Do These Factories Calibrate?

Do These Factories Calibrate?
Do These Factories Calibrate?
Sharp Sakai City - $11 Billion
Panasonic Amagasaki $2.11 Billion
Quality in Taking Pictures?
.
Canon G10 had 14.7 MP – The newer G11 and G12 have 10 MP?
Which takes better quality pictures??
What is Most Important In A Camera?
The Quality of the Lens does “What” for Pictures?
Canon 50mm 1.4 - $399
Leica 50mm 1.4 - $3995
Quality In Printing pictures
Which of these
magazines deliver
superior image
quality?
Why?
21st Century HDTV Quality?
The Perception…..
The Reality…………..
The Number everyone knows?…
The Marketing………..LED TV?
The Blacks?……………
1080p? – Does it make it to the HDTV?
1080p To Be?
Or
1080p Not To Be?
Vast majority of HDTVs – “Not To Be”
Overscan, aspect ratios and keystone
WHY IS THE FACTORY PRESET WRONG?
Overscan / Resolution Tools
BBC Test Card
ISF 4K 2013
Why must we all know about
Standards?
What is the ISF?
We are a Standards Organization, We:
Represent Standards
Deploy Standards
Adhere to Standards
Train Professionals to Understand Standards
Help develop HDTVs that calibrate to Standards
Help Write Standards for CEA and CEDIA
What are C.E.A. R10 Standards?
C.E.A = Consumer Electronics Association
www.ce.org
Represents over 2000 major Electronics companies
Produces the yearly CES!
R10 is CEA’s “Standards and Technology” group
ISF Chairs R10 “Home Theater Video Design”
(CEA/CEDIA CEB23)
What is the SMPTE?
The Society of Motion Picture and Television
Engineers (SMPTE) was founded in 1916
http://www.smpte.org/home
What is the NTSC?
National Television System Committee
U.S. standardization body that adopted the broadcast
standard in 1941
In 1953 a second standard was issued, for color
broadcasting compatibility with black-and-white
receivers
PAL and SECAM were later TV systems that
resolved some problems in NTSC
What is the ATSC?
The Advanced Television Systems Committee
(ATSC)
Formed in 1982 to develop Standards for DTV
1998 Recommendations are being deployed now!
What is the BBC?
The British Broadcasting Corporation, abbreviation
"the BBC", is the world's largest broadcaster
The BBC plays an active part in development of all
open standards for UK broadcasting, Europe &
world-wide where appropriate
Early BBC “Cards”
What is the DCI?
Digital Cinema Initiatives, LLC (DCI) is a joint venture
of Disney, Fox, Paramount, Sony Pictures
Entertainment, Universal and Warner Bros. Studios.
DCI's primary purpose is to establish and document
voluntary specifications for open architecture for
digital cinema that ensures uniform, high level of
technical performance, reliability and quality control.
www.dcimovies.com
What is the ITU?
International Telecommunication Union
ITU is a United Nations standards agency for
information and communication technology
TEST PATTERNS VERIFY ITU COMPLIANCE
ITU-R UHD 2012
3 Phases of UHD, 2014 – 2017 - 2020+
What are Standards Based On?
If We Only Have Cones For Red Green and Blue How Can We See White or Yellow?
Making White for TV Viewers With RGB
What Data is Used For Color Standards?
Calibration Standards for X-RAYs?
NON calibrated
DICOM 14 calibrated
(Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine)
Radiology Monitor Contrast Issues?
Same Scan – contrast too high versus correct...
ISF Calibrators:
Must Thank those who developed TV Standards
They enable us to deliver thousands of superior
experiences every day at workplaces and homes
The Market Niche For ISF
International Instant Adopters
Cutting Edge Installations & Service
Automation and integration?
Calibration = Customer care
“Booties” and ISF Calibrators?
Why Has The ISF Market Grown?
1 – Calibrated CRTs had to be dim – RIP CRTs!
2 – Calibrated Flat Panels can be bright enough for the room
3 – Gamma adjustments are now really common (more later)
4 – HD and UHD make calibration’s improvements obvious
5 – HDTV system set up is way too hard for consumers
6 – ISF HDTV menu designs in over 30,000,000 units
7 - CEA says customers DEMAND both price & service
HD Viewing Angles and Visible Artifacts
10' Screen width
49o
Viewing
Distance
to
Screen
W idth
Ratio
Field-ofView
at
VD/SW
Ratio
1
10'
53o
1.2
12' VD
45o
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
14' VD
39o
37o
35o
33o
31o
29o
28o
16'
17'
18'
19'
20'
VD
VD
VD
VD
VD
2K 4K 8K Viewing Angles and Distances
Advanced Resolution, Analog and Digital
Credit - ITU State of Ultra High Definition Television, ITU-R BT.2246-1, (08/2012)
Where Did Calibration Come From?
Like in most successful endeavors….
The key to the future is understanding the past…..
Selecting and calibrating the best TVs started 80
years ago…..
TV is Based on Communication Theory
Electronic imaging dictate TV signals and sets speak the
same “language”
International TV systems were Regional since the
1930’s – originally based on radio tower’s
transmission range.
1998 DVD was “Heard Around the World”, not just
fifty miles – DVD Digital TV instantly went Global !
MSNBC Headlines...
1923 - 28 line TV from John Logie Baird’s spinning
disc to…….
1935 - 343 line RCA system………
1936 - 375 In Germany…..USA’s RMA 441i/30
1939 - 525 USA’s NTSC B&W system……….
1941 - 625 Multiple International PAL systems
1998 – 1080 USA’s ATSC HDTV
2010’s – Ultra High Definition TV 4K and 8K
John Logie Baird’s 750 rpm Spinning
Disc TV - With 2100 lamps!
1930’s HDTVs – 1800 Lbs!
Eidophor “oil film" Projectors – Philo’s TV!
What do people worldwide clearly consider
“Great Picture Quality”
Only one imaging method is recognized as high quality:
On every continent
In every city and town
And can be played everywhere on Earth….
35mm Film
So….Film “WAS” our real
competition
So….Just how good was 35mm film?
ISF’s #1 Empirical image analysis tool?
THE DEAD PIXEL TEST?
What will you see if you analyze film?
How Many Pixels Equaled Film Quality!
In Digital moving images can and do slide across pixels,
causing “Artifacts” which reduce resolution – Just like
Multiburst with overscan on
So – what level of Digital resolution is like 35mm Film?
35mm Film’s Resolution? - SMPTE 3/2004
6 Theaters tested with “Release Prints”
“Original Negative/Interpositive/Internegative/Release”
Experts evaluated at 1.5 picture heights
Theaters were Orlando, LA, NY, Montreal, Paris, Milan – 1.85 prints
Conclusion - 35mm Film’s resolution is basically:
1 Mega-Pixel!
If Film = ONLY “1” Megapixel?
(720p, 1280x720 is also basically “1” Megapixel - it is now unsellable!)
Why Does Film Look Great?
ISF Imaging Hierarchy of Quality Parameters
#1 - Dynamic Range
=
Dark to Bright
#2 - Color Saturation
=
Colorful
#3 - Colorimetry
=
Life-like Color
#4 - Resolution
=
Detailed
Why is Calibration Important?
Matching a display to a source
Matching a system to a room
Getting the whole picture
Getting the right picture
Getting nothing but the picture
Accurately displaying a subjective image….
Why match HDTVs to sources?
What will a 10% differential source in hardware parts
translate to in the field?
Can your display’s manufacturer anticipate these
differences in sources?
Will you be mixing HD + SD + PC + Gaming + Photo?
Will all sources be the same signal?
Why match HDTVs to room environments?
Variables in ambient light make black level
settings in manufacturing a W.A.G.
Fighting ambient light during the day and
minimizing viewer fatigue at night requires
different calibrations
ISFccc “Day” and “Night” Modes
ITU Digital Video
From 1982!
193 Countries Agree on setting Black and White
Create in Bollywood, play back in Hollywood!
“0 to 255, with 220 quantization levels with the
black level corresponding to level 16 and the
peak white level corresponding to level 235.
The signal level may occasionally excurse
beyond level 235”
“Getting the Whole picture”
ANALOG
Analog “IRE” levels
Institute of Radio Engineers, founded 1912 in NYC
Merged with American Institute of Electrical Engineers to form the IEEE in 1963
100 IRE
0 IRE
(7.5 IRE
0 IRE
(0 to -40 IRE
= White
= Black
= Black in 1963 when color was added)
= Black, Since DVD in 1998 in the US
= Footroom and Synch)
“Getting the Whole picture”
DIGITAL
8 Bit Digital Video is 0 to 255
ITU / HDMI Specs
“0” and “255” are T.R.S. (Timing Reference Signals – AKA Synch)
1 to 254 is the LEGAL range for the entire signal
16 = Is the Black level as per ITU-R BT601 & 709!
235 = Is the White level as per ITU-R BT601 & 709
236 to 254 = “above white”, 1 to 15 = “below black”
Calibrating 16 -235, 4 Simple Steps!
ITU and HDMI specs call for above white and
below black so we……
1 - Use test patterns with above White elements!
2 - Use test patterns with below Black elements!
3 - Preserve above White, Visible to 234?
4 – Verify below Black, then Set Black at 16
ISF / Microsoft Calibration Wizard
We do not believe Test Patterns and Humans
can Coexist….Color Bars were on TV for 50
years……
ISF / Microsoft Windows 7 and 8 free user
friendly basic tools!
– Over 150,000,000 PCs have it – and virtually
nobody knows it is there
The Microsoft / ISF Consumer Tools
Simple to Use Basic Set Up – White Level
The Calibration Wizard is already in 111,000,000 PCs! Is it in Yours??
ISF Cal Wizard Black Level Tool
Pattern With Above White Details
Pattern With Below Black Details
White “CLIPPING”
Use “White” PLUGE Patterns
Digital Devices “Clip”
Clipped TVs Are Missing Parts Of The Picture;
Look at a Ten Step pattern..
Clipped Images Do Appear Brighter
Ten Step Pattern B & W Errors
Near White Color Shifting
Use a full field gray scale or a High APL Pluge
Look for interaction between moving the control and
the color of Light Gray or Near White changing
“Near White” Color Shifting
ELV Now
Summary for Setting 16 to 235
• Black Level:
Verify under 16 is visible
by raising brightness,
then……..
Lower brightness to lock
in Black at 16
• White level:
Ideally, test pattern
elements visibly to 254
Real world, get the most
elements visible without
losing light output!!
Video 101 Test - How Would You Fix the Left Image?
NON calibrated
DICOM 14 calibrated
(Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine)
Video 101 Test - How do you fix this Left Image?
Same Scan – Right one is a correct DICOM 14 image...
LCD Backlight – Set With 100 IRE Field
BEFORE and AFTER Setting B&W
40 to 50 FtL will work well for most Night Modes!
60 to 150 FtL may be needed for Day Modes
Room conditions will dictate the right settings
LCD Backlight is a light output VOLUME control!
If you are not sure – GO BRIGHTER!
Calibrating Flat Panel Backlight, Cell Light,
Or Projector Lamp and Iris Settings
These settings Adjusting Light Output
Ideally, meters should be used
However, setting these levels in 2
modes to be close enough to be at
least bright enough for Day viewing,
and not too bright to be
uncomfortable for Night viewing is
relatively easy
ISF recommends Day and Night light
levels in “Foot Lamberts” and
“Nits”
Pattern for setting these controls
LED “Local Area Dimming” –
Off for Calibration – On for viewing
Blacks are of course rendered Black in blocks that are off
The number of LED does not = number of zones.
Example: VF55 LED backlight local-dimming turn LEDs on and off to
improve black level – These are numbers for an older LED: The
backlight consists of 960 LEDs, positioned in 80 control blocks”
Example: Sharp Elite 2011 now has over 300 control blocks!
Artifacts occurred when bright picture elements on dark backgrounds move
from block to block – nicknamed “Tinker Bell Effect”
Projector “Iris” Features
Many projectors offer Iris options
Auto iris will impact calibrations
You must test with all options both on and off
Obtaining good light output and contrast ratio are both
objectives
Mechanical Iris functions may be too slow – LED
functions are faster and may be preferred
Disc Player “Set Up”
Many disc players are not ITU Compliant
Some Critical options in Disc Player Set Up:
Video Level controls, modes, output formats
Some units are wrong when up-converting
Some just need the Contrast or Brightness set!
Some units will never be correct!
Video Test Generator Versus Test Disk
1 - A Disc player itself doesn’t provide a calibrated output
2 - You must Match the player’s output to a reference!
Test generator should be used to calibrate TV input; a
reference disk is then used to check/adjust disc player’s
internal controls, IF THAT IS POSSIBLE!
Players might not have controls
Player’s controls might not have fine enough adjustments
Measurement Tools
Test Pattern Generators – Reference Sources
• Need reference test pattern source to play into TV.
• Reference test pattern generator
• Need reference content to play through source device.
• Reference test disk and/or reference program material
AV Receiver or
Video Processor
Source Device
01010101010101010101010101010101010
010101010101010101010101010
DTV
An HDMI Only 2K Video Generator
AV Foundry VideoForge 3D HDMI Video Generator
• HDMI video test signals to 230 MHz pixel clock 12-bit
output, with resolution, frame rate, and test pattern
selection. Supplied test patterns, plus user-loaded patterns
from SD card. PC control ONLY
www.spectracal.com
Compact 4K Generator
HDMI Powered
Remote Control or PC Patterns Access
ISF B&W PLUGES
Video Generators 2K and 4K
Including EEDID and HDCP Diagnostic Testing Tools
Quantum Data 780a Handheld Test Instrument for HDMI
• Portable audio/video generator and HDMI troubleshooting tool for
testing and adjusting analog or digital input, HDMI input and
output tests troubleshoot system interoperability issues.
www.spectracal.com
“E-EDID” “Plug and Pray” Solutions
HDMI Problems That You Can Not Fix!
TV and a source component talking to each other...
Enhanced Extended Display Identification Data for
resolution, timing, color transfer functions and more
VESA Standard www.vesa.org
If TV is not compliant - connections will not work!
HDCP is two-way com, like EDID!
HDCP = D.R.M.
Will be made more robust with HDMI 2.0
In July 2005, IBM Corp., Intel Corp., Microsoft Corp.,
Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd., Sony Corp., Toshiba,
Walt Disney Company and Warner Bros. Studio formed:
Upgrading Players is now REQUIRED!
Is this done for clients?
HDCP –What is it? How does it work?
Typical Environment
Source Authenticates
Downstream Devices
Key Exchange
Encryption
Re-Check
(every 2 seconds)
High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection (HDCP)
HDCP is a content protection technology developed by Intel for HDMI
All HD cable and satellite set-top boxes require HDCP for HDMI
HD-SDI Generators
High Definition Serial Digital Interface
Evolution of SD-SDI (Serial Digital Interface)
Single Coax connection
720p / 1080i over single link /1080p over dual-link
Broadcast, Commercial & Medical applications
Converters are available for DVI / HDMI
Does NOT pass HDCP – now…..
Can carry 8 channels PCM Audio
19-pin plug
supports:
HDMI “Under the Hood”
Plug Technology
 3 TMDS channels*
(*Transition Minimized Differential
Signaling transmitting high-speed serial
data used by the DVI and HDMI video
interfaces.)
 Clock
 DDC channel
 CEC channel
 +5V power
 Hot plug detect
• TMDS Data must arrive in precise alignment
–Requires each cable to be exactly same within 1/20,000 of inch!
• All pins are critical- do not cut any lines
HDMI: High Definition Multimedia Interface
HDMI Interface Diagram
5V
HDMI
Transmitter
HDMI
Receiver
TMDS Data Channel 0
Video
TMDS
Pixel
Encolder
TMDS
Pixel
Decolder
TMDS Data Channel 1
Audio
Audio
TMDS Data Channel 2
TMDS Clock Channel
Control/Status
HPD
Sense
(Hot Plug Detect (HPD)
HDCP
EDID
Decode
DDC Data I²C
Display Data Channel
Control/Status
HPD
Switch
HDCP
EDID
ROM
DDC Data I²C
CEC
Com.
CEC Consumer Electronic Control
Video
CEC
Com.
HDMI / Mini-HDMI
High Definition Multimedia Interface – www.hdmi.org
• Single connection can carry high-definition video, multi-channel audio,
format & command data and 100Mbps Ethernet.
• Integrated remote control – named CEC for Consumer Electronic Control
• Automatic format adjustment.
• Fully compatible with DVI video.
• HDTVs
• Set Top Boxes
• DVD and Blu-ray disc players
• PCs and Gaming Systems
• Cameras and camcorders
• PDAs and Phones and more to come!
HDMI Cable Categories
www.hdmi.org
Questionable Video Signal Paths
Built In Switchers In AVRs?
Consider Them SUSPECT until tested!
Stand Alone High Quality Matrix Switchers
1st ISFccc AVR! Onkyo/Integra!
HDMI to Cat and Fiber, HDBaseT
ISF Research….conclusion….be careful!
HDMI 2.0
HDMI 2.2 Terms for HDCP Mapping
RSA – a Cryptosystem with Public and Private Keys
Authentication and Key Exchange (AKE)
128 bit Random, Secret Cryptographic Keys (Master)
Locality Check - Round Trip Time = 20 ms (RTT)
Session Key Exchange (SKE)
HDCP Cipher – Module operating in a Counter (CTR)
(*72 pages on HDMI 2.2 are in our USB drive for you)
Test Pattern Tour
Visual Test Patterns
Metering Test Patterns
Processing Test Patterns - on Blu-ray
Trust Your Eyes or Your Meter?
Color versus Black and White – Eyes versus Meters
Metering White Fields - Measure the center of the screen,
sides and the corners – compare readings!
Are smooth ramps smooth on 8 Bit systems?
SMPTE Color Bar pattern problems on CE HDTVS?
Introduction to instrumentation #101
Computing contrast ratios 101 – pre or post calibration?
Intra Frame vs. Sequential Contrast ratios?
Staircase
Split Gray
Check video amplifier linearity and gray scale tracking. Sixteen steps.
Good reference signal for signal tracing. Always look carefully at
90IRE to 100IRE transitions – and carefully watch for color shifts at
every level
Use a Raster?
Select/Gate Colors
Check color purity. Use to adjust white
balance. Check luminance or color
uniformity. Test color x/y coordinates
Or Use a Window?
Check chromaticity with color
analyzer. Adjustable IRE level
window with pluge bars to monitor
black level.
Needle Pulse – Obsolete?
White Lines (Top) are equal
width to black lines
(Bottom)
Grayscale Bars
Top Bar is 100%
white
External Focus Pattern versus Internal?
“E”s and “M”s alternating across screen.
Letter size varies with resolution
Traditionally referred to as a “me-me” pattern.
Check for proper operation at both screen center and
edges – look for “Chromatic Aberrations”
Vertical / Horizontal / Chroma Multiburst
These sample frequencies
provide great frequency
response test references.
Check for SCALING, ringing, smearing, and sharp
resolution.
Obsolete Black Pluge
NTSC (US) only
Alternating
7.5 / 10 IRE
Alternating
7.5 / 0 IRE
Black
All other formats:
NTSC (Japan), PAL,
HDTV, RGB, etc.
Alternating
0 / +2 IRE
Alternating
0 / -4 IRE
Check for proper black level setup. Includes alternating
black/blacker-than-black and black/just-above-black
sections in newest models.
Obsolete White Pluge - HiLo Trk
(HIGH/LOW TRACK)
Black “reference” section
Outer box: 1% above black.
Inner box: 2% above black.
White “adjustment” section
Outer box: 99% of peak white.
Inner box: 98% of peak white.
WHAT IS MISSING? - Above White!
QD 780 updates are coming!
Both Disc and PC Based Patterns
Patterns are OK – Source hardware may not be!
Check and verify them with reference generators
PC “Set Up”
16 to 235 “Enhanced”?
0 to 255 “Normal”
LUT? - 1D or 3D?
Aspect ratio or Scaling?
RGB or Component?
EEDID Compliance?
Inverse Telecine?
Game Console “Set Up”
Super White?
RGB or Component?
4:2:0 or 4:2:2 or 4:4:4?
Aspect Ratio?
Output Format?
Redundant Controls…..
Processors & PCs & Displays & DVD players & Game
Consoles & AVR have controls
Four, Six - or more - places to check for problems!
Calibrate everything! Check everything!
WHAT DO YOU ADJUST FIRST?
YOU ABSOLUTELY NEED THESE!
What do we need to calibrate?
1 - Select best user Mode and Display options for Color Temp and Gamut
2 - Disable Auto Features (for now)
3 - Luminance - Lamp Setting / Iris / Backlight / Cell light / Panel
Brightness
4 - Brightness and Contrast, Technically Black level and White level
5 – Gamma / EOTF* Preset
6 - Color &Tint
7 - Bit Mapping Accuracy / Overscan / Geometry
8 - Gray scale 2 Point
9 - Grayscale and Gamma Multipoint / 10 Point / 20 point
10 - Color Management Systems, 3D CMS, Gamut RGBCMY
11 - Video Processing and 1080p HDMI Optimization
Using the equipment for Front Projector Calibration
Always wear an
appropriate shirt
when using
precision
equipment
The room is now
a major limitation!
What is Calibration?
Calibration is the matching a device to a standard
In Home Theater, Calibration is balancing science,
knowledge and experience with the major
compromises made when building today’s hardware.
Calibration should not be confused with hacking
Calibration is now multiple small improvements whose
sum is far greater than the parts
Professional video without calibration is not
Professional
Video Calibration Benefits
Running Post calibration A/B Demo material defines your skills
Reproduction following the Standard used in content creation!
 Full details in the darkest and brightest parts of all scenes. (Avoids
“Crushing” and “Clipping)
 Match the viewing environment.
 Produce full range accurate colors, including flesh
tones, grass, sky, and sports jerseys WITHOUT
EXAGARATING COLORS
 Minimize picture artifacts (distortions).
 Produce a "film look" superior to commercial theaters.
CIE Chromaticity Diagram – Color Science from 1931
You Cannot Manage What You Cannot Measure! Color Space CIE 1931 Model
– Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage
Graphically depicts relationship
between hue and saturation
Shows pure spectral colors around
the curved border
3D Space View
“COLOR SPACE”
Hues form the circumference, Color Saturation is middle
to edge, Brightness equates to the 3D “Z” axis
Different Color Space Triangles
sRGB
HDTV (709)
HDTV
sRGB
x
y
x
y
0.640
0.330
0.640
0.330
0.300
0.600
0.300
0.600
0.150
0.060
0.150
0.060
NTSC
NTSC
SMPTE
C
Adobe
1998
SMPTE C
x
y
x
y
0.670
0.330
0.630
0.340
0.210
0.710
0.310
0.595
0.140
0.080
0.155
0.070
Adobe 1998
EBU
EBU (601)
x
y
x
y
0.640
0.340
0.640
0.330
0.210
0.710
0.290
0.600
0.150
0.060
0.150
0.060
Another Way Of Looking at the Visible Spectrum
Light is electromagnetic energy within a narrow range of
frequencies.
Each different wavelength of light energy (if seen alone) is
perceived by the human eye/brain as a different, fully saturated,
color.
LED and UHP Projector Spectrum
Look at the difference in the RED – What does that mean?
Different Projector Technologies
Produce Different Light Spectrums
To provide accurate measurements, colorimeters must be able
to read multiple light engines – setting software for the type
of TV makes tristimulus colorimeters be more accurate – see
what you MUST DO EVERY TIME in ISF CalMAN set up shortly
3 chip DLP
Projector
LCD
Projector
CRT
Projector
Direct
View CRT
Content
Creation
W. Edwards Deming, 1900-1993
ISF’s Inspiration for the ISF CalMAN Workflow!
The ISF CalMAN workflow is a step by step
compilation of many top calibrator’s
methodologies – and is a living breathing
process that will continue to develop!
ISF CalMAN Display Calibration Software – Quick Tour!
C.A.C = Computer Assisted Calibration
The Goals:
1 - A step by step process that will insure more consistent ISF Calibration services worldwide .
Since calibration adjustments are interactive, the process must be repeated until no additional
adjustments are required throughout one entire step by step workflow!
2 - A framework that makes learning ISF Calibrations easier
3 - A process that speeds the work of experienced calibrators
4 – Software that will make Calibration Hardware more accurate
5 - Producing customer reports that can establish histories and generate referrals
6 – An updateable process that will adapt to upcoming HDTV technologies
7 – An automated network that earns your client’s respect – Now Tour ISF Workflow!
Gamma, EOTF – What is it?
Going From Fixed Black to Fixed White,
How Much Brighter Should Each Step Below Be Than
the One Before it?
Why are there Gamma Options?
1 – Accuracy and Image Fidelity
Match Gamma to content creation in a
studio like light environment
2 – Compensation for Bright Environments
Reasonable compromises for rooms that
are not like studio light environments
Day / Night Gamma
Home theaters are easy – approx 2.4 with light control
Rooms with ambient light require careful evaluation
Backlight settings for LCDs raise the VOLUME of light
Lamp output settings for projection provide options
Gamma settings need to be lower in brighter rooms
“S” Gamma curves are usually designed for bright rooms
ELV all HDTVs with different room lighting conditions
now!
LED LCDs will perform best in extreme room lighting
How does Gamma Change This Picture?
Intro to Gamma – A CRT Legacy
How HDTVs should respond to sources
Did tube TVs have Gamma Adjustment Knobs?
Brightness
CRT
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
CRT Distortion
Corrected Source
Video
Output result
0
0.1 0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5 0.6
Gray level
0.7
0.8 0.9
1
Finally! – After 80 Years! – A Gamma (EOTF) Spec
Recommendation ITU-R BT.1886
03/2011
Reference electro-optical transfer function for flat panel displays used in HDTV
studio production (In Red below)
Where is BT.1886 Applicable?
It is a Studio Production
Function for Studio
Lighting Conditions
For CE use – Home
Theater Lighting
“ISF Night” Calibration…
Video Signal Input Plotted to TV Light Output
No “Gamma” or “EOTF”
y=x
1
Output
A Linear Display
Input / Output
plot:
Input
1
A Typical Non-Linear Plot With Gamma:
Relation of Light output to Input signal
Input is video signal, either analog voltage or digital value
Output is light intensity of display
2.4 is the new ITU target for video display in a light controlled
(Studio Lighting) room
This graph shows the nonlinear
relationship between input signal
voltage and light output for a CRT
display. Note that a 50% input
signal level (red) produces only
about 18% light output level (blue).
This corresponds to a gamma of
2.5.
Are R, G and B Gamma the same?
Brightness
CRT
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
CRT Distortion
Corrected Source
Video
Output result
0
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
Gray level
1
If RGB Gamma differs - 10 Point RGB Gamma tools can help correct that
0
10 20 30
40
50 60 70 80
90
0
20 30
40
50 60
70 80
90
After 10 Point IRE WB
Before 10 Point IRE WB
Output
10
Output
Input [IRE]
Input [IRE]
Does Signal Path Impact Gamma?
Defining Gamma:
New term looking from ITU – EOTF
Non-standard Gamma
Day / Night Gamma
“S” shaped Gamma
Gamma Post Calibration No AVR
Same TV’s Gamma Through AVR
ELV All Gamma Options
Go To ISF CalMAN!
- Run Gamma
Tests on all
HDTVs and
components at all
options
Check to see if a
numerical value is
correct, or what
Gamma options
really measure
Next – Color Encoding and Decoding
Why Do We Encode and Then Decode
When Content Creation Starts as RGB?
(Cameras are RGB and CGI are RGB)
RGB is simply and easy – but bandwidth intensive
Encoding to PAL,,NTSC, SECAM, or H.264 saves
bandwidth
Bringing Pictures to your HDTV
1 - Cameras capture RGB
2 - We ENCODE to save bandwidth to transmit
3 - HDTVs DECODE back to RGB
RGB
RGB
RGB
RGB
RGB
to
to
to
to
to
NTSC
to
PAL (Phase Alternating Line ) to
SECAM (Sequentiel Coleur Avec Memoire)
MPEG
to
VC1, AVC
to
RGB
RGB
RGB
RGB
RGB
1952- Introducing Color in NTSC
Creating an Analog Bio/Mechanical
Color System
How Many Colors Does the Human Eye See?
Rods & Cones – Which is HD? Key Point!!
100 million rod cells, 5 million cone cells
Color perception is poor for resolution
All Color Compression is Based On:
THIS IS ALL ABOUT HUMAN FACTORS!
Preserve B&W detail for our RODS
Get away with color compression with our CONES
That is why content is delivered in Component!!
ISF considers this just Brilliant…………..
Digital Component Color Compression for Our Eyes!
HDTV Video Processing Creates What’s Missing
4:1:1
4:2:0
4:2:2
4:4:4
Compression Is Needed,
Credit Scott Evans, Microsoft eHome
How do RGB & Component connections
differ?
RGB has one cable for each signal plus sync(s)
Component has 1 cable for B & W info (Y) & 2 cables for
color info (R – Y) & (B – Y)
Is Component “lossless” compared to RGB?
It is a compressed derivative of RGB!
How RGB Becomes Component
The 3 x 3 Matrix
Y
R
G
B
Matrix
Encoder
B-Y (Pb)
R-Y (Pr)
Y = R + G + B
Y = Black and White, or Luminance
1 - RGB is Encoded to Component
2 - HDTV is Delivered Component!
3 - Processing and Decoding a 3 x 3 Matrix is
required….
R
G
B
Y
Matrix
Encoder
B-Y (Pb)
R-Y (Pr)
SD or HD – Use a Different 3 x 3 Matrix?
Y
R
G
Matrix
Encoder
B
1953 SD
“Y”
B-Y (Pb)
R-Y (Pr)
AKA (SMPTE 170M) or (ITU 601)
Y = G + B + R
1998 HD
“Y”
AKA (SMPTE 296M) or (ITU 709)
Y = G + B + R
Same or Different?
SD “Y” is Different From HD!
S.D.
Y
= 0.2990 R + 0.5870 G + 0.1140 B
H.D.
Y = 0.2126 R + 0.7152 G + 0.0722 B
1 - TV Viewing Systems Must Convert
Component Delivered Content to RGB
2 - Blu-ray, Cable and DSS are Component
3 - HDTVs Need RGB To make Pictures
R
Y
B-Y (Pb)
R-Y (Pr)
Matrix
Transcoder
G
B
Hazards Of Processing the Different
HD and SD “Y” Matrix
When setting up Set Top Boxes or Disc Players it is important to
avoid confusing the SD and the HD Matrix
Calibrators must understand how to configure output options
Output choices may be RGB or Component as well as scan rates!
Does the Disc Player have set up options?
The NTSC Decoder Adjustments
Sharpness, aka Detail, Aperture
It is “Edge Enhancement”
Color, aka Saturation, Chroma
The Amount, of color in the picture
Tint, aka Hue, Phase (PAL TV ELIMINATED THIS!)
The Type of color in the picture
USING SMPTE COLOR BARs
Color Bars are designed for “Blue ONLY” modes
Color filters are NOT Blue Only Modes!!!!
PLEASE TEST FILTERS & BLUE ONLY MODES
ELV RGB FILTERS
Many HDTVs now have Blue Only modes!
Seek those HDTVs out!
Blue Only Incorrect Color & Tint Settings
Look at outer Blue bars for Color – Inner Blue bars for Tint
139
“Reasonably” Correct Color & Tint
Why “Reasonably” Correct and Not Perfectly Correct?
140
Why not use an Generator Blue Only Signal?
The function of the Decoder is to DECODE an
Encoded Signal
Generator Blue Only Output is NOT Encoded so there
will be NO Decoding!
Therefore - We need to examine the OUTPUT of the
decoder when sent an ENCODED signal!
However, engineers always ask this question….
Next - Resolution/Bit-Accuracy
Edge Enhancement ArtifactsAKA - The Sharpness Control
The best way to start calibration demos.
Adjust to max rez and min artifact….judgment call?
HD and SD can and will be different!
Sharpness Adjustment
Adjust the Sharpness
control as low as possible,
to eliminate line shadows
on the lower center picture
detail, without reducing the
brightness of the upper
resolution stripes.
View Increments in x
box, Adj. Sharpness
for clear/best focus
Analyze Transitions Blk/Wht & Wht/Blk
trailing edges: Adj for no halo or shadows
Overscan and Geometry Adjustment
Next – Grayscale Setting Tools:
2 Point IRE / Multipoint IRE + Gamma
Delta E Graphs are “Approximations”
y
The Greek letter Delta (the symbol Δ)
is used to indicate a difference and
E stands for the German word
Empfindung, meaning "sensation."
So, "Delta E" literally means
D65
"difference in sensation."
Delta E values below 6 are tolerable,
below 4 are not perceptible to eye,
below 3 considered OK
y = .008
x = .006
E= 10
E
x
D65
E
x
y
y = .004
x = .005
E= 6.4
How Gray Scale Impacts Content
Credit Tom Norton, Home Theater Magazine
What is “The Color Of Grey”
Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage
x & y coordinates are precision measurements
D65 - A Point In Theoretical Space
L*a*b* Color Space in 1976 – a 1931 CIE Variant
Color Temperature vs Brightness
“Perceived” Brightness
Blue Automotive Headlights
Human Factors, Sales and 16,000 Kelvin
Calibrating For Marketing Departments
Calibrating for retail showrooms is a necessary evil
A History of Expressing Colors
Numerically
Color Management Requires Measurement!
The Physics we use for measurements are
merely High School level concepts…..
Color Temperature & Kelvin
William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin (18241907), the Belfast born Physicist that the Kelvin
Scale Is Named For
International Standard For Thermodynamics
Zero kelvin = -273.15 Degrees Celsius
Scientifically a Kelvin Is Not Considered a Degree
Always say “Kelvin”, never “Degrees Kelvin”
The Planckian Locus
Thank you Max Planck, the German physicist, for
“Plank’s Black Body Curve” – What is it?
High School physics – “Things” get red hot, then white hot and
then blue hot –
What “Things?” are we talking about? An “Ideal Black Body”
An 19 Year Set Up To Make ISF
Calibrators Look Smarter!
Color Temperature Is MISINFORMATION
1994 ISF Editorial Decisions – Write about Kelvin
D65 vs 6500 Degrees vs CCT
D65 = x .313 and y .329
Correlated Color Temperatures refer to Multiple
colors near the black body curve & along
ISOTEMPERATURE LINES
Summary:
Correlated Color Temperature
Correlated color temperature was developed to
specify near-white colors
Correlated color temperature of can mean any
color along the ISOTEMPERATURE line.
Since color temperature is an unspecified x,y
point, it cannot be relied upon to reach a
desired point (D65).
Achieve Proper White Balance
Imagine white balance as a ying and yang.
When you adjust one side you will affect the other
159
White Balance Adjustments
• White Balance (Hi/Lo) Adjustments
– Preset Brightness and Contrast controls, to be in correct
operating range.
– Adjust Gain/Drive controls at high brightness (70-80%)
for desired color of white.
– Adjust Offset/Cutoff controls at low brightness (10-30%)
for desired color of white.
– Repeat adjustments to minimize interaction.
160
Ideal Gray Scale Tracking
Calibrate One level near Top & One level near
the Bottom EVERY level then measures
perfectly
No Top & Bottom Interactivity
Has happened with displays at $80,000 and up
Real World HDTV Tracking
Extreme Interactivity Of Controls
Repetitive Steps To Balance Top & Bottom
Some Errors in the Middle of The Gray Scale
Intro to 10 Point RGB Gamma-precision color balance
0
10 20 30
40
50 60 70 80
90
0
20 30
40
50 60
70 80
90
After 10 Point IRE WB
Before 10 Point IRE WB
Output
10
Output
Input [IRE]
Input [IRE]
Multipoint Point Grayscale / Gamma
Adjusting BOTH Grayscale and Luminance
Starting at 100 IRE is the most common practice
*Recheck Gamma scan after multipoint adjustments
Results from consumer HDTVs can be SUPERB!
10 Point Grayscale With Internal Patterns
* Example LG Flat Patterns
Check LG HDTV internal 10 step patterns
Then check with External Test pattern with 10 steps
Then run the calibration with External (Generator)
Are there differences?
Hazards Of “Antique” Digital Service Modes
Getting Access To Them
Tripping The Wrong Codes
Document Factory Presets - Work With A SAFETY NET!
TAKE A DIGITAL 16x9 PICTURE!!
MODERN HDTV DESIGNS HAVE CONTROLS READILY
ACCESSABLE – NO SERVICE MODES!
Next - Tools Of The Trade
Color Analyzers – TriStimulus Devices
What are we paying for when investing in metrics?
The instrumentation’s Calibration!
Spectroradiometers
Examples:
–
–
–
–
–
Konica Minolta CS-2000
Konica Minolta CS-200
Photo Research PR-655
JETI Specbos 1211
X-Rite EyeOne Pro
Part 3 – Budget Spectroradiometers
Inexpensive units can be
used as accessories for
Tristimulus meters to
check and improve
accuracy for Projection
systems, LED and other
displays
They do have limitations
as stand alone devices
ELV Grayscale Adjustments
1 - Use 2 point Grayscale 1st
2 - Then if needed and if possible use Multipoint
Grayscale
3 - Than if needed and if possible use Multipoint
Gamma
Two Piece Projection Calibration
The Impact Of Screens
Projectors & Screen vs Amplifiers & Speakers
Non-Contact meters are recommended
More Variables For Calibrating a Projector
Sizing, Lens Shift and Focus Must All Be Optimized 1st
All available “Auto-IRIS” Settings must be CAREFULLY
researched. May need to be defeated for Calibration!!
Fixed Iris settings are used for light output and black levels
Again - Grayscale requires non contact meters.
Analyzers & Front Projection
Contact & Non/Contact Meters
Use the right tool for the right job
Tripod Mount Sensors & Read Away
THE SCREEN IS PART OF THE SYSTEM!!
D65 Light Coming Out Of A
Projector?
Might Not Accomplish Anything!
ISF Certified Flat Spectral Response Screens
Color Shift In Mirrors & Screens
ISF Reference Screens…
Screen Gain
Reff
B
D
E
5
Viewing Angle
17
0
15
0
13
0
11
0
90
70
50
30
0
10
Gain
1
0
Angular Reflective Screens
“Gain Screens”
Reflective Screens – The Law of Reflection
The Angle of Incidence Equals The Angle of
Reflection – so where do you put the unit?
“High or Low, Near or Far”
The “Billiard Table” Analogy
“Matte” Screen Technologies
“Matte” or light scattering “Lambertian
Emitters” (more on this later)
The light bounces off such screens in a uniform
manner that is independent of the incident
angle – The billiard analogy…..
When do we use these screens?
Rear Projection Screen Technologies
Rear projection
Lenticular and Fresnel combinations
Interaction with pixel structure
Diffusion screens
Loss of resolution with screen thickness….
Bring lots of Lumens…..
Contrast Enhancing Dark Screens
Ambient Light Rejection Screens
All are based on rejecting light from select angles
Some use Gain – others use Filters
The challenge is to preserve ‘Flat Spectral Response”
(See DNP White Paper and Stewart GrayHawk)
“Acoustic” Screen Technologies
Acoustically “Transparent” Perforated/Woven screens?
Screens that let sound through will cost you…..
Currency….always
Resolution? From what distance?
Light….sometimes more than other times
Sound….sometimes more than other times
Audiophile or Videophile or Design priorities???
All front speakers behind the screen?
Screen Gain Pro & Cons
Efficiency Of a Mirror is less than 100%
Gain As Measured Against A Reference “Lambertian”
surfaces, Magnesium Carbonate Gain = Multiple of
Light off the reference
Legacy Technology? Gain on Light Valves?
CRT & Light valves benefit for opposite reasons
Negative, or Fractional Gain Screens?
Tools for challenging applications &
technologies.
Developed for applications with projection
technologies with less than perfect blacks
Valid for rooms that challenge projection
systems
Screen Surface Selection Logistics
Client Interview & On-Site Screen Size Evaluation
Viewing angles – Client’s input!
Seating preferences – Client’s input!
Room environment – Client’s input!
Content applications – Client’s input!
Light output numbers – CEA ISF “r10wg3” spec!
Screen Surface Selection Logistics
Lamp Light Falloff – a known issue normally ignored!
(Dealers selling LED projector features will change this!)
Room’s ambient light issues must all be dealt with
ELV projector’s “real” light output post calibration?
Screen calculator tools can fail using factory specs!
Screen Surface Selection Logistics
Light Output Determination and Projector Selection!
Projector selection may determine looking at the first steps all
over again!
Budgets always interfere with calculations and designs…..
Screen Surface Selection Logistics
Contrast Ratio!
CEA ISF R10 specs – meet and/or exceed commercial theaters…
(Both Sequential and Intra-frame must be determined - ELV)
From this perspective Contrast Enhancing Screens are tools to:
Match or Exceed ISF CEA/CEDIA specs
Resolve room issues
Compensate for projector black level issues
Continue dialogue with clients to balance budgets and realities
Metering Black level limits is now a major issue!
New Projector’s Black Levels
Our Blacks are back!
New projector designs finally bring back Blacks
The POTENTIAL for superb contrast ratio is real
Poor room designs wreck HAVOC!
Now even minor errors in calibration now
significantly degrade contrast ratios
Screen Surface Selection Logistics
Screens for Ideal System Designs
Lambertian Emitters – a concept finally comes of age in CE
Required for deployment:
Ideal Room Environment + Ideal Projector + Ideal Calibration
StudioTek 100 - 1st Consumer screen like Lambertian
(It was called Snow Matte for Studio use)
Physical Projector Set Up Guidelines
Placement and Stability - (CRITICAL FOR ALL
PROJECTOR TECHNOLOGIES!)
3 Way Measurements + Throw Distance
Manufacturers Guidelines for:
Distance from screen
Projector height - determines angle
There is no real flexibility without focus compromises or
digital “Keystone” losses
“Aziz LIGHT!”
DCI specifies 14Ft.L for correct Digital Cinema – that
is your minimum target FOR THE LIFE OF LAMP
High End projectors have lamp light stabilization
You will need double 14Ft.L when new if your lamp
light output degrades over time! (CEA WG3)
Periodic Maintenance & C.S.I.
The key to Customer all Satisfaction Indexes
Referrals - Will the original client possibly see the new client’s
projector?
Document light output for reference performance when new
JS changes client’s lamps when output goes down 30%
Keep a history – think Mr. Demming!
Documentation enables recurring revenue and CSI
Next – Color Management Systems
Different Color Space Triangles
sRGB
HDTV (709)
HDTV
sRGB
x
y
x
y
0.640
0.330
0.640
0.330
0.300
0.600
0.300
0.600
0.150
0.060
0.150
0.060
NTSC
NTSC
SMPTE
C
Adobe
1998
SMPTE C
x
y
x
y
0.670
0.330
0.630
0.340
0.210
0.710
0.310
0.595
0.140
0.080
0.155
0.070
Adobe 1998
EBU
EBU (601)
x
y
x
y
0.640
0.340
0.640
0.330
0.210
0.710
0.290
0.600
0.150
0.060
0.150
0.060
Do Not Forget the Secondary Colors!
NTSC SMPTE C
Yellow
Cyan
Magenta
x .421 y 0.507
x .231 y .326
x .314 y .161
ATSC HDTV
Yellow
Cyan
Magenta
x .419 y .505
x .225 y.329
x .321 y .154
Light Measurement Overview
Three characteristics define the way the human eye/brain sees
light.
1. Hue 2. Saturation 3. Brightness
Hue: Dominant wavelength, Saturation: Degree of purity
color or tint of the color.
from light of other wavelengths
(zero saturation = white; equal
energy of all wavelengths)
Brightness: Perceived
light energy level
Light Measurement Units:
(Two light measurements used to relate light to human sight)
Luminance (brightness):
Foot-lambert: U.S. unit of luminance (radiated
light), 1 lumen per square foot
Candela (cd/m2): Standard International unit of
luminance (radiated light), 1 candela per square
meter – also called NITS
1 Footlambert = 3.42625 Candelas (Nits)
What color?
Color (hue and saturation):
CIE chromaticity coordinates (x, y): From
1931/1976 CIE Chromaticity Diagram
Understanding Units of light
The human eye does not see illuminance; it sees
luminance. You can feel illuminance and see
luminance
Luminance is Foot Lamberts
Measurement Of Light coming
off of a surface
LUMEN
Illuminance is the measure of
light falling on a surface per
unit area
Different CMS Objectives for
Primary versus Secondary colors
LUMINANCE (“Y”) IS THE CRITICAL OBJECTIVE TO GET
RIGHT FOR RGB PRIMARY COLORS
HUE (“x,y”) IS THE CRITICAL OBJECTIVE TO
GET RIGHT FOR CMY SECONDARY COLORS
**If you see “Absolute Luminance” RGB errors you should
not deploy a CMS feature at all!
CMS Calibration Features
2D CMS have 12 Controls
- Hopefully, we can calibrate a color in color space along a line heading
to the target color point from the white point
- Some controls adjust both saturation and tint together – CAUTION!
3D CMS have 18 Controls
- These controls often have confusing names
- x,y and Y are the ideal functions and nomenclature
- Some work well – others cause severe decoding errors!
Colorimeter GUIs help us learn how controls work and interact!
One Brand’s 3D CMS x,y Functions:
Basic Chart to Follow How, or If Controls Work:
Color Squares
Black Dots
=
=
Targets
Will Show CalMAN During Readings
Move controls – observe changes – ELV the CMS!
Define x, y,Y, Target x, Target y, Target Y
If Primaries CANNOT Match CIE
Targets….Native Colors May Be Wrong
CMS Errors! – Red Only Color Bar Checks
POST CMS!
CMS Errors! – Blue Only Color Bar Checks
POST CMS!
ITU Ultra HD
Gamuts Go Way
Beyond What
We Have Seen
in HDTV!
Now That the Display Is Calibrated,
We Can Evaluate Video Processing
The BEST Video Processor is built inside the?
HDTV
Disc player
Set top box ( probably NOT )
Audio Video Receiver
Stand alone processors/switcher
Home Theater PC Video Card
WHICH ONE SHOULD YOU USE?
Overview of Steps in Video Processing
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Confirm HDMI EEDID and HDCP functionality
Upconvert to RGB 4:4:4 from 4:2:0, 4:1:1, or 4:2:2
Deinterlace if content format is interlaced
Scale software to match display hardware
Change aspect ratio if desired
Optimize motion and minimize noise
Match color reproduction to content creation
Video Image Processing is a Necessary Evil
Video Processors used for:
Image resolution scaling
Motion compensation
De-interlacing
Inverse 3:2 pull down
Changing aspect ratios
Video
Sources
Benefits:
Scale to display’s native resolution
Provide Convenience of source switching
Improve picture resolution & performance
Video
Processor/Scaler
Configuring Upconverting in Blu-ray
• If an HDTV gets 720p/1080i/1080p component it sees the Matrix for
“Y” as HD
– If it was SD upconverted as YPrPb the HDTV can Decode wrong!
• If you upconvert, send out RGB if possible!
• Does your BD have an HDMI RGB out option?
– These “Color space conversion” errors can make
color saturation look too high
Configuring HD Set Top boxes “Native”
Is there a “Native Resolution” output option?
What will that enable?
Are there other names for “Native”
What problems might occur with that option?
What will produce superior pictures?
The only “perfect” processing is………..
* NO processing*
Always Test….never guess!
Overview 2 / 3 Pulldown
Also known as reverse Telecine or Film
or movie Mode, as well as other names
Film To Video Transfer Problem
#1
If we transfer film to video by creating one even
field and one odd field from every film frame
what would film look like on television?
What do we do in PAL in 50Hz markets?
What do we do in NTSC – 2/3 Pulldown
The 60Hz 2/3 Pulldown Solution….
Film
Fame
B
Film
Frame
A
Field
1A
Field
2A
Field
1A again
Field
2B
Field
1B
Film
Frame
C
Field
2C
Field Field
1C 2C again
• Film is 24 frames per second
• Interlaced Video is 30 frames per second, remember
there are 2 fields per frame & 60 images per second!
Past 2/3 Pulldown Problems
There were only minor “judder” 3/2 Pulldown
problems until deinterlacing devices created visible
artifacts from film content
72/96/120/240/480 Hz IMAGING….
2/3 Pulldown De-interlaced Errors
Film
Fame
B
Film
Frame
A
Field
1A
Video
Frame
A
Field
2A
Field
1 AGAIN
Video
Frame
B
Field
2B
Field
1B
Video
Frame
C
Film
Frame
C
Field
2C
Field
Field
1C 2C AGAIN
Video
Frame
D
Using 2/3 Pulldown…..
Film
Frame
A
Field
1A
Field
Field
2
1A AGAIN
Video Frame
A
Film
Fame
B
Field
2B
Video
Frame
B
Field
1B
Film
Frame
C
Field
2C
Video
Frame
C
Field
Field
1C 2C AGAIN
2/3 Pulldown Preservation
Film
Fame
B
Film
Frame
A
Field
1
Field
2
Field
1
Video
Frame
A-1
Video
Frame
A-2
Video
Frame
A-3
Field
2
Video
Frame
B-1
Film
Frame
C
Field
1
Video
Frame
B-2
Field
2
Video
Frame
C-1
Field
1
Video
Frame
C-2
Field
2
Video
Frame
C-3
Why Must you understand 2/3 Pulldown
Film Mode Video Processing?
1 – Many HDTV presets do not have their film
modes turned on
2 – Calibrators must know how to TURN ON
2/3 Pulldown modes for their end users for
superior looking, artifact free Film content!
New Topic - Multiple 3D Technologies…
Glasses Mounted Micro Display, one picture for each eye
Spectral Separation (ancient and old fashioned two color)
The three major current Technologies:
1 - Polarization Separation
2 - Time-Sequential with IR synchronized shuttered glasses
3 - Dolby and Panavision Wavelength based Discrete Separation
AutoStereoscopic – Multi-view OK for Signage apps now….
Specialized 3D Camera – Circa 2010
Calibrating 3D Cameras?
Credit MIT Technology Review and ESPN
Viewing Angles and 3D
Camera angles are critical
Home viewing angles are also critical
Expect end user issues
Perceived distortion from to incorrect viewing position:
New geek terms, Percival’s Zone of Comfort, Retinal Disparity
“Vergence-Accommodation” issues cause user fatigue &
discomfort
Early 3D efforts at low refresh rates actually caused nausea
“The Hobbit” by Peter Jackson is 1st 3D shot at 48Hz!
Home 3D versus Movie Theater 3D
Commercial theaters are still reported to be way TOO DARK!
Home 3D can and MUST be set to optimum light output
through glasses to have any impact!
In 3D bigger screens are definitely better…….the argument to
go up to bigger sizes has never been stronger!
1.4a 3D Variants Bit Map Nomenclature
Credit Quantum Data
FP
LAlt
SbSF
TB
HHOO
HHOE
HHEO
HHEE
HQOO
HQOE
HQEO
HQEE
= Frame Packing
= Line Alternative
= Side-by-Side (Full)
= Top-and-Bottom
= Side-by-Side (Half), Horizontal sub-sampling, odd/left, odd/right
= Side-by-Side (Half), Horizontal sub-sampling, odd/left, even/right
= Side-by-Side (Half), Horizontal sub-sampling, even/left, odd/right
= Side-by-Side (Half), Horizontal sub-sampling, even/left, even/right
= Side-by-Side (Half), Quincunx matrix, odd/left, odd/right
= Side-by-Side (Half), Quincunx matrix, odd/left, even/right
= Side-by-Side (Half), Quincunx matrix, even/left, odd/right
= Side-by-Side (Half), Quincunx matrix, even/left, even/right
3D Method of Calibration
Active shutter and Polarized passive glasses impact imaging
When watching a 3D movie we are effectively looking
through sunglasses. The glasses cut a substantial
amount of light and usually color shift
• Active 3D glasses rely on liquid-crystal shutter
elements
• These vary in transmission efficiency and color
transparency
• Passive glasses also impact image light and color
3D Black and White Level Setup
When setting the display’s contrast and
brightness for proper dynamic range
make sure you are wearing the 3D
glasses - and that active ones are on
3D Metering Set Up
Carefully position meters to read through 3D
glasses
Emulate user’s exact H&V viewing position
ISF Certification Test
Your tests will just be reminders of what we covered –
make sure we have your EMAIL address
They will be short ones, but there WILL be some essay
questions.
Completed tests must be emailed to ISF and then an
oral review will follow – that is basically an hour of
private 1 on 1 tutoring on us!
Continuing Your ELVs in the Field
The ELV process will help you to master the new model features
delivered each year – we expect innovations constantly!
We hope that you enjoy your work as much as we do – and we wish for
you many productive years with many happy clients!
Fini
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