Taurus Flight manual and Maintenance manual ENGLISH

Taurus Flight manual and Maintenance manual ENGLISH
Flight manual and
Maintenance manual
applies to Taurus 503 equipped with Rotax 503 engine
REV. 2
(28 September, 2010)
This is the original manual of Pipistrel d.o.o. Ajdovščina
Should third-party translations to other languages contain any discreptancies,
Pipistrel d.o.o. Ajdovščina denies all responsibility.
WARNING!
This booklet MUST be present inside the cockpit at all times!
Should you be selling the aircraft make sure this manual is handed over to the new owner.
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Taurus model:
Factory serial number:
Date of manufacture:
Aircraft empty weight (kg):
Available crew weight (no front ballast):
Available crew weight (9 kg front ballast):
Available luggage weight:
List of equipment included in aircraft empty weight:
Date and place of issue: Ajdovščina,
To log into the Owner’s section, receive updates and Service Bulletins, go to: www.pipistrel.si and log in
the top right corner of the page with:
Username: owner1
Password: ab2008
THANK YOU!
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Pipistrel d.o.o. Ajdovščina, Goriška cesta 50a, SI- 5270 Ajdovščina, Slovenija
tel: +386 (0)5 3663 873, fax: +386 (0)5 3661 263, e-mail: info@pipistrel.si
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Flight manual and
Maintenance manual for
Taurus motorglider
Model: Taurus 503 (Rotax 503)
Data Sheet: TC 02/002 - AT/ULN 04
Factory serial number:
Registration number:
Date of Issue: September, 2010
Pages signed under “Approval” in section Index of revisions and List of valid pages
(pages 4 and 5 of this manual) are approved by:
Authority: SLO.DOA.002
Signature:
Stamp:
Original date of Approval: 28 September, 2010
This aircraft is to be operated in compliance with information and limitations contained herein.
The original English Language edition of this manual has been approved as operating instruction
according to “Pravilnik o ultralahkih letalnih napravah” of Republic of Slovenia.
Approval of translation has been done by best knowledge and judgement.
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Index of revisions
Enter and sign the list of revised pages in the manual into the spaces provided below. All revised pages
should be clearly designated in the upper right corner of the page, also, any changes in page content
should be clearly visible (e.g. marked with a bold black vertical line).
Name of
revision
Reason for Revision no.,
Description:
Revision: date:
Affected Approval,
pages:
signature:
Rev. 0
21 June, 2006
First original release.
/
Tomazic
REV. 1
Compliance with
LTF-UL 2003, WB
acording to EASA
CS-22, minor changes and additions
Rev. 1
28 March, 2008
VD increased to 260 km/
h, reviesed limitations,
Maneouver envelope,
Speed polar, Completely
rewritten chapter Weight
and Balance, Minor Changes
10, 14, 18,
20, 37,
48-51,
53-59,
80, 83
Tomazic
REV. 2
Introduction of new
emergency procedure, changed maintenence schedule
for transmission belt
Rev. 2
28 September,
2010
New emergency procedure
in case of ruptured transmission belt, transmission
belt check-up period changed to every 10 hrs of engine operaion
23, 81
Tomazic
Original
/
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List of valid pages
This manual contains 92 original and revised pages listed below.
Pages
Cover
Page numbering
Authority approval sheet
Index of revisions
List of valid pages
Table of contents
General
Limitations
Emergency procedures
Normal procedures
Performance
Weight and balance
Aircraft and systems on board
Handling and maintenance
Appendix
State
(Revision)
Approval:
REV. 2
REV. 2
3
REV. 2
4
REV. 2
5
REV. 2
7
REV. 2
9 - 12
REV. 2
13 - 20
REV. 2
21 - 26
REV. 2
27 - 42
REV. 2
43 - 52
REV. 2
53 - 60
REV. 2
61 - 77
REV. 2
75 - 84
REV. 2
85 - 95
REV. 2
CAUTION!
This manual is valid only if it contains all of the original and revised pages listed above.
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Table of contents
General
Limitations
Emergency procedures
Normal procedures
Performance
Weight and balance
Aircraft and systems on board
Handling and maintenance
Appendix
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General
Introduction
Certification basis
Notes and remarks
Technical data
3-view drawing
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General
Introduction
This manual contains all information needed
for appropriate and safe use of Taurus ultralight motorglider model 503.
IT IS MANDATORY TO CAREFULLY
STUDY THIS MANUAL PRIOR TO USE
OF AIRCRAFT
In case of aircraft damage or people injury
resulting form disobeying instructions in the
manual PIPISTREL d.o.o. denies all responsibility.
All text, design, layout and graphics are
owned by PIPISTREL d.o.o. Therefore this
manual and any of its contents may not be
copied or distributed in any manner (electronic, web or printed) without the prior consent of PIPISTREL d.o.o.
www.pipistrel.si
Certification basis
PIPISTREL d.o.o possesses the manufacturing
licence ULN no.: P-03 issued by URSZP (SICAA) for Taurus ultralight motorglider.
Taurus ultralight motorglider is certified at
URSZP according to the standards of the
Republic of Slovenia and the ATTESTATION
OF AN ULRALIGHT DEVICE
no. TC02/001-AT/ULN04, issued
18.5.2002
as an Ultralight aircraft. And in Germany according to Lufttuchtigkeitsforderungen fur
UL Flugzeuge (LTF-UL) vom 30. Januar 2003.
Notes and remarks
Safety definitions used in the manual:
WARNING! DISREGARDING THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS WILL LEAD TO SEVERE
DETERIORATION OF FLIGHT SAFETY AND HAZARDOUS SITUATIONS, INCLUDING SUCH
RESULTING IN INJURY AND LOSS OF LIFE.
CAUTION! DISREGARDING THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS WILL LEAD TO SERIOUS
DETERIORATION OF FLIGHT SAFETY.
Technical data
PROPORTIONS
wing span
length
height (propeller extended)
wing area
vertical tail area
horizontal stabilizer and elevator area
aspect ratio
positive flap deflection (down)
negative flap deflection (up)
centre of gravity (% of MAC)
Model 503
14.97 m
7.30 m
2.7 m
12.26 m2
0.86 m2
1.275 m2
18.30
5°, 9 °, 18 °
-5°
23% - 45%
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3-view drawing
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Limitations
Introduction
Operational velocities
Engine, fuel, oil
Weight limits
Centre of gravity limits
Manoeuvre limits
G-load factors
Cockpit crew
Types of operations
Minimum equipment list
Other restrictions
Warning placards
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Limitations
Introduction
This chapter provides information about operational restrictions, instrument markings and basic
knowledge on safe operation of aircraft, engine and on-board appliances.
Operational velocities
Speed limits
Velocity
IAS
[km/h (kts)]
VNE
Velocity never to be
exceeded
VPE
163 (88)
VRA
Max. speed with
powerplant extended
Max. speed to extend
or retract powerplant
Maximum safe velocity
in rough air
VA
Manoeuvering velocity
163 (88)
130 (70)
VAE
Max. velocity flaps
extended
Max. velocity of
airbrake extention
VLO
Max ldg. down speed
163 (88)
VPO
VFE
225 (121)
100 (54)
163 (88)
163 (88)
Remarks
Never exceed this speed. Should the VNE be
exceeded, land as soon as possible and have
the aircraft verified for airworthiness by authorised service personnel.
Do not exceed this speed with powerplant
extended.
Do not extend or retract powerplant above
this speed.
Also known as Vb. Turbulence penetration
speed.
Do not use rough or full stick and
rudder deflecions above this speed.
Do not exceed this speed with +5° or T flaps
extended. (VFE for L flaps is 110 km/h (59 kts))
Do not extend spoilers above this
speed. Once fully extended, VNE is the limit.
Do not fly with landing gear extended
above this speed
Airspeed indicator markings
MARKING
IAS [km/h (kts)]
white arc
69 - 130
green arc
78 - 163
yellow arc
163 - 225
red line
225
Maximum speed allowed.
100 (54)
Best climb rate speed (VY )
blue line
(37 - 70)
(42 - 88)
(88 - 121)
(121)
Definition
Speed range where flaps may be extended. Lower end is defined as 110% of VS (stall speed in landing configuration at
MTOM), upper end of speed range is limited by VFE
(see above).
Speed range of normal operation. Lower end is defined as
110% of VS1 (stall speed at MTOM with flaps in neutral position), upper end is limited by VRA (see above).
Manouvre the aircraft with great caution in calm air only.
WARNING! ABOVE PRESSURE ALTITUDE OF 1000 METERS 3300 FT ALL SPEED LIM
ITS MUST BE TREATED AS TRUE AIRSPEED TAS.
INDICATED AIRSPEED IAS MUST BE REDUCED ACCORDINGLY!
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Indicated airspeed (IAS) to true airspeed (TAS) relation
Airspeed indicator measures the difference between total and static pressure (also called dynamic
pressure), which does not only change as speed increases, but is also linked with altitude. Flying at
high altitudes, where the air is getting thinner, results in misinterpreting airspeed which is being
indicated. The indicated airspeed value is actually lower than the true airspeed to which the aircraft
is exposed. The higher you fly, the bigger the difference between IAS and TAS. Be aware of this effect
especially when flying at high altitude at high speeds, not to exceed VNE unawarely. Bear in mind
this can happen even with the indicator still pointing within the yellow arc!
VNE at altitude (standard ICAO atmosphere)
The tables below indicate IAS to TAS relation for an altitude span of 0 - 5000m (0 - FL165) in different
atmospheres (variable is temperature). TAS is a constant of 225 km/h (122 kts) - VNE for the entire tables.
ISA-20 (-5°C at sea level):
Altitude (meters)
Altitude (flight level)
VNE IAS (km/h)
VNE IAS (kts)
0
500
1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
225
223
0
FL16
121
121
225
FL33
FL50
FL66
FL82
FL98
FL115
FL131
120
118
115
113
110
107
105
218
213
209
203
198
194
FL148 FL165
189
102
185
100
ISA-10 (5°C at sea level):
Altitude (meters)
Altitude (flight level)
VNE IAS (km/h)
VNE IAS (kts)
0
500
1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
224
219
0
FL16
121
121
225
FL33
FL50
FL66
FL82
FL98
FL115
FL131
118
116
113
111
108
105
103
214
209
205
199
195
191
FL148 FL165
186
100
182
98
ISA (15°C at sea level):
Altitude (meters)
Altitude (flight level)
VNE IAS (km/h)
VNE IAS (kts)
0
500
1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
220
215
0
FL16
121
119
225
FL33
FL50
FL66
FL82
116
113
111
109
210
205
201
FL98 FL115 FL131 FL148 FL165
196
106
191
103
187
101
182
98
178
96
ISA+10 (25°C at sea level):
Altitude (meters)
Altitude (flight level)
VNE IAS (km/h)
VNE IAS (kts)
0
500
1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
215
211
0
FL16
119
116
220
FL33
FL50
FL66
FL82
FL98
FL115
FL131
114
111
109
106
104
102
99
206
202
197
192
188
184
FL148 FL165
179
97
175
94
ISA+20 (35°C at sea level) :
Altitude (meters)
Altitude (flight level)
VNE IAS (km/h)
VNE IAS (kts)
0
500
1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
211
207
0
FL16
117
114
216
FL33
FL50
FL66
FL82
FL98
FL115
FL131
112
109
106
104
102
99
97
202
197
193
189
184
180
FL148 FL165
175
94
171
92
Note how VNE decreases at higher altitudes!
WARNING! RESPECT THE LISTED VALUES AT ALL TIMES, NOT TO EXCEED FLUTTER CRITI
CAL SPEED.
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Limitations
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Engine, fuel, oil
Engine manufacturer: ROTAX
Engine types: ROTAX 503
WARNING! The engine is not certified for aviation use, therefore, there is no assurance it cannot fail in its operation at any given moment, without prior notice.
The engine
TEMPERATURE °C / ROTAX ENGINE
cylinder head temp. (CHT); min., work, highest
max. CHT difference
exhaust gas temp. (EGT); normal, max.
max. EGT difference
air intake temp. (AIR); highest
cooling fluids temp. (WATER); min., highest
oils temp. (OIL TEMP); min., normal, highest
RPM, PRESSURE
oil pressure (OIL PRESS); lowest, highest
engine revolutions (RPM); on ground recom.
RPM on ground; max. allowable
magneto check at (RPM)
max. single magneto drop (RPM)
503 UL
100; 200; 250
20
460-580; 650
25
40
/
/
503 UL
/
6500
6800
3500
200
Fuel and oil
ROTAX ENGINE
recommended fuel
fuel to be discouraged from using
recommended oil
503 UL
leaded or unleaded
super, no alcohol
content
everything under AKI
87
super 2-stroke API-TC
WARNING! Use of fuel with alcohol content and/or other additives is not permitted.
IMPORTANT!
Two-stroke engines should be powered only by fuel complying with MON 83 (or higher) or RON 90
(or higher) classification. As for mixing fuel and oil manually, it is best to use recommended oil (see
above). Dedicated lead additives should not be used (see detailed instructions in the engine manual).
MIXING RATIO: 50 UNITS of FUEL and 1 UNIT of OIL (e.g. 2 dl of oil every 10 litres of fuel)
Provided you are unable to use unleaded fuel on a regular basis, make sure the engine parts (pistons,
cylinder heads) are decarbonised more often.
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Propeller
TAURUS
fixed pitch (wooden or composite)
Model 503
1600mm
Engine instrument markings
WARNING! USER IS TO FILL IN ENGINE SPECIFIC VALUES.
Instrument
Red line
(minimum)
Tachometer (RPM)
2500
Cylinder head temp.
100
Green arc
(normal)
Yellow arc
(caution)
Red line
(maximum)
6500
6800
250
Fuel quantity
Weight limits
Taurus ultralight motorglider basic model weights
WEIGHT
empty aircraft weight (excl. parachute rescue system)
empty aircraft weight (incl. parachute rescue system)
max. takeoff weight (MTOW/MTOM)
fuel capacity
max. fuel weight allowable
minimum combined cockpit crew weight (depends on C.G. of empty aircraft)
maximum combined cockpit crew weight (depends on C.G. of empty aircraft)
water ballance reservoir (max weight)
allowable luggage weight
Model 503
285 kg
297 kg
472.5 kg
1 x 30 l
(option 2 x 30 l)
22.8 kg
(option 45.6 kg)
see p. 55
see p. 55
9 kg
10 kg
WARNING! SHOULD ONE OF THE ABOVELISTED VALUES BE EXCEEDED, OTHERS MUST BE
REDUCED IN ORDER TO KEEP MTOM BELOW 472.5 KG. MAKE SURE MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM
COCKPIT CREW WEIGHT AS WELL AS AVAILABLE LUGGAGE WEIGHT ARE ALWAYS KEPT WITHIN
ALLOWABLE LIMITS. FAILING TO COMPLY WITH ANY OF THE WEIGHT LIMITATIONS MAY RESULT
IN AIRCRAFT BEING UNCONTROLLABLE ON GROUND AND/OR IN FLIGHT DUE TO EXTREME
CENTRE OF GRAVITY POSITION.
WARNING! CHECK THE WATER BALANCE RESERVOIR IN FRONTCABIN AND VERIFY
CREW’S WEIGHT BEFORE EVERY FLIGHT AS IT MAY INFLUENCE THE CENTRE OF GRAVITY OF
AIRCRAFT TO THE POINT WHERE IT IS NO LONGER CONTROLLABLE!
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Limitations
Centre of gravity limits
• Aircraft's safe centre of gravity position ranges between 23% and 45% of MAC (Mean
Aerodynamic Chord)
• C.G. point ranges between 238 mm and 429 mm aft of datum, datum is leading edge
of wing root.
Manoeuvre limits
Taurus ultralight motorglider is certified as an Ultralight aircraft. Therefore, no aerobatic
manoeuvers are permitted.
WARNING! FLYING IN CONSIDERABLE SIDESLIP WHEN THE ENGINE IS EXTENDED AND
RUNNING MAY DAMAGE THE ENGINEPROPELLER ASSEMBLY. YOU ARE STRONGLY DISCOUR
AGED FROM SIDESLIPPING WHEN ENGINE IS EXTENDED AND RUNNING!
G-load factors
max. positive wing load:
max. negative wing load:
at VA
at VNE
+ 5.3 G
– 2.65 G
+ 4.0 G
– 1.5 G
Cockpit crew
• Actual minumum and maximum combined cockpit crew weight heavily depend on the
centre of gravity of an empty aircraft. Minumum and maximum combined cockpit crew
weight is determined after weighing the aircraft each time. Procedure for the determination of minimum and maximum combined cockpit crew weight can be found on
page 57 of this manual. Inside the cockpit, there must be a clearly visible placard stating
the minimum and maximum combined weight of the crew.
• Maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) MUST NOT, under any circumstances, exceed 472.5
kg.
Types of operations
Taurus ultralight motorglider is built to fly under day visual flight rules
(day VFR). Flight into known icing conditions is prohibited.
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Limitations REV. 0
WARNING! SHOULD YOU FIND WATER DROPS ON THE AIRFRAME DURING PREFLIGHT
CHECKUP AT TEMPERATURES CLOSE TO FREEZING, YOU MAY EXPECT ICING TO APPEAR IN
FLIGHT. AIRBRAKES ARE ESPECIALLY PRONE TO ICING UNDER SUCH CIRCUMSTANCES. AS
WATER MAY ACCUMULATE UNDERNEATH THE TOP PLATES, SPOILERS MAY FREEZE TO THE
WING SURFACE. SHOULD THIS OCCUR, YOU WILL MOST DEFINITELY BE UNABLE TO EXTEND
SPOILERS BEFORE THE ICE MELTS. THEREFORE, FLYING UNDER CIRCUMSTANCES MENTIONED
ABOVE, IT IS RECOMMENDED TO EXTEND AND RETRACT THE SPOILERS IN FLIGHT FREQUENT
LY TO PREVENT ITS SURFACE FREEZING TO THE AIRFRAME.
Minimum equipment list
• Airspeed indicator (functional)
• Altimeter (functional)
• Compass (functional)
• Ibis II engine control instrument (functional)
• CHT gauge (functional)
• Parachute rescue system (where required legally)
Other restrictions
Due to flight safety reasons it is forbidden to:
• fly in heavy rainfalls;
• fly during thunderstorm activity;
• fly in a blizzard;
• fly according to instrumental flight rules (IFR) or attempt to fly in zero visibility condi-
tions (IMC);
• fly when outside air temperature (OAT) reaches 40°C or higher;
• perform any form of aerobatic flying;
• take off and land with flaps retracted or set to negative (-5°) position;
• take off with spoilers extended.
Warning placards
Taurus ultralight motorglider is categorised as an Ultralight aircraft and
must wear a warning placard as such. The placard indicates the
aircraft is not certified according to EASA standards and is therefore flown
completely at pilot’s own risk.
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Limitations
Placards
AIRBRAKE
FLAPS
IN
-5°
OUT
0°
AIRBRAKE
GEAR BRK
E N G I N E R E T R AC T I O N
1. throttle idle, ignition off
2. reduce IAS to 75 km/h
3. after prop. stops IAS 90 km/h,
- engine DOWN
4. when prop. retracted
- master switch I
GEAR UP
DN
+5°
TRIM
L
UP
T
ENG
L MAGNETOS R
INTERCOM
SC MODE
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
M I C
SYSTEM
GEAR DN
ON
F
U
E
L
RADIO VARIO XPDR
OFF
12V
socket
ON
OFF
THROTTLE
HEADSET
FLAPS
P
R
I
M
E
R
ENG
INST
ON
F
U
E
L
OFF
AUX
WARNING!
If battery is removed
pilot min.
pilot min.
with 9 kg nose ballast
kg
kg
kg
pilot max.
with 9 kg nose ballast
kg
kg
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Emergency procedures
Introduction
Stall recovery
Spin recovery
Engine failure
Landing out
Engine fire
Smoke in cockpit
Carburator icing
Flutter
Exceeding VNE
Parachute rescue system
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Emergency procedures
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Introduction
This chapter provides information on how to react when confronted with typical flight hazards.
Stall recovery
First reduce angle of attack by easing-off on the control stick, then
1. If the engine is running, add full power (throttle lever in full forward position).
2. Resume horizontal flight.
Spin recovery
Taurus ultalight motorglider is constructed in such manner that it is difficult to be flown into a spin.
However, once spinning, react as follows:
1. If the engine is running, set throttle to idle (lever in full back position).
2. Apply full rudder deflection in the direction opposite the spin.
3. Lower the nose towards the ground to build speed (stick forward).
4. As the aircraft stops spinning neutralise rudder deflection.
5. Slowly pull up and regain horizontal flight.
Taurus ultralight motorglider tends to re-establish rightened flight by itself usually after having spun
for a mere 90°.
WARNING! KEEP THE CONTROL STICK CENTRED ALONG ITS LATERAL AXIS NO AILERON
DEFLECTIONS THROUGHOUT THE RECOVERY PHASE! DO NOT ATTEMPT TO STOP THE AIR
CRAFT FROM SPINNING USING AILERONS INSTEAD OF RUDDER!
WARNING! AFTER HAVING STOPPED SPINNING, RECOVERING FROM THE DIVE MUST BE
PERFORMED USING GENTLE STICK MOVEMENTS PULL, RATHER THAN OVERSTRESSING THE
AIRCRAFT. HOWEVER, VNE MUST NOT BE EXCEEDED DURING THIS MANOEUVRE.
When the aircraft is straight and level resume normal flight.
Engine failure
Engine failure during takeoff or initial climb
Ensure proper airspeed by reducing angle of attack and land the aircraft in runway heading, avoiding eventual obstacles in your way. Set master switch to OFF position (key full left).
Land straight ahead.
WARNING! DO NOT CHANGE COURSE OR MAKE TURNS IF THIS IS NOT OF VITAL
NECESSITY! AFTER HAVING LANDED SAFELY, ENSURE PROTECTION OF AIRCRAFT AND VACATE
THE RUNWAY TO KEEP THE RUNWAY CLEAR FOR ARRIVING AND DEPARTING TRAFFIC.
DO THIS CALMLY AND CAREFULLY NOT TO CAUSE DAMAGE TO YOURSELF AND EQUIPMENT.
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Engine failure in climb
First ensure proper airspeed by reducing angle of attack, then start scanning the terrain underneath
and choose the most appropriate site for landing out.
WARNING! THE DECISION WHERE TO LAND WHEN LANDING OUT IS FINAL! DO NOT
CHANGE YOUR MIND EVEN IF YOU HAPPEN TO COME ACROSS A DIFFERENT, PERHAPS MORE
APPROPRIATE LANDING SITE.
Provided the engine fails aloft, fist retract the propulsion unit and prepare for an
emergency landing if the conditions prevent you from gliding to the airport.
Loss of power due to a broken belt drive
In case of the ruptured propeller drive belt, you will recognise this by: Loud bang in the engine compartment, Immediate violent increase of engine RPM and complete loss of propulsion with the propeller windmilling. Proceed as follow:
1. Switch off the ignition immediately
2. Ensure the proper airspeed (85-90 km/h, 45-50 kts). Flying faster will only make the
sink rate worse.
3. Do not attempt to retract the engine as this would be impossible
4. Perform emergency landing as per “Propeller unit extended or refusing to retract”.
Emergency landing
Propulsion unit retracted
1. Master switch OFF (key in full left position).
2. Fasten your seat belts tightly.
3. Approach and land with extreme caution with +10 km/h (+5 kts) airspeed reserve if
the chosen landing terrain lenght permits.
4. After having landed abandon the aircraft immediately.
Propulsion unit extended or refusing to retract
1. Your first priority is to fly the aircraft! Atempt to retract the propulsion unit by
setting the retraction switch up and back down IF your height is 300 m or higher.
Otherwise, proceed with emergency landing.
2. Fasten your seat belts tightly.
3. Master switch OFF (key in full left position).
4. Should the propulsion unit remain extended or partially retracted land the aircraft
onto the main wheels first in order to minimise vertical impact onto the propeller arm.
5. Fly no faster than minimum sink speed (94 km/h - 51 kts) during the approach as
more speed will only increase your rate of descent and use up to+10 km/h (+5 kts) airspeed reserve only before touchdown if the chosen landing terrain lenght permits.
The landing out manoeuvre MUST be preformed with regard to all normal flight parameters.
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Emergency procedures
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Engine fire
Engine fire on ground
Should you encounter engine fire on ground, react as follows:
1. Come to a complete standstill, shut of fuel (both valves OFF if present),
master switch OFF immediately and throttle to full forward position.
2. Keep powerplant extended.
3. Abandon the aircraft and start fire extinguishing.
WARNING! AFTER THE FIRE HAS BEEN EXTINGUISHED DO NOT ATTEMPT TO RESTART THE
ENGINE.
Engine fire in flight
1. Shut off fuel (both valves OFF if present), set ignition OFF (Ibis II)
2. Set full power (throttle lever in full forward position).
3. Open slide windows and set all ventilation devices to ON.
4. Perform side-slip (crab) manoeuvre in direction opposite the fire.
5. Perform emergency landing procedure and abandon the aircraft immediately.
Smoke in cockpit
Smoke in cockpit is usually a consequence of electrical wiring malfunction, since the engine compartment is fully enclosed and seperated from the cockpit. As there is most definitely a short circuit
somewhere it is required from the pilot to react as follows:
1. Leave the engine extended and set master switch to OFF.
2. Open slide windows and set all ventilation devices to ON for adequate breathing.
3. Land as soon as possible.
Electrical system failure
With the engine retracted: Continue flying as a sailplane.
With the engine extended and not running: Look for a landing field to do a safe outlanding.
With the engine extended and running: Do not stop the engine. Fly to the next airfield and land.
The fuel pump will receive electric power directly from the generator to allow engine operation
without battery power. Avoid longer sinking flights with the engine idling as lubrication of the engine will be insufficient. Therefore stop the engine for the landing or apply some throttle at least
every 60 seconds to supply oil to the engine. Landing with the engine extended see previous page.
Landing gear failure
Should the landing gear fail to lower, fasten your seatbelts tightly and perform a landing procedure
as normal. Use full flaps to have the minimum possible speed at touch-down.
Flare at the same altitude like you would normally and in the same manner. Avoid eventual obstacles
(bumps, fences etc. on the runway or strip where you are landing.
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Carburetor icing
First noticable signs of carburator icing are loud engine noises and gradual loss of power.
Carburator icing may occur even at temperatures as high as 10°C, provided the air humidity is
increased.
Running the engine at full power under cloud base, where humidity is increased may lead to carburetor icing even in the summer. Be aware that the engine will not provide 100% power in that case
and plan your flying accordingly.
Should you suspect carburator icing is taking place, descent immediately!
In case of complete power loss perform emergency landing out procedure.
Flutter
Flutter is described as the oscillation of control surfaces. In most cases it is caused by abrupt control
deflections at speeds close or in excess of VNE. As it occurs, the ailerons, elevator or even the whole
aircraft start to vibrate violently.
Should flutter occur, pull on the stick (and reduce power immediately)!
WARNING! FLUTTERING OF AILERONS OR TAIL SURFACES MAY CAUSE PERMANENT
STRUCTURAL DAMAGE AND/OR INABILITY TO CONTROL THE AIRCRAFT.
AFTER A SAFE LANDING, THE AIRCRAFT MUST UNDERGO A SERIES OF CHECKUPS PER
FORMED BY AUTHORISED SERVICE PERSONNEL TO VERIFY AIRWORTHINESS.
Exceeding VNE
Should the VNE be exceeded, reduce airspeed slowly and continue flying using gentle control deflections. Land safely as soon as possible and have the aircraft verified for airworthiness by
authorised service personnel.
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Parachute rescue system
System description
Depending on the canopy size, the main canopy system is open and fully inflated above the aircraft
between 1.5 - 6.0 seconds after being fired with regard to the flight speed. This means that a rescue
can be successful from as little as 30 m to 150m over the ground, depending on the installation, position of the aircraft, its speed and trajectory. The necessary height needed for a rescue is deduced
from measured figures in horizontal flight up to the stated VNE of aircraft in its MTOW. These figures
are stated in the technical parameters of the system. It is possible to aim the rocket in any direction
but, the best direction is vertical to the lengthwise axis of the plane in an upward or slightly oblique
aft direction. The rocket system has been designed with sufficient power reserve so that it can pull
out the chute even under extreme conditions ranging in temperatures from -40°C up to +60°C.
WARNING! ACTIVATION HANDLE SAFETY PIN SHOULD BE INSERTED WHEN THE
AIRCRAFT IS PARKED OR HANGARED TO PREVENT ACCIDENTAL DEPLOYMENT.
HOWEVER, AS SOON AS THE PILOT BOARDS THE AIRCRAFT, SAFETY PIN MUST BE REMOVED!
Use of parachute rescue system
In situations such as:
• structural failure
• mid-air collision
• loss of control over aircraft
• engine failure over hostile terrain
• pilot incapacitation (incl. heart attack, stroke, temp. blindness, disorientation...)
the parachute SHOULD be deployed.
Prior to firing the system:
• shut down the engine and set master switch to OFF (key in full left position)
• shut both fuel valves
• fasten safety harnesses tightly
• protect your face and body.
To deploy the parachute jerk the activation handle (located above and between pilots) hard for a length of at least 30 cm towards the instrument panel.
Once you have pulled the handle and the rocked is deployed, it will be less than two seconds before
you feel the impact produced by two forces. The first force is produced by stretching of all the system. The force follows after the inflation of the canopy from opening impact and it will seem to you
that the aircraft is pulled backwards briefly. The airspeed is reduced instantly and the aircraft now
starts do descent to the ground underneath the parachute.
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As a pilot you should know that the phase following parachute deployment may be a great unknown and a great adventure for the crew. You will be getting into situation for the first time, where
a proper landing and the determination of the landing site are out of your control.
CAUTION! SHOULD YOU END UP IN POWER LINES CARRYING ELECTRICAL CURRENT, DO
NOT UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES TOUCH ANY METAL PARTS INSIDE OR OUTSIDE THE COCK
PIT. THIS ALSO APPLIES TO ANYONE ATTEMPTING TO HELP OR RESCUE YOU. BE AWARE THAT
ANYONE TOUCHING A METAL PART WHILE STANDING ON THE GROUND WILL PROBABLY SUF
FER MAYOR INJURY OR DIE OF ELECTROCUTION. THEREFORE, YOU ARE STRONGLY ENCOUR
AGED TO CONFINE YOUR MOVEMENTS UNTIL QUALIFIED PERSONAL ARRIVE AT THE SITE TO
ASSIST YOU.
After the parachute rescue system has been used or if you suspect any possible damage to the system, do not hesitate and immediately contact the manufacturer!
Handling and maintenance of Parachute rescue system
Prior to every flight all visible parts of the system must be checked for proper condition. Special attention should be paid to eventual corrosion on the activation handle inside the cockpit. Also, main
fastening straps on the inside of the fuselage must remain undamaged at all times.
Furthermore, neither the system, nor any of its parts should be exposed to moisture, vibration and
UV radiation for long periods of time to ensure proper system operation and life.
CAUTION!
IT IS STRONGLY RECOMMENCED TO THOROUGHLY INSPECT AND GREASE THE
ACTIVATION HANDLE, PREFERABLY USING SILICON OIL SPRAY, EVERY 50 FLIGHT HOURS.
All major repairs and damage repairs MUST be done by the
manufacturer or authorised service personnel.
For all details concerning the GRS rescue system, please see the “GRS - Galaxy Rescue System Manual
for Assembly and Use”.
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Normal procedures
Introduction
Assembling and
disassembling the
aircraft
Daily check-up
Preflight check-up
Normal procedures and
recommended speeds
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Introduction
This chapter provides information on everything needed to fly Taurus ultralight motorglider safely.
Assembling and disassembling the aircraft
CAUTION! PRIOR TO EACH ASSEMBLING OR DISASSEMBLING ACTION THE TAURUS
ULTRALIGHT MOTORGLIDER SHOULD NOT BE PLACED UNDER STRONG SUNSHINE, AS
COMPOSITE PARTS EXPAND AND CONTRACT AND YOU MAY NOT BE ABLE TO ASSEMBLE
OR DISASSEMBLE THE AIRFRAME. UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES ATTEMPT TO ASSEMBLE OR
DISASSEMBLE ANY PARTS OF THE AIRCRAFT FURCEFULLY!
Assembling the wings
Three people (or two with a stand) are needed
to assemble the wings to the fuselage.
First block all three wheels for the fuselage to
stay in position.
Clean and grease the main wing pins and insertion openings. Open the canopy. Inside the
cockpit set the flap handle to neutral position
and unlock the spoilers’ handle. Make sure
you have all bolts, nuts, washers and spanners
needed within reach of a hand.
Lift one wing-half (one person at each end)
and bring it closer to the fuselage. While the
two are holding the wing-half high up, the
third person directs their movement to put the
wing’s main spar into the opening on the adjacent side of the fuselage.
Now push the wing-half into its final position
slowly. The person closest to the fuselage must
make sure the spoiler and flap connectors have
fitted into adequate fuselage fittings properly. At the same time, the person holding the
wingtip must start with slight circular movements (1cm each direction) in order to assure a
tight fit of the wing and its adequate bushings.
As this is done the person at the wingtip must
remain in positon holding the wing, whereas
the other two move over to the other winghalf, lift it and bring it closer to the fuselage.
Do not forget to make sure the spoiler and flap
connectors have fitted into adequate fittings
properly on this wing-half as well.
Both wing-halfs should now be in their final
position but still being held at wingtips. The
person not holding the wings must now insert
both pre-greased spar pins. First insert the pin
on the right-hand side of the cockpit because
of easier insersion (thinner spar infront), then
the pin on the lefe-hand side of the cockpit.
If necessary, the two at the wingtips can assist
by rocking the wings a couple of
millimeters up and down.
Only when both spar pins have been inserted
and secured, wingtips may be released.
Now check all control deflections as well as
flap and spoilers’ extensions for smooth,
unobstructed movement.
Insert all bolts and pins and secure them with
self-locking nuts. Do not forget to put aluminium washers underneath the nuts!
Connect all electical clables and fuel hoses to
their correct fittings.
Finally tape the gap between the fuselage and
the wing using self-adhesive tape.
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Disassembling the wings
Three people again are needed to disassemble
the wings.
First block all three wheels for the fuselage
to stay in position. Empty the fuel tank by
pumping out fuel with the provided external
fuel pump. Place the suction end of the pump
through the filler neck inside the reservoir.
While you wait for the tanks to empty, disassemble the horizontal tail surfaces, disconnect
all eventual electrical cables, then unscrew and
remove both pin bolts.
WARNING! Do not remove spar pins yet!
Once the fuel tanks are empty, disconnect the
fuel hoses inside the cockpit as well.
Make sure you tape the end attached to the
wing not to spill any eventual leftover fuel over
the fuselage or glass surfaces as substantial
damage may occur.
Schematic of wing (dis)assembly
Two people must now lift the wingtips (one
wingtip each) and the person in the cockpit remove the main spar pins, one by one,
smoothly.
Forcing pins out of their position may result
in structural damage, therefore the wingtip
holders must hold the wing-halfs precisely at
certain height!
Using slight circular movement at the wingtip,
the wing-halfs must now be pulled out of the
fuselage slowly. On pulling, each wing-half
must be held by two, one at the wingtip and
one near the spar.
As the wing-halfs have been pulled out, place
them onto a soft surface to prevent their
damage.
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Fitting the horizontal tail surfaces
Horizontal stabilizer and elevator MUST be united during the following procedure. To fit the horizontal tail surfaces first set the trim handle inside the cockpit to full forward position. Make sure the pins,
their holes and bushings have been cleaned and greased!
Lift the joint stabilizer and elevator and slide them into position by pushing them backwards. Now
use the enclosed “T” key to push the security screw down while spinning it clockwise until the screw
is completely tightened. Pull the “T” key out and make sure the safety pin holds the head of the
screw, so that eventual unscrewing will not occur.
At the end tape the gap between horizontal and vertical tail surfaces and cover the hole on top of
the vertical stabilizer with a sticker. Check control deflections for smooth, unobstructed movement.
Detaching the horizontal tail surfaces
Set the trim handle to full forward position and remove the safety sticker covering the hole on top of
the horizontal stabilizer and the tape covering the gab between horizontal and vertical tail surfaces.
Now use the enclosed “T” key to push the safety pin screw down while spinning it counter-clockwise
until it is completely loose. To detach the horizontal tail unit push it forward using firm palm strokes
until the unit pops out.
When detached, always place the horizontal tail unit onto a soft surface to prevent damage.
Schematic of horizontal tail surfaces (dis)assembly
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Attaching the rudder
Bring the rudder close to fuselage and fit it first onto the top and then to the bottom hinge.
The rudder must then be fully deflected to one side to provide access to the rudder bolts. Use a selfsecuring, pre-glued M6 nut together with a washer and gently screw them onto the bolt using size
10 spanner. To reach the other rudder bolt deflect the rudder to the opposite direction and repeat
the up-stated procedure.
With both nuts tightened check full rudder deflections for smooth, unobstructed movement.
Detaching the rudder
Deflect the rudder to one side fully and unscrew the nut of the bolt with which the rudder is attached to the bottom hinge. This is the bolt located in-between the central bolt (axis of rotation) and
the bolt holding the metal ropes. DO NOT touch these two bolts - unscrew the nut of the middle bolt
ONLY. Now deflect the rudder to the opposite direction and repeat the up-stated procedure.
After both bolts have been unscrewed, lift the rudder and detach it first from the bottom, then from
the top hinge.
Schematic of rudder (dis)assembly
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Normal procedures
Daily check-up
The daily check-up matches the preflight check-up.
Preflight check-up
WARNING! EVERY SINGLE CHECKUP MENTIONED IN THIS CHAPTER MUST BE PER
FORMED PRIOR TO EVERY FLIGHT, REGARDLESS OF WHEN THE PREVIOUS FLIGHT TOOK PLACE!
THE PERSON RESPONSIBLE FOR THE PREFLIGHT CHECKUP IS THE PILOT FROM
WHOM IT IS REQUIRED TO PERFORM THE CHECKUP IN THE UTMOST THOROUGH
AND PRECISE MANNER.
PROVIDED THE STATUS OF ANY OF THE PARTS AND/OR OPERATIONS DOES NOT COMPLY WITH
CONDITIONS STATED IN THIS CHAPTER, THE DAMAGE MUST BE REPAIRED PRIOR TO ENGINE
STARTUP. DISOBEYING THIS INSTRUCTIONS MAY RESULT IN SERIOUS FURTHER DAMAGE TO
THE PLANE AND CREW, INCLUDING INJURY AND LOSS OF LIFE!
Schematic of preflight check-up
3
2
4
1
5
22
21
6
20
19
18
10
17
16
12
14
2 LH flank
8
11
15
1 Glass cannopy
9
13
8 Right wing - trailing edge
15 Hor. tail surfaces (left)
9 Right airbrake
16 Fuselage, continued (left)
3 Nose tip
10 Engine, propeller (RH side)
17 Engine, propeller (LH side)
4 RH flank
11 Fuselage, continued (right)
18 Left spoiler
5 Undercarriage, RH wheel
12 Hor. tail surfaces (right)
19 Left wing - trailing edge
6 Right wing - leading edge
13 Vert. tail surfaces (right)
20 Left wingtip
7 Right wingtip
14 Vert. tail surfaces (left)
21 Left wing - leading edge
22 Undercarriage, LH wheel
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Glass cannopy
1
Surface condition: clear, no cracks, no wavy patterns, impact spots
Attachment fork: perfect closure, no deformations
De-fogging frame holes: clear for adequate airflow
Locking levers: check for correct and smooth operation, locking pin and bushing clean and greased
Water ballast reservoir: inserted and filled-up as required
LH flank
2
Surface condition: clear, no cracks, no wavy patterns, impact spots
Fuselage - cannopy frame joint: equal spacing, perfect closure
Nose tip
3
Pitot tube: firmly attached, no mechanical damage or bendings. Remove protection cover and make
sure it is not blocked or full of water.
Ventilation ring: firmly attached
Fuselage - cannopy frame joint: equal spacing, perfect closure
RH flank
4
Surface condition: clear, no cracks, no wavy patterns, impact spots
Fuselage - cannopy frame joint: equal spacing, perfect closure
Undercarriage, wheels
5 22
Bolts: fastened
Wheel: no mechanical damage (e.g. cracks), clean
Wheel axis and nut: fastened
Oil line (hydraulic brakes): no mechanical damage and/or leakage
Tyre: no cracks, adequate pressure
Wheel fairing: undamaged, firmly attached, clean (e.g. no mud or grass on the inside)
Wheel-bay doors: undamaged, check rubber-rope tension
Retraction mechanism: no visible abnormalities, adequate grease on sliding parts, clean of larger
particles e.g. soil, dirt.
Gear bay: free of larger particles, soil, dirt etc.
Under-belly drain holes: make sure they are not blocked and clean accordingly.
Wings’ leading edge
6
21
Surface condition: pristine, no cracks, impact spots, no paint and/or edge separations
Wing drain holes: make sure they are not blocked and clean accordingly.
Wingtip
7 20
Surface condition: pristine, no cracks, impact spots or bumps, no paint separations
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Normal procedures
Wings’ trailing edge
8 19
Surface condition: pristine, no cracks, impact spots, no paint and/or edge separations
Sealing tape between wing and aileron: undamaged and in position
Aileron: pristine surface, no cracks and/or impact spots, no paint abnormalities and edge separations, no vertical or horizontal free play, smooth and unobstructed deflections
Airbrakes, fuel reservoir cap
9 18
Spoiler: firm, smooth, equal and unobstructed extension, tightly fitted when retracted, springs stiff
and intact.
Fuel reservoir cap: fastened. Make sure the pipe is completely clean
Engine, propeller, rescue parachute hood
10 17
Connection of the spindle drive to the engine for no cracks, abnormalities in alluminium plate,
engine mount and bolts
Extend the powerplant completely.
Check all screwed connections and theri securing.
Check function of trhottle and propeller positioner.
Check ignition system including wires and spart plug connectors for tight fit.
Check engine retaining cable and its connection in the engine compartment at the engine.
Check fuel lines, electrical wires, bowden cables and structural parts for wear and kinks.
Check muffler, propeller mount for tight fit and cracking.
Apply strong pressure to the propeller mount in forward, backward and sideward directions to
check if the bolted connection between engine block and propeller mount or anything else is
loose or damaged. Check the rubber engine mounts also.
Check the propeller for no visual signs of abnormalities.
Turn the propeller one ful revolution by hand and listen for abnormal sounds which may indicate
engine damage.
Drain condensed water from the fuel tank. The drainer is located behind the seats, on the floor
on port side of fuselage.
Parachute rescue system cover: intact and firmly in place. No deformations whatsoever.
Fuselage, continued
11 16
Under-belly drain holes: make sure they are not blocked and clean accordingly
Vertical fin bottom part: no cracks, impact spots or paint separations along main chord
Surface condition: pristine, no cracks, impact spots or bumps, no paint and/or edge separations
Horizontal tail surfaces
12 15
Surface condition: pristine, no cracks, impact spots or bumps, no paint and/or edge separations
Hinges: no free play in any direction
Central securing screw on top or the horizontal stabilizer: fastened and secured
Self-adhesive tape covering the gap between horizontal and vertical tail surfaces: in position
Elevator: smooth and unobstructed up-down movement, no side-to-side free play
Vertical tail surfaces
13 14
Vertical fin bottom part: no cracks, impact spots or paint separations along main chord
Surface condition: pristine, no cracks, impact spots or bumps, no paint separations
Hinges: no free play in any direction
Rudder metal rope endings: intact, bolts in position
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Tail wheel
Shock absorbing rubber: no cracks, firm and clean, check for no deformations
Tire: no cracks, adequate pressure
Wheel fork, fork base and bolt: nut tightened, no abnormalities, bearing in position, bolt attached,
straight and fastened
Lift the tail high enough so that the tail wheel is not touching the ground and make sure the
wheel side-to-side deflections are smooth and unobstructed
CAUTION! Preflight check-up should be performed following stations 1 through 22!
In-cockpit preflight check-up
Instrument panel and instruments: checked, Fuses: pushed in position
Master switch OFF (key in full left position): no control lights and/or electronic instrument activity
Master switch ON (key in full right position): control lights and electronic instrument active
Make sure you have set all instruments to correct initial setting.
Water ballast reservoir (front-cabin): check for water quantity and make sure it is appropriate for
your planned flight. Remove or ad water as necessary to keep the c.g. within limits.
WARNING! CHECK THE WATER BALANCE RESERVOIR IN FRONTCABIN AND VERIFY
CREW’S WEIGHT BEFORE EVERY FLIGHT AS IT MAY INFLUENCE THE CENTRE OF GRAVITY OF
AIRCRAFT TO THE POINT WHERE IT IS NO LONGER CONTROLLABLE!
Main wing spars and connectors: no visible abnormalities of metal parts, spars, pins and bolts; all
bolts and nuts in position and tightened
Fuel hoses and electrical cables: correctly connected and in position
Seat belts: undamaged, verify unobstructed harness opening; fastening points intact
Glass cannopy: perfect closing at all points, smooth opening, hinges firmly attached; glass immaculately clean with no cracks.
Flap handle: button spring firm, locking mechanism working properly, smooth movement along full
deflections, no free play or visible damage.
Spoilers (Airbrakes) handle: full forward and locked
Ventilation lever: as required
Radio wiring: test the switches, check connectors and headset, perform radio check
Battery: firmly in position, fittings clean with wires connected
Cockpit mirror: in position and adjusted
Emergency parachute release handle: safety pin removed. Make sure unobstructed access is
provided.
Adjust the rudder pedals according to your required legroom. Sit inside the cockpit and release the
pressure off the pedals. Pull the black knob in front of the control stick to bring the pedals closer to
you. To move the pedals further away, first release the pressure of the pedals, then pull on the knob
slightly (this will release the lock in the mechanism). Now push the pedals forward using with your
feet, while keeping the black adjusment knob in your hand.
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Normal procedures
and recommended speeds
To enter the cabin first unlock the cannopy frame and lift the glass canopy all the way by lifting the
lock levers or lifting pads on each side of the cabin. Sit onto the cabin’s edge and support your body
by placing hands onto this same cabin edge and middle cockpit console. Drag yourself into the seat
lifting first the inner and then the outer leg over the control stick. Immediately after having sat into
the seat, check rudder pedals’ position to suit your size and needs. Bring the pedals closer or further
away by pulling the handle behing the control stick and slide them to the desired position.
To lower the canopy gently hold and pull the metal levers on the side of the cocpit. To lock the cannopy once closed, push the levers forward so that they become parallel to the surface of the glass
frame. Verify that the cannopy is closed by applying upward-pressuse to the cannopy.
Fasten the safety harnesses according to your size.
WARNING! THE SAFETY HARNESS MUST HOLD YOU IN YOUR SEAT SECURELY. THIS IS ES
PECIALLY IMPORTANT WHEN FLYING IN ROUGH AIR, AS OTHERWISE YOU MAY BUMP INTO THE
CANOPY OVERHEAD.
Engine start-up
Before engine start-up
CAUTION!
TO ENSURE PROPER AND SAFE USE OF AIRCRAFT IT IS ESSENTIAL FOR ONE TO
FAMILIARISE WITH ENGINE’S LIMITATIONS AND ENGINE MANUFACTURER’S SAFETY WARN
INGS. BEFORE ENGINE STARTUP MAKE SURE THE AREA AROUND THE PROPELLER IS CLEAR.
YOU CAN ALSO CHECK THIS IN THE INSTRUMENT PANEL MIRROR. IT IS RECOMMENDED TO
STARTUP THE ENGINE WITH AIRCRAFT’S NOSE POINTING AGAINST THE WIND.
Make sure the fuel quantity will suffice for the planned flight duration.
Set both (if applicable) fuel tanks ON. In case one fuel tank is almost empty, select the fuller tank.
Make sure the pitot tube is not covered and rescue parachute safety pin removed.
Engage wheel brakes. Hold the control stick in full aft position always when on the ground.
CAUTION! SHOULD YOU NOT BE HOLDING THE CONTROL STICK IN FULL AFT POSITION,
YOU MAY TIP THE NOSE OF THE AIRCRAFT AS THE CENTRE OF PROPULSION IS HIGH ABOVE
THE FUSELAGE.
Engine start-up
Make sure the master switch is in ON position (key full right).
Extend the propulsion unit (Ibis II switch to UP position).
Set throttle 2 cm forward from idle position
After the propustion unit is extended (indication green), set ignition on (Ibis II ignition switch ON).
Engage engine starter and keep it engaged until the engine starts.
When the engine is running, set throttle to at most 3500 RPM.
CAUTION! ON GROUND, WHEN THE ENGINE IS COLD, IT MAY NOT START IMMEDIATELY.
THIS IS CONSIDERED NORMAL DUE TO THE DESIGN OF THE ENGINE. THIS WILL HOWEVER NOT
HAPPEN IN THE AIR, THERE THE ENGINE STARTS IN FIRST ATTEMPT.
CAUTION! DUE TO THE DESIGN OF THE POWERPLANT THE RPM MUST BE KEPT ABOVE 2700
AT ALL TIMES WHEN ON GROUND. SHOULD YOU LET THE RPM SINK BELOW 2500 THE ENGINE
MAY SUFFICATE AND SHUT DOWN BY ITSELF.
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TAURUS motorglider 39
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Use of primer
With outside air temperature (OAT) less than 15 degress Centigrade, set primer to ON before engaging starter. Should the engine not start, this means that the engine is overflowed - set primer to back
OFF, throttle to idle and re-engage the starter. With OAT of 15 degress Centigrade and higher, flick
primer ON for short durations of time while you are pressing the starter button to assist the engine
start-up.
NOTE: THE PRIMER ONLY FUNCTIONS IF THE PRIMER SWITCH IS SET TO ON AND THE
STARTER BUTTON IS DEPRESSED AT THE SAME TIME. WHEN THE STARTER BUTTON IS NOT DE
PRESSED THE PRIMER SWITCH HAS NO EFFECT ON ENGINE OPERATION.
NOTE: USE OF PRIMER ON FOR INFLIGHT STARTUP IS RECOMMENDED AT ALL TIMES.
Engine warm-up procedure
A two-stroke engine should be warmed-up at 3500 RPM at most, to the point working temperature
is reached.
Warming-up the engine you should:
1 Point aircraft’s nose against the wind.
2 Verify the engine temperature ranges within operational limits.
CAUTION!
AVOID ENGINE WARMUP AT IDLE THROTTLE AS THIS CAUSES SPARK PLUGS TO
TURN DIRTY AND THE ENGINE TO OVERHEAT.
With wheel brakes engaged and control stick in full back position, first set engine power to 3500
RPM in order to perform the magneto check. Set the magneto switch on LEFT, then RIGHT and then
back into the middle to verify RPM drop of not more than 250 RPM. When the magneto check has
been completed, add full power (throttle lever full forward) while holding the stick in full aft position. Monitor engine’s RPM. Make sure they range between maximum recommended and maximum
allowable RPM limits.
CAUTION! SHOULD ENGINE’S RPM BE LOWER THAN MAX. RECOM. RPM ON GROUND OR IN
EXCESS OF MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE RPM ON GROUND DURING THIS MANOEUVRE, CHECK EN
GINE AND WIRING FOR CORRECT INSTALLATION.
Taxi
Taxing technique does not differ from other taildragging aircrafts. Prior to taxiing it is essential to
check wheel brakes for proper braking action.
In case you expect taxiing to last, take engine warm-up time into account and begin taxiing immediately after engine start-up. Warm-up the engine during taxiing not to cause engine overheating
because of prolonged ground operation.
CAUTION! TAXI AT AT MOST 10KM/H / 5 KTS, AS THERE ARE NO DIFFERENTIAL BRAKES
AVAILABLE. STEERING IS PROVIDED BY A STEARABLE TAIL WHEEL THROUGH RUDDER INPUT.
Holding point
Make sure the temperatures at full power range within operational limits.
Make sure the safety harnesses are fastened and canopy closed and secured at both sides.
Set flaps to T position. Power idle.
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Normal procedures
CAUTION! SHOULD THE ENGINE START TO OVERHEAT BECAUSE OF LONG TAXI AND HOLD
ING, SHUT DOWN THE ENGINE AND WAIT FOR THE ENGINE TEMPERATURES DROP TO REASON
ABLE VALUES. IF POSSIBLE, POINT THE AIRCRAFT’S NOSE TOWARDS THE WIND. THIS WILL PRO
VIDE COOLING MEANS WITH AIRFLOW TO COOL DOWN THE ENGINE FASTER.
Take-off and initial climb
Before lining-up verify the following:
Spoilers: retracted and secured
Fuel quantity: sufficient
Safety belts: fastened
Cabin: closed securely
Trim handle: in neutral position or slightly backward
Flap handle: T position
Runway: clear
Now pull the stick to full aft position, line up and add full power.
Verify engine for sufficient RPM at full throttle.
CAUTION! KEEP ADDING POWER GRADUALLY.
WARNING! SHOULD ENGINE RPM NOT REACH SUFFICIENT RPM WHEN AT FULL THROT
TLE, ABORT TAKEOFF IMMEDIATELY, COME TO A STANDSTILL AND VERIFY THE PROPUSTION
UNIT.
Start the takeoff roll pulling the elevator full aft, then slowly ease on the sitck the lift the tail wheel of
the ground as you accelerate. Reaching Vr (between 70 -75 km/h; 38-42 kts), pull on the stick to get
the aircraft airborne.
CAUTION! CROSSWIND MAX 28 KM/H 15 KTS TAKEOFF SHOULD BE PERFORMED WITH
AILERONS DEFLECTED OPPOSITE THE DIRECTION OF THE WIND. SPECIAL ATTENTION SHOULD
BE PAID TO MAINTAINING RUNWAY HEADING AND NOT LOWERING THE WINGTIP TOO MUCH!
Climb
When airborne, accelerate at full power and later maintain proper speed of climb.
As you reach 100 km/h (55kts) at a height above 50 meters (165 ft), retract flaps to neutral position.
and retract the landing gear. Do not reduce power. Continue climbing with full power at 100 km/h.
WARNING! ALWAYS MOVE THE LANDING GEAR COCKPIT HANDLE STRONGLY, WITHOUT
HESITATION AND WITH ONE SINGLE CONTINUOUS MOVEMENT TOWARDS THE DESIRED
POSITION.
Adjust the trim to neutralise the stick force if necessary.
Remember to keep the temperatures and RPM within operational limits during this manoeuvre.
WARNING! CLIMB AT FULL THROTTLE TO PROVIDE ENOUGH LUBRICATION TO THE
ENGINE. DO NOT REDUCE THROTTLE DURING CLIMB. SHOULD THE RPM INCREASE BECAUSE
OF AIRSPEED RUNAWAY, REDUCE SPEED BY PULLING THE STICK, NOT BY REDUCING
THROTTLE. ALWAYS CLIMB AT FULL THROTTLE.
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TAURUS motorglider 41
Normal procedures REV. 0
Level flight
Taurus ultralight motorglider is not desinged to be a cruising aircraft, however you may be able to
maintain level cruise flight should this be required. To cover distances, saw-tooth flight with interchanging full power climbs and glides are an established common practice. When saw-toothing,
plan your flight well and always restart the engine over a landable terrain.
WARNING! CRUISING IN COMMON SENSE OF THE WORD IS TO BE STRONGLY AVOIDED
AND WILL SEVERELY DECREASED THE LIFETIME OF CRITICAL COMPONENTS. CONVENTIONAL
CRUISING SHOULD BE USED ONLY IF THERE IS NO OTHER OPTION. SAWTOOTHING IS,
HOWEVER, APPROVED AND PUTS LESS STRESS TO THE AIRCRAFT AND ENGINE COMPONENTS.
WARNING! SHOULD YOU ATTEMPT LEVEL FLIGHT CRUISING, RESPECT THIS PARAGRAPH.
THE CRUISING SPEED IS LIMITED BY THE WINDMILL EFFECT AND THUS EGT ENGINE VALUES.
THESE AND THE CRUISE SPEED MAY VERY DEPENDING ON OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE,
ELEVATION AND THE HUMIDITY OF THE AIR. SHOULD EGT VALUES BE REACHING MAXIMUM
ALLOWABLE LIMITS, REDUCE AIRSPEED IMMEDIATELY AND INITIATE CLIMB AT FULL
THROTTLE. USE AIRBRAKES ACCORDINGLY TO MAINTAIN LEVEL ALTITUDE. THIS WILL COOL
DOWN THE ENGINE.
WARNING! SHOULD YOU ATTEMPT LEVEL FLIGHT CRUISING, RESPECT THIS PARAGRAPH.
DUE TO THE DESIGN OF THE POWERPLANT THERE MAY BE A REGION OF RPM IN LEVEL FLIGHT
CRUISING, WHICH CAUSES INCREASED VIBRATION. THIS VIBRATION TRANSFERS FROM THE
POWERPLANT TO THE REST OF THE AIRCRAFT ELECTRONICS, AVIONICS, INSTRUMENTS,
EQUIPMENT ETC.. THIS REGION OF SEVERE VIBRATION NORMALLY LIES SOMEWHERE
BETWEEN 5000  6000 RPM AND MUST BE AVOIDED. YOU SHOULD NOT, UNDER ANY
CIRCUMSTANCES, ATTEMPT TO DO LEVEL FLIGHT CRUISING WITH THE ABOVE MENTIONED
VIBRATION OCCURING. AS A PILOT, YOU SHOULD EITHER ADD OR REDUCE POWER, LOWER OR
RAISE THE FLAPS TO AVOID RPM IN LEVEL FLIGHT CRUISING WHICH INVOKES VIBRATION.
Flights in rough atmosphere
Should you experience turbulence, reduce airspeed and continue flying with flaps set to neutral
position.
CAUTION! IN ROUGH AIR EXTEND AIRBRAKES UNPOWERED FLIGHT FOR SHORT TIME IF
NECESSARY TO KEEP AIRSPEED BELOW VRA.
Descent and final approach
Landing the Taurus ultralight motorlider with the engine out should be strongly avoided due to
lubrication problems with the engine on idle. It will severely decrease the life-time of critical component as well. Therefore it is recommended that you conduct the approach and landing like a glider
- with the propulsion unit in its retracted (DOWN) position.
On downwind (150-200 m, 500-700 ft), maintain a speed of 100 km/h (55 kts) and lower and secure
the landing gear. Before turning base, set the flaps to T stage, and reduce your speed to 90-95 km/h
(48-51 kts). Set trim to neutralise stick force if necessary.
CAUTION! WHEN DESCENDING, MAKE SURE THE PROPULSION UNIT IS RETRACTED.
CAUTION! WITH FLAPS IN L POSITION ONLY HALF WAY AILERON DEFLECTIONS ARE
PERMITTED.
42 TAURUS motorglider
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Normal procedures
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On final, set flaps to L position only if the runway is very short and a steep angle of arrival is
required. Align with the runway and extend airbrakes while maintaining an airspeed of 90-95 km/h
(48-51 kts). Use airbrakes to control your approach glide path.
CAUTION! CROSSWIND LANDINGS REQUIRE HIGHER FINAL APPROACH SPEEDS TO ENSURE
AIRCRAFT’S SAFE MANOEUVRABILITY.
Roundout and touchdown
CAUTION! See chapter “Performance” for landing performance.
Final roundout (flare) and touchdown should be performed at following airspeeds:
Calm air, aircraft at MTOM
75 km/h (40 kts) IAS
Rough air, aircraft at MTOM (incl. strong crosswinds up to 28 km/h (15 kts)) 78 km/h (42 kts) IAS
CAUTION! LAND THE AIRCRAFT IN SUCH A MANNER THAT ALL THREE WHEELS TOUCH THE
GROUND AT EXACTLY THE SAME TIME. WHEN TOUCHING DOWN, RUDDER MUST NOT BE DE
FLECTED IN ANY DIRECTION RUDDER PEDALS CENTRED.
When on ground, start braking action holding the control stick in full back position. Stear the aircraft
by using rudder inputs. Provided the runway length is sufficient, come to a complete standstill without engaging the brakes to ensure their long life.
WARNING! AFTER TOUCHDOWN, DO NOT RETRACT SPOILERS IMMEDIATELY, AS THIS
CAUSES SUDDEN LIFT INCREASE AND THE AIRCRAFT MAY REBOUND OFF THE GROUND.
SHOULD THIS OCCUR, HOLD THE ELEVATOR STEADY; UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES ATTEMPT
TO FOLLOW AIRCRAFT’S MOVEMENT WITH ELEVATOR DEFLECTIONS, SINCE TAURUS ULTRA
LIGHT MOTORGLIDER TENDS TO ATTENUATE REBOUNDING BY ITSELF. HOWEVER, IT IS IMPOR
TANT TO MAINTAIN RUNWAY HEADING USING THE RUDDER AT ALL TIMES. TO PREVENT THIS,
RETRACT SPOILERS ONLY AFTER THE AIRCRAFT HAS COME TO A COMPLETE STANDSTILL.
WARNING! TOUCH AND GOES ARE NOT POSSIBLE!
Having reached a complete standstill, extend the engine (Engine start-up) and taxi (Taxi) off the runway.
Crosswind approach and roundout
CAUTION! CROSSWINDS PROLONG LANDING RUNWAY LENGTH SEE CHAPTER
“PERFORMANCE”.
Performing a crosswind landing, the wing-low method should be used. When using the wing-low
method it is necessary to gradually increase the deflection of the rudder and aileron to maintain the
proper amount of drift correction.
WARNING! IF BY CHANCE THE CRAB METHOD OF DRIFT CORRECTION HAS BEEN USED
THROUGHOUT THE FINAL APPROACH AND ROUNDOUT, THE CRAB MUST BE REMOVED THE
INSTANT BEFORE TOUCHDOWN, BY APPLYING RUDDER TO ALIGN THE AIRCRAFT’S LONGITU
DINAL AXIS WITH ITS DIRECTION OF MOVEMENT.
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TAURUS motorglider 43
Normal procedures REV. 0
Parking
Come to a complete standstill by engaging brakes. Re-check RPM drop by switching magnetos OFF
and back ON, one by one. Leave the engine running at idle RPM for a minute in order to cool it down.
Set the ignition switch on IbisII OFF, then the Master switch OFF. Unlock airbrakes (handle lifted
slightly) and insert paracute rescue system handle’s safety pin. Open the cannopy, unfasten safety
belts and exit the cockpit. Close and lock the cannopy after you have left the aircraft. When closing
the canopy, make sure that the lock-handles are in OPEN position not to damage the locking pins.
Also, block the wheels if parking on a slope.
Apply the tubes onto fuel line vents so that fuel would not spill onto the wing in event of full fuel
tanks, temperature expansion of fuel and/or parking on a slope.
CAUTION! WHENEVER YOU LEAVE THE AIRCRAFT MAKE SURE THE CANNOPY IS CLOSED
AND LOCKED. SHOULD YOU FORGET TO DO THIS THE CANNOPY FRAME MAY NOT FIT THE FU
SELAGE FRAME ANY MORE WHEN YOU RETURN, SINCE THE STRETCH COEFFICIENT OF FIBRE
GLASS AND PLEXIGLASS ARE SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT. ALSO, COVER THE CANNOPY WITH A
FABRIC COVER, TO PREVENT THE CABIN FROM OVERHEATING PROTECTOIN TO INSTRUMENTS
AND SYSTEMS.
Retracting & Extending propulsion unit in flight
This procedure applies only for retracting/extending the propulsion unit as an intentional event, be
aware you may lose up to 100m (300ft) of altitude during this procedure.
If under power, set throttle to idle and igition on first. Reduce speed to 80 km/h (43 kts) and set flaps
to 1st stage. Continue decellerating towards 70 km/h (40 kts).
With master switch ON and ignition OFF select the desired propuslsion unit position (UP or DOWN)
on the Ibis II. The system will complete the retraction/extension by itself. For more details please
consult Ibis II - engine control and monitoring instrument in chapter Aircraft and Systems on board
in this manual.
To restart the engine in-flight follow the same procedure as for Engine startup (page 34) while maintaing level flight at 80 km/h (43 kts) with flaps in 1st stage.
WARNING! BEFORE YOU ACTIVATE THE STARTER, MAKE SURE THE PROPELLER IS IN
A FULLY EXTENDED AND UPRIGHT POSITION LEFT GREEN AND AMBER LIGHT INDICATION!
Should the engine cool down during unpowered flight. Always start the engine with throttle 2 cm
forward from idle position.
CAUTION! DO NOT ADD FULL POWER WHILE THE ENGINE IS STILL COLD. KEEP FLYING AT
80 KM/H 43 KTS WITH FLAPS IN L STAGE AND NOT MORE THAN 3000 RPM TO WARMUP THE
ENGINE FIRST.
44 TAURUS motorglider
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TAURUS motorglider 45
Performance REV. 0
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Performance
Introduction
Airspeed indicator
calibration
Take-off performance
Climb performance
Cruise
Descent
Landing performance
Maneuver & gust
envelope
Speed polar
Additional technical data
Noise levels
46 TAURUS motorglider
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Performance
Introduction
This chapter provides information on aircraft’s airspeed calibration, stall speeds and general performance. All data published was obtained from test flight analysis. Test pilots were instructed to
control the plane simulating average pilot’s flying skills.
Airspeed indicator calibration (IAS to CAS)
Pitot tube’s ingenious mounting and construction makes IAS to CAS correction values insignificant.
Therefore pilots should regard IAS to be same as CAS. IAS = CAS.
Stall speeds
Stall speeds at MTOM are as follows:
flaps in negative position; -5° (up):
flaps in neutral position; 0° (neutral):
flaps in 1st position; +5° (down):
flaps in T position; +9° (down):
flaps in L position: +18° (down):
75 km/h (40.5 kts)
71 km/h (38.3 kts)
68 km/h (36.7 kts)
65 km/h (35.0 kts)
63 km/h (34,0 kts)
Take-off performance
All data published in this section was obtained under following conditions:
aircraft at MTOM
runway elevation: 100 meters (330 feet)
wind: calm
runway: dry grass runway with low-cut grass, no significant up- or downslope
ICAO standard atmosphere
Taurus
takeoff runway length at MTOM
takeoff runway length (over 15m (50 ft) obstacle)
Model 503
180 m (590 ft)
265 m (870 ft)
Note: in order to meet the data for takeoff runway lenght over 15 m obstacle maintain Vx
after take-off.
Takeoff runway length may vary depending on the wind, temperature, elevation and
wing & propeller surface condition.
TAURUS motorglider 47
Performance REV. 0
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Effect of elevation
The table below provides data about the effect of elevation on takeoff runway length.
elevation (m)
atmosph. pressure (hPa)
outside temperature (°C)
Model 503
0
1012
15.0
500
954
11.7
180 (590)
1000
898
8.5
1500
845
5.2
Takeoff runway length [m (ft)]
205 (670)
252 (826)
295 (970)
WARNING: If the outside temperature is higher than the standard value it is mandatory to
consider the takeoff runway length prolongs as follows: L = 1,10 • (Lh + Lt - L0).
Abbreviations are as follows:
Lh = takeoff runway length at present elevation,
Lt = takeoff runway length at sea level at same atmospheric conditions,
L0 = takeoff runway length at 15°C.
The graph below indicates how takeoff runway length changes as altitude increases.
takeoff runway length
300 985
250 820
200 650
150 500
m ft
0
200
650
400
1300
600
2000
800
2600
1000
3200
1200
4000
1400 elevation (m)
4600 elevation (ft)
Effect of the wind
Wind (head, cross or downwind - also called tailwind) affects aircraft’s ground speed (GS).
Headwind on takeoff and landing causes the Takeoff and Landing runway length to shorten as the
GS is smaller during these two flight stages. The opposite stands for tailwind on takeoff and landing
as tailwind prolongs Takeoff and Landing runway length significantly.
The data on the next page was obtained through testing and therefore serve as informative values
only.
Headwind shortens Takeoff and Landing runway length by 8 meters (25 feet) with every 5 km/h
(3 kts) of wind increase (e.g. provided there is a 10 km/h (6 kts) headwind on takeoff and landing, distances will be approximately 16 meters (50 feet) shorter then ones published in the manual).
48 TAURUS motorglider
Performance
Tailwind prolongs Takeoff and Landing runway length by 18-20 meters (60-65 feet) with every 5
km/h (3kts) wind increase (e.g. provided there is a 10 km/h (6kts) tailwind on takeoff and landing, distances will be approximately 36-40 meters (120-130 feet) longer then ones published in the manual).
3x
WARNING! TAILWIND AFFECTS TAKEOFF AND LANDING PERFORMANCE BY MORE THAN
TWICE AS MUCH AS HEADWIND DOES.
The table below provides data about the effect of headwind (+) and tailwind (-) on takeoff runway
length.
windspeed (m/s)
windspeed (kts)
Model 503
-3
-6
-2
-4
297 (975)
-1
-2
0
0
2
4
Takeoff runway length [m (ft)]
205 (670) 180 (590) 164 (537)
243 (800)
4
8
6
12
147 (480)
122 (400)
The graph below indicates how takeoff runway length changes when affected by wind.
m
ft
250 820
200 650
takeoff runway length
REV. 0
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m/s
kts
150 500
100 330
50 160
-4
-8
-2
-4
0
0
2
4
4
8
6
12
0
8
16
Effect of outside temperature
The table below provides data about the effect of outside temperature on takeoff runway length.
temperature (°C)
13
20
25
30
35
Takeoff runway length [m (ft)]
Model 503
180 (590)
197 (645)
215 (705)
237 (780)
255 (836)
TAURUS motorglider 49
Performance REV. 0
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The graph below shows how takeoff runway length changes when affected by temperature chances.
250 820
takeoff runway length
200 650
150 500
100 330
50 160
m ft
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
outside temperature (°C)
Climb performance
Taurus
best climb speed Vy
best climb rate at MTOM
Model 503
100 km/h (54 kts)
2.9 m/s (580 fpm)
Effect of elevation
The table below provides data about the effect of elevation on climb rate at best climb speed Vy.
Taurus
0 m (0 ft)
500 m (1600 ft)
1000 m (3300 ft)
1500 m (5000 ft)
Model 503
2.9 m/s (580 fpm)
2.6 m/s (520 fpm)
2.2 m/s (440 fpm)
2.0 m/s (400 fpm)
climb rate
The graph below indicates how climb rate changes as altitude increases.
4
800
2
400
m/s
fpm
0
m
ft
200
650
400
1300
600
2000
elevation
800
2600
1000
3300
1200
4000
1400
4600
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Performance
Descent
The rate of descent and glide path are adjusted using airbrakes (spoilers).
Typical sink rate, with flaps set to L position and spoilers fully extended, measures
4,5 m/s (900 fpm) at 90 km/h (48 kts) and 6,0 m/sec (1200 fpm) at 100 km/h (62 kts).
Taurus
max. sink rate, spoilers extended, flaps at L and at flap speed limit
Model 503
5.8 m/sec
(1160 fpm)
Landing performance
PRECISE DATA WILL BE PUBLISED AFTER DEDICATED TEST FLIGHTS! PRESENT DATA IS
SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE!!!
Landing length will vary depending on the elevation, gross weight, touchdown velocity, wind direction and how aggressive the braking action is. In following conditions: aircraft at MTOM, airport
elevation 100 meters (300 feet), wind calm; the landing length measures 110 meters (330 feet). Should
you be flying solo, the length shortens by another 10 meters (30 feet).
WARNING! RUNWAY PROPORTIONS MUST BE IN EXCESS OF 400 X 30 METERS (1300 X 100
FEET) WITH NO OBSTACLES IN A 4° RANGE OFF RUNWAY HEADING IN ORDER ENSURE SAFE
FLYING ACTIVITY. USE OF SHORTER STRIPS SHOULD BE CONSIDERED A MAJOR EXCEPTION AND
SHOULD ONLY BE ATTEMTED BY EXPERIENCED PILOTS AND AT OWN RISK.
Crosswind landing limitations
Maximum allowed crosswind speed for landing with flaps in L position as well as take-off with flaps
in T position is 28 km/h (15 kts).
Gliding performance
The glide is defined as unpowered straight and level flight at a speed providing best lift over
drag ratio or minimum sink rate.
Should the engine become inoperative in flight, as a result of either intended or unintended action,
and it cannot be restarted, react as follows:
establish straight and level flight at the speed providing best lift over drag ratio, if you desire
to overcome greatest distance at reach from initial altitude.
establish straight and level flight at speed providing minimum sink rate, if you desire do stay
airborne the longest. This may come in handy in case you are forced to give way to other aircraft or if
you simply need time to determine the most appropriate site to land.
Taurus
minimum sink speed
minimum sink rate (prop.unit., gear retracted)
minumum sink rate(prop.unit extended.)
best lift/drag ratio speed
best lift/drag ratio (prop.unit., gear retracted)
best lift/drag ratio (prop.unit extended.)
L/D ratio at 150 km/h (80 kts)
Model 503
94 km/h (51 kts)
0.70 m/s (140 fpm)
1.52 m/s (270 fpm)
108 km/h (58 kts)
1:41
1:25
1:32
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Maneuver & gust envelope
6
5,30
5
load factor
4,81
4
4,04
4,00
3
2
1
EAS
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
km/h
280
300
-1
-1,50
-2
-2,04
-2,65
-2,81
-3
manouever and gust
TAURUS 472,5kg flap 0
-4
7
6,96
6
load factor
5,61
5
4
5,25
4,68
3
2
1
EAS
km/h
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
-1
-1,97
-2
-2,68
-3
-4
-3,48
-3,61
manouever and gust
TAURUS 360kg flap 0
52 TAURUS motorglider
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Performance
Speed polar
(472 kg, prop.unit & landing gear retracted, optimal flap settings)
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TAURUS motorglider 53
Performance REV. 0
Additional technical data
Taurus
stall speed (flaps extended)
stall speed (flaps retracted)
max. speed of spoiler extension
max. speed with flaps in +5° position
max. speed with flaps in T position
max. speed with flaps in L position
manoeuvring velocity Va
maximum rough air speed Vb (gusts 15 m/s)
max. speed with powerplant extended
max. speed in tow (where permitted legally)
VNE
Vx - best climb-over-distance ratio speed
Vy - best climb rate speed
max. climb rate at MTOM
minimum sink speed
minimum sink rate
max. sink rate with spoilers extended
best glide ratio speed
takeoff runway length at MTOM
takeoff runway length at MTOM over 15 m obst.
service ceiling at MTOM
best glide ratio
glide ratio at 150 km/h
45° left to 45° right - bank to bank time
fuel flow at full power
max. wing load factors
Model 503
63 km/h (34.0 kts)
71 km/h (38.3 kts)
163 km/h (188 kts)
130 km/h (70 kts)
130 km/h (70 kts)
110 km/h (59 kts)
163 km/h (88 kts)
163 km/h (88 kts)
163 km/h (86 kts)
150 km/h (80 kts)
225 km/h (121 kts)
85 km/h (46 kts)
100 km/h (54 kts)
2.9 m/s (580 fpm)
94 km/h (51 kts)
0.70 m/s (140 fpm)
5.8 m/s (1160 fpm)
108 km/h (58 kts)
180 m (590 ft)
265 m (870 ft)
3900 m (12.800 ft)
1:41
1:32
3.5 s
18 l/h
+5.3 G -2.65 G
WARNING! Wing and propeller surfaces must be immaculately clean, dry and undamaged at
all times. As all airfoils are laminar any impact spots, bumps and even a dirty (incl. water, snow...)
surface may significantly lower flight performance. Stall speed, takeoff and landing runway
length, sink rates and fuel consumption increase, while climb rates, ceiling, lift-over-drag ratio
and endurance decrease by as much as 30%. In case of the ceiling, the effect of high temperature
and humidity can result in ceiling to be decreased by as much as 40%. Please consult a Pipistrel
representative for high-altitude engine settings.
Noise levels
Taurus ultralight motorglider’s noise levels were officially measured by the German authorities according to the strict German certificaiton basis. The measured noise level produced by the aircraft
under full power was 59.8 dB.
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TAURUS motorglider 55
Weight and balance REV. 1
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Weight and balance
Introduction
Weighing and centre of
gravity calculation for
empty mass
Weight and Balance
report - including:
Useful load distribution
Definitions and
explanations
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Weight and balance
Introduction
This section contains the payload range within which the aircraft may be safely operated.
Weighing procedure and procedure for calculating the in-flight c.g. are also provided.
Refer to equipment list for the installed equipment and accessories.
Weighing and c.g. calculation - empty mass
1. Completely assemble the aircraft, in closed space without any wind disturbance, and with:
- gear down
- engine, flaps and airbrakes retracted,
- control surfaces neutral,
- equipment and accessories in accordance with equipment list.
2. Remove all foreign objects, e.g. tools, maps, ...
3. Empty fuel tanks (except for the unusable fuel) and water ballast tank, remove baggage.
4. Insert scales under main and a scale with support under tail wheel in order to level the
airplane as follows:
- the slope of upper and lower contour of fuselage tailcone in front of fin must be equal, check
with water scale,
- wings level.
5. Read scale readings, subtract eventual tare weight in order to get net weight.
NOTE: IF ACCURATE HIGH RANGE SCALES FOR MAIN WHEELS ARE NOT AVAILABLE, AIR
CRAFT EMPTY MASS MAY BEDETERMINED BY ADDING UP MASSES OF ALL COMPONETS: LEFT
HAND WING, RIGHTHAND WING, FUSELAGE, HORIZONTAL TAIL.
6. Measure distances »a« and »b« between verticals through axis of main wheels, tail wheel
and datum.
Use plumb line to mark verticals at the floor.
For main wheels and wing leading edges take average of Left-hand and Right-hand verticals.
NOTE: DISTANCES A AND B MAY CHANGE WITH AIRCRAFT WEIGHT DUE TO DEFLEC
TION OF LANDING GEAR  THEY MUST BE MEASURED AT EACH WEIGHING.
7. Calculate c.g. of empty mass as follows:
XCG.empty = (G2.b) / Gempty - a
Gempty
[kg]
G2
XCG.empty
a
[kg]
b
Datum
Empty mass (with equipment and accessories in accordance with equipment
list, but without occupant(s), fuel, baggage and water ballast).
Load on tailwheel.
[mm] Location of empty mass c.g., positive aft of datum.
[mm] Distance between main wheel axis and datum, positive for main wheel forward
of datum.
[mm] Distance between main and tail wheel axis, always positive.
Leading edge of wing root section..
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Weight and balance REV. 1
NOTE: WEIGHING AND C.G. CALCULATION OF FLIGHT MASS CAN BE DONE AS ABOVE, BUT
WITH THE FOLLOWING REMARKS:
 FLIGHT MASS INCLUDES EMPTY MASS, OCCUPANTS, FUEL, BAGGAGE AND WATER BALLAST.
 RUDDER PEDALS AND SEATING POSITION MUST BE ADJUSTED AS IN FLIGHT.
However, flight mass and c.g. are normally calculated as shown in “Flight mass and c.g.”.
Weight and balance report
(including: Useful load distribution)
Fill-up »Weight and Balance« report on the next page.
“Empty mass c.g. limits” diagram is used to find out maximum and minimum cockpit load with
respect to mass and centre of gravity of empty aircraft.
Each weighing and centre of gravity calculation has to be entered in the »Weight and Balance«.
If minimum and maximum cockpit load change with respect to last weighing, cockpit placard must
be changed or corrected as well.
After installation or removal of equipment or accessories, repair, painting, or any change which
affects weight and balance, a new »Weight and Balance« (weighed or calculated, whatever is more
appropriate) must be accomplished.
58 TAURUS motorglider
Weight and balance
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Serial Number
Registration
Weight and Balance - Taurus 503
Weighing and C.G. calculation - empty mass
1
date of weighing
/
2
acomplished by
/
3
date of "Equipment list"
4
main wheel Lh
G1 Lh
kg
123,0
123,4
122,0
5
main wheel Rh
G1 Rh
kg
124,4
124,8
123,5
6
main wheel total
G1
kg
247,4
248,2
245,5
7
tail wheel
G2
kg
49,6
48,8
47,5
8
distance
a
mm
22
24
23
9
distance
b
mm
4402
4406
4400
10
empty mass =(6+7) Gempty
kg
297,0
297,0
293,0
11
empty mass C.G.
713
700
690
12
max cockpit load
180,0
175,5
169,0
1. example
2. example
3. example
/
XCG.empty
mm
without w.ballast
(from "Empty mass c.g. limits" diagram)
kg
Component
mass
a Xcg
kg
kg
kg
kg
472,5
472,5
Lh wing
incl.flaperon
Rh wing
incl.flaperon
Fuselage complete
Horiz. tail
Empty mass
b
Empty mass is with equipment and accesories per equipment list, and without occupants, fuel, baggage and water ballast.
XCG.empty = (G2.b)/Gempty - a
Useful load distribution
13
max mass
14
max useful load
= (13-10)
15
max cockpit load
16
min cockpit load
17
Inspector
without w.ballast
(declared, see Notes)
without w.ballast
(from "Empty mass c.g. limits" diagram)
signature & stamp
kg
472,5
472,5
472,5
kg
175,5
175,5
179,5
kg
175,5
less fuel
less bagage
175,5
less fuel
less bagage
169,0
kg
86,0
82,0
78,0
472,5
472,5
/
Notes: ● Declared max cockpit load without water ballast is:
14 - fuel - baggage,
12,
if 14 is less than, or equal to, 12.
if 14 is more than 12.
● Water ballast is installed for solo flight with lightweight pilot for not to exceed aft c.g. limit.
Min cockpit load may be reduced for 2,3 kg per each litre of water ballast.
● If water ballast is left in the tank for duo flight, max cockpit load must be reduced for 2,3kg per each litre of water ballast.
● Influence of fuel and baggage on aircraft c.g. (and corresponding cockpit load) is neglectable.
● Max mass of single occupant (due to structural load per seat) is 110kg.
● Fuel [kg] = 0,76 kg/litre × litres.
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Definitions and explanations
Empty mass and c.g.
Empty mass is mass of empty aircraft with equipment and accessories in accordance with equipment list. Refer to Weight and Balance report for actual value.
»Empty mass c.g. limits« diagram provides empty mass c.g. limits within which flight mass c.g. is kept
in limits. Or differently, the diagram is used to find out cockpit load with respect to mass and c.g. of
empty aircraft.
840
830
820
810
lines of constant
max cockpit load
- front CG limits
800
Empty mass c.g. limits
Cockpit load in kg with respect to
mass and c.g. of empty aircraft
200
790
780
770
190
760
750
lines of constant
min cockpit load
- aft CG limits
180
740
730
720
170
710
700
690
160
680
660
150
650
140
630
620
580
570
560
550
75
65
60
CG of empty mass distance aft of datum in mm .
590
85
70
640
600
90
80
670
610
95
55
empty mass kg
540
280 282 284 286 288 290 292 294 296 298 300 302 304 306 308 310 312 314 316 318 320
Minimum cockpit load is obtained as follows:
1. Locate c.g. of empty mass XCG.empty [mm] at the Left-hand vertical axis and draw a horizontal line
through it.
2. Locate empty mass G0 [kg] at the bottom horizontal axis and draw a vertical line through it.
3. The intersection of two lines drawn determines minimum cockpit load. Interpolate between lines
of constant minimum cockpit load (RED - 65, 70, 75 kg, ...), if necessary.
NOTE: MIN. COCKPIT LOAD MAY BE REDUCED FOR 2.3 KG PER EACH LITRE OF W. BALLAST.
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Weight and balance
Maximum cockpit load is obtained as follows:
1. Intersection point from the previous step 3. determines maximum cockpit load with respect to
maximum permitted front c.g. of aircraft. Interpolate between lines of constant maximum cockpit
load (BLUE - 140, 150, 160 kg, ...), if necessary.
NOTES:
IF WATER BALLAST IS LEFT IN TANK FOR DUO FLIGHT, MAXIMUM COCKPIT LOAD MUST BE
REDUCED FOR 2.3 KG PER EACH LITRE OF WATER BALLAST.
MAXIMUM COCKPIT LOAD WITH RESPECT TO AIRCRAFT MAXIMUM MASS IS OBTAINED BY
SUBTRACTING EMPTY MASS, FUEL, BAGGAGE AND WATER BALLAST FROM MAXIMUM MASS.
DECLARED MAXIMUM COCKPIT LOAD IS THE LOWEST OF TWO VALUES
Maximum mass
Maximum mass = 472.5 kg fot aircraft with parachute rescue system.
Useful load distribution
Useful load items are cockpit load, fuel, baggage, water ballast.
Cockpit load = occupants (pilot + passenger).
The sum of useful load items must not exceed max useful load.
Max useful load = max.mass - empty mass.
Aircraft flight mass and c.g. depend on quantity and distribution of useful load. Quantity and
distribution of useful load items are explained below. However, the influence of useful load items is
briefly expressed in the condition that, if for a given empty mass and c.g. the max useful, max and
min cockpit load from »Weight and Balance« or cockpit placard are respected, aircraft max mass
and in-flight c.g. will also be kept within limits. Refer to »Weight and Balance« or cockpit placard for
actual value of max useful load and its distribution.
Cockpit load
Refer to »Weight and Balance« or cockpit placard for max and min cockpit load.
Max mass of single occupant (due to structural load per seat) is 110 kg.
Fuel
Max fuel = 1×30 litre (22.8kg), fuel [kg] = 0.76kg/litre × litres.
Fuel quantity depends on useful load, cockpit load, baggage and water ballast. The sum of cockpit
load, fuel, baggage and water ballast must not exceed max useful load.
Fuel (standard in Left-hand wing only, optional 2x30 tanks in both wings where permitted)
is close to aircraft c.g.
The influence on aircraft c.g. is neglectable. Neglectable is also the asymmetry effect.
Baggage
Max baggage = 10kg.
Baggage quantity depends on useful load, cockpit load, fuel and water ballast. The sum of cockpit
load, fuel, baggage and water ballast must not exceed max useful load.
Baggage compartment behind the seat is close to aircraft c.g. – the influence on aircraft c.g. is
neglectable.
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Water ballast
Water ballast in fuselage nose is installed for solo flight with lightweight pilot for not to exceed aft
c.g. limit. For duo flight it is normally removed, because it reduces useful and max cockpit load.
Max water ballast = 9 litre (9kg). Refer to the note of »Weight and Balance« or cockpit placard for
detailed instruction.
Flight mass and c.g.
Flight mass is the sum of empty mass, cockpit load, fuel, baggage and water ballast. Flight mass c.g.
calculation is done in a table as shown by example below:
- multiply mass by distance from datum (positive for items aft of datum) to get moment [kg.mm] of
each item,
- add up moments of all items,
- add up masses of all items,
- divide the sum of moments [kg.mm] by the sum of masses [kg] to obtain flight mass c.g. [mm].
Example of flight mass c.g. calculation
ITEM
aircraft empty
pilot
passenger
fuel
mass = 0,76×litres
baggage
water ballast
mass = litres
total
mass
[kg]
distance from
datum [mm]
moment
[kg.mm]
297,0
88,0
65,0
15,0
5,0
0,0
470,0
713
-541
-541
215
150
-1.800
211.761
-47.608
-35.165
3.225
750
0
132.963
XCG.flight [mm]
= 132.963 / 470
XCG.flight [% of mac]
= (283-39)/868
283 mm
28,1 %
where mac=868mm and 39mm is distance between datum and mac leading edge.
In-flight c.g. limit (238-429) mm or (23-45) %mac must not be exceeded !
Max mass
472,5 kg
must not be exceeded !
Reference masses and c.g.’s of different items
masses and c.g.’s
of different items
mass distance from datum,
positive = aft
kg
mm
-550
-541
pilot only
pilot + passenger
fuel
water ballast
baggage
instruments
parachute rescue system
tail wheel
empty mass engine retracted
empty mass engine extended
max
max
9
10
ref. value
ref. value
297
297
215
-1800
150
-1140
550
4380
713
709
77.7 % MAC
77.2 % MAC
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Aircraft and systems on board
Introduction
Cockpit levers
Instrument panel
Undercarriage
Seats and safety belts
Pitot-static lining
Air brakes (spoilers)
Flap settings
Power plant and propeller
Fuel system
Electrical system
Engine cooling system
Engine lubrication system
Wheel brake system
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Aircraft and systems on board
www.pipistrel.si
Introduction
Taurus is a 15-meter-wingspan, side by side
T-tail motorglider made almost entirely of
composite materials. The wing is mid-mounted
cantilever type, propulsion system is fully retractable to enhance gliding performance
The undercarriage is a taildragger type with
two main, brake equipped wheels, which are
fully retractable. Tail wheel stearable through
rudder input.
Taurus features flaperons, which are interconnected flaps and ailerons presented in the
same deflecting surface. Flaps offer 5 settings:
neutral, 1st, T , L and the negative position of
which none have any impact on aileron deflections whatsoever. What is more, individual
main flight control levers make Taurus ideal for
initial as well as for advanced flight training.
All aileron, elevator and flap controls are connected to the cabin controls using self-fitting
push-pull tubes. Rudder deflects via cables.
The elevator trim is mechanical, spring type.
All aircraft ship with H type safety belts attached to the fuselage at three mounting
points. Rudder pedals can be adjusted to suit
your size and needs.
The fuel tank is located inside the wing. Fuel
valves (if present) are located on the bottom
side consoles in the cockpit. Fuel hose connectors are self securing - this prevents fuel
spills when disassembling the aircraft. The
gascolator is located in on the bottom central
fuselage.
Refuelling can be done by pouring fuel
through the reservoir openings on top of the
wings or by using an electrical fuel pump instead.
The cannopy is either transparent or bluetinted plexy-glass.
Main wheel brakes are hydraulicly driven disc
type. The hydraulic brake fluid used is DOT 4.
Cabin ventilation is achieved through special
ducts fitted onto the cannopy frame and may
be adjusted for crew’s comfort.
To enhance aerodynamics for gliding, Taurus
fully retracts the propulsion unit. This procedure is fully automated and invoked by only a
flip of a switch on the instrument panel.
Electric circuit enables the pilot to test individual circuit items. Navigational (NAV), and anti
collision (AC) lights are an option. The engine/
propeller compartment is fully enclosed and
separated from the cockpit.
Basic instruments come installed with operational limits pre-designated.
A ballistic parachute rescue system can be
installed as an option (in some countries e.g.
Germany the ballistic rescue system must be
installed).
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Composite parts are made of:
fabric:
continous fibres:
foam:
honeycomb:
GFK:
paint:
heat resistant protection
AFK 170, GG90, GG 120, GG160, GG200,
90070, 92110, 92125, 92140, 92145, KHW200
Tenax STS 5631
75 kg/m3 PVC 3mm, PVC 5 mm, PVC 8mm
kevlar 3mm
3 mm, 5 mm, 7 mm of thickness
acrylic
glass-aluminium sandwich
Medal parts used are:
tubes:
sheet metal:
rods:
materials: Fe0146, Fe 0147, Fe0545, Fe1430, AC 100, CR41 in LN9369
materials: Fe0147 in Al 3571
materials: Fe 1221, Fe 4732, Č4130, Al 6082, CR41 in Al 6362
cable:
AISI 316
bolts and nuts:
8/8 steel
All composite parts are made of glass, carbon and kevlar fiber manufactured by Interglas GmbH.
All composite parts have been tested at a safety factor of 1.875.
All parts are made in moulds, therefore, no shape or structural differences can occur.
All design, manufacturing and testing complies with following regulations:
• Lufttüchtigkeitsforderungen für aerodynamisch gesteuerte Ultraleichtflugzeuge (LTF-UL) vom
30. Januar 2003, herausgegeben vom Luftfarht-Bundesamt
• JAR-1 microlight definition
• JAR-22 - certain sections
• JAR-VLA -certain sections
for Slovenian market also: Pravilnik o ultralahkih napravah Republike Slovenije.
All parts and materials present in Taurus ultralight motorglider are also being used
in glider and general aviation industry and all comply with aviation standards.
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Aircraft and systems on board
Cockpit levers
Taurus ultralight motorlglider’s cockpit levers are divided into two groups:
side window, ventilation
side window, ventilation
master switch
ventilation knob
throttle
rudder pedals (left)
rudder pedals (right)
cabin lock lever
cabin lock lever
canopy lift-pad
canopy lift-pad
ventilation nozzle
pedal adjustment knob
fuses
ventilation nozzle
12V socket
fuel valve (left)
airbrakes/wheelbrakes
control stick (left)
trim knob
fuel valve (right)
flap lever
landing gear lever
control stick (right)
Individual control levers: pilot stick, rudeer pedals with belonging length adjustment levers
Shared control levers: throttle lever, flap lever, gear retraction lever, trim lever, airbrakes lever, canopy lock levers, ventilation lever and emergency parachute release handle.
Instrument panel
compass
primary flight
instruments
slip indicator
ventilation/de-fogging
knob
Ibis II
master switch
fuses
throttle lever
CHT/EGT gauge
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Taurus ultralight motorglider comes standard with a modern, electronic instrument panel. The panel
utilizes the power of Ibis II engine control and monitoring instrument. Besides the conventional instruments the panel includes a magnetic compass, a side-slip indicator, 12 V socket, cockpit ventilation lever, throttle lever, master switch, fuses, CHT/EGT gauge and primary flight instruments.
Undercarriage
The undercarriage is a taildragger type with two main, brake equipped, retractable wheels and a
rudder-guided tail wheel. Main gear is retcracted / lowered by operating a lever located between
both seats, accessible to both crew. Once main gear is lowered it is locked into position automatically. Wheel brakes are both engaged simultaneusly when the airbrakes are fully extended and the
pilot continues to pull on the airbrake lever.
distance between main wheels:
distance between main and tail wheel axis:
tire:
tire pressure
brakes:
brake fluid:
0,68 m
4,403 m
4,00'' x 6'' (main wh.), 2,50'' x 4'' (tail wh.)
1,5 - 1,6 bar / 21-23 PSI (main wheels),
0,6 bar / 9 PSI (tail wheel)
disk type, engaged simultaneously upon full airbrake extension
DOT 4
Main gear lowered and locked (side view)
Main gear lowered and locked
(front view)
Main gear retracted (side view)
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Aircraft and systems on board
Seats and safety belts
Seats have no stiff internal structure and do not offer different settings. All Taurus ultralight
motorgliders ship with H type safety belt attached to the fuselage at three mounting points.
Pitot-Static lines
The pitot tube is inside the nose-tip. Pitot lines made of plastic materials lead from there to the instrument panel and are secured from non-intentional damage. Static ports are located on both sides
of the nose below the middle line and are marked with red circles. Static lines are led from the static
ports to the instrument panel, are of composite materials and secured.
Air brakes (spoilers)
Spoilers are most commonly used to increase drag and steepen the final approach.
During takeoff, climb and cruise spoilers MUST be retracted and locked (handle in cockpit in full
forward position). To unlock and extend spoilers, pull the handle upwards.
Flap settings
Taurus ultralight motorglider is equipped with flaperons which offer five (5) different flap settings.
Apart from the limitations for extesion of +9° and +18° flaps, there are recommendations for the use
of flaps with different speed-ranges and types of flight operation.
Recommended speed ranges for certain flap settings in when gliding:
flaps in negative position; -5° (up):
flaps in neutral position; 0° (neutral):
flaps in 1st position; +5° (down):
flaps in T position; +9° (down):
flaps in L position: +18° (down):
faster than 150 km/h km/h (80 kts)
120 - 150 km/h (65 - 80 kts)
90 - 120 km/h (50 - 65 kts)
80 - 90 km/h (43 - 50 kts)
FINAL APPROACH - LANDING
Water ballast reservoir
Taurus ultralight motorglider is equipped with a water ballast reservoir to provide for better control
over the aircraft’s centre of gravity. The reservoir is placed in front-cabin and secured with two (2)
fastening butterfly screws with as the retaining mechanism. The quantity of the reservoir is 9 litres
(9 kg). Lever arm for centre of gravity calculations is -1800 mm. There are placards on the instrument
panel indicating minimum and maximum allowable crew weight with and without (9 kg) water ballast. The mentioned figures are to be respected at all times!
WARNING! CHECK THE WATER BALANCE RESERVOIR IN FRONTCABIN AND VERIFY
CREW’S WEIGHT BEFORE EVERY FLIGHT AS IT MAY INFLUENCE THE CENTRE OF GRAVITY OF
AIRCRAFT TO THE POINT WHERE IT IS NO LONGER CONTROLLABLE!
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Power plant and propeller
Taurus has an engine mounted inside a fully enclosed compartment in the rear of the fuselage. The
propeller is mounted on a composite swing-arm and is driven via an enclosed belt-drive system. The
whole propulsion unit can be lowered for gliding or raised for powered flight by simple use of the
Ibis II, the propulsion control and monitoring instrument.
Engine:
Engine:
ROTAX 503 (two-stroke inline, two cylinders, 497 cm3)
cooling:
lubrication:
reduction gearbox:
reduction ratio:
el. generator output power:
starter:
engine power:
battery:
twin membrane carburated - double electronic ignition
ram air cooling
by adding oil into fuel
belt drive
1 : 2.5
170 W at 6000 RPM
electric
49 HP at 6600 RPM
12 V, 8 Ah
All metal ropes used are bowden cables.
Propeller:
Taurus propeller:
twin blade, fixed pitch wood-composite propeller - diameter 1600 mm
Engine, swing-arm and propeller schematic
Note: Dimensions are approximate.
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Aircraft and systems on board
Ibis II - engine control & monitoring instrument
In order to simplify aircraft handling, the Ibis II system takes complete control over the propulsion
unit except for throttle and choke, which are operated by cockpit levers. The system is very light and
reliable as all switches and sensors used to monitor the operations are inductive type and as such
not sensitive to vibration, mechanical damage and/or dirt.
Panel view:
Ibis
1
Ignition warning light – when the propeller arm is extended and the ignition is still
2
Propeller status light – when the propeller is in vertical position, a yellow light is on.
3
Propeller arm extended – when the propeller arm is extended, a green light is on.
4
Ignition switch – when the switch is the up position, the ignition is on. In this case the
5
Speaker
6
LED display – it displays the engine RPM while the engine is running e.g. 621 = 6210 RPM.
7
Propeller arm retracted – when the propeller arm is retracted completely, a green light is
8
Propeller arm control switch
9
Engine starter button – Starter will be activated only when the engine is completely
switched off, the red light will flash and a tone will beep.
ignition warning light stops flashing. If the switch is down, the ignition is off.
When the engine is not running, the display indicates the engine hours (up to 400 hours).
If the master switch is switched off and back on while the engine is extended, the display
shows minutes of the past hour. When the master switch is switched off and back on while the
engine is retracted, the display shows total engine hours (hours only).
on.
extended and the ignition is switched on. Otherwise the starter remains inactive even if this
button is pressed. The starter is also inactive while the engine is running.
This button has an additional function; while the propeller arm is retracting, press this buttion
to stop it in any position (in order to cool down the engine). Press the same button again to
reactivate the retraction.
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Extending the propeller arm:
WARNING! BEFORE EXTENDING THE PROPELLER ARM IN-FLIGHT, SET FLAPS TO T STAGE AND
REDUCE SPEED TO 90 KM/H (50 KTS).
1. Turn the master switch ON (key full to the right).
The LED display indicates the engine hours count, Propeller arm retracted and Propeller status
indicator light are on.
2. Switch the Propeller arm control switch to UP.
The propeller arm will raise to the final extension point where the Propeller arm extended indicator lights up. A tone beep(30 seconds) will be activated and the Ignition warning light will flash if
the ignition is still off at this point.
3. Switch the ignition switch ON (up) to prepare the engine for start-up.
Starting the engine (continued from Extending the propeller arm):
CAUTION! BEFORE STARTING-UP THE ENGINE, VERIFY THE PROPELLER ARM IS EXTENDED AND
PROPELLER IN VERTICAL POSITION BY CHECKING THE COCKPIT MIRROR.
1. Set throttle 1/2 and primer as necessary (see Normal Procedures).
2. Press the START button.
When the engine is running, the display will show engine RPM.
Shutting-down the engine:
1. Switch the ignition switch OFF (down).
This will switch the ignition off and shut the engine down. A sound signal (30 seconds) will be
activated and the Ignition warning light will be flashing while the LED diplay shows the engine
working hours.
Retracting the propeller arm:
WARNING! BEFORE RETRACTING THE PROPELLER ARM IN-FLIGHT, SET FLAPS TO T STAGE
AND REDUCE SPEED TO 70 KM/H (40 KTS). THE ENGINE MUST BE STOPPED BEFORE APPLYING
THIS PROCEDURE!
1. Once the engine has stopped, switch the Propeller arm control switch to DOWN.
The system now enters retraction mode. The propeller arm is moved backwards by approximately
15 degrees to the point where the propeller needs to be positioned vertically. At the speed of
85 to 95 km/h the propeller wind-mills slowly. Use the cockpit mirror to monitor propeller windmilling and increase/reduce airspeed (or use the starter button) if necessary. When the propeller
reaches vertical position, it is automatically stuck. Propeller status is indicated by the yellow light.
The system waits for two more seconds to verify there is no further movement of the propeller,
before the propeller arm retraction continues. When the engine has completely retracted, the
green engine retraction control light comes on.
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Aircraft and systems on board
Fuel system
description:
fuel selector valves:
gascolator:
fuel capacity:
unusable fuel:
fuel filter:
vented wing fuel tanks with refuling aperture on top of the wings
only with optional 2 x 30 liter reservoir, separate for each tank
filter equipped with drain valve
1 x 30 liters (option 2 x 30 liters)
2 liters (5 liters)
metal, inside the gascolator AND paper filter before gascolator
All fuel hoses are protected with certified glass-teflon cover. There is a fuel return circuit leading excess fuel back into the port (left) wing tank.
CAUTION! DUE TO THE POSITION OF THE FUEL RESERVOIR SUPPLY POINT, FLYING IN
CONSIDERABLE SIDESLIP FOR A LONGER TIME MAY RESULT IN FUEL STARVATION TO THE ENGINE
IF THE FUEL TANK IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION OF THE SIDESLIP IS CLOSED. SHOULD THIS
OCCUR, RIGHTEN THE FLIGHT AND RE-OPEN THE FUEL TANK IN QUESTION (if equipped with 2 x
30 tanks) IMMEDIATELY TO PREVENT ENGINE FAILURE.
Schematic of fuel system - model 503, single fuel reservoir
carburetor
air filter
fuel distributor
engine bay
coupling
fuel pump
fuel tank
filter
drainer
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Schematic of fuel system - model 503, two fuel reservoirs
carburetor
air filter
fuel distributor
engine bay
coupling
fuel pump
fuel tank
filter
drainer
fuel valve
fuel valve
Electrical system
description:
master switch:
magneto switches:
battery:
Double separated magneto ignition. Standard, 12 V circuit charges the
battery and provides power to all appliances and instruments.
key type
magneto test flip-switch (default posion is BOTH ON)
12 V, 8 Ah or 5 Ah
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Aircraft and systems on board
Schematic of electrical system (cockpit side)
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Schematic of electrical system (single battery)
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Aircraft and systems on board
Engine cooling system
Rotax 503 cooling system
The Rotax 503 engine (Taurus ultralight motorglider Model 503) is aircooled by taking advantage of
propeller airflow. Cold air accelerated by the propeller enters the duct intake mounted on the propeller arm and is then forced to spread over the engine cooling ribs. The air is then blown out of the
engine compartment behind the engine.
Engine lubrication system
Rotax 503 is a two-stroke engine and is adequately lubricated by oil/fuel mixture. Proper lubrication
is ensured by adding 2% of syntetic of semi-syntetic oil into the fuel canister.
Wheel brake system
Wheel brake system features common braking action for both main wheels. Wheel brakes are hydraulicly driven disc type.
Wheel brakes are operated by extending the airbrake lever past the full extension point.
Hydraulic brake fluid used for hydraulic type brakes is DOT 4.
If the braking action on your aircraft is poor even while the full backward pressure is applied on the
airbrake handle, please see chapter on Handling and Maintenance of this manual to learn how to
rectify this problem.
TAURUS motorglider 77
Handling and maintenance REV. 0
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Handling
and maintenance
Introduction
Inspection periods
Repairs and
spare part replacements
Preventative maintenance
Special check-ups
Draining and refuelling
Tie down
Storage
Cleaning
Keeping your aircraft in
perfect shape
78 TAURUS motorglider
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Handling and maintenance
Introduction
This chapter determines handling and (preventative) maintenance terms. Also, recommended
ground handling is presented.
THE FOLLOWING ARE PROVISIONAL VALUES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE!
Inspection periods
See “Service manual”.
Repairs, spare part replacements and
preventative maintenance
All major repairs and spare part replacements MUST be done by
authorised service personnel.
However, you are encouraged to take care of preventative maintenance yourself. This includes:
tire and wheel bearings replacements, safety wire replacements, door and safety harness replacement, light bulb replacements, fuel hose replacements, battery servicing and replacement,
spark plugs replacements and air filter replacements.
The table below indicates recommended maintenance periods (see Service manual for detailed information).
Table legend:
C Check-up - visual only, check for free play and whether everything is in position - DO IT YOURSELF
CL Cleaning - DO IT YOURSELF
LO Lubricating, oiling - lubricate all designated parts and spots using proper lubricant -
DO IT YOURSELF
R Replacement - replace designated parts regardless of state and condition.
You are encouraged to DO undemanding replacements YOURSELF, otherwise have replacements
done by AUTHORISED SERVICE PERSONNEL
SC Special check-up - measuring, verifying tolerances and functionality - DONE BY AUTHORISED
SERVICE PERSONNEL ONLY
O Overhaul
EACH daily
WING AND TAIL SURFACES
surface and structure condition
deflections without free play
bearings - moving parts bushings
lights
self-adhesive sealing tape
horizon. tail mount
drain holes
first 5
50
100
250
500 1.000 10.000
hours hours hours hours hours hours hours
SC
C
C
C
C
C
C
CL
SC
SC
SC
C
C
R
SC
O
TAURUS motorglider 79
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www.pipistrel.si
EACH daily
FUSELAGE
surface and structure condition
elevator control tube bearing
doors, hinges
rudder control wires and hinges
drainage holes
CABIN
control levers, instr. panel, seats
control levers’ free play
intstruments and pitot-static
glass surfaces: clean, attached
rivet condition
safety harnesses and attach. points
parachute rescue sys. activation handle
wing connectors: fuel, electrical
bolts and spar pins
wing main bushings, control connectors
UNDERCARRIAGE
tires
wheel axis and wheels
wheel bearings
wheel fairings
tail wheel mounting bolt
fist 5
50
100
250
500 1.000 10.000
hours hours hours hours hours hours hours
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
SC
SC
SC
O
SC
O
SC
LO
C
CL
SC
SC
SC
SC
C
test
SC
SC
SC
SC
C
C
SC
SC
SC
O
C
C
C
R
C
C
SC
R
C
C
check and fasten every 50 landings
CONTROLS
R
PITOT-STATIC LINING
SC
C
C
SC
general free play
C
LO
SC
control stick
C
C
C
LO
rudder pedals (damage, centered, paral.)
C
SC
rudder wire rope
SC
LO
bolts, visible bearings (tail, fuselage)
LO
difficult-to-reach bearings (wings, under cabin floor)
SC
LO
aileron, elevator and rudder hinges
C
SC
LO
equal spoiler extension, undisrupted m.
C
spoiler plate springs stiffness
C
SC
LO
flap handle
C
LO
elevator trim
LO
C
R
springs: flaps, rudder, el. trim, stablizer main fastening bolt
airbrakes internal connector rod (if flown or stored where possibilty for
replace every 2 years
corrosion is increased (oceanside, wet regions...)
see page 73 for detailed description
spoilers’ (airbrakes’) drive fine adjustment
instrument to pitot tube lining
instrument setting
pitot tube condition (clean, firmly att.)
whole pitot-static lining
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
O
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Handling and maintenance
EACH daily
ENGINE
first 5 50
100 300 500 1.000 10.000
hours hours hours hours hours hours hours
see enclosed Rotax engine manual for detailed engine maintenance information.
In addition to Rotax manual:
two-stroke engines (overhaul every 300 hours)
cylinder head and exhaust pipe bolts
(two-stroke engines)
engine bearer dumpers and other
rubber parts
air filers
C
elect. terminals, joints and
C
connectors, hoses
pre-chamber and exhaust silencer
C
exhaust pipe springs and fire protect. C
throttle wire drive
ENGINE CONTROL
throttle lever wire ropes
levers
PROPELLER
surface condition
fastening bolts
propeller bushings
propeller balance
FUEL LINES
general leakage
water inside gascolator
dirt and gascolator filter
engine hoses and temp. protection
wing fuel tank caps
fuel tank caps o-ring
auxillary fuel pump
fuel valves leakage
ELECTRICAL WIRING
battery
instr.panel wires and connectors
fuses (instrument panel - automatic)
fuses (engine electrical panel)
C
C
C
C
SC
R
C
CL
R
C
SC
C
C
SC
R
R
R
O
C
C
C
SC
SC
R
SC
C
C
O
R
R
C
O
C
C
C
CL
SC
CL
C
C
CL
SC
R
R
CL
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
SC
C
C
SC
R
C
C
R
C
C
R
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EACH daily
first 5 50
100 300 500 1.000 10.000
hours hours hours hours hours hours hours
SC
PROPULSION UNIT
transmission belt - check every 10 hours of engine operation!
C
C
C
C
engine retaining wire
engine bay door rubbers ropes
exhaust system springs
exhaust system rubber
carburetors
rubber shock absorbers (main)
rubber shock absorbers (actuator)
fuel filter (paper filter)
engine-propeller arm
C
C
C
R
SC
R
SC
R
R
R
CL
C
C
R
R
replace every 25 hrs
CHECK CONDITION EVERY DAY
Spoilers (airbrakes) drive fine adjustment
CAUTION! PERFORM THIS OPERATION ONLY ONCE AFTER FIRST 50 FLIGHT HOURS!
CHECK SPOILERS THOROUGHLY FOR UNOBSTRUCTED, SMOOTH AND EVEN EXTENTION
BEFORE EVERY FLIGHT!
Schematic of spoilers’ (airbrakes’) drive fine adjustment
2
1
5
3
4
(see next page for detailed description)
4
R
82 TAURUS motorglider
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Perform the adjustment as follows:
1
Unscrew and remove the inner horizontal bolt of the airbrake’s plate. Do not lose any parts!
2
Lift the airbrake in order to make room for further operation.
3
Unscrew and remove the bolt attaching the rod-end bearing to the airbrake’s plate lever.
Do not lose any parts!
4
Rotate the rod-end bearing fine-setting nut 360° so that the rod end moves towards the
other end of the airbrake’s box (length of rod increases). Make sure you secure this nut
after turning it for 360°!
5
Grease the drive around the rubber sleave inside the airbrake’s box using rubber-nonagressive lubricant spray.
Once you have accomplished this, repeat steps 1-3 in opposite order (3,2,1). Make sure you apply adhesive (e.g. Loctite) on all screws when reattaching!
Perform the procedure at the other airbrake as well.
When finished, verify airbrakes for equal extension.
WARNING! SHOULD THE AIRBRAKES NOT RETRACT EVENLY, APPLY STEP 4 ACTION AGAIN
FOR THE AIRBRAKE, WHICH REMAINS HIGHER WHEN RETRACTING.
Clicking noise behind the cockpit
The wings are factory fitted to the fuselage to make a tight fit at approximately 20° Celsius. When exposed to low temperatures, materials shrink. Therefore, flying in the winter or in cold temperatures,
you may encounter “click-clack” like noises above your head. The remedy for this unpleasant noise
is to add washers, tipically of 0,5 mm thickness in-between wing and fuselage. Washers must be
added both at rear and front bushings on one side of the fuselage only!
WARNING! IT IS MANDATORY TO CONSULT THE MANUFACTURER OR AUTHORISED SERVICE
PERSONNEL BEFORE APPLYING WASHERS!
Bleeding the hydraulic brake system
Two persons are needed to perform the hydraulic brake system bleeding in the traditional way.
First, fill up the hydraulic fluid reservoir, mounted on the bottom of the fuselage behind the cockpit,
with DOT 4 fluid. Then, one person should pump the hydrulic oil towards the main landing wheels
using pumping motion on the airbrake handle. After 5-10 complete forward-aft movements, hold
the airbrakes handle in fully engaged position. Now, the second person must open the bleed valve
on one of the main wheels to bleed the air pockets from the hydraulic lines. Close the bleed valve
each time before continuing with the pumping motion on the airbrake handle.
Repeat this procedure until no more air is bled out of the bleed valve.
Then perform the same procedure for the other main wheel.
WARNING! SHOULD YOU ENCOUNTER ANY DIFFICULTIES DURING THIS PROCEDURE OR
THE AIR POCKETS WOULD NOT VENT, PLEASE CONSULT THE MANUFACTURER OR AUTHORISED
SERVICE PERSONNEL FOR FURTHER INSTRUCTIONS.
www.pipistrel.si
TAURUS motorglider 83
Handling and maintenance REV. 0
Schematic of hydraulic brakes’ lining
Poor braking action
In case you notice poor braking action even when hydraulic brakes are fully engaged (airbrake lever
full back), it is not necessary the air bubbles in the hydraulic lining, which is causing the problem.
The main wheel’s main axis’ nut (especially after a wheel and/or axis replacementnut) may be tightened incorrectly so that the brake shims do not make contact with the brake plate. Please consult
the manufacturer or authorised service personnel for further information.
Schematic of wheel and wheel brakes
84 TAURUS motorglider
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Handling and maintenance
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Special check-ups
After having exceeded VNE or landed in a rough manner:
check the undercarriage, fuselage & wing surfaces and main spars for abnormalities. It is highly
recommended to have the aircraft verified for airworthiness by authorised service personnel.
Draining and re-fuelling
Whenever draining or re-fuelling make sure master switch is set to OFF (key in full left position).
Draining the fuel system
The gascolator is located on the bottom of the fuselage and accessible through the aft cabin.
To drain the fuel system, open the drain valve on the gascolator. Drain no more than a couple of
spoonfuls of fuel. Try to prevent ground pollution by intercepting the fuel with a canister.
To close the valve simply turn it in the opposite direction. Do not use force or special tools!
CAUTION! ALWAYS DRAIN THE FUEL SYSTEM BEFORE YOU MOVE THE AIRCRAFT FROM A
STANDSTILL TO PREVENT MIXING OF THE FUEL AND EVENTUAL WATER OR PARTICLES.
Re-fuelling
CAUTION! BEFORE RE-FUELLING IT IS NECESSARY TO GROUND THE AIRCRAFT!
Refuel the aircraft by pouring the gasoline through the top-wing fuel reservoir openings or using a
pump to do so.
Tie down
Tie down the Taurus using dedicated screw-in rings which attacth to the adequate threads on the
bottom side of the wing. Alternatively you may also tie down the wings using a rope over the winglet area, however, make sure you place a soft piece of foam or equivalent between the wing surface
and the rope, so as not to cause surface and structural damage in case of over-tightening the rope.
Tie down the tail by leading the rope over the fuselage just where the vertical tail surface meets the
fuselage. Tighten this rope in backwards (45°) direction.
Parking and Storage
The aircraft is ideally stored in a hangar. For increased in-hangar manouvrability use of original pushcart or free turning tail wheel adapter is recommended.
Even for over-night storage it is recommended to leave the spoiler (airbrake) handle
unlocked in order to reduce pressure on plate springs in order to maintain their original stiffness.
As for the parachute rescue system make sure the activation handle safety pin is inserted every time
you leave the aircraft.
Apply the tubes onto fuel line vents so that fuel would not spill onto the wing in event of full fuel
tanks, temperature expansion of fuel and/or parking on a slope.
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TAURUS motorglider 85
Handling and maintenance REV. 1
CAUTION! SHOULD THE AIRCRAFT BE STORED AND/OR OPERATED IN AREAS WITH
HIGH ATMOSPHERIC HUMIDITY PAY SPECIAL ATTENTION TO EVENTUAL CORROSION
OF METAL PARTS, ESPECIALLY INSIDE THE WINGS. UNDER SUCH CIRCUMSTANCES IT IS
NECESSERY TO REPLACE THE SPOILERS AIRBRAKES CONNECTOR ROD EVERY 2 YEARS.
CAUTION! MAKE SURE THE CABIN IS CLOSED AND LOCKED EVERYTIME YOU LEAVE THE
AIRCRAFT. OTHERWISE THE CANOPY FRAME MAY NO LONGER FIT THE FUSELAGE AFTER
A WHILE AS PLEXIGLASS AND FIBER HAVE SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT STRETCH COEFI
CIENTS.
CAUTION! WHENEVER LEAVING THE AIRCRAFT PARKED UNDER SUNSHINE, ALWAYS
COVER THE CANOPY WITH A LIGHTCOLOURED CLOTH TO PREVENT OVERHEATING. DO
THIS AFTER YOU HAVE CLOSED AND LOCKED THE CANOPY USING BOTH LATCHES.
Cleaning
Use pure water and a soft piece of cloth to clean the aircraft exterior. If you are unable to remove
certain spots, consider using mild detergents. Afterwards, rinse the entire surface thoroughly.
Always use pure water only to clean the glass surfaces, so as not to damage their protection
layers and coatings.
To protect the aircraft surface (excluding glass surfaces) from the environmental contaminants,
use best affordable car wax. (e.g. Sonax Extreme WAX Full Protection no.1)
The interior is to be cleaned with a vacuum cleaner.
Keeping your aircraft in perfect shape
Precautions
1) DO NOT USE ANY aggressive cleaning solutions and organic solvents, also the window cleaning
spray, benzene, acetone, aggressive shampoos etc.
2) If you must use an organic solvent (acetone) on small areas to remove certain glue leftovers
or similar, the surface in question MUST be polished thereafter. The only section where polishing
should be avoided is the edge on the wing where the sealing gasket is applied.
3) When flying in regions with a lot of bugs in the air, you should protect the leading edges of the
airframe before flight (propeller, wings, tail) with Antistatic furniture spray cleaner: “Pronto (transparent), manufacturer: Johnson Wax (or anything equivalent) – Worldwide”, approximate price is only $3
USD / €3 EUR for a 300 ml spray bottle. Using such spray, do not apply it directly onto the wing but
into a soft cloth instead (old T-shirts are best).
4) After having finished with flight activity for the day, clean the leading edges of the airframe as
soon as possible with a lot of water and a drying towel (chamois, artificial leather skin). This will be
very easy to do if you applied a coat of Pronto before flight.
Detailed handling (Airframe cleaning instructions)
Every-day care after flight
Bugs, which represent the most of the dirt to be found on the airframe, are to be removed with clean
water and a soft mop (can be also drying towel, chamois, artificial leather skin).
86 TAURUS motorglider
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To save time, soak all the leading edges of the airframe first. Make sure to wipe ALL of the aircraft
surface until it is completely dry at the end.
Clean the propeller and the areas with greasy spots separately using a mild car shampoo with wax.
CAUTION! DO NOT, UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES ATTEMPT TO USE AGGRESSIVE CLEANING
SOLUTIONS, AS YOU WILL SEVERELY DAMAGE THE LACQUER, WHICH IS THE ONLY PROTECTIVE
LAYER BEFORE THE STRUCTURAL LAMINATE.
When using the aircraft in difficult atmospheric conditions (intense sunshine, dusty winds, coastline,
acid rains etc.) make sure to clean the outer surface even more thoroughly.
If you notice you cannot remove the bug-spots from the leading edges of the aircraft, this means the
lacquer is not protected any more, therefore it is necessary to polish these surfaces.
CAUTION! DO NOT, UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES ATTEMPT TO REMOVE SUCH BUGSPOTS
WITH ABRASIVE SPONGES AND/OR ROUGH POLISHING PASTES.
Periodical cleaning of all outer surfaces with car shampoo
Clean as you would clean your car starting at the top and working your way downwards using a soft
sponge. Be careful not to use a sponge that was contaminated with particles e.g. mud, fine sand)
not to grind the surface. While cleaning, do soak the surface and the sponge many, many times. Use
a separate sponge to clean the bottom fuselage, as is it usually more greasy than the rest of the airframe. When pouring water over the airframe, be careful not to direct it over the fuel reservoir caps,
wing-fuselage joining section, parachute rescue system straps and cover, pitot tube, tail static probe
and engine covers.
Always water the shampooed surfaces again before they become dry! Thereafter, wipe the whole of
the aircraft dry using a drying towel, chamois or artificial leather skin.
Also, clean the Mylar wing and tail control surfaces gaskets. Lift the gaskets gently and insert ONE
layer of cloth underneath, then move along the whole span of the gasket. Ultimately, you may wish
to apply Teflon grease (in spray) over the area where the gaskets touch the control surfaces.
Polishing by hand
Use only the highest quality polishing pastes WITHOUT abrasive grain, such as Sonax Extreme no.1
or similar. Start polishing on a clean, dry and cool surface, never in the sunshine!
Machine polishing requires more skills and has its own particularities, therefore it is recommended
to leave it to a professional.
Cleaning the Plexy-glass transparent surfaces
It is most important to use really clean water (no cleaning solutions are necessary) and a really clean
drying towel (always use a separate towel ONLY for the glass surfaces). Should the glass surfaces be
dusty, remove the dust first by puring water (not spraying!) and gliding your hand over the surface.
Using the drying towel, simply glide it over the surface, then squeeze it and soak it before touching the glass again. If there are bugs on the windshield, soak them with plenty of water first, so less
wiping is necessary. Ultimately, dry the whole surface and apply JT Plexus Spray ($10 USD / €10 EUR
per spray) or at least Pronto antistatic (transparent) spray and wipe clean with a separate soft cotton
cloth.
TAURUS motorglider 87
Appendix REV. 0
www.pipistrel.si
Appendix
Conversion tables
Preflight check-up pictures
Taurus ultralight
motorglider checklist
88 TAURUS motorglider
REV. 0
www.pipistrel.si
Appendix
Conversion tables
kilometers per hour (km/h) - knots (kts) - metres per sec. (m/s)
km/h
kts
m/s
km/h
kts
m/s
km/h
kts
m/s
1,853
1
0,37
63,00
34
18,34
124,16
67
36,15
3,706
2
1,07
64,86
35
18,88
126,01
68
36,69
5,560
3
1,61
66,71
36
19,42
127,87
69
37,23
7,413
4
2,15
68,56
37
19,96
129,72
70
37,77
9,266
5
2,69
70,42
38
20,50
131,57
71
38,31
11,11
6
3,23
72,27
39
21,04
133,43
72
38,86
12,97
7
3,77
74,12
40
21,58
135,28
73
39,39
14,82
8
4,31
75,98
41
22,12
137,13
74
39,93
16,67
9
4,85
77,83
42
22,66
198,99
75
40,47
18,53
10
5,39
79,68
43
23,20
140,84
76
41,01
20,38
11
5,93
81,54
44
23,74
142,69
77
41,54
22,23
12
6,47
83,39
45
24,28
144,55
78
42,08
24,09
13
7,01
85,24
46
24,82
146,40
79
42,62
25,94
14
7,55
87,10
47
25,36
148,25
80
43,16
27,79
15
8,09
88,95
48
25,90
150,10
51
43,70
29,65
16
8,63
90,80
49
26,44
151,96
82
44,24
31,50
17
9,17
92,66
50
26,98
153,81
83
44,78
33,35
18
9,71
94,51
51
27,52
155,66
84
45,32
35,21
19
10,25
96,36
52
28,05
157,52
85
45,86
37,06
20
10,79
98,22
53
28,59
159,37
86
46,40
38,91
21
11,33
100,07
54
29,13
161,22
87
46,94
40,77
22
11,81
101,92
55
29,67
163.08
88
47,48
42,62
23
12,41
103,77
56
30,21
164,93
89
48,02
44,47
24
12,95
105,63
57
30,75
166,78
90
48,56
46,33
25
13,49
107,48
58
31,29
168,64
91
49,10
48,18
26
14,03
109,33
59
31,83
170,49
92
49,64
50,03
27
14,56
111,19
60
32,37
172,34
93
50,18
51,80
28
15,10
113,04
61
32,91
174,20
94
50,12
53,74
29
15,64
114,89
62
33,45
176,05
95
51,26
55,59
30
16,18
116,75
63
33,99
177,90
96
51,80
57,44
31
16,72
118,60
64
34,53
179,76
97
52,34
59,30
32
17,26
120,45
65
35,07
181,61
98
52,88
61,15
33
17,80
122,31
66
35,61
183,46
99
53,42
TAURUS motorglider 89
Appendix REV. 0
www.pipistrel.si
knots (kts) - metres per second (m/s)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
0
0
0,51
10,28
25,43
20,57
25,72
30,86
36,00
41,15
46,30
1
0,51
5,65
10,80
15,94
21,09
26,23
31,38
36,52
41,67
46,81
2
1,02
6,17
11,31
16,46
21,60
26,75
31,89
37,04
42,18
47,32
3
1,54
6,66
11,83
16,97
22,12
27,26
32,41
37,55
42,69
47,84
4
2,05
7,20
12,34
17,49
22,63
27,76
32,92
38,06
43,21
48,35
5
2,57
7,71
12,86
18,00
23,15
28,29
33,43
38,58
43,72
48,87
6
3.08
8,23
13,37
18,52
23,66
28,80
33,95
39,09
44,24
49,38
7
3,60
8,74
13,89
19,03
24,17
29,32
34,46
39,61
44,75
49,90
8
4,11
9,26
14,40
19,54
24,69
29,83
34,98
40,12
45,27
50,41
9
4,63
9,77
14,91
20,06
25,20
30,35
35,49
40,64
45,78
50,90
metres per second (m/s) - feet per minute (100 ft/min)
m/sec.
100
ft/min
m/sec.
100
ft/min
m/sec.
100
ft/min
0,50
1
1,96
10,66
21
41,33
20,82
41
80,70
1,01
2
3,93
11,17
22
43,30
21,33
42
82,67
1,52
3
5,90
11,68
23
45,27
21,84
43
84,64
2,03
4
7,87
12,19
24
47,24
22,35
44
86,61
2,54
5
9,84
12,75
25
49,21
22,86
45
88,58
3,04
6
11,81
13,20
26
51,18
23,36
46
90,53
3,55
7
13,78
13,71
27
53,15
23,87
47
92,52
4,06
8
15,74
14,22
28
55,11
24,38
48
94,48
4,57
9
17,71
14,73
29
57,08
24,89
49
96,45
5,08
10
19,68
15,24
30
59,05
25,45
50
98,42
5,58
11
21,65
15,74
31
61,02
25,90
51
100,4
6.09
12
23,62
16,25
32
62,92
26,41
52
102,3
6,60
13
25,51
16.76
33
64,96
26,92
53
104,3
7,11
14
27,55
17,27
34
66,92
27,43
54
106,2
7,62
15
29,52
17,78
35
68,89
27,94
55
108,2
8,12
16
31,49
18,28
36
70,86
28,44
56
110,2
8,63
17
33,46
18,79
37
72,83
28,95
57
112,2
9,14
18
35,43
19,30
38
74,80
29,46
58
114,1
9,65
19
37,40
19,81
39
76,77
29,97
59
116,1
10,16
20
39,37
20,32
40
78,74
30,48
60
118,1
90 TAURUS motorglider
REV. 0
www.pipistrel.si
Appendix
ICAN (international comitee for air navigation)
temperatures, relative pressure, relative density and
CAS to TAS correction factors as related to altitude
Altitude
feet
metres
Temperature
°C
°F
Relative
pressure
Relative
density
Cor. factors
-2.000
-610
18,96
66,13
1,074
1,059
0,971
-1
-305
16,98
62,56
1,036
1,029
0,985
0
0
15
59
1
1
1
1.000
305
13,01
55,43
0,964
0,971
1,014
2.000
610
11,03
51,86
0,929
0,942
1,029
3.000
914
9,056
48,30
0,896
0,915
1,045
4.000
1219
7,075
44,73
0,863
0,888
1,061
5.000
1524
5,094
41,16
0,832
0,861
1,077
6.000
1829
3,113
37,60
0,801
0,835
1,090
1.000
2134
1,132
34,03
0,771
0,810
1,110
8.000
2438
-0,850
30,47
0,742
0,785
1,128
9.000
2743
-2,831
26,90
0,714
0,761
1,145
10.000
3090
-4,812
23,33
0,687
0,738
1,163
11.000
3353
-6,793
19,77
0,661
0,715
1,182
12.000
3658
-8,774
16,20
0,635
0,693
1,201
13.000
3916
-10,75
12,64
0,611
0,671
1,220
14.000
4267
-12,73
9,074
0,587
0,649
1,240
15.000
4572
-14,71
5,507
0,564
0,629
1,260
16.000
4877
-16,69
1,941
0,541
0,608
1,281
17.000
5182
-18,68
-1,625
0,520
0,589
1,302
TAURUS motorglider 91
Appendix REV. 0
www.pipistrel.si
metres (m) to feet (ft) conversion table
metres
(m)
feet
(ft)
metres
(m)
feet
(ft)
metres
(m)
feet
(ft)
0,304
1
3,280
10,36
34
111,5
20,42
67
219,81
0,609
2
6,562
10,66
35
114,8
20,72
68
223,09
0,914
3
9,843
10,97
36
118,1
21,03
69
226,37
1,219
4
13,12
11,27
37
121,3
21,33
70
229,65
1,524
5
16,40
11,58
38
124,6
21,64
71
232,94
1,828
6
19,68
11,88
39
127,9
21,91
72
236,22
2,133
7
22,96
12,19
40
131,2
22,25
73
239,50
2,438
8
26,24
12,49
41
134,5
22,55
74
242,78
2,743
9
29,52
12,80
42
137,7
22,86
75
246,06
3,048
10
32,80
13,10
43
141,1
23,16
76
249,34
3,352
11
36,08
13,41
44
144,3
23,46
77
252,62
3,657
12
39,37
13,71
45
147,6
23,77
78
255,90
3,962
13
42,65
14,02
46
150,9
24,07
79
259,18
4,267
14
45,93
14,32
47
154,1
24,38
80
262,46
4,572
15
49,21
14,63
48
157,4
24,68
81
265,74
4,876
16
52,49
14,93
49
160,7
24,99
82
269,02
5,181
17
55,77
15,24
50
164,1
25,29
83
272,31
5,48
18
59,05
15,54
51
167,3
25,60
84
275,59
5,791
19
62,33
15,84
52
170,6
25,90
85
278,87
6,096
20
65,61
16,15
53
173,8
26,21
86
282,15
6,400
21
68,89
16,45
54
177,1
26,51
87
285,43
6,705
22
72,17
16,76
55
180,4
26,82
88
288,71
7,010
23
75,45
17,06
56
183,7
27,12
89
291,99
7,310
24
78,74
17,37
57
187,0
27,43
90
295,27
7,620
25
82,02
17,67
58
190,2
27,73
91
298,55
7,948
26
85,30
17,98
59
193,5
28,04
92
301,83
8,220
27
88,58
18,28
60
196,8
28,34
93
305,11
8,530
28
91,86
18,59
61
200,1
28,65
94
308,39
8,830
29
95,14
18,89
62
203,4
28,90
95
311,68
9,144
30
98,42
19,20
63
206,6
29,26
96
314,96
9,448
31
101,7
19,50
64
209,9
29,56
97
318,24
9,750
32
104,9
19,81
65
213,2
29,87
98
321,52
10,05
33
108,2
20,12
66
216,5
30,17
99
324,80
92 TAURUS motorglider
REV. 0
www.pipistrel.si
Appendix
air pressure as related to altitude
altitude (m)
pressure (hPa)
pressure (inch
Hg)
altitude (m)
pressure (hPa)
pressure (inch
Hg)
-1000
1139,3
33,6
1300
866,5
25,6
-950
1132,8
33,5
1350
861,2
25,4
-900
1126,2
33,3
1400
855,9
25,3
-850
1119,7
33,1
1450
850,7
25,1
-800
1113,2
32,9
1500
845,5
25,0
-750
1106,7
32,7
1550
840,3
24,8
-700
1100,3
32,5
1600
835,2
24,7
-650
1093,8
32,3
1650
830
24,5
-600
1087,5
32,1
1700
824,9
24,4
-550
1081,1
31,9
1750
819,9
24,2
-500
1074,3
31,7
1800
814,8
24,1
-450
1068,5
31,6
1850
809,8
23,9
-400
1062,3
31,4
1900
804,8
23,8
-350
1056,0
31,2
1950
799,8
23,6
-300
1049,8
31,0
2000
794,9
23,5
-250
1043,7
30,8
2050
790,0
23,3
-200
1037,5
30,6
2100
785,1
23,2
-150
1031,4
30,5
2150
780,2
23,0
-100
1025,3
30,3
2200
775,3
22,9
-50
1019,3
30,1
2250
770,5
22,8
0
1013,3
29,9
2300
165,7
22,6
50
1007,3
29,7
2350
760,9
22,5
100
1001,3
29,6
2400
756,2
22,3
150
995,4
29,4
2450
751,4
22,2
200
989,4
29,2
2500
746,7
22,1
250
983,6
29,0
2550
742,1
21,9
300
977,7
28,9
2600
737,4
21,8
350
971,9
28,7
2650
732,8
21,6
400
966,1
28,5
2700
728,2
21,5
450
960,3
28,4
2750
723,6
21,4
500
954,6
28,2
2800
719
21,2
550
948,9
28,0
2850
714,5
21,1
600
943,2
27,9
2900
709,9
21,0
650
937,5
27,7
2950
705,5
20,8
700
931,9
27,5
3000
701,0
20,7
750
926,3
27,4
3050
696,5
20,6
800
920,0
27,2
3100
692,1
20,4
850
915,2
27,0
3150
687,7
20,3
900
909,0
26,9
3200
683,3
20,2
950
904,2
26,7
3250
679,0
20,1
1000
898,7
26,5
3300
674,6
19,9
1050
893,3
26,4
3350
670,3
19,8
TAURUS motorglider 93
Appendix REV. 0
www.pipistrel.si
ICAO standard atmosphere
h
h
T
T
g
(kgs2/m4)
(kg/m4)
d
1/S d
Vs
(m2/s)
1,124
0,137
1,347
1,099
0,957
344,2
13,4
11484
1,111
0,136
1,335
1,089
0,958
343,9
13,5
835
11351
1,098
0,134
1,322
1,079
0,962
343,5
13,6
1,015
825,3
11220
1,085
0,133
1,310
1,069
0,967
343,1
13,7
291,9
1,013
815,7
11090
1,073
0,132
1,297
1,058
0,971
342,7
13,8
18,2
291,2
1,011
806,2
10960
1,060
0,131
1,285
1,048
0,976
342,4
13,9
-1312
17,6
290,6
1,009
796,8
10832
1,048
0,129
1,273
1,039
0,981
342
14,0
300
-984
16,9
289,9
1,006
787,4
10705
1,036
0,128
1,261
1,029
0,985
341,6
14,1
200
-656
16,3
289,3
1,004
779,2
10580
1,024
0,127
1,249
1,019
0,990
341,2
14,3
100
-328
15,6
288,6
1,002
769,1
10455
1,011
0,126
1,237
1,009
0,995
340,9
14,4
0
0
15
288
1
760
10332
1
0,125
1,225
1
1
340,5
14,5
100
328
14,3
287,3
0,997
751,0
10210
0,988
0,123
1,213
0,990
1,004
340,1
14,6
200
656
13,7
286,7
0,995
742,2
10089
0,976
0,122
1,202
0,980
1,009
339,7
14,7
300
984
13,0
286,0
0,993
133,4
9970
0,964
0,121
-1,191
0,971
1,014
339,3
14,8
400
1312
12,4
285,4
0,991
724,6
9852
0,953
0,120
1,179
0,962
1,019
338,9
14,9
500
1640
11,1
284,7
0,988
716,0
9734
0,942
0,119
1,167
0,952
1,024
338,5
15,1
600
1969
11,1
284,1
0,986
707,4
9617
0,930
0,117
1,156
0,943
1,029
338,1
15,2
700
2297
10,4
283,4
0,984
699,0
9503
0,919
0,116
1,145
0,934
1,034
337,8
15,3
800
2625
9,8
282,8
0,981
690,6
9389
0,908
0,115
1,134
0,925
1,039
337,4
15,4
900
2953
9,1
282,1
0,979
682,3
9276
0,897
0,114
1,123
0,916
1,044
337
15,5
1000
3281
8,5
281,5
0,977
674,1
9165
0,887
0,113
1,112
0,907
1,049
336,6
15,7
1100
3609
7,8
280,8
0,975
665,9
9053
0,876
0,112
1,101
0,898
1,055
336,2
15,8
1200
3937
7,2
280,2
0,972
657,9
8944
0,865
0,111
1,090
0,889
1,060
335,8
15,9
1300
4265
6,5
279,5
0,970
649,9
8835
0,855
0,110
1,079
0,880
1,065
335,4
16,0
1400
4593
5,9
278,9
0,968
642,0
8728
0,844
0,109
1,069
0,872
1,070
335
16,2
1500
4921
5,2
278,2
0,966
634,2
8621
0,834
0,107
1,058
0,863
1,076
334,7
16,3
1600
5249
4,6
277,6
0,963
626,4
8516
0,824
0,106
1,048
0,855
1,081
334,3
16,4
1700
5577
3,9
276,9
0,961
618,7
8412
0,814
0,106
1,037
0,846
1,086
333,9
16,6
1800
5905
3,3
276,3
0,959
611,2
8309
0,804
0,104
1,027
0,838
1,092
333,5
16,7
1900
6234
2,6
275,6
0,957
603,7
8207
0,794
0,103
1,017
0,829
1,097
333,1
16,9
2000
6562
2
275
0,954
596,2
8106
0,784
0,102
1,006
0,821
1,103
332,7
17,0
2100
6890
1,3
274,3
0,952
588,8
8005
0,774
0,101
0,996
0,813
1,108
332,3
17,1
2200
7218
0,7
273,7
0,950
581,5
7906
0,765
0,100
0,986
0,805
1,114
331,9
17,3
2300
7546
0,0
273,0
0,948
574,3
7808
0,755
0,099
0,976
0,797
1,120
331,5
17,4
2400
7874
-0,6
272,4
0,945
576,2
7710
0,746
0,098
0,967
0,789
1,125
331,1
17,6
2500
8202
-1,2
271,7
0,943
560,1
7614
0,736
0,097
0,957
0,781
1,131
330,7
17,7
2600
8530
-1,9
271,1
0,941
553,1
7519
0,727
0,096
0,947
0,773
1,137
330,3
17,9
2700
8858
-2,5
270,4
0,939
546,1
7425
0,718
0,095
0,937
0,765
1,143
329,9
18,0
2800
9186
-3,2
269,8
0,936
539,3
7332
0,709
0,094
0,928
0,757
1,149
329,6
18,2
2900
9514
-3,8
269,1
0,934
532,5
7239
0,700
0,093
0,918
0,749
1,154
329,2
18,3
(m)
(ft)
(°C)
(°K)
-1000
-3281
21,5
294,5
-900
-2953
20,8
-800
-2625
-700
T/T0
p
p
(mmHg)
(kg/m2)
1,022
854,6
11619
293,8
1,020
844,7
20,2
293,2
1,018
-2297
19,5
292,5
-600
-1969
18,9
-500
-1640
400
p/p0
r
n*106
94 TAURUS motorglider
REV. 0
www.pipistrel.si
Preflight check-up pictures
Cockpit
1
Canopy, Balance weight
2
Cockpit aft
2
Nose, Pitot tube, Ventilation
3
4
Wing root
5
Undercarriage, RH wheel
5
Starboard wing - leading edge
6
TAURUS motorglider 95
Preflight check-up pictures REV. 0
www.pipistrel.si
Starboard wingtip
7
Starboard airbrake
9
Propulsion system
10
Horizontal tail surfaces
12
Starboard wing - trailing edge
8
Wing root
10
Engine bay door
11
Vertical tail surfaces
13
96 TAURUS motorglider
www.pipistrel.si
REV. 0
This page is intentionally left blank.
Fuel valves (if present)
Before takeoff
Engine & Propeller check
Magneto RPM drop
VERIFY BOTH OPEN
RPM within limits
VERIFIED
fold here
Cannopy
CLOSED and LOCKED
CLOSED
OFF
Fuel valves (if present)
OFF
Master switch
-5°
APPLIED
AS REQUIRED
Ignition
Flaps
Brakes
2500 / 3500 RPM
Warm up at
Spoilers
Shutdown
ENGAGE
DOWN
L POSITION
Flaps
AS REQUIRED
SET
T POSITION
Gear
Landing
Spoilers
Instruments
Flaps
Propulsion unit
RETRACTED (DOWN)
UP
Gear
Descent - Approach
UP (0°)
Flaps
Elevator trim
SET
FULL AFT POSITION BEFORE FULL POWER
Control stick
After takeoff (50m / 150 ft)
FREE
T POSITION
Elevator trim
Flaps
CHECKED
CLOSED and LOCKED
Canopy
Flight controls
RETRACTED
Spoilers
After start-up
Starter button
ON
VERIFY ON
Master switch
Ignition
AS NEEDED
Primer
1/2
BOTH OPEN
Fuel valves (f present)
Throttle
CLEAR
SET
CHECKED
EXTENDED (UP)
ON
T POSITION
Area around propeller
Engine start-up
COM, NAV
Instruments
Propulsion unit
Master switch
Flaps
APPLIED
REMOVED
Parachure rescue system safety pin
Brakes
FASTENED
SET
CLOSED and LOCKED
PERFORMED
Seat belts
Rudder pedals & head rest position
Canopy
Fuel system drain
Before start-up
fold here
Taurus ultralight motorglider checklist
98 TAURUS motorglider
www.pipistrel.si
REV. 0
This page is intentionally left blank.
www.pipistrel.si
TAURUS motorglider 99
REV. 0
Warranty statement
Warranty applies to individual parts and components only.
The warranty does not include costs related to the transport of the product, goods and spare parts as
well as costs related to the merchandise’ temporary storage. Pipistrel d.o.o. does not offer guarantee for
the damage caused by every day use of the product or goods. Pipistrel d.o.o. does not guarantee for the
lost profit or other financial or non-financial damage to the client, objects or third party individuals .
Warranty voids:
- in case that the customer has not ratified the General Terms of ownership with his/her signature;
- in case the aircraft or the equipment is not used according to the Pipistrel d.o.o.’s instructions or
aircraft’s manual and eventual supplemental sheets;
- in case when the original additional and/or spare parts are replaced with non-original parts;
- in case additional equipment is built-in without Pipistrel d.o.o.’s prior knowledge;
- in case the purchased goods were changed or modified in any way;
- in case when the defect is caused by user’s deficient maintenance, inappropriate care and/or cleaning,
user’s negligent handling, user’s inexperience, due to use of product and/or its individual parts or
components in inadequate conditions, due to prolonged use of the product or goods, due to product
and/or parts’ over-stressing (even for a short duration), due to the fact a repair was not carried out
neither by Pipistrel d.o.o. nor by its authorised personnel;
- in case parts that become worn out by every day use (e.g. the covers, pneumatics, electric instruments,
electric installation, bonds and bindings, cables, brake plates, capacitors, cooling devices, various pipes,
spark-plugs, exhaust systems…)
- the owner must ensure regular engine check-outs and maintenance. Some maintenance works that
are demanded by the engine manufacturer must be carried out at Rotax’s authorised service centres.
In case the written above is not fulfilled, warranty voids.
Pipistrel d.o.o. Ajdovščina
podjetje za alternativno letalstvo
Goriška cesta 50a
SI-5270 Ajdovščina
Slovenija
tel: +386 (0)5 3663 873
fax: +386 (0)5 3661 263
e-mail: info@pipistrel.si
www.pipistrel.si
www.pipistrel.eu
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