RF Manual

RF Manual
2nd edition
RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
product & design manual for
RF small signal discretes
2nd edition
October 2002
Page: 1
2nd edition
RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Content
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Introduction
What's new
RF Application -basics
RF Design-basics
4.1
Fundamentals
4.2
Small Signal RF amplifier parameters
Application diagrams
Application notes
6.1
Application notes list
6.2
BB202, low voltage FM stereo radio
6.3
RF switch for e.g. Bluetooth application
6.4
Low impedance Pin diode
6.5
WCDMA applications for BGA6589
Wideband Amplifier
7.
8.
9.
15 - 30
31 - 36
page:
37 - 38
page:
page:
page:
page:
39 - 40
41 - 46
47 - 53
54 - 57
page:
58 - 61
page:
page:
page:
page:
page:
page:
page:
62 - 63
64
65 - 66
67 - 68
69
70 - 72
73 - 75
Online product catalog on Philips Semiconductors website:
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/catalog/219/282/27046/index.html#27046
page:
76 - 79
Online cross reference tool on Philips Semiconductors website:
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/products/xref/
Packaging (including roadmap)
page:
page:
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/products/all_appnotes.html
X-references
3
4
5 - 14
Online application notes on Philips Semiconductors website:
Selection Guides
7.1
MMIC’s
7.2
Wideband transistors
7.3
Varicap diodes
7.4
Bandswitch diodes
7.5
Fet’s
7.6
Pin diodes
page:
page:
page:
page:
80 - 81
Online package information on Philips Semiconductors website:
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/package/
10.
Promotion Materials
page:
82
11.
Contacts & References
page:
83
Page: 2
2nd edition
RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 3
1. Introduction
“YOUR time-to-market is
OUR driving force”
We are not just happy to take your
order.
We want to be a part of your
application.
We want you to challenge us on
design-ins.
We want to be your partner in RF
solutions.
In March of this year we launched our first
Philips RF Manual. We received
encouraging and positive responses and
understood the value of this manual. Of
course, we will keep up our promise of
updating the manual twice a year and
present you the 2nd edition.
Also this 2nd edition of RF Manual will help
you building your application. It gives an
overview starting from RF basics up to and
including our complete portfolio. RF
Manual will be a dynamic source of
information. A living document that will be
updated when we feel the need to inform
you on important developments for your
applications.
If you are already familiar with the previous
RF Manual, make sure to check next page:
'What's new'.
Kind regards,
Henk Roelofs
Director RF Consumer Products
2nd edition
RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 4
2. What’s New
NEW RF Application & Design-basics, chapter 3/4:
The former RF Basics have been extended and the new chapter RF Designbasics emphasises on design fundamentals like e.g.: the Smith Chart, frequency
and time domain and explanation of the small signal RF amplifier parameters.
NEW interactive application notes list, chapter 6:
The total number of listed application notes has grown to 50 of which 35 have a
interactive link to a individual webpage.
NEW application notes, chapter 6, e.g.:
WCDMA applications for BGA6589 Wideband Amplifier
NEW
BGA6x89
MMIC's
NEW products, chapter 7:
MMIC's
Wideband transistors
Varicap diodes
Field effect transistors
Pin diodes
NEW types
BGU2003, BGM1011
BFQ591
BB140-01
Upcomming types in development
BGA6289, BGA6489, BGA6589
BFU620
BB140L
BF1205, BF1206,
BF1211, BF1211R, BF1211WR,
BF1212, BF1212R, BF1212WR
BAP51-01, BAP63-01, BAP65-01,
BAP27-01, BAP70-02, BAP70-03, BAP51L, BAP1321L, BAP142L,
BAP1321-01
BAP144L
NEW update cross-references, chapter 8:
A powerfull tool to find our parts versus the competitor parts.
NEW packages, chapter 9:
The new leadless SOD882 & SOT883, see chapter 8 packaging.
NEW design support and promotional materials, chapter 10, e.g.:
six new wideband amplifier demoboards: BGA27-serie.
NEW contacts, chapter 11:
We recently welcomed new colleagues in our regional sales organisation.
2nd edition
RF Manual
3.
3.1.
3.2.
3.3.
3.4.
3.5.
3.5.1.
3.5.2.
3.6.
3.6.1.
3.6.2.
3.6.3.
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 5
RF Application-Basics
Frequency spectrum
RF transmission system
RF Front-End
Function of an antenna
Examples of PCB design
Prototyping
Final PCB
Transistor Semiconductor Process
General-Purpose Small-signal bipolar
Double Polysilicon
RF Bipolar Transistor Performance overview
3.1 Frequency spectrum
“wavelength” of the emitted radiation. As
particles travel with the speed of light, one can
determine the wavelength for each frequency.
Radio spectrum and wavelengths
Each material’s composition creates a unique
pattern in the radiation emitted.
This can be classified in the “frequency” and
VLF
10
kHz
LF
MF
100
kHz
HF
1
MHz
VHF
10
MHz
100
MHz
UHF
1
GHz
SHF
10
GHz
EHF
Infrared
100
GHz
A survey of the frequency bands and related wavelengths :
Frequency
3kHz to 30kHz
30kHz to 300kHz
300kHz to 1650kHz
3MHz to 30MHz
30MHz to 300MHz
300MHz to 3GHz
3GHz to 30GHz
30GHz to 300GHz
Wavelength - λ
100km to 10km
10km to 1km
1km to 182m
100m to 10m
10m to 1m
1m to 10cm
10cm to 1cm
1cm to 1mm
Band
VLF
LF
MF
HF
VHF
UHF
SHF
EHF
Definition
Very Low Frequency
Low Frequency
Medium Frequency
High Frequency
Very High Frequency
Ultra High Frequency
Super High Frequency
Extremely High Frequency
Visible
Light
2nd edition
RF Manual
Microwave Band
S
C
J
H
X
M
K
KU
KA
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Frequency / [GHz]
≈ 1.7 to 5.1
≈ 3.9 to 6.1
≈ 5.9 to 9.5
≈ 7 to 10
≈ 5 to 10.5
≈ 10 to 15
≈ 11 to 35
≈ 17 to 18
≈ 38 to 45
Examples of applications in different frequency ranges
Major parts of the frequencies domain are reserved to specific applications e.g. radio and TV
broadcasting and cellular phone bands. The frequency ranges are country dependent.
AM radio - 535 kHz to 1.7 MHz
Short wave radio - bands from 5.9 MHz to
26.1 MHz
Citizens band (CB) radio - 26.96 MHz to 27.41 MHz
Television stations - 54 to 88 MHz for channels 2 through 6
FM radio - 88 MHz to 108 MHz
Television stations - 174 to 220 MHz for channels 7 through 13
Garage door openers, alarm systems, etc. : around 40 MHz
(Analog) cordless phones: from 40 to 50 MHz
Baby monitors: 49 MHz
Radio controlled aeroplanes: around 72 MHz
Radio controlled cars: around 75 MHz
Wildlife tracking collars: 215 to 220 MHz
(Digital) cordless phones (CT2): 864 to 868 and 944 to 948 MHz
Cell phones (GSM): 824 to 960 MHz
Air traffic control radar: 960 to 1,215 MHz
Global Positioning System: 1,227 and 1,575 MHz
Cell phones (GSM): 1710 to 1990 MHz
(Digital Enhanced) Cordless phones (DECT) : 1880 to 1900 MHz
Personal Handy phone System (PHS) : 1895 to 1918 MHz
Deep space radio communications: 2290 to 2300 MHz
Wireless Data protocols (Bluetooth): 2402 to 2495 MHz
Page: 6
2nd edition
RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
3.2 RF transmission system
Simplex
Half duplex
Full duplex
Page: 7
2nd edition
RF Manual
3.3. RF Front-End
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 8
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RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 9
3.4 Function of an antenna
In standard application the RF output signal of a transmitter power amplifier is transported by a coaxial
cable to a suitable location for mounting the antenna. Typical the coaxial cable has am impedance of
50Ω (75Ω for TV/Radio). The Ether, that is the room between the earth and infinite space has an
impedance too. This Ether is the transport-medium for the traveling wireless RF waves from the
transmitter antenna to the receiver antenna. For optimum power transfer from the end of the coaxial
cable into the Ether (the wireless transport medium) we need a power match unit. This unit is the
Antenna. Depending on the frequency and specific application needs their are a lot of antenna
constructions available. The easiest one is the Isotropic ball radiator (just a theoretical one and used
for mathematical reference).
The next easiest and practical used antenna is the
Dipole radiator consists of two sticks. Removal of one
stick we get the “Vertical” radiator as illustrate side by
with the field round around it.
More and more integration of the circuits and reduction
of the cost do influence the antenna design too. Based on
the field radiation effects on printed circuit bards was
developed PCB antennas called “Patch”-Antennas
as illustrate side by.
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product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 10
3.5 Examples of PCB design
Low frequency design
RF design
Microwave design
3.5.1
(up to some MHz)
(some MHz to some hundredths of MHz)
(GHz range)
Prototyping
Standard RF/VHF Receiver Front-End :
Top side GND, back side manual wires
Standard RF/VHF: Top side GND, back side
manual wires of an SW-antenna amplifier
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RF Manual
3.5.2
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 11
Final PCB
TV-Tuner: PCP and flying parts on the switch
(history), some times prototyping technology at RF
Microwave PCB for GHz LNA amplifier
Demoboard: BGA2001 and BGA2022
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product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 12
3.6 Transistor Semiconductor Process
3.6.1
General-Purpose Small-signal bipolar
NPN Transistor cross section
The transistor is built up from three different layers:
Highly doped emitter layer
Medium doped base area
Low doped collector area.
Die of BC337, BC817
The highly doped substrate serves
as carrier and conductor only.
SOT23 standard lead frame
During the assembly process the transistor die is
attached to a lead frame by means of gluing or
eutectic soldering. The emitter and base contacts
are connected to the lead frame through bond wires.
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RF Manual
3.6.2
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 13
Double Polysilicon
For the latest Silicon based bipolar transistors and MMICs Philips’ Double Polysilicon process is used.
The mobile communications market and the use of ever-higher frequencies have do need low-voltage,
high-performance, RF wideband transistors, amplifier modules and MMICs. The “double-poly”
diffusion process makes use of an advanced, transistor technology that is vastly superior to existing
bipolar technologies.
With double poly, a polysilicon layer is used to diffuse
and connect the emitter while another polysilicon layer
is used to contact the base region. And, via a buried
layer, the collector is brought out on the top of the die.
Existing advanced bipolar transistor
Advantages of double-poly-Si RF process:
Higher transition frequencies >23GHz
Higher power gain Gmax.=22dB/2GHz
Lower noise operation
Higher reverse isolation
Simpler matching
Lower current consumption
Optimised for low supply voltages
High efficiency
High linearity
Better heat dissipation
Higher integration for MMICs (SSI= Small-Scale-Integration)
Applications
Cellular and cordless markets, low-noise amplifiers, mixers and power amplifier circuits operating at
1.8 GHz and higher), high-performance RF front-ends, pagers and satellite TV tuners.
Typical vehicles manufactured in double-poly-Si:
MMIC Family:
BGA200xy, and BGA27xy
th
5 generation wideband transistors:
BFG403W/410W/425W/480W
RF power amplifier modules:
BGY240S/241/212/280
2nd edition
RF Manual
3.6.3
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
RF Bipolar Transistor Performance overview
Page: 14
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RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 15
4. RF Design-Basics
4.1. RF Fundamentals
4.1.1.
Frequency and time domain
4.1.1.1.
Frequency domain area
4.1.1.2.
Time domain area
4.1.2.
RF waves
4.1.3.
The reflection coefficient
4.1.4.
Difference between ideal and practical passive devices
4.1.5.
The Smith Chart
4.2. Small signal RF amplifier parameters
4.2.1.
Transistor parameters DC to Microwave
4.2.2.
Definition of the S-Parameters
4.2.2.1.
2-Port Network definition
4.2.2.2.
3-Port Network definition
4.1. RF Fundamentals
4.1.1. Frequency and time domain
4.1.1.1.
Frequency domain area
Typical vehicles:
Metallic sound of the PC loudspeaker
Audio analyser (Measuring the quality of the audio signal, like noise and distortion)
F/A’s ultrasonic microscope (E.g. non destructive material analysis on IC packages)
FFT Spectrum analyser (In the medium frequency range from some Hz to MHz)
Modulation analyser (Investigation of RF modulation e.g. AM, FSK, GFSK,...)
Spectrum analyser (Display the signal’s spectral quality, e.g. noise, intermodulation, gain)
The mathematical Furrier Transformation rule analyses the performance of a periodical time
depending signal in the frequency domain. For an one shoot signal the Furrier Integral Transformation
is used. On bench, issues are take over by the Spectrum Analyser or by the FFT Analyser (Fast
Furrier Transformation). In the Spectrum Analyser the frequency parts of the device under test (DUT)
spectrum are isolated (filtered) and measured by tuned filters (like a periodical tuned radio with
displaying of the field strength). The FFT analyser has build in a computer or a DSP (Digital Signal
Processor). This DSP is a special IC with build in hardware based mathematical circuit cells for doing
very fast solving of algorithmic problems like DFFT (Discrete Fast Furrier Transformation). This DFFT
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product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 16
can calculate the frequency spectrum of an in coming signal. DSP processors are used in today’s
mobiles on the base band level, sound cards of the computer, industrial machines,...
In RF and Microwave application the frequency domain is very important for measurement techniques
because oscilloscopes can not display extremely high frequency signals. A Spectrum Analyser has a
much higher sensitivity and better dynamic range.
Example: An oscilloscope can proper display signals with a voltage ratio of 10 to 20 between the
smallest and largest signal (dynamic rage ≈20dB). The RF spectrum analysers can display power
signal (levels) with a ratio of more than 1Million at the same time on the display (dynamic range
>60dB). E.g. IF amplifiers of receivers have a gain of 40 to 60dB. That means the amplifier output
amplitude power is around 10000 to 1000000 larger comparing to it’s input. The spectrum analyser
can display both signals at the same time with a good accuracy on to the monitor. On an oscilloscope
you can see just a thin amplitude of the output signal. The amplifiers input signal looks like some noise
ripple on the zero axis.
Typical modern oscilloscopes works in the frequency range of 0Hz (DC) to few GHz.
Modern spectrum analysers (SA) go up to several tenth of GHz. Special (SA) up 100GHz.
4.1.1.2.
Time domain area
Typical bench vehicle and applications:
The loudspeaker beep of the computer
The oscilloscope (displays the signal’s action over the time)
The RF generator (generates very clean sin test signals with various modulation options)
The Time Domain Reflectometry analyser (TDR) (e.g. analysing cable discontinuities)
In the time domain area the variation of the amplitude versus the time is displayed on a
screen. Very low speed actions like temperature drift versus ageing of an oscillator or the
earthquake are printed by special plotters in real-time on paper. Fast actions are displayed by
oscilloscopes. The signals are forced on the screen by the use of storage tubes (history) or by
the use of in built digital memories (RAM). In the time domain, phase differences between
different sources or time dependent activities are analysed, characterised or tuned.
In RF applications their are displayed the demodulation actions, base band signals or control
actions of the CPU.
Advantage of the oscilloscope is the high resistive impedance of the probes. The
disadvantage is the input capacity of some Pico Farad (pF) causing a short or excessive
detune of the circuit.
Mixers are non linear devices because their main job is the multiplication of signals. On the
other side the RF signal must be operate very linear. Mixer 3rd order intercept point (IP3)
performance characterise this handling of RF signals an port input quality.
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product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 17
Example for illustrating an application circuit in the frequency domain and in the time domain:
Issue: Receiving the commercial radio broadcasting program SWR3 in the Short-wave 49m
Band from the German Transmitter-Mühlacker on 6030KHz. This transmitter has an output
power of 20000W. Design the mixer working on an 455KHz IF amplifier.
Reference: http://www.swr.de/frequenzen/kurzwelle.html
System design of the local oscillator: LO=RF+IF=6030KHz+455KHz=6485KHz
The image frequency is found at IRF=LO+IF=6485KHz+455KHz=6913KHz
Optimum mixer operation is medium gain for IF and RF and damping of IRF and LO transfer
to the IF port. For an example, we choose the BFR92 because this transistor can be used for
much higher frequencies mixer applications (e.g. FM Car-Radio, TV, ISM433,...) too.
The Radio Frequency (RF) signal is mixed with the Local Oscillator (LO) to the Interim
Frequency (IF) output products.
For improving the mixer gain, some part variation were done. This circuit is just an example
further optimization should be done for practical operation. In the example the input signal
source (V6, V7) are series connected. In the reality it can be done by e.g. a transformer.
The computer simulation was done under PSpice with the following set-up: Print Step=0.1ns;
Final Time=250µs; Step Ceiling=1ns. This high simulation length and fine step resolution is
necessary for useful DFT results in the frequency spectrum down to 400KHz.
Figure 1: Final mixer circuit without output IF tank
Varying of R8 shows influences of the mixer gain at 455KHz output frequency
2nd edition
RF Manual
R8
455KHz
12515KHz
6k
0.32mV
0.29mV
7k
2.21mV
2mV
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
8k
3.37mV
2.94mV
9k
3.66mV
3.11mV
10k
3.62mV
2.97mV
15k
2.33mV
1.52mV
From the experiments we chose R8=9k for best output amplitude.
Figure 2: The mixer in the Time domain area
Figure 3: The mixer in the Frequency domain area
20k
1.43mV
0.83mV
Page: 18
25k
1.44mV
0.5mV
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product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 19
1000,0
10000
100,0
1000
10,0
100
1,0
10
0,1
234
350
509
744
1060
1590
2332
L1/uH; C3/pF
V/mV
Mixer ouput signal for different tank's L and C
1
3498
Xtank/Ohm
V(455KHz)/mV
V(6484KHz)/mV
V(12515KHz)/mV
V(12968KHz)/mV
Q (SMD 1812-A)
Q (Leaded BC)
L1/uH
C3/pF
Figure 4: Mixer output voltage versus tank's characteristic resonance impedance
In the upper diagram inductors with more than 1mH are shown to have higher losses (Q). Additionally
their must be measured the available IF bandwidth for transferring the down mixed signal without loss
of modulation quality.
Figure 5: The mixer with IF tank
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product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 20
In this chapter was illustrated a mixer operation in the time and frequency domain. Illustrated
was the circuit design by try and error of the use of a CAD program with the need of a lot of
simulation time.
Better is the use of strategic design and calculation for the exact need specification and final
CAD optimization. The devices must be accurate specified (S-Parameter) and models (e.g. 2port linear model network) must be available for computer simulation.
Philips Semiconductors offers S-Parameters of Small Signal Discretes Devices.
Because in RF application optimum power transfer is important, we have to think about the
quality of inter circuit match, qualified by the refection coefficient. This will be handled in the
next chapters. Please note Philips Semiconductors offers a Monolithic Microwave Integrated
Circuit (MMIC) Mixer BGA2022 with 50Ω
Ω input impedance. This devices has build in the need
biasing circuit, offers excellent gain and linearity.
4.1.2
RF waves
RF electromagnetic signals are travelling like water waves in the bath. They are affect by
laws comparable to that of optical signals. In a homogeneous vacuum without any kind of
external influences their speed is Co=299792458m/s.
Travelling in substrates, wires (dielectric material) do speed down the waves to the amount
CO
of: v =
ε reff
εreff is the substrate dielectric constant.
With it we can calculate the Wave Length: λ =
v
f
Example1:
Calculate the speed of an electromagnetic wave in an epoxy based Printed
Circuit Board (PCB) manufactured according to FR4 spec. and in a metaldielectric-semiconductor capacitor.
Calculation: In a metal-dielectric-semiconductor capacitor the used dielectric can be SiliconDioxide or Silicon-Nitride material.
CO
299792458m / s
v=
=
= 139.78 ⋅ 10 6 m / s
4.6
ε reff
FR4
SiO2
Si3N4
εreff=4.6
εreff=2.7 to 4.2
εreff=3.5 to 9
v=139.8•106m/s
v=182.4•106m/s to 139.8•106m/s
v=160.4•106m/s to 99.9•106m/s
2nd edition
RF Manual
Example2:
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 21
What is the wave length transmitted from the commercial SW radio broadcasting program SWR3 in the 49m Band on 6030KHz in the air / FR4 PCB?
Calculation: The εreff of air is close to vacuum.
εreff≈1 v=Co
C
299792458m / s
Wave length in air: λair = O =
= 49.72m
f
6030 KHz
εreff=4.6 v=139.8•106m/s and do
calculate the wave length in the PCB to : λFR4=23.18m
From Example 1 we take over FR4
A forward traveling wave is transmitted / injected by the source into the traveling medium
(substrate, dielectric, wire, Microstrip, etc.) and running to the load at the opposite wire-end.
In junction’s between two different substrates/dielectrics a part of the forward running wave is
reflected back to the source. The remaining part is forward traveling to the load.
Figure 6: Multi reflection between lines with different impedance
In the upper figure the reflection of the forwards running wave (red) between lines with
different wave-impedance’s (Z1, Z2, Z3) is illustrate. As shown a backwards reflected wave
(green) can be again reflected into load direction (violet).
In the case of optimum matching between different travel medium, no signal reflection will
occur and an optimum power is forwarded. The quality of reflection caused e.g. junctions of
lines with different impedance’s or line discontinuities are specified by the refection
coefficient detailed explained in the next chapter.
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RF Manual
4.1.3
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 22
The reflection coefficient
As discussed in former chapter a forward traveling wave is particularly back reflected on
junctions with line impedance in homogeneity, discontinuity or mismatching.
Only the wave-part of forward traveling into the load will be absorbed and processed.
Because of the limited speed of the waves in a line they will be specified by an individual
phase delay too. In the involved mathematics rules this behave is illustrated by a vector in the
complex Gauß area. At each location of the wire, waves with different amplitude and phase
delay are heterodyned. The resulting envelope of the waves energy along the wire do get a
ripple with maximum and minimum of the amplitude. The phase difference between a
maximum to the next one is the same between a minimum to the next one. The amount of the
distance is the half wave length λ/2 ( or normalized phase shift of 180°).
Example:
A line with a mismatched end, do have standing waves resulting in minimum
and maximum amount of power at certain locations along the wire. Determine
the approximated distance between this worse case voltage points for a
Bluetooth signal processed in a printed circuit on a FR4 based substrate.
Calculation: Assumed speed in FR4: v=139.8•106m/s
v FR 4 139.78 ⋅ 10 6 m / s
=
= 58.24mm
Wave length: λ air =
f BT
2.4GHz
The distance minimum to maximum is called the quarter wave length λ/4 (90°).
58.24mm
= 14.56mm
Min-Max distance in FR4: λ =
4
4
At the minimum we have low amount of voltage but large current.
At the maximum we have large amount of voltage but low current.
The distance between a minimum and a maximum is equal to λ/4.
The reflection coefficient is defined by the ratio between the backward traveling voltage
and the forward travelling voltage:
U b( x)
Reflection coefficient: r( x ) =
U f ( x)
{
Reflection loss or return loss: rdB = 20dB ⋅ log r( x ) = 20dB log U b ( x ) − log U f ( x )
}
The index (x) indicate that at each position of the wire you will see a different reflection
coefficient. This is caused by the distribution of the standing wave along the line. The return
loss indicates how much lower is the return reflected wave in dB compared to the forward
travelling wave.
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product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 23
Often the input refection performance of an 50Ω
Ω RF device is specified by the
Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) or short (SWR).
VSWR: s = SWR = VSWR =
U max
1
and the Matching factor: m = Per definition the VSWR>1 !
U min
s
Some typical values of the VSWR:
100% mismatch caused by an open or shorted line
Optimum matched line
r=0 and VSWR=1
In the reality 0<r<1 and 1<VSWR<∞
∞
r=1 and VSWR
Calculating the amount of reflection factor: r = r( x ) =
∞
SWR − 1
SWR + 1
U max
−1
U max − U min
U min
Some mathematical changes: r =
will result in: r =
U max
U max + U min
+1
U min
Z − ZO
The reflection coefficient of an impedance is calculated to r =
Z + ZO
with Zo=System reference impedance
As explained the standing waves causes different amount of voltage and current along the wire. The
ratio of this two parameters is the impedance Z ( x ) =
V( x )
I ( x)
wire with the length (l) and a line mismatching load Z(x=
at individual locations of (x). That means a
l)
at the wire end location (x=l) will show at
the sources location (x=0) a wire length dependent impedance’s
Example:
Z ( x = 0)
f (l)
=
V( x =0)
I ( x =0 )
.
There are known several special cases (tricks) used in Microwave designs.
Mathematically it can be shown that a wire with the length
=
λ
and the
4
wire-impedance ZL will be a quarter wave length transformer of:
2
λ - Impedance transformer: Z ( x = ) = Z L
4
Z ( x =0 )
2nd edition
RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 24
As indicated in the upper RF travelling wave basic rules, the performances of matching, reflection and
individual wire performances do extremely determine the bench measurement results caused by
transformation on the wire. Due to it, each measurement set-up must be calibrated by precision
references.
Examples of RF calibration references are:
§ Open
§ Short
§ Match
The set-up calibration do de-embed unintended wire transformation, discontinuities from plugs,... This
prevents changes of the Device Under Test (DUT) measurement parameters in the bench test set-up.
Example:
Calculation:
a) Determine the input VSWR of BGA2711 MMIC wideband amplifier for
2GHz based on the characteristics in the data sheet.
b) What kind of restive impedance(s) do theoretical cause this VSWR?
c) What is the input return loss measured on a 50Ω coaxial cable in a distance of λ/4?
[email protected]
rIN=10dB
− rdB
−10 dB
1+ r
SWR − 1
dB
20
SWR =
r ⋅ SWR + r = SWR − 1
r = 10
= 10 20 dB = 0.3162
r=
1− r
SWR + 1
1+ r
Z − ZO
1 + 0.3162
Z = ZO
SWRIN =
= 1.92 r =
Z − rZ = rZ O + Z O
1− r
Z + ZO
1 − 0.3162
1+ r
1+ r
Comparison: Z = Z O
& SWR =
Z = Z O ⋅ SWR
1− r
1− r
We know only the amount of (r) but not it’s angle/sign. Due to the definition, the VSWR
it must be larger than 1. We will get two possible solutions:
SWR1 =
Z
Z1
and SWR 2 = O Z1=1.92*50Ω=96.25Ω; Z2=50Ω/1.92=25.97Ω
ZO
Z2
We can check it: r =
96.25 − 50 25.96 − 50
=
= 0.316
96.25 + 50 25.96 + 50
The λ/4 wire transformer do transform the device impedance to:
2
Zin1=96.25Ω
Results:
Z ende =
ZO
50Ω 2
=
= 25.97Ω and for ZIN2=25.97Ω
Z IN 96.25Ω
96.25Ω
At 2GHz, BGA2711 offers an input return loss of 10dB or VSWR=1.92. This
reflection can e.g. be caused by 96.25Ω or 25.97Ω impedance. Of course their
are infinite results possible taking in to account combination with L or C parts.
Measuring this resistance the use of 50Ω cable in λ/4 distance will cause
extremely large errors. Because the Zin1=96.25Ω appears like 25.97Ω and the
second solution Zin2=25.97Ω appears like 96.25Ω!
2nd edition
RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 25
As illustrated in this example, the VSWR or return loss associates without calculation the
quality of device’s input match but don’t tells about it real performances (no phase data).
Detailed mathematically network analysis on RF amplifiers show depends on the device input
impedance by the output load. The output device impedance is depending on source’s
impedance driving the amplifier. Due to it, the use of S-Parameter model in linear small
signal networks offers reliable and accurate results. This theory will be presented in the
following chapters.
4.1.4
Difference between ideal and practical passive devices
Practical device has so called parasitic elements at DC and at RF frequency.
Resistor
Inductor
Capacitor
Has an inductive parasitic action. Due to it, low pass function
Has a capacitor and resistive parasitic, causing a damped
parallel resonance tank
Has an inductive and resistive parasitic, causing a damped tank with
Series Resonance Frequency (SRF)
At the inductor and the capacitor the parasitic reactance do cause self resonance effects.
Figure 7: Equivalent models of passive lumped elements
2nd edition
RF Manual
4.1.5
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 26
The Smith Chart
As indicated in an example of the former chapter, impedance’s of Semiconductors are a
mixture of resistive and reactive parts. As shown RF is easier displayed in the frequency
domain.
Object
Resistor
into
R
Inductor
Capacitor
L
C
Frequency
Complex designator
f
j
Frequency domain
R = R ⋅ e + j 0°
X L = + jωL = ωL ⋅ e + j 90°
XC = − j
1
1
=
⋅ e − j 90°
ωC ωC
ω = 2π ⋅ f
+ j = −1 =
1
= e + j 90°
−j
Some basic vector mathematics used in RF:
Complex impedance is : Z = Re{Z } + j Im{Z } = Z ⋅ e jϕ = Z ⋅ (cos ϕ − j sin ϕ )
Im{Z } = Z sin ϕ ; Re{Z } = Z cosϕ ;
tan =
sin
cos
tan ϕ =
Use of angle
Use of sum
Im{Z }
; with ϕ = ω ⋅ t
Re{Z }
Polar convention
Cartesian convention
The same rules are used for other issues e.g. reflection coefficient:
U b ⋅ e jϕ b
U
j (ϕ −ϕ )
jϕ
r = r ⋅e =
= b ⋅e b f
jϕ f
Uf
U f ⋅e
Special cases:
§ Resistive mismatch:
ϕ(R) = 0
reflection coefficient: ϕ ( r ) = 0
§
Inductive mismatch:
ϕ ( L ) = +90°
reflection coefficient: ϕ (r ) = +90°
§
Capacity mismatch:
ϕ (C ) = −90°
reflection coefficient: ϕ (r ) = −90°
2nd edition
RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 27
The Gauß’ number area (Polar Diagram) do charting rectangular two dimensional vectors:
Im
Re{Z}
Dots on the Re-Line are 100% resistive
Dots on the Im-Line are 100% reactive
Dots some their above the Re-Line are inductive + resistive
Dots some their below the Re-Line are capacity + resistive
Im{Z}
ZZ
180°
0°
Re
Resistive-Axis
Reactive-Axis
In the real world RF designers try to be close and accurate to 50Ω. The upper polar diagram’s origin is
0Ω. In RF circuits very large impedance can appear but we try to come to 50Ω by special network
design for optimum low loss power transfer. Due to it, this ∞-area don’t need to be displayed
accurately. Especially the Polar diagram can’t show large impedance and 50Ω impedance accurate at
the same time because of limited paper size.
Due to it, the Engineer Mr. Phillip Smith from the Bell
Laboratories developed in the Thirties the so called
Smith Chart. The Chart’s origin is 50Ω. Left and right
resistive Re-Axis do end in 0Ω / ∞Ω. The imaginary
reactive Im-Axis end in 100% reactive (L or C). Close
to the 50Ω origin high resolution is offered. Far away,
the resolution/ error do rise up. The standard Smith
Chart do only display positive resistances and has a
unit radius (r=1). Negative resistances generated by
e.g. instability lay outside the unit circle. In this non
linear scaled diagram is keep (theoretical) the infinite
dot of the Re-Axis and bend to the Zero point of the
Smith Chart. Mathematically it can be shown that this
will form the Smith Chart’s unit circle. All dot’s laying
on it representing a reflection coefficient magnitude
of one (100% mismatch). Any positive L/C
combination with a resistor is mathematical
represent by it’s polar convention reflection
coefficient inside the Smith Chart’s unity circle.
Because the Smith Chart is a transformed linear
scaled polar diagram we can take over some rules
by 100%. Some other must be changed.
2nd edition
RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Special cases:
Dots above the horizontal axis represents impedance with inductive part
Dots below the horizontal axis represents impedance with capacity part
Dots laying on the horizontal line are 100% resistive
Dots laying on the vertical axis are 100% reactive
Page: 28
( 0°<ϕ<180° )
( 180°<ϕ<360° )
( ϕ=0° )
( ϕ=90° )
L-Area
Scaling rule Magnitude
of reflection coefficient
100Ω
Ω
Z=0Ω
Z=∞Ω
25Ω
Ω
C-Area
Figure 8: BGA2003 output Smith Chart (S21)
Illustrate are the special cases zero and infinite large impedance. The upper half circle is the inductor
world. The lower half of the circle is the capacitor world. Origin is the 50Ω reference. To be more
flexible, numbers printed in the chart are normalised to the reference impedance.
Normalised impedance procedure: Z norm =
Example:
Calculation:
Result:
Zx
Zo=Reference impedance (e.g. 50Ω, 75Ω)
Zo
Plot a 100Ω & 50Ω resistor into the upper BGA2003’s output Smith chart.
Znorm1=100Ω/50Ω=2; Znorm2=25Ω/50Ω=0.5
The 100Ω resistor appears as a dot on the horizontal axis at the location 2. The 25Ω
resistor appears as a dot on the horizontal axis at the location 0.5
2nd edition
RF Manual
Example1:
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
In the following three circuits capacitors and inductors are specified by their
amount of reactance @ 100MHz design frequency. Determine their part values.
Plot their impedance in to the BFG425W’s output (S21) Smith Chard.
Circuit:
Calculation:
Result:
Case A (constant resistance)
From the circuit
Basics:
1
C=
ω ⋅ XC
X
L= L
ω
ω = 2π ⋅ f
Page: 29
25Ω
= 39.8nH
2π ⋅100 MHz
Drawing into Smith Chart
Z A = 10Ω + j 25Ω ; L1 =
Z(A)norm=ZA/50Ω=0.2+j0.5
Case B (constant resistance and variable reactance - variable capacitor)
From the circuit
Z B = 10Ω + j (10 _ to _ 25)Ω
1
CB =
= 63.7 pF _ to _ 159.2 pF
2π ⋅100MHz ⋅ (10 _ to _ 25)Ω
Z(B)norm=ZB/50Ω=0.5-j(0.2_to_0.5)
Drawing into Smith Chart
Case C (constant resistance and variable reactance - variable inductor)
From the circuit
Z C = (25Ω _ to _ 50Ω) + j 25Ω ;
(25 _ to _ 50)Ω
= 39.8nH _ to _ 79.6nH
LC =
2π ⋅ 100 MHz
Z(C)norm=ZC/50Ω=(0.5_to_1)+j0.5
Drawing into Smith Chart
2nd edition
RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 30
Example2:
Determine BFG425W’s outputs reflection coefficient (S21) at 3GHz from the
data sheet. Determine the output return loss and output impedance.
Compensate the reactive part.
Calculation: For reading the data from the Smith Chart with improved resolution the
vector procedure base on the reflection coefficient is recommended.
Procedure:
1) Measure the scalar length from the chart
origin to the 3GHz mechanical by the use
of an circle.
2) On the chart’s right side is printed a ruler with
the numbers of 0 to 1. Read from it the
equivalent scaled scalar length |r|=0.34
3) Measure the angle ∠(r)=ϕ=-50°
Write the reflection coefficient in vector polar
convention r = 0.34e − j 50°
Z 1+ r
=
= 1.513e − j 30.5°
ZO 1− r
Because the transistor was characterised in a
50Ω bench set-up
Zo=50Ω
Impedance: Z 21 = 75.64Ωe − j 30.5° = (65.2 − j 38.4)Ω
Normalised impedance:
C=
1
= 1.38 pF
2π ⋅ 3GHz ⋅ 38.4Ω
The output of BFG425W has an equivalent circuit of 65.2Ω with 1.38pF series
capacitance.
Output return loss not compensated: 20log(|r|)=-9.36dB
For compensation the reactive part, we have to take the conjugate reactance:
Xcon=-Im{Z}=-{-j38.4Ω}=+j38.4Ω
38.4Ω
L=
= 2nH a 2nH series inductor will compensated the reactance.
2π ⋅ 3GHz
65.2Ω − 50Ω
= 0.132
The new input reflection coefficient is calculated to r =
65.2Ω + 50Ω
Output return loss compensated: 20log(0.132)=-17.6dB
Please note: In the reality the output impedance is a function of the input circuit. The
input and output matching circuits are limited by the stability requirements.
This is done by doing network analysis based on S-Parameters.
2nd edition
RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 31
4.2 Small signal RF amplifier parameters
4.2.1. Transistor parameters DC to Microwave
At DC low current and low voltage you can assume a transistor like a voltage controlled
current source with a diode clamping action at it’s input. In this area the transistors are
specified just by their large signal DC-parameters like DC-current gain (B, ß, hfe), max. power
dissipation, break down voltage and so on.
I C = I CS ⋅ e
U
re ' = T
IE
R
Vu ≈ C
re '
I
ß= C
IB
Figure 9: NPN-Transistor dc-model
U BE
UT
Voltage gain
Current gain
[email protected]°C
Increasing the frequency up to audio frequency, their is observed frequency depended
change of parameters, phase shift and parasitic capacitance effects. For characterisation of
this effect small signal h-Parameters were developed. This hybrid parameters are determined
by measuring voltage and current at one terminal and by an open or short at the other one.
æ u1 ö æ h11 h12 ö æ i1 ö
÷÷ ∗ çç
h-Parameter Matrix: çç ÷÷ = çç
è i2
è h21 h22 è u2
Increasing the frequency in to HF/VHF range, the open with to much stray field radiation
cause unacceptable error. Due to it y-Parameters were developed. They do again measure
voltage/current but under the use of only a short.
æ i1 ö æ y11 y12 ö æ u1 ö
÷÷ ∗ çç
y-Parameter Matrix: çç ÷÷ = çç
è i2
è y21 y22 è u2
Increasing the frequency again, the parasitic inductance of the short causes a problem.
Especial the measuring of voltage and current with the phase causes extremely problems.
Due to it the scattering Parameters were developed based on the measurement of the
forward and backward running waves caused by reflection on transistor’s terminals (ports).
æ b1 ö æ S11 S12 ö æ a1 ö
÷÷ ∗ çç
S-Parameter Matrix: çç ÷÷ = çç
è b2
è S 21 S 22 è a2
2nd edition
RF Manual
4.2.2
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 32
Definition of the S-Parameters
Each amplifier has an input port and an output port. Normally the input is Port1.
The output is port2.
Matrix:
Equation:
æ b1 ö æ S11 S12 ö æ a1 ö
çç ÷÷ = çç
÷÷ ∗ çç
è b2
è S 21 S 22 è a2
b1 = S11 ⋅ a 1 + S12 ⋅ a 2
b 2 = S 21 ⋅ a 1 + S 22 ⋅ a 2
Figure 10: Two-port Network’s (a) and (b) waves
The forward travelling waves (a) are running into the DUT’s ports.
The backward travelling waves (b) are reflected back from the DUT’s ports
In the former chapter was defined the:
Reflection coefficient: reflection =
back wave
forward wave
b1
Output ZO terminate.
a =0
a1 2
That means the source do inject a forward travelling wave (a1) into port1. No forward
travelling power (a2) injected into port2. The same can be done at port2 with the
b
Input ZO terminate.
output reflection factor: S 22 = 2 a1 =0
a2
Calculating the input reflection coefficient on port 1: S11 =
Gain is defined by: gain =
output wave
input wave
The forward travelling wave gain is calculated by the wave (b2) travelling out off port2 divided
b
by the wave (a1) injected into port1. S 21 = 2 a 2 = 0
a1
The backward travelling wave gain is calculated by the wave (b1) travelling out off port1
b
divided by the wave (a2) injected into port2. S12 = 1 a1 =0
a2
2nd edition
RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 33
The normalised waves (a) and (b) are defined as ;
The normalised waves have the unit
Wat t and are referenced to the system impedance ZO
This can be shown by the following mathematical analysis:
The relation ship between U, P an Z0 can be written as:
a1 =
a1 =
P Z ⋅i
V1
Z ⋅i
+ O 1 = 1 + O 1
2
2 ZO 2 Z O
2 ZO
Z O ⋅ i1
P1
P
P
+
= 1 + 1
2
2
2
2
Because a1 =
V forward
ZO
u
= P = i ⋅ ZO
ZO
(Substitution:
a1 = P1 (
Z0
= ZO )
ZO
Unit = W )
the normalised waves can be determined by the measure of the voltage
of the forward running wave referenced to the system impedance Zo. The forward or
backward running voltage can be determined by directional couplers or VSWR bridges.
2nd edition
RF Manual
4.2.2.1
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 34
2-Port Network definition
Input return loss
Power reflected from input port
S11 =
Power available from generator at input port
Output return loss
Power reflected from output port
S 22 =
Power available from generator at output port
Forward transmission loss (insertion loss)
S 21 = Transducer power gain
Reverse transmission loss (isolation)
S12 = Reverse transducer power gain
Philips’ data sheet parameter Insertion power gain |S21|2:
Example:
Calculation:
2
10dB ⋅ log S 21 = 20dB ⋅ log S 21
Calculate for BGA2003 the insertion power gain @ 100MHz, 450MHz,
1800MHz, 2400MHz for the bias set-up VVS-OUT=2.5V, IVS-OUT=10mA.
Download the S-Parameter data file [2_510A3.S2P] from Philips’ internet
page for the Silicon MMIC amplifier BGA2003.
This is a selection of the file:
# MHz
! Freq
100
400
500
1800
2400
Results:
S MA R 50
S11
0.58765 -9.43
0.43912 -28.73
0.39966 -32.38
0.21647 -47.97
0.18255 -69.08
100MHz
450MHz
1800MHz
2400MHz
S21
21.85015
16.09626
14.27094
4.96451
3.89514
163.96
130.48
123.44
85.877
76.801
S12
0.00555
0.019843
0.023928
0.07832
0.11188
83.961
79.704
79.598
82.488
80.224
S22 :
0.9525 -7.204
0.80026 -22.43
0.75616 -25.24
0.52249 -46.31
0.48091 -64
20log(21.85015)=26.8dB
16.09626e130.48° + 14.27094e123.44°
20dB log
= 23.6dB
2
20log(4.96451)=13.9dB
20log(3.89514)=11.8dB
2nd edition
RF Manual
4.2.2.2
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 35
3-Port Network definition
Typical vehicles for 3-Port S-Parameters are: Directional couplers, power splitters, combiners,
phase splitter, ...
3-Port S-Parameter definition:
§
Port reflection coefficient / return loss:
b
Port 1
S11 = 1 |( a 2 = 0; a 3 = 0)
a1
b
S 22 = 2 |( a1 =0; a 3 =0)
Port 2
a2
b
Port 3
S33 = 3 |( a1 = 0; a 2 = 0)
a3
§
Transmission gain:
Port 1=>2
Figure 11: Three-port Network's (a) and (b) waves
Port 1=>3
Port 2=>3
Port 2=>1
Port 3=>1
Port 3=>2
b2
|( a = 0)
a1 3
b
S31 = 3 |( a 2 = 0)
a1
b
S32 = 3 |( a1 = 0 )
a2
b
S12 = 1 |( a 3 = 0)
a2
b
S31 = 1 |( a 2 = 0)
a3
b
S 23 = 3 |( a1 = 0)
a2
S 21 =
2nd edition
RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 36
References
Author:
Andreas Fix
RF Discretes Small Signal Application Engineer
1. Philips Semiconductors, RF Wideband Transistors and MMICs, Data Handbook SC14
2000, S-Parameter Definitions, page 39
2. Philips Semiconductors, Datasheet, 1998 Mar 11, Product Specification, BFG425W,
NPN 25GHz wideband transistor
3. Philips Semiconductors, Datasheet, 1999 Jul 23, Product Specification, BGA2003,
Silicon MMIC amplifier
4. Philips Semiconductors, Datasheet, 2000 Dec 04, Product Specification, BGA2022,
MMIC mixer
5. Philips Semiconductors, Datasheet, 2001 Oct 19, Product Specification, BGA2711,
MMIC wideband amplifier
6. Philips Semiconductirs, DiscreteSemiconductors, FACT SHEET NIJ004, Double
Polysilicon – the technology behind silicon MMICs, RF transistors & PA modules
7. Philips Semiconductors, Hamburg, Germany, T. Bluhm, Application Note, Breakthrough In
Small Signal - Low VCEsat (BISS) Transistors and their Applications, AN10116-02, 2002
8. H.R. Camenzind, Circuit Design for Integrated Electronics, page34, 1968,
Addison-Wesley,
9. Prof. Dr.-Ing. K. Schmitt, Telekom Fachhochschule Dieburg, Hochfrequenztechnik
10. C. Bowick, RF Circuit Design, page 10-15, 1982, Newnes
11. Nührmann, Transistor-Praxis, page 25-30, 1986, Franzis-Verlag
12. U. Tietze, Ch. Schenk, Halbleiter-Schaltungstechnik, page 29, 1993, Springer-Verlag
13. W. Hofacker, TBB1, Transistor-Berechnungs- und Bauanleitungs-Handbuch, Band1, page
281-284, 1981, ING. W. HOFACKER
14. MicroSim Corporation, MicroSim Schematics Evaluation Version 8.0, PSpice, July 1998
15. Karl H. Hille, DL1VU, Der Dipol in Theorie und Praxis, Funkamateur-Bibliothek, 1995
16. PUFF, Computer Aided Design for Microwave Integrated Circuits, California Institute of
Technology, 1991
2nd edition
RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 37
5. Application Diagrams
TV/VCR/DVD Tuning Application Diagram
INPUT
FILTER
RF PREAMPLIFIER
BANDPASS
FILTER
MIXER
OSCILLATOR
Varicaps
SOD323 SOD523
BB152
BB182
VHF - high BB153
BB157
BB178
BB187
UHF
BB179
VHF - low
BB149A
MOSFET
5V
9V
2- in -1.5 V
BF904, BF904A BF1100
BF909, BF909A BF1109
BF1201, BF1201A
BF1105
BF1102
BF1102R
BF1203
BF1204
MSD455
Satellite Dish LNB Application Diagram
input amplifier
mixer
IF amplifier
input
output
1-3 stages
1-3 stages
BFU540
BFU510
BGM1011
BGA2711
BGA2776
BGA2709
BGA2712
oscillator
BFG425W
BFG410W
MSD812B
IF
AMPLIFIER
IF
out
2nd edition
RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 38
5. Application Diagrams
Generic Cell-phone Front-end Application Diagram
LNA
BFG403W
BFG410W
BFG425W
BFG480W
BFR92AT *
BFR93AT *
BFR505T *
BFR520T *
BFS17W *
BFU510
BFU540
BGA2001
BGA2003
BGA2011
BGA2012
BGA2748
PRF949
Buffer & VCO
BFR93AT * BGA2771
BFS17W * BGA2776
BGA2001 PRF949
BGA2003
BFG410W
BFG425W
BFG480W
BFQ67T *
BFR92AT *
BFR93AT *
BFR520T *
BFR505T *
BFS540
BFU510
BFU540
BGA2001
BGA2003
BGA2771
BGA2776
PRF949
MIXER
LNA
Rx
Pin Diodes
BAP50-XX
BAP51-XX
BAP70-XX
BAP63-XX
BAP64-XX
BAP65-XX
BAP1321-XX
IF
Tx
IF
MIXER
BFE520
BFG410W
BFG425W
BFG480W
BFM520
BFR93AT *
BFR520T *
BFU510
BFU540
BGA2022
PRF949
POWER
AMPLIFIER
BUFFER
VCO
DRIVER
BUFFER
* These types are also available
in different packages
Power amplifier
Driver
BFG21W
BGA2771
BFG480W BGA2776
BGA2031/1
BGA2771
BFG21W
BFG425W BGA2776
BFG480W PRF957
BGA2031/1
VCO
BB141
BB142
BB143
BB145
BB145B
BB149
VCO
MSD811B
2nd edition
RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 39
6.1 Application notes list (Interactive)
Full application notes in this RF Manual in bold.
Online application notes on Philips Semiconductors website:
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/products/all_appnotes.html
Product
Family
MMICs
Application Note Title
Demoboard for 900&1800MHz
Relevant Types
BGA2001
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/9001800MHZ.pdf
Demoboard for BGA2001
BGA2001
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/9001800MHZ.pdf
Demoboard 900MHz LNA
BGA2003
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/LNA900MHZ.pdf
Demoboard for W-CDMA
BGA2003
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/WBCDMA.pdf
2GHz high IP3 LNA
High IP3 MMIC LNA at 900MHz
BGA2003
BGA2011
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/BGA2011_LNA_950MHZ.pdf
High IP3 MMIC LNA at 1.8 - 2.4 GHz
BGA2012
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/BGA2012_LNA_18_24GHZ.pdf
Rx mixer for 1800MHz
Rx mixer for 2450MHz
BGA2022
BGA2022
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/BGA2022_MIXER.pdf
High-linearity wideband driver mobile communication
CDMA PCS demoboard
WDMA appl. For the BGA6589 wideband amplifier
Wideband 1880MHz PA driver
transistors http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/BFG21W_1880DRV.pdf
800MHz PA driver
BGA2031
BGA2030
BGA6589
BFG21W
BFG21W
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/BFG21W_800DRV2.pdf
900MHz LNA
BFG403W
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/LNA9M403.pdf
2GHz buffer amplifier
BFG410W
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/AI_BFG410W_BUF2_1.pdf
900MHz LNA
BFG410W
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/B770LNA9M410.pdf
2GHz LNA
BFG410W
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/RD7B0789.pdf
Ultra LNA's for 900&2000MHz with high IP3
BFG410W, BFG425W
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/KV96157A.pdf
1.5GHz LNA
BFG425W
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/1U5GHZLN.pdf
2GHz driver-amplifier
900MHz driver-amplifier with enable-switch
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/900MHAP2.pdf
BFG425W
BFG425W
2nd edition
RF Manual
Product
Family
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Application Note Title
900MHz driver amplifier
Page: 40
Relevant Types
BFG425W
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/900MHZDR.pdf
1.9GHz LNA
BFG425W
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/AI_BFG425W_1.pdf
Improved IP3 behavior of the 900MHz LNA
2GHz LNA
BFG425W
BFG425W
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/B773LNA2G425.pdf
Power amplifier for 1.9GHz DECT and PHS
BFG425W, BFG21W
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/DECT.pdf
2.4GHz power amplifier
BFG425W, BFG21W
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/AI_BFG425W_21W_2400M_1.pdf
CDMA cellular VCO
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/VCOB827.pdf
900MHz LNA
2.45GHz power amplifier
BFG425W, BFG410W,
BB142
BFG480W
BFG480W
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/AI_BFG480W_2450M_1.pdf
2.4GHz LNA
BFG480W
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/AI_BFG480W_2400M_1.pdf
2GHz LNA
BFG480W
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/AI_BFG480W_2G_1.pdf
900MHz LNA
BFG480W
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/AI_BFG480W_900M_1.pdf
1880MHz PA driver
BFG480W
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/BFG480W_1880DRV.pdf
900MHz driver
BFG480W
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/BFG480W_900MDRV.pdf
Low noise, low current preamplifier for 1.9GHz at 3V
BFG505
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/1P9GHZLC.pdf
1890MHz power own converter with 11MHz IF
BFG505/X
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/1890MHZ.pdf
Low noise 900MHz preamplifier at 3V
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/900MHZ.pdf
Power amplifier for 1.9GHz at 3V
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/1P9GHZ3.pdf
400MHz :LNA
BFG520, BFR505,
BFR520
BFG540/X, BFG10/X,
BFG11/X
BFG540W/X
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/400MHZUL.pdf
Varicaps
Low voltage FM stereo radio with TEA5767/68
BB202
FETs
Application for RF switch BF1107
Application note for MOSFET
BF1107
BF9...., BF110..,
BF120..
BF1108
BAP51-02
Application for RF switch BF1108
Pin diodes 2.45 GHz T/R, RF switch for e.g. Bluetooth application
http://www.philips.semiconductors.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/AN10173-01.pdf
Low impedance Pin diode
BAP50-05
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat/applicationnotes/AN10174-01.pdf
1.8GHz transmit-receive Pin diode switch
BAP51-03
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product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 41
6.2 Application note
BB202, low voltage FM stereo radio (TEA5767/68)
Author(s): M Ait Moulay , Philips Semiconductors Strategic Partnership Catena
The Netherlands, Date: 18-06-2002
This is a shortened application note to emphasise the BB202 varicap as an important FM
oscillator next to the TEA5767/68 single chip stereo FM receiver (complete application note:
AN10133).
Summary
The TEA5767/68 is a single chip stereo FM receiver. This new generation low voltage FM radio has a fully
integrated IF-selectivity and demodulation. The IC does not require any alignment, which makes the use of
bulky and expensive external components unnecessary.
The digital tuning is based on the conventional PLL concept. Via software, the radio can be tuned into the
European, Japan or US FM band.
The power consumption of the tuner is low. The current is about 13mA and the supply voltage can be varied
between 2.5 and 5V.
The radio can find its application in many areas especially portable applications as mobile phones, CD and MP3
players.
This application note describes this FM radio in a small size and low voltage application. To demonstrate the operation of
the tuners a demoboard is developed, which can be extended with a software controllable amplifier and a RDS chip. The
whole application can be controlled from a PC by means of demo software.
Introduction
The consumer demand of more integrated and low power consumption IC’s has increased tremendously in the last decade.
The IC’s must be smaller, cheaper and consume less power. Especially for portable equipment like mobile phone, CD, MP3
and cassette players, these requirements are very important. In order to integrate a radio function in this kind of equipment
it’s also important that the total application is small sized and the overall power is low. The TEA5767/68 is a single chip
digitally tuned FM stereo radio. Its application is small, has a very low current consumption and is completely adjustment
free. This makes the PCB design easy and save design-in time. The tuner contains all the blocks necessary to build a
complete digitally tuned radio function.
The FM tuners consist of three IC’s in 32 pins or 40 pins package. The IC’s can be controlled via a 3-Wire, I2C or both bus
interfaces.
A small application PCB demo board has been designed on which either of the three IC’s can be mounted. These demo
boards can be placed on a motherboard, which can be extended with an audio amplifier and a Radio Data System
(RDS/RBDS) IC.
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product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 42
The three tuners are:
• TEA5767HN FM stereo radio, 40 leads with I2C and 3-Wire bus interface, Body 6*6*0.85 mm, SOT1618
• TEA5767HL FM stereo radio, 32 leads with 3-Wire bus interface, Body: 7*7*1.4 mm, SOT358.
• TEA5768HL FM stereo radio, 32 leads with I2C bus interface, Body: 7*7*1.4 mm, SOT358.
In this application note only one IC, the TEA5767HN and one demo board will be described. However, this description can
also be applied for the other boards.
1. The TEA5767
A block diagram of the TEA5767HN is given in Figure 1. The block diagram consists of a number of blocks that will be
described according to the signal path from the antenna to the audio output.
The RF antenna signal is injected into a balanced low noise amplifier (LNA) via a RF matching circuit. In order not to
overload the LNA and the mixer the LNA output signal is fed to an automatic gain control circuit (AGC). In a quadrature
mixer the RF signal is converted down to an IF signal of 225KHz by multiplying it with a local oscillator signal (LO). The
chosen mixer architecture provides inherent image rejection.
The VCO generates a signal with double the frequency necessary for the I/Q mixer structure. In the N1 divider block, the
required LO signal is created. The frequency of the VCO is controlled with a PLL synthesiser system.
The I/Q signals out the mixer are fed to an integrated IF filter (RESAMP block). The IF frequency of this filter is controlled
by the IF Centre Frequency adjust block.
The IF signal is then passed to the limiter block, which removes the amplitude variation from the signal. The limiter is
connected to the level ADC and the IF counter blocks. These two blocks provide the proper information about the amplitude
and frequency of the RF input signal, which will be used by the PLL as stop criterion.
The IC has a quadrature demodulator with an integrated resonator. The demodulator is fully integrated which makes IF
alignments or an external resonator unnecessary.
n.c
18KΩ
47n
47n
29
30
31
LEFT
MPXOUT
n.c.
47n
28
RIGHT`
n.c.
33n
33n
27
26
24
25
23
22
21
n.c.
20
32
GAIN
STABI
POWER
SUPPLY
33
22n
22u
VCC
34
4.7Ω
RESAMP
FM ANT
I/Q-MIXER
1st FM
LEVEL
ADC
35
36
37
47p
IF COUNT
TEA5767HN
AGC
IF Center
Freq. Adjust
4.7n
MPX DECODER
27p
120n
SOFT
MUTE
x
:2
N1
x
100p
DEMOD
LIMITER
Iref
19
22n
18
33K
38
16 Cpull
Prog. Div. out
TUNING SYSTEM
Prog. Div. out
39
MUX
15
SW PORT
1
3
2
10K
12
I2C/3W IRE BUS
11
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
39n
10n
10K
100K
n.c.
D1
L3
D2
12Ω
L2
DA
32.768MHz
or
13MHZ
VCC
13
40
n.c.
10K
14
Pilot
Mono
VCO
22n
17 Ccomp
XTAL
OSC
n.c.
1n
CL
22n
22n
47Ω
Figure 1 Block application diagram of the TEA5767HN
BusEnable
BUSMODE
W rite/Read
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product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 43
The stereo decoder (MPX decoder) in its turn is adjustment free and can be put in mono mode from the bus interface.
The stereo noise cancelling (SNC) function gradually turns the stereo decoder from ‘full stereo’ to mono under weak signal
conditions. This function is very useful for portable equipment since it improves the audio perception quality under weak
signal conditions.
The softmute function suppresses the interstation noise and prevents excessive noise from being heard when the signal level
drops to a low level.
The tuning system is based on a conventional PLL technique. This is a simple method in which the phase and the frequency
of the VCO are continuously corrected, with respect to a reference frequency, until frequency acquisition takes place.
Communication between the tuning system and an external controller is possible via a 3-Wire or I2C bus interface.
2
FM STEREO application
The application is identical for the three IC’s as mentioned in chapter 1. This application comprises two major circuits: RF
input circuit and a FM oscillator circuit.
The communication with a µ-computer can be performed via an I2C or a 3-Wire serial interface bus, selectable with
BUSMODE pin, for the TEA5767HN. TEA5768HL operates in I2C bus mode and TEA5757HL in 3-Wire bus mode.The
receivers can work with 32.768KHz or 13MHz clock crystal, which can be programmed by the bus interface. The PLL can
also be clocked with 6.5MHz clock signal. Three audio outputs are available: audio left, audio right and MPX (multiplex).
A basic application diagram of the FM receiver is shown in Figure 2.
FM ANT
Bus Enable
BUSMODE
L1
Read/Write
Clock
Data
TEA5767HN/HL
TEA5768HL
MPX
Audio Left
Audio Right
32.768KHz
or
13MHz
Vccosc
D1
D2
L3
L2
Cloop
Figure 2 Basic application diagram of TEA5767/68 stereo radio
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product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
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TEA5767HN package
26
25
23
VAFL
24
22
NC4
VAFR
27
MUTE
28
MPXOUT
TIFCENTER
29
VREF
30
LIMDEC1
NC5
LIMDEC2
The TEA5767HN FM stereo radio is a 40 pins HVQFN (SOT1618) package IC which can be operate with I2C or 3-Wire
bus interface. The fully integrated IF selectivity and demodulation make it possible to design a very small application board
with a minimum of very small and low cost components. The outline of the TEA5767HN package is 6*6*0.85 mm.
21
20
NC3
19
PILDET
NC6
31
IGAIN
32
AGND
33
18
PHASEDET
VCC
34
17
XTAL1
RFIN1
35
16
XTAL2
RFGND
36
15
SWPORT1
RFIN2
37
14
SWPORT2
38
13
LOOPSW
39
12
BUSMODE
NC7
40
11
WRITE/READ
7
8
9
10
SCL
NC2
6
SDA
VCOTANK1
5
VDIG
CP1OUT
4
DGND
3
VCCVCO
2
VCOTANK2
1
NC1
CAGC
TEA5767HN
BUSENABLE
Figure 3 Pinning of the TEA5767HN (HVQFN40)
Figure 3 shows the pinning of the TEA5767HN and Table 1 gives a description of each pin of the IC.
SYMBOL
PIN
DESCRIPTION
NC1
1
Not connected
Voltage min.
SYMBOL
PIN
DESCRIPTION
NC4
21
Not connected
CPOUT
2
Charge pump output of the synthesiser PLL
1.64V
VAFL
22
Audio left output
VCOTANK1
3
VCO tuned circuit output 1
2.5V
VAFR
23
Audio right output
Voltage min.
VCOTANK2
4
VCO tuned circuit output 2
2.5V
TMUTE
24
Time constant for the softmute
VCCVCO
5
VCO supply voltage
2.5V
MPXOUT
25
FM demodulator MPX out
1.5V
DGND
6
Digital ground
0V
VREF
26
Reference voltage
1.45V
VDIG
7
Digital supply voltage
2.5V
TIFCENTER
27
Time constant for IF centre adjust
1.34V
DATA
8
Bus data line input/output
LIMDEC1
28
Decoupling IF limiter 1
1.86V
CLOCK
9
Bus clock line input
LIMDEC2
29
Decoupling IF limiter 2
1.86V
NC2
10
Not connected
NC5
30
Not connected
WRITE/READ
11
Write/read control for the 3-Wire bus
NC6
31
Not connected
BUSMODE
12
Bus mode select input
IGAIN
32
Gain control current for IF filter
0.48V
BUSENABLE
13
Bus enable input
AGND
33
Analog ground
0V
2.5V
SWPORT1
14
Software programmable port 1
VCC
34
Analog supply voltage
SWPORT2
15
Software programmable port 2
RFIN1
35
RF input 1
0.93V
XTAL1
16
Crystal oscillator input 1
1.64V
RFGND
36
RF ground
0V
0.93V
XTAL2
17
Crystal oscillator input 2
1.64V
RFIN2
37
RF input 2
PHASEDET
18
Phase detector loop filter
1.0V
CAGC
38
Time constant RF AGC
PILDET
19
Pilot detector lowpass filter
0.7V
LOOPSW
39
Switch output of synthesiser PLL filter
NC3
20
Not connected
NC7
40
Not connected
Table 1 pinning description of the TEA5767HN
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Page: 45
VCO tank circuit
The VCO circuit produces a signal at double frequency necessary for the tuning system. A divider will half the frequency of
this signal and then deliver it to the PLL.
In the proposed application the used tuning diodes D1 and D2 are BB202. This ultra small diode is fabricated in planar
technology. It has a low series resistance (0.35Ω typical), which is very important for the signal to noise ratio (SNR). In
Figure 4, the capacitance value of this diode is given as function of the reverse voltage.
In our application proposal these diodes can tune the complete FM band (71-108MHz) with less then 3V-supply voltage.
The minimum voltage at pin 34 (VCC) should be 2.5V and the maximum voltage 5V. Inside the IC a chargepump is
responsible for delivering the required current to charge/discharge the external loop capacitor. During the first 9 ms the
charge pump delivers a fast current of 50uA. After that this current is reduced to 1uA.
In the given application the typical tuning voltage is between 0.54V (2*108MHz) and 1.57V (2*87.5MHz).
The minimum voltage to frequency ratio, often referred to VCO conversion factor (Kvco), is thus about 40MHz/V. The
oscillator circuit is designed such that the tuning voltage is between 0.2V and Vcc-0.2V. In order to match the VCO tuning
range two serial coils L2 and L3 are put in parallel with the tuning diodes D1 and D2. A typical FM oscillator-tuning curve,
using BB202 tuning diodes, is given in
Figure 5.
Figure 4 Diode capacitance as function of reverse voltage; typical values
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Page: 46
VCO Frequency(MHz)
220
frequency (MHz)
210
200
190
180
170
160
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
tuning voltage (V)
The inductance value of the oscillator coils L2 and L3 is about 33nH (Q=40 to 45). The inductance is very critical for the
VCO frequency range and should have a low spread (2%). The quality factor Q of this coil is important for a large S/N ratio
figure. The higher the quality factor the lower the noise floor VCO contribution at the output of the demodulator will be.
With a quality factor between 40-45 a good compromise can be found between the size of the coil and the, by the oscillator
determined, noise floor.
Figure 5 typical oscillator tuning curve of proposed FM application
This is a shortened application note to emphasise the BB202 varicap as an important FM
oscillator next to the TEA5767/68 single chip stereo FM receiver (complete application note:
AN10133).
2nd edition
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product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 47
6.3 Application note
RF switch for e.g. Bluetooth appl. (2.45 GHz T/R)
1 Introduction.
One of the most important building blocks for today’s wireless communication equipment is a high performance RF switch.
The switch main function is to switch an RF port (ANT) between the transmitter (TX) and the receiver (RX).The most
important design requirements are, Low insertion Loss (IL), Low intermodulation distortion,(IMD), High isolation between
TX and RX, Fast switching and Low current consumption especially for portable communication equipment. This
application note addresses a transmit and receive switch for 2.4-2.5 GHz the unlicensed ISM band, in which e.g. the
bluetooth standard operates. The design demonstrates a high performance T-R switch utilising low cost Philips BAP51-02
PIN Diodes as switching elements.
2 PIN diode switch design.
There are a number of PIN diode based, single pole double throw (SPDT) topologies, which are
shown in the figures 1,2 and 3. Al these topologies are being used widely in RF and microwave
design. They all will give good performance, due to their symmetry they will show the same
performance in both the RX and TX mode. The disadvantage of these topologies is the need of a pair
of digital control signals, and in both TX and RX mode bias current is needed.
L4
C2
C6
L3
Figure 6. SPDT switch with series diodes
TX
TL1
λ/4
λ/4
C7
D4
RX
C8
L5
C9
TL2
D3
D2
RF
D1
Vb
C10
C3
L2
C4
TX
Va
C1
RF
L1
Vb
Va
C5
RX
L6
Figure 7. SPDT switch with λ/4 sections to permit shunt
diodes
The topology we used for the design in this application note is shown in fig 4. Typically this is a
combination of figure 1 and 2. The design consists of a series-connected PIN diode, placed between
the transmitter-amplifier and antenna, and a shunt-connected PIN diode at the receiver-port, which is
a quarter wavelength away from the antenna. In the transmit-mode both diodes are biased with a
forward bias current. Both diodes are in the low impedance state. Which means a low-loss TX-ANT
path and a protected RX port from the TX power.
2nd edition
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product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 48
The=λ/4 transmission line transforms the low impedance at the RX port to a high impedance at the
antenna. In the receive mode both diodes are zero biased ( high impedance state), which results in a
low loss path between antenna and receiver and high isolation ANT-TX path. One of the advantages
of this approach is no current consumption is needed in the receive mode.
L10
C12
D7
D8
D6
C16
RX
TX
C18
C17
D9
λ/4
D10
TX
C19
L8
C14
D5
C11
C13
Ant
RF
L7
Vs
Vb
Va
C15
RX
L9
C20 R1
Figure 8. SPDT switch with series shunt diodes which
results in high isolation
Figure 9. SPDT switch with a combination of a series and
a shunt connected PIN diode.
The PIN diodes used in an switch like this should have low capacitance at zero bias(VR=0V), and low
series resistance at low forward current. The BAP51-02 typical shows [email protected];freq=1MHz and 2 Ω
@3mA;freq=100MHz. For the shunt diode also low series inductance is required, for the BAP51-02
this is 0.6 nH.
3 Circuit design.
Circuit and Layout has been designed with the use of Agilent’s Advance Design System (ADS). The target performance of
the switch is shown in table 1.
Mode
Insertion Loss
Isolation TX/RX
Isolation RX/Ant
Isolation TX/Ant
VSWR RX
VSWR TX
VSWR Ant
Power handling
Current consumption
Table 1
RX (0V)
< 0.65 dB
>18 dB
>16.5
<1.2
<1.2
+20dBm
TX(3mA)
< 0.8 dB
>14.5 dB
>14.5dB
<1.3
<1.3
+20dBm
3mA @ 3.7V
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product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 49
The ADS circuit of the switch is given in figure 5. Notice that D1 is the series connected PIN diode in the receive path en
D2 is connected in shunt in the receive RF path. DC bias current is provided through inductance L1, and limited to about
3mA by resistor R1=680 Ω. Notice also that the λ/4 microstripline (width 1.136mm, length =16.57mm) is divided into
several sections in order to save some board space. All the footprints for the SMD components have been modelled as a gap
and a piece of stripline in order to approach the actual practice of the design on PCB.
Figure 10 ADS circuit file
The discontinuity effects of the microstrip to coaxial interface have not been taken into account.
4 BAP51-02 model.
The silicon PIN diode of the Philips semiconductors BAP51-02 is designed to operate as a low loss high isolation switching
element, and is capable of operating with low intermodulation distortion.
The model for the BAP51-02 PIN diode for an ADS environment is shown in figure 6. The model consists of two diodes, in
order to achieve a fit on both DC and RF behaviour. Diode1 is used to model the DC voltage-current characteristics, Diode
2 is the PIN diode build in model of ADS and is used to model the RF resistance versus DC current behaviour of the PIN
diode-model. Both diodes are connected in series to ensure the same current flow. For RF the PN junction Diode1 is shorted
by an ideal capacitor(DC block), while the portion of the RF resistance, which reflects the residual amount of series
resistance is modelled with R1=1.128 Ω. To avoid affecting the DC performance this resistor is shunted with the ideal
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product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 50
Inductor (DC feed). Capacitance C2 and inductors L2 and L3 reflect the package parasitics. The here described model is a
linear model that emulates the DC and RF properties of the PIN diode from 6 Mhz up to 6 GHz.
Figure 11; BAP51-02 Small Signal Model for an ADS environment
5 Circuit and Layout Description
The circuit diagram for the switch is shown in figure 7 and the PC board layout is shown in figure 8.
The bill of materials for the switch is given in table2.
For the PC board 0.635mm thick FR4 material (εr = 4.6)metalized on two sides with 35 µm thick copper, 3 µm gold plated
was used.=On the test board SMA connectors were used to fed the RF signals to the design.
Vs=0/3.7V
C2
1nF
Ant
L1
22nH
TL2, 50 Ω
1.14x7mm
C3
6.8pF
C4
6.8pF
D1
C1
2.2pF
TL4, 50 Ω RX input
50 Ω
1.14x6mm
D2
TX output TL1, 50 Ω
50 Ω
1.14x12mm
C5
4.7pF
TL3, 50 Ω
1.14x16.6mm
C6
2.2pF
R1
680Ω
Figure 12; circuit diagram
Figure 13; PC board Layout.
2nd edition
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product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Component
Value
Footprint
C1
C2*
C3
C4
C5
C6
R1
D1
D2
L1
TL1
2.2 pF
1 nF
0402
0402
0402
0402
0402
0402
0402
SC79
SC79
1005
6.8 pF
6.8 pF
4.7 pF
2.2 pF
680 Ω
BAP51-02
BAP51-02
22 nH
λ/4;50 Ω
Page: 51
Manufacturer
Philips
Philips
Philips
Philips
Philips
Philips
Philips
Philips
Philips
Taiyo yuden
on the PCB
Table 2 Bill of materials *C2 is optional.
6 Measurement results.
In table 3 the measured performance of the switch is summarised. In figure 9, both the simulation and Measurement results
in TX mode (3.7V/3mA) is shown, for the RX mode this can be seen in fig.10.
parameter
Insertion Loss @ 2.45GHz
Isolation TX/RX @ 2.45GHz
Isolation Ant/RX @ 2.45 GHz
Isolation TX/Ant @2.45 GHz
VSWR RX @2.45 GHz
VSWR TX @2.45 GHz
VSWR Ant @2.45 GHz
IM3 Pin 0 dBm f1=2.449 GHz f2=2.451 GHz
IP3 Pin 0 dBm f1=2.449 GHz f2=2.451 GHz
IM3 Pin +20 dBm f1=2.449 GHz f2=2.451 GHz
IP3 Pin +20 dBm f1=2.449 GHz f2=2.451 GHz
Power handling
Current consumption
RX (0V)
< 0.57 dB
>20.4 dB
>19.76 dB
1.24
1.19
+39 dBm
+43.8 dBm
+38.5 dBm
+43.3 dBm
+20 dBm
Mode
TX(3mA)
< 1.0 dB
>23.6 dB
>23.5 dB
1.35
1.29
+40 dBm
+44.8 dBm
+39.5 dBm
+44.3 dBm
+20 dBm
3mA @ 3.7V
Table 3 measured switch performance.
Intermodulation distortion measurements were performed as follows. In both RX and TX state, first the measurements were
done with two input-signals, each at 0 dBm and second each signal at +20 dBm. In transmit state these signals were applied
to the TX port, distortion was measured at the antenna port, while the RX port was terminated with 50Ω. In receive state the
two signals were applied to the ANT port, distortion was measured at the RX port, with the TX port terminated.
According to reference 2, the third order harmonic distortion product is 9.54 dB less than the third order Intermodulation
product, the third order harmonic intercept point IP3 is 9.54/2 higher than the third order Intermodulation intercept point
IM3.
2nd edition
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product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 52
Figure 14; Results in TX mode; red curves are measurements, blue curves are the simulated ones.
Remark: Loss and Isolation results are all including approximately 0.2 dB loss of the SMA connectors which were used to
fed the RF signals through the design. this has a great effect on the Insertion-Loss results.
2nd edition
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product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 53
Figure 15; Results in RX mode; red curves are measurements, blue curves are the simulated ones
Remark: Loss and Isolation results are all including approximately 0.2 dB loss of the SMA connectors which were used to
fed the RF signals through the design. this has a great effect on the Insertion-Loss results.
Recommendations.
1
2
In this design the BAP51-02 was used because it’s designed for switching applications related to Insertion Loss
and Isolation. When for instance a better IM distortion is recommended it’s better to use the BAP64-02 of Philips
Semiconductors.
As you can see the λ/4 section still needs a lot of boards space. This section could be replaced by a lumped element
configuration, which results in an extra boardspace reduction.
References:1; Gerald Hiller, “Design with PIN diodes”, App note APN1002 Alpha industries inc.
2; Gerald Hiller, “Predict intercept points in PIN diode switches”, Microwaves & RF, Dec. 1985.
3; Robert Caverly and Gerald Hiller, “Distortion in PIN diode control circuits” IEEE Trans.Microwave
2nd edition
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product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 54
6.4 Application note
Low impedance Pin diode
A Low Impedance PIN Diode Driver Circuit with Temperature Compensation
In driving a PIN diode attenuator, conflicting requirements
arise from speed, linearity, and temperature compensation.
For the best speed, a low impedance source (<50 ohms) is
required; for linearity and temperature compensation, a
current source is by far the best, especially if it is desired to
go to maximum resistance (lowest current) in the PIN
diodes. Figures 2 and 3 show current, voltage, and
attenuation for the circuit of Figure 1 in two different
formats (linear and log x axis), with a current source for the
driver.
0
0.8
S21, dB
-5 S21
Figure 1. Commonly Used Attenuator. Diodes
are BAP50-05.
C1 is required for RF bypass, and typically might be
10-100 pF when working in the GHz range. An
application for this attenuator circuit is a fast gain
controllers in predistorted and/or feedforward
amplifiers, where the circuit is required to change
attenuation in tens of nS, where C1, C2, and C3 can
limit the speed. Insertion loss is generally not
important in this application, and the dynamic range
required may be only 8 to 10 dB. When this is true, it
is possible to achieve a large improvement in speed.
0.7
V1
-10
0.6
-15
0.5
-20
V1, Volts
Two Philips BAP50-05 PIN diodes are used in an RF
attenuator with a low impedance driver circuit to
significantly decrease the rise and fall times. A
standard attenuator with an unspecified driver is
shown in Figure 1. Each of the two PIN diodes
operates as an RF resistor whose value is controlled
by the DC current*. The signals reflect off of the
diodes and through the 3 dB hybrid in a way to add in
phase. The amount of signal that is reflected off the
diodes depends on the resistance value. In this circuit,
the diodes are operated from several hundred ohms
down to a value approaching 50 ohms, where there is
no reflection and thus maximum attenuation.
0.4
0
0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35
Input Current , mA
Figure 2.
At medium attenuation, the PIN diode† resistance is in the
region of several hundred ohms, and current is in the region
of 10-100 uA. The control impedance‡ (impedance of the
diodes) is
Z=
KT
. If driven by a current source, such as
qI
a current output DAC, the source impedance is high and the
*
Although the BAP50-05 contains two diodes, only
one per package is used for mechanical layout
reasons.
†
Actually two diodes in parallel, but for analysis we will
consider one.
‡
Not to be confused with RF impedance.
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product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
emitter voltage, in magnitude. VCE is roughly 0.65 V. This
is acceptable, without resorting to a negative supply for the
collector, because there is still several hundred mV of
margin from the standpoint of device saturation.
total impedance is determined by the diodes. The
risetime will be limited by the inevitable capacitance's
(illustrated by C5).
0
0.8
S21
Q1 is thermally tied to the PIN diodes by virtue of their
proximity, providing a first order temperature compensation.
Q1 thus is operating as a log circuit converting current to
voltage in a way that linearizes the attenuation.
0.7
V1
-10
0.6
-15
0.5
-20
0.01
0.4
0.1
Input Current , mA
Figure 3.
V1, Volts
S21, dB
-5
Page: 55
1
If the diodes are driven from a voltage source (not
shown), the speed is very fast, but the attenuation is
highly non-linear
and is highly temperature
dependent.
Shunting the PIN Diodes
Figure 4 shows a circuit which maintains a low
impedance in the PIN circuit, to keep the rise and fall
times short, but linearizes the circuit to some extent
and is temperature compensated. Only one diode is
shown for simplicity.
Operation is as follows: Q1 operates as a diode and
absorbs most of the current from the current source.
It is shown below that for two diodes in parallel
(whether formed by Pins or transistors), the ratio of
the two currents is fixed for all currents (over many
decades), and is controlled by the voltage offsets
applied to them (with respect to each other). This
principle is used in translinear analog multipliers, of
which the Gilbert cell multiplier is a type.
In this circuit, the offset is adjusted with V2, which is
only some tens of millivolts. Operating the device
like this is similar to circuits where the base and
collector are tied together to form a diode. The
collector to emitter voltage is less than the base to
Figure 4. Transistor Shunt. V2 is < 200 mV.
The complete circuit is shown in Figure 5. The hybrid is a
surface mount Anaren Xinger 1D1304-3. Figures 6 and 7
show the current, voltage, and attenuation characteristics.
Note that the input current is much higher than with the
original circuit (Figures 2 and 3). This reduces efficiency but
it is desirable from a standpoint of keeping the total
impedance low.
Figure 5 . Circuit with Two Diodes and Hybrid. D5
and D6 are Philips BAS50-04. Q1 is PMBT3906.
Capacitors C6 and C8 are essentially in parallel with C5
from a standpoint of the drive circuitry.
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product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
0
0.8
S21
V1
-10
0.6
-15
0.5
-20
0.4
0
where
0.7
V1, Volts
S21, dB
-5
q is the electron charge, 1.602E-19,
K = Bolzmann’s constant, 1.381E-23
T = temperature in degrees K
IS1 = Saturation current for the PIN diode
IS2 = Saturation current for the base junction of the transistor
V1 - V2 = the base to emitter voltage of the transistor (V2 < 0)
q
≈ 40 at room temperature
KT
5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Input Current , mA
Figure 6. Circuit of Figure 5 (measured).
0
For voltages over a few millivolts, the exponential terms in
(1) and (2) dominate the “1”, and the equations can be
simplified to
0.8
I1 = I S 1e
S21
qV1
KT
0.7
V1
-10
-15
0.6
V1, Volts
-5
S21, dB
Page: 56
I 2 = βI S 2 e
(3)
q (V1 −V 2 )
KT
(4)
Then, the ratio of the currents is:
0.5
-20
0.1
1
10
Input Current , mA
I1
=
I2
0.4
100
I S 1e
βI S 2e
qV1
KT
q (V1 −V2 )
KT
=
I S1
βI S 2e
−qV2
KT
=
I S1
βI S 2e −40V2
(5)
Figure 7. Same as Figure 6 with Log Scale.
Relationship of the Diode
and Transistor Currents
Refer to Figure 4. From basic diode equations, the
currents in the PIN diode and Q1 are:
I1 = I S 1 ( e
qV 1
KT
I 2 = βI S 2 (e
− 1)
q (V 1−V 2 )
KT
(1)
− 1)
(2)
To the extent that β is constant with temperature§, we see
that the current ratio is dependent only on V2, which, stated
another way, the current in the PIN diode is a fixed
percentage of the total input current. There is first order
temperature compensation, by virtue of the parallel tracking
of the two diode junctions.
Further, we can set the current ratio to an arbitrary amount
by setting the base voltage V2. If β = 50, and IS1 = IS2 (by
way of example only), and we want to set the PIN diode
current to 1% of the total current, we have
§
β is certainly not constant with temperature, but this is a
second order effect, not nearly as strong as the direct
temperature relationship as with the base emitter voltage
(Angelo, “Electronics: BJTs, FETs and Microcircuits”,
McGraw Hill 1969.)
2nd edition
RF Manual
.01 =
1
50e − 40V2
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
so V2 = - .0173.
(6)
Different types of devices for Q1 and the diodes may require
different values of V2.
By having a relatively large current in Q1, the
dynamic impedance that the current source sees,
dV1
becomes much lower, dominated by
dI T
the lower impedance of the Q1.
For a general pn junction this impedance is
KT
. Thus, in the circuit of Figure 1, with no
Z=
qI
shunt transistor, the PIN diodes operate at perhaps 10
to 100 uA (total for two diodes), and the impedance
ranges from 2500 to 250 ohms.
In the circuit of Figures 4 and 5, the PIN diodes
operate at the same 10 to 100 uA, but the impedance
for the parallel combination of Q1 and the two diodes
is 25 to 2.5 ohms**.
25
Dynamic Range, dB
defined by
Page: 57
20
15
10
5
0
0
50
100
150
200
|V2|, mVDC
Figure 8. RF Dynamic Range.
Conclusion
Risetimes
In Figure 1, if all the capacitance's C1, C2, and C3
add up to 100 pF, the worst case risetime, which
occurs at the lowest current, will be
RC =
2500*100E-12 = 250 nS. In contrast, the circuit of
Figure 5, the worst case risetime is 25*100E-12 = 2.5
nS.
Adjustment
V2 controls the amount of current that Q1 draws
relative to the total current It. At low voltages (50
mV), Q1 does not draw much current relative to It,
and the speed benefit will be minimal. However, the
dynamic range is the highest, as shown in Figure 8. If
lower dynamic range is acceptable, V2 can be upwards
of 150 mV, where the impedance is lower and the
speed benefit will be the largest. Of course, using
A current controlled RF attenuator driver circuit has been
shown which has the speed advantage of a low impedance
(<50 ohm) driver, and the linearity advantage of a high
impedance (current) driver. This is done by shunting the
PIN diodes with a base-emitter junction of a transistor,
which carries the bulk (e.g. 99%) of the driver current,
lowering the impedance. The current divides itself between
the transistor and the PIN diodes in a constant proportion.
The current sharing percentage is settable with the base
voltage. Temperature compensation on a first order basis is
inherent from the tracking of the devices. The trade-off is a
lower efficiency, the circuit now requiring 10 to 20 mA of
drive, as opposed to 100 uA for the simpler circuit. The
current is in the range of many DACs (current output types)
and this circuit lends itself well to that application. For
application in an envelope restoration loop such as is found
in predistorted amplifiers, the dynamic range of 8 to 10 dB is
acceptable.
May 2002
bja
**
Neglecting the series emitter resistance of the
transistor which might be 1-2 ohms.
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product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 58
6.5 Application note
WCDMA appl.: BGA6589 Wideband Amplifier
1.0 Introduction.
This application note provides information that is
supplementary to the data sheet for the BGA6589
amplifier, and includes temperature and DC stability
characteristics and WCDMA information.
Figure 1 shows the biasing method. The device is already
matched to 50 ohms.
Figure 2. BGA6589 DC Characteristics.
Reviewing the graphical load line method, we
superimpose the equation for the load resistor onto the
device characteristics, and the intersection shows the
current and the voltage of the device. The equation for
the resistor is basically a horizontally flipped version of a
straight line representing a resistor across a voltage
source, which of course runs through the origin and has a
slope determined by R and V.
Using BJT terminology, the device voltage at the output
pin is vCE. and the supply is VCC. Then,
vCE = VCC − RiC and
iC =
VCC vCE
v
−
= I O − CE
R
R
R
where Io is the intercept on the y axis.
Figure 1. Bias Method.
2.0. DC Characteristics.
Figure 2 shows the DC load line characteristics of the
device, when biased with two different voltage and
resistor combinations.
95
0
90 C
160
Vcc=8V,
0
90 C R=37 ohms
140
0
Current, mA
25 C
100
0
-10 C
Vcc=12V,
R=85 ohms
80
25 C
90
0
120
Current, mA
Figure 3 shows the same data expanded. We can see that
when biasing with 8V and 37 ohms, the current is stable
over temperature from 82 to 89 mA.
60
0
-10 C
85
Vcc=12V,
R=85 ohms
80
40
20
Vcc=8V
,
75
4.4
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11 12
Voltage at Device Output, VDC
4.6
4.8
5
5.2
Voltage at Device Output, VDC
Figure 3. DC Characteristics Expanded
5.4
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Device variations, however small, and supply voltage
variations are not yet accounted for in the figure.
However, when we look at how the device functions at
different currents, we see that IC is not critical. For
example, in Figure 4 we see that the gain is virtually
independent of the bias current.
Page: 59
3.0. WCDMA Performance.
3.1. Normal Bias. Figure 6 shows the spectrum for
WCDMA 3GPP, with 15 channels of data. The frequency
limits for measurement are shown by the arrows for the
reference (on) channel and the adjacent channel. The
channel powers are integrated over a 3.84 MHz band, with
a channel offset of 5 MHz for the ACP measurement.
24
23
900 MHz
22
21
Gain, dB
20
19
18
1960 MHz
17
16
2140 MHz
15
14
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
Device Current, mA DC
Figure 4. Gain Stability with Bias.
Figure 6. WCDMA Spectrum.
Similarly, the gain vs. temperature is shown in Figure 5.
There is a slight negative temperature coefficient.
23
22
900 MHz
21
-30
20
-35
19
-40
18
ACP, dBc
Gain, dB
Figure 7 shows the 5 and 10 MHz offset measurements
over a power range. There are many parameters that affect
the ACP, even for the same number of channels and their
allocations, such as the data type (random or repeating), the
powers in the channels (equal or different), pilot length,
timing sequence, and the symbol rate.
1960 MHz
17
16
2140 MHz
2140 MHz. 1
carrier, 15 channels.
Integrated BW
Method. 85 mA.
5 MHz Offset
-45
-50
-55
-60
15
0
20
40
60
80
Temperature, Degrees C
Figure 5. Gain Stability with Temperature.
100
-65
10 MHz Offset
-70
0
2
4
6
8
10
Power Out, dBm
12
14
16
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product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
The effect of the number of data channels in the
WCDMA signal is shown in Figure 8.
-35
ACP, dBc at 5 MHz Offset
WCDMA, 2140 MHz.
1 carrier, 85 mA.
-40
4.1. CCDF. In WCDMA systems (and IS95 systems and
QAM systems in general), the peak to average ratio of the
signal can be 12 dB or more. In an amplifier application,
designing in enough headroom to handle all the peaks
would make it unnecessarily expensive and inefficient. The
highest peaks only occur a small portion of the time (such
as parts per million), and can be allowed to compress in the
amplifier. The tradeoff is of course distortion and ACP.
15 channels
A complementary cumulative density function (CCDF)
curve is shown in Figure 10 for 32 data channels. Consider
first the CCDF for the case of no clipping. As a very rough
thumbnail estimate of ACP, we know from analysis that
limiting or clipping of events that happen .01% of the time
can cause ACP’s in the general range of –40 dBc. This of
course is dependent on many factors, such as type of
limiting (hard clipping vs. soft compression, etc.). The
value of –40 dBc corresponds to 10 log (.0001), where
.0001 is simply .01% as a fraction.
-45
4 channels
-50
8 channels
(center line)
-55
-60
4
6
8
10
12
Power Out, dBm
14
16
CCDF with Clipping
Figure 8. Effect of Number of Data Channels.
100
-30
32 Channel WCDMA.
Pilot, Sync, and
Paging Active
10
Probability, %
3.2. Reduced Bias. The compression point (P1dB) is
affected by the device current, as expected. The effect of
the current and the associated P1dB on the WCDMA
performance is shown in Figure 9. At low powers, the
device can tolerate a lower current and still stay within
acceptable limits. At +12 dBm, the bias can drop to 75 mA
without undue degradation.
ACP @ 5 MHz Offset, dBc
Page: 60
1
0.1
0.01
Hard clipping
at 8 dB
0.001
-35
No
Clipping
60% clip
80% clip
0.0001
+14 dBm
0
-40
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11 12 13
Peak to Average Power, dB
+12 dBm
Figure 10. CCDF.
-45
-50
+10 dBm
2140 MHz, 1
carrier, 15
channels. 85 mA.
-55
50
60
70
80
90
Device Current, mA DC
Figure 9. ACP with Reduced Bias.
100
110
4.2. Digital Hard Clipping. In the physical layer of
WCDMA systems, advantage can be taken of the high level
of redundancy in the coding, spreading, and overhead bits
of the basic channel data by eliminating some of the
symbols before entering the amplifier/transmitter. The air
interface is designed to operate with fading, dropouts, static
etc., therefore, eliminating some small percentage of the
symbols can be tolerated, because the bulk of these symbols
are corrected for in the receive decoding process.
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Page: 61
In the basestation, this clipping is done on the digital
summation of all the I and Q samples, before filtering. This
is critical. This way, the ACP energy caused by the clipping
can be filtered out in the baseband filters before
amplification. The filtering process softens up the CCDF
curve that would otherwise be a hard clip, an example of
which is shown in Figure 10.
The effect of clipping on the ACP is shown in Figure 11,
for a 15 channel WCDMA signal. This is measured data
for the BGA6589. The x axis is average power. For 32
channels, the ACP is very similar, because the CCDFs are
similar, as shown in Figure 12.
Also in Figure 10, the CCDF is shown for the cases of
clipping the signal at 60% and 80% relative to the highest
peak, followed by filtering. While this may seem to be a
severe amount of clipping, the highest peaks (uncommon as
they are) might actually be 14 dB or more above the
average power, so the more typical peaks of 10 dB or so are
not clipped very much.
Class A devices are not often subjected to a load pull test,
but doing so shows the resiliency of the device when the
BGA6589 is feeding a stage with a less than perfect S11.
Figure 13 shows the ACP under various VSWR conditions.
2140 MHz, 1 carrier, 15
channels. 85 m A.
2140 MHz. 1 carrier,
15 channels. 85 mA.
-30
-40
+10 dBm
+12 dBm
+14 dBm
-35
100% clip
(no clip)
-45
+8 dBm
ACP, dBc
ACP, dBc at 5 MHz Offset
-20
-25
-35
-40
80% clip
-45
+ 6 dBm
-50
-50
60% clip
-55
-55
-60
VSWR = 14 dB
0
-60
0.2
7.9 dB
0.4
4.4 dB
1.9 dB
0.6
0.8
1
Reflection Coefficient (Unitless)
4
6
8
10
12
Power Out, dBm
14
16
Figure 13. Load Pull Test.
Figure 11. Clipping effects on the ACP.
100
10
Probability, %
5.0. Load Pull.
1
8 channels
0.1
0.01
0.001
For this test, the worst of four phases of reflection was
plotted for a given reflection coefficient, at several powers.
The VSWR corresponding to the reflection coefficient is
shown just above the x axis. At low/medium powers, a
significantly “poor” load reflection is tolerable, before
degrading the ACP. For each measurement, the gain
necessarily changed due to the loading, and the input drive
was changed accordingly to keep the output power
constant.
____________________________________
32
Pilot, Sync, and
Paging Active
15 ch
4
0.0001
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Peak to Average Power Ratio, dB
BGA6589 Sep 2002 bja
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RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
7
Page: 62
Selection Guides
The 3 product clusters of our RF Small Signal portfolio:
The portfolio covered in this RF Manual covers small-signal products for a wide variety of applications.
For tuning, a wide range of varicaps, bandswitch diodes and FETs. For telecom and more generic RF
applications an equally wide range of pin diodes, MMICs and wideband transistors are available. The
MMIC and wideband transistor portfolio includes SiGe products.
-
Bandswitch diodes
Varicap diodes
"varactors'
Pin diodes
Diodes
-
Field-effect transistors
Mosfets / J-fets
Wideband transistors
generations 1-4, 5-7
Transistors
-
50 ohm gain blocks
LNA's
Variable gain amplif.
Mixers
MMIC's
Bandswitch diodes:
Are switching diodes. Mainly used in tuner applications. They help to achieve that the signals which
are received by an antenna are separated into the correct frequency band(s).
Varicap diodes "Varactors"
Are electronically tuning diodes. Varicap diodes are used in tuner applications to enable various
frequencies to be separated (in e.g. the input-filter) or to be generated (e.g. in an oscillator).
Upcoming varicap in development is: BB140L.
This VCO varicap for the communication market will be packed in leadless SOD882.
Pin diodes:
Are switching diodes. Due to their construction, they are ideal switches in RF-applications, main
usage is as switch between transmitter and receiver in 1-antenna-applications.
Upcoming Pin diodes in development are: BAP51L, BAP1321L, BAP142L and BAP144L.
The package of these new types will be SOD882.Applications: antenna switch, T/R switch,
Antenna diversity switch for cell phones, cordless, basestation transceiver circuits and any
equipment requiring switching function.
2nd edition
RF Manual
7
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 63
Selection Guides
The 3 product clusters of our RF Small Signal portfolio:
Field-effect transistors (Fet's):
Are e.g. pre-amplifying transistors. Fet’s e.g. make sure a signal is already amplified in a car radio
before the signal enters the radio amplifier, so the Fet prevents that the noise also gets amplified.
Fet's are ideal switches for applications where distortion-free amplification is required.
Upcoming Field-effect transistors in development are: BF1205, BF1206, BF121xxx-serie.
BF1205 will contain two BF1202's and a switch and therefore realises the reduction in
component count.
BF1206 UHF/VHF Fet is significantly improved on low frequency noise, Yfs and component
count.
BF121xxx-serie will become the improved versions of BF120xxx-serie (low frequency noise
performance).
Wideband transistors:
Are signal amplifying transistors. Wide band transistors ensures that the voice quality from a person
in a mobile phone is good and clear. Main usage in RF amplifiers where signal-levels are increased for
better processing.
Upcoming wideband transistor in development is BFU620.
The applications of this 7th generation Si Ge QuBIC4G transistor (Ft=65GHz) are: LNA, buffer
& oscillator for cell phone, GPS receivers, LNB & generic RF. Package: SOT343.
MMIC's:
The Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit in our product portfolio offers the combination of several
transistors, resistors and capacitors to perform one specific RF function.
These devices are therefore an interesting compromise between the total integration of a system on a
chip and the use of discrete devices only.
MMIC’s have same footprint as discrete devices.
MMIC’s can be used for a wide range of applications.
MMIC’s benefit from the integration of parts that belong together.
Upcoming MMIC's in development are: BGA6589. BGA6489 and BGA6289.
These MMIC's, medium power gainblocks, are used for basestations. Package: SOT89.
2nd edition
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product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 64
7.1 Selection Guides: MMIC’s
** = new product
Online product catalog on Philips Semiconductors website:
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/catalog/219/282/27046/index.html#27046
General Purpose Wideband Amplifiers, 50 Ohm Gain Blocks
Limits
@ 1GHz
f u1
@
Gain3 (dB) @
Type
Package
BGA2711
SOT363
6
20
200
3.62)
4.7
2
12.9
-2
-3
BGA2748
SOT363
4
15
200
1.9
1.82)
-4
21.3
-10
-22
BGA2771
SOT363
4
50
200
2.4
4.4
122)
21
11
BGA2776
SOT363
6
34
200
2.8
4.7
8
22.82)
5.5
Vs
Is
Pd @-3dB NF Psat Gain3 P1dBb IIP3 OIP3
(V) (mA) (mW) (GHz) (dB) (dBm) (dB) (dBm) (dBm) (dBm)
100
MHz
2.6
GHz
3.0
GHz
Vs
Is
(V) (mA)
10
13
13.8
12.8
5
12
-2
14.8
14.2
11.3
3
5.7
1
22
20.3
17.5
15.2
3
33
6
17
22.2
20.8
18.7
5
23.8
BGA2709
SOT363
6
35
200
2.8
4
12.4
2.7
8.3
1
24
22.6
22.0
21.1
5
23.5
BGA2712
SOT363
6
25
200
2.8
3.9
4.8
21.3
0
-9
12
20.9
20.8
18.6
5
12.5
BGM1011 **
SOT363
6
-
4.7
13.8
30
12.2
-7
23
25.0
32.0
28.0
5
25.5
25.5 200
Notes: 1. Upper -3 db point, to gain at 1 ghz.
2. Optimized parameter. 3. Gain = |S21|2
2 Stage Variable Gain Linear Amplifier
Limits
Type
Package
Vs
Is
Ptot
Frequency
Range
Gain1
(V) (mA) (mW)
(dB)
(MHz)
800-2500
3.3 50 200
24
SOT363
Notes: 1. Gain = GP, pow er gain. 2. DG = Gain control range
BGA2031/1
@ 900MHz
DG2 P1dB ACPR Gain1
(dB) (dBm) (dBc)
62
11
@1900 MHz
P1dB ACPR
(dB)
DG2
(dB)
(dBm)
(dBc)
23
56
13
49
49
@
Vs
Is
(V) (mA)
3
51
Wideband Linear Mixer
Limits
Type
Package
BGA2022
SOT363
Vs
Is
Ptot
(V) (mA) (mW)
4
20
40
RF Input Freq. IF Output
Freq. Range
Range
(dB)
(MHz)
50-500
(MHz)
800-2500
@ 880MHz
NF
@2450 MHz
Gain1 OIP3
@
NF
Gain1
OIP3
(dB) (dBm) (dB)
(dB)
(dBm)
6
10
9
5
4
9
Vs
Is
(V) (mA)
3
51
Notes: 1. Gain = GC, Conversion gain
Low Noise Wideband Amplifiers
Limits
@ 900MHz
@1800 MHz
Gain3 (db) @
@
Type
Package
(V) (mA) (mW)
(dB)
BGA2001
SOT343R
4.5
30
135
1.3
BGA2003
SOT343R
4.5
30
135
1.8
BGA2011
SOT363
4.5
30
135
1.5
193)
10
-
-
-
24
14.8
8
6.5
3
15
BGA2012
SOT363
4.5
15
70
-
-
-
1.7
163)
10
22
18.2
11.6
10.5
3
7
BGU2003
SOT343R
4.5
30
135
1
tbd
tbd
1
tbd
tbd
tbd
tbd
tbd
tbd
Vs
Is
Ptot
NF
Gain
IIP3
NF
Gain
IIP3
(dB) (dBm) (dB)
100
(dB) (dBm) MHz
1
GHz
2.6
GHz
3.0
GHz
Vs
Is
(V) (mA)
221)
-7.4
1.3
19.51) -4.5
20
17.1
11.6
10.7
2.5
241)
-6.5
1.8
26
18.6
11.1
10.1
2.5 102)
161)
-4.8
4
2.5 102)
Notes : 1. MSG 2. Adjustable bias 3. |S21|2
General Purpose Medium Power Amplifers, 50 ohm gain blocks
Limits
Type
Package
Vs
Is
@ 900MHz
Ptot
(V) (mA) (mW)
NF
(dB)
Gain
OIP3
@1800 MHz
NF
Gain
(dB) (dBm) (dBm) (dB)
(dB)
3
P1dB
3
NF
Gain3
P1dB
(dB) (dBm)
2.5
GHz
@
f u1
@-3dB Vs
Is
(MHz) (V) (mA)
BGA6289 **
SOT89
6
120
480
3.8
15
31
17
4.1
13
4.1
15
12
4000
3.8
83
BGA6489 **
SOT89
6
120
480
3.1
20
33
20
3.3
16
3.3
17
15
4000
5.1
83
BGA6589 **
SOT89
6
120
480
3
22
33
21
3.3
17
3.3
20
15
4000
4.8
83
Notes:1 Determined by return Loss(>10dB) 3. Gain = |S21|2
2nd edition
RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 65
7.2 Selection Guides: Wideband transistors (1)
Online product catalog on Philips Semiconductors website:
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/catalog/219/282/27046/index.html#27046
Ft
Vceo
Ic
Ptot
(GHz)
(V)
(mA)
(mW)
Polarity
Gum
(dB)
F
(dB)
@
(MHz)
Gum
(dB)
F
(dB)
Vo 1)
Pl
ITO
@
(MHz) (mV) (dBm) (dBm)
@ Ic &
(mA)
NPN
20
-
100
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
NPN
20
-
100
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
900
-
3.5
2000
-
-
-20
1
3
900
-
-
-
-
-
-18
5
3
Vce
(V)
Ty pe
Package
BF547
SOT2 3
1.2
20
50
300
BF747
SOT2 3
1.2
20
50
300
BFC505
SOT3 53
7.3
8
18
500
NPN
-
1.8
BFC520
SOT3 53
7
8
70
1000
NPN
-
1.3
BFE505
SOT3 53
9
8
18
500
NPN
-
1.2
900
-
1.9
2000
-
-
-
-
-
BFE520
SOT3 53
9
8
70
1000
NPN
-
1.1
900
-
1.9
2000
-
-
-
-
-
Ty pical
Maximum v alues
BFG10( X )
SOT1 43
-
8
250
250
NPN
-
-
-
7
-
1900
-
-
-
-
-
BFG10W/X
SOT3 43
-
10
250
400
NPN
-
-
-
7
-
1900
-
-
-
-
-
BFG11(/ X)
SOT1 43
-
8
500
400
NPN
-
-
-
5
-
1900
-
-
-
-
BFG11W/X
SOT3 43
-
8
500
760
NPN
-
-
-
6
-
1900
-
-
-
-
-
BFG135
SOT2 23
7
15
150
1000
NPN
16
-
500
12
-
800
850
-
-
100
10
BFG16A
SOT2 23
1.5
25
150
1000
NPN
10
-
500
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
BFG198
SOT2 23
8
10
100
1000
NPN
18
-
500
15
-
800
700
-
-
70
8
-
BFG21W
SOT3 43
18
4.5
200
600
NPN
-
-
-
10
-
1900
-
-
-
-
BFG25A/ X
SOT1 43
5
5
6.5
32
NPN
18
1.8
1000
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
BFG25AW(/ X)
SOT3 43
5
5
6.5
500
NPN
16
2
1000
8
-
2000
-
-
-
-
-
BFG25W(/X)
SOT3 43
5
5
6.5
500
NPN
16
2
1000
8
-
2000
-
-
-
-
-
BFG31
SOT2 23
5
15
100
1000
PNP
16
-
500
12
-
800
550
-
-
70
10
10
BFG35
SOT2 23
4
18
150
1000
NPN
15
-
500
11
-
800
750
-
-
100
BFG403W
SOT3 43
17
4.5
3.6
16
NPN
-
1
900
-
1.6
2000
-
5
6
1
1
BFG410W
SOT3 43
22
4.5
12
54
NPN
-
0.9
900
-
SOT3 43
SOT3 43
25
21
4.5
4.5
30
250
135
360
NPN
NPN
-
900
900
-
5
12
15
22
10
25
2
2
-
0.8
1.2
2000
2000
-
BFG425W
BFG480W
1.2
1.2
-
1.8
2000
-
-
28
80
2
BFG505(/ X)
SOT1 43
9
15
18
150
NPN
20
1.6
900
13
1.9
2000
-
4
10
5
6
-
BFG520(/ X)
SOT1 43
9
15
70
300
NPN
19
1.6
900
13
1.9
2000
275
17
26
20
6
BFG520W(/ X)
SOT3 43
9
15
70
500
NPN
17
1.6
900
11
1.85
2000
275
17
26
20
6
BFG540(/ X)
SOT1 43
9
15
120
500
NPN
18
1.9
900
11
2.1
2000
500
21
34
40
8
BFG540W(/ X)
SOT3 43
9
15
120
500
NPN
16
1.9
900
10
2.1
2000
500
21
34
40
8
8
BFG541
SOT2 23
9
15
120
650
NPN
15
1.9
900
9
2.1
2000
500
21
34
40
BFG590(/ X)
SOT1 43
5
15
200
400
NPN
13
-
900
7.5
-
2000
-
-
-
-
-
SOT3 43
5
15
200
500
NPN
13
-
900
7.5
-
2000
-
21
-
80
5
2000
-
-
-
-
-
BFG590W
BFQ591
SOT8 9
7
15
200
2000
NPN
13
-
900
7.5
-
BFG67(/ X)
SOT1 43
8
10
50
380
NPN
17
1.7
1000
10
2.5
2000
-
-
-
-
-
11
3
2000
-
-
-
-
-
BFG92A(/ X)
SOT1 43
5
15
25
400
NPN
16
2
1000
BFG93A(/ X)
SOT1 43
6
12
35
300
NPN
16
1.7
1000
10
2.3
2000
-
-
-
-
-
BFG94
SOT2 23
6
12
60
700
NPN
-
2.7
500
13.5
3
1000
500
21.5
34
45
10
BFG97
SOT2 23
5.5
15
100
1000
NPN
16
-
500
12
-
800
700
-
-
70
10
BFM505
SOT3 63
9
8
18
500
NPN
17
1.4
900
10
1.9
2000
-
-
-
-
-
BFM520
SOT3 63
9
8
70
1000
NPN
15
1.7
900
9
1.9
2000
-
-
-
-
-
BFQ135
SOT1 72
6.5
19
150
2700
NPN
17
-
500
13.5
-
800
1200
-
-
120
18
BFQ136
SOT1 22
4
18
600
9000
NPN
12.5
-
800
-
-
-
2500
-
-
500
15
BFQ149
SOT8 9
5
15
100
1000
PNP
12
3.75
500
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
BFQ17
SOT8 9
1.5
25
150
1000
NPN
16
-
200
6.5
-
800
-
-
-
-
-
BFQ18
SOT8 9
4
18
150
1000
NPN
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
BFQ19
SOT8 9
5.5
15
100
1000
NPN
11.5
3.3
500
7.5
-
800
-
-
-
-
-
2nd edition
RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 66
7.2 Selection Guides: Wideband transistors (2)
Online product catalog on Philips Semiconductors website:
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/catalog/219/282/27046/index.html#27046
Type
Package
Ft
Vceo
Ic
Ptot
(GHz)
(V)
(mA)
(mW)
Typical
Polarity
Gum F
@
(dB) (dB) (MHz)
Maximum values
Gum
(dB)
F
@
Vo 1)
Pl
ITO
(dB) (MHz) (mV) (dBm) (dBm)
@ Ic
&
(mA)
Vce
(V)
BFQ34/01
SOT122
4
18
150
2700
NPN
16.3
8
500
-
-
-
1200
26
45
120
15
BFQ540
SOT89
9
12
120
1200
NPN
-
1.9
900
-
-
-
500
-
-
40
8
BFQ67
SOT23
8
10
50
300
NPN
14
1.7
1000
8
2.7
2000
-
-
-
-
-
BFQ67W
SOT323
8
10
50
300
NPN
13
2
1000
8
2.7
2000
-
-
-
-
15
BFQ68
SOT122
4
18
300
4500
NPN
13
-
800
-
-
1600
1600
28
47
240
BFR106
SOT23
5
15
100
500
NPN
11.5
3.5
800
-
-
-
350
-
-
50
9
BFR505
SOT23
9
15
18
150
NPN
17
1.6
900
10
1.9
2000
-
4
10
5
6
BFR505T
SOT416
9
-
18
150
NPN
17
1.2
900
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
BFR520
SOT23
9
15
70
300
NPN
15
1.6
900
9
1.9
2000
-
17
26
20
6
BFR520T
SOT416
9
-
70
150
NPN
15
1.6
900
9
1.9
2000
-
17
26
-
-
BFR53
SOT23
2
10
50
250
NPN
-
5
500
10.5
-
800
-
-
-
-
-
BFR540
SOT23
9
15
120
500
NPN
14
1.9
900
7
2.1
2000
550
21
34
40
8
BFR92
SOT23
5
15
25
300
NPN
18
2.4
500
-
-
-
150
-
-
14
10
BFR92A
SOT23
5
15
25
300
NPN
14
2.1
1000
8
3
2000
150
-
-
14
10
BFR92AT
SOT416
5
15
25
150
NPN
14
2
1000
8
-
2000
-
-
-
-
-
BFR92AW
SOT323
5
15
25
300
NPN
14
2
1000
-
3
2000
-
-
-
-
-
BFR93
SOT23
5
12
35
300
NPN
16.5
1.9
500
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
BFR93A
SOT23
6
12
35
300
NPN
13
1.9
1000
-
3
2000
425
-
-
30
8
-
BFR93AT
SOT416
5
12
35
150
NPN
13
1.5
1000
8
-
2000
-
-
-
-
BFR93AW
SOT323
5
12
35
300
NPN
13
1.5
1000
8
2.1
2000
-
-
-
-
-
BFS17
SOT23
1
15
25
300
NPN
-
4.5
500
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
10
BFS17A
SOT23
2.8
15
25
300
NPN
13.5
2.5
800
-
-
-
150
-
-
14
BFS17W
SOT323
1.6
15
50
300
NPN
-
4.5
500
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
BFS25A
SOT323
5
5
6.5
32
NPN
13
1.8
1000
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
BFS505
SOT323
9
15
18
150
NPN
17
1.6
900
10
1.9
2000
-
4
10
5
6
BFS520
SOT323
9
15
70
300
NPN
15
1.6
900
9
1.9
2000
-
17
26
20
6
BFS540
SOT323
9
15
120
500
NPN
14
1.9
900
8
2.1
2000
-
21
34
40
8
-
BFT25
SOT23
2.3
5
6.5
30
NPN
18
3.8
500
12
-
800
-
-
-
-
BFT25A
SOT23
5
5
6.5
32
NPN
15
1.8
1000
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
BFT92
SOT23
5
15
25
300
PNP
18
2.5
500
-
-
-
150
-
-
14
10
BFT92W
SOT323
5
15
35
300
PNP
17
2.5
500
11
3
1000
-
-
-
-
-
BFT93
SOT23
5
12
35
300
PNP
16.5
2.4
500
-
-
-
300
-
-
30
5
BFT93W
SOT323
5
12
50
300
PNP
15.5
2.4
500
10
3
1000
-
-
-
-
-
BFU510
SOT343
45
2.5
15
38
NPN
-
0.6
900
20
0.9
2000
-
-
-
-
-
BFU540
SOT4343
45
2.5
50
125
NPN
-
0.6
900
20
0.9
2000
-
-
-
-
-
BLT70
SOT223
0.6
8
250
2100
NPN
>6
-
900
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
BSR12
SOT23
1.5
15
100
250
PNP
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
PBR941
SOT23
8
10
50
360
NPN
15
1.4
1000
9.5
2
2000
-
-
-
-
-
PBR951
SOT23
8
10
100
365
NPN
14
1.3
1000
8
2
2000
-
-
-
-
-
PMBHT10
SOT23
0.65
25
40
400
NPN
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
PMBT3640
SOT23
0.5
12
80
350
PNP
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
PMBTH81
SOT23
0.6
20
40
400
PNP
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
PRF947
SOT323
8.5
10
50
250
NPN
16
1.5
1000
10
2.1
2000
-
-
-
-
-
PRF949
SOT416
9
10
50
150
NPN
16
1.5
1000
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
PRF957
SOT323
8.5
10
100
270
NPN
15
1.3
1000
9.2
1.8
2000
-
-
-
-
-
2nd edition
RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 67
7.3 Selection Guides: Varicap diodes
Online product catalog on Philips Semiconductors website:
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/catalog/219/282/27046/index.html#27046
TV & Satellite Varicap Diodes - UHF tuning
TUNING RANGE
Type
Package
Cd @ Vr
(pF)
min
Cd over voltage rs
range (V)
max (V) ratio
TYPICAL
APPLICATIONS
MATCHED
(Ω)==
SETS
TV VCO SAT. STB
V1 to V2
max
%
10
9
9.7
9.7
9.7
9.2
0.5
1
1
1
1
1
28
28
28
28
28
28
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.5
1
2
2
2
2
10
9
0.5
1
28
28
0.75
0.75
8.3
1
28
1.2
Matched
BB134
BB149
BB149A
BB149A/TM
BB179
BB179B
SOD323 1.7 2.1 28
SOD323 1.9 2.25 28
SOD323 1.95 2.22 28
SOD323 1.95 2.22 28
SOD523 1.95 2.22 28
SOD523 1.9 2.25 28
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Unmatched
BB135
BB159
BBY31
BBY39
BBY62
SOD323
SOD323
1.7
1.9
SOT23
SOT143
1.6
2.1 28
2.25 28
2
28
X
X
-
X
X
X
TV & Satellite Varicap diodes - VHF tuning
TUNING RANGE
Type
Package
Cd @ Vr
(pF)
TYPICAL
APPLICATIONS
MATCHED
(Ω)==
SETS
Cd over voltage rs
range (V)
TV VCO SAT. STB
min
max (V) ratio
V1 to V2
max
%
2.3
2.2
2.4
2.4
2.48
2.36
2.57
2.57
2.9
2.36
2.48
2.65
2.57
2.75
2.75
2.8
2.75
2.89
2.75
2.92
2.92
3.4
2.75
2.89
3
2.92
26
16
40
15
>20.6
>13.5
11
11
>19.5
>13.5
>20.6
17
11
0.5
0.5
0.5
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
2
28
28
28
28
28
28
25
25
28
28
28
25
25
2
0.9
2.8
0.9
1.2
0.8
0.75
0.75
1.4
0.8
1.2
1.1
0.75
1
0.7
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
14
15
14
5.5
14
0.5
1
0.5
3
1
28
28
28
25
28
3
0.9
3
0.7
1
Matched
BB132
BB133
BB147
BB148
BB152
BB153
BB157
BB157/TM
BB164
BB178
BB182
BB182B
BB187
SOD323
SOD323
SOD323
SOD323
SOD323
SOD323
SOD323
SOD323
SOD323
SOD523
SOD523
SOD523
SOD523
28
28
28
28
28
28
25
25
28
28
28
25
25
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Unmatched
BB131
BB158
BB181
BBY40
BBY42
SOD323
SOD323
SOD523
SOT23
SOT23
0.7 1.055 28
2.4 2.75 28
0.7 1.055 28
4.3
6
25
2.4
3
28
X
-
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
2nd edition
RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 68
7.3 Selection Guides: Varicap diodes
** = new product
Online product catalog on Philips Semiconductors website:
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/catalog/219/282/27046/index.html#27046
VCO Varicap diodes
Type
Package
BB145B-01
BB140-01 **
BB141
BB142
BB143
BB145
BB145B
BB145C
BB202
BB151
BB156
BB190
BB155
SOD723
SOD723
SOD523
SOD523
SOD523
SOD523
SOD523
SOD523
SOD523
SOD323
SOD323
SOD323
SOD323
Cd @ Vr
(pF)
Cd @ Vr
(pF)
min max (V) min max
6.4
7.4
1 2.55 2.95
2.77 typ.
1.29 typ.
1
3.9
4.5
1 2.22 2.55
4
4.9
1 1.85 2.35
4.75 5.75 1 2.05 2.55
6.4
7.4
1 2.75 3.25
6.4
7.4
1 2.55 2.95
6.4
7.2
1 2.55 2.85
28.2 33.5 0.2 7.2 11.2
9 typ.
15.4 17
1
14.4 17.6 1
7.6
9.6
18
20
1 10.1 11.6
45.2 49.8 0.3 24.55 26.70
TUNING RANGE
Cd over voltage range
(V)
V1 to V2
(V)
ratio
4
>2.2
1
4
3
2.14
1
3
4
1.76
1
4
4
2.2
1
4
4
2.35
1
4
4
2
1
4
4
.2.2
1
4
4 2.39 - 2.53 1
4
2.3
2.5
0.2 2.3
4
1.8
1
4
4
1.86
1
4
4
1.55
1
4
2.82
-
rs
(Ω)===
typ.
0.6
1.1
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.35
0.4
0.4
0.26
0.35
Radio Varicap diodes FM radio tuning
Type
BB804
BB200
BB201
BB202
BB156
Package
SOT23
SOT23
SOT23
SOD523
SOD323
Cd @ Vr
(pF)
Cd @ Vr
(pF)
min
max
(V)
min
max
(V)
42
65.8
89
28.2
14.4
26 typ.
46.5 2
74.2 1
12
14.8
102 1 25.5 29.7
33.5 0.2 7.2 11.2
17.6 1
7.6
9.6
8
4.5
7.5
2.3
4
TUNING RANGE
Cd over voltage range
(V)
ratio
V1 to V2
(min)
1.75
2
8
5
1
4.5
3.1
1
7.5
2.5
0.2 2.3
3.3
1
7.5
rs
(Ω)===
typ.
0.2
0.43
0.3
0.35
0.4
2nd edition
RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 69
7.4 Selection Guides: Bandswitch diodes
Online product catalog on Philips Semiconductors website:
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/catalog/219/282/27046/index.html#27046
Band Switch diodes
MAXIMUM RATINGS
Type
Package
BA277-01
BA277
BA278
BA891
BA591
BA792
BAT18
SOD723
SOD523
SOD523
SOD523
SOD323
SOD110
SOT23
CHARACTERISTICS ; maximals
Rd
VR
(V)
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
IF
(mA)
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
Ω
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
@
and
IF
Cd
f
(mA)
2
2
2
3
3
3
5
(MHz)
100
100
100
100
100
200
200
(pF)
1.2
1.2
1.2
0.9
0.9
1.1
1.0
@
VR
and
f
(V)
6
6
6
3
3
3
20
(MHz)
1
1
1
1
1
1 to 100
1
Bandswitching diodes at 100MHz
Rd / [Ohm]
2.6
2.4
2.2
BA591 (Philips)
2.0
BA891 (Philips)
1.8
BAT18 (Philips)
1.6
1.4
BA277-01 (Philips)
BA792 (Philips)
BA278 (Philips)
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.1
1.0
10.0
IF / [mA]
100.0
2nd edition
RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 70
7.5 Selection Guides: Fet’s
Online product catalog on Philips Semiconductors website:
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/catalog/219/282/27046/index.html#27046
1) Asymmetrical
3) ID
4) VSG
2) VGS(th)
5) Depletion FET plus diode in one package
7) @ 200 MHz
8) VG2-S(th)
9) @ VDS 9V
10) Two equal dual gate MOS-FETs in one package
11) Two different dual gate Mos-Fets in one package
N -channel Junction F ield-effect transisto rs fo r sw itching
T ype
B S R 56
B S R 57
B S R 58
P M BFJ108
P M BFJ109
P M BFJ110
P M BFJ111
P M BFJ112
P M BFJ113
J108
J109
J110
J111
J112
J113
P M BF4391
P M BF4392
P M BF4393
P N 4391
P N 4392
P N 4393
VDS
IG
(V)
m ax
40
40
40
25
25
25
40
40
40
25
25
25
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
(m A)
m ax
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
Package
SO T 23
SO T 23
SO T 23
SO T 23
SO T 23
SO T 23
SO T 23
SO T 23
SO T 23
SO T 54
SO T 54
SO T 54
SO T 54
SO T 54
SO T 54
SO T 23
SO T 23
SO T 23
SO T 54
SO T 54
SO T 54
C H AR A C T E R IS T IC S
ID S S
(m A )
m ax
m in
50
20
100
8
80
80
40
10
20
5
2
80
40
10
20
5
2
50
150
25
75
5
30
50
25
5
-
V (p)G S
(V )
m in
m ax
4
10
2
6
0.8
4
3
10
2
6
0.5
4
3
10
1
5
0.5
3
3
10
2
6
0.5
4
3
10
1
5
0.5
3
4
10
2
5
0.5
3
4
10
2
5
0.5
3
R DSON
( )
m ax
25
40
60
8
12
18
30
50
100
8
12
18
30
50
100
30
60
100
30
60
100
C rs
(P f)
max
m in
5
5
5
15
15
15
typ.3
typ.3
typ.3
15
15
15
typ.3
typ.3
typ.3
3.5
3.5
3.5
5
5
5
to n
(ns)
typ
max
4
4
4
13
13
13
4
4
4
13
13
13
15
15
15
15
15
15
t o ff
(ns)
typ
m ax
25
50
100
6
6
6
35
35
35
6
6
6
35
35
35
20
35
50
20
35
50
-
to n
(ns)
typ
max
7
15
35
45
7
15
35
45
-
t o ff
(ns)
typ
m ax
15
30
35
45
15
30
35
45
-
P-channel Junction Field -effect transisto rs fo r sw itching
T ype
P M BFJ174
P M BFJ175
P M BFJ176
P M BFJ177
J174
J175
J176
J177
VDS
IG
(V)
m ax
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
(m A)
m ax
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
Package
SO T 23
SO T 23
SO T 23
SO T 23
SO T 54
SO T 54
SO T 54
SO T 54
C H AR A C T E R IS T IC S
ID S S
(m A )
m ax
m in
20
135
7
70
2
35
1.5
20
20
135
7
70
2
35
1.5
20
V (p)G S
(V )
m in
m ax
5
10
3
6
1
4
0.8
2.25
5
10
3
6
1
4
0.8
2.25
R DSON
( )
m ax
85
125
250
300
85
125
250
300
C rs
(P f)
max
m in
typ.4
typ.4
typ.4
typ.4
typ.4
typ.4
typ.4
typ.4
2nd edition
RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 71
7.5 Selection Guides: Fet’s
Online product catalog on Philips Semiconductors website:
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/catalog/219/282/27046/index.html#27046
N-channel Junction Field-effect transistors
Type
VDS
IG
(V)
max
(mA)
max
CHARACTERISTICS
Package
IDSS
V(p)GS
(V)
min
max
(mA)
max
min
|Yfs|
(mS)
max
min
Crs
(Pf)
typ. max
General purpose amplifiers for e.g. measuring equipment & microphones
BF245A
BF245B
BF245C
BF545A
BF545B
BF545C
BF556A
BF556B
BF556C
BFR30
BFR31
BFT46
SOT54
SOT54
SOT54
SOT23
SOT23
SOT23
SOT23
SOT23
SOT23
SOT23
SOT23
SOT23
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
25
25
25
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
5
5
5
2
6
12
2
6
12
3
6
11
4
1
0.2
6.5
15
25
6.5
15
25
7
13
18
10
5
1.5
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5
-
8
8
8
7.5
7.5
7.5
7.5
7.5
7.5
5
2.5
1.2
3
3
3
3
3
3
4.5
4.5
4.5
1
1.5
1
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.5
4
4.5
-
1.1
1.1
1.1
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
1.5
1.5
1.5
-
6.5
15
25
25
60
30
60
0.2
0.5
0.8
0.3
1
1
2
1.0
1.5
2
1.2
6.5
4
6.5
12
16
20
35
10
10
10
20
25
30
-
2.1
2.1
2.1
1.9
1.3
1.3
1.3
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.5
2.5
2.5
-
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
Preamplifiers for AM tuners in car radios
BF861A
BF861B
BF861C
BF862
PMBFJ308
PMBFJ309
PMBFJ310
SOT23
SOT23
SOT23
SOT23
SOT23
SOT23
SOT23
25
25
25
20
25
25
25
10
10
10
10
50
50
50
2
6
12
10
12
12
24
RF stages FM portables, car radios, main radios and mixer stages
BF5101)
BF5111)
BF5121)
BF5131)
SOT23
SOT23
SOT23
SOT23
20
20
20
20
10
10
10
10
0.7
2.5
6
10
typ. 0.8
typ. 1.5
typ. 2.2
typ. 3
3
7
12
18
2.5
4
6
7
N-channel, single MOS-FETS for switching
VDS
Type
CHARACTERISTICS
ID
Package
V(p)GS
RDSON
(V)
( )
min
max max
Crs
(Pf)
min max
ton
(ns)
typ. max
toff
(ns)
typ. max
|S21(on)|2
(dB)
max
|S21(off)2
(dB)
min
MODE
(V)
max
(mA)
max
20
10
50
50
0.12)
2
22)
30
45
typ.0.6
typ.0.6
1
1
-
5
5
-
-
-
depl.
enh.
3
3
3
10
10
10
-
4.5
4
4
20
20
20
-
-
-
-
-
-2.5
-3
-3
-30
-30
-30
depl.
depl.
depl.
High Speed Switches
BSD22
BSS83
SOT143
SOT143
Silicon RF Switches
BF1107
BF11085)
BF1108R5)
SOT23
SOT143B
SOT143R
-
2nd edition
RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 72
7.5 Selection Guides: Fet’s
Online product catalog on Philips Semiconductors website:
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/catalog/219/282/27046/index.html#27046
N-channel, Dual Gate MOS-FETS
V DS
Type
CHARACTERISTICS
ID
IDSS
Package
(V)
max
(mA)
max
12
12
12
20
20
20
20
20
12
12
12
40
40
40
20
20
40
30
30
30
30
30
V DS
ID
(mA)
max
min
V (p)G1-S
(V)
min
max
|Yfs|
(mS)
typ.
min
Cis
(pF)
typ.
Coss F @ 800 MHz
VHF
(pF)
(dB)
typ.
typ.
0.2
-
36
36
36
9.5
10
20
15
15
21
21
22
3.1
3.1
3.1
1.8
2.1
4
2.5
2.3
2.1
2.1
2.1
1.7
1.7
1.7
0.9
1.1
2
1
0.8
1.05
1.05
1.05
UHF
With external bias
BF908
BF908R
BF908W R
BF989
BF991
BF992
BF994S
BF996S
BF998
BF998R
BF998W R
SOT143
SOT143R
SOT343R
SOT143
SOT143
SOT143
SOT143
SOT143
SOT143
SOT143R
SOT343R
Type
Package
3
3
3
2
4
4
4
2
2
2
27
27
27
20
25
20
20
18
18
18
(mA)
max
43
43
43
12
14
25
18
18
24
24
24
1.5
1.5
1.5
2.8
17)
1.27)
17)
1.8
1
1
1
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
CHARACTERISTICS
IDSX
(V)
max
2
2
2
2.7
2.5
1.3
2.5
2.5
2
2
2
(mA)
max
min
V G1-S(th)
(V)
min
max
|Yfs|
(mS)
typ.
min
Cis
(pF)
typ.
Cos F @ 800 MHz
VHF
(pF)
(dB)
typ.
typ.
UHF
Partly internal bias
BF904(A)
BF904(A)R
BF904(A)W R
BF909(A)
BF909(A)R
BF909(A)W R
BF1100
BF1100R
BF1100W R
BF1101
BF1101R
BF1101W R
BF1102(R)
BF1201
BF1201R
BF1201W R
BF1202
BF1202R
BF1202W R
SOT143
SOT143R
SOT343R
SOT143
SOT143R
SOT343R
SOT143
SOT143R
SOT343R
SOT143
SOT143R
SOT343R
SOT363
SOT143
SOT143R
SOT343R
SOT143
SOT143R
SOT343R
7
7
7
7
7
7
14
14
14
7
7
7
7
10
10
10
10
10
10
30
30
30
40
40
40
30
30
30
30
30
30
40
30
30
30
30
30
30
8
8
8
12
12
12
8
8
8
8
8
8
12
11
11
11
8
8
8
13
13
13
20
20
20
13
13
13
16
16
16
20
19
19
19
16
16
16
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
22
22
22
36
36
36
24
24
24
25
25
25
36
23
23
23
25
25
25
25
25
25
43
43
43
28
28
28
30
30
30
43
28
28
28
30
30
30
2.2
2.2
2.2
3.6
3.6
3.6
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.8
2.6
2.6
2.6
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.3
1.3
1.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
1.49)
1.49)
1.49)
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.6
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.85
0.85
0.85
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1.7
1.7
1.7
2
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.1
1.1
1.1
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
BF120311)
BF120410)
SOT363
SOT363
10
10
30
30
11
8
8
19
16
16
0.3
0.3
1
1
23
25
25
28
30
30
2.6
1.7
1.7
0.9
0.85
0.85
1.9
1.1
1.1
X
X
X
X
7
7
7
11
11
11
30
30
30
30
30
30
8
8
8
8
8
8
16
16
16
16
16
16
0.38)
0.38)
0.38)
0.3
0.3
0.3
1.28)
1.28)
1.28)
1
1
1
25
25
25
24
24
24
31
31
31
30
30
30
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.5
1.5
1.5
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Fully internal bias
BF1105
BF1105R
BF1105W R
BF1109
BF1109R
BF1109W R
SOT143
SOT143R
SOT343R
SOT143
SOT143R
SOT343R
2nd edition
RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 73
7.6 Selection Guides: Pin diodes
** = new product
Online product catalog on Philips Semiconductors website:
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/catalog/219/282/27046/index.html#27046
Type
Package Conf
Limits
RD ( Ω ) typ @
Cd (pF) type @
Vr(V) If(mA) 0.5mA 1 mA 10 mA 0V 1V
20
50
1.7
1.3
0.7 0.55 0.45
BAP27-01 **
SOD723
S
BAP50-02
SOD523
S
50
50
25
14
3
BAP50-03
SOD323
S
50
50
25
14
BAP50-04
SOT23
SS
50
50
25
14
BAP50-04W
SOT323
SS
50
50
25
BAP50-05
SOT23
CC
50
50
25
50
20V
0.37
0.4
0.3 0.22 @ 5V
3
0.4
0.3
3
0.45 0.35 0.3 @ 5V
14
3
0.45 0.35 0.3 @ 5V
14
3
0.45 0.35 0.3 @ 5V
25
14
3
0.45 0.35 0.3 @ 5V
0.2 @ 5V
BAP50-05W
SOT323
CC
50
BAP51-01 **
SOD723
S
60
60
5.5
3.6
1.5
0.4
0.3
0.2 @ 5V
BAP51-02
SOD523
S
60
60
5.5
3.6
1.5
0.4
0.3
0.2 @ 5V
BAP51-03
SOD323
S
60
60
5.5
3.6
1.5
0.4
0.3
0.2 @ 5V
BAP51-05W
SOT323
CC
60
60
5.5
3.6
1.5
0.4
0.3
0.2 @ 5V
100
2.5
1.95
1.17
0.36 0.32
0.25
BAP63-01 **
SOD723
S
50
BAP63-02
SOD523
S
50
100
2.5
1.95
1.17
0.36 0.32
0.25
BAP63-03
SOD323
S
50
100
2.5
1.95
1.17
0.4 0.35
0.27
BAP63-05W
SOT323
CC
50
100
2.5
1.95
1.17
0.4 0.35
0.3
BAP64-02
SOD523
S
200
175
20
10
2
0.52 0.37
0.23
BAP64-03
SOD323
S
200
175
20
10
2
0.52 0.37
0.23
175
20
10
2
0.52 0.37
0.23
BAP64-04
SOT23
SS
200
BAP64-04W
SOT323
SS
200
100
20
10
2
0.52 0.37
0.23
BAP64-05
SOT23
CC
200
175
20
10
2
0.52 0.37
0.23
BAP64-05W
SOT323
CC
200
100
20
10
2
0.52 0.37
0.23
BAP64-06
SOT23
CA
200
175
20
10
2
0.52 0.37
0.23
100
20
10
2
0.52 0.37
0.23
BAP64-06W
SOT323
S
100
BAP65-01 **
SOD723
S
30
100
1
0.56
0.65 0.6
0.375
BAP65-02
SOD523
S
30
100
1
0.56
0.65 0.6
0.375
BAP65-03
SOD323
S
30
100
1
0.56
0.65 0.6
0.375
BAP65-05
SOT23
CC
30
100
1
0.56
0.65 0.6
0.375
100
1
0.56
0.65 0.6
0.375
BAP65-05W
SOT323
CC
30
BAP70-02 **
SOD523
S
70
100
70
27
4.5
0.29 0.2
0.125
BAP70-03 **
SOD323
S
70
100
70
27
4.5
0.29 0.2
0.125
BAP1321-01 ** SOD723
S
60
100
3.4
2.4
1.2
0.4 0.35
0.25
BAP1321-02
SOD523
S
60
100
3.4
2.4
1.2
0.4 0.35
0.25
BAP1321-03
SOD323
S
60
100
3.4
2.4
1.2
0.4 0.35
0.25
SS
60
100
3.4
2.4
1.2
0.4 0.35
0.25
BAP1321-04
SOT23
2nd edition
RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 74
7.6 Selection Guides: Pin diodes
Online product catalog on Philips Semiconductors website:
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/catalog/219/282/27046/index.html#27046
Series resistance as a
function of forward current.
1000
rD(Ω
Ω)
100
10
1
0.1
0.1
freq=100MHz
BAP50 Family
BAP65 Family
1
10
100
IF(mA)
BAP51 Family
BAP70 Family
BAP63 Family
BAP1321 Family
BAP64 Family
2nd edition
RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 75
7.6 Selection Guides: Pin diodes
Online product catalog on Philips Semiconductors website:
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/catalog/219/282/27046/index.html#27046
Diode capacitance as a
function of reverse voltage.
800
CD(fF)
600
400
200
0
0
5
10
15
freq=1MHz
BAP50 Family
BAP65 Family
20
VR(V)
BAP51 Family
BAP70 Family
BAP63 Family
BAP1321 Family
BAP64 Family
2nd edition
RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 76
8. X-references
Italic = Manufacturer type, blue = Closest Philips type, ■ = exact drop in, ▲✝= different package
Online cross reference tool on Philips Semiconductors website:
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/products/xref/
Toshiba
Rohm
Toshiba
Rohm
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Sanyo
Sanyo
Toshiba
Sanyo
Toshiba
Sanyo
Sanyo
Sanyo
Sanyo
Sanyo
Sanyo
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Sanyo
Sanyo
Sanyo
Sanyo
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
1SS314
1SS356
1SS381
1SS390
1SV172
1SV214
1SV214
1SV215
1SV217
1SV228
1SV229
1SV231
1SV231
1SV232
1SV233
1SV234
1SV239
1SV241
1SV242
1SV246
1SV247
1SV248
1SV249
1SV250
1SV251
1SV252
1SV254
1SV262
1SV263
1SV264
1SV266
1SV267
1SV269
1SV270
1SV271
1SV276
1SV277
1SV278
1SV279
1SV280
1SV281
1SV282
1SV282
1SV283
1SV283
1SV283
1SV284
1SV285
1SV288
1SV290
BA591 ■
BA591 ■
BA277 ■
BA891 ■
BAP50-04 ■
BB149
BB149A
BB153
BB133
BB201 ■
BB190
BB132 ■
BB152
BB148
BAP70-03 ▲
BAP64-04
BB145B
BAP64-02 ▲
BB164
BAP64-04W
BAP70-02 ▲
BAP50-02 ▲
BAP50-04W
BAP50-03 ▲
BAP50-04
BAP50-04W ■
BB179
BB133
BAP50-02 ▲
BAP50-04W ■
BAP50-03 ▲
BAP50-04 ■
BB148
BB156
BAP50-03 ■
BB151
BB142
BB179
BB190
BB145
BB151
BB178
BB187
BB178
BB187
BB187 ■
BB156
BB142 ■
BB152
BB182
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Sanyo
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Sony
Sony
Sony
Sony
Sony
Sony
Sony
Sony
Sony
Sony
Sony
Sony
Sony
Sony
Sony
Sony
Sony
Sony
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
1SV290
1SV293
1SV293
1SV294
1SV307
1SV308
1SV314
1SV329
1T362
1T362 A
1T363 A
1T368
1T368 A
1T369
1T369
1T369
1T379
1T397
1T399
1T402
1T403
1T404A
1T405 A
1T406
1T407
1T408
2N3330
2N3331
2N4091
2N4092
2N4093
2N4220
2N4391
2N4392
2N4393
2N4416
2N4856
2N4857
2N4858
2N5114
2N5115
2N5116
2N5432
2N5433
2N5434
2N5457
2N5458
2N5459
2N5484
2N5485
BB182 B
BB151
BB190 ■
BAP70-03 ▲
BAP51-03 ■
BAP51-02 ■
BB143
BB143
BB149
BB149A ■
BB153 ■
BB133
BB148
BB132
BB152 ■
BB164
BB131
BB152
BB148
BB179 B ■
BB178 ■
BB187 ■
BB187
BB182 ■
BB182B
BB187 ■
J176
J176
PN4391
PN4392
PN4393
BF245A
PN4391
PN4392
PN4393
PMBF4416
BSR56
BSR57
BSR58
J174
J175
J175
J108
J108
J109
BF245A
BF245A
BF245B
PMBF5484
PMBF5485
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
NEC
NEC
NEC
NEC
NEC
NEC
NEC
NEC
NEC
NEC
NEC
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Hitachi
NEC
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
NEC
Hitachi
Hitachi
Toshiba
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
NEC
NEC
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Hitachi
Hitachi
2N5486
2N5638
2N5639
2N5640
2N5653
2N5654
2SC4092
2SC4093
2SC4094
2SC4095
2SC4182
2SC4184
2SC4185
2SC4186
2SC4226
2SC4227
2SC4228
2SC4247
2SC4248
2SC4315
2SC4320
2SC4321
2SC4325
2SC4394
2SC4463
2SC4536
2SC4537
2SC4592
2SC4593
2SC4703
2SC4784
2SC4807
2SC4842
2SC4899
2SC4900
2SC4901
2SC4988
2SC5011
2SC5012
2SC5065
2SC5085
2SC5087
2SC5088
2SC5090
2SC5092
2SC5095
2SC5107
2SC5463
2SC5593
2SC5594
PMBF5486
PN4391
PN4392
PN4393
J112
J111
BFG67/XR
BFG67/XR
BFG520/XR
BFG520/XR
BFS17W
BFS17W
BFS17W
BFR92AW
PRF957
BFQ67W
BFS505
BFR92AW
BFR92AW
BFG520/XR
BFG520/XR
BFQ67W
BFS505
PRF957
BF547W
BFQ19
BFR93AW
BFG520/XR
BFS520
BFQ19
BFS505
BFQ18A
BFG540W/XR
BFS505
BFG520/XR
BFS520
BFQ540
BFG540W/XR
BFG540W/XR
PRF957
PRF957
BFG520/XR
BFG540W/XR
BFS520
BFG520/XR
BFS505
BFS505
BFQ67W
BFG410W
BFG425W
2nd edition
RF Manual
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Indust. standard
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
2SC5623
2SC5624
2SC5631
2SJ105GR
2SK108
2SK147BL
2SK162-K
2SK162-L
2SK162-M
2SK162-N
2SK163-K
2SK163-L
2SK163-M
2SK163-N
2SK170BL
2SK170GR
2SK170V
2SK170Y
2SK197D
2SK197E
2SK2090
2SK209BL
2SK209GR
2SK209Y
2SK210BL
2SK210GR
2SK2110
2SK211GR
2SK211Y
2SK212
2SK217D
2SK217E
2SK223
2SK242E
2SK242F
2SK370BL
2SK370GR
2SK370V
2SK381
2SK425
2SK426
2SK43
2SK435
2SK508
3SK290
3SK322
40894
40895
40896
40897
BA592
BA592
BA595
BA597
BA885
BA892
BA892
BA895
BAR14-1
BAR15-1
BAR16-1
BAR17
BAR60
BAR61
BAR63
BAR63-02L
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
BFG410W
BFG425W
BFQ540
J177
PN4392
PN4393
PN4393
PN4393
PN4393
PN4393
J113
J113
J113
J113
PN4393
PN4393
PN4393
PN4393
PMBF4416
PMBF4416
PMBF4416
PMBF4416
PMBF4416
PMBF4416
PMBFJ309
PMBF4416
PMBF4416
PMBF4416
PMBF4416
PN4393
PMBF4416
PMBF4416
PN4393
PMBF4416
PMBF4416
J109
J109
J109
J113
PMBF4416
PMBF4416
J113
J113
PMBFJ308
BF998WR
BF990A
BFR30
BFR30
BFR30
BFR30
BA591
BA591 ■
BAP70-03 ■
BAP70-03
BAP70-03 ▲
BA891
BA891 ■
BAP70-02 ■
2xBAP70-03 ▲
2xBAP70-03 ▲
2xBAP70-03 ▲
BAP50-03 ▲
3xBAP50-03 ▲
3xBAP50-03 ▲
BAP63-03 ▲
BAP63-02 ▲
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Hitachi
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
BAR63-02V
BAR63-02W
BAR63-03W
BAR63-05
BAR63-05W
BAR64-02V
BAR64-02W
BAR64-03W
BAR64-04
BAR64-04W
BAR64-05
BAR64-05W
BAR64-06
BAR64-06W
BAR65-02V
BAR65-02W
BAR65-03W
BAR66
BAR67-02L
BAR67-02W
BAR67-03W
BAT18
BB304C
BB304M
BB305C
BB305M
BB403M
BB501C
BB501M
BB502C
BB502M
BB503C
BB503M
BB535
BB535
BB545
BB555
BB565
BB601M
BB639
BB639
BB639
BB640
BB640
BB640
BB641
BB641
BB641
BB659
BB659
BB664
BB664
BB814
BB831
BB833
BB835
BBY51
BBY51-03W
BBY53
BBY53-03W
BBY55-03W
BBY58-02V
BBY66-05
BF1005S
BF1009S
BF1009SW
BAP63-02
BAP63-02 ▲
BAP63-03
BAP63-05W ▲
BAP63-05W
BAP64-02 ■
BAP64-02 ■
BAP64-03 ■
BAP64-04 ■
BAP64-04W ■
BAP64-05 ■
BAP64-05W ■
BAP64-06 ■
BAP64-06W ■
BAP65-02 ■
BAP65-02 ■
BAP65-03 ■
BAP1321-04 ■
BAP1321-01
BAP1321-02 ■
BAP1321-03 ■
BAT18 ■
BF1201WR
BF1201R
BF1201WR
BF1201R
BF909R
BF1202WR
BF1202R
BF1202WR
BF1202R
BF1202WR
BF1202R
BB134
BB149 ■
BB149A ■
BB179B
BB179
BF1202
BB133
BB148 ■
BB153
BB132
BB152
BB164
BB132
BB152
BB164
BB155
BB178
BB178
BB187 ■
BB201
BB131
BB131
BB131
BB141
BB142
BB143
BB143
BB190
BB202
BB200 ■
BF1105
BF1109
BF1109WR
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Vishay
Vishay
Infineon
Vishay
Vishay
Vishay
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Page: 77
BF2030
BF2030R
BF2030W
BF2040
BF2040W
BF244A
BF244B
BF244C
BF247A
BF247B
BF247C
BF256A
BF256B
BF256C
BF770A
BF771
BF771W
BF772
BF775
BF775A
BF775W
BF799
BF799
BF799W
BF851A
BF851B
BF851C
BF994S
BF996S
BF998
BF998
BF998R
BF998RW
BF998W
BFG135A
BFG193
BFG194
BFG196
BFG19S
BFG235
BFP180
BFP181
BFP182
BFP182R
BFP183
BFP183R
BFP193
BFP193W
BFP196W
BFP280
BFP405
BFP420
BFP450
BFP520
BFP540
BFP81
BFP93A
BFQ193
BFQ19S
BFR106
BFR180
BFR180W
BFR181
BFR181W
BFR182
BFR182W
BF1101
BF1101R
BF1101WR
BF909(A)
BF909(A)WR
BF245A
BF245B
BF245C
J108
J108
J108
BF245A
BF245B
BF245C
BFR93A
PBR951
BFS540
BFG540
BFR92A
BFR92A
BFR92AW
BF747
BF747
BF547W
BF861A
BF861B
BF861C
BF994S
BF996S
BF998
BF998
BF998R
BF998WR
BF998WR
BFG135
BFG198
BFG31
BFG541
BFG97
BFG135
BFG505/X
BFG67/X
BFG67/X
BFG67/XR
BFG520/X
BFG520/XR
BFG540/X
BFG540W/XR
BFG540W/XR
BFG505/X
BFG410W
BFG425W
BFG480W
BFU510
BFU540
BFG92A/X
BFG93A/X
BFQ540
BFQ19
BFR106
BFR505
BFS505
BFR520
BFS520
PBR941
PRF947
2nd edition
RF Manual
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Motorola
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Motorola
Infineon
Motorola
Motorola
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Infineon
Agilent
Agilent
Agilent
Hitachi
Agilent
Agilent
Agilent
Agilent
Agilent
Agilent
Agilent
Agilent
Agilent
Agilent
Agilent
Agilent
Agilent
Agilent
Agilent
Agilent
Agilent
Agilent
Agilent
Agilent
Agilent
Agilent
Agilent
Agilent
Agilent
Agilent
Agilent
Agilent
Hitachi
BFR183
BFR183W
BFR193
BFR193W
BFR35AP
BFR92AL
BFR92P
BFR92W
BFR93A
BFR93AL
BFR93AW
BFS17L
BFS17L
BFS17P
BFS17W
BFS481
BFS483
BFT92
BFT93
BGB540
BIC701C
BIC701M
BIC702C
BIC702M
BIC801M
BSR111
BSR112
BSR113
BSR174
BSR175
BSR176
BSR177
CMY91
HBFP0405
HBFP0420
HBFP0450
HSC277
HSMP3800
HSMP3802
HSMP3804
HSMP3810
HSMP3814
HSMP381B
HSMP381C
HSMP381F
HSMP3820
HSMP3822
HSMP3830
HSMP3832
HSMP3833
HSMP3834
HSMP3860
HSMP3862
HSMP3864
HSMP386B
HSMP386E
HSMP386L
HSMP3880
HSMP3890
HSMP3892
HSMP3894
HSMP3895
HSMP389B
HSMP389C
HSMP389F
HSU277
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
PBR951
PRF957
PBR951
PRF957
BFR92A
BFR92A
BFR92A
BFR92AW
BFR93A
BFR93A
BFR93AW
BFS17
BFS17
BFS17A
BFS17W
BFM505
BFM520
BFT92
BFT93
BGU2003
BF1105WR
BF1105R
BF1105WR
BF1105R
BF1105
PMBFJ111
PMBFJ112
PMBFJ113
PMBFJ174
PMBFJ175
PMBFJ176
PMBFJ177
BGA2022
BFG410W
BFG425W
BFG480W
BA277 ■
BAP70-03 ▲
BAP50-04
BAP50-05
BAP50-03 ▲
BAP50-05
BAP50-03 ▲
BAP50-05 ▲
BAP64-05W
BAP1321-03 ▲
BAP1321-04 ■
BAP64-03 ▲
BAP64-04 ■
BAP64-06 ■
BAP64-05 ■
BAP50-03 ▲
BAP50-04 ■
BAP50-05 ■
BAP50-02 ▲
BAP50-04W ■
BAP50-05W ■
BAP51-03 ▲
BAP51-03 ▲
BAP64-04
BAP64-05
2xBAP51-02 ▲
BAP51-02 ▲
BAP64-04 ▲
BAP51-05W ■
BA951
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Agilent
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toshiba
Toko
Matsushita
Indust. standard
Matsushita
Matsushita
Matsushita
Matsushita
Matsushita
Matsushita
Matsushita
HVB14S
HVC131
HVC132
HVC200A
HVC200A
HVC202A
HVC202B
HVC300A
HVC300A
HVC300B
HVC300B
HVC306A
HVC306B
HVC355
HVC355B
HVC359
HVC363A
HVC369B
HVC372B
HVD131
HVD132
HVD139
HVD142
HVU131
HVU132
HVU200A
HVU202(A)
HVU202(A)
HVU202A
HVU300A
HVU300A
HVU300A
HVU306A
HVU307
HVU315
HVU316
HVU356
HVU357
HVU363A
HVU363A
HVU363A
HVU363B
INA-51063
J201
J202
J203
J204
J270
J308
J309
J310
JDP2S01E
JDP2S01U
JDP2S02S
JDP2S02T
JDP2S04E
KV1470
MA27V07
MA2S077
MA2S357
MA2S357
MA2S372
MA2S374
MA357
MA366
MA366
BAP50-04W ■
BAP65-02 ■
BAP51-02 ■
BB178
BB187
BB179 ■
BB179B
BB182 ■
BB182
BB182 ■
BB182B
BB187 ■
BB187
BB145 ■
BB145B ■
BB202 ■
BB178 ■
BB143
BB151
BAP65-01 ■
BAP51-02
BAP63-01
BAP63-01
BAP65-03 ■
BAP51-03 ■
BB133
BB149
BB149A
BB134
BB132
BB152 ■
BB164
BB133
BB148
BB148 ■
BB131
BB155
BB190
BB133
BB148 ■
BB153 ■
BB148 ■
BGA2001
BF410A
BF410B
BF410C
BF410D
J177
J108
J109
J110
BAP65-02 ■
BAP65-03 ■
BAP63-01 ■
BAP63-02 ■
BAP50-02 ■
BB200
BB140-01
BA277
BB178
BB187 ■
BB179
BB182
BB153
BB133
BB148
Matsushita
Matsushita
Matsushita
Matsushita
Matsushita
Matsushita
Matsushita
Matsushita
Matsushita
Matsushita
Matsushita
Matsushita
Matsushita
Motorola
Motorola
Motorola
Motorola
Motorola
Motorola
Motorola
Motorola
Motorola
Motorola
Motorola
Motorola
Motorola
Motorola
Motorola
Motorola
Motorola
Motorola
Motorola
Motorola
Motorola
Motorola
Motorola
Motorola
Motorola
Motorola
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Motorola
Motorola
Motorola
Motorola
Motorola
Motorola
Motorola
Motorola
Motorola
Toshiba
Motorola
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Rohm
Rohm
Rohm
Rohm
Rohm
Vishay
Page: 78
MA368
MA372
MA372
MA374
MA377
MA4CP101A
MA4P274-1141
MA4P275-1141
MA4P275CK-287
MA4P277-1141
MA4P278-287
MA4P789-1141
MA4P789ST-287
MMBF4391
MMBF4392
MMBF4393
MMBF4416
MMBF4860
MMBF5484
MMBFJ113
MMBFJ174
MMBFJ175
MMBFJ176
MMBFJ177
MMBFJ308
MMBFJ309
MMBFJ310
MMBFU310
MMBR5031L
MMBR5179L
MMBR571L
MMBR901L
MMBR911L
MMBR920L
MMBR931L
MMBR941BL
MMBR941L
MMBR951AL
MMBR951L
MPF102
MPF4391
MPF4392
MPF4393
MPF4416
MPF970
MPF971
MRF577
MRF5811L
MRF917
MRF927
MRF9411L
MRF947
MRF947A
MRF9511L
MRF957
MT4S34U
PRF947B
PZFJ108
PZFJ109
PZFJ110
RN142G
RN142S
RN731V
RN739D
RN739F
S503T
BB131
BB149
BB149A
BB164
BB141 ■
BAP65-03
BAP51-03
BAP65-03
BAP65-05
BAP70-03
BAP70-03
BAP1321-03
BAP1321-04
PMBF4391
PMBF4392
PMBF4393
PMBF4416
PMBFJ112
BFR31
PMBFJ113
PMBFJ174
PMBFJ175
PMBFJ176
PMBFJ177
PMBFJ308
PMBFJ309
PMBFJ310
PMBFJ310
BFS17
BFS17A
PBR951
BFR92A
BFR93A
BFR93A
BFT25A
PBR941
PBR941
PBR951
PBR951
BF245A
PN4391
PN4392
PN4393
PN4416
J174
J176
PRF957
BFG93A/X
BFQ67W
BFS25A
BFG520/X
BFS520
PRF947
BFG540/X
PRF957
BFG410W
PRF947
J108
J109
J110
BAP1321-03
BAP1321-02
BAP50-03 ■
BAP50-04 ■
BAP50-04W ■
BF909(A)
2nd edition
RF Manual
Vishay
Vishay
Vishay
Vishay
Vishay
Vishay
Vishay
Vishay
Vishay
Vishay
Vishay
Vishay
Vishay
Vishay
Vishay
Vishay
Vishay
Alpha/Skyworks
Alpha/Skyworks
Alpha/Skyworks
Alpha/Skyworks
Alpha/Skyworks
Alpha/Skyworks
Alpha/Skyworks
Alpha/Skyworks
Alpha/Skyworks
Alpha/Skyworks
Alpha/Skyworks
Alpha/Skyworks
Alpha/Skyworks
Alpha/Skyworks
Alpha/Skyworks
S503TR
S503TRW
S504T
S504TR
S504TRW
S505T
S505TR
S505TRW
S595T
S595TR
S595TRW
S949T
S949TR
S949TRW
S974T
S974TR
S974TRW
SMP1302-004
SMP1302-005
SMP1302-011
SMP1302-074
SMP1302-075
SMP1302-079
SMP1304-001
SMP1304-011
SMP1307-001
SMP1307-011
SMP1320-004
SMP1320-011
SMP1320-074
SMP1321-001
SMP1321-005
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
BF909(A)R
BF909(A)WR
BF904(A)
BF904(A)R
BF904(A)WR
BF1101
BF1101R
BF1101WR
BF1105
BF1105R
BF1105WR
BF1109
BF1109R
BF1109WR
BF1109
BF1109R
BF1109WR
BAP50-05 ■
BAP50-04 ■
BAP50-03 ■
BAP50-05W ■
BAP50-04W ■
BAP50-02 ■
BAP70-03
BAP70-03
BAP70-03
BAP70-03
BAP65-05
BAP65-03
BAP65-05W
BAP1321-03
BAP1321-04 ■
Alpha/Skyworks
Alpha/Skyworks
Alpha/Skyworks
Alpha/Skyworks
Alpha/Skyworks
Alpha/Skyworks
Alpha/Skyworks
Alpha/Skyworks
Alpha/Skyworks
Alpha/Skyworks
Alpha/Skyworks
Alpha/Skyworks
Alpha/Skyworks
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
SMP1321-011
SMP1321-075
SMP1321-079
SMP1322-004
SMP1322-011
SMP1322-074
SMP1322-079
SMP1340-011
SMP1340-079
SMP1352-011
SMP1352-079
SMV1236-011
SMV1263-079
SST111
SST112
SST113
SST174
SST175
SST176
SST177
SST201
SST202
SST203
SST308
SST309
SST310
SST4391
SST4392
SST4393
SST4416
SST4856
SST4857
BAP1321-03 ■
BAP1321-04
BAP1321-02 ■
BAP65-05 ■
BAP65-03 ■
BAP65-05W ■
BAP65-02 ■
BAP63-03
BAP63-02
BAP64-03 ■
BAP64-02 ■
BB151
BB143
PMBFJ111
PMBFJ112
PMBFJ113
PMBFJ174
PMBFJ175
PMBFJ176
PMBFJ177
BFT46
BFR31
BFR30
PMBFJ308
PMBFJ309
PMBFJ310
PMBF4391
PMBF4392
PMBF4393
PMBF4416
BSR56
BSR57
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Hitachi
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Indust. standard
Vishay
NEC
NEC
NEC
NEC
NEC
NEC
NEC
NEC
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/products/xref/
Page: 79
SST4858
SST4859
SST4860
SST4861
TBB1004
TMPF4091
TMPF4092
TMPF4093
TMPF4391
TMPF4392
TMPF4393
TMPFB246A
TMPFB246B
TMPFB246C
TMPFJ111
TMPFJ112
TMPFJ113
TMPFJ174
TMPFJ175
TMPFJ176
TMPFJ177
TSDF54040
uPC2709
uPC2711
uPC2712
uPC2745
uPC2746
uPC2748
uPC2771
uPC8112
BSR58
BSR56
BSR57
BSR58
BF1203
PMBF4391
PMBF4392
PMBF4393
PMBF4391
PMBF4392
PMBF4393
BSR56
BSR57
BSR58
PMBFJ111
PMBFJ112
PMBFJ113
PMBFJ174
PMBFJ175
PMBFJ176
PMBFJ177
BF1102
BGA2709
BGA2711
BGA2712
BGA2001
BGA2001
BGA2748
BGA2771
BGA2022
2nd edition
RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 80
9. Packaging
Online package information on Philips Semiconductors website:
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/package/
-
Why packaging
Packaging of discrete dies has in general two purposes:
• Protection of the die against hostile environmental influences
• Making the handling much easier compared to using the small naked die.
In stead of sophisticated die- and wirebonding and encapsulation of the naked die, the
relative easy processes of pick&place and softsoldering can be used.
- How to make present day packages
Majority of discrete packages these days are made according to the same principle:
A die is soldered or glued on one of the leads (diepad) of a metal carrier (leadframe).
The connections on top of the die are wirebonded to the rest of the leads(wedgetabs). The
device is encapsulated in an epoxy compound, plated with PbSn or (in future) Pb-free solder,
trim/formed, tested, marked and packed. These packages have leads which can be soldered
to the PCB. Size is determined by leadframecapabilities, die- and wirebonding.
How to make future packages
The trend for future packages is clearly towards leadless concepts. This means that the
contacts are underneath the package as solderpad or solderbump. Size is determined mainly
by PCB and pick& place capabilities.
Concepts range from substrate/plastic combinations to naked dies with solderbumps. The last
option is interesting for large dies or very small packages.
SOD882
Leadless
package for
diodes
SOT883
Leadless
package for
transistors
Inside
Topview
Bottomview
2nd edition
RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
GULL WING
Page: 81
FLAT LEAD
7
SOT363
SOT547
6
SOT143
ds
SOT665
SOT353
5
4
lea
SOT666
SOT223
SOT89
SOT343
SOT323
3
SOT346
SOT663
SOT416
SOD523
SOT23
2
SOD323
100
10
Real Estate Area [mm 2]
SOD723
2.5
1
Following SMD packages are available:
LEADS
SOT(D)
SC
363
88
6
457
74
666
353
88A
5
665
143B(R)
(61B)
4
343N(R)
Length [mm]
Width [mm]
Height [mm]
Pwr [W]
2
Body [mm ]
2.00
1.25
0.90
300
2.50
2.90
1.50
0.90
500
4.35
1.60
1.20
0.55
300
1.92
2.00
1.25
0.90
300
2.50
1.60
1.20
0.55
300
1.92
2.90
1.30
0.90
250
3.80
2.00
1.25
0.90
250
2.50
LEADS
SOT(D)
SC
416
75
323
70
23
346
59
89
62
223
73
490
89
663
Length [mm]
Width [mm]
Height [mm]
Pwr [W]
2
Body [mm ]
1.60
0.80
0.80
200
1.28
2.00
1.25
0.90
250
2.50
2.90
1.30
0.90
250
3.77
2.90
1.50
1.10
250
4.35
4.50
2.50
1.50
1400
11.25
6.50
3.50
1.60
1500
22.75
1.60
0.80
0.70
250
1.28
1.60
1.20
0.55
250
1.92
LEADS
SOT(D)
SC
323
76
2
523
79
723
Length [mm]
Width [mm]
Height [mm]
Pwr [W]
2
Body [mm ]
1.70
1.25
0.90
200
2.13
1.20
0.80
0.70
150
0.96
1.00
0.60
0.50
150
0.60
3
2nd edition
RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 82
10. Promotion Materials
For samples or promotion materials below, please contact your Philips Account
Manager or contact person in your region, see contacts & references.
Focus
Description
Deliverable
12NC
RF General
RF General
RF General
RF General
RF General
RF General
Packaging
Packaging
Tuning
Tuning
Pin diodes
Pin diodes
Pin diodes
MMIC's
MMIC's
MMIC's
Wideband ampifiers
Wideband ampifiers
Wideband ampifiers
Wideband ampifiers
Wideband ampifiers
Wideband ampifiers
Wideband transistors
Wideband transistors
Wideband transistors
Your peRFect discretes partner
PeRFectly tuned in to your ideas
Standard Products Selection Guide 2002
The peRFect connection
Philips Semiconductors comprehensive product portfolio
Double polysilicon
Discrete Packages 2000
Discrete Semiconductor Packages
RF Tuning Sample Kit (available end of 2002)
Small-signal Field-effect Transistors and Diodes
Pin diodes designed for RF applications up to 3GHz
Pin diodes
Pin diodes
Optimized MMICs Gain Blocks
MMICs
RF Wideband Transistors and MMICs
50 ohm gain block for IF, buffer and driver amplifier: BGA2709
50 ohm gain block for IF, buffer and driver amplifier: BGA2711
50 ohm gain block for IF, buffer and driver amplifier: BGA2712
50 ohm gain block for IF, buffer and driver amplifier: BGA2748
50 ohm gain block for IF, buffer and driver amplifier: BGA2771
50 ohm gain block for IF, buffer and driver amplifier: BGA2776
Wideband transistors
RF Wideband Transistors and MMICs
Wideband transistors
Brochure
Brochure
Guide
Brochure
CDRom
Fact sheet
Brochure
Databook SC18
Sample kit
Databook SC07
Leaflet
Replacement card
Sample kit *
Leaflet
Sample kit *
Databook SC14
Demoboard
Demoboard
Demoboard
Demoboard
Demoboard
Demoboard
Linecard
Databook SC14
Sample kit *
9397 750 04634
9397 750 07019
9397 750 09014
9397 750 07928
9397 750 07536
9397 750 04787
9397 750 05988
9397 750 05011
Contact RSO
9397 750 06017
9397 750 08008
9397 750 08573
9397 750 07299
9397 750 07976
9397 750 0978
9397 750 06311
Contact RSO
Contact RSO
Contact RSO
Contact RSO
Contact RSO
Contact RSO
9397 750 08634
9397 750 06311
9397 750 08553
ad *: contact your RSO
2nd edition
RF Manual
product & design manual for RF small signal discretes
Page: 83
11. Contacts & References
Online Royal Philips homepage:
http://www.philips.com/InformationCenter/Global/FHomepage.asp?lNodeId=13&lArticleId=
For support, look for your contact person in your region:
Europe:
Paul Scheepers
+31-40-2737673
[email protected]
Marten Martens
+31-40-2737528
[email protected]
Andreas Fix (technical support)
+49-9081804 -132
[email protected]
Asia Pacific:
Wilson Wong
(Tuning)
+65-6882 3639
[email protected]
Bennett Hua
(WB/MMIC)
+886-2-2382 3224
[email protected]
Richard Xu
(China)
+86-21-63541088
[email protected]
+1-508 851-2254
[email protected]
Ercan Sengil (technical support) +1-508 851-2236
ercan.s[email protected]
North America:
Paul Wilson
Editor:
Ronald Thissen, +31-24-3536195, [email protected]
International Product Marketeer RF Consumer Products
Philips Semiconductors B.V.
BU Mobile Communications, BL RF Modules
Gerstweg 2, 6534 AE Nijmegen, The Netherlands
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