1975 177rg poh - Cardinal Flyers Online

1975 177rg poh - Cardinal Flyers Online
 "TAKE YOUR CESINA HOME
FOR SERVICE AT THE SIGN
OF THE CESSNA SHIELD”.
CESSNA AIRCRAFT COMPANY
> WICHITA, KANSAS
mu
Cessna.
MCRE PEOPLE BUY AND
FLY CESSNA AIRPLANES
THAN ANY QTHER MAKE
1975
WORLD'S LARGEST PRO.
DUCER OF GENERAL
AVIATION AIRCRAFT
SINCE 1956
_—
OWNERS
MA N UA LL
PERFORMANCE - SPECIFICATIONS
* Cardinal № =
GROSS WEIGHT . . . aa aaa e AB00 lbs
SPEED, BEST POWER MIXTURE:
Top Speed zt Sea Level . . c= «+ a 700 70 = + + „ 180 mph
Cruise, 75% Power at 7000 it 2022 4 2 + + ow ww 171 mph
RANGE, EXTENDED RANGE MIXTURE:
Cruise, 75% Power at7000ft . . . . . . . . . . 945 mi
60 Gallons, No Reserve 5.6 hrs
170 mph
Maximum Eange at 10, 000 ft. . . . . . . . . . . 1210 mi
60 Gallons, No Reserve 8.7 hrs
139 mph
RATE OF CLIMBATSEA LEVEL . . . . . . . . . . 925 fpm
SERVICECEILING . . . 744 17,100 ft
TAKZ-OFF:
Ground Rur . . . акк. 890f
Total Distance Over 5)- Foot Obstacle ss. +... 1585ft
LANDING:
Ground Roll . . ae e. IO
Total Distance Over '50- Foot Obstacle «+... +, + 1350 It
STALL SPEED:
Flaps Up, Power Off . . . . .. .. . ... . . 66 mph
Flaps Dowr, Power Off . . . . . . . . .. . . . 9% mph
EMPTY WEIGHT: (Approzimate)
Cardinal RG . . . . . . . « + 4 + «+ «+ +. . 16801bs
Cardinal RGIE . . .. . . . . +. « + «+... . . 1750 1bs
USEFUL LOAD:
Cardinal RG . . +. « + + 7 + 1120 1bs
Cardinal RG II. . - « « + «+ « e + « «+ +» +» « 1050 165
BAGGAGE . . . . . aaa aaa a» 120 lbs
WING LOADING: Pounds /Sq Foot .. . . ...... 18.1
POWER LOADING: Pounds/HP . . . . . . . . . . . 14.0
FUEL CAPACITY: Total . . . . . + + + + + + + + 61 gal.
ON, CAPACITY . . . aaa. . 9Yaqts
PROPELLER: Constant Speed, Diareter . ss. + « « « » TB inches
ENCINE:
Lycoming Fuel Injection Engine . . . . . . . . . IO-360-A1B6D
200 rated HP at 2700 RPM
M This manual covers operation of the Cardinal RG which is certificated as
Model L77RG under FAA Type Certificate No. AZOCE The manual also covers
uparation of the Reims/Cessna Cardinal RG which is certificated as Model F1/7RG
under Franch Type Certification.
COPYRIGHT € 1983
Cessna Aircraft Company
Wichita, Kansas USA
spa LH CPE 1506/94
CONGRATULATIONS .....
Welcome to the ranks of Cessna owners! Your Cessna has been designed and con-
structed to give you the most in performance, economy, and comfort, It is our de-
sire that you wlll find flying it, either for business or pleasure, a pleasant and
profitable experience,
This Owner's Manual has been prepared as a guide to help you get the most pleasure
and utility from your Cardinal RG. It contalns information about your Cessna's
equipment, operating procedures, and performance; ind suggestions for its sexvic-
inz and care. We urge you to read it fran cover to cover, and to refer to it Îre-
quently,
Our interest in your flying pleasure has 10t ceased with your purchase of a Cessna.
Wirld-wide, the Cegesna Dealer Organizction bacxed hy the Cessna Service Depart=
mant stands reidy to serve you. The following services are offered by most Cessna
Dealers:
THE CESSNA WARRANTY -- It is designed ic provide you with the most
comprehersive coverage possible:
a, ND exclusions
b, Coverage includes parts and labor
¢. Available at Cessna Dealers world wide
а, Beast in the industry
Specific benefits and provisions of the warranty pus other important
benefits for you are contained in your Customer Care Program book
supplied with your aircraft. Warranty service it available to you at
any authorized Cessna Dealer throughout the wor.d upon presentation
of your Customer Care Card which establishes your eligibility under
the warrarty,
FACTORY TRAINED PERSONNEL to provide you with courtecus expert
service.
FACTORY APPROVED SERVICE EQUIPMENT to provide you with the
most efficient and accurate workmarship possible.
A STOCK OF GENUINE CESSNA SERVICE PARTS on hand when you
need them,
THE LATEST AUTHORITATIVE INFORMATION “GR SERVICING
CESSNA AIRPLANES, since Cessna Dealers have all of the Service
Manuals and Parts Catalogs, kept current by Service Letters and
Service News Letters, oublished by Cessna Aircraft Company,
We urge all Cessna owners to use the Cessna Dealer Organization to the fullest,
A current Cessna Dealer Directory accompanies your new airplane, The Directory
is revised frequently, and a current copy can be obtained from yow Cessna Desler,
Make your Directory one of your cross-country flight planning aids; a warm we.come
awaits you at every Cessna Dealer.
11
PRINCIPAL
DIMENSIONS
” Maximum height of alreraft
with nao reir depressed and
all fires and nose gteat
Troi-Fiy infuted,
*FWias span of aircraft with
rplaemal strcbe ligiks
installed.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
— = == Page -
SECTION | - OPERATING CHECKLIST ____..... 1-1
SECTION Il - DESCRIPTION AND
OPERATING DETAILS _..__.-20-00- 2-1
SECTION lil - EMERGENCY PROCEDURES ..... 3-1
SECTION IV - OPERATING LIMITATIONS __._... 4-1
SECTION Y - CARE OF THE AIRPLANE _._____ 5-1
SECTION VI - OPERATIONAL DATA caiman 6-1
SECTION Vii- OPTIONAL SYSTEMS... ____.. 7-1
ALPHABETICAL INDEX cacao eae Index]
—— mm — rer
This manual describes the operation and performance of the
Cardinal RG and Cardinal RGII. Equ:pment deszribed as
"Optional" denotes that the subject equipment is »ptional on
the Cardinal RG. Much of this equipment is standard on the
Cardinal RG II.
iii
Section /
| _— Ва
OPERATING CHECKLIST
One of the first steps in obtaining the utmost performance, service,
and flying enjiyment from your Cessna is to familiarize yourself with
your aircraft's equipment, systems, and controls. This can best be done
by reviewing this equipment while sitting in the aircraft. Those items
whose function and operation are not obvious zre covered in Section II,
Section I lists, in P:lot's Checklist form, the steps necessary to op-
erate your aircraft efficiently and safely. It is not a checklist in iis true
form ag it is considerably longer, but it does cover briefly all of the points
that you should know for a typical fight. A more convenient plastic en-
closed checklist, stowed in the map compartment, is available for quickly
checking that all important procedures have been performed. Since vigi-
lance for other traffic is so important in crowded termiml areas, it is
important that preoccupetion with checklists be avoided in flight. Froce-
dures should be carefully memorized and performed from memory. Then
the checklist should be quickly scanned to ensure that nothing has been
missed.
The flight and operational characteristics of your aircraft are normal
in all respects. There ire no "unconventional' characteristics or opera-
tions that need to be mastered. All controls respond in the normal way
within the entire range of operation, All airspeeds mentionad in Sections
I, II and III are indicated airspeeds. Corresponding calibrated airspeed
may be obtained from the Airspeed Correction Table in Section VI.
1-2
во ПР
©
Re'er to inside back cover of this manuel
for quemitias, materids, and specifications
of fraguently used service tems.
Nolte
Visually check aircraft for general condition during walk-arcund
inspection. In cold weather, remove even small áccumula-ione
of frost, ice or snow from wing, tail and control surfaces. Alen,
make sure that control surfaces contain no imernal accumulations
of ice or debris, [a night flight is planned, check operation of
all lights, and make sure a flasHight is available.
Chech landing gear lever in DWN position,
Remove control wheel lock.
Check ignition switch OFF,
Turn master switce: ON; check fuel quantity indicators and landing gear DWN
position indicator fight (green) cn; then turn master switch OFF.
Check fuel selector valve handle in the BOTH position.
Figure
AA [oo
f. Before first flight df the day andafter each re'ueling, pull forward on fuel
reservoir drain lever (under pild'5 seat) for bout four seconds to clear
fuel system of pose:ble water and sediment. After draining, make sure
that reservoir drains are closed. If water is observed in this check the
system may contain additional weter. Check the fuel tank sump quick-drain
valves for presence of water, and remove the fuel vent line drain plugs
(in wirg roots just outboard of cabin doors) ani the fuel selector valve drain
plug tc check for the presence of water,
Е. Check baggage door for security.
@ a. Remote rudder gus: lock, if installed.
b, Discornect tail tie-down.
e, Check control surfaces for freedom of movement and scenrity.
(3) a. Check aileron for freedom of movement and security.
b. Check fuel tank ver: opening {at wing tip trailing edge) for stoppage.
a. Discomnect wing tie-down,
b. Check main wheel tire for proper inflation.
c. Before first flight d day and after each refueling, Use sampler cup and crain
small quantity of fusl from fuel tank sump quick-drain valve to check for
water, sediment, and proper fuel grade.
d. Visually check fuel guantity for cesired level; then check fuel filler cap
secure and vent unchetructed.
(5) a. Check engine oil level. Do not operate with less than six quarts. Fill to
eight quarts for extended flight.
b, Check propeller and spinner for nicks and security, and propeller for oi.
leaks.
e, Check induction air filter for restrictions by dust or other 'oreign matter.
d. Check landing and taxi lights for condition and cleanliness,
e. Check nose wheel strut and tire ‘or proper inflation; nose wheel doors far
security.
f. Disconnect tie-down rope.
g. Inspect flight instrument static source openings on side of fuselage for
stoppage {both sides).
(6; a. Check main wheel tire for proper inflation.
b. Before first flight of the day and after each refueling, use sampler cup and
drain small quantity of fuel from fuel tank surip quick-drain valve to check
for water, sedimert, and proper fuel grade.
e, Visually check fuel quantity for desired level; then check fuel filler cap
secure and vent unobstructed.
7 a. Remore pitot tube cover, if installed, and check pitot tube opening for
stoppége.
b. Disconnect wing tie-down.
(8) a, Check fuel tank vent opening (at wing tip trailing edge) for stoppage.
b, Check aileron for freedom of movement and security.
1-2, seo
1-3
BEFORE STARTING ENGINE.
| (1)
(7)
(9)
(10)
(11)
Exterior Preflight -- COMPLETE.
Seats, Belts, Shoulder Harnesses -- ADJUST and LOCK.
Fuel Selector Valve Handle -- BOTH,
Radios, Autopilot, Electrical Equipment -- OFF,
Brakes -- TEST end SET.
Cowl Flaps -- OPEN (move lever out of locking hole to reposition).
Landing Gear Lever -- DOWN.
Circuit Breakers -- CHECK IN.
STARTING ENGINE.
Mixture -- IDLE CUT-OFF.
Propel.er -- HIGH RPM.
Throttle -- OPEN 1/4 INCH.
Master Switch -- ON.
Auxiliary Fuel Pump -- ON.
Mixture -- ADVANCE to 6 GAL/HR; then RETARD to IDLE CUT-
OFF,
NOTE
If engine is warm, omit priming procedure above.
Propeller Area -- CLEAR.
Ignition Switch -- START (release when engine starts).
Mixtures -- RICH IADVANCE smoothly when engine fires).
NOTE
If engire floods, turn off auxiliary fuel sump, place mixture
in idle cut-off, open throttle 1/2, and crank engine. When
engine fires, advance mixture to full rich and retard throttle
promptly.
Oil Pressure -- CHECK,
Auxiliary Fuel Pump ~~ OFF.
BEFORE TAKE-OFF.
(1)
| (2)
(3)
1-4
Parking Brake -- SET,
Cabin Doors -- CLOSED and LOCKED.
Flight Controls -- FREE and CORRECT,
(4) Stabilator and Rudder Trim -- TAKE-OFF.
(5) Fuel Selector Valve Handle -- BOTH.
(6) Throttle -- 1800 RPM.
a. Magnetos -- CHECK RPM drop should not exceed 150 RPM
on either magneto or 50 RPM differential between magnetos).
b. Propeller -- CYCLE from high to low RPM; return to high
RPM.
с. Engine Ins.ruments and Ammeter -- CHECK.
d. Suction Gare -- CHECK,
(7) Flight Instruments and Radios -- SET.
(8) Navigation Lights, Flashing Beacon, and Optional Strobe
Lights -- ON {as required).
(9) Throttle Friction Lock -- ADJUST.
(10) Flaps -- 0° to 10°,
TAKE-OFF.
NORMAL TAKE-OFF.
(1) Winz Flaps -- 0° to 10° {10° preferred).
(2) Power -- MAXIMUM (full throttle and 2700 RPM).
(3) Mixture -- RICH (lean for field elevation per fuel flow placard
above 3000 feet).
(4) ‘Aircraft Attitude -- LIFT NOSE WHEEL at 65 MPH.
(5) Climb Speed -- 75 to 85 MPH.
(6) Brakes -- APPLY momentarily when airborne,
(7) Landing Gear -- RETRACT in climb out.
(8) Winz Flaps -- RETRACT (if extended).
MAXIMUM PERFORMANCE TAKE-OFF.
(1) Wing Flaps -- 10°.
(2) Brakes -- APPLY.
(3) Power -- MAXIMUM (full throttle and 2700 RPM).
{4) Mixture -- RICH (lean for field elevation per fuel flow placard
above 3000 feet).
(5} Brakes -- RELEASE.
(6) Aircraft Attitude -- LIFT NOSE WHEEL at 60 MPH.
(7) Climb Speed ~- 70 MPH until all obstacles are cleared.
(8) Brakes -- APPLY momentarily when airborne,
(9) Landing Gear -- RETRACT after obstacles are cleared.
(10) Wing Flaps -- RETRACT after reaching 80 MPH.
1-5
NOTE
Do not reduce power until landing gear and wing flaps
have been retracted.
ENROUTE CLIMB.
NORMAL CLIMB.
(1) Airspeed -- 100 to 120 MPH.
(2) Power -- 25 INCHES Hg. and 2500 RPN.
(3) Mixture -- LEANED to 13 GAL/HR.
(1) Cowl Flaps -- OPEN as required.
MAXIMUM PERFORMANCE CLIMB.
(1) Airspeed -- 95 MPH at sea level to 91 MPH at 10, 000 feet,
(2) Power -- MAXIMUM (full throttle and 2700 RPM),
(3) Mixture -- LEAN per fuel flow placard.
(¢) Cowl Flaps -- FULL OPEN.
CRUISE.
ay Power -- 15 to 25 INCHES Hg., 2100 to 2500 RPM (no more than
75%);
(3) Mixture -- LEAN per Cessna Power Computer or Operational
Data, Section VI.
{3) Cowl Flaps -- CLOSED.
LET-DOWN.
(1) Power -- AS DESIRED.
NOTE
Avoid contimous operation between 1400 and 1750 RPM
with less than 10 inches Hg.
(2) Mixture -- ADJUST for smooth operation.
(3) Cowl Flaps -~ CLOSED.
(4) Wing Flaps -- AS DESIRED (0° to 10° below 150 MPH, 10° to 30°
below 110 MPH).
(5) Landing Gear -~ A§ DESIRED {do not extend above 140 MPH).
1-6
BEFORE LANDING.
{1) Seats, Belts, Harnesses -- ADJUST and LOCK
(2) Fuel Selector Valve Handle -- BOTH.
(3) Landing Gear -- EXTEND below 140 MPH.
(4) Mixture -- RICH.
(5) Propeller -- HIGH RPM.
(6) Airspeed -- 80 to 90 MPH (flaps UP).
(7) Wing Flaps -- AS DESIRED {0° to 10° below 150 MPH, 10° to 30°
below 110 MPH}.
(8) Airspeed -- 70 to 80 MPH (flaps DOWN).
(9) Stabilator and Rudder Trim -- ADJUST.
BALKED LANDING.
(1) Power -- MAXIMUM (full throttle and 2700 RPM).
(2) Wing Flaps -- RETRACT to 20°.
{3) Airspeed -~ 75 MPH.
(4) Wing Flaps ~~ RETRACT slowly.
(5) Cowl Flaps -- OPEN.
NORMAL LANDING.
{1} Touchdown -- MAIN WHEELS FIRST.
{2) Landing Roll -- LOWER NOSE WHEEL GENTLY.
(3) Braking -- MINMUM REQUIRED.
AFTER LANDING.
(1) Wing Flaps -- UP,
(2) Cow: Flaps -- OPEN.
SECURING AIRCRAFT.
(1) Parking Brake -- SET.
(2) Radios, Electrical Equipment -- OFF. —.
(3) Mixture -- IDLE CUT-OFF (puliled full out).
(4) Ignition and Master Switches -- OFF,
(5) Control Lock -- INSTALL.
(6) Fuel Selector Valve Handle -- LEFT or RIGHT.
1-7
EN
| INSTRUMENT PANEL |
ji! 3 45067 809 1011121314 15 16 17 18 19 M 21 22
ris Ка,
- Étatic Pressure À ternate
source Valve
2. Suction Gape {Ont}
. Economy Mixture Indicalor (Opt. )
+ Marker Beacon Indicator Lighta
tnd Switches (Opt. )
2B. Rudder Trim Control Wheel
28. Ashicay
30. Cowl Flap Control Lever
3l. Cigar Lighier
32. Microphone {Opt}
34. Courtesy Light (Opt. )
a La
5. Over-Voltage Waming light 11. Hear View Mirror (Cot. ) 34, Throttle
6. Cylinder Head Temperature, 14. Tachometer 35. Landing Gear Lever
“elt Fuel Quantity Indicator, 11. Radios (Opt. } 36. Stabilator Trim Control Whe:l
ammeter, and £1] Pressure 18, Autopilot Contr.] Unit (Cpt. ) 37. Landing Gesr Position
Gage 1". Fhght Hour Resorder (Opt, } Indicator Lights
T, light Instrument Group 1%. ADF Dearing Irdicalor (Cpl, ) 39. Electrical Switches
8. Right Fuel Quantity Indicator 14. Wing Flap Switeh and mdicator — 39, Inatrumenfand Radio Dial
ind (il Temperatare Gage El. Map Compartment Light Hheorate
3. Mamiold Pressure Fuel il, ADF Radio LO ) 45. Parking Brake Handle
Flow Indicator 21. Might Cabin Ait Control Enob 41. Ignition Switch
10. Radio Selector Switehes (Opt. ) 21. Circuit Breake:g 42. Auxiliary Fuel Pump Switeh
11, Ho. 1 LOC Reversed Indicalor 3, Defroster Control Knob 43, Masler Swi.ch
Light (Opt, | 2i, Cabin Heat Conrol Engh 44, Phone and Aumillary Mike
12. Na, 2 LOC Reversed Indicator — 26. Mixture Control Knob Jacks
Light (Ont, 2", Propellez Control Enob 45, Left Catdn &ir Control Enob
Figure 2-1,
1-8
Section II
I В
DESCRIPT ON AND OPERATING DETAILS
The following paragraphs describe the systems and equipment whose
function and cperation is not obvious when sitting in the aircraft. This
section also covers in somewhat greater detail some of the items listed
in Checklist form in Section I that require fur-her explanation.
FUEL SYSTEM.
Fuel is supplied to the engine from two integral fuel tanks, one in each
wing. With the fuel selector valve handle in the BOTH position, the total
uschle fuel for all flight conditions is 60 gallons with the tanks completely
filled.
NOTE
With heavy cabin loadings, it may be necessary to reduce
the frel load to keep the aircraft within the approved
weight limits (refer to Section IV for weight and balance
control procedures). To facilitate fueling to reduced fuel
loads, a 22 gallon marker is provided inside each tank
filler neck in the form of a series of small holes.
Fuel from each wing fuel tank [lows through a reservoir tank to the
fuel selector valve, through a bypass in the electric auxiliary fuel pomp
to the fuel strainer, and then to the engine-driven fuel pump. From here
fuel is distrituted to the engine cylinders via a control unit and injector
manifold,
The auxiliary fuel pump is used primarily for priming the engine
before starting. Priming is accomplished through the regular injection
system.
If the auxiliary fuel sump switch is accidentally placed in the ON po-
sition (with master switch turned on and mixture rich) with the engine
2-1
EN
| INSTRUMENT PANEL |
ji! 3 45067 809 1011121314 15 16 17 18 19 M 21 22
ris Ка,
- Étatic Pressure À ternate
source Valve
2. Suction Gape {Ont}
. Economy Mixture Indicalor (Opt. )
+ Marker Beacon Indicator Lighta
tnd Switches (Opt. )
2B. Rudder Trim Control Wheel
28. Ashicay
30. Cowl Flap Control Lever
3l. Cigar Lighier
32. Microphone {Opt}
34. Courtesy Light (Opt. )
a La
5. Over-Voltage Waming light 11. Hear View Mirror (Cot. ) 34, Throttle
6. Cylinder Head Temperature, 14. Tachometer 35. Landing Gear Lever
“elt Fuel Quantity Indicator, 11. Radios (Opt. } 36. Stabilator Trim Control Whe:l
ammeter, and £1] Pressure 18, Autopilot Contr.] Unit (Cpt. ) 37. Landing Gesr Position
Gage 1". Fhght Hour Resorder (Opt, } Indicator Lights
T, light Instrument Group 1%. ADF Dearing Irdicalor (Cpl, ) 39. Electrical Switches
8. Right Fuel Quantity Indicator 14. Wing Flap Switeh and mdicator — 39, Inatrumenfand Radio Dial
ind (il Temperatare Gage El. Map Compartment Light Hheorate
3. Mamiold Pressure Fuel il, ADF Radio LO ) 45. Parking Brake Handle
Flow Indicator 21. Might Cabin Ait Control Enob 41. Ignition Switch
10. Radio Selector Switehes (Opt. ) 21. Circuit Breake:g 42. Auxiliary Fuel Pump Switeh
11, Ho. 1 LOC Reversed Indicalor 3, Defroster Control Knob 43, Masler Swi.ch
Light (Opt, | 2i, Cabin Heat Conrol Engh 44, Phone and Aumillary Mike
12. Na, 2 LOC Reversed Indicator — 26. Mixture Control Knob Jacks
Light (Ont, 2", Propellez Control Enob 45, Left Catdn &ir Control Enob
Figure 2-1,
1-8
Section II
I В
DESCRIPT ON AND OPERATING DETAILS
The following paragraphs describe the systems and equipment whose
function and cperation is not obvious when sitting in the aircraft. This
section also covers in somewhat greater detail some of the items listed
in Checklist form in Section I that require fur-her explanation.
FUEL SYSTEM.
Fuel is supplied to the engine from two integral fuel tanks, one in each
wing. With the fuel selector valve handle in the BOTH position, the total
uschle fuel for all flight conditions is 60 gallons with the tanks completely
filled.
NOTE
With heavy cabin loadings, it may be necessary to reduce
the frel load to keep the aircraft within the approved
weight limits (refer to Section IV for weight and balance
control procedures). To facilitate fueling to reduced fuel
loads, a 22 gallon marker is provided inside each tank
filler neck in the form of a series of small holes.
Fuel from each wing fuel tank [lows through a reservoir tank to the
fuel selector valve, through a bypass in the electric auxiliary fuel pomp
to the fuel strainer, and then to the engine-driven fuel pump. From here
fuel is distrituted to the engine cylinders via a control unit and injector
manifold,
The auxiliary fuel pump is used primarily for priming the engine
before starting. Priming is accomplished through the regular injection
system.
If the auxiliary fuel sump switch is accidentally placed in the ON po-
sition (with master switch turned on and mixture rich) with the engine
2-1
A AE
FUEL SYSTEM SCHEMATIC
VENTED FILLER CAPS ———.
VENT
LEFT FUEL TANK Ed EIGHT FUEL TANK
FUEL FUEL
RESERVOIR __ m RESERYOIR
DRAIN VALVE DRAIN VALVE
To ivald potenlially hrardmes guealing fumas, do sol
oper reservor dodne je Olga or while the aaging Le
runcing са the ground, DI gelbe fumes, Sxcenslve
Tual ponyumplion, oF powar Das ya OHG axel duriy
flight check that the reservar dralo control la clos,
K Tunas perald, ventas shin and Ladd mB soon dd la
PracicaMe to JEYea: gate Cae.
FUEL ELECTOR VALVE
Ti AMILLE deSired Mel capacit wiro rebel, placa
Um fuel selactó valve in ether ta "LEFT or “ACHT”
padiión tó prevent cradk-meding.
AUXILIARY
FUEL PULP
FUEL RESERVOIR :
DRAIN LEVER
(UNDER PILOT'S SEAT) »
AUXILIARY à
FUEL PUMP FUEL STRAINER
:
SWITCH
ENGINE-DRIVEN
FUEL PIMP
MIXT RE 3—7 _
CONTROL \
| E
THROTTLE Co- - |
$ a
+ хо
a
“ra rd
FUEL MANIFOLD) Y
at ” $ To CIDE
Lo Е - Eo FUEL SUPPLY
E zi
FUEL ey VENT
INJECTION 0
NOZZLE = we = MECHANICAL LINKAGE
my ELECTIICAL
FUEL FLOW INDIC ATOR CONNE: TION
{Right half of dual instrument)
Figure 2-2.
2-2
stopped, the intake manifolds will be flooded.
The auxiliary fuel pump is also used for vapor suppression in hot
weather. Normally, momentary vse will be sufficient for vapor suppres-
sion; however, continucus operation is permissible if required. Turning
or the auxiliary fuel pump with a normally operating engine pump will re-
sult in only a very mincr enrichment of the mixture,
It is not necessary to have the auxiliary fuel pump operating during
normal take-off and landing, since gravity ard the engine-driven pump
will supply adequate fuel flow to the fuel injector unit,
In the event of failure of the engine-driven pump, use of the auxiliary
fuel pump will provide sufficient fuel to maintain flight at maximum con-
tisuous power.
The fuel gelector valve handle should be in the BOTH position for
take-off, larding, and power-on maneuvers that involve prolonged slips
or skids. During prolonged climl or cruise with the fuel selector in
BOTH position, unequal fuel flow from each :ank may occur if the air-
craft is out of trim directionally (slip indicator ball not centered} or if
the fuel tank caps are rot sealing properly. The resulting heaviness can
be alleviated gradually by turning the selector valve to “he tank inthe
heavy wing.
To ensure a prompt engine restart after running a fuel tank dry,
switch the fuel selector to the opposite tank at the first indication of fuel
flow fluctuation or power loss. Then turn on the auxiliary fuel pump and
advance the mixture control to full rich. After power and steady fuel
flow are restored, turn off the auxiliary fuel pump and lean the mixture,
if desirable. Prior to landing, the fuel selector should be returned to
the BOTH position,
NOTE
With low fuel (1/16th tank or less) a prolonged powered
steep descent [1000 feet or more) should be avoided
with more than 10° flaps to prevent the possibility of
fuel] starvation resulting rom uncovering the fuel tank
outlets. If starvation should occur, leveling the nose
and turning on the auxiliary fuel pump should restore
engine power within 30 seconds.
For fuel system servicing information, réfer to Servicing Require-
ments on the inside back cover.
2-3
FUEL TANK SUMP QUICK-DRAIN VALVES.
Fach fuel tank sump is equipped with a fuel quick-drain valve to fécili-
tate draining and/or examination of fuel for contemination and grade. The
valve extends through the lower surface of the wing just outboard of th:
cabin door. A sampler cup stored in the aircraft is used to examine the
fuel, Insert the probe in the sampler cup into the center of the quick-
drain valve and push. Fuel will drain from the tank sump into the sam-
pler cup until pressure on the valve is released.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM.
Electrical energy is supplied by a ld-volt, direct-current system
powered by an ergine-driven alternator (see figure 2-3), The 12-volt
battery is located aft of the rear cabin wall, Power is supplied to all
electrical circuits through a split bus bar, one side containing electronic
system circuits and the Other side having general electrical system cir-
cuits. Both sides of the bus are on atall times except when either an ex-
ternal power source is connected or the starter switch is turned on; then a
power contactor is automatically activated to open the circuit to the elec-
tronic bus. Isolating the electronic circuits in this manner prevents
harmía transien: voltages from damaging the transistors in the electronic
equipment,
MASTER SWITCH.
The master switch is a split-rocker type switch labeled MASTER,
and is ON in the up position and OFF in the down position. The right
half of the switch, labeled BAT, contrals all electrical power to the air-
plane. 'The left half, labeled ALT, controls the alternator.
Normally, bath sides o” the master switch should be used simulta-
neously; however, the BAT side of the switch could be turned ON sepa-
rately to check equipment while on the ground. The ALT side of the
switch, when placed in the OFF position, removes the alternator from
the electrical system. With this switch in the OFF position, the entire
elecir.cal load is placed on the battery. Continued operation with the
altermator switch OFF will reduce battery power low enough to open the
battery contactor, remove power from the alternator field, and prevent
alternator regtart.
2-4
к REGULATOR
OVER.
ALTERMATOR
в
F й
1
VOLTAGE
WARMING
LIGHT
Her
m
rr
MASTER ©
SWITCH |»
SENSOR
TQ ALT FELD
CIRCUIN BREAKER
LT
STARTER
GVER VILTAGE
TQ ALT
AMMETER
COMIACTOE и
REYIRSE
POLARITY
CONTACTOR
BATTERY
CONTACTO
BATTERY >
cobl
CO CIRCUIT VÉBAKER (PUSHTS-RESET|
@ vie Jy ooo AA EE SISTOA
db CAPACITON gUQIE FILTER
OS} CHU BEARER ТЕН
[=]
MASHETGS
EE
BREAKER
PE EE
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
SCHEMATIC
Po
=
o)
ALT
FELD
SOL
SIRVICE
PLS
RECEPTACLE
[OPT]
~~
| y I 1
A
SFT hus
CONTACTOR
К (MOR Ma LLY
CLOSED
TO FLUX FUEL
FURL CIN CUIT
BREAKER
IGHITGH
5w INCH
“=
TC OVES-FOLTAGE WARMING LIGHT
TO OVERVOLTAGE SENSOR
ALT FIELD AND MASTER SWITCH
MP) 10 LANGING LIGHTS
LAND
LIGHTS
©)
HA
LIGHTS
TO TRANSMITTER RELAY [ОРТ]
TO NAVIGATION LIGHTS aHD
OPT COMIROL WHEEL МАР LIGHT
TO ELECIROLUMINESCENT
FANELS OPT)
pr) TO FLASHING BEACON
EM LIGHT
TO STROBE LIGHTS {O PT)
[SA STEORE LIGHT
0 TD ENGISE IMETELMENT CIUSTER
TO INSTRUMENT, COMPASS
UA RADIO DAL LIGHTS, AND
OPTIONAL POST LIGHTS
TO HOSE GEAR SAFETY SWITCH
PE To 106 GEAR CONTROL RELAY
DEAR TO GEAR UF INDIEATOR LIGHT
TO LANGIMG GEAR MOTOR
IDO LEA
1) TO FITCT HEAT SYSTEM
FTOT HEAT
HD TO WINE FLAF SYSTEM
FLAF
"Rel E
TO COURTESY DOME Тин:
Q) TO IGNITON SWITCH
FUEL TS AUXIIARY FUEL FÜMP
FUMP
ee TO CIGAL LIGHTER [W/CIRCUT RKR)
O TQ TURN COORDINATOR GR
TUIN COOL TURN - AMD BANE IMDICATOIR (SETI
9 TO STALL WARNING SYSTEM
STALL WRN
LE TO AUDIO AMPLIFIER
"UD AMP
J
LJ)
2
10 RADIO (OPT)
TO RADIO [OFT
es TO RADIO (OFT)
3
O TO RADO [PT]
er
5) TO RADID (OPT)
5
3
ALTE MLCT
VEN O-ZO-1NMF mM
TG AUTGAATIC PILOT
Figure 2-3
AMMETER.
The ammeter indicates the flow of current, in amperes, from the
alternator to the battery or from the battery to the aircreft electrical
system. When the engine is operating and the master switeh is ON, the
ammeter indicates the charging rats applied to the battery. Inthe event
the alternator is not functioning or the electrical load exceeds the output
of the alternator, the ammeter indicates the battery discharge rate.
OVER-VOLTAGE SENSOR AND WARNING LIGHT.
The aircraft is equipped with an automatic over -voltage protection
system consisting of an over-voltage sensor behind the irstrument рапе]
and a red warning light, labeled HIGH VOLTAGE, near the ammeter.
In the event an over-voltage condition occurs, the over-voltage sen-
sor automatically removes alternator field current and shuts down the
alternator. The red warning light will then turn on, indicating to the
pilct that the alternator is not operating and the aircraft battery is Supply -
ing all electrical power.
The over voltage sensor may be reset by turning the master switch
off and back on again. If the warning light does not illuminate, normal
alternator charging has resumed; however, if the light does illuminate
aga-n, a malfunction has occurred, and the flight should te terminated as
800N as practical.
The warning light may be tested by momentarily turning off the ALT
portion of the master switch and leaving the BAT portion turned on.
CIRCUIT BREAKERS AND FUSES,
Most of the electrical circuits in the aircraft are protected by "push-
to-reset” circuit breakers mounted on the right side of the instrument
panel. Exceptions to this are the battery contactor closing (external pow-
er} circuit, clcck and optional flight hour recorder circuits which havre
fuses mounted rear the battery. The landing gear circuit is protected by
a push-pull types circuit breaker on tie right side of the instrument panel
and the cigar lighter has 2 manually reset type circuit breaker mounied
on the back of the lighter socket.
When more than one radio is installed, the radio transmitter relay
(which is a part of the radic installation) is protected by the navigation
lights circuit breaker labeled NAV LIGHTS. It is important to remember
2-6
that any malfunction in the navigation lights system which causes the
cirzuit breaker to open vill de-activate both the navigation lights and the
transmitter relay. In this event, the navigation light switch should be
turned off to isolate the circuit; thea reset the circuit breaker to reacti-
vate the transmitter relay and permit its usage. Do not turn on the navi-
gation lights switch until the malfunction has been corrected.
LIGHTING EQUIPMENT.
EXTERIOR LIGHTING.
Conventional navigation lights are located on the wing tips and top of
the rudder. Landing and taxi lights are installed in the nose cap, ard a
flashing beacon is mounted on top of the vertical fin. Optional lighting in-
cludes a strobe light on each wing tip and two courtesy lights, one under
eaci wing, just outboard of the cabin door. Tle courtesy lights are ор-
erated by a switch located on the left rear door post. All exterior lights,
except the courtesy lights, are controlled by rocker type switches on the
left switch and control panel, The switches are ON in the up position and
OFF in the down position,
The flashing beacon should not be used whan flying through clouds or
overcast; the flashing light reflected [rom water droplets or particles in
the atmosphere, particularly at night, can produce vertigo and loss of
orientation.
The two high intensity strobe lights will enhance anti-collision protec-
Ног. However, the lights should be turned off when taxiing in the vicinity
of other aircraft, or during night flight through clouds, fog or haze.
INTERIOR LIGHTING.
Instrumert and control panel lighting is provided by flood lighting, in-
tegral lighting, and optional post and electroluminescent lighting, Two
rhenstat control knobs on the left switch and control panel, labeled PANEL
LICHTS and ENG-RADIO LIGHTS, control the intensity of the instrument
and control panel lighting. À slide-type switch on the left side of the over-
heal console, labeled PANEL LTS, is used to select either standarc flood
2-7
lighting in the FLOOD position, optional post lighting in the POST position,
or a combination of post and flood lighting in the BOTH position.
Switches and controls on the lower part of the instrument panel may
be lighted by optional eledroluminescent panels which do not require light
bulbs for illumination. To operate this lighting, turn on the NAV LIGHTS
switch and adjust light intensity with the control knob labeled PANEL
LIGHTS. Electroluminescent lighting is not affected by the selection of
post or flood lighting,
[nstrument and contra panel flood lighting consists of four red flood
lights on the underside of the anti~plare shield, and a single red flood
light in the forward part of the overhead console. To use “lood lighting,
place the PANEL LTS selector switch in the FLOOD position and adjust
light intensity with the PANEL, LIGHTS rheostat control knob,
The instrument panel may be equipped with optional post lights which
are mounted at the edge of each instrument or control and provide direct
lighting. The lights are operated by placing the PANEL LTS selector
switch in the POST position and adjusting light intensity with the PANEL
LIGHTS rheostat control knob. By placing the PANEL LTS selector
switch in the BOTH position, the post lights can be used in combination
with the standard flood lighting.
The engine instrument cluster, radio equipment, and magnetic com-
pass have integral lighting and operate independently of post or flood light-
ing. The light intensity of these iters is controlled by the ENG-RADIO
LIGETS rheostat control knob.
À cabin dome light is located in the aft part of the overhead console,
and is operated by à switch adjacent to the light. To turn the light on,
move the switch to the right.
The instrument panel control pedestal may be equipped with an option-
al courtesy light, mounted at its base, which illuminates tte forward cabin
floor area. This light is controlled by the courtesy light switch on the left
rear door post.
An optional map light may be mounted on the bottom of the pilot's con-
trol wheel. The light illuminates the lower portion of the cabin just for-
ward of the pilot and is helpful when checking maps and other flight data
during night operations. To operate ihe light, first turn onthe NAV
LIGHTS switch; then adjust the map light's intensity with the knurled disk
type rheostat control located at the bcttom of the control wheel.
2-8
LANDING GEAR SYSTEM
The retractable tricvele landing gear is extended and retracted by hy-
draulic actuators powered by an electrically-driven hydraulic power pack.
The power pack assembly is located aft of the ear baggage compartment
wall, Mechanically-actuated wheel well doors are provided for the nose
gear. They are open when the nose gear is down and closed when it is
retracted,
An over-center mechanical linkage provides a positive mechanical up
and down lock for the nose wheel, The main gear utilizes hydraulic se-
quence valve downlocks and hydraulic pressure for positive uplock, Main
gear uplock pressure is maintained automatically by the rower pack as-
sembly. If pressure drops below that necessary to retair uplock pres-
sure on the main gear, the power pick will automatically compensate.
Two position-indicator lights, mounted to the left of the stabilator
trim contro! wheel, indicate that the gear is either up or down and locked.
Both the gear UP (amber) and gear DWN (green) lights are the press-to-
tes! type, inccrporating dimming shutters for night operation. As an ad-
ditional reminder that the gear is retracted, a warning horn sounds inter-
mittently whenever the throttle is retarded below approximately 12 inches
manifold pressure (master switch 01) with the gear up or not down and
locked.
LANDING GEAR LEVER.
The gear lever, mounted to the left of the engine controls, has two
positions {up for gear up, and down for gear down) which give a mechan-
ical indication of landing gear position, From either position, the lever
must be pulled out slightly to clear a detent belore it can be repositioned;
operation of the landing gear system will not begin until the lever has been
repositioned. After the lever has been repositioned, hydraulic pressure
is cirected within the system to actuate the gezr to the selected position,
The gear lever will remain in whichever position has been selected.
During a rormal cycle, the gear locks up or down and the position in-
dicator light comes on indicating completion of the cyele. Landing gear
extension can be detected by illumimtion of the gear DWN indicator light
(green), absence of a gear warning horn with the throttle retarded below
approximately 12 inches manifold pressure, and visual inspection ol the
main gear position. Indication of gear retraction is provided by illumin-
aticn of the gear UP (amber) light. Should a gear indicator light fai. to
2-9
illuminate, the light should be checked for a burned-out bulb by pressing
to test. A burned-out bulk can be replaced in flight with tke Talb irom the
remaining indicator light,
A safety switch, actuated by the nose gear, electrically prevents
inadvertent retraction whenever the rose gear strut is compressed by the
weight of the aircraft. Also, a switch type circuit breaker is provided
as a maintenance safety feature. Wilh the switch pulled out, landing gear
operation is prevented. After maintenance is completed, and prior te
flighl, the switch should be placed in the on position (pushed in).
EMERGENCY HAND PUMP.
The landing gear emergency hanc pump is located on the floor between
the front seats and is used to manually extend the gear in the event of hy-
draulic pump failure, When not in use, the pump handle is retracted and
stowed beneath a hinged cover marked with a placard outliring emergency
operation procedures. Relier to Section II for emergency operation of the
hand pump.
CABIN HEATING, VENTILATING
AND DEFROSTING SYSTEM.
The temperature and volume of a:rflow into the cabin can be regu'ated
to any degree desired by adjustment of a single CABIN HEAT knob and two
CABIN AIR knobs. When partial cabi1 heat is desired, blending warm and
cold air will result in improved ventilation and heat distribution throughout
the cabin.
Front cabin heat and ventilating air from the main heat and ventila-
{ing system is routed through two manifolds located forward of the rudder
pedals to directionally-adjustable, on-off ventilators on the front cabin
sidewalls. Rear cabin hea: and air is supplied by ducts from both froat
cabin ventilators, one exteading down each side of the cabin to the forward
doorpost, then along the lower edge o: the cabin door to an outlet near the
aft edge of the door. Airflow from each outlet may be directed through
either of two louvered openings by rotating a knob on top of the outlet. For
maximum rear cabin heating, close both front cabin ventilators,
2-10
Windshield defrost alr is supplied from the left cabin manifold; tiere-
fore, the temperature of the defrosting air is the same as heated cabin
air, A push-pull control knob labeled DEFROSTER regulates the volume
of air to the wiadshield. Pull the knob out as necessary for defrosting.
Four separately adjustable overiead ventilators supply individual
air; two are mounted in a console above the pilot and co-pilot, and two
optional individual ventila:ors may be mounted .n the rear cabin ceiling.
Additional ground and flight ventilation is available through an open-
able vent window in each cabin door. These wiwdows can be opened at
speeds up to 120 MPH by rotating the crank located below the window.
SHOULDER HARNESSES.
Shoulder harnesses are provided as standard equipment for the pilot
and front seat passenger, and as optional for the rear seat passengers.
Seat belts are standard equipment for all passeagers.
Each front seat harness is attached to a rear door post just above
wincow line and is stowed behind a stowage sheath mounted above the
cabin door, When stowing the harness, fold it and place it behind the
sheath, The optional rea” seat shoulder harnesses are attached ad-
jacent to the lower corners of the rear window. Fach rear seat harness
is stowed behind a stowage sheath located above the aft side window.
To use the front and rear seat shoulder harnesses, fasten and adjust
the seat belt first, Remove the harress from the stowed position, and
lengthen as required by palling on the end of the harness and the narrow
release strap. Snap the harness metal stud firmly into the retaining slot
adjacent to the seat belt buckle. Then adjust tc length by pulling down on
the ‘ree end of the harness. A properly adjusted harness will permit the
occupant to lean forward enough to sit completely erect but is tight enough
to prevent excessive forward movement and coatact with objects during
sudden deceleration. Also, the pilo, will want the freedom to reach all
controls easily,
Releasing and removing the shoulder harness is accomplished by pull-
ing 1pward on the narrow release strap, and removing the harness stud
from the slot i1 the seat belt buckle, In an emergency, the shoulder har-
ness may be removed by releasing the seat bel: first, and pulling the har-
ness over the head by pulling up on the release strap.
2-11
INTEGRATED SEAT BELT/SHOULDER HARNESSES
WITH INERTIA REELS.
Optional integrated seat belt/shoulder harnesses wit} inertia reels are
available for the pilot and front seat passenger. The seat belt/shoulder
harnesses extend from inertia reels located inthe cabin ceiling to attach
poirts inboard of the two front seats, A separate seat belt half and huckle
is located outboard of the seats. Inertia reels allow complete freedom of
body movemen:. However, in the event of a sudden deceleration, they
will lock up awromatically to protect the occupants.
NOTE
The inertia reels are located for maximum shoulder har-
ness comfort and safe retention of the seat occupants.
This location recuires that the shoulder harnesses cross
near the top so that the right hand inertia reel serves the
pilot and the left hand reel serves the front passenger,
When [astening the harness, check to ensure the proper
harness is being used.
To use the seat belt/shoulder harness, adjist the metal buckle half
on the harness up far enough to allow it to be drawn across the lap of the
occupant and be fastened into the outboard seat belt buckle. Adjust seat
belt tension by pulling up >n the shoulder harness. To remove the seat
belt/shoulder harness, release the seat belt buckle and allow the inertia
reel to draw the harness to the inboard side of the seat.
STARTING ENGINE.
In cold wezther, the engine compartment temperature drops off ~ap-
idly following engine shutdown and the injector nozzle lines remain nearly
full of fuel. Cold weather starting procedures are therefore relatively sim-
ple with highly predictable results. However, :n extreme.y hot weather,
engile compartment temperatures increase rapidly follow.ng engine shut-
down, and fuel in the lines will vaporize and escape into the intake manifold.
Hot weather starting procedures depend considerably on how soon
2-12
the rext engine start is attempted. Within the first 20 to 30 minutes after
shutdown, the fuel manifold is adequately primed and the empty injector
nozzle lines will fill before the engine dies, However, alter approximately
30 minutes, the vaporized fuel in the manifold will have nearly dissipated
and some slight "priming" could be required to refill the nozzle lines and
keep the engine running afier the initial start. Starting a Lot engine is
facilitated by advancing the mixture control promptly to 1/3 open when the
engine fires, and then smoothly to full rich 26 power developes,
Should the engine tend to die after starting, turn on auxiliary fuel pump
temporarily anc adjust throttle as necessary to keep the engine running.
Weak intermittent firing followed by puffs o black smoke from the
exhaust stack indicate over-priming or flooding, In this event, turn off
the auxiliary fuel pump, open the throttle from 1/2 to full open and con-
tinue cranking with the mixture full lean, When the engine fires, smoothly
advance the mixture control to full rich and retard the thratle to desired
idle speed.
If the engine is undergrimed {most likely in cold weather with a cold
engine) it will not fire at all, and additional priming will be necessary.
After starting, if the oil pressur: gage does not begin to show pres-
sure within 30 seconds in the summertime and about twice that long in
very cold weather, stop tha engine and investigate, Lack of cil pressure
can cause serious engine damage,
NOTE
Additional details concerning cold weather starting and
operation may be found under COLD WEATHER OPER-
ATION paragraphs in this section.
TAXIING.
When taxiing it is important that speed and uge of brakes be held to
a mirimum and that all controls be ut.lized (see taxiing diagram, figure
2-4) to maintain directiona! control and balance, Taxling over loose
2-13
TAXII
dE USE UP AILERON
EN ON LH WING AND
Ee Na o EEE Es Ces EEE
o UU
UN USE DOWN AILERON
2% ON LH WING AND
OR
RE ИОННИЯ
CODE
WIND DIRECTION b
NG DIAGRAM
EE Can as i a a que
Ca de a CS qe
RAL STABILATOR #3
Tati ci 5
SE : TE FEE Un e EE
3 О
CN USE DOWN AILERON
2" ON RH WING AND :
2 DOWNSTABILATOR 3
NOTE
Strong quartering tail winds require caution,
Avoid sudden bursts of the throttle and sharp
braking when th2 airplane is in this attitude.
Use the steerable nose whee. and rudder о
maintain direction.
eo
2-14
Figure 2-4.
gravel or cinders should be done at low engine speed to avoid abrasion
and store damage to the propeller tips.
BEFORE TAKE-OFF.
WARM-UP.
Since the engine is closely cowled for effi cient in-flight engine cool-
ing, precautions should be tzken to avoid overheating during prolonge A
engine operation on the grouxd. Also, long periods of idling a ow RE
may cause fouled spark plugs. If the engine accelerates smoothly,
airplane is ready for take-off.
MAGNETO CHECK.
The magneto check should be made at 1800 RPM as folicws: Moye the
ignition switch first to R position, and note RPM. Next move pe с . bae
to BOTH to clear the other set of plugs. Then mcve switch lo post icn,
note RPM and return the switch to the BOTH position. The RPM ao
should not exceed 150 RPM an either magneto or show greater than |
RPM differential between magnetos. A smooth drop off past norma is
usually a sign of a too lean or too rich mixture. i there 15а dou com e
cerning operation of the ignition systen, RPM checks at 2 eanex ey
getting or at higher engine speeds will usually confirm whether
exists.
A1 absence of RPM drop may be an indication of faulty grounding of
one side of the ignition system or should be cause for suspicion that the
magneto timing i3 set in advance of the setting specified.
ALTERNATOR CHECK.
Prior to fligats where verification of proper alternator and voltage reg-
ulator operation 18 essential (such as night or instrument flights), 2 positive
verification can be made by loading the electrical system momentarily (3 to
5 seconds) with the landing light or by operating the wing flaps during the
engine runup (1800 RPM), The ammeter will remain within a needle wi
of zero if the alternator and voltage regulator are operating properly.
2-15
TAKE-OFF.
POWER CHECK.
It is important to check full-throttle engine operation early in the
take-off run. Any signs of rough engine operatisn or sluggish engine ac-
celeration are good cause ‘or discont.nuing the take-off.
The auxiliary fuel pump is normélly off during take-of’s. However,
if there is evidence of fuel vapor, as indicated by fluctuation of the fuel
flow indicator needle, or rough engine operation, the pump should be
turned on. It is not necessary to readjust the mixture control when op-
eratiag with the auxiliary fuel pump turned on because the mixture is only
slightly enrichened,
Full-throttle runups over loose gravel are especially harmful to yro-
peller tips. When take-offs must be made over a gravel surface, it is
very important that the throttle be advanced slowly, This allows the air-
plane to start rolling before high RPM is developed, and the gravel will
be blown back of the propeller rather than pulled into it, When unavoid-
able small dents appear in the propeller blades, they should be corrected
immediately as described in Section ¥ under propeller care.
Prior to take-off from short fields above 3000 feet elevation, the
mixture should be leaned in accordance with the maximum power fuel
flow placard located on the instrument panel control pedestal.
After full throttle is applied, adjust the throttle friction lock clockwise
to prevent the throttle from creeping back from a maximum power position.
Similar friction lock adjustments should be made as required in other flight
conditions to maintain a fixed throttle setting.
WING FLAP SETTINGS.
Take-offs are accomplished with the wing flaps set in the 0° to 10°
position. The preferred flap setting for normal take-off is 10°, This
flap setting {in comparison to flaps up) produces an approximately 15%
shorter ground run and total take-off distance over an obstacle. In addi-
tion, it provides easier lift-off and increased visibility over the nose in
the initial climb-out,
Flap settings of greater than 10° are not recommended at any time
for take-off.
2-16
LANDING GEAR RETRACTION.
Si1ce the landing gear swings downward approximately one foot as it
starts the retraction cycle, retraction should be cvoided until well clear
of the runway and after a positive climo is established. This is especially
important when a-tempting a short field take-off, where a premature liit-
off might result in the airplane settling back onto the ground, On long run-
ways the landing gear retraction can be delayed until reaching the point over
the runway where a wheels-down forced landing on that runway would be
impractical.
Before retracting the landing gear, the brakes should be applied mo-
mentarily to stop wheel rotation. Centrifugal force caused ay the rapidly
spinning wheel expands the diameter of the tire. If there isan accumula-
tion of mud or ice in the wheel wells, the rotating wheel may rub as itis
retracted into the wheel well,
PERFORMANCE CHARTS.
Consult the Take-Off Data chart in Section VI for take -off distances
with 10% flaps under various gross weight, altitude, headwind, tempera-
ture, and runway surface conditions.
CROSSWIND TAKE-OFFS.
Take -offs into strong crosswinds normally are perfor med with the
minimum flap setting necessary for the field length to minimize the drift
angle immediately after take-off, The airplane is acceleraled to a speed
slighty higher than normal and then pulled off abruptly to prevent possible
settling back to the runway while drifting. When clear of the ground, make
4 coordinated turn into the wind to correct for drift.
ENROUTE CLIMB.
Normal climbs are performed at 100 to 120 MPH with ¡anding gear and
flaps retracted and reduced power (down to 25 inches of manifold pressure
and 2500 RPM) for increaszd passenger comfort due to lowar noise level.
The mixture may be left full rich as Jong as the engine is smooth. Far
optimum power with 25 inches manifold pressure and 2500 RPM, set the
mixture to 13 GPH. With full throttle and 2500 XPM, set the mixture to
% GPH less than shown in the maximum power mixture placard. Maximum
rate of climb ig achieved with full throttle and 2700 RPM at speeds ranging
2-17
from 85 MPH at sea level to 91 MPH at 10, 000 ieet. The mixture should
be leaned for altitude in accordance with the maximum power fuel flow pla-
card.
If an enroute obstacle dictates the use of a steep climb angle, an ob-
stacle clearance speed of 80 MPH should be used with landing gear and
flaps retracted and full throttle at al. altitudes.
CRUISE.
Normal cruising is performed between 55% and 75% power. The cor-
responding power settings and fuel consumption for various altitudes can
be determined by using your Cessna Power Computer or the Operaticnal
Data in Section YI.
NOTE
Cruising should he done at €5% to 75% power until a total
of 50 hours has accumulated or oil consumption has sta-
bilized. This is to ensure proper seating of the rings and
is applicable to new engines, and engires in service follow-
ing cylinder replacement or top overhaul of one or more
cylinders.
The Cruise Performance table shown below illustrates the true air-
speed and miles per gallon during cruise for various altitudes and percent
CRUISE PERFORMANCE
75% POWER 65% POWER 35% POWER
ALTITUDE TAS MPG TAS MPG TAS MPG
Sea Level 180 14,8 150 16,0 140 17,3
21500 Feet 165 15.3 155 16,5 145 17.9
7000 Feet 170 15.7 160 17.0 149 18.4
Standard Conditions Zero Wird |
2-18
powers, This table should be used asa guide, along with the available
winds aloft information, to determine the most favorable altitude and
power setting for a given trip. The selection of eruise altitade on the
basis of the most favorable wind conditions and the use of 1cw power
settings are significant factors that should be corsidered on every trip to
reduce fuel consumption.
For reduced noise levels, it is desirable to select the lowest RPM in
the green arc range for a given percent power that will provide smooth
engine operation. The cow: flaps should be opened, if necessary, to
maintain the cylinder head temperature at approximately three-fourthe
of the normal operating range (green £rc).
Cruise performance data in this manual and on the power computer is
based on an extended range mixture setting which is approximately one-
half gallon per hour less than the best power mixture setting. This ex-
tended range mixture setting results in a one MPH speed loss and an aver-
age increase of 10% in range when compared to a best power mixture
setting.
For best fuel economy at 75% power or less, the engine may be op-
erated at one-half gallon per hour leaner than shown in this manual and
on the power computer. This will result in approximately LR greater
range than shown in the cruise tables of this manual accompanied by ap-
proximately 2 MPH decrease in speed.
The fuel injection system used on this engine is considered to be non-
icing. In the event the main intake filer becomes blocked, an alternate
intake valve opens automatically, supplying unfiltered air from the lower
engine compartment and resulting in a 5% power loss at full throttle.
LEANING WITH A CESSNA ECONOMY MIXTURE INDICATOR (EGT).
Exhaust gas temperature (EGT) as shown on the optional Cessna
Economy Mixtures Indicator may be used as an aid for mixture leaning
in cruising flight at 75% power or legs. To adjust the mixtire, using
this indicator, lean to establish the peak EGT as a reference point and
then enrichen the mixture by a desired increment based on the table
on the following lage.
As noted in this table, operation it peak EGT provides best fuel
economy. This results in approximately 4% grester range than ehown
2-19
MIXTURE EXHAUST GAS RANGE INCREASE
DESCRIPTION TEMPERATURE FROM BEST POWER
Peak EGT Minus
BEST POWER 100° F (Enricher) 0%
EXTENDED RANGE
{Owner's Manual and
Computer Performance)
Peak EGT Minus
25° F (Enricher) 10%
BEST ECONOMY Peak EGT 14%
HH.
in the cruise tables of this manual accompanied by approximately 2 MPH
decrease in speed.
When learing the mixture, under some conditions, engine roughness
may occur before peak EGT is reached. In this case, us: the ECT cor-
responding to the onset of roughness as the reference point instead of
peak EGT. Any change in altitude cr power will require a recheck of the
EGT indication.
STALLS.
The stall characteristics are conventional and aural warning is pro-
vided by a stall warning horn which sounds between 5 and 10 MPH above
the stall in all configurations.
Power-oft stall speeds at maximum gross weight and aft c.g. posi-
tion are presented on page 6-2 ag calibrated airspeeds since indicated
airspeeds are unreliable near the stall,
BEFORE LANDING.
The landing gear is normally extended before entering the traffic pat-
tern, This practice will allow more time to confirm that the landing gear
is cown and locked, As a further precaution, the landing gear may be left
extended in go-around procedures or traffic patterns for touch -and-go
landings,
2-2)
Landing gear extension can be detected by illumination af the gear
DWN indicator light (green), absence of a gear warning horn with the
throttle retarded below approximately 2 inches of manifold pressure,
and visual inspection of the main gear position.
LANDING.
Normal landi1g approaches can be made with power on or power off
at speeds of 80 to 90 MPH w:th flaps up and 70 to 30 MPH with flaps
down. Surface winds and air turbulence are usually the primary factors
in determining the most comfortable approach speeds. Slips are per-
mitted with any desired flap setting, Actual touchdown should be made
with power off and on the main wheels first, The nose wheel should be
lowered smoothly to the runway as speed is dimin shed.
Full down stabilator (control wheel positioned full forward) should not
be used during the ground rcll, This reduces the weight on the main
wheels which causes poor braking and increases tie possibility of sliding
the tires.
SHORT FIELO LANDINGS,
For a maximum performance short field landing in smooth air condi-
tions, make an approach at 70 MPH with full flaps using enough power -0
control the glide path, (Slightly higher approach speeds shoald be used
under turbulent air conditions.) After all approach obstacles are cleared,
progressively reduce power and maintain 70 MPH by lowering the nose of
the airplane. Touchdown should be made with power-off anc on the main
wheels first. Immediately after touchdown, lower the nose wheel and ap-
ply heavy braking as required. For maximum brake effectiveness, reiract
the flaps, hold the control wheel full back, and apply maximum brake pres-
sure without sliding the tires.
CROSSWIND LANDINGS.
When landing in a strong crosswind, use the minimum flap setting re-
quired for the field length. Although the crab or combination method cf
drift correction may be used, the wing-low method gives the best control.
After -ouchdown, hold a straight course with the steerable nose wheel and
occasional braking if necessary.
The maximum allowable crosswind velocity is dependent upon pilot
2-21
capability rather than airplane limitations. With average pilot technique,
direct crosswinds of 15 knots can be handled with safety.
BALKED LANDING.
In a balked landing (go-around) climb, apply full throttle and 2700
RPM smoothly, and reduce wing flaps promptly to 20°. Upon reaching
an airspeed of approximately 75 MPH, flaps stould be slcwly retracted
to the full up position.
H obstacles are immediately ahead during the go-aroand, the landing
gear should be left down and the wing flaps should be left at 20° until ob-
stacles are cleared. At field elevations above 3000 feet, the mixtur:
should be leaned for max’ mum power.
COLD WEATHER OPERATION.
STARTING.
Prior to starting on a cold morning, it is advisable to pull the pro-
peller through several times by hand to "break loose" or "limber" the
oil, thus conserving batiery energy.
NOTE
When pulling the propeller through by hand, treat it as if
the ignition switch is turned on. A loose or broken ground
wire on either magneto could cause the engine tc fire,
In extremely cold {0°F and lower) weather, the use of an external pre-
heater and an external power source are recommended whenever possible
to cbtain positive starting and to reduce wear and abuse to the engine and
the electrical system, Fre-heat will thaw the oil trapped in the oil cooler,
which probably will be congealed prior to starting in extremely cold tem-
peratures, When using an external power source, the position of the mas-
ter switch is important. Refer to Szction VII, paragraph Ground Service
Pluz Receptacle, for operating details.
Cold weather starting procedures are the same as the normal starting
procedures in Section I. Use caution to prevent inadvertent forward move-
ment of the airplane during starting when parked on snow or ice,
2-22
NOTE
H the engine does not start during the first few attempts,
or if engine firing diminishes in strength, it is probable
that the spark plugs have been frosted over. Preheat
must be 1sed before another start is attempted.
During cold weather operations, no indication will be apparent on the
oil temperature gage prior to take-off if outside air temperatures are
very cold. After a suitable warm-up period (2 to 5 minutes at 1000 RPM),
accelerate the engine several times to higher engine RPM, If the engine
accelerates smoothly and the oil pressure remains normal and steady,
the airplane ig ready for take-off.
STATIC PRESSURE ALTERNATE SOURCE VALVE
A static pressure alternate gource valve is installed in the left side
of the instrument panel for use when the external static source is mal-
funeticning. This valve supplies static pressure rom inside the rear
fuselage instead of the external static ports. An external condensate
drain, located in the alternate source line under the pilot's floorboard,
ig provided for periodic draining of any moisture accumulation,
If erroneous instrument readings are suspected due to water or ice
in the pressure lines going to the standard external static pressure Source,
the alternate static source valve should be pulled on.
Pressures within the rear fuselage Will vary with open cabin ventila-
tors and vent windows. With the windows closed, the most adverse vent
configuration results in minor airspeed and altimeter variations of less
than 5 MPH and 50 feet, respectively. However, opening the vent win-
dows may result in large errors (depending on tha sealing eifectiveness
of the baggage curtain) which increase with increasing airspeed, For
example, at the placarded maximum window oper speed of 120 MPH, the
airspeed indicator and altimeter may read low by as much as 12 MPH and
90 feet, respectively. To avoid the possibility o: large errors, the win-
dows should not be open when using ths alternate static source.
HOT WEATHER OPERATION.
The general warm temperature starting information on page 2-12 is
appropriate. Avoid prolonged engine operation cn the ground.
2-23
NOISE ABATEMENT.
| Increased emphasis en improving the quality of our environment re-
quires renewed effort on the part of all pilots to minimize the effect of
aircraft noise on the publ:c.
We, as pilots, can demonstrate our concern for environmental im-
provement, by application of the following suggested procedures, and
thereby tend to build public support {or aviation:
(1) Pilots operating aircraft under VFR over outdoor assemblies
of persons, recreational and park areas, and other noise-sensitive
areas should make every effort to fly not less than 2,000 feet above
the surfacs, weather permitting, even though flight at a lower level
may be consistent wich the provisions of government regulations.
(2) Durinz departure from or approach to an airport, climb aîter
take-off and descent for landing should be made so as to avoid pro-
longed flight at low altitude near noise- sensitive areas.
NOTE
The above recommended procedures do not apply where
they would conflict with Air Traffic Control clearances
or instructions, or where, in the pilot's judgment, an
altitude of less than 2, 000 feet is necessary for him to
adequately exercise his duty to see and avoid other air-
craît.
2-24
Section HI
UE Ba.
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
Emergencies caused by aircraft or engine melfunctions are extrerré-
ly rare if proper pre-flight inspections and maintenance are practiced.
Enroute weather amergencies can be minimized or eliminated by careful
flight planning and good judgement when unexpected weather is encountered.
However, should an emergency arise the basic guidelines described in this
section should be considered and applied as necessary to correct the prob-
lem.
ENGINE FAILURE.
ENGINE FAILURE AFTER TAKE-OFF.
Prompt lowering of the nose to maintain airspeed and establish a
glide attitude is the first response to an engine failure after take-off.
In most cases, the landing should be planned straight ahead with only
small changes in direction to avoid obstructions. Altitude and airspeed
are seldom sufficient to execute a 180° gliding turn necessary to return
to the runway. The following procedures assume that adequate time
exists to secure the fuel and ignition systems prior to touchdown.
(1) Airspeed -- 80 MPH (flaps UP).
75 MPH (flaps DOWN).
2) Mixture -- IDLE CUT-OFF.
(3) Fuel Selector Valve -- OFF.
(4) Ignition Switch -- OFF.
(5) Wing Flaps <- AS REQUIREL (30° recommended).
(6) Master Switch -- OFF.
ENGINE FAILURE DURING FLIGHT.
While gliding toward a suitable landing area, an effort should be made
3-1
NOISE ABATEMENT.
| Increased emphasis en improving the quality of our environment re-
quires renewed effort on the part of all pilots to minimize the effect of
aircraft noise on the publ:c.
We, as pilots, can demonstrate our concern for environmental im-
provement, by application of the following suggested procedures, and
thereby tend to build public support {or aviation:
(1) Pilots operating aircraft under VFR over outdoor assemblies
of persons, recreational and park areas, and other noise-sensitive
areas should make every effort to fly not less than 2,000 feet above
the surfacs, weather permitting, even though flight at a lower level
may be consistent wich the provisions of government regulations.
(2) Durinz departure from or approach to an airport, climb aîter
take-off and descent for landing should be made so as to avoid pro-
longed flight at low altitude near noise- sensitive areas.
NOTE
The above recommended procedures do not apply where
they would conflict with Air Traffic Control clearances
or instructions, or where, in the pilot's judgment, an
altitude of less than 2, 000 feet is necessary for him to
adequately exercise his duty to see and avoid other air-
craît.
2-24
Section HI
UE Ba.
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
Emergencies caused by aircraft or engine melfunctions are extrerré-
ly rare if proper pre-flight inspections and maintenance are practiced.
Enroute weather amergencies can be minimized or eliminated by careful
flight planning and good judgement when unexpected weather is encountered.
However, should an emergency arise the basic guidelines described in this
section should be considered and applied as necessary to correct the prob-
lem.
ENGINE FAILURE.
ENGINE FAILURE AFTER TAKE-OFF.
Prompt lowering of the nose to maintain airspeed and establish a
glide attitude is the first response to an engine failure after take-off.
In most cases, the landing should be planned straight ahead with only
small changes in direction to avoid obstructions. Altitude and airspeed
are seldom sufficient to execute a 180° gliding turn necessary to return
to the runway. The following procedures assume that adequate time
exists to secure the fuel and ignition systems prior to touchdown.
(1) Airspeed -- 80 MPH (flaps UP).
75 MPH (flaps DOWN).
2) Mixture -- IDLE CUT-OFF.
(3) Fuel Selector Valve -- OFF.
(4) Ignition Switch -- OFF.
(5) Wing Flaps <- AS REQUIREL (30° recommended).
(6) Master Switch -- OFF.
ENGINE FAILURE DURING FLIGHT.
While gliding toward a suitable landing area, an effort should be made
3-1
to identify the cause of the failure. K time permits, and an engine restart
is feasible, proceed as follows:
11) Airspeed -- 85 MPH.
19) Fuel Selector Valve -- BOTH.
13) Mixture -- RICH.
4) Auxiliary Fuel Pump -- ON.
(15) |) Ignition Switch -- BOTH (or START if propeller is not windmill-
ing).
If the engine cannot be restarted, a forced landing without power must be
executed. A recommended procedure for this is given in the followirg
paragraph.
FORCED LANDINGS.
EMERGENCY LANDING WITHOUT ENGINE POWER.
If all attempts to restart the engine fail and a forced landing is immi-
nent, select a suitable field and prepare for the landing as follows:
(1) Airspeed -- 85 MPH (flaps UP).
75 MPH (flaps DOWN).
(2) Mixture -- IDLE CUT-OFF.
(3) Fuel felector Valve -- OFF.
(4) Ignition Switch -- OFF.
(5) Landing Gear -- DOWN (UF if terrain is rough or soft).
(6) Wing Flaps -~ AS REQUIRED (30° recommended).
(7) Master Switch -- OFF.
(8) Doors -- UNLATCH PRIOR TO TOUCHDOWN.
(9) Touchdown ~- SLIGHTLY TAIL LOW.
(10) Brakes -- APPLY HEAVILY,
PRECAUTIONARY LANDING WITH ENGINE POWER.
Before attempting an "off airport" landing, one should drag the
landing area at a safe but low altitude to inspect the terrain for obstrue-
tions and surface conditions, proceeding as foliows:
(1) Drag over selected field with flaps 20° and 75 MPH airspeed,
3-2
noting the preferred arez for touchdown for the next landing approach.
Then retract flaps upon reaching a safe altitude and airspeed.
(2) Radio, Electrical Switches -- OFF.
(3) Landing Gear -- DOWN (UP if terrain is rough or soft).
(4) Wing Flaps -- 30° (on final approach).
(5) Airspeed -- 75 MPH.
(6) Master Switch -- OFF.
(7) Doors -- UNLATCH PRIOR TC TOUCHDOWN.
(8) Touchdown -- SLIGHTLY TAIL LOW.
(9) Ignition Switch -- OFF,
(10) Brakes -- APPLY HEAVILY.
DITCHING.
Prepare for ditching by securing or jettisoning heavy objects located
in the kaggage area, and collect folded coats or cushions for protection of
occupant's face at touchdown. Transmit Mayday message on 121.5 MHz
giving location and intentions.
(1) Plan approach into wind if winds are high and seas are heavy.
With heavy swells and light wind, land parallel to swells,
(2) Approach with landing gear retracted, flaps 30°, ani sufficient
power for a 300 ft. /min. rate of descent at 70 MPH.
(3) Unlatch the cabin doors.
(4) Maintain a continuous descent until touchdown in level attitude.
Avoid a landing flare because of difficulty in judging aircraft height
ovar a water surface.
(5! Place folded coat or cushion in front of fèce at time of touchdown.
(6! Evacuate aircraft through cabin doors. If necessary, open vent
window to flood cabin ccmpartment for equalizing pressure so that
door can be cpened.
(7: Inflate life vests and raft (if available) afer evacuation of cabia.
Tke aircraft cannot be cepended or for flotation for mors than a fev
minutes.
FIRES.
ENGINE FIRE IN FLIGHT.
Although engine fires are extreme.y rare in flight, the following steps
should be taken if one is encountered:
(1) Mixture -- IDLE CUT-OFF.
12) Fuel Selector Valve -- OFF,
13) Master Switch -- OFF,
14) Cabin Heat and A:r -- OFF {except overhead vents).
15) Airspeed -- 100 to 120 MPH. If fire is not extinguished, increase
zlide speed to find an airspeed which will provide an incombustible
mixture.
Execute a forced landing as outlined in preceding paragraphs.
ELECTRICAL FIRE IN FLIGHT,
The initial indication of an electrical fire is usually the odor of lurn-
ing insulation. The following procedure should then be used:
11} Master Switch -- OFF.
12) All other switches {except ignition switch) -- OFF,
13) Vents/Cabin Air/Heat -- CLOSED.
14) Fire Extinguisher -- ACTIVATE (if available),
if fire appears out and electrical power is recessary for continuance
of flight:
15) Master Switch -- ON.
16) Circuil Breakers -- CHECK for faulty circuit, do not reset.
17) Radio/Electrical Switches -- ON one at a time, with delay after
each until short circuit is localized.
{8) Vents/Cabin Air/Heat -- OFEN when it is ascertained that fire
is completely extinguished,
DISORIENTATION IN CLOUDS.
In the event of a vacuum system failure during flight ia marginal
weather, the directional gyro and gyro horizon will be disabled, and the
pilot will have t> rely on the turn coordinator or the turn and bank indi-
cator if he inadvertently flies into clouds. The following instructions
assume that only the electrically-powered turn coordinator or the tura
and kank indicator is operative, and that the pilot is not completely pro-
ficient in partial panel instrument flying.
3-4
EXECUTING A 130% TURN IN CLOUDS.
Upon entering the clouds, an immediate plan should be made to turn
back as follows:
(11 Note the time of the minute hand and observe the position of the
sweep second hand on the clock.
(21 When the sweep second hand iadicates the nearest half-minute,
initiate a standard rate left turn, holding the turn coordinator sym-
balic aircraft wing opposite the lower left index mark for 60 seconds.
Then roll back to level “light by leveling the miniature aircraft.
(31 Check accuracy of the turn by observing “he compass heading
wlich should be the reciprocal of the original heading.
(4' If necessary, adjust heading primarily with skidding motions
rather than rolling motions so that the compass will read more
accurately.
(5° Maintain altitude ard airspeed by cautious application of stabilitor
control. Avcid overcontrolling by keeping the hands off the control
wheel and steering only with rudder.
EMERGENCY LET-DOWNS THROUGH CLOUDS.
If possible, obtain radio clearance for an emergency descent through
clouds. To guard against a spiral dive, choose an easterly or westerly
heading to minimize compass card swings due to changing bank angles. In
addition, keep hands off the control wheel and steer a straight course with
rudder control by monitoring the turn coordinator. Occasionally check the
compass heading and make minor corrections to hold an approximate
course. Before descending into the clouds, set up a stabilized let~down
condition as follows:
(1} Extend landing gear.
(2) Reduce power to set up a 500 to 800 ft, /min. rate of descent.
(3) Apply ful rich mixture.
(4) Adjust the stabilator and rudder trim control wheels for a stabil-
ized descent at 90 MPE,
(5} Keep hands off the control wheel.
(6) Monitor turn coordinator and make corrections by rudder alone.
(7) Adjust rudder trim to relieve unbalanced rudder force, if present.
(8) Check trend of compass card movement and make cautious cor-
rections with rudder to stop the turn.
(9) Upon breaking out of clouds resume normal cruising flight,
RECOVERY FROM A SFIRAL DIVE
If a spiralis encountered, proceed as follows:
|
(1) Close the throttle.
(2) Stop the turn by using coordinated aileron and rudder contra to
align the symbolic aireraft in the turn coordinator with the horizon
reference line.
(3) Cauticusly apply stabilator back pressare to slowly reduce the
indicated airspeed to 90 MPH.
(4) Adjust the stabilator trim control to maintain a 93 MPH glide.
(5) Keep hands off the control wheel, using rudder control to hada
straight heading, Use rudder trim to relieve unbalanced rudder force,
if present.
(6) Clear engine occasionally, but avoid using enough power to dis-
turb the trimmed glice.
(7) Upon breaking out of clouds, resume rormal cruising flight.
SPINS.
Intentional spins are prohibited in this airplane. Should an inadvertent
spin occur, the following recovery technique may be used,
(1) Retard throttle to idle position,
(2) Apply full rudder opposite to the direction of rotation.
(3) After one-fourth turn, move the control wheel forward of neutral
in a brisk motion.
(4) As rotation stops, neutralize rudder, and make a smooth recovery
from the resulting dive.
FLIGHT IN ICING CONDITIONS.
Although flying in known icing conditions is prohibited, an unexpecied
icing encounter should be handled as follows:
(1) Turn pitot heat switch ON (if installed).
(2) Turn back or change altituce to obtain an outside air temperature
that is less conducive to icing.
(3) Pull left cabin air, heater and defroster control knobs full out to
obtain windshield defroster airflow.
(4) Increase RPM to minimize ice build-up on propeller blades.
(5) Plan a landing at the nearest airport. With an extremely rapid
ice build-up, select a euitable "off airport" landing site.
(€) With anice accumalation of one -quarter inch or more on the wing
leading edges, be prepared for significantly higher stall speed.
(1) Extend wing flaps 10° with ice accumulations of one inch or less.
With heavier ice accumulations, approach with flaps retracted to en-
sure adequate stabilator effectiveness in the approach and landing.
(8) Perform a landing approach using a forward slip, if necessary,
for improved visibility.
(9) Approach at 85 to 95 MPH, depending upon the amount of ice ac-
camulation.
(10) Perform a landing in level attitude.
ROUGH ENGINE OPERATION OR LOSS OF POWER.
SPARK PLUG FOULING.
A slight engine roughness in flight may be caused by one or more
spark plugs becoming fouled by carbon or lead deposits. This may be
verified by turning the ignition switch momentarily from BOTH to either
L or R position. An obvious power loss in single ignition operation is
evidence of spark plug or magneto trouble. Assuming that spark plugs
are tie more likely cause, lean the mixture to the normal lean getting for
cruising flight, If the problem does not clear up in several minutes, de-
termine if a richer mixture setting will produce smoother operation, If
not, proceed tothe neares: airport for repairs using the BOTH position
of the ignition switch unless extreme roughness dictates the use of a
single ignition position.
MAGNETO MALFUNCTION.
A sudden engine roughness or misfiring is usually evidence of mag-
neto problems. Switching from BOTH to either L or R ignition switch
position will identify which magneto is malfunctioning. Select different
power settings and enrichen the mixture to determine if continued opera-
tion on BOTH magnetos is practicable. If not, switch to the good magneto
and proceed to the nearest airport for repairs.
LOW OIL PRESSURE.
If low oil pressure is accompanied by normal oil temperature, there
3-7
is a possibility that the oil pressure gage or relief valve is malfunctioning,
or a leak has developed in the oil line from the engine to the cil pressure
gage transducer on the firewall. A leak in this line is not necessarily
cause for an immediate precautionary landing because an orifice in the
line will prevent a sudden loss of oil from the engine sumr, Low electri-
cal system voltage will also cause low oil pressure gage readings. This
can be verified by checking the condition of the electrical system and the
indications of the other gages in the engine instrument cluster, As elec-
tricel system voltage to the instrument cluster drops, all gage readings
will drop proportionally. In the event of a suspected meclanical or elec-
triccl malfunction, land as soon as practical to properly identify and cor-
rect the problem,
If a total loss of oil pressure is accompanizd by a rise in oil temper-
ature, there is good reason to suspect an engine failure is imminent. Re-
duce engine power immediately and select a suitable forced landing field.
Leave the engine running at low power during the approach, using only the
minimum power required to reach the desired touchdown spot.
LANDING GEAR MALFUNCTION PROCEDURES.
In the evert of possible landing gear retraction or extension malfunc-
tions, there are several general checks that should be made prior to initi-
ating the steps outlined inthe following paragraphs.
In analyzing a landing gear malfunction, first check that the master
switch is ON and the LDG GEAR and GEAR IND circuit breakers are in;
reset if necessary. Also, check both landing gear position indicator lights
for operation by "pressing-to-test” the Light units and rotating them at the
same time to check for oren dimming shutters. A burned-out bulb can be
replaced in flight by using the bulb from the remaining gear position indi-
cator light.
RETRACTION MALFUNCIIONS,
If the landing gear fails to retract normally, or an intermittent gear
UP indicator light is present, check the gear UP indicator light for proper
operation and attempt to recycle the landing geer. Place the landing gear
lever in the DYN position, Reposition the gear lever in the UP position
for another retraction attempt. If the gear UP indicator light still fails to
illuminate, an immediate landing is not necess:ry, The fight may con-
time to an airrort having maintenance facilities if, after the gear has been
3-8
apparently retracted, cruise speed appears normal with no abnormal buf-
feting, and the landing gear motor is not running. However, if the gear
motor does not shut off after retracticn, or the gear UP light continues to
operate intermittently, the landing gear should be extended until mainte-
nance can be obtained.
NOTE
Test for landing gear motor operation as follows: At a safe
altitude, cycle landing gear at 75 MPH with low power and
listen for the motar to shut off following the normal sound
of gear retraction (approximately 12 seconds). Intermittent
gear motor operation may also be detected by momentary
fluctuations of the ammeter needle,
EXTENSION MALFUNCTIONS.
Normal landing gear extension time is approximately 14 seconds. If
the landing gear will not ex:end normally, perform the general checks of
circuit breakers and master switch and repeat the normal extension pro-
cedures at a reduced airspeed of 80 MPH. I effiarts to extend and lock
the gear through the normal landing gear system fail, the gear can be
manually extended {as long as hydrauLc system fluid has nat been com-
pletely lost) by use of the emergency hand pump. The hand pump is lo-
cated under a hinged cover between the front seats.
MANUAL LANDING GEAR EXTENSION.
The following procedures are necessary for manual landing gear ex-
tension:
(1) Pull out 30 amp LOG GEAR circuit breaker.
(4) Place landing gear lever in DWN position.
(3) Lift cover and extend pump handle.
(4) Pump approximately 40 pressure strokes.
{3) Stop when resistance becomes heavy.
(8) Verify gear is down by observing green DWN light on.
(7) With green DWN Light on, stow pump handle.
NOTE
I manual gear extension was for practice and normal
retraction is desired, push the LDCG GEAR circuit
breaker in.
3-9
LANDING WITHOUT POSITIVE INDICATION OF GEAR LOCKING.
After performing the checks listed under Extension Malfunctions
and chservation indicates the gear is down and apparently locked, proceed
as follows:
(1) Perform the Before Landing check.
(2) Make a normal full flap approach,
(3) Maintain landing gear down pressure with the marual hand pump,
(4) Land tail-low as smoothly as possible and minimize braking in
the landing roll,
(5) Taxi slowly to a maintenance area,
(6) Perform a normal engine shit down prior to inspection of the
landing gear.
LANDING WITH DEFECTIVE NOSE GEAR.
If the nose gear does not extend, or only pariially extends, and 00-
servers verify that it is not down, prepare for a wheels down landing as
follows:
11) Transfer movable load to baggage area, and passenger to rear
seat,
(2) Perform the Before Landing check.
13) Select a hard-surfaced or smooth sod runway.
NOTE
If terrain is rough or soft, plan a wheels-up landing as
presented under Forced Larding {Precautionary Land-
ing With Power) in lieu of the following steps.
14) anta gear down pressure with manual hand pump {gear lever
DWN),
15) Extend flaps to 30°.
16) Turn off master switch.
17) Unlatch cabin door.
18) Land ia a slightly tail-low attitude.
19) Pull mixture control knob to idle cut-off (full out,)
(10) Turn iznition switch OFF.
(:1) Turn fiel selector valve handle to OFF,
(12) Hold the nose off the ground as long as possible,
(13) Evacuate the aircraft as soon as it stops.
3-10
LANDING WITH PARTIALLY EXTENDED MAIN GEAR.
If the main gears are only partially extended, and all efforts to fully
extend them (including mancal extension) have failed, plan a wheels-up
landinz as presented under Forced Landing (Precautionary Landing With
Engine Power). In preparation for landing, reposition the landing gear
lever to UP and push the LDG GEAR circuit breaker in to allow the land-
ing gear to swing into the gear wells at touchdown.
ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM MALFUNCTIONS.
Malfunctions in the electrical power supply system can be detected by
periodic monitoring of the ammeter and over-voltage warning light; how-
ever, the cause of these malfunctions is usually difficult to determine. A
broker alternator drive belt or wiring is most likely the cause of altera-
tor failures, alttough other factors could cause the problem, A damaged
or improperly acjusted voltage regulator can also cause ma.functions.
Problems of this nature corstitute an electrical emergency and should be
dealt with immeciately. Electrical power malfunctions usually fall int»
two categories: excessive rate of charge and insafficient rate of charge.
The following paragraphs describe the recommended remedy for each
situation.
EXCESSIVE RATE OF CHARGE.
After engine starting and heavy electrical usage at low engine speeds
(such as extended taxiing) the battery condition will be low enough to ac-
cept above normal charging during the initial part of a flight, However,
after chirty minutes of cruising flight, the ammeter should be indicating
less than two needle widths of charging current. If the charging rate vere
to renain above this value on a long flight, the battery would overheat and
evaporate the electrolyte at an excessive rate. Electronic components in
the electrical system could be adversely affected by higher than normel
voltage if a faulty voltage ragulator setting is causing the overcharging.
To preclude these possibilities, an over-voltage sensor will automatically
shut cown the alfernator and the over-voltage warning light will illuminate
if the charge voltage reaches approximately 18 volts, Assuming that the
malfunction was only momentary, an attempt shculd be made Lo reactivate
the alternator system. Todo this, turn both sides of the master switeh
off and then on again. If the problem no longer exists, normal alternator
charging will resume and the warning light will go off. If the light comes
on again, a malfunction is confirmed. In this event, the flight should be
3-11
Ш
terminated and/or the current drain on the battery minimized because the
battery can supply the electrical system for only a limited period of time.
If th: emergency occurs at night, pover must be conserved for later
operation of the landing gear and wing flaps and possible use of the land-
ing lights during landing.
INSUFFICIENT RATE OF CHARGE.
If the ammeter indicates a continuous discharge rate in flight, the
alternator is not supplying power to the system and should be shut down
gince the alternator field circuit may be placing an unnecessary load on
the system. All non-essential equipment should be turned off and the
flight terminated as soon as practical.
EMERGENCY LOCATOR TRANSMITTER (ELT).
The ELT consists of a self-contained dual-frequency radio transmit-
ter and battery power supply, and is activated by an impact of Bg or more
as may be experienced ina crash landing. The ELT emits an ommni-direc-
tional signal on the intermtional distress frequencies of 121.5 and 243.0
MHz. General aviation and commercial aircraft, the FAA, and CAF
monitor 121, 5 MHz, and 243.0 MHz is monitored by the military. Follow-
ing a crash landing, the ELT will provide line-of-sight transmission up to
100 miles at 10, 000 feet. The duration of ELT transmissions is affected
by ambient temperature. At temperatures of +70” to +130*F, continmous
transmission for 115 hours can be expected; a temperature of ~40°F will
shorten the duration to 70 hours.
The ELT is readily identified as a bright orange unit mounted behind
the baggage compartment wall on the right side of the fuselage. To gain
access to the unit, grasp the edge of the baggage wall and pull. The ELT
is operated by a control panel at the forward facing end of the unit (see
figure 3-1).
ELT OPERATION,
(1) NORMAL OPERATION: As long as the function selector switch
remains in the ARM position, the ELT automatically activates follow-
ing an impact of 5 g or more over a short period of time.
(2) ELT FAILURE: If "g" swilch actuatien is questioned following a
minor crash landing, gain access to the ELT and place the function
selector switch in the ON position,
3-12
nn
E e
E E
E
Pre
AiO PETT A RRL,
TEE RL
k a _
CON | RO! | UPEHATION.
E RE SEI E 181 + |
E h Г
E
PANEL
1. COVER - Removable for access to battery.
9 FUNCTION SELECTOR SWITCH (3-position toggle switch):
ON - Activates transmitter instantly. Used for test purposes
and if "g" switch is inoperative.
OFF - Deactivates transmitter. Used during shipping, storage
and following rescue.
ARM- Activates transmitter only when 'g" switch receives OE
or more impact.
3 ANTENNA RECEPTACLE - Connection to antenna mounted on
top of the tailcone.
Figure 3-1.
(3) PRIOR TO SIGHTING RESCUE AIRCRAFT: Conserve aircraft
battery. Dc not activate radio transceiver.
(4) AFTER SIGHTING RESCUE AIRCRAFT: Place ELT function
selector switch in the OFF position, preventing radio interference.
Attempt contact with rescue aircraft with the radio transceiver set
to a frequency of 121.5 MHz, If 10 contact is established, return
the function selector switch to ON immediately.
3-13
(5) FOLLOWING RESCUE: Place ELT function selector switch in
the OFF position, terminating emergency transmissions.
(6) INADVERTENT ACTIVATION: Following a lightning strike or
an exceptionally hard landing, th: ELT may activate a‘though no
emergency exists. Select 121.5 MHz on your radio transceiver. If
the ELT can be heard transmitting, place the function selector svitch
in the OFF position; then immediately retum the switch to ARM.
Section lV
E — Ш.
OPERATING LIMITATIONS
OPERATIONS AUTHORIZED.
Your Cessna exceeds the requiremsants for airworthiness as set
forth br the United States Government, and is certificated under FAA
Type Certificate No. A20CE as Cessna Model No, 177RG.
The aircraft may be equipped for day, night, VFR, or IFR operation.
Your Cessna Dealer will be happy to assist you in selecting equipment
best suited to your needs.
Your aircraft must be operated in accordance with all FAA -approved
markings and placards in the aircraft. If there is any information in this
section which contradicts the FAA -approved markings and placards, itis
to be disregarded,
MANEUVERS-NORMAL CATEGORY.
This aircraft is certificated in the normal category. The normal cate-
gory is applicable to aircraft intended for non-aerobatic operations. These
include any maneuvers incidental to normal flying, stalls (except whip
stalls) and turns in which the angle of bank is not more than 60%, In con-
nection with the foregoing, the following gross weight and flight load fac-
tors apply:
Gross Weight . . 2 2 22 4 4 414 4 10 ‚ 2800 lbs
Flight Load Factor
*Flaps Up. . . . . . . +. . . . +3.8 -1, 52
*Flaps Down . . . . . . oe . . 2)
*The design load factors are 150% of the above, and in
all cases, the structure meets or exceeds design loads.
4-1
(5) FOLLOWING RESCUE: Place ELT function selector switch in
the OFF position, terminating emergency transmissions.
(6) INADVERTENT ACTIVATION: Following a lightning strike or
an exceptionally hard landing, th: ELT may activate a‘though no
emergency exists. Select 121.5 MHz on your radio transceiver. If
the ELT can be heard transmitting, place the function selector svitch
in the OFF position; then immediately retum the switch to ARM.
Section lV
E — Ш.
OPERATING LIMITATIONS
OPERATIONS AUTHORIZED.
Your Cessna exceeds the requiremsants for airworthiness as set
forth br the United States Government, and is certificated under FAA
Type Certificate No. A20CE as Cessna Model No, 177RG.
The aircraft may be equipped for day, night, VFR, or IFR operation.
Your Cessna Dealer will be happy to assist you in selecting equipment
best suited to your needs.
Your aircraft must be operated in accordance with all FAA -approved
markings and placards in the aircraft. If there is any information in this
section which contradicts the FAA -approved markings and placards, itis
to be disregarded,
MANEUVERS-NORMAL CATEGORY.
This aircraft is certificated in the normal category. The normal cate-
gory is applicable to aircraft intended for non-aerobatic operations. These
include any maneuvers incidental to normal flying, stalls (except whip
stalls) and turns in which the angle of bank is not more than 60%, In con-
nection with the foregoing, the following gross weight and flight load fac-
tors apply:
Gross Weight . . 2 2 22 4 4 414 4 10 ‚ 2800 lbs
Flight Load Factor
*Flaps Up. . . . . . . +. . . . +3.8 -1, 52
*Flaps Down . . . . . . oe . . 2)
*The design load factors are 150% of the above, and in
all cases, the structure meets or exceeds design loads.
4-1
AIRSPEED LIMITATIONS (CAS).
"he following is a list of the certificated calibrated airspeed (CAS)
limitations for the aircraft.
Never Exceed Speed {glide or dive, smoothair). . . . . . 195 MPH
Maximum Structural Cruising Speed . . . . . . . . . . 160 MPH
Maximum Speed, Gear Extended . . . . . . . . .. . . 140 MPH
Maximum Speed, Flaps Extended
Flaps 10°, . . . . . 24 4224 2 1, . . 160 MPH
Flaps 10° to BOS 212212424444 + + 2 , . . 110 MPH
*Maneuvering Speed . . . . 2. . . . . . 4 . +... . 10MPH
*The maximum speed at which you may use abrup:
control travel.
AIRSPEED INDICATOR MARKINGS.
The following is a list of the certificated calibrated airspeed markings
(CAS) for the aircraft.
. 195 MPH (redline)
160-195 MPH (yellow arc)
. 70-160 MPH (greenarc)
60-110 MPH {white arc)
Never Exceed {glide ar dive, smooth air). .
Caution Range . . aa
Normal Operating Range ,
Flap Operating Range (10° to 30 y.
ENGINE OPÉRATION LIMITATIONS.
Power and Speed . 200 BHP at 2700 RPM
ENGINE INSTRUMENT MARKINGS.
OIL TEMPERATURE GAGE.
Normal Operating Range
Maximum Allowable
, , Green Arc
ae a 4 4 0 245°F (red line)
CYLINDER HEAD TEMPERATURE GAGE.
Normal Operating Range
Maximum Allowable
. 200° to 475°F (green arc)
475° F (red line)
4-2
OIL PRESSURE GAGE.
Minimum Idling . . . . ‚ ‚ 25 psi (red line)
Normal Operating Range aa 60-90 rsi (green arc)
Maximum . . . aa e aa Ea 100 psi (red line)
FUEL FLOW INDICATOR.
Normal Operating Range ...
Maximum
. . 6.C-13.0 gal/hr (green arc)
.10,0 pei (19.0 gal/hr) (red line)
NOTE
À placard, located on the pedestal below the engine controls,
defines maximum power take-off/climb mixture settings as
follows:
MAXIMUM POWER MIXTURE
ALTITUDE £ L, 4000 8000 12, 000
GAL/HR 17 15 13 10
AVOID CONTINUOUS OPERATION BETWEEN 1400 AND
1750 RPM WITH LESS THAN 10" MANIFOLD PRESSURE,
FUEL QUANTITY INDICATORS.
Empty {0.5 gallons unusable each mnk) . E (red line)
TACHOMETER.
Normal Operating Range .
Caution Range . e
Maximum Allowable . . .
2100-2500 RPM (green arc)
1403-1750 RPM (yellow arc)
. 2700 RPM (red line)
MANIFOLD PRESSURE GAGE.
Normal Operating Range . 15 to 25 in. Hz. (green arc)
WEIGHT AND BALANCE.
The following information will enable you to operate your Cessna
within the prescribed weight and center of gravity limitations, To figure
weight and balance, use the Sample Problem, Leading Graph, and Center
4-3
of Gravity Moment Envelope as follows:
Take the licensed empty weight and moment from appropriate weight
and balance records carried in your airplane, and write th>m down in the
colunn titled YOUR AIRPLANE on th: Sample Loading Problem.
NOTE
The licensed emp:y weight and moment are recorded on
the Weight and Balance and Installed Equipment Data
sheet, or on revised weight and balance records, and are
included in the aircraft file. In addition to the licensed
empty weight and moment noted on these records, the
c.g. arm (fuselage station) is also shown, but need not
be used on the Sample Loading Problem. The moment
which is shown mist be divided by 1000 and this value
used as the moment/1000 on the loading problem.
Use the Loading Graph to determine the moment/1000 for each addi-
tional item to be carried; then list these on the loading proslem.
NOTE
Loading Graph information for the pilot, passengers, bag-
gage and hatshelf is based on seats positioned for average
occupants and baggage or hatshelf items loaded in the cen-
ter of these areas as shown on the Loading Arrangements
diagram. For loadings which may differ from these, the
Sample Loading Froblem lists fuselage stations fcr these
items lo indicate their forward and aft c.g. range limita-
tion (seat travel and baggage or hatshelf area limitation).
Additional momert calculations, based on the actual weight
and c.g. arm (fuselage station) of the item being loaded,
must be made if the position of the loac is different from
that shown on the Loading Graph. Reduced fuel weights
may be measured for use with heavy cabin loadings by
filling both tanks to the 22 gallon marker for 43 gallons
{258 pounds) usable, or filling one tank completely with the
other tank af 22 gallons for 51. 5 gallons (309 pourds)
usable. Both tanks may be filled for rraximum range,
provided gross weight is not exceeded.
Total the weights and moments/1000 and plot these values on the
Center of Gravity Moment Envelope to determine whether the point falls
within the envelope, and if the loading is acceptable,
4-4
LOADING
ARRANGEMENTS
* pilot or passetger center of gravity on adjustable
seats positioned for average occupant, Numbers
№ parentheses indicate forward and aft limits of
ozcupants center of gravity range,
* % 4 rm measured to the center of the area shown.
NOTE:
The alt baggage wall (approximate station 188) can
be used as a covendent interior reference port Гот
determining the location of bagrage area fuselage
stations.
STATION [¡C.G. ARM]
¥04—
190 10 97)
L +
REAR PASS.
= BAGGAGE A
4-5
45)
TES æ
Ш | в* © < LOADING GRAPH
& © 2 x 407
© < |2 =
où
«| BS a | En
= В
300
=
| 5
hu FER se “1212 a e 1?
Wu Zz 19 „m 7 © = = $ и и
J < =2- “ $ = 20
À 5 Ex]
ЗЕ | a 3
“< | Yi =| 5 #| 8 |3 3 3 Я 150
E SS q
e
* gd 100
; > MAXIMUM USABLE FUEL
o : Es 50 $ *REDUCED FUEL LOAD
æ 2° ‘= - ЧЕ **MAXIMUM FUEL LOAD
и 28 - Se a “2
J ES Sa 2. o 5 0
mM 8 . SE © = ; ; 3 $ 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 59
O ë Е 6 $. 33 LOAD MOMENT/1000 (POUND - INCHES)
E | ig: 3d ров ЕЕ e
o Neira 3 3 tE: $ ejes NOTES
= . Ê . т, +
Z ou. Ps cs A & | 3 2 = © = (1) Line representing adjustable seats shows the pilot
O DO my a . Fr E . .
pe. ar 5 à = & = se 2 me and front passenger center of gravity on adjustable
<. 2H. B= 5 8 © x - Е а 87 27 seats positioned far an average occupant, Refer tothe
O = - > . A > & = = Е сч = Loading Arrangements diagram for forward and aft
~d BRO у 5 © à а À na 42 ME « || =% limits of occupant c.g. range.
Ш Е = fe 4 6 a + 8 == a ; Bll Za (2) Engine Oil: 9Qts. = 17 Lbs. at 0,8 Moment/1000.
) ES ти = E 3% : 5 p~ a4 2 nf (3) BAGGAGE (area "A") is located on and forward of
a. = an 85 e à : = 2 « 3 т = = 8 the wheel well. BAGGAGE (zrea '""B") is aft of the wheel
=> ® 4 = SE я = E £ B&, i q = 23 well, Maximum baggage load, including the hatshelf, is
< sui > я e N E A SI Ys 120 Lbs, This load may be distributed as desired between
и 258 8 5 E Éé = {4.3 EN A= baggage areas, provided 12 Lbs, is not exceeded or the
Nos hatsheli.
| youd ed (y = ur WD c+ a
LJ
=a
8 Section Y
8 ни — в
5 CARE OF THE AIRPLANE
La
=
If your aircraft is to retain that nev plane performance and depend-
& ability, certain inspection and maintenance requirements must be followed.
It is wise to follow a planned schedule of lubrication and preventive main-
tenance based on climatic and flying conditions encountered in your local-
ity.
Keep in touch with your Cessna Dealer and take advantage of his know-
ledge and experience. He knows your aircraft and how to maintain it. He
will remind you when lubrications and oil changes are necessary, and
about other seasoral and periodic services.
GROUND HANDLING.
The aircraft is most easily and safely maneuvered by hard with the
tow-bar attached to the nose wheel, When towing with a vehicle, do not
exceed the nose gear turning angle of 38° either side of center, or damage
to the gear will result. If the aircraft is towed or pushed over a rough
surface during hangaring, watch that the normal cushioning action of the
nose strut does nol cause excessive vertical movement of the tail and the
resulting contact with low hangar doors or structure. A flat nose tire or
deflated strut will also increase tail height,
LOADED AIRCRAFT MOMENT/ 1000 (POUND - INCHES)
200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280
>
Ca
29
o W
0>
Me Wl
OL
7
cu
z 5
о *
=
ст
" MOORING YOUR AIRPLANE
=
= Prcper tie-down procedure is your best precaution against damage to
> your parked aircraft by gusty or strong winds. Totie-down your aircraft
= securely, proceed as follows:
s 8 8 8 8888888
(1) Set the parking brake and install the control wheel lock.
(SANNOd) LHOIZA LIVMO4IV CHAVOT (2) Install a surface control lock over the fin and rudder,
(3) Tie sufficiently strong ropes or chains (700 pounds tensile
4-8 5-1
LJ
=a
8 Section Y
8 ни — в
5 CARE OF THE AIRPLANE
La
=
If your aircraft is to retain that nev plane performance and depend-
& ability, certain inspection and maintenance requirements must be followed.
It is wise to follow a planned schedule of lubrication and preventive main-
tenance based on climatic and flying conditions encountered in your local-
ity.
Keep in touch with your Cessna Dealer and take advantage of his know-
ledge and experience. He knows your aircraft and how to maintain it. He
will remind you when lubrications and oil changes are necessary, and
about other seasoral and periodic services.
GROUND HANDLING.
The aircraft is most easily and safely maneuvered by hard with the
tow-bar attached to the nose wheel, When towing with a vehicle, do not
exceed the nose gear turning angle of 38° either side of center, or damage
to the gear will result. If the aircraft is towed or pushed over a rough
surface during hangaring, watch that the normal cushioning action of the
nose strut does nol cause excessive vertical movement of the tail and the
resulting contact with low hangar doors or structure. A flat nose tire or
deflated strut will also increase tail height,
LOADED AIRCRAFT MOMENT/ 1000 (POUND - INCHES)
200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280
>
Ca
29
o W
0>
Me Wl
OL
7
cu
z 5
о *
=
ст
" MOORING YOUR AIRPLANE
=
= Prcper tie-down procedure is your best precaution against damage to
> your parked aircraft by gusty or strong winds. Totie-down your aircraft
= securely, proceed as follows:
s 8 8 8 8888888
(1) Set the parking brake and install the control wheel lock.
(SANNOd) LHOIZA LIVMO4IV CHAVOT (2) Install a surface control lock over the fin and rudder,
(3) Tie sufficiently strong ropes or chains (700 pounds tensile
4-8 5-1
strength) to the wing and tail tie-down fittings and secure each rope
to a ramp tie-down.
(4) Tie a rope (no chains or cables} to the nose gear strut and secure
to a ramp de-down,
(5) Install a pitot tube cover,
WIND SHIELD- WINDOWS.
The plastic windshield and windows should be cleaned with an aircraft
windshield cleaner. Apply the cleaner sparingly with soft cloths, and rub
with moderate 2ressure until all dirt, oil scum and bug stains are re-
moved. Allow the cleaner to dry, then wipe it off with soft flannel cloths.
If a windshield cleaner is not available, the plastic can be cleaned
with soft clothe moistened with Stoddard solvent to remove oil and grease,
NOTE
Never use gasoline, benzine, alcohol, acetone, carbon
tetrachloride, fire extinguisher or anti-ice fluid, lacquer
thimmer or glass cleaner to clean the plastic. These ma-
terials will attack the plastic and may cause it to craze.
Follow by carefully washing with a mild detergent and plenty of water.
Rinse thoroughly, then dry with a clean moist ciamois. Do not rub the
plastic with a dry cloth since this builds up an electrostatic charge which
attracts dust, Waxing with a good commercial wax will finish the clean-
ing job. A thin, even coal of wax, polished out by hand with clean soit
flanrel cloths, will fill in minor scratches and help prevent further
scratching,
Do not use a canvas cover on the windshield unless freezing rain or
sleel ig anticipated since the cover may scratch the plastic surface.
PAINTED SURFACES.
The painted exterior surfaces of your new Cessna have 2 durable,
long lasting finish and, under normal conditions, require ro polishing or
buffing. Approximately 15 days are required for the paint to cure com-
pletely; in most cases, the curing period will have been completed prior
to delivery of the aircraft. In the event that polishing or baffing is re-
quired within the curing period, it is recommended that the work be done
5-й
by someone experienced in handling uncured paint, Any Cessna Dealer
can accomplish this work,
Generally, the painted surfaces can be kept bright by washing with
water and mild soap, followed by a rinse with water and drying with
cloths or a chamois, Harsh or abrasive soaps or detergents which cause
corrosion or scratches should never be used, Remove stubborn oil and
grease with a cloth moistened with Stoddard solvent,
Waxing is unnecessary to keep the painted surfaces bright. However,
if desired, the aircraft may be waxed vith a good automotive wax. A
heavier coating of wax on the leading edges of the wings and tail and on
the engine nose cap and propeller spinner will help reduce the abrasion
encountered in these areas.
When the aircraft is parked outside in cold climates and it is neces-
gary to remove ice before flight, care should be taken to protect the paint-
ed surfaces during ice removal with chemical liquids. A 50-50 solution of
isopropyl alcohol and water will satisfactorily remove ice accumulations
withoul damaging the paint. A solution with more than 50% alcohol is
harmful and should be avoided. While applying the de-icing solution, keep
it away from the vindahield and cabin windows since the alcohol will
attack the plastic and may cause it to craze.
PROFELLER CARE.
Preflight inspection of propeller blades for nicks, and wiping them
occasionally with an oily cloth to clean off grass and bug stains will as-
sure log, trouble-free service, Small nicks on the propeller, particu-
larly near the tips and on the leading edges, should be dressed out as
soon as possible since these nicks produce stress concentrations, and ii
ignored, may result in cracks, Never use an alkaline cleaner on the
b ades; remove grease and dirt with carbon tetrachloride or Stoddard
solvent,
LANDING GEAR CARE.
Cessna Dealer's mechanics have been trained In the proper adjust-
ment and rigging procedures on the aircraft hydraulic system. To as-
sure trouble-free gear operation, have your Cessna Dealer check the
gear regularly and make any necessary adjustments, Only properly
trained mechanics should attempt to repair or adjust the landing gear,
5-3
INTERIOR CARE.
To remove dust and loose dirt from the upholstery ani carpet, clean
the interior regularly with a vacuum cleaner.
Blot up any spilled liquid promptly with cleansing tissue or rags.
Don't pat the spot; press the blotting material firmly and hold it for sev-
eral seconds, Continue blotting until no more liquid is taken up. Scrape
off sticky materials with a dull knife, then spot-clean the area.
Oily spots may be cleaned with household spot removers, used spar-
ingly. Before using any solvent, read the instructions on the container
and test it on an obscure place on the fabric to be cleaned. Never s:tu-
rate the fabric with a volatile solvent; it may damage the padding and
backing materials,
Soiled upholstery and carpet may be cleaned with foam-type detergent,
used according to the manufacturer's instructions. To minimize wetting
the ‘abric, keep the foam as dry as sossible and remove it with a vacuum
cleaner.
If your aircraft is ecuipped with leather seating, cleaning of the
seats is accomplished using a soft cloth or sponge dipped in mild soap
suds. The soap suds, used sparingly, will remove traces of dirt and
grease. The soap should be removed with a clean damp cloth.
The plastic trim, headliner, instrument panel and control knobs need
only be wiped off with a damp cloth. Oil and grease on the control wheel
and control knobe can be removed with a cloth moistened with Stoddard
solvent, Volatile solvents, such as mentioned in paragraphe on care of
the windshield, must never be used since they soften and craze the plastic.
MAA PLATE/FINISH AND TRIM PLATE.
Information concerning the Type Certificate Number (TC), Production
Certificate Number (PC), Model! Number and Serial Number of your par-
ticular aircraft can be found on the MAA (Mamfacturers Aircraft Associ-
ation) plate located on the upper part of the leit forward doorpost.
A Finish and Trim plate contaias a code describing the interior color
scheme and exterior paint combination of the aircraft, The code may be
used in conjunction with an applicakle Parts Catalog if finish and trim in-
5-4
formation is needed. This plate is located adjacent to the MAA plate cn the
left fcrward doorpost.
AIRCRAFT FILE.
There are miscellaneous data, information and licenses that are a
part of the aircraft file. Tae following is a checklist for that file. In
addition, a periodic check should be made of the latest Federal Aviaticn
Regulations to ensure that =11 data requirements are met.
A. To be displayed in the aircraft at all times:
(1) Aircraft Airworthiness Certificate (FAA Form 8100-2),
(3) Aircraft Registration Certificate (FAA Form 8050-3).
(3) Aircraft Radio Staiion License, if transmitter installed (FCC
Form 556).
B. To be carried in the aircraft at all times:
(1) Weight and Balance, and associated papers (latest copy of the
Repair and Alteration Form, FAA Form 337, if applicable).
(2) Aircraft Equipment List,
C. To be made available upon request:
(1) Aircraft Log Book.
(2) Engine Log Book,
Most of the (tems listed are required hy the United States Federal
Aviation Regulations. Since the Regulations of other nations may require
other documents and data, owners of exported aircraft should check with
their own aviatiom officials to determine their individual requirements,
Cessna recommends that these items, plus the Owner's Manual,
Power Computer, Pilot's Checklist, Customer Care Program book and
Customer Care Card, be carried in the aircraft at all times,
FLYABLE STORAGE.
Aircraft placed in non-operationa. storage for a maximum of 30 days
or these which receive only intermittent operational use for the first 25
hours are considered in flyable storage status. Every seventh day during
2-9
these Jeriods, the propeller should be rotated by hand through five revolu-
tions. This action "limbere" the oil and prevents any accumulation of cor-
rosion on engine cylinder walls.
IMPORTANT
For marimum safety, check that the ignition switch is
OFF, the throttle is closed, the mixture control is in
the idle cut-off position, and the airplane is secured
before rotating the propeller by hand. Do not stand
within the arc of tke propeller blades while turning the
propeller,
After 30 days, the aircraft should be flown.for 30 minutes or a ground
runup should be made just long enough to produce an oil temperature within
the lower green arc range. Excessive ground runup should be avoided.
Engine runup also helps to eliminate excessive accumulations of water
in the fuel system and other air spaces in the engine. Keep fuel tanks full
to minimize condensation in the tanks. Keep the battery fully chargedto
prevent the electrolyte from freezing 'n cold weather. If the aircraft is to
be stored temporarily, or indefinitely, refer to the Service Manual for
proper storage procedures.
INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS.
As required by Federal Aviation Regulatione, all civil aircraft of U.S.
registry must undergo a complete inspection (annual) each twelve calendar
months. In addizion to the required ANNUAL inspection, aircraft operated
commercially (for hire) must have a complete inspection every 100 hours
of operation,
In lieu of the above requirements, an aircraft may be inspected in
accordance with a progressive inspection schedule, which ¿llows the work
load to be divided into smaller operations that cin be accomplished in
shorter time periods.
The CESSNA PROGRESSIVE CARE PROGRAM has been developed to
provide a modern progressive inspection schedule that satisfies the com-
plete aircraft inspection requirements of both the 100 HOUR and ANNUAL
inspections as applicable to Cessna aircraft,
2-6
CESSNA PROGRESSIVE CARE.
The Cessna Progressive Care Program has been designed to help you
realize maximum utilization of your aircraft at a minimum cost and down-
time, Under this program, your aircraft is inspected and maintained in
four operations at 50-hour intervals during a 200-hour period. The op-
erations are recycled each 200 hours and are recorded in a specially pro-
vided Aircraft Inspection Log as each operation is conducted.
The Cessna Aircraft Company recommends Progressive Care for air-
craft that are being flown 200 hours or more per year, and the 100-hour
inspection for all other aircraft. The procedures for the Progressive
Care Program and the 100-hour inspection have been carefully worked
out by the factory and are followed by the Cessna Dealer Organization,
The complete familiarity of Cessna Dealers with Cessna equipment and
factory-approved procedures provides the highest level of service possible
at lower cost to Cessna owners.
CESSNA CUSTOMER CARE PROGRAM.
Specific benefits and provisions of the CESSNA WARRANTY plus other
important benefits for you are contained in your CUSTOMER CARE
PROGRAM book supplied with your aircraft, You will want to thoroughly
review your Customer Care Program book and keep it in your airerait at
all times,
Coupons attached to the Program kook entitle you to an initial inspec-
tion and either a Progressive Care Operation No, l or the first 100-hour
inspection within -he first 6 months of ownership at no charge to you. I
you take delivery from your Dealer, th: initial inspection will have been
performed before delivery of the aircraft to you, If you pick up your air-
craft a: the factory, plan to take it to your Dealer reasonably soon after
you take delivery, so the initial inspection may be performed allowing the
Dealer to make any minor adjustments which may be necessary,
You will also want to return to your Dealer either at 50 hours for your
first Progressive Care Operation, or at 100 hours for your first 100-hour
inspection depending on which program you choose to establish for your
aircraft. While these important inspections will be performed for you by
any Cessna Dealer, in most cases you will prefer to have the Dealer from
whom you purchased the aircraft accomplish this work,
£-7
SERVICING REQUIREMENTS.
For quick and ready reference, quantities, materials, and specifica-
tions lor frequently used service items (such as fuel, oil, elc) are shown
on the inside back cover of this manual.
In addition to the EXTERIOR INSPECTION covered in Section T,
COMPLETE servicing, inspection, and test requirements for your air-
craft are detailed in the aircraft Service Manual. The Service Manual
outlines all items which require attention at 50, 100, and 200 hour in-
tervals plus those items which require servicing, inspection, and/or
testing at special intervals.
Since Cessna Dealers conduct all service, inspection, znd test pro-
cedures in accordance with applicable Service Menuals, it is recommended
that you contact your Dealer concerning these recuirements and begin
scheduling your aircraft for service at the recommended intervals.
Cessna Progressive Care ensures that these requirements are
accomplished at the required intervals to comply with the 100-hour or
ANNUAL inspection as previously covered,
Depending on various flight operations, your local Government
Aviation Agency may require additional service, inspections, or tests,
For these regulatory requirements, owners should check with local
aviation officials where the aircraft is being operated.
OWNER FOLLOW-UP SYSTEM.
Your Cessna Dealer has an Owner Follow-Up System to notify you
when he receives information that applies to your Cessna. In addition, if
you wish, you may choose to receive similar notification, ir the form of
Service Letters, directly from the Cessna Customer Services Department.
À subscription form is supplied in your Customer Care Program book for
your use, should you choose to request this service, Your Cessna Dealer
will be glad to supply you w:th details concerning these follow-up programs,
and stands ready, through his Service Department, to supply you with
fast, efficient, low-cost service.
5-8
PUBLICATIONS.
various publications and flight operation aids are furnished in the
aircraft when delivered from the factory. These items are listed below.
a CUSTCMER CARZ PROGRAM BOOK
a OWNER'S MANUALS FOR YOUR
AIRCRAFT
AVIONICS AND AUTOPILOT
a POWER COMPUTER
a SALES AND SERVICE DEALER DIRECTORY
The following additional publications, plus many other supplies that
are applicable to your aircraft, are available from your Cessna Dealer,
® SERVICE MANUALS AND PARTS CATALOGS FOR YOUR
AIRCRAFT
ENGINE AND ACCESSORIES
AVIONICS AND AUTOPILOT
Tour Cessna Dealer has a current catalog of all Customer Services
Supplies that are available, many of which he keeps on hand, Supplies
whicE are not in stock, he will be happy to order for you.
Section II
Mi В
OPERATIONAL DATA
The operaticnal data charts on the following pages are presented for
two purposes; first, so that you may know what to expect from your air-
craft under various conditions, and second, to enable you to plan your
flights in detail and with reasonable accuracy.
The data in the charts has been ccmpiled from actual flight tests with
the aircraft and angine in good condition and using average viloting tech-
niques. Note also that the range charts make no allowances for wind,
navigational errcrs, warm-up, take-off, climb, etc, You must estimate
these variables for yourself and make allowances accordingly. Other
indeterminate variables such as mixture leaning echniques, fuel metering
characteristics, engine and propeller condition, and air turoulence may
account for variations of 10% or more in maximum range. 3peeds shown
in the Cruise Performance charts reflzet performance in the standard con-
figura-ion. Speeds may be 2 to 3 MPH slower with optional radio antennas
installed.
Remember that the charts contain:d herein are based on standard day
conditions, In the case of take-off and climb performance, correction
factors are included in the lootnotes in these charts to show the effect of
temperatures hotter than standard. These factors are based on moderate
humidity conditicns. Under extremely high humility conditions, these
correction factors may be twice as great as those shown. For more pre-
cise power, fuel consumption, and endurance information, consult the
Cessna Power Computer supplied with your aircraft. With the Power
Compiter, vou can easily take into account temperature variations from
standard at any ‘light altitude.
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6-2
= CRUISE PERFORMANCE
5 = =D a =
EXTENDED RANGE MIXTURE EXTENDED RANGE MIXTURE
Standard Conditions À Zero Wind > Grass Weight. 2800 Pounds Standard Conditions A Zero Wind _)\ Gross Weight- 2600 Pounds
2500 FEET 5000 FEET
60 GAL (NO RESERVE] 60 GAL NO RESERVE
TAS GAL/ ENDR. RANGE TAS GAL/ ENDR. RANGE
IPM MP %BHP MPH HOUR HOURS MILES RPM MP RBHP MPH HOUR HOURS MILES
2500. 25 Ts 187 11,5 5.2 870 2500 4 78 169 11.2 5, 3 905
24 75 163 10,8 5, 6 910 + 74 165 10.6 5.7 940
23 7. 160 10. 2 5.9 948 22 70 161 10.0 6.0 970
22 7 156 9.6 6,2 970 21 85 157 9,4 G.4 1005
2400 25 Th 164 10,8 5.5 905 2400 78 170 11.3 9.3 900
24 71 160 10, 2 5,8 935 я 74 166 10.6 5.7 935
: 61 156 8.7 6.2 965 23 70 162 10.0 6.0 970
27 63 152 9.1 4,6 1004 2 66 154 9.5 6.3 1000
2300 25 72 180 10.3 5,9 935 230) 74 166 10.6 5.7 940
14 68 156 9.7 6.2 965 > 70 162 10. 0 6,0 970
a 64 153 9.2 8,5 995 29 66 158 9.5 6.3 1000
22 60 149 8.7 6,9 1020 90 62 154 9.0 6.7 1030
2200 25 67 156 9.7 6.2 970 99200 95 69 181 10.0 6,0 #70
24 64 152 9,2 8.5 995 54 86 158 9.5 6,3 1000
23 60 149 8.7 8.9 1020 23 82 154 9.0 6,7 1030
22 57 145 4.3 7.2 1050 99 58 151 8.6 7.0 1055
2100 25 64 152 9.2 6.5 995 2100 25 66 158 9.5 6,3 1000
24 60 149 8,7 6.9 1020 24 63 155 9.0 8.6 1025
23 57 145 8.3 7.2 1050 59 59 151 8.5 7.0 1055
27 54 142 7.9 7.8 1080 22 56 147 8.1 7,4 1085
21 50 138 7.5 8.0 1105 21 52 144 7,7 7.8 1115
2) 41 134 7.1 8.4 1130 20 49 140 7.3 8,2 1140
13 44 130 6.8 8.9 1150 19 45 135 6.9 8.6 1185
13 40 124 6.4 9.3 1155 18 49 129 8.6 9.1 1175
17 37 117 6.1 9.8 1145 17 38 122 6.3 9.5 1185
Figure 6-4 (Sheet 1 of 5), Figure 6-4 (Sheet 2 of 5).
6-5
SS CRUISE PERFORMANCE — — CRUISE E PERFORMANCE [Е
EXTENDED RANGE MIXTURE EXTENDED RANGE MIXTURE
Standard Conditions XX Zero Wind IX. Gross Weight- 2800 Pounds Slandard Conditions > Zero Wind x. Gross Waight- 2000 Pounds
7500 FEET 10,000 FEET
60 GAL (NO RESERVE) 60 GAL {NO RESERVE}
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EPA MP “BH MP} HOUR HOURS MILES RPM MP "ВНР MPH HOUR HOURS MILES
2600 02.5 74 169 10.6 5.7 980 2500 20 66 185 9.5 6.3 1045
1 GE 163 9.7 6.2 1016 1 62 161 8.9 6.7 1080
10 64 159 9,2 6.5 1040 18 57 156 8,4 7.2 1120
9 55 155 8.6 7.0 1075 17 53 151 7.8 7.7 1160
2400 22.5 70 166 10.1 5.9 985 2400 2) 62 161 9.0 8.7 1080
11 64 180 9.2 6.5 1040 19 58 157 8.4 7.1 1115
20 éc 155 B.T 6.9 1070 13 54 152 7.9 7,6 1155
‘9 5€ 151 8.2 7.3 1116 17 50 147 7.4 8,1 1180
2300 22.5 BE 162 9.5 6.3 1020 2500 20 59 158 B.5 7.0 1110
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4 5% 152 8.3 7.2 1100 13 51 148 7,6 7.9 1175
19 59 148 7.8 7.7 1135 17 47 143 7.2 В, 4 1200
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17 40 127 6.4 9.3 1185
Flgure 6-4 (Sheet 3 of 5). Figure 6-4 (Sheet 4 of 5),
6-7
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AE
MAXIMUM GLIDE ® PROPELLER WINDMILLING
@ FLAPS AND GEAR UF @ ZERO WIND
17,000
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Figure 6- 6.
6-10
Section HI
= _— Ba
OPTIONAL SYSTEMS
This section contains à description, operating procedures, and per-
formance data ‘when applicable} for some of the optional equipment which
may be installed in your Cessna. Owner's Mamal Supplements are pro-
vided to cover operation cf other optional equipment systems when in-
stalled in your aircraft, Contact your Cessna Dealer for a complete list
of available optional equipment.
COLD WEATHER EQUIPMENT
WINTERIZATION KIT.
For contimuous operation in temperatures consistently below 20°F,
the Cessna winterization Kit should be installed to improve engine opera-
tion. The kit consists of “wo baffles to cover the engine air intakes in the
cowling nose cap, a baffle to partially cover the oil cooler inlet scoop,
and insulation for the crapkcase breather line. Once installed, the crank-
case breather insulation i5 approved for permanent use in both cold and
hot weather.
GROUND SERVICE PLUG RECEPTACLE.
À ground service plug receptacle may be installed to permit the 1se
of an external power source for cold weather starting and during lengthy
maintenance work on the aircraft electrical system (with the exceptian of
eleccronic equipment). The receptacle is located under a cover plate, aft
of the baggage door on the left side of the tailcone.
NCTE
Electrical power for the aircraft electrical circuits
is provided through a split tus bar having all elec-
tronic circuits on one side cf the hus aad other elec-
trical circuits on the other side of the bus, When an
AE
MAXIMUM GLIDE ® PROPELLER WINDMILLING
@ FLAPS AND GEAR UF @ ZERO WIND
17,000
—
Fr
he |0,
Е
< 8000
я
м
ыы
pa
>
o 4000 BEST GLIDE SPEED
« WEIGHT (LBS) | LAS {(MPHI
= 2800
= 2000 2400 BO
= 2000 75
т
Q
о 5 10 15 2) 25
GROUND DISTANCE (STATUTE MILES)
Figure 6- 6.
6-10
Section HI
= _— Ba
OPTIONAL SYSTEMS
This section contains à description, operating procedures, and per-
formance data ‘when applicable} for some of the optional equipment which
may be installed in your Cessna. Owner's Mamal Supplements are pro-
vided to cover operation cf other optional equipment systems when in-
stalled in your aircraft, Contact your Cessna Dealer for a complete list
of available optional equipment.
COLD WEATHER EQUIPMENT
WINTERIZATION KIT.
For contimuous operation in temperatures consistently below 20°F,
the Cessna winterization Kit should be installed to improve engine opera-
tion. The kit consists of “wo baffles to cover the engine air intakes in the
cowling nose cap, a baffle to partially cover the oil cooler inlet scoop,
and insulation for the crapkcase breather line. Once installed, the crank-
case breather insulation i5 approved for permanent use in both cold and
hot weather.
GROUND SERVICE PLUG RECEPTACLE.
À ground service plug receptacle may be installed to permit the 1se
of an external power source for cold weather starting and during lengthy
maintenance work on the aircraft electrical system (with the exceptian of
eleccronic equipment). The receptacle is located under a cover plate, aft
of the baggage door on the left side of the tailcone.
NCTE
Electrical power for the aircraft electrical circuits
is provided through a split tus bar having all elec-
tronic circuits on one side cf the hus aad other elec-
trical circuits on the other side of the bus, When an
external power éource is connected, a contactor arto-
matically opens the circuit to the electronic portion
of the split bus bar as a protection against damage to
the transistors in the electronic equipment by tran-
sient voltages from the power source. Therefore, the
external power source can not be used as a source of
power when checking electronic components.
Just before connecting an externa! power source (generator type ar
battery cart), the master switch should be turned ON.
The ground service plug receptac.e circuit incorporates a polarity r
versal protection, Power from the external power source will flow only
the ground service plug is correctly connected to the aircraft, If the plu,
is accidently connected backwards, no power wil. flow to the aircraft
electrical system, thereby preventing any damage to electrical equipmen
The battery and external power circuits have been designed Lo conm-
pletely eliminate the need to "jumper" across the battery contactor to
close it for charging a comoletely "dead" battery, A speci:l fused cir-
cuit in the external power system supplies the needed jumper’ across
the contacts so that with a "dead" battery and an external power source
applied, turning the master switch ON will close the battery contactor.
RADIO SELECTOR SWITCHES
RADIO SELECTOR SWITCH OPERATION.
Operation of the radio equipment is normal as covered in the respec:
tive radio manuals, When more than one radio is installed, an audio
switching system is necessary, The cperation of this switching system
is described below,
TRANSMITTER SELECTOR SWITCH.
The transmitter selector switch is labeled TRANS, and has two
pos‘tions. When two transmitters are installed, it is necessary to swiltc]
the microphone to the radio unit the pilot desires to use for transmission
This is accomplished by placing the transmitter selector switch in the
position corresponding ta tre radio unit which is Lo be used, The up posi
tion selects the upper transmitter and the down position selects the lower
7-2
RADIO SELECTOR SWITCHES
| SPEAKER
COM) COM?2 = ADF DME
TRANS O © © ©
Z_ PHONE |
SPEAKER-PHONE SWITCH (TYPICAL):
TRANSMITTER SWITCHES CONTROL SPEAKER-
SELECTOR PHONE FUNCTION OF COMMUNICATION
SWITCH AND NAVIGATION EQUIPMENT
Figure 7-1.
transmitter.
The installation of Cessna radio equipment provides certain audi>
back-up capabilities and transmitter selector switch functions that the
pilot should be familiar with, When the transmitter seleclor switch is
placed in the No. 1 or No, 2 position, the audio amplifier of the corras-
ponding transceiver is utilized to provide the speaker audio for all radios.
If the audio amplifier in the selected transceiver fails, as evidenced by
loss of speaker audio for all radios, place the transmitter selector switch
in the other transceiver position. Since an audio amplifier is not utilized
for headphones, a malfunctioning amplifier will not affect headphone >per-
ation,
SPEAKER-PHONE SWITCHES.
The speaker-phone switches determine whether the output of the re-
ceiver in uge is fed to the headphones or through the audio amplifier lo
the speaker. Flace the switch for the desired receiving system either in
the up position {or speaker operation or in the down position for head-
phones,
7-3
MICROPHONE-HEADSET
A microphone -headset combination is offered as optional equipment.
Using the microghone-headset and a microphone xeying swiich on the left
side of the pilot's control wieel, the pilot can conduct radio communica-
tions without interrupting other control operations to handle a hand-held
microphone. Also, passengers need not listen tc all communications,
Thé microphone and headset jacks are located near the lower left corner
of the instrument panel,
STATIC DISCHARGERS
If frequent IFR flights are plannec, installation of optional wick-type
static dischargers is recommended to improve radio commanications
during flight through dust or various Рог лав of precipitation (rain, freez-
ing rain, snow or ice crystals), Under these corditions, the bulld-up and
discharge of static electricity from the trailing edges of the wings, rud-
der, stabilator, propeller tips, and radio antennas can resvit in loss of
usable radio sigrals on all communications and navigation radio equip-
ment. Usually the ADF is first to be affected and VHF communication
equipment is the last to be affected, |
Installation of static dischargers reduces interference from precip-
itation static, but it is possible to encounter severe precipilation static
conditions which might cause the loss of radio signals, ever with static
dischargers installed, Whenever possible, avoid known severe precipi-
tation areas to prevent loss of dependable radio signals. If avoidance is
impractical, minimize airspeed and anticipate temporary loss of radio
signals while in these areas.
7-4
CESSNA ECONOMY MIXTURE INDICATOR
The Cessna Economy Mixture Indicator is an exhaust ças temperature
(EGT) sensing device which visually aids the pilot in adjusting the cruise
mixture. Exhaust gas temperature varies with Zuel-to-air ratio, power
and EPM. However, the difference between the peak EGT and the EGT
at the cruise mixture setting is essentially constant and this provides a
useful leaning aid. Operaling instructions are included in Section II.
TRUE AIRSPEED INDICATOR
A true airspeed indicator is available to redlace the standard airspeed
indicator in your aircraft. The true airspeed indicator has a calibrated
rotatable ring which works in conjunction with the airspeed indicator dial
in a manner similar to the operation of a flight computer.
TO OBTAIN TRUE AIRSPEED, rotate ring until pressure altitude
is aligned with outside alr temperature in degrees Fahrenheit. Then
read true airspeed on rotatable ring opposite airspeed needle,
NOTE
Pressure altitude should not be confused with indicated
altitude. To obtain pressure altitude, set barometric
scale on altimeter to ‘29, 92" and read pressure altitude
on altimeter. Be sure to return altimeter barometric
scale to original barometric setting after pressure alti-
tude has been obtained,
OIL QUICK-DRAIN VALVE
An oil quick-drain valve is optionally offered toc replace the drain
plug in the oil sump drain port. The valve provides a quicker and clean-
er method of draining engire oil, To drain the oil with this valve instal -
led, slip a hose over the end of the valve, route the hose to a suitable
container, then push upward on the end of the valve until] it snaps into ‘he
open position, Spring clips will hold the valve open, After draining, ise
a screwdriver or suitable tool to snap the valve into the extended (closed)
position and remove the drain hose.
7-6
ALPHABETICAL INDEX
A
After Landing, 1-7
Aircraft,
before entering, 1-1
file, 5-5
mooring, 5-1
securing, 1-7
Airspeed Correction Table, 6-2
Airspeed Indicetor, True, 7-5
Airspeed Indicstor Markings, 4-2
Airspeed Limitations, 4-2
Alternate Source Valve, Static
Pressure, 2-23
Alternator Check, 2-15
Ammeter, 2-6
Authorized Operations, 4-1
Balked Landing, 1-7, 2-22
Before landing, 1-7, 2-20
Before Starting Engine, 1-4
Before Take-0if, 1-4, 2-15
alternator check, 2-15
magneto check, 2-15
warm-up, 2-15
С
Cabin Heating, Ventilating And
Defrosting System, 2-10
Capacity,
fuel, inside back cover
Dil, inside back cover
Care,
exterior, 5-4
interior, 5-4
landing gear, 5-3
propeller, 5-3
Center Of Gravity Moment
Envelope, 4-8
Cesana Customer Care Program,
5-7
Cessna Progressive Care, 5-7
Circuit Breakers And Fuses, 2-6
Climb,
enroute, 1-6, 2-17
maximum performance, 1-6
maximum rate-of-climb
data chart, 6-3
normal, 1-6
Cold Weather Equipment, 7-1
ground service plug
receptacle, 7-1
static pressure alternate
source valve, 2-23
winterization kit, 7-1
Cold Weather Operation, 2-22
starting, 2-24
static pressure alternate
source valve, 2-23
Correction Table, Airspeed, 6-2
Crosswind Landings, 2-21
Crosswind Take-Ofis, 2-17
Cruise, 1-6, 2-18
leaning with ECT, 2-19
Cruise Performance Chart, 2-18,
6-4, 6-5, 6-6, 6-7, 6-8
Cylinder Head Temperature Gage,
4-2
D
Diagram,
electrical system, 2-5
exterior inspection, 1-2, 1-3
fuel eystem, 2-2
Index-1
instrument panel, 1-8
lcading arrangements, 4-5
maximum glide, 6-10
principal dimensions, ii
radio selector switches, 7-3
taxiing, 2-14
Dimensions, Principal, ii
Disorientation In Clouds, 3-4
emergency let-downs through
clouds, 3-5
executing 180° turn in
clouds, 3-5
recovery from spiral dive, 3-6
Ditching, 3-3
Economy Mixture Indicator, 7-5
operating instructions, 2-19
Electrical Power Supply System
Malfunctions, 3-11
excessive rate of charge, 3-11
insufficient rate of charge, 3-12
Electrical System, 2-4
ammeter, 2-6
circuit breakers and fuses, 2-6
ground service plug receptacle,
7-1
master switch, 2-4
over-voltage sensor and
warning light, 2-6
schematic, 2-5
Emergency Hand Pump, 2-10
Emergency Landing Without Engine
Power, 3-4
Emergency Let-Downs Through
Clouds, 3-5
Emergency Locator Transmitter
(ELT), 3-12
control pane:, 3-13
ELT operation, 3-14
Empty Weight, inside front cover
Index-2
Engine,
before starting, 1-4
instrument markings, 4-2
oil, inside back cover
opération limitations, 4-2
starting, 1-4, 2-12
warm-up, 2-15
Engine Failure, 3-1
after take-off, 3-1
during flight, 3-1
Enroute Climb, 1-6, 2-17
maximum performance, 1-6
normal, 1-6
Equipment, Cold Weather, 7-1
Excessive Rate Of Electrical
Charge, 3-11
Executing 180° Turn In Clouds,
3-5
Exterior Care, 5-2
Exterior Inspection Diagram, 1-2,
1-3
Exterior Lighting, 2-7
F
File, Aircraft, 5-5
Fires, 3-3
electrical fire inflight, 3-4
engine fire in flight, 3-3
Flight In Icing Conditions, 3-6
Flyable Storage, 5-5
Forced Landing, 3-2
ditchirg, 3-3
emergency landing without
engine power, 3-2
precautionary landing with
engine power, 3-2
Fuel System, 2-1
capacity, inside back cover
fuel flow indicator, 4-3
fuel grade, inside back cover
fuel quantity indicators, 4-3
fuel tank sump quick-drain
valves, 2-4
quick-drain valve kit, 7-6
schematic, 2-2
Fuses And Circuit Breakers 2-6
G
Graph, Loading, 4-7
Gross Weight, inside front cover
Ground Handling, 5-1
Ground Service Plug Receptacle,
7-1
H
Handling Airplane On Ground, 5-1
Hand Pump, Emergency, 2-10
Harnesses, Shoulder, 2-11
Headset-Microphone, 7-4
Heatirg, Ventilating And Defrosting
System, Cabin, 2-10
Hot Weather Operation, 2-23
Indicator, Economy Mixture, 7-5
operating instructions, 2-19
Indicator, Fuel Flow, 4-3
Indicator, Fuel Quantity, 4-3
Indicator, True Airgpeed, 7-5
Inspection Requirements, 5-6
Instrument Markings, Engine,
4-2
Instrument Panel Diagram, 1-8
Insufficient Rate Of Electrical
Charge, 3-12
Integrated Seat Belt/Shoulder Har-
nesses With Inertia Reels, 2-12
Interior Care, 5-4
Interior Lighting, 2-7
Landing, 2-21
after, 1-7
balked, 1-7, 2-26
before, 1-7, 2-20
crossvind, 2-21
distance table, 6-9
forced, 3-2
normal, 1-7
precautionary with power, 4-6
short field, 2-21
Landing Gear Lever, 2-9
Landing Gear Malfunction Pro-
cedures, 3-8
extension malfunctions, 3-9
landing with defective nose
gear, 3-10
landing with partially extenced
main gear, 3-11
landing without positive indica-
tion of gear locking, 3-10
retraction malfunctions, 3-8
Landing Gear Retraction, 2-17
Landing Gear Servicing, inside
back cover
main/nose wheel tire pressure,
ingide back cover
nose gear shock strut servicing,
inside back cover
Landing Gear System, 2-9
care, 5-3
emergency hand pump, 2-10
gear lever, 2-9
gear retraction, 2-17
Leaning with EGT, 2-19
Let-Down, 1-6
Lighting Equipment, 3-7
exterior lighting, 2-7
interior lighting, 2-7
Limitations, Airspeed, 4-2
Limitations, Engine Operation, 4-2
Loading Arrangements Diagram, 4-5
Loading Graph, 4-7
Index-3
Loading Problem, Sample, 4-6
Low Oil Pressure, 3-7
M
MAA Plate/ Finish Trim Plate, 5-4
Magneto Check, 2-15
Magneto Malfunction, 3-7
Malfunctions, Landing Gear
extension malfunctions, 3-9
landing with defective rose
gear, 3-10
landing with partially extended
main gear, 3-11
landing without positive indi-
cation of gear locking, 3-10
retraction malfunctions, 3-8
Maneuvers - Normal Category, 4-1
Manifold Pressure/Fuel Flow
Indicator, 4-3
Markings, Airspeed Indicator, 4-2
Markings, Engine Instrument, 4-2
Master Switch, 2-4
Maximum Glide Diagram, 6-10
Maximum Performance Climb,
1-6
Maximum Performance Take-Off,
1-5
Maximum Rate-0f-Climb Data
Chart, 6-3
Microphone- Headset, 7-4
Moment Envelope, Center Of
Gravity, 4-8
Mooring Your Airplane, 5-1
N
Noise Abatement, 2-24
Normal Category Maneuvers, 4-1
Normal Climb, 1-6
Normal Landing, 1-7
Normal Take-Off, 1-5
Noge Gear Shock Strut, inside back
cover
Index-4
O
Oil System,
capacity, inside back cover
oil/filter change, inside back
cover
oil grade, inside back cover
pressure gage, 4-3
quick-drain valve, 7-6
temperature gage, 4-2
Operation, Cold Weather, 2-22
Operation, Hot Weatter, 2-23
Operation Limitations, Engine,
4-2
Operations Authorized, 4-1
Over~Voltage Sensor and Warning
Light, 2-6
Owner Follow-Up System, 5-8
publications, 5-9
P
Painted Surfaces, 5-2
Performance - Specifications,
inside front cover
Precautionary Landing With Engine
Power, 3-6 ;
Principal Dimensions Diagram, ii
Progressive Care, Cassna, 5-7
Propeller,
care, 5-3
Publications, 5-9
Q
Quick-Drain Valve, Oil, 7-6
R
Radio Selector Switches, 7-2
diagram, 7-3
operation, 7-2
speaker-phone switckes, 7-3
transmitter selector switch,
7-2
Recovery From Spiral Dive, 3-6
Retraction, Landing Gear, 2-17
Rough Engine Operation Cr Loss Of
Power, 3-7
low oil pressure, 3-1
magneto malfunction, 3-7
spaxk plug fouling, 3-7
S
Sample Loading Problem, 4-6
Securing Aircraft, 1-7
Servicing Requirements, 5-8,
inside back cover
engine oil, inside back cover
fuel, inside back cover
landing gear, inside back cover
Short Field Landings, 2-21
Shoulder Harnesses, 2-11
Spark Plug Fouling, 3-7
Speaker-Phone Switches, 7-3
Spins, 3-6
Stalls, 2-20
speed chart, 6-2
Starling, Engine, 1-4, 2-12, 2-22
Static Dischargers, 7-4
Static Pressure Alternate Source
Valve, 2-23
Storage, Flyable, 5-5
Surfaces,
painted, 5-2
System,
cabin heating, ventilating
and defrosting, 2-10
electrical, 2-4
fuel, 2-1
owner follow-up, 5-8
T
Table Of Contents, ili
Tachometer, 4-3
Take-Off, 1-5, 2-13
before, 1-4, 2-15
crosswind, 2-17
data chart, 6-3
maximum performance, 1-5
normal, 1-5
power check, 2-16
wing flap settings, 2-16
Taxiing, 2-13
diagram, 2-14
Tire Pressure, inside back cover
Transmitter Selector Switch, 7-2
True Airspeed Indicator, 7-5
W
Weight,
emmy, inside front cover
gross, inside front cover
Weight And Balance, 4-3
center of gravity moment
envelope, 4-3
loading arrangements diagram,
4-5
loading graph, 4-7
sample loading problem, 4-5
Windshield - Windows, 5-2
Wing Flap Settings, 2-16
Winterization Kit, 7-1
Index-5
SERVICING REQUIREMENTS *
SERVICING REQUIREMENTS *
ss FUEL:
GRADE -- 100/130 Minimum Grad: Aviation Fuel.
ENGINE OIL: 100/130 Low lead avialion fuel with a lead contenl limited to 2 cc
per gallcn is also approved.
GRADE -- Aviation Grade SAE 50 Above 60°F. CAPACITY EACH TANK -- 30.0 Gallons,
Aviaton Grade SAE 10W30 or SAE 30 Between 0° and 70°F. REDUCED CAPACITY LACH TANK (INDICATED BY SMALL HOLES IN-
Aviat on Grade SAE 10W 30 or SAFE 20 Below 10°F, SIDE FILLER NECK) -~ 22 Gallons.
Multi-viscosity oil with a range of SAE 10Wi0 is recommended for
improved starting in cold weather, Detergent or dispersant oil,
conforming to Specification No, MIL-L-22851, must be used.
NOTE
To ensure desired fuel capacity when refucling, place
NOTE ihe fuel selector valve in either LEFT or RIGHT posi-
tinto prevent cross-feedin:.
Your Cessna was delivered from the factory with a cor-
rosion preventive aircraft engine oil, Ii oil must be
added during the first 25 hours, use only aviation grade
straight mineral oil (non-detergent) conforming to Speci-
fication No. MIL-L-6082.
CAPACITY OF ENGINE SUMP -- 8 Quarts. LANDING GEAR:
Do not operate on less than 6 quarts. To minimize 1083 of oil through __
breather, fill to 7 quart level for normal flights of less than 3 hours. NOSE WIFEL TIRE PEESSURE -- 31 PSI on5. 00-5, 4-Ply Rated Tire.
For extended flight, fill to 8 quarts. These quantities refer to oil MAIN WHEFI, TIRE PRESSURE -- 68 PSI on 15 x 6, 00-6, 6-Ply Rated
dipstick level readings. During cil and oil filter changes, one addi- Tires.
tional quart is required when the filter element is changed. NOST GEAR SHOCK STRUT -- = … . . .
OIL AND OIL FILTER CHANGE -- Keep filled with MIL-H-5606 hydraulic fluid and inflated with air lo
After the first 25 hours of operation, drain engine oil sump and oil 38 PSI.
cooler, clean the oil suction strainer, and change the filter element.
Refill sump with straight mineral oil (non-detergent) and use until a
total of 50 hours has accumulated or oil consumption has stabilized;
then change to detergent oil, Drain the engine oil sump and oil ceoler,
clean the oil suction strainer, and change the filter element each
50 hours thereafter. The oil change interval may be extended to ЖЕ let . . |
100-hour inlervals, providing the oll filter clement is changed at 30- ог сотр ее serviens requiremen
hour intervals. Change engine oil at least every 6 months even refer to the oircraft Service Manual.
though less than the recommended hours have accumulated, Reduce
intervals for prolongec operation in dusty areas, cold climates, or
when short flights and long idle periods result in sludging conditions.
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