Tisch Environmental, Inc. OPERATIONS MANUAL

Tisch Environmental, Inc. OPERATIONS MANUAL
Tisch Environmental, Inc.
OPERATIONS MANUAL
TE-6000 Series
TE-6070, TE-6070-BL, TE-6070D, TE-6070D-BL
TE-6070V, TE-6070V-BL, TE-6070DV, TE-6070DV-BL
PM10
Particulate Matter 10 Microns and less
High Volume Air Sampler
U.S. EPA Federal Reference Number
RFPS-0202-141
145 South Miami Avenue
Village of Cleves, Ohio 45002
Toll Free: TSP AND - PM10
(877) 263 - 7610
Direct: (513) 467-9000
FAX: (513) 467-9009
Web Site: www.Tisch-Env.com
Email: [email protected]
Manual: Rev1 dated 8/10/2010
1
PREFACE:
Information within this Operation Manual has been
compiled from many users and drawn from many years of experience.
More detailed information about PM-10 sampling is available from the
United States Environmental Protection Agency. The EPA has published
a Quality Assurance Handbook Section 2.11, which can be used for
supplemental guidance.
Additional information can be found in 40
Code of Federal Regulations Part 50, Appendixes J and M. Appendix J
is printed within this document.
An additional on-line source of
information is available at www.epa.gov/ttn/amtic.
Tisch Environmental, Inc. produces a broad range of pollution
measuring instruments for all types of industrial, service and
governmental applications.
TEI is a family business located
in the Village of Cleves, Ohio.
TEI employees skilled
personnel who average over 20 years of experience each in the
design, manufacture, and support of air pollution monitoring
equipment.
Our
modern
well-equipped
factory,
quality
philosophy and experience have made TEI the supplier of choice
air pollution monitoring equipment. Now working on the f ourth
generation, TEI has state-of-the-art manufacturing capability
and is looking into the future needs of today’s environmental
professionals.
CONTENTS
Page
Warranty
3
Quality Policy Statement
3
Warning of Safety Hazards/Safety Precautions
4 - 5
Schematic Diagram PM-10 Head TE-6001
5
TE-6001 Replacement Parts List
6
Schematic of PM-10 System-Lower Section
7
Description of Instruments
8 - 9
Explanation of indicators, displays, and controls
10 - 21
Setup and Installation Instructions – Mass Flow Systems
22
Setup and Installation Instructions – Volumetric Flow Systems
23 - 24
Electrical Hookup
24 - 31
Calibration Requirements and Calibration Kits
32
Calibration procedures – Mass Flow controlled with Brush-type motors 33 – 42
Calibration procedures – Mass Flow controlled with Brush-less motors 43 – 56
Calibration procedures – Volumetric flow controlled systems
53 – 60
Total Volume Calculations Mass Flow Controlled Systems
60
Total Volume Calculations Volumetric Flow Controlled Systems
61 - 62
Sampler Operation
63
Verification of Proper Operation
64 - 65
Troubleshooting/corrective maintenance procedures
65 - 66
Routine maintenance
67
Motor Brush Replacement – Mass Flow Controlled Systems
68
Motor Brush Replacement – Volumetric Flow Controlled Systems
69
Description of Method - Appendix J Part 50
70 – 76
2
Warranty
Tisch Environmental, Inc. warrants instruments of its manufacture to be free
of defect in material and workmanship for one year from the date of shipment
to the purchaser. Its liability is limited to the service or replacing any
defective part of any instrument returned to the factory by the original
purchaser. All service traceable to defects in original material or
workmanship is considered warranty service and is performed free of charge.
The expense of warranty shipping charges to and from our factory will be borne
by Tisch Environmental. Service performed to rectify an instrument malfunction
caused by abuse or neglect and service performed after the one year warranty
period will be charged to the customer at the then current prices for labor,
parts, and transportation. The right is reserved to make changes in
construction, design, and prices without prior notice.
Quality Policy
Tisch Environmental, Inc. specializes in the manufacture and supply of
quality, reliable and safe equipment for environmental studies.
The objective of the company is to supply products that are fit for use and
have the desired quality in accordance with customer requirements and
published specifications. Our customers expect safe, reliable and optimum cost
products delivered on time.
To achieve the above objective and satisfy the customer expectations, the
Company is totally committed to implementing and maintaining the Quality
Management System based on ISO9002.
Quality problems arising in various areas are to be identified and solved with
speed, technical efficiency and economy. We shall focus our resources, both
technical and human, towards the prevention of quality deficiencies to satisfy
the organizational goals of “right first time…every time”.
The successful operation of the system relies upon the co-operation and
involvement of personnel at all levels. Our commitment to quality will ensure
the continued success of our Company and the satisfaction of our customers and
staff.
The Quality Coordinator is authorized to ensure that the requirements of this
Quality System are implemented. Any problems that can not be solved between
departments or personnel shall be brought to my attention for final
resolution.
President
3
Tisch Environmental, Inc.
WARNINGS OF SAFETY HAZARDS/SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
Read and understand all instructions. Failure to follow all
instructions listed in this manual may result in electric
shock, fire and/or personal injury. Save these instructions.
Never operate this unit when flammable materials or vapors are
present because electrical devices produce arcs or sparks that
can cause a fire or explosion. When using an electrical
device, basic precautions should always be followed including
the following section of this manual. Be sure to disconnect
power supply before attempting to service or remove any
components. Never immerse electrical parts in water or any
other liquid. Avoid body contact with grounded surfaces when
plugging and un-plugging this device in wet conditions.
ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION
Installation must be carried out by specialized personnel
only, and must adhere to all local safety rules. As this unit
can be supplied for different power supply versions, before
connecting the unit to the power line, check if the voltage
shown on the serial number tag corresponds to the one of your
power supply. This product uses grounded plugs and wires.
Grounding provides a path of least resistance for electric
current to reduce the risk of electric shock. This system is
equipped with electrical cords that have ground wires internal
to them and a grounding plug. The plug must be plugged into a
matching outlet that is properly installed and grounded in
accordance with all local codes and ordinances. Do not modify
the plug provided, if it will not fit the outlet, have the
proper outlet installed by a qualified electrician.
DO NOT ABUSE CORDS
In the event any electrical component of this system is to be
transported, DO NOT carry by its cord or unplug it by yanking
the cord from the outlet. Pull plugs rather than cord to
reduce the risk of damage. Keep all cords away from heat,
oil, sharp objects, and moving parts.
EXTENSION CORDS
It is always best to use the shortest extension cord as
possible. Grounded units require a three-wire extension cord.
As the distance from the supply outlet increases, you must
use a heavier gauge extension cord. Using extension cords
with inadequately sized wire causes a serious drop in voltage,
resulting in loss of power and possible damage to the
4
equipment. It is recommended to only use 10-gauge extension
cords for this product. Never use cords over one hundred
feet. Outdoor extension cords are to be marked with the
suffix “W-A” (“W” in Canada) to indicate that it is acceptable
for outdoor use. Be sure your extension cord is properly
wired and in good electrical condition. Always replace a
damaged extension cord or have it repaired by a qualified
person before using it. Protect your extension cords from
sharp objects, excessive heat and damp or wet areas.
Schematic Diagram PM-10 Head TE-6001
5
TE-6001 REPLACEMENT PARTS
Item
No.
Part
No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
43.
44.
45.
5018
TE-6001-1
TE-6001-2
TE-6001-3
TE-6001-4
TE-6001-5
TE-6001-6
TE-6001-7
TE-6001-8
TE-6001-9
TE-6001-10
TE-6001-11
TE-6001-12
TE-6001-13
TE-6001-14
TE-6001-15
TE-6001-16
TE-6001-19
TE-6001-20
TE-6001-21
TE-6001-22
TE-6001-23
TE-6001-24
TE-6001-25
TE-6001-26
TE-6001-27
TE-6001-28
TE-6001-29
TE-6001-30
TE-6001-31
TE-6001-32
TE-6001-35
TE-6001-36
TE-6001-37
TE-6001-38
TE-6001-39
TE-6001-40
TE-6001-43
TE-6001-44
TE-6001-45
TE-5018
Size Selective Inlet
Description
Hood
Acceleration Nozzle Plate with 9 nozzles
Acceleration Nozzle
Acceleration Nozzle Plate Gasket
Top Tub Housing
Top Tub Housing Strike
Top Tub Housing Hinge
Top Tub Housing Strut Holder Large
Top Tub Housing Strut Holder Shoulder Bolt
Strut
Bead Gasket Strip (between tubs)
Brass Alignment Pin Large
Bottom Tub Housing
Bottom Tub Housing Catch (no hook)
Bottom Tub Housing Catch Hook
Bottom Tub Housing Hinge
Bug Screen Support Angle
Bug Screen with edging
Bug Screen black edging
1st Stage Plate with 16 Vent Tubes
1st Stage Plate Vent Tube
Shim Plate
Shim Plate Clips
Spring for Shim Clips
Small Brass Alignment Pin
Inlet Base Pan
Inlet Base Pan Strike
Inlet Base Pan Hinge Bracket
Inlet Base Pan Hinge Bracket Shoulder Bolt
Inlet Base Pan Strut Bracket
Shelter Base Pan
Shelter Base Pan Gasket 16"x 16"
Shelter Base Pan Catch with bolt
Shelter Base Pan Catch Spacers
Shelter Base Pan Hinge Bracket
Shelter Base Pan Strut Holder Shoulder Bolt
Brass Bolt Assembly with wing nuts
Hood Spacers
Hood Spacer Bag Complete
8"x 10" Gasket
6
Item
Description
A
B
C
TE-10557 Volumetric Flow Controller
TE-5012 Elapsed Time Indicator
TE-5070 Volumetric Flow Controlled Blower Motor Assembly or TE-5070-BL
Brush-less Blower Motor Assembly (not shown)
TE-5007 Mechanical Timer or TE-302 Digital Timer (not shown)
TE-300-310 Mass Flow Controller or TE-300-312 Digital Timer/Mass Flow
Controller
TE-5005 Mass Flow Controlled Blower Motor Assembly or TE-5005-BL
Brush-less Blower Motor Assembly (not shown)
TE-5009 Continuous Flow/Pressure Recorder
TE-6003 Filter Holder
TE-3000 Filter Media Holder/Filter Paper Cartridge 8” x 10”
TE-6002 Anodized Aluminum Shelter
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
7
DESCRIPTION OF INSTRUMENTS
MODEL TE-6070 PM10 SYSTEM INCLUDES:
TE-5005 Blower Motor Assembly.
TE-300-310 Mass Flow Controller with 20 to 60 SCFM Air Flow Probe
TE-6003 PM10 8” x 10” Stainless Steel Filter Holder w/probe hole for MFC
TE-5007 7-Day Mechanical Timer
TE-5009 Continuous Flow/Pressure Recorder
TE-6001 Size Selective PM10 Inlet
TE-3000 Filter Media Holder/Filter Paper Cartridge 8” x 10”
TE-5012 Elapsed Time Indicator
TE-6002 PM10 Anodized Aluminum Shelter
MODEL TE-6070-BL PM10 SYSTEM INCLUDES:
1)
TE-5005-BL Brush-less Blower Motor Assembly
TE-300-310-BL Brush-less Mass Flow Controller with 20 to 60 SCFM Air Flow
Probe
TE-6003 PM10 8” x 10” Stainless Steel Filter Holder w/probe hole for MFC
TE-5007 7-Day Mechanical Timer
TE-5009 Continuous Flow/Pressure Recorder
TE-6001 Size Selective PM10 Inlet
TE-3000 Filter Media Holder/Filter Paper Cartridge 8” x 10”
TE-5012 Elapsed Time Indicator
TE-6002 PM10 Anodized Aluminum Shelter
MODEL TE-6070D PM10 SYSTEM SAME AS TE-6070 EXCEPT A DIGITAL TIMER IN PLACE OF
A 7 DAY MECH. TIMER.
TE-5005 Blower Motor Assembly
TE-300-312 Combination Mass Flow Controller with 20 to 60 SCFM Air Flow Probe
Digital Timer and Digital Elapsed Time Indicator
TE-6003 PM10 8” x 10” Stainless Steel Filter Holder w/probe hole for MFC
TE-5009 Continuous Flow/Pressure Recorder
TE-6001 Size Selective PM10 Inlet
TE-3000 Filter Media Holder/Filter Paper Cartridge 8” x 10”
TE-6002 PM10 Anodized Aluminum Shelter
MODEL TE-6070D-BL PM10 SYSTEM SAME AS TE-6070-BL EXCEPT DIGITAL TIMER IN PLACE
OF A 7 DAY MECH. TIMER.
TE-5005-BL Brush-less Blower Motor Assembly
TE-300-310-BL Brush-less Mass Flow Controller with 20 to 60 SCFM Air Flow
Probe
TE-6003 PM10 8” x 10” Stainless Steel Filter Holder w/probe hole for MFC
TE-302 Solid State Digital Timer Programmer w/Digital E.T.I.
TE-5009 Continuous Flow/Pressure Recorder
TE-6001 Size Selective PM10 Inlet
TE-3000 Filter Media Holder/Filter Paper Cartridge 8” x 10”
TE-6002 PM10 Anodized Aluminum Shelter
MODEL TE-6070V PM10 SYSTEM INCLUDES:
TE-5070 Blower Motor Assembly For VFC System
TE-10557 PM10 Volumetric Flow Controller w/Flow Look Up Table
TE-6003V PM10 8” x 10” Filter Holder w/Stagnation Pressure Tap
TE-5007 7-Day Mechanical Timer
TE-5009 Continuous Flow/Pressure Recorder
TE-6001 Size Selective PM10 Inlet
TE-3000 Filter Media Holder/Filter Paper Cartridge 8” x 10”
TE-5012 Elapsed Time Indicator
TE-6002 PM10 Anodized Aluminum Shelter
TE-5030 30” Slack Tube Water Manometer 15”-0-15”
8
MODEL TE-6070V-BL PM10 SYSTEM INCLUDES:
TE-5070BL Brush-less Blower Motor Assembly for VFC System
TE-10557-PM10-BL Volumetric Flow Controller w/Flow Look Up Table
TE-6003V PM10 8” x 10 Filter Holder w/Stagnation Pressure Tap
TE-5007 7-Day Mechanical Timer
TE-5009 Continuous Flow/Pressure Recorder
TE-6001 Size Selective PM10 Inlet
TE-3000 Filter Media Holder/Filter Paper Cartridge 8” x 10”
TE-5012 Elapsed Time Indicator
TE-6002 PM10 Anodized Aluminum Shelter
TE-5030 30” Slack Tube Water Manometer 15”-0-15”
TE-10965 Step up Transformer 110v to 220v VFC Motor
MODEL TE-6070DV PM10 SYSTEM SAME AS TE-6070V EXCEPT A DIGITAL TIMER IN PLACE
OF 7 DAY MECH. TIMER.
TE-5070 Blower Motor Assembly for VFC System
TE-10557 PM10 Volumetric Flow Controller w/Flow Look Up Table
TE-6003V PM10 8” X 10” Filter Holder w/Stagnation Pressure Tap
TE-302 Solid State Digital Timer Programmer w/Digital E.T.I.
TE-5009 Continuous Flow/Pressure Recorder
TE-6001 Size Selective PM10 Inlet
TE-3000 Filter Media Holder/Filter Paper Cartridge 8” X 10”
TE-6002 PM10 Anodized Aluminum Shelter
TE-5030 30” Slack Tube Water Manometer 15”-0-15”
MODEL TE-6070DV-BL PM10 SYSTEM SAME AS TE-6070V-BL EXCEPT DIGITAL TIMER IN
PLACE OF 7 DAY MECH. TIMER.
TE-5070-BL Brush-less Blower Motor Assembly for VFC System
TE-10557-PM10-BL Volumetric Flow Controller w/Flow Look Up Table
TE-6003V PM10 8” x 10” Filter Holder w/Stagnation Pressure Tap
TE-302 Solid State Digital Timer Programmer w/Digital E.T.I.
TE-5009 Continuous Flow/Pressure Recorder
TE-6001 Size Selective PM10 Inlet
TE-3000 Filter Media Holder/Filter Paper Cartridge 8” x 10”
TE-6002 PM10 Anodized Aluminum Shelter
TE-5030 30” Slack Tube Water Manometer 15”-0-15”
TE-10965 Step up Transformer 110v to 220v VFC Motor
MODEL TE-6000 PM10 SYSTEMS SAME AS TE-6070 EXCEPT DIGITAL TIMER AND AUTO
DOWNLOAD.
TE-5005 Blower Motor Assembly
TE-300 Combination Mass Flow Controller with 20 to 60 SCFM Air Flow Probe,
Electronic Timer and Auto Down Load
TE-6003 PM10 8” x 10” Stainless Steel Filter Holder w/probe hole for MFC
TE-5009 Continuous Flow/Pressure Recorder
TE-6001 Size Selective PM10 Inlet
TE-3000 Filter Paper Media Holder/Filter Paper Cartridge 8” x 10”
TE-5012 Elapsed Time Indicator
TE-6002 PM10 Anodized Aluminum Shelter
EXPLANATION OF INDICATORS, DISPLAYS, AND CONTROLS
TE-300-310
Mass Flow Controller with 20 to 60 SCFM Air Flow Probe. Controls a
9
constant flow rate through, 8” x 10” Filter Media (TE-QMA Micro
Quartz Filter Media Required for PM10). See Photo Below.
TE-300-310-BL Brush-less Mass Flow Controller with 20 to 60 SCFM Air Flow
Probe.
Controls a constant flow rate through, 8” x 10” Filter Media (TEQMA Micro Quartz Filter Media Required for PM10). This product is
similar to above flow controller in size, shape and operation .
TE-300-312 Combination Mass Flow Controller w/20 to 60 SCFM Air Flow
Probe,Digital Timer and Digital Elapsed Time Indicator. Controls a
constant Flow rate through 8” x 10” Filter Media (TE-QMA Micro
Quartz Filter Media required for PM10) Also turns sampler on/off
at precise times while registering elapsed time on a re-settable
digital E.T.I. See photo below
10
TE-10557 PM10 Volumetric Flow Controller w/Look Up Table. Controls a Constant
Flow through, 8” x 10’ Filter Media (TE-QMA Micro Quartz Filter
Media required for PM10). See Photo Below.
TE-10557 PM10-BL Brushless Volumetric Flow Controller w/Look Up Table.
Controls a Constant Flow through, 8” x 10’ Filter Media (TE-QMA Micro Quartz
Filter Media required or PM10). See Photo Below
11
TE-5012
Elapsed Time Indicator Mechanical E.T.I. registers how long the
PM10
System ran (non re-settable) 00000.00 hours and tenths of hour.
TE-5013
Elapsed Time Indicator Mechanical E.T.I. Registers how long the
PM10 System ran 0000.0 minutes. Similar to TE-5012 ETI except
this product features a re-settable clock.
TE-3000
Filter Media Holder/Filter Paper Cartridge facilitates the
changing of filters by keeping contamination off the clean filter
12
and protects the particulate on the filter from being disturbed
during transit. Shown in photo below on top of TE-6003.
TE-6003
PM10 Stainless Steel 8” x 10” Filter Holder used with Mass Flow
Controller PM10 System. Filter Holder has a Probe Hole for 20 to
60 SCFM MFC Flow Probe.
TE-6002
PM10 Anodized Aluminum Shelter for all Tisch Environmental PM10
Systems. This Shelter supports the PM10 Size Selective Inlet. Also
protects the other components of the PM10 System.
TE-6003V
PM10 Stainless Steel 8” x 10” Filter Holder used with Volumetric
Controlled PM10 System. Filter Holder has a Stagnation Pressure
Tap to measure Pressure Drop across the Filter Paper. Similar to
TE-6003 pictured above with the stagnation pressure tap located on
the side.
TE-10965
Step up transformer used with Model TE-6070V-BL, TE-6070DV-BL PM10
system. Not Pictured
TE-5030
30" Slack Tube Water Manometer 15"-0-15", used to measure flow
rate.
Filling Instructions:

Using 1 quart distilled water, add ¾ oz. bottle of TE10255 Fluorescent green color concentrate.

Remove a tubing connector from the manometer and pour
fluid in to mid-point level.

Shake to remove air bubbles and slide scale so zero is in
line with the meniscus of the two fluid columns.
For readings in inches of mercury, fill with 13.6 SP. GR. triple
distilled mercury. When used with mercury, some discoloration of
the vinyl tubing will normally occur.
Reading the Slack Tube Manometer:

Connect the manometer to the source of pressure, vacuum or
differential pressure. When the pressure is imposed add
the number of inches one column travels up to the amount
13

TE-5005-BL
the other column travels down to obtain the pressure
reading.
Should one column travel further than the other column,
due to minor variations in tube I.D. or to pressure
imposed, the accuracy of the pressure reading thus
obtained is not impaired. The U-tube Manometer is a
primary measuring device indicating pressure by the
difference in the height of two columns of fluid. The
fact that one column travels further than the other does
not affect the accuracy of the reading.
Blower Motor Assembly (Brushless Type with 5-wire connector) used
with Mass Flow Controlled PM10 System.
TE-5070-BL Blower Motor Assembly (Brushless Type with 3-wire connector) used
with Volumetric Flow Controlled PM0 Systems.
14
TE-5005
Blower Motor Assembly (Brush Type) used with Mass Flow Controller
PM10 System.
TE-5070
Blower Motor Assembly (Brush Type) used with Volumetric Flow
Controlled PM0 Systems.
15
TE-5028
Variable Resistance Calibration Kit. This model is recommended for
all Tisch Environmental PM10 Systems. Included: Variable Orifice,
NIST Traceable Calibration Certificate, Adapter Plate, Slack Tube
Manometer, Tubing and Carrying Case.
TE-5007
Seven Day Mechanical Timer, used to turn sampler on and off at
selected times.
PROGRAMMING INSTRUCTIONS
1) To Set “ON” Times, Place Bright ON Trippers Against Edge of ClockDial At Day-of-Week And Time-of-Day When “ON” Operations Are
Desired. Tighten Tripper Screws Securely.
2) To Set “OFF” Times, Place Dark OFF Trippers Against Edge of
Clock-Dial At Time When “OFF” Operations Are Desired. Tighten
Tripper Screws Securely.
3) To Skip Days, Omit Trippers for The Day(s) Automatic Operations
Is/Are Not Required.
4) To Set Dial To Time-Of-Day, Turn Dial Clockwise And Align The
Exact Day-of-Week And Time-of-Day (AM OR PM) On Dial With The Time
Pointer. Some Allowance May Be Required To Compensate for Gear
Backlash.
CAUTION: DO NOT MOVE POINTER OR FORCE DIAL COUNTERCLOCKWISE
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
 To Operate Switch Manually: Move Manual Lever Below Clock-Dial
Left or Right as Indicated by Arrows. This Will Not Affect Next
Automatic Operation.
 In Case of Power Failure or to Advance/Retard Time: Reset Time-OfDay
16
See Step 4 of Programming Instructions.
TE-300-313
Combination Mass Flow Controller with 20 to 60 SCFM Air Flow
Probe, 7- Day Mechanical On-Off Timer and Elapsed Time Indicator.
Controls a constant Flow Rate through 8” x 10” Filter Media (TEQMA Micro Quartz Filter Media Required for PM10) Also turns
sampler on and off while registering elapsed time. This product
has the outside appearance of the TE-5007 timer with the
controller and ETI integral to the design.
TE-302
Digital Timer/Elapsed Time Indicator, used to turn sampler on and
off at selected times, and to record elapsed time.
17














Operating Instructions for TE-302 Digital Timer
To set up the digital timer:
Start with the Sampler Switch (Timed – Off – On) Switch #1, in the
Off position.
If you need to test or adjust the blower motor turn the Sampler
switch to On. When done with adjusting, turn it back to Off.
Place the rotary switches in the desired positions.
If today is Friday and you want the first sample time on Sunday, turn
the “Sample After Days” switch to position 2.
If you want to run the sampler every Sunday after that, turn the
“Sample Every Days” switch to position 7, (for six day sampling use
position 6).
Turn “Sample for Hours” to desired number of running hours.
Next put the Display switch, Switch #4, in the Start Time position.
Then using the Set switch, Switch #3, enter the start time, hours and
minutes.
Next put the Display switch, Switch #4, in the Time of Day position.
Then using the Set switch, Switch #3, enter the current time, hours
and minutes.
Now press and release the Reset switch, Switch #2, toward Timer. A
small triangle on the display will start blinking. This indicates the
timer is running.
If you need to reset the Hour Meter to zero.
Press and release the reset switch, Switch #2, twice, toward Hour
Meter.
Last thing to do is place the Sampler switch, Switch #1, (Timed – Off
– On) in the Timed position
18
TE-303 Digital Timer
Setting the Date and Time
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
Press “F3” for
Scroll down to
Select “DATE”,
Select “TIME”,
Press “ESC” to
SETUP
configure, Press “ENT”
insert date, press “ENT”
insert time (HHMM), press “ENT”
return to main status screen
Setting the Timer
1)
2)
3)
4)
Press “F1” for TIMER.
Select “DATE”, insert start date, press “ENT”
Select “TIME”, insert start time (HHMM), press “ENT”
Select “DURATION”, insert desired duration, (0003=3 minutes, 0030=30
minutes, 3000= 30 hours), Press “ENT”
5) Select repeat, select desired repeat interval, (1 in 1=sample every
day; 1 in 2=sample every other day; 1 in 3=sample every 3 days; 1 in
19
6=sample every 6 days; 1 in 7=sample every 7 days; or custom sampling
schedules (HHMM)), Press “ENT”
6) Select “Save and Exit”
7) During a sample the timer can be “STOPPED” or “PAUSED”, during a sample
press “F1” for timer, select “PAUSE” or “ABORT”, select “YES” or “NO”
to confirm.
The TE-303 digital timer has an internal battery backup so in case of a power
failure the timer will remain set and will continue when power is reapplied.
During a power failure the timer will ontinue to run and will stop and start
exactly as it is programmed (example, if the timer is scheduled to start at
9:00 and run for 24 hours it will stop exactly 24 hours from the start-time
regardless of a power failure).
Checking / Resetting the Elapsed Time Indicators (ETI)
The TE-303 has 3 built in ETI’s; one ETI is to track motor life, one for
calibration frequency, and one for user based events. The ETI’s can be reset
at any time and also have a feature that allows the user set alert reminders
for tracking motor life, calibration frequency or user based event.
1) Press “F3” for setup
2) Select “ETI”, press “ENT”
3) To reset ETI’s, select desired ETI, press “ENT”, confirm “YES” or “NO”,
press “ENT”
4) To set “ALERT”, select desired ETI ALERT, press “ENT”, enter alert set
point, press “ENT”
5) Press “ESC”, to return to the main status screen
Manual Motor Control
The TE-303 digital timer is equipped with a manual motor control feature.
This feature allows the user to turn the motor (or what ever is plugged into
to AC out timed cord) to be turned on/off without using the timer.
1)
2)
3)
4)
Press “F3” for SETUP
Select “DIAGNOSTICS”, press “ENT”
Select “MOTOR”, press “ENT” to togger the motor on/off
Be sure that the “MOTOR”
is in the OFF position before exiting
this menu.
5) Press “ESC” to return to main status screen
TE-6001
Size Selective PM10 Inlet (cut point less than 10 micron)
Precision Symmetrical Designed Inlet insures wind direction
insensitivity. Large particles are impacted on a greased shim
plate. Particles smaller than 10 microns are collected on the
8” x 10” Quartz Filter.
20
TE-6001 Closed
TE-6001 Open Position
TE-6001 Shown raised over shelter to expose filter cartridge.
21
SETUP & INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS – MASS FLOW CONTROLLED SYSTEMS TE-6070, TE6070D, TE-6070BL, TE-6070D-BL
UNPACKING & ASSEMBLY
1. Shelter Box - 46" x 20" x 23"
74 lbs
TE-6070
Anodized
Aluminum
Shelter
with
mounted
Flow
Controller, Timer and TE-5009 Continuous Flow Recorder
TE-5005
Blower Motor Assembly with tubing, or brush-less
blower
TE-6003
8” x 10” PM10 Stainless Steel Filter Holder with probe
hole
TE-5005-9
Filter Holder Gasket
TE-3000
Filter Paper Cartridge
Envelope
with TE-106 box of charts, and operations manual
2. Inlet Box - 32" x 32" x 26"
56 lbs
TE-6001 Size Selective Inlet
*** Save the shipping containers and packing material for future use.
1.
Remove all items from the boxes.
2.
Enclosed in the 13" x 10" x 9" box on bottom of shelter is the TE5005 Blower
Motor Assembly. Enclosed in the 13” x 10” x 9” box
inside of shelter is the Filter Holder with TE -5005-9 gasket and
TE-3000 Filter Paper Cartridge. Remove from boxes.
3.
Screw TE-5005 Blower Motor Assembly onto the
(tubing, power cord, and hole in filter holder
right) make sure TE-5005-9 gasket is in place.
4.
Lift TE-6001 SSI, hood, and hood spacer bag from carton and place
on table.
5.
Remove cable tie on bottom of SSI that is holding strut and remove
shoulder bolt and large washer.
6.
Align middle of strut with hole in spacer and fasten with shoulder
bolt and large washer, make sure large washer is on top of strut.
7.
Place SSI on shelter and align shelter base pan 10-24 nutsert
holes with holes in side of shelter and insert four 10-24 x 1”
bolts.
Filter Holder
collar to the
CAUTION: Before opening SSI, be sure that shelter is securely
mounted to ground or floor. Use of out riggers to secure vertical
orientation is strongly recommended.
8.
Place SSI hood onto acceleration nozzle plate (top of SSI).
9.
Locate hood spacer between hood and acceleration nozzle plate and
loosely fasten with 10-32 x ½” thumb bolt, making sure plastic
washer is in place. Do this loosely for all eight hood spacers,
before tightening.
10.
Open TE-6001 SSI by disengaging hooks and lifting the middle
section into the open position. Remove cardboard and rubber bands
that are covering filter holder assembly opening.
11.
Place Blower Motor Assembly on top of Inlet Base Plate. Locate
Mass Flow Probe. Take Flow Controller probe and insert into filter
holder collar. Before tightening be certain probe slot is
positioned so air coming into filter holder goes through the open
section and flows across the ceramic element.
22
12.
Lower filter holder assembly down through opening, making sure 8”
x 10” gasket is under filter holder.
13.
Put TE-3000 Filter Paper Cartridge on top of filter holder and
align the brass bolt assembly with the cartridge. Tighten for
airtight seal.
IMPORTANT: Remove cover on top of TE-3000 Filter Paper Cartridge
before turning on the sampler. The cover is only used to protect
sample from contamination during transport.
14.
Close Inlet, making sure of an airtight seal.
15.
Connect tubing from pressure tap of blower motor to TE-5009 Flow
Recorder.
16.
Before operating, make sure TE-6001-24 Shim Plate has been wiped
clean and then treated with Dow Corning Silicone spray 316,
evenly. See Sampler Operation)
SETUP & INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS – VOLUMETRIC FLOW CONTROLLED SYSTEMS TE-6070V,
TE-6070DV, TE-6070V-BL, TE-6070DV-BL
UNPACKING & ASSEMBLY
1. Shelter Box
46” x 20” x 23”
50 lbs
TE-6070V/BL
Envelope
2. VFC parts box
TE-5030
TE-5070
TE-10557PM10
TE-6003V
Anodized
Aluminum
Shelter
with
mounted
Continuous Flow Recorder and Timer on door with
Elapsed Time Indicator.
Contents: TE-106 charts, and operations manual.
28” x 21” x 10”
20 lbs
30” Water Manometer with VFC Fitting
VFC Blower Motor Assembly, or Brush-less Motor
Volumetric Flow Controller PM10, or Brushless
8” x 10” VFC PM10 Stainless Steel Filter Holder
3. Inlet Box - 32” x 32” x 26”
56 lbs
TE-6001 Size Selective Inlet
*** Save the shipping containers and packing material for future use.
1. Lift SSI, hood, and hood spacer bag from carton and place on table.
2. Remove cable tie on bottom of SSI that is holding strut and remove
shoulder bolt and large washer.
3. Align middle of strut with hole in spacer and fasten with shoulder
bolt and large washer, make sure large washer is on top of strut.
4. Place SSI on shelter and align shelter base pan 10-24 nutsert holes
with holes in side of shelter and insert four 10-24 x 1” bolts.
CAUTION: Before opening SSI, be sure that shelter is securely
mounted to ground or floor. Use of out riggers to secure vertical
orientation is strongly recommended.
5. Place SSI hood onto acceleration nozzle plate (top of SSI).
23
6. Locate hood spacer between hood and acceleration nozzle plate and
loosely fasten with 10-32 x ½” thumb bolt, making sure plastic washer
is in place. Do this loosely for all eight hood spacers, before
tightening.
7. Open TE-6001 SSI by disengaging hooks and lifting the middle section
into the open position. Remove cardboard and rubber bands that are
covering filter holder assembly opening.
8. Screw Filter Holder on to VFC Device, be sure gasket is in place.
9. Lower filter holder assembly down through opening, making sure 8” x
10” gasket is under filter holder.
10.Put TE-3000 Filter Paper Cartridge on top of filter holder and align
the brass bolt assembly with the cartridge. Tighten for airtight
seal.
IMPORTANT: Remove cover on top of TE-3000 Filter Paper Cartridge
before turning on sampler. The cover is only used to protect
sample from contamination during transport.
11.Connect clear piece of tubing from inside of shelter on to brass
pressure tap located on the filter holder side.
12.Close Inlet, making sure of an airtight seal.
13.Before operating, make sure TE-6001-24 Shim Plate has been wiped
clean and then treated with Dow Corning Silicone spray 316, evenly.
(See Sampler Operation)
ELECTRICAL HOOK-UP TE-6070
TE-5005
Blower
Motor
TE-300-310
Mass
Flow
Controller
M
F
TE-5007
7-Day
Mechanic
al
Timer
TE
50
12
ET
I
M
F
M
F
F
M
line voltage
24
TE-5009
Continuo
us
Flow
Recorder
M
The TE-5005 Blower Motor male cord set plugs into the TE-300-310 Mass Flow Controller Female
cord set.
The Mass Flow Controller male cord set plugs into the TE-5012 Elapsed Time Indicator female side.
The male side of the ETI cord set plugs into the TE-5007 7-Day Mechanical Timer timed female cord
set which is on the left side of timer.
The other female cord set on timer (on the right) is hot all the time and plugs into the TE-5009
Continuous Flow Recorder male cord set.
The male cord set of timer plugs into the line voltage.
ELECTRICAL HOOK-UP TE-6070-D
TE-5005
Blower
Motor
TE-300-312
Mass
Flow
Controller
/Digital
Timer/ETI
M
F
TE-5009
Continuous
Flow
Recorder
M
to line voltage
F to Flow Recorder
M
The TE-5005 Blower Motor male cord set plugs into the TE-300-312 Mass Flow Controller/ Digital
Timer/ETI left Timed Female cord set.
The Mass Flow Controller/Digital Timer/ETI male cord set plugs into the line voltage.
The Mass Flow Controller/Digital Timer/ETI right female cord set is hot at all times and plugs into the
TE-5009 Continuous Flow Recorder male cord set.
25
ELECTRICAL HOOK-UP TE-6070-BL
TE-5005BL
Brushless
Blower
Motor
TE-300310BL
Brushless
Mass
Flow
Controller
Special 5 Pin Plug
TE-5007
7-Day
Mechanical
Timer
TE5012
ETI
M
F
M
F
F
TE-5009
Continuous
Flow
Recorder
M
M
line voltage
The TE-5005BL Brushless Blower Motor special 5 pin male cord set plugs into the special 5 pin female
cord set on the TE-300-310BL Brushless Mass Flow Controller.
The Brushless Mass Flow Controller male cord set plugs into the TE-5012 Elapsed Time Indicator
female side.
The male side of the ETI cord set plugs into the TE-5007 7-Day Mechanical Timer timed female cord
set which is on the left side of timer.
The other female cord set on timer (on the right) is hot all the time and plugs into the TE-5009
Continuous Flow Recorder male cord set.
The male cord set of timer plugs into the line voltage.
26
ELECTRICAL HOOK-UP TE-6070-D-BL
TE-5005BL
Brushless
Blower
Motor
TE-302
TE-300310BL
Brushless
Mass
Flow
Controller
Special 5 Pin Plug
TE-5009
Continuous
Flow
Recorder
Digital
Timer
M
F
F
M
M
line voltage
The TE-5005BL Brushless Blower Motor special 5 pin male cord set plugs into the special 5 pin female
cord set on the TE-300-310BL Brushless Mass Flow Controller.
The Brushless Mass Flow Controller male cord set plugs into the TE-302 Digital Timer timed female
cord set which is on the left side of timer.
The other female cord set on the digital timer (on the right) is hot all the time and plugs into the TE-5009
Continuous Flow Recorder male cord set.
The male cord set of the digital timer plugs into the line voltage.
27
ELECTRICAL HOOK-UP TE-6070V
TE-5070
VFC
Blower
Motor
TE-5007
7-Day
Mechanical
Timer
TE-5012
ETI
M
F
M
F
TE-5009
Continuous
Flow
Recorder
F
M
M
line voltage
The TE-5070 VFC Blower Motor male cord set plugs into the TE-5012 Elapsed Time Indicator female
side.
The male side of the ETI cord set plugs into the TE-5007 7-Day Mechanical Timer timed female cord
set which is on the left side of timer.
The other female cord set on timer (on the right) is hot all the time and plugs into the TE-5009
Continuous Flow Recorder male cord set.
The male cord set of timer plugs into the line voltage.
28
ELECTRICAL HOOK-UP TE-6070-DV
TE-5070
VFC
Blower
Motor
TE-302
Digital
Timer
M
F
TE-5009
Continuous
Flow
Recorder
F
M
M
line voltage
The TE-5070 VFC Blower Motor male cord set plugs into the TE-302 Digital Timer timed female cord
set which is on the left side of timer.
The other female cord set on timer (on the right) is hot all the time and plugs into the TE-5009
Continuous Flow Recorder male cord set.
The male cord set of timer plugs into the line voltage.
29
ELECTRICAL HOOK-UP TE-6070V-BL
TE-5070BL
VFC
Brushless
Blower
Motor
Transformer
M
F
M
TE-5007
Mechanical
Timer
TE5012
ETI
F
M
timed
F
TE-5009
Continuous
Flow
Recorder
hot F
M
M
line voltage
The TE-5070-BL Brushless Blower Motor male cord set plugs into the Transformer Female cord set.
The Transformer male cord set plugs into the TE-5012 ETI female end.
The male side of TE-5012 ETI plugs into the left timed female of the TE-5007 Mechanical Timer.
The other female cord set on timer (on the right) is hot all the time and plugs into the TE-5009
Continuous Flow Recorder male cord set.
The male cord set of timer plugs into the line voltage.
30
ELECTRICAL HOOK-UP TE-6070-DV-BL
TE-5070BL
VFC
Brushless
Blower
Motor
TE-302
Digital
Timer
Transformer
M
F
M
timed F
TE-5009
Continuous
Flow
Recorder
hot F
M
M
line voltage
The TE-5070-BL Brushless Blower Motor male cord set plugs into the Transformer Female cord set.
The Transformer male cord set plugs into the TE-302 Digital Timer timed female cord set which is on
the left side of timer.
The other female cord set on timer (on the right) is hot all the time and plugs into the TE-5009
Continuous Flow Recorder male cord set.
The male cord set of timer plugs into the line voltage.
31
GENERAL CALIBRATION REQUIREMENTS
PM10 High Volume Air Samplers should be calibrated:
1. Upon installation
2. After any motor maintenance
3. Once every quarter (three months)
4. After 360 sampling hours
"Note" for supplemental guidance reference EPA's Quality Assurance Handbook
Section 2.11 also Appendix J located at end of this manual.
CALIBRATION KITS
The two types of calibration kits available for PM10 High Volume Air Samplers are the TE-5025 and
the TE-5028.
The TE-5025 utilizes five resistance plates to simulate various filter loading conditions. The TE-5025
calibration kit includes: carrying case, 30” slack tube water manometer, adapter plate, 3’ piece of
tubing, TE-5025A orifice with flow calibration certificate, and 5 load plates (5,7,10,13,18).
The TE-5028 is the preferred method to calibrate PM10 High Volume Air Samplers. It simulates
change in the resistance by merely rotating the knob on the top of the calibrator. The infinite resolution
lets the technician select the desired flow resistance. The TE-5028 calibration kit includes: carrying case,
30” slack tube water manometer, adapter plate, 3’ piece of tubing, and TE-5028A orifice with flow
calibration certificate.
Each TE-5025A and TE-5028A is individually calibrated on a primary standard positive displacement
device, which is directly traceable to NIST.
** It is recommended by USEPA that each calibrator should be re-calibrated annually for
accuracy and reliability.
32
CALIBRATION PROCEDURE-Mass Flow Controlled TE-6070,
TE-6070D
The following is a step-by-step process for the calibration of TE-6070, TE-6070D Mass Flow
Controlled PM10 High Volume Sampling Systems. Following these steps are example calculations
determining the calibration flow rates, and resulting slope and intercept for the sampler. These
instructions pertain to the samplers that have flow controlled by electronic mass flow controllers (MFC)
in conjunction with a continuous flow recorder. This calibration differs from that of a volumetric flow
controlled sampler. The attached example calibration worksheets can be used with either a TE-5025
Fixed Orifice Calibrator that utilize resistance plates to simulate a variation in airflow or a TE-5028
Variable Orifice Calibrator which uses an adjustable or variable orifice. The attached worksheet uses
a variable orifice. Either type of orifice is acceptable for calibrating high volume samplers the calibration
process remains the same. Proceed with the following steps to begin the calibration:
Proceed with the following steps to begin the calibration:
Step one: Disconnect the sampler motor from the mass flow controller and connect the motor to a
stable AC power source.
Step two: Mount the calibrator orifice and top loading adapter plate to the sampler. A sampling filter is
generally not used during this procedure. Tighten the top loading adapter hold down nuts securely for
this procedure to assure that no air leaks are present.
Step three: Allow the sampler motor to warm up to its normal operating temperature.
Step four: Conduct a leak test by covering the hole on top of the orifice and pressure tap on the orifice
with your hands. Listen for a high-pitched squealing sound made by escaping air. If this sound is heard,
a leak is present and the top loading adapter hold-down nuts need to be re-tightened.
“WARNING” Avoid running the sampler for longer than 30 seconds at a time with the orifice
blocked. This will reduce the chance of the motor overheating.
“WARNING” never try this leak test procedure with a manometer connected to the side tap
on the calibration orifice or the blower motor. Liquid from the manometer could be drawn into
the system and cause motor damage.
Step five: Connect one side of a water manometer to the pressure tap on the side of the orifice with a
rubber vacuum tube. Leave the opposite side of the manometer open to the atmosphere.
Note: Both valves on the manometer have to be open for the liquid to flow freely also to read a
33
manometer one side of the 'U' tube goes up the other goes down; add together this is the "H2O
Step six: Turn black knob on top of calibrator (TE-5028A) counter clock-wise opening the four holes
on the bottom wide open. Record the manometer reading from the orifice and the continuous flow
recorder reading from the sampler. A manometer must be held vertically to insure accurate readings.
Tapping the backside of the continuous flow recorder will help to center the pen and give accurate
readings. Repeat this procedure by adjusting the knob on the orifice to five different reading. Normally
the orifice reading should be between 3.0” and 4.0” of H2O. If you are using a fixed orifice (TE5025A), five flow rates are achieved in this step by changing 5 different plates (18,13,10,7, and 5 hole
plates) and taking five different readings.
Step seven: Record the ambient air temperature, the ambient barometric pressure, the sampler serial
number, the orifice s/n, the orifice slope and intercept with date last certified, today’s date, site location
and the operator’s initials.
Step eight: Disconnect the sampler motor from its power source and remove the orifice and top
loading adapter plate. Re-connect the sampler motor to the electronic mass flow controller.
An example of a PM10 Sampler Calibration Data Sheet has been attached with data filled in from a
typical calibration. This includes the transfer standard orifice calibration relationship which was taken
from the Orifice Calibration Worksheet that accompanies the calibrator orifice. Since this calibration is
for a PM10 sampler, the slope and intercept for this orifice uses actual flows rather than standard flows
and is taken from the Qactual section of the Orifice Calibration Worksheet. The Qstandard flows are
used when calibrating a TSP sampler.
The five orifice manometer readings taken during the calibration have been recorded in the column on
the data worksheet titled "H2O. The five continuous flow recorder readings taken during the calibration
have been recorded under the column titled I (chart).
34
The orifice manometer readings need to be converted to the actual airflows they represent using the
following equation:
Qa = 1/m[Sqrt((H20)(Ta/Pa))-b]
Qa = actual flow rate as indicated by the calibrator orifice, m3/min
“H20 = orifice manometer reading during calibration, (inches) “H20
Ta
= ambient temperature during calibration, K ( K = 273 + C)
Pa
= ambient barometric pressure during calibration, mm Hg
m
= Qactual slope of orifice calibration relationship
b
= Qactual intercept of orifice calibration relationship.
Once these actual flow rates have been determined for each of the five run points, they are recorded in
where:
the column titled Qa, and are represented in cubic meters per minute.
The continuous flow recorder readings taken during the calibration need to be corrected to the current
meteorological conditions using the following equation:
IC = I[Sqrt(Ta/Pa)]
where:
IC
I
Pa
Ta
= continuous flow recorder readings corrected to current Ta and Pa
= continuous flow recorder readings during calibration
= ambient barometric pressure during calibration, mm Hg.
= ambient temperature during calibration, K ( K = 273 + C)
After each of the continuous flow recorder readings have been corrected, they are recorded in the
column titled IC (corrected). Using Qa and IC as the x and y axis respectively, a slope, intercept, and
correlation coefficient can be calculated using the least squares regression method. The correlation
coefficient should never be less than 0.990 after a five point calibration. A coefficient below .990
indicates a calibration that is not linear and the calibration should be performed again. If this occurs, it is
most likely the result of an air leak during the calibration.
The equations for determining the slope (m) and intercept (b) are as follows:
(  x)(  y)
 xy -
n
m =
 x 2
 x2
where:
n
= number of observations
-
;
b = y - mx
n
_
_
y = y/n;
x = x/n
35
 = sum of
The equation for the coefficient of correlation (r) is as follows:
(  x)(  y)
r=
 xy
-
 

 2 x
 x - n

where:
n
2




 

 y2  y
 - n

2




n = number of observations
 = sum of
Example Problems
The following example problems use data from the attached calibration worksheet.
After all the sampling site information, calibrator information, and meteorological information have been
recorded on the worksheet, standard air flows need to be determined from the orifice manometer
readings taken during the calibration using the following equation:
1.
Qa = 1/m[Sqrt((H20)(Ta/Pa))-b]
where:
Qa
“H20
Ta
Pa
m
b
= actual flow rate as indicated by the calibrator orifice, m3/min
= orifice manometer reading during calibration, (inches) “H20
= ambient temperature during calibration, K ( K = 273 + C)
= ambient barometric pressure during calibration, mm Hg
= Qactual slope of orifice calibration relationship
= Qactual intercept of orifice calibration relationship.
Note that the ambient temperature is needed in degrees Kelvin to satisfy the Qa equation. Also, the
barometric pressure needs to be reported in millimeters of mercury. In our case the two following
conversions may be needed:
2.
degrees Kelvin = [5/9 (degrees Fahrenheit - 32)] + 273
3.
millimeters of mercury = 25.4(inches of H2O/13.6)
Inserting the numbers from the calibration worksheet run point number one we get:
4.
Qa = 1/.99486 [Sqrt((5.45)(294/753)) - (-.00899)]
5.
Qa = 1.005 [Sqrt((5.45)(.390)) + .00899]
6.
Qa = 1.005 [Sqrt(2.1255) + .00899]
7.
Qa = 1.005[1.4579+ .00899]
8.
Qa = 1.005[1.46689]
9.
Qa = 1.474
36
Throughout these example problems you may find that your answers vary some from those arrived at
here. This is probably due to different calculators carrying numbers to different decimal points. The
variations are usually slight and should not be a point of concern. Also, with a good calibration there
should be at least three Qa numbers in the range of 1.02 to 1.24 m3/min (36 to 44 CFM). From the
data sheet there is 4 out of 5 numbers in the range for PM10 thus a good calibration.
With the Qa determined, the corrected chart reading (IC) for this run point needs to be calculated using
the following equation:
10.
where:
IC = I[Sqrt(Ta/Pa)]
IC
I
Pa
Ta
= continuous flow recorder readings corrected to current Ta and Pa
= continuous flow recorder readings during calibration
= ambient barometric pressure during calibration, mm Hg.
= ambient temperature during calibration, K ( K = 273 + C)
Inserting the data from run point one on the calibration worksheet we get:
11.
IC = 56 [Sqrt(294/753)]
12.
IC = 56 [Sqrt(.390)]
13.
IC = 56 [.6244997]
14.
IC = 34.97
This procedure should be completed for all five run points. EPA guidelines state that at least three of the
five Qa flow rates during the calibration be within or nearly within the acceptable operating limits of 1.02
to 1.24 m3/min (36 to 44 CFM). If this condition is not met, the instrument should be recalibrated.
Using Qa as our x-axis, and IC as our y-axis, a slope, intercept, and correlation coefficient can be
determined using the least squares regression method.
The equations for determining the slope (m) and intercept (b) are as follows:
(  x)(  y)
 xy -
15.
  x 2
 x2
where:
n
m=
n
= number of observations
_
_
y = y/n;
x = x/n
-
n
 = sum of.
37
;
b = y - mx
The equation for the coefficient of correlation (r) is as follows:
(  x)(  y)
16.
 xy
r=
-
 

x
 2

x

n

where:
2




n
 

 y2  y
 - n

2




n = number of observations
 = sum of.
Before these can be determined, some preliminary algebra is necessary. x, y, x2, xy,
(x)2,
_
_
(y)2, n, y, and x need to be determined.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
x = 1.475 + 1.167 + 1.115 + 1.079 + 1.060 = 5.896
y = 35.00 + 29.37 + 28.75 + 28.12 + 27.50 = 148.74
x2 = (1.475)2 + (1.167)2 + (1.115)2 + (1.079)2 + (1.060)2 = 7.069
y2 = (35.00)2 + (29.37)2 + (28.75)2 + (28.12)2 + (27.50)2 =
4461.1438
xy = (1.475)(35.00) + (1.167)(29.37) + (1.115)(28.75) + (1.079)(28.12) +
(1.060)(27.50) = 177.448
n= 5
_
x = x/n = 1.1792
_
y = y/n = 29.748
(x)2 = (5.896)2 =34.763
(y)2 = (149.74)2 = 22,123.587
Inserting the numbers:
(5.896)(148.74)
5
.
34.763
7.069 5
177.448 27.
28.
slope =
slope =
7.069 -
(876.971)
177.448 5
34.763
5
38
.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
177.448 - 175.394 .
7.069 - 6.953
slope =
2.054 .
0.116
17.707
29.748 - (17.707)(1.1792)
29.748 – 20.88
8.868
slope =
slope =
intercept =
intercept =
intercept =
( 5.896 )(148.74 )
35.
correlation
coeff.
=
177.448 -
5
34.763  
22123.587 

4461.1438 7.069 


5 
5


( 876.971 )
36. correlation coeff. =
177.448 -
5
[( 7.069 - 6.953 )] [( 4461.1438 - 4424.717 )]
( 177.448 - 175.394 )
37. correlation coeff. =
[( 7.069 - 6.953 )][( 4461.1438 - 4424.717 )]
2.054
38. correlation coeff. =
39. correlation coeff. =
(0.116 )( 36.427 )
2.054
4.226
40. correlation coeff. =
2.054
2.056
41. correlation coeff. =
.999
A calibration that has a correlation coefficient of less than .990 is not considered linear and should be
re-calibrated. As you can see from the worksheet we have 4 Qa numbers that are in the PM10 range
(1.02 - 1.24 m3/min) and the correlation coeff. is > .990 , thus a good calibration. Next, calculate and
39
record the SFR (sampler’s seasonally adjusted set point flow rate in m3/min).
SFR = 1.13 [(Ps/Pa)(Ta/Ts)]
where:
SFR
= sampler’s seasonally adjusted set point flow rate, m3/min
1.13
= designed sampling flow rate of PM10 samplers, m3/min
Ps
= seasonal average barometric pressure, mm Hg
Pa
= actual ambient barometric pressure during calibration, mm Hg
Ts
= seasonal average temperature, K
Ta
= actual ambient temperature during calibration, K
SFR = 1.13 [(757/753)(294/291)]
SFR = 1.13 [(1.005312)(1.0103092)]
SFR = 1.13 [1.0156759]
SFR = 1.147 m3/min
To be more accurate when using an average temperature and barometric pressure, it is better to use a
daily, weekly, or monthly average instead of a seasonal average.
Then, calculate and record the SSP, sampler’s seasonally adjusted recorder set point.
SSP
where:
SSP
= [m * SFR + b] [Sqrt(Pa/Ta)]
SSP
= sampler’s recorder set point, recorder response
m
= slope of sampler from linear regression
SFR
= sampler’s seasonally adjusted set point flow rate, m3/min
b
= intercept of sampler from linear regression
Sqrt
= square root
Pa
= actual ambient barometric pressure during calibration, mm Hg
Ta
= actual ambient temperature during calibration, K
= [17.6685 * 1.147 + 8.9094] [Sqrt(753/294)]
40
SSP
= [29.175169] [Sqrt(2.5612244)]
SSP
= [29.175169] [1.6003825]
SSP
= 46.69
The SSP is the design operating flow rate of the PM10 High Volume Sampler, 1.13 m3/min or 40
CFM, corrected to the current ambient temperature and barometric pressure. Adjust the mass flow
controller to agree with the above determined SSP. This is done by loading the sampler with a piece of
Micro-Quartz filter. Turn on the sampler and allow it to warm up to normal operating conditions. Adjust
the mass flow controller set screw (turning pot) until the flow/pressure recorder reads 46.69. The
sampler should now be sampling at the designed flow rate of 1.13 m3/min or 40 CFM, corrected to
current meteorological conditions.
41
42
CALIBRATION PROCEDURE for TE-6070-BL, TE-6070D-BL
The following is a step-by-step process of the calibration of a TE-6070-BL, TE-6070D-BL Brushless Mass Flow Controlled PM10 High Volume Sampling Systems. Following these steps are
example calculations determining the calibration flow rates, and resulting slope and intercept for the
sampler. These instructions pertain to the samplers that have flow controlled by electronic mass flow
controllers (MFC) in conjunction with a continuous flow recorder. This calibration differs from that of a
volumetric flow controlled sampler. The attached example calibration worksheets can be used with
either a TE-5025 Fixed Orifice Calibrator that utilizes resistance plates to simulate airflow or a TE5028 Variable Orifice Calibrator that uses an adjustable or variable orifice. The attached worksheet
uses a variable orifice. Either type of orifice is acceptable for calibrating high volume samplers the
calibration process remains the same. Proceed with the following steps to begin the calibration:
Step one: Mount the calibrator orifice and top loading adapter plate to the sampler. A sampling filter is
generally not used during this procedure. Tighten the top loading adaptor. Hold down nuts securely for
this procedure to ensure that no air leaks are present.
Step two: Disconnect brush-less motor for the brush-less mass flow controller (Squeeze 5 wire plug
together and pull apart).
Step three: Connect the “Brushless MFC Calibration By-pass Adapter” to the brush-less motor.
Step four: Connect a fresh 9-volt battery to the battery clip of the Adapter. When you plug mail cord
on Adapter into the source voltage, the brush-less motor will now operate at full speed during the
calibration procedure until Adapter is disconnected or the 9-volt battery is disconnected.
Step five: Plug Adapter into the source voltage.
Step six: Allow the sampler motor to warm up to its normal operating temperature.
Step seven: Conduct a leak test by covering the hole on top of the orifice and pressure tap on the
orifice with your hands. Listen for a high-pitched squealing sound made by escaping air. If this sound is
heard, a leak is present and the top loading adapter hold-down nuts need to be re-tightened.
“WARNING” Avoid running the sampler for longer than 30 seconds at a time with the orifice
blocked. This will reduce the chance of the motor overheating.
“WARNING” never try this leak test procedure with a manometer connected to the side tap
on the calibration orifice or the blower motor. Liquid from the manometer could be drawn into
43
the system and cause motor damage.
Step eight: Connect one side of a water manometer to the pressure tap on the side of the orifice with a
rubber vacuum tube. Leave the opposite side of the manometer open to the atmosphere. Both valves on
the manometer have to be open for the liquid to flow freely. Also, to read a manometer, one side of the
'U' tube goes up and the other goes down; added together this is the "H2O
Step nine: Turn black knob on top of calibrator (TE-5028A) counter clock-wise opening the four
holes on the bottom wide open. Record the manometer reading from the orifice and the continuous flow
recorder reading from the sampler. A manometer must be held vertically to insure accurate readings.
Tapping the backside of the continuous flow recorder will help to center the pen and give accurate
readings. Repeat this procedure by adjusting the knob on the orifice to five different reading. Normally
the orifice reading should be between 3.0” and 4.0” of H2O. If you are using a fixed orifice (TE5025A), five flow rates are achieved in this step by changing 5 different plates (18,13,10,7, and 5 hole
plates) and taking five different readings.
Step ten: Record the ambient air temperature, the ambient barometric pressure, the sampler serial
number, the orifice s/n, the orifice slope and intercept with date last certified, today’s date, site location
and the operator’s initials.
Step eleven: Unplug the Adapter from the source voltage (the motor will shut off), unplug the battery,
and reconnect the brush-less motor to the brush-less mass flow controller.
Step twelve: Remove the orifice and top-loading adapter plate.
An example of a PM10 Sampler Calibration Data Sheet has been attached with data filled in from a
typical calibration. This includes the transfer standard orifice calibration relationship which was taken
from the Orifice Calibration Worksheet that accompanies the calibrator orifice. Since this calibration is
for a PM10 sampler, the slope and intercept for this orifice uses actual flows rather than standard flows
and is taken from the Qactual section of the Orifice Calibration Worksheet. The Qstandard flows are
used when calibrating a TSP sampler.
The five orifice manometer readings taken during the calibration have been recorded in the column on
the data worksheet titled "H2O. The five continuous flow recorder readings taken during the calibration
have been recorded under the column titled I (chart).
44
The orifice manometer readings need to be converted to the actual airflows they represent using the
following equation:
Qa = 1/m[Sqrt((H20)(Ta/Pa))-b]
Qa = actual flow rate as indicated by the calibrator orifice, m3/min
“H20 = orifice manometer reading during calibration, (inches) “H20
Ta
= ambient temperature during calibration, K ( K = 273 + C)
Pa
= ambient barometric pressure during calibration, mm Hg
m
= Qactual slope of orifice calibration relationship
b
= Qactual intercept of orifice calibration relationship.
Once these actual flow rates have been determined for each of the five run points, they are recorded in
where:
the column titled Qa, and are represented in cubic meters per minute.
The continuous flow recorder readings taken during the calibration need to be corrected to the current
meteorological conditions using the following equation:
IC = I[Sqrt(Ta/Pa)]
where:
IC
I
Pa
Ta
= continuous flow recorder readings corrected to current Ta and Pa
= continuous flow recorder readings during calibration
= ambient barometric pressure during calibration, mm Hg.
= ambient temperature during calibration, K ( K = 273 + C)
After each of the continuous flow recorder readings have been corrected, they are recorded in the
column titled IC (corrected).
Using Qa and IC as the x and y axis respectively, a slope, intercept, and correlation coefficient can be
calculated using the least squares regression method. The correlation coefficient should never be less
than 0.990 after a five point calibration. A coefficient below .990 indicates a calibration that is not linear
and the calibration should be performed again. If this occurs, it is most likely the result of an air leak
during the calibration.
The equations for determining the slope (m) and intercept (b) are as follows:
(  x)(  y)
 xy -
n
m =
 x 2
 x2
where:
n
= number of observations
-
;
b = y - mx
n
_
_
y = y/n;
x = x/n
45
 = sum of
The equation for the coefficient of correlation (r) is as follows:
(  x)(  y)
r=
 xy
-
 
n
 
2
2





x
y
 2
  y2

 x - n   - n 

 

where:
n = number of observations
 = sum of
Example Problems
The following example problems use data from the attached calibration worksheet.
After all the sampling site information, calibrator information, and meteorological information have been
recorded on the worksheet, standard air flows need to be determined from the orifice manometer
readings taken during the calibration using the following equation:
1.
Qa = 1/m[Sqrt((H20)(Ta/Pa))-b]
where:
Qa
“H20
Ta
Pa
m
b
= actual flow rate as indicated by the calibrator orifice, m3/min
= orifice manometer reading during calibration, (inches) “H20
= ambient temperature during calibration, K ( K = 273 + C)
= ambient barometric pressure during calibration, mm Hg
= Qactual slope of orifice calibration relationship
= Qactual intercept of orifice calibration relationship.
Note that the ambient temperature is needed in degrees Kelvin to satisfy the Qa equation. Also, the
barometric pressure needs to be reported in millimeters of mercury. In our case the two following
conversions may be needed:
2.
degrees Kelvin = [5/9 (degrees Fahrenheit - 32)] + 273
3.
millimeters of mercury = 25.4(inches of H2O/13.6)
Inserting the numbers from the calibration worksheet run point number one we get:
4.
Qa = 1/.99486 [Sqrt((5.45)(294/753)) - (-.00899)]
5.
Qa = 1.005 [Sqrt((5.45)(.390)) + .00899]
46
6.
Qa = 1.005 [Sqrt(2.1255) + .00899]
7.
Qa = 1.005[1.4579+ .00899]
8.
Qa = 1.005[1.46689]
9.
Qa = 1.474
Throughout these example problems you may find that your answers vary some from those arrived at
here. This is probably due to different calculators carrying numbers to different decimal points. The
variations are usually slight and should not be a point of concern. Also, with a good calibration there
should be at least three Qa numbers in the range of 1.02 to 1.24 m3/min (36 to 44 CFM). From the
data sheet there is 4 out of 5 numbers in the range for PM10 thus a good calibration.
With the Qa determined, the corrected chart reading (IC) for this run point needs to be calculated using
the following equation:
10.
where:
IC = I[Sqrt(Ta/Pa)]
IC
I
Pa
Ta
= continuous flow recorder readings corrected to current Ta and Pa
= continuous flow recorder readings during calibration
= ambient barometric pressure during calibration, mm Hg.
= ambient temperature during calibration, K ( K = 273 + C)
Inserting the data from run point one on the calibration worksheet we get:
11.
IC = 56 [Sqrt(294/753)]
12.
IC = 56 [Sqrt(.390)]
13.
IC = 56 [.6244997]
14.
IC = 34.97
This procedure should be completed for all five run points. EPA guidelines state that at least three of the
five Qa flow rates during the calibration be within or nearly within the acceptable operating limits of 1.02
to 1.24 m3/min (36 to 44 CFM). If this condition is not met, the instrument should be recalibrated.
Using Qa as our x-axis, and IC as our y-axis, a slope, intercept, and correlation coefficient can be
determined using the least squares regression method.
The equations for determining the slope (m) and intercept (b) are as follows:
(  x)(  y)
 xy -
15.
  x 2
 x2
where:
n
m=
n
= number of observations
47
-
n
;
b = y - mx
_
_
y = y/n;
x = x/n
 = sum of.
The equation for the coefficient of correlation (r) is as follows:
(  x)(  y)
16.
 xy
r=
 

x
 2

x

n

where:
2




n
 

 y2  y
 - n

2




n = number of observations
 = sum of.
Before these can be determined, some preliminary algebra is necessary. x, y, x2, xy,
(x)2,
_
_
(y)2, n, y, and x need to be determined.
x = 1.475 + 1.167 + 1.115 + 1.079 + 1.060 = 5.896
y = 35.00 + 29.37 + 28.75 + 28.12 + 27.50 = 148.74
x2 = (1.475)2 + (1.167)2 + (1.115)2 + (1.079)2 + (1.060)2 = 7.069
y2 = (35.00)2 + (29.37)2 + (28.75)2 + (28.12)2 + (27.50)2 =
4461.1438
xy = (1.475)(35.00) + (1.167)(29.37) + (1.115)(28.75) + (1.079)(28.12) +
(1.060)(27.50) = 177.448
22.
n= 5
_
23.
x = x/n = 1.1792
_
24.
y = y/n = 29.748
25.
(x)2 = (5.896)2 =34.763
26.
(y)2 = (149.74)2 = 22,123.587
Inserting the numbers:
(5.896)(148.74)
177.448 5
.
27.
slope =
34.763
7.069 5
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
29.
slope =
7.069 -
29.
slope =
(876.971)
177.448 5
34.763
5
177.448 - 175.394 .
7.069 - 6.953
2.054 .
48
.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
slope =
slope =
intercept =
intercept =
intercept =
0.116
17.707
29.748 - (17.707)(1.1792)
29.748 – 20.88
8.868
( 5.896 )(148.74 )
35.
correlation
coeff.
=
177.448 -
5
34.763  
22123.587 

4461.1438 7.069 


5 
5


( 876.971 )
36. correlation coeff. =
177.448 -
5
[( 7.069 - 6.953 )] [( 4461.1438 - 4424.717 )]
( 177.448 - 175.394 )
37. correlation coeff. =
[( 7.069 - 6.953 )][( 4461.1438 - 4424.717 )]
2.054
38. correlation coeff. =
39. correlation coeff. =
(0.116 )( 36.427 )
2.054
4.226
40. correlation coeff. =
2.054
2.056
41. correlation coeff. =
.999
A calibration that has a correlation coefficient of less than .990 is not considered linear and should be
re-calibrated. As you can see from the worksheet we have 4 Qa numbers that are in the PM10 range
(1.02 - 1.24 m3/min) and the correlation coeff. is > .990 , thus a good calibration.
Next, calculate and record the SFR (sampler’s seasonally adjusted set point flow rate in m3/min).
49
SFR = 1.13 [(Ps/Pa)(Ta/Ts)]
where:
SFR
= sampler’s seasonally adjusted set point flow rate, m3/min
1.14
= designed sampling flow rate of PM10 samplers, m3/min
Ps
= seasonal average barometric pressure, mm Hg
Pa
= actual ambient barometric pressure during calibration, mm Hg
Ts
= seasonal average temperature, K
Ta
= actual ambient temperature during calibration, K
SFR = 1.13 [(757/753)(294/291)]
SFR = 1.13 [(1.005312)(1.0103092)]
SFR = 1.13 [1.0156759]
SFR = 1.147 m3/min
To be more accurate when using an average temperature and barometric pressure, it is better to use a
daily, weekly, or monthly average instead of a seasonal average.
Then, calculate and record the SSP, sampler’s seasonally adjusted recorder set point.
SSP
where:
= [m * SFR + b] [Sqrt(Pa/Ta)]
SSP
= sampler’s recorder set point, recorder response
m
= slope of sampler from linear regression
SFR
= sampler’s seasonally adjusted set point flow rate, m3/min
b
= intercept of sampler from linear regression
Sqrt
= square root
Pa
= actual ambient barometric pressure during calibration, mm Hg
Ta
= actual ambient temperature during calibration, K
SSP
= [17.6685 * 1.147 + 8.9094] [Sqrt(753/294)]
SSP
= [29.175169] [Sqrt(2.5612244)]
SSP
= [29.175169] [1.6003825]
50
SSP
= 46.69
The SSP is the design operating flow rate of the PM10 High Volume Sampler, 1.13 m3/min or 40
CFM, corrected to the current ambient temperature and barometric pressure. Adjust the mass flow
controller to agree with the above determined SSP. This is done by loading the sampler with a piece of
Micro-Quartz filter. Turn on the sampler and allow it to warm up to normal operating conditions. Adjust
the mass flow controller set screw (turning pot) until the flow/pressure recorder reads 46.69. The
sampler should now be sampling at the designed flow rate of 1.13 m3/min or 40 CFM, corrected to
current meteorological conditions.
51
52
CALIBRATION PROCEDURE for TE-6070V, TE-6070DV, TE-6070V-BL, TE-6070DV-BL
The following is a step by step process of the calibration of a TE-6070V, TE-6070DV, TE-6070VBL, TE-6070DV-BL Volumetric Flow Controlled PM10 Particulate Sampling System.
Following these steps are example calculations determining the calibration flow rates for the sampler.
The flow rate of the sampling system is controlled by a Volumetric Flow Controller (VFC) or
dimensional venturi device. This calibration differs from that of a mass flow controlled PM10 sampler in
that a slope and intercept does not have to be calculated to determine air flows. The flows are
converted from actual to standard conditions when the particulate concentrations are calculated. With a
Volumetric Flow Controlled (VFC) sampler, the calibration flow rates are provided in a Flow Look Up
Table that accompanies each sampler. The attached example calibration worksheet uses a TE-5028A
Variable Orifice Calibrator that uses an adjustable or variable orifice, which we recommend when
calibrating a VFC.
Proceed with the following steps to begin the calibration.
Step one: Mount the calibrator orifice and top loading adapter plate to the sampler. A sampling filter is
generally not used during this procedure. Tighten the top loading adapter hold down nuts securely for
this procedure to assure that no air leaks are present.
Step two: Turn on the sampler and allow it to warm up to its normal operating temperature.
Step three: Conduct a leak test by covering the holes on top of the orifice and pressure tap on the
orifice with your hands. Listen for a high-pitched squealing sound made by escaping air. If this sound is
heard, a leak is present and the top loading adapter hold-down nuts need to be re-tightened.
“WARNING” Avoid running the sampler for longer than 30 seconds at a time with the orifice
blocked. This will reduce the chance of the motor overheating.
“WARNING” never try this leak test procedure with a manometer connected to the side tap
on the calibration orifice or the blower motor. Liquid from the manome ter could be drawn into
the system and cause motor damage.
Step four: Connect one side of a water manometer or other type of flow measurement device to the
pressure tap on the side of the orifice with a rubber vacuum tube. Leave the opposite side of the
manometer open to the atmosphere
Step five: Connect a water manometer to the quick disconnect located on the side of the aluminum
outdoor shelter (this quick disconnect is connected to the pressure tap on the side of the filter holder). If
using the TE-5025A (a fixed orifice that uses load plates) orifice a longer manometer >30” is used here
53
as there is a possibility of great pressure difference from this port.
Step six: Make sure the TE-5028A orifice is all the way open (turn the black knob counter clockwise). Record both manometer readings the one from the orifice and the other from the side of the
sampler. To read a manometer one side goes up and the other side goes down you add both sides, this
is your inches of water. Repeat this process for the other four points by adjusting
the knob on the variable orifice (just a slight turn) to four different positions and taking four different
readings. You should have five sets of numbers, ten numbers in all.
Step seven: Remove the variable orifice and the top loading adapter and install a clean Micro-Quartz
filter. Record the manometer reading from the side tap on the side of the sampler. This is used to
calculate the operational flow rate of the sampler.
Step eight: Record the ambient air temperature, the ambient barometric pressure, the sampler serial
number, the orifice serial number, the orifice Qactual slope and intercept with date last certified, today’s
date, site location and the operators initials.
An example of a Volumetric Flow Controlled Sampler Calibration Data Sheet has been attached with
data filled in from a typical calibration. This includes the transfer standard orifice calibration relationship
which was taken from the Orifice Calibration Worksheet that accompanies the calibrator orifice. The
slope and intercept are taken from the Qactual section of the Orifice Calibration Worksheet.
The five orifice manometer readings taken during the calibration have been recorded in the column on
the calibration worksheet titled Orifice H2O. The five manometer readings taken from the side pressure
tap have been recorded in the column titled Sampler "Hg.
The first step is to convert the orifice readings to the amount of actual air flow they represent using the
following equation:
Qa = 1/m[Sqrt((H2O)(Ta/Pa))-b]
where:
Qa
“H2O
Ta
Pa
m
b
=
=
=
=
=
=
actual flow rate as indicated by the calibrator orifice, m3/min
orifice manometer reading during calibration, in. “H2O
ambient temperature during calibration, K ( K = 273 + C)
ambient barometric pressure during calibration, mm Hg
slope of Q actual orifice calibration relationship
intercept of Q actual orifice calibration relationship.
Once these actual flow rates have been determined for each of the five run points, they are recorded in
the column titled Qa, and are represented in cubic meters per minute. EPA guidelines state that at least
54
three of these calibrator flow rates should be between 1.02 to 1.24 m3/min (36 to 44 CFM). This is the
acceptable operating flow rate range of the sampler. If this condition is not met, the sampler should be
recalibrated. An air leak in the calibration system may be the source of this problem. In some cases, a
filter may have to be in place during the calibration to meet this condition.
The sampler H2O readings need to be converted to mm Hg and recorded in the column titled Pf. This is
done using the following equation:
Pf = 25.4 (in. H2O/13.6)
where:
Pf is recorded in mm Hg
in. H2O = sampler side pressure reading during calibration.
Po/Pa is calculated next. This is used to locate the sampler calibration air flows found in the Look Up
Table. This is done using the following equation:
Po/Pa = 1 - Pf/Pa
where: Pa = ambient barometric pressure during calibration, mm Hg.
Using Po/Pa and the ambient temperature during the calibration, consult the Look Up Table to find the
actual flow rate. Record these flows in the column titled Look Up.
Calculate the percent difference between the calibrator flow rates and the sampler flow rates using the
following equation:
% Diff. = (Look Up Flow - Qa)/Qa * 100
where:
Look Up Flow = Flow found in Look Up Table, m3/min
Qa = orifice flow during calibration, m3/min.
The EPA guidelines state that the percent difference should be within + or - 3 or 4%. If they are
greater than this a leak may have been present during calibration and the sampler should be recalibrated.
Operational Flow Rate
Operational Flow Rate is the flow rate at which the VFC sampler is actually operating at. The line on
55
the worksheet labeled Operational Flow Rate is where the side tap reading is recorded which is taken
with only a clean filter in place. With this side tap reading, Pf and Po/Pa are calculated with the same
equations listed above. This reading should be between 1.02 to 1.24 m3/min (36 to 44 CFM), the
acceptable operating range.
This completes the calibration of this sampler.
Example Problems
The following example problems use data from the attached VFC sampler calibration worksheet.
After all the sampling site information, calibrator information, and meteorological information have been
recorded on the worksheet, actual air flows need to be determined from the orifice manometer readings
taken during the calibration using the following equation:
1.
Qa = 1/m[Sqrt((H2O)(Ta/Pa))-b]
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Qa
“ H2O
Ta
Pa
m
b
Where:
= actual flow rate as indicated by the calibrator orifice, m3/min
= orifice manometer reading during calibration, in. “H2O
= ambient temperature during calibration, K ( K = 273 + C)
= ambient barometric pressure during calibration, mm Hg
= slope of Q actual orifice calibration relationship
= intercept of Q actual orifice calibration relationship.
Note that the ambient temperature is needed in degrees Kelvin to satisfy the Qa equation. Also, the
barometric pressure needs to be reported in millimeters of mercury (if sea level barometric pressure is
used it must be corrected to the site elevation). In our case the two following conversions may be
needed:
8.
9.
degrees Kelvin = [5/9 (degrees Fahrenheit - 32)] + 273
millimeters of mercury = 25.4(inches of H2O/13.6)
Inserting the numbers from the calibration worksheet test number one we get:
10.
Qa = 1/.99[Sqrt((3.2)(295/747))- (- 0.02866)]
11.
Qa = 1.01[Sqrt((3.2)(.3949129)) – (- 0.02866)]
12.
Qa = 1.01[Sqrt(1.2637212) – ( - 0.02866)]
13.
Qa = 1.01[1.1241535 – ( - 0.02866)]
14.
Qa = 1.01[1.1528135]
15.
Qa = 1.164
It is possible that your answers to the above calculations may vary. This is most likely due to different
56
calculators carrying numbers to different decimal points. This should not be an area of concern as
generally these variations are slight.
With Qa determined, the sampler H2O reading needs to be converted to mm Hg using the following
equation:
16.
Pf = 25.4 (in. H2O/13.6)
where:
17.
Pf is recorded in mm Hg
18.
in. H2O = sampler side pressure reading during calibration
Inserting the numbers from the worksheet:
19.
Pf = 25.4(17.3/13.6)
20.
Pf = 25.4(1.2720588)
21.
Pf = 32.31 mm Hg
Po/Pa is calculated next. This is done using the following equation:
22.
23.
Po/Pa = 1 - Pf/Pa
where: Pa = ambient barometric pressure during calibration, mm Hg.
Inserting the numbers from the worksheet:
24.
Po/Pa = 1 – 32.31/747
25.
Po/Pa = 1- .0167989
26.
Po/Pa = .957
Use Po/Pa and the ambient temperature during the calibration (Ta) to locate the flow for the calibration
point in the Look Up table. Record this in the column titled Look Up.
difference using the following equation:
27.
% Difference = (Look Up flow - Qa)/Qa * 100
Inserting the numbers from the worksheet:
28.
% Difference = (1.193 - 1.164)/1.164 * 100
29.
% Difference = (0.029)/1.164 * 100
30.
% Difference = (0.024914) * 100
31.
% Difference = 2.49
The above calculations have to be performed for all five calibration points.
Operational Flow Rate
Take a side tap reading with only a filter in place.
in. H2O = 21.75
57
Calculate the percent
1.
Pf = 25.4 (in. H2O/13.6)
where:
2.
Pf is recorded in mm Hg
3.
in. H2O = sampler side pressure reading with filter in place
4.
Pf = 25.4(21.75/13.6)
5.
Pf = 25.4(1.5992647)
6.
Pf = 40.62 mm Hg
Po/Pa is calculated next. This is done using the following equation:
7.
8.
Po/Pa = 1 - Pf/Pa
where: Pa = ambient barometric pressure during calibration, mm Hg.
Inserting the numbers from the worksheet:
9.
Po/Pa = 1 – 40.62/747
10.
Po/Pa = 1- .0543775
11.
Po/Pa = .946
Use Po/Pa and the ambient temperature during the calibration (Ta) to locate the flow for the calibration
point in the Look Up table.
Po/Pa = .946
Ta = 22
Look up table reading = 1.178 m3/min
This reading should be between 1.02 to 1.24 m3/min (36 to 44 CFM), the acceptable operating
range. Record this in the column titled Look Up.
Calculate the percent difference using the following equation:
12.
% Difference = (Look Up flow - 1.13)/1.13 * 100
13.
% Difference = (1.178 - 1.13)/1.113 * 100
14.
% Difference = (0.048)/1.13 * 100
15.
% Difference = (0.0424778) * 100
16.
% Difference = 4.24778
In this case the % Difference has to be + or - 10% of 1.13 or 40 CFM which is 1.02 to 1.24 m3/min or
36 to 44 CFM, the acceptable operating range.
58
59
TOTAL VOLUME CALCULATIONS for Mass Flow Controlled PM10
Systems
TE-6070, TE-6070D, TE-6070BL, TE-6070D-BL
To calculate the total volume of air sampled through the (filter) during your sampling run, take a set-up
reading (when you set the sampler up the SSP was 46.69, which is set up reading) and an ending
reading, look at recorder chart and use the number where red ink pen stops, goes down, for our
example lets assume the ending number was 45. Take 46.69 + 45 = 91.69 91.69/2 = 45.85. So the
continuous recorder reading you would use is 45.85. Put that into formula on bottom of worksheet.
1/m((I)[Sqrt(Tav/Pav)]- b)
m
b
I
Tav
Pav
Sqrt
= sampler slope
= sampler intercept
= average chart response
= daily, weekly, monthly, or seasonal average temperature
= daily, weekly, monthly, or seasonal average barometric pressure
= square root
Example:
m3/min = 1/17.6685((45.85)[Sqrt(291/757)]-(8.9094))
m3/min = .0566 ((45.85)[Sqrt(.3844)] – 8.9094)
m3/min = .0566 ((45.85)[ .62 ] - 8.9094)
m3/min = .0566 ((28.427) – 8.9094)
m3/min = .0566 (19.5176)
m3/min = 1.105
ft3/min = 1.105 x 35.31 = 39.01
Total ft3 = ft3/min x 60 x hours that sampler ran
Assume our sampler ran 23.8 hours (end ETI reading - start ETI reading)
** Be certain ETI is in hours otherwise convert to hours **
Total ft3
= 39.01 x 60 x 23.8 = 55,706.28 ft3
Total m3 = 1.105 x 60 x 23.8 = 1577.94 m3
“Note” Reference page 66 see Appendix J for Filter Handling, Conditioning,
Weighing, and Calculation of PM10 Concentration Measurements.
60
Total Volume Calculations for Volumetric Flow Controlled Systems
TE-6070V, TE-6070DV, TE-6070V-BL, TE-6070DV-BL
USE OF LOOK-UP-TABLE FOR DETERMINATION OF FLOW RATE
(NOTE: Individual Look Up Tables will vary.)
1. Suppose the ambient conditions are:
Temperature: Ta = 24 oC
Barometric Pressure: Pa = 762 mm Hg (this must be station pressure which is not
corrected to sea level)
2. Assume system is allowed to warm up for stable operation.
3. Measure filter pressure differential, Pf. This reading is the set-up reading plus pick-up
reading divided by 2 for an average reading. This is taken with a differential
manometer with one side of the manometer connected to the stagnation tap on the filter holder
(or the Bulkhead Fitting) and the other side open to the atmosphere. Filter must be in place
during this measurement.
Assume that:
Set-up Reading:
Pick-up Reading:
Pf = 21.75 in H2O
Pf = 22.5 in H2O
Pf = (21.75 + 22.5)/2 = 22.125 in H2O.
4. Convert Pf = to same units as barometric pressure.
Pf = 22.125 in H2O / 13.61 x 25.4 = 41.29 mm Hg
Pf = 41.29 mm Hg
5. Calculate pressure ratio.
Po/Pa = 1 - (Pf/Pa)
NOTE: Pf and Pa MUST HAVE CONSISTENT UNITS
Po/Pa= 1 - (41.29 / 762)
Po/Pa= .946
6. Look up Flow Rate from table.
Table 1 is set up with temperature in oC and the Flow Rate is read in units of m3/min
(actual, ACMM). In table 2 the temperature is in oF and Flow Rate is read in ft3/min
(actual, ACFM).
a) For the example we will use Table 1.
Locate the temperature and pressure ratio entries nearest the conditions of:
Ta = 24oC
Po/Pa = .946
Example: Look-Up Table for Actual Flow Rate in Units of m3/min
Temperature oC
61
Po/Pa
0.944
0.945
0.946
0.947
0.948
0.949
22
1.176
1.177
1.178
1.180
1.181
1.182
24
1.179
1.181
1.182
1.183
1.185
1.186
26
1.183
1.184
1.186
1.187
1.188
1.190
28
1.186
1.188
1.189
1.190
1.192
1.193
30
1.190
1.191
1.193
1.194
1.195
1.197
b) The reading of flow rate is:
Q a = 1.182 m3/min (actual)
If your Po/Pa number is not in look up table ie; >.979 then interpolate.
7. Determine flow rate in terms of standard air.
Qstd =
1.182 m3 / min (
762 mm Hg
298K
)(
)
760 mm Hg (273 + 24 ) K
Q std = 1.189 std m3/min
Total Volume
Assume our sampler ran 23.8 hours (end ETI reading - start ETI reading)
** Make sure ETI is in hours otherwise convert to hours **
actual Total m3 = 1.182 x 60 x 23.8 = 1687.9 m3
standard Total m3 = 1.189 x 60 x 23.8 = 1697.9 m3
To convert to cubic feet multiply m3 by 35.31
“Note” Reference page 66 see Appendix J for Filter Handling, Conditioning,
Weighing, and Calculation of PM10 Concentration Measurements.
62
SAMPLER OPERATION
TE-6070, TE-6070D, TE-6070BL, TE-6070D-BL, TE-6070V, TE-6070DV, TE6070V-BL, TE-6070DV-BL
1.
After performing calibration procedure, remove calibrator and top loading adapter. Install TE3000 Cartridge and remove filter holder frame.
2.
Carefully center a new filter, rougher side up, on the supporting screen. Properly align the filter
on the screen so that when the frame is in position the gasket will form an airtight seal on the
outer edges of the filter.
3.
Secure the filter with the frame, brass bolts, and washers with sufficient pressure to avoid air
leakage at the edges (make sure that the plastic washers are on top of the frame).
4.
Wipe any dirt accumulation from around the filter holder with a clean cloth.
Size Selective Inlet Shim Plate Part number TE-6001-24
An anodized aluminum Shim Plate is supplied on top of the 1 st stage plate of the SSI and can be seen by
opening the body of the SSI. This collection Shim Plate needs to be heavily greased according to the
following frequency and procedure.
Cleaning Frequency
Average
TSP at Site
40 ug/m3
75 ug/m3
150 ug/m3
200 ug/m3
Number of
Sampling Days
50
25
13
10
Interval Assuming
Every 6th Day Sample
10 months
5 months
3 months
2 months
Cleaning of the Shim Plate is done after removal from the SSI.



To remove the Shim Plate, unlatch the four SSI hooks located on the sides of the SSI body.
Slowly tilt back the top inlet half exposing the 9 acceleration nozzles. Tilt the SSI top half until
the SSI body support strut drops and locks into the second, fully open, notch and supports the
top half of the inlet. Two Shim Plate Clips located on the right and left sides should be rotated
90° to release the fastening pressure on the shim. The Shim Plate should be handled by the
edges and slowly lifted vertically to clear the height of the 16 vent tubes and pulled out forward
toward the operator. A clean cloth is used to wipe the soiled grease from the Shim Plate.
Acetone or any commercially available solvent can be used to clean the Shim Plate to its original
state.
Clean the interior surfaces of the SSI using a clean cloth.
Place Shim Plate on a clean flat surface away from the rest of the SSI assembly and spray the
Shim Plate with a coating of Dow Corning Silicone #316. This grease is available from Tisch
63




Environmental or from your local Dow Corning Distributor.
Make sure the Shim Plate is clean, and apply a "generous" amount of the silicone spray after
shaking the aerosol can. Spray holding the can 8 to 10 inches away. Spray is necessary in the
areas which are below the acceleration nozzles. Allow 3 minutes for the solvent in the spray to
evaporate leaving the final greased Shim Plate tacky, but not slippery. After drying, a cloudy film
is visible, with a film thickness at least twice the diameter of the particles to be captured.
Overspraying with the silicone will not hurt the performance of the SSI, so when in doubt, apply
more silicone spray.
Before reinserting the greased Shim Plate, wipe off all interior surfaces of the SSI and brush any
loose dirt or insects off the Bug Screen located below the removable Shim Plate.
Lift the greased Shim Plate by the edges and place it on the SSI 1st stage plate over top of the
vent tubes with the greased side up in reverse order of the above removal procedure. Swing the
two Shim Plate Clips over the edge of the greased Shim Plate to hold it securely in place.
Close the SSI making sure of a good snug fit. Latch the 4 hooks firmly in place.
5.
Close PM10 Inlet carefully and secure with all hooks and catches.
6.
Make sure all cords are plugged into their appropriate receptacles and on all VFC systems
make sure the clear tubing between the filter holder pressure tap and the bulkhead fitting is
connected (be careful not to pinch tubing when closing door).
7.
Prepare the Timer: See Timer Instructions on page 10, 11, and 12.
8.
At the end of the sampling period, remove the frame to expose the filter. Carefully remove the
exposed filter from the supporting screen by holding it gently at the ends (not at the corners).
Fold the filter lengthwise so that sample touches sample.
9.
It is always a good idea to contact the lab you are dealing with to see how they may suggest you
collect the filter and any other information that they may require
VERIFICATION OF PROPER OPERATION
TE-6070, TE-6070D, TE-6070-BL, TE-6070D-BL
Mass Flow Controlled High Volume PM10 Systems
1.
Be certain the correlation coefficient is greater than .990
2.
There must be three Qa numbers in the range for PM10 (1.02 to 1.24 m3/min), it is
suggested to have one high number, three in the range, and one low number.
3.
After collecting filter and Recorder chart make sure that the chart is close to the SSP of
the sampler. The sampler must be between 36 to 44 CFM or 1.02 to 1.24 m3/min.
4.
After calculating the total volume, the final result must be in the range of 1.02 to 1.24
m3/min with this formula: 1/m((I)[Sqrt(Tav/Pav)]- b).
64
VERIFICATION OF PROPER OPERATION
TE-6070V, TE-6070DV, TE-6070V-BL, TE-6070DV-BL
Volumetric Flow Controlled High Volume PM10 Systems
1. After calibration, the % difference for each calibration point must be less than or equal
to 3 or 4% per EPA guidelines.
2. There must be three Qa numbers in the range for PM10 (1.02 to 1.24 m3/min), it is
suggested to have one high number, three in the range, and one low number.
3. The Look Up Table reading must be between 36 to 44 CFM or 1.02 to 1.24 m3/min.
4. For the VFC systems to operate efficiently the motor should run at full voltage; 110 to
120 volts.
Troubleshooting/Corrective Maintenance Procedures
The following is a list of possible problems and the corrective measures.
Shelter: There is nothing on the anodized aluminum shelter that can wear out. In the event a system is
dropped or blown over, some shelter parts may become bent. Simply re-shape the bent components
or replace them as necessary.
Blower Motor: If the blower motor does not function, perform the following test: 1. Unplug the motor
from the flow control device or timer. 2. Plug the motor directly into line voltage. If motor does not
operate when plugged directly into line voltage, replace with new motor. If motor operates when
plugged directly into line voltage then: See “Electrical Hook-Up” schematic. If motor still does not
work, see timer and flow controller instructions.
Dickson Continuous/Flow Pressure Recorder: Not inking properly: replace pen. If pen arm is bent
or pen arm lifter is damaged, thereby not allowing pen point to contact chart, replace the pen arm or
pen arm lifter as necessary. A tight door seal is necessary to prevent drying of pen, replace if
necessary. If pen does not respond properly to pressure/flow signal one of two solutions are available:
1. No rotation of chart indicates a defective chart drive. Replace as necessary. 2. Out of adjustment
flow indications may exist if one adjusts the “adjustment screw” beyond its range. This condition allows
the bellows to make contact with the chart drive thereby making the bellow movement inaccurate.
Factory re-adjustment is necessary.
Filter holder: Two gaskets make contact with the filter holder. The 8” x 10” gasket seals between the
shelter base pan and the flange of the filter holder. If this seal is compromised, replace the 8"x 10"
gasket. The lower section of the filter holder is sealed against the blower with a round neoprene rubber
gasket. This gasket should be replaced if any leakage is evident.
Filter Media Holder: The filter media holder uses the 8” x 10” gasket to seal between it and the filter
holder. Another 8” x 10” gasket is also used on the filter media holder to seal between the filter holddown frame and the filter media itself. If leakage is evident, inspect the gasket for foreign objects and
replace as necessary.
65
Timer: If the timer does not activate the system at the desired time, see “Electrical Hookup Schematic”
and timer instructions.
Size Selective Inlet: Inlet does not fit onto shelter: it is critical to install in inlet in a vertical path
onto the shelter. Many times it will take two people to gently lower the inlet onto the shelter. If the
holes in the sides of the shelter do not exactly line up with holes in Inlet shelter pan, it may be necessary
to gently file away a small amount of material to align the holes. Most often the inlet holes will align by
simply moving the inlet relative to the shelter until alignment. If the inlet hood does not fit onto
acceleration plate, be sure that the spacers are not tightened until all of the washers, screws and spacers
are loosely assembled. If inlet does not open properly, be sure the strut is in correct position and strut
slot is aligned with shoulder bolt. If the top tub and bottom tub do not seal together, be sure alignment
pin in top tub goes into alignment pin “hole” in bottom tub. It is also necessary that the alignment pins on
1st stage plate are aligned with the alignment pin “holes” on bottom tub. Adjustment hooks are provided
to assure a seal between the top and bottom tube. To adjust, loosen nut with 3/8" wrench, adjust hook
length until a tight seals develops then tighten nut. Shim plate clips are provided to assure the shim plate
rests tightly against the first stage plate. Six adjustment screws and catches are provided to insure the
seal between the inlet top section and the shelter base pan. Adjust catches by loosening the nuts with
3/8 wrench, adjust catch length until it seals then tighten. Do this for all 6 catches. A shelter base pan
gasket 16"x 16" is provided to seal between the shelter base pan and inlet base pan. If a leak develops,
replace this gasket. All gaskets should be inspected for age or misuse. Replace as necessary.
66
ROUTINE MAINTENANCE
TE-6000 Series, TE-6070, TE-6070D, TE-6070BL, TE-6070D-BL, TE-6070V, TE-6070DV, TE-6070V-BL, TE6070DV-BL PM10 Samplers:
A regular maintenance schedule will allow a monitoring network to operate for longer periods of time
without system failure. Many users find the adjustments in routine maintenance frequencies are
necessary due to the operational demands on their sampler(s). We recommend that the following
cleaning and maintenance activities be observed until a stable operating history of the sampler has been
established.
1.
Inspect all gaskets (including motor cushion) to assure they are in good shape and that
they seal properly. For the PM-10 Inlet to seal properly, all gaskets must function
properly and retain their resilience. Replace when necessary.
2.
Power cords should be periodically inspected for good connections and for cracks
(replace if necessary).
CAUTION:
Do not allow power cord or outlets to be immersed in water.
3.
Inspect the filter screen and remove any foreign deposits.
4.
Inspect the filter media holder frame gasket each sample period. This gasket must
make an airtight seal.
5.
For Brush type systems: Check or replace motor brushes every 300 to 500 hours. If
motor has exhausted brush changes, then replace motor.
6. Insure the elapsed time indicator is operating by watching under power.
7.
Be certain the continuous flow recorder pen is making contact with the chart and
depositing ink each sample period. Be sure the door is sealed completely. Tubing
should be inspected for crimps or cracks. Replace when necessary.
8.
Clean shim plate periodically, excess dirt will cause false reading and bounce of heavier
particulate. See Section SAMPLER OPERATION
9.
Be certain the alignment pins are aligning properly. The upper and lower tubs must have
an airtight seal.
Be careful not to bend any parts of inlet out of their original aerodynamic shape, mainly the hood,
acceleration nozzle plate, nozzles and vent tubes.
67
MOTOR BRUSH REPLACEMENT TE-6070, TE-6070D MFC PM10
CAUTION:
1.
2.
3.
4.
(110v Brush part #TE-33384)
(220v Brush part #TE-33378)
Unplug the system from any line voltage sources before any servicing of blower
motor assembly.
Remove the blower motor flange by removing the four bolts. This will expose gasket and the
TE-116311 motor (220v Motor TE-116312).
Rotate the assembly on it’s side, loosen the cord retainer and then push cord into housing and at
the same time let motor slide out exposing the brushes.
Looking down at motor, there are 2 brushes, one on each side. Carefully pry the brass tabs (the
tabs are pushed into end of brush) away from the expended brushes and toward the armature.
Pry the tabs until they dislodge from the brushes.
With a screwdriver loosen and remove brush holder clamps and release TE-33384 brushes.
Carefully, pull the tabs from expended brushes.
5.
Slide the tabs into tab slot of new TE-33384 brush.
6.
Push brush carbon against armature until brush housing falls into brush slot on motor.
7.
Put brush holder clamps back onto brushes.
8.
Make sure the tabs are firmly seated into tab slot. Check field wires for good connections.
9.
Insert the motor by placing housing over while pulling power cord out of housing. Be certain
not to pinch the motor wires with the motor spacer ring.
10.
Secure power cord with the cord retainer cap.
11.
Replace blower motor flange on top of motor making sure to center gasket.
**IMPORTANT** To enhance motor life:
1.
2.
Change brushes before brush shunt touches armature.
Seat new brushes by applying 50% voltage for 10 to 15 minutes, the TE-5075
brush break in device allows for the 50% voltage.
68
MOTOR BRUSH REPLACEMENT TE-6070V, TE-6070DV VFC PM10
CAUTION:
1.
2.
3.
4.
(110v Brush part #TE-33392)
(220v Brush part #TE-33378)
Unplug the unit from any line voltage sources before any servicing of blower
motor assembly.
Remove the VFC device by removing the eight bolts. This will expose the gasket and the TE115923 motor (220v Motor TE-116111).
Rotate the assembly on side, loosen the cord retainer and then push cord into housing and at the
same time let motor slide out exposing the brushes.
Looking down at motor, there are 2 brushes, one on each side. Carefully pry the brass tabs (the
tabs are pushed into end of brush) away from the expended brushes and toward the armature.
Pry the tabs until they dislodge from the brushes.
With a screwdriver loosen and remove brush holder clamps and release TE-33392 brushes.
Carefully, pull the tabs from expended brushes.
5.
Carefully slide the tabs into tab slot of new TE-33392 brush.
6.
Push brush carbon against armature until brush housing falls into brush slot on motor.
7.
Put brush holder clamps back onto brushes.
8.
Make sure the tabs are firmly seated into tab slot. Check field wires for good connections.
9.
Insert the motor by placing housing over while pulling power cord out of housing. Be certain
not to pinch the motor wires with the motor spacer ring.
10.
Secure power cord with the cord retainer cap.
11.
Replace VFC device on top of motor making sure to align gasket.
**IMPORTANT** To enhance motor life:
2.
2.
Change brushes before brush shunt touches armature.
Seat new brushes by applying 50% voltage for 10 to 15 minutes, the TE-5075
brush break in device allows for the 50% voltage.
69
DESCRIPTION OF METHOD - APPENDIX J PART 50
Code of Federal Regulations July 1, 1998
Appendix J--Reference Method for the Determination of
Particulate Matter as PM10 in the Atmosphere
1.0
1.1
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
3.0
3.1
Applicability.
This method provides for the measurement of the mass concentration of particulate matter
with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 10 micrometers (PM10) in
ambient air over a 24-hour period for purposes of determining attainment and maintenance of
the primary and secondary national ambient air quality standards for particulate matter
specified in Sec. 50.6 of this chapter. The measurement process is nondestructive, and the
PM10 sample can be subjected to subsequent physical or chemical analyses. Quality
assurance procedures and guidance are provided in Part 58, Appendices A and B, of this
chapter and in References 1 and 2.
Principle.
An air sampler draws ambient air at a constant flow rate into a specially shaped inlet where
the suspended particulate matter is inertially separated into one or more size fractions
within the PM10 size range. Each size fraction in the PM10 size range is then
collected on a separate filter over the specified sampling period. The particle size
discrimination characteristics (sampling effectiveness and 50 percent cutpoint) of the sampler
inlet are prescribed as performance specifications in Part 53 of this chapter.
Each filter is weighed (after moisture equilibration) before and after use to determine the net
weight (mass) gain due to collected PM10. The total volume of air sampled, corrected to
EPA reference conditions (25 deg. C, 101.3 kPa), is determined from the measured flow rate
and the sampling time. The mass concentration of PM10 in the ambient air is computed as the
total mass of collected particles in the PM10 size range divided by the volume of air sampled,
and is expressed in micrograms per standard cubic meter (micro-g/ std m3). For PM10
samples collected at temperatures and pressures significantly different from EPA reference
conditions, these corrected concentrations sometimes differ substantially from actual
concentrations (in micrograms per actual cubic meter), particularly at high elevations.
Although not required, the actual PM10 concentration can be calculated from the corrected
concentration, using the average ambient temperature and barometric pressure during the
sampling period.
A method based on this principle will be considered a reference method only if (a) the
associated sampler meets the requirements specified in this appendix and the requirements in
Part 53 of this chapter, and (b) the method has been designated as a reference method in
accordance with Part 53 of this chapter.
Range.
The lower limit of the mass concentration range is determined by the repeatability of filter tare
weights, assuming the nominal air sample volume for the sampler. For samplers having an
automatic filter-changing mechanism, there may be no upper limit. For samplers that do not
have an automatic filter-changing mechanism, the upper limit is determined by the filter mass
loading beyond which the sampler no longer maintains the operating flow rate within specified
limits due to increased pressure drop across the loaded filter. This upper limit cannot be
specified precisely because it is a complex function of the ambient particle size distribution and
type, humidity, filter type, and perhaps other factors. Nevertheless, all samplers should be
70
4.0
4.1
5.0
5.1
6.0
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
capable of measuring 24-hour PM10 mass concentrations of at least 300 micro-g/std m3
while maintaining the operating flow rate within the specified limits.
Precision.
The precision of PM10 samplers must be 5 micro-g/m3 for PM10 concentrations below 80
micro-g/m3 and 7 percent for PM10 concentrations above 80 micro-g/m3, as required by
Part 53 of this chapter, which prescribes a test procedure that determines the variation in the
PM10 concentration measurements of identical samplers under typical sampling conditions.
Continual assessment of precision via collocated samplers is required by Part 58 of this
chapter for PM10 samplers used in certain monitoring networks.
Accuracy.
Because the size of the particles making up ambient particulate matter varies over a wide
range and the concentration of particles varies with particle size, it is difficult to define the
absolute accuracy of PM10 samplers. Part 53 of this chapter provides a specification for the
sampling effectiveness of PM10 samplers. This specification requires that the expected mass
concentration calculated for a candidate PM10 sampler, when sampling a specified particle
size distribution, be within +/-10 percent of that calculated for an ideal sampler whose
sampling effectiveness is explicitly specified. Also, the particle size for 50 percent sampling
effectiveness is required to be 10+/-0.5 micrometers. Other specifications related to accuracy
apply to flow measurement and calibration, filter media, analytical (weighing) procedures, and
artifact. The flow rate accuracy of PM10 samplers used in certain monitoring networks is
required by Part 58 of this chapter to be assessed periodically via flow rate audits.
Potential Sources of Error.
Volatile Particles. Volatile particles collected on filters are often lost during shipment and/or
storage of the filters prior to the post-sampling weighing3. Although shipment or storage of
loaded filters is sometimes unavoidable, filters should be reweighed as soon as practical to
minimize these losses.
Artifacts. Positive errors in PM10 concentration measurements may result from retention of
gaseous species on filters4,5. Such errors include the retention of sulfur dioxide and nitric acid.
Retention of sulfur dioxide on filters, followed by oxidation to sulfate, is referred to as artifact
sulfate formation, a phenomenon which increases with increasing filter alkalinity6. Little or no
artifact sulfate formation should occur using filters that meet the alkalinity specification in
section 7.2.4. Artifact nitrate formation, resulting primarily from retention of nitric acid, occurs
to varying degrees on many filter types, including glass fiber, cellulose ester, and many quartz
fiber filters5,7,8,9,10. Loss of true atmospheric particulate nitrate during or following sampling
may also occur due to dissociation or chemical reaction. This phenomenon has been observed
on Teflon(R) filters8 and inferred for quartz fiber filters11,12. The magnitude of nitrate artifact
errors in PM10 mass concentration measurements will vary with location and ambient
temperature; however, for most sampling locations, these errors are expected to be small.
Humidity. The effects of ambient humidity on the sample are unavoidable. The filter
equilibration procedure in section 9.0 is designed to minimize the effects of moisture on the
filter medium.
Filter Handling. Careful handling of filters between presampling and postsampling weighings is
necessary to avoid errors due to damaged filters or loss of collected particles from the filters.
Use of a filter cartridge or cassette may reduce the magnitude of these errors. Filters must
also meet the integrity specification in section 7.2.3.
Flow Rate Variation. Variations in the sampler's operating flow rate may alter the particle size
discrimination characteristics of the sampler inlet. The magnitude of this error will depend on
71
the sensitivity of the inlet to variations in flow rate and on the particle distribution in the
atmosphere during the sampling period. The use of a flow control device (section 7.1.3) is
required to minimize this error.
6.6 Air Volume Determination. Errors in the air volume determination may result from errors in
the flow rate and/or sampling time measurements. The flow control device serves to minimize
errors in the flow rate determination, and an elapsed time meter (section 7.1.5) is required to
minimize the error in the sampling time measurement.
7.0 Apparatus.
7.1 PM10 Sampler.
7.1.1 The sampler shall be designed to:
a. Draw the air sample into the sampler inlet and through the particle collection filter at a
uniform face velocity.
b. Hold and seal the filter in a horizontal position so that sample air is drawn downward
through the filter.
c. Allow the filter to be installed and removed conveniently.
d. Protect the filter and sampler from precipitation and prevent insects and other debris from
being sampled.
e. Minimize air leaks that would cause error in the measurement of the air volume passing
through the filter.
f. Discharge exhaust air at a sufficient distance from the sampler inlet to minimize the
sampling of exhaust air.
g. Minimize the collection of dust from the supporting surface.
7.1.2 The sampler shall have a sample air inlet system that, when operated within a
specified flow rate range, provides particle size discrimination characteristics
meeting all of the applicable performance specifications prescribed in Part 53 of this
this chapter. The sampler inlet shall show no significant wind direction dependence.
The latter requirement can generally be satisfied by an inlet shape that is circularly
symmetrical about a vertical axis.
7.1.3 The sampler shall have a flow control device capable of maintaining the sampler's
operating flow rate within the flow rate limits specified for the sampler inlet over
normal variations in line voltage and filter pressure drop.
7.1.4 The sampler shall provide a means to measure the total flow rate during the sampling
period. A continuous flow recorder is recommended but not required. The flow
measurement device shall be accurate to +/-2 percent.
7.1.5 A timing/control device capable of starting and stopping the sampler shall be used to
obtain a sample collection period of 24 +/-1 hr (1,440 +/-60 min). An elapsed time
meter, accurate to within +/-15 minutes, shall be used to measure sampling time.
This meter is optional for samplers with continuous flow recorders if the sampling
time measurement obtained by means of the recorder meets the +/-15 minute
accuracy specification.
7.1.6 The sampler shall have an associated operation or instruction manual as required by
Part 53 of this chapter which includes detailed instructions on the calibration,
operation, and maintenance of the sampler.
7.2 Filters.
7.2.1 Filter Medium. No commercially available filter medium is ideal in all respects for
all samplers. The user's goals in sampling determine the relative importance of
various filter characteristics (e.g., cost, ease of handling, physical and chemical
72
characteristics, etc.) and, consequently, determine the choice among acceptable
filters. Furthermore, certain types of filters may not be suitable for use with some
samplers, particularly under heavy loading conditions (high mass concentrations),
because of high or rapid increase in the filter flow resistance that would exceed the
capability of the sampler's flow control device. However, samplers equipped with
automatic filter-changing mechanisms may allow use of these types of filters.
The specifications given below are minimum requirements to ensure acceptability of
the filter medium for measurement of PM10 mass concentrations. Other filter
evaluation criteria should be considered to meet individual sampling and analysis
objectives.
7.2.2 Collection Efficiency. >/=99 percent, as measured by the DOP test (ASTM-2986)
with 0.3 micro-m particles at the sampler's operating face velocity.
7.2.3 Integrity. +/-5 micro-g/m3 (assuming sampler's nominal 24-hour air sample
volume). Integrity is measured as the PM10 concentration equivalent corresponding
to the average difference between the initial and the final weights of a random sample
of test filters that are weighed and handled under actual or simulated sampling
conditions, but have no air sample passed through them (i.e., filter blanks). As a
minimum, the test procedure must include initial equilibration and weighing,
installation on an inoperative sampler, removal from the sampler, and final
equilibration and weighing.
7.2.4 Alkalinity. 0.5 m3/min). Lower volume samplers (flow rates).
7.3 Flow Rate Transfer Standard. The flow rate transfer standard must be suitable for the sampler's
operating flow rate and must be calibrated against a primary flow or volume standard that is
traceable to the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). The flow rate transfer standard must be
capable of measuring the sampler's operating flow rate with an accuracy of +/- 2 percent.
7.4 Filter Conditioning Environment.
7.4.1 Temperature range: 15 to 30 C.
7.4.2 Temperature control: +/- 3C.
7.4.3 Humidity range: 20% to 45% RH.
7.4.4 Humidity control: +/-5% RH.
7.5 Analytical Balance. The analytical balance must be suitable for weighing the type and size of
filters required by the sampler. The range and sensitivity required will depend on the filter tare
weights and mass loadings. Typically, an analytical balance with a sensitivity of 0.1 mg is
required for high volume samplers (flow rates > 0.5 m3/min). Lower volume samplers (flow rates
< 0.5 m3/min) will require a more sensitive balance.
8.0
Calibration
8.1
General Requirements.
8.1.1 Calibration of the sampler's flow measurement device is required to establish traceability of
subsequent flow measurements to a primary standard. A flow rate transfer standard calibrated
against a primary flow or volume standard shall be used to calibrate or verify the accuracy of
the sampler's flow measurement device.
8.1.2 Particle size discrimination by inertial separation requires that specific air velocities be
maintained in the sampler's air inlet system. Therefore, the flow rate through the sampler's inlet
must be maintained throughout the sampling period within the design flow rate range specified
by the manufacturer. Design flow rates are specified as actual volumetric flow rates, measured
at existing conditions of temperature and pressure (Qa). In contrast, mass concentrations of
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8.2
8.2.1
8.2.2
8.2.3
8.2.4
8.2.5
8.2.6
9.0
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
PM10 are computed using flow rates corrected to EPA reference conditions of temperature
and pressure (Qstd).
Flow Rate Calibration Procedure.
PM10 samplers employ various types of flow control and flow measurement devices. The
specific procedure used for flow rate calibration or verification will vary depending on the
type of flow controller and flow indicator employed. Calibration in terms of actual volumetric
flow rates (Qa) is generally recommended, but other measures of flow rate (eg. Qstd) may be
used provided the requirements of section 8.1 are met. The general procedure given here is
based on actual volumetric flow units (Qa) and serves to illustrate the steps involved in the
calibration of a PM10 sampler. Consult the sampler manufacturer's instruction manual and
Reference 2 for specific guidance on calibration. Reference 14 provides additional information
on the use of the commonly used measures of flow rate and their interrelationships.
Calibrate the flow rate transfer standard against a primary flow or volume standard traceable
to NBS. Establish a calibration relationship (eg. An equation or family of curves) such that
traceability to the primary standard is accurate to within 2 percent over the expected range of
ambient conditions (ie temperatures and pressures) under which the transfer standard will be
used. Recalibrate the transfer standard periodically.
Following the sampler manufacturer's instruction manual remove the sampler inlet and connect
the flow rate transfer standard to the sampler such that the transfer standard accurately
measures the sampler's flow rate. Make sure there are no leaks between the transfer standard
and the sampler.
Choose a minimum of three flow rates (actual m3/min), spaced over the acceptable flow rate
range specified for the inlet (see 7.1.2) that can be obtained by suitable adjustment of the
sampler flow rate. In accordance with the sampler manufacturer's instruction manual, obtain
or verify the calibration relationship between the flow rate (actual m3/min) as indicated by the
transfer standard and the sampler's flow indicator response. Record the ambient temperatures
and barometric pressure. Temperature and pressure corrections to subsequent flow indicator
readings may be required for certain types of flow measurement devices. When such
corrections are necessary, correctin on an individual or daily basis is preferable. However,
seasonal average temperature and average barometric pressure for the sampling site may be
incorporated into the sampler calibration to avoid daily corrections. Consult the sampler
manufacture's instruction manual and Reference 2 for additional guidance.
Following calibration, verify that the sampler is operation at its design flow rate (actual
m3/min) with a clean filter in place.
Replace the sampler inlet.
Procedure.
The sampler shall be operated in accordance with the specific guidance provided in the
sampler manufacturer's instruction manual and in Reference 2. The general procedure given
here assumes that the sampler's flow rate calibration is based on flow rates at ambient
conditions (Qa) and serves to illustrate the steps involved in the operation of a PM10
sampler.
Inspect each filter for pinholes, particles, and other imperfections, establish a filter information
record and assign an identification number to each filter.
Equilibrate each filter in the conditions environment (see 7.4) for at least 24 hours.
Following equilibration, weigh each filter and record the presampling weight with the filter
identification number.
74
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
9.10
9.11
9.12
9.13
9.14
9.15
9.16
9.17
8.0
10.1
9.0
11.1
Install a preweighed filter in the sampler following the instructions provided in the sampler
manufacturer's instruction manual.
Turn on the sampler and allow it to establish run-temperature conditions. Record the flow
indicator reading and, if needed, the ambient temperature and barometric pressure. Determine
the sampler flow rate (actual m3/min) in accordance with the instructions provided in the
sampler manufacturer's instruction manual. NOTE- No onsite temperature or pressure
measurements are necessary if the sampler's flow indicator does not require temperature or
pressure corrections or if seasonal average temperature and average barometric pressure for
the sampling site are incorporated into the sampler calibration (see step 8.2.4). If individual or
daily temperature and pressure corrections are required, ambient temperature and barometric
pressure can be obtained by on-site measurements or from a nearby weather station.
Barometric pressure readings obtained from airports must be station pressure, not corrected
to sea level, and may need to be corrected for differences in elevation between the sampling
site and the airport.
If the flow rate is outside the acceptable range specified by the manufacturer, check for leaks,
and if necessary, adjust the flow rate to the specified setpoint. Stop the sampler.
Set the timer to start and stop the sampler at appropriate times. Set the elapsed time meter to
zero or record the initial meter reading.
Record the sample information (site location or identification number, sample date, filter
identification number, and sampler model and serial number).
Sample for 24+/- 1 hours.
Determine and record the average flow rate (Qa) in actual m3/min for the sampling period in
accordance with the instructions provided in the sampler manufacturer's instruction manual.
Record the elapsed time meter final reading and, if needed, the average ambient temperature
and barometric pressure for the sampling period (see note following set 9.6)
Carefully remove the filter from the sampler, following the sampler manufacturer's instruction
manual. Touch only the outer edges of the filter.
Place the filter in a protective holder or container (eg. petri dish, glassine envelope, or manila
folder).
Record any factors such as meteorological conditions, construction activity, fires or dust
storms, etc., that might be pertinent to the measurement on the filter information record.
Transport the exposed sample filter to the filter conditioning environment as soon as possible
for equilibration and subsequent weighing.
Equilibrate the exposed filter in the conditioning environment for at least 24 hours under the
same temperature and humidity conditions used for presampling filter equilibration (see 9.3).
Immediately after equilibration, reweigh the filter and record the postsampling weight with the
filter identification number.
Sampler Maintenance.
The PM10 Sampler shall be maintained in strict accordance with the maintenance procedures
specified in the sampler manufacturer's instruction manual.
Calculations.
Calculate the average flow rate over the sampling period corrected to EPA reference
conditions as Qstd. When the sampler's flow indicator is calibrated in actual volumetric units
(Qa), Qstd is calculated as:
Qstd=Qa*(Pav/Tav)(Tstd/Pstd)
Where:
Qstd = average flow rate at EPA reference conditions, std m3/min;
75
average flow rate at ambient conditions, m3/min;
average barometric pressure during the sampling period or average barometric
pressure for the sampling site, kPa (or mm Hg);
Tav = average ambient temperature during the sampling period or seasonal average
ambient temperature for the sampling site, K;
Tstd = standard temperature, defined as 298K;
Pstd = standard pressure, defined as 101.3kPa (or 760 mm Hg).
Calculate the total volume of air sampled as:
Vstd = Qstd * T
Where:
Vstd = total air sampled in standard volume units, std m3;
T = sampling time, min.
Calculate the PM10 concentration as:
PM10 = (Wf - Wi) * 106/Vstd
Where:
PM10 = mass concentration of PM10 micro-g/std m3
Wf, Wi = final and initial weights of filter collecting PM10 particles, g;
106 = conversion of g to micro-g.
Qa =
Pav =
11.2
11.3
Note:
If more than one size fraction in the PM10 size range is collected by the
sampler, the sum of the net weight gain by each collection filter
[Summation (Wf-Wi)] is used to calculate the PM10 mass concentration.
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