User`s manual Flir Ex series

User`s manual Flir Ex series
User’s manual
Flir Ex series
User’s manual
Flir Ex series
#T559828; r. AA/ 7052/7459; en-US
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Table of contents
1
Legal disclaimer ................................................................................1
1.1
Legal disclaimer ....................................................................... 1
1.2
Usage statistics ........................................................................ 1
1.3
Changes to registry ................................................................... 1
1.4
U.S. Government Regulations...................................................... 2
1.5
Copyright ................................................................................ 2
1.6
Quality assurance ..................................................................... 2
1.7
Patents ................................................................................... 2
1.8
EULA Terms ............................................................................ 2
1.9
EULA Terms ............................................................................ 3
2
WARNING, CAUTION..........................................................................4
3
Notice to user ...................................................................................7
3.1
User-to-user forums .................................................................. 7
3.2
Calibration............................................................................... 7
3.3
Accuracy ................................................................................ 7
3.4
Disposal of electronic waste ........................................................ 7
3.5
Training .................................................................................. 7
3.6
Documentation updates ............................................................. 7
3.7
Important note about this manual.................................................. 7
4
Customer help ..................................................................................8
4.1
General .................................................................................. 8
4.2
Submitting a question ................................................................ 8
4.3
Downloads .............................................................................. 8
5
Quick Start Guide ..............................................................................9
5.1
Procedure ............................................................................... 9
6
Description ..................................................................................... 10
6.1
Camera parts ......................................................................... 10
6.1.1 Figure ........................................................................ 10
6.1.2 Explanation................................................................. 10
6.2
Keypad................................................................................. 10
6.2.1 Figure ........................................................................ 10
6.2.2 Explanation................................................................. 10
6.3
Connectors ........................................................................... 11
6.3.1 Figure ........................................................................ 11
6.3.2 Explanation................................................................. 11
6.4
Screen elements .................................................................... 12
6.4.1 Figure ........................................................................ 12
6.4.2 Explanation................................................................. 12
7
Operation ....................................................................................... 13
7.1
Charging the battery ................................................................ 13
7.1.1 Charging the battery using the Flir power supply ................. 13
7.1.2 Charging the battery using the Flir stand-alone battery
charger. ......................................................................13
7.1.3 Charging the battery using a USB cable ............................ 13
7.2
Saving an image ..................................................................... 13
7.2.1 General...................................................................... 13
7.2.2 Image capacity ............................................................ 13
7.2.3 Naming convention....................................................... 13
7.2.4 Procedure .................................................................. 14
7.3
Recalling an image.................................................................. 14
7.3.1 General...................................................................... 14
7.3.2 Procedure .................................................................. 14
7.4
Deleting an image ................................................................... 14
7.4.1 General...................................................................... 14
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Table of contents
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
7.14
7.15
7.16
7.17
7.18
7.4.2 Procedure .................................................................. 14
Deleting all images.................................................................. 14
7.5.1 General...................................................................... 14
7.5.2 Procedure .................................................................. 14
Measuring a temperature using a spotmeter ................................. 15
7.6.1 General...................................................................... 15
7.6.2 Procedure .................................................................. 15
Measuring the hottest temperature within an area .......................... 15
7.7.1 General...................................................................... 15
7.7.2 Procedure .................................................................. 15
Measuring the coldest temperature within an area.......................... 15
7.8.1 General...................................................................... 15
7.8.2 Procedure .................................................................. 15
Hiding measurement tools ........................................................ 15
7.9.1 Procedure .................................................................. 15
Changing the color palette ........................................................ 16
7.10.1 General...................................................................... 16
7.10.2 Procedure .................................................................. 16
Changing image mode ............................................................. 16
7.11.1 General...................................................................... 16
7.11.2 Procedure .................................................................. 17
Changing the temperature scale mode ........................................ 17
7.12.1 General...................................................................... 17
7.12.2 When to use Lock mode ................................................ 17
7.12.3 Procedure .................................................................. 18
Setting the emissivity as a surface property .................................. 18
7.13.1 General...................................................................... 18
7.13.2 Procedure .................................................................. 18
Setting the emissivity as a custom material ................................... 18
7.14.1 General...................................................................... 18
7.14.2 Procedure .................................................................. 18
Changing the emissivity as a custom value ................................... 19
7.15.1 General...................................................................... 19
7.15.2 Procedure .................................................................. 19
Changing the reflected apparent temperature ............................... 19
7.16.1 General...................................................................... 19
7.16.2 Procedure .................................................................. 19
Changing the settings .............................................................. 19
7.17.1 General...................................................................... 19
7.17.2 Procedure .................................................................. 20
Updating the camera ............................................................... 20
7.18.1 General...................................................................... 20
7.18.2 Procedure .................................................................. 20
8
Technical data ................................................................................. 21
9
Cleaning the camera ........................................................................ 22
9.1
Camera housing, cables, and other items..................................... 22
9.1.1 Liquids....................................................................... 22
9.1.2 Equipment .................................................................. 22
9.1.3 Procedure .................................................................. 22
9.2
Infrared lens .......................................................................... 22
9.2.1 Liquids....................................................................... 22
9.2.2 Equipment .................................................................. 22
9.2.3 Procedure .................................................................. 22
10
Application examples....................................................................... 23
10.1
Moisture & water damage ......................................................... 23
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10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.1.1 General...................................................................... 23
10.1.2 Figure ........................................................................ 23
Faulty contact in socket ............................................................ 23
10.2.1 General...................................................................... 23
10.2.2 Figure ........................................................................ 23
Oxidized socket...................................................................... 24
10.3.1 General...................................................................... 24
10.3.2 Figure ........................................................................ 24
Insulation deficiencies.............................................................. 25
10.4.1 General...................................................................... 25
10.4.2 Figure ........................................................................ 25
Draft .................................................................................... 26
10.5.1 General...................................................................... 26
10.5.2 Figure ........................................................................ 26
11
About Flir Systems .......................................................................... 27
11.1
More than just an infrared camera .............................................. 28
11.2
Sharing our knowledge ............................................................ 28
11.3
Supporting our customers......................................................... 28
11.4
A few images from our facilities .................................................. 29
12
Glossary ........................................................................................ 30
13
Thermographic measurement techniques .......................................... 33
13.1
Introduction .......................................................................... 33
13.2
Emissivity.............................................................................. 33
13.2.1 Finding the emissivity of a sample .................................... 33
13.3
Reflected apparent temperature................................................. 36
13.4
Distance ............................................................................... 36
13.5
Relative humidity .................................................................... 36
13.6
Other parameters.................................................................... 36
14
History of infrared technology........................................................... 38
15
Theory of thermography................................................................... 41
15.1
Introduction ........................................................................... 41
15.2
The electromagnetic spectrum................................................... 41
15.3
Blackbody radiation................................................................. 41
15.3.1 Planck’s law ................................................................ 42
15.3.2 Wien’s displacement law................................................ 43
15.3.3 Stefan-Boltzmann's law ................................................. 44
15.3.4 Non-blackbody emitters................................................. 45
15.4
Infrared semi-transparent materials............................................. 47
16
The measurement formula................................................................ 48
17
Emissivity tables ............................................................................. 52
17.1
References............................................................................ 52
17.2
Tables .................................................................................. 52
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1
Legal disclaimer
1.1 Legal disclaimer
All products manufactured by Flir Systems are warranted against defective materials and
workmanship for a period of one (1) year from the delivery date of the original purchase,
provided such products have been under normal storage, use and service, and in accordance with Flir Systems instruction.
Uncooled handheld infrared cameras manufactured by Flir Systems are warranted
against defective materials and workmanship for a period of two (2) years from the delivery date of the original purchase, provided such products have been under normal storage, use and service, and in accordance with Flir Systems instruction, and provided that
the camera has been registered within 60 days of original purchase.
Detectors for uncooled handheld infrared cameras manufactured by Flir Systems are
warranted against defective materials and workmanship for a period of ten (10) years
from the delivery date of the original purchase, provided such products have been under
normal storage, use and service, and in accordance with Flir Systems instruction, and
provided that the camera has been registered within 60 days of original purchase.
Products which are not manufactured by Flir Systems but included in systems delivered
by Flir Systems to the original purchaser, carry the warranty, if any, of the particular supplier only. Flir Systems has no responsibility whatsoever for such products.
The warranty extends only to the original purchaser and is not transferable. It is not applicable to any product which has been subjected to misuse, neglect, accident or abnormal
conditions of operation. Expendable parts are excluded from the warranty.
In the case of a defect in a product covered by this warranty the product must not be further used in order to prevent additional damage. The purchaser shall promptly report any
defect to Flir Systems or this warranty will not apply.
Flir Systems will, at its option, repair or replace any such defective product free of charge
if, upon inspection, it proves to be defective in material or workmanship and provided that
it is returned to Flir Systems within the said one-year period.
Flir Systems has no other obligation or liability for defects than those set forth above.
No other warranty is expressed or implied. Flir Systems specifically disclaims the implied
warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose.
Flir Systems shall not be liable for any direct, indirect, special, incidental or consequential loss or damage, whether based on contract, tort or any other legal theory.
This warranty shall be governed by Swedish law.
Any dispute, controversy or claim arising out of or in connection with this warranty, shall
be finally settled by arbitration in accordance with the Rules of the Arbitration Institute of
the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce. The place of arbitration shall be Stockholm. The
language to be used in the arbitral proceedings shall be English.
1.2 Usage statistics
Flir Systems reserves the right to gather anonymous usage statistics to help maintain
and improve the quality of our software and services.
1.3 Changes to registry
The registry entry HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa
\LmCompatibilityLevel will be automatically changed to level 2 if the Flir Camera Monitor
service detects a Flir camera connected to the computer with a USB cable. The modification will only be executed if the camera device implements a remote network service
that supports network logons.
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Legal disclaimer
1.4 U.S. Government Regulations
This product is subject to US Export Regulations. Please refer to exportquestions@flir.
com with any questions.
1.5 Copyright
© 2013, Flir Systems, Inc. All rights reserved worldwide. No parts of the software including source code may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed or translated into any language or computer language in any form or by any means, electronic, magnetic, optical,
manual or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Flir Systems.
The documentation must not, in whole or part, be copied, photocopied, reproduced,
translated or transmitted to any electronic medium or machine readable form without prior consent, in writing, from Flir Systems.
Names and marks appearing on the products herein are either registered trademarks or
trademarks of Flir Systems and/or its subsidiaries. All other trademarks, trade names or
company names referenced herein are used for identification only and are the property
of their respective owners.
1.6 Quality assurance
The Quality Management System under which these products are developed and manufactured has been certified in accordance with the ISO 9001 standard.
Flir Systems is committed to a policy of continuous development; therefore we reserve
the right to make changes and improvements on any of the products without prior notice.
1.7 Patents
One or several of the following patents or design patents may apply to the products and/
or features:
0002258-2; 000279476-0001; 000439161; 000499579-0001; 000653423; 000726344;
000859020; 001106306-0001; 001707738; 001707746; 001707787; 001776519;
001954074; 002021543; 002058180-001; 0101577-5; 0102150-0; 1144833; 1182246;
1182620; 1285345; 1299699; 1325808; 1336775; 1391114; 1402918; 1404291;
1411581; 1415075; 1421497; 1458284; 1678485; 1732314; 2106017; 2381417;
3006596; 3006597; 466540; 483782; 484155; 4889913; 60122153.2; 602004011681.508; 6707044; 68657; 7034300; 7110035; 7154093; 7157705; 7237946; 7312822;
7332716; 7336823; 7544944; 7667198; 7809258; 7826736; 8,018,649 B2; 8,153,971;
8212210 B2; 8289372; 8354639 B2; 8384783; D540838; D549758; D579475; D584755;
D599,392; D615,113; D664,580; D664,581; D665,004; D665,440; DI6702302-9;
DI6803572-1; DI6903617-9; DI7002221-6; DI7002891-5; DI7002892-3; DI7005799-0;
DM/057692; DM/061609; ZL01823221.3; ZL01823226.4; ZL02331553.9;
ZL02331554.7; ZL200480034894.0; ZL200530120994.2; ZL200610088759.5;
ZL200630130114.4; ZL200730151141.4; ZL200730339504.7; ZL200820105768.8;
ZL200830128581.2; ZL200880105769.2; ZL200930190061.9; ZL201030176127.1;
ZL201030176130.3; ZL201030176157.2; ZL201030595931.3; ZL201130442354.9.
1.8 EULA Terms
• You have acquired a device (“INFRARED CAMERA”) that includes software licensed
by Flir Systems AB from Microsoft Licensing, GP or its affiliates (“MS”). Those installed software products of MS origin, as well as associated media, printed materials,
and “online” or electronic documentation (“SOFTWARE”) are protected by international intellectual property laws and treaties. The SOFTWARE is licensed, not sold. All
rights reserved.
• IF YOU DO NOT AGREE TO THIS END USER LICENSE AGREEMENT (“EULA”), DO
NOT USE THE DEVICE OR COPY THE SOFTWARE. INSTEAD, PROMPTLY CONTACT Flir Systems AB FOR INSTRUCTIONS ON RETURN OF THE UNUSED DEVICE(S) FOR A REFUND. ANY USE OF THE SOFTWARE, INCLUDING BUT NOT
LIMITED TO USE ON THE DEVICE, WILL CONSTITUTE YOUR AGREEMENT TO
THIS EULA (OR RATIFICATION OF ANY PREVIOUS CONSENT).
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Legal disclaimer
• GRANT OF SOFTWARE LICENSE. This EULA grants you the following license:
• You may use the SOFTWARE only on the DEVICE.
• NOT FAULT TOLERANT. THE SOFTWARE IS NOT FAULT TOLERANT. Flir Systems AB HAS INDEPENDENTLY DETERMINED HOW TO USE THE SOFTWARE IN THE DEVICE, AND MS HAS RELIED UPON Flir Systems AB TO
CONDUCT SUFFICIENT TESTING TO DETERMINE THAT THE SOFTWARE IS
SUITABLE FOR SUCH USE.
• NO WARRANTIES FOR THE SOFTWARE. THE SOFTWARE is provided “AS IS”
and with all faults. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO SATISFACTORY QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, ACCURACY, AND EFFORT (INCLUDING LACK OF NEGLIGENCE) IS WITH YOU. ALSO, THERE IS NO WARRANTY AGAINST
INTERFERENCE WITH YOUR ENJOYMENT OF THE SOFTWARE OR
AGAINST INFRINGEMENT. IF YOU HAVE RECEIVED ANY WARRANTIES REGARDING THE DEVICE OR THE SOFTWARE, THOSE WARRANTIES DO
NOT ORIGINATE FROM, AND ARE NOT BINDING ON, MS.
• No Liability for Certain Damages. EXCEPT AS PROHIBITED BY LAW, MS
SHALL HAVE NO LIABILITY FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, CONSEQUENTIAL OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES ARISING FROM OR IN CONNECTION
WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THE SOFTWARE. THIS LIMITATION
SHALL APPLY EVEN IF ANY REMEDY FAILS OF ITS ESSENTIAL PURPOSE.
IN NO EVENT SHALL MS BE LIABLE FOR ANY AMOUNT IN EXCESS OF U.S.
TWO HUNDRED FIFTY DOLLARS (U.S.$250.00).
• Limitations on Reverse Engineering, Decompilation, and Disassembly. You
may not reverse engineer, decompile, or disassemble the SOFTWARE, except
and only to the extent that such activity is expressly permitted by applicable law
notwithstanding this limitation.
• SOFTWARE TRANSFER ALLOWED BUT WITH RESTRICTIONS. You may permanently transfer rights under this EULA only as part of a permanent sale or
transfer of the Device, and only if the recipient agrees to this EULA. If the SOFTWARE is an upgrade, any transfer must also include all prior versions of the
SOFTWARE.
• EXPORT RESTRICTIONS. You acknowledge that SOFTWARE is subject to U.S.
export jurisdiction. You agree to comply with all applicable international and national laws that apply to the SOFTWARE, including the U.S. Export Administration
Regulations, as well as end-user, end-use and destination restrictions issued by
U.S. and other governments. For additional information see http://www.microsoft.
com/exporting/.
1.9 EULA Terms
Qt4 Core and Qt4 GUI, Copyright ©2013 Nokia Corporation and FLIR Systems AB. This
Qt library is a free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the
GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the
implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
See the GNU Lesser General Public License, http://www.gnu.org/licenses/lgpl-2.1.html.
The source code for the libraries Qt4 Core and Qt4 GUI may be requested from FLIR
Systems AB.
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WARNING, CAUTION
WARNING
Applicability: Cameras with one or several batteries.
Do not disassemble or do a modification to the battery. The battery contains safety and protection devices which, if they become damaged, can cause the battery to become hot, or cause an explosion or an
ignition.
WARNING
Applicability: Cameras with one or several batteries.
If there is a leak from the battery and the fluid gets into your eyes, do not rub your eyes. Flush well with
water and immediately get medical care. The battery fluid can cause injury to your eyes if you do not do
this.
WARNING
Applicability: Cameras with one or several batteries.
Do not continue to charge the battery if it does not become charged in the specified charging time. If
you continue to charge the battery, it can become hot and cause an explosion or ignition.
WARNING
Applicability: Cameras with one or several batteries.
Only use the correct equipment to discharge the battery. If you do not use the correct equipment, you
can decrease the performance or the life cycle of the battery. If you do not use the correct equipment,
an incorrect flow of current to the battery can occur. This can cause the battery to become hot, or cause
an explosion and injury to persons.
WARNING
Make sure that you read all applicable MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheets) and warning labels on containers before you use a liquid: the liquids can be dangerous.
CAUTION
Do not point the infrared camera (with or without the lens cover) at intensive energy sources, for example devices that emit laser radiation, or the sun. This can have an unwanted effect on the accuracy of
the camera. It can also cause damage to the detector in the camera.
CAUTION
Do not use the camera in a temperature higher than +50°C (+122°F), unless specified otherwise in the
user documentation or technical data. High temperatures can cause damage to the camera.
CAUTION
Applicability: Cameras with one or several batteries.
Do not attach the batteries directly to a car’s cigarette lighter socket, unless a specific adapter for connecting the batteries to a cigarette lighter socket is provided by Flir Systems.
CAUTION
Applicability: Cameras with one or several batteries.
Do not connect the positive terminal and the negative terminal of the battery to each other with a metal
object (such as wire).
CAUTION
Applicability: Cameras with one or several batteries.
Do not get water or salt water on the battery, or permit the battery to get wet.
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WARNING, CAUTION
CAUTION
Applicability: Cameras with one or several batteries.
Do not make holes in the battery with objects. Do not hit the battery with a hammer. Do not step on the
battery, or apply strong impacts or shocks to it.
CAUTION
Applicability: Cameras with one or several batteries.
Do not put the batteries in or near a fire, or into direct sunlight. When the battery becomes hot, the builtin safety equipment becomes energized and can stop the battery charging process. If the battery becomes hot, damage can occur to the safety equipment and this can cause more heat, damage or ignition of the battery.
CAUTION
Applicability: Cameras with one or several batteries.
Do not put the battery on a fire or increase the temperature of the battery with heat.
CAUTION
Applicability: Cameras with one or several batteries.
Do not put the battery on or near fires, stoves, or other high-temperature locations.
CAUTION
Applicability: Cameras with one or several batteries.
Do not solder directly onto the battery.
CAUTION
Applicability: Cameras with one or several batteries.
Do not use the battery if, when you use, charge, or store the battery, there is an unusual smell from the
battery, the battery feels hot, changes color, changes shape, or is in an unusual condition. Contact your
sales office if one or more of these problems occurs.
CAUTION
Applicability: Cameras with one or several batteries.
Only use a specified battery charger when you charge the battery.
CAUTION
Applicability: Cameras with one or several batteries.
The temperature range through which you can charge the battery is ±0°C to +45°C (+32°F to +113°F),
unless specified otherwise in the user documentation or technical data. If you charge the battery at temperatures out of this range, it can cause the battery to become hot or to break. It can also decrease the
performance or the life cycle of the battery.
CAUTION
Applicability: Cameras with one or several batteries.
The temperature range through which you can discharge the battery is −15°C to +50°C (+5°F to +122°
F), unless specified otherwise in the user documentation or technical data. Use of the battery out of this
temperature range can decrease the performance or the life cycle of the battery.
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WARNING, CAUTION
CAUTION
Applicability: Cameras with one or several batteries.
When the battery is worn, apply insulation to the terminals with adhesive tape or similar materials before
you discard it.
CAUTION
Applicability: Cameras with one or several batteries.
Remove any water or moisture on the battery before you install it.
CAUTION
Do not apply solvents or similar liquids to the camera, the cables, or other items. This can cause
damage.
CAUTION
Be careful when you clean the infrared lens. The lens has a delicate anti-reflective coating.
CAUTION
Do not clean the infrared lens too vigorously. This can damage the anti-reflective coating.
CAUTION
The encapsulation rating is valid only when all openings on the camera are sealed with their designated
covers, hatches, or caps. This includes, but is not limited to, compartments for data storage, batteries,
and connectors.
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3
Notice to user
3.1 User-to-user forums
Exchange ideas, problems, and infrared solutions with fellow thermographers around the
world in our user-to-user forums. To go to the forums, visit:
http://www.infraredtraining.com/community/boards/
3.2 Calibration
We recommend that you send in the camera for calibration once a year. Contact your local sales office for instructions on where to send the camera.
3.3 Accuracy
For very accurate results, we recommend that you wait 5 minutes after you have started
the camera before measuring a temperature.
3.4 Disposal of electronic waste
As with most electronic products, this equipment must be disposed of in an environmentally friendly way, and in accordance with existing regulations for electronic waste.
Please contact your Flir Systems representative for more details.
3.5 Training
To read about infrared training, visit:
• http://www.infraredtraining.com
• http://www.irtraining.com
• http://www.irtraining.eu
3.6 Documentation updates
Our manuals are updated several times per year, and we also issue product-critical notifications of changes on a regular basis.
To access the latest manuals and notifications, go to the Download tab at:
http://support.flir.com
It only takes a few minutes to register online. In the download area you will also find the
latest releases of manuals for our other products, as well as manuals for our historical
and obsolete products.
3.7 Important note about this manual
Flir Systems issues generic manuals that cover several cameras within a model line.
This means that this manual may contain descriptions and explanations that do not apply
to your particular camera model.
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Customer help
4.1 General
For customer help, visit:
http://support.flir.com
4.2 Submitting a question
To submit a question to the customer help team, you must be a registered user. It only
takes a few minutes to register online. If you only want to search the knowledgebase for
existing questions and answers, you do not need to be a registered user.
When you want to submit a question, make sure that you have the following information
to hand:
• The camera model
• The camera serial number
• The communication protocol, or method, between the camera and your device (for example, HDMI, Ethernet, USB, or FireWire)
• Device type (PC/Mac/iPhone/iPad/Android device, etc.)
• Version of any programs from Flir Systems
• Full name, publication number, and revision number of the manual
4.3 Downloads
On the customer help site you can also download the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Firmware updates for your infrared camera.
Program updates for your PC/Mac software.
Freeware and evaluation versions of PC/Mac software.
User documentation for current, obsolete, and historical products.
Mechanical drawings (in *.dxf and *.pdf format).
Cad data models (in *.stp format).
Application stories.
Technical datasheets.
Product catalogs.
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5
Quick Start Guide
5.1 Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. Charge the battery. You can do this in three different ways:
• Charge the battery using the Flir stand-alone battery charger.
• Charge the battery using the Flir power supply.
• Charge the battery using a USB cable connected to a computer.
Note
Charging the camera using a USB cable connected to a computer takes considerably longer
than using the Flir power supply or the Flir stand-alone battery charger.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Push the On/off button
to turn on the camera.
Open the lens cap by pushing the lens cap lever.
Aim the camera toward your target of interest.
Pull the trigger to save an image.
(Optional steps)
6. Install Flir Tools on your computer.
7. Start Flir Tools.
8. Connect the camera to your computer, using the USB cable.
9. Import the images into Flir Tools.
10. Create a PDF report in Flir Tools.
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6
Description
6.1 Camera parts
6.1.1 Figure
6.1.2 Explanation
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Digital camera lens.
Infrared lens.
Lever to open and close the lens cap.
Trigger to save images.
Battery.
6.2 Keypad
6.2.1 Figure
6.2.2 Explanation
1. Camera screen.
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Description
2. Archive button
Function:
.
• Push to open the image archive.
3. Navigation pad.
Function:
• Push left/right or up/down to navigate in menus, submenus, and dialog boxes.
• Push the center to confirm.
4. Cancel button
Function:
.
• Push to cancel a choice.
• Push to go back into the menu system.
5. On/off button
Function:
• Push to turn on the camera.
• Push and hold for more than 1 second to turn off the camera.
6.3 Connectors
6.3.1 Figure
6.3.2 Explanation
The purpose of this USB mini-B connector is the following:
• Charging the battery using the Flir power supply.
• Charging the battery using a USB cable connected to a computer.
Note
Charging the camera using a USB cable connected to a computer takes considerably longer than
using the Flir power supply or the Flir stand-alone battery charger.
• Moving images from the camera to a computer for further analysis in Flir Tools.
Note
Install Flir Tools on your computer before you move the images.
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6
Description
6.4 Screen elements
6.4.1 Figure
6.4.2 Explanation
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Main menu toolbar.
Submenu toolbar.
Spotmeter.
Result table.
Status icons.
Temperature scale.
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Operation
7.1 Charging the battery
7.1.1 Charging the battery using the Flir power supply
Follow this procedure:
1. Connect the power supply to a wall outlet.
2. Connect the power supply cable to the USB connector on the camera.
Note
The charging time for a fully depleted battery is 2 hours.
7.1.2 Charging the battery using the Flir stand-alone battery charger.
Follow this procedure:
1. Connect the stand-alone battery charger to a wall outlet.
2. Remove the battery from the camera.
3. Put the battery into the stand-alone battery charger.
Note
•
•
•
The charging time for a fully depleted battery is 2 hours.
The battery is being charged when the blue LED is flashing.
The battery is fully charged when the blue LED is continuous.
7.1.3 Charging the battery using a USB cable
Follow this procedure:
1. Connect the camera to a computer using a USB cable.
Note
•
•
To charge the camera, the computer must be turned on.
Charging the camera using a USB cable connected to a computer takes considerably longer than
using the Flir power supply or the Flir stand-alone battery charger.
7.2 Saving an image
7.2.1 General
You can save multiple images to the internal camera memory.
7.2.2 Image capacity
Approximately 500 images can be saved to the internal camera memory.
7.2.3 Naming convention
The naming convention for images is FLIRxxxx.jpg, where xxxx is a unique counter.
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Operation
7.2.4 Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. To save an image, pull the trigger.
7.3 Recalling an image
7.3.1 General
When you save an image, it is stored in the internal camera memory. To display the image again, you can recall it from the internal camera memory.
7.3.2 Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. Push the Archive button
.
2. Push the navigation pad left/right or up/down to select the image you want to view.
3. Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays the selected image.
4. To return to live mode, push the Cancel button
button
repeatedly or push the Archive
.
7.4 Deleting an image
7.4.1 General
You can delete one or more images from the internal camera memory.
7.4.2 Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Push the Archive button
.
Push the navigation pad left/right or up/down to select the image you want to view.
Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays the selected image.
Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays a toolbar.
5. On the toolbar, select Delete
.
7.5 Deleting all images
7.5.1 General
You can delete all images from the internal camera memory.
7.5.2 Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays a toolbar.
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Operation
2.
3.
4.
5.
On the toolbar, select Settings
. This displays a dialog box.
In the dialog box, select Device settings. This displays a dialog box.
In the dialog box, select Reset options. This displays a dialog box.
In the dialog box, select Delete all saved images.
7.6 Measuring a temperature using a spotmeter
7.6.1 General
You can measure a temperature using a spotmeter. This will display the temperature at
the position of the spotmeter on the screen.
7.6.2 Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays a toolbar.
2. On the toolbar, select Measurement
. This displays a toolbar.
3. On the toolbar, select Center spot
.
The temperature at the position of the spotmeter will now be displayed in the top left
corner of the screen.
7.7 Measuring the hottest temperature within an area
7.7.1 General
You can measure the hottest temperature within an area. This displays a moving spotmeter that indicates the hottest temperature.
7.7.2 Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays a toolbar.
2. On the toolbar, select Measurement
. This displays a toolbar.
3. On the toolbar, select Auto hot spot
.
7.8 Measuring the coldest temperature within an area
7.8.1 General
You can measure the coldest temperature within an area. This displays a moving spotmeter that indicates the coldest temperature.
7.8.2 Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays a toolbar.
2. On the toolbar, select Measurement
3. On the toolbar, select Auto cold spot
. This displays a toolbar.
.
7.9 Hiding measurement tools
7.9.1 Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays a toolbar.
2. On the toolbar, select Measurement
. This displays a toolbar.
3. On the toolbar, select No measurements
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Operation
7.10 Changing the color palette
7.10.1
General
You can change the color palette that the camera uses to display different temperatures.
A different palette can make it easier to analyze an image.
7.10.2
Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays a toolbar.
2. On the toolbar, select Color
. This displays a toolbar.
3. On the toolbar, select a new color palette.
7.11 Changing image mode
7.11.1
General
The camera can operate in five different image modes:
• MSX (Multi Spectral Dynamic Imaging): The camera displays an infrared image where
the edges of the objects are enhanced.
• Thermal: The camera displays a fully thermal image.
• Picture-in-picture (large): The camera displays a digital camera image with a large
superimposed infrared image frame.
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Operation
• Picture-in-picture (small): The camera displays a digital camera image with a small
superimposed infrared image frame.
• Digital camera: The camera displays a digital camera image.
7.11.2
Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays a toolbar.
2. On the toolbar, select Image mode
. This displays a toolbar.
3. On the toolbar, select one of the following:
• MSX
.
• Thermal
.
• Picture-in-picture (large)
.
• Picture-in-picture (small)
.
• Digital camera
.
7.12 Changing the temperature scale mode
7.12.1
General
The camera can operate in two different temperature scale modes:
• Auto mode: In this mode, the camera is continuously auto-adjusted for the best image
brightness and contrast.
• Lock mode: In this mode, the camera locks the temperature span and the temperature
level.
7.12.2
When to use Lock mode
A typical situation where you would want to use Lock mode is when looking for temperature anomalies in two items with a similar design or construction.
For example, if you are looking at two cables, where you suspect one is overheated,
working in Lock mode will clearly show that one is overheated. The higher temperature in
that cable would create a lighter color for the higher temperature.
If you use Auto mode instead, the color for the two items will appear the same.
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Operation
7.12.3
Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays a toolbar.
2. On the toolbar, select Temperature scale
. This displays a toolbar.
3. On the toolbar, select one of the following:
• Auto
• Lock
.
.
7.13 Setting the emissivity as a surface property
7.13.1
General
To measure temperatures accurately, the camera must know what kind of surface you
are measuring. You can choose between the following surface properties:
• Matt.
• Semi-matt.
• Semi-glossy.
For more information about emissivity, see section 13 Thermographic measurement
techniques, page 33.
7.13.2
Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays a toolbar.
2.
3.
4.
5.
On the toolbar, select Settings
. This displays a dialog box.
In the dialog box, select Measurement parameters. This displays a dialog box.
In the dialog box, select Emissivity. This displays a dialog box.
In the dialog box, select one of the following:
• Matt.
• Semi-matt.
• Semi-glossy.
7.14 Setting the emissivity as a custom material
7.14.1
General
Instead of specifying a surface property as matt, semi-matt or semi-glossy, you can specify a custom material from a list of materials.
For more information about emissivity, see section 13 Thermographic measurement
techniques, page 33.
7.14.2
Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays a toolbar.
2.
3.
4.
5.
On the toolbar, select Settings
. This displays a dialog box.
In the dialog box, select Measurement parameters. This displays a dialog box.
In the dialog box, select Emissivity. This displays a dialog box.
In the dialog box, select Custom material. This displays a list of materials with known
emissivities.
6. In the list, select the material.
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Operation
7.15 Changing the emissivity as a custom value
7.15.1
General
For very precise measurements, you may need to set the emissivity, instead of selecting
a surface property or a custom material. You also need to understand how emissivity and
reflectivity affect measurements, rather than just simply selecting a surface property.
Emissivity is a property that indicates how much radiation originates from an object as
opposed to being reflected by it. A lower value indicates that a larger proportion is being
reflected, while a high value indicates that a lower proportion is being reflected.
Polished stainless steel, for example, has an emissivity of 0.14, while a structured PVC
floor typically has an emissivity of 0.93.
For more information about emissivity, see section 13 Thermographic measurement
techniques, page 33.
7.15.2
Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays a toolbar.
2.
3.
4.
5.
On the toolbar, select Settings
. This displays a dialog box.
In the dialog box, select Measurement parameters. This displays a dialog box.
In the dialog box, select Emissivity. This displays a dialog box.
In the dialog box, select Custom value. This displays a dialog box where you can set
a custom value.
7.16 Changing the reflected apparent temperature
7.16.1
General
This parameter is used to compensate for the radiation reflected by the object. If the
emissivity is low and the object temperature significantly different from that of the reflected temperature, it will be important to set and compensate for the reflected apparent
temperature correctly.
For more information about reflected apparent temperature, see section 13 Thermographic measurement techniques, page 33.
7.16.2
Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays a toolbar.
2. On the toolbar, select Settings
. This displays a dialog box.
3. In the dialog box, select Measurement parameters. This displays a dialog box.
4. In the dialog box, select Reflected apparent temperature. This displays a dialog box
where you can set a value.
7.17 Changing the settings
7.17.1
General
You can change a variety of settings for the camera. These include the following:
• Region & time:
•
•
•
•
Language.
Temperature unit.
Date & time.
Date & time format.
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Operation
• Reset options:
• Reset default camera mode.
• Reset device settings to factory default.
• Delete all saved images.
• Power:
• Auto power off.
• Display intensity.
• Photo as separate JPEG: When this menu command is selected, the digital photo
from the visual camera is saved at its full field of view as a separate JPEG image.
• Camera information: This menu command displays various items of information about
the camera, such as the model, serial number, software version, latest calibration
date, etc.
7.17.2
Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays a toolbar.
2. On the toolbar, select Settings
. This displays a dialog box.
3. In the dialog box, select Device settings. This displays a dialog box.
4. In the dialog box, select the setting that you want to change and use the navigation
pad to display additional dialog boxes.
7.18 Updating the camera
7.18.1
General
To take advantage of our latest camera firmware, it is important that you keep your camera updated. You update your camera using Flir Tools.
7.18.2
Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Start Flir Tools.
Start the camera.
Connect the camera to the computer using the USB cable.
On the Help menu in Flir Tools, click Check for updates.
Follow the on-screen instructions.
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Technical data
For technical data on this product, refer to the product catalog and/or technical datasheets on the User Documentation CD-ROM that comes with the product.
The product catalog and the datasheets are also available at http://support.flir.com.
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Cleaning the camera
9.1 Camera housing, cables, and other items
9.1.1 Liquids
Use one of these liquids:
• Warm water
• A weak detergent solution
9.1.2 Equipment
A soft cloth
9.1.3 Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. Soak the cloth in the liquid.
2. Twist the cloth to remove excess liquid.
3. Clean the part with the cloth.
CAUTION
Do not apply solvents or similar liquids to the camera, the cables, or other items. This can cause
damage.
9.2 Infrared lens
9.2.1 Liquids
Use one of these liquids:
•
•
•
•
A commercial lens cleaning liquid with more than 30% isopropyl alcohol.
96% ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH).
DEE (= ‘ether’ = diethylether, C4H10O).
50% acetone (= dimethylketone, (CH3)2CO)) + 50% ethyl alcohol (by volume). This
liquid prevents drying marks on the lens.
9.2.2 Equipment
Cotton wool
9.2.3 Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. Soak the cotton wool in the liquid.
2. Twist the cotton wool to remove excess liquid.
3. Clean the lens one time only and discard the cotton wool.
WARNING
Make sure that you read all applicable MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheets) and warning labels on containers before you use a liquid: the liquids can be dangerous.
CAUTION
•
•
Be careful when you clean the infrared lens. The lens has a delicate anti-reflective coating.
Do not clean the infrared lens too vigorously. This can damage the anti-reflective coating.
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Application examples
10.1 Moisture & water damage
10.1.1
General
It is often possible to detect moisture and water damage in a house by using an infrared
camera. This is partly because the damaged area has a different heat conduction property and partly because it has a different thermal capacity to store heat than the surrounding material.
Note
Many factors can come into play as to how moisture or water damage will appear in an infrared image.
For example, heating and cooling of these parts takes place at different rates depending on the material
and the time of day. For this reason, it is important that other methods are used as well to check for
moisture or water damage.
10.1.2
Figure
The image below shows extensive water damage on an external wall where the water
has penetrated the outer facing because of an incorrectly installed window ledge.
10.2 Faulty contact in socket
10.2.1
General
Depending on the type of connection a socket has, an improperly connected wire can result in local temperature increase. This temperature increase is caused by the reduced
contact area between the connection point of the incoming wire and the socket , and can
result in an electrical fire.
Note
A socket’s construction may differ dramatically from one manufacturer to another. For this reason, different faults in a socket can lead to the same typical appearance in an infrared image.
Local temperature increase can also result from improper contact between wire and socket, or from difference in load.
10.2.2
Figure
The image below shows a connection of a cable to a socket where improper contact in
the connection has resulted in local temperature increase.
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Application examples
10.3 Oxidized socket
10.3.1
General
Depending on the type of socket and the environment in which the socket is installed, oxides may occur on the socket's contact surfaces. These oxides can lead to locally increased resistance when the socket is loaded, which can be seen in an infrared image
as local temperature increase.
Note
A socket’s construction may differ dramatically from one manufacturer to another. For this reason, different faults in a socket can lead to the same typical appearance in an infrared image.
Local temperature increase can also result from improper contact between a wire and socket, or from
difference in load.
10.3.2
Figure
The image below shows a series of fuses where one fuse has a raised temperature on
the contact surfaces against the fuse holder. Because of the fuse holder’s blank metal,
the temperature increase is not visible there, while it is visible on the fuse’s ceramic
material.
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Application examples
10.4 Insulation deficiencies
10.4.1
General
Insulation deficiencies may result from insulation losing volume over the course of time
and thereby not entirely filling the cavity in a frame wall.
An infrared camera allows you to see these insulation deficiencies because they either
have a different heat conduction property than sections with correctly installed insulation,
and/or show the area where air is penetrating the frame of the building.
Note
When you are inspecting a building, the temperature difference between the inside and outside should
be at least 10°C (18°F). Studs, water pipes, concrete columns, and similar components may resemble
an insulation deficiency in an infrared image. Minor differences may also occur naturally.
10.4.2
Figure
In the image below, insulation in the roof framing is lacking. Due to the absence of insulation, air has forced its way into the roof structure, which thus takes on a different characteristic appearance in the infrared image.
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Application examples
10.5 Draft
10.5.1
General
Draft can be found under baseboards, around door and window casings, and above ceiling trim. This type of draft is often possible to see with an infrared camera, as a cooler
airstream cools down the surrounding surface.
Note
When you are investigating draft in a house, there should be sub-atmospheric pressure in the house.
Close all doors, windows, and ventilation ducts, and allow the kitchen fan to run for a while before you
take the infrared images.
An infrared image of draft often shows a typical stream pattern. You can see this stream pattern clearly
in the picture below.
Also keep in mind that drafts can be concealed by heat from floor heating circuits.
10.5.2
Figure
The image below shows a ceiling hatch where faulty installation has resulted in a strong
draft.
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About Flir Systems
Flir Systems was established in 1978 to pioneer the development of high-performance
infrared imaging systems, and is the world leader in the design, manufacture, and marketing of thermal imaging systems for a wide variety of commercial, industrial, and government applications. Today, Flir Systems embraces five major companies with
outstanding achievements in infrared technology since 1958—the Swedish AGEMA Infrared Systems (formerly AGA Infrared Systems), the three United States companies Indigo Systems, FSI, and Inframetrics, and the French company Cedip. In November
2007, Extech Instruments was acquired by Flir Systems.
Figure 11.1 Patent documents from the early 1960s
The company has sold more than 234,000 infrared cameras worldwide for applications
such as predictive maintenance, R & D, non-destructive testing, process control and automation, and machine vision, among many others.
Flir Systems has three manufacturing plants in the United States (Portland, OR, Boston,
MA, Santa Barbara, CA) and one in Sweden (Stockholm). Since 2007 there is also a
manufacturing plant in Tallinn, Estonia. Direct sales offices in Belgium, Brazil, China,
France, Germany, Great Britain, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, Korea, Sweden, and the USA
—together with a worldwide network of agents and distributors—support our international customer base.
Flir Systems is at the forefront of innovation in the infrared camera industry. We anticipate
market demand by constantly improving our existing cameras and developing new ones.
The company has set milestones in product design and development such as the introduction of the first battery-operated portable camera for industrial inspections, and the
first uncooled infrared camera, to mention just two innovations.
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About Flir Systems
Figure 11.2 LEFT: Thermovision Model 661 from 1969. The camera weighed approximately 25 kg
(55 lb.), the oscilloscope 20 kg (44 lb.), and the tripod 15 kg (33 lb.). The operator also needed a 220 VAC
generator set, and a 10 L (2.6 US gallon) jar with liquid nitrogen. To the left of the oscilloscope the Polaroid
attachment (6 kg/13 lb.) can be seen. RIGHT: Flir i7 from 2012. Weight: 0.34 kg (0.75 lb.), including the
battery.
Flir Systems manufactures all vital mechanical and electronic components of the camera
systems itself. From detector design and manufacturing, to lenses and system electronics, to final testing and calibration, all production steps are carried out and supervised by our own engineers. The in-depth expertise of these infrared specialists ensures
the accuracy and reliability of all vital components that are assembled into your infrared
camera.
11.1 More than just an infrared camera
At Flir Systems we recognize that our job is to go beyond just producing the best infrared
camera systems. We are committed to enabling all users of our infrared camera systems
to work more productively by providing them with the most powerful camera–software
combination. Especially tailored software for predictive maintenance, R & D, and process
monitoring is developed in-house. Most software is available in a wide variety of
languages.
We support all our infrared cameras with a wide variety of accessories to adapt your
equipment to the most demanding infrared applications.
11.2 Sharing our knowledge
Although our cameras are designed to be very user-friendly, there is a lot more to thermography than just knowing how to handle a camera. Therefore, Flir Systems has
founded the Infrared Training Center (ITC), a separate business unit, that provides certified training courses. Attending one of the ITC courses will give you a truly hands-on
learning experience.
The staff of the ITC are also there to provide you with any application support you may
need in putting infrared theory into practice.
11.3 Supporting our customers
Flir Systems operates a worldwide service network to keep your camera running at all
times. If you discover a problem with your camera, local service centers have all the
equipment and expertise to solve it within the shortest possible time. Therefore, there is
no need to send your camera to the other side of the world or to talk to someone who
does not speak your language.
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About Flir Systems
11.4 A few images from our facilities
Figure 11.3 LEFT: Development of system electronics; RIGHT: Testing of an FPA detector
Figure 11.4 LEFT: Diamond turning machine; RIGHT: Lens polishing
Figure 11.5 LEFT: Testing of infrared cameras in the climatic chamber; RIGHT: Robot used for camera
testing and calibration
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Glossary
absorption
(absorption
factor)
The amount of radiation absorbed by an object relative to the received radiation. A number between 0 and 1.
atmosphere
The gases between the object being measured and the camera, normally air.
autoadjust
A function making a camera perform an internal image correction.
autopalette
The IR image is shown with an uneven spread of colors, displaying
cold objects as well as hot ones at the same time.
blackbody
Totally non-reflective object. All its radiation is due to its own
temperature.
blackbody
radiator
An IR radiating equipment with blackbody properties used to calibrate IR cameras.
calculated atmospheric
transmission
A transmission value computed from the temperature, the relative
humidity of air and the distance to the object.
cavity radiator
A bottle shaped radiator with an absorbing inside, viewed through
the bottleneck.
color
temperature
The temperature for which the color of a blackbody matches a specific color.
conduction
The process that makes heat diffuse into a material.
continuous
adjust
A function that adjusts the image. The function works all the time,
continuously adjusting brightness and contrast according to the image content.
convection
Convection is a heat transfer mode where a fluid is brought into motion, either by gravity or another force, thereby transferring heat from
one place to another.
dual isotherm
An isotherm with two color bands, instead of one.
emissivity
(emissivity
factor)
The amount of radiation coming from an object, compared to that of
a blackbody. A number between 0 and 1.
emittance
Amount of energy emitted from an object per unit of time and area
(W/m2)
environment
Objects and gases that emit radiation towards the object being
measured.
estimated atmospheric
transmission
A transmission value, supplied by a user, replacing a calculated one
external optics
Extra lenses, filters, heat shields etc. that can be put between the
camera and the object being measured.
filter
A material transparent only to some of the infrared wavelengths.
FOV
Field of view: The horizontal angle that can be viewed through an IR
lens.
FPA
Focal plane array: A type of IR detector.
graybody
An object that emits a fixed fraction of the amount of energy of a
blackbody for each wavelength.
IFOV
Instantaneous field of view: A measure of the geometrical resolution
of an IR camera.
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Glossary
image correction (internal or
external)
A way of compensating for sensitivity differences in various parts of
live images and also of stabilizing the camera.
infrared
Non-visible radiation, having a wavelength from about 2–13 μm.
IR
infrared
isotherm
A function highlighting those parts of an image that fall above, below
or between one or more temperature intervals.
isothermal
cavity
A bottle-shaped radiator with a uniform temperature viewed through
the bottleneck.
Laser LocatIR
An electrically powered light source on the camera that emits laser
radiation in a thin, concentrated beam to point at certain parts of the
object in front of the camera.
laser pointer
An electrically powered light source on the camera that emits laser
radiation in a thin, concentrated beam to point at certain parts of the
object in front of the camera.
level
The center value of the temperature scale, usually expressed as a
signal value.
manual adjust
A way to adjust the image by manually changing certain parameters.
NETD
Noise equivalent temperature difference. A measure of the image
noise level of an IR camera.
noise
Undesired small disturbance in the infrared image
object
parameters
A set of values describing the circumstances under which the measurement of an object was made, and the object itself (such as emissivity, reflected apparent temperature, distance etc.)
object signal
A non-calibrated value related to the amount of radiation received by
the camera from the object.
palette
The set of colors used to display an IR image.
pixel
Stands for picture element. One single spot in an image.
radiance
Amount of energy emitted from an object per unit of time, area and
angle (W/m2/sr)
radiant power
Amount of energy emitted from an object per unit of time (W)
radiation
The process by which electromagnetic energy, is emitted by an object or a gas.
radiator
A piece of IR radiating equipment.
range
The current overall temperature measurement limitation of an IR
camera. Cameras can have several ranges. Expressed as two
blackbody temperatures that limit the current calibration.
reference
temperature
A temperature which the ordinary measured values can be compared with.
reflection
The amount of radiation reflected by an object relative to the received radiation. A number between 0 and 1.
relative
humidity
Relative humidity represents the ratio between the current water vapour mass in the air and the maximum it may contain in saturation
conditions.
saturation
color
The areas that contain temperatures outside the present level/span
settings are colored with the saturation colors. The saturation colors
contain an ‘overflow’ color and an ‘underflow’ color. There is also a
third red saturation color that marks everything saturated by the detector indicating that the range should probably be changed.
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Glossary
span
The interval of the temperature scale, usually expressed as a signal
value.
spectral (radiant) emittance
Amount of energy emitted from an object per unit of time, area and
wavelength (W/m2/μm)
temperature
difference, or
difference of
temperature.
A value which is the result of a subtraction between two temperature
values.
temperature
range
The current overall temperature measurement limitation of an IR
camera. Cameras can have several ranges. Expressed as two
blackbody temperatures that limit the current calibration.
temperature
scale
The way in which an IR image currently is displayed. Expressed as
two temperature values limiting the colors.
thermogram
infrared image
transmission
(or transmittance) factor
Gases and materials can be more or less transparent. Transmission
is the amount of IR radiation passing through them. A number between 0 and 1.
transparent
isotherm
An isotherm showing a linear spread of colors, instead of covering
the highlighted parts of the image.
visual
Refers to the video mode of a IR camera, as opposed to the normal,
thermographic mode. When a camera is in video mode it captures
ordinary video images, while thermographic images are captured
when the camera is in IR mode.
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techniques
13.1 Introduction
An infrared camera measures and images the emitted infrared radiation from an object.
The fact that radiation is a function of object surface temperature makes it possible for
the camera to calculate and display this temperature.
However, the radiation measured by the camera does not only depend on the temperature of the object but is also a function of the emissivity. Radiation also originates from
the surroundings and is reflected in the object. The radiation from the object and the reflected radiation will also be influenced by the absorption of the atmosphere.
To measure temperature accurately, it is therefore necessary to compensate for the effects of a number of different radiation sources. This is done on-line automatically by the
camera. The following object parameters must, however, be supplied for the camera:
•
•
•
•
•
The emissivity of the object
The reflected apparent temperature
The distance between the object and the camera
The relative humidity
Temperature of the atmosphere
13.2 Emissivity
The most important object parameter to set correctly is the emissivity which, in short, is a
measure of how much radiation is emitted from the object, compared to that from a perfect blackbody of the same temperature.
Normally, object materials and surface treatments exhibit emissivity ranging from approximately 0.1 to 0.95. A highly polished (mirror) surface falls below 0.1, while an oxidized
or painted surface has a higher emissivity. Oil-based paint, regardless of color in the visible spectrum, has an emissivity over 0.9 in the infrared. Human skin exhibits an emissivity 0.97 to 0.98.
Non-oxidized metals represent an extreme case of perfect opacity and high reflexivity,
which does not vary greatly with wavelength. Consequently, the emissivity of metals is
low – only increasing with temperature. For non-metals, emissivity tends to be high, and
decreases with temperature.
13.2.1
13.2.1.1
Finding the emissivity of a sample
Step 1: Determining reflected apparent temperature
Use one of the following two methods to determine reflected apparent temperature:
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13.2.1.1.1
Method 1: Direct method
Follow this procedure:
1. Look for possible reflection sources, considering that the incident angle = reflection
angle (a = b).
Figure 13.1 1 = Reflection source
2. If the reflection source is a spot source, modify the source by obstructing it using a
piece if cardboard.
Figure 13.2 1 = Reflection source
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3. Measure the radiation intensity (= apparent temperature) from the reflecting source
using the following settings:
• Emissivity: 1.0
• Dobj: 0
You can measure the radiation intensity using one of the following two methods:
Figure 13.3 1 = Reflection source
Note
Using a thermocouple to measure reflected apparent temperature is not recommended for two important reasons:
•
•
A thermocouple does not measure radiation intensity
A thermocouple requires a very good thermal contact to the surface, usually by gluing and covering
the sensor by a thermal isolator.
13.2.1.1.2
Method 2: Reflector method
Follow this procedure:
1. Crumble up a large piece of aluminum foil.
2. Uncrumble the aluminum foil and attach it to a piece of cardboard of the same size.
3. Put the piece of cardboard in front of the object you want to measure. Make sure that
the side with aluminum foil points to the camera.
4. Set the emissivity to 1.0.
5. Measure the apparent temperature of the aluminum foil and write it down.
Figure 13.4 Measuring the apparent temperature of the aluminum foil.
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13.2.1.2
Step 2: Determining the emissivity
Follow this procedure:
1. Select a place to put the sample.
2. Determine and set reflected apparent temperature according to the previous
procedure.
3. Put a piece of electrical tape with known high emissivity on the sample.
4. Heat the sample at least 20 K above room temperature. Heating must be reasonably
even.
5. Focus and auto-adjust the camera, and freeze the image.
6. Adjust Level and Span for best image brightness and contrast.
7. Set emissivity to that of the tape (usually 0.97).
8. Measure the temperature of the tape using one of the following measurement
functions:
• Isotherm (helps you to determine both the temperature and how evenly you have
heated the sample)
• Spot (simpler)
• Box Avg (good for surfaces with varying emissivity).
9. Write down the temperature.
10. Move your measurement function to the sample surface.
11. Change the emissivity setting until you read the same temperature as your previous
measurement.
12. Write down the emissivity.
Note
•
•
•
•
Avoid forced convection
Look for a thermally stable surrounding that will not generate spot reflections
Use high quality tape that you know is not transparent, and has a high emissivity you are certain of
This method assumes that the temperature of your tape and the sample surface are the same. If
they are not, your emissivity measurement will be wrong.
13.3 Reflected apparent temperature
This parameter is used to compensate for the radiation reflected in the object. If the
emissivity is low and the object temperature relatively far from that of the reflected it will
be important to set and compensate for the reflected apparent temperature correctly.
13.4 Distance
The distance is the distance between the object and the front lens of the camera. This
parameter is used to compensate for the following two facts:
• That radiation from the target is absorbed by the atmosphere between the object and
the camera.
• That radiation from the atmosphere itself is detected by the camera.
13.5 Relative humidity
The camera can also compensate for the fact that the transmittance is also dependent
on the relative humidity of the atmosphere. To do this set the relative humidity to the correct value. For short distances and normal humidity the relative humidity can normally be
left at a default value of 50%.
13.6 Other parameters
In addition, some cameras and analysis programs from Flir Systems allow you to compensate for the following parameters:
• Atmospheric temperature – i.e. the temperature of the atmosphere between the camera and the target
• External optics temperature – i.e. the temperature of any external lenses or windows
used in front of the camera
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• External optics transmittance – i.e. the transmission of any external lenses or windows
used in front of the camera
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History of infrared technology
Before the year 1800, the existence of the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum wasn't even suspected. The original significance of the infrared spectrum, or simply
‘the infrared’ as it is often called, as a form of heat radiation is perhaps less obvious today than it was at the time of its discovery by Herschel in 1800.
Figure 14.1 Sir William Herschel (1738–1822)
The discovery was made accidentally during the search for a new optical material. Sir
William Herschel – Royal Astronomer to King George III of England, and already famous
for his discovery of the planet Uranus – was searching for an optical filter material to reduce the brightness of the sun’s image in telescopes during solar observations. While
testing different samples of colored glass which gave similar reductions in brightness he
was intrigued to find that some of the samples passed very little of the sun’s heat, while
others passed so much heat that he risked eye damage after only a few seconds’
observation.
Herschel was soon convinced of the necessity of setting up a systematic experiment,
with the objective of finding a single material that would give the desired reduction in
brightness as well as the maximum reduction in heat. He began the experiment by actually repeating Newton’s prism experiment, but looking for the heating effect rather than
the visual distribution of intensity in the spectrum. He first blackened the bulb of a sensitive mercury-in-glass thermometer with ink, and with this as his radiation detector he proceeded to test the heating effect of the various colors of the spectrum formed on the top
of a table by passing sunlight through a glass prism. Other thermometers, placed outside
the sun’s rays, served as controls.
As the blackened thermometer was moved slowly along the colors of the spectrum, the
temperature readings showed a steady increase from the violet end to the red end. This
was not entirely unexpected, since the Italian researcher, Landriani, in a similar experiment in 1777 had observed much the same effect. It was Herschel, however, who was
the first to recognize that there must be a point where the heating effect reaches a maximum, and that measurements confined to the visible portion of the spectrum failed to locate this point.
Figure 14.2 Marsilio Landriani (1746–1815)
Moving the thermometer into the dark region beyond the red end of the spectrum, Herschel confirmed that the heating continued to increase. The maximum point, when he
found it, lay well beyond the red end – in what is known today as the ‘infrared
wavelengths’.
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History of infrared technology
When Herschel revealed his discovery, he referred to this new portion of the electromagnetic spectrum as the ‘thermometrical spectrum’. The radiation itself he sometimes referred to as ‘dark heat’, or simply ‘the invisible rays’. Ironically, and contrary to popular
opinion, it wasn't Herschel who originated the term ‘infrared’. The word only began to appear in print around 75 years later, and it is still unclear who should receive credit as the
originator.
Herschel’s use of glass in the prism of his original experiment led to some early controversies with his contemporaries about the actual existence of the infrared wavelengths.
Different investigators, in attempting to confirm his work, used various types of glass indiscriminately, having different transparencies in the infrared. Through his later experiments, Herschel was aware of the limited transparency of glass to the newly-discovered
thermal radiation, and he was forced to conclude that optics for the infrared would probably be doomed to the use of reflective elements exclusively (i.e. plane and curved mirrors). Fortunately, this proved to be true only until 1830, when the Italian investigator,
Melloni, made his great discovery that naturally occurring rock salt (NaCl) – which was
available in large enough natural crystals to be made into lenses and prisms – is remarkably transparent to the infrared. The result was that rock salt became the principal infrared optical material, and remained so for the next hundred years, until the art of synthetic
crystal growing was mastered in the 1930’s.
Figure 14.3 Macedonio Melloni (1798–1854)
Thermometers, as radiation detectors, remained unchallenged until 1829, the year Nobili
invented the thermocouple. (Herschel’s own thermometer could be read to 0.2 °C
(0.036 °F), and later models were able to be read to 0.05 °C (0.09 °F)). Then a breakthrough occurred; Melloni connected a number of thermocouples in series to form the
first thermopile. The new device was at least 40 times as sensitive as the best thermometer of the day for detecting heat radiation – capable of detecting the heat from a person
standing three meters away.
The first so-called ‘heat-picture’ became possible in 1840, the result of work by Sir John
Herschel, son of the discoverer of the infrared and a famous astronomer in his own right.
Based upon the differential evaporation of a thin film of oil when exposed to a heat pattern focused upon it, the thermal image could be seen by reflected light where the interference effects of the oil film made the image visible to the eye. Sir John also managed
to obtain a primitive record of the thermal image on paper, which he called a
‘thermograph’.
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History of infrared technology
Figure 14.4 Samuel P. Langley (1834–1906)
The improvement of infrared-detector sensitivity progressed slowly. Another major breakthrough, made by Langley in 1880, was the invention of the bolometer. This consisted of
a thin blackened strip of platinum connected in one arm of a Wheatstone bridge circuit
upon which the infrared radiation was focused and to which a sensitive galvanometer responded. This instrument is said to have been able to detect the heat from a cow at a
distance of 400 meters.
An English scientist, Sir James Dewar, first introduced the use of liquefied gases as cooling agents (such as liquid nitrogen with a temperature of -196 °C (-320.8 °F)) in low temperature research. In 1892 he invented a unique vacuum insulating container in which it
is possible to store liquefied gases for entire days. The common ‘thermos bottle’, used
for storing hot and cold drinks, is based upon his invention.
Between the years 1900 and 1920, the inventors of the world ‘discovered’ the infrared.
Many patents were issued for devices to detect personnel, artillery, aircraft, ships – and
even icebergs. The first operating systems, in the modern sense, began to be developed
during the 1914–18 war, when both sides had research programs devoted to the military
exploitation of the infrared. These programs included experimental systems for enemy
intrusion/detection, remote temperature sensing, secure communications, and ‘flying torpedo’ guidance. An infrared search system tested during this period was able to detect
an approaching airplane at a distance of 1.5 km (0.94 miles), or a person more than 300
meters (984 ft.) away.
The most sensitive systems up to this time were all based upon variations of the bolometer idea, but the period between the two wars saw the development of two revolutionary
new infrared detectors: the image converter and the photon detector. At first, the image
converter received the greatest attention by the military, because it enabled an observer
for the first time in history to literally ‘see in the dark’. However, the sensitivity of the image converter was limited to the near infrared wavelengths, and the most interesting military targets (i.e. enemy soldiers) had to be illuminated by infrared search beams. Since
this involved the risk of giving away the observer’s position to a similarly-equipped enemy
observer, it is understandable that military interest in the image converter eventually
faded.
The tactical military disadvantages of so-called 'active’ (i.e. search beam-equipped) thermal imaging systems provided impetus following the 1939–45 war for extensive secret
military infrared-research programs into the possibilities of developing ‘passive’ (no
search beam) systems around the extremely sensitive photon detector. During this period, military secrecy regulations completely prevented disclosure of the status of infraredimaging technology. This secrecy only began to be lifted in the middle of the 1950’s, and
from that time adequate thermal-imaging devices finally began to be available to civilian
science and industry.
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Theory of thermography
15.1 Introduction
The subjects of infrared radiation and the related technique of thermography are still new
to many who will use an infrared camera. In this section the theory behind thermography
will be given.
15.2 The electromagnetic spectrum
The electromagnetic spectrum is divided arbitrarily into a number of wavelength regions,
called bands, distinguished by the methods used to produce and detect the radiation.
There is no fundamental difference between radiation in the different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. They are all governed by the same laws and the only differences
are those due to differences in wavelength.
Figure 15.1 The electromagnetic spectrum. 1: X-ray; 2: UV; 3: Visible; 4: IR; 5: Microwaves; 6:
Radiowaves.
Thermography makes use of the infrared spectral band. At the short-wavelength end the
boundary lies at the limit of visual perception, in the deep red. At the long-wavelength
end it merges with the microwave radio wavelengths, in the millimeter range.
The infrared band is often further subdivided into four smaller bands, the boundaries of
which are also arbitrarily chosen. They include: the near infrared (0.75–3 μm), the middle
infrared (3–6 μm), the far infrared (6–15 μm) and the extreme infrared (15–100 μm).
Although the wavelengths are given in μm (micrometers), other units are often still used
to measure wavelength in this spectral region, e.g. nanometer (nm) and Ångström (Å).
The relationships between the different wavelength measurements is:
15.3 Blackbody radiation
A blackbody is defined as an object which absorbs all radiation that impinges on it at any
wavelength. The apparent misnomer black relating to an object emitting radiation is explained by Kirchhoff’s Law (after Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, 1824–1887), which states that
a body capable of absorbing all radiation at any wavelength is equally capable in the
emission of radiation.
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Figure 15.2 Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (1824–1887)
The construction of a blackbody source is, in principle, very simple. The radiation characteristics of an aperture in an isotherm cavity made of an opaque absorbing material represents almost exactly the properties of a blackbody. A practical application of the
principle to the construction of a perfect absorber of radiation consists of a box that is
light tight except for an aperture in one of the sides. Any radiation which then enters the
hole is scattered and absorbed by repeated reflections so only an infinitesimal fraction
can possibly escape. The blackness which is obtained at the aperture is nearly equal to
a blackbody and almost perfect for all wavelengths.
By providing such an isothermal cavity with a suitable heater it becomes what is termed
a cavity radiator. An isothermal cavity heated to a uniform temperature generates blackbody radiation, the characteristics of which are determined solely by the temperature of
the cavity. Such cavity radiators are commonly used as sources of radiation in temperature reference standards in the laboratory for calibrating thermographic instruments,
such as a Flir Systems camera for example.
If the temperature of blackbody radiation increases to more than 525°C (977°F), the
source begins to be visible so that it appears to the eye no longer black. This is the incipient red heat temperature of the radiator, which then becomes orange or yellow as the
temperature increases further. In fact, the definition of the so-called color temperature of
an object is the temperature to which a blackbody would have to be heated to have the
same appearance.
Now consider three expressions that describe the radiation emitted from a blackbody.
15.3.1
Planck’s law
Figure 15.3 Max Planck (1858–1947)
Max Planck (1858–1947) was able to describe the spectral distribution of the radiation
from a blackbody by means of the following formula:
where:
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Wλb
Blackbody spectral radiant emittance at wavelength λ.
c
Velocity of light = 3 × 108 m/s
h
Planck’s constant = 6.6 × 10-34 Joule sec.
k
Boltzmann’s constant = 1.4 × 10-23 Joule/K.
T
Absolute temperature (K) of a blackbody.
λ
Wavelength (μm).
Note
The factor 10-6 is used since spectral emittance in the curves is expressed in Watt/m2, μm.
Planck’s formula, when plotted graphically for various temperatures, produces a family of
curves. Following any particular Planck curve, the spectral emittance is zero at λ = 0,
then increases rapidly to a maximum at a wavelength λmax and after passing it approaches zero again at very long wavelengths. The higher the temperature, the shorter
the wavelength at which maximum occurs.
Figure 15.4 Blackbody spectral radiant emittance according to Planck’s law, plotted for various absolute
temperatures. 1: Spectral radiant emittance (W/cm2 × 103(μm)); 2: Wavelength (μm)
15.3.2
Wien’s displacement law
By differentiating Planck’s formula with respect to λ, and finding the maximum, we have:
This is Wien’s formula (after Wilhelm Wien, 1864–1928), which expresses mathematically the common observation that colors vary from red to orange or yellow as the temperature of a thermal radiator increases. The wavelength of the color is the same as the
wavelength calculated for λmax. A good approximation of the value of λmax for a given
blackbody temperature is obtained by applying the rule-of-thumb 3 000/T μm. Thus, a
very hot star such as Sirius (11 000 K), emitting bluish-white light, radiates with the peak
of spectral radiant emittance occurring within the invisible ultraviolet spectrum, at wavelength 0.27 μm.
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Figure 15.5 Wilhelm Wien (1864–1928)
The sun (approx. 6 000 K) emits yellow light, peaking at about 0.5 μm in the middle of
the visible light spectrum.
At room temperature (300 K) the peak of radiant emittance lies at 9.7 μm, in the far infrared, while at the temperature of liquid nitrogen (77 K) the maximum of the almost insignificant amount of radiant emittance occurs at 38 μm, in the extreme infrared wavelengths.
Figure 15.6 Planckian curves plotted on semi-log scales from 100 K to 1000 K. The dotted line represents
the locus of maximum radiant emittance at each temperature as described by Wien's displacement law. 1:
Spectral radiant emittance (W/cm2 (μm)); 2: Wavelength (μm).
15.3.3
Stefan-Boltzmann's law
By integrating Planck’s formula from λ = 0 to λ = ∞, we obtain the total radiant emittance
(Wb) of a blackbody:
This is the Stefan-Boltzmann formula (after Josef Stefan, 1835–1893, and Ludwig Boltzmann, 1844–1906), which states that the total emissive power of a blackbody is proportional to the fourth power of its absolute temperature. Graphically, Wb represents the
area below the Planck curve for a particular temperature. It can be shown that the radiant
emittance in the interval λ = 0 to λmax is only 25% of the total, which represents about the
amount of the sun’s radiation which lies inside the visible light spectrum.
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Figure 15.7 Josef Stefan (1835–1893), and Ludwig Boltzmann (1844–1906)
Using the Stefan-Boltzmann formula to calculate the power radiated by the human body,
at a temperature of 300 K and an external surface area of approx. 2 m2, we obtain 1 kW.
This power loss could not be sustained if it were not for the compensating absorption of
radiation from surrounding surfaces, at room temperatures which do not vary too drastically from the temperature of the body – or, of course, the addition of clothing.
15.3.4
Non-blackbody emitters
So far, only blackbody radiators and blackbody radiation have been discussed. However,
real objects almost never comply with these laws over an extended wavelength region –
although they may approach the blackbody behavior in certain spectral intervals. For example, a certain type of white paint may appear perfectly white in the visible light spectrum, but becomes distinctly gray at about 2 μm, and beyond 3 μm it is almost black.
There are three processes which can occur that prevent a real object from acting like a
blackbody: a fraction of the incident radiation α may be absorbed, a fraction ρ may be reflected, and a fraction τ may be transmitted. Since all of these factors are more or less
wavelength dependent, the subscript λ is used to imply the spectral dependence of their
definitions. Thus:
• The spectral absorptance αλ= the ratio of the spectral radiant power absorbed by an
object to that incident upon it.
• The spectral reflectance ρλ = the ratio of the spectral radiant power reflected by an object to that incident upon it.
• The spectral transmittance τλ = the ratio of the spectral radiant power transmitted
through an object to that incident upon it.
The sum of these three factors must always add up to the whole at any wavelength, so
we have the relation:
For opaque materials τλ = 0 and the relation simplifies to:
Another factor, called the emissivity, is required to describe the fraction ε of the radiant
emittance of a blackbody produced by an object at a specific temperature. Thus, we
have the definition:
The spectral emissivity ελ= the ratio of the spectral radiant power from an object to that
from a blackbody at the same temperature and wavelength.
Expressed mathematically, this can be written as the ratio of the spectral emittance of
the object to that of a blackbody as follows:
Generally speaking, there are three types of radiation source, distinguished by the ways
in which the spectral emittance of each varies with wavelength.
• A blackbody, for which ελ = ε = 1
• A graybody, for which ελ = ε = constant less than 1
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• A selective radiator, for which ε varies with wavelength
According to Kirchhoff’s law, for any material the spectral emissivity and spectral absorptance of a body are equal at any specified temperature and wavelength. That is:
From this we obtain, for an opaque material (since αλ + ρλ = 1):
For highly polished materials ελ approaches zero, so that for a perfectly reflecting material (i.e. a perfect mirror) we have:
For a graybody radiator, the Stefan-Boltzmann formula becomes:
This states that the total emissive power of a graybody is the same as a blackbody at the
same temperature reduced in proportion to the value of ε from the graybody.
Figure 15.8 Spectral radiant emittance of three types of radiators. 1: Spectral radiant emittance; 2: Wavelength; 3: Blackbody; 4: Selective radiator; 5: Graybody.
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Figure 15.9 Spectral emissivity of three types of radiators. 1: Spectral emissivity; 2: Wavelength; 3: Blackbody; 4: Graybody; 5: Selective radiator.
15.4 Infrared semi-transparent materials
Consider now a non-metallic, semi-transparent body – let us say, in the form of a thick flat
plate of plastic material. When the plate is heated, radiation generated within its volume
must work its way toward the surfaces through the material in which it is partially absorbed. Moreover, when it arrives at the surface, some of it is reflected back into the interior. The back-reflected radiation is again partially absorbed, but some of it arrives at the
other surface, through which most of it escapes; part of it is reflected back again.
Although the progressive reflections become weaker and weaker they must all be added
up when the total emittance of the plate is sought. When the resulting geometrical series
is summed, the effective emissivity of a semi-transparent plate is obtained as:
When the plate becomes opaque this formula is reduced to the single formula:
This last relation is a particularly convenient one, because it is often easier to measure
reflectance than to measure emissivity directly.
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The measurement formula
As already mentioned, when viewing an object, the camera receives radiation not only
from the object itself. It also collects radiation from the surroundings reflected via the object surface. Both these radiation contributions become attenuated to some extent by the
atmosphere in the measurement path. To this comes a third radiation contribution from
the atmosphere itself.
This description of the measurement situation, as illustrated in the figure below, is so far
a fairly true description of the real conditions. What has been neglected could for instance be sun light scattering in the atmosphere or stray radiation from intense radiation
sources outside the field of view. Such disturbances are difficult to quantify, however, in
most cases they are fortunately small enough to be neglected. In case they are not negligible, the measurement configuration is likely to be such that the risk for disturbance is
obvious, at least to a trained operator. It is then his responsibility to modify the measurement situation to avoid the disturbance e.g. by changing the viewing direction, shielding
off intense radiation sources etc.
Accepting the description above, we can use the figure below to derive a formula for the
calculation of the object temperature from the calibrated camera output.
Figure 16.1 A schematic representation of the general thermographic measurement situation.1: Surroundings; 2: Object; 3: Atmosphere; 4: Camera
Assume that the received radiation power W from a blackbody source of temperature
Tsource on short distance generates a camera output signal Usource that is proportional to
the power input (power linear camera). We can then write (Equation 1):
or, with simplified notation:
where C is a constant.
Should the source be a graybody with emittance ε, the received radiation would consequently be εWsource.
We are now ready to write the three collected radiation power terms:
1. Emission from the object = ετWobj, where ε is the emittance of the object and τ is the
transmittance of the atmosphere. The object temperature is Tobj.
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2. Reflected emission from ambient sources = (1 – ε)τWrefl, where (1 – ε) is the reflectance of the object. The ambient sources have the temperature Trefl.
It has here been assumed that the temperature Trefl is the same for all emitting surfaces within the halfsphere seen from a point on the object surface. This is of course
sometimes a simplification of the true situation. It is, however, a necessary simplification in order to derive a workable formula, and Trefl can – at least theoretically – be given a value that represents an efficient temperature of a complex surrounding.
Note also that we have assumed that the emittance for the surroundings = 1. This is
correct in accordance with Kirchhoff’s law: All radiation impinging on the surrounding
surfaces will eventually be absorbed by the same surfaces. Thus the emittance = 1.
(Note though that the latest discussion requires the complete sphere around the object to be considered.)
3. Emission from the atmosphere = (1 – τ)τWatm, where (1 – τ) is the emittance of the atmosphere. The temperature of the atmosphere is Tatm.
The total received radiation power can now be written (Equation 2):
We multiply each term by the constant C of Equation 1 and replace the CW products by
the corresponding U according to the same equation, and get (Equation 3):
Solve Equation 3 for Uobj (Equation 4):
This is the general measurement formula used in all the Flir Systems thermographic
equipment. The voltages of the formula are:
Table 16.1 Voltages
Uobj
Calculated camera output voltage for a blackbody of temperature
Tobj i.e. a voltage that can be directly converted into true requested
object temperature.
Utot
Measured camera output voltage for the actual case.
Urefl
Theoretical camera output voltage for a blackbody of temperature
Trefl according to the calibration.
Uatm
Theoretical camera output voltage for a blackbody of temperature
Tatm according to the calibration.
The operator has to supply a number of parameter values for the calculation:
•
•
•
•
•
the object emittance ε,
the relative humidity,
Tatm
object distance (Dobj)
the (effective) temperature of the object surroundings, or the reflected ambient temperature Trefl, and
• the temperature of the atmosphere Tatm
This task could sometimes be a heavy burden for the operator since there are normally
no easy ways to find accurate values of emittance and atmospheric transmittance for the
actual case. The two temperatures are normally less of a problem provided the surroundings do not contain large and intense radiation sources.
A natural question in this connection is: How important is it to know the right values of
these parameters? It could though be of interest to get a feeling for this problem already
here by looking into some different measurement cases and compare the relative
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magnitudes of the three radiation terms. This will give indications about when it is important to use correct values of which parameters.
The figures below illustrates the relative magnitudes of the three radiation contributions
for three different object temperatures, two emittances, and two spectral ranges: SW and
LW. Remaining parameters have the following fixed values:
• τ = 0.88
• Trefl = +20°C (+68°F)
• Tatm = +20°C (+68°F)
It is obvious that measurement of low object temperatures are more critical than measuring high temperatures since the ‘disturbing’ radiation sources are relatively much stronger in the first case. Should also the object emittance be low, the situation would be still
more difficult.
We have finally to answer a question about the importance of being allowed to use the
calibration curve above the highest calibration point, what we call extrapolation. Imagine
that we in a certain case measure Utot = 4.5 volts. The highest calibration point for the
camera was in the order of 4.1 volts, a value unknown to the operator. Thus, even if the
object happened to be a blackbody, i.e. Uobj = Utot, we are actually performing extrapolation of the calibration curve when converting 4.5 volts into temperature.
Let us now assume that the object is not black, it has an emittance of 0.75, and the transmittance is 0.92. We also assume that the two second terms of Equation 4 amount to 0.5
volts together. Computation of Uobj by means of Equation 4 then results in Uobj = 4.5 /
0.75 / 0.92 – 0.5 = 6.0. This is a rather extreme extrapolation, particularly when considering that the video amplifier might limit the output to 5 volts! Note, though, that the application of the calibration curve is a theoretical procedure where no electronic or other
limitations exist. We trust that if there had been no signal limitations in the camera, and if
it had been calibrated far beyond 5 volts, the resulting curve would have been very much
the same as our real curve extrapolated beyond 4.1 volts, provided the calibration algorithm is based on radiation physics, like the Flir Systems algorithm. Of course there must
be a limit to such extrapolations.
Figure 16.2 Relative magnitudes of radiation sources under varying measurement conditions (SW camera). 1: Object temperature; 2: Emittance; Obj: Object radiation; Refl: Reflected radiation; Atm: atmosphere radiation. Fixed parameters: τ = 0.88; Trefl = 20°C (+68°F); Tatm = 20°C (+68°F).
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The measurement formula
Figure 16.3 Relative magnitudes of radiation sources under varying measurement conditions (LW camera). 1: Object temperature; 2: Emittance; Obj: Object radiation; Refl: Reflected radiation; Atm: atmosphere radiation. Fixed parameters: τ = 0.88; Trefl = 20°C (+68°F); Tatm = 20°C (+68°F).
#T559828; r. AA/ 7052/7459; en-US
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17
Emissivity tables
This section presents a compilation of emissivity data from the infrared literature and
measurements made by Flir Systems.
17.1 References
1. Mikaél A. Bramson: Infrared Radiation, A Handbook for Applications, Plenum press,
N.Y.
2. William L. Wolfe, George J. Zissis: The Infrared Handbook, Office of Naval Research,
Department of Navy, Washington, D.C.
3. Madding, R. P.: Thermographic Instruments and systems. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin – Extension, Department of Engineering and Applied Science.
4. William L. Wolfe: Handbook of Military Infrared Technology, Office of Naval Research,
Department of Navy, Washington, D.C.
5. Jones, Smith, Probert: External thermography of buildings..., Proc. of the Society of
Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, vol.110, Industrial and Civil Applications of
Infrared Technology, June 1977 London.
6. Paljak, Pettersson: Thermography of Buildings, Swedish Building Research Institute,
Stockholm 1972.
7. Vlcek, J: Determination of emissivity with imaging radiometers and some emissivities
at λ = 5 µm. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing.
8. Kern: Evaluation of infrared emission of clouds and ground as measured by weather
satellites, Defence Documentation Center, AD 617 417.
9. Öhman, Claes: Emittansmätningar med AGEMA E-Box. Teknisk rapport, AGEMA
1999. (Emittance measurements using AGEMA E-Box. Technical report, AGEMA
1999.)
10. Matteï, S., Tang-Kwor, E: Emissivity measurements for Nextel Velvet coating 811-21
between –36°C AND 82°C.
11. Lohrengel & Todtenhaupt (1996)
12. ITC Technical publication 32.
13. ITC Technical publication 29.
Note
The emissivity values in the table below are recorded using a shortwave (SW) camera. The values
should be regarded as recommendations only and used with caution.
17.2 Tables
Table 17.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;
3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference
1
2
3
4
5
6
3M type 35
Vinyl electrical
tape (several
colors)
< 80
LW
Ca. 0.96
13
3M type 88
Black vinyl electrical tape
< 105
LW
Ca. 0.96
13
3M type 88
Black vinyl electrical tape
< 105
MW
< 0.96
13
3M type Super 33
+
Black vinyl electrical tape
< 80
LW
Ca. 0.96
13
Aluminum
anodized sheet
100
T
0.55
2
Aluminum
anodized, black,
dull
70
SW
0.67
9
Aluminum
anodized, black,
dull
70
LW
0.95
9
Aluminum
anodized, light
gray, dull
70
SW
0.61
9
Aluminum
anodized, light
gray, dull
70
LW
0.97
9
#T559828; r. AA/ 7052/7459; en-US
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Emissivity tables
Table 17.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;
3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)
1
2
3
4
5
6
Aluminum
as received, plate
100
T
0.09
4
Aluminum
as received,
sheet
100
T
0.09
2
Aluminum
cast, blast
cleaned
70
SW
0.47
9
Aluminum
cast, blast
cleaned
70
LW
0.46
9
Aluminum
dipped in HNO3,
plate
100
T
0.05
4
Aluminum
foil
27
10 µm
0.04
3
Aluminum
foil
27
3 µm
0.09
3
Aluminum
oxidized, strongly
50–500
T
0.2–0.3
1
Aluminum
polished
50–100
T
0.04–0.06
1
Aluminum
polished plate
100
T
0.05
4
Aluminum
polished, sheet
100
T
0.05
2
Aluminum
rough surface
20–50
T
0.06–0.07
1
Aluminum
roughened
27
10 µm
0.18
3
Aluminum
roughened
27
3 µm
0.28
3
Aluminum
sheet, 4 samples
differently
scratched
70
SW
0.05–0.08
9
Aluminum
sheet, 4 samples
differently
scratched
70
LW
0.03–0.06
9
Aluminum
vacuum
deposited
20
T
0.04
2
Aluminum
weathered,
heavily
17
SW
0.83–0.94
5
20
T
0.60
1
Aluminum bronze
Aluminum
hydroxide
powder
T
0.28
1
Aluminum oxide
activated, powder
T
0.46
1
Aluminum oxide
pure, powder
(alumina)
T
0.16
1
Asbestos
board
T
0.96
1
Asbestos
fabric
T
0.78
1
Asbestos
floor tile
35
SW
0.94
7
Asbestos
paper
40–400
T
0.93–0.95
1
Asbestos
powder
T
0.40–0.60
1
Asbestos
slate
20
T
0.96
1
4
LLW
0.967
8
Asphalt paving
20
Brass
dull, tarnished
20–350
T
0.22
1
Brass
oxidized
100
T
0.61
2
Brass
oxidized
70
SW
0.04–0.09
9
Brass
oxidized
70
LW
0.03–0.07
9
Brass
oxidized at 600°C
200–600
T
0.59–0.61
1
Brass
polished
200
T
0.03
1
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Emissivity tables
Table 17.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;
3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)
1
2
3
4
5
6
Brass
polished, highly
100
T
0.03
2
Brass
rubbed with 80grit emery
20
T
0.20
2
Brass
sheet, rolled
20
T
0.06
1
Brass
sheet, worked
with emery
20
T
0.2
1
Brick
alumina
17
SW
0.68
5
Brick
common
17
SW
0.86–0.81
5
Brick
Dinas silica,
glazed, rough
1100
T
0.85
1
Brick
Dinas silica,
refractory
1000
T
0.66
1
Brick
Dinas silica, unglazed, rough
1000
T
0.80
1
Brick
firebrick
17
SW
0.68
5
Brick
fireclay
1000
T
0.75
1
Brick
fireclay
1200
T
0.59
1
Brick
fireclay
20
T
0.85
1
Brick
masonry
35
SW
0.94
7
Brick
masonry,
plastered
20
T
0.94
1
Brick
red, common
20
T
0.93
2
Brick
red, rough
20
T
0.88–0.93
1
Brick
refractory,
corundum
1000
T
0.46
1
Brick
refractory,
magnesite
1000–1300
T
0.38
1
Brick
refractory,
strongly radiating
500–1000
T
0.8–0.9
1
Brick
refractory, weakly
radiating
500–1000
T
0.65–0.75
1
Brick
silica, 95% SiO2
1230
T
0.66
1
Brick
sillimanite, 33%
SiO2, 64% Al2O3
1500
T
0.29
1
Brick
waterproof
17
SW
0.87
5
Bronze
phosphor bronze
70
SW
0.08
9
Bronze
phosphor bronze
70
LW
0.06
9
Bronze
polished
50
T
0.1
1
Bronze
porous, rough
50–150
T
0.55
1
Bronze
powder
T
0.76–0.80
1
Carbon
candle soot
T
0.95
2
Carbon
charcoal powder
T
0.96
1
Carbon
graphite powder
T
0.97
1
Carbon
graphite, filed
surface
20
T
0.98
2
Carbon
lampblack
20–400
T
0.95–0.97
1
Chipboard
untreated
20
SW
0.90
6
#T559828; r. AA/ 7052/7459; en-US
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Emissivity tables
Table 17.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;
3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)
1
2
3
4
5
6
Chromium
polished
50
T
0.10
1
Chromium
polished
500–1000
T
0.28–0.38
1
Clay
fired
70
T
0.91
1
Cloth
black
20
T
0.98
1
20
T
0.92
2
Concrete
Concrete
dry
36
SW
0.95
7
Concrete
rough
17
SW
0.97
5
Concrete
walkway
5
LLW
0.974
8
Copper
commercial,
burnished
20
T
0.07
1
Copper
electrolytic, carefully polished
80
T
0.018
1
Copper
electrolytic,
polished
–34
T
0.006
4
Copper
molten
1100–1300
T
0.13–0.15
1
Copper
oxidized
50
T
0.6–0.7
1
Copper
oxidized to
blackness
T
0.88
1
Copper
oxidized, black
27
T
0.78
4
Copper
oxidized, heavily
20
T
0.78
2
Copper
polished
50–100
T
0.02
1
Copper
polished
100
T
0.03
2
Copper
polished,
commercial
27
T
0.03
4
Copper
polished,
mechanical
22
T
0.015
4
Copper
pure, carefully
prepared surface
22
T
0.008
4
Copper
scraped
27
T
0.07
4
Copper dioxide
powder
T
0.84
1
Copper oxide
red, powder
T
0.70
1
Ebonite
Emery
coarse
Enamel
T
0.89
1
80
T
0.85
1
20
T
0.9
1
Enamel
lacquer
20
T
0.85–0.95
1
Fiber board
hard, untreated
20
SW
0.85
6
Fiber board
masonite
70
SW
0.75
9
Fiber board
masonite
70
LW
0.88
9
Fiber board
particle board
70
SW
0.77
9
Fiber board
particle board
70
LW
0.89
9
Fiber board
porous, untreated
20
SW
0.85
6
Gold
polished
130
T
0.018
1
Gold
polished, carefully
200–600
T
0.02–0.03
1
Gold
polished, highly
100
T
0.02
2
Granite
polished
20
LLW
0.849
8
#T559828; r. AA/ 7052/7459; en-US
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Emissivity tables
Table 17.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;
3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)
1
2
3
4
5
6
Granite
rough
21
LLW
0.879
8
Granite
rough, 4 different
samples
70
SW
0.95–0.97
9
Granite
rough, 4 different
samples
70
LW
0.77–0.87
9
20
T
0.8–0.9
1
Gypsum
Ice: See Water
Iron and steel
cold rolled
70
SW
0.20
9
Iron and steel
cold rolled
70
LW
0.09
9
Iron and steel
covered with red
rust
20
T
0.61–0.85
1
Iron and steel
electrolytic
100
T
0.05
4
Iron and steel
electrolytic
22
T
0.05
4
Iron and steel
electrolytic
260
T
0.07
4
Iron and steel
electrolytic, carefully polished
175–225
T
0.05–0.06
1
Iron and steel
freshly worked
with emery
20
T
0.24
1
Iron and steel
ground sheet
950–1100
T
0.55–0.61
1
Iron and steel
heavily rusted
sheet
20
T
0.69
2
Iron and steel
hot rolled
130
T
0.60
1
Iron and steel
hot rolled
20
T
0.77
1
Iron and steel
oxidized
100
T
0.74
4
Iron and steel
oxidized
100
T
0.74
1
Iron and steel
oxidized
1227
T
0.89
4
Iron and steel
oxidized
125–525
T
0.78–0.82
1
Iron and steel
oxidized
200
T
0.79
2
Iron and steel
oxidized
200–600
T
0.80
1
Iron and steel
oxidized strongly
50
T
0.88
1
Iron and steel
oxidized strongly
500
T
0.98
1
Iron and steel
polished
100
T
0.07
2
Iron and steel
polished
400–1000
T
0.14–0.38
1
Iron and steel
polished sheet
750–1050
T
0.52–0.56
1
Iron and steel
rolled sheet
50
T
0.56
1
Iron and steel
rolled, freshly
20
T
0.24
1
Iron and steel
rough, plane
surface
50
T
0.95–0.98
1
Iron and steel
rusted red, sheet
22
T
0.69
4
Iron and steel
rusted, heavily
17
SW
0.96
5
Iron and steel
rusty, red
20
T
0.69
1
Iron and steel
shiny oxide layer,
sheet,
20
T
0.82
1
Iron and steel
shiny, etched
150
T
0.16
1
Iron and steel
wrought, carefully
polished
40–250
T
0.28
1
#T559828; r. AA/ 7052/7459; en-US
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Emissivity tables
Table 17.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;
3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)
1
2
3
4
5
6
Iron galvanized
heavily oxidized
70
SW
0.64
9
Iron galvanized
heavily oxidized
70
LW
0.85
9
Iron galvanized
sheet
92
T
0.07
4
Iron galvanized
sheet, burnished
30
T
0.23
1
Iron galvanized
sheet, oxidized
20
T
0.28
1
Iron tinned
sheet
24
T
0.064
4
Iron, cast
casting
50
T
0.81
1
Iron, cast
ingots
1000
T
0.95
1
Iron, cast
liquid
1300
T
0.28
1
Iron, cast
machined
800–1000
T
0.60–0.70
1
Iron, cast
oxidized
100
T
0.64
2
Iron, cast
oxidized
260
T
0.66
4
Iron, cast
oxidized
38
T
0.63
4
Iron, cast
oxidized
538
T
0.76
4
Iron, cast
oxidized at 600°C
200–600
T
0.64–0.78
1
Iron, cast
polished
200
T
0.21
1
Iron, cast
polished
38
T
0.21
4
Iron, cast
polished
40
T
0.21
2
Iron, cast
unworked
900–1100
T
0.87–0.95
1
Krylon Ultra-flat
black 1602
Flat black
Room temperature up to 175
LW
Ca. 0.96
12
Krylon Ultra-flat
black 1602
Flat black
Room temperature up to 175
MW
Ca. 0.97
12
Lacquer
3 colors sprayed
on Aluminum
70
SW
0.50–0.53
9
Lacquer
3 colors sprayed
on Aluminum
70
LW
0.92–0.94
9
Lacquer
Aluminum on
rough surface
20
T
0.4
1
Lacquer
bakelite
80
T
0.83
1
Lacquer
black, dull
40–100
T
0.96–0.98
1
Lacquer
black, matte
100
T
0.97
2
Lacquer
black, shiny,
sprayed on iron
20
T
0.87
1
Lacquer
heat–resistant
100
T
0.92
1
Lacquer
white
100
T
0.92
2
Lacquer
white
40–100
T
0.8–0.95
1
Lead
oxidized at 200°C
200
T
0.63
1
Lead
oxidized, gray
20
T
0.28
1
Lead
oxidized, gray
22
T
0.28
4
Lead
shiny
250
T
0.08
1
Lead
unoxidized,
polished
100
T
0.05
4
Lead red
100
T
0.93
4
Lead red, powder
100
T
0.93
1
#T559828; r. AA/ 7052/7459; en-US
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Emissivity tables
Table 17.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;
3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)
1
2
Leather
tanned
3
Lime
4
5
6
T
0.75–0.80
1
T
0.3–0.4
1
Magnesium
22
T
0.07
4
Magnesium
260
T
0.13
4
Magnesium
538
T
0.18
4
20
T
0.07
2
T
0.86
1
Magnesium
polished
Magnesium
powder
Molybdenum
1500–2200
T
0.19–0.26
1
Molybdenum
600–1000
T
0.08–0.13
1
700–2500
T
0.1–0.3
1
Molybdenum
filament
17
SW
0.87
5
Mortar
dry
36
SW
0.94
7
Nextel Velvet
811-21 Black
Flat black
–60–150
LW
> 0.97
10 and
11
Nichrome
rolled
700
T
0.25
1
Nichrome
sandblasted
700
T
0.70
1
Nichrome
wire, clean
50
T
0.65
1
Nichrome
wire, clean
500–1000
T
0.71–0.79
1
Nichrome
wire, oxidized
50–500
T
0.95–0.98
1
Nickel
bright matte
122
T
0.041
4
Nickel
commercially
pure, polished
100
T
0.045
1
Nickel
commercially
pure, polished
200–400
T
0.07–0.09
1
Nickel
electrolytic
22
T
0.04
4
Nickel
electrolytic
260
T
0.07
4
Nickel
electrolytic
38
T
0.06
4
Nickel
electrolytic
538
T
0.10
4
Nickel
electroplated on
iron, polished
22
T
0.045
4
Nickel
electroplated on
iron, unpolished
20
T
0.11–0.40
1
Nickel
electroplated on
iron, unpolished
22
T
0.11
4
Nickel
electroplated,
polished
20
T
0.05
2
Nickel
oxidized
1227
T
0.85
4
Nickel
oxidized
200
T
0.37
2
Nickel
oxidized
227
T
0.37
4
Nickel
oxidized at 600°C
200–600
T
0.37–0.48
1
Nickel
polished
122
T
0.045
4
Nickel
wire
Mortar
200–1000
T
0.1–0.2
1
Nickel oxide
1000–1250
T
0.75–0.86
1
Nickel oxide
500–650
T
0.52–0.59
1
20
T
0.27
2
Oil, lubricating
0.025 mm film
#T559828; r. AA/ 7052/7459; en-US
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17
Emissivity tables
Table 17.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;
3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)
1
2
3
4
5
6
Oil, lubricating
0.050 mm film
20
T
0.46
2
Oil, lubricating
0.125 mm film
20
T
0.72
2
Oil, lubricating
film on Ni base:
Ni base only
20
T
0.05
2
Oil, lubricating
thick coating
20
T
0.82
2
Paint
8 different colors
and qualities
70
SW
0.88–0.96
9
Paint
8 different colors
and qualities
70
LW
0.92–0.94
9
Paint
Aluminum, various ages
50–100
T
0.27–0.67
1
Paint
cadmium yellow
T
0.28–0.33
1
Paint
chrome green
T
0.65–0.70
1
Paint
cobalt blue
T
0.7–0.8
1
Paint
oil
17
SW
0.87
5
Paint
oil based, average of 16 colors
100
T
0.94
2
Paint
oil, black flat
20
SW
0.94
6
Paint
oil, black gloss
20
SW
0.92
6
Paint
oil, gray flat
20
SW
0.97
6
Paint
oil, gray gloss
20
SW
0.96
6
Paint
oil, various colors
100
T
0.92–0.96
1
Paint
plastic, black
20
SW
0.95
6
6
Paint
plastic, white
20
SW
0.84
Paper
4 different colors
70
SW
0.68–0.74
9
Paper
4 different colors
70
LW
0.92–0.94
9
Paper
black
T
0.90
1
Paper
black, dull
T
0.94
1
Paper
black, dull
70
SW
0.86
9
Paper
black, dull
70
LW
0.89
9
Paper
blue, dark
T
0.84
1
Paper
coated with black
lacquer
T
0.93
1
Paper
green
T
0.85
1
Paper
red
T
0.76
1
Paper
white
20
T
0.7–0.9
1
Paper
white bond
20
T
0.93
2
Paper
white, 3 different
glosses
70
SW
0.76–0.78
9
Paper
white, 3 different
glosses
70
LW
0.88–0.90
9
Paper
yellow
T
0.72
1
17
SW
0.86
5
20
SW
0.90
6
Plaster
Plaster
plasterboard,
untreated
#T559828; r. AA/ 7052/7459; en-US
59
17
Emissivity tables
Table 17.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;
3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)
1
2
3
4
5
6
Plaster
rough coat
20
T
0.91
2
Plastic
glass fibre laminate (printed circ.
board)
70
SW
0.94
9
Plastic
glass fibre laminate (printed circ.
board)
70
LW
0.91
9
Plastic
polyurethane isolation board
70
LW
0.55
9
Plastic
polyurethane isolation board
70
SW
0.29
9
Plastic
PVC, plastic floor,
dull, structured
70
SW
0.94
9
Plastic
PVC, plastic floor,
dull, structured
70
LW
0.93
9
Platinum
100
T
0.05
4
Platinum
1000–1500
T
0.14–0.18
1
Platinum
1094
T
0.18
4
Platinum
17
T
0.016
4
Platinum
22
T
0.03
4
Platinum
260
T
0.06
4
Platinum
538
T
0.10
4
Platinum
pure, polished
200–600
T
0.05–0.10
1
Platinum
ribbon
900–1100
T
0.12–0.17
1
Platinum
wire
1400
T
0.18
1
Platinum
wire
500–1000
T
0.10–0.16
1
Platinum
wire
50–200
T
0.06–0.07
1
Porcelain
glazed
20
T
0.92
1
Porcelain
white, shiny
T
0.70–0.75
1
Rubber
hard
20
T
0.95
1
Rubber
soft, gray, rough
20
T
0.95
1
T
0.60
1
Sand
20
T
0.90
2
Sandstone
polished
19
LLW
0.909
8
Sandstone
rough
19
LLW
0.935
8
Silver
polished
100
T
0.03
2
Silver
pure, polished
200–600
T
0.02–0.03
1
Skin
human
32
T
0.98
2
Slag
boiler
0–100
T
0.97–0.93
1
Slag
boiler
1400–1800
T
0.69–0.67
1
Slag
boiler
200–500
T
0.89–0.78
1
Slag
boiler
600–1200
T
0.76–0.70
1
Soil
dry
20
T
0.92
2
Soil
saturated with
water
20
T
0.95
2
Sand
Snow: See Water
#T559828; r. AA/ 7052/7459; en-US
60
17
Emissivity tables
Table 17.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;
3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)
1
2
3
4
5
6
Stainless steel
alloy, 8% Ni, 18%
Cr
500
T
0.35
1
Stainless steel
rolled
700
T
0.45
1
Stainless steel
sandblasted
700
T
0.70
1
Stainless steel
sheet, polished
70
SW
0.18
9
Stainless steel
sheet, polished
70
LW
0.14
9
Stainless steel
sheet, untreated,
somewhat
scratched
70
SW
0.30
9
Stainless steel
sheet, untreated,
somewhat
scratched
70
LW
0.28
9
Stainless steel
type 18-8, buffed
20
T
0.16
2
Stainless steel
type 18-8, oxidized at 800°C
60
T
0.85
2
Stucco
rough, lime
10–90
T
0.91
1
Styrofoam
insulation
37
SW
0.60
7
T
0.79–0.84
1
Tar
Tar
paper
20
T
0.91–0.93
1
Tile
glazed
17
SW
0.94
5
Tin
burnished
20–50
T
0.04–0.06
1
Tin
tin–plated sheet
iron
100
T
0.07
2
Titanium
oxidized at 540°C
1000
T
0.60
1
Titanium
oxidized at 540°C
200
T
0.40
1
Titanium
oxidized at 540°C
500
T
0.50
1
Titanium
polished
1000
T
0.36
1
Titanium
polished
200
T
0.15
1
Titanium
polished
500
T
0.20
1
Tungsten
1500–2200
T
0.24–0.31
1
Tungsten
200
T
0.05
1
Tungsten
600–1000
T
0.1–0.16
1
Tungsten
filament
3300
T
0.39
1
Varnish
flat
20
SW
0.93
6
Varnish
on oak parquet
floor
70
SW
0.90
9
Varnish
on oak parquet
floor
70
LW
0.90–0.93
9
Wallpaper
slight pattern,
light gray
20
SW
0.85
6
Wallpaper
slight pattern, red
20
SW
0.90
6
Water
distilled
20
T
0.96
2
Water
frost crystals
–10
T
0.98
2
Water
ice, covered with
heavy frost
0
T
0.98
1
Water
ice, smooth
0
T
0.97
1
Water
ice, smooth
–10
T
0.96
2
#T559828; r. AA/ 7052/7459; en-US
61
17
Emissivity tables
Table 17.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;
3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)
1
2
3
4
5
6
Water
layer >0.1 mm
thick
0–100
T
0.95–0.98
1
Water
snow
T
0.8
1
Water
snow
–10
T
0.85
2
17
SW
0.98
5
19
LLW
0.962
8
T
0.5–0.7
1
Wood
Wood
Wood
ground
Wood
pine, 4 different
samples
70
SW
0.67–0.75
9
Wood
pine, 4 different
samples
70
LW
0.81–0.89
9
Wood
planed
20
T
0.8–0.9
1
Wood
planed oak
20
T
0.90
2
Wood
planed oak
70
SW
0.77
9
Wood
planed oak
70
LW
0.88
9
Wood
plywood, smooth,
dry
36
SW
0.82
7
Wood
plywood,
untreated
20
SW
0.83
6
Wood
white, damp
20
T
0.7–0.8
1
Zinc
oxidized at 400°C
400
T
0.11
1
Zinc
oxidized surface
1000–1200
T
0.50–0.60
1
Zinc
polished
200–300
T
0.04–0.05
1
Zinc
sheet
50
T
0.20
1
#T559828; r. AA/ 7052/7459; en-US
62
A note on the technical production of this publication
This publication was produced using XML — the eXtensible Markup Language. For more information
about XML, please visit http://www.w3.org/XML/
A note on the typeface used in this publication
This publication was typeset using Linotype Helvetica™ World. Helvetica™ was designed by Max
Miedinger (1910–1980).
LOEF (List Of Effective Files)
T501027.xml; 7052; 2013-04-03
T505552.xml; 6839; 2013-03-18
T505551.xml; 6834; 2013-03-18
T505469.xml; 5929; 2012-10-29
T505013.xml; 5929; 2012-10-29
T505545.xml; 7022; 2013-04-02
T505547.xml; 7026; 2013-04-03
T505550.xml; 7026; 2013-04-03
T505097.xml; 5929; 2012-10-29
T505470.xml; 5935; 2012-10-29
T505012.xml; 5433; 2012-09-03
T505007.xml; 6351; 2013-01-28
T505004.xml; 5937; 2012-10-29
T505000.xml; 6040; 2012-11-09
T505005.xml; 5939; 2012-10-29
T505001.xml; 5940; 2012-10-29
T505006.xml; 5941; 2012-10-29
T505002.xml; 6915; 2013-03-25
#T559828; r. AA/ 7052/7459; en-US
64
Corporate
last
page Headquarters
Flir Systems, Inc.
27700 SW Parkway Ave.
Wilsonville, OR 97070
USA
Telephone: +1-503-498-3547
Website
http://www.flir.com
Customer support
http://support.flir.com
Publ. No.:
Release:
Commit:
Head:
Language:
Modified:
Formatted:
T559828
AA
7052
7459
en-US
2013-04-03
2013-04-22
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