
slA1390-17gm/gc
Size (L x W x H)
73.7 mm x 44 mm x 29 mm (without lens adapter or connectors)
85.5 mm x 44 mm x 29 mm (with lens adapter and connectors)
Weight
160 g (typical)
Conformity
CE, FCC, GenICam, GigE Vision, IP30
Table 1: General Specifications
Basler scout light GigE
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Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
Specification
slA1400-17gm/gc
Sensor Size
(H x V pixels)
gm: 1392 x 1040
Sensor Type
Sony ICX285 AL/AQ
AW00104701000
gc: 1390 x 1038
Progressive scan CCD
Optical Size
2/3"
Pixel Size
6.45 µm x 6.45 µm
Max. Frame Rate
(at full resolution)
17 fps
Mono/Color
All models available in mono or color
Data Output Type
Fast Ethernet (100 Mbits/s) or Gigabit Ethernet (1000 Mbits/s)
Pixel Data Formats
Mono Models:
Mono 8 ( = DCAM Mono 8)
Mono 16 ( = DCAM Mono 16)
Mono 12 Packed
YUV 4:2:2 Packed ( = DCAM YUV 4:2:2)
YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed
Color Models:
Mono 8 ( = DCAM Mono 8)
Bayer BG 8 ( = DCAM Raw 8)
Bayer BG 16 ( = DCAM Raw 16)
Bayer BG 12 Packed
YUV 4:2:2 Packed ( = DCAM YUV 4:2:2)
YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed
ADC Bit Depth
12 bits
Synchronization
Via external trigger signal or via software
Exposure Control
Programmable via the camera API
Camera Power
Requirements
+12 to +24 VDC, (min. +11.3 VDC, absolute max. +30.0 VDC), < 1% ripple
I/O Ports
1 opto-isolated input port and 1 opto-isolated output port
Lens Adapter
C-mount
4
3.5 W @ 12 V
Basler scout light GigE
AW00104701000
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
Specification
slA1400-17gm/gc
Size (L x W x H)
73.7 mm x 44 mm x 29 mm (without lens adapter or connectors)
85.5 mm x 44 mm x 29 mm (with lens adapter and connectors)
Weight
170 g (typical)
Conformity
CE, FCC, GenICam, GigE Vision, IP30
Table 2: General Specifications
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Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
1.3
AW00104701000
Spectral Response for Mono Cameras
The following graphs show the spectral response for each available monochrome camera model.
Relative Response
The spectral response curves excludes lens characteristics and light source
characteristics.
Wave Length (nm)
Fig. 1: slA640-74gm Spectral Response
6
Basler scout light GigE
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
Relative Response
AW00104701000
Wave Length (nm)
Relative Response
Fig. 2: slA780-54gm Spectral Response
Wave Length (nm)
Fig. 3: slA1390-17gm Spectral Response
Basler scout light GigE
7
AW00104701000
Relative Response
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
Wave Length (nm)
Fig. 4: slA1400-17gm Spectral Response
8
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AW00104701000
1.4
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
Spectral Response for Color Cameras
The following graphs show the spectral response for each available color camera model
The spectral response curves exclude lens characteristics, light source
characteristics, and IR cut filter characteristics.
To obtain best performance from color models of the camera, use of a dielectric
IR cut filter is recommended. The filter should transmit in a range from 400 nm to
700 ... 720 nm, and it should cut off from 700 ... 720 nm to 1100 nm.
Relative Response
A suitable IR cut filter is included in the C-mount lens adapter on color models of
the camera.
Blue
Green
Red
Wave Length (nm)
Fig. 5: slA640-74gc Spectral Response
Basler scout light GigE
9
Relative Response
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
AW00104701000
Blue
Green
Red
Wave Length (nm)
Relative Response
Fig. 6: slA780-54gc Spectral Response
Blue
Green
Red
Wave Length (nm)
Fig. 7: slA1390-17gc Spectral Response
10
Basler scout light GigE
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
Relative Response
AW00104701000
Blue
Green
Red
Wave Length (nm)
Fig. 8: slA1400-17gc Spectral Response
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Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
1.5
AW00104701000
Mechanical Specifications
The camera housing conforms to protection class IP30 assuming that the lens mount is covered by
a lens or by the cap that is shipped with the camera.
1.5.1
Camera Dimensions and Mounting Points
The cameras are manufactured with high precision. Planar, parallel, and angular sides guarantee
precise mounting with high repeatability.
The dimensions in millimeters for the cameras are as shown in Figure 9.
12
Basler scout light GigE
AW00104701000
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
Camera housings are equipped with four mounting holes on the top and four mounting holes on the
bottom as shown in the drawings.
2x M3; 4.5 deep
Bottom
67.2
9.7
2x M3; 4 deep
80.15
2x M2; 4.5 deep
6.45
72.3
44
13.5
73.7
32
85.5
17.5
Photosensitive
surface of the
sensor
2x M3; 3.5 deep
Top
2x M3; 4.5 deep
67.2
Fig. 9: Mechanical Dimensions (in mm) for the Cameras
Basler scout light GigE
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Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
1.5.2
AW00104701000
Maximum Thread Length on Color Cameras
The C-mount lens adapter on color models of the camera is equipped with an internal IR cut filter.
As shown below, the length of the threads on any lens you use with a color camera must be less
than 8.0 mm. If a lens with a longer thread length is used, the IR cut filter will be damaged or
destroyed and the camera will no longer operate.
< 8.0 mm
Not to Scale
C-mount Lens
Lens Adapter
IR Cut Filter
Fig. 10: Maximum Lens Thread Length on Color Cameras
14
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AW00104701000
1.5.3
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
Mechanical Stress Test Results
Scout cameras were submitted to an independent mechanical testing laboratory and subjected to
the stress tests listed below. The mechanical stress tests were performed on selected camera
models. After mechanical testing, the cameras exhibited no detectable physical damage and
produced normal images during standard operational testing.
Test
Standard
Conditions
Vibration
(sinusoidal, each axis)
DIN EN 60068-2-6
10-58 Hz / 1.5 mm_58-500 Hz / 20 g_1 Octave/Minute
Shock (each axis)
DIN EN 60068-2-27
10 repetitions
20 g / 11 ms / 10 shocks positive
20 g / 11 ms / 10 shocks negative
Bump (each axis)
DIN EN 60068-2-29
20 g / 11 ms / 100 shocks positive
20 g / 11 ms / 100 shocks negative
Vibration
(broad-band random,
digital control, each axis)
DIN EN 60068-2-64
15-500 Hz / 0.05 PSD (ESS standard profile) / 00:30 h
Table 3: Mechanical Stress Tests
The mechanical stress tests were performed with a dummy lens connected. The dummy lens was
35 mm long and had a mass of 66 g. Using a heavier or longer lens requires an additional support
for the lens.
Basler scout light GigE
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Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
1.6
AW00104701000
Software Licensing Information
The software in the camera includes the LWIP TCP/IP implementation. The copyright information
for this implementation is as follows:
Copyright (c) 2001, 2002 Swedish Institute of Computer Science. All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted
provided that the following conditions are met:
1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions
and the following disclaimer.
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions
and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
distribution.
3. The name of the author may not be used to endorse or promote products derived from this
software without specific prior written permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED.
IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED
TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR
PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF
LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING
NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS
SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
16
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AW00104701000
1.7
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
Avoiding EMI and ESD Problems
The cameras are frequently installed in industrial environments. These environments often include
devices that generate electromagnetic interference (EMI) and they are prone to electrostatic
discharge (ESD). Excessive EMI and ESD can cause problems with your camera such as false
triggering or can cause the camera to suddenly stop capturing images. EMI and ESD can also have
a negative impact on the quality of the image data transmitted by the camera.
To avoid problems with EMI and ESD, you should follow these general guidelines:
„
Always use high quality shielded cables. The use of high quality cables is one of the best
defenses against EMI and ESD.
„
Try to use camera cables that are the correct length and try to run the camera cables and
power cables parallel to each other. Avoid coiling camera cables. If the cables are too long,
use a meandering path rather then coiling the cables.
„
Avoid placing camera cables parallel to wires carrying high-current, switching voltages such as
wires supplying stepper motors or electrical devices that employ switching technology. Placing
camera cables near to these types of devices may cause problems with the camera.
„
Attempt to connect all grounds to a single point, e.g., use a single power outlet for the entire
system and connect all grounds to the single outlet. This will help to avoid large ground loops.
(Large ground loops can be a primary cause of EMI problems.)
„
Use a line filter on the main power supply.
„
Install the camera and camera cables as far as possible from devices generating sparks. If
necessary, use additional shielding.
„
Decrease the risk of electrostatic discharge by taking the following measures:
„
Use conductive materials at the point of installation (e.g., floor, workplace).
„
Use suitable clothing (cotton) and shoes.
„
Control the humidity in your environment. Low humidity can cause ESD problems.
The Basler application note called Avoiding EMI and ESD in Basler Camera
Installations provides much more detail about avoiding EMI and ESD.
This application note can be obtained from the Downloads section of our website:
www.baslerweb.com
Basler scout light GigE
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Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
AW00104701000
1.8
Environmental Requirements
1.8.1
Temperature and Humidity
Housing temperature during operation:
0 °C ... +50 °C (+32 °F ... +122 °F)
Humidity during operation:
20 % ... 80 %, relative, non-condensing
Storage temperature:
-20 °C ... +80 °C (-4 °F ... +176 °F)
Storage humidity:
20 % ... 80 %, relative, non-condensing
1.8.2
Ventilation
Allow sufficient air circulation around the camera to prevent internal heat build-up in your system
and to keep the camera’s housing temperature below 50 °C. Additional cooling devices such as
fans or heat sinks are not normally required, but should be provided if necessary.
18
Basler scout light GigE
AW00104701000
1.9
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
Precautions
NOTICE
Avoid Dust on the Sensor.
The camera is shipped with a cap on the lens mount. To avoid collecting dust on the camera’s IR
cut filter (color cameras) or sensor (mono cameras), make sure that you always put the cap in
place when there is no lens mounted on the camera.
To further enhance dust protection, the internal space in the camera that contains the imaging
sensor is sealed off from the camera’s other internal spaces.
NOTICE
Lens Thread Length is Limited.
Color models of the camera are equipped with an IR cut filter mounted inside of the C-mount
adapter. The location of this filter limits the length of the threads on any lens you use with the
camera. If a lens with a very long thread length is used, the IR cut filter will be damaged or
destroyed and the camera will no longer operate.
For more specific information about the lens thread length, see Section 1.5.2 on page 14.
NOTICE
Voltage Outside of Specified Range Can Cause Damage.
If the voltage of the power to the camera is greater than +30.0 VDC damage to the camera can
result. If the voltage is less than +11.3 VDC, the camera may operate erratically.
NOTICE
An Incorrect Plug Can Damage the 12-pin Connector.
The plug on the cable that you attach to the camera’s 12-pin connector must have 12 pins. Use
of a smaller plug, such as one with 10 pins or 8 pins, can damage the pins in the camera’s 12-pin
connector.
Basler scout light GigE
19
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
AW00104701000
NOTICE
Inappropriate Code May Cause Unexpected Camera Behavior.
The code snippets provided in this manual are included as sample code only. Inappropriate code
may cause your camera to function differently than expected and may compromise your
application. To ensure that the snippets will work properly in your application, you must adjust
them to meet your specific needs and must test them thoroughly prior to use.
The code snippets in this manual are written in C++. Other programming languages can also be
used to write code for use with Basler pylon.
When writing code, you should use a programming language that is both compatible with pylon
and appropriate for your application.
For more information about the programming languages that can be used with Basler pylon, see
the documentation included with the pylon package.
20
Basler scout light GigE
AW00104701000
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
Warranty Precautions
To ensure that your warranty remains in force:
Do not remove the camera’s serial number label
If the label is removed and the serial number can’t be read from the camera’s registers, the warranty
is void.
Do not open the camera housing
Do not open the housing. Touching internal components may damage them.
Keep foreign matter outside of the camera
Be careful not to allow liquid, flammable, or metallic material inside of the camera housing. If
operated with any foreign matter inside, the camera may fail or cause a fire.
Avoid Electromagnetic fields
Do not operate the camera in the vicinity of strong electromagnetic fields. Avoid electrostatic
charging.
Transport Properly
Transport the camera in its original packaging only. Do not discard the packaging.
Clean Properly
Avoid cleaning the surface of the camera’s sensor if possible. If you must clean it, use a soft, lint
free cloth dampened with a small quantity of high quality window cleaner. Because electrostatic
discharge can damage the sensor, you must use a cloth that will not generate static during cleaning
(cotton is a good choice).
To clean the surface of the camera housing, use a soft, dry cloth. To remove severe stains, use a
soft cloth dampened with a small quantity of neutral detergent, then wipe dry.
Do not use solvents or thinners to clean the housing; they can damage the surface finish.
Read the manual
Read the manual carefully before using the camera!
Basler scout light GigE
21
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
22
AW00104701000
Basler scout light GigE
AW00104701000
Installation
2 Installation
The information you will need to install and operate the camera is included in the Installation and
Setup Guide for Cameras Used with Basler’s pylon API (AW000611xx000).
You can download the Installation and Setup Guide for Cameras Used with Basler’s pylon API from
the Basler website: www.baslerweb.com
The guide includes the information you will need to install both hardware and software and to begin
capturing images. It also describes the recommended network adapters, describes the
recommended architecture for the network to which your camera is attached, and deals with the IP
configuration of your camera and network adapter.
After completing your camera installation, refer to the "Basler Network Drivers and Parameters" and
"Network Related Camera Parameters and Managing Bandwidth" sections of this camera User’s
Manual for information about improving your camera’s performance in a network and about using
multiple cameras.
Basler scout light GigE
23
Installation
24
AW00104701000
Basler scout light GigE
AW00104701000
Tools for Changing Camera Parameters
3 Tools for Changing Camera
Parameters
This chapter explains the options available for changing the camera’s parameters. The available
options let you change parameters either by using stand-alone tools that access the camera via a
GUI or by accessing the camera from within your software application.
3.1
The pylon Viewer
The Basler pylon Viewer is a standalone application that lets you view and change most of the
camera’s parameter settings via a GUI based interface. The viewer also lets you acquire images,
display them, and save them. Using the pylon Viewer software is a very convenient way to get your
camera up and running quickly when you are doing your initial camera evaluation or doing a camera
design-in for a new project.
The pylon Viewer is included in Basler’s pylon Driver Package. You can obtain the pylon package
from the Downloads section of our website: www.baslerweb.com
For more information about using the viewer, see the Installation and Setup Guide for Cameras
Used with Basler’s pylon API (AW000611xx000). You can download the guide from the Basler
website: www.baslerweb.com.
3.2
The IP Configuration Tool
The Basler IP Configuration Tool is a standalone application that lets you change the IP
configuration of the camera via a GUI. The tool will detect all Basler GigE cameras attached to your
network and let you make changes to a selected camera.
The IP Configuration Tool is included in Basler’s pylon Driver Package. You can obtain the pylon
package from the Downloads section of our website: www.baslerweb.com
For more information about using the IP Configuration Tool, see the Installation and Setup Guide
for Cameras Used with Basler’s pylon API (AW000611xx000). You can download the guide from
the Basler website: www.baslerweb.com.
Basler scout light GigE
25
Tools for Changing Camera Parameters
3.3
AW00104701000
The pylon API
You can access all of the camera’s parameters and can control the camera’s full functionality from
within your application software by using Basler’s pylon API. The Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference contains an introduction to the API and includes information about all of the
methods and objects included in the API. The programmer’s guide and API reference are included
in the pylon SDK.
The Basler pylon Software Development Kit (SDK) includes a set of sample programs that illustrate
how to use the pylon API to parameterize and operate the camera. These samples include
Microsoft® Visual Studio® solution and project files demonstrating how to set up the build
environment to build applications based on the API.
The SDK is available in the Downloads section of the Basler website: www.baslerweb.com
For more information about installing pylon software, see the installation and Setup Guide for
Cameras Used with Basler’s pylon API (AW000611xx000). You can download the guide from the
Basler website: www.baslerweb.com.
26
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AW00104701000
Basler Network Drivers and Parameters
4 Basler Network Drivers and
Parameters
This section describes the Basler network drivers available for your camera and provides detailed
information about the parameters associated with the drivers.
Two network drivers are available for the network adapter used with your GigE cameras:
„
The Basler filter driver is a basic GigE Vision network driver that is compatible with all
network adapters. The advantage of this driver is its extensive compatibility.
„
The Basler performance driver is a hardware specific GigE Vision network driver. The driver
is only compatible with network adapters that use specific Intel chipsets. The advantage of the
performance driver is that it significantly lowers the CPU load needed to service the network
traffic between the PC and the camera(s). It also has a more robust packet resend mechanism.
During the installation process you should have installed either the filter driver or
the performance driver.
For more information about compatible Intel chipsets, see the Installation and Setup Guide for
Cameras Used with Basler’s pylon API (AW000611xx000).
For more information about installing the network drivers, see the Installation and Setup Guide for
Cameras Used with Basler’s pylon API (AW000611xx000).
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4.1
AW00104701000
The Basler Filter Driver
The Basler filter driver is a basic driver GigE Vision network driver. It is designed to be compatible
with most network adapter cards.
The functionality of the filter driver is relatively simple. For each frame, the driver checks the order
of the incoming packets. If the driver detects that a packet or a group of packets is missing, it will
wait for a specified period of time to see if the missing packet or group of packets arrives. If the
packet or group does not arrive within the specified period, the driver will send a resend request for
the missing packet or group of packets.
The parameters associated with the filter driver are described below.
Enable Resend - Enables or disables the packet resend mechanism.
If packet resend is disabled and the filter driver detects that a packet has been lost during
transmission, the grab result for the returned buffer holding the image will indicate that the grab
failed and the image will be incomplete.
If packet resend is enabled and the driver detects that a packet has been lost during transmission,
the driver will send a resend request to the camera. If the camera still has the packet in its buffer, it
will resend the packet. If there are several lost packets in a row, the resend requests will be
combined.
Packet Timeout - The Packet Timeout parameter defines how long (in milliseconds) the filter driver
will wait for the next expected packet before it initiates a resend request. Ensure the Packet Timeout
parameter is set to a longer time interval than the time interval set for the inter-packet delay.
Frame Retention - The Frame Retention parameter sets the timeout (in milliseconds) for the frame
retention timer. Whenever the filter driver detects the leader for a frame, the frame retention timer
starts. The timer resets after each packet in the frame is received and will timeout after the last
packet is received. If the timer times out at any time before the last packet is received, the buffer for
the frame will be released and will be indicated as an unsuccessful grab.
You can set the filer driver parameter values from within your application software by using the
Basler pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to read and write the
parameter values:
// Enable Resend
Camera_t::StreamGrabber_t StreamGrabber ( Camera.GetStreamGrabber(0) );
StreamGrabber.EnableResend.SetValue(false); // disable resends
// Packet Timeout/FrameRetention
Camera_t::StreamGrabber_t StreamGrabber ( Camera.GetStreamGrabber(0) );
StreamGrabber.PacketTimeout.SetValue( 40 );
StreamGrabber.FrameRetention.SetValue( 200 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see the Installation and Setup Guide for Cameras
Used with Basler’s pylon API (AW000611xx000).
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4.2
Basler Network Drivers and Parameters
The Basler Performance Driver
The Basler performance driver is a hardware specific GigE Vision network driver compatible with
network adapters that use specific Intel chipsets. The main advantage of the performance driver is
that it significantly lowers the CPU load needed to service the network traffic between the PC and
the camera(s). It also has a more robust packet resend mechanism.
For more information about compatible Intel chipsets, see the Installation and Setup Guide for
Cameras Used with Basler’s pylon API (AW000611xx000).
The performance driver uses two distinct "resend mechanisms" to trigger resend requests for
missing packets:
„
The threshold resend mechanism
„
The timeout resend mechanism
The mechanisms are independent from each other and can be used separately. However, for
maximum efficiency and for ensuring that resend requests will be sent for all missing packets, we
recommend using both resend mechanisms in a specific, optimized combination, as provided by
the parameter default values.
The performance driver’s parameter values determine how the resend mechanisms act and how
they relate to each other. You can set the parameter values by using the pylon Viewer or from within
your application software by using the pylon API.
The parameter default values will provide for the following:
„
The threshold resend mechanism precedes the timeout resend mechanism.
This ensures that a resend request is sent for every missing packet, even at
very high rates of arriving packets.
„
The timeout resend mechanism will be effective for those missing packets
that were not resent after the first resend request.
We strongly recommend using the default parameter settings. Only users
with the necessary expertise should change the default parameter values.
The Basler performance driver uses a "receive window" to check the status of packets. The check
for missing packets is made as packets enter the receive window. If a packet arrives from higher in
the sequence of packets than expected, the preceding skipped packet or packets are detected as
missing. For example, suppose packet (n-1) has entered the receive window and is immediately
followed by packet (n+1). In this case, as soon as packet (n+1) enters the receive window, packet
n will be detected as missing.
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General Parameters
Enable Resend - Enables the packet resend mechanisms.
If the Enable Resend parameter is set to false, the resend mechanisms are disabled. The
performance driver will not check for missing packets and will not send resend requests to the
camera.
If the Enable Resend parameter is set to true, the resend mechanisms are enabled. The
performance driver will check for missing packets. Depending on the parameter settings and the
resend response, the driver will send one or several resend requests to the camera.
Receive Window Size - Sets the size of the receive window.
Threshold Resend Mechanism Parameters
The threshold resend request mechanism is illustrated in Figure 11 where the following
assumptions are made:
„
Packets 997, 998, and 999 are missing from the stream of packets.
„
Packet 1002 is missing from the stream of packets.
DIAGRAM IS NOT DRAWN TO SCALE
(3)
985
986 987
988 989
(4) (5)
990
991
992
993
994
(6)
(1)
(2)
995 996 1000 1001 1003 1004 1005 1006 1007
Time
Fig. 11: Example of a Receive Window with Resend Request Threshold & Resend Request Batching Threshold
(1) Front end of the receive window. Missing packets are detected here.
(2) Stream of packets. Gray indicates that the status was checked as the packet entered the
receive window. White indicates that the status has not yet been checked.
(3) Receive window of the performance driver.
(4) Threshold for sending resend requests (resend request threshold).
(5) A separate resend request is sent for each packets 997, 998, and 999.
(6) Threshold for batching resend requests for consecutive missing packets (resend request
batching threshold). Only one resend request will be sent for the consecutive missing
packets.
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Basler Network Drivers and Parameters
Resend Request Threshold - This parameter determines the location of the resend request
threshold within the receive window as shown in Figure 11. The parameter value is in per cent of
the width of the receive window. In Figure 11 the resend request threshold is set at 33.33% of the
width of the receive window.
A stream of packets advances packet by packet beyond the resend request threshold (i.e. to the
left of the resend request threshold in Figure 11). As soon as the position where a packet is missing
advances beyond the resend request threshold, a resend request is sent for the missing packet.
In the example shown in Figure 11, packets 987 to 1005 are within the receive window and packets
997 to 999 and 1002 were detected as missing. In the situation shown, a resend request is sent to
the camera for each of the missing consecutive packets 997 to 999. The resend requests are sent
after packet 996 - the last packet of the intact sequence of packets - has advanced beyond the
resend request threshold and before packet 1000 - the next packet in the stream of packets - can
advance beyond the resend request threshold. Similarly, a resend request will be sent for missing
packet 1002 after packet 1001 has advanced beyond the resend request threshold and before
packet 1003 can advance beyond the resend request threshold.
Resend Request Batching - This parameter determines the location of the resend request
batching threshold in the receive window (Figure 11). The parameter value is in per cent of a span
that starts with the resend request threshold and ends with the front end of the receive window. The
maximum allowed parameter value is 100. In Figure 11 the resend request batching threshold is set
at 80% of the span.
The resend request batching threshold relates to consecutive missing packets, i.e., to a continuous
sequence of missing packets. Resend request batching allows grouping of consecutive missing
packets for a single resend request rather than sending a sequence of resend requests where each
resend request relates to just one missing packet.
The location of the resend request batching threshold determines the maximum number of
consecutive missing packets that can be grouped together for a single resend request. The
maximum number corresponds to the number of packets that fit into the span between the resend
request threshold and the resend request batching threshold plus one.
If the Resend Request Batching parameter is set to 0, no batching will occur and a resend request
will be sent for each single missing packet. For other settings, consider an example: Suppose the
Resend Request Batching parameter is set to 80 referring to a span between the resend request
threshold and the front end of the receive window that can hold five packets (Figure 11). In this case
4 packets (5 x 80%) will fit into the span between the resend request threshold and the resend
request batching threshold. Accordingly, the maximum number of consecutive missing packets that
can be batched is 5 (4 + 1).
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Timeout Resend Mechanism Parameters
The timeout resend mechanism is illustrated in Figure 12 where the following assumptions are
made:
„
The frame includes 3000 packets.
„
Packet 1002 is missing within the stream of packets and has not been recovered.
„
Packets 2999 and 3000 are missing at the end of the stream of packets (end of the frame).
„
The Maximum Number Resend Requests parameter is set to 3.
DIAGRAM IS NOT DRAWN TO SCALE
(1)
995
(2)
996 997
(3)
(5)
(7)
(9)
(11)
(12) (13)
998 999 1000 1001 1003 1004 1005 1006 1007 1008 1009 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 2996 2997 2998
Time
(4)
(6)
(8)
(10)
(14)
Fig. 12: Incomplete Stream of Packets and Part of the Resend Mechanism
(1) Stream of packets. Gray indicates that the status was checked as the packet entered the
receive window. White indicates that the status has not yet been checked.
(2) Receive window of the performance driver.
(3) As packet 1003 enters the receive window, packet 1002 is detected as missing.
(4) Interval defined by the Resend Timeout parameter.
(5) The Resend Timeout interval expires and the first resend request for packet 1002 is sent to
the camera. The camera does not respond with a resend.
(6) Interval defined by the Resend Response Timeout parameter.
(7) The Resend Response Timeout interval expires and a second resend request for packet
1002 is sent to the camera. The camera does not respond with a resend.
(8) Interval defined by the Resend Response Timeout parameter.
(9) The Resend Response Timeout interval expires and a third resend request for packet 1002 is
sent to the camera. The camera still does not respond with a resend.
(10) Interval defined by the Resend Response Timeout parameter.
(11) Because the maximum number of resend requests has been sent and the last Resend
Response Timeout interval has expired, packet 1002 is now considered as lost.
(12) End of the frame.
(13) Missing packets at the end of the frame (2999 and 3000).
(14) Interval defined by the Packet Timeout parameter.
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Basler Network Drivers and Parameters
Maximum Number Resend Requests - The Maximum Number Resend Requests parameter sets
the maximum number of resend requests the performance driver will send to the camera for each
missing packet.
Resend Timeout - The Resend Timeout parameter defines how long (in milliseconds) the
performance driver will wait after detecting that a packet is missing before sending a resend request
to the camera. The parameter applies only once to each missing packet after the packet was
detected as missing.
Resend Request Response Timeout - The Resend Request Response Timeout parameter
defines how long (in milliseconds) the performance driver will wait after sending a resend request
to the camera before considering the resend request as lost.
If a resend request for a missing packet is considered lost and if the maximum number of resend
requests as set by the Maximum Number Resend Requests parameter has not yet been reached,
another resend request will be sent. In this case, the parameter defines the time separation
between consecutive resend requests for a missing packet.
Packet Timeout - The Packet Timeout parameter defines how long (in milliseconds) the
performance driver will wait for the next expected packet before it sends a resend request to the
camera. This parameter ensures that resend requests are sent for missing packets near to the end
of a frame. In the event of a major interruption in the stream of packets, the parameter will also
ensure that resend requests are sent for missing packets that were detected to be missing
immediately before the interruption. Make sure the Packet Timeout parameter is set to a longer time
interval than the time interval set for the inter-packet delay.
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Threshold and Timeout Resend Mechanisms Combined
Figure 13 illustrates the combined action of the threshold and the timeout resend mechanisms
where the following assumptions are made:
„
All parameters set to default.
„
The frame includes 3000 packets.
„
Packet 1002 is missing within the stream of packets and has not been recovered.
„
Packets 2999 and 3000 are missing at the end of the stream of packets (end of the frame).
The default values for the performance driver parameters will cause the threshold resend
mechanism to become operative before the timeout resend mechanism. This ensures maximum
efficiency and that resend requests will be sent for all missing packets.
With the default parameter values, the resend request threshold is located very close to the front
end of the receive window. Accordingly, there will be only a minimum delay between detecting a
missing packet and sending a resend request for it. In this case, a delay according to the Resend
Timeout parameter will not occur (see Figure 13). In addition, resend request batching will not
occur.
DIAGRAM IS NOT DRAWN TO SCALE
(1)
995
(2)
996
997
998
(3)
(5)
(7)
(9)
(10)
(11)
999 1000 1001 1003 1004 1005 1006 1007 1008 1009 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 1015 2996 2997 2998
(4)
(6)
(8)
(12)
Fig. 13: Combination of Threshold Resend Mechanism and Timeout Resend Mechanism
(1) Stream of packets, Gray indicates that the status was checked as the packet entered the
receive window. White indicates that the status has not yet been checked.
(2) Receive window of the performance driver.
(3) Threshold for sending resend requests (resend request threshold). The first resend request
for packet 1002 is sent to the camera. The camera does not respond with a resend.
(4) Interval defined by the Resend Response Timeout parameter.
(5) The Resend Timeout interval expires and the second resend request for packet 1002 is sent
to the camera. The camera does not respond with a resend.
(6) Interval defined by the Resend Response Timeout parameter
(7) The Resend Timeout interval expires and the third resend request for packet 1002 is sent to
the camera. The camera does not respond with a resend.
(8) Interval defined by the Resend Response Timeout parameter
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Basler Network Drivers and Parameters
(9) Because the maximum number of resend requests has been sent and the last Resend
Response Timeout interval has expired, packet 1002 is now considered as lost.
(10) End of the frame.
(11) Missing packets at the end of the frame (2999 and 3000).
(12) Interval defined by the Packet Timeout parameter.
You can set the performance driver parameter values from within your application software by using
the Basler pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to read and write the
parameter values:
// Get the Stream Parameters object
Camera_t::StreamGrabber_t StreamGrabber( Camera.GetStreamGrabber(0) );
// Write the ReceiveWindowSize parameter
StreamGrabber.ReceiveWindowSize.SetValue( 16 );
// Disable packet resends
StreamGrabber.EnableResend.SetValue( false );
// Write the PacketTimeout parameter
StreamGrabber.PacketTimeout.SetValue( 40 );
// Write the ResendRequestThreshold parameter
StreamGrabber.ResendRequestThreshold.SetValue( 5 );
// Write the ResendRequestBatching parameter
StreamGrabber.ResendRequestBatching.SetValue( 10 );
// Write the ResendTimeout parameter
StreamGrabber.ResendTimeout.SetValue( 2 );
// Write the ResendRequestResponseTimeout parameter
StreamGrabber.ResendRequestResponseTimeout.SetValue( 2 );
// Write the MaximumNumberResendRequests parameter
StreamGrabber.MaximumNumberResendRequests.SetValue( 25 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters. (Note that the
performance driver parameters will only appear in the viewer if the performance driver is installed
on the adapter to which your camera is connected.)
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see the Installation and Setup Guide for Cameras
Used with Basler’s pylon API (AW000611xx000).
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Adapter Properties
When the Basler Performance driver is installed, it adds a set of "advanced" properties to the
network adapter. These properties include:
Max Packet Latency - A value in microseconds that defines how long the adapter will wait after it
receives a packet before it generates a packet received interrupt.
Max Receive Inter-packet Delay - A value in microseconds that defines the maximum amount of
time allowed between incoming packets.
Maximum Interrupts per Second - Sets the maximum number of interrupts per second that the
adapter will generate.
Network Address - allows the user to specify a MAC address that will override the default address
provided by the adapter.
Packet Buffer Size - Sets the size in bytes of the buffers used by the receive descriptors and the
transmit descriptors.
Receive Descriptors - Sets the number of descriptors to use in the adapter’s receiving ring.
Transmit Descriptors - Sets the number of descriptors to use in the adapter’s transmit ring.
To access the advanced properties for an adapter:
1. Open a Network Connections window and find the connection for your network adapter.
2. Right click on the name of the connection and select Properties from the drop down menu.
3. A LAN Connection Properties window will open. Click the Configure button.
4.
An Adapter Properties window will open. Click the Advanced tab.
We strongly recommend using the default parameter settings. Changing the
parameters can have a significant negative effect on the performance of the
adapter and the driver.
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4.3
Basler Network Drivers and Parameters
Transport Layer Parameters
The transport layer parameters are part of the camera’s basic GigE implementation. These
parameters do not normally require adjustment.
Read Timeout - If a register read request is sent to the camera via the transport layer, this
parameter designates the time out (in milliseconds) within which a response must be received.
Write Timeout - If a register write request is sent to the camera via the transport layer, this
parameter designates the time out (in milliseconds) within which an acknowledge must be received.
Heartbeat Timeout - The GigE Vision standard requires implementation of a heartbeat routine to
monitor the connection between the camera and the host PC. This parameter sets the heartbeat
timeout (in milliseconds). If a timeout occurs, the camera releases the network connection and
enters a state that allows reconnection.
Management of the heartbeat time is normally handled by the Basler’s basic
GigE implementation and changing this parameter is not required for normal
camera operation. However, if you are debugging an application and you stop
at a breakpoint, you will have a problem with the heartbeat timer. The timer will
time out when you stop at a breakpoint and the connection to the camera will
be lost. When debugging, you should increase the heartbeat timeout to a high
value to avoid heartbeat timeouts at breakpoints. When debugging is
complete, you should return the timeout to its normal setting.
You can set the driver related transport layer parameter values from within your application software
by using the Basler pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to read and write
the parameter values:
// Read/Write Timeout
Camera_t::TlParams_t TlParams( Camera.GetTLNodeMap() );
TlParams.ReadTimeout.SetValue(500);
// 500 milliseconds
TlParams.WriteTimeout.SetValue(500); // 500 milliseconds
// Heartbeat Timeout
Camera_t::TlParams_t TlParams( Camera.GetTLNodeMap() );
TlParams.HeartbeatTimeout.SetValue(5000);
// 5 seconds
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
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Network Related Camera Parameters and Managing Bandwidth
5 Network Related Camera
Parameters and Managing
Bandwidth
This section describes the camera parameters that are related to the camera’s performance on the
network. It also describes how to use the parameters to manage the available network bandwidth
when you are using multiple cameras.
5.1
Network Related
Parameters in the Camera
The camera includes several parameters that determine how it will use its network connection to
transmit data to the host PC. The list below describes each parameter and provides basic
information about how the parameter is used. The following section describes how you can use the
parameters to manage the bandwidth used by each camera on your network.
Payload Size (read only)
Indicates the total size in bytes of the image data plus any chunk data (if chunks are enabled) that
the camera will transmit. Packet headers are not included.
Stream Channel Selector (read/write)
The GigE Vision standard specifies a mechanism for establishing several separate stream channels
between the camera and the PC. This parameter selects the stream channel that will be affected
when the other network related parameters are changed.
Currently, the cameras support only one stream channel, i.e., stream channel 0.
Packet Size (read/write)
As specified in the GigE Vision standard, each acquired image will be fit into a data block. The block
contains three elements: a data leader consisting of one packet used to signal the beginning of a
data block, the data payload consisting of one or more packets containing the actual data for the
current block, and a data trailer consisting of one packet used to signal the end of the data block.
The packet size parameter sets the size of the packets that the camera will use when it sends the
data payload via the selected stream channel. The value is in bytes. The value does not affect the
leader and trailer size, which use a total of 36 bytes, and the last data packet may be a smaller size.
The payload size will be packet size minus 36 bytes.
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AW00104701000
The packet size parameter should always be set to the maximum size that your network adapter
and network switches (if used) can handle.
Inter-packet Delay (read/write)
Sets the delay in ticks between the packets sent by the camera. Applies to the selected stream
channel. Increasing the inter-packet delay will decrease the camera’s effective data transmission
rate and will thus decrease the network bandwidth used by the camera.
In the current camera implementation, one tick = 8 ns. To check the tick frequency, you can read
the Gev Timestamp Tick Frequency parameter value. This value indicates the number of clock ticks
per second.
When setting the time interval for the inter-packet delay, make sure that the time interval for the
packet timeout is set to a higher value.
Frame Transmission Delay (read/write)
Sets a delay in ticks (one tick = 8 ns) between when a camera would normally begin transmitting
an acquired frame and when it actually begins transmission. This parameter should be set to zero
in most normal situations.
If you have many cameras in your network and you will be simultaneously triggering image
acquisition on all of them, you may find that your network switch or network adapter is overwhelmed
if all of the cameras simultaneously begin to transmit image data at once. The frame transmission
delay parameter can be used to stagger the start of image data transmission from each camera.
Bandwidth Assigned (read only)
Indicates the bandwidth in bytes per second that will be used by the camera to transmit image and
chunk feature data and to handle resends and control data transmissions. The value of this
parameter is a result of the packet size and the inter-packet delay parameter settings.
In essence, the bandwidth assigned is calculated this way:
X Packets Y Bytes
---------------------------- × -------------------Frame
Packet
Bandwidth Assigned = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------X Packets Y Bytes 8 ns
X Packets
---------------------------- × -------------------- × ------------- + ⎛ --------------------------- – 1⎞ × ( IPD × 8 ns )
⎝ Frame
⎠
Frame
Packet Byte
Where:
X = number of packets needed to transmit the frame
Y = number of bytes in each packet
IPD = Inter-packet Delay setting in ticks (with a tick set to the 8 ns standard)
When considering this formula, you should know that on a Gigabit network it takes one tick to
transmit one byte. Also, be aware that the formula has been simplified for easier understanding.
Bandwidth Reserve (read/write)
Used to reserve a portion of the assigned bandwidth for packet resends and for the transmission of
control data between the camera and the host PC. The setting is expressed as a percentage of the
Bandwidth Assigned parameter. For example, if the Bandwidth Assigned parameter indicates that
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Network Related Camera Parameters and Managing Bandwidth
30 MByte/s have been assigned to the camera and the Bandwidth Reserve parameter is set to 5%,
then the bandwidth reserve will be 1.5 MByte/s.
Bandwidth Reserve Accumulation (read/write)
A software device called the bandwidth reserve accumulator is designed to handle unusual
situations such as a sudden EMI burst that interrupts an image transmission. If this happens, a
larger than normal number of packet resends may be needed to properly transmit a complete
image. The accumulator is basically an extra pool of resends that the camera can use in unusual
situations.
The Bandwidth Reserve Accumulation parameter is a multiplier used to set the maximum number
of resends that can be held in the "accumulator pool." For example, assume that the current
bandwidth reserve setting for your camera is 5% and that this reserve is large enough to allow up
to 5 packet resends during a frame period. Also assume that the Bandwidth Reserve Accumulation
parameter is set to 3. With these settings, the accumulator pool can hold a maximum of 15 resends
(i.e., the multiplier times the maximum number of resends that could be transmitted in a frame
period). Note that with these settings, 15 will also be the starting number of resends within the
accumulator pool.
The chart on the next page and the numbered text below it show an example of how the
accumulator would work with these settings. The chart and the text assume that you are using an
external trigger to trigger image acquisition. The example also assumes that the camera is
operating in a poor environment, so many packets are lost and many resends are required. The
numbered text is keyed to the time periods in the chart.
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Time
Time Period
1
2
3
4
5
6
FA&T
FA&T
FA&T
FA&T
FA&T
FA&T
Resends available
via the bandwidth
reserve
5
5
5
5
5
5
Resends needed
0
7
4
10
20
0
-2
+1
-5
15
13
14
9
Effect on the
accumulator pool
Resends left in the
accumulator pool
after frame
transmission
F A & T = Frame Acquired
and Transmitted
7
8
9
FA&T
FA&T
5
5
5
1
0
0
1
-9
+4
+5
+5
+1
0
4
9
14
15
Not enough
resends available.
Packet unavailable
errors generated.
(1) You trigger image acquisition and during this time period, the camera acquires and transmits
a frame. The bandwidth reserve setting would allow 5 resends during this time period, but no
resends are needed. The accumulator pool started with 15 resends available and remains at
15.
(2) You trigger image acquisition and during this time period, the camera acquires and transmits
a frame. The bandwidth reserve setting would allow 5 resends during this time period, but 7
resends are needed. The 5 resends available via the bandwidth reserve are used and 2
resends are used from the accumulator pool. The accumulator pool is drawn down to 13.
(3) You trigger image acquisition and during this time period, the camera acquires and transmits
a frame. The bandwidth reserve setting would allow 5 resends during this time period and 4
resends are needed. The 4 resends needed are taken from the resends available via the
bandwidth reserve. The fifth resend available via the bandwidth reserve is not needed, so it is
added to the accumulator pool and brings the pool to 14.
(4) You trigger image acquisition and during this time period, the camera acquires and transmits
a frame. The bandwidth reserve setting would allow 5 resends during this time period, but 10
resends are needed. The 5 resends available via the bandwidth reserve are used and 5
resends are used from the accumulator pool. The accumulator pool is drawn down to 9.
(5) You trigger image acquisition and during this time period, the camera acquires and transmits
a frame. The bandwidth reserve setting would allow 5 resends during this time period, but 20
resends are needed. The 5 resends available via the bandwidth reserve are used. To
complete all of the needed resends, 15 resends would be required from the accumulator pool,
but the pool only has 9 resends. So the 9 resends in the pool are used and 6 resend requests
are answered with a "packet unavailable" error code. The accumulator pool is reduced to 0.
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(6) You trigger image acquisition and during this time period, the camera acquires and transmits
a frame. The bandwidth reserve setting would allow 5 resends during this time period and 1
resend is needed. The 1 resend needed is taken from the resends available via the
bandwidth reserve. The other 4 resends available via the bandwidth reserve are not needed,
so they are added to the accumulator pool and they bring the pool up to 4.
(7) During this time period, you do not trigger image acquisition. You delay triggering acquisition
for the period of time that would normally be needed to acquire and transmit a single image.
The current camera settings would allow 5 resends to occur during this period of time. But
since no data is transmitted, no resends are required. The 5 resends that could have
occurred are added to the accumulator pool and they bring the pool up to 9.
(8) You trigger image acquisition and during this time period, the camera acquires and transmits
a frame. The bandwidth reserve setting would allow 5 resends during this time period, but no
resends are needed. The 5 resends available via the bandwidth reserve are not needed, so
they are added to the accumulator pool and they bring the pool up to 14.
(9) You trigger image acquisition and during this time period, the camera acquires and transmits
a frame. The bandwidth reserve setting would allow 5 resends during this time period and 1
resend is needed. The 1 resend needed is taken from the resends available via the
bandwidth reserve. The other 4 resends available via the bandwidth reserve are not needed,
so they are added to the accumulator pool. Note that with the current settings, the
accumulator pool can only hold a maximum of 15 resends. So the pool is now 15.
Frame Max Jitter (read only)
If the Bandwidth Reserve Accumulation parameter is set to a high value, the camera can
experience a large burst of data resends during transmission of a frame. This burst of resends will
delay the start of transmission of the next acquired frame. The Frame Max Jitter parameter
indicates the maximum time in ticks (one tick = 8 ns) that the next frame transmission could be
delayed due to a burst of resends.
Device Max Throughput (read only)
Indicates the maximum amount of data (in bytes per second) that the camera could generate given
its current settings and an ideal world. This parameter gives no regard to whether the GigE network
has the capacity to carry all of the data and does not consider any bandwidth required for resends.
In essence, this parameter indicates the maximum amount of data the camera could generate with
no network restrictions.
If the Acquisition Frame Rate abs parameter has been used to set the camera’s frame rate, the
camera will use this frame rate setting to calculate the device max throughput. If software or
hardware triggering is being used to control the camera’s frame rate, the maximum frame rate
allowed with the current camera settings will be used to calculate the device max throughput.
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Device Current Throughput (read only)
Indicates the actual bandwidth (in bytes per second) that the camera will use to transmit image data
and chunk data given the current area of interest settings, chunk feature settings, and the pixel
format setting.
If the Acquisition Frame Rate abs parameter has been used to set the camera’s frame rate, the
camera will use this frame rate setting to calculate the device current throughput. If software or
hardware triggering is being used to control the camera’s frame rate, the maximum frame rate
allowed with the current camera settings will be used to calculate the device current throughput.
Note that the Device Current Throughput parameter indicates the bandwidth needed to transmit the
actual image data and chunk data. The Bandwidth Assigned parameter, on the other hand,
indicates the bandwidth needed to transmit image data and chunk data plus the bandwidth reserved
for retries and the bandwidth needed for any overhead such as leaders and trailers.
Resulting Frame Rate (read only)
Indicates the maximum allowed frame acquisition rate (in frames per second) given the current
camera settings. The parameter takes the current area of interest, exposure time, and bandwidth
settings into account.
If the Acquisition Frame Rate abs parameter has been used to set the camera’s frame rate, the
Resulting Frame Rate parameter will show the Acquisition Frame Rate abs parameter setting. If
software or hardware triggering is being used to control the camera’s frame rate, the Resulting
Frame Rate parameter will indicate the maximum frame rate allowed given the current camera
settings.
You can read or set the camera’s network related parameter values from within your application
software by using the Basler pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set
the selector and the parameter values:
// Payload Size
int64_t payloadSize = Camera.PayloadSize.GetValue();
// GevStreamChannelSelector
Camera.GevStreamChannelSelector.SetValue
( GevStreamChannelSelector_StreamChannel0 );
// PacketSize
Camera.GevSCPSPacketSize.SetValue( 1500 );
// Inter-packet Delay
Camera.GevSCPD.SetValue( 1000 );
// Frame-transmission Delay
Camera.GevSCFTD.SetValue( 1000 );
// Bandwidth Reserve
Camera.GevSCBWR.SetValue( 10 );
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// Bandwidth Reserve Accumulation
Camera.GevSCBWRA.SetValue( 10 );
// Frame Jitter Max
int64_t jitterMax = Camera.GevSCFJM.GetValue();
// Device Max Throughput
int64_t maxThroughput = Camera.GevSCDMT.GetValue();
// Device Current Throughput
int64_t currentThroughput = Camera.GevSCDCT.GetValue();
// Resulting Framerate
double resultingFps = Camera.ResultingFrameRateAbs.GetValue();
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
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5.2
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Managing Bandwidth When
Multiple Cameras Share a
Single Network Path
If you are using a single camera on a GigE network, the problem of managing bandwidth is simple.
The network can easily handle the bandwidth needs of a single camera and no intervention is
required. A more complicated situation arises if you have multiple cameras connected to a single
network adapter as shown in Figure 14.
1 Port
GigE
Adapter
Single Path
GigE
Network
Switch
GigE
Camera
GigE
Camera
GigE
Camera
GigE
Camera
Fig. 14: Multiple Cameras on a Network
One way to manage the situation where multiple cameras are sharing a single network path is to
make sure that only one of the cameras is acquiring and transmitting images at any given time. The
data output from a single camera is well within the bandwidth capacity of the single path and you
should have no problem with bandwidth in this case.
If you want to acquire and transmit images from several cameras simultaneously, however, you
must determine the total data output rate for all the cameras that will be operating simultaneously
and you must make sure that this total does not exceed the bandwidth of the single path (125
MByte/s).
An easy way to make a quick check of the total data output from the cameras that will operate
simultaneously is to read the value of the Bandwidth Assigned parameter for each camera. This
parameter indicates the camera’s gross data output rate in bytes per second with its current
settings. If the sum of the bandwidth assigned values is less than 125 MByte/s, the cameras should
be able to operate simultaneously without problems. If it is greater, you must lower the data output
rate of one or more of the cameras.
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You can lower the data output rate on a camera by using the Inter-packet Delay parameter. This
parameter adds a delay between the transmission of each packet from the camera and thus slows
the data transmission rate of the camera. The higher the inter-packet delay parameter is set, the
greater the delay between the transmission of each packet will be and the lower the data
transmission rate will be. After you have adjusted the Inter-packet Delay parameter on each
camera, you can check the sum of the Bandwidth Assigned parameter values and see if the sum is
now less than 125 MByte/s.
5.2.1
A Procedure for Managing Bandwidth
In theory, managing bandwidth sharing among several cameras is as easy as adjusting the interpacket delay. In practice, it is a bit more complicated because you must consider several factors
when managing bandwidth. The procedure below outlines a structured approach to managing
bandwidth for several cameras.
The objectives of the procedure are:
„
To optimize network performance.
„
To determine the bandwidth needed by each camera for image data transmission.
„
To determine the bandwidth actually assigned to each camera for image data transmission.
„
For each camera, to make sure that the actual bandwidth assigned for image data
transmission matches the bandwidth needed.
„
To make sure that the total bandwidth assigned to all cameras does not exceed the network’s
bandwidth capacity.
„
To make adjustments if the bandwidth capacity is exceeded.
Step 1 - Improve the Network Performance.
If you use, as recommended, the Basler performance driver with an Intel PRO network adapter or
a compatible network adapter, the network parameters for the network adapter are automatically
optimized and need not be changed.
If you use the Basler filter driver and have already set network parameters for your network adapter
during the installation of the Basler pylon software, continue with step two. Otherwise, open the
Network Connection Properties window for your network adapter and check the following network
parameters:
„
If you use an Intel PRO network adapter: Make sure the Receive Descriptors parameter is set to
its maximum value and the Interrupt Moderation Rate parameter is set to Extreme.
Also make sure the Speed and Duplex Mode parameter is set to Auto Detect.
„
If you use a different network adapter, see whether parameters are available that will allow
setting the number of receive descriptors and the number of CPU interrupts. The related
parameter names may differ from the ones used for the Intel PRO adapters. Also, the way of
setting the parameters may be different. You may, e.g., have to use a parameter to set a low
number for the interrupt moderation and then use a different parameter to enable the interrupt
moderation.
If possible, set the number of receive descriptors to a maximum value and set the number of
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CPU interrupts to a low value.
If possible, also set the parameter for speed and duplex to auto.
Contact Basler technical support if you need further assistance.
Step 2 - Set the Packet Size parameter on each camera as large as possible.
Using the largest possible packet size has two advantages, it increases the efficiency of network
transmissions between the camera and the PC and it reduces the time required by the PC to
process incoming packets. The largest packet size setting that you can use with your camera is
determined by the largest packet size that can be handled by your network. The size of the packets
that can be handled by the network depends on the capabilities and settings of the network adapter
you are using and on capabilities of the network switch you are using.
Unless you have already set the packet size for your network adapter during the installation of the
Basler pylon software, check the documentation for your adapter to determine the maximum packet
size (sometimes called “frame” size) that the adapter can handle. Many adapters can handle what
is known as “jumbo packets” or "jumbo frames". These are packets with a maximum size of 16 kB.
Once you have determined the maximum size packets the adapter can handle, make sure that the
adapter is set to use the maximum packet size.
Next, check the documentation for your network switch and determine the maximum packet size
that it can handle. If there are any settings available for the switch, make sure that the switch is set
for the largest packet size possible.
Now that you have set the adapter and switch, you can determine the largest packet size the
network can handle. The device with the smallest maximum packet size determines the maximum
allowed packet size for the network. For example, if the adapter can handle 8 kB packets and the
switch can handle 6 kB packets, then the maximum for the network is 6 kB packets.
Once you have determined the maximum packet size for your network, set the value of the Packet
Size parameter on each camera to this value.
The manufacturer’s documentation sometimes makes it difficult to determine the
maximum packet size for a device, especially network switches. There is a "quick
and dirty" way to check the maximum packet size for your network with its current
configuration:
1. Open the pylon Viewer, select a camera, and set the Packet Size parameter
to a low value (1 kB for example).
2. Use the Continuous Shot mode to capture several images.
3. Gradually increase the value of the Packet Size parameter and capture a few
images after each size change.
4. When your Packet Size setting exceeds the packet size that the network can
handle, the viewer will lose the ability to capture images. (When you use
Continuous Shot, the viewer’s status bar will indicate that it is acquiring
images, but the image in the viewing area will appear to be frozen.)
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Step 3 - Set the Bandwidth Reserve parameter for each camera.
The Bandwidth Reserve parameter setting for a camera determines how much of the bandwidth
assigned to that camera will be reserved for lost packet resends and for asynchronous traffic such
as commands sent to the camera. If you are operating the camera in a relatively EMI free
environment, you may find that a bandwidth reserve of 2% or 3% is adequate. If you are operating
in an extremely noisy environment, you may find that a reserve of 8% or 10% is more appropriate.
Step 4 - Calculate the "data bandwidth needed" by each camera.
The objective of this step is to determine how much bandwidth (in Byte/s) each camera needs to
transmit the image data that it generates. The amount of data bandwidth a camera needs is the
product of several factors: the amount of data included in each image, the amount of chunk data
being added to each image, the "packet overhead" such as packet leaders and trailers, and the
number of frames the camera is acquiring each second.
For each camera, you can use the two formulas below to calculate the data bandwidth needed. To
use the formulas, you will need to know the current value of the Payload Size parameter and the
Packet Size parameter for each camera. You will also need to know the frame rate (in frames/s) at
which each camera will operate.
Bytes/Frame =
Payload Size
----------------------------------Packet Size
1
× Packet Overhead + Payload Size
4
+ Leader Size + Trailer Size
Data Bandwidth Needed = Bytes/Frame x Frames/s
Where:
Packet Overhead = 72 (for a GigE network)
78 (for a 100 MBit/s network)
Leader Size = Packet Overhead + 36 (if chunk mode is not active)
Packet Overhead + 12 (if chunk mode is active)
Trailer Size = Packet Overhead + 8
⎡ x ⎤ 1 means round up x to the nearest integer
⎡ x ⎤ 4 means round up x to the nearest multiple of 4
Step 5 - Calculate “data bandwidth assigned” to each camera.
For each camera, there is a parameter called Bandwidth Assigned. This read only parameter
indicates the total bandwidth that has been assigned to the camera. The Bandwidth Assigned
parameter includes both the bandwidth that can be used for image data transmission plus the
bandwidth that is reserved for packet resents and camera control signals. To determine the “data
bandwidth assigned,” you must subtract out the reserve.
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You can use the formula below to determine the actual amount of assigned bandwidth that is
available for data transmission. To use the formula, you will need to know the current value of the
Bandwidth Assigned parameter and the Bandwidth reserve parameter for each camera.
100 – Bandwidth Reserved
Data Bandwidth Assigned = Bandwidth Assigned × ----------------------------------------------------------------------100
Step 6 - For each camera, compare the data bandwidth needed with the data bandwidth
assigned.
For each camera, you should now compare the data bandwidth assigned to the camera (as
determined in step 4) with the bandwidth needed by the camera (as determined in step 3).
For bandwidth to be used most efficiently, the data bandwidth assigned to a camera should be equal
to or just slightly greater than the data bandwidth needed by the camera. If you find that this is the
situation for all of the cameras on the network, you can go on to step 6 now. If you find a camera
that has much more data bandwidth assigned than it needs, you should make an adjustment.
To lower the amount of data bandwidth assigned, you must adjust a parameter called the Interpacket Delay. If you increase the Inter-packet Delay parameter value on a camera, the data
bandwidth assigned to the camera will decrease. So for any camera where you find that the data
bandwidth assigned is much greater then the data bandwidth needed, you should do this:
1. Raise the setting for the Inter-packet delay parameter for the camera.
2. Recalculate the data bandwidth assigned to the camera.
3. Compare the new data bandwidth assigned to the data bandwidth needed.
4. Repeat 1, 2, and 3 until the data bandwidth assigned is equal to or just greater than the data
bandwidth needed.
If you increase the inter-packet delay to lower a camera’s data output rate there is
something that you must keep in mind. When you lower the data output rate, you
increase the amount of time that the camera needs to transmit an acquired frame
(image). Increasing the frame transmission time can restrict the camera’s
maximum allowed frame rate.
Step 7 - Check that the total bandwidth assigned is less than the network capacity.
1. For each camera, determine the current value of the Bandwidth Assigned parameter. The
value is in Byte/s. (Make sure that you determine the value of the Bandwidth Assigned parameter after you have made any adjustments described in the earlier steps.)
2. Find the sum of the current Bandwidth Assigned parameter values for all of the cameras.
If the sum of the Bandwidth Assigned values is less than 125 MByte/s for a GigE network or 12.5
M/Byte/s for a 100 Bit/s network, the bandwidth management is OK.
If the sum of the Bandwidth Assigned values is greater than 125 MByte/s for a GigE network or 12.5
M/Byte/s for a 100 Bit/s network, the cameras need more bandwidth than is available and you must
make adjustments. In essence, you must lower the data bandwidth needed by one or more of the
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cameras and then adjust the data bandwidths assigned so that they reflect the lower bandwidth
needs.
You can lower the data bandwidth needed by a camera either by lowering its frame rate or by
decreasing the size of the area of interest (AOI). Once you have adjusted the frame rates and/or
AOI settings on the cameras, you should repeat steps 2 through 6.
For more information about the camera’s maximum allowed frame transmission rate, see
Section 9.12 on page 144.
For more information about the AOI, see Section 11.6 on page 185.
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Camera Functional Description
6 Camera Functional
Description
This chapter provides an overview of the camera’s functionality from a system perspective. The
overview will aid your understanding when you read the more detailed information included in the
later chapters of the user’s manual.
6.1
Overview
Each camera provides features such as a full frame shutter and electronic exposure time control.
Exposure start and exposure time can be controlled by parameters transmitted to the camera via
the Basler pylon API and the GigE interface. There are also parameters available to set the camera
for single frame acquisition or continuous frame acquisition.
Exposure start can also be controlled via an externally generated "frame start trigger" (ExFSTrig)
signal applied to the camera’s input line. The ExFSTrig signal facilitates periodic or non-periodic
acquisition start. Modes are available that allow the length of exposure time to be directly controlled
by the ExFSTrig signal or to be set for a pre-programmed period of time.
Accumulated charges are read out of the sensor when exposure ends. At readout, accumulated
charges are transported from the sensor’s light-sensitive elements (pixels) to the vertical shift
registers (see Figure 15 on page 54). The charges from the bottom line of pixels in the array are
then moved into a horizontal shift register. Next, the charges are shifted out of the horizontal
register. As the charges move out of the horizontal shift register, they are converted to voltages
proportional to the size of each charge. Each voltage is then amplified by a Variable Gain Control
(VGC) and digitized by an Analog-to-Digital converter (ADC). After each voltage has been amplified
and digitized, it passes through an FPGA and into an image buffer. All shifting is clocked according
to the camera’s internal data rate. Shifting continues in a linewise fashion until all image data has
been read out of the sensor.
The pixel data leaves the image buffer and passes back through the FPGA to an Ethernet controller
where it is assembled into data packets. The packets are then transmitted via an Ethernet network
to a network adapter in the host PC. The Ethernet controller also handles transmission and receipt
of control data such as changes to the camera’s parameters.
The image buffer between the sensor and the Ethernet controller allows data to be read out of the
sensor at a rate that is independent of the data transmission rate between the camera and the host
computer. This ensures that the data transmission rate has no influence on image quality.
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CCD Sensor
Vert.
Shift
Reg.
ADC
Vert.
Shift
Reg.
Pixels
Pixels
Vert.
Shift
Reg.
Pixels
Vert.
Shift
Reg.
Pixels
VGC
Horizontal
Shift Register
Fig. 15: CCD Sensor Architecture
60 MB
Image
Buffer
Image
Data
Sensor
VGC
ADC
ExTrig
I/O
e.g. ExpActive,
TrigRdy
Image
Data
FPGA
Image
Data
Ethernet
Controller
Image Data
and
Control Data
Ethernet
Network
Control
Control:
AOI, Gain, Black Level
MicroController
Control
Data
Fig. 16: Camera Block Diagram
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Physical Interface
7 Physical Interface
This chapter provides detailed information, such as pinouts and voltage requirements, for the
physical interface on the camera. This information will be especially useful during your initial
design-in process.
7.1
General Description of the
Connections
The camera is interfaced to external circuity via connectors located on the back of the housing:
„
An 8-pin, RJ-45 jack used to provide a 100/1000 Mbit/s Ethernet connection to the camera.
This jack includes a green LED and a yellow LED that indicate the state of the network
connection.
„
A 12-pin receptacle used to provide access to the camera’s I/O lines and to provide power to
the camera.
The drawing below shows the location of the two connectors and the LEDs.
12-pin
Receptacle
8-pin
RJ-45
Jack
Green LED
Yellow LED
Fig. 17: Camera Connectors and LED
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7.2
Connector Pin Assignments
and Numbering
7.2.1
12-pin Receptacle Pin Assignments
AW00104701000
The 12 pin receptacle is used to access the physical input line and the physical output line on the
camera. It is also used to supply power to the camera. The pin assignments for the receptacle are
shown in Table 4.
Pin
Designation
1
Camera Power Gnd *
2
Camera Power Gnd *
3
I/O Input 1
4
Non-functional
5
I/O Input Gnd
6
I/O Output 1
7
Non-functional
8
Camera Power VCC **
9
Camera Power VCC **
10
I/O Output VCC
11
Non-functional
12
Non-functional
Table 4: Pin Assignments for the 12-pin Receptacle
NOTICE
Avoid Applying Voltage to the Non-functional Pins.
Applying voltages to the non-functional pins in the 12-pin connector may damage the electronic
components in the camera. We recommend that you do not apply signals to any of the nonfunctional pins.
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* Pins 1 and 2 are tied together inside of the camera.
** Pins 8 and 9 are tied together inside of the camera.
To avoid a voltage drop when there are long wires between your power suppy and
the camera, we recommend that you provide camera power VCC through
separate wires between your power supply and pins 8 and 9 on the camera. We
also recommend that you provide camera power ground through separate wires
between your power supply and pins 1 and 2 on the camera.
Pin numbering for the 12-pin receptacle is as shown in Section 7.2.3 on page 57.
7.2.2
RJ-45 Jack Pin Assignments
The 8-pin RJ-45 jack provides Ethernet access to the camera. Pin assignments adhere to the
Ethernet standard.
7.2.3
Pin Numbering
12
5
6
11
4
7
3
8
2
9
1
10
Fig. 18: Pin Numbering for the 12-pin Receptacle
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7.3
Connector Types
7.3.1
8-pin RJ-45 Jack
AW00104701000
The 8-pin jack for the camera’s Ethernet connection is a standard RJ-45 connector.
The recommended mating connector is any standard 8-pin RJ-45 plug. Cables terminated with
screw-lock connectors are available from Basler. Contact your Basler sales representative to order
cable assemblies.
Suitable cable assemblies are also available from e.g. Components Express, Inc. and from the
Intercon 1 division of Nortech Systems, Inc.
To ensure that you order cables with the correct connectors, note the vertical orientation of the
screws before ordering.
Green and Yellow LEDs
This RJ-45 jack on the camera includes a green LED and a yellow LED. When the green LED is lit,
it indicates that an active network connection is available. When the yellow LED is lit, it indicates
that data is being transmitted via the network connection.
7.3.2
12-pin Connector
The 12-pin connector on the camera is a Hirose micro receptacle (part number HR10A-10R-12P)
or the equivalent.
The recommended mating connector is the Hirose micro plug (part number HR10A-10P-12S) or the
equivalent.
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7.4
Cabling Requirements
7.4.1
Ethernet Cables
Use high-quality Ethernet cables. To avoid EMI, the cables must be shielded. Use of category 6 or
category 7 cables with S/STP shielding is strongly recommended. As a general rule, applications
with longer cables or applications in harsh EMI conditions require higher category cables.
Either a straight-through (patch) or a cross-over Ethernet cable can be used to connect the camera
directly to a GigE network adapter in a PC or to a GigE network switch.
Close proximity to strong magnetic fields should be avoided.
7.4.2
Standard Power and I/O Cable
The standard power and I/O cable is intended for use if the camera is not
connected to a PLC device. If the camera is connected to a PLC device, we
recommend using a PLC power and I/O cable rather than the standard power and
I/O cable.
You can use a PLC power and I/O cable when the camera is not connected to a
PLC device, if power for the I/O input is supplied with 24 VDC.
See the following section for more information on PLC power and I/O cables.
A single cable is used to connect power to the camera and to connect to the camera’s I/O lines as
shown in Figure 19.
The end of the standard power and I/O cable that connects to the camera must be terminated with
a Hirose micro plug (part number HR10A-10P-12S) or the equivalent. The cable must be wired to
conform with the pin assignments shown in the pin assignment tables.
The maximum length of the standard power and I/O cable is at least 10 meters. The cable must be
shielded and must be constructed with twisted pair wire. Use of twisted pair wire is essential to
ensure that input signals are correctly received.
Close proximity to strong magnetic fields should be avoided.
The required 12-pin Hirose plug is available from Basler. Basler also offers a cable assembly that
is terminated with a 12-pin Hirose plug on one end and unterminated on the other. Contact your
Basler sales representative to order connectors or cables.
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NOTICE
Avoid Applying Voltage to the Non-functional Pins.
Applying voltages to the non-functional pins in the 12-pin connector may damage the electronic
components in the camera. We recommend that you do not apply signals to any of the nonfunctional pins.
NOTICE
An Incorrect Plug Can Damage the 12-pin Connector.
The plug on the cable that you attach to the camera’s 12-pin connector must have 12 pins. Use
of a smaller plug, such as one with 10 pins or 8 pins, can damage the pins in the camera’s 12-pin
connector.
Hirose
HR10A-10P-12S
12-pin Plug
AC In
In Pwr Gnd
In Pwr Gnd
I/O In 1
Non-functional
I/O In Gnd
I/O Out 1
Non-functional
In Pwr VCC
In Pwr VCC
I/O Out VCC
Non-functional
Non-functional
DC
Power
Supply
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Shield
Standard Power
and I/O Cable
Fig. 19: Standard Power and I/O Cable
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To avoid a voltage drop with long power wires, we recommend that you supply
camera power VCC through two separate wires between the power supply and the
camera as shown in the figure above.
We also recommend that you supply camera power ground through two separate
wires between the power supply and the camera as shown in the figure.
7.4.3
PLC Power and I/O Cable
As with the standard power and I/O cable described in the previous section, the PLC power and
I/O cable is a single cable that connects power to the camera and connects to the camera’s I/O
lines.
The PLC power and I/O cable adjusts the voltage levels of PLC devices to the voltage levels
required by the camera, and it protects the camera against negative voltage and reverse polarity.
Close proximity to strong magnetic fields should be avoided.
We recommend using a PLC power and I/O cable if the camera is connected to a
PLC device.
You can use a PLC power and I/O cable when the camera is not connected to a
PLC device, if power for the I/O input is supplied with 24 VDC.
Basler offers PLC power and I/O cables with 3 m and 10 m lengths. Each cable is terminated with
a 12-pin Hirose plug (HR10A-10P-12S) on the end that connects to the camera. The other end is
unterminated. Contact your Basler sales representative to order the cables.
For information about the applicable voltage levels, see Section 7.7.1.1 on page 64.
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Camera Power
Camera power must be supplied to the camera’s 12-pin connector via the standard power and I/O
cable or via the PLC power and I/O cable. Power consumption is as shown in the specification
tables in Section 1 of this manual.
NOTICE
Voltage Outside of Specified Range Can Cause Damage.
If the voltage of the power to the camera is greater than +30.0 VDC damage to the camera can
result. If the voltage is less than +11.3 VDC, the camera may operate erratically.
NOTICE
Avoid Applying Voltage to the Non-functional Pins.
Applying voltages to the non-functional pins in the 12-pin connector may damage the electronic
components in the camera. We recommend that you do not apply signals to any of the nonfunctional pins.
NOTICE
An Incorrect Plug Can Damage the 12-pin Connector.
The plug on the cable that you attach to the camera’s 12-pin connector must have 12 pins. Use
of a smaller plug, such as one with 10 pins or 8 pins, can damage the pins in the camera’s 12-pin
connector.
The following voltage requirements apply to the camera power VCC (pins 8 and 9 of the 12-pin
receptacle):
Voltage
< +11.3 VDC
Significance
The camera may operate erratically.
+12 to +24 VDC
Recommended operating voltage; < 1 % ripple required. Make sure to use a power
supply that supplies power in this voltage range.
+30.0 VDC
Absolute maximum; the camera may be damaged when the absolute maximum is
exceeded.
Table 5: Voltage Requirements for the Camera Power VCC
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For more information about the 12-pin connector and the power and I/O cables see Section 7.2 on
page 56, Section 7.3 on page 58, and Section 7.4 on page 59.
7.6
Ethernet GigE Device Information
The camera uses a standard Ethernet GigE transceiver. The transceiver is fully 100/1000 Base-T
802.3 compliant.
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7.7
Input and Output Lines
7.7.1
Input Line
7.7.1.1
Voltage Requirements
Different voltage levels apply, depending on whether the standard power and I/O
cable or a PLC power and I/O cable is used (see below).
Voltage Levels When the Standard Power and I/O Cable is Used
The following voltage requirements apply to the camera’s I/O input (pin 3 of the 12-pin receptacle):
Voltage
Significance
+0 to +24 VDC
Recommended operating voltage.
+0 to +1.4 VDC
The voltage indicates a logical 0.
> +1.4 to +2.2 VDC
Region where the transition threshold occurs; the logical state is not defined in this
region.
> +2.2 VDC
The voltage indicates a logical 1.
+30.0 VDC
Absolute maximum; the camera may be damaged when the absolute maximum is
exceeded.
Table 6: Voltage Requirements for the I/O Input When Using the Standard Power and I/O Cable
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Voltage Levels When a PLC Power and I/O Cable is Used
The following voltage requirements apply to the input of the PLC power and I/O cable. The PLC
power and I/O cable will adjust the voltages to the levels required at the camera’s I/O input (see
Table 4).
Voltage
Significance
+0 to +24 VDC
Recommended operating voltage.
+0 to +8.4 VDC
The voltage indicates a logical 0.
> +8.4 to +10.4 VDC
> +10.4 VDC
+30.0 VDC
Region where the transition threshold occurs; the logical state is not defined in this
region.
The voltage indicates a logical 1.
Absolute maximum; the camera may be damaged when the absolute maximum is
exceeded.
Table 7: Voltage Requirements for the I/O Input When Using a PLC Power and I/O Cable
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7.7.1.2
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Line Schematic
The camera is equipped with one physical input line designated as Input Line 1. The input line is
accessed via the 12-pin receptacle on the back of the camera.
As shown in the I/O line schematic, the input line is opto-isolated. See the previous section for input
voltages and their significances. The absolute maximum input voltage is +30.0 VDC. The current
draw for the input line is between 5 and 15 mA.
Figure 20 shows an example of a circuit you can use to input a signal into the camera.
By default, Input Line 1 is assigned to receive an external hardware trigger (ExTrig) signal that can
be used to control the start of image acquisition.
12-Pin
Receptacle
Current Limiter
In_1_Ctrl
1
I/O_In_1 2
3
I/O_In_Gnd 4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Your
Gnd
Input
Voltage
+0 to +24 VDC
Your
Gnd
Camera
Fig. 20: Voltage Input Circuit
For more information about the input line pin assignment and pin numbering, see Section 7.2 on
page 56.
For more information about how to use an ExTrig signal to control image acquisition, see
Section 9.4.5 on page 96, Section 9.5.3 on page 104 and Section 9.6.3 on page 115.
For more information about configuring the input line, see Section 8.1 on page 71.
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7.7.2
Physical Interface
Output Line
7.7.2.1
Voltage Requirements
The following voltage requirements apply to the I/O output VCC (pin 10 of the 12-pin receptacle):
Voltage
< +3.3 VDC
+3.3 to +24 VDC
+30.0 VDC
Significance
The I/O output may operate erratically.
Recommended operating voltage.
Absolute maximum; the camera may be damaged if the absolute maximum is exceeded.
Table 8: Voltage Requirements for the I/O Output VCC
7.7.2.2
Line Schematic
The camera is equipped with one physical output line designated as Output Line 1. The output line
is accessed via the 12-pin receptacle on the back of the camera.
As shown in the I/O schematic, the output line is opto-isolated. See the previous section for the
recommended operating voltage. The absolute maximum voltage is +30.0 VDC. The maximum
current allowed through the output circuit is 50 mA.
A conducting transistor means a logical one and a non-conducting transistor means a logical zero.
Figure 21 shows a schematic circuit you can use to monitor the output line with a voltage signal.
Your Gnd
Out_1_Ctrl
Camera
1
2
3
4
I/O_Out_1 5
6
7
8
I/O_Out_VCC 9
10
11
12
+3.3 to +24
VDC
Voltage
Output
Signal
to You
Load
Resistance
Your Gnd
12-Pin
Receptacle
Fig. 21: Typical Voltage Output Circuit
By default, the camera’s exposure active (ExpAc) signal is assigned to Output Line 1. The exposure
active signal indicates when exposure is taking place.
The assignment of camera output signals to the physical output line can be changed by the user.
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For more information about the output line pin assignment and pin numbering, see Section 7.2 on
page 56.
For more information about the exposure active signal, see Section Section 9.10.1 on page 135.
For more information about assigning camera output signals to the physical output line, see
Section 8.2.1 on page 73.
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7.7.3
Physical Interface
Output Line Response Time
Response times for the output line on the camera are as defined below.
Camera
Output
Signal
90%
Output
Line
Voltage
10%
ton90
toff10
Time
Fig. 22: Output Line Response Times
ton90: Time (µs) from switching on the signal until the voltage has reached 90 % of its final level.
toff10: Time (µs) from switching off the signal until the voltage has dropped to 10 % of its original
level.
The response time values for the output line on your camera will depend on the
load current and the applied voltage of your specific application. In addition, the
exact values can vary between individual cameras.
As an example, ton90 and toff10 were measured for a specific camera, for load currents of 5 mA and
50 mA, and voltages between 3.3 V and 24 V. The results are shown on the figure below.
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40
Time [µs]
50
5 mA
toff10
50 mA
30
20
10
ton90
50 mA
5 mA
Voltage [V]
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Fig. 23: Dependence of ton90 and toff10 on Voltage, for Different Load Currents; Measured for an Individual
Camera as an Example
Some general tendencies can be seen from the figure:
„
toff10 increases as the voltage increases and as the load current decreases
„
ton90 increases as the voltage and the load current increase
„
The effects due to different voltages and load currents are more pronounced on toff1 than on
ton90.
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8 I/O Control
This section describes how to configure the camera’s physical input line and the physical output
line. It also provides information about monitoring the state of the input and output line.
For more detailed information about the physical and electrical characteristics of the input and
output line, see Section 7.7 on page 64.
8.1
Configuring the Input Line
8.1.1
Assigning the Input Line to Receive a
Hardware Trigger Signal
You can assign the camera’s input line to receive external hardware trigger (ExTrig) signals. The
incoming ExTrig signals can then be used to control image acquisition.
Section 9.4.5.2 on page 97, Section 9.5.3.4 on page 107 and Section 9.6.3.4 on page 119 explain
how to configure the camera to react to a hardware trigger signal and how to assign the input line
to receive the hardware trigger signal.
The default line assignments depend on the image acquisition control mode:
„
Standard mode:
By default, physical input line 1 is assigned to receive an ExTrig signal to serve
as the frame start trigger.
„
Legacy mode:
By default, physical input line 1 is assigned to receive the ExTrig signal to
serve as the acquisition start trigger.
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Using an Unassigned Input Line to Receive
a User Input Signal
You can use the input line to receive your own, user-generated input signal. The electrical
characteristics of your input signal must meet the requirements shown in the Physical Interface
section of this manual.
You can use the Line Status or Line Status All parameters to monitor the state of the input line that
is receiving the user-defined signal.
When the input line is assigned to receive an ExTrig input signal the input line can’t
be used to receive a user-designed input signal.
For more information about using the Line Status and Line Status All parameters, see Section 8.3.1
on page 81 and Section 8.3.2 on page 81.
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8.2
Configuring the Output Line
8.2.1
Assigning a Camera Output Signal to the
Physical Output Line
You can use the camera’s output signal assignment capability to assign one of the camera’s
standard output signals as the source signal for the physical output line. The camera has a variety
of standard output signals available including:
„
Acquisition Trigger Wait (only available when the image acquisition control is set to standard
mode)
„
Trigger Ready
„
Exposure Active
„
Timer 1
You can also designate the output line as "user settable". If the output line is designated as user
settable, you can use the camera’s API to set the state of the line as desired.
To assign an output signal to the output line or to designate the line as user settable:
„
Use the Line Selector to select Output Line 1.
„
Set the value of the Line Source Parameter to one of the available output signals or to user
settable. This will set the source signal for the output line
.
By default, the Exposure Active signal is assigned to Output Line 1.
You can set the Line Selector and the Line Source parameter value from within your application
software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the
selector and the parameter value:
Camera.LineSelector.SetValue( LineSelector_Out1 );
Camera.LineSource.SetValue( LineSource_ExposureActive );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 25.
For more information about setting the state of user settable output signals, see Section 8.2.2 on
page 74.
For more information about working with the timer output signal, see Section 8.2.4 on page 76
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For more information about the exposure active signal, see Section 9.10.1 on page 135.
8.2.2
Setting the State of the User Settable Output Line
As mentioned in the previous section, you can designate the user output line as "user settable".
Once you have designated the output line as user settable, you can use camera parameters to set
the state of the line.
Setting the State of the User Settable Output Line
To set the state of the single user settable output line:
„
After it was designated as user settable, use the User Output Selector to select output line 1.
„
Set the value of the User Output Value parameter to true (high) or false (low). This will set the
state of the selected line.
You can set the Output Selector and the User Output Value parameter from within your application
software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to designate
output line 1 as user settable and setting the state of the output line:
Camera.LineSelector.SetValue( LineSelector_Out1 );
Camera.LineSource.SetValue( LineSource_UserOutput );
Camera.UserOutputSelector.SetValue( UserOutputSelector_UserOutput1 );
Camera.UserOutputValue.SetValue( true );
bool currentUserOutput1State = Camera.UserOutputValue.GetValue( );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
If you have the invert function enabled on the output line that is designated as user
settable, the user setting sets the state of the line before the inverter.
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I/O Control
Setting the Output Line for Invert
You can set the output line to invert or not to invert the outgoing signal. To set the invert function on
the output line:
„
Use the Line Selector to select output line 1.
„
Set the value of the Line Inverter parameter to true to enable inversion on the selected line and
to false to disable inversion.
You can set the Line Selector and the Line Inverter parameter value from within your application
software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the
selector and the parameter value:
// Enable the inverter on output line 1
Camera.LineSelector.SetValue( LineSelector_Out1 );
Camera.LineInverter.SetValue( true );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.For more
information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 25.
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Working with the Timer
The camera has a timer output signal available: Timer 1. As shown in Figure 24, the timer works as
follows:
„
A trigger source event occurs that starts the timer.
„
A delay period begins to expire.
„
When the delay expires, the timer signal goes high and a duration period begins to expire.
„
When the duration period expires, the timer signal goes low.
Duration
Delay
Trigger source event occurs
Fig. 24: Timer Signal
Currently, the only trigger source event available to start the timer is "exposure active". In other
words, you can use exposure start to trigger the start of the timer.
If you require the timer signal to be high when the timer is triggered and to go low when the delay
expires, simply set the output line to invert.
8.2.4.1
Setting the Trigger Source for the Timer
To set the trigger source for the timer:
„
Use the Timer Selector to select timer 1.
„
Set the value of the Timer Trigger Source parameter to exposure active. This will set the
selected timer to use the start of exposure to begin the timer.
You can set the Trigger Selector and the Timer Trigger Source parameter value from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
set the selector and the parameter value:
Camera.TimerSelector.SetValue( TimerSelector_Timer1 );
Camera.TimerTriggerSource.SetValue( TimerTriggerSource_ExposureStart );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 25.
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I/O Control
Setting a Timer Delay Time
There are two ways to set the delay time for the timer: by setting "raw" values or by setting an
"absolute value". You can use whichever method you prefer to set the delay time.
Setting the Delay with Raw Values
When the delay time for the timer is set using "raw" values, the delay time will be determined by a
combination of two elements. The first element is the value of the Timer Delay Raw parameter, and
the second element is the Timer Delay Time Base. The delay time is the product of these two
elements:
Delay Time = (Timer Delay Raw Parameter Value) x (Timer Delay Time Base)
By default, the Timer Delay Time Base is fixed at 1 µs. Typically, the delay time is adjusted by setting
the Timer Delay Raw parameter value.
The Timer Delay Raw parameter value can range from 0 to 4095. So if the value is set to 100, for
example, the timer delay will be 100 x 1 µs or 100 µs.
To set the delay for the timer:
„
Use the Timer Selector to select Timer 1.
„
Set the value of the Timer Delay Raw parameter.
You can set the Timer Selector and the Timer Delay Raw parameter value from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
set the selector and the parameter value:
Camera.TimerSelector.SetValue( TimerSelector_Timer1 );
Camera.TimerDelayRaw.SetValue( 100 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
Changing the Delay Time Base
By default, the Timer Delay Time Base is fixed at 1 µs (minimum value), and the timer delay is
normally adjusted by setting the value of the Timer Delay Raw parameter. However, if you require
a delay time that is longer than what you can achieve by changing the value of the Timer Delay Raw
parameter alone, the Timer Delay Time Base Abs parameter can be used to change the delay time
base.
The Timer Delay Time Base Abs parameter value sets the delay time base in µs. The default is 1 µs
and it can be changed in 1 µs increments.
You can set the Timer Delay Time Base Abs parameter value from within your application software
by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the parameter
value:
Camera.TimerDelayTimebaseAbs.SetValue( 5 );
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Setting the Delay with an Absolute Value
You can also set the Timer duration by using an "absolute" value. This is accomplished by setting
the Timer Duration Abs parameter. The units for setting this parameter are µs and the value can be
set in increments of 1 µs.
To set the duration for the timer using an absolute value:
„
Use the Timer Selector to select Timer 1.
„
Set the value of the Timer Duration Abs parameter.
You can set the Timer Selector and the Timer Duration Abs parameter value from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
set the selector and the parameter value:
Camera.TimerSelector.SetValue( TimerSelector_Timer1 );
Camera.TimerDurationAbs.SetValue( 100 );
When you use the Timer Duration Abs parameter to set the duration time, the camera accomplishes
the setting change by automatically changing the Timer Duration Raw parameter to achieve the
value specified by the Timer Duration Abs setting. This leads to a limitation that you must keep in
mind if you use Timer Duration Abs parameter to set the duration time. That is, you must set the
Timer Duration Abs parameter to a value that is equivalent to a setting you could achieve by using
the Timer Duration Raw and the current Timer Duration Base parameters. For example, if the time
base was currently set to 50 µs, you could use the Timer Duration Abs parameter to set the duration
to 50 µs, 100 µs, 150 µs, etc.
If you read the current value of the Timer Duration Abs parameter, the value will indicate the product
of the Timer Duration Raw parameter and the Timer Duration Time Base. In other words, the Timer
Duration Abs parameter will indicate the current duration time setting.
You should also be aware that if you change the duration time using the raw settings, the Timer
Duration Abs parameter will automatically be updated to reflect the new duration time.
8.2.4.3
Setting a Timer Duration Time
There are two ways to set the duration time for the timer: by setting "raw" values or by setting an
"absolute value". You can use whichever method you prefer to set the duration time.
Setting the Duration with Raw Values
When the duration time for the timer is set using "raw" values, the duration time will be determined
by a combination of two elements. The first element is the value of the Timer Duration Raw
parameter, and the second element is the Timer Duration Time Base. The duration time is the
product of these two elements:
Duration Time = (Timer Duration Raw Parameter Value) x (Timer Duration Time Base)
By default, the Timer Duration Time Base is fixed at 1 µs. Typically, the duration time is adjusted by
setting only the Timer Duration Raw parameter value.
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The Timer Duration Raw parameter value can range from 1 to 4095. So if the value is set to 100,
for example, the timer duration will be 100 x 1 µs or 100 µs.
To set the duration for the timer:
„
Use the Timer Selector to select the timer.
„
Set the value of the Timer Duration Raw parameter.
You can set the Timer Selector and the Timer Duration Raw parameter value from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
set the selector and the parameter value:
Camera.TimerSelector.SetValue( TimerSelector_Timer1 );
Camera.TimerDurationRaw.SetValue( 100 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
Changing the Duration Time Base
By default, the Timer Duration Time Base is fixed at 1 µs, and the timer duration is normally adjusted
by setting the value of the Timer Duration Raw parameter. However, if you require a duration time
that is longer than what you can achieve by changing the value of the Timer Duration Raw
parameter alone, the Timer Duration Time Base Abs parameter can be used to change the duration
time base.
The Timer Duration Time Base Abs parameter value sets the duration time base in µs. The default
is 1 µs and it can be changed in 1 µs increments.
You can set the Timer Duration Time Base Abs parameter value from within your application
software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the
parameter value:
Camera.TimerDurationTimebaseAbs.SetValue( 5 );
Setting the Duration with an Absolute Value
You can also set the Timer duration by using an "absolute" value. This is accomplished by setting
the Timer Duration Abs parameter. The units for setting this parameter are µs and the value can be
set in increments of 1 µs.
To set the duration for the timer using an absolute value:
„
Use the Timer Selector to select the timer.
„
Set the value of the Timer Duration Abs parameter.
You can set the Timer Selector and the Timer Duration Abs parameter value from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
set the selector and the parameter value:
Camera.TimerSelector.SetValue( TimerSelector_Timer1 );
Camera.TimerDurationAbs.SetValue( 100 );
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When you use the Timer Duration Abs parameter to set the duration time, the camera accomplishes
the setting change by automatically changing the Timer Duration Raw parameter to achieve the
value specified by the Timer Duration Abs setting. This leads to a limitation that you must keep in
mind if you use Timer Duration Abs parameter to set the duration time. That is, you must set the
Timer Duration Abs parameter to a value that is equivalent to a setting you could achieve by using
the Timer Duration Raw and the current Timer Duration Base parameters. For example, if the time
base was currently set to 50 µs, you could use the Timer Duration Abs parameter to set the duration
to 50 µs, 100 µs, 150 µs, etc.
If you read the current value of the Timer Duration Abs parameter, the value will indicate the product
of the Timer Duration Raw parameter and the Timer Duration Time Base. In other words, the Timer
Duration Abs parameter will indicate the current duration time setting.
You should also be aware that if you change the duration time using the raw settings, the Timer
Duration Abs parameter will automatically be updated to reflect the new duration time.
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8.3
Checking the State of the I/O Lines
8.3.1
Checking the State of the Output Line
You can determine the current state of the output line. To check the state of the line:
„
Use the Line Selector parameter to select the output line.
„
Read the value of the Line Status parameter to determine the current state of the selected line.
A value of true means the line’s state is currently high and a value of false means the line’s
state is currently low.
You can set the Line Selector and read the Line Status parameter value from within your application
software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the
selector and read the parameter value:
// Select output line 1 and read the state
Camera.LineSelector.SetValue( LineSelector_Out1 );
bool outputLine1State = Camera.LineStatus.GetValue( );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 25.
8.3.2
Checking the State of Both Lines
You can determine the current state of the input and output lines with a single operation. To check
the state of both lines:
„
Read the value of the Line Status All parameter.
You can read the Line Status All parameter value from within your application software by using the
pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to read the parameter value:
int64_t lineState = Camera.LineStatusAll.GetValue( );
The Line Status All parameter is a 32 bit value. As shown in Figure 25, certain bits in the value are
associated with each line, and the bits will indicate the state of the lines. If a bit is 0, it indicates that
the state of the associated line is currently low. If a bit is 1, it indicates that the state of the associated
line is currently high.
Indicates output line 1 state
Indicates input line 1 state
Fig. 25: Line Status All Parameter Bits
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Image Acquisition Control
9 Image Acquisition Control
This section provides detailed information about controlling image acquisition. You will find details
about choosing between image acquisition control modes, triggering image acquisition, setting the
exposure time for each acquired image and about how the camera’s maximum allowed acquisition
frame rate can vary depending on the current camera settings.
9.1
Image Acquisition Control Modes:
Legacy and Standard
Two different image acquisition control modes are available: the legacy mode and the standard
mode. Previous Basler scout cameras with firmware version 3.2 and below only operate according
to the legacy mode.
The legacy mode differs from the standard mode in only two respects:
„
the acquisition start trigger of the standard mode is not available in the legacy mode.
„
the frame start trigger of the standard mode is called "acquisition start trigger" in the legacy
mode.
Recommendations for choosing the image acquisition control mode:
„
If you want to operate the camera together with previous cameras we recommend choosing
the legacy mode. In this mode, triggering the camera will be exactly as for previous cameras.
Note also that you will not have to modify any code of your application.
„
If you do not want to operate the camera together with previous cameras we most strongly
recommend choosing the standard mode.
For more information about acquisition start trigger in the legacy mode, see Section 9.6 on
page 109.
For more information about acquisition start trigger and frame start trigger in the standard mode,
see Section 9.4 on page 91 and Section 9.5 on page 98, respectively.
For more information about determinig the camera’s firmware version, see Section 11.13 on
page 201.
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When the camera is started for the first time after delivery from the factory the
image acquisition control will be in legacy mode.
If you want the camera to start in standard mode, set the camera to standard mode
(see below), save the current parameter settings as a user set and designate this
user set as the startup set.
For more information about saving parameter settings as a user set and about working with user
sets, see Section 11.14 on page 203.
Setting the Image Acquisition Control Mode
You can set the image acquisition control mode from within your application software by using the
pylon API. The following code snippets illustrate using the API to set the image acquisition control
mode to standard mode and to legacy mode, respectively:
Camera.TriggerControlImplementation =
TriggerControlImplementation_Standard;
Camera.TriggerControlImplementation =
TriggerControlImplementation_Legacy;
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the image acquisition control
mode.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 25.
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9.2
Image Acquisition Control
Means for Controlling Image
Acquisition in Standard Mode
This section assumes that the standard mode is enabled for image acquisition
control.
In principle, this section also applies if the legacy mode is enabled instead.
In this case, however, the following differences must be taken into account:
„
the acquisition start trigger of the standard mode is not available in the legacy
mode.
„
the frame start trigger of the standard mode is called "acquisition start trigger"
in the legacy mode.
When the camera is started for the first time after delivery from the factory the
image acquisition control will not be in standard mode but in legacy mode.
Use the legacy mode only if you want to operate the camera together with
previous cameras not featuring the standard mode.
For more information about standard mode and legacy mode and how to set them, see Section 9.1
on page 83.
This section presents an overview of the elements involved with controlling the acquisition of
images. Reading this section will give you an idea about how these elements fit together and will
make it easier to understand the detailed information in the sections that follow.
Four major elements are involved in controlling the acquisition of images:
„
Acquisition start and acquisition stop commands and the acquisition mode parameter
„
The acquisition start trigger
„
The frame start trigger
„
Exposure time control
When reading the explanations in the overview and in this entire chapter, keep in mind that the term
"frame" is typically used to mean a single acquired image.
When reading the material in this section, it is helpful to refer to Figure 26 on page 87 and to the
use case diagrams in Section 9.8 on page 123. These diagrams present the material related to the
acquisition start and stop commands, the acquisition mode, the acquisition start trigger, and the
frame start trigger in a graphical format.
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Acquisition Start and Stop Commands and the Acquisition Mode
The Acquisition Start command prepares the camera to acquire frames. The camera cannot acquire
frames unless an Acquisition Start command has first been executed.
A parameter called the Acquisition Mode has a direct bearing on how the Acquisition Start
command operates.
If the Acquisition Mode parameter is set to "single frame", you can only acquire one frame after
executing an Acquisition Start command. When one frame has been acquired, the Acquisition Start
command will expire. Before attempting to acquire another frame, you must execute a new
Acquisition Start command.
If the Acquisition Mode parameter is set to "continuous frame", an Acquisition Start command does
not expire after a single frame is captured. Once an Acquisition Start command has been executed,
you can acquire as many frames as you like. The Acquisition Start command will remain in effect
until you execute an Acquisition Stop command. Once an Acquisition Stop command has been
executed, the camera will not be able to acquire frames until a new Acquisition Start command is
executed.
Acquisition Start Trigger
The acquisition start trigger is essentially an enabler for the frame start trigger.
The acquisition start trigger has two modes of operation: off and on.
If the Trigger Mode parameter for the acquisition start trigger is set to off, the camera will generate
all required acquisition start trigger signals internally, and you do not need to apply acquisition start
trigger signals to the camera.
If the Trigger Mode parameter for the acquisition start trigger is set to on, the initial acquisition status
of the camera will be "waiting for acquisition start trigger" (see Figure 26 on page 87). When the
camera is in this acquisition status, it cannot react to frame start trigger signals. When an acquisition
start trigger signal is applied to the camera, the camera will exit the "waiting for acquisition start
trigger" acquisition status and enter a "waiting for frame start trigger" acquisition status. The camera
can then react to frame start trigger signals. The camera will continue to react to frame start trigger
signals until the number of frame start trigger signals it has received is equal to an integer parameter
setting called the Acquisition Frame Count. At that point, the camera will return to the "waiting for
acquisition start trigger" acquisition status and will remain in that status until a new acquisition start
trigger signal is applied.
As an example, assume that the Trigger Mode parameter is set to on, the Acquisition Frame Count
parameter is set to three, and the camera is in a "waiting for acquisition start trigger" acquisition
status. When an acquisition start trigger signal is applied to the camera, it will exit the "waiting for
acquisition start trigger" acquisition status and enter the "waiting for frame start trigger" acquisition
status. Once the camera has received three frame start trigger signals, it will return to the "waiting
for acquisition start trigger" acquisition status. At that point, you must apply a new acquisition start
trigger signal to the camera to make it exit "waiting for acquisition start trigger".
Frame Start Trigger
Assuming that an acquisition start trigger signal has just been applied to the camera, the camera
will exit from the "waiting for acquisition start trigger" acquisition status and enter a "waiting for
frame start trigger" acquisition status. Applying a frame start trigger signal to the camera at this point
will exit the camera from the "waiting for frame start trigger" acquisition status and will begin the
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process of exposing and reading out a frame (see Figure 26 on page 87). As soon as the camera
is ready to accept another frame start trigger signal, it will return to the "waiting for frame start
trigger" acquisition status. A new frame start trigger signal can then be applied to the camera to
begin another frame exposure.
The frame start trigger has two modes: off and on.
If the Trigger Mode parameter for the frame start trigger is set to off, the camera will generate all
required frame start trigger signals internally, and you do not need to apply frame start trigger
signals to the camera. The rate at which the camera will generate the signals and acquire frames
will be determined by the way that you set several frame rate related parameters.
If the Trigger Mode parameter for the frame start trigger is set to on, you must trigger frame start by
applying frame start trigger signals to the camera. Each time a trigger signal is applied, the camera
will begin a frame exposure. When frame start is being triggered in this manner, it is important that
you do not attempt to trigger frames at a rate that is greater than the maximum allowed. (There is
a detailed explanation about the maximum allowed frame rate at the end of this chapter.) Frame
start trigger signals applied to the camera when it is not in a "waiting for frame start trigger"
acquisition status will be ignored.
= camera is waiting for an acquisition start trigger signal
= camera is waiting for a frame start trigger signal
= frame exposure and readout
= frame transmission
= a frame start trigger signal that will be ignored because the camera
is not in a "waiting for frame start trigger" status
Acquisition Frame Count parameter setting = 3
Acquisition
Stop
Command
Executed
Acquisition
Start
Command
Executed
Acquisition Start
Trigger Signal
Frame Start
Trigger Signal
Time
Fig. 26: Acquisition Start and Frame Start Triggering
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Applying Trigger Signals
The paragraphs above mention "applying a trigger signal". There are two ways to apply an
acquisition start or a frame start trigger signal to the camera: via software or via hardware.
To apply trigger signals via software, you must first select the acquisition start or the frame start
trigger and then indicate that software will be used as the source for the selected trigger signal. At
that point, each time a Trigger Software command is executed, the selected trigger signal will be
applied to the camera.
To apply trigger signals via hardware, you must first select the acquisition start or the frame start
trigger and indicate that input line 1 will be used as the source for the selected trigger signal. At that
point, each time a proper electrical signal is applied to input line 1, an occurance of the selected
trigger signal will be recognized by the camera.
The Trigger Selector
The concept of the "trigger selector" is very important to understand when working with the
acquisition start and frame start triggers. Many of the parameter settings and the commands that
apply to the triggers have names that are not specific to a particular type of trigger, for example, the
acquisition start trigger has a mode setting and the frame start trigger has a mode setting. But in
Basler pylon there is a single parameter, the Trigger Mode parameter, that is used to set the mode
for both of these triggers. Also, the Trigger Software command mentioned earlier can be executed
for either the acquisition start trigger or the frame start trigger. So if you want to set the Trigger Mode
or execute a Trigger Software command for the acquisition start trigger rather than the frame start
trigger, how do you do it? The answer is, by using the Trigger Selector parameter. Whenever you
want to work with a specific type of trigger, your first step is to set the Trigger Selector parameter to
the trigger you want to work with (either the acquisition start trigger or the frame start trigger). At
that point, the changes you make to the Trigger Mode, Trigger Source, etc., will be applied to the
selected trigger only.
Exposure Time Control
As mentioned earlier, when a frame start trigger signal is applied to the camera, the camera will
begin to acquire a frame. A critical aspect of frame acquisition is how long the pixels in the camera’s
sensor will be exposed to light during the frame acquisition.
If the camera is set for software frame start triggering, the exposure time parameters will determine
the exposure time for each frame.
If the camera is set for hardware frame start triggering, there are two modes of operation: "timed"
and "trigger width". With the "timed" mode, the exposure time parameters will determine the
exposure time for each frame. With the "trigger width" mode, the way that you manipulate the rise
and fall of the hardware signal will determine the exposure time. The "trigger width" mode is
especially useful if you want to change the exposure time from frame to frame.
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9.3
Image Acquisition Control
Acquisition Start and Stop Commands
and the Acquisition Mode
(Legacy and Standard Mode)
Executing an Acquisition Start commmand prepares the camera to acquire frames. You must
execute an Acquisition Start command before you can begin acquiring frames.
Executing an Acquisition Stop command terminates the camera’s ability to acquire frames. When
the camera receives an Acquisition stop command:
„
If the camera is not in the process of acquiring a frame, its ability to acquire frames will be
terminated immediately.
„
If the camera is in the process of acquiring a frame, the frame acquisition process will be
allowed to finish and the camera’s ability to acquire new frames will be terminated.
The camera’s Acquisition Mode parameter has two settings: single frame and continuous. The use
of Acquisition Start and Acquisition Stop commands and the camera’s Acquisition Mode parameter
setting are related.
If the camera’s Acquisition Mode parameter is set for single frame, after an Acquisition Start
command has been executed, a single frame can be acquired. When acquisition of one frame is
complete, the camera will execute an Acquisition Stop command internally and will no longer be
able to acquire frames. To acquire another frame, you must execute a new Acquisition Start
command.
If the camera’s Acquisition Mode parameter is set for continuous frame, after an Acquisition Start
command has been executed, frame acquisition can be triggered as desired. Each time a frame
trigger is applied while the camera is in a "waiting for frame trigger" acquisition status, the camera
will acquire and transmit a frame. The camera will retain the ability to acquire frames until an
Acquisition Stop command is executed. Once the Acquisition Stop command is received, the
camera will no longer be able to acquire frames.
Setting the Acquisition Mode and Issuing Start/Stop Commands
You can set the Acquisition Mode parameter value and you can execute Acquisition Start or
Acquisition Stop commands from within your application software by using the Basler pylon API.
The code snippet below illustrates using the API to set the Acquisition Mode parameter value and
to execute an Acquisition Start command. Note that the snippet also illustrates setting several
parameters regarding frame triggering. These parameters are discussed later in this chapter.
Camera.AcquisitionMode.SetValue( AcquisitionMode_SingleFrame );
Camera.TriggerSelector.SetValue( TriggerSelector_FrameStart );
Camera.TriggerMode.SetValue( TriggerMode_On );
Camera.TriggerSource.SetValue ( TriggerSource_Line1 );
Camera.TriggerActivation.SetValue( TriggerActivation_RisingEdge );
Camera.ExposureMode.SetValue( ExposureMode_Timed );
Camera.ExposureTimeAbs.SetValue( 3000 );
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Camera.AcquisitionStart.Execute( );
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 25.
When the camera's acquisition mode is set to single frame, the maximum possible
acquisition frame rate for a given AOI cannot be achieved. This is true because
the camera performs a complete internal setup cycle for each single frame and
because it cannot be operated with "overlapped" exposure.
To achieve the maximum possible acquisition frame rate set the camera for the
continuous acquisition mode and also use "overlapped" exposure.
For more information about overlapped exposure, see Section 9.9 on page 133.
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9.4
Image Acquisition Control
The Acquisition Start Trigger in
Standard Mode
This section only applies if the standard mode is enabled for image acquisition
control.
When the camera is started for the first time after delivery from the factory the
image acquisition control will not be in standard mode but in legacy mode.
Use the legacy mode only if you want to operate the camera together with
previous cameras not featuring the standard mode.
For more information about standard mode and legacy mode and how to set them, see Section 9.1
on page 83.
The acquisition start trigger is used in conjunction with the frame start trigger to control the
acquisition of frames. In essence, the acquisition start trigger is used as an enabler for the frame
start trigger. Acquisition start trigger signals can be generated within the camera or may be applied
externally as software or hardware acquisition start trigger signals.
When the acquisition start trigger is enabled, the camera’s initial acquisition status is "waiting for
acquisition start trigger". When the camera is in this acquisition status, it will ignore any frame start
trigger signals it receives. If an acquisition start trigger signal is applied to the camera, it will exit the
"waiting for acquisition start trigger" acquisition status and enter the "waiting for frame start trigger"
acquisition status. In this acquisition status, the camera can react to frame start trigger signals and
will begin to expose a frame each time a proper frame start trigger signal is applied.
A primary feature of the acquisition start trigger is that after an acquisition start trigger signal has
been applied to the camera and the camera has entered the "waiting for frame start trigger"
acquisition status, the camera will return to the "waiting for acquisition start trigger" acquisition
status once a specified number of frame start triggers has been received. Before more frames can
be acquired, a new acquisition start trigger signal must be applied to the camera to exit it from
"waiting for acquisition start trigger" status. Note that this feature only applies when the Trigger
Mode parameter for the acquisition start trigger is set to on. This feature is explained in greater
detail in the following sections.
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Acquisition Start Trigger Mode (Standard Mode)
The main parameter associated with the acquisition start trigger is the Trigger Mode parameter. The
Trigger Mode parameter for the acquisition start trigger has two available settings: off and on.
9.4.1.1
Acquisition Start Trigger Mode = Off
When the Trigger Mode parameter for the acquisition start trigger is set to off, the camera will
generate all required acquisition start trigger signals internally, and you do not need to apply
acquisition start trigger signals to the camera.
9.4.1.2
Acquisition Start Trigger Mode = On
When the Trigger Mode parameter for the acquisition start trigger is set to on, the camera will initially
be in a "waiting for acquisition start trigger" acquisition status and cannot react to frame start trigger
signals. You must apply an acquisition start trigger signal to the camera to exit the camera from the
"waiting for acquisition start trigger" acquisition status and enter the "waiting for frame start trigger"
acquisition status. The camera can then react to frame start trigger signals and will continue to do
so until the number of frame start trigger signals it has received is equal to the current Acquisition
Frame Count parameter setting. The camera will then return to the "waiting for acquisition start
trigger" acquisition status. In order to acquire more frames, you must apply a new acquisition start
trigger signal to the camera to exit it from the "waiting for acquisition start trigger" acquisition status.
When the Trigger Mode parameter for the acquisition start trigger is set to on, you must select a
source signal to serve as the acquisition start trigger. The Trigger Source parameter specifies the
source signal. The available selections for the Trigger Source parameter are:
„
Software - When the source signal is set to software, you apply an acquisition start trigger
signal to the camera by executing an Trigger Software command for the acquisition start
trigger on the host PC.
„
Line 1 - When the source signal is set to line 1, you apply an acquisition start trigger signal to
the camera by injecting an externally generated electrical signal (commonly referred to as a
hardware trigger signal) into physical input line 1 on the camera.
If the Trigger Source parameter for the acquisition start trigger is set to Line 1, you must also set
the Trigger Activation parameter. The available settings for the Trigger Activation parameter are:
„
Rising Edge - specifies that a rising edge of the electrical signal will act as the acquisition start
trigger.
„
Falling Edge - specifies that a falling edge of the electrical signal will act as the acquisition start
trigger.
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When the Trigger Mode parameter for the acquisition start trigger is set to
on, the camera’s Acquisition Mode parameter must be set to continuous.
9.4.2
Acquisition Frame Count (Standard Mode)
When the Trigger Mode parameter for the acquisition start trigger is set to on, you must set the value
of the camera’s Acquisition Frame Count parameter. The value of the Acquisition Frame Count can
range from 1 to 255.
With acquisition start triggering on, the camera will initially be in a "waiting for acquisition start
trigger" acquisition status. When in this acquisition status, the camera cannot react to frame start
trigger signals. If an acquisition start trigger signal is applied to the camera, the camera will exit the
"waiting for acquisition start trigger" acquisition status and will enter the "waiting for frame start
trigger" acquisition status. It can then react to frame start trigger signals. When the camera has
received a number of frame start trigger signals equal to the current Acquisition Frame Count
parameter setting, it will return to the "waiting for acquisition start trigger" acquisition status. At that
point, you must apply a new acquisition start trigger signal to exit the camera from the "waiting for
acquisition start trigger" acquisition status.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 25.
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Setting the Acquisition Start Trigger Mode and
Related Parameters (Standard Mode)
You can set the Trigger Mode and Trigger Source parameters for the acquisition start trigger and
also set the Acquisition Frame Count parameter value from within your application software by
using the Basler pylon API.
The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the Trigger Mode to on, the Trigger
Source to software, and the Acquisition Frame Count to 5:
// Set the acquisition mode to continuous(the acquisition mode must
// be set to continuous when acquisition start triggering is on)
Camera.AcquisitionMode.SetValue( AcquisitionMode_Continuous );
// Select the acquisition start trigger
Camera.TriggerSelector.SetValue( TriggerSelector_AcquisitionStart );
// Set the mode for the selected trigger
Camera.TriggerMode.SetValue( TriggerMode_On );
// Set the source for the selected trigger
Camera.TriggerSource.SetValue ( TriggerSource_Software );
// Set the acquisition frame count
Camera.AcquisitionFrameCount.SetValue( 5 );
The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the Trigger Mode to on, the Trigger
Source to line 1, the Trigger Activation to rising edge, and the Acquisition Frame Count to 5:
// Set the acquisition mode to continuous(the acquisition mode must
// be set to continuous when acquisition start triggering is on)
Camera.AcquisitionMode.SetValue( AcquisitionMode_Continuous );
// Select the acquisition start trigger
Camera.TriggerSelector.SetValue( TriggerSelector_AcquisitionStart );
// Set the mode for the selected trigger
Camera.TriggerMode.SetValue( TriggerMode_On );
// Set the source for the selected trigger
Camera.TriggerSource.SetValue ( TriggerSource_Line1 );
// Set the activation mode for the selected trigger to rising edge
Camera.TriggerActivation.SetValue( TriggerActivation_RisingEdge );
// Set the acquisition frame count
Camera.AcquisitionFrameCount.SetValue( 5 );
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 25.
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9.4.4
9.4.4.1
Image Acquisition Control
Using a Software Acquisition Start Trigger
(Standard Mode)
Introduction
If the camera’s Acquisition Start Trigger Mode parameter is set to on and the Acquisition Start
Trigger Source parameter is set to software, you must apply a software acquisition start trigger
signal to the camera before you can begin frame acquisition.
A software acquisition start trigger signal is applied by:
„
Setting the Trigger Selector parameter to Acquisition Start.
„
Executing a Trigger Software command.
The camera will initially be in a "waiting for acquisition start trigger" acquisition status. It cannot react
to frame trigger signals when in this acquisition status. When a software acquisition start trigger
signal is received by the camera, it will exit the "waiting for acquisition start trigger" acquisition status
and will enter the "waiting for frame start trigger" acquisition status. It can then react to frame start
trigger signals. When the number of frame start trigger signals received by the camera is equal to
the current Acquisition Frame Count parameter setting, the camera will return to the "waiting for
acquisition start trigger" acquisition status. When a new software acquisition start trigger signal is
applied to the camera, it will again exit from the "waiting for acquisition start trigger" acquisition
status and enter the "waiting for frame start trigger" acquisition status.
(Note that as long as the Trigger Selector parameter is set to Acquisition Start, a software
acquisition start trigger will be applied to the camera each time a Trigger Software command is
executed.)
9.4.4.2
Setting the Parameters Related to Software Acquisition Start
Triggering and Applying a Software Trigger Signal
You can set all of the parameters needed to perform software acquisition start triggering from within
your application software by using the Basler pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using
the API to set the parameter values and to execute the commands related to software acquisition
start triggering with the camera set for continuous frame acquisition mode:
// Set the acquisition mode to continuous(the acquisition mode must
// be set to continuous when acquisition start triggering is on)
Camera.AcquisitionMode.SetValue( AcquisitionMode_Continuous );
// Select the acquisition start trigger
Camera.TriggerSelector.SetValue( TriggerSelector_AcquisitionStart );
// Set the mode for the selected trigger
Camera.TriggerMode.SetValue( TriggerMode_On );
// Set the source for the selected trigger
Camera.TriggerSource.SetValue ( TriggerSource_Software );
// Set the acquisition frame count
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Camera.AcquisitionFrameCount.SetValue( 5 );
// Execute an acquisition start command to prepare for frame acquisition
Camera.AcquisitionStart.Execute( );
while ( ! finished )
{
// Execute a trigger software command to apply a software acquisition
// start trigger signal to the camera
Camera.TriggerSoftware.Execute( );
// Perform the required functions to parameterize the frame start
// trigger, to trigger 5 frame starts, and to retrieve 5 frames here
}
Camera.AcquisitionStop.Execute( );
// Note: as long as the Trigger Selector is set to Acquisition Start, executing
// a Trigger Software command will apply a software acquisition start trigger
// signal to the camera
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
9.4.5
9.4.5.1
Using a Hardware Acquisition Start Trigger
(Standard Mode)
Introduction
If the Trigger Mode parameter for the acquisition start trigger is set to on and the Trigger Source
parameter is set to line 1, an externally generated electrical signal injected into physical input line 1
on the camera will act as the acquisition start trigger signal for the camera. This type of trigger signal
is generally referred to as a hardware trigger signal or as an external acquisition start trigger signal
(ExASTrig).
A rising edge or a falling edge of the ExASTrig signal can be used to trigger acquisition start. The
Trigger Activation parameter is used to select rising edge or falling edge triggering.
When the Trigger Mode parameter is set to on, the camera will initially be in a "waiting for acquisition
start trigger" acquisition status. It cannot react to frame start trigger signals when in this acquisition
status. When the appropriate ExASTrig signal is applied to line 1 (e.g, a rising edge of the signal for
rising edge triggering), the camera will exit the "waiting for acquisition start trigger" acquisition
status and will enter the "waiting for frame start trigger" acquisition status. It can then react to frame
start trigger signals. When the number of frame start trigger signals received by the camera is equal
to the current Acquisition Frame Count parameter setting, the camera will return to the "waiting for
acquisition start trigger" acquisition status. When a new ExASTrig signal is applied to line 1, the
camera will again exit from the "waiting for acquisition start trigger" acquisition status and enter the
"waiting for frame start trigger" acquisition status.
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For more information about setting the camera for hardware acquisition start triggering and
selecting the input line to receive the ExASTrig signal, see Section 9.4.5.2 on page 97.
For more information about the electrical requirements for input line 1, see Section 7.7.1 on
page 64.
9.4.5.2
Setting the Parameters Related to Hardware Acquisition Start
Triggering and Applying a Hardware Trigger Signal
You can set all of the parameters needed to perform hardware acquisition start triggering from within
your application by using the Basler pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API
to set the parameter values required to enable rising edge hardware acquisition start triggering with
line 1 as the trigger source:
// Set the acquisition mode to continuous(the acquisition mode must
// be set to continuous when acquisition start triggering is on)
Camera.AcquisitionMode.SetValue( AcquisitionMode_Continuous );
// Select the acquisition start trigger
Camera.TriggerSelector.SetValue( TriggerSelector_AcquisitionStart );
// Set the mode for the selected trigger
Camera.TriggerMode.SetValue( TriggerMode_On );
// Set the source for the selected trigger
Camera.TriggerSource.SetValue ( TriggerSource_Line1 );
// Set the activation mode for the selected trigger to rising edge
Camera.TriggerActivation.SetValue( TriggerActivation_RisingEdge );
// Set the acquisition frame count
Camera.AcquisitionFrameCount.SetValue( 5 );
// Execute an acquisition start command to prepare for frame acquisition
Camera.AcquisitionStart.Execute( );
while ( ! finished )
{
// Apply a rising edge of the externally generated electrical signal
// (ExASTrig signal) to input line 1 on the camera
// Perform the required functions to parameterize the frame start
// trigger, to trigger 5 frame starts, and to retrieve 5 frames here
}
Camera.AcquisitionStop.Execute( );
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 25.
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9.5
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The Frame Start Trigger in
Standard Mode
This section only applies if the standard mode is enabled for image acquisition
control.
When the camera is started for the first time after delivery from the factory the
image acquisition control will not be in standard mode but in legacy mode.
Use the legacy mode only if you want to operate the camera together with
previous cameras not featuring the standard mode.
For more information about standard mode and legacy mode and how to set them, see Section 9.1
on page 83.
The frame start trigger is used to begin frame acquisition. Assuming that the camera is in a "waiting
for frame start trigger" acquisition status, it will begin a frame acquisition each time it receives a
frame start trigger signal.
Note that in order for the camera to be in a "waiting for frame start trigger" acquisition status:
„
The Acquisition Mode parameter must be set correctly.
„
A proper Acquisition Start command must be applied to the camera.
„
A proper acquisition start trigger signal must be applied to the camera (if the Trigger Mode
parameter for the acquisition start trigger is set to on).
For more information about the Acquisition Mode parameter and about Acquisition Start and
Acquisition Stop commands, see Section 9.2 on page 85 and Section 9.3 on page 89.
For more information about the acquisition start trigger, and about the acquisition status, see
Section 9.2 on page 85 and Section 9.4 on page 91.
Referring to the use case diagrams that appear in Section 9.8 on page 123 can help you
understand the explanations of the frame start trigger.
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9.5.1
Image Acquisition Control
Frame Start Trigger Mode (Standard Mode)
The main parameter associated with the frame start trigger is the Trigger Mode parameter. The
Trigger Mode parameter for the frame start trigger has two available settings: off and on.
9.5.1.1
Frame Start Trigger Mode = Off
When the Frame Start Trigger Mode parameter is set to off, the camera will generate all required
frame start trigger signals internally, and you do not need to apply frame start trigger signals to the
camera.
With the trigger mode set to off, the way that the camera will operate the frame start trigger depends
on the setting of the camera’s Acquisition Mode parameter:
„
If the Acquisition Mode parameter is set to single frame, the camera will automatically generate
a single frame start trigger signal whenever it receives an Acquisition Start command.
„
If the Acquisition Mode parameter is set to continuous frame, the camera will automatically
begin generating frame start trigger signals when it receives an Acquisition Start command.
The camera will continue to generate frame start trigger signals until it receives an Acquisition
Stop command.
The rate at which the frame start trigger signals are generated may be determined by the
camera’s Acquisition Frame Rate Abs parameter:
„
If the parameter is not enabled, the camera will generate frame start trigger signals at the
maximum rate allowed with the current camera settings.
„
If the parameter is enabled and is set to a value less than the maximum allowed frame
rate with the current camera settings, the camera will generate frame start trigger signals
at the rate specified by the parameter setting.
„
If the parameter is enabled and is set to a value greater than the maximum allowed frame
rate with the current camera settings, the camera will generate frame start trigger signals
at the maximum allowed frame rate.
For information about setting the Acquisition Frame Rate Abs parameter, see Section 9.5.1.3 on
page 101.
Keep in mind that the camera will only react to frame start triggers when it is in a
"waiting for frame start trigger" acquisition status. For more information about the
acquisition status, see Section 9.2 on page 85 and Section 9.4 on page 91.
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Exposure Time Control with the Frame Start Trigger Off
When the Trigger Mode parameter for the frame start trigger is set to off, the exposure time for each
frame acquisition is determined by the value of the camera’s Exposure Time Abs parameter.
For more information about the camera’s Exposure Time Abs parameter, see Section 9.7 on
page 121.
9.5.1.2
Frame Start Trigger Mode = On
When the Trigger Mode parameter for the frame start trigger is set to on, you must apply a frame
start trigger signal to the camera each time you want to begin a frame acquisition. The Trigger
Source parameter specifies the source signal that will act as the frame start trigger signal. The
available selections for the Trigger Source parameter are:
„
Software - When the source signal is set to software, you apply a frame start trigger signal to
the camera by executing a Trigger Software command for the frame start trigger on the host
PC.
„
Line 1 - When the source signal is set to line 1, you apply a frame start trigger signal to the
camera by injecting an externally generated electrical signal (commonly referred to as a
hardware trigger signal) into physical input line 1 on the camera.
If the Trigger Source parameter is set to Line 1, you must also set the Trigger Activation parameter.
The available settings for the Trigger Activation parameter are:
„
Rising Edge - specifies that a rising edge of the electrical signal will act as the frame start
trigger.
„
Falling Edge - specifies that a falling edge of the electrical signal will act as the frame start
trigger.
For more information about using a software trigger to control frame acquisition start, see
Section 9.4.4 on page 95.
For more information about using a hardware trigger to control frame acquisition start, see
Section 9.4.5 on page 96.
By default, input line 1 is selected as the source signal for the frame start trigger.
Keep in mind that the camera will only react to frame start triggers when it is in a
"waiting for frame start trigger" acquisition status. For more information about the
acquisition status, see Section 9.2 on page 85 and Section 9.4 on page 91.
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Exposure Time Control with the Frame Start Trigger On
When the Trigger Mode parameter for the frame start trigger is set to on and the Trigger Source
parameter is set to software, the exposure time for each frame acquisition is determined by the
camera’s exposure time parameters.
When the Trigger Mode parameter is set to on and the Trigger Source parameter is set to input
line 1, the exposure time for each frame acquisition can be controlled with the exposure time
parameters or it can be controlled by manipulating the hardware trigger signal.
For more information about controlling exposure time when using a software trigger, see
Section 9.4.4 on page 95.
For more information about controlling exposure time when using a hardware trigger, see
Section 9.4.5 on page 96.
For more information about exposure time parameters, see Section 9.7 on page 121.
9.5.1.3
Setting the Frame Start Trigger Mode and Related Parameters
You can set the Trigger Mode and related parameter values for the frame start trigger from within
your application software by using the Basler pylon API. If your settings make it necessary, you can
also set the Trigger Source parameter.
The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the Trigger Mode for the frame start
trigger to on and the Trigger Source to input line 1:
// Select the frame start trigger
Camera.TriggerSelector.SetValue( TriggerSelector_FrameStart );
// Set the mode for the selected trigger
Camera.TriggerMode.SetValue( TriggerMode_On );
// Set the source for the selected trigger
Camera.TriggerSource.SetValue ( TriggerSource_Line1 );
The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the Acquisition Mode to continuous, the
Trigger Mode to off, and the Acquisition Frame Rate to 60:
// Set the acquisition mode to continuous frame
Camera.AcquisitionMode.SetValue( AcquisitionMode_Continuous );
// Select the frame start trigger
Camera.TriggerSelector.SetValue( TriggerSelector_FrameStart );
// Set the mode for the selected trigger
Camera.TriggerMode.SetValue( TriggerMode_Off );
// Set the exposure time
Camera.ExposureTimeAbs.SetValue( 3000 );
// Enable the acquisition frame rate parameter and set the frame rate. (Enabling
// the acquisition frame rate parameter allows the camera to control the frame
// rate internally.)
Camera.AcquisitionFrameRateEnable.SetValue( true );
Camera.AcquisitionFrameRateAbs.SetValue( 60.0 );
// Start frame capture
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Camera.AcquisitionStart.Execute( );
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 25.
9.5.2
9.5.2.1
Using a Software Frame Start Trigger
(Standard Mode)
Introduction
If the Trigger Mode parameter for the frame start trigger is set to on and the Trigger Source
parameter is set to software, you must apply a software frame start trigger signal to the camera to
begin each frame acquisition. Assuming that the camera is in a "waiting for frame start trigger"
acquisition status, frame exposure will start when the software frame start trigger signal is received
by the camera. Figure 27 illustrates frame acquisition with a software frame start trigger signal.
When the camera receives a software trigger signal and begins exposure, it will exit the "waiting for
frame start trigger" acquisition status because at that point, it cannot react to a new frame start
trigger signal. As soon as the camera is capable of reacting to a new frame start trigger signal, it
will automatically return to the "waiting for frame start trigger" acquisition status.
When you are using a software trigger signal to start each frame acquisition, the camera’s Exposure
Mode parameter must be set to timed. The exposure time for each acquired frame will be
determined by the value of the camera’s exposure time parameters.
Software Frame Start
Trigger Signal Received
Software Frame Start
Trigger Signal Received
Frame
Acquisition
Exposure
Exposure
(duration determined by the
exposure time parameters)
Fig. 27: Frame Acquisition with a Software Frame Start Trigger
When you are using a software trigger signal to start each frame acquisition, the frame rate will be
determined by how often you apply a software trigger signal to the camera, and you should not
attempt to trigger frame acquisition at a rate that exceeds the maximum allowed for the current
camera settings. (There is a detailed explanation about the maximum allowed frame rate at the end
of this chapter.) Software frame start trigger signals that are applied to the camera when it is not
ready to receive them will be ignored.
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Section 9.5.2.2 on page 103 includes more detailed information about applying a software frame
start trigger to the camera using Basler pylon.
For more information about exposure time parameters, see Section 9.7 on page 121.
For more information about determining the maximum allowed frame rate, see Section 9.12 on
page 144.
9.5.2.2
Setting the Parameters Related to Software Frame Start
Triggering and Applying a Software Trigger Signal
You can set all of the parameters needed to perform software frame start triggering from within your
application software by using the Basler pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the
API to set the parameter values and to execute the commands related to software frame start
triggering with the camera set for continuous frame acquisition mode. In this example, the trigger
mode for the acquisition start trigger will be set to off:
// Set the acquisition mode to continuous frame
Camera.AcquisitionMode.SetValue( AcquisitionMode_Continuous );
// Select the acquisition start trigger
Camera.TriggerSelector.SetValue( TriggerSelector_AcquisitionStart );
// Set the mode for the selected trigger
Camera.TriggerMode.SetValue( TriggerMode_Off );
//
//
//
//
Disable the acquisition frame rate parameter (this will disable the camera’s
internal frame rate control and allow you to control the frame rate with
software frame start trigger signals within the limits imposed by other
parameter settings).
Camera.AcquisitionFrameRateEnable.SetValue( false );
// Select the frame start trigger
Camera.TriggerSelector.SetValue( TriggerSelector_FrameStart );
// Set the mode for the selected trigger
Camera.TriggerMode.SetValue( TriggerMode_On );
// Set the source for the selected trigger
Camera.TriggerSource.SetValue ( TriggerSource_Software );
// Set for the timed exposure mode
Camera.ExposureMode.SetValue( ExposureMode_Timed );
// Set the exposure time
Camera.ExposureTimeAbs.SetValue( 3000 );
// Execute an acquisition start command to prepare for frame acquisition
Camera.AcquisitionStart.Execute( );
while ( ! finished )
{
// Execute a Trigger Software command to apply a frame start
// trigger signal to the camera
Camera.TriggerSoftware.Execute( );
// Retrieve acquired frame here
}
Camera.AcquisitionStop.Execute( );
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// Note: as long as the Trigger Selector is set to FrameStart, executing
// a Trigger Software command will apply a software frame start trigger
// signal to the camera
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 25.
9.5.3
9.5.3.1
Using a Hardware Frame Start Trigger
(Standard Mode)
Introduction
If the Trigger Mode parameter for the frame start trigger is set to on and the Trigger Source
parameter is set to input line 1, an externally generated electrical signal applied to input line 1 on
the camera will act as the frame start trigger signal for the camera. This type of trigger signal is
generally referred to as a hardware trigger signal or as an external frame start trigger signal
(ExFSTrig).
A rising edge or a falling edge of the ExFSTrig signal can be used to trigger frame acquisition. The
Trigger Activation parameter is used to select rising edge or falling edge triggering.
Assuming that the camera is in a "waiting for frame start trigger" acquisition status, frame
acquisition will start whenever the appropriate edge transition is received by the camera.
When the camera receives a hardware trigger signal and begins exposure, it will exit the "waiting
for frame start trigger" acquisition status because at that point, it cannot react to a new frame start
trigger signal. As soon as the camera is capable of reacting to a new frame start trigger signal, it
will automatically return to the "waiting for frame start trigger" acquisition status.
When the camera is operating under control of an ExFSTrig signal, the period of the ExFSTrig
signal will determine the rate at which the camera is acquiring frames:
1
------------------------------------------------------------------------- = Frame Rate
ExFSTrig period in seconds
For example, if you are operating a camera with an ExFSTrig signal period of 20 ms (0.020 s):
1
--------------- = 50 fps
0.020
So in this case, the frame rate is 50 fps.
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If you are triggering frame acquisition with an ExFSTrig signal and you attempt to
acquire frames at too high a rate, some of the frame trigger signals that you apply
will be received by the camera when it is not in a "waiting for frame start trigger"
acquisition status. The camera will ignore any frame start trigger signals that it
receives when it is not "waiting for frame start trigger". This situation is commonly
referred to as "over triggering" the camera.
To avoid over triggering, you should not attempt to acquire frames at a rate that
exceeds the maximum allowed with the current camera settings.
For more information about setting the camera for hardware acquisition start triggering and
selecting the input line to receive the ExFSTrig signal, see Section 9.4.5.2 on page 97.
For more information about the electrical requirements for input line 1, see Section 7.7.1 on
page 64.
For more information about determining the maximum allowed frame rate, see Section 9.12 on
page 144.
9.5.3.2
Exposure Modes
If you are triggering the start of frame acquisition with an externally generated frame start trigger
(ExFSTrig) signal, two exposure modes are available: timed and trigger width.
Timed Exposure Mode
When timed mode is selected, the exposure time for each frame acquisition is determined by the
the camera’s exposure time parameters. If the camera is set for rising edge triggering, the exposure
time starts when the ExFSTrig signal rises. If the camera is set for falling edge triggering, the
exposure time starts when the ExFSTrig signal falls. The following figure illustrates timed exposure
with the camera set for rising edge triggering.
ExFSTrig Signal Period
ExFSTrig Signal
Exposure
(duration determined by the
exposure time parameters)
Fig. 28: Timed Exposure with Rising Edge Triggering
Note that if you attempt to trigger a new exposure start while the previous exposure is still in
progress, the trigger signal will be ignored.
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This situation is illustrated below for rising edge triggering.
This rise in the trigger signal will be
ignored.
ExFSTrig Signal
Exposure
(duration determined by the
exposure time parameters)
Fig. 29: Overtriggering with Timed Exposure
For more information about the camera’s exposure time parameters, see Section 9.7 on page 121.
Trigger Width Exposure Mode
When trigger width exposure mode is selected, the length of the exposure for each frame
acquisition will be directly controlled by the ExFSTrig signal. If the camera is set for rising edge
triggering, the exposure time begins when the ExFSTrig signal rises and continues until the
ExFSTrig signal falls. If the camera is set for falling edge triggering, the exposure time begins when
the ExFSTrig signal falls and continues until the ExFSTrig signal rises. Figure 30 illustrates trigger
width exposure with the camera set for rising edge triggering.
Trigger width exposure is especially useful if you intend to vary the length of the exposure time for
each captured frame.
ExFSTrig Signal Period
Exposure
ExFSTrig Signal
Fig. 30: Trigger Width Exposure with Rising Edge Triggering
When you operate the camera in trigger width exposure mode, you must also use the camera’s
exposure time prameters to set an exposure time. This parameter setting will be used by the
camera to operate the Trigger Ready signal.
You should adjust the exposure setting to represent the shortest exposure time you intend to use.
For example, assume that you will be using trigger width exposure mode and that you intend to use
the ExFSTrig signal to vary the exposure time in a range from 3000 µs to 5500 µs. In this case you
would use the exposure setting to set the exposure time to 3000 µs.
For more information about the Trigger Ready signal, see Section 9.10.3 on page 136.
For more information about the camera’s exposure time parameters, see Section 9.7 on page 121.
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9.5.3.3
Image Acquisition Control
Frame Start Trigger Delay
The trigger delay feature lets you specify a delay (in microseconds) that will be applied between the
receipt of a hardware frame start trigger and when the trigger will become effective.
The trigger delay will not operate if the Trigger Mode parameter for frame start is
set to off or if you are using a software frame start trigger.
For more information about the trigger delay feature and how to use it, see Section 11.10 on
page 193.
9.5.3.4
Setting the Parameters Related to Hardware Frame Start
Triggering and Applying a Hardware Trigger Signal
You can set all of the parameters needed to perform hardware frame start triggering from within your
application by using the Basler pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set
the camera for single frame acquisition mode with the trigger mode for the acquisition start trigger
set to off. We will use the timed exposure mode with input line 1 as the trigger source and with rising
edge triggering. In this example, we will use a trigger delay:
// Set the acquisition mode to single frame
Camera.AcquisitionMode.SetValue( AcquisitionMode_SingleFrame );
// Select the acquisition start trigger
Camera.TriggerSelector.SetValue( TriggerSelector_AcquisitionStart );
// Set the mode for the selected trigger
Camera.TriggerMode.SetValue( TriggerMode_Off );
// Select the frame start trigger
Camera.TriggerSelector.SetValue( TriggerSelector_FrameStart );
// Set the mode for the selected trigger
Camera.TriggerMode.SetValue( TriggerMode_On );
// Set the source for the selected trigger
Camera.TriggerSource.SetValue ( TriggerSource_Line1 );
// Set the trigger activation mode to rising edge
Camera.TriggerActivation.SetValue( TriggerActivation_RisingEdge );
// Set the trigger delay for one millisecond (1000us == 1ms == 0.001s)
double TriggerDelay_us = 1000.0;
Camera.TriggerDelayAbs.SetValue( TriggerDelay_us );
// Set for the timed exposure mode
Camera.ExposureMode.SetValue( ExposureMode_Timed );
// Set the exposure time
Camera.ExposureTimeAbs.SetValue( 3000 );
// Execute an acquisition start command to prepare for frame acquisition
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Camera.AcquisitionStart.Execute( );
// Frame acquisition will start when the externally generated
// frame start trigger signal (ExFSTrig signal)goes high
The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the parameter values and execute the
commands related to hardware frame start triggering with the camera set for continuous frame
acquisition mode and the trigger mode for the acquisition start trigger set to off. We will use the
trigger width exposure mode with input line 1 as the trigger source and with rising edge triggering:
// Set the acquisition mode to continuous frame
Camera.AcquisitionMode.SetValue( AcquisitionMode_Continuous );
// Select the acquisition start trigger
Camera.TriggerSelector.SetValue( TriggerSelector_AcquisitionStart );
// Set the mode for the selected trigger
Camera.TriggerMode.SetValue( TriggerMode_Off );
// Disable the acquisition frame rate parameter (this will disable the camera’s
// internal frame rate control and allow you to control the frame rate with
// external frame start trigger signals)
Camera.AcquisitionFrameRateEnable.SetValue( false );
// Select the frame start trigger
Camera.TriggerSelector.SetValue( TriggerSelector_FrameStart );
// Set the mode for the selected trigger
Camera.TriggerMode.SetValue( TriggerMode_On );
// Set the source for the selected trigger
Camera.TriggerSource.SetValue ( TriggerSource_Line1 );
// Set the trigger activation mode to rising edge
Camera.TriggerActivation.SetValue( TriggerActivation_RisingEdge );
// Set for the trigger width exposure mode
Camera.ExposureMode.SetValue( ExposureMode_TriggerWidth );
// Set the shortest exposure time // the shortest exposure time we plan to use is 1500 us
Camera.ExposureTimeAbs.SetValue( 1500 );
// Prepare for frame acquisition here
Camera.AcquisitionStart.Execute( );
while ( ! finished )
{
// Frame acquisition will start each time the externally generated
// frame start trigger signal (ExFSTrig signal)goes high
// Retrieve the captured frames
}
Camera.AcquisitionStop.Execute( );
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 25.
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9.6
Image Acquisition Control
The Acquisition Start Trigger in
Legacy Mode
This section only applies if the legacy mode is enabled for image acquisition
control.
Use the legacy mode only if you want to operate the camera together with
previous cameras not featuring the standard mode. Otherwise, we most strongly
recommend enabling the standard mode.
When the camera is started for the first time after delivery from the factory the
image acquisition control will be in legacy mode.
The acquisition start trigger of the legacy mode is called "frame start trigger" in the
standard mode.
The acquisition start trigger of the standard mode is not available in the legacy
mode.
For more information about standard mode and legacy mode and how to set them, see Section 9.1
on page 83.
The acquistion start trigger is used to begin frame acquisition. Assuming that the camera is in a
"waiting for acquistion start trigger" acquisition status, it will begin a frame acquisition each time it
receives an acquistion start trigger signal.
Note that in order for the camera to be in a "waiting for acquistion start trigger" acquisition status:
„
The Acquisition Mode parameter must be set correctly.
„
A proper Acquisition Start command must be applied to the camera.
For more information about the Acquisition Mode parameter and about Acquisition Start and
Acquisition Stop commands, see Section 9.2 on page 85 and Section 9.3 on page 89.
Referring to the use case diagrams that appear in Section 9.8 on page 123 can help you
understand the explanations of the acquistion start trigger. Remember, however, that the diagrams
apply to the standard mode. Accordingly, the acquisition start trigger shown in the diagrams is not
available in legacy mode and the frame start trigger shown is equivalent to the acquisition start
trigger in legacy mode.
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Acquisition Start Trigger Mode (Legacy Mode)
The main parameter associated with the acquisition start trigger is the Trigger Mode parameter. The
Trigger Mode parameter for the acquisition start trigger has two available settings: off and on.
9.6.1.1
Acquisition Start Trigger Mode = Off
When the Acquisition Start Trigger Mode parameter is set to off, the camera will generate all
required acquisition start trigger signals internally, and you do not need to apply acquisition start
trigger signals to the camera.
With the trigger mode set to off, the way that the camera will operate the acquisition start trigger
depends on the setting of the camera’s Acquisition Mode parameter:
„
If the Acquisition Mode parameter is set to single frame, the camera will automatically generate
a single acquisition start trigger signal whenever it receives an Acquisition Start command.
„
If the Acquisition Mode parameter is set to continuous frame, the camera will automatically
begin generating acquisition start trigger signals when it receives an Acquisition Start
command. The camera will continue to generate acquisition start trigger signals until it
receives an Acquisition Stop command.
The rate at which the acquisition start trigger signals are generated will be determined by the
camera’s Acquisition Frame Rate Abs parameter:
„
If the parameter is not enabled, the camera will generate acquisition start trigger signals
at the maximum rate allowed with the current camera settings.
„
If the parameter is enabled and is set to a value less than the maximum allowed frame
rate with the current camera settings, the camera will generate acquisition start trigger
signals at the rate specified by the parameter setting.
„
If the parameter is enabled and is set to a value greater than the maximum allowed frame
rate with the current camera settings, the camera will generate acquisition start trigger
signals at the maximum allowed frame rate.
For information about setting the Acquistion Frame Rate Abs parameter, see Section 9.6.1.3 on
page 112.
Keep in mind that the camera will only react to acquisition start triggers when it is
in a "waiting for acquisition start trigger" acquisition status. For more information
about the acquisition status, see Section 9.2 on page 85 and Section 9.4 on
page 91.
Exposure Time Control with the Acquisition Start Trigger Mode Off
When the Trigger Mode parameter for the acquisition start trigger is set to off, the exposure time for
each frame acquisition is determined by the camera’s exposure time parameters.
For more information about the camera’s exposure time parameters, see Section 9.7 on page 121.
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9.6.1.2
Image Acquisition Control
Acquisition Start Trigger Mode = On
When the Trigger Mode parameter for the acquisition start trigger is set to on, you must apply an
acquisition start trigger signal to the camera each time you want to begin a frame acquisition. The
Trigger Source parameter specifies the source signal that will act as the acquisition start trigger
signal. The available selections for the Trigger Source parameter are:
„
Software - When the source signal is set to software, you apply an acquisition start trigger
signal to the camera by executing a Trigger Software command for the acquisition start trigger
on the host PC.
„
Line 1 - When the source signal is set to line 1, you apply an acquisition start trigger signal to
the camera by injecting an externally generated electrical signal (commonly referred to as a
hardware trigger signal) into physical input line 1 on the camera.
If the Trigger Source parameter is set to Line 1, you must also set the Trigger Activation parameter.
The available settings for the Trigger Activation parameter are:
„
Rising Edge - specifies that a rising edge of the electrical signal will act as the acquisition start
trigger.
„
Falling Edge - specifies that a falling edge of the electrical signal will act as the acquisition start
trigger.
For more information about using a software trigger to control frame acquisition start, see
Section 9.4.4 on page 95.
For more information about using a hardware trigger to control frame acquisition start, see
Section 9.4.5 on page 96.
By default, input line 1 is selected as the source signal for the acquisition start
trigger.
Keep in mind that the camera will only react to acquisition start triggers when it is
in a "waiting for acquisition start trigger" acquisition status. For more information
about the acquisition status, see Section 9.2 on page 85 and Section 9.4 on
page 91.
Exposure Time Control with the Acquisition Start Trigger Mode On
When the Trigger Mode parameter for the acquisition start trigger is set to on and the Trigger Source
parameter is set to software, the exposure time for each frame acquisition is determined by the
camera’s exposure time parameters.
When the Trigger Mode parameter is set to on and the Trigger Source parameter is set to input
line 1, the exposure time for each frame acquisition can be controlled with the exposure time
parameters or it can be controlled by manipulating the hardware trigger signal.
For more information about controlling exposure time when using a software trigger, see
Section 9.4.4 on page 95.
For more information about controlling exposure time when using a hardware trigger, see
Section 9.4.5 on page 96.
For more information about exposure time parameters, see Section 9.7 on page 121.
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Setting the Acquisition Start Trigger Mode and Related
Parameters
You can set the Trigger Mode and related parameter values for the frame start trigger from within
your application software by using the Basler pylon API. If your settings make it necessary, you can
also set the Trigger Source parameter.
The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the Trigger Mode for the acquisition start
trigger to on and the Trigger Source to input line 1:
// Select the acquisition start trigger
Camera.TriggerSelector.SetValue( TriggerSelector_AcquisitionStart );
// Set the mode for the selected trigger
Camera.TriggerMode.SetValue( TriggerMode_On );
// Set the source for the selected trigger
Camera.TriggerSource.SetValue ( TriggerSource_Line1 );
The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the Acquisition Mode to continuous, the
Trigger Mode to off, and the Acquisition Frame Rate to 60:
// Set the acquisition mode to continuous frame
Camera.AcquisitionMode.SetValue( AcquisitionMode_Continuous );
// Select the frame start trigger
Camera.TriggerSelector.SetValue( TriggerSelector_AcquisitionStart );
// Set the mode for the selected trigger
Camera.TriggerMode.SetValue( TriggerMode_Off );
// Set the exposure time
Camera.ExposureTimeAbs.SetValue( 3000 );
// Enable the acquisition frame rate parameter and set the frame rate. (Enabling
// the acquisition frame rate parameter allows the camera to control the frame
// rate internally.)
Camera.AcquisitionFrameRateEnable.SetValue( true );
Camera.AcquisitionFrameRateAbs.SetValue( 60.0 );
// Start frame capture
Camera.AcquisitionStart.Execute( );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 25.
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9.6.2
Image Acquisition Control
Using a Software Acquisition Start Trigger
(Legacy Mode)
9.6.2.1
Introduction
If the Trigger Mode parameter for the acquisition start trigger is set to on and the Trigger Source
parameter is set to software, you must apply a software acquisition start trigger signal to the camera
to begin each frame acquisition. Assuming that the camera is in a "waiting for acquisition start
trigger" acquisition status, frame exposure will start when the software acquisition start trigger signal
is received by the camera. Figure 27 illustrates frame acquisition with a software acquisition start
trigger signal.
When the camera receives a software trigger signal and begins exposure, it will exit the "waiting for
acquisition start trigger" acquisition status because at that point, it cannot react to a new acquisition
start trigger signal. As soon as the camera is capable of reacting to a new acquisition start trigger
signal, it will automatically return to the "waiting for acquisition start trigger" acquisition status.
When you are using a software trigger signal to start each frame acquisition, the camera’s Exposure
Mode parameter must be set to timed. The exposure time for each acquired frame will be
determined by the camera’s exposure time parameters.
Software Acquisition Start
Trigger Signal Received
Software Acquisition Start
Trigger Signal Received
Frame
Acquisition
Exposure
Exposure
(duration determined by the
exposure time parameter)
Fig. 31: Frame Acquisition with a Software Acquisition Start Trigger
When you are using a software trigger signal to start each frame acquisition, the frame rate will be
determined by how often you apply a software trigger signal to the camera, and you should not
attempt to trigger frame acquisition at a rate that exceeds the maximum allowed for the current
camera settings. (There is a detailed explanation about the maximum allowed frame rate at the end
of this chapter.) Software acquisition start trigger signals that are applied to the camera when it is
not ready to receive them will be ignored.
Section 9.5.2.2 on page 103 includes more detailed information about applying a software
acquisition start trigger to the camera using Basler pylon.
For more information about determining the maximum allowed frame rate, see Section 9.12 on
page 144.
For more information about exposure time parameters, see Section 9.7 on page 121.
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Setting the Parameters Related to Software Acquisition Start
Triggering and Applying a Software Trigger Signal
You can set all of the parameters needed to perform software acquisition start triggering from within
your application software by using the Basler pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using
the API to set the parameter values and to execute the commands related to software acquisition
start triggering with the camera set for continuous frame acquisition mode:
// Set the acquisition mode to continuous frame
Camera.AcquisitionMode.SetValue( AcquisitionMode_Continuous );
// Select the acquisition start trigger
// Disable the acquisition frame rate parameter (this will disable the camera’s
// internal frame rate control and allow you to control the frame rate with
// software frame start trigger signals)
Camera.AcquisitionFrameRateEnable.SetValue( false );
// Select the frame start trigger
Camera.TriggerSelector.SetValue( TriggerSelector_AcquisitionStart );
// Set the mode for the selected trigger
Camera.TriggerMode.SetValue( TriggerMode_On );
// Set the source for the selected trigger
Camera.TriggerSource.SetValue ( TriggerSource_Software );
// Set for the timed exposure mode
Camera.ExposureMode.SetValue( ExposureMode_Timed );
// Set the exposure time
Camera.ExposureTimeAbs.SetValue( 3000 );
// Execute an acquisition start command to prepare for frame acquisition
Camera.AcquisitionStart.Execute( );
while ( ! finished )
{
// Execute a Trigger Software command to apply an acquisition start
// trigger signal to the camera
Camera.TriggerSoftware.Execute( );
// Retrieve acquired frame here
}
Camera.AcquisitionStop.Execute( );
// Note: as long as the Trigger Selector is set to AcquisitionStart, executing
// a Trigger Software command will apply a software acquisition start trigger
// signal to the camera
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 25.
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9.6.3
9.6.3.1
Image Acquisition Control
Using a Hardware Acquisition Start Trigger
(Legacy Mode)
Introduction
If the Trigger Mode parameter for the acquisition start trigger is set to on and the Trigger Source
parameter is set to input line 1, an externally generated electrical signal applied to input line 1 on
the camera will act as the acquisition start trigger signal for the camera. This type of trigger signal
is generally referred to as a hardware trigger signal or as an external acquisition start trigger signal
(ExASTrig).
A rising edge or a falling edge of the ExASTrig signal can be used to trigger frame acquisition. The
Trigger Activation parameter is used to select rising edge or falling edge triggering.
Assuming that the camera is in a "waiting for acquisition start trigger" acquisition status, frame
acquisition will start whenever the appropriate edge transition is received by the camera.
When the camera receives a hardware trigger signal and begins exposure, it will exit the "waiting
for acquisition start trigger" acquisition status because at that point, it cannot react to a new
acquisition start trigger signal. As soon as the camera is capable of reacting to a new acquisition
start trigger signal, it will automatically return to the "waiting for acquisition start trigger" acquisition
status.
When the camera is operating under control of an ExASTrig signal, the period of the ExASTrig
signal will determine the rate at which the camera is acquiring frames:
1
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- = Frame Rate
ExASTrig period in seconds
For example, if you are operating a camera with an ExASTrig signal period of 20 ms (0.020 s):
1
--------------- = 50 fps
0.020
So in this case, the frame rate is 50 fps.
If you are triggering frame acquisition with an ExASTrig signal and you attempt to
acquire frames at too high a rate, some of the acquisition trigger signals that you
apply will be received by the camera when it is not in a "waiting for acquisition start
trigger" acquisition status. The camera will ignore any acquisition start trigger
signals that it receives when it is not "waiting for acquisition start trigger". (This
situation is commonly referred to as "over triggering" the camera.
To avoid over triggering, you should not attempt to acquire frames at a rate that
exceeds the maximum allowed with the current camera settings.
For more information about setting the camera for hardware acquisition start triggering and
selecting the input line to receive the ExASTrig signal, see Section 9.6.3.4 on page 119.
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For more information about the electrical requirements for input line 1, see Section 7.7.1 on
page 64.
For more information about determining the maximum allowed frame rate, see Section 9.12 on
page 144.
9.6.3.2
Exposure Modes
If you are triggering the start of frame acquisition with an externally generated acquisition start
trigger (ExASTrig) signal, two exposure modes are available: timed and trigger width.
Timed Exposure Mode
When timed mode is selected, the exposure time for each frame acquisition is determined by the
value of the camera’s exposure time parameters. If the camera is set for rising edge triggering, the
exposure time starts when the ExASTrig signal rises. If the camera is set for falling edge triggering,
the exposure time starts when the ExASTrig signal falls. The following figure illustrates timed
exposure with the camera set for rising edge triggering.
ExASTrig Signal Period
ExASTrig Signal
Exposure
(duration determined by the
exposure time parameters)
Fig. 32: Timed Exposure with Rising Edge Triggering
Note that if you attempt to trigger a new exposure start while the previous exposure is still in
progress, the trigger signal will be ignored. This situation is illustrated below for rising edge
triggering.
This rise in the trigger signal will be ignored.
ExASTrig Signal
Exposure
(duration determined by the
exposure time parameters)
Fig. 33: Overtriggering with Timed Exposure
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For more information about the camera’s exposure time parameters, see Section 9.7 on page 121.
Trigger Width Exposure Mode
When trigger width exposure mode is selected, the length of the exposure for each frame
acquisition will be directly controlled by the ExASTrig signal. If the camera is set for rising edge
triggering, the exposure time begins when the ExASTrig signal rises and continues until the
ExASTrig signal falls. If the camera is set for falling edge triggering, the exposure time begins when
the ExASTrig signal falls and continues until the ExASTrig signal rises. The following figure
illustrates trigger width exposure with the camera set for rising edge triggering.
Trigger width exposure is especially useful if you intend to vary the length of the exposure time for
each captured frame.
ExASTrig Signal Period
Exposure
ExASTrig Signal
Fig. 34: Trigger Width Exposure with Rising Edge Triggering
When you operate the camera in trigger width exposure mode, you must use the camera’s
exposure time parameters to set an exposure time. This parameter setting will be used by the
camera to operate the Trigger Ready signal.
You should adjust the exposure setting to represent the shortest exposure time you intend to use.
For example, assume that you will be using trigger width exposure and that you intend to use the
ExASTrig signal to vary the exposure time in a range from 3000 µs to 5500 µs. In this case you
would use the exposure setting to set the exposure time to 3000 µs.
If you are using the trigger width exposure mode and the camera is operating with overlapped
exposures, there is something you must keep in mind. If the action of the ExASTrig signal would
end the current exposure while readout of the previously acquired image is still taking place, the
camera will automatically continue the exposure until readout of the previous image is complete.
This situation is illustrated in Figure 35 for rising edge operation. On the first cycle of the ExASTrig
signal shown in the figure, the signal rises and falls while readout is taking place. Normally you
would expect exposure to take place only when the ExASTrig signal is high. But since the signal
falls while the previous frame is still reading out, the camera automatically extends exposure until
the readout is complete. On the second cycle of the ExASTrig signal shown in the figure, the signal
rises during previous frame readout, but falls after the readout is complete. This is a normal situation
and exposure would be determined by the high time of the ExASTrig signal as you would expect.
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TrigRdy
Signal
Exposure
Exposure
ExASTrig Signal
Frame Readout
Frame N-1
Frame N
Fig. 35: Trigger Width Exposure Mode with Overlapped Exposure
You can set the exposure time parameter value and select an exposure mode from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippets illustrate using the API to
set the exposure time parameter and select the exposure mode:
// set for the timed exposure mode, set exposure time to 3000 µs
Camera.ExposureMode.SetValue( ExposureMode_Timed );
Camera.ExposureTimeAbs.SetValue( 3000 );
// set for the width exposure mode, set minimum exposure time to 3000 µs
Camera.ExposureMode.SetValue( ExposureMode_TriggerWidth );
Camera.ExposureTimeAbs.SetValue( 3000 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
9.6.3.3
Acquisition Start Trigger Delay
The trigger delay feature lets you specify a delay (in microseconds) that will be applied between the
receipt of a hardware acquisition start trigger and when the trigger will become effective.
The trigger delay will not operate if the Trigger Mode parameter for acquisition
start is set to off or if you are using a software acquisition start trigger.
For more information about the trigger delay feature and how to set it, see Section 11.10 on
page 193.
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9.6.3.4
Image Acquisition Control
Setting the Parameters Related to Hardware Acquisition Start
Triggering and Applying a Hardware Trigger Signal
You can set all of the parameters needed to perform hardware acquisition start triggering from within
your application by using the Basler pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API
to set the camera for single frame acquisition mode.
We will use the timed exposure mode with input line 1 as the trigger source and with rising edge
triggering. In this example, we will use a trigger delay:
// Set the acquisition mode to single frame
Camera.AcquisitionMode.SetValue( AcquisitionMode_SingleFrame );
// Select the acquisition start trigger
Camera.TriggerSelector.SetValue( TriggerSelector_AcquisitionStart );
// Set the mode for the selected trigger
Camera.TriggerMode.SetValue( TriggerMode_On );
// Set the source for the selected trigger
Camera.TriggerSource.SetValue ( TriggerSource_Line1 );
// Set the trigger activation mode to rising edge
Camera.TriggerActivation.SetValue( TriggerActivation_RisingEdge );
// Set the trigger delay for one millisecond (1000us == 1ms == 0.001s)
double TriggerDelay_us = 1000.0;
Camera.TriggerDelayAbs.SetValue( TriggerDelay_us );
// Set for the timed exposure mode
Camera.ExposureMode.SetValue( ExposureMode_Timed );
// Set the exposure time
Camera.ExposureTimeAbs.SetValue( 3000 );
// Execute an acquisition start command to prepare for frame acquisition
Camera.AcquisitionStart.Execute( );
// Frame acquisition will start when the externally generated
// acquisition start trigger signal (ExASTrig signal)goes high
The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the parameter values and execute the
commands related to hardware acquisition start triggering with the camera set for continuous frame
acquisition mode.
We will use the trigger width exposure mode with input line 1 as the trigger source and with rising
edge triggering:
// Set the acquisition mode to continuous frame
Camera.AcquisitionMode.SetValue( AcquisitionMode_Continuous );
// Disable the acquisition frame rate parameter (this will disable the camera’s
// internal frame rate control and allow you to control the frame rate with
// external acquisition start trigger signals)
Camera.AcquisitionFrameRateEnable.SetValue( false );
// Select the acquisition start trigger
Camera.TriggerSelector.SetValue( TriggerSelector_AcquisitionStart );
// Set the mode for the selected trigger
Camera.TriggerMode.SetValue( TriggerMode_On );
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// Set the source for the selected trigger
Camera.TriggerSource.SetValue ( TriggerSource_Line1 );
// Set the trigger activation mode to rising edge
Camera.TriggerActivation.SetValue( TriggerActivation_RisingEdge );
// Set for the trigger width exposure mode
Camera.ExposureMode.SetValue( ExposureMode_TriggerWidth );
// Prepare for frame acquisition here
Camera.AcquisitionStart.Execute( );
while ( ! finished )
{
// Frame acquisition will start each time the externally generated
// acquisition start trigger signal (ExASTrig signal)goes high
// Retrieve the captured frames
}
Camera.AcquisitionStop.Execute( );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 25.
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9.7
Image Acquisition Control
Exposure Time Parameters
Many of the camera’s image acquisition modes require you to specify an exposure time. There are
two ways to set exposure time: by setting "raw" values or by setting an "absolute value". The two
methods are described below. You can use whichever method you prefer to set the exposure time.
The exposure time must not be set below a minimum specified value. The minimum exposure time
varies by camera model as shown in Table 9.
The maximum exposure time that can be set also varies by camera model as shown in Table 9.
Camera Model
Minimum Allowed Exposure Time
Maximum Possible Exposure Time
slA640-74gm/gc
24 µs
10000000 µs
slA780-54gm/gc
26 µs
10000000 µs
slA1390-17gm/gc
34 µs
10000000 µs
slA1400-17gm/gc
38 µs
10000000 µs
Table 9: Minimum Allowed Exposure Time and Maximum Possible Exposure Time
For information about parameter settings for obtaining the maximum possible exposure time, see
Section 9.7.1 on page 121.
9.7.1
Setting the Exposure Time Using "Raw" Settings
When exposure time is set using "raw" values, the exposure time will be determined by a
combination of two elements. The first element is the value of the Exposure Time Raw parameter,
and the second element is the Exposure Time Base. The exposure time is determined by the
product of these two elements:
Exposure Time = (Exposure Time Raw Parameter Value) x (Exposure Time Base)
By default, the Exposure Time Base is fixed at 20 µs on all camera models.
Typically, the exposure time is adjusted by setting only the Exposure Time Raw parameter. The
Exposure Time Raw parameter value can range from 1 to 4095. So if the parameter value was set
to 100 on an slA640-74 camera, for example, the exposure time will be 100 x 20 µs or 2000 µs.
Settings for Obtaining the Maximum Possible Exposure Time
On all camera models, you can obtain the maximum possible exposure time (10000000 µs) by
setting the Exposure Time Raw parameter value to 1 and the Exposure Time Base Abs value to
10000000 µs.
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Changing the Exposure Time Base
Normally, the exposure time is adjusted by setting the value of the Exposure Time Raw parameter
as explained above. However, if you require an exposure time that is longer than what you can
achieve by changing the value of the Exposure Time Raw parameter alone, the Exposure Time
Base Abs parameter can be used to change the exposure time base.
The Exposure Time Base Abs parameter value sets the exposure time base in µs and this
parameter can be used to change the exposure time base.
On all camera models, the default exposure time base is 20 µs and the time base can be changed
in increments of 1 µs.
You can set the Exposure Time Raw and Exposure Time Base Abs parameter values from within
your application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the
API to set the parameter values:
Camera.ExposureMode.SetValue( ExposureMode_Timed );
Camera.ExposureTimeRaw.SetValue( 100 );
Camera.ExposureTimeBaseAbs.SetValue( 186 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 25.
9.7.2
Setting the Exposure Time Using
"Absolute" Settings
You can also set the exposure time by using an "absolute" value. This is accomplished by setting
the Exposure Time Abs parameter. The units for setting this parameter are µs and the value can be
set in increments of 1 µs.
When you use the Exposure Time Abs parameter to set the exposure time, the camera
accomplishes the setting change by automatically changing the Exposure Time Raw parameter to
achieve the value specified by your Exposure Time Abs setting. This leads to a limitation that you
must keep in mind if you use Exposure Time Abs parameter to set the exposure time. That is, you
must set the Exposure Time Abs parameter to a value that is equivalent to a setting you could
achieve by using the Exposure Time Raw parameter with the current Exposure Time Base
parameter. For example, if the time base was currently set to 62 µs, you could use the Exposure
Time Base Abs parameter to set the exposure to 62 µs, 124 µs, 186 µs, etc.
Note that if you set the Exposure Time Abs parameter to a value that you could not achieve by using
the Exposure Time Raw and Exposure Time Base parameters, the camera will automatically
change the setting for the Exposure Time Abs parameter to the nearest achieveable value.
You should also be aware that if you change the exposure time using the raw settings, the Exposure
Time Abs parameter will automatically be updated to reflect the new exposure time.
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Setting the Absolute Exposure Time Parameter
You can set the Exposure Time Abs parameter value from within your application software by using
the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the parameter value:
Camera.ExposureTimeAbs.SetValue( 124 );
double resultingExpTime = Camera.ExposureTimeAbs.GetValue( );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 25.
9.8
Use Case Diagrams
This section assumes that the standard mode is enabled for image acquisition
control.
In principle, this section also applies if the legacy mode is enabled instead.
In this case, however, the following differences must be taken into account:
„
the acquisition start trigger of the standard mode is not available in the legacy
mode.
„
the frame start trigger of the standard mode is called "acquisition start trigger"
in the legacy mode.
When the camera is started for the first time after delivery from the factory the
image acquisition control will not be in standard mode but in legacy mode.
Use the legacy mode only if you want to operate the camera together with
previous cameras not featuring the standard mode.
For more information about standard mode and legacy mode and how to set them, see Section 9.1
on page 83.
The following pages contain a series of use case descriptions and diagrams. The descriptions and
diagrams are designed to illustrate how acquisition start triggering and frame start triggering work
in some common situations and with some common combinations of parameter settings.
These use cases do not represent every possible combination of the parameters associated with
acquisition start and frame start triggering. They are simply intended to aid you in developing an
initial understanding of how these two triggers interact.
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In each use case diagram, the black box in the upper left corner indicates how the parameters are
set.
The use case diagrams are representational. They are not drawn to scale and are
not designed to accurately describe precise camera timings.
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Use Case 1 - Acquisition and Frame Start Triggers Both Off (Free Run)
Use case one is illustrated on page 126.
In this use case, the Acquisition Mode parameter is set to continuous. The Trigger Mode parameter
for the acquisition start trigger and the Trigger Mode parameter for the frame start trigger are both
set to off. The camera will generate all required acquisition start and frame start trigger signals
internally. When the camera is set this way, it will constantly acquire images without any need for
triggering by the user. This use case is commonly referred to as "free run".
The rate at which the camera will acquire images will be determined by the camera’s Acquisition
Frame Rate Abs parameter unless the current camera settings result in a lower frame rate. If the
Acquisition Frame Rate Abs parameter is disabled, the camera will acquire frames at the maximum
allowed frame rate.
Cameras are used in free run for many applications. One example is for aerial photography. A
camera set for free run is used to capture a continuous series of images as an aircraft overflies an
area. The images can then be used for a variety of purposes including vegetation coverage
estimates, archaeological site identification, etc.
For more information about the Acquisition Frame Rate Abs parameter, see Section 9.5.1.1 on
page 99 and for information about setting the parameter, see Section 9.5.1.3 on page 101.
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Use Case: "Free Run" (Acquisition Start Trigger Off and Frame Start Trigger Off)
The acquisition start trigger is off. The camera will generate acquisition start
trigger signals internally with no action by the user.
The frame start trigger is off. The camera will generate frame start trigger
signals internally with no action by the user.
Settings: Acquisition Mode = Continuous
Trigger Mode for the acquisition start trigger = Off
Trigger Mode for the frame start trigger = Off
= a trigger signal generated by the camera internally
= camera is waiting for an acquisition start trigger
= camera is waiting for a frame start trigger
= frame exposure and readout
= frame transmission
Acquisition
Stop
Command
Executed
Acquisition
Start
Command
Executed
Acquisition Start
Trigger Signal
Frame Start
Trigger Signal
Time
Fig. 36: Use Case 1 - Acquisition Start Trigger Off and Frame Start Trigger Off
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Use Case 2 - Acquisition Start Trigger Off - Frame Start Trigger On
Use case two is illustrated on page 128.
In this use case, the Acquisition Mode parameter is set to continuous. The Trigger Mode parameter
for the acquisition start trigger is set to off and the Trigger Mode parameter for the frame start trigger
is set to on.
Because the acquisition start trigger is set to off, the user does not need to apply acquisition start
trigger signals to the camera. The camera will generate all required acquisition start trigger signals
internally.
Because the frame start trigger is set to on, the user must apply a frame start trigger signal to the
camera in order to begin each frame exposure. In this case, we have set the frame start trigger
signal source to input line 1 and the activation to rising edge, so the rising edge of an externally
generated electrical signal applied to line 1 will serve as the frame start trigger signal.
This type of camera setup is used frequently in industrial applications. One example might be a
wood products inspection system used to inspect the surface of pieces of plywood on a conveyor
belt as they pass by a camera. In this situation, a sensing device is usually used to determine when
a piece of plywood on the conveyor is properly positioned in front of the camera. When the plywood
is in the correct position, the sensing device transmits an electrical signal to input line 1 on the
camera. When the electrical signal is received on line 1, it serves as a frame start trigger signal and
initiates a frame acquisition. The frame acquired by the camera is forwarded to an image processing
system, which will inspect the image and determine if there are any defects in the plywood’s
surface.
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Use Case: Acquisition Start Trigger Off and Frame Start Trigger On
The acquisition start trigger is off. The camera will generate acquisition
start trigger signals internally with no action by the user.
The frame start trigger is on, and the frame start trigger source is set to
input line 1. The user must apply a frame start trigger signal to input line 1
to start each frame exposure.
Settings:
Acquisition Mode = Continuous
Trigger Mode for the acquisition start trigger = Off
Trigger Mode for the frame start trigger = On
Trigger Source for the frame start trigger = Line 1
Trigger Activation for the frame start trigger = Rising Edge
= a trigger signal generated by the camera internally
= a trigger signal applied by the user
= camera is waiting for an acquisition start trigger signal
= camera is waiting for a frame start trigger signal
= frame exposure and readout
= frame transmission
Acquisition
Stop
Command
Executed
Acquisition
Start
Command
Executed
Acquisition Start
Trigger Signal
Frame Start
Trigger Signal
(applied to line 1)
Time
Fig. 37: Use Case 2 - Acquisition Start Trigger Off and Frame Start Trigger On
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Use Case 3 - Acquisition Start Trigger On - Frame Start Trigger Off
Use case three is illustrated on page 130.
In this use case, the Acquisition Mode parameter is set to continuous. The Trigger Mode parameter
for the acquisition start trigger is set to on and the Trigger Mode parameter for the frame start trigger
is set to off.
Because the acquisition start trigger mode is set to on, the user must apply an acquisition start
trigger signal to the camera. In this case, we have set the acquisition start trigger signal source to
input line 1 and the activation to rising edge, so an externally generated electrical signal applied to
input line 1 will serve as the acquisition start trigger signal. The Acquisition Frame Count parameter
has been set to 3.
When a rising edge of the electrical signal is applied to input line 1, the camera will exit the "waiting
for acquisition start trigger" acquisition status and enter a "waiting for frame start trigger" acquisition
status. Once the camera has acquired 3 frames, it will re-enter the "waiting for acquisition start
trigger" acquisition status. Before any more frames can be acquired, a new rising edge must be
applied to input line 1 to make the camera exit the "waiting for acquisition start trigger" acquisition
status.
Because the frame start trigger is set to off, the user does not need to apply frame start trigger
signals to the camera. The camera will generate all required frame start trigger signals internally.
The rate at which the frame start trigger signals will be generated is normally determined by the
camera’s Acquisition Frame Rate Abs parameter. If the Acquisition Frame Rate Abs parameter is
disabled, the camera will acquire frames at the maximum allowed frame rate.
This type of camera setup is used frequently in intelligent traffic systems. With these systems, a
typical goal is to acquire several images of a car as it passes through a toll booth. A sensing device
is usually placed at the start of the toll booth area. When a car enters the area, the sensing device
applies an electrical signal to input line 1 on the camera. When the electrical signal is received on
input line 1, it serves as an acquisition start trigger signal and the camera exits from the "waiting for
acquisition start trigger" acquisition status and enters a "waiting for frame trigger" acquisition status.
In our example, the next 3 frame start trigger signals internally generated by the camera would
result in frame acquisitions. At that point, the number of frames acquired would be equal to the
setting for the Acquisition Frame Count parameter. The camera would return to the "waiting for
acquisition start trigger" acquisition status and would no longer react to frame start trigger signals.
It would remain in this condition until the next car enters the booth area and activates the sensing
device.
This sort of setup is very useful for traffic system applications because multiple frames can be
acquired with only a single acquisition start trigger signal pulse and because frames will not be
acquired when there are no cars passing through the booth (this avoids the need to store images
of an empty toll booth area.)
For more information about the Acquisition Frame Rate Abs parameter, see Section 9.5.1.1 on
page 99 and for information about setting the parameter, see Section 9.5.1.3 on page 101.
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Use Case: Acquisition Start Trigger On and Frame Start Trigger Off
The acquisition start trigger is on, and the acquisition start trigger source is
set to input line 1. The user must apply an acquisition start trigger signal to
input line 1 to make the camera exit the "waiting for acquisition start
trigger" acquisition status. Because the acquisition frame count is set to 3,
the camera will re-enter the "waiting for acquisition start trigger" acquisition
status after 3 frames have been acquired.
The frame start trigger is off. The camera will generate frame start trigger
signals internally with no action by the user.
Settings:
Acquisition Mode = Continuous
Trigger Mode for the acquisition start trigger = On
Trigger Source for the acquisition start trigger = Line 1
Trigger Activation for the acquisition start trigger = Rising Edge
Acquisition Frame Count = 3
Trigger Mode for the frame start trigger = Off
= a trigger signal generated by the camera internally
= a trigger signal applied by the user
= camera is waiting for an acquisition start trigger signal
= camera is waiting for a frame start trigger signal
= frame exposure and readout
= frame transmission
Acquisition
Start
Command
Executed
Acquisition
Stop
Command
Executed
Acquisition Start
Trigger Signal
(applied to line 1)
Frame Start
Trigger Signal
Time
Fig. 38: Use Case 3 - Acquisition Start Trigger On and Frame Start Trigger Off
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Use Case 4 - Acquisition Start and Frame Start Triggers Both On
Use case four is illustrated on page 132.
In this use case, the Acquisition Mode parameter is set to continuous. The Trigger Mode parameter
for the acquisition start trigger is set to on and the Trigger Mode parameter for the frame start trigger
is set to on.
Because the acquisition start trigger mode is set to on, the user must apply an acquisition start
trigger signal to the camera. In this case, we have set the acquisition start trigger signal source to
software, so the execution of an acquisition trigger software command will serve as the acquisition
start trigger signal. The Acquisition Frame Count parameter is set to 3.
When an acquisition trigger software command is executed, the camera will exit the "waiting for
acquisition start trigger" acquisition status and enter a "waiting for frame start trigger" acquisition
status. Once the camera has acquired 3 frames, it will re-enter the "waiting for acquisition start
trigger" acquisition status. Before any more frames can be acquired, a new acquisition trigger
software command must be executed to make the camera exit the "waiting for acquisition start
trigger" acquisition status.
Because the frame start trigger is set to on, the user must apply a frame start trigger signal to the
camera in order to begin each frame acquisition. In this case, we have set the frame start trigger
signal source to input line 1 and the activation to rising edge, so the rising edge of an externally
generated electrical signal applied to input line 1 will serve as the frame start trigger signal. Keep in
mind that the camera will only react to a frame start trigger signal when it is in a "waiting for frame
start trigger" acquisition status.
A possible use for this type of setup is a conveyor system that moves objects past an inspection
camera. Assume that the system operators want to acquire images of 3 specific areas on each
object, that the conveyor speed varies, and that they do not want to acquire images when there is
no object in front of the camera. A sensing device on the conveyor could be used in conjunction
with a PC to determine when an object is starting to pass the camera. When an object is starting to
pass, the PC will execute an acquisition start trigger software command, causing the camera to exit
the "waiting for acquisition start trigger" acquisition status and enter a "waiting for frame start trigger"
acquisition status.
An electrical device attached to the conveyor could be used to generate frame start trigger signals
and to apply them to input line 1 on the camera. Assuming that this electrical device was based on
a position encoder, it could account for the speed changes in the conveyor and ensure that frame
trigger signals are generated and applied when specific areas of the object are in front of the
camera. Once 3 frame start trigger signals have been received by the camera, the number of
frames acquired would be equal to the setting for the Acquisition Frame Count parameter, and the
camera would return to the "waiting for acquisition start trigger" acquisition status. Any frame start
trigger signals generated at that point would be ignored.
This sort of setup is useful because it will only acquire frames when there is an object in front of the
camera and it will ensure that the desired areas on the object are imaged. (Transmitting images of
the "space" between the objects would be a waste of bandwidth and processing them would be a
waste of processor resources.)
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Use Case: Acquisition Start Trigger On and Frame Start Trigger On
The acquisition start trigger is on, and the acquisition start trigger source is
set to software. The user must execute an acquisition start trigger software
command to make the camera exit the "waiting for acquisition start trigger"
acquisition status. Because the acquisition frame count is set to 3, the
camera will re-enter the "waiting for acquisition start trigger" acquisition
status after 3 frame trigger signals have been applied.
The frame start trigger is on, and the frame start trigger source is set to
input line 1. The user must apply a frame start trigger signal to input line 1
to start each frame exposure.
Settings:
Acquisition Mode = Continuous
Trigger Mode for the acquisition start trigger = On
Trigger Source for the acquisition start trigger = Software
Acquisition Frame Count = 3
Trigger Mode for the frame start trigger = On
Trigger Source for the frame start trigger = Line 1
Trigger Activation for the frame start trigger = Rising Edge
= a trigger signal applied by the user
= camera is waiting for an acquisition start trigger signal
= camera is waiting for a frame start trigger signal
= frame exposure and readout
= frame transmission
= a frame start trigger signal that will be ignored because the camera
is not in a "waiting for frame start trigger" status
Acquisition
Start
Command
Executed
Acquisition
Stop
Command
Executed
Acquisition Start
Trigger Software
Command
Executed
Frame Start
Trigger Signal
(applied to line 1)
Time
Fig. 39: Use Case 4 - Acquisition Start Trigger On and Frame Start Trigger On
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9.9
Image Acquisition Control
Overlapping Exposure and Sensor
Readout
The image acquisition process on the camera includes two distinct parts. The first part is the
exposure of the pixels in the imaging sensor. Once exposure is complete, the second part of the
process – readout of the pixel values from the sensor – takes place.
In regard to this image acquisition process, there are two common ways for the camera to operate:
with “non-overlapped” exposure and with “overlapped” exposure. In the non-overlapped mode of
operation, each time an image is acquired, the camera completes the entire exposure/readout
process before acquisition of the next image is started. This situation is illustrated in Figure 40.
Image Acquisition N+1
Image Acquisition N
Exposure
Exposure
Readout
Image Acquisition N+2
Readout
Exposure
Readout
Time
Fig. 40: Non-overlapped Exposure
While operating in a non-overlapped fashion is perfectly normal and is appropriate for many
situations, it is not the most efficient way to operate the camera in terms of acquisition frame rate.
On this camera, however, it is allowable to begin exposing a new image while a previously acquired
image is being read out. This situation is illustrated in Figure 41 and is known as operating the
camera with “overlapped” exposure.
As you can see, running the camera with readout and exposure overlapped can allow higher
acquisition frame rates because the camera is performing two processes at once.
Image Acquisition N
Exposure
Readout
Image Acquisition N+1
Exposure
Readout
Image Acquisition N+2
Exposure
Readout
Image Acquisition N+3
Exposure
Readout
Time
Fig. 41: Overlapped Exposure
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Determining whether your camera is operating with overlapped or non-overlapped exposures is not
a matter of issuing a command or switching a setting on or off. Rather the way that you operate the
camera will determine whether the exposures are overlapped or not overlapped. If we define the
“frame period” as the time from the start of exposure for one image acquisition to the start of
exposure for the next image acquisition, then:
„
Exposure will overlap when:
Frame Period ≤ Exposure Time + Readout Time
„
Exposure will not overlap when:
Frame Period > Exposure Time + Readout Time
You can calculate the readout time for a captured image by using the formula on page 142.
9.9.1
Guidelines for Overlapped Operation
If you will be operating the camera with overlapped exposure, there are two important guidelines to
keep in mind:
„
You must not begin the exposure time for a new image acquisition while the exposure time of
the previous acquisition is in progress.
„
You must not end the exposure time of the current image acquisition until readout of the
previously acquired image is complete.
The camera will ignore any trigger signals that violate these guidelines.
When you are operating a camera with overlapped exposure and using a hardware trigger signal
to trigger image acquisition, you could use the camera’s exposure time parameter settings and
timing formulas to calculate when it is safe to begin each new acquisition. However, there is a much
more convenient way to know when it safe to begin each acquisition. The camera supplies a “trigger
ready” signal that is specifically designed to let you trigger overlapped exposure safely and
efficiently.
For more information about using the Trigger Ready signal, see Section 9.10.3 on page 136.
For more detailed guidelines about using an external trigger signal with the trigger width exposure
mode and overlapped exposure, refer to the application notes called "Using a Specific External
Trigger Signal with Overlapped Exposure" (AW000565xx000). The application notes are available
in the downloads section of the Basler website: www.baslerweb.com.
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9.10 Acquisition Monitoring Tools
9.10.1 Exposure Active Signal
The camera’s “exposure active” (ExpAc) signal goes high when the exposure time for each image
acquisition begins and goes low when the exposure time ends as shown in Figure 42. This signal
can be used as a flash trigger and is also useful when you are operating a system where either the
camera or the object being imaged is movable. For example, assume that the camera is mounted
on an arm mechanism and that the mechanism can move the camera to view different portions of
a product assembly. Typically, you do not want the camera to move during exposure. In this case,
you can monitor the ExpAc signal to know when exposure is taking place and thus know when to
avoid moving the camera.
Exposure
Exposure
Frame N
Exposure
Frame N+1
2 - 3.5 µs
Exposure
Frame N+2
2 - 3.5 µs
10 - 26 µs
ExpAc
Signal
10 - 26 µs
Timing charts are not drawn to scale
Times stated are typical
Fig. 42: Exposure Active Signal
When you use the exposure active signal, be aware that there is a delay in the rise
and the fall of the signal in relation to the start and the end of exposure. See
Figure 42 for details.
By default, the ExpAc signal is assigned to physical output line 1 on the camera.
Selecting the Exposure Active Signal as the Source Signal for the Output Line
The exposure active output signal can be selected to act as the source signal for output line 1.
Selecting a source signal for the output line is a two step process:
„
Use the Line Selector to select output line 1.
„
Set the value of the Line Source Parameter to the exposure active output signal.
You can set the Line Selector and the Line Source parameter value from within your application
software by using the Basler pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set
the selector and the parameter value:
Camera.LineSelector.SetValue( LineSelector_Out1 );
Camera.LineSource.SetValue( LineSource_ExposureActive );
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You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about changing the assignment of camera output signals to the physical
output line, see Section 8.2.1 on page 73.
For more information about the electrical characteristics of the camera’s output line, see
Section 7.7.2 on page 67.
9.10.2 Acquisition Status Indicator
When controlling image acquisition with a software trigger you can use the acquisition status feature
to determine when the camera is rady to be triggered for an image acquisition.
For more information about the acquisition status feature, see Section 11.11 on page 195.
9.10.3 Trigger Ready Signal
As described in the previous section, the cameras can operate in an “overlapped” acquisition
fashion. When the camera is operated in this manner, it is especially important that:
„
the exposure time of a new image acquisition not start until exposure of the previously
acquired image is complete, and
„
the exposure time of a new image acquisition not end until readout of the previously acquired
image is complete.
The camera supplies a “Trigger Ready” (TrigRdy) output signal you can use to ensure that these
conditions are met when you are using a hardware trigger signal to trigger image acquisition. The
trigger ready signal relates to different trigger signals, depending on the image acquisition control
mode:
„
In standard mode, the trigger ready signal relates to the frame start trigger signal
„
In legacy mode, the trigger ready signal relates to the acquisition start trigger signal.
When you are acquiring images, the camera automatically calculates the earliest moment that it is
safe to trigger each new acquisition. The trigger ready signal will go high when it is safe to trigger
an acquisition, will go low when the acquisition has started, and will go high again when it is safe to
trigger the next acquisition (see Figure 43). The camera calculates the rise of the trigger ready
signal based on the current exposure time parameter setting, the current size of the area of interest,
and the time it will take to readout the captured pixel values from the sensor.
The trigger ready signal is especially useful if you want to run the camera at the maximum
acquisition frame capture rate for the current conditions. If you monitor the trigger ready signal and
you trigger acquisition of each new image immediately after the signal goes high, you will be sure
that the camera is operating at the maximum acquisition frame rate for the current conditions.
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Signal goes high
at earliest safe
moment to trigger
acquisition N+1
Signal goes low
when exposure
for acquisition
N+1 begins
Signal goes high
at earliest safe
moment to trigger
acquisition N+2
Signal goes low
when exposure
for acquisition
N+2 begins
TrigRdy
Signal
Image Acquisition N
Exposure
Readout
Image Acquisition N+1
Exposure
Readout
Image Acquisition N+2
Exposure
Readout
Time
Fig. 43: Trigger Ready Signal
You should be aware that if the Acquisition Frame Rate Abs parameter is enabled, the operation of
the trigger ready signal will be influenced by the value of the parameter:
„
If the value of the parameter is greater than zero but less than the maximum allowed, the
trigger ready will go high at the rate specified by the parameter value. For example, if the
parameter is set to 10, the trigger ready signal will go high 10 times per second.
„
If the value of the parameter is greater than the maximum allowed acquisition frame rate with
the current camera settings, the trigger ready signal will work as described above and will go
high at a point that represents the maximum acquisition frame rate allowed.
If you attempt to start an image acquisition when the trigger ready signal is low,
the camera will simply ignore the attempt.
The trigger ready signal will only be available when hardware triggering is
enabled.
The trigger ready signal can be assigned to physical output line 1 on the camera.
Selecting the Trigger Ready Signal as the Source Signal for the Output Line
The trigger ready signal can be selected to act as the source signal for output line 1. Selecting a
source signal for the output line is a two step process:
„
Use the Line Selector to select output line 1.
„
Set the value of the Line Source Parameter to the trigger ready output signal.
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You can set the Line Selector and the Line Source parameter value from within your application
software by using the Basler pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set
the selector and the parameter value:
Camera.LineSelector.SetValue( LineSelector_Out1 );
Camera.LineSource.SetValue( LineSource_TriggerReady );
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about changing the assignment of camera output signals to the physical
output line, see Section 8.2.1 on page 73.
For more information about the electrical characteristics of the camera’s output line, see
Section 7.7.2 on page 67.
For more information about the standard and legacy image acquisition control modes, see
Section 9.1 on page 83.
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9.10.4 Acquisition Trigger Wait Signal (Standard Mode
Only)
The acquisition trigger wait signal is only available when the image acquisition
control is set to standard mode.
For more information about image acquisition control and setting the mode, see
Section 9.1 on page 83.
As you are acquiring frames, the camera automatically monitors the acquisition start trigger status
and supplies a signal that indicates the current status. The Acquisition Trigger Wait signal will go
high whenever the camera enters a "waiting for acquisition start trigger" status. The signal will go
low when an external acquisition start trigger (ExASTrig) signal is applied to the camera and the
camera exits the "waiting for acquisition start trigger status". The signal will go high again when the
camera again enters a "waiting for acquisition trigger" status and it is safe to apply the next
acquisition start trigger signal.
If you base your use of the ExASTrig signal on the state of the acquisition trigger wait signal, you
can avoid "acquisition start overtriggering", i.e., applying an acquisition start trigger signal to the
camera when it is not in a "waiting for acquisition start trigger" acquisition status. If you do apply an
acquisition start trigger signal to the camera when it is not ready to receive the signal, it will be
ignored.
Figure 44 illustrates the Acquisition Trigger Wait signal with the Acquisition Frame Count parameter
set to 3 and with exposure and readout overlapped. The figure assumes that the trigger mode for
the frame start trigger is set to off, so the camera is internally generating frame start trigger signals.
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Acq. Trigger
Wait Signal
ExASTrig
Signal
Frame Acquisition
Exp.
Readout
Frame Acquisition
Exp.
Readout
Frame Acquisition
Exp.
Readout
Frame Acquisition
Exp.
Readout
Frame Acquisition
Exp.
Readout
Frame Acquisition
Exp.
Readout
Time
= Camera is in a "waiting for
acquisition start trigger" status
Fig. 44: Acquisition Trigger Wait Signal
The acquisition trigger wait signal will only be available when hardware
acquisition start triggering is enabled.
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Selecting the Acquisition Trigger Wait Signal as the Source Signal for the
Output Line
The acquisition trigger wait signal can be selected to act as the source signal for camera output
line 1. Selecting a source signal for the output line is a two step process:
„
Use the Line Selector to select output line 1.
„
Set the value of the Line Source Parameter to the acquisition trigger wait signal.
You can set the Line Selector and the Line Source parameter value from within your application
software by using the Basler pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set
the selector and the parameter value:
Camera.LineSelector.SetValue( LineSelector_Out1 );
Camera.LineSource.SetValue( LineSource_AcquisitionTriggerWait );
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
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9.11 Acquisition Timing Chart
Figure 45 shows a timing chart for image acquisition and transmission. The chart assumes that
exposure is triggered by an ExTrig signal with rising edge activation and that the camera is set for
the timed exposure mode.
The ExTrig signal will be an externally triggered frame start trigger signal when using image
acquisition control in standard mode. The ExTrig signal will be an externally triggered acquisition
start trigger signal when using image acquisition control in legacy mode.
As Figure 45 shows, there is a slight delay between the rise of the ExTrig signal and the start of
exposure. After the exposure time for an image acquisition is complete, the camera begins reading
out the acquired image data from the CCD sensor into a buffer in the camera. When the camera
has determined that a sufficient amount of image data has accumulated in the buffer, it will begin
transmitting the data from the camera to the host PC.
This buffering technique avoids the need to exactly synchronize the clock used for sensor readout
with the data transmission over your Ethernet network. The camera will begin transmitting data
when it has determined that it can safely do so without over-running or under-running the buffer.
This buffering technique is also an important element in achieving the highest possible frame rate
with the best image quality.
The exposure start delay is the amount of time between the point where the trigger signal
transitions and the point where exposure actually begins.
The frame readout time is the amount of time it takes to read out the data for an acquired image
from the CCD sensor into the image buffer.
The frame transmission time is the amount of time it takes to transmit the acquired image from
the buffer in the camera to the host PC via the network.
The transmission start delay is the amount of time between the point where the camera begins
reading out the acquired image data from the sensor to the point where it begins transmitting the
data for the acquired image from the buffer to the host PC.
The exposure start delay varies from camera model to camera model. The table below shows the
exposure start delay for each camera model:
Camera Model
Exposure Start Delay
Camera Model
Exposure Start Delay
slA640-74gm/gc
30.05 µs
slA1390-17gm/gc
65.31 µs
slA780-54gm/gc
35.94 µs
slA1400-17gm/gc
63.17 µs
Table 10: Exposure Start Delays
Note that, if the debouncer feature is used, the debouncer setting for the input line must be added
to the exposure start delays shown in Table 10 to determine the total start delay. For example,
assume that you are using an slA640-74 camera and that you have set the cameras for hardware
triggering. Also assume that you have selected input line 1 to accept the hardware trigger signal
and that you have set the Line Debouncer Time Abs parameter for input line 1 to 5 µs.
In this case:
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Total Start Delay = Start Delay from Table 10 + Debouncer Setting
Total Start Delay = 30.05 µs+ 5 µs
Total Start Delay = 35.05 µs
TrigRdy
Signal
ExTrig
Signal
Exposure
Exposure Start Delay
Exposure
Frame N
Frame
Readout
Exposure Start Delay
Exposure
Frame N+1
Frame N Readout to the Image Buffer
Transmission Start Delay
Frame
Transmission
Frame N Transmission to Host PC
Exposure
Frame N+2
Frame N+1 Readout to the Image Buffer
Transmission Start Delay
Frame N+1 Transmission to Host PC
Timing charts are not drawn to scale
Fig. 45: Exposure Start Controlled with an ExTrig Signal
You can calculate the frame readout time by using this formula:
Frame Readout Time = ( (AOI Height + 1) x C1 ) + C2
Where the values for the constants C1 and C2 are from the table in Section 9.12 on page 144 for all
camera models.
For more information about the AOI height, see Section 11.6 on page 185.
You can calculate an approximate frame transmission time by using this formula:
Payload Size Parameter Value
~ Frame Transmission Time = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Device Current Throughput Parameter Value
Note that this is an approximate frame transmission time. Due to the nature of the Ethernet network,
the transmission time could vary. Also note that the frame transmission cannot be less than the
frame readout time. So if the frame transmission time formula returns a value that is less than the
readout time, the approximate frame transmission time will be equal to the readout time.
Due to the nature of the Ethernet network, the transmission start delay can vary from frame to
frame. The transmission start delay, however, is of very low significance when compared to the
transmission time.
For more information about the Payload Size and Device Current Throughput parameters, see
Section 5.1 on page 39.
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9.12 Maximum Allowed Acquisition Frame
Rate
In general, the maximum allowed acquisition frame rate can be limited by three factors:
„
The amount of time it takes to read an acquired frame out of the imaging sensor and into the
camera’s frame buffer. This time varies depending on the height of the frame. Frames with a
smaller height take less time to read out of the sensor. The frame height is determined by the
camera’s AOI Height settings.
„
The exposure time for acquired frames. If you use very long exposure times, you can acquire
fewer frames per second.
„
The amount of time that it takes to transmit an acquired frame from the camera to your host
PC. The amount of time needed to transmit a frame depends on the bandwidth assigned to the
camera.
When the camera’s acquisition mode is set to single frame, the maximum possible
acquisition frame rate for a given AOI cannot be achieved. To achieve the
maximum possible acquisition frame rate, set the camera for the continuous
acquisition mode.
To determine the maximum allowed acquisition frame rate with your current camera settings, you
can read the value of the camera’s Resulting Frame Rate parameter. This parameter indicates the
camera’s current maximum allowed frame rate taking the AOI, exposure time, and bandwidth
settings into account.
For more information about the acquisition mode, see Section 9.2 on page 85 and Section 9.3 on
page 89.
For more information about AOI Height settings, see Section 11.6 on page 185.
For more information about the Resulting Frame Rate parameter, see Section 5.1 on page 39.
Increasing the Maximum Allowed Frame Rate
You may find that you would like to acquire frames at a rate higher than the maximum allowed with
the camera’s current settings. In this case, you must first use the three formulas described below
to determine which factor is restricting the maximum frame rate the most. Next, you must try to
make that factor less restrictive:
„
You will often find that the sensor readout time is most restrictive factor. Decreasing the AOI
height for the acquired frames will decrease the sensor readout time and will make this factor
less restrictive.
„
If you are using normal exposure times and you are using the camera at it’s maximum
resolution, your exposure time will not normally be the most restrictive factor on the frame rate.
However, if you are using long exposure times or small areas of interest, it is quite possible to
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find that your exposure time is the most restrictive factor on the frame rate. In this case, you
should lower your exposure time. (You may need to compensate for a lower exposure time by
using a brighter light source or increasing the opening of your lens aperture.)
„
The frame transmission time will not normally be a restricting factor. But if you are using
multiple cameras and you have set a small packet size or a large inter-packet delay, you may
find that the transmission time is restricting the maximum allowed rate. In this case, you could
increase the packet size or decrease the inter-packet delay. If you are using several cameras
connected to the host PC via a network switch, you could also use a multiport network adapter
in the PC instead of a switch. This would allow you to increase the Ethernet bandwidth
assigned to the camera and thus decrease the transmission time.
For more information about AOI settings, see Section 11.6 on page 185.
For more information on the settings that determine the bandwidth assigned to the camera, see
Section 5.2 on page 46.
Formula 1:
Calculates the maximum frame rate based on the sensor readout time:
1
Max. Frames/s = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------[ (AOI Height + 1) × C 1 ] + C 2
Where:
AOI Height = the height of the acquired frames as determined by the AOI Height settings.
The constants C1 and C2 depend on the camera model as shown in the table below:
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Camera Model
C1
C2
Camera Model
C1
C2
slA640-74gm/gc
22.66 µs
1433.66 µs
slA1390-17gm/gc
46.53 µs
10244.54 µs
slA780-54gm/gc
26.94 µs
2308.54 µs
slA1400-17gm/gc
46.53 µs
9357.50 µs
Formula 2:
Calculates the maximum frame rate based on the exposure time for the acquired frames:
1
Max. Frames/s = -------------------------------------------------------------------Exposure time in µs + C 3
Where the constant C3 depends on the camera model as shown in the table below:
Camera Model
C3
Camera Model
C3
slA640-74gm/gc
84 µs
slA1390-17gm/gc
177 µs
slA780-54gm/gc
100 µs
slA1400-17gm/gc
175 µs
For more information about setting the exposure time, see Section 9.7 on page 121.
Formula 3:
Calculates the maximum frame rate based on the frame transmission time:
Device Current Throughput Parameter Value
Max. Frames/s = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Payload Size Parameter Value
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Example
Assume that you are using an slA640-74gm camera set for an exposure time of 2000 µs and for
600 x 400 resolution. Also assume that you have checked the value of the Device Current
Throughput parameter and the Payload Size parameters and found them to be 110000000 and
240000 respectively.
Formula 1:
1
Max Frames/s = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------[ ( 400 + 1 ) × 22.66 ] + 1433.66
Max Frames/s = 95.0 frames/s
Formula 2:
1
Max Frames/s = -----------------------------------------2000 µs + 84 µs
Max Frames/s = 479.8 frames/s
Formula 3:
110000000
Max Frames/s = -----------------------------240000
Max Frames/s = 458.3 frames/s
Formula one returns the lowest value. So in this case, the limiting factor is the sensor readout time,
and the maximum allowed acquisition frame rate would be 95.0 frames per second.
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Pixel Data Formats
10 Pixel Data Formats
By selecting a pixel data format, you determine the format (layout) of the image data transmitted by
the camera. This section provides detailed information about the available pixel data formats.
10.1 Setting the Pixel Data Format
The setting for the camera’s Pixel Format parameter determines the format of the pixel data that will
be output from the camera. The available pixel formats depend on the camera model and whether
the camera is monochrome or color. Table 11 lists the pixel formats available on each monochrome
camera model and Table 12 lists the pixel formats available on each color camera model.
Mono Camera
Model
Mono 8
Mono 16
Mono 12
Packed
YUV 4:2:2
Packed
YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV)
Packed
slA640-74
•
•
•
•
•
slA780-54
•
•
•
•
•
slA1390-17
•
•
•
•
•
slA1400-17
•
•
•
•
•
Table 11: Pixel Formats Available on Monochrome Cameras ( • = format available)
Color Camera
Model
Mono 8
Bayer
BG 8
Bayer
BG 16
Bayer BG 12
Packed
YUV 4:2:2
Packed
YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV)
Packed
slA640-74
•
•
•
•
•
•
slA780-54
•
•
•
•
•
•
slA1390-17
•
•
•
•
•
•
slA1400-17
•
•
•
•
•
•
Table 12: Pixel Formats Available on Color Cameras ( • = format available)
Details of the monochrome formats are described in Section 10.2 on page 151 and details of the
color formats are described in Section 10.3 on page 157.
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You can set the Pixel Format parameter value from within your application software by using the
pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the parameter value:
Camera.PixelFormat.SetValue( PixelFormat_Mono8 );
Camera.PixelFormat.SetValue( PixelFormat_Mono12Packed );
Camera.PixelFormat.SetValue( PixelFormat_Mono16 );
Camera.PixelFormat.SetValue( PixelFormat_YUV422Packed );
Camera.PixelFormat.SetValue( PixelFormat_YUV422_YUYV_Packed );
Camera.PixelFormat.SetValue( PixelFormat_BayerBG8 );
Camera.PixelFormat.SetValue( PixelFormat_BayerBG16 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 25.
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10.2 Pixel Data Formats for Mono Cameras
10.2.1 Mono 8 Format (Equivalent to DCAM Mono 8)
When a monochrome camera is set for the Mono 8 pixel data format, it outputs 8 bits of brightness
data per pixel.
The table below describes how the pixel data for a received frame will be ordered in the image buffer
in your PC when the camera is set for Mono8 output.
The following standards are used in the table:
P0 = the first pixel transmitted by the camera
Pn = the last pixel transmitted by the camera
B0 = the first byte in the buffer
Bm = the last byte in the buffer
Byte
Data
Byte
Data
B0
Brightness value for P0
•
•
B1
Brightness value for P1
•
•
B2
Brightness value for P2
Bm-4
Brightness value for Pn-4
B3
Brightness value for P3
Bm-3
Brightness value for Pn-3
B4
Brightness value for P4
Bm-2
Brightness value for Pn-2
•
•
Bm-1
Brightness value for Pn-1
•
•
Bm
Brightness value for Pn
With the camera set for Mono8, the pixel data output is 8 bit data of the “unsigned char” type. The
available range of data values and the corresponding indicated signal levels are as shown in the
table below.
This Data Value
(Hexadecimal)
Indicates This Signal Level
(Decimal)
0xFF
255
0xFE
254
•
•
•
•
•
•
0x01
1
0x00
0
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10.2.2 Mono 16 Format (Equivalent to DCAM Mono 16)
When a monochrome camera is set for the Mono16 pixel data format, it outputs 16 bits of brightness
data per pixel with 12 bits effective. The 12 bits of effective pixel data fill from the least significant
bit. The four unused most significant bits are filled with zeros.
The table below describes how the pixel data for a received frame will be ordered in the image buffer
in your PC when the camera is set for Mono16 output. Note that the data is placed in the image
buffer in little endian format.
The following standards are used in the table:
P0 = the first pixel transmitted by the camera
Pn = the last pixel transmitted by the camera
B0 = the first byte in the buffer
Bm = the last byte in the buffer
Byte
Data
B0
Low byte of brightness value for P0
B1
High byte of brightness value for P0
B2
Low byte of brightness value for P1
B3
High byte of brightness value for P1
B4
Low byte of brightness value for P2
B5
High byte of brightness value for P2
B6
Low byte of brightness value for P3
B7
High byte of brightness value for P3
B8
Low byte of brightness value for P4
B9
High byte of brightness value for P4
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bm-7
Low byte of brightness value for Pn-3
Bm-6
High byte of brightness value for Pn-3
Bm-5
Low byte of brightness value for Pn-2
Bm-4
High byte of brightness value for Pn-2
Bm-3
Low byte of brightness value for Pn-1
Bm-2
High byte of brightness value for Pn-1
Bm-1
Low byte of brightness value for Pn
Bm
High byte of brightness value for Pn
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When the camera is set for Mono 16, the pixel data output is 16 bit data of the “unsigned short (little
endian)” type. The available range of data values and the corresponding indicated signal levels are
as shown in the table below. Note that for 16 bit data, you might expect a value range from 0x0000
to 0xFFFF. However, with the camera set for Mono16 only 12 bits of the 16 bits transmitted are
effective. Therefore, the highest data value you will see is 0x0FFF indicating a signal level of 4095.
This Data Value
(Hexadecimal)
Indicates This Signal Level
(Decimal)
0x0FFF
4095
0x0FFE
4094
•
•
•
•
•
•
0x0001
1
0x0000
0
When a camera that is set for Mono 16 has only 12 bits effective, the leader of
transmitted frames will indicate Mono 12 as the pixel format.
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10.2.3 Mono 12 Packed Format
When a monochrome camera is set for the Mono 12 Packed pixel data format, it outputs 12 bits of
brightness data per pixel. Every three bytes transmitted by the camera contain data for two pixels.
The table below describes how the pixel data for a received frame will be ordered in the image buffer
in your PC when the camera is set for Mono 12 Packed output.
The following standards are used in the table:
P0 = the first pixel transmitted by the camera
Pn = the last pixel transmitted by the camera
B0 = the first byte in the buffer
Bm = the last byte in the buffer
Byte
Data
B0
P0 bits 11 ... 4
B1
P1 bits 3 ... 0
B2
P1 bits 11 ... 4
B3
P2 bits 11 ... 4
B4
P3 bits 3 ... 0
B5
P3 bits 11 ... 4
B6
P4 bits 11 ... 4
B7
P5 bits 3 ... 0
B8
P5 bits 11 ... 4
B9
P6 bits 11 ... 4
B10
P7 bits 3 ... 0
B11
P7 bits 11 ... 4
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bm-5
Pn-3 bits 11 ... 4
Bm-4
Pn-2 bits 3 ... 0
Bm-3
Pn-2 bits 11 ... 4
Bm-2
Pn-1 bits 11 ... 4
Bm-1
Pn bits 3 ... 0
Bm
Pn bits 11 ... 4
154
P0 bits 3 ... 0
P2 bits 3 ... 0
P4 bits 3 ... 0
P6 bits 3 ... 0
•
Pn-3 bits 3 ... 0
Pn-1 bits 3 ... 0
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When a monochrome camera is set for Mono 12 Packed, the pixel data output is 12 bit data of the
“unsigned” type. The available range of data values and the corresponding indicated signal levels
are as shown in the table below.
This Data Value
(Hexadecimal)
Indicates This Signal Level
(Decimal)
0x0FFF
4095
0x0FFE
4094
•
•
•
•
•
•
0x0001
1
0x0000
0
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10.2.4 YUV 4:2:2 Packed Format
(Equivalent to DCAM YUV 4:2:2)
When a monochrome camera is set for the YUV 4:2:2 Packed pixel data format, the camera
transmits Y, U, and V values in a fashion that mimics the output from a color camera set for YUV
4:2:2 Packed.
The Y value transmitted for each pixel is an actual 8 bit brightness value similar to the pixel data
transmitted when a monochrome camera is set for Mono 8. The U and V values transmitted will
always be zero. With this color coding, a Y value is transmitted for each pixel, but the U and V values
are only transmitted for every second pixel.
The order of the pixel data for a received frame in the image buffer in your PC is similar to the order
of YUV 4:2:2 Packed output from a color camera.
For more information about the YUV 4:2:2 Packed format on color cameras, see Section 10.3.5 on
page 165.
10.2.5 YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed Format
When a monochrome camera is set for the YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed pixel data format, the camera
transmits Y, U, and V values in a fashion that mimics the output from a color camera set for YUV
4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed.
The Y value transmitted for each pixel is an actual 8 bit brightness value similar to the pixel data
transmitted when a monochrome camera is set for Mono 8. The U and V values transmitted will
always be zero. With this color coding, a Y value is transmitted for each pixel, but the U and V values
are only transmitted for every second pixel.
The order of the pixel data for a received frame in the image buffer in your PC is similar to the order
of YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed output from a color camera.
For more information about the YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed format on color cameras, see
Section 10.3.6 on page 168.
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Pixel Data Formats
10.3 Pixel Data Output Formats for
Color Cameras
10.3.1 The Bayer Color Filter
The sensor used in color models of the camera is equipped with an additive color separation filter
known as a Bayer filter. The pixel data output formats available on color cameras are related to the
Bayer pattern, so you need a basic knowledge of the Bayer filter to understand the pixel formats.
With the Bayer filter, each individual pixel is covered by a micro-lens that allows light of only one
color to strike the pixel. The pattern of the Bayer filter used on the camera is as shown in Figure 46
(the figure shows the "BG" filter alignment). As the figure illustrates, within each square of four
pixels, one pixel sees only red light, one sees only blue light, and two pixels see only green light.
(This combination mimics the human eye’s sensitivity to color.)
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
G
R
Sensor
Pixels
Fig. 46: Bayer Filter Pattern
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10.3.1.1 Color Filter Alignment
The alignment of the Bayer filter to the pixels in the images acquired by color cameras is Bayer BG
for all camera models.
Bayer BG alignment means that pixel one and pixel two of the first line in each image transmitted
will be blue and green respectively. And for the second line transmitted, pixel one and pixel two will
be green and red respectively. Since the pattern of the Bayer filter is fixed, you can use this
information to determine the color of all of the other pixels in the image.
Because the size and position of the area of interest on color cameras must be adjusted in
increments of 2, the color filter alignment will remain the same regardless of the camera’s area of
interest (AOI) settings.
The Pixel Color Filter parameter indicates the alignment of the camera’s Bayer filter to the pixels in
the images captured by a color camera. You can tell how the current AOI is aligned to the Bayer
filter by reading the value of the Pixel Color Filter parameter.
For more information about the camera’s AOI feature, see Section 11.6 on page 185.
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10.3.2 Bayer BG 8 Format (Equivalent to DCAM Raw 8)
When a color camera is set for the Bayer BG 8 pixel data format, it outputs 8 bits of data per pixel
and the pixel data is not processed or interpolated in any way. So, for each pixel covered with a red
lens, you get 8 bits of red data. For each pixel covered with a green lens, you get 8 bits of green
data. And for each pixel covered with a blue lens, you get 8 bits of blue data. (This type of pixel data
is sometimes referred to as "raw" output.)
The "BG" in the name Bayer BG 8 refers to the alignment of the colors in the Bayer filter to the pixels
in the acquired images. For even rows in the images, pixel one will be blue, pixel two will be green,
pixel three will be blue, pixel four will be green, etc. For odd rows in the images, pixel one will be
green, pixel two will be red, pixel three will be green, pixel four will be red, etc.
For more information about the Bayer filter, see Section 10.3.1 on page 157.
The tables below describe how the data for the even rows and for the odd rows of a received frame
will be ordered in the image buffer in your PC when the camera is set for Bayer BG 8 output.
The following standards are used in the tables:
P0 = the first pixel transmitted by the camera for a row
Pn = the last pixel transmitted by the camera for a row
B0 = the first byte of data for a row
Bm = the last byte of data for a row
Even Rows
Odd Rows
Byte
Data
Byte
Data
B0
Blue value for P0
B0
Green value for P0
B1
Green value for P1
B1
Red value for P1
B2
Blue value for P2
B2
Green value for P2
B3
Green value for P3
B3
Red value for P3
B4
Blue value for P4
B4
Green value for P4
B5
Green value for P5
B5
Red value for P5
²
•
²
•
²
•
²
•
²
•
²
•
Bm-5
Blue value for Pn-5
Bm-5
Green value for Pn-5
Bm-4
Green value for Pn-4
Bm-4
Red value for Pn-4
Bm-3
Blue value for Pn-3
Bm-3
Green value for Pn-3
Bm-2
Green value for Pn-2
Bm-2
Red value for Pn-2
Bm-1
Blue value for Pn-1
Bm-1
Green value for Pn-1
Bm
Green value for Pn
Bm
Red value for Pn
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With the camera set for Bayer BG 8, the pixel data output is 8 bit data of the “unsigned char” type.
The available range of data values and the corresponding indicated signal levels are as shown in
the table below.
This Data Value
(Hexadecimal)
Indicates This Signal Level
(Decimal)
0xFF
255
0xFE
254
•
•
•
•
•
•
0x01
1
0x00
0
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Pixel Data Formats
10.3.3 Bayer BG 16 Format (Equivalent to DCAM Raw 16)
When a color camera is set for the Bayer BG 16 pixel data format, it outputs 16 bits of data per pixel
with 12 bits effective. The 12 bits of effective pixel data fill from the least significant bit. The four
unused most significant bits are filled with zeros.
With the Bayer BG 16 the pixel data is not processed or interpolated in any way. So, for each pixel
covered with a red lens, you get 12 effective bits of red data. For each pixel covered with a green
lens, you get 12 effective bits of green data. And for each pixel covered with a blue lens, you get 12
effective bits of blue data. (This type of pixel data is sometimes referred to as "raw" output.)
The "BG" in the name Bayer BG 16 refers to the alignment of the colors in the Bayer filter to the
pixels in the acquired images. For even lines in the images, pixel one will be blue, pixel two will be
green, pixel three will be blue, pixel four will be green, etc. For odd lines in the images, pixel one
will be green, pixel two will be red, pixel three will be green, pixel four will be red, etc.
For more information about the Bayer filter, see Section 10.3.1 on page 157.
The tables below describe how the data for the even lines and for the odd lines of a received frame
will be ordered in the image buffer in your PC when the camera is set for Bayer BG 16 output. Note
that the data is placed in the image buffer in little endian format.
The following standards are used in the tables:
P0 = the first pixel transmitted by the camera for a line
Pn = the last pixel transmitted by the camera for a line
B0 = the first byte of data for a line
Bm = the last byte of data for a line
Even Lines
Odd Lines
Byte
Data
Byte
Data
B0
Low byte of blue value for P0
B0
Low byte of green value for P0
B1
High byte of blue value for P0
B1
High byte of green value for P0
B2
Low byte of green value for P1
B2
Low byte of red value for P1
B3
High byte of green value for P1
B3
High byte of red value for P1
B4
Low byte of blue value for P2
B4
Low byte of green value for P2
B5
High byte of blue value for P2
B5
High byte of green value for P2
B6
Low byte of green value for P3
B6
Low byte of red value for P3
B7
High byte of green value for P3
B7
High byte of red value for P3
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bm-7
Low byte of blue value for Pn-3
Bm-7
Low byte of green value for Pn-3
Bm-6
High byte of blue value for Pn-3
Bm-6
High byte of green value for Pn-3
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Bm-5
Low byte of green value for Pn-2
Bm-5
Low byte of red value for Pn-2
Bm-4
High byte of green value for Pn-2
Bm-4
High byte of red value for Pn-2
Bm-3
Low byte of blue value for Pn-1
Bm-3
Low byte of green value for Pn-1
Bm-2
High byte of blue value for Pn-1
Bm-2
High byte of green value for Pn-1
Bm-1
Low byte of green value for Pn
Bm-1
Low byte of red value for Pn
Bm
High byte of green value for Pn
Bm
High byte of red value for Pn
When the camera is set for Bayer BG 16, the pixel data output is 16 bit data of the “unsigned short
(little endian)” type. The available range of data values and the corresponding indicated signal
levels are as shown in the table below. Note that for 16 bit data, you might expect a value range
from 0x0000 to 0xFFFF. However, with the camera set for Bayer BG 16 only 12 bits of the 16 bits
transmitted are effective. Therefore, the highest data value you will see is 0x0FFF indicating a
signal level of 4095.
This Data Value
(Hexadecimal)
Indicates This Signal Level
(Decimal)
0x0FFF
4095
0x0FFE
4094
•
•
•
•
•
•
0x0001
1
0x0000
0
When a camera that is set for Bayer BG 16 has only 12 bits effective, the leader
of transmitted frames will indicate Bayer BG 12 as the pixel format.
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Pixel Data Formats
10.3.4 Bayer BG 12 Packed Format
When a color camera is set for the Bayer BG 12 Packed pixel data format, it outputs 12 bits of data
per pixel. Every three bytes transmitted by the camera contain data for two pixels.
With the Bayer BG 12 Packed coding, the pixel data is not processed or interpolated in any way.
So, for each pixel covered with a red lens in the sensor’s Bayer filter, you get 12 bits of red data.
For each pixel covered with a green lens in the filter, you get 12 bits of green data. And for each
pixel covered with a blue lens in the filter, you get 12 bits of blue data. (This type of pixel data is
sometimes referred to as "raw" output.)
For more information about the Bayer filter, see Section 10.3.1 on page 157.
The tables below describe how the data for the even rows and for the odd rows of a received frame
will be ordered in the image buffer in your PC when the camera is set for Bayer BG12 Packed
output.
The following standards are used in the tables:
P0 = the first pixel transmitted by the camera for a row
Pn = the last pixel transmitted by the camera for a row
B0 = the first byte of data for a row
Bm = the last byte of data for a row
Even Rows
Byte
Data
B0
Blue value for P0 bits 11 ... 4
B1
Green value for P1 bits 3 ... 0
B2
Green value for P1 bits 11 ... 4
B3
Blue value for P2 bits 11 ... 4
B4
Green value for P3 bits 3 ... 0
B5
Green value for P3 bits 11 ... 4
B6
Blue value for P4 bits 11 ... 4
B7
Green value for P5 bits 3 ... 0
B8
Green value for P5 bits 11 ... 4
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bm-5
Blue value for Pn-3 bits 11 ... 4
Bm-4
Green value for Pn-2 bits 3 ... 0
Bm-3
Green value for Pn-2 bits 11 ... 4
Bm-2
Blue value for Pn-1 bits 11 ... 4
Bm-1
Green value for Pn bits 3 ... 0
Bm
Green value for Pn bits 11 ... 4
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Blue value for P2 bits 3 ... 0
Blue value for P4 bits 3 ... 0
•
Blue value for Pn-3 bits 3 ... 0
Blue value for Pn-1 bits 3 ... 0
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Odd Rows
Byte
Data
B0
Green value for P0 bits 11 ... 4
B1
Red value for P1 bits 3 ... 0
B2
Red value for P1 bits 11 ... 4
B3
Green value for P2 bits 11 ... 4
B4
Red value for P3 bits 3 ... 0
B5
Red value for P3 bits 11 ... 4
B6
Green value for P4 bits 11 ... 4
B7
Red value for P5 bits 3 ... 0
B8
Red value for P5 bits 11 ... 4
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bm-5
Green value for Pn-3 bits 11 ... 4
Bm-4
Red value for Pn-2 bits 3 ... 0
Bm-3
Red value for Pn-2 bits 11 ... 4
Bm-2
Green value for Pn-1 bits 11 ... 4
Bm-1
Red value for Pn bits 3 ... 0
Bm
Red value for Pn bits 11 ... 4
Green value for P0 bits 3 ... 0
Green value for P2 bits 3 ... 0
Green value for P4 bits 3 ... 0
•
•
Green value for Pn-3 bits 3 ... 0
Green value for Pn-1 bits 3 ... 0
When a color camera is set for Bayer BG 12 Packed, the pixel data output is 12 bit data of the
“unsigned” type. The available range of data values and the corresponding indicated signal levels
are as shown in the table below.
This Data Value
(Hexadecimal)
Indicates This Signal Level
(Decimal)
0x0FFF
4095
0x0FFE
4094
•
•
•
•
•
•
0x0001
1
0x0000
0
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Pixel Data Formats
10.3.5 YUV 4:2:2 Packed Format
(Equivalent to DCAM YUV 4:2:2)
When a color camera is set for the YUV 422 Packed pixel data format, each pixel in the captured
image goes through a two step conversion process as it exits the sensor and passes through the
camera’s electronics. This process yields Y, U, and V color information for each pixel.
In the first step of the process, an interpolation algorithm is performed to get full RGB data for each
pixel. This is required because color cameras use a Bayer filter on the sensor and each individual
pixel gathers information for only one color.
For more information on the Bayer filter, see Section 10.3.1 on page 157.
The second step of the process is to convert the RGB information to the YUV color model. The
conversion algorithm uses the following formulas:
Y =
0.30 R + 0.59 G + 0.11 B
U = - 0.17 R - 0.33 G + 0.50 B
V =
0.50 R - 0.41 G - 0.09 B
Once the conversion to a YUV color model is complete, the pixel data is transmitted to the host PC.
The values for U and for V normally range from -128 to +127. Because the camera
transfers U values and V values with unsigned integers, 128 is added to each U
value and to each V value before the values are transferred from the camera. This
process allows the values to be transferred on a scale that ranges from 0 to 255.
The table below describes how the pixel data for a received frame will be ordered in the image buffer
in your PC when the camera is set for YUV 4:2:2 Packed output.
The following standards are used in the table:
P0 = the first pixel transmitted by the camera
Pn = the last pixel transmitted by the camera
B0 = the first byte in the buffer
Bm = the last byte in the buffer
Byte
Data
B0
U value for P0
B1
Y value for P0
B2
V Value for P0
B3
Y value for P1
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B4
U value for P2
B5
Y value for P2
B6
V Value for P2
B7
Y value for P3
B8
U value for P4
B9
Y value for P4
B10
V Value for P4
B11
Y value for P5
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bm-7
U value for Pn-3
Bm-6
Y value for Pn-3
Bm-5
V Value for Pn-3
Bm-4
Y value for Pn-2
Bm-3
U value for Pn-1
Bm-2
Y value for Pn-1
Bm-1
V Value for Pn-1
Bm
Y value for Pn
AW00104701000
When the camera is set for YUV 4:2:2 Packed output, the pixel data output for the Y component is
8 bit data of the “unsigned char” type. The range of data values for the Y component and the
corresponding indicated signal levels are shown below.
This Data Value
(Hexadecimal)
Indicates This Signal Level
(Decimal)
0xFF
255
0xFE
254
•
•
•
•
•
•
0x01
1
0x00
0
The pixel data output for the U component or the V component is 8 bit data of the “straight binary”
type. The range of data values for a U or a V component and the corresponding indicated signal
levels are shown below.
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This Data Value
(Hexadecimal)
Indicates This Signal Level
(Decimal)
0xFF
127
0xFE
126
•
•
•
•
•
•
0x81
1
0x80
0
0x7F
-1
•
•
•
•
•
•
0x01
-127
0x00
-128
The signal level of a U component or a V component can range from -128 to +127 (decimal). Notice
that the data values have been arranged to represent the full signal level range.
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10.3.6 YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed Format
On color cameras, the YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) packed pixel data format is similar to the YUV 4:2:2 pixel
format described in the previous section. The only difference is the order of the bytes transmitted
to the host PC. With the YUV 4:2:2 format, the bytes are ordered as specified in the DCAM standard
issued by the 1394 Trade Association. With the YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) format, the bytes are ordered to
emulate the ordering normally associated with analog frame grabbers and Windows® frame buffers.
The table below describes how the pixel data for a received frame will be ordered in the image buffer
in your PC when the camera is set for YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) output.
With this format, the Y component is transmitted for each pixel, but the U and V components are
only transmitted for every second pixel.
The following standards are used in the table:
P0 = the first pixel transmitted by the camera
Pn = the last pixel transmitted by the camera
B0 = the first byte in the buffer
Bm = the last byte in the buffer
Byte
Data
B0
Y value for P0
B1
U value for P0
B2
Y value for P1
B3
V value for P0
B4
Y value for P2
B5
U value for P2
B6
Y value for P3
B7
V value for P2
B8
Y value for P4
B9
U value for P4
B10
Y value for P5
B11
V value for P4
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bm-7
Y value for Pn-3
Bm-6
U value for Pn-3
Bm-5
Y value for Pn-2
Bm-4
V value for Pn-3
Bm-3
Y value for Pn-1
Bm-2
U value for Pn-1
Bm-1
Y value for Pn
Bm
V value for Pn-1
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When a color camera is set for YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) output, the pixel data output for the Y component
is 8 bit data of the “unsigned char” type. The range of data values for the Y component and the
corresponding indicated signal levels are shown below.
This Data Value
(Hexadecimal)
Indicates This Signal Level
(Decimal)
0xFF
255
0xFE
254
•
•
•
•
•
•
0x01
1
0x00
0
The pixel data output for the U component or the V component is 8 bit data of the “straight binary”
type. The range of data values for a U or a V component and the corresponding indicated signal
levels are shown below.
This Data Value
(Hexadecimal)
Indicates This Signal Level
(Decimal)
0xFF
127
0xFE
126
•
•
•
•
•
•
0x81
1
0x80
0
0x7F
-1
•
•
•
•
•
•
0x01
-127
0x00
-128
The signal level of a U component or a V component can range from -128 to +127 (decimal). Notice
that the data values have been arranged to represent the full signal level range.
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10.3.7 Mono 8 Format (Equivalent to DCAM Mono 8)
When a color camera is set for the Mono 8 pixel data format, the pixel values in each captured
image are first interpolated and converted to the YUV color model as described for the YUV 4:2:2
Packed format. The camera then transmits the 8 bit Y value for each pixel to the host PC. In the
YUV color model, the Y component for each pixel represents a brightness value. This brightness
value can be considered as equivalent to the value that would be sent from a pixel in a monochrome
camera. So in essence, when a color camera is set for Mono 8, it outputs an 8 bit monochrome
image. (This type of output is sometimes referred to as "Y Mono 8".)
The table below describes how the pixel data for a received frame will be ordered in the image buffer
in your PC when a color camera is set for Mono 8 output.
The following standards are used in the table:
P0 = the first pixel transmitted by the camera
Pn = the last pixel transmitted by the camera
B0 = the first byte in the buffer
Bm = the last byte in the buffer
Byte
Data
B0
Y value for P0
B1
Y value for P1
B2
Y value for P2
B3
Y value for P3
B4
Y value for P4
B5
Y value for P5
B6
Y value for P6
B7
Y value for P7
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bm-3
Y value for Pn-3
Bm-2
Y value for Pn-2
Bm-1
Y value for Pn-1
Bm
Y value for Pn
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With the camera set for Mono 8, the pixel data output is 8 bit data of the “unsigned char” type. The
available range of data values and the corresponding indicated signal levels are as shown in the
table below.
This Data Value
(Hexadecimal)
Indicates This Signal Level
(Decimal)
0xFF
255
0xFE
254
•
•
•
•
•
•
0x01
1
0x00
0
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10.4 Pixel Transmission Sequence
For each captured image, pixel data is transmitted from the camera in the following sequence:
Row 0 Col 0,
Row 0 Col 1,
Row 0 Col 2
.. ..
Row 0 Col m-2,
Row 0 Col m-1,
Row 0 Col m
Row 1 Col 0,
Row 1 Col 1,
Row 1 Col 2
.. ..
Row 1 Col m-2,
Row 1 Col m-1,
Row 1 Col m
Row 2 Col 0,
Row 2 Col 1,
Row 2 Col 2
.. ..
Row 2 Col m-2,
Row 2 Col m-1,
Row 2 Col m
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Row n-2 Col 0,
Row n-2 Col 1,
Row n-2 Col 2
.. ..
Row n-2 Col m-2,
Row n-2 Col m-1,
Row n-2 Col m
Row n-1 Col 0,
Row n-1 Col 1,
Row n-1 Col 2
.. ..
Row n-1 Col m-2,
Row n-1 Col m-1,
Row n-1 Col m
Row n Col 0,
Row n Col 1,
Row n Col 2
.. ..
Row n Col m-2,
Row n Col m-1,
Row n Col m
Where Row 0 Col 0 is the upper left corner of the sensor
The columns are numbered 0 through m from the left side to the right side of the sensor
The rows are numbered 0 through n from the top to the bottom of the sensor
The sequence assumes that the camera is set for full resolution.
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11 Standard Features
This chapter provides detailed information about the standard features available on each camera.
It also includes an explanation of their operation and the parameters associated with each feature.
11.1 Gain
The camera’s gain setting is adjustable. As
shown in Figure 47, increasing the gain
increases the slope of the response curve for
the camera. This results in a higher gray
value output from the camera for a given
amount of output from the imaging sensor.
Decreasing the gain decreases the slope of
the response curve and results in a lower
gray value for a given amount of sensor
output.
Gray Values
(12-bit)
(8-bit)
Increasing the gain is useful when at your
brightest exposure, a gray value lower than
255 (in modes that output 8 bits per pixel) or
4095 (in modes that output 12 bits per pixels)
Sensor Output Signal (%)
is reached. For example, if you found that at
your brightest exposure the gray values
Fig. 47: Gain in dB
output by the camera were no higher than
127 (in an 8 bit mode), you could increase the
gain to 6 dB (an amplification factor of 2) and thus reach gray values of 254.
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Setting the Gain
The camera’s gain is determined by the value of the Gain Raw parameter. Gain Raw is adjusted on
a decimal scale. The minimum decimal setting varies depending on the camera model (see
Table 13). The maximum setting depends on whether the camera is set for a pixel data format that
yields 8 bit effective pixel depth (Mono 8, Bayer BG 8, YUV 4:2:2 Packed, YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV)
Packed) or yields an effective pixel depth of 12 bits per pixel (Mono 16, Mono 12 Packed, Bayer BG
16, Bayer BG 12 Packed).
.
Camera Model
Min Setting
Max Setting
(8 bit depth)
Max Setting
(16 bit depth)
slA640-74
280
1023
511
slA780-54
350
1023
511
slA1390-17
360
1023
511
slA1400-17
192
1023
511
Table 13: Minimum and Maximum Allowed Gain Raw Settings
To set the Gain Raw parameter value:
„
Set the Gain Selector to Gain All.
„
Set the Gain Raw parameter to your desired value.
You can set the Gain Selector and the Gain Raw parameter value from within your application
software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the
selector and the parameter value:
Camera.GainSelector.SetValue( GainSelector_All );
Camera.GainRaw.SetValue( 400 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 25.
If you know the current decimal setting for the gain raw, you can use the formulas below to calculate
the dB of gain that will result from that setting.
Formulas:
For gain raw settings from 110 to 511:
658 + Gain Raw Setting
Gain dB = 20 × log 10 ⎛ ------------------------------------------------------------------⎞ – G c
⎝ 658 – Gain Raw Setting ⎠
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For gain raw settings from 512 to 1023:
Gain dB = (0.0354 × Gain Raw Setting) – G c
Where:
658 + Min Gain Raw Setting
G c = 20 × log 10 ⎛ -----------------------------------------------------------------------------⎞
⎝ 658 – Min Gain Raw Setting ⎠
Example:
Assume that you are working with a monochrome slA1400-17 camera that has a gain raw setting
of 500. Calculating the gain is a two step process:
Step 1:
658 + 192
G c = 20 × log 10 ⎛ -----------------------------⎞
⎝ 658 – 192 ⎠
G c = 5.22 dB
Step 2:
658 + 500
Gain dB = 20 × log 10 ⎛ -----------------------------⎞ – 5.22 dB
⎝ 658 – 500 ⎠
Gain dB = 12.1 dB
Table 14 shows the minimum and maximum gain in dB for each camera model.
Camera Model
dB Gain at
Min Setting
dB Gain at Max Setting
(8 bit depth)
dB Gain at Max Setting
(16 bit depth)
slA640-74
0
28.3
10.1
slA780-54
0
25.9
7.7
slA1390-17
0
25.5
7.3
slA1400-17
0
31.0
12.8
Table 14: Minimum and Maximum dB of Gain
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11.2 Black Level
Adjusting the camera’s black level will result in an offset to the pixel values output by the camera.
Increasing the black level setting will result in a positive offset in the digital values output for the
pixels. Decreasing the black level setting will result in a negative offset in the digital values output
for the pixels.
Effect on All Camera Models
If the camera is set for a pixel data format that yields 8 bit effective pixel depth (Mono 8, Bayer BG 8,
YUV 4:2:2 Packed, YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed), an increase of 16 in the black level parameter
setting will result in a positive offset of 1 in the digital values output for the pixels. And a decrease
of 16 in the setting will result in a negative offset of 1 in the digital values output for the pixels.
If the camera is set for a pixel data format that yields an effective pixel depth of 12 bits per pixel
(Mono 16, Mono 12 Packed, Bayer BG 16, Bayer BG 12 Packed), an increase of 1 in the black level
parameter setting will result in a positive offset of 1 in the digital values output for the pixels. A
decrease of 1 in the setting will result in a negative offset of 1 in the digital values output for the
pixels.
Setting the Black Level
The black level can be adjusted by changing the value of the Black Level Raw parameter. The Black
Level Raw parameter value can range from 0 to 255 on all camera models.
To set the Black Level Raw parameter value:
„
Set the Black Level Selector to Black Level All.
„
Set the Black Level Raw parameter to your desired value.
You can set the Black Level Selector and the Black Level Raw parameter value from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
set the selector and the parameter value:
Camera.BlackLevelSelector.SetValue ( BlackLevelSelector_All );
Camera.BlackLevelRaw.SetValue( 32 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 25.
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11.3 White Balance (on Color Models)
The white balance feature lets you adjust the balance of red, green, and blue such that white objects
in the camera’s field of view appear white in the acquired images.
Setting the White Balance
With the white balancing scheme used on these cameras, the red intensity, green intensity, and blue
intensity can be individually adjusted. For each color, a Balance Ratio parameter is used to set the
intensity of the color. If the Balance Ratio parameter for a color is set to a value of 1, the intensity
of the color will be unaffected by the white balance mechanism. If the ratio is set to a value lower
than 1, the intensity of the color will be reduced. If the ratio is set to a value greater than 1, the
intensity of the color will be increased. The increase or decrease in intensity is proportional. For
example, if the balance ratio for a color is set to 1.2, the intensity of that color will be increased by
20 %.
The balance ratio value can range from 0.00 to 3.98. But you should be aware that if you set the
balance ratio for a color to a value lower than 1, this will not only decrease the intensity of that color
relative to the other two colors, but will also decrease the maximum intensity that the color can
achieve. For this reason, we don’t normally recommend setting a balance ratio less than 1 unless
you want to correct for the strong predominance of one color.
To set the Balance Ratio parameter for a color:
„
Set the Balance Ratio Selector to red, green, or blue.
„
Set the Balance Ratio Abs parameter to the desired value for the selected color.
You can set the Balance Ratio Selector and the Balance Ratio Abs parameter value from within your
application software by using the Basler pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the
API to set the selector and the parameter value:
Camera.BalanceRatioSelector.SetValue( BalanceRatioSelector_Green );
Camera.BalanceRatioAbs.SetValue( 1.20 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 25.
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11.4 Digital Shift
The digital shift feature lets you change the group of bits that is output from the ADC in the camera.
Using the digital shift feature will effectively multiply the output of the camera by 2 times, 4 times, 8
times, or 16 times. The next two sections describe how the digital shift feature works when the
camera is set for a 12 bit pixel format and when it is set for a 8 bit pixel format. There is also a section
describing precautions that you must observe when using the digital shift feature and a section that
describes enabling and setting the digital shift feature.
11.4.1 Digital Shift with 12 Bit Pixel Formats
No Shift
As mentioned in the Functional Description section of
this manual, the camera uses a 12 bit ADC to digitize
the output from the imaging sensor. When the camera
is set for a pixel format that outputs pixel data at 12 bit
effective depth, by default, the camera transmits the
12 bits that are output from the ADC.
ADC
bit
11
bit
10
bit
9
bit
8
bit
7
M
S
B
bit
6
bit
5
bit
4
bit
3
bit
2
bit
1
bit
0
L
S
B
No Shift
Shift by 1
When the camera is set to shift by 1, the output from
the camera will include bit 10 through bit 0 from the
ADC along with a zero as an LSB.
The result of shifting once is that the output of the
camera is effectively multiplied by 2. For example,
assume that the camera is set for no shift, that it is
viewing a uniform white target, and that under these
conditions the reading for the brightest pixel is 100.
If you changed the digital shift setting to shift by 1,
the reading would increase to 200.
ADC
bit
11
bit
10
M
S
B
bit
9
bit
8
bit
7
bit
6
bit
5
bit
4
bit
3
Shifted Once
bit
2
bit
1
bit
0
"0"
L
S
B
When the camera is set to shift by 1, the least significant bit output from the camera for each pixel
value will be 0. This means that no odd gray values can be output and that the gray value scale will
only include values of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and so on. This absence of some gray values is commonly
referred to as "missing codes".
If the pixel values being output by the camera’s sensor are high enough to set bit 11 to 1, we
recommend not using shift by 1. If you do nonetheless, all bits output from the camera will
automatically be set to 1. Therefore, you should only use the shift by 1 setting when your pixel
readings with a 12 bit pixel format selected and with digital shift disabled are all less than 2048.
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Shift by 2
When the camera is set to shift by 2, the output
from the camera will include bit 9 through bit 0
from the ADC along with 2 zeros as LSBs.
ADC
bit
11
The result of shifting twice is that the output of
the camera is effectively multiplied by 4.
bit
10
bit
9
bit
8
bit
7
bit
6
M
S
B
When the camera is set to shift by 2, the 2 least
significant bits output from the camera for each
pixel value will be 0. This means that the gray
value scale will only include every 4th value, for
example, 4, 8, 16, 20, and so on.
bit
5
bit
4
bit
3
bit
2
bit
1
bit
0
"0" "0"
L
S
B
Shifted Twice
If the pixel values being output by the camera’s sensor are high enough to set bit 10 or bit 11 to 1,
we recommend not using shift by 2. If you do nonetheless, all bits output from the camera will
automatically be set to 1. Therefore, you should only use the shift by 2 setting when your pixel
readings with a 12 bit pixel format selected and with digital shift disabled are all less than 1024.
Shift By 3
When the camera is set to shift by 3, the
output from the camera will include bit 8
through bit 0 from the ADC along with 3
zeros as LSBs.
The result of shifting 3 times is that the
output of the camera is effectively multiplied
by 8.
ADC
bit
11
bit
10
bit
9
bit
8
M
S
B
bit
7
bit
6
bit
5
bit
4
bit
3
bit
2
bit
1
bit
0
Shifted Three Times
"0" "0" "0"
L
S
B
When the camera is set to shift by 3, the 3
least significant bits output from the camera
for each pixel value will be 0. This means that the gray value scale will only include every 8th gray
value, for example, 8, 16, 24, 32, and so on.
If the pixel values being output by the camera’s sensor are high enough to set bit 9, bit 10, or bit 11
to 1, we recommend not using shift by 3. If you do nonetheless, all bits output from the camera will
automatically be set to 1. Therefore, you should only use the shift by 3 setting when your pixel
readings with a 12 bit pixel format selected and with digital shift disabled are all less than 512.
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Shift By 4
When the camera is set to shift by 4, the
output from the camera will include bit 7
through bit 0 from the ADC along with 4
zeros as LSBs.
ADC
bit
11
bit
10
bit
9
The result of shifting 4 times is that the
output of the camera is effectively
multiplied by 16.
bit
8
bit
7
bit
6
bit
5
M
S
B
bit
4
bit
3
bit
2
bit
1
bit
0
"0" "0" "0" "0"
L
S
B
Shifted Four Times
When the camera is set to shift by 4, the 4
least significant bits output from the
camera for each pixel value will be 0. This means that the gray value scale will only include every
16th gray value, for example, 16, 32, 48, 64, and so on.
If the pixel values being output by the camera’s sensor are high enough to set bit 8, bit 9, bit 10, or
bit 11 to 1, we recommend not using shift by 4. If you do nonetheless, all bits output from the camera
will automatically be set to 1. Therefore, you should only use the shift by 4 setting when your pixel
readings with a 12 bit pixel format selected and with digital shift disabled are all less than 256.
11.4.2 Digital Shift with 8 Bit Pixel Formats
No Shift
As mentioned in the Functional Description section of
this manual, the camera uses a 12 bit ADC to digitize
the output from the imaging sensor. When the camera
is set for a pixel format that outputs pixel data at 8 bit
effective depth, by default, the camera drops the 4
least significant bits from the ADC and transmits the 8
most significant bits (bit 11 through 4).
ADC
bit
11
bit
10
M
S
B
bit
9
bit
8
bit
7
bit
6
bit
5
bit
4
bit
3
bit
2
bit
1
bit
0
bit
3
bit
2
bit
1
bit
0
L
S
B
Not Shifted
Shift by 1
When the camera is set to shift by 1, the output from
the camera will include bit 10 through bit 3 from the
ADC.
The result of shifting once is that the output of the
camera is effectively multiplied by 2. For example,
assume that the camera is set for no shift, that it is
viewing a uniform white target, and that under these
conditions the reading for the brightest pixel is 10. If
you changed the digital shift setting to shift by 1, the
reading would increase to 20.
ADC
bit
11
bit
10
M
S
B
bit
9
bit
8
bit
7
bit
6
bit
5
Shifted Once
bit
4
L
S
B
If the pixel values being output by the camera’s sensor are high enough to set bit 11 to 1, we
recommend not using shift by 1. If you do nonetheless, all bits output from the camera will
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automatically be set to 1. Therefore, you should only use the shift by 1 setting when your pixel
readings with an 8 bit pixel format selected and with digital shift disabled are all less than 128.
Shift by 2
When the camera is set to shift by 2, the output from the
camera will include bit 9 through bit 2 from the ADC.
The result of shifting twice is that the output of the
camera is effectively multiplied by 4.
ADC
bit
11
bit
10
bit
9
bit
8
bit
7
bit
6
bit
5
bit
4
bit
3
bit
2
bit
1
bit
0
If the pixel values being output by the camera’s sensor
M
L
are high enough to set bit 10 or bit 11 to 1, we
S
S
B
B
recommend not using shift by 2. If you do nonetheless,
Shifted Twice
all bits output from the camera will automatically be set
to 1. Therefore, you should only use the shift by 2
setting when your pixel readings with an 8 bit pixel format selected and with digital shift disabled are
all less than 64.
Shift by 3
When the camera is set to shift by 3, the output from
the camera will include bit 8 through bit 1 from the
ADC.
The result of shifting three times is that the output of
the camera is effectively multiplied by 8.
ADC
bit
11
bit
10
bit
9
bit
8
bit
7
bit
6
bit
5
bit
4
bit
3
bit
2
bit
1
bit
0
M
L
If the pixel values being output by the camera’s sensor
S
S
B
are high enough to set bit 9, bit 10, or bit 11 to 1, we
Shifted Three Times B
recommend not using shift by 3. If you do nonetheless,
all bits output from the camera will automatically be set
to 1. Therefore, that you should only use the shift by 3
setting when your pixel readings with an 8 bit pixel format selected and with digital shift disabled are
all less than 32.
Shift by 4
When the camera is set to shift by 4, the output from
the camera will include bit 7 through bit 0 from the
ADC.
The result of shifting four times is that the output of
the camera is effectively multiplied by 16.
ADC
bit
11
bit
10
bit
9
bit
8
bit
7
bit
6
bit
5
bit
4
bit
3
bit
2
bit
1
bit
0
M
L
If the pixel values being output by the camera’s
S
S
B
sensor are high enough to set bit 8, bit 9, bit 10, or bit
Shifted Four Times B
11 to 1, we recommend not using shift by 4. If you do
nonetheless, all bits output from the camera will
automatically be set to 1. Therefore, you should only use the multiply by 4 setting when your pixel
readings with an 8 bit pixel format selected and with digital shift disabled are all less than 16.
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11.4.3 Precautions When Using Digital Shift
There are several checks and precautions that you must follow before using the digital shift feature.
The checks and precautions differ depending on whether the camera will be set for a 12 bit pixel
format or for an 8 bit pixel format in your application.
If you will be using a 12 bit pixel format, make this check:
Use the pylon Viewer or the pylon API to set the camera for a 12 bit pixel format and no digital shift.
Check the output of the camera under your normal lighting conditions and note the readings for the
brightest pixels.
„
If any of the readings are above 2048, do not use digital shift.
„
If all of the readings are below 2048, you can safely use the shift by 1 setting.
„
If all of the readings are below 1024, you can safely use the shift by 1 or 2 settings.
„
If all of the readings are below 512, you can safely use the shift by 1, 2, or 3 settings.
„
If all of the readings are below 256, you can safely use the shift by 1, 2, 3, or 4 settings.
If you will be using an 8 bit format, make this check:
Use the pylon Viewer or the pylon API to set the camera for a 8 bit pixel format and no digital shift.
Check the output of the camera under your normal lighting conditions and note the readings for the
brightest pixels.
„
If any of the readings are above 128, do not use digital shift.
„
If all of the readings are below 128, you can safely use the shift by 1 setting.
„
If all of the readings are below 64, you can safely use the shift by 1 or 2 settings.
„
If all of the readings are below 32, you can safely use the shift by 1, 2, or 3 settings.
„
If all of the readings are below 16, you can safely use the shift by 1, 2, 3, or 4 settings.
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11.4.4 Enabling and Setting Digital Shift
You can enable or disable the digital shift feature by setting the value of the Digital Shift parameter.
When the parameter is set to zero, digital shift will be disabled. When the parameter is set to 1, 2,
3, or 4, digital shift will be set to shift by 1, shift by 2, shift by 3, or shift by 4 respectively.
You can set the Digital Shift parameter values from within your application software by using the
Basler pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the parameter values:
// Disable digital shift
Camera.DigitalShift.SetValue( 0 );
// Enable digital shift by 2
Camera.DigitalShift.SetValue( 2 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 25.
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11.5 Integrated IR Cut Filter (on Color Models)
Color models of the camera are equipped with an IR cut filter. The filter is mounted inside of the Cmount lens adapter.
NOTICE
Lens Thread Length is Limited.
The location of the IR cut filter limits the length of the threads on any lens you use with the camera.
If a lens with a very long thread length is used, the IR cut filter will be damaged or destroyed and
the camera will no longer operate.
For more information about the location of the IR cut filter, see Section 1.5.2 on page 14.
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11.6 Area of Interest (AOI)
The area of interest (AOI) feature lets you specify a portion of the sensor array and after each image
is acquired, only the pixel information from the specified portion of the array is transmitted to the
host PC.
The area of interest is referenced to the top left corner of the sensor array. The top left corner is
designated as column 0 and row 0 as shown in Figure 48.
The location and size of the area of interest is defined by declaring an X offset (coordinate), a width,
a Y offset (coordinate), and a height. For example, suppose that you specify the x offset as 10, the
width as 16, the y offset as 6, and the height as 10. The area of the array that is bounded by these
settings is shown in Figure 48.
The camera will only transfer pixel data from within the area defined by your settings. Information
from the pixels outside of the area of interest is discarded.
Column
Row
Y
Offset
Height
The camera
will only
transmit the
pixel data
from this
area
X Offset
Width
Fig. 48: Area of Interest
One of the main advantages of the AOI feature is that decreasing the height of the AOI can increase
the camera’s maximum allowed acquisition frame rate.
For more information about how changing the AOI height effects the maximum allowed frame rate,
see Section 9.12 on page 144.
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Setting the AOI
The AOI is set by default to use the full resolution of the camera’s sensor.
You can change the size and the position of the AOI by changing the value of the camera’s X Offset,
Y Offset, Width, and Height parameters.
„
The value of the X Offset parameter determines the starting column for the area of interest.
„
The value of the Y Offset parameter determines the starting row for the area of interest.
„
The value of the Width parameter determines the width of the area of interest.
„
The value of the Height parameter determines the height of the area of interest.
When you are setting the camera’s area of interest, you must follow these guidelines:
„
The sum of the current X Offset setting plus the current Width setting must not exceed the
width of the sensor in the camera model you are using. For example, on the monochrome
version of the slA640-74, the sum of the current X Offset setting plus the current Width setting
must not exceed 659.
„
The sum of the current Y Offset setting plus the current Height setting must not exceed the
height of the sensor in the camera model you are using. For example, on the monochrome
version of the slA640-74, the sum of the current Y Offset setting plus the current Height setting
must not exceed 494.
On monochrome cameras:
„
The X Offset, Y Offset, Width, and Height parameters can be set in increments of 1.
On color cameras:
„
186
The X Offset, Y Offset, Width, and Height parameters can be set in increments of 2 and they
must be set to an even number. For example, the X Offset parameter can be set to 0, 2, 4, 6, 8,
etc.
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You can set the X Offset, Y Offset, Width, and Height parameter values from within your application
software by using the Basler pylon API. The following code snippets illustrate using the API to get
the maximum allowed settings and the increments for the Width and Height parameters. They also
illustrate setting the X Offset, Y Offset, Width, and Height parameter values
int64_t widthMax = Camera.Width.GetMax( );
int64_t widhInc = Camera.Width.GetInc();
Camera.Width.SetValue( 200 );
Camera.OffsetX.SetValue( 100 );
int64_t heightMax = Camera.Height.GetMax( );
int64_t heightInc = Camera.Height.GetInc();
Camera.Height.SetValue( 200 );
Camera.OffsetY.SetValue( 100 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 25.
11.6.1 Changing AOI Parameters "On-the-Fly"
Making AOI parameter changes “on-the-fly” means making the parameter changes while the
camera is capturing images continuously. On-the-fly changes are only allowed for the parameters
that determine the position of the AOI, i.e., the Offset X and Offset Y parameters. Changes to the
AOI size are not allowed on-the-fly.
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11.7 Reverse X
The reverse X feature is a horizontal mirror image feature. When the reverse X feature is enabled,
the pixel values for each line in a captured image will be swapped end-for-end about the line’s center. This means that for each line, the value of the first pixel in the line will be swapped with the value
of the last pixel, the value of the second pixel in the line will be swapped with the value of the nextto-last pixel, and so on.
Figure 49 shows a normal image on the left and an image captured with reverse X enabled on the
right.
Normal Image
Mirror Image
Fig. 49: Reverse X Mirror Imaging
Using AOIs with Reverse X
You can use the AOI feature when using the reverse X feature. Note, however, that the position of
an AOI relative to the sensor remains the same regardless of whether or not the reverse X feature
is enabled.
As a consequence, an AOI will display different images depending on whether or not the reverse X
feature is enabled.
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Normal Image
Mirror Image
AOI
AOI
Fig. 50: Using an AOI with Reverse X Mirror Imaging
For color cameras, provisions are made ensuring that the effective color filter
alignment will be constant for both, normal and mirror images.
Setting Reverse X
You can enable or disable the reverse X feature by setting the ReverseX parameter value. You can
set the parameter value from within your application software by using the Basler pylon API. The
following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the parameter value:
// Enable reverse X
Camera.ReverseX.SetValue(true);
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameter.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 25.
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11.8 Disable Parameter Limits
For each camera parameter, the allowed range of parameter values normally is limited. The factory
limits are designed to ensure optimum camera operation and, in particular, good image quality. For
special camera uses, however, it may be helpful to set parameter values outside of the factory limits.
The disable parameter limits feature lets you disable the factory parameter limits for certain
parameters. When the factory parameter limits are disabled, the parameter values can be set within
extended limits. Typically, the range of the extended limits is dictated by the physical restrictions of
the camera’s electronic devices, such as the absolute limits of the camera’s variable gain control.
The values for the extended limits can be seen using the Basler pylon Viewer or from within your
application via the pylon API.
Currently, the parameter limits can only be disabled on the Gain feature.
Disabling Parameter Limits
To disable the limits for a parameter:
„
Use the Parameter Selector to select the parameter whose limits you wish to disable.
„
Set the value of the Remove Limits parameter.
You can set the Parameter Selector and the value of the Remove Limits parameter from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
set the selector and the parameter value:
// Select the feature whose factory limits will be disabled
Camera.ParameterSelector.SetValue( ParameterSelector_Gain );
// Disable the limits for the selected feature
Camera.RemoveLimits.SetValue( true );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters. Note that the
disable parameter limits feature will only be available at the "guru" viewing level.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 25.
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11.9 Debouncer
The debouncer feature aids in discriminating between valid and invalid input signals and only lets
valid signals pass to the camera. The debouncer value specifies the minimum time that an input
signal must remain high or remain low in order to be considered a valid input signal.
We recommend setting the debouncer value so that it is slightly greater than the
longest expected duration of an invalid signal.
Setting the debouncer to a value that is too short will result in accepting invalid
signals. Setting the debouncer to a value that is too long will result in rejecting valid
signals.
Note that the debouncer delays a valid signal between its arrival at the camera and its transfer. The
duration of the delay will be determined by the debouncer value.
Figure 51 illustrates how the debouncer filters out invalid input signals, i.e. signals that are shorter
than the debouncer value. The diagram also illustrates how the debouncer delays a valid signal.
Unfiltered arriving signals
Debouncer
debouncer
value
Transferred valid signal
delay
TIMING CHARTS ARE NOT DRAWN TO SCALE
Fig. 51: Filtering of Input Signals by the Debouncer
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Setting the Debouncer
The debouncer value is determined by the value of the Line Debouncer Time Abs parameter value.
The parameter is set in microseconds and can be set in a range from 0 to approximately 1 s.
To set a debouncer:
„
Use the Line Selector to select the camera input line 1.
„
Set the value of the Line Debouncer Time Abs parameter.
You can set the Line Selector and the value of the Line Debouncer Abs parameter from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
set the selector and the parameter value:
// Select the input line
Camera.LineSelector.SetValue( LineSelector_Line1 );
// Set the parameter value to 100 microseconds
Camera.LineDebouncerTimeAbs.SetValue( 100 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 25.
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11.10 Trigger Delay
The trigger delay feature lets you specify a delay (in microseconds) that will be applied between the
receipt of a hardware trigger and it becoming effective.
The trigger delay can be specified in the range from 0 to 10000000 µs (equivalent to 10 s). When
the delay is set to 0 µs, no delay will be applied.
Note the different applicability of the trigger delay depending on the image acquisition control mode:
„
Standard mode:
„
The trigger delay can be applied to the acquisition start trigger.
The trigger delay will not operate if the Acquisition Start Trigger Mode
parameter is set to off (the camera will generate all acquisition start trigger
signals internally) or if you are using a software acquisition start trigger.
„
The trigger delay can be applied to the frame start trigger.
The trigger delay will not operate if the Frame Start Trigger Mode parameter is
set to off (the camera will generate all frame start trigger signals internally) or
if you are using a software frame start trigger.
„
Legacy mode:
„
The trigger delay can be applied to the acquisition start trigger.
The trigger delay will not operate if the Acquisition Start Trigger Mode
parameter is set to off (the camera will generate all acquisitiion start trigger
signals internally) or if you are using a software acquisition start trigger.
Setting the Trigger Delay
You can set the Trigger Delay Abs parameter value from within your application software by using
the pylon API. The following code snippets illustrate using the API to set the parameter values:
Standard mode:
// Select the acquisition start trigger
Camera.TriggerSelector.SetValue( TriggerSelector_Acquisition Start );
// Trigger delay
double TriggerDelay_us = 1000.0
// 1000us == 1ms == 0.001s;
Camera.TriggerDelayAbs.SetValue( TriggerDelay_us );
// Select the frame start trigger
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Camera.TriggerSelector.SetValue( TriggerSelector_FrameStart );
// Trigger delay
double TriggerDelay_us = 1000.0
// 1000us == 1ms == 0.001s;
Camera.TriggerDelayAbs.SetValue( TriggerDelay_us );
„
Legacy mode:
// Select the acquisition start trigger
Camera.TriggerSelector.SetValue( TriggerSelector_AcquisitionStart );
// Trigger delay
double TriggerDelay_us = 1000.0
// 1000us == 1ms == 0.001s;
Camera.TriggerDelayAbs.SetValue( TriggerDelay_us );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 25.
For more information about the standard and legacy image acquisition control modes, see
Section 9.1 on page 83.
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11.11 Acquisition Status
When controlling image acquisition with a software trigger you can use the acquisition status feature
to detemine when the camera is ready to be triggered for an image acquisition. Using this feature,
you can avoid triggering the camera at a rate that exceeds the maximum allowed with the current
camera settings.
For other means of checking the acquisition status, see also the "Acquisition Monitoring Signals"
section.
It is not possible to monitor the status of the Acquisition Start command. Therefore,
you cannot use the status of the Acquisition Start command to determine when the
camera is ready to be triggered for an image acquisition.
Note the different applicability of the acquisition status feature depending on the image acquisition
control mode:
„
Standard mode: The acquisition status can be determined for the frame start trigger.
„
Legacy mode: The acquisition status can be determined for the acquisition start trigger.
Determining the Acquisition Status
To determine the acquisition status of the camera:
„
Use the Acquisition Status Selector to select the Frame Trigger Wait status. (The Frame
Trigger Wait parameter also applies when operating the camera in legacy mode, where
actually the status of the acquisition start trigger is determined).
„
Read the value of the AcquisitionStatus parameter.
Standard mode: If the value is set to "false", the camera is not ready to receive a frame start
trigger, if the value is set to "true", the camera is ready to receive a frame start trigger.
Legacy mode: If the value is set to "false", the camera is not ready to receive an acquisition start
trigger, if the value is set to "true", the camera is ready to receive an acquisition start trigger.
You can set the Acquisition Status Selector and read the AcquisitionStatus parameter from within
your application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippets illustrate using the
API to set and read the parameter values:
// Set the Acquisition Status Selector
Camera.AcquisitionStatusSelector.SetValue(
AcquisitionStatusSelector_FrameTriggerWait );
// Read the acquisition status
bool IsWaitingForFrameTrigger = Camera.AcquisitionStatus.GetValue();
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
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You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the Acquisition Status
Selector.For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 25.
For more information about the standard and legacy image acquisition control modes, see
Section 9.1 on page 83.
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11.12 Test Images
All cameras include the ability to generate test images. Test images are used to check the camera’s
basic functionality and its ability to transmit an image to the host PC. Test images can be used for
service purposes and for failure diagnostics. For test images, the image is generated internally by
the camera’s logic and does not use the optics, the imaging sensor, or the ADC. Six test images are
available.
The Effect of Camera Settings on Test Images
When any of the test image is active, the camera’s analog features such as gain, black level, and
exposure time have no effect on the images transmitted by the camera. For test images 1, 2, 3 and
6, the cameras’ digital features, such as the digital shift feature, will also have no effect on the
transmitted images. But for test images 4 and 5, the cameras digital features will affect the images
transmitted by the camera. This makes test images 4 and 5 a good way to check the effect of using
a digital feature such as the digital shift feature.
Enabling a Test Image
The Test Image Selector is used to set the camera to output a test image. You can set the value of
the Test Image Selector to one of the test images or to "test image off".
You can set the Test Image Selector from within your application software by using the Basler pylon
API. The following code snippets illustrate using the API to set the selector:
// set for no test image
Camera.TestImageSelector.SetValue( TestImageSelector_Off );
// set for the first test image
Camera.TestImageSelector.SetValue( TestImageSelector_Testimage1 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 25.
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Test Image 1 - Fixed Diagonal Gray Gradient (8 bit)
The 8 bit fixed diagonal gray gradient test image is best suited for use when the camera is set for
monochrome 8 bit output. The test image consists of fixed diagonal gray gradients ranging from 0
to 255.
If the camera is set for 8 bit output and is operating at full resolution, test image one will look similar
to Figure 52.
The mathematical expression for this test image:
Gray Value = [column number + row number] MOD 256
Fig. 52: Test Image One
Test Image 2 - Moving Diagonal Gray Gradient (8 bit)
The 8 bit moving diagonal gray gradient test image is similar to test image 1, but it is not stationary.
The image moves by one pixel from right to left whenever a new image acquisition is initiated. The
test pattern uses a counter that increments by one for each new image acquisition.
The mathematical expression for this test image is:
Gray Value = [column number + row number + counter] MOD 256
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Test Image 3 - Moving Diagonal Gray Gradient (12 bit)
The 12 bit moving diagonal gray gradient test image is similar to test image 2, but it is a 12 bit
pattern. The image moves by one pixel from right to left whenever a new image acquisition is
initiated. The test pattern uses a counter that increments by one for each new image acquisition.
The mathematical expression for this test image is:
Gray Value = [column number + row number + counter] MOD 4096
Test Image 4 - Moving Diagonal Gray Gradient Feature Test (8 bit)
The basic appearance of test image 4 is similar to test image 2 (the 8 bit moving diagonal gray
gradient image). The difference between test image 4 and test image 2 is this: if a camera feature
that involves digital processing is enabled, test image 4 will show the effects of the feature while
test image 2 will not. This makes test image 4 useful for checking the effects of digital features such
as the digital shift feature.
Test Image 5 - Moving Diagonal Gray Gradient Feature Test (12 bit)
The basic appearance of test image 5 is similar to test image 3 (the 12 bit moving diagonal gray
gradient image). The difference between test image 5 and test image 3 is this: if a camera feature
that involves digital processing is enabled, test image 5 will show the effects of the feature while
test image 3 will not. This makes test image 5 useful for checking the effects of digital features such
as the digital shift feature.
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Test Image 6 - Moving Diagonal Color Gradient
The moving diagonal color gradient test image is available on color cameras only and is designed
for use when the camera is set for YUV output. As shown in Figure 53, test image six consists of
diagonal color gradients. The image moves by one pixel from right to left whenever you signal the
camera to capture a new image. To display this test pattern on a monitor, you must convert the YUV
output from the camera to 8 bit RGB.
Fig. 53: Test Image Six
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11.13 Device Information Parameters
Each camera includes a set of "device information" parameters. These parameters provide some
basic information about the camera. The device information parameters include:
„
Device Vendor Name (read only) - contains the name of the camera’s vendor. For scout light
cameras, this string will always indicate Basler as the vendor.
„
Device Model Name (read only) - contains the model name of the camera, for example,
slA640-74gm.
„
Device Manufacturer Info (read only) - can contain some information about the camera
manufacturer. This string usually indicates "none".
„
Device Version (read only) - contains the device version number for the camera.
„
Firmware Version (read only) - contains the version of the firmware in the camera.
„
Device ID (read only) - contains the serial number of the camera.
„
Device User ID (read / write) - is used to assign a user defined name to a device. This name
will be displayed in the Basler pylon Viewer and the Basler pylon IP Configuration Tool. The
name will also be visible in the "friendly name" field of the device information objects returned
by pylon’s device enumeration procedure.
„
Device Scan Type (read only) - contains the scan type of the camera, for example, area scan.
„
Sensor Width (read only) - contains the physical width of the sensor in pixels.
„
Sensor Height (read only) - contains the physical height of the sensor.
„
Max Width (read only) - Indicates the camera’s maximum area of interest (AOI) width setting.
„
Max Height (read only) - Indicates the camera’s maximum area of interest (AOI) height setting.
You can read the values for all of the device information parameters or set the value of the Device
User ID parameter from within your application software by using the pylon API. The following code
snippets illustrate using the API to read the parameters or write the Device User ID:
// Read the Vendor Name parameter
Pylon::String_t vendorName = Camera.DeviceVendorName.GetValue();
// Read the Model Name parameter
Pylon::String_t modelName = Camera.DeviceModelName.GetValue();
// Read the Manufacturer Info parameter
Pylon::String_t manufacturerInfo = Camera.DeviceManufacturerInfo.GetValue();
// Read the Device Version parameter
Pylon::String_t deviceVersion = Camera.DeviceVersion.GetValue();
// Read the Firmware Version parameter
Pylon::String_t firmwareVersion = Camera.DeviceFirmwareVersion.GetValue();
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// Read the Device ID parameter
Pylon::String_t deviceID = Camera.DeviceID.GetValue();
// Write and read the Device User ID
Camera.DeviceUserID = "custom name";
Pylon::String_t deviceUserID = Camera.DeviceUserID.GetValue();
// Read the Sensor Width parameter
int64_t sensorWidth = Camera.SensorWidth.GetValue();
// Read the Sensor Height parameter
int64_t sensorHeight = Camera.SensorHeight.GetValue();
// Read the Max Width parameter
int64_t maxWidth = Camera.WidthMax.GetValue();
// Read the Max Height parameter
int64_t maxHeight = Camera.HeightMax.GetValue();
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily read the parameters and to read or
write the Device User ID.
You can use the Basler pylon IP Configuration tool to read or write the Device User ID.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 25.
For more information about the pylon IP Configuration Tool, see Section 3.2 on page 25.
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11.14 Configuration Sets
A configuration set is a group of values that contains all
of the parameter settings needed to control the camera.
There are three basic types of configuration sets: the
active set, the default factory set, and user sets.
The Active Set
The active set contains the camera’s current parameter
settings and thus determines the camera’s
performance, that is, what your image currently looks
like. When you change parameter settings using the
pylon API or the pylon Viewer, you are making changes
to the active set. The active set is located in the
camera’s volatile memory and the settings are lost if the Fig. 54: Configuration Sets
camera is reset or if power is switched off.
The Default Factory Set
When a camera is manufactured, numerous tests are performed on the camera and two factory
optimized setups are determined. The two factory optimized setups are:
„
The Standard Factory Setup - is optimized for average conditions and will provide good
camera performance in many common applications. In the standard factory setup, the gain is
set to a low value.
„
The High Gain Factory Setup - is similar to the standard factory setup, but the gain is set to
+ 6 dB.
The factory setups are saved in permanent files in the camera’s non-volatile memory. They are not
lost when the camera is reset or switched off and they cannot be changed.
You can select one of the two factory setups to be the camera’s "default factory set". Instructions
for selecting which factory setup will be used as the default factory set appear below. Note that your
selection of which factory setup will serve as the default factory set will not be lost when the camera
is reset or switched off.
When the camera is running, the default factory set can be loaded into the active set. The default
factory set can also be designated as the "startup" set, i.e., the set that will be loaded into the active
set whenever the camera is powered on or reset. Instructions for loading the default factory set into
the active set and for designating which set will be the startup set appear below.
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User Sets
As mentioned above, the active configuration set is stored in the camera’s volatile memory and the
settings are lost if the camera is reset or if power is switched off. The camera can save most of the
settings from the current active set to a reserved area in the camera’s non-volatile memory. A
configuration set that has been saved in the non-volatile memory is not lost when the camera is
reset or switched off. There are three reserved areas in the camera’s non-volatile memory available
for saving configuration sets. A configuration set saved in a reserved area is commonly referred to
as a "user set".
The three available user sets are called User Set 1, User Set 2, and User Set 3.
When the camera is running, a saved user set can be loaded into the active set. A saved user set
can also be designated as the "startup" set, i.e., the set that will be loaded into the active set
whenever the camera is powered on or reset. Instructions for loading a saved user set into the
active set and for designating which set will be the startup set appear below.
Designating a Startup Set
You can designate the default factory set or one of the user sets as the "startup" set. The designated
startup set will automatically be loaded into the active set whenever the camera starts up at power
on or after a reset. Instructions for designating the startup set appear below.
11.14.1Saving User Sets
Saving the current active set into a user set in the camera’s non-volatile memory is a three step
process:
„
Make changes to the camera’s settings until the camera is operating in a manner that you
would like to save.
„
Set the User Set Selector to User Set 1, User Set 2, or User Set 3.
„
Execute a User Set Save command to save the active set to the selected user set.
Saving an active set to a user set in the camera’s non-volatile memory will overwrite any parameters
that were previously saved in that user set.
You can set the User Set Selector and execute the User Set Save command from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
set the selector and execute the command:
Camera.UserSetSelector.SetValue( UserSetSelector_UserSet1 );
Camera.UserSetSave.Execute( );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 25.
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11.14.2 Selecting a Factory Setup as the
Default Set
When the camera is delivered, the Standard Factory Setup will be selected as the default set. You
can, however, select any one of the two factory setups to serve as the default set.
To select which factory setup that will serve as the default set:
„
Set the Default Set Selector to the Standard Factory Setup or High Gain Factory Setup.
You can set the Default Set Selector from within your application software by using the Basler pylon
API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the selector:
If you want to select the Standard Factory Setup:
Camera.DefaultSetSelector.SetValue(DefaultSetSelector_Standard);
If you want to select the High Gain Factory Setup:
Camera.DefaultSetSelector.SetValue(DefaultSetSelector_HighGain);
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the selector.
Selecting which factory setup will serve as the default set is only allowed when the
camera is idle, i.e. when it is not acquiring images continuously or does not have
a single image acquisition pending.
Selecting the standard factory setup as the default set and then loading the default
set into the active set is a good course of action if you have grossly misadjusted
the settings in the camera and you are not sure how to recover. The standard
factory setup is optimized for use in typical situations and will provide good camera
performance in most cases.
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11.14.3Loading a Saved Set or the Default Set into the
Active Set
If you have saved a configuration set into the camera’s non-volatile memory, you can load the saved
set from the camera’s non-volatile memory into the camera’s active set. When you do this, the
loaded set overwrites the parameters in the active set. Since the settings in the active set control
the current operation of the camera, the settings from the loaded set will now be controlling the
camera.
You can also load the default set into the camera’s active set.
To load a saved configuration set or the default set from the camera’s non-volatile memory into the
active set:
„
Set the User Set Selector to User Set 1, User Set 2, User Set 3 or Default.
„
Execute a User Set Load command to load the selected set into the active set.
You can set the User Set Selector and execute the User Set Load command from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
set the selector and execute the command:
Camera.UserSetSelector.SetValue( UserSetSelector_UserSet2 );
Camera.UserSetLoad.Execute( );
Loading a user set or the default set into the active set is only allowed when the
camera is idle, i.e. when it is not acquiring images continuously or does not have
a single image acquisition pending.
Loading the Default Set with the Standard Factory Setup selected into the active
set is a good course of action if you have grossly misadjusted the settings in the
camera and you are not sure how to recover. The standard factory setup is
optimized for use in typical situations and will provide good camera performance
in most cases.
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Standard Features
11.14.4 Selecting the Startup Set
You can select the default configuration set (i.e., whichever was selected as the default
configuration set, either the Standard Factory Setup or the High Gain Factory Setup) or one of the
user configuration sets stored in the camera’s non-volatile memory to be the "startup set". The
configuration set that you designate as the startup set will be loaded into the active set whenever
the camera starts up at power on or after a reset.
The User Set Default Selector is used to select the startup set:
„
Set the User Set Default Selector to User Set 1, User Set 2, User Set 3 or Default.
You can set the User Set Default Selector from within your application software by using the pylon
API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the selector:
Camera.UserSetDefaultSelector.SetValue( UserSetDefaultSelector_Default );
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Troubleshooting and Support
12 Troubleshooting and Support
This chapter outlines the resources available to you if you need help working with your camera.
12.1 Tech Support Resources
If you need advice about your camera or if you need assistance troubleshooting a problem with your
camera, you can contact the Basler technical support team for your area. Basler technical support
contact information is located in the front pages of this manual.
You will also find helpful information such as frequently asked questions, downloads, and
application notes in the Downloads and the Support sections of our website:
www.baslerweb.com
If you do decide to contact Basler technical support, please take a look at the form that appears on
the last two pages of this section before you call. Filling out this form will help make sure that you
have all of the information the Basler technical support team needs to help you with your problem.
12.2 Obtaining an RMA Number
Whenever you want to return material to Basler, you must request a Return Material Authorization
(RMA) number before sending it back. The RMA number must be stated in your delivery
documents when you ship your material to us! Please be aware that if you return material without
an RMA number, we reserve the right to reject the material.
You can find detailed information about how to obtain an RMA number in the Support section of our
website: www.baslerweb.com
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12.3 Before Contacting Basler
Technical Support
To help you as quickly and efficiently as possible when you have a problem with a Basler camera,
it is important that you collect several pieces of information before you contact Basler technical
support.
Copy the form that appears on the next two pages, fill it out, and fax the pages to your local dealer
or to your nearest Basler support center. Or, you can send an e-mail listing the requested pieces of
information and with the requested files attached. Basler technical support contact information is
shown in the title section of this manual.
1
The camera’s product ID:
2
The camera’s serial number:
3
Network adapter that you use
with the camera:
4
Describe the problem in as much
detail as possible:
(If you need more space,
use an extra sheet of paper.)
5
If known, what’s the cause
of the problem?
6
When did the problem occur?
After start.
While running.
After a certain action (e.g., a change of parameters):
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7
How often did/does the problem
occur?
Troubleshooting and Support
Once.
Every time.
Regularly when:
Occasionally when:
8
How severe is the problem?
Camera can still be used.
Camera can be used after I take this action:
Camera can no longer be used.
9
10
Did your application ever run
without problems?
Yes
No
Parameter set
It is very important for Basler technical support to get a copy of the exact camera parameters that
you were using when the problem occurred.
To make note of the parameters, use Basler’s pylon Viewer tool.
If you cannot access the camera, please try to state the following parameter settings:
Image Size (AOI):
Pixel Format:
Packet Size:
Exposure Time:
Frame Rate:
11
Live image/test image
If you are having an image problem, try to generate and save live images that show the problem.
Also generate and save test images. Please save the images in BMP format, zip them, and send
them to Basler technical support.
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Revision History
Revision History
Doc. ID Number
Date
Changes
AW00104701000
30 Nov 2011
Initial release.
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Revision History
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Index
Index
A
C
acquisition frame count parameter ....93, 95
acquisition frame rate abs parameter ..........
........................................ 99, 101, 110, 112
acquisition mode parameter ....................89
acquisition start command ........ 85, 89, 195
acquisition start trigger ............................86
details ................................................91
acquisition start trigger delay
(legacy mode) ........................................118
acquisition start trigger mode parameter .92
acquisition status ...................................195
acquisition stop command .................85, 89
acquisition trigger wait signal ................139
acquistion start trigger in legacy mode ..109
active configuration set ..........................203
AOI
see area of interest
API ...........................................................26
area of interest
default resolution .............................186
explained .........................................185
setting ..............................................186
cables
Ethernet .............................................59
power and I/O (PLC) ...................59, 61
power and I/O (standard) ..................59
camera power requirements ........... 2, 4, 62
cleaning the camera and sensor .............21
code snippets
programming language .....................20
proper use .........................................20
color filter ...............................................157
configuration set loaded at startup ........207
configuration sets ..........................203–207
conformity ..............................................3, 5
connector types .......................................58
connectors ...............................................55
continuous acquisition mode ...................89
CPU interrupts .........................................47
B
bandwidth assigned parameter ...............40
bandwidth reserve accumulation
parameter ................................................41
bandwidth reserve parameter ..................40
bandwidth, managing ..............................46
Bayer BG 12 packed pixel format ..........163
Bayer BG 16 pixel format ......................161
Bayer BG 8 pixel format ........................159
Bayer filter .............................................157
bit depth .................................................2, 4
black level
explained .........................................176
setting ..............................................176
black level raw parameter .....................176
black level selector ................................176
block diagram ..........................................54
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D
debouncer
and exposure start delay .................142
explained .........................................191
setting ..............................................192
default configuration set ........................203
device current throughput parameter ......44
device firmware version parameter .......201
device ID parameter ..............................201
device manufacturer info parameter ......201
device max throughput parameter ...........43
device model name parameter ..............201
device scan type parameter ..................201
device user ID parameter ......................201
device vendor name parameter .............201
device version parameter ......................201
digital shift .............................................178
dimensions ..................................... 3, 5, 12
disable parameter limits
explained .........................................190
drivers, network .......................................27
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Index
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E
G
electromagnetic interference ...................17
electrostatic discharge ............................17
EMI ..........................................................17
enable resend parameter ..................28, 30
environmental requirements ...................18
ESD .........................................................17
exposure
overlapped ......................................133
exposure active signal ..........................135
exposure mode
timed .......................................105, 116
trigger width ............................106, 117
exposure modes ...................................116
exposure start delay ..............................142
exposure time
controlling with an external trigger
signal ......................................104, 115
maximum possible ..........................121
minimum allowed ............................121
setting .............................................121
exposure time abs parameter .....................
.......................................100, 101, 112, 122
exposure time base abs parameter ......122
exposure time parameters ....................121
exposure time raw parameter ...............121
gain ....................................................... 173
setting ............................................. 174
F
factory setup .................................203, 205
high gain factory setup ....................203
standard factory setup ....................203
filter driver ...............................................27
frame .......................................................85
frame rate
and AOI size ...................................144
controlling with an external trigger
signal ......................................104, 115
max allowed ....................................144
frame readout time ................................ 142
frame retention parameter ......................28
frame start trigger ....................................86
details ...............................................98
frame start trigger delay (standard
mode) ....................................................107
frame start trigger mode parameter 99, 110
frame transmission delay parameter .......40
frame transmission time ........................142
free run ..................................................125
functional description ..............................53
216
H
hardware trigger
acquisition start .........................96, 115
frame start ....................................... 104
heartbeat timeout parameter ................... 37
heartbeat timer ........................................ 37
high gain factory setup ..................203, 205
horizontal mirror image ......................... 188
housing
standard ............................................ 12
humidity ................................................... 18
I
image acquisition control mode
legacy ............................................... 83
standard ............................................ 83
input line
configuring ........................................ 71
electrical characteristics .................... 66
voltage requirements ..................64, 65
installation
hardware ........................................... 23
software ............................................ 23
integrate enabled signal ........................ 135
inter-packet delay ........................28, 33, 47
inverter
output line ......................................... 75
IP configuration tool ................................ 25
IP30 ......................................................... 12
IR cut filter ...................................9, 14, 184
J
jumbo frames .......................................... 48
jumbo packets ......................................... 48
L
LEDs ....................................................... 55
lens adapter ..........................................2, 4
lens thread length ................................... 14
line inverter parameter ............................ 75
line selector .....................73, 135, 137, 141
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line source parameter ..... 73, 135, 137, 141
line status parameter ...............................81
M
max frame jitter parameter ......................43
max frame rate ......................................144
max height parameter ...........................201
max number resend request parameter ..33
max width parameter .............................201
maximum lens thread length ...................14
mirror image ..........................................188
missing packet
detection ............................................29
status .................................................29
models .......................................................1
mono 12 packed pixel format ................154
mono 16 pixel format .............................152
mono 8 pixel format .......................151, 170
mounting holes ........................................13
multiple cameras on a network ................46
N
network adapter, packet size ...................48
network drivers ........................................27
network parameter ..................................47
network performance ...............................47
network switch, packet size .....................48
O
optical size of the sensor .......................2, 4
output line
configuring .........................................73
electrical characteristics ....................67
inverter ..............................................75
response time ....................................69
voltage requirements .........................67
over triggering ...............................105, 115
overlapped exposure .............................133
Index
packet timeout parameter ........... 28, 33, 40
parameter sets ......................................203
parameter sets, saving ..........................204
parameters loaded at startup ................207
payload size parameter ...........................39
performance driver ..................................27
pin assignments ......................................56
pin numbering ..........................................57
pixel data formats ..................................149
pixel format parameter ..........................150
pixel formats
Bayer BG 12 packed .......................163
Bayer BG 16 ....................................161
Bayer BG 8 ......................................159
mono 12 packed ..............................154
mono 16 ..........................................152
mono 8 ....................................151, 170
YUV 422 (YUYV) packed ........156, 168
YUV 422 packed .....................156, 165
pixel size ................................................2, 4
pixel transmission sequence .................172
PLC power and I/O cable ..................59, 61
voltage requirements ...................62, 64
precautions ..............................................19
protection class .......................................12
pylon API .................................................26
pylon Viewer ............................................25
R
read timeout parameter ...........................37
receive descriptors ..................................47
receive window ........................................29
receive window size parameter ...............30
resend request batching parameter ........31
resend request response timeout
parameter ................................................33
resend request threshold parameter .......31
resend timeout parameter .......................33
resulting frame rate parameter ................44
return material authorization ..................209
reverse X ...............................................188
RMA number .........................................209
P
packet size
camera ..............................................48
network adapter ................................48
network switch ...................................48
packet size parameter .............................39
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Index
S
saving parameter sets ...................203, 204
sensor
architecture .......................................54
optical size ......................................2, 4
pixel size .............................................4
size .............................................1, 2, 4
type .................................................2, 4
sensor height parameter .......................201
sensor width parameter ........................201
serial number ..........................................21
sets of parameters, saving ....................204
single frame acquisition mode ................89
software development kit ........................26
software trigger
acquisition start .................................95
frame start ...............................102, 113
spectral response ................................ 6-11
speed and duplex mode parameter ........48
standard factory setup ..........203, 205, 206
standard power and I/O cable .................59
voltage requirements ..................62, 64
startup parameter set ............................207
startup set .....................................204, 207
support ..................................................210
T
AW00104701000
trigger width exposure mode .........106, 117
U
use case diagrams ................................ 123
user configuration set ............................ 204
user output selector ................................ 74
user output value parameter ................... 74
V
ventilation ................................................ 18
viewer ...................................................... 25
W
weight ....................................................3, 5
white balance ........................................ 177
setting ............................................. 177
write timeout parameter .......................... 37
Y
YUV 422 (YUYV) packed pixel format
.......................................................156, 168
YUV 422 data range ............................. 166
YUV 422 packed pixel format .......156, 165
technical support ...................................209
temperature, housing ..............................18
test image selector ................................ 197
test images ............................................197
time delay time base abs parameter .......77
timed exposure mode ...................105, 116
timer delay raw parameter ......................77
timer delay time .......................................77
timer delay time base ..............................77
timer duration ..........................................78
timer duration abs parameter ............78, 79
timer duration raw parameter ..................78
timer duration time base .........................78
timer duration time base abs parameter .79
timer selector ........................76, 77, 78, 79
timer trigger source parameter ................76
transition threshold ............................64, 65
transmission start delay ........................142
trigger delay ..........................................193
acquisition start (legacy mode) .......118
frame start (standard mode) ...........107
trigger ready signal ...............106, 117, 136
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