T440, T470 Operator Manual

T440, T470 Operator Manual
Contents
Safety
1
Emergency
2
Controls
3
Driving
4
Maintenance
5
Information
6
Index
7
Contents
©2012 Paccar Inc - All Rights Reserved
This manual illustrates and describes the operation of features or equipment which may be either standard or optional on
this vehicle. This manual may also include a description of features and equipment which are no longer available or were
not ordered on this vehicle. Please disregard any illustrations or descriptions relating to features or equipment which are
not on this vehicle.
PACCAR reserves the right to discontinue, change specifications, or change the design of its vehicles at any time without
notice and without incurring any obligation.
The information contained in this manual is proprietary to Kenworth. Reproduction, in whole or in part, by any means is
strictly prohibited without prior written authorization from PACCAR Inc.
Truck Model Example
i
SAFETY
1
INTRODUCTION
About This Manual . . . . . . .
Safety Alerts . . . . . . . . . .
Vehicle Safety . . . . . . . . .
Repairs . . . . . . . . . . . .
Additional Sources of Information .
California Proposition 65 Warning .
Data Recorder . . . . . . . . .
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1-3
1-3
1-5
1-6
1-7
1-7
1-8
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. . 1-9
. 1-10
. 1-14
. 1-16
. 1-17
. 1-17
SEATS AND RESTRAINTS
Introduction . . . . . .
Safety Restraint Belts . .
Tether Belts . . . . . .
Komfort-Lok Feature . .
During Pregnancy. . . .
Belt Damage and Repair .
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START-UP
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-18
1-1
SAFETY
Door Lock and Keys . . . .
Remote Keyless Entry (Option)
Cab and Frame Access . . .
Hood Hold Downs. . . . . .
Hood Tilt . . . . . . . . .
Hood Safety Cable . . . . .
Safe Vehicle Operation . . .
Vehicle Loading. . . . . . .
Emergency Equipment . . .
Driver's Check List . . . . .
1
1-2
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1-18
1-19
1-21
1-23
1-24
1-24
1-26
1-27
1-28
1-28
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
About This Manual
Congratulations! Your selection of a
Kenworth truck was a wise investment.
Kenworth trucks are recognized as
the industry standard for quality and
reliability.
Please take the time to get acquainted
with your vehicle by reading this
Operator’s Manual. We recommend
that you read and understand this
manual from beginning to end before
you operate your truck. This manual
explains the safe, efficient operation
and maintenance of your Kenworth.
Safety Alerts
Your Kenworth may not have all the
features or options mentioned in this
manual. Therefore, you should pay
careful attention to the instructions that
pertain to just your vehicle. In addition,
if your vehicle is equipped with special
equipment or options not discussed in
this manual, consult your dealer or the
manufacturer of the equipment.
All information contained in this
manual is based on the latest
production information available at the
time of publication. Kenworth Truck
Company reserves the right to make
changes at any time without notice.
1
Please read and follow all of the
safety alerts contained in this manual.
They are there for your protection
and information. These alerts can
help you avoid injury to yourself, your
passengers, and help prevent costly
damage to the vehicle. Safety alerts
are highlighted by safety alert symbols
and signal words such as "WARNING",
"CAUTION", or "NOTE". Please do not
ignore any of these alerts.
NOTE
After you’ve read this manual, it
should be stored in the cab for
convenient reference and remain
with this truck when sold.
1-3
INTRODUCTION
1
WARNING
CAUTION
Example:
WARNING
CAUTION
WARNING
The safety message following this
symbol and signal word provides a
warning against operating procedures
which could cause injury or even death.
They could also cause equipment or
property damage. The alert will identify
the hazard, how to avoid it, and the
probable consequence of not avoiding
the hazard.
Do not carry additional fuel
containers in your vehicle. Fuel
containers, either full or empty,
may leak, explode, and cause or
feed a fire. Do not carry extra
fuel containers. Even empty ones
are dangerous. Failure to comply
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
The safety alert following this symbol
and signal word provides a caution
against operating procedures which
could cause equipment or property
damage. The alert will identify the
hazard, how to avoid it, and the
probable consequence of not avoiding
the hazard.
Example:
CAUTION
Continuing to operate your vehicle
with insufficient oil pressure will
cause serious engine damage.
Failure to comply may result in
equipment or property damage.
1-4
INTRODUCTION
Vehicle Safety
NOTE
NOTE
WARNING
The alert following this symbol and
signal word provides important
information that is not safety related
but should be followed. The alert
will highlight things that may not be
obvious and is useful to your efficient
operation of the vehicle.
Do not drink and drive.
Your
reflexes, perceptions, and judgment
can be affected by even a small
amount of alcohol. You could have a
serious or even fatal accident, if you
drive after drinking. Please do not
drink and drive or ride with a driver
who has been drinking. Failure
to comply may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
Example:
NOTE
WARNING
Pumping the accelerator will not
assist in starting the engine.
Do not text and drive. Your reaction
time, perceptions and judgment can
be affected while texting or using
any other form of mobile messaging
while driving. Failure to comply
may result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
Make sure your Kenworth is in top
working condition before heading
out on the road, it is the responsible
driver's duty to do so. Inspect the
vehicle according to the Driver's Check
List beginning on page 1-28.
Every new Kenworth vehicle is
designed to conform to all Federal
Motor Vehicle Safety Standards
applicable at the time of manufacture.
Even with these safety features,
continued safe and reliable operation
depends greatly upon regular vehicle
maintenance. Follow the maintenance
recommendations found in Preventive
Maintenance on page 5-7. This will
help preserve your investment.
Keep in mind that even a well
maintained vehicle must be operated
within the range of its mechanical
capabilities and the limits of its load
ratings. See the Tire and Rim Weight
Ratings label on the driver's door edge.
1-5
1
INTRODUCTION
1
This manual is not a training manual.
It cannot tell you everything you need
to know about driving your Kenworth
vehicle. For that you need a good
training program or truck driving
school. If you have not been trained,
get the proper training before you
drive. Only qualified drivers should
drive this vehicle.
Repairs
WARNING
Do not attempt repair work without
sufficient training, service manuals,
and the proper tools. You could
be injured, or you could make your
vehicle unsafe. Do only those tasks
you are fully qualified to do.
WARNING
Modifying your vehicle can make
it unsafe.
Some modifications
can affect your vehicle's electrical
system, stability, or other important
functions. Before modifying your
vehicle, check with your dealer to
make sure it can be done safely.
1-6
Your Kenworth vehicle is a complex
machine. Anyone attempting repairs
on it needs the appropriate mechanical
training, specifications, and tools.
Your authorized Kenworth Dealer
is the best place to have your
Kenworth repaired and they are
dedicated to your satisfaction. Their
technicians are specially trained in
servicing the many unique systems
on your vehicle. To find a dealer
near you, give us a call toll-FREE at
1-800-KW-ASSIST (1-800-592-7747)
24-7-365 days a year or visit us
online at www.kenworth.com and
click on the "dealers" link. When it
comes time for service work, your
Kenworth Dealer will need your Vehicle
Identification Number (VIN), see
Vehicle Identification on page 6-4.
INTRODUCTION
Additional Sources of
Information
Installed Equipment - Operator's
Manuals
Major component suppliers to
Kenworth also supply operation
manuals specific to their products.
Additional manuals and other pieces
of literature are included in the glove
box literature package. Look for
information on products such as the
engine, drivers seat, transmission,
axles, wheels, tires, ABS/ESP (if
applicable) and radio. If you are
missing these pieces of literature, ask
your Kenworth Dealer for copies.
Other Sources
Another place to learn more about
trucking is from local truck driving
schools. Contact one near you to learn
about courses they offer.
Federal and state agencies such
as the department of licensing also
have information. The Interstate
Commerce Commission can give
you information about regulations
governing transportation across state
lines.
California Proposition 65
Warning
1
•
Diesel engine exhaust and some
of its constituents are known to
the State of California to cause
cancer, birth defects, and other
reproductive harm.
•
Other chemicals in this vehicle
are also known to the State of
California to cause cancer, birth
defects or other reproductive
harm.
•
Battery posts, terminals, and
related accessories contain lead
and lead compounds, chemicals
known to the State of California
to cause cancer and reproductive
harm. Wash hands after handling.
1-7
INTRODUCTION
1
Data Recorder
California Vehicle Code - Section
9951- Disclosure of Recording Device
Your vehicle may be equipped with one
or more recording devices commonly
referred to as “event data recorders
(EDR)” or “sensing and diagnostic
modules (SDM)”. If you are involved in
an accident, the device(s) may have
the ability to record vehicle data that
occurred just prior to and/or during the
accident. For additional information on
your rights associated with the use of
this data, contact
•
the California Department of Motor
Vehicles - Licensing Operations
Division
– or –
•
http://www.dmv.ca.gov/
pubs/vctop/d03_6/vc9951.htm
1-8
WARNING
Diesel engine exhaust and some
of its constituents are known to
the State of California to cause
cancer, birth defects, and other
reproductive harm. Other chemicals
in this vehicle are also known to the
State of California to cause cancer,
birth defects or other reproductive
harm. This warning requirement
is mandated by California law
(Proposition 65) and does not result
from any change in the manner in
which vehicles are manufactured.
SEATS AND RESTRAINTS
SEATS AND
RESTRAINTS
Introduction
This section covers the operation
and safe use of your Kenworth seats.
For further information on features
and adjustment of the seat, see the
manufacturer's Service and Operation
Manual included with the vehicle.
Seat Adjustment
WARNING
Do not adjust the driver's seat
while the vehicle is moving. The
seat could move suddenly and
unexpectedly and can cause the
driver to lose control of the vehicle.
Make all adjustments to the seat
while the vehicle is stopped. After
adjusting the seat and before driving
off, always check to ensure that the
seat is firmly latched in position.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
NOTE
After adjusting the seat and before
driving off, always check to ensure
that the seat is firmly latched in
position.
Standard Driver's Seat
1
The standard driver's seat can be
adjusted forward and rearward as well
as up and down. The seat back angle
can also be adjusted. These three
movements are each controlled by
levers located either beneath or at the
sides of the seat.
Driver's Seat with Air Suspension
WARNING
Before driving or riding in vehicle,
ensure that there is adequate head
clearance at maximum upward
travel of seat. Injury may occur if
head clearance is not adequate.
Failure to comply may result in
personal injury or death.
1-9
SEATS AND RESTRAINTS
1
Reclining Seats
Safety Restraint Belts
•
Safety belts have proven to be
the single most effective means
available for reducing the potential
for either injury or death in motor
vehicle accidents. Therefore, read
the following instructions and always
observe user warnings pertaining to
safety belts.
Raise the seat all the way up
so that the seat will tilt back and
completely clear objects behind
you.
WARNING
Do not drive or ride with your seat
back in the reclined position. You
could be injured by sliding under the
seat belts in a collision. Failure to
comply may result in personal injury
or death.
1-10
WARNING
Do not drive vehicle without your
seat belt and your riders belts
fastened. Unbelted riders could be
thrown into the windshield or other
parts of the cab or could be thrown
out of the cab. Injuries can be much
worse when riders are unbelted.
Always fasten your seat belt and be
sure anyone riding with you does
the same. Failure to comply may
result in personal injury or death.
Unbelted Person in Crash
Your vehicle may be equipped
with a seat belt indicator in the
warning light display above the
speedometer/tachometer (see “Seat
Belt, Fasten” on page 3-42). It will turn
on if the seat belt is not fastened and
the ignition key is turned on.
SEATS AND RESTRAINTS
Lap/Shoulder Belt
°
The combination lap-shoulder belt is
equipped with a locking mechanism.
The system adjusts automatically to a
person's size and movements as long
as the pull on the belt is slow.
°
Hard braking or a collision locks the
belt. The belt will also lock when
driving up or down a steep hill or in a
sharp curve.
To fasten the belt:
1.
Grasp the belt tongue.
2.
Pull belt in a continuous slow
motion across your chest and lap.
3.
4.
°
Pull shoulder section to make
sure belt fits snugly across the
chest.
The shoulder belt must be
positioned over the shoulder,
it must never rest against the
neck.
Belts should fit snugly across
the pelvis and chest.
Make sure any slack is wound
up on the retractor.
To unfasten the belt:
•
Push in the release button on the
buckle. The belt will spring out of
the buckle.
Insert belt tongue into buckle on
inboard side of seat.
•
Push down until the tongue is
securely locked with an audible
click. Pull belt to check for proper
fastening.
To release a locked belt, lean back
to take the body pressure off of
the belt.
•
To store a lap-shoulder belt, allow
the belt to wind up on the retractor
by guiding the belt tongue until the
belt comes to a stop.
Proper Safety Belt Adjustment
1
Your combination lap-shoulder belt
may need adjustment. Adjust safety
belts properly.
•
The lap belt should be worn as low
and tight on the hips as possible.
Make sure any slack is taken up
by the belt mechanism.
•
The shoulder belt should fit snugly
across your body. It should
be positioned midway over the
shoulder (that is next to the door);
it should never rest against your
neck.
1-11
SEATS AND RESTRAINTS
1
Safety Restraint Belts
Lap Belt
Correct
•
•
Shoulder Belt
Incorrect (too high on hips)
Be sure, also, that your belt is not
too loose. A loose belt could allow
you to slide under it in an accident,
and that could bring the belt up
around your abdomen.
Ensure that you do not twist the
belt in the process of putting it on.
A twisted belt will not work as well
to protect you.
1-12
Correct (over arm)
Incorrect (under arm)
pelvic bones. This can result in
internal injuries.
WARNING
Proper seat belt adjustment and use
is important to maximize occupant
safety. Failure to wear or adjust
the safety belt properly may result in
death or personal injury.
•
You can be injured if your
belt is buckled too high. In
a crash, it would apply force
to your abdomen, not your
Incorrect (twisted)
•
Do not drive with your seat belt
loose. A too-loose seat belt can
allow you to fall too far forward,
possibly causing head and neck
injuries. You could strike the
wheel or the windshield. Adjust
your belt so that there is no
more than 1 in. (25mm) of slack.
SEATS AND RESTRAINTS
WARNING
WARNING
Do not wear the shoulder part of belt
under your arm or otherwise out of
position. In a crash your body would
move too far forward, increasing
the chance of head and neck injury.
Also, the belt would apply too much
force to the ribs, which are not as
strong as your shoulder bones, and
could cause you to suffer internal
injuries. Wear the shoulder belt over
your shoulder (see Safety Restraint
Belts on page 1-12). Failure to
comply may result in personal injury
or death.
Do not twist the belt in the process
of putting it on. A twisted belt will
not work as well to protect you. In a
crash, the full width of the belt would
not be protecting you. A twisted belt
could cut into your body and cause
injuries. Straighten the belt before
buckling it. If you are unable to wear
it without twisting it, have your dealer
or service person repair it as soon
as possible. Failure to comply may
result in personal injury or death.
Safety Restraint Tips
•
Anyone riding in your vehicle
should wear a seat belt. A
responsible operator sees to it
that everyone in the vehicle rides
safely and that means with a seat
belt.
•
Do not strap in more than one
person with each belt.
•
Do not wear a belt over rigid or
breakable objects in or on your
clothing, such as eye glasses,
pens, keys, etc., as these may
cause injury in an accident.
•
Several layers of heavy clothing
may interfere with proper
positioning of belts and reduce
the overall effectiveness of the
system.
•
Keep belt buckles free of any
obstruction that may prevent
secure locking.
•
Damaged or worn belts in
the cab/sleeper, subjected to
excessive stretch forces from
crashes, cuts or tears, or normal
wear, must be replaced, they may
not protect you if you have an
accident.
1-13
1
SEATS AND RESTRAINTS
1
•
•
a striking object in case of a
sudden stop.
If belts show damage to any part
of assembly, such as webbing,
bindings, buckles or retractors,
they must be replaced.
•
Do not allow safety belts to
become damaged by getting
caught in door or seat hardware,
or rubbing against sharp objects.
Do not modify or disassemble the
seat belts in your vehicle. They
will not be available to keep you
and your passengers safe.
•
If any seat belt is not working
properly, see an authorized
Kenworth Dealer for repair or
replacement.
•
The belts must be kept clean or the
retractors may not work properly.
•
Never bleach or dye seat belts:
chemicals can weaken them. Do,
however, keep them clean by
following the care label on the
belts. Let them dry completely
before allowing them to retract.
•
Make sure the belt of the
unoccupied passenger seat is
fully wound up on its retractor,
so that the belt tongue is in its
stowed position. This reduces the
possibility of the tongue becoming
1-14
Tether Belts
Tether belts are installed on suspension
seats. They help secure the seat to the
floor to restrain it in case of a sudden
stop or an accident.
SEATS AND RESTRAINTS
Fixed Tethers
Tether Adjustment
WARNING
If your Kenworth has been equipped
with fixed length tethers, no manual
adjustment is required. The same
inspection and replacement guidelines
should be used as stated in Safety
Restraint System - Inspection on page
5-55.
WARNING
Do not remove, modify, or replace
the tether belt system with a different
tether system. A failed or missing
tether belt could allow the seat base
to fully extend in the event of an
accident. Failure to comply may
result in personal injury or death.
Failure to adjust tether belts properly
can cause excessive movement
of the seat in an accident. Tether
belts should be adjusted so that
they are taut when the seat is in its
most upward and forward position.
Failure to comply may result in
personal injury or death.
WARNING
Before driving or riding in a vehicle,
ensure that there is adequate head
clearance at maximum upward
travel of seat. Shorten the tether belt
as necessary to provide adequate
head clearance. Injury or death
may occur if head clearance is not
adequate.
1
•
Make sure that the tether belt is
attached to the cab floor and seat
frame. It should be routed through
the buckle on each side.
•
Often the attachments are made
using a split-type hook. Make sure
both halves of the hook are around
the anchor bracket.
•
To lengthen the tether, turn the
buckle to a right angle to the
webbing. Then pull the buckle.
To shorten the tether, pull on the
strap.
1-15
SEATS AND RESTRAINTS
1
Komfort-Lok Feature
Your Kenworth includes a feature
designed to eliminate cinching and
provide improved safety and comfort.
Cinching is the condition where a belt
becomes continually tighter around
you during a rough, bouncy ride. The
need for this feature increases with
rough road conditions, particularly over
long distances.
To eliminate cinching, simply activate
the Komfort-Lok feature located on the
seat belt webbing at the appropriate
time.
1.
Fasten the seat belt according
to instructions, See Seats And
Restraints on page 1-9.
2.
You are now ready to activate the
Komfort-Lok. Lean forward to pull
a little slack in the belt [maximum
of 1 in. (25mm), measured from
the belt to your chest]. Be sure to
allow only a small amount of slack.
1-16
See Safety Restraint Belt Warning
on page 1-12
3.
When the slack is right, flip the
latch cover up, cinching it into
place. This locks the Komfort-Lok.
4.
To release the Komfort-Lok, reach
up and pull the latch cover open
(down), or simply pull down on the
shoulder belt.
5.
When you want to get out of the
cab, release the latch, then just
push the button on the buckle.
1.
2.
Latch Cover Down
Latch Cover UP
SEATS AND RESTRAINTS
During Pregnancy
Belt Damage and Repair
Pregnant women should always wear
combination lap/shoulder belts. The
lap belt portion must be worn snugly
and as low as possible across the
pelvis. To avoid pressure on the
abdomen, the belt must never pass
over the waist. Sometimes pregnant
women worry that in a crash the seat
belt could hurt the baby. But if a
woman wears her belt properly, low
over her pelvis, below her abdomen,
the belt will not harm the baby, even in
a crash. And remember, the best way
to keep an unborn baby safe is to keep
the mother safe.
Damaged belts in the cab must
be replaced. Belts that have been
stretched, cut, or worn out may not
protect you in an accident.
1
If any seat belt is not working properly,
see an Authorized Service Center for
repair or replacement.
Pregnant Woman with Belt Properly
Worn
For further information on seat belts
and seat belt maintenance, see Safety
Restraint System - Inspection on page
5-55.
1-17
START-UP
1
START-UP
Door Lock and Keys
Introduction
Doors can be locked from the inside by
using the lock button. Close the door
then push the button down to lock.
Doors automatically unlock when you
open them from inside, and can be
locked from the outside with the key
only.
The following section covers start-up
procedures for getting your Kenworth
ready for the road.
As standard equipment, two keys are
provided for the doors and ignition.
When necessary, additional locks
and keys are provided for storage
compartments.
1-18
WARNING
To lessen the chance and/or severity
of personal injury in case of an
accident, always lock the doors
while driving. Along with using the
lap/shoulder belts properly, locking
the doors helps prevent occupants
from being thrown from the vehicle.
Failure to comply may result in
personal injury or death.
To lock or unlock the doors from
outside the cab:
•
Insert the key in the door lock.
•
Turn the key toward the rear door
frame to lock; forward to unlock.
START-UP
Remote Keyless Entry
(Option)
This vehicle may be equipped with a
Remote Keyless Entry (RKE) system
that adds security and convenience
to your Kenworth truck. The system
will lock or unlock the drivers door and
passengers door with the key fob and
alert you with parking lights when the
selected doors are locked or unlocked.
The system includes two key fobs that
provide secure rolling code technology
that prevents someone from recording
the entry signal.
FCC ID: L2C0031T IC: 3432A-0031T
FCC ID: L2C0032R IC: 3432A-0032R
This device complies with Part 15 of
the FCC Rules and with RSS-210 of
Industry Canada. Operation is subject
to the following two conditions:
1.
2.
This device must accept any
interference received, including
interference that may cause
undesired operation.
NOTE
Changes or modifications not
expressively approved by the party
responsible for compliance could
void the user's authority to operate
the equipment.
The term “IC:”
before the radio certification number
only signifies that Industry Canada
technical specifications were met.
Operation
To Unlock The Drivers Door
1
Press the UNLOCK button once. The
driver's door will unlock and the parking
lights will come on for 40 seconds.
To Unlock The Passengers Door
Press the UNLOCK button once and
press again within 5 seconds. The
passenger door will unlock.
To Lock Both Doors
Press the LOCK button. The doors will
lock and the parking lights will come
on for 2 seconds. If the doors are open
they will not lock.
NOTE
If this system is retrofit on vehicles
built before March 2002, doors may
lock when open.
This device may not cause harmful
interference, and
1-19
START-UP
1
The range of the RKE system should
be approximately 30 feet. This will
be reduced if it is operated close to
other RF sources such as TV/radio
transmitters and cell towers.
Batteries
Synchronization
The key fob uses one CR2032,
3V battery. Batteries should last
approximately three years, depending
on use. Consistently reduced range
is an indicator that the battery needs
replacement. Batteries are available
at most discount, hardware and drug
stores.
The key fob may need to be
synchronized to the vehicle when the
battery is replaced, or when the key
fob has not been used for an extended
period time.
To Replace The Battery
1-20
1.
Remove rear cover from key fob.
2.
Remove the battery.
3.
Install new battery.
4.
Reinstall cover.
5.
Synchronize the key fob.
START-UP
To Synchronize A Key Fob
1.
Hold the key fob near the
passenger door switch module
(near the glove box).
2.
Press and hold both the Lock and
Unlock buttons at the same time
for approximately 7 seconds.
°
°
If the fob fails to synchronize,
it could be programmed to a
different vehicle or could have
failed.
See Remote Keyless Entry
Troubleshooting on page 5-80,
for more information.
Cab and Frame Access
1
The following cab and frame entry/exit
procedure recommendations were
prepared with personal safety foremost
in mind.
WARNING
Do not jump out of the cab or get into
the cab without proper caution. You
could slip or fall, possibly suffering a
injury or death. You could slip and
fall if the steps are wet or icy, or if
you step in fuel, oil, or grease.
When the key fob is
resynchronized the doors
will lock, then immediately
unlock.
To help avoid personal injury due to
a slip or fall:
•
Always face the vehicle when
accessing or leaving the cab or
frame access area.
•
Use three points of contact
(two feet one hand or one foot
two hands) to grip the steps or
1-21
START-UP
handholds whenever possible and
look where you are going.
1
•
Use even more care when steps
and handholds (or footwear) are
wet, coated with ice, snow, mud,
oil, fuel, or grease.
WARNING
Do not step on vehicle components
without anti-skid surfaces or use
components not designed for
entry-and-exit use. You could fall
and injure or kill yourself if you step
onto a slippery surface.
•
•
Do not step onto the surface of
a fuel tank. A fuel tank is not a
step. The tank surface can get
very slippery, and you might not be
able to prevent a fall. Use only the
steps and handholds provided, not
chain hooks, quarter fenders, etc.
1-22
•
Do not climb onto and off the deck
plate, use steps and grab handle
provided. If there is no deck plate,
or if proper steps and grab handles
are not provided, do not climb onto
the area behind the cab.
Keep steps clean. Clean any fuel,
oil, or grease off the steps before
entering the cab.
WARNING
Always
reinstall
the
battery
compartment cover (step) before
entering the cab. Without the battery
cover in place, you could slip and
fall, resulting in possible injury to
yourself.
NOTE
Any alteration (adding bulkheads,
headache racks, tool boxes, etc.)
behind the cab that affects the
utilization of grab handles, deck
plates or frame access steps
installed by Kenworth must comply
with Federal Motor Carrier Safety
Regulation 399.
START-UP
Hood Hold Downs
1
The hood is locked in position by two
external latches. These latches serve
as hold downs and keep the hood from
opening unexpectedly.
Pull up and over to unlatch
Hood Latch: pull out to release
CAUTION
If you do not latch your hood
securely, it could open during
operation and cause vehicle
damage. Be sure to latch the hood
securely.
1-23
START-UP
1
Hood Tilt
Hood Safety Cable
To open the hood, unlock the hood
holddown by unlatching it. Put one
hand on the KW emblem, one foot
on the bumper, and one foot on the
ground. Tilt the hood forward.
Attach safety cable here
WARNING
A hood could hurt someone in the
way of its descent. Before lowering
the hood, be sure there are no
people or objects in the way.
1-24
Attached cable
START-UP
1
WARNING
If the hood falls, anyone under it
could be injured. Always attach the
safety cable and/or hood stop when
the hood is in its open position any
time anyone gets under the hood for
any reason.
CAUTION
Before lowering the hood, be sure
no objects or people are in the way.
Look on both sides of the engine
and then yell “HOOD DOWN” prior
to closing the hood.
WARNING
If the hood is not latched securely,
it could open during operation and
cause an accident. Be sure the hood
is latched securely before moving
the vehicle.
1-25
START-UP
1
Safe Vehicle Operation
For your safety, as well as those
around you, be a responsible driver:
•
If you drink, do not drive.
•
Do not drive if you are tired, ill, or
under emotional stress.
Much has gone into the manufacturing
of your Kenworth, including advanced
engineering techniques, rigid quality
control, and demanding inspections.
These manufacturing processes will
be enhanced by you, the safe driver,
who observes the following:
•
knows and understands how to
operate the vehicle and all its
controls
•
maintains the vehicle properly
•
uses driving skills wisely
1-26
For more information, refer to
Department of Transportation
Regulation 392.7, which states that
interstate commercial motor vehicles
are not to be driven unless the driver is
sure that certain parts and accessories
are in working order.
WARNING
Do not drink and drive.
Your
reflexes, perceptions, and judgment
can be affected by even a small
amount of alcohol. You could have
a serious or even fatal accident,
if you drive after drinking. Please
do not drink and drive or ride with
a driver who has been drinking.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
WARNING
The use of alcohol, drugs, and
certain medications will seriously
impair perception, reactions, and
driving ability. These circumstances
can substantially increase the risk
of an accident. Failure to comply
may result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
WARNING
Do not text and drive. Your reaction
time, perceptions and judgment can
be affected while texting or using
any other form of mobile messaging
while driving. Failure to comply
may result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
START-UP
Vehicle Loading
Compare your vehicle's load capacity
with the total load you are carrying. If
adjustments need to be made, make
them, do not drive an overloaded
vehicle. If you are overloaded or your
load has shifted, your vehicle may be
unsafe to drive.
WARNING
Do not exceed the specified load
rating. Overloading can result in loss
of vehicle control, either by causing
component failures or by affecting
vehicle handling. Exceeding load
ratings can also shorten the service
life of the vehicle. Failure to comply
may result in personal injury or
death.
•
The components of your
vehicle are designed to provide
satisfactory service if the
vehicle is not loaded in excess
of either the gross vehicle
weight rating (GVWR), or the
maximum front and rear gross
axle weight ratings (GAWRs).
(Axle weight ratings are listed
on the driver's door edge.)
The following are some definitions of
weight you should know:
GVWR: is the Gross Vehicle Weight
Rating. This is the MAXIMUM
WEIGHT your vehicle is allowed to
carry, including the weight of the empty
vehicle, loading platform, occupants,
fuel, and any load. Never exceed the
GVWR of your vehicle.
GCW: is the actual combined weight,
or Gross Combination Weight (GCW),
of your vehicle and its load: vehicle,
plus trailer(s), plus cargo.
ground. You will find this number listed
on the driver's door edge.
Load Distribution: be sure any load
you carry is distributed so that no axle
has to support more than its GAWR.
WARNING
An unevenly distributed load or a
load too heavy over one axle can
affect the braking and handling of
your vehicle, which could result in
an accident. Even if your load is
under the legal limits, be sure it is
distributed evenly. Failure to comply
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
GAWR: is the Gross Axle Weight
Rating. This is the total weight that
one axle is designed to transmit to the
1-27
1
START-UP
1
Emergency Equipment
Driver's Check List
It is good practice to carry an
emergency equipment kit in your
vehicle. One day, if you have a
roadside emergency, you will be glad
the following items are with you:
To keep your Kenworth in top shape
and maintain a high level of safety
for you, your passengers, and your
load, make a thorough inspection
every day before you drive. You will
save maintenance time later, and the
safety checks could help prevent a
serious accident. Please remember,
too, that Federal Motor Carrier Safety
Regulation 392.7 requires a pre-trip
inspection and so do commercial
trucking companies.
•
window scraper
•
snow brush
•
container or bag of sand or salt
•
emergency light
•
triangles
•
small shovel
•
first aid kit
•
fire extinguisher
•
vehicle recovery hitches (see
Vehicle Recovery Guidelines on
page 2-12 for details).
1-28
You are not expected to become a
professional mechanic. The purpose
of your inspections is to find anything
that might interfere with the safe and
efficient transportation of yourself, any
passengers, and your load. If you do
find something wrong and cannot fix it
yourself, have an authorized Kenworth
Dealer or qualified mechanic repair
your vehicle right away.
The following operations are to be
performed by the driver. Performing
these checks and following the
maintenance procedures in this
manual will help keep your Kenworth
running properly.
START-UP
Approaching Your Vehicle
•
•
•
•
Check the overall appearance and
condition. Are windows, mirrors,
and lights clean and unobstructed?
Daily Checks
Engine Compartment Checks - Daily
1.
Check beneath the vehicle. Are
there signs of fuel, oil, or water
leaks?
Check for damaged, loose, or
missing parts. Are there parts
showing signs of excessive wear
or lack of lubrication? Have a
qualified mechanic examine any
questionable items and repair
them without delay.
Check your load. Is it secured
properly?
1
NOTE
2.
Engine Fluid Levels - add more if
necessary.
°
Engine oil
°
Coolant (check while engine
is cold)
°
Power steering fluid level
Engine Belt - check tension and
condition of belts. This is important
to ensure proper air compressor
and engine operation.
°
Measure the belt tension
at the longest span of the
belt. See Accessory Drive
Belts on page 5-91 for further
information on checking belt
tension.
Deflection should be one belt
thickness for each foot distance
between the pulley centers.
°
If breaks or tears are found,
the belt should be replaced
before operating the vehicle.
3.
Fuel Filter/Water Separator
Draining - check and drain.
Depending on the fuel storage
facility, more frequent draining
may be required.
4.
Windshield washer reservoir fluid
level - fill if necessary.
5.
Battery Cables - check the
condition of the battery and
alternator cables for signs of
chafing or rubbing. Make sure
that all clamps (straps) holding the
cables are present and in good
working order.
1-29
START-UP
1
6.
Chassis and Cab Checks - Daily
Before entering the cab and operating
the vehicle, check the following
equipment for proper maintenance:
1.
Lights - do headlights, turn signals,
emergency flashers, and exterior
lamps function and are they clean
and adjusted properly?
2.
Windows and Mirrors - are they
clean and adjusted properly?
3.
Tires and Wheels - are they
inflated properly? Are all wheel
cap nuts in place and torqued
properly - tighten if necessary.
Check front wheel bearing oil
levels. Inspect all tires and wheels
for damage - correct if found.
4.
to springs or other suspension
parts.
Hood closed before entering cab.
Is it latched properly?
Suspension - check for loose or
missing fasteners. Check damage
1-30
5.
6.
Brake Components - check lines,
linkages, chambers, parking and
service brake operation.
Air System - are there leaks?
°
Air Tanks - drain water from
all air tanks. Make sure the
drain cocks are closed. This
procedure is also required for
air suspension tanks equipped
with automatic drain valves.
°
For further details See Using
the Brake System on page
4-17.
7.
Steps and Handholds - check
for worn surfaces and loose or
missing fasteners.
8.
Fluid Tanks - check underneath
the vehicle for signs of fluid leaks.
If any are found, correct before
operating the vehicle.
9.
Fuel Tank Caps - are they secure?
WARNING
Do not remove a fuel tank cap
near an open flame. Diesel fuel in
the presence of an ignition source
(such as a cigarette) could cause
an explosion. A mixture of gasoline
or alcohol with diesel fuel increases
this risk of explosion. Use only the
fuel and/or additives recommended
for your engine. Failure to comply
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage. See
Refueling on page 4-74, for more
information.
10. Trailer Connections - are they
secure and the lines clear? If
they are not being used, are they
stored properly?
°
Is the trailer spare wheel
secure and inflated?
START-UP
°
Is the landing gear up and the
handle secured?
5.
11. Check the fifth wheel. Is the
kingpin locked?
°
Is the sliding fifth wheel
locked?
Cab Interior - Daily
Lights - turn ignition key to the ON
position and check for warning
lights and buzzer. Check operation
of turn signals and emergency
lights.
6.
Instruments - check all
instruments.
7.
Windshield - check operation of
windshield wipers and washers.
1.
Seat - adjust the seat for easy
reach of controls.
8.
Horn - check operation of horn.
2.
Seat Belts - fasten and adjust
safety restraint belts.
9.
Fuel - check fuel. Is there enough
fuel?
3.
Steering Column - adjust for easy
reach.
10. Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) check level. Is there enough fluid?
4.
Mirrors - check and readjust
mirrors if necessary.
1
NOTE
The
above
items
(Engine
Compartment, Chassis and Cab,
and Prestart Checks) should be
checked daily, as a minimum. They
are in addition to, not in place
of Federal Motor Carrier Safety
Regulations.
These regulations
may be purchased by writing to:
Superintendent
of
Documents
U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, DC 20402
1-31
START-UP
1
Weekly Operations
1.
Battery - check battery and
terminals.
2.
Wheel Cap Nuts - are they all
in place and torqued properly tighten if necessary. See Wheel
Cap Nut Torque on page 5-127.
3.
Other Controls and Wiring - check
for condition and adjustment
4.
Steering Components - check
pitman arm, draglink, and power
steering hoses, etc., for loose,
broken, or missing parts.
5.
Other Engine Compartment
Checks
•
Check condition and fastening of
engine belt, hoses, clamps, and
radiator.
•
Check the air cleaner, muffler, and
exhaust pipes. Are they tight and
secure?
1-32
•
After Engine Warm-up
°
Automatic Transmission
- check fluid level in the
automatic transmission oil (if
equipped).
EMERGENCY
WHAT TO DO IF...
You Need Roadside Assistance . . .
Low Air Alarm Turns On . . . . . .
Stop Engine Lamp Turns On . . . .
Engine Oil Pressure Lamp Turns On.
Check Engine Lamp Turns On . . .
Engine is Overheating . . . . . . .
Fuse or Relay Blows . . . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
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.
.
2-3
2-3
2-4
2-4
2-5
2-5
2-7
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-9
2
JUMP STARTING VEHICLES
VEHICLE RECOVERY AND SPRING BRAKES
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vehicle Recovery Instructions . . . . . . . . .
Recovery Rigging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Returning Vehicle to Service . . . . . . . . . .
Spring Brakes - Manual Release . . . . . . . .
Freeing the Vehicle from Sand, Mud, Snow and Ice
2-12
2-12
2-14
2-15
2-15
2-17
2-1
WHAT TO DO IF...
WHAT TO DO IF...
•
You Need Roadside
Assistance
•
They have bilingual agents and
access to a translation service
to ensure quality assistance
for customers who speak any
language.
•
They can’t answer your warranty
questions but can get you in
contact with a Kenworth dealer
who can.
Call toll-FREE 1-800-KW-ASSIST
(1-800-592-7747) to talk to someone
at the PACCAR Customer Center.
•
Open 24-7-365 days a year
•
They can help you get roadside
assistance.
•
They have a custom mapping
system which locates Kenworth &
Peterbilt Dealers and Independent
Service Providers (ISPs) near you
and lists types of services offered,
hours of operation and contact
information.
They can assist with jump and
pull starts, tires, trailers, fines and
permits, chains, towing, hazardous
clean-up, out of fuel (roadside),
mechanical repairs and preventive
maintenance services.
•
The PACCAR Customer Center
service is FREE even if you don’t
drive a Kenworth.
Low Air Alarm Turns On
1.
Slow down carefully.
2.
Move a safe distance off the road
and stop.
3.
Place the transmission in
neutral (park with automatic
transmissions, if equipped) and
set the parking brake. (Refer
to Parking Brake Valve on page
3-92 and OPERATING THE
TRANSMISSION on page 4-64,
for transmission shifting and
parking brake information.)
4.
Turn OFF the engine.
5.
Turn ON the emergency flasher
and use other warning devices to
alert other motorists.
2-3
2
WHAT TO DO IF...
Stop Engine Lamp Turns On
WARNING
2
If the air pressure falls below 60
psi (414 kPa) the spring brakes
may stop the vehicle abruptly, which
could cause an accident resulting in
personal injury or death. Observe
the red warning lamps on the
gauges. If one comes on, do not
continue to drive the vehicle until
it has been properly repaired or
serviced.
If the light and alarm do not turn off
at startup, do not try to drive the
vehicle until the problem is found and
fixed. (Refer to USING THE BRAKE
SYSTEM on page 4-17, for more brake
information.)
WARNING
This should be considered an
emergency. You should stop the
vehicle as safely as possible and
turn OFF the ignition. The vehicle
must be serviced and the problem
corrected before driving again.
Failure to do so may cause severe
engine or DPF damage, or cause
an accident which may result in
personal injury or death
If the Stop Engine warning lamp
illuminates, it means you have a
serious engine system problem.
2-4
Engine Oil Pressure Lamp
Turns On
1.
Slow down carefully.
2.
Move a safe distance off the road
and stop.
3.
Place the transmission in park
and set the parking brake. (See
Parking Brake Valve on page
3-92 and OPERATING THE
TRANSMISSION on page 4-64,
for transmission shifting and
parking brake information.)
4.
Turn OFF the engine.
5.
Turn ON the emergency flasher
and use other warning devices to
alert other motorists.
WHAT TO DO IF...
6.
7.
Wait a few minutes to allow oil to
drain into the engine oil pan, and
then check the oil level. (See Oil
Level Check on page 5-87, for
details on checking oil level.)
Add oil if necessary. If the problem
persists, contact an authorized
Kenworth dealer as soon as
possible.
CAUTION
Continuing to operate your vehicle
with insufficient oil pressure may
cause severe engine damage or
cause an accident which may result
in equipment or property damage.
It is important to maintain oil pressure
within acceptable limits. If oil pressure
drops below the minimum psi a Red
Warning Lamp on the oil pressure
gauge and the Stop Engine Lamp will
come ON.
Check Engine Lamp Turns
On
Engine is Overheating
1.
Vehicle should be serviced to correct
the problem but the situation should
not be considered an emergency. The
vehicle can still be safely driven.
Reduce engine speed and safely
stop the vehicle. When stopped,
place the transmission in Neutral
and set the parking brake. (See
Parking Brake Valve on page
3-92 and OPERATING THE
TRANSMISSION on page 4-64,
for transmission shifting and
parking brake information.) Keep
the engine running.
2.
Check to ensure the Oil Pressure
Gauge reads normal. (See Engine
Oil Pressure Gauge, on page
3-57, for further information.)
3.
Make sure the engine fan is
turning by switching the Engine
Fan Switch from AUTO to MAN
(Manual).
4.
Increase the engine speed to
about one-half of full operating
speed, or 1,100 to 1,200 rpm,
maximum.
2-5
2
WHAT TO DO IF...
5.
Return the engine speed to normal
idle after 2 or 3 minutes.
6.
Monitor the engine temperature.
After the temperature returns to
normal, allow the engine to idle
3 to 5 minutes before shutting it
off. This allows the engine to cool
gradually and uniformly.
2
7.
2-6
If overheating came from
severe operating conditions, the
temperature should have cooled
by this time. If it has not, stop
the engine and let it cool before
checking to see if the coolant is
low.
°
Wait until the coolant
temperature is below 122° F
(50° C).
°
Protect face, hands, and arms
by covering the cap with a
large, thick rag to protect
against escaping fluid and
steam.
°
Carefully and slowly turn
the cap one-quarter of a
turn or until it reaches the
first stop—allowing excess
pressure to escape—push
down and turn for final
removal.
See Topping Up on page 5-60, for
instructions on checking and filling the
coolant expansion tank.
WARNING
Do not remove the radiator fill cap
while the engine is hot. Scalding
steam and fluid under pressure may
escape. You could be badly burned.
Failure to comply may result in
personal injury or death.
WARNING
To reduce the chance of death,
personal injury, fire and/or vehicle
damage from overheated engines,
never leave the engine idling without
an alert driver present. If the engine
should overheat, as indicated by
the engine coolant temperature
light, immediate action is required
to correct the condition. Continued
unattended operation of the engine,
even for a short time, may result
in serious engine damage or a fire.
Failure to comply may result in
personal injury, death, equipment or
property damage.
WHAT TO DO IF...
Fuse or Relay Blows
Fuses, circuit breakers, and relays
are located in the Power Distribution
Box to the left of the steering column
behind the clutch pedal. See Power
Distribution Box on page 5-68.
Additional fuses for the alternator,
engine electronics and trailer battery
charge circuit may be located in the
Power Distribution Center (PDC)
inside the battery box and/ or on the
engine side of the cab firewall. See
Power Distribution Center (PDC) on
page 5-66.
WARNING
Do not replace a fuse with a fuse of a
higher rating. Doing so may damage
the electrical system and cause a
fire. Failure to comply may result in
personal injury, death, equipment or
property damage.
CAUTION
NOTE
Before replacing a fuse, turn OFF all
lights and accessories and remove
the ignition key to avoid damaging
the electrical system.
If a fuse of the same rating is not
available, a fuse of a lower rating
may be temporarily substituted. You
can also use a fuse from a circuit
you can do temporarily without (for
example an accessory circuit or
radio).
CAUTION
Never patch fuses with tin foil or
wire.
This may cause serious
damage elsewhere in the electrical
circuit, and it may cause a fire.
CAUTION
If a circuit keeps blowing fuses,
have the electrical system inspected
for a short circuit or overload by
an authorized Kenworth dealer as
soon as possible. Failure to do so
could cause serious damage to the
electrical system and/or vehicle.
All the electrical circuits have fuses
to protect them from a short circuit or
overload. If something electrical on
your chassis stops working, the first
thing you should check for is a blown
fuse.
1.
Turn OFF all lights and accessories
and remove the ignition key to
avoid damaging the electrical
system.
2.
Determine from the chart on the
fuse panel which fuse controls that
component.
2-7
2
WHAT TO DO IF...
3.
Remove that fuse and see if it is
blown.
2
1
Blown
If it is blown, replace it with a fuse of
the same rating.
2-8
CAUTION
When replacing a failed circuit
breaker, always use an approved
circuit breaker with a current rating
equal to or less than the circuit
breaker being replaced. Only use
the approved Type II modified reset
circuit breakers.
NEVER use a
Type I (automatic reset) or Type III
(manual reset) circuit breaker. A
fuse with a current rating equal to or
less than the circuit breaker being
replaced can also be used.
JUMP STARTING VEHICLES
JUMP STARTING
VEHICLES
Introduction
Because of the various battery
installations and electrical system
options, Kenworth does not
recommend that you attempt to
jump start your vehicle. If you have a
battery problem, it is best to contact a
Kenworth Dealer or a reputable towing
service.
However, if your battery is discharged
(dead), you may be able to start it
by using energy from a good battery
in another vehicle. This is termed
jump starting. Be sure to follow the
precautions and instructions below.
WARNING
WARNING
Batteries contain acid that can
burn and gasses that can explode.
Ignoring safety procedures may
result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
Never remove or tamper with battery
caps.
Ignoring this could allow
battery acid to contact eyes, skin,
fabrics, or painted surfaces. Failure
to comply may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
WARNING
Never jump start a battery near
fire, flames, or electrical sparks.
Batteries generate explosive gases
that could explode. Keep sparks,
flame, and lighted cigarettes away
from batteries. Failure to comply
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
•
Be careful that metal tools (or
any metal in contact with the
positive terminal) do not contact
the positive battery terminal and
any other metal on the vehicle
at the same time. Remove metal
jewelry and avoid leaning over
the battery.
•
If metal jewelry or other metal
comes in contact with electrical
circuits, a short circuit may
occur causing you to be injured,
as well as electrical system
failure and damage to the
vehicle.
2-9
2
JUMP STARTING VEHICLES
To Jump Start Your Vehicle
•
WARNING
2
The voltage of the booster battery
must have a 12 volt rating and
the capacity of the booster battery
should not be lower than that of the
discharged battery. Use of batteries
of different voltage or substantially
different capacity rating may cause
an explosion. Failure to comply
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
CAUTION
Applying a higher voltage booster
battery will cause expensive
damage to sensitive electronic
components, such as relays, and
the radio. Failure to comply may
result in equipment damage.
2-10
Improper hook-up of jumper
cables or not following these
procedures can damage the
alternator or cause serious
damage to both vehicles.
Preparing the vehicles:
1.
Position the two vehicles together,
but do not allow them to touch.
2.
Turn OFF all lights, heater, radio,
and any other accessory on both
vehicles.
3.
Set the parking brakes: pull out
the Yellow button located on the
dash.
4.
Shift the transmission into park
position or neutral for manual
transmissions. (See OPERATING
THE TRANSMISSION on page
4-64 and Parking Brake Valve on
page 3-92, for transmission shifting
and parking brake information.)
5.
If either vehicle is equipped with
battery disconnects ensure they
are in the "OFF" position prior to
connecting the two vehicles.
WARNING
To avoid personal injury and
damage to the vehicle, heed all
warnings and instructions of the
jumper cable manufacturer.
•
The jumper cables must be long
enough so that the vehicles do
not touch.
JUMP STARTING VEHICLES
Connect the batteries:
1.
2.
Attach one end of a jumper cable
to the positive (+) terminal of the
discharged (dead) battery. This
will have a large red + or P on the
battery case, post, or clamp.
Attach the other end of the same
cable to the positive (+) terminal
of the good (booster) battery.
3.
Attach the remaining jumper cable
FIRST to the negative (-) terminal
(black or N) of the good battery.
4.
Attach the other end of the
negative cable to a bare metal part
not bolted to the engine block.
IMPORTANT: Always connect
positive (+) to positive (+) and
negative (-) to negative (-).
5.
If either vehicle is equipped with
battery disconnects, ensure that
they are in the"ON" position.
6.
Start the engine:
•
•
Start the vehicle that has the
good battery first. Let it run for 5
minutes.
Then start the vehicle that has the
discharged (dead) battery.
If the engine fails to start, do not
continue to crank the starter but
contact the nearest authorized
Kenworth Dealer.
Remove jumper cables:
WARNING
When disconnecting jumper cables,
make sure they do not get caught
in any moving parts in the engine
compartment. You could be injured.
•
Reverse the above procedure
exactly when removing the jumper
cables. With engine running,
disconnect jumper cables from
both vehicles in the exact reverse
order (Steps 4-1), making sure
to first remove the negative
cable from the vehicle with the
discharged battery.
2-11
2
VEHICLE RECOVERY AND SPRING BRAKES
2
VEHICLE RECOVERY
AND SPRING BRAKES
Vehicle Recovery
Instructions
Introduction
Refer to the instructions below when
towing your vehicle:
Your Kenworth may be equipped with a
Recovery Device(s) designed for short
distance recovery purposes only. Use
only the original Kenworth recovery
device(s) and the instructions below.
If your vehicle does not have the
proper device contact your authorized
Kenworth Dealer.
•
2-12
Use proper towing equipment to
prevent damage to the vehicle.
CAUTION
Connect only to the Recovery
Device(s), as described on the
following pages.
Do not attach
to bumpers or brackets.
Use
only equipment designed for this
purpose.
Connections to other
structural parts could damage the
vehicle.
CAUTION
Remove the driveline and axle
shafts or lift the driving wheels
off the ground before towing the
vehicle. See Driver Controlled Main
Differential Lock on page 4-53. All
lubricating and clutch application
oil pressure is provided by an
engine-driven pump, which will not
work when the engine is stopped.
You could seriously damage your
vehicle by towing it with the driveline
connected and the drive wheels on
the ground.
VEHICLE RECOVERY AND SPRING BRAKES
CAUTION
When vehicles are towed, either by
wrecker or piggy-back, the lubricant
in the top front of the drive axle will
drain to the rear. This will leave the
top components dry. The resulting
friction may seriously damage them.
Always remove the main driveshaft
and axle shafts before towing your
vehicle.
•
•
NOTE
For
additional
information
concerning heavy duty truck
recovery,
see Technology &
Maintenance Council (TMC)
•
Recommended Practice #602–A
— “Front Towing Devices For
Trucks and Tractors.”
•
Recommended Practice #602–B
— “Recovery Attachment Points
For Trucks, Tractors, and
Combination Vehicles
•
Recommended Practice #626
— “Heavy Duty Truck Towing
Procedures.”
See the following references:
°
Recovery Rigging on page
2-14.
°
Driver Controlled Main
Differential Lock on page
4-53.
•
Use a safety chain system.
•
Disconnect driveline.
•
Follow state/provincial and local
laws that apply to vehicles in tow.
Do not tow vehicles at speeds in
excess of 55 mph (90 km/h).
Copies of these can be obtained from
the following address:
Technology & Maintenance Council
950 N. Glebe Road
(703) 838-1763
Arlington, VA 22203
Email: [email protected]
http://tmc.truckline.com
2
2-13
VEHICLE RECOVERY AND SPRING BRAKES
2
Recovery Rigging
•
To connect to the Kenworth, follow the
suggested rigging methods below.
Never loop a single chain or cable
through both hitches (3).
•
Use a spreader or equalizer bar to
distribute the load on both hitches
(1).
•
If no spreader bar is available,
connect the main tow chain or
•
Use a double chain or cable setup
that distributes the load equally
to both hitches. See 1 or 2 in
Recovery Rigging.
1. Spreader Bar or Equalizer
Preferred
2-14
1. Minimum 6 FT.
Acceptable
cable no closer than 6 ft. from the
vehicle (2).
NEVER USE SINGLE CHAIN OR CABLE
LOOPED THROUGH TOW DEVICES
VEHICLE RECOVERY AND SPRING BRAKES
Returning Vehicle to Service
Your vehicle may have lost lubricant
while being towed. To prevent
damage, check the oil level and add
oil if necessary.
After adding the specified type and
amount of lubricant, drive the vehicle.
It should be unloaded. Drive 1 to
2 miles (1.5 to 3 km) at a speed
lower than 25 mph (40 km/h). This
will thoroughly circulate the lubricant
through the assembly.
Spring Brakes - Manual
Release
In order to tow a vehicle, if there is
insufficient air to release the parking
brake, the spring brakes can be
manually released.
WARNING
Do
not
drive
vehicle
with
malfunctioning brakes. If one of
the brake circuits should become
inoperative, braking distances will
increase substantially and handling
characteristics while braking will be
affected. You could lose control of
your vehicle or cause an accident.
Have it towed to the nearest dealer
or qualified repair facility for repair.
Failure to comply may result in
personal injury, death, equipment or
property damage.
You may sometimes have to release
your vehicle's spring brakes by hand.
This could happen if the system air
pressure does not reach operating
pressure because your engine or
compressor is not working properly.
You will have to release the spring
brakes at the spring brake chambers.
WARNING
Do not disassemble a spring
brake chamber. These chambers
contain a powerful spring that is
compressed. Sudden release of this
spring may result in personal injury
or death.
WARNING
Do not operate a vehicle when
the spring brakes have been
manually released.
Driving a
vehicle after its spring brakes are
manually released is extremely
dangerous. The brakes may not
function. Failure to comply may
result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
2-15
2
VEHICLE RECOVERY AND SPRING BRAKES
WARNING
2
Releasing the spring brakes on
an unsecured vehicle could lead
to an accident.
The vehicle
could roll, which may result in
personal injury, death, equipment
or property damage.
Always
secure the vehicle with wheel
chocks, chains, or other safe
means to prevent rolling before
manually releasing the spring
brakes.
To move a vehicle immobilized by
the spring brakes due to loss of
air pressure in the brake system,
perform the following procedure:
1. Remove the cap from
the spring chamber.
2-16
2. Remove the release
stud assembly from the
side pocket, and remove
the release nut and
washer from the release
stud.
5. Assemble the release
stud washer and nut on
the release stud.
3. Slide out the release
stud.
6. With a wrench,
turn the release stud
assembly nut until the
compression spring is
90-95 percent caged.
While doing this, check
to make sure the push
rod (adapter push
rod or service push
rod) is retracting. Do
not over-torque the
release stud assembly.
(S-Cam type maximum:
50 lb-ft, Wedge type
maximum: 30 lb-ft).
The spring brake is now
mechanically released.
4. Insert the release stud
through the opening in
the spring chamber
where the cap was
removed. Insert it into
the pressure plate. Turn
the release stud 1/4
turn clockwise in the
pressure plate. This
secures the cross pin
into the cross pin area of
the pressure plate and
locks it into the manual
release position.
VEHICLE RECOVERY AND SPRING BRAKES
Freeing the Vehicle from
Sand, Mud, Snow and Ice
If the vehicle gets stuck in sand,
mud, snow, or ice:
•
Move the gearshift lever or
selector from First to Reverse.
•
Apply light pressure on the
accelerator pedal while the
transmission is in gear.
•
Remove your foot from the
accelerator while shifting.
•
Do not race the engine.
•
For best traction and safety, avoid
spinning the wheels.
WARNING
Do not spin the wheels faster than
35 mph (55 km/h). Spinning a tire at
speedometer readings faster than
35 mph (55 km/h) can be dangerous.
Tires can explode from spinning too
fast. Under some conditions, a tire
may be spinning at a speed twice
that shown on the speedometer.
Any resulting tire explosion could
cause injury or death to a bystander
or passenger, as well as extensive
vehicle damage:
including tire,
transmission and/or rear axle
malfunction.
Comply with the following
instructions to avoid transmission
damage:
•
Always start vehicle in motion with
the shift lever in first gear.
•
Be sure that transmission is fully
engaged in gear before releasing
the clutch pedal (manual only).
•
Do not shift into reverse while the
vehicle is moving.
•
Do not permit the vehicle to be
towed for long distances without
removing the driveshaft.
2-17
2
VEHICLE RECOVERY AND SPRING BRAKES
Tire Chains
If you need tire chains, install them on
both sides of the driving axle.
2
CAUTION
Chains on the tires of only one
tandem axle can damage the
driveline U-joints and the interaxle
differential. Repairs could be costly
and time-consuming.
Failure to
comply may result in equipment
damage.
2-18
CONTROLS
ACCESSORIES
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . .
Radio (Option) . . . . . . . . . . .
Cigarette Lighter and Ashtray (Option) .
Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cab Storage . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
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.
.
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.
.
3-5
3-6
3-6
3-7
3-7
3
HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Cab Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
AUDIBLE ALERTS
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-17
INDICATORS
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-24
GAUGES AND DISPLAYS
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-45
3-1
CONTROLS
MULTI-FUNCTION DISPLAY
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alarms, Warning Tones and Visual Indicator Lights
Warning and Information Alert Screens . . . . .
Wingman® ACB Warning Tone / Alert Screens . .
Multi-Function Display . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
3-66
3-66
3-67
3-71
3-74
SWITCHES
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dash Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-85
3-86
STEERING COLUMN
Introduction . . . . . . . . . .
Turn Signal/High Beam Switch . .
Windshield Wipers/Washer . . . .
Trailer Brake Hand Valve. . . . .
Stop/Turn Signal Lamp Operation .
Adjustable Tilt/Telescoping Column
Horn . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-2
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
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.
.
.
.
3-100
3-100
3-102
3-104
3-104
3-106
3-107
CONTROLS
SmartWheel Multiplex Control System . . . . . . 3-107
MIRRORS
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-112
Power Mirror Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-112
Mirror Heat Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-114
3
3-3
ACCESSORIES
ACCESSORIES
Introduction
3
1.
2.
Radio
Glove Box
3.
4.
Ashtray (Option)
Cigarette Lighter (Option)
3-5
ACCESSORIES
Radio (Option)
As an option, your vehicle has either
an AM/FM Stereo Receiver or AM/FM
Stereo with CD.
3
For instructions on how to operate your
particular radio, see the manufacturer's
Radio Operating Instructions.
Cigarette Lighter and
Ashtray (Option)
NOTE
The cigarette lighter will operate with
the ignition key in either the OFF,
ACC (accessory), or ON position.
To operate, push in on the knob end
of the lighter. After a few moments,
the lighter will automatically pop out,
glowing hot and ready to use. After
use, insert the lighter back into the
socket without pushing all the way in.
The socket of the cigarette lighter may
be used to operate 12 volt, 15 ampere
appliances, such as a hand spotlight
or small vacuum cleaner.
3-6
WARNING
Do not place paper or other
combustible substances in an
ashtray, it could cause a fire. Keep
all burnable materials, besides
smoking materials, out of the
ashtray. Failure to comply may
result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
WARNING
Do
not
exceed
the
voltage/amperage capacity of the
cigarette lighter. It could result in
a fire. Follow all warnings and
instructions in the operator's manual
for the appliance you are using.
Failure to comply may result in
personal injury, death, equipment or
property damage.
ACCESSORIES
Clock
Cab Storage
Ashtray
Glove Box
To open, pull on the upper side of
the panel. To close, push against the
panel.
Analog Clock
A glove box is provided to store
important documents, the vehicle
literature set (including this Operator's
Manual) and other related materials.
WARNING
1
2
Depress For Counter
Clockwise Rotation
Depress For Clockwise
Rotation
•
Depress right hand button to rotate
clock hands clockwise.
•
Depress left hand button to rotate
clock hands counter clockwise.
•
Continue to depress buttons for
faster movement.
Do not drive with the glove box open,
it can be dangerous. In an accident
or sudden stop, you or a passenger
could be thrown against the cover
and be injured. To reduce the risk
of personal injury during an accident
or sudden stop, keep the glove box
closed when the vehicle is in motion.
WARNING
Do not place paper or other
combustible substances in an
ashtray, it could cause a fire. Keep
all flammable materials, besides
smoking materials, out of the
ashtray. Failure to comply may
result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
3-7
3
ACCESSORIES
Interior Compartments
Appliances
WARNING
You can choose from a variety of
interior storage options to store your
personal supplies or small tools:
- center console
3
- map pocket
- overhead storage compartments
- records holder, behind seat
3-8
Do not carry loose objects in your
cab, it can be dangerous. In a
sudden stop, or even going over
a bump in the road, they could fly
through the air and strike you or a
passenger. You could be injured
or even killed. Secure all loose
objects in the cab before moving the
vehicle. Carry any heavy objects
such as luggage in the exterior
storage compartment and close it
securely.
If your Kenworth is equipped with a
television, or other appliance, be sure
they are compatible with your vehicle's
electrical system. And secure them in
the cab so they cannot come loose in
a sudden stop.
WARNING
In a sudden stop or collision a heavy
object in your cab could strike you
or anyone with you. You could be
injured or even killed. Secure any
appliance (such as a radio, or TV)
you add to your cab.
HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING
HEATING AND AIR
CONDITIONING
Introduction
3
1.
Heating and Air Conditioning
Controls
3-9
HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING
The cab heater and A/C controls are
located together in the center of the
dash just to the right of the steering
column.
3
3-10
Precautions
WARNING
Do not drive with visibility reduced
by fog, condensation, or frost
on the windshield.
Your view
may be obscured, which may
result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
For clear visibility and safe driving
it is extremely important for
you to follow the instructions
pertaining to the function and
use of the ventilation/heating and
defogging/defrosting system.
If
in doubt, consult your dealer.
Maximum heating output and fast
defrosting can be obtained only after
the engine has reached operating
temperature.
WARNING
The air conditioning system is
under pressure.
If not serviced
properly, it could explode and
may result in personal injury,
death or property damage to your
vehicle. Any servicing that requires
depressurizing and recharging the
air conditioning system must be
conducted by a qualified technician
with the right facilities to do the job.
WARNING
Excessive heat may cause the
pressurized components of the air
conditioning system to explode.
Never weld, solder, steam clean, or
use a blow torch near any part of
the air conditioning system. Failure
to comply may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING
•
If a refrigerant leak develops in
the presence of excessive heat
or an open flame, hazardous
gases may be generated.
These gases may cause
unconsciousness or death.
If you become aware of a
refrigerant leak on your vehicle
have your system serviced
immediately and observe the
following precautions:
°
Stay away from the hot
engine until the exhaust
manifold has cooled.
°
Do not permit any open
flame in the area. Even a
match or a cigarette lighter
may generate a hazardous
quantity of poisonous gas.
°
Do not smoke in the area.
Inhaling gaseous refrigerant
through a cigarette may
cause violent illness.
WARNING
WARNING
Exhaust fumes from the engine
contain carbon monoxide,
a
colorless and odorless gas. Do not
breathe the engine exhaust gas.
A poorly maintained, damaged or
corroded exhaust system can allow
carbon monoxide to enter the cab.
Entry of carbon monoxide into the
cab is also possible from other
vehicles nearby. Failure to properly
maintain your vehicle could cause
carbon monoxide to enter the cab,
resulting in illness or death.
Never idle your vehicle for prolonged
periods of time if you sense that
exhaust fumes are entering the cab.
Investigate the cause of the fumes
and correct it as soon as possible.
If the vehicle must be driven under
these conditions, drive only with the
windows open. Failure to repair
the source of the exhaust fumes
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
NOTE
Keep the engine exhaust system
and the vehicles cab ventilation
system properly maintained.
It is recommended that the vehicles
exhaust system and cab/sleeper be
inspected:
•
By a competent technician every
15,000 miles
3-11
3
HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING
•
Whenever a change is noticed in
the sound of the exhaust system
•
Whenever the exhaust system,
underbody, or cab or sleeper is
damaged
NOTE
3
To allow for proper operation of the
vehicle ventilation system, keep
the inlet grille at the base of the
windshield clear of snow, ice, leaves
and other obstructions at all times.
CAUTION
Do not stay in the vehicle with the
engine running or idling for more
than 10 minutes with the vehicle's
Heater and A/C ventilation system
in RECIRC or at LOW FAN SPEED.
Even with the ventilation system on,
running the engine while parked or
stopped for prolonged periods of
time is not recommended.
3-12
When idling for short periods of time:
•
Set the heating or cooling system
to Heat or A/C
•
Set the fan to Medium or High
speed
•
Set the controls to FRESH AIR
NOTE
If you are required to idle your
vehicle for long periods of time,
install an auxiliary heater or
automatic idle control.
These
auxiliary devices can reduce fuel
consumption and save you money.
NOTE
If you are parked next to idling
vehicles, move your vehicle or do
not stay in your vehicle for prolonged
periods of time.
HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING
Cab Controls
3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Fan Control Dial
Temperature Control Dial
Dash
Dash & Floor
Floor
Air Flow Control Dial
Floor & Defrost
8.
9.
10.
Defrost
Air Conditioner Enable
Fresh Air / Recirculate,
Amber Indicator Light (On)
3-13
HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING
What Each Control Does
Temperature Control Dial
Fan Control Dial
Turning this dial clockwise from the OFF
position turns the fan ON and increases the
fan speed.
Turn this dial clockwise for heat,
counterclockwise for cool.
Air Conditioner Switch
3
Air Flow Control Dial
This dial directs the air flow through 5 primary
sets of vents:
Dash Vents
Dash and Floor Vents
Floor Vents
Floor and *Defrost Vents
*Defrost Vents
*Fresh air and air conditioning are
automatically turned ON. As the dial is turned
away from a primary position, the system
directs an increasing amount of air flow
towards the next primary position.
3-14
This switch turns the air conditioner On and
Off.
NOTE
Fan Control Dial must also be in the
ON position for A/C to be on.
Fresh Air/Recirculation Switch
This switch controls the source of the air
flowing into the heater and air conditioner unit
Fresh Air mode = Air comes from
outside the cab.
Recirculation mode = Air comes
from inside the cab.
HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING
How To Use The System
b) To cool using air conditioning:
3.) Adjust the Temperature Control Dial
clockwise until the air temperature feels
comfortable.
The engine must be running for the
heater and air conditioner to generate
hot and cold air.
1.) Turn ON the
Air Conditioning
Switch.
To Cool
2.) Push the Fresh
Air/Recirculate
Switch
to the Fresh Air
mode.
1.) Push the Fresh
Air/Recirculate
Switch
3.) Turn ON the
Fan Control Dial
to the desired fan
speed.
2.) Turn ON the Air Conditioning
Switch.
4.) Turn the Air
Flow Control Dial
to Dash Vents.
3.) Turn ON the
Fan Control Dial
To Dehumidify
There are 2 ways to cool:
a) using cool outside air
b) using air conditioning
a) Outside air is cooler than the inside air:
1.) Push the Fresh
Air/Recirculation
Switch
to the Fresh Air
mode.
2.) Turn ON the
Fan Control Dial
to the desired fan
speed.
3.) Turn the Air
Flow Control Dial
to Dash Vents.
5.) Adjust the Temperature Control Dial
counterclockwise until the air temperature
feels comfortable.
To Heat
1.) Turn ON the
Fan Control Dial
to the desired fan
speed.
2.) Turn the Air
Flow Control Dial
to Floor Vents.
to the Fresh Air
mode.
3
to the desired fan
speed.
4.) Adjust the Temperature Control Dial until
the air temperature feels comfortable.
The air conditioner removes moisture
from the air while the heater heats the
air.
3-15
HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING
To Defog and Defrost the Windshield
3
1.) Turn the Fan
Control Dial
clockwise to the
highest fan speed.
2.) Turn the Air
Flow Control Dial
to Defrost Vents.
Fresh air and air conditioning are
automatically turned ON.
3.) Adjust the Temperature Control Dial
clockwise to full heat.
3-16
CAUTION
During extreme cold weather, do
not blow hot defroster air onto cold
windshields. This could crack the
glass. Turn the Air Flow Control Dial
to Defrost and adjust the fan speed
accordingly while the engine warms.
If the engine is already warm, move
the Temperature Control Dial to
cool, then gradually increase the
temperature when you see that
the windshield is starting to warm
up. Failure to comply may result in
equipment damage.
AUDIBLE ALERTS
AUDIBLE ALERTS
Introduction
3
3-17
AUDIBLE ALERTS
3
Your vehicle's dash and
instrumentation uses various
methods to indicate to you the status
of various systems, or that one or
more of your vehicles systems may
be malfunctioning. The method
to communicate or alert you of a
particular condition is by:
•
Audible alarm tone
•
Audible warning tone
•
Indicator light(s)
In some cases, you may have both an
alarm or warning tone accompanied by
an indicator light(s).
3-18
WARNING
Do not ignore any type of tone
or lights. These signals tell you
that something is malfunctioning on
your vehicle and provide you an
indication of what system is affected.
It could be a failure of an important
system, such as the brakes, which
could lead to an accident and may
result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
Please remember that each Kenworth
is custom made. Your instrument
panel may not look exactly like the one
in the illustration.
AUDIBLE ALERTS
Table 1 Audible Alerts
Symbol Name
Symbol
Option
Page
Color
Standard
1. Brakes, Air Pressure in Primary Air
System is Low
Red
●
on page 3-20
2. Brakes, Air Pressure in Secondary Air
System is Low
Red
●
on page 3-20
3. Engine, Low Coolant Level
Yellow
●
on page 3-22
4. Engine, Oil Pressure
Yellow
●
on page 3-22
5. Engine, Stop Engine
Red
●
on page 3-38
6. Fifth Wheel Slide
Red
●
on page 3-22
7. Park Brake
Red
●
on page 3-41
3
3-19
AUDIBLE ALERTS
The standard instrument cluster
generates three distinct audible tones
or sounds.
A. Alarm Tone
•
Series of clear bell tones, repeated
at a rate of 100 tones per minute.
A. Alarm tone
•
Indicates that something is
seriously wrong with the vehicle
that should be considered an
emergency.
B. Warning tone
3
C. Turn signal/hazard sound
D. Alert screens Multi-Function Display
The alert screens, tones and sound
are described below.
WARNING
Do not ignore an alarm tone. You
should visually determine what
system is affected by glancing at
your gauges and indicator lights,
then begin to slow your vehicle down
to a stop as safely as possible. Turn
off your ignition and take appropriate
action. The vehicle must be serviced
and the problem corrected before
driving the vehicle again. Failure to
obey an Alarm tone may result in
personal injury, death, equipment or
property damage.
The Alarm tone is activated under the
following conditions.
Stop Engine Alarm
This alarm sound is active when the
Stop Engine light is active (turned
on by the engine). Examples of the
conditions that would cause the alarm
to sound are low oil pressure or high
engine coolant temperature. Follow
the procedure in the Emergency
Section of this manual on page 2-3.
Primary or Secondary Low Air
Warning Alarm
Primary
3-20
Secondary
AUDIBLE ALERTS
This alarm tone is active when either
the Primary or Secondary Low Air
Warning lamp is active and the engine
RPM is above 300. This occurs when
the primary or secondary air pressure
drops below 65 psi, and stays active
until it increases above 66.5 psi. The
tone is only active when the engine is
running (RPM above 300).
Engine Oil Pressure Alarm
for approximately 4.5 minutes and park
brake warning light will blink.
B. Warning Tone
•
Series of clear bell tones, similar
to the Alarm tone, repeated at a
rate of 60 tones per minute.
•
Sounds when a problem exists,
but the vehicle can still be safely
driven. Service the vehicle to
correct the problem but the
situation should not be considered
an emergency.
CAUTION
This alarm sound is active when the
Engine Oil Pressure light is active
(turned on by the engine).
Park Brake Alarm
With the park brake not set and the
door open, the Alarm tone is activated
If a warning tone sounds, determine
the system affected by glancing at
your indicator lights. The warning
tone indicates a problem exists,
but the vehicle can still be safely
driven. Service the vehicle at your
earliest convenience to correct the
problem, but the situation should not
be considered an emergency.
The Warning tone is activated under
the following conditions.
3-21
3
AUDIBLE ALERTS
During the Instrumentation Power
On Self Test (POST) - Two bell tones
sound when the ignition is turned on.
3
All gauges, indicators and warning
lights will turn on for a power-on self
test. Additionally, all indicator and
warning lights will turn on together,
then off together. Several different
audible warnings will also be activated
twice without break.
3-22
Fifth Wheel Slide Warning
Low Coolant Level Warning
Light is active (turned on by the
optional switch on the dash).
Light is active (turned on by the
engine), and engine is running (RPM
above 300).
AUDIBLE ALERTS
C. Turn Signal/Hazard Sound
•
Generates a tic-toc sound, similar
to a sound and function of a
mechanical flasher.
•
Sounds anytime the turn signal or
hazard switch is turned On.
3
NOTE
If the vehicle turn signals and turn
signal indicators in the dash gauge
cluster ever begin flashing at an
accelerated rate (115 cycles per
minute) when the turn signal lever is
in the OFF (center) position, or when
a Right/Left turn has been selected,
the problem may be related to a
failed turn signal switch or turn signal
module. In either case, the problem
is not a failed bulb. Contact your
nearest authorized Kenworth Dealer
to have the problem corrected as
soon as possible.
3-23
INDICATORS
INDICATORS
Introduction
3
Numbered items in illustration are standard or common indicators.
3-24
INDICATORS
Your vehicle's dash and
instrumentation uses various
methods to indicate to you the status
of various systems, or that one or
more of your vehicles systems may
be malfunctioning. The method
to communicate or alert you of a
particular condition is by:
•
Audible alarm tone
•
Audible warning tone
•
Indicator light(s)
In some cases, you may have both an
alarm or warning tone accompanied by
an indicator light(s).
WARNING
Do not ignore any type of tone
or lights. These signals tell you
that something is malfunctioning on
your vehicle and provide you an
indication of what system is affected.
It could be a failure of an important
system, such as the brakes, which
could lead to an accident and may
result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
3
Please remember that each Kenworth
is custom made. Your instrument
panel may not look exactly like the one
in the illustration.
3-25
INDICATORS
Table 2 Indicators
Symbol Name
Symbol
Option
Page
Color
Standard
1. Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS)
Yellow
●
on page 3-31
2. Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS), Trailer
Yellow
●
on page 3-31
3. Axle, Traction Control
Yellow
4. Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
Yellow
3
●
●
on page 3-33
on page 3-34
Red
●
on page 3-34
6. Engine BrakeSaver or Transmission Retarder
Yellow
●
on page 3-34
7. Engine, Check Engine
Yellow
5. Dump Truck, Body Up
3-26
●
on page 3-35
INDICATORS
Symbol Name
Symbol
Color
Standard
Option
Page
8. Engine, Ether Start
Green
●
on page 3-35
9. Hill Hold
Yellow
●
on page 3-35
10. Lane Departure Warning (LDW)
Yellow
●
on page 3-36
11. Service Transmission
Yellow
●
on page 3-36
12. Worn brake
Red
●
on page 3-36
13. Engine, Fan
Green
14. Engine, Heater
Yellow
15. Engine, Low Coolant Level
Yellow
●
on page 3-37
●
●
on page 3-37
on page 3-37
3-27
3
INDICATORS
Symbol Name
16. Engine, Overspeed
17. Engine, Retarder (Brake)
Symbol
Option
Page
Red
●
on page 3-38
Green
●
on page 3-38
Color
Standard
●
18. Engine, Stop Engine
Red
on page 3-38
19. Engine, Wait To Start
Yellow
20. High Exhaust System Temperature
Yellow
●
on page 3-39
Blue
●
on page 3-39
3
21. Lights, High Beam
●
on page 3-39
22. Pump Mode
Green
●
on page 3-40
23. Power Take-Off (PTO)
Yellow
●
on page 3-40
3-28
INDICATORS
Symbol Name
Symbol
Color
Standard
Option
Page
24. Inter Axle Lock
Green
●
on page 3-40
25. Trailer Body Up
Red
●
on page 3-41
Green
●
on page 3-41
26. Message Waiting
27. Park Brake
Red
●
on page 3-41
28. Seat Belt, Fasten
Red
●
on page 3-42
●
29. Transmission, Oil Temperature High
Yellow
on page 3-42
30. Turn Signal, Left
Green
●
on page 3-42
31. Turn Signal, Right
Green
●
on page 3-43
3-29
3
INDICATORS
Symbol Name
3
Symbol
Color
Standard
Option
Page
32. Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL)
Yellow
●
on page 3-43
33. Water In Fuel (WIF)
Yellow
●
on page 3-43
34. Fifth Wheel Slide Unlocked
Red
●
on page 3-44
35. Fifth Wheel King Pin Lock
Red
●
on page 3-44
36. Check Transmission
Red
●
on page 3-44
3-30
INDICATORS
1. Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS)
A. It illuminates during the power-on
self test when the ignition is turned
ON. It turns off after a few seconds if
no system problems are detected.
CAUTION
If the ABS Warning Lamp does not
illuminate during the power-on self
test, there may be a problem with
the light or wiring. You should have
this checked as soon as possible.
Failure to comply may result in
equipment or property damage.
B. If it turns on and stays on at any
other time, it is indicating that a
problem exists with the ABS. This
should be checked by a Kenworth
dealer as soon as possible. (Refer
to Operator's Manual for "Anti-Lock
Braking System" for more information.)
C. If your vehicle has the optional
Wheel Spin Control feature, the ABS
Warning Lamp turns on and stays
on when a problem exists with the
ATC system. This should be checked
by a Kenworth dealer as soon as
possible. (Refer to Operator's Manual
for "Anti-Lock Braking System" for
more information.)
NOTE
After servicing the ABS, the lamp
stays on after the power-on self test.
This indicates that the ABS wheel
sensors have not been checked by
the ABS. As soon as the vehicle is
driven at speeds above 4 mph (6
km/h) the lamp turns off, indicating
that the wheel sensors have been
checked by the ABS.
2. Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS),
Trailer
A. It illuminates during the power-on
self test when the ignition is turned
ON. It turns off after a few seconds
if no system problems are detected.
The bulb self-test is performed
whenever the ignition is
turned ON, regardless of
whether you have Trailer ABS.
If a Trailer ABS system is detected, the
lamp will turn off after a few seconds if
no system problems are detected.
3-31
3
INDICATORS
CAUTION
If the Trailer ABS Warning Lamp
does not turn on during the power-on
self test, there may be a problem
with the light or wiring. You should
have this checked as soon as
possible.
3
B. If it turns on at any other time,
it is indicating that a problem exists
with the Power Line Communication
(PLC) trailer ABS. This should be
checked by a Kenworth dealer as soon
as possible. (Refer to "Trailer ABS"
in the Operator's Manual for more
information.)
C. If your tractor and trailer have
the "Special Trailer ABS (Without
PLC) Option", (Refer to "Special
Trailer ABS (Without PLC) Option"
in the Operator's Manual for more
information.) this lamp will turn on
when the trailer ABS has a system
problem. This should be checked by a
3-32
Kenworth dealer as soon as possible.
Power on self test for trailer ABS is
controlled by the cluster and occurs
under all conditions.
CAUTION
If the Trailer ABS Warning Lamp
does not turn on during the power-on
self test there may be a problem with
the light or wiring. You should have
this checked as soon as possible.
NOTE
Tractors/Trucks and trailers built
after 3/1/01 must be able to turn
on an In-Cab Trailer ABS Warning
Lamp (per U.S. FMVSS121). The
industry chose PLC as the standard
method to turn it on. (Refer to
"Trailer ABS" in the Operator's
Manual for more information.)
NOTE
The Trailer ABS Warning Lamp
will not turn on when connected to
trailers with ABS (but without PLC)
powered through the primary 7-way
trailer light line. Use the lamp on the
drivers side of the trailer to identify
trailer ABS problems.
NOTE
For doubles or triples, the lamp does
not distinguish between trailers. An
ABS problem in any of the trailers
will activate the Trailer ABS Warning
Lamp.
INDICATORS
3. Axle, Traction Control
(ATC or Automatic Traction
Control)
A. Illuminates during the power-on
self test when the ignition is turned
ON. It turns off after a few seconds if
no system problems are detected. If
an ATC problem is detected, the ATC
Warning lamp will turn on and stay on.
B.Flashes when the ATC is regulating
wheel spin. (Refer to Automatic
Traction Control for more information.)
C. It blinks continuously when the
Deep Snow & Mud switch is turned on,
indicating that this feature is active.
(Refer to Deep Snow and Mud Switch
and Anti-Lock Braking System on page
4-27 for more information.)
NOTE
WARNING
For
vehicles
equipped
with
Electronic Stability Program, please
refer to Bendix ABS Operator's
Manual, included in your glove box
informational packet.
If this chassis is equipped with an
electronic stability program (ESP)
and is modified (e.g. adding or
removing an axle, converting from
a truck to a tractor, converting
from a tractor to a truck, changing
the body, lengthening of the
wheelbase and/or frame, relocating
frame components, or modifying
pneumatic or electrical ABS/ESP
harnesses) the ESP must be
disabled by a qualified technician.
If you have any questions, contact
your authorized Kenworth Dealer.
Failure to comply may result in
personal injury, death, equipment or
property damage.
3-33
3
INDICATORS
4. Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
3
Illuminates when diesel particulate
filter needs regeneration (controlled
by Engine Control Module (ECM)).
This warning lamp will illuminate
even if the regeneration operation
is disabled. (Refer to the Engine
Manufacturer's Operator Manual and
the PACCAR Engine After-treatment
Control Operator Manual for additional
information.)
NOTE
Not for Export.
3-34
5. Dump Truck, Body Up
Illuminates when Truck Dump Body is
up.
6. Engine BrakeSaver or
Transmission Retarder
Illuminates when BrakeSaver (export
only) or Transmission Retarder is
active.
INDICATORS
7. Engine, Check Engine
8. Engine, Ether Start
Illuminates when a problem exists, but
the vehicle can still be safely driven.
Vehicle should be serviced to correct
the problem, but the situation should
not be considered an emergency.
Illuminates when ether start switch is
on.
The Check Engine lamp will activate
for several reasons. These include but
are not limited to Water in Fuel, No-Idle
Shutdown alert screens, High Exhaust
Temperature, Diesel Particulate Filter
(DPF) and Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF)
warning lights. You may need to refer
to your Engine Operator's Manual for
additional information.
9. Hill Hold
(Eaton Ultrashift Plus)
Blinks when disabled by switch (once
per second), or continuous with fault.
The hill stop aid prevents unwanted
vehicle movement on steep grades
when transitioning from the brake to
throttle pedal.
NOTE
Not for Export.
3-35
3
INDICATORS
3
10. Lane Departure Warning (LDW)
11. Service Transmission
12. Worn Brake
Illuminates when optional LDW system
is not able to track the vehicle's
position within the lane.
Illuminates when Allison 1000/2000
transmission requires service.
Illuminates when brake pads on
optional Brake Warning System
require replacement.
NOTE
For vehicles equipped with Lane
Departure Warning, please refer to
Lane Departure Warning Driver's
Guide for additional information.
3-36
INDICATORS
13. Engine, Fan
14. Engine, Heater
15. Engine, Low Coolant Level
Illuminates when fan is active.
Illuminates when Engine Heater switch
is on.
Illuminates and an audible warning
tone will sound when coolant level in
the radiator is critically low.
CAUTION
The vehicle must be serviced
to correct the problem, but the
situation should not be considered
an emergency.
3-37
3
INDICATORS
3
16. Engine, Overspeed
17. Engine, Retarder (Brake)
Illuminates when engine RPM is
exceeded (Allison Transmissions).
Illuminates when the engine retarder
(compression brake) or exhaust brake
switch is on (Smartwheel only).
18. Engine, Stop Engine
Illuminates and an audible alarm tone
will sound when a major engine system
problem exists.
WARNING
This should be considered an
emergency.
You should stop
the vehicle as safely as possible
and turn OFF the ignition. The
vehicle must be serviced and the
problem corrected before driving
again. Failure to do so may cause
severe engine damage or cause
an accident which may result in
personal injury or death.
3-38
INDICATORS
19. Engine, Wait To Start
20. High Exhaust System
Temperature
21. Lights, High Beam
Illuminates when the high beams are
on.
Illuminates when engine grid heater
is on. (PACCAR PX-6, PX-8, and
Cummins ISL engines)
Illuminates when exhaust
temperature is high (controlled by
Engine Control Module (ECM)). (Refer
to the Engine Manufacturer's Operator
Manual and the PACCAR Engine
After-treatment Control Operator
Manual for additional information.)
The high beam indicator will illuminate
to indicate that the head lamps have
been left on.
The high beam indicator will illuminate
when: the head lamp switch is ON,
the driver's door is open, AND the key
switch is OFF.
3-39
3
INDICATORS
22. Pump Mode
Illuminates when optional pump switch
is activated.
3
3-40
23. Power Take Off (PTO)
24. Inter Axle Lock
Illuminates when optional PTO is
active.
It illuminates when the inter-axle
differential switch is ON thus locking
the inter-axle differential. This powers
the forward rear and the rear rear
differentials equally. When the switch
is turned off (inter-axle unlocked)
the engine power is allowed to flow
to any of the 4 drive tires based on
the differential effect (mostly to the
forward rear differential). (This feature
is standard on all tandem axles).
INDICATORS
25. Trailer Body Up
Illuminates when optional trailer body
up switch is activated.
26. Message Waiting
Illuminates with telematic equipped
messaging.
27. Park Brake
Illuminates when parking brakes are
applied.
The Park Brake lamp will flash and the
warning tone will sound anytime the
Park Brake is not set and the driver's
door is open.
Audio alarm will sound if the park
brake is set and speed is greater than
5 miles per hour.
3-41
3
INDICATORS
3
28. Seat Belt, Fasten
29. Transmission, Oil Temperature
High
Illuminates for 5 seconds whenever
the ignition key is turned on, then it
turns off. The warning lamp may also
come on if the driver's seat belt is not
fastened (if the vehicle was ordered
with a seat belt warning light option).
Illuminates when transmission
lubricant temperature is too high.
3-42
CAUTION
This should be considered an
emergency. You should stop the
vehicle as safely as possible and
turn OFF the ignition. The vehicle
must be serviced and the problem
corrected before driving again.
Failure to do so may cause severe
transmission damage.
30. Turn Signal, Left
Blinks when the left turn signal is
operating.
INDICATORS
31. Turn Signal, Right
Blinks when the right turn signal is
operating.
32. Malfunction Indicator Lamp
(MIL)
Illuminates when an engine emissions
failure has occurred. The vehicle
can be safely driven but should be
serviced to correct the problem. The
situation should not be considered
an emergency. In some cases, the
Malfunction Indicator Lamp will activate
in conjunction with the High Exhaust
Temperature, Diesel Particulate Filter
(DPF) and Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF)
Warning Lights.
33. Water In Fuel (WIF)
Illuminates when water has been
detected in the fuel.
3
NOTE
Not for Export.
3-43
INDICATORS
3
34. Fifth Wheel Slide
35. King Pin Lock
36. Check Transmission
Illuminates when fifth wheel slide
switch is activated. Indicates fifth
wheel can move.
Illuminates when king pin lock switch
is activated. Indicates the king pin is
disengaged.
A fault with transmission.
3-44
(Refer to transmission manual)
GAUGES AND DISPLAYS
GAUGES AND
DISPLAYS
Introduction
3
Numbered items in illustration are standard or common gauges.
Your vehicle includes both standard and optional gauges in the instrument cluster display. Some optional warning light indicators will be
inoperable unless that option was specified with the vehicle. (See Warning Light/Indicator Symbols on page 3-26 , for a complete list of standard
and optional gauges and warning light indicators.)
3-45
GAUGES AND DISPLAYS
Gauges
Table 3 Gauge Symbols
Opt
Page
●
on page 3-52
●
on page 3-52
●
on page 3-53
4. Axle, Pusher Air Pressure, #1, #2, #3
●
on page 3-53
5. Axle, Tag Air Pressure
●
on page 3-54
Symbol Name
Symbol
Std
1. Air Filter Restriction Pressure
2. Ammeter
Front
3
Rear
3. Axle, Drive Oil Temperature
Center
(Tridem)
6. Brake, Application Air Pressure
●
on page 3-54
7. Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF)
●
on page 3-54
3-46
GAUGES AND DISPLAYS
Symbol Name
Symbol
Std
Opt
Page
8. Engine, Coolant Temperature
●
on page 3-55
9. Engine, Oil Pressure
●
on page 3-57
10. Engine, Oil Temperature
●
on page 3-58
11. Fuel Filter Restriction Pressure
●
on page 3-58
Primary
●
12. Fuel Level, Primary and Secondary (if equipped)
on page 3-59
Secondary
●
#1
13. General Air Pressure #1, #2
#2
14. General Oil Temperature
15. Manifold Pressure (Turbo Boost)
●
on page 3-60
●
on page 3-60
●
on page 3-60
Primary
16. Primary and Secondary Air Pressure
Secondary
●
on page 3-61
3-47
3
GAUGES AND DISPLAYS
Opt
Page
●
on page 3-62
18. Tractor Brake Application Air Pressure
●
on page 3-63
19. Trailer Brake Application Air Pressure
●
on page 3-63
20. Trailer Air Tank Air Pressure
●
on page 3-64
21. Transfer Case Oil Temperature
●
on page 3-64
22. Transmission Oil Temperature, Main
●
on page 3-64
23. Transmission Oil Temperature, Auxiliary
●
on page 3-65
24. Transmission Retarder Oil Temperature
●
on page 3-65
Symbol Name
17. Suspension Load Air Pressure, #1, #2
3
25. Voltmeter
3-48
Symbol
#1
Std
#2
●
on page 3-65
GAUGES AND DISPLAYS
Speedometer
Odometer/Trip Meter
distance that can be shown on the trip
odometer is 9999.9 before it rolls over
to zero.
NOTE
1
2
The Speedometer indicates the vehicle
speed in miles per hour (mph) and
in kilometers per hour (km/h). The
Speedometer cluster also includes
several warning and indicator lamps
(see Audible Alerts on page 3-17) and
an Odometer/Trip Meter.
Odometer
Trip Meter
The LCD display in the lower part of the
speedometer contains the Odometer
and the Current Trip Meter.
The odometer displays the distance
your vehicle has traveled. It will display
in miles on an English cluster or in
kilometers on a metric cluster. The
maximum distance that can be shown
on the odometer is 999,999 before it
rolls over to zero.
Pressing the trip odometer reset
button 4 times in less than 4 seconds
will change the odometer units.
3
To reset the trip odometer, press and
hold the button on the cluster. The
numbers will reset to 0 and begin to
count new miles/km traveled.
To select a different trip, refer to
Kenworth Multi-Function Display
Operator Manual.
The current trip odometer displays
how far the vehicle has gone on a
particular trip. The trip odometer will
display in miles on an English cluster
or in kilometers on a metric cluster,
in one tenth divisions. The maximum
3-49
GAUGES AND DISPLAYS
Tachometer
NOTE
3
The Odometer/Trip Meter comes on
when the door is opened and when
the ignition key is in the ACC or ON
position. The Odometer/Trip Meter
will remain on for 3 seconds after
the door is closed or the ignition
switch is turned off. This allows
driver and service personnel to read
the odometer without ignition switch
being turned on.
The Tachometer measures the engine
speed in revolutions per minute (RPM).
The Tachometer cluster also includes
several warning and indicator lamps
(see Audible Alerts on page 3-17) and
an Engine Hour Meter and Outside
Temperature Display.
Watching the tachometer is important
to driving efficiently. It will let you
match driving speed and gear selection
to the operating range of your engine.
If the engine speed gets too high, you
can select a higher gear to lower the
RPM's. If the engine speed drops too
low, you can select a lower gear to
raise the RPM's. (Refer to Driving Tips
3-50
and Techniques on page 4-5 for further
instructions on driving techniques and
using the tachometer.) To avoid engine
damage, do not let the pointer exceed
maximum governed speed. (See your
Engine Operation and Maintenance
Manual for RPM recommendations.)
GAUGES AND DISPLAYS
Engine Hours/Outside Air
Temperature
1
2
3
Hour Meter
Outside Air Temperature
Snowflake Symbol
The LCD display in the lower part of the
tachometer contains the Engine Hour
Meter and the Outside Air Temperature
display.
The engine hour meter will display the
total number of hours the engine has
been running. The maximum hours
that can be shown are 99999.9 before
the meter rolls over to zero.
displayed from -40° to 158° F or -40°
to 70° C.
The display will also alert the
driver when the outside temperate
approaches freezing (32° F or 0° C)
by displaying a snowflake symbol.
The symbol will turn on when the
temperature drops below 34° F or 11°
C and flash for the first 3 seconds,
then stay on until the temperature goes
above 37° F or 28° C.
The OATs units (Fahrenheit or Celsius)
can be changed by pressing the reset
button on the cluster 4 times in less
than 4 seconds.
CAUTION
Modifying the sensor or its location
can impact vehicle performance,
emissions, and/or reliability.
NOTE
The OAT will come on when the door
is open and when the ignition key is
in the ACC or ON position. The OAT
display will turn off when the ignition
switch is turned off.
3
NOTE
The OAT uses a sensor (located
at the bottom of the drivers side
mirror assembly) to measure
outside air temperature only.
It
is not capable of displaying the
temperature of the road surface on
either the temperature display or
the snowflake icon. Additionally, the
OAT reading may be affected by
exposure to direct sunlight.
The Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
will display the temperature outside
the vehicle. The temperature can be
3-51
GAUGES AND DISPLAYS
1. Air Filter Restriction Pressure
2. Ammeter
CAUTION
3
The Air Filter Restriction Pressure
gauge indicates the condition of the
engine air cleaner and is measured by
inches of water (H2O). A clean filter
should register 7 in. H2O (may vary
with system design) and a filter whose
life is over will register approximately
20 in. H2O. The red light will come on
when it has reached a critical level.
3-52
Continued operation with the Air
Filter Restriction Gauge reading
20 in. H2O may cause damage to
the engine. Inspect the filter and
replace if necessary. Holes in the
paper element render an air cleaner
useless and may cause the Air Filter
Restriction Gauge to give a false
reading, whether the element is
clogged or not. Replace the element
if it is damaged. Failure to comply
may result in equipment damage.
The ammeter tells you whether the
vehicle batteries are being charged by
the alternator or discharging. Positive
reading indicates the batteries are
charging, negative reading indicates
the batteries are discharging.
Under normal conditions the ammeter
will read nearly "zero". If it begins
to read noticeably above or below
the "zero" balance, have the system
checked out immediately. If you do not,
you could have a roadside breakdown.
GAUGES AND DISPLAYS
3. Axle, Drive Oil Temperature
temperature of the lubricant in your
vehicle's axles. These temperatures
will vary with the kind of load you are
carrying and the driving conditions you
encounter. The red light will come on
when the temperature has reached a
critical level.
4. Axle, Pusher Air Pressure
Pusher Axle #1
Front Drive Axle
NOTE
3
Very high temperatures signal a
need to have the axle(s) lubrication
checked.
Rear Drive Axle
Center Drive Axle (for Tridem Axle
configuration)
The Drive Axle Oil Temperature gauges
(front, rear, and center) indicate the
Pusher Axle #2
Pusher Axle #3
The Pusher Axle Air Pressure gauge(s)
indicate the air pressure in the pusher
axle(s) suspension air bags.
3-53
GAUGES AND DISPLAYS
3
5. Axle, Tag Air Pressure
6. Brake, Application Air Pressure
7. Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF)
The Tag Axle Air Pressure gauge
indicates the amount of air pressure in
the tag axle suspension air bags.
The Brake Application air gauge
indicates how much air pressure is
being applied from the foot brake valve
or trailer brake hand valve to the air
brakes.
The Diesel Exhaust Fluid gauge
indicates the total (approximate)
amount of DEF in the tank. In addition
to indicating empty and full, the
gauge also indicates the DEF level in
graduated increments. When the DEF
level in the tank reaches 10% full, a red
warning light in the gauge illuminates,
when the DEF level in the tank reaches
5%, the red light flashes. Refer to
your PACCAR Engine After-Treatment
Control Operator’s Manual for more
information.
3-54
GAUGES AND DISPLAYS
8. Engine, Coolant Temperature
Overheating Engine
CAUTION
The Engine Coolant (water)
Temperature gauge indicates the
temperature of the engine coolant.
If the coolant temperature exceeds
the maximum limits, a red warning
lamp in the gauge will turn on and
an audible warning will sound. If the
coolant temperature continues to rise,
the Check Engine and/or Stop Engine
lights will also come on.
This should be considered an
emergency. You should stop the
vehicle as safely as possible and
turn OFF the ignition. The vehicle
must be serviced and the problem
corrected before driving again.
Failure to do so may cause severe
engine damage.
Under normal operating conditions,
the water temperature gauge should
register between 165° and 205° F (74°
and 90° C). Under certain conditions,
somewhat higher temperatures may be
acceptable. The maximum allowable
temperature is 220° F (104° C) with
the cooling system pressurized, except
for certain engines. Check the engine
manual to be sure.
The cooling system may overheat if
the coolant level is below normal or if
there is sudden loss of coolant, such
as a split hose. The system may also
temporarily overheat during severe
operating conditions such as:
•
Climbing a long hill on a hot day
•
Stopping after high-speed driving
NOTE
If one of the prior conditions occur,
DO NOT TURN OFF THE ENGINE
unless: a) the Low Water warning
device indicates a loss of coolant,
b) the Red Warning lamp (on the
gauge) and Check Engine lamp
comes ON, c) the Audible Warning
or Audible Alarm sounds showing an
overheat condition, or d) you have
any other reason to suspect the
engine may be overheating, follow
these steps.
3-55
3
GAUGES AND DISPLAYS
1.
3
2.
3.
Reduce engine speed or stop.
When stopped, place the
transmission in Neutral and set
the parking brake. (Refer to Using
the Parking Brake on page 4-20
and Putting the Vehicle in Motion
on page 4-65.)
Check to ensure the Oil Pressure
Gauge reads normal. (See the
Engine Oil Pressure in Gauges
and Displays on page 3-45, for
further information.)
Make sure the engine fan is
turned on by switching the Engine
Fan Switch from AUTO to MAN
(Manual).
4.
Increase the engine speed to about
one-half of full operating speed, or
1,100 to 1,200, maximum.
5.
Return the engine speed to normal
idle after 2 or 3 minutes.
6.
Monitor the engine temperature.
After the temperature returns to
3-56
normal, allow the engine to idle
3 to 5 minutes before shutting it
off. This allows the engine to cool
gradually and uniformly.
7.
If overheating came from
severe operating conditions, the
temperature should have cooled
by this time. If it has not, stop
the engine and let it cool before
checking to see if the coolant is
low.
°
Wait until the coolant
temperature is below 122° F
(50° C).
°
Protect face, hands, and arms
by covering the cap with a
large, thick rag to protect
against escaping fluid and
steam.
°
Carefully and slowly turn the
cap one-quarter of a turn or
until it reaches the first stop.
°
Allow excess pressure to
escape, then push down and
turn for final removal.
For further information on engine
temperature and operating engines
properly, see the Engine Operation
and Maintenance Manual. Check
the coolant level after each trip when
the engine has cooled. The coolant
level should be visible within the sight
gauge (glass level indicator) on the
surge tank; add coolant if necessary.
(Refer to Topping Up on page 5-60, for
instructions on checking and filling the
coolant expansion tank.)
WARNING
Do not remove the radiator fill cap
while the engine is hot. Scalding
steam and fluid under pressure may
escape. You could be badly burned.
Failure to comply may result in
personal injury or death.
GAUGES AND DISPLAYS
9. Engine, Oil Pressure
WARNING
To reduce the chance of death,
personal injury, fire and/or vehicle
damage from overheated engines,
never leave the engine idling without
an alert driver present. If the engine
should overheat, as indicated by
the engine coolant temperature
light, immediate action is required
to correct the condition. Continued
unattended operation of the engine,
even for a short time, may result
in serious engine damage or a fire.
Failure to comply may result in
personal injury, death, equipment or
property damage.
It is important to maintain oil pressure
within acceptable limits. If oil pressure
drops below the minimum psi a red
warning light in the gauge will turn on,
the Stop Engine light will come on and
an audible alarm tone will sound.
•
Check the engine manufacturer's
manual for the correct oil pressure
ranges for your vehicle's engine.
•
If the oil pressure suddenly drops,
or the audible alarm and engine
oil pressure warning light come on
while driving, do the following:
1.
Slow down carefully.
2.
Move a safe distance off the road
and stop.
3.
Place the transmission in park and
set the parking brake. (Refer to
Operator’s Manual for "Parking
Brake Valve" and "Operating the
Transmission" for transmission
shifting and parking brake
information.)
4.
Turn OFF the engine.
5.
Turn ON the emergency flasher
and use other warning devices to
alert other motorists.
CAUTION
Continuing to operate your vehicle
with insufficient oil pressure will
cause serious engine damage.
•
If the oil pressure fails to rise within
10 seconds after the engine starts,
stop the engine and determine the
cause.
3
3-57
GAUGES AND DISPLAYS
3
6.
Wait a few minutes to allow oil to
drain into the engine oil pan, and
then check the oil level. (Refer to
Operator’s Manual for "Oil Level
Check" for details on checking oil
level.)
7.
Add oil if necessary. If the problem
persists, contact an authorized
Kenworth Dealer.
For further information on engine oil
and normal operating pressures, see
the Engine Operation and Maintenance
Manual.
For further information on engine
gauges and operating your engine
properly, refer to Operator’s Manual for
"Engine Maintenance".
3-58
10. Engine, Oil Temperature
11. Fuel Filter Restriction Pressure
The Engine Oil Temperature gauge
indicates the engine oil temperature.
If the oil temperature exceeds the
maximum limits, a red warning
light in the gauge will turn on. Do
not exceed maximum engine oil
temperature recommended by the
engine manufacturer. (See the Engine
Operation and Maintenance Manual
for details.)
This gauge tells you the condition
of the fuel filter by indicating the
restriction from the fuel filter to the fuel
pump. The restriction is measured by
inches of mercury (Hg). Check the
engine manual for proper restriction.
Replace the filter with an approved
filter only. Do not substitute the wrong
micron element.
NOTE
The maximum allowable restriction
could vary according to the type
or make of engine. Consult the
engine manufacturers manual or
engine dealer for fuel restriction
specifications.
GAUGES AND DISPLAYS
12. Fuel Level, Primary
Secondary (if equipped)
The Primary Fuel gauge and
Secondary Fuel gauge (if equipped)
indicate the total (approximate) amount
of fuel in each fuel tank. In addition to
indicating empty and full, the gauge(s)
also indicate the fuel level in graduated
increments. When the fuel level for
each tank is below 1/4 full, a red
warning light in the gauge will come on.
Primary
NOTE
WARNING
For Export vehicles, the fuel gauges
will not state: ULTRA LOW SULFUR
DIESEL FUEL ONLY.
Do not carry fuel containers or any
container used to store combustible
liquids. Failure to comply may result
in personal injury, death, equipment
or property damage.
NOTE
Kenworth manufactures vehicles
that are built with different fuel
systems and draw tube locations.
Because of this and the amount
of road crown, it is recommended
that you do not operate your vehicle
with less than one-quarter of your
truck’s fuel capacity. Allowing the
fuel level to go below one-quarter of
capacity could result in the lack of
fuel to keep the engine running. In
addition, you will want to keep the
fuel tanks at least half-full to reduce
condensation of moisture in the
tanks. This moisture can damage
the engine.
3
WARNING
Do not remove a fuel tank cap near
an open flame. Fuel vapors may
be hot and combustible and can
cause an explosion or fire. Failure
to comply may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
Refer to Refueling on page 4-74 for
more information.
Secondary
3-59
GAUGES AND DISPLAYS
13. General Air Pressure #1, #2
14. General Oil Temperature
15. Manifold Pressure (Turbo Boost)
General Air Pressure #1
The General Oil Temperature gauge(s)
are used for customer installed
component applications.
If the pressure indicated by the
manifold pressure gauge goes down,
there may be something wrong with
the engine. Have it checked by a
qualified service person.
3
General Air Pressure #2
The General Air Pressure gauge(s) are
used for customer installed component
applications.
3-60
GAUGES AND DISPLAYS
16. Primary and Secondary Air
Pressure
On vehicles equipped with metric air
pressure gauges, the gauge face plate
includes a kPa (major) scale and psi
(minor) scale.
NOTE
Primary Air Pressure
Be sure the air pressure registers
more than 100 psi in both service
systems before you move the
vehicle.
WARNING
If the air pressure falls below 60
psi (414 kPa), the spring brakes
may stop the vehicle abruptly which
could cause an accident resulting in
personal injury or death. Observe
the red warning lamps on the
gauges. If one comes on, do not
continue to drive the vehicle until
it has been properly repaired or
serviced.
NOTE
Secondary Air Pressure
The Primary Air Pressure gauge
indicates pressure in the rear braking
system. The Secondary gauge
indicates pressure in the front braking
system. Each gauge indicates the
amount of air pressure in each system
in pounds per square inch (psi).
If the pressure in either or both
circuits falls below 65 psi, a red
warning light in the gauge will turn
on and an audible alarm tone will
sound when the engine is running.
3-61
3
GAUGES AND DISPLAYS
Air Loss Emergency Procedure
WARNING
3
The air pressure warning light and
the audible alarm tone indicate a
dangerous situation: there is not
enough air pressure in the air tanks
for repeated braking and the brake
system has failed.
Without the
use of your service brakes your
spring brakes could suddenly apply
causing a wheel lock-up, loss of
control, or over-take by following
vehicles.
This may cause an
accident resulting in personal injury
or death. Bring the vehicle to a safe
stop right away, while you still have
control of the vehicle. Refer to the
following procedure:
1.
Slow down carefully.
2.
Move a safe distance off the road
and stop.
3.
Place the transmission in
neutral (park with automatic
transmissions, if equipped) and
set the parking brake. (Refer
to Parking Brake Valve on
page 3-92 and Operating the
Transmission on page 4-64 for
transmission shifting and parking
brake information.)
4.
Turn OFF the engine.
5.
Turn ON the emergency flasher
and use other warning devices to
alert other motorists.
If the light and alarm do not turn off at
startup, do not try to drive the vehicle
until the problem is found and fixed.
(Refer to Using the Brake System on
page 4-17 for more brake information.)
3-62
17. Suspension Load Air Pressure,
#1, #2
Suspension Load Air Pressure #1
Suspension Load Air Pressure #2
The Suspension Load Air Pressure
gauge indicates the amount of air
pressure in the air suspension air bags.
GAUGES AND DISPLAYS
When the vehicle is equipped with dual
leveling valves, the #1 gauge indicates
the air pressure in the drivers side air
bags. The #2 gauge indicates the air
pressure in the passengers side air
bags.
18. Tractor Brake Application Air
Pressure
19. Trailer Brake Application Air
Pressure
The Tractor Brake Application Air
Pressure gauge indicates the amount
of air pressure applied to the tractor
brakes.
The Trailer Brake Application Air
Pressure gauge indicates the amount
of air pressure applied to the trailer
brakes during brake foot valve and/or
hand brake control valve applications.
NOTE
This gauge will be included when
the Trailer Brake Application Air
Pressure gauge is ordered.
3-63
3
GAUGES AND DISPLAYS
3
20. Trailer Air Tank Air Pressure
21. Transfer Case Oil Temperature
The Trailer Air Tank Air Pressure
gauge indicates the amount of air
pressure in the trailer brake air tank.
The Transfer Case Oil Temperature
gauge indicates the temperature of
the oil in the transfer case. If the oil
temperature exceeds maximum limits,
a red warning light in the gauge will
turn on. Do not exceed maximum
oil temperature recommended by the
manufacturer. (See the Transfer Case
Operation and Maintenance Manual
for details.)
22. Transmission Oil Temperature,
Main
The Main Transmission Oil
Temperature Gauge indicates
the temperature of the oil in the
transmission.
NOTE
Watch this gauge to know when the
transmission is overheating.
Do not exceed maximum oil
temperature recommended by the
manufacturer. (See the Transmission
Operation and Maintenance Manual
for details.)
3-64
GAUGES AND DISPLAYS
23. Transmission Oil Temperature,
Auxiliary
24. Transmission Retarder Oil
Temperature
The Auxiliary Transmission Oil
Temperature gauge indicates the
temperature of the oil in the auxiliary
transmission.
The Transmission Retarder Oil
Temperature gauge indicates
the temperature of the oil in the
transmission retarder.
25. Voltmeter
The Voltmeter displays the battery
voltage. Normally, it should show 12 to
14V (volts). A red warning light in the
gauge turns on when an out of range
condition exists.
NOTE
NOTE
NOTE
Watch this gauge to know when the
transmission is overheating.
Watch this gauge to know when the
transmission is overheating.
Do not exceed maximum oil
temperature recommended by the
manufacturer. (See the Transmission
Operation and Maintenance Manual
for details.)
Do not exceed maximum oil
temperature recommended by the
manufacturer. (See the Transmission
Operation and Maintenance Manual
for details.)
Even with a healthy charge/start
system, the voltmeter may fall well
below 12V during engine cranking.
If voltage drops below 12V and stays
there, have the electrical system
checked.
3-65
3
MULTI-FUNCTION DISPLAY
MULTI-FUNCTION
DISPLAY
Alarms, Warning Tones and
Visual Indicator Lights
Introduction
Introduction
This section explains the location and
function of the various instruments and
controls on your vehicle.
3
Please remember that each Kenworth
is custom made. Your instrument panel
may not look exactly like the one in
the illustration below. Described below
are the most common instruments and
controls available.
Your vehicle's dash and
instrumentation uses various
methods to indicate to you the status
of various systems, or that one or
more of your vehicle's systems may
be malfunctioning. The method
to communicate or alert you of a
particular condition is by:
•
Audible alarm tone
•
Audible warning tone
•
Indicator light(s)
In some cases, you may have both an
alarm or warning tone accompanied by
an indicator light(s).
3-66
WARNING
Do not ignore any type of tone
or lights. These signals tell you
that something is malfunctioning on
your vehicle and provide you an
indication of what system is affected.
It could be a failure of an important
system, such as the brakes, which
could lead to an accident and may
result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
MULTI-FUNCTION DISPLAY
Warning and Information
Alert Screens
The Multi-Function display has various
alert screens that are either warnings,
or informational.
The Cruise Control Rationality screen
is displayed when attempting to
activate the cruise control prior to
depressing both the service brake
pedal and the clutch pedal. For
vehicles with automated transmissions
and no clutch pedal, only the service
brake pedal needs to be depressed.
Lamp Faults - Low/High Beam
The Lamp Faults screen is displayed
when an error is detected in the
headlamp circuits.
No Idle Shutdown
The No-Idle Shutdown screen is
activated upon engine shutdown due
to extended idle time while not moving.
Park Brake On While Moving
The Park Brake On While Moving
warning screen is displayed when
the Park Brake is on and the vehicle
speed is greater than zero and/or the
accelerator pedal position is greater
than 10%.
Regen Inhibited
The Regen Inhibited due to
Switch screen is displayed when
a regeneration is required and the DPF
switch is in the inhibit position.
Cruise Control Rationality
(Brake/Clutch)
3-67
3
MULTI-FUNCTION DISPLAY
DEF (Low Diesel Exhaust Fluid)
3
The DEF Warning screen is displayed
when the DEF Fluid level has reached
a critically low level. It may be
suppressed by pushing enter on the
MCS (Menu Control Switch). See
Menu Control Switch on page 3-76.
This warning may be accompanied by
the DEF Level in the low range, DEF
Lamp on solid or flashing, the Check
Engine lamp, the Stop Engine lamp,
the MIL lamp, and/or engine de-rate.
The Exhaust (SCR/DEF) Service
Required screen is displayed when
either the SCR system has been
tampered with or the DEF quality
is below standards. It may be
suppressed by pushing enter on the
MCS (Menu Control Switch). See
Menu Control Switch on page 3-76.
This warning may be accompanied
by the DEF Lamp flashing, the Check
Engine lamp, the Stop Engine lamp,
the MIL lamp, and/or engine de-rate.
The Trailer Fault screen is displayed
when an error is detected in the trailer
circuits.
3-68
The Low Voltage Disconnect (LVD)
screen is displayed when the system
voltage falls to 12.1 volts.
Over-Crank Protection
Trailer Fault
SCR/DEF
Low Voltage Disconnect
Over-Crank Protection screen is
displayed when the starter motor is
being protected from over heat or from
being engaged while the engine is
running.
MULTI-FUNCTION DISPLAY
The Cruise Control Set screen is
displayed when the Cruise Control is
active and the Set/Resume switch is
used. The current cruise control speed
will be displayed.
The Circuit Failure screen is displayed
when a circuit fault is detected. This
screen is accompanied with the hazard
indicators and low beam headlamps.
Alarm Clock Active
The Alarm Clock Active screen is
displayed when the Alarm is on and
the Alarm time equals clock/local time.
The Alarm Clock Active screen will
be displayed for approximately 10
minutes and may be suppressed by
pressing MCS (Menu Control Switch)
enter, which turns off the alarm. See
Menu Control Switch on page 3-76.
Cruise Control Screen
3
Hydrocarbon Burn
Water In Fuel
The Water In Fuel (WIF) screen
is displayed when the WIF sensor
detects water in the fuel.
Circuit Failure
The “Do Not Drive 10 Minute Parked
Regen Required” is displayed when
unburned hydrocarbons or water vapor
are trapped in the Diesel Particular
Filter (DPF). These need to be burned
off before the vehicle is driven. This
warning may be accompanied by the
DPF lamp on or flashing, the Check
Engine Lamp, the Stop Engine Lamp
and/or engine derate. An audible alarm
will engage when the vehicle starts
moving while this warning is active.
3-69
MULTI-FUNCTION DISPLAY
3
Engine Protection Shutdown Timer
Front Drive Axle Speed Warning
The “Shutdown” is displayed when the
engine has derated and the situation
requires the engine to turn off. The
time to shutdown is displayed. This
warning may be accompanied by the
Check Engine Lamp, the Stop Engine
Lamp and/or engine derate. A restart
of the engine is possible with minimal
function to ensure safe operation. It
may be suppressed by pushing on
the MCS (Menu Control Switch). See
Menu Control Switch on page 3-76.
The “Attention Front Axle Is Engaged”
is displayed when the front drive
axle is engaged and the vehicle has
exceeded a pre-determined speed.
An audible alert will sound when the
warning is displayed.
Engine Over-Speed Shutdown Low Air
Warning
The “Overspeed Shutdown May not
work due to low-air” is displayed when
the system air pressure is to low to
3-70
guarantee that the Air Inlet Valve will
shut for overspeed conditions. It may
be suppressed by pushing on the MCS
(Menu Control Switch). See Menu
Control Switch on page 3-76. There is
an accompanying audio alarm, which
will continue to sound as long as the
conditions are true even if the pop-up
has been suppressed.
MULTI-FUNCTION DISPLAY
What You Should Do
If an alert screen comes on while
driving, do the following:
1.
Slow down carefully.
2.
Move a safe distance off the road
and stop.
3.
Set the parking brake. (Refer to
Operator’s Manual for "Operating
the Transmission" and "Operating
the Brake System".)
4.
If the engine is overheating do
not turn it off (see “Overheating
Engine” in the Operator’s Manual);
otherwise, for other conditions turn
the engine OFF.
5.
Turn on the emergency flasher
and use other warning devices to
alert other motorists.
Wingman® ACB Warning
Tone / Alert Screens
•
Series of high pitched rings that
repeat at different rates. See the
following warning descriptions and
corresponding number of tones
per minute.
•
Indicates one of the following
scenarios; your vehicle is too close
to the vehicle ahead, a stationary
object has been detected, or there
is an active fault in the Wingman®
ACB system.
Level 3 Following Distance Alert
ACB system. This is the least severe
of all the ACB warning tones. The high
pitched ring will have a single beep
repeating at a rate of 42 tones per
minute.
3
Level 2 Following Distance Alert
This Wingman® ACB warning tone is
active when the following distance is
less than what is set in the Wingman®
ACB system. This ACB warning
tone is more severe than the Level
3 Following Distance Alert. The high
pitched ring will have a double beep
repeating at a rate of 80 tones per
minute (40 double beeps per minute).
This Wingman® ACB warning tone is
active when the following distance is
less than what is set in the Wingman®
3-71
MULTI-FUNCTION DISPLAY
Level 1 Following Distance Alert
3
This Wingman® ACB warning tone is
active when the following distance is
less than what is set in the Wingman®
ACB system. This ACB warning tone
is the most severe following distance
alert. The high pitched ring will have a
continuous beep repeating at a rate of
188 tones per minute.
Impact Alert
This is the most severe warning issued
by Wingman® ACB. The warning tone
3-72
is active when the driver must take
immediate evasive action by applying
more braking power and/or steering
clear of the vehicle ahead to avoid a
potential collision. The high pitched
ring will have a solid tone for a 3
second duration.
Fault Alert
This Wingman® ACB warning tone
is active when there is a fault in the
Wingman® ACB system. The high
pitched ring will have a single beep
that is not repeating.
Stationary Object Alert
This Wingman® ACB warning tone
is active when the system detects a
sizable stationary object with reflective
surfaces in your lane of travel. The
high pitched ring will have a continuous
beep repeating at a rate of 188 tones
per minute.
WARNING
The Wingman® ACB sensor may
not be able to detect vehicles and
objects with limited metal surfaces
(such as recreational vehicles,
horse-drawn buggies, motorcycles,
logging trailers, etc.). Failure to
understand the system limitation
may result in death, serious injury,
and/or property damage.
MULTI-FUNCTION DISPLAY
ACB system. It is also used as the
brake overuse alert when the system
is intervening and using the foundation
brakes excessively.
Disabled Alert
This Wingman® ACB is able to use
the vehicle’s foundation brakes as a
last resort in attempt to keep the set
following distance. This alert screen is
active once the system stops applying
the foundation brakes because cruise
control is disabled.
3
Not Available Alert
This Wingman® ACB alert screen
is active after a cruise set/resume
switch activation with a fault in the
3-73
MULTI-FUNCTION DISPLAY
Multi-Function Display
The Multi-Function Display integrates
the following list of functions (menu
items) into one display.
3
•
Blank Screen (for night driving)
•
Engine RPM Display
•
cluster will display important vehicle
information through a constant monitor
of systems. The display will turn on
whenever one of the following are
activated:
•
Ignition key is in ON or ACC
positions
Fuel Economy Display
•
Ignition timer is ON (active)
•
Ignition Timer
•
WARNING
•
Trip Information Display
Do not look at the Multi-Function
Display for prolonged periods while
the vehicle is moving. Only glance
at the monitor briefly while driving.
Failure to do so can result in
the driver not being attentive to
the vehicle's road position, which
could lead to an accident involving
personal injury, death or vehicle
damage.
•
MCS button is pushed
(independent of ignition key
switch position)
Truck Information Display
•
•
Clock alarm sounds
On-Board Diagnostic Display
•
•
Transmission Gear Display
(automated transmissions only)
Driver or passenger door is
opened
•
•
Hazard warning lamp switch is ON
Clock Display
•
•
Head lamp switch is ON
Collision Avoidance
•
•
Dome lamp switch is ON
Settings Screen
•
Service Brake switch is ON
1
Multi-Function Display
The Multi-Function Display, located
above the primary instrument
3-74
MULTI-FUNCTION DISPLAY
Menu Navigation & Definitions
Table 4 Menu Item Accessibility
Accessible Accessible
while
while
Driving
Parked
Yes
Yes
Blank Screen
Fuel Economy
Yes
No
RPM Detail
Yes
Yes
Ignition Timer
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Trip Information
No
Yes
Truck Information
Diagnostic
No
Yes
Display
Transmission
Yes
Yes
Gear Display
Yes
Yes
Clock Display
Collision
Yes
Yes
Avoidance
No
Yes
Settings Screen
Right Hand Status Bar and
Definitions
●
Menu Items
Gear Display (for automatic
transmissions only) - Displays
present gear.
NOTE
Right Hand Status Bar
●
Cruise Control Active - Icon
will indicate when cruise control
is active or the cruise set speed
will be displayed (optional). Icon
looks like a clock dial face.
●
Alarm On Indicator - The right
hand status bar is equipped
with a clock warning bell. If the
alarm has been set, the bell will
be displayed with no animation.
When the alarm is active, the bell
shows animation.
This gear display will only be
displayed in the right-hand status
bar if the operator has not selected
the Transmission Display. If the
Transmission Display is selected,
a larger gear icon and the current
gear number will be displayed
while driving. (See Transmission
Display on page 3-79 for additional
information.)
●
Shift Indicator (option)
-Prompts the driver when to shift
up on manual transmissions for
fuel economy.
3-75
3
MULTI-FUNCTION DISPLAY
Left Hand Menu Bar
1.
Bar graph - Indicates
instantaneous fuel economy.
2.
Trip Econ. - Indicates trip fuel
economy.
C. RPM Detail
3
The left hand menu bar (menu bullets)
gives the status of the current menu
item. Scroll through the menu items
by rotating the Menu Control Switch
(MCS) clockwise (down the menu)
or counterclockwise (up the menu).
Select a menu item by pressing the
MCS. Some menu items require
the MCS to be pressed to access
Submenu information.
1
2
Menu Control Switch (MCS)
Heater and Air Conditioning
Controls
Menu Items
A. Blank Screen - No information or
graphics displayed.
B. Fuel Economy
Fuel Economy
3-76
RPM
RPM reading of actual engine RPM.
Engine RPM within the bar graph
chevrons (in range zone) indicates the
engine is operating in the most efficient
RPM range.
MULTI-FUNCTION DISPLAY
D. Ignition Timer
E. Trip Information
2.
NOTE
Ignition Timer
Ignition timer is set from this menu.
To set the timer, push the MCS on
the ignition timer menu (bullet). Then
rotate the MCS to the desired time (0
to 30 minutes). After the time expires,
the vehicles ignition (switched) power
will be shut off (if the ignition key is in
the OFF position).
When accessing the trip information
menu, push the MCS on this menu
(bullet). To exit, push the MCS
again. To reset the trip values, press
the Trip Odometer Reset Button on
the main gauge instrument cluster.
Average Speed (Accessible when
driving) - Indicates trip average
speed (not including idling).
Trip Result
1.
Trip Distance - Indicates total trip
distance.
2.
Trip Engine Hours - Indicates total
trip engine hours.
Trip Information
Trip Info (submenu):
Instant Info
1.
Trip Economy (Accessible when
driving) - Indicates trip fuel
economy.
3-77
3
MULTI-FUNCTION DISPLAY
Idle Info
3
1.
Trip Engine Hours - Indicates total
trip engine hours.
2.
Trip Idle Percentage (%) Indicates total trip idle percentage.
PTO Info (Optional)
1.
PTO Hours - Indicates total vehicle
PTO operation hours.
2.
PTO Trip Hours - Indicates total
trip PTO operation hours. To reset
the Trip Values, press the Trip
Odometer Reset Button on the
main gauge instrument cluster.
3.
PTO Trip (%) (Accessible when
parked) - Indicates total trip PTO
percentage.
4.
PTO Trip Fuel - Indicates total trip
PTO fuel.
5.
PTO Trip Economy - Indicates
total trip PTO economy.
3-78
NOTE
NOTE
Display functions for PTO hours,
PTO Trip Hours and PTO Trip
Percentage will only be available if
supported by the engine installed.
If the truck has a factory-installed
PTO, these fields will appear in
the Trip Information screen. If the
engine does not support the data,
dashes will be shown.
When
accessing
the
truck
information menu, push the MCS on
this menu (bullet). To exit, push the
MCS again.
F. Truck Information
NOTE
Only available truck information
will be shown (i.e., manual
transmissions do not have a
software version).
Truck Information
Truck Info (submenu):
Chassis Info
1.
Chassis Number
2.
Fleet ID Number (Optional)
3.
Cab Electronic Control Unit
(CECU) Software Version
MULTI-FUNCTION DISPLAY
Engine Info
1.
Engine Make
2.
Engine Model
3.
Engine Software Version
4.
Governed Speed Limit (Optional)
G. Diagnostic Display
NOTE
"Faults Found" will only be active
if a red or yellow warning lamp
is illuminated and additional
information is available.
Transmission Info (Automated
Transmissions only)
1.
Transmission Make
2.
Transmission Model
3.
Transmission Software Version
ABS Info
1.
ABS (Anti-Lock Braking System)
Make
2.
ABS Model
3.
ABS Software Version
Exit will take you back to the diagnostic
menu bullet and clicking on any of
the other items will display an active
vehicle diagnostic message.
H. Transmission Display (Automated
Transmissions only)
NOTE
Refer
to
the
Automated
Transmission Operator's Manual
for complete description of arrow
symbols.
Diagnostic Display
The diagnostic display menu (bullet)
will indicate a fault that is present.
While on this menu item the display
will either indicate "No Faults Found"
or "Faults Found". If "Faults Found"
is active, pushing the MCS on this
menu item will show "Exit", "Engine",
"Transmission", "ABS", "Truck", and/or
"Soot Filter".
Transmission Display
Shows gear number that coincides
with the current transmission gear
selected. Can also indicate to driver
to shift up or down.
3-79
3
MULTI-FUNCTION DISPLAY
I. Speed Control Management
Display (Automated Transmissions
only)
J. Clock Display
Clock Display
3
Upshift Indicator while on Transmission
Gear Screen with Autoshift or Ultrashift
Transmissions
The “Shift for fuel econ.” is displayed
when the current screen is
Transmission Display And the
engine requests an upshift for better
fuel economy.
Shows Local or Home time as selected
by the driver. The time can also be
set to show 12 hour time (AM/PM) or
24 hour time (military). Refer to the
"Settings Menu" section for additional
information covering clock/alarm and
formatting options.
•
Clock Home/Local Time
•
Clock Alarm ON/OFF
•
Clock Local Time (Set)
•
Clock Alarm Time (Set)
•
Trailer Detect
•
Headlamps With Wipers
•
Units Standard or Metric
•
Language English, Spanish or
French
•
Pre-Trip Lamp Test
•
Exit
K. Settings Menu
The Settings menu screen allows
the driver to view and/or change the
following menu items:
•
3-80
Clock Display Format 12 Hour
(AM/PM) or 24 Hour (military)
Settings Menu
MULTI-FUNCTION DISPLAY
To Set Clock Display Format:
1.
When in the settings menu, scroll
through the list of menu items to
"Format".
2.
Press the MCS to display either 12
hour (AM/PM) or 24 hour (military
time).
Clock Display Format
To Set Clock Home/Local Time:
1. Scroll through the list of menu items
to Time: Home or Local. Press the
MCS to toggle between Home or Local
time.
Clock Home/Local Time
Set Clock Time
2. To change the selected time (Home
or Local), rotate the MCS to the
Settings screen. Press the MCS to
select it.
4. Rotate the MCS to change the hour.
Press the MCS. Rotate the MCS again
to change the minutes. Press the MCS
to set the new time.
3. When in the menu settings, scroll
through the list of menu items to Set
Clock Time (for home time) or Set
Local Time. Press the MCS to select it.
Set Hour/Minutes
5. To exit the screen, rotate the MCS
to Exit, then press the MCS.
3-81
3
MULTI-FUNCTION DISPLAY
to change the minutes. Press the MCS
to set the new alarm time.
4. To exit the screen, rotate the MCS
to Exit, then press the MCS.
Exit
To Set Alarm Time:
3
1. Rotate the MCS to the "Settings"
menu. Press the MCS.
2. When in the Settings menu, scroll
through the list of menu items to "Set
Alarm Time". Press the MCS to select
it.
Set Alarm Time
3. Rotate the MCS to change the hour.
Press the MCS. Rotate the MCS again
3-82
NOTE
Unless there is a loss of battery
power, the display will always
maintain the last screen from key
off after the key is turned back to
the on position and the POST cycle
completes.
4.
Set Alarm Hour/Minutes
To exit the screen, rotate the MCS
to Exit, then press the MCS.
NOTE
To Turn Alarm ON/OFF:
1.
Rotate the MCS to the "Settings"
menu. Press the MCS.
2.
When in the setting menu, scroll
through the list of menu items to
"Alarm".
3.
Press the MCS to turn the alarm
ON or OFF.
A bell icon appears in the clock
display when the alarm has been
set to ON.
Alarm "On"
MULTI-FUNCTION DISPLAY
To Set Standard or Metric Units:
To activate Trailer Detect:
The trailer outputs on your vehicle
may be able to detect whether or not
a trailer is attached. Should a trailer
connection be detected and later lost
while driving the driver will be notified
of the error. Errors will be presented
to the driver as either intermittent or
persistent depending on the duration
of the error. All notifications may be
suppressed by the driver.
1.
Scroll to TRLR Detect and select
by pressing the MCS.
2.
Scroll to the desired ON/OFF
setting.
3.
When set to 'ON' Trailer Detect will
be active when the ignition switch
is in the 'ON' position.
1.
Rotate the MCS to the "Settings"
menu. Press the MCS.
2.
When in the Settings menu, scroll
through the list of menu items to
"Units". Press the MCS to display
either Standard or Metric units.
Trailer Detect
To activate Headlamps with Wipers:
1.
Scroll to HL + Wiper and select by
pressing the MCS.
2.
Press MCS to toggle to the desired
ON/OFF setting.
3.
When set to 'ON' the Low Beam
Lamps will be active when the
ignition switch is in the 'ON'
position and the Wiper Control
Switch is 'ON'.
To Set Language:
1.
Rotate the MCS knob to the
"Settings" menu. Press the MCS.
2.
When in the Settings menu, scroll
through the list of menu items to
"Language". Press the MCS to
display either English, Spanish or
French.
L. Pre-trip Lamp Test
Headlamps with Wipers
When activated with the MCS,
‘Pre-trip Lamp Test Active’ appears
on the Multi-function display and will
re-appear periodically while the test
3-83
3
MULTI-FUNCTION DISPLAY
is active. The test will illuminate the
following lamps:
3
Lamp
Marker*
Clearance*
Headlamp low-beam
Headlamp high-beam
Auxiliary (fog or
driving)
Stop
Park*
Hazard/Turn lamps
Sequence
1, 2
1, 2
1
2
1, 2
2
1, 2
1
All lamps with sequence #1 will
illuminate simultaneously for 10
seconds. All lamps with sequence
#2 will illuminate simultaneously for
10 seconds immediately following
sequence #1. Each sequence will
illuminate lamps for 10 seconds.
With the default settings and without
intervention the Pre-trip Lamp Test will
deactivate after 10 minutes. Sequence
time can vary from 10 seconds with a
10 minute duration up to 30 seconds
and a 30 minute duration.
3-84
Asterisks (*) indicate that dash switch
must be ON for the Pre-trip Self Test to
operate these lamps.
Pre-trip Lamp Test
SWITCHES
SWITCHES
Introduction
3
Numbered items in illustration are standard or common switches.
3-85
SWITCHES
Dash Switches
Table 5 Dash Switches
Symbol Name
3
Symbol
Color
Standard
Option
Page
●
See Axle, Diff-Lock - Dual on page 3-91.
●
See Axle, Diff-Lock - Forward Rear on page
3-91.
1. Axle, Diff-Lock - Dual
Amber
2. Axle, Diff-Lock - Forward Rear
Amber
3. Axle, Diff-Lock - Front
Amber
●
See Axle, Diff-Lock - Front on page 3-91.
4. Axle, Diff-Lock - Rear Rear
Amber
●
See Axle, Diff-Lock - Rear Rear on page 3-91.
5. Axle, Diff-Lock - Single Rear
Amber
●
See Axle, Diff-Lock - Single Rear on page 3-91.
6. Axle, Inter-Axle Differential Locked (Tandem)
Amber
●
See Axle, Inter-Axle Differential Locked
(Tandem) on page 3-91.
7. Axle, Two Speed
Green
●
See Axle, Two Speed on page 3-91.
8. Back Up Alarm Mute
Amber
●
See Back Up Alarm Mute on page 3-91.
9. Batteries, Low Voltage Disconnect (LVD)
None
10. Brakes, ABS Off-Road
Amber
11. Brakes, Parking Brake Valve
Red
12. Dump Truck Gate
Red
3-86
See Batteries, Low Voltage Disconnect (LVD)
on page 3-91
●
●
●
See Brakes, ABS Off-Road on page 3-92.
See Brakes, Parking Brake Valve on page 3-92
●
See Dump Truck Gate on page 3-92.
SWITCHES
Symbol Name
Symbol
Color
Standard
Option
Page
See Engine, Brake Level on page 3-92.
13. Engine, Brake Level
None
●
14. Engine, Brake On/Off
Green
●
15. Engine, Cruise Control On/Off
See Engine, Brake On/Off on page 3-92.
Green
●
See Engine, Cruise Control On/Off on page
3-93.
None
●
See Engine, Cruise Control Set/Resume on
page 3-93.
SET
16. Engine, Cruise Control Set/Resume
RESUME
17. Engine, Ether Start
None
●
See Engine, Ether Start on page 3-93.
18. Engine, Fan Override
Green
●
See Engine, Fan Override on page 3-93.
19. Engine, Heater
Green
●
See Engine, Heater on page 3-94
20. Engine, Remote Throttle
Amber
●
See Engine, Remote Throttle on page 3-94.
21. Engine, Shutdown
None
●
See Engine, Shutdown on page 3-94.
22. Exhaust, Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
Regeneration
None
23. Fifth Wheel Slide
Red
See Exhaust, Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
Regeneration on page 3-94.
●
●
See Fifth Wheel Slide on page 3-94.
24. Fuel Heater
Amber
●
See Fuel Heater on page 3-95.
25. Generic Air, Accessory
26. Generic, Spare
Green
Green
●
●
See Generic Air, Accessory on page 3-95.
See Generic, Spare on page 3-95
27. Ignition Key Switch
SPARE
None
●
See Ignition Key on page 3-95.
3-87
3
SWITCHES
Symbol Name
3
Symbol
Color
Standard
Option
Page
28. Lights, Auxiliary
Green
●
See Lights, Auxiliary on page 3-96.
29. Lights, Beacon
Green
●
See Lights, Beacon on page 3-96.
30. Lights, Daytime Running (Override)
Green
●
See Lights, Daytime Running on page 3-96.
31. Lights, Dome
None
32. Lights, Flood
Amber
●
See Lights, Dome on page 3-96.
●
33. Lights, Flood ISO 3732 Spare
Amber
●
34. Lights, Fog
Green
●
See Lights, Flood on page 3-96.
See Lights, Flood ISO 3732 Spare on page
3-96.
See Lights, Fog on page 3-96.
35. Lights, Hazard
Red
●
See Lights, Hazard on page 3-96
36. Lights, Headlight
None
●
See Lights, Headlight on page 3-97.
37. Lights, Marker/Clearance
None
●
38. Lights, Marker/Clearance/Cab
None
●
39. Lights, Marker/Clearance/Trailer
None
●
See Lights, Marker/Clearance on page 3-97.
See Lights, Marker/Clearance/Cab on page
3-97.
See Lights, Marker/Clearance/Trailer on page
3-97.
40. Lights, Panel Dimmer
None
●
See Lights, Panel Dimmer on page 3-97.
41. Lights, Park Light
None
●
See Lights, Park Light on page 3-97.
42. Lights, Spot
Green
3-88
●
See Lights, Spot on page 3-98.
SWITCHES
Symbol Name
Symbol
Color
Standard
Option
Page
See Mud & Snow Traction Control on page
3-98.
43. Mud & Snow Traction Control
None
●
44. Power Take-off (PTO)
Amber
●
45. Power Take-off (PTO), Forward
Amber
●
See Power Take-off (PTO), Forward on page
3-98.
46. Power Take-off (PTO), Rear
Amber
●
See Power Take-off (PTO), Rear on page 3-98
47. Power Take-off (PTO), Brake/Clutch
Kickout
Amber
●
See Power Take-off (PTO), Brake/Clutch
Kickout on page 3-98.
48. Roofdenser
Green
●
See Roofdenser on page 3-98.
49. Suspension, Axle, Pusher
Green
●
See Suspension, Axle, Pusher on page 3-98.
50. Suspension, Axle, Tag
Green
●
See Suspension, Axle, Tag on page 3-98.
51. Suspension, Dump
Amber
●
See Suspension, Dump on page 3-98.
52. Suspension, Lift
Amber
●
See Suspension, Lift on page 3-99.
53. Suspension, Third Axle Lift
Green
●
See Suspension, Third Axle Lift on page 3-99.
54. Tow Hook
Green
●
See Tow Hook on page 3-99.
●
See Vehicle/Trailer Air Supply Valve on page
4-23
See Trailer, Axle (3rd Axle) Lift on page 3-99.
55. Trailer Air Supply
56. Trailer, Axle (3rd Axle) Lift
Red
Green
●
See Power Take-off (PTO) on page 3-98.
3
3-89
SWITCHES
Symbol Name
3
Symbol
Color
Standard
Option
Page
57. Trailer, Axle Lift Forward
Green
●
See Trailer, Axle Lift Forward on page 3-99.
58. Trailer, Axle Lift Rear
Green
●
See Trailer, Axle Lift Rear on page 3-99.
59. Trailer, Belly Dump
Red
●
See Trailer, Belly Dump on page 3-99.
60. Trailer, Dump Gate
Red
●
See Trailer, Dump Gate on page 3-99.
61. Trailer, Dump Gate Center
Red
●
See Trailer, Dump Gate Center on page 3-99.
62. Trailer, Dump Gate Front
Red
●
See Trailer, Dump Gate Front on page 3-99.
63. Trailer, Dump Gate Rear
Red
●
See Trailer, Dump Gate Rear on page 3-99.
Green
●
64. Trailer, Hotline
65. Trailer, Suspension Air Dump
Amber
●
66. Winch Clutch
Green
●
67. Trip Odometer Reset Button
3-90
See Trailer, Hotline on page 3-99.
See Trailer, Suspension Air Dump on page
3-99
See Winch Clutch on page 3-99.
Odometer/Trip Meter on page 3-49.
SWITCHES
1. Axle Diff-Lock - Dual
Turn switch on to engage Front and
Rear Axle Diff Lock.
2. Axle Diff-Lock - Forward Rear
Turn switch on to engage Forward
Rear Axle Diff Lock.
3. Axle Diff Lock - Front
Turn switch on to engage Front Axle
Diff Lock.
7. Axle, Two Speed
If equipped, the two speed axle
switch allows you to select axle high
and low ranges. The low range
(Off) provides maximum torque for
operating off-highway. The high
range (On) is a faster ratio for
highway speeds.
8. Back Up Alarm Mute
Turn switch on to mute Back Up
Alarm.
4. Axle Diff-Lock Rear Rear
Turn switch on to engage Rear Rear
Axle Diff Lock.
NOTE
5. Axle Diff Lock - Single Rear
Turn switch on to engage Single Rear
Axle Diff Lock.
Kenworth discourages the use of the
mute function. Only use mute when
legally required.
6. Axle, Inter-Axle Differential
Locked (Tandem)
Turn switch on to engage Inter-Axle
Differential Lock.
9. Batteries, Low Voltage
Disconnect (LVD)
If your vehicle is equipped with a Low
Voltage Disconnect (LVD) feature,
the LVD module is located inside the
driver's side kick panel.
Purpose
The LVD may increase battery life
and prevent unnecessary jump
start conditions by ensuring that an
unattended load does not deplete
the battery charge to a level that will
prevent you from starting your vehicle.
Operation
The LVD will disconnect non-vital
battery loads when battery voltage
drops below 12.3V for 3 minutes and
the key switch is in the ACC or OFF
position. During the last 2 minutes the
LVD will emit a slow audible beep. 30
seconds before disconnecting loads
the alarm will change to a fast beep.
The battery voltage must come back
up above a certain voltage before the
LVD will reset
3-91
3
SWITCHES
See an authorized Kenworth Dealer if
the LVD fails to reconnect loads during
normal operation.
Circuits Disconnected By LVD
3
•
Cab Dome Lamps
•
Cab Accessories
•
Spare Battery A & B
NOTE
All LVD circuits are color-coded blue
on the central electrical panel cover
label.
WARNING
Do not use the Spare Battery
A & B circuits or other circuits
that are controlled by the LVD to
power electronic engine controls,
ABS circuits, or safety/work-related
lighting. Before adding any device
to the vehicle's electrical system,
consult your nearest authorized
Kenworth Dealer or read the
contents of TMC RP-136. Failure
to do so may cause equipment
damage or lead to personal injury.
NOTE
The
determination
of
what
circuits/loads that were connected
to the LVD was based upon the
recommendation from Technology
and Maintenance Council (TMC) of
the American Trucking Association.
To review the recommended
practice, see TMC RP-136.
3-92
10. Brakes, ABS Off-Road
Turn switch on to engage ABS
Off-Road mode. See Anti-Lock
Braking System on page 3-31.
11. Brakes, Parking Brake Valve
Pull yellow knob to activate parking
brakes. See Parking Brake Valve on
page 3-92.
12. Dump Truck Gate
Turn switch on to open Dump Truck
Gate.
13. Engine, Brake Level
In the up position there will be 100%
engine retarding. In the middle
position there will be 60% engine
retarding. In the down position there
will be 33% engine retarding.
For more information on when and
how to use the engine brake in your
vehicle, see the engine brake owner’s
manual for additional engine brake
information.
SWITCHES
14. Engine, Brake On/Off
Turn switch on to activate Engine
Brake system.
For more information on when and
how to use the engine brake in your
vehicle, see the engine brake owner’s
manual for additional engine brake
information.
15. Engine, Cruise Control On/Off
Turn switch on to activate Cruise
Control System.
SET
RESUME
16. Engine, Cruise Control
Set/Resume
The Cruise Control Set/Resume
switch allows you to SET the desired
speed or RESUME the desired speed
after the cruise control function has
been interrupted.
WARNING
Do not operate the cruise control
when operating on road surfaces
with poor traction (wet, icy, or snow
covered roads) or in heavy traffic.
Accelerations caused by the normal
operation of the cruise control
could cause you to lose control of
the vehicle resulting in an injury
accident.
17. Engine, Ether Start
Momentarily push switch in to activate
the Ether Start system.
18. Engine Fan Override
The engine fan switch allows you
to control the engine fan manually
or automatically. With the ignition
key switch ON and the fan switch in
the MANUAL position, the engine
fan will be on regardless of engine
temperature. With the engine fan
switch in the AUTOMATIC position,
the engine fan will automatically turn
on when the engine coolant reaches
a temperature of about 200°F (93°C)
or when the air conditioning system
has reached setpoint pressure.
With an electronic engine, the fan
may also be activated by air intake
temperature, oil temperature and
compression brake usage.
3-93
3
SWITCHES
3
WARNING
CAUTION
Do not work on or near the fan with
the engine running. Anyone near
the engine fan when it turns on could
be seriously injured. If it is set at
MANUAL, the fan will turn on any
time the ignition key switch is turned
to the ON position. In AUTO, it could
engage suddenly without warning.
Before turning on the ignition or
switching from AUTO to MANUAL,
be sure no workers are near the fan.
Do not operate the engine fan in
the MANUAL position for extended
periods of time. The fan hub was
designed for intermittent operation.
Sustained operation will shorten
the fan hub’s service life as well as
reduce fuel economy.
CAUTION
The fan or equipment near it could
be damaged if the fan turns on
suddenly when you do not expect it.
Keep all tools and equipment away
from the fan.
3-94
19. Engine Heater
Turn switch on to activate the Engine
Heater.
20. Engine, Remote Throttle
Turn switch on to activate Remote
Throttle Control.
21. Engine, Shutdown
Momentarily push switch in to activate
the shutdown system.
22. Exhaust, Diesel Particulate
Filter (DPF) Regeneration Switch
Manually controls the diesel
particulate filter regeneration process.
Refer to Engine After-treatment
Controls Operator's Manual for
additional information.
23. Fifth Wheel Slide
Turn switch on to “Unlock” Fifth
Wheel Slide mechanism.
NOTE
Vehicles having an air slide fifth
wheel have a fifth wheel slider
lock controlled by a switch on
the instrument panel. By placing
the switch in the unlock position
you can slide the fifth wheel to
various positions to adjust weight
distribution.
The switch is guarded to protect
you from accidentally activating or
releasing the lock.
SWITCHES
°
tail lights
°
marker lamps
°
headlights
The ignition key switch (located to the
left of the steering column) has four
positions: ACC (Accessories), OFF,
ON, and START.
°
radio station memory
°
instrument lights
°
auxiliary power
OFF: In this position all accessories
are OFF (except those listed below)
and you can remove the key.
°
multi-function display memory
WARNING
Do not move the fifth wheel while the
tractor-trailer is in motion. Your load
could shift suddenly, causing you to
lose control of the vehicle. Never
operate the vehicle with the switch
in the UNLOCK position. Always
inspect the fifth wheel after you
lock the switch to be sure the fifth
wheel slide lock is engaged. Failure
to comply may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
24. Fuel Heater
Turn switch on to activate Fuel
Heater.
25. Generic, Air, Accessory
Provides accessory air to the end
of frame connection when switch is
turned on.
SPARE
26. Generic, Spare
Turn switch on to power customer
installed accessory.
27. Ignition Key Switch
•
The following lights and
accessories have power when the
key is in the OFF position:
°
brake lights
°
emergency hazard flasher
°
dome and courtesy lamps (on
doors)
°
electric horn
°
cigarette lighter
3
ACC (Accessory): With the key in this
position you can play the radio, defrost
mirrors (if equipped with mirror heat)
or use other accessories.
ON: In the ON position all circuits are
energized. Panel warning lights will
light and the buzzer will sound until
(1) the engine is started, (2) normal oil
operating pressure is reached, and (3)
air brake system pressure is above
64 psi (441 kPa). In this position, the
ignition key cannot be removed.
3-95
SWITCHES
START: Turn the key to this position
to start your engine. Release the
key after the engine has started. For
complete engine starting procedures,
see Operating The Engine on page
4-38.
28. Lights, Auxiliary
Turn switch on for Auxiliary Lights.
3
29. Lights, Beacon
Turn switch on for Beacon Light(s).
30. Lights, Daytime Running
Lights (DRL) (with optional
over-ride switch)
For T440s/T470s the front turn signals
are used as DRLs at full intensity.
Three controls (or conditions) will affect
whether the system is ON or OFF:
•
headlight (master) switch
•
engine cranking
3-96
•
parking brake
If the headlight switch is turned OFF,
the DRL system engages automatically
after the engine starts and you release
the parking brake. If the headlight
switch is ON, the DRL system is
overridden, and headlights operate
normally. Also, during engine cranking
the DRL is temporarily turned off.
32. Lights, Flood
Turn switch on for cab mounted Flood
Lights.
33. Lights, Flood ISO 3732 Spare
Turn switch on for trailer mounted
Flood Lights.
34. Lights, Fog
Turn switch on for Fog Lights.
WARNING
NOTE
Do not use daytime running lights
(DRL) during periods of darkness or
reduced visibility. Do not use DRL as
a substitute for headlights or other
lights during operations that require
lighting of your vehicle.
Failure
to comply may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
Across the U.S.A. and Canada,
State/Provincial requirements vary
as to when high beams and fog lights
can and cannot be used together.
Some states allow only four lights
to be used together, while some
allow more. How your lights are
arranged will affect whether you can
operate headlights and fog lights
concurrently—always comply with
the state or provincial requirements
where you are driving.
31. Lights, Dome
Turn switch on for Cab Dome Lights.
SWITCHES
35. Lights, Hazard
The four-way Hazard Warning light
switch is located directly above the
Heater / A/C Control Panel. With
the switch in the ON position, the
emergency flasher makes all four
turn signals (front and rear) flash
simultaneously. The flasher works
independently of the ignition switch.
You should always use the flasher
if the vehicle is disabled or parked
under emergency conditions.
WARNING
Use your Hazard Warning Light
System any time you have to stop off
the road or on the side of the road,
day or night. A hard-to-see vehicle
can result in an injury accident.
Another vehicle could run into you
if you do not set your flashers and
follow the placement of emergency
signals per FMCSR 392.22.
36. Lights, Headlight
Turn switch on for headlights. When
the Headlights are ON, the dash
lights, side, and tail lights are also on.
CAUTION
NOTE
If you have confirmed there is a
problem in the low beam wiring
circuit, proceed with caution to the
next available exit/turnoff and safely
pull your vehicle completely off the
road and call for assistance. Driving
your vehicle with the headlamps on
high beam (at reduced intensity)
for a prolonged period could lead
to an injury accident. Contact your
nearest Kenworth dealer to have
the problem corrected as soon as
possible.
An interrupt switch for the trailer
marker lights is mounted on the end
of the turn signal lever.
37. Lights, Marker/Clearance
Turn switch on to control Cab and
Vehicle Marker/Clearance lights.
A separate switch next to the headlight
switch turns on the marker lights for
both the cab and trailer. These are
the five amber lights on top of the
cab, front trailer lights, and red rear
truck/trailer lights.
38. Lights, Marker/Clearance/Cab
Turn switch on to control Cab
Marker/Clearance lights separately
from the trailer.
39. Lights,
Marker/Clearance/Trailer
Turn switch on to control Trailer
Marker/Clearance lights separately
from the vehicle marker/clearance
lights.
40. Lights, Panel Dimmer
Rotate thumb wheel up to brighten
panel lights. Rotate thumb wheel
down to dim panel lights.
NOTE
The Headlamp Switch is an "ON" or
"OFF" switch. The panel lights are
on full intensity during the day & go
to Dimmer mode when headlamps
are on.
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3
SWITCHES
41. Lights, Park Light
Turn switch on for Park Lights. When
the Park Lights are on the dash lights,
side and tail lights are also on.
42. Lights, Spot
Turn switch on for Spot Light.
43. Mud & Snow Traction Control
Momentarily push switch in to engage
Traction Control (TC).
3
44. Power Take-off (PTO)
Turn switch on to engage PTO.
Your Kenworth vehicle may be
equipped with a dash mounted
air switch that controls PTO
engagement/disengagement.
When the operator activates the switch
for the PTO, the status indicator
lamp (located on the switch) will
immediately illuminate even though
PTO engagement may not have
occurred.
3-98
If the PTO is engaged and the operator
turns the switch OFF, the PTO status
indicator lamp (located on the switch)
will go out immediately even though
PTO disengagement may not have
occurred.
NOTE
Actual
PTO
engagement/disengagement may
be delayed momentarily since it is
controlled by the air system and
mechanical movement.
CAUTION
Increasing engine RPM before the
PTO is actually engaged could
prevent the PTO from engaging
and/or cause PTO damage.
45. Power Take-off (PTO), Forward
Turn switch on to engage forward
PTO.
46. Power Take-off (PTO), Rear
Turn switch on to engage Rear PTO.
47. Power Take-off (PTO),
Brake/Clutch Kickout
Turn switch on to disable PTO when
brake pedal or clutch pedal are
depressed.
48. Roofdenser
Turn switch on for roof mounted
condenser fan.
49. Suspension, Axle, Pusher
Turn switch on to lower Single or
Forward Pusher Axle.
50. Suspension, Axle, Tag
Turn switch on to lower tag axle.
51. Suspension, Dump
Turn switch on to deflate suspension
air bags. The switch is guarded
to protect you from accidentally
deflating the suspension.
SWITCHES
WARNING
Do not operate the Air Suspension
Deflate Switch (Dump Valve) while
driving. Sudden deflation while your
vehicle is moving can affect handling
and control and could lead to an
accident. Use this switch only when
your vehicle is not moving. Failure
to comply may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
CAUTION
Operating a vehicle with air
suspension bags either overinflated
or underinflated may cause damage
to driveline components. If a vehicle
must be operated under such
conditions, do not exceed 5 mph (8
km/h).
52. Suspension, Lift
Turn switch on to over-inflate
suspension air bags. Turn switch off
for normal suspension height.
60. Trailer Dump Gate
Turn switch on to open Trailer Dump
Gate.
53. Suspension Third Axle Lift
Turn switch on to raise Third Axle.
61. Trailer, Dump Gate Center
Turn switch on to open Trailer Center
Dump Gate.
54. Tow Hook
Turn switch on to remove the slack
from the Tow Hook.
62. Trailer, Dump Gate Front
Turn switch on to open Trailer Front
Dump Gate.
55. Trailer Air Supply
The red octagon knob controls the air
supply to the trailer.
63. Trailer, Dump Gate Rear
Turn switch on to open Trailer Rear
Dump Gate.
56. Trailer, Axle (3rd Axle) Lift
Turn switch on to lift 3rd Trailer Axle.
64. Trailer Hotline
Turn switch on to supply electrical
power to trailer accessories.
57. Trailer, Axle Lift Forward
Turn switch on to lift Forward Trailer
Axle.
58. Trailer, Axle Lift Rear
Turn switch on to lift Rear Trailer
Axle.
59. Trailer, Belly Dump
Turn switch on to open Trailer Belly
Dump.
65. Trailer, Suspension Air Dump
Turn switch on to deflate Trailer Air
Suspension.
66. Winch Clutch
Turn switch on to engage Winch
Clutch.
3-99
3
STEERING COLUMN
STEERING COLUMN
Turn Signal/High Beam
Switch
Introduction
Turn Signals
•
To signal a right turn, push the
lever forward (clockwise).
•
To signal a left turn, pull the lever
back (counterclockwise).
•
Each time the turn indicator is
activated the audible warning
emits a short beep.
NOTE
The ignition key must be turned to
ON for the signal/switch to operate.
The lever-action turn signal/high beam
switch is located on the left side of the
steering column.. Each time a turn
indicator is activated the buzzer emits
a short beep.
3
Steering Column Controls
1.
2.
3.
4.
3-100
Turn Signal Lever
Trailer Brake Hand Valve
(optional)
Tilt Steering Column Lever
(optional)
Tilt Steering Column Lever
(optional)
STEERING COLUMN
High Beam
NOTE
CAUTION
If the vehicle turn signals and turn
signal indicators in the dash gauge
cluster ever begin flashing at an
accelerated rate (115 cycles per
minute) when the turn signal lever is
in the OFF (center) position, or when
a Right/Left turn has been selected,
the problem may be related to a
failed turn signal switch or turn signal
module. In either case, the problem
is not a failed bulb. Contact your
nearest authorized Kenworth Dealer
to have the problem corrected as
soon as possible.
After you complete a turn, shut
the system off by returning the
lever to the “OFF” (center) position.
The switch's lever action is NOT
self-canceling.
Failure to shut
off a turn signal could confuse
other drivers and result in an injury
accident. An indicator light in the
instrument panel will flash until the
turn signal is turned off.
NOTE
The headlights must be ON for the
high beam switch to operate.
•
To switch your headlights to lower
or higher beam, gently pull the turn
signal lever, toward the steering
wheel, until you hear the switch
click and the beam changes.
The blue indicator light in the
instrument panel will be ON when
the high beam is being used.
•
To return to previous beam: pull
the lever towards the steering
wheel again.
•
To momentarily flash your
headlights (illuminating the
high-beams), push the turn signal
lever forward.
3-101
3
STEERING COLUMN
Windshield Wipers/Washer
NOTE
•
3
•
•
You cannot momentarily flash
headlights when high beams are
on. The headlights will flash on if
they are off, if headlamps are on
as low beams, headlamps dim to
25%.
Your Kenworth is equipped with a
two-speed, intermittent windshield
wiper system. A seven-position rotary
wiper switch (located on the turn-signal
lever) operates the windshield wipers
and washer. Rotate the end of the turn
signal lever to change the wiper mode.
1
2
Headlight flash is not available
on models with high intensity
discharge (HID) headlight option.
NOTE
3
Check your local state’s
regulations for any restriction on
the use of the high-beam flashing
function.
The ignition key must be turned to
ON or ACC for the wiper/washer
switches to operate.
Press in for washer pump
Rotate to change wiper
mode
Press button for Marker / ID
Lamp flash
The first position after OFF is the
intermittent #1 cycle. The next
positions are intermittent #2, #3 and
#4. The last two positions are wiper
low speed and wiper high speed. See
the wiper switch settings table for
intermittent delay times.
NOTE
The ignition key must be turned to
ON or ACC for the wiper/washer
switch to operate.
3-102
STEERING COLUMN
Wiper Switch Settings
To Wash The Windshield
Push the rotary wash/wipe knob in
(towards steering column), hold for
more than 0.8 seconds and then
release. Hold the knob in to extend
the washing cycle. After the lever
is released, the wipers will shut off
automatically or resume the wiper’s
setting speed.
Wiper Switch
Position
Off
Intermittent #1
Intermittent #2
Intermittent #3
Intermittent #4
Low
High
Wiper Speed
Off
20 Second Delay
17 Second Delay
7 Second Delay
4 Second Delay
Low Speed
High Speed
To activate the wipers for one swipe
without activating the washer (“mist”
function), push the turn signal lever
in (towards the steering column) and
release in less than 0.5 seconds. The
wipers will perform a single swipe and
then resume the wiper’s setting speed.
The windshield washer reservoir is
located inside the engine compartment
on the left side of the steering column.
Check the windshield washing fluid
level daily. If necessary, fill to top.
WARNING
Do not drive with worn or dirty wiper
blades. They can reduce visibility,
making driving hazardous. Clean
blades regularly to remove road
film and wax build-up.
Use an
alcohol based cleaning solution and
a lint-free cloth, and wipe along the
blades.
CAUTION
If the electric pump is operated for a
long period (more than 15 seconds)
with a dry reservoir, the pump rotor
may be damaged.
3-103
3
STEERING COLUMN
3
Clean all inside and outside windows
regularly. Use an alcohol-based
cleaning solution and wipe dry with
either a lintfree or a chamois cloth.
Avoid running the wiper blades over a
dry windshield to prevent scratching
the glass. Spray on washer fluid first.
A scratched windshield will reduce
visibility.
3-104
Trailer Brake Hand Valve
This hand valve, mounted on the
steering wheel column, provides air
pressure to apply the trailer brakes
only. It operates independently of
the foot treadle valve. See Using the
Brake System on page 4-17, for more
instructions on proper use of the Trailer
Brake Hand Valve.
Stop/Turn Signal Lamp
Operation
Your Kenworth vehicle uses combined
stop/turn signal lamps at the rear of
the vehicle, using the same bulb to
perform both functions. This means a
single bulb is used for the brake lamp
as well as the turn signal lamp. This
bulb will burn steadily with the brakes
applied. The same bulb will flash with
the turn signal activated, even with the
brakes applied.
STEERING COLUMN
Maximum Number Of Lamps
Allowed Per Circuit
•
Vehicle Stop/Turn Signal Circuit
The lighting control unit is limited
to 5 amps total, or two (2) 25 watt
incandescent bulbs per side. Do not
wire more than two incandescent bulbs
per side to the vehicle tail lamp fixtures.
If more than two bulbs are required
for each tail lamp fixture, install LED
type lamps, or contact your nearest
Kenworth dealer for other options.
•
Trailer Turn and Vehicle Forward
Side Facing Turn Lamp Circuit
The lighting control unit is limited
to 20 amps or nine (9) 25 watt
incandescent bulbs total (per side) for
the combination of trailer turn lamps
and vehicle forward side facing turn
lamps. Do not wire more than nine
incandescent bulbs per side for the
combination of trailer turn lamps and
vehicle forward side facing turn lamps.
If more than nine bulbs per side are
required, install LED type lamps, or
contact your nearest Kenworth dealer
for other options.
If you experience intermittent turn
signal operation, the problem is either
a short in the turn signal circuit or the
maximum number of bulbs has been
exceeded for the circuit.
CAUTION
Before installing additional vehicle
stop/turn lamps, trailer turn lamps or
additional forward side facing turn
lamps on the vehicle, make sure the
lighting circuit limits described above
are not exceeded. Exceeding the
number of lamps designated above
can/will cause the electronic control
unit to default to a protection mode,
causing the lamps to not function
properly.
If you experience any vehicle stop/turn
signal issues, contact your nearest
Kenworth dealer.
Similar to the headlamp system, if a
problem is detected with the electronic
control unit, the control unit will cycle
the turn signals off once every 9
seconds. You can detect that this is
occurring if the turn signal indicators in
the dash operate intermittently.
3-105
3
STEERING COLUMN
Adjustable Tilt/Telescoping
Column
3
The Adjustable Tilt/Telescoping
Column is an option on your
Kenworth. Depending on your
vehicle’s configuration, you may
have a Tilt/Telescoping steering
column or Fixed steering column.
The tilt feature allows forward and
rearward movement of the wheel.
The telescoping feature allows you
to move the wheel up and down. To
activate these features, locate the
Tilt/Telescoping pedal at the base of
the steering column.
WARNING
Do not adjust the Tilt-Telescoping
Steering Wheel while the vehicle
is in motion, it could cause loss
of control. You would not be able
to steer properly and could have
an accident. Make all adjustments
to the steering column while the
vehicle is stopped. Failure to comply
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
To tilt, raise or lower the Telescoping
steering wheel:
•
Push the pedal down fully. Move
the wheel to the desired height
and angle, then release the pedal
to lock the wheel at the desired
position.
1
3-106
Tilt / Telescoping Steering
Column Lever (optional)
STEERING COLUMN
Horn
Your vehicle may be equipped with
air horns. To operate, pull on the
lanyard extending from the overhead
header panel. Your vehicle may also
have an electric horn. To sound the
electric horn, press the button in the
center of the steering wheel, which
is the standard location for electric
horns (optional horn locations may be
requested).
SmartWheel Multiplex
Control System
CAUTION
Under no circumstances should
you attempt to service the steering
wheel, clockspring, or any of the
electrical wiring in the multiplex
system, or any steering components
(steering column, steering driveline
or steering gear). Tampering with
these components may result in an
inoperable multiplex system.
System Description
The multiplex steering wheel system
consists of the steering wheel mounted
controls, the multiplex electronics
module, the clockspring in the steering
column and the interconnecting wire
harnesses.
The steering wheel mounted controls
tell the multiplex electronics module
(located behind the dash) which
electrical circuit to turn on or off.
The controls are connected to the
electronics module with two wires,
using a "multiplexed" electronic signal.
This multiplexed signal allows more
than one switch to use the same pair
of wires.
3-107
3
STEERING COLUMN
3
The multiplex electronics module
contains relays and electronics to
activate the circuits controlled by the
steering wheel controls. These relays
are not replaceable. The relays that
control the headlights, marker lights
and horn are still located in the truck
power distribution box. The electronics
module is located between the dash
switches and the relays, so that it can
control them.
The clockspring in the steering
column is a rotating electrical contact
containing a wound electrical ribbon
that lets "multiplexed" electrical signals
to get from the steering wheel hub
to the electronics module and still
allow the steering wheel to turn. The
clockspring is located at the top of the
steering column directly beneath the
steering wheel.
3-108
Operating the System
A. Horn
Depressing the bottom center bar
activates the electric horn.
B. Engine Retarder
These controls are located on the
right-hand side of the steering wheel
hub.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
10.
Marker Light "Flash"
Engine Retarder "Off"
Engine Retarder "Medium"
Engine Retarder "High"
Engine Retarder "Low"
Cruise Control "Coast"
Cruise Control "Resume"
Cruise Control "Set"
Cruise Control "Off"
Headlamp Flash
WARNING
The service brakes must be used
in an emergency. The engine or
retarder alone might not stop you
fast enough to prevent an accident.
Relying only on the engine retarder,
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
STEERING COLUMN
WARNING
NOTE
The engine retarder is NOT intended
as the primary brake for the vehicle,
nor is it an emergency brake. The
engine retarder only helps the
service brakes by using engine
pressure to slow the drivetrain. Use
the service brakes for quick stops.
Failure to comply may result in
personal injury, death, equipment or
property damage.
The exhaust brake and engine
brake are two types of engine
retarders. Refer also to the engine
manufacturer’s Operator Manual
and to the Engine Retarder manual
for additional instructions.
WARNING
Do not operate the engine retarder
when driving/operating your vehicle
bobtail or with a loaded or unloaded
trailer on road surfaces with poor
traction (wet, icy, or snow covered
roads) or in heavy traffic. Braking
caused by the normal operation of
the engine retarder could cause you
to lose control of the vehicle and
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
•
To Activate:
To activate the desired engine
retarder setting:
Press
for LOW.
Press
for MEDIUM.
Press
for HIGH.
•
To Turn Off:
Press
for OFF.
C. Cruise Control
These controls are located on the
left-hand side of the steering wheel
hub.
WARNING
Do not operate the cruise control
when operating on road surfaces
with poor traction (wet, icy, or snow
covered roads) or in heavy traffic.
Accelerations caused by the normal
operation of the cruise control
could cause you to lose control of
the vehicle resulting in an injury
accident.
NOTE
Your engine may only have 2
engine retarder settings, LOW and
HIGH. If so, the MEDIUM button is
non-operational.
3-109
3
STEERING COLUMN
•
To Turn On:
NOTE
Press the ON button.
•
To Turn Off:
Press the OFF button. Any previous
speed settings are cleared.
3
Cruise Control may not hold the set
speed going down hills. If the speed
increases going down a hill, use
the brakes to slow down. This will
cancel Cruise Control.
Changing the Cruise Set Speed
•
To increase the cruise set speed:
Press the "SET" button until the
desired speed is achieved, then
release the button.
Using Cruise Control While Driving
•
Setting Cruise Speed
Press the "RESUME" button and
coast to the desired lower speed, then
release the button.
1.
Ensure that the vehicle speed is
above the minimum cruise control
speed (15 mph for Caterpillar
engines, 30 mph for the Cummins
engines) and the engine speed is
above 1100 rpm.
To decrease the cruise set speed:
Cancelling Cruise Control
You can cancel cruise control in any
of these ways:
2.
Press the "ON" button.
•
Tap the brake pedal.
3.
Accelerate the vehicle to the
desired cruise speed.
•
Tap the clutch pedal.
4.
Press the "SET" button to set the
cruise speed.
•
Press the "OFF" button.
3-110
STEERING COLUMN
Resuming Cruise Control
1.
2.
If you tapped the brake or
clutch pedal, the cruise control
remembered the previously set
cruise speed. To resume that
set speed, accelerate above the
minimum cruise control speed and
press the "RESUME" button.
If you pressed the "OFF" button or
turned the ignition key OFF, this
cleared the system memory and
you will need to set a new cruise
speed.
Using Cruise Control for Stationary
PTO Operation
Setting Idle Speed
1.
Ensure parking brakes are applied.
2.
Ensure transmission is in Neutral.
3.
Engage PTO per the
manufacturer's operating
instructions.
4.
Press the "ON" button.
5.
Press the "SET" button to obtain
the desired engine rpm.
Press
Cancelling Cruise Control
You can cancel cruise control in any
of these ways:
•
Tap the brake pedal.
•
Tap the clutch pedal.
•
•
Press the "OFF" button.
Press
D. Headlight/Marker Lamp Flash
•
Headlight Flash:
located on the upper left
corner of the steering wheel
hub. The headlights will
flash on if they are off, if
headlamps are on as low
beams, headlamps dim to
25%. This function is disabled
on models with HID headlamp
option. If headlamps are on
high beams, high beams are
deactivated, low beams are
lit 25%. Headlamps return to
low beam, not high beam.
Marker Lamp Flash:
to flash on the marker lamps
if they are off, or blink off if
they are on while the button is
held down. This feature works
with the marker lamp switch
on the dash in either position.
The button controls the trailer
marker lamps (and the tractor
marker lamps if they are on
the same switch).
3-111
3
MIRRORS
MIRRORS
Power Mirror Switch
WARNING
Introduction
3
Your vehicle comes equipped with two
outside rear view mirrors that enable
you to see to the sides and behind
your vehicle. Be sure both mirrors are
adjusted properly before you begin
driving.
WARNING
Adjust all mirrors before driving.
Adjusting the mirrors while driving
can cause you to take your eyes
off the road, which could result in
an accident. Failure to do so could
lead to serious injury or equipment
damage.
To provide good visibility, adjust the
mirror so the side of your vehicle
appears in the inboard part of the
mirror.
3-112
Convex mirrors can distort images
and make objects appear smaller
and farther away than they really
are. You could have an accident if
you are too close to another vehicle
or other object. Keep plenty of
space between your vehicle and
others when you turn or change
lanes. Remember that other objects
are closer than they may appear.
If your vehicle is equipped with power
mirrors, the directional controls for
both mirrors are located near the top of
the driver side door trim pad.
1.
Power Mirror & Heated
Mirror Controls
MIRRORS
NOTE
After mirror adjustments have been
completed, return the mirror selector
switch back to the center (neutral)
position to prevent unintentional
adjustments to the mirrors.
To Adjust Moto Mirrors
1.
2.
Mirror Directional Control
Pad
Mirror Selector Switch
1.
To Adjust Kenworth Aerodynamic
Style Mirrors
1.
Move the mirror selector switch
to the right or left from the neutral
center position to select the
desired mirror for adjustment.
2.
Depress the mirror directional
control pad in one of its four arrow
directions to adjust the mirror
in/out or up/down.
For in/out mirror adjustment: Move
the mirror selector switch to the
right or left from the neutral center
position to select the desired
mirror for adjustment.
NOTE
pointing left or right to adjust the
mirror in/out.
NOTE
Because the Moto mirrors have
only 2-way adjustment, the mirror
directional control pad is also
restricted in its movement to left or
right ONLY.
NOTE
After mirror adjustments have been
completed, return the mirror selector
switch back to the center (neutral)
position to prevent unintentional
adjustments to the mirrors.
If the mirror is fixed (non-motorized)
on the left side, then the mirror
selector switch will ONLY allow
selection of the neutral and right
mirror switch positions.
2.
Depress the mirror directional
control pad towards the arrows
3-113
3
MIRRORS
Mirror Heat Button
Your Kenworth vehicle may be
equipped with optional heated mirrors.
Mirror heat is controlled by the mirror
heat switch button, which is part of the
mirror switch module located on the
driver side door pad.
3
1.
2.
3-114
Mirror Heat Switch Button
Mirror Heat Indicator Light
DRIVING
DRIVING TIPS AND TECHNIQUES
Introduction . . . . . . . . . .
Coasting . . . . . . . . . . . .
Descending a Grade . . . . . .
Economical Driving . . . . . . .
Fuel - Excess Consumption . . .
Safe Driving . . . . . . . . . .
Cruise Control . . . . . . . . .
Air Suspension Height/Air Pressure
Fifth Wheel. . . . . . . . . . .
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4-5
4-5
4-6
4-6
4-8
4-10
4-12
4-12
4-14
4
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
Introduction . . . . . . . . .
Air Supply System . . . . . .
Using the Parking Brake . . . .
Vehicle/Trailer Air Supply Valve .
Brake Safety and Emergency. .
Anti-Lock Braking System . . .
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4-17
4-18
4-20
4-23
4-26
4-27
4-1
DRIVING
Trailer Brake Hand Valve. . . .
Driving With an Unloaded Trailer
Engine Retarders . . . . . . .
Exhaust Brake . . . . . . . .
Engine Brakes . . . . . . . .
Brake Components . . . . . .
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4-32
4-33
4-33
4-34
4-35
4-36
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting Procedure - Normal Temperature
Starting Procedure - Cold Weather . . .
Engine Warm-Up and Idling . . . . . .
Idling the Engine . . . . . . . . . . .
Cruise Control . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Fan Control . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Control Display . . . . . . . .
Engine Shutdown System . . . . . . .
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4-38
4-39
4-41
4-42
4-45
4-46
4-48
4-49
4-49
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-50
OPERATING THE ENGINE
4
OPERATING THE REAR/DRIVE AXLE
4-2
DRIVING
Inter-Axle Differential Lock . . . . . .
Driver Controlled Main Differential Lock
Dual Range (Two-Speed) Rear Axle . .
Auxiliary Axles - Pusher or Tag . . . .
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4-50
4-53
4-54
4-56
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4-64
4-64
4-65
4-65
4-68
4-70
4-71
4-71
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4-72
4-72
4-73
4-74
OPERATING THE TRANSMISSION
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . .
Transmission Warm-Up . . . . . .
Operating Manual Transmissions . .
Putting the Vehicle in Motion . . . .
More Transmission Tips . . . . . .
Operating Automatic Transmissions .
Auxiliary Transmissions . . . . . .
Steerable Drive Axle . . . . . . .
4
SHUT-DOWN
Introduction . . . . . . .
Final Stopping Procedures .
Before Stopping the Engine
Refueling . . . . . . . .
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4-3
DRIVING TIPS AND TECHNIQUES
DRIVING TIPS AND
TECHNIQUES
Introduction
This section covers driving tips and
techniques on how to drive your
Kenworth efficiently. For further
information on driving techniques, read
the Truck Driver Handbook included
in your glove box literature package.
It will give you more tips on starting,
shifting, and driving your vehicle.
Coasting
Do not coast with the transmission
in neutral or with the clutch pedal
depressed.
WARNING
Do not coast with the transmission
in neutral or with the clutch pedal
depressed, it is a dangerous
practice. Without the use of the
retarding power of the drivetrain,
your vehicle can reach dangerous
speeds.
At very high speeds
you may not be able to put the
transmission in any gear. At high
speeds you could seriously damage
your vehicle or cause an accident
when you put the transmission in
gear.
The engine speed could
exceed the maximum governed
speed and cause a serious accident
due to mechanical failures. Failure
to comply may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
4-5
4
DRIVING TIPS AND TECHNIQUES
Besides being illegal and dangerous,
coasting is also expensive. It causes
premature failure or damage to the
clutch and transmission and overloads
the brake system.
4
Coasting with the transmission
in neutral also prevents proper
transmission component lubrication.
During coasting the transmission is
driven by the rear wheels, and the
countershaft gear (which lubricates
the transmission components by oil
splash) will only be turning at idle
speed.
4-6
Descending a Grade
WARNING
Do not hold the brake pedal down
too long or too often while going
down a steep or long grade. This
could cause the brakes to overheat
and reduce their effectiveness. As
a result, the vehicle will not slow
down at the usual rate. To reduce
the risk of personal injury and/or an
accident, before going down a steep
or long grade, reduce speed and
shift the transmission into a lower
gear to help control your vehicle
speed. Failure to follow procedures
for proper downhill operation could
result in loss of vehicle control and
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
Economical Driving
The following section includes
recommendations for best engine
performance and economy:
DRIVING TIPS AND TECHNIQUES
Engine Overspeed - RPM
•
•
•
Use of Tachometer
NOTE
Operate the engine within the
optimum engine RPM range and
do not allow the RPM's to exceed
the maximum governed speed.
See your Engine Operation
and Maintenance manual for
information regarding engine
RPM.
When the engine is used as a
brake to control vehicle speed
(e.g., while driving down a grade),
do not allow the engine RPM
to exceed maximum governed
speed.
Under normal load and road
conditions operate the engine in
the lower end of the range.
Often
these
recommendations
are secondary to maintaining an
adequate and safe speed relative
to the surrounding traffic and road
conditions.
CAUTION
To avoid engine damage, do not
let the engine RPM go beyond the
maximum governed RPM valve
damage could result if overspeed
conditions occur.
The tachometer is an instrument that
aids in obtaining the best performance
of the engine and manual transmission,
serving as a guide for shifting gears.
Refer to the Engine Operation and
Maintenance manual for optimum
engine RPM.
•
•
If the engine RPM moves beyond
the maximum governed speed,
indicating an overspeed condition,
apply the service brake or shift to
a higher gear to bring engine RPM
within the optimum speed range.
When driving downhill: shift to a
lower gear, use the engine brake
(if so equipped), and use the
service brake, keeping the engine
speed below 2,100 rpm.
4-7
4
DRIVING TIPS AND TECHNIQUES
When the engine speed reaches
its maximum governed speed, the
injection pump governor cuts off fuel
to the engine. However, the governor
has no control over the engine RPM
when it is being driven by the vehicle's
transmission, for example, on steep
downgrades. Apply service brakes or
shift to a higher gear.
Fuel economy and engine
performance are also directly
related to driving habits:
•
The best results in trip time and
fuel economy are obtained while
driving the vehicle at a steady
speed.
•
Shift into higher or lower gears (or
apply the service brake) to keep
engine RPM near the lower end of
the optimum operating range.
•
Avoid rapid acceleration and
braking.
4
4-8
Fuel - Excess Consumption
The vehicle's fuel consumption is
connected to three important factors:
maintenance, driving habits, and
general condition of the road, traffic
conditions, and vehicle load.
DRIVING TIPS AND TECHNIQUES
Maintenance
Proper maintenance will keep the
vehicle running like new even after
long periods of use. The driver must
perform the daily and weekly checks
of the vehicle.
Maintenance factors affecting fuel
consumption:
•
air and/or fuel filters partially
clogged
•
engine valves out of adjustment
•
injection pump improperly
synchronized
•
injection nozzles defective or
uncalibrated
•
improperly inflated tires
•
wheel bearings improperly
adjusted
•
•
clutch improperly adjusted or worn
(slipping)
fuel leaks
Driving Habits
Wrong driving habits must be
corrected and the recommendations
on economic driving should be
followed.
Driving factors affecting fuel
consumption:
•
excessive speed and unnecessary
fast acceleration
•
long periods of idling
•
driving with foot resting on the
(manual transmission) clutch
pedal
4
4-9
DRIVING TIPS AND TECHNIQUES
General Condition
Other factors affecting fuel
consumption are related to loads
and type of roads on which the vehicle
operates. It is not always possible to
choose the most adequate road, but
it must be kept in mind that the ideal
road is the one that allows a steady
speed in high gear, without requiring
frequent braking and acceleration.
4
The following general conditions
can affect fuel consumption:
•
overload
•
unbalanced load
•
very high load
•
inadequate roads
•
traffic conditions
4-10
Safe Driving
NOTE
The following recommendations are
merely informative and do not cover
all safety precautions. Safe driving
is, above all, the responsibility of the
driver.
The safe operation of a vehicle is
not just following the established
traffic rules, but should also include:
maintaining the vehicle in good
mechanical condition, and proper
operation of the engine, transmission,
and brakes.
The following guidelines will help
you to drive the vehicle safely:
•
Make a thorough inspection of the
vehicle, daily and weekly. See
Driver's Check List on page 1-28.
•
Ensure that windows, mirrors, and
lights are clean.
•
Check all tires for damage and
correct inflation pressure.
•
Adjust the seat to a comfortable
driving position, for easy access to
pedals and vehicle controls.
•
Adjust rear view mirrors.
•
Always use the safety belts.
•
Do not exceed the GVWR.
•
Proportionally distribute loads on
the frame.
DRIVING TIPS AND TECHNIQUES
•
Always keep the brakes adjusted
and in proper condition. See
Checks and Adjustments on page
5-45.
•
Obey speed limits and all traffic
signals.
•
When driving downhill, select one
gear lower than the up-hill gear.
And use the brakes properly, do
not ride them.
•
Do not exceed maximum governed
speed (as specified in the Engine
Operation and Maintenance
Manual).
•
WARNING
NOTE
Do not exceed the specified load
rating. Overloading can result in
loss of vehicle control and personal
injury, either by causing component
failures or by affecting vehicle
handling. Exceeding load ratings
can also shorten the service life
of the vehicle. Failure to comply
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
For your safety and the safety of
others, follow routine and periodic
maintenance schedules for all
components on your vehicle. See
Table 9, Maintenance Schedule on
page 5-17.
4
The components of your
vehicle are designed to provide
satisfactory service if the vehicle
is not loaded in excess of either
the gross vehicle weight rating
(GVWR), or the maximum front
and rear gross axle weight ratings
(GAWRs). (Axle weight ratings are
listed on the driver's door edge.)
4-11
DRIVING TIPS AND TECHNIQUES
Cruise Control
NOTE
This feature can improve fuel mileage
and can reduce driver fatigue by
maintaining a constant vehicle speed.
Cruise control functions and
features may vary depending upon
which engine is installed in your
Kenworth. For specific instructions
on operating the cruise control,
see the Engine Operation and
Maintenance Manual.
WARNING
4
Do not operate the cruise control
when operating on road surfaces
with poor traction (wet, icy, or snow
covered roads) or in heavy traffic.
Accelerations caused by the normal
operation of the cruise control could
cause you to lose control of the
vehicle and may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
4-12
NOTE
Cruise Control will not function until
the operator has depressed both
the service brake pedal and the
clutch pedal at least one time after
each start-up. For vehicles with
automated transmissions and no
clutch pedal, only the service brake
pedal needs to be depressed.
Air Suspension Height/Air
Pressure
Your vehicle may have an air
suspension and a deflation switch
which allows the air in the suspension
to be exhausted from a switch on the
dash. The normal purpose of this
feature is to allow you to lower the
vehicle for loading.
A guard on the switch prevents
you from accidentally deflating the
suspension.
DRIVING TIPS AND TECHNIQUES
Suspension Air Pressure Gauge
Driving with Deflated Air Springs
The Suspension Air Pressure gauge
(option), see Optional Gauges on page
3-62, which indicates the amount of air
pressure in the air suspension springs
in pounds per square inch (psi). Air
pressure in the spring is related to
the rear axle load. The greater the
rear axle load, the greater the air
pressure in the air bags. Therefore,
the air pressure displayed will vary,
depending upon the rear axle load.
If an air spring ruptures, there will
be enough air pressure to drive the
vehicle to a safe stop off the highway
to investigate the problem.
CAUTION
Operating a vehicle with air
suspension bags either overinflated
or under-inflated may cause
damage to driveline components. If
a vehicle must be operated under
such conditions, do not exceed 5
mph (8 km/h). Failure to comply
may result in equipment damage.
4
4-13
DRIVING TIPS AND TECHNIQUES
To get to a repair facility, do the
following:
1.
2.
4
Remove the height control link
connected to the axle and to
the suspension air valve control
arm. This will cause the air valve
control arm to center in the closed
position.
The air system can then be
pumped up to normal pressure for
continued operation.
WARNING
Low air pressure could make brakes
unsafe for driving by not providing
sufficient air brake application
pressure in an emergency, which
could lead to an accident. Before
driving the vehicle, make sure the
air pressure pumps up to over 100
psi for normal brake operation. If it
does not reach 100 psi, do not try to
move the vehicle. Failure to comply
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
Fifth Wheel
The following applies to tractor
configurations:
WARNING
Ensure that all fifth wheel
maintenance, adjustments, and
rebuilding are done only by a
qualified mechanic. An improperly
maintained fifth wheel can cause
a trailer to separate from a tractor.
This could lead to a serious
accident. Failure to comply may
result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
Your Kenworth T440/T470 is equipped
with either a Fixed or an Air-Controlled
Sliding Fifth Wheel. Either type should
self lock when a trailer king pin trips the
locking dogs as the tractor is backed
under a trailer.
4-14
DRIVING TIPS AND TECHNIQUES
Fifth Wheel Jaw Lock
To unlock the fifth wheel lock:
•
Pull out on the lever (usually
located on the left-hand side of the
fifth wheel) until it remains in an
over center position.
Hook Up:
•
After connecting your tractor to the
trailer, always inspect the jaws to
be sure they have locked on the
kingpin before driving.
Air-Controlled Sliding Fifth Wheel
WARNING
Vehicles having an air-controlled
sliding fifth wheel have a fifth wheel
slider lock controlled by a switch on the
accessory switch panel. To operate
this type of lock, move the switch to
the appropriate position. By placing
the switch in the UNLOCK position,
you can slide the fifth wheel to various
positions to adjust weight distribution.
There is a guard on this switch to
protect you against accidentally
activating or releasing the lock.
Do not move the fifth wheel while the
tractor-trailer is in motion. Your load
could shift suddenly, causing you to
lose control of the vehicle, which
can result in an accident. Never
operate the vehicle with the switch
in the UNLOCK position. Always
inspect the fifth wheel after you lock
the switch to be sure the fifth wheel
lock is engaged. Failure to comply
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
4-15
4
DRIVING TIPS AND TECHNIQUES
Fifth Wheel Lubrication
•
Frequently operate and lubricate
movable or sliding fifth wheels to
prevent corrosion.
CAUTION
4
Both the fifth wheel plate and the
slide tracks (if a slider) should be
cleaned and lubricated periodically
to ensure smooth turning and sliding
action.
Failure to keep these
surfaces lubricated can lead to
frame or driveline damage.
See Frame and Fifth Wheel on page
5-94, for maintenance information.
4-16
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
OPERATING THE
BRAKE SYSTEM
Introduction
The operation of the vehicle's braking
system and many vehicle accessories
depends upon the storage and
application of a high-pressure air
supply.
This air brake system is of the dual
circuit type: it has a circuit for the front
wheels, a separate circuit for the rear
wheels, and one for the trailer. The
system is supplied by an engine-driven
compressor. The vehicle's compressor
takes outside air and compresses it,
usually to 100-130 psi (690-896 kPa).
The compressor air then goes to the
air tanks to be stored until needed.
is why, when you push down on the
brake pedal, you do not feel the same
amount of pressure on the pedal that
you do when you apply the brakes on
your car. All you are doing on your
truck is opening an air valve to allow
air to flow into the brake chambers.
WARNING
The brake system is a critical vehicle
safety system. For the safety of
you and others around you, have
the vehicle submitted for periodic
preventive maintenance checks
as well as having any suspected
problems immediately checked by
an authorized Kenworth Dealer.
Failure to properly maintain your
brake system can lead to serious
accidents. Failure to comply may
result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
WARNING
Never drive your vehicle with the
parking brake applied.
Always
release the parking brakes prior
to moving the vehicle. Failure to
disengage the parking brakes prior
to moving your vehicle could result in
excessive heat buildup in the brake
system, resulting in a fire. Failure
to comply may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
NOTE
Today's diesel electronic engines
have
significant
torque
and
startability power at low RPM.
Combinations of engine speed and
available torque may over-power
the vehicles parking brakes.
When you operate your air brakes, the
stored compressed air flows into the
chambers where it is used to apply
your truck and trailer brakes. That
4-17
4
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
Air Supply System
Air Dryer
Contamination of the air supply system
is the major cause of problems in
air-operated components such as
brake valves and suspension height
control valves. To keep contaminants
to the lowest possible level, follow all
maintenance procedures.
Bendix AD-IS Series Air Dryers
4
4-18
Your Kenworth vehicle may be
equipped with a Bendix AD-IS series
air dryer. Any air dryer replacement
should be made with an identical
component.
The AD-IS Series air dryer has
incorporated into its design various
components that have typically been
installed separately on the vehicle (see
below for components/ areas affected).
•
Pressure protection valves
•
Safety valve
WARNING
•
Governor and plumbing
If a different air dryer brand or model
is installed on the vehicle other
than what was originally installed,
it could cause the air system to
not perform correctly unless the
full air system design is reviewed
and modifications made to comply
with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety
Standards (FMVSS) 121 - Air Brake
Systems. Failure to abide by this
warning and maintain compliance
to FMVSS 121 could cause loss
of vehicle control and may lead to
personal injury or death.
•
Plumbing of the front and rear
service air tanks
•
Plumbing to accessory systems
These components are required
to meet the Federal Motor Vehicle
Safety Standards (FMVSS 121 - Air
Brake Systems). As the Warning
above states, any other type of air
dryer installed in the place of an
AD-IS Series will require changes,
modifications, and/or additions to
your vehicle’s air system to maintain
compliance with FMVSS 121.
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
Kenworth strongly recommends that
if the air dryer is changed from an
AD-IS series, you consult your nearest
authorized Kenworth dealer.
Brake Operation
WARNING
Do not drive through water deep
enough to wet brake components,
as it may cause the brakes to work
less efficiently than normal. The
vehicle's stopping distance may
be longer than expected, and the
vehicle may pull to the left or right
when brakes are applied, which
could contribute to an accident.
Failure to comply may result in
personal injury, death, equipment or
property damage.
Front Brake System
When the brake pedal is depressed,
the front circuit portion of the treadle
valve delivers air from the front
service air tank to the front axle brake
chambers via a quick-release valve.
Simultaneously (on full truck
configurations), air is also supplied
to the modulating valve control port.
In the event of a rear service circuit
failure, the modulating valve will
exhaust air from the spring brake
chambers, applying the spring brakes
in proportion to the front circuit
application.
To rectify this condition, check the rear
and both sides of the vehicle for clear
traffic, then apply the brakes gently,
releasing and gently reapplying until
the brakes dry out, restoring normal
operation. Always check brakes after
driving through deep water to help
reduce the possibility of personal injury
or an accident.
4-19
4
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
Rear Brake System
Using the Parking Brake
When the brake pedal is depressed,
the rear circuit portion of the treadle
valve delivers air from the rear service
air tank to the service brake relay
valve control port. The relay valve
then delivers air directly from the
rear service air tank to the rear brake
chambers in proportion to the treadle
pressure.
The yellow diamond-shaped knob on
the dash controls the vehicle parking
brakes. These are spring brakes that
you activate by releasing air pressure
from their chambers. When they are
not in use, air pressure compresses
the springs and releases the brakes.
Pulling the valve OUT applies the
parking brake, which exhausts air from
the chambers and allows the springs
to extend and apply the brakes.
4
WARNING
Do not leave the cab without
applying the parking brake. The
vehicle could roll and cause an
accident. Always apply the parking
brake before you leave the cab.
Failure to comply may result in
personal injury, death, equipment or
property damage.
4-20
Combination ( Vehicle/Trailer) Parking
Brake Control Valves
1
2
Parking Brake Control
(Yellow)
Trailer Air Supply Control
(Red)
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
Before you leave the cab:
1.
2.
Apply all parking brakes. Pull
out the Yellow Parking Brake
Control knob (1) located on the
dash. The Red (octagon-shaped)
Trailer Air Supply Control knob will
automatically pop out. (A dash
warning light will indicate when the
brake is ON.)
Shift the transmission into PARK
position:
°
manual transmission, select
First or Reverse gear.
°
automatic transmission, select
Neutral.
3.
Turn the key to OFF.
4.
Remove the key.
WARNING
Do not pull out the parking brake
valve while the vehicle is moving.
Stopping with the parking brake
controls can cause a sudden wheel
lock-up, loss of control, or over-take
by following vehicles. Failure to
comply may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
The parking brakes act on the rear
wheels only. They are spring-applied,
with air pressure used to release them.
Release air is supplied by both the
front and rear circuit air tanks through
a double check valve.
To release the vehicle parking
brakes ONLY:
•
Push IN the Yellow knob on the
dash. Your trailer will remain
parked.
•
Below 60 psi (414 kPa) the Yellow
parking brake valve remains OUT
(ON position). If air pressure is not
restored above 60 psi (414 kPa),
the knob will automatically return
to the OUT position if you attempt
to push it in. See Primary and
Secondary Air Pressure on page
3-61.
4-21
4
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
To release the trailer brakes ONLY:
•
Push IN the Red knob on the dash.
The vehicle will remain parked.
4
To release the full combination of
brakes:
•
Push IN BOTH knobs on the dash.
•
In the event that air pressure is
reduced below a safe level: the
low air warning light will come on
first; if air pressure continues to
drop, the parking brake valve will
pop OUT, automatically applying
the spring brakes.
CAUTION
Do not try to put the vehicle in motion
before pressure in the system
reaches 100 psi (689 kPa) because
the wheels are locked by the spring
brake action. Unnecessary stress
and possible brake malfunction
could occur if the vehicle is forced to
move before the air system reaches
100 psi (689 kPa). Failure to comply
may result in equipment damage.
4-22
WARNING
If the air pressure falls below 60
psi (414 kPa) the spring brakes
may stop the vehicle abruptly,
which could result in an accident.
Observe the red warning lamps on
the gauges. If one comes on, do
not continue to drive the vehicle
until it has been properly repaired
or serviced. Failure to comply may
result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
WARNING
Do not use the trailer hand brake
or service brakes to park and hold
an unattended vehicle, use the
parking brakes. Because service
brakes work with air pressure, these
brakes could slowly release. Your
vehicle could roll, causing a serious
accident. Never rely on the service
brakes to hold a parked vehicle.
Failure to comply may result in
personal injury, death, equipment or
property damage.
Vehicle/Trailer Air Supply
Valve
At this point it will remain in,
charging the trailer system and
releasing only the trailer brakes.
Initial Charge
The red octagon knob controls the air
supply to the trailer. With the system
completely discharged, both the Red
(trailer air supply) and the Yellow
(parking brake) knobs are OUT; thus,
vehicle and the trailer parking (spring)
brakes are applied.
4.
The Yellow knob will remain OUT
(vehicle brakes ON).
Normal Run Position
•
The Yellow knob (system park)
may now be pushed IN, which will
supply air to the vehicle spring
brakes, releasing them.
To supply air to the trailer system
and release the trailer parking
brakes:
1.
Allow the vehicle air system
pressure to build up to operating
level.
2.
When system pressure reaches
50 psi (345 kPa) the Red knob
may be pushed IN.
3.
Hold the Red knob IN by hand
until the trailer air pressure builds
to a pre-set level, about 45 psi.
4
4-23
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
4
1.
2.
3.
4-24
Normal Run Position
Trailer Park With Vehicle
Released
System Park Or Trailer
Charge With Vehicle Parked
Trailer Park or Emergency Brake
Application Only
If you ever have a failure or disconnect
the air supply hose to the trailer, the
trailer parking brakes will set. The Red
knob will automatically pop OUT and
seal off the vehicle air tanks to protect
the vehicle air system pressure.
To apply the trailer brakes only:
Pull OUT the Red knob. This will
exhaust air from the trailer supply line,
causing the vehicle protection valve to
close and the trailer spring brakes to
apply. The trailer is now in emergency
or park. This mode would be used
to uncouple from the trailer (running
without a trailer connected).
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
System Park
Trailer Charge
With both knobs pushed in for normal
operating modes, the parking brakes
of both the vehicle and the trailer
may be applied by pulling the Yellow
knob OUT. This will exhaust the air
from the vehicle spring brakes, and
simultaneously cause the Red knob to
pop OUT, which will apply the trailer
brakes. This complies with the Federal
Motor Vehicle Safety Standards
(FMVSS) 121 requirement that one
control should apply all the parking
brakes on the vehicle.
If both knobs are OUT (combination
vehicle is parked), and it is desired to
recharge the trailer, the Red knob may
be pushed IN repressurizing the trailer
supply line. The vehicle will remain
parked. For more information on air
supply pressure requirements, see
Initial Charge on page 4-23.
WARNING
Do not use the trailer hand brake
or service brakes to park and hold
an unattended vehicle, use the
parking brakes. Because service
brakes work with air pressure, these
brakes could slowly release. Your
vehicle could roll, causing a serious
accident. Never rely on the service
brakes to hold a parked vehicle.
Failure to comply may result in
personal injury, death, equipment or
property damage.
4
4-25
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
Brake Safety and Emergency
WARNING
Do not operate the vehicle in the
event of a malfunction in any air
circuit. The vehicle should not be
operated until the system is repaired
and both braking circuits, including
all pneumatic and mechanical
components, are working properly.
Loss of system air can cause
the service brakes to not function
resulting in the sudden application
of the spring brakes causing wheel
lock-up, loss of control, or overtake
by following vehicles. Failure to
comply may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
4
•
If pressure is lost in the vehicle
front or rear circuit, the “check”
valves isolate the unaffected
circuit, allowing this circuit to
4-26
continue normal operation. The
trailer brakes are still functional.
•
If air pressure is lost in the
trailer supply/park circuit, and the
pressure drops below 60 psi (414
kPa), the trailer spring brakes are
automatically applied, and the
vehicle air pressure circuits are
unaffected.
•
If air pressure is lost in the trailer
brake service circuit, and the
pressure in the vehicle front and
rear circuits drops below 60 psi
(414 kPa), the vehicle and trailer
spring brakes are automatically
applied.
Emergency Braking
WARNING
Unless you have an anti-lock
braking system (ABS), always avoid
completely depressing the service
brake pedal, if possible, even during
emergency braking. Depressing the
brake pedal too aggressively can
cause the wheels to lock, which can
lead to an uncontrolled skid and
can result in an accident. Failure
to comply may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
For Non-ABS Vehicles: to stop your
vehicle in an emergency, vary the
service brake application pressure
to provide maximum braking force
without locking the wheels. Use engine
compression to assist the service
brakes by not depressing the clutch
pedal until the engine reaches idle
speed.
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
Overheated Brakes
Under normal braking conditions, the
energy generated will bring the internal
brake drum temperature to about 500˚
F (260˚ C). This is well within the safe
zone: the maximum safe temperature
of lining for drum type brakes is usually
about 800˚ F (427˚ C).
If service brakes are used for
emergency braking, used improperly,
or for prolonged periods, internal brake
drum temperatures may exceed 800˚
F (427˚ C). Such brake overheating
may be detected by a burning smell
or smoke coming from a drum. If this
occurs, you should immediately stop
and check for cracked brake drums or
lining fires. If neither exists, continue
driving and resume a slow speed as
soon as possible to cool the brakes. If
the vehicle was to remain stopped, the
heat transfer could destroy the linings
and distort the brake drum.
To prevent drums from distortion
while they cool down:
Anti-Lock Braking System
•
Park the vehicle on level surface
and block the wheels.
•
Release the parking brake and
allow the brakes to cool down.
See Parking Brake Valve on page
3-92.
North American on-highway Kenworths
have anti-lock braking system (ABS)
as standard equipment. The ABS
reduces the possibility of wheel lock-up
during hard braking. If a wheel is about
to lock during braking, the ABS will
automatically adjust air pressure to the
brake chambers on the appropriate
wheel(s) to prevent wheel lock-up.
The ABS is automatically turned on
when the ignition switch is turned on.
See Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) on
page 3-31.
Introduction
WARNING
Do not rely on an anti-lock
brake system that is functioning
improperly. You could lose control
of the vehicle resulting in a severe
accident. Failure to comply may
result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
4-27
4
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
Wheel Spin Control (option)
NOTE
If your ABS lamp goes on while
you are driving or stays on after the
power-on test, your anti-lock system
might not be working. The ABS may
not function in an emergency. You
will still have conventional brakes,
but not anti-lock brakes. If the lamp
indicates a problem, have the ABS
checked
NOTE
Important Safety Reminders
•
ABS does not reduce the time
or distance it takes to stop
the vehicle, it only helps with
steering control during braking.
You should always maintain a
safe following distance from other
vehicles.
•
ABS will not prevent a skid that
results from changing direction
abruptly, such as trying to take
a corner too fast or making a
sudden lane change. Always
drive at a safe, prudent speed for
the road and weather conditions.
4
•
4-28
ABS cannot prevent a loss
of stability. Always steer
moderately when you are braking
hard. Severe or sharp steering
wheel movement can still cause
your vehicle to veer into oncoming
traffic or off the road.
Your ABS may have the optional
Acceleration Slip Regulation
(ASR)/Automatic Traction Control
(ATC) feature. This feature is
monitored by a wheel spin control ASR
Warning Lamp. See the appropriate
vehicle section in this manual for
details. This feature helps improve
traction when vehicles are on slippery
surfaces by reducing drive wheel
overspin. Wheel spin control works
automatically in two different ways:
•
If a drive wheel starts to spin,
wheel spin control applies air
pressure to brake the wheel. This
transfers engine torque to the
wheels with better traction.
•
If all drive wheels spin, wheel spin
control reduces engine torque to
provide improved traction.
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
Wheel spin control turns itself on and
off, you do not have to select this
feature. If drive wheels spin during
acceleration, the ASR Warning Lamp
comes on, indicating wheel spin control
is active.
Do not allow the ASR Warning Lamp
to remain on continuously for an
extended length of time. Extended,
continuous use of the ASR/ATC can
cause overheating of the drive wheel
brakes.
Deep Snow and Mud Switch (option)
A deep snow and mud switch is
included with Wheel Spin Control. The
Deep Snow and Mud feature is helpful
during acceleration This function
increases available traction on extra
soft surfaces like snow, mud or gravel,
by slightly increasing the permissible
wheel spin. When this function is in
use, the ASR Warning Lamp blinks
continuously.
Off-Road ABS Function Switch
(option)
Your Kenworth vehicle may be
equipped with a separate switch to
activate an Off-Road ABS function.
This function is NOT to be used
for On-Highway driving but is
intended to be used to improve
stopping performance in Off-Highway
conditions (e.g. loose gravel and
mud). The Off-Road ABS function is
accomplished by allowing a “wedge”
of material to build-up in front of
momentarily locked wheels.
Features and Benefits
•
Changes the ABS control limits to
allow for a more aggressive ABS
function while off-road.
•
Improves vehicle control and
helps reduce stopping distances
in off-road conditions or on poor
4-29
4
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
traction surfaces such as loose
gravel, sand and dirt.
•
Allows retarders to function
independently of the ABS function.
•
If your vehicle does not have an
engine retarder, the Off- Road
ABS switch will function the same.
WARNING
While the off-road mode can
improve
vehicle
control
and
shorten stopping distances, some
steering ability may be reduced
on certain surfaces resulting from
the momentarily sliding tires.
Always operate your vehicle at safe
operating speeds. Failure to do so
may cause you to lose control of
the vehicle and could result in an
accident or personal injury.
CAUTION
4
Never drive your vehicle on
improved roads/highways with the
Off-Road ABS function turned on.
When you drive your vehicle onto an
improved road surface or highway,
immediately turn off the Off-Road
ABS switch.
Failure to do so
will cause the ABS system to not
function properly in an ABS event
under 25 mph and could result in an
accident or personal injury.
4-30
How The Off-Road ABS Function
Works
•
The ABS lamp flashes slowly
during off-road mode engagement.
This is done to alert you of a
modification to the ABS control
software.
•
At speeds above 25 mph, the ABS
controller operates in the normal
on-highway mode.
•
At speeds between 10 and 25
mph, the ABS control software is
modified to allow short periods
(0.25 seconds) of locked-wheel
cycles.
•
At speeds below 10 mph, the ABS
control software is turned off to
allow locked wheels.
•
When the Off-Road ABS function
is enabled, the Retarder Disable
output is turned off. That is,
the engine retarders are left to
function without ABS intervention.
For additional information, see the
Off-Road ABS pamphlet in your
vehicle’s glove box.
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
Trailer ABS
Power Line Communication (PLC)
North American on-highway Kenworths
are equipped with a separate electrical
circuit to power the anti-lock brake
system (ABS) on towed vehicle(s).
In most cases, the ABS power will
be supplied through the Auxiliary
circuit on the primary 7- way trailer
light line connector. If the vehicle
was manufactured with a switchable
Auxiliary circuit for trailer accessories,
an additional 7-way connector would
have been provided for trailer ABS
power. In either case, the ABS
power line on the vehicle will be PLC
equipped.
CAUTION
NOTE
Do not splice into the non-switchable
Auxiliary circuit on the primary 7-way
trailer light line.
Doing so may
cause the trailer ABS to malfunction.
This circuit is dedicated for trailer
ABS power. To add a switchable
auxiliary circuit, contact a Kenworth
Dealership.
Trailers not equipped with PLC can
not turn on the In-Cab Trailer ABS
Warning Lamp.(There is one option
that is an exception to this rule.
See Special Trailer ABS (Without
PLC) Option in the Anti-lock Braking
System section on page 4-27 for
details.)
Vehicles and trailers built after
3/1/01 must be able to turn on an
In-Cab Trailer ABS Warning Lamp
(per Federal Motor Vehicle Safety
Standards (FMVSS) 121). The industry
chose Power Line Communication
(PLC) as the standard method to turn
it on.
NOTE
For doubles or triples, the lamp does
not distinguish between trailers. An
ABS problem in any of the trailers
will activate the Trailer ABS Warning
Lamp.
4-31
4
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
NOTE
4
If you change the intended service
in anyway (i.e. number of axles,
multiple trailers, add switchable
trailer accessories, etc.) from the
date the vehicle was manufactured,
you should contact your trailer
manufacturer and/or trailer anti-lock
brake manufacturer to determine if
the power available at the 7-way
trailer light line is adequate. Failure
to do so might result in insufficient
power to the trailer ABS system
which may affect its operation.
CAUTION
The center pin of the 7-way trailer
light line may be constantly powered
for ABS. Make sure it will not
accidently turn on trailer equipment.
4-32
Special Trailer ABS (Without PLC)
Option
If a trailer does not have PLC, but
it does have ABS that is powered
through an optional second trailer
connector (ISO 3731) and that trailer
ABS is designed to control the Trailer
ABS Warning Lamp in the cab and
the vehicle has been ordered with the
option to turn on this lamp for these
types of trailers, then this lamp will turn
on when that trailer ABS has a system
problem. This should be checked by a
Kenworth Dealer as soon as possible.
The Trailer ABS Warning Lamp will
not turn on for the power-on test when
connected to these types of trailers.
Trailer Brake Hand Valve
This hand valve provides air pressure
to apply the trailer brakes only. It
operates independently of the foot
treadle valve.
To operate the trailer brake hand
valve:
•
Pull down on the lever under the
right side of the steering wheel.
See Steering Column And Mirrors
on page 3-100.
•
The valve is self-returning. When
pressure is removed from the
valve lever, it will return to the OFF
position.
NOTE
NOTE
Very few trailers built before 3/1/01
have this option. Trailers built after
3/1/01 are built with PLC technology.
The trailer brake is not to be used as
a substitute for the service brakes.
Using this brake frequently, instead
of using the foot brake, will cause the
trailer brakes to wear out sooner.
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
WARNING
Do not use the trailer hand brake
or service brakes to park and hold
an unattended vehicle, use the
parking brakes. Because service
brakes work with air pressure, these
brakes could slowly release. Your
vehicle could roll, causing a serious
accident. Never rely on the service
brakes to hold a parked vehicle.
Failure to comply may result in
personal injury, death, equipment or
property damage.
Driving With an Unloaded
Trailer
Do not use the engine retarder (such
as an exhaust brake) to slow the
vehicle down when you are pulling an
empty trailer.
WARNING
Do not use an engine retarder when
you are driving with an unloaded
trailer.
Using engine retarders
with an unloaded trailer can cause
a wheel lockup resulting in less
control and/or jackknife.
When
you are unloaded, you can have a
serious accident if your wheels lock
suddenly during braking. Failure
to comply may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
Engine Retarders
WARNING
The engine retarder is NOT intended
as the primary brake for the vehicle,
nor is it an emergency brake. The
engine retarder only helps the
service brakes by using pressure to
slow the drivetrain. Use the service
brakes for quick stops. DO NOT rely
only on the engine retarder. Failure
to comply may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
4-33
4
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
WARNING
4
Do not operate the engine retarder
when driving/operating your vehicle
on road surfaces with poor traction
(wet, icy, or snow covered roads) or
in heavy traffic. Braking caused by
the normal operation of the engine
retarder could cause you to lose
control of the vehicle resulting in
an accident.
Failure to comply
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
NOTE
The exhaust brake and engine brake
are two types of engine retarders.
See your Engine Operation and
Maintenance Manual and Engine
Retarder or Engine Brake Operation
Manual for further details on using
these types of engine retarders.
A variety of engine retarders or
exhaust brakes may be installed (as
4-34
an option) to create a braking effect
on the drive wheels. These devices
use your engine's power to slow your
vehicle down. Because they can
help keep your vehicle's brakes from
overheating, they save wear and tear
on the service brakes. However, the
retarder is not an emergency brake.
Ideally (on normal road surfaces),
you should slow your vehicle with
the retarder (where permitted by law)
and use the service brakes only for
stopping completely. Operating this
way will greatly prolong the life of the
brakes.
Exhaust Brake
With the exhaust brake switch ON, the
brake automatically creates its braking
effect when you remove your foot from
the accelerator pedal.
The brake switch is located on the
accessory dash panel. It controls
whether the brake is ON (ready to slow
the vehicle down) or OFF (no braking
action).
•
Do not use the engine retarder
(such as an exhaust brake) to
slow the vehicle down when you
are pulling an empty trailer. See
Engine Brakes for further details.
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
WARNING
WARNING
Do not use an engine retarder when
you are driving with an unloaded
trailer.
Using engine retarders
with an unloaded trailer can cause
a wheel lockup resulting in less
control and/or jackknife.
When
you are unloaded, you can have a
serious accident if your wheels lock
suddenly during braking. Failure
to comply may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
Do not use the engine retarder
when operating on road surfaces
with poor traction (such as wet, icy,
or snow covered roads or gravel).
Retarders can cause the wheels to
skid on a slippery surface. You could
lose control of the vehicle and/or
jackknife if the wheels begin to skid,
resulting in an accident. Failure
to comply may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
•
Make sure the brake is OFF before
starting the engine.
•
After the engine is started, warmed
up, and you are ready to get under
way, turn the exhaust brake switch
ON for added braking effect.
If your vehicle is equipped with
anti-lock brakes (ABS), the operation
of the exhaust brake (if turned ON)
will be controlled by the ABS. For
further details on how to use the
exhaust brake, see the exhaust brake
manufacturers Owner's Manual.
Engine Brakes
On/Off Switch Symbol
4
Retardation Level Switch Symbol
There are two switches that control
your vehicle's engine brake. One
switch turns the system On/Off
and the second switch controls the
retardation level. These are located
in the right-hand switch panel. With
the engine brake switch ON, the brake
automatically creates its braking effect
when you remove your foot from the
accelerator pedal.
4-35
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
Depending on the engine, your
vehicle may be equipped with either
a 2-position or 3-position Retardation
Level Switch. If your vehicle has the
two-speed system, you can select
FULL or HALF. If it has the three-speed
system, you can select LOW (1),
MEDIUM (2), or HIGH (3) retarding.
4
See your Engine Operation and
Maintenance Manual or Engine Brake
Operation Manual for further details on
using engine retarders.
Brake Components
The following is a brief description of
the air/brake system. It is intended to
supply you with general information on
how the system works.
Compressor: supplies air to the
system. System pressure is controlled
by the governor.
Governor: controls the air pressure
in the system by actuating the
compressor discharge mechanism. Its
cut-out pressure is 115 to 125 psi (793
to 862 kPa). Its preset cut-in pressure
is set to between 13 to 25 psi (90 to
172 kPa) below the cut-out pressure
setting (cut-out and cut-in interval is
not adjustable).
Safety Valve: installed on the supply
air tank outlet. It should vent off at 150
psi (1034 kPa) permitting air to escape.
4-36
Air Dryer: collects and removes
moisture and contaminants from the
air as it travels from the compressor
to the wet tank.
Compressed Air Tanks: The wet
tank receives air from the air dryer and
cools it somewhat, allowing moisture
to condense for draining. Relatively
dry air is then supplied to the two
service air tanks for distribution to their
respective brake circuits. The service
air tanks are isolated from each other
by check valves.
Dual Service Brake Treadle Valve:
delivers air to the two service brake
circuits.
Double Check Valve: directs the
higher air pressure from either the rear
(primary) or front (secondary) service
air tank to the modulating valve.
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
Modulating Valve (SR-1): used only
on full trucks, not tractors, performs
four functions:
•
•
Limits spring brake hold-off air
pressure delivered to the spring
brake chambers.
Provides a quick release of air
pressure from the spring brake
chambers to speed spring brake
application.
•
Modulates spring brake application
in proportion to front service
application in the event of a rear
service failure.
•
Prevents compounding of service
and spring applications.
Quick-Release Valve: speeds the
release of air from the brake chambers.
When air is released, the air in the
brake chambers is exhausted at
the quick-release valve, rather than
exhausting back through the treadle
valve.
Single Check Valve: allows air flow in
one direction only.
Parking Brake Valve:Yellow
diamond-shaped knob. It controls the
application and release of the parking
(spring) brakes of the vehicle or of the
vehicle-trailer combinations. If the air
system is being charged from zero
pressure, the parking brake valve will
not hold in the release position until the
system pressure exceeds 60 psi (414
kPa), which is the pressure required to
override the load of this valve's plunger
return spring.
emergency brakes. If the air system
is being charged from zero pressure,
the trailer supply valve will not hold in
the applied position until the system
pressure exceeds 50 psi (345 kPa). It
automatically pops out and exhausts
air if supply air pressure drops below
60 psi (414 kPa).
Vehicle Protection Valve: The
functions of this valve are to (1) receive
all pneumatic signals pertinent to the
operation of the trailer brake system,
(2) transmit these signals to the trailer,
and (3) protect the vehicle air supply
in case of separation of the air lines
connecting the vehicle to the trailer.
Trailer Supply Valve: The Red
octagonal-shaped knob protects
the vehicle system; it functions in
conjunction with the parking brake
valve (yellow). The trailer supply
valve is responsible for synchronizing
the vehicle and trailer parking and
4-37
4
OPERATING THE ENGINE
OPERATING THE
ENGINE
Introduction
For detailed information on starting
and operating the engine, refer to the
Engine Operation and Maintenance
Manual provided with your Kenworth .
4
Because each vehicle is
custom-equipped, all engine operation
instructions presented in this section
are general. You will want to consult
the engine manual to find out details
about your vehicle's specific engine
needs. You may need to use a slightly
different procedure from the one
outlined here.
Also, read the American Trucking
Association's (ATA) Truck Driver's
Handbook. It will give you tips on
starting, shifting, and driving your
vehicle.
4-38
This section includes instructions for
both Normal Temperature starting and
Cold Weather starting. The engine
type (brand) and size determines what
type of cold weather starting aid is
installed in your vehicle. Refer to your
Engine Operation and Maintenance
Manual to learn what precautions
you should take before starting the
engine. Many new electronic engines
cannot use ether or other starting
fluids. These engines are equipped
with a flame-start air intake heating
system. See Starting Procedure - Cold
Weather on page 4-41.
WARNING
Do not use ether or starting fluid
in conjunction with flame-start air
intake heating systems. Flame-start
systems use an open flame inside
the manifold to heat the air/fuel
mixture for cold weather starting. If
ether is also used with flame-start,
the air/fuel will ignite inside the
manifold, which could cause an
explosion. Failure to comply may
result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
OPERATING THE ENGINE
WARNING
Do not start or let the engine
run in an enclosed, unventilated
area.
Exhaust fumes from the
engine contain carbon monoxide, a
colorless and odorless gas. Carbon
monoxide can be fatal if inhaled.
Failure to comply may result in
personal injury or death.
CAUTION
Do not park or operate the vehicle in
areas where the hot exhaust system
may come in contact with dry grass,
brush, spilled fuel or other material
that can cause a fire.
Starting Procedure - Normal
Temperature
advance is necessary. See Use of
Accelerator below. If the WAIT TO
START indicator lamp activates to
ON, wait until the indicator lamp
cycles to OFF (approximately 60
seconds) before attempting to start
the engine. (For each engine and
ambient temperatures, warm-up
cycles will vary.)
Use the following procedure to
start your Kenworth when outside
temperatures are at or ABOVE normal
starting temperatures. Check the
Engine Operation and Maintenance
Manual for starting temperatures.
1.
Set the parking brake.
2.
Insert key into ignition key switch.
3.
Disable (or turn OFF) the following
systems prior to starting the
engine: the exhaust brake,
dual-speed rear axle (put in LOW),
and block heater (if equipped).
4.
Disengage transmission: place
shift lever in the Neutral position.
5.
Disengage (depress) the clutch
(with manual transmission).
6.
Turn the ignition switch to
the ON position. For normal
temperatures, no accelerator
7.
•
Turn the ignition switch to the
START position to engage the
starter. Crank the engine until it
starts. If the engine does not start
within 30 seconds, release the
key.
If your Kenworth is equipped with
the optional push button starter
switch, use it to engage the starter.
4-39
4
OPERATING THE ENGINE
Use of Accelerator
•
•
For mild to warm temperatures
above 60° F (16° C) keep your
foot OFF the accelerator pedal
while cranking. If the engine does
not start after 5 seconds, apply full
throttle while cranking.
For below normal starting
temperatures fully depress the
accelerator (throttle) pedal after
engaging the starter.
4
NOTE
Pumping the accelerator will not
assist in starting the engine.
•
Do not engage starter for more
than 30 seconds at a time.
•
Wait 2 minutes between each
attempt to start the engine. This
allows the starter motor to cool
and time for the batteries to regain
power.
•
If the engine fails to start after
a couple of tries, there could be
a malfunction with the engine or
other related system. Make any
adjustments or repairs necessary
before trying to start the engine
again.
When the engine starts:
•
CAUTION
Never operate the starter motor
while the engine is running. The
starter and flywheel gears could
clash or jam. Failure to comply may
result in equipment damage.
NOTE
CAUTION
To help avoid overtaxing the
starter motor or batteries, or
causing engine damage, follow the
recommendations listed below:
4-40
Some starters are equipped with
overcrank protection. Check the
Engine Operation and Maintenance
Manual for details.
Watch the oil pressure gauge.
Oil pressure should rise within
15 seconds after the engine
starts. If the oil pressure does
not rise, stop the engine. Find
what is wrong before restarting.
Check the Engine Operation and
Maintenance Manual for the right
oil pressure for your vehicle's
engine. In most engines, idle
pressure should be about 15 psi.
•
Wait until normal engine oil
pressure registers on the gauge
before idling or accelerating the
engine beyond 1,000 rpm.
OPERATING THE ENGINE
•
Watch the primary and secondary
air pressure gauges. They should
both register 100 psi (689 kPa)
before releasing the spring brake
and moving the vehicle. Also,
check the alarm system for any
type of faults and correct them
before moving the vehicle.
CAUTION
Do not try to put the vehicle in
motion before pressure in the air
system reaches 100 psi (689 kPa)
because the wheels will still be
locked by the spring brake action.
Unnecessary stress and possible
brake malfunction could occur if the
vehicle is forced to move before the
air system reaches 100 psi (689
kPa). Failure to comply may result
in equipment damage.
Starting Procedure - Cold
Weather
•
Keep the electrical system in top
condition.
In addition to the previous Normal
Starting Procedures, use these Cold
Weather Starting guidelines when
the air temperature falls below a
certain temperature. Check your
Engine Operation and Maintenance
Manual for further details on when cold
weather starting aids are needed.
•
Use the best quality and
recommended grade of fuel
(see Engine Operation and
Maintenance Manual).
•
Use the recommended engine
lubricating oil.
•
As stated in the Normal Starting
Procedures, when temperatures
are below normal, fully depress the
accelerator pedal after engaging
the starter.
Using special cold-starting equipment
will help the engine start easier. And
in cold weather, fast engine starting
helps relieve the loads on the electrical
system and cranking motor. If you
follow these few simple guidelines,
you will extend the service life of your
vehicle's engine:
4-41
4
OPERATING THE ENGINE
Engine Warm-Up and Idling
Engine Block Heater (Option)
CAUTION
To preheat the engine before starting,
plug the optional engine block heater
into a properly grounded AC electrical
source. Do not start the engine with
the heater plugged in.
WARNING
4
Engine block heaters can cause
fires resulting in personal injury
and/or property damage if not
properly maintained and operated.
Regularly inspect the engine block
heater wiring and connector for
damaged or frayed wires. Do not
use the heater if there are any
signs of problems. Contact your
authorized Kenworth Dealer or the
manufacturer of the heater if you are
in need of repairs or information.
4-42
Always unplug heater before starting
the engine. Damage to the cooling
system could occur if the heater is
not turned OFF (unplugged).
Depending on engine make, when the
temperature falls below -10° F (-24°
C), the block heater is required.
•
Use a solution of half ethylene
glycol antifreeze and half water
for best heater performance.
Do not exceed 65 percent
concentration of antifreeze, as a
shortened heater life will result.
See COOLING SYSTEM on page
5-60, for more information.
•
After servicing the cooling system,
operate the vehicle for a day or two
before using the heater. Trapped
air inside the engine needs time
to escape.
The purpose of engine warm-up is
to allow an oil film to be established
between pistons, shafts, and bearings
while your engine gradually reaches
operating temperature.
OPERATING THE ENGINE
Warm-Up Procedure
1.
2.
After you have started the engine,
idle the engine at approximately
600 rpm while you check vital
engine systems:
°
oil pressure
°
air pressure
°
alternator output
Before placing engine under a
load, continue warm-up with the
engine at 900 to 1,000 rpm for 3
to 5 minutes.
When a cold engine is started,
increase the engine speed (RPM)
slowly to be sure adequate
lubrication is available to the
bearings and to allow the oil
pressure to stabilize. In extremely
cold temperatures, you may have
to increase idle speed.
NOTE
WARNING
In colder climates where the
temperatures are often below
freezing, sufficient warm-up for
turbocharged engines is especially
important.
Chilled external oil
lines leading to the turbocharger
will slow the oil flow until the oil
warms, reducing oil available for
the bearings. Watch the engine oil
temperature or pressure gauge for
a warming trend before increasing
engine idle speed (RPM).
Exhaust fumes from the engine
contain carbon monoxide,
a
colorless and odorless gas. Do not
breathe the engine exhaust gas.
A poorly maintained, damaged or
corroded exhaust system can allow
carbon monoxide to enter the cab.
Entry of carbon monoxide into the
cab is also possible from other
vehicles nearby. Failure to properly
maintain your vehicle could cause
carbon monoxide to enter the cab
and cause illness or death.
3.
Continue the engine warm-up until
the coolant temperature reaches
at least 130° F (54° C). At this
temperature, you can use partial
throttle. Wait until the coolant
temperature is at least 160° F (71°
C) before operating at full throttle.
See Transmission Warm-Up on
page 4-64.
4-43
4
OPERATING THE ENGINE
WARNING
Never idle your vehicle for prolonged
periods of time if you sense that
exhaust fumes are entering the cab.
Investigate the cause of the fumes
and correct it as soon as possible.
If the vehicle must be driven under
these conditions, drive only with the
windows open. Failure to repair the
source of the exhaust fumes may
lead to personal harm.
4
NOTE
Keep the engine exhaust system
and the vehicles cab ventilation
system properly maintained.
It is recommended that the vehicles
exhaust system and cab be inspected:
•
By a competent technician every
15,000 miles
4-44
•
•
Whenever a change is noticed in
the sound of the exhaust system
Whenever the exhaust system,
underbody or cab is damaged
Winterfronts
A winterfront or other air flow restriction
device may be mounted in front of
the radiator to increase cab heater
temperature in cold climates.
NOTE
Do not stay in the vehicle with the
engine running or idling for more
than 10 minutes with the vehicles
Heater and A/C ventilation system
in RECIRC or a LOW fan speed.
Even with the ventilation system On,
running the engine while parked or
stopped for longer periods of time is
not recommended. See Heater/Air
Conditioning Operating Instructions
for system setting instructions.
NOTE
If other vehicles are parked next to
you idling, move your vehicle or do
not stay in your vehicle for prolonged
periods of time
CAUTION
A winterfront should only be used
at temperatures below 40°F (4°C).
Use of a winterfront above 40°F
(4°C) can decrease life of cooling
module components.
Remove
winterfront as soon as the ambient
temp reaches 41°F (5°C). The use
of a winterfront above 40°F (4°C)
can result in excessive engine
coolant, oil, and charge air (intake)
temperatures, which can lead to
overheating and possible engine
or coolant module damage and
emissions non-compliance.
OPERATING THE ENGINE
Idling the Engine
CAUTION
NOTE
A Kenworth winterfront is designed
to minimize the temperature
differences across the radiator and
reduce the possibility of cooling
module damage.
Aftermarket
winterfronts may not provide the
proper airflow distribution and could
cause cooling module damage.
Under most circumstances, idling
your engine for long periods merely
wastes fuel. In severe Arctic weather
conditions, however, you may need
longer idling to be sure all parts of your
engine are fully lubricated.
WARNING
To reduce the chance of death,
personal injury, and/or vehicle
damage from overheated engines,
which can result in a fire, never
leave the engine idling without an
alert driver present. If the engine
should overheat, as indicated by
the engine coolant temperature
light, immediate action is required
to correct the condition. Continued
unattended operation of the engine,
even for a short time, may result in
serious engine damage or a fire.
Do not allow your engine to idle, at
low RPM's (400-600 rpm), longer
than five minutes. Long periods
of idling after the engine has
reached operating temperatures
can decrease engine temperature
and cause gummed piston rings,
clogged injectors, and possible
engine damage from lack of
lubrication. The normal torsional
vibrations generated can also cause
transmission wear.
During the time it takes you to drink a
cup of coffee, your engine can cool as
much as 60° F (33° C) below normal
operating temperature. To keep the
engine warm during a short break, turn
it off. Do not allow your engine to idle
longer than five minutes.
4-45
4
OPERATING THE ENGINE
Cruise Control
Using Cruise Control While Driving:
If your vehicle is equipped with cruise
control dash switches, follow the
operating instructions below.
Setting Cruise Speed
1.
Ensure that the vehicle speed is
above the minimum cruise control
speed (30 mph for Cummins
engines) and the engine speed is
above 1100 rpm.
2.
Move the ON/OFF switch to the
"ON" position.
3.
Accelerate the vehicle to the
desired cruise speed.
4.
Toggle the SET/RESUME switch
to the "SET" position to set the
cruise speed.
WARNING
4
Do not operate the cruise control
when driving on road surfaces with
poor traction (wet, icy, or snow
covered roads) or in heavy traffic.
Accelerations caused by the normal
operation of the cruise control
could cause you to lose control of
the vehicle resulting in an injury
accident.
On/Off Switch, Set/Resume Switch
NOTE
Cruise Control may not hold the set
speed going down hills. If the speed
increases going down a hill, use
the brakes to slow down. This will
cancel Cruise Control.
4-46
OPERATING THE ENGINE
Changing the Cruise Set Speed
Resuming Cruise Control
•
1.
•
To increase the cruise set speed;
Hold the SET/ RESUME switch in
the "SET" position until the desired
speed is achieved then release
the switch.
To decrease the cruise set speed;
Hold the SET/ RESUME switch in
the "RESUME" position and coast
to the desired lower speed then
release the switch.
Cancelling Cruise Control
You can cancel cruise control in any
of these ways:
•
Tap the brake pedal.
•
Tap the clutch pedal.
•
Move the ON/OFF switch to the
"OFF" position.
2.
If you tapped the brake or
clutch pedal, the cruise/idle
control remembered the
previously set cruise speed.
To resume that set speed,
accelerate above the minimum
cruise control speed and;
Toggle the SET/RESUME switch
to the "RESUME" position.
If you moved the ON/OFF switch
to the "OFF" position or turned the
ignition key OFF, this cleared the
system memory and you will need
to set a new cruise speed.
Using Cruise Control for Stationary
PTO Operation:
Setting Idle Speed
1.
Ensure parking brakes are applied.
2.
Ensure transmission is in Neutral.
3.
Engage PTO per the
manufacturer's operating
instructions.
4.
Move the ON/OFF switch to the
"ON" position.
5.
Toggle the SET/RESUME switch
to obtain the desired engine rpm.
Cancelling Cruise Control
You can cancel cruise control in any
of these ways:
•
Tap the brake pedal.
•
Tap the clutch pedal.
•
Move the ON/OFF switch to the
"OFF" position.
4-47
4
OPERATING THE ENGINE
Engine Fan Control
point, or 3) the Engine Control Unit
detects that air intake temperature,
oil temperature, or compression
brake usage requires it.
WARNING
The engine fan can be turned ON
using a switch that is mounted on the
accessory switch panel. This lets you
set the fan to manual or automatic
operation.
4
•
With the ignition key turned ON
and the fan switch in the MANUAL
position, the engine fan will be ON
regardless of engine temperature.
•
With the engine fan switch in
the AUTO position, the engine
fan will automatically turn ON
when any one of the following
conditions occur: 1) the engine
coolant temperature reaches 200º
F (93º C) approximately, 2) the
Air Conditioning system is turned
ON or has reached a set pressure
4-48
Do not work on or near the fan
with the engine running. Anyone
near the engine fan when it turns
on could be injured. If it is set at
MANUAL, the fan will turn on any
time the ignition key switch is turned
to the ON position. In AUTO, it could
engage suddenly without warning.
Before turning on the ignition or
switching from AUTO to MANUAL,
be sure no workers are near the fan.
CAUTION
The fan or equipment near it could
be damaged if the fan turns on
suddenly when you do not expect it.
Keep all tools and equipment away
from the fan.
NOTE
Do not operate the engine fan in
the MANUAL position for extended
periods of time. The fan hub was
designed for intermittent operation.
Sustained operation will shorten
the fan hub's service life as well as
reduce fuel economy.
OPERATING THE ENGINE
Engine Control Display
Engine Shutdown System
Your Kenworth may come with
an optional Engine and Driver
Information Display. This instrument
records information on engine
diagnostics, scheduled maintenance,
driving conditions, and general trip
information. The specific features
of your display may vary depending
on engine make. For complete
information on the display see the
engine manufacturer's manual.
This system is an option with each
engine. The engine shutdown system
continually monitors oil pressure and
engine temperature. If either condition
changes beyond the normal range of
oil pressure or temperature readings,
the engine shuts down automatically,
sounding the alarm and turning a
warning light on. The buzzer will sound
continuously as long as Stop Engine
indicator is on.
Each shutdown system is engine
specific; therefore to learn how
this system works on your vehicle,
you should consult the engine
manufacturer's manual.
4
After the engine starts, and until oil
pressure reaches normal operating
pressures, a warning alarm will sound.
As soon as oil pressure increases, the
buzzer turns off automatically. If the
engine shuts down automatically or if
the buzzer and light turn on while the
engine is running, have your engine
serviced at an authorized Kenworth
Dealer.
4-49
OPERATING THE REAR/DRIVE AXLE
OPERATING THE
REAR/DRIVE AXLE
Inter-Axle Differential Lock
Introduction
This section covers the operation
of your Rear/Drive Axle. These
instructions apply to the most common
features of drive axles. Refer to the
manufacturers instructions for further
information on the operation of your
axle.
4
4-50
The inter-axle differential allows each
axle to turn independently, which
relieves stress on the rear axles and
reduces tire wear. A switch on the
accessory switch panel locks the
inter-axle differentials, which gives you
better traction for slippery surfaces.
You will notice that the switch has a
guard to protect you from activating it
accidentally.
When to Use the Differential Lock
In the LOCK position, an air operated
clutch positively locks both sets of
axles together, providing greater
traction on slippery road surfaces;
however, steering around corners
and on dry pavement is more difficult.
Continuous operation on a paved, dry
surface stresses the tandem axles,
possibly causing internal damage.
Only use this feature when driving on
surfaces with poor traction, such as
heavy mud or snow, or loose gravel.
And do not use it when going downhill
or at speeds greater than 25 mph (40
km/h).
OPERATING THE REAR/DRIVE AXLE
Lock the differential when you
encounter road conditions such as
these:
•
Ice or snow, with or without tire
chains.
•
Dirt roads.
•
Loose sand, mud, or other off-road
conditions.
WARNING
Do not put the differential lock in the
LOCK position while the wheels are
spinning freely (slipping), you could
lose control of the vehicle or cause
axle damage. Switch to LOCK only
when the wheels are not spinning.
Failure to comply may result in
personal injury, death, equipment or
property damage.
•
vehicle and switch to LOCK ahead
of time.
Inter-Axle Differential Lock
Operation
WARNING
WARNING
Do not operate the vehicle on
dry pavement with the differential
locked, this could lead to an
accident. On dry pavement, you
will not be able to steer well with
the differential locked. Lock the
differential only when operating on
surfaces with poor traction, such as
wet, slippery roads or loose gravel.
Failure to comply may result in
personal injury, death, equipment or
property damage.
Do not use the differential lock
during downhill operation or at
speeds above 25 mph (40 km/h).
When it is engaged under these
conditions, your vehicle will exhibit
understeer handling characteristics.
This understeer condition will cause
your vehicle to not turn as quickly
and more steering effort will be
required, which can cause an
accident. Failure to comply may
result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
Look ahead for wet, muddy, or icy
patches on the road, stop your
4-51
4
OPERATING THE REAR/DRIVE AXLE
2.
Understeer Condition
1
2
Turning Radius When
Unlocked (Disengaged)
Turning Radius When
Locked (Engaged)
To LOCK the inter-axle differential:
4
1.
Anticipate when you might need
increased traction, slow down to a
steady speed under 25 mph (40
km/h) or stop the vehicle. Do not
lock the differential while going
down steep grades or traveling
faster than 25 mph, or while
wheels are spinning or traction is
minimal; lock the differential before
you encounter these conditions.
4-52
3.
Put the inter-axle differential lock
switch in the LOCK position. A
light on the switch will turn on,
indicating that the differential is
locked (engaged).
If you LOCK or UNLOCK the
differential while moving, let up
momentarily on the accelerator
pedal to relieve torque on the
gearing and allow full engagement
of the clutch (mechanism that
locks the wheels).
NOTE
The Meritor main differential lock
or Dana Spicer wheel differential
lock is controlled by the switch
labelled WHEEL DIFFERENTIAL.
By moving the switch you can LOCK
or UNLOCK the main differential
when the vehicle is moving or
stopped.
NOTE
If your vehicle has an automatic
transmission, it may be necessary to
shift the transmission to the Neutral
position momentarily to allow the
main differential lock splines to fully
engage or disengage.
4.
Drive the vehicle through the poor
traction area, keeping your speed
under 25 mph (40 km/h).
To UNLOCK the inter-axle
differential:
1.
When you reach dry pavement
or better road conditions where
the differential lock is not needed,
switch the differential lock to
UNLOCK.
2.
Let up momentarily on the
accelerator pedal to relieve torque
and allow the clutch to disengage.
OPERATING THE REAR/DRIVE AXLE
3.
When you unlock the differential,
normal vehicle handling will
resume and the light on the switch
will turn off.
Driver Controlled Main
Differential Lock
If your Kenworth has a Meritor
axle with a Driver Controlled Main
Differential Lock, install the caging
bolt before removing the axles for
towing. Installation of the caging bolt
prevents damage by locking internal
axle components in position. Use the
procedure below to lock the Meritor
differential.
1.
Remove the air line.
2.
Remove the caging bolt from its
storage hole.
3.
Screw the caging bolt all the way
into the air line hole. This locks
the differential by pushing a piston
into lock position.
Driver Controlled Main Differential
Lock
1
2
Air Line - Remove to Install
Caging Bolt
Caging Bolt Storage
Location
4-53
4
OPERATING THE REAR/DRIVE AXLE
Dual Range (Two-Speed)
Rear Axle
Your vehicle may be equipped with a
two-speed or dual range axle (option).
You can select two rear axle ratios for
operating under heavy loads or rough
terrain as well as for over the road
hauling.
4
The Low Range provides maximum
torque for hauling heavy loads or
traveling over rough terrain. The High
Range is a faster ratio for highway
speeds and general over the road
conditions. A switch on the accessory
switch panel controls the Dual Range
Rear Axle. You will notice that the
switch has a guard to protect you from
activating it accidentally. Always park
your vehicle with the range selector in
LOW.
4-54
Dual Range Axle Operation
CAUTION
Important tips on operating a Dual
Range Axle with Interaxle Differential:
1.
Shift the axle with the inter-axle
differential in the unlocked position
only.
2.
When you are driving with poor
traction, lock the differential. When
you have the differential locked,
drive with the axle in LOW range
only.
3.
When you are driving on a surface
with good traction, keep the
interaxle differential unlocked. You
can drive with the axle in the LOW
or HIGH range.
4.
Always UNLOCK the inter-axle
differential before shifting the axle
speed range.
If you shift the axle range with the
inter-axle differential in LOCK, you
could seriously damage the axles.
Never shift the axle range with the
differential locked.
OPERATING THE REAR/DRIVE AXLE
Starting-Up
1.
Unlock the inter-axle differential
before starting.
2.
Put the Range Selector in the
LOW range. Shift the transmission
to start the vehicle moving.
3.
When you are driving on rough
terrain and secondary roads, or
under a very heavy load, keep the
axle in the LOW range. Shift the
transmission to maintain proper
road speed.
WARNING
Never shift the axle when moving
down hill.
Engine driveline
disengagement
may
occur,
eliminating engine retardation and
allowing the wheels to spin faster
than the current speed of the engine.
This may require severe braking to
slow the vehicle down and can result
in an accident. Failure to comply
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
Proper shifting of the axle depends on
the synchronization of engine/driveline
and wheel speed. When you shift
the axle, the connection between the
engine and wheels is momentarily
disengaged while the gearing is
synchronized. Normally when the axle
is shifted the speed of the engine, axle,
and wheels adjust, allowing for proper
gear engagement.
When going down hill the wheels will
not slow down, but will tend to speed
up, which makes gear synchronization
almost impossible. As a result, the
axle is neither in HIGH nor LOW range
and all engine/driveline retardation is
lost. Without engine retardation it is
more difficult to slow the vehicle down
and greater stress is put on the brake
system.
CAUTION
To avoid damaging your vehicle shift
the axle at slower travel speeds until
you are used to driving with a dual
range axle.
4-55
4
OPERATING THE REAR/DRIVE AXLE
LOW to HIGH (Cruising)
HIGH to LOW (Rough Terrain)
When you go from rough terrain to
highway driving, shift the axle to the
HIGH range following this procedure:
If you need to downshift the axle for
more power or you are driving on
rough terrain:
1.
Be sure the differential is
UNLOCKED.
1.
2.
Maintain your vehicle speed
(accelerator depressed) and move
the Range Selector lever to HIGH.
Maintain your vehicle speed
(accelerator depressed) and move
the Range Selector lever to LOW.
2.
Keep driving with the accelerator
depressed until you want the axle
to shift.
Keep driving with the accelerator
depressed until you want the axle
to downshift.
3.
To make the axle downshift,
release and depress the
accelerator quickly to increase the
engine RPM. The axle will shift to
LOW range.
4.
You are now in the LOW axle
range for rough terrain and heavy
loads. Shift the transmission
normally to maintain the desired
speed.
3.
4
4.
To make the axle shift, release the
accelerator until the axle shifts.
You are now in the HIGH axle
range for highway speeds. Shift
the transmission normally to reach
your desired cruising speed.
4-56
Auxiliary Axles - Pusher or
Tag
Adjustable auxiliary axles can add
to the productivity of your vehicle. It
is important to recognize that when
adjustable auxiliary axles are not
deployed while the vehicle is carrying
a load, excessive loads may be forced
onto other vehicle components (frame,
axles, suspension, brakes, steering,
tires, etc.). This overload condition
may reduce the service life of these
vehicle components. Acceptable
service life is maintained through
careful operation, proper maintenance
and proper adherence to the vehicles
and auxiliary axle manufacturers
operating limits.
OPERATING THE REAR/DRIVE AXLE
If your vehicle is equipped with
factory-installed pusher or tag
axle(s), or you have a third-party (i.e.
body-builder) install these axles, it is
your responsibility to ensure that the
axle lift controls or air-dump valve (if
equipped) are calibrated prior to putting
the vehicle into service. The reason
for doing this important calibration is to
obtain the proper axle load distribution
for the entire vehicles axles. As with
the entire vehicles axles, the pusher
or tag axle load cannot exceed the
certified GAWR and/or the legal load
limit of the axle assembly and its
related components.
There are three types of pusher or tag
axles:
•
Liftable/steerable (axle lift
calibration required)
•
Liftable/non-steerable (axle lift
calibration required)
•
Non-liftable (some suspensions
require dump valve calibration)
Functionality of Auxiliary Axles
installed by Kenworth
•
Any liftable steerable auxiliary
axles installed by Kenworth will
raise when the parking brake is
engaged.
•
Any liftable steerable auxiliary
axles installed by Kenworth will
raise when the vehicle is placed
into reverse.
•
Liftable/non-steerable axles do
not raise when parking brake is
engaged or if vehicle is in reverse.
4-57
4
OPERATING THE REAR/DRIVE AXLE
4
WARNING
CAUTION
NOTE
Do not operate or park the
vehicle with auxiliary axles in
the down/loaded position when
vehicle is unladen, or is being
unloaded. Raise or dump air into
driver-controlled auxiliary axle(s)
prior to unloading vehicle. Failure
to do so can result in loss of vehicle
control or rollaway that may result in
personal injury, death, equipment or
property damage.
Never exceed the manufacturers
assigned gross axle weight ratings
(GAWR) of each axle when the
auxiliary axles are downloaded.
Never exceed the manufacturers
creep ratings when operating
with a load when the auxiliary
axles are unloaded.
Refer to
your vehicles compliance decals
located on the LH doorjamb for
the maximum allowable load for
each axle. Exceeding the specified
weight rating of any axle can cause
equipment damage.
Axle Creep Ratings are assigned
by the axle manufacturer and are
based on axle model and intended
service of the vehicle. To find out
what the allowable creep rating is
for your vehicle, contact the nearest
authorized Kenworth Dealer or axle
representative.
4-58
OPERATING THE REAR/DRIVE AXLE
Axle Creep Rating Definition
Creep Ratings
ratings are generally limited to the
following:
Low speed, off-highway (work site)
axle loads, which exceed the standard
gross axle weight rating (GAWR) of a
particular axle.
•
Tandem rear axles only
•
Straight trucks only
•
Maximum spring mount
centers per axle manufacturers
specifications
•
Maximum tire static loaded radius
(SLR) per axle manufacturers
specifications
Operator's using vehicles equipped
with liftable auxiliary axles must
consider creep ratings when any
liftable axle is unloaded or in the raised
position. Liftable auxiliary axles should
only be raised (or unloaded) to improve
maneuverability in an off-road use or
when vehicle is unloaded.
NOTE
Axle Creep ratings MUST NOT be
exceeded.
Contact your Kenworth Dealer or
axle manufacturer to determine what
the creep rating is for your particular
axle(s) and configuration. Creep
CAUTION
Always lower the axles as soon
as possible after receiving a load.
Never exceed 5 miles per hour when
driving with a load with the auxiliary
axle(s) raised/unloaded. Failure to
lower the axle(s) can overload the
frame and remaining axles, and
could cause equipment damage.
WARNING
Never operate the vehicle with
more pressure in the lift axles than
is necessary to carry the load,
as determined by the calibration
procedure described. Failure to do
so can result in loss of traction and
stability at the steer and/or drive
axles and can result in increased
braking distance which could cause
loss of vehicle control resulting in
an accident.
Failure to comply
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
CAUTION
Do not modify the air system and/or
control functionality on a factory
installed auxiliary axle(s). Modifying
the factory operation of the pusher
and/or tag axle(s) will void your
warranty, and can cause equipment
damage.
4-59
4
OPERATING THE REAR/DRIVE AXLE
CAUTION
A change in tire size on either the
auxiliary axles or the drive/steer
axles can change the calibration
of the auxiliary axles. If tires are
installed with a different loaded
radius, the calibration procedure
must be repeated. Failure to do so
can cause equipment damage.
4
Liftable/Steerable or
Liftable/Non-Steerable Pusher
and/or Tag Axle Calibration
Procedure
Below are some general instructions
on how to adjust and calibrate the air
control valve for the auxiliary axles to
obtain the proper load distribution of
the axle(s). For additional operating
and maintenance instructions, see the
pusher or tag suspension manufacturer
literature in the glove box or contact
them directly.
NOTE
This procedure must be performed
prior to placing the vehicle into
service.
4-60
Setting the Pressure-to-Load Ratio
To obtain the desired axle load
distribution, you must correlate the
suspension air gauge pressure to the
actual axle load by scaling the axle
weight(s) and adjusting the pressure
to obtain the desired load. Once the
desired load or load range is achieved,
document the pressure-to-load ratio or
setting for future use.
OPERATING THE REAR/DRIVE AXLE
General Calibration Guidelines
4.
These instructions are general in
nature. For more specific instructions,
review the pusher or tag suspension
manufacturers maintenance manual or
contact the nearest authorized dealer.
NOTE
Perform this procedure at or near
a weight scale.
Procedure can
be performed while parked on the
weight scale if scale is available.
1.
Park loaded vehicle on level
surface with wheels blocked.
2.
Release vehicles spring
brakes. (Do not release for
Liftable/Non-Steerable pusher or
tag axles).
3.
Lower the pusher/tag axles with
the axle lift control flip valve. (For
some non-liftable axles, inflate air
suspension).
5.
Adjust the amount of load on
each axle by turning the pressure
regulator clockwise to increase
the load or counterclockwise
to decrease the load. (The
suspension manufacturer
may publish pre-established
Pressure-to- Load Ratio Pressure
Settings to assist you in achieving
an estimated ground load).
Operation guidelines
NOTE
Steerable-pusher and/or tag axle(s)
will raise when the transmission is
shifted into reverse or when the
parking brakes are applied.
After setting the pressure to obtain
the desired axle load, verify proper
ground loading with the weight
scale.
4
NOTE
Exceeding local, state or federal
weight limits may result in citations.
Contact your local commercial
weight enforcement office for limits
in your area.
4-61
OPERATING THE REAR/DRIVE AXLE
Maximizing Drive Axle Traction
Coupling To A Loaded Trailer
Unloading Operation
Adjust the pressure regulator control
knob to a lower pressure until desired
traction is obtained. By reducing air
pressure at pusher or tag axle, load
will be transferred to drive axles. Do
not overload drive axles.
Inflate air springs of the auxiliary axles
to the desired pressure after coupling
to a loaded trailer while still maintaining
proper traction of the drive axles.
Always deflate air springs of the
auxiliary axles before attempting to
unload vehicle. This allows maximum
traction of the drive axles to control the
vehicle.
4
4-62
OPERATING THE REAR/DRIVE AXLE
Non-liftable (Non-steerable) Axles
Some suspensions require dump valve
calibration.
Example: Neway dead axles do not
lift, but the air can be dumped out of
them to unload them when empty. Air
pressure is controlled via an adjustable
regulator. These axles need to be
calibrated for load.
Contact your authorized Kenworth
Dealer or axle/suspension
manufacturer for dump valve
calibration procedures.
4
4-63
OPERATING THE TRANSMISSION
OPERATING THE
TRANSMISSION
Introduction
4
Your Kenworth is equipped with either a
manual or automatic transmission with
special features and gearing to meet
your particular needs. It is important
for you, the driver, to understand
how your particular transmission is
operated. To do this, you have two
sources: this Operator's Manual
and the transmission manufacturer's
Driver/Operator's Instruction Manual.
Because of the wide variety of different
transmissions installed in Kenworth
vehicles, operating procedures for
your particular transmission are not
included in this manual; therefore,
you should read and understand both
manuals. Read the general guidelines
and instructions that follow and read
the specific instructions contained
4-64
in the transmission manufacturer's
Driver/Operator's Instruction Manual.
You will find a shift pattern diagram
in the cab. Check to be sure you
know the correct sequence for your
particular transmission.
Transmission Warm-Up
In cold weather (below 32° F (0°
C), you may find shifting sluggish
when you first start up. Transmission
warm-up is especially important at
this time, but it is always a good
idea to warm-up your transmission
before starting out on the road. To
warm-up the transmission, follow these
procedures.
To warm-up the transmission
lubricating oil during engine warm-up,
with a single transmission (manual and
automatic):
1.
Put the transmission in Neutral.
2.
Release the clutch pedal (manual
only) and operate the transmission
in neutral for 3 to 5 minutes prior
to operating the transmission in
either forward or reverse range.
OPERATING THE TRANSMISSION
3.
If you have a two-transmission
combination:
°
Put the main transmission in
gear.
°
Put the auxiliary transmission
in Neutral. This will allow
the transmission countershaft
to turn, agitating the oil and
warming it.
Operating Manual
Transmissions
The transmission shift pattern for your
vehicle may be located on the driver’s
sun visor and shift control knob. In
addition to understanding the shift
pattern and its location, you should
read the transmission manufacturer’s
manual provided with your vehicle
before operating the vehicle.
Putting the Vehicle in Motion
After making sure the vehicle's oil
and air pressure are correct and all
other parts and systems are in proper
working condition:
1.
Fully depress the clutch pedal (for
manual transmission) until the
clutch brake makes contact. The
contact will occur at about 1 inch
or less from the floorboard.
°
The total stroke of the clutch
pedal is about 10 inches. The
first 1-½ inches is free travel.
After the free travel comes
the release stroke, which is
the part that fully releases
the clutch. The last 1 inch
engages the clutch brake.
°
Always start out in a low
gear. Starting in higher gears,
even with a light load, will
cause a very jumpy start and
excessive wear.
4-65
4
OPERATING THE TRANSMISSION
CAUTION
Always use first gear or a low
speed range to start the vehicle
in motion. The use of a higher
gear or speed range forces undue
strain on the engine, clutch, other
transmission components, and may
cause damage.
2.
Evaluate the road surface
conditions and terrain your vehicle
is on. Select a gear low enough to
let your vehicle start forward with
the throttle at idle.
3.
Push the parking brake valve
handle (Yellow) against the dash
panel to release the brakes.
4.
Release the clutch pedal (manual
only), then gradually accelerate to
permit smooth starting,
4
4-66
5.
Do not allow your vehicle
to roll (even a little) in the
opposite direction during clutch
engagement. If you need to
start up on an incline, apply your
service brakes before you release
the parking brake. Then release
your service brakes as you engage
the clutch and apply throttle.
For further instructions on
operating your transmission, see
the transmission manufacturer's
Driver/Operator's Instruction Manual.
If you have a misaligned gear condition
in your vehicle's transmission and
cannot start, gradually release the
clutch, allowing the drive gear teeth to
line up properly. Then the drive gear
can roll enough to allow the teeth to
line up properly and complete the shift.
The best engine performance and
maximum economy is obtained if gears
are properly selected. This efficiency
is achieved by always selecting gears
within optimum engine RPM, which is
where maximum torque and power are
obtained. For further information, see
More Driving Tips and Techniques on
page 4-5.
OPERATING THE TRANSMISSION
Shifting Gears in a New Vehicle
Clutch Brake and Travel
During Normal Driving
Shift carefully in a new vehicle. The
transmission may be a little stiff at
first. Avoid gear clashing, by closely
following these procedures.
The clutch brake is used for stopping
transmission gears, allowing you to
easily shift into first gear or reverse
without grinding gears. Approximately
the last one inch of clutch pedal travel
activates the clutch brake.
If you want to shift directly into any gear
other than first or reverse, depress the
clutch pedal only far enough to release
the clutch. Pushing the clutch to the
floor applies the clutch brake and could
cause gear hang-up.
When you are operating a new vehicle
or one that has been exposed to cold
weather, you want the transmission
lubricant (fluid) to circulate and coat
the contacting surfaces of the gears.
Metal contacting metal in moving
parts may seriously damage your
transmission, do not drive in one
gear for long periods of time until the
transmission lubricant has a chance to
coat all contacting surfaces. Carefully
observe the free travel in the clutch
for the first few hundred miles. As the
clutch lining wears and high spots get
worn smooth, you will get less free
travel.
•
To apply the clutch brake (while
the vehicle is stopped) fully
depress the clutch pedal to the
floorboard to stop the gears. With
the throttle at idle, select first gear
then release the clutch pedal to let
the vehicle start forward, until the
clutch is fully engaged. See the
manufacturer's Driver/Operator's
Instruction Manual for further
details.
CAUTION
Be careful not to apply the clutch
brake while the vehicle is moving.
The purpose of the clutch brake
is to stop the transmission so that
you can shift into a starting gear
without grinding gears. Applying
the clutch brake when the vehicle
is moving causes a braking effect
on the drivetrain and shortens the
service life of the clutch brake.
If the transmission has a butt-tooth
condition and you cannot engage a
gear, gradually release the clutch.
Then the drive gear can roll enough to
allow the teeth to line up properly and
complete the shift.
4-67
4
OPERATING THE TRANSMISSION
Double Clutching
Whether you are upshifting or down
shifting, it is best to double clutch.
Double clutching is easier on the
transmission and on the engine,
helping your vehicle match engine
speed with driveline speed and
achieving clash-free shifts.
°
°
Push the clutch pedal down to
disengage the clutch.
2.
Move the gear shift lever to
neutral.
3.
Release the pedal to engage
the clutch. This lets you control
the RPM of the mainshaft gears,
allowing you to match the RPM of
the mainshaft gears to those of the
output shaft.
4
4-68
Downshifts: press accelerator,
increase engine and gear
speed to the RPM required in
the lower gear.
4.
Now quickly press the pedal to
disengage the clutch and move
the gear shift lever to the next gear
speed position.
5.
Release the pedal to engage the
clutch.
To double clutch:
1.
Upshifts: let the engine and
gears slow down to the RPM
required for the next gear.
More Transmission Tips
Riding the Clutch
The clutch is not a footrest. Do not
drive with your foot resting on the
clutch pedal. It will allow your clutch to
slip, causing excessive heat and wear,
damage could result.
OPERATING THE TRANSMISSION
Release Bearing Wear
Clutch Adjustment
When you must idle your engine for any
period of time, shift your transmission
to neutral and disengage the clutch
(take your foot OFF of the pedal). This
helps prevent unnecessary wear to
your clutch release bearing, and it is
less tiring for you, too.
Inspect manual clutches according to
the manufacturer's recommendations.
Regular maintenance should be
followed to maintain correct clutch
adjustment. Have your dealer's
Service Department perform any
adjustment necessary.
•
To provide smooth gear
engagements while shifting,
use proper coordination between
shift lever and clutch.
Tips
•
Always use the clutch when
making upshifts or downshifts.
•
Always select a starting gear
that will provide sufficient gear
reduction for the load and terrain.
•
Never downshift when the vehicle
is moving too fast.
•
Never slam or jerk the shift lever
to complete gear engagement.
•
Never coast with the transmission
in neutral and the clutch
disengaged.
4
4-69
OPERATING THE TRANSMISSION
Transmission Oil Temperature
Gauge
Operating Automatic
Transmissions
The Transmission Temperature
Gauge (option), see Transmission Oil
Temperature Gauge on page 3-64,
indicates the temperature of the oil in
the transmission. Watch this gauge
to know when the transmission is
overheating: if it is, have it checked by
an authorized service representative.
An automatic transmission makes
shifting much easier, of course. But
because your truck pulls a heavy
load, it is important to use it efficiently.
For correct automatic transmission
operation, see the manufacturer's
Driver/Operator's Instruction Manual.
WARNING
4
If your vehicle has a Freedomline
transmission, be aware that it can
roll backwards when stopped on a
hill or grade, or when starting from
a stop on a hill or grade. Failure
to comply may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
Observe the following
guidelines:
4-70
•
On most automatic transmissions
there is no PARK position, so
you will need to apply the parking
brake before leaving the cab. See
Using the Parking Brake on page
4-20.
WARNING
Do not leave the cab without
applying the parking brake. The
truck could roll and cause an
accident. Always apply the parking
brake before you leave the cab.
Failure to comply may result in
personal injury, death, equipment or
property damage.
OPERATING THE TRANSMISSION
Auxiliary Transmissions
If you have an auxiliary transmission
installed on your Kenworth , see
the transmission manufacturer's
Driver/Operator's Instruction Manual to
learn how to operate it correctly.
Steerable Drive Axle
CAUTION
The customer cannot change axle
ratios or tires without Kenworth
Engineering approval.
If you have a Steerable Drive Axle
installed on your Kenworth, refer to
the auxiliary transmission/transfer
case manufacturer's Driver/Operator's
Instruction Manual to learn how to
operate correctly.
4
4-71
SHUT-DOWN
SHUT-DOWN
Introduction
4
After you have parked in a safe place
check your vehicle to make sure it will
be ready for the next trip. To make
sure your vehicle is ready to go after a
long stop (such as overnight), please
follow the suggestions below. Your
vehicle will be easier to get going when
you are ready, and it will be safer for
everyone who might be around it.
Please remember, too, that in some
states it is illegal to leave the engine
running and the vehicle unattended.
4-72
Final Stopping Procedures
1.
Set the parking brake before
leaving the driver's seat.
To hold your vehicle while it
is parked, DO NOT rely on the
following:
°
air brakes
°
hand control valve for trailer
brakes
°
engine compression
Always use your parking
brakes!
WARNING
Do not use the trailer hand brake
or service brakes to park and hold
an unattended vehicle, use the
parking brakes. Because service
brakes work with air pressure, these
brakes could slowly release. Your
vehicle could roll, causing a serious
accident. Always set the parking
brakes. Never rely on the service
brakes to hold a parked vehicle.
Failure to comply may result in
personal injury, death, equipment or
property damage.
2.
If you must park on a steep grade,
always block the wheels.
3.
Drain water from the air tanks.
4.
While the engine and air supply
system are still warm, drain
moisture from the air tanks. Open
the tank drains just enough to
drain the moisture. Do not deplete
the entire air supply.
SHUT-DOWN
5.
Secure the vehicle, close all the
windows, and lock all doors.
Blocked Wheels
Before Stopping the Engine
Turbocharger
Do not shut off the engine immediately.
A hot engine stores a great amount
of heat and it does not cool down
immediately after you shut if off.
Always cool the engine down before
shutting it off. You will greatly increase
its service life.
This cooling-down practice is
especially important for a turbocharged
engine. The turbocharger on your
vehicle contains bearings and seals
that are subjected to hot exhaust
gases. While the engine is operating,
heat is carried away by circulating oil.
If you stop the engine suddenly after
a hard run, the temperature of the
turbocharger could rise to as much as
100° F (55° C) above the temperature
reached during operation. A sudden
rise in temperature like this could
cause the bearings to seize or the oil
seals to loosen.
Idle the engine at 1,000 rpm for five
minutes. Then low idle for thirty
seconds before shutdown. This will
allow circulating coolant and lubricating
oil to carry away heat from the cylinder
head, valves, pistons, cylinder liners,
turbocharger, and bearings. This way
you can prevent engine damage that
may result from uneven cooling.
4-73
4
SHUT-DOWN
Refueling
Location of Fuel Shut-Off Valves
WARNING
4
Air inside the fuel tanks allows water
to condense in the tank. To prevent
this condensation while the vehicle is
parked for extended periods of time,
fill the tanks to 95 percent of capacity.
Never fill to more than 95 percent
capacity as this provides room for
expansion resulting from temperature
extremes. When refueling, add
approximately the same amount to
each fuel tank on vehicles with more
than one tank.
WARNING
Do not carry additional fuel
containers in your vehicle. Fuel
containers, either full or empty,
may leak, explode, and cause or
feed a fire. Do not carry extra
fuel containers, even empty ones
are dangerous. Failure to comply
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
4-74
Do not remove a fuel tank cap
near an open flame. Diesel fuel in
the presence of an ignition source
(such as a cigarette) could cause
an explosion. A mixture of gasoline
or alcohol with diesel fuel increases
this risk of explosion. Use only the
fuel and/or additives recommended
for your engine. Failure to comply
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
Specification: Use only Ultra
Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) Fuel,
as recommended by engine
manufacturers. If you need further
information on fuel specifications,
consult the Engine Operation and
Maintenance Manual.
If your vehicle is equipped with shut-off
valves for the take-off and return lines,
they are located on the fuel lines
entering the top of the fuel tank. Fuel
shut-off valves for the fuel crossover
line are on the bottom of the fuel tank,
at the crossover line connection.
MAINTENANCE
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Environmental Protection and Material Hazards . . .
5-7
5-7
5-8
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE AND LUBRICATION
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preventive Maintenance Intervals and Schedule
Lubrication Specifications . . . . . . . . . .
Oil Reservoirs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lubrication Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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5-10
5-10
5-29
5-30
5-30
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5-33
5-34
5-35
5-36
5-37
5-39
AIR SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
Introduction . . . . . .
Scheduled Maintenance .
Air Tanks . . . . . . .
Air Gauges and Air Leaks
Air Compressor . . . . .
Air Dryer . . . . . . . .
5
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5-1
MAINTENANCE
Air Intake System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turbocharger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air Cleaners and Filter Replacement . . . . . .
5-41
5-42
5-42
BRAKE SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checks and Adjustments. . . . . . . . . . . .
Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS) . . . . . . . .
5-43
5-45
5-48
CAB MAINTENANCE
Exterior Maintenance . . . . . . . . . .
Cleaning, Protecting and Weather Stripping
Safety Restraint System - Inspection . . .
Windshield Wiper/Washer . . . . . . . .
5
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5-51
5-52
5-55
5-59
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5-60
5-62
5-64
5-65
COOLING SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
Topping Up. . . . .
Adding Coolant . . .
Change and Refilling
Radiator Cap . . . .
5-2
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MAINTENANCE
Engine (Block) Heater . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-65
ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE
Electrical System . . . . . . . . . .
Fuses, Circuit Breakers, And Relays. .
Fuse Inspection And Replacement . .
Adding Electrical Options . . . . . .
Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Battery Care . . . . . . . . . . . .
Battery Charging . . . . . . . . . .
Electrical and Alternator Precautions .
Remote Keyless Entry . . . . . . . .
Halogen/HID Lamp Headlamp Servicing
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5-66
5-66
5-67
5-68
5-73
5-76
5-77
5-79
5-80
5-81
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5-86
5-87
5-89
5-91
5-91
5
ENGINE MAINTENANCE
Engine Maintenance
Engine Lubrication .
Fuel System . . . .
Accessory Drive Belts
Engine Fan . . . .
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5-3
MAINTENANCE
Exhaust System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
All Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multi-Function Message Display . . . . . . . .
5-92
5-92
5-93
FRAME MAINTENANCE
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-94
FRONT AXLE AND SUSPENSION MAINTENANCE
Axle Lubrication
Inspection . . .
Wheel Alignment
U-Bolt Torque .
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5-97
5-98
5-98
5-98
HEATER AND AIR CONDITIONER MAINTENANCE
5
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-100
Heater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-101
Air Conditioner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-102
NOISE AND EMISSION CONTROL MAINTENANCE
Noise Emission Warranty . . . . . . . . . . . 5-103
Inspection and Maintenance Instructions . . . . . 5-105
5-4
MAINTENANCE
Noise Control System - Maintenance Log . . . . 5-110
REAR AXLE AND SUSPENSION MAINTENANCE
General Maintenance . . .
Visual Inspection . . . . .
Rear Suspension Fasteners
Rear Axle Lubrication . . .
Rear Axle Alignment . . .
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5-112
5-113
5-114
5-115
5-117
STEERING AND DRIVELINE MAINTENANCE
Power Steering . . .
Fluid Level and Refill
Steering Driveline . .
Driveshaft . . . . .
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5-118
5-119
5-120
5-121
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5-122
5-122
5-123
5-124
5
TIRES AND WHEEL MAINTENANCE
Introduction . . . . . . . . .
General Safety Requirements .
Speed Restricted Tires . . . .
Tire Inspection and Replacement
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5-5
MAINTENANCE
Tire Inflation and Loading . . . . . . . .
Wheel Mounting and Fastening . . . . . .
Wheel Replacement With Disc Brake Option
Disc Wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Comparing Hub Piloted and Ball Seat Parts
Tire Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . .
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5-124
5-127
5-130
5-131
5-132
5-133
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5-136
5-136
5-137
5-138
5-139
5-139
5-140
TRANSMISSION AND CLUTCH MAINTENANCE
Introduction . . . . . . . . . .
All Transmissions . . . . . . . .
Transmission Lubricants . . . . .
Automatic Transmissions . . . .
Clutch System Introduction . . . .
Clutch Linkage . . . . . . . . .
Clutch Adjustment - Normal Wear .
5
5-6
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PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
PREVENTIVE
MAINTENANCE
Introduction
This section will help you keep your
Kenworth in good running condition.
There are a number of checks you
can do, and you may be able to do
some of the service work yourself. But
please, let your Kenworth Dealer do
any work you do not have the tools
or skill to perform. Authorized service
mechanics are trained in the proper
technical and safety procedures to
maintain your Kenworth correctly.
Good driving practices, daily
and weekly driver maintenance
inspections, and periodic service
inspections by an authorized Kenworth
Dealer, will help keep your Kenworth in
good working order and provide many
years of dependable service.
WARNING
It can be dangerous to attempt
maintenance work without sufficient
training, service manuals, and the
proper tools. You could be injured,
or you could make your vehicle
unsafe. Do only those tasks you
are fully trained and equipped to
do. Failure to comply may result in
personal injury, death, equipment or
property damage.
Safety Precautions
•
Before attempting any
procedures in the engine
compartment, stop the engine
and let it cool down. Hot
components can burn skin on
contact.
•
Be alert and cautious around
the engine at all times while the
engine is running.
•
If work has to be done with the
engine running, always (1) set
the parking brake, (2) chock
the wheels, and (3) ensure that
the shift lever or selector is in
Neutral.
•
Exercise extreme caution to
prevent neckties, jewelry, long
hair, or loose clothing from
getting caught in moving engine
parts.
5-7
5
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
•
Disconnect the battery ground
strap whenever you work on
the fuel system or the electrical
system. When you work around
fuel, do not smoke or work
near heaters or other fire
hazards. Keep an approved fire
extinguisher handy.
•
Always support the vehicle with
appropriate safety stands if it is
necessary to work underneath
the vehicle. A jack is not
adequate for this purpose.
•
When working underneath the
vehicle without appropriate
safety stands but with the
wheels on the ground (not
supported), make sure that (1)
the vehicle is on hard level
ground, (2) the parking brake
is applied, (3) all wheels are
chocked (front and rear) and (4)
the engine cannot be started.
Remove the ignition key.
5
5-8
•
Never start or let the engine run
in an enclosed, unventilated
area. Exhaust fumes from
the engine contain carbon
monoxide, a colorless and
odorless gas. Carbon monoxide
can be fatal if inhaled.
Incomplete or improper servicing
may cause problems in the operation
of the vehicle. If in doubt about
any servicing, have it done by your
authorized Kenworth Dealer. Improper
maintenance during the warranty
period may also affect the warranty
coverage.
Modifying your vehicle can make
it unsafe. Some modifications can
affect your vehicle's electrical system,
stability, or other important functions.
Before modifying your vehicle, check
with your Kenworth Dealer to make
sure it can be done safely and correctly.
Environmental Protection
and Material Hazards
Some of the ingredients in engine
oil, hydraulic oil, transmission and
axle oil, engine coolant, diesel fuel,
air conditioning refrigerant (R-134a
and PAG oil), batteries, etc., may
contaminate the environment if
spilled or not disposed of properly.
Non-compliance with environmental
regulations can result in fines and/or jail
terms. Contact your local government
agency for information concerning
proper disposal.
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
WARNING
This vehicle contains material
known by the State of California to
cause cancer and/or birth defects
or other reproductive harm. This
warning requirement is mandated
by California law (Proposition 65)
and does not result from any
change in the manner in which
Kenworth Truck Company vehicles
are manufactured.
CAUTION
Handle lubricants carefully. Vehicle
lubricants (oil and grease) can be
poisonous and cause sickness.
They can also damage the paint on
the vehicle.
5
5-9
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE AND LUBRICATION
MAINTENANCE
SCHEDULE AND
LUBRICATION
Introduction
The following section summarizes
preventive maintenance and lubrication
requirements for the maintenance of
your Kenworth . In addition, supporting
manuals and literature are included in
the glove box literature package.
5
5-10
Preventive Maintenance
Intervals and Schedule
Your preventive maintenance program
begins with daily checks you perform.
See Driver's Check List on page 1-28.
If your Kenworth is serviced regularly,
you can avoid many large, expensive,
and time-consuming repairs, as well
as ensuring many years of safe and
smooth operation. Also, be advised
that neglect of recommended service
may in some cases void your vehicle's
warranty. So, for your safety and life
of your vehicle, please follow Table
8, Maintenance Schedule on page
5-17. But remember, there may be
maintenance operations that demands
skills and equipment you do not have.
If so, please take your Kenworth to an
expert mechanic, for your safety and
your vehicle's performance.
WARNING
It can be dangerous to attempt
maintenance work without sufficient
training, service manuals, and the
proper tools. You could be injured,
or you could make your vehicle
unsafe. Do only those tasks you
are fully trained and equipped to
do. Failure to comply may result in
personal injury, death, equipment or
property damage.
In severe operating conditions such
as earth moving, you will need to
perform maintenance checks and
services more frequently. Other
severe operating conditions to be
aware of are: where the vehicle is
consistently operated under conditions
of extreme temperature; conditions
where heavy loads are being hauled;
and contaminated environments, or
steep grades.
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE AND LUBRICATION
Consult the component manufacturer's
maintenance manuals for further
information on maintenance
procedures specific to these
conditions.
Maintenance And Lubrication
Intervals
NOTE
Different lubricants or service
intervals than those listed below
may be required.
The following table (Recommended
Lubrication Intervals) shows service
intervals for Kenworth vehicles. All
intervals shown are for normal and
heavy-duty operations.
Table 6 Recommended Lubrication Intervals
ITEM
Hood Pivot
Front Brake Camshaft
Front Brake Camshaft
Tie-Rod Ends
Power Steering Reservoir
- Check Fluid Level
- Change Fluid & Filter
Drag Link
Steering Gear Box Trunnion
Steering U-joints
Steering Slip Joint
Brake Treadle
INTERVALS
None
10,000-15,000
120,000
10,000-15,000
COMMENTS
Synthetic Grease With Special Fittings
With LMS
10,000-15,000
2 Times/Year (After Summer & Winter)
5
60,000
10,000-15,000
10,000-15,000
10,000-15,000
10,000-15,000
#2 NLGI extreme pressure,
hand-operated gun only.
#2 NLGI extreme pressure,
hand-operated gun only.
#2 NLGI extreme pressure,
hand-operated gun only.
#2 NLGI extreme pressure,
hand-operated gun only.
lithium-based, moly-filled, heavy duty grease with
lithium-based, moly-filled, heavy duty grease with
lithium-based, moly-filled, heavy duty grease with
lithium-based, moly-filled, heavy duty grease with
10,000-15,000
5-11
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE AND LUBRICATION
ITEM
Clutch Pedal Shaft
Main and Aux. Transmission
- Check Fluid Level
- Drain and Refill
Rear Wheel Bearings Standard
Rear Wheel Bearings - LMS
5
INTERVALS
None
12 mo./100,000
12 mo./100,000 Inspect
3 years/350,000 Service
Rear Axle
- Check Fluid Level
- (Rear Axle) Drain, Flush, Refill
Rear Brake Camshafts
Rear Brake Camshafts
Spring Pins
Front & Rear Slack Adjusters
King Pins
Fifth Wheel
Front Wheel Bearings Standard
Front Wheel Bearings - LMS
12
Engine Lubricating Oil
- Check Fluid Level
- Change Oil
Spring Shackle Pins
Clutch Linkage
5-12
10,000-15,000
120,000
10,000-15,000
10,000-15,000
10,000-15,000
10,000-15,000
12 mo./100,000
COMMENTS
Kenworth Is Standard With Synthetic Lube (mineral gear lube optional)
See Transmission Manufacturers Specifications and Recommendations - Contact Your
Kenworth Dealer For Preventive Maintenance Specifications/Schedule
See www.conmet.com for maintenance details
Inspect for leaks and check for end-play: 12 mo.\100,000 miles.
See hub manufacturer's service manual for details:
http://www.conmet.com/pdfs/preset_service_manual.pdf
If no oil leaks, then no need for service prior to 3 years/350,000 miles.
Kenworth Is Standard With Synthetic Lube (mineral gear lube optional)
See Axle Manufacturers Specifications and Recommendations - Contact Your Kenworth
Dealer For Preventive Maintenance Specifications/Schedule
Synthetic Grease With Special Fittings
With LMS
With Rubber Bushed Pins - No Service
Synthetic Grease With Special Fittings
40,000 to 60,000 miles for Adjustment
See www.conmet.com for maintenance details
mo./100,000 Inspect
3 years/350,000 Service
Inspect for leaks and check for end-play: 12 mo.\100,000 miles.
See hub manufacturer's service manual for details:
http://www.conmet.com/pdfs/preset_service_manual.pdf
If no oil leaks, then no need for service prior to 3 years/350,000 miles.
Daily Trip Check
10,000-15,000
10,000-15,000
10,000-15,000
See Engine Manufacturers Recommendations
Must Meet Engine Manufacturers Specifications
No Service With Rubber Bushed Spring Pins
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE AND LUBRICATION
ITEM
Clutch Release Bearing
Clutch Cross Shaft
Door Weatherstrip
INTERVALS
10,000-15,000
10,000-15,000
100,000 or As
Required
100,000 or As
Lock Cylinders
Required
Door Hinges
100,000 or As
Required
Door Latches and Striker Plate 100,000 or As
Required
Driveshaft (all)
See on page 5-14 and
on page 5-15
None
Center Bearing
Suspension
Per Specifications
AG380
None
AG400
None
Chalmers
Hendrickson
Neway
Reyco
COMMENTS
Extended Grease Fittings
Extended Grease Fittings
Teflon Bushing
No Lube Required
No Lube Required
See Suspension Manufacturers Specifications & Recommendations - Contact Your
Kenworth Dealer For Preventive Maintenance Specifications/Schedule
5
For additional Air System Scheduled
Maintenance information, see Air
System Scheduled Maintenance on
page 5-34.
5-13
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE AND LUBRICATION
Table 7 Spicer Driveshaft Lubrication Intervals*
5
LINEHAUL
SERIES
CITY
ON-HWY
ON/OFF-HWY
5,000/8,000 mi
10,000/15,000 mi
10,000/15,000 mi
5,000/8,000 mi
10-Series
(8,000/12,800 km)
(16,000/24,000 km)
(16,000/24,000 km)
(8,000/12,800 km)
(1480 thru 1810 & SPL-90)
or 3 Months (whichever
or 30 Days (whichever
or 3 Months (whichever
Slip member also requires or 3 Months (whichever
comes first)
comes first)
comes first)
comes first)
lubrication.
25,000 mi
25,000 mi
25,000 mi
25,000 mi
Spicer Life Series® Medium Duty
(40,000 km)
(40,000 km)
(40,000 km)
(40,000 km)
(SPL-55, 70 & 100)
or 6 Months (whichever
or 6 Months (whichever
or 6 Months (whichever
or 6 Months (whichever
comes first)
comes first)
comes first)
comes first)
Booted & permanently
lubricated slip member.
25,000 mi
100,000 mi
100,000 mi
25,000 mi
Spicer Life Series® Heavy Duty
(40,000 km)
(160,000 km)
(160,000 km)
(40,000 km)
(SPL-140, 140HD, 170, 170 or 6 Months (whichever
or 6 Months
or 6 Months (whichever
or 6 Months (whichever
HD, 250 & 250 HD)
comes first)
comes first)
comes first)
Standard Spicer Life
Series u-joint Booted &
permanently lubricated slip
member.
* Spicer Driveshaft Division recommends re-lubrication with Chevron Ulta-Duty EP-2 or a compatible grease meeting N.L.G.I. Grade 2 specifications
with an operating range of +325F/+163C to -10F/-23C.
** Spicer Life XL u-joints are best identified by the rubber seal guards (a soft, pliable boot) fitted to the bearing cups. Spicer Life XL u-joints have
a plastic fitting cover attached prior to the required initial 350,000 mile re-lubrication. Standard Spicer Life Series u-joints have a hard plastic
slinger fitted to the bearing cups.
City is defined as all applications that require a minimum of 90% of operation time within the city limits.
On-Highway is defined as all applications requiring less than 10% of operating time on gravel, dirt or unpaved roads.
Linehaul is defined as 100% of operation time on smooth concrete or asphalt.
On/Off-Highway is defined as all applications operating primarily on paved roads, but requiring more than 10% of operating time on gravel,
dirt or unpaved roads.
5-14
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE AND LUBRICATION
Table 8 XL Lubrication Cycles
LINEHAUL
SERIES
CITY
ON-HWY
ON/OFF-HWY
SPICER LIFE XL - FIRST LUBRICATION CYCLE*
100,000 mi
350,000 mi
350,000 mi
100,000 mi
SPICER LIFE XL** - HEAVY
DUTY
(160,000 km)
(560,000 km)
(560,000 km)
(160,000 km)
(SPL-140XL, 170XL &
or 1 year (whichever comes or 3 years (whichever comes or 3 years (whichever comes or 1 year (whichever comes
250XL)
first)
first)
first)
first)
Extended Lubrication
u-joints. Booted &
permanently lubricated
slip member. After initial
miles (kilometers) or time
is reached, the plastic
grease fitting cover must
be removed and the joints
re-lubricated.
SPICER LIFE XL - RE-LUBRICATION CYCLE*
25,000 mi
100,000 mi
100,000 mi
25,000 mi
SPICER LIFE XL** - HEAVY
DUTY
(40,000 km)
(160,000 km)
(160,000 km)
(40,000 km)
(SPL-140XL, 170XL &
or 6 Months (whichever
or 6 Months (whichever
or 6 Months (whichever
or 6 Months (whichever
250XL)
comes first)
comes first)
comes first)
comes first)
Extended Lubrication
u-joints. Booted &
permanently lubricated slip
member. Once the greased
fitting cover has been
removed, this relubrication
interval must be followed.
5-15
5
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE AND LUBRICATION
LINEHAUL
SERIES
CITY
ON-HWY
ON/OFF-HWY
* Spicer Driveshaft Division recommends re-lubrication with Chevron Ulta-Duty EP-2 or a compatible grease meeting N.L.G.I. Grade 2 specifications
with an operating range of +325F/+163C to -10F/-23C.
** Spicer Life XL u-joints are best identified by the rubber seal guards (a soft, pliable "boot") fitted to the bearing cups. Spicer Life XL u-joints
have a plastic fitting cover attached prior to the required initial 350,000 mile relubrication. Standard Spicer Life Series u-joints have a hard
plastic slinger fitted to the bearing cups.
City is defined as all applications that require a minimum of 90% of operation time within the city limits.
On-Highway is defined as all applications requiring less than 10% of operating time on gravel, dirt or unpaved roads.
Linehaul is defined as 100% of operation time on smooth concrete or asphalt.
On/Off-Highway is defined as all applications operating primarily on paved roads, but requiring more than 10% of operating time on gravel,
dirt or unpaved roads.
5
Maintenance Schedule
Maintenance Interval
Depending on the service package
built into your Kenworth , use Table
8, Maintenance Schedule on page
5-17, as a guide to plan service
work for Non-ESI and ESI vehicles.
Be sure and follow the frequency
recommendations for your vehicle.
Perform the listed operation in the
shortest interval indicated. For
example, if there is an “I” for Inspect
listed under 15,000 mi, 60,000 mi
and 120,000 mi, the shortest interval
indicated is 15,000 mi; therefore, you
should inspect the operation listed
every 15,000 miles. It just so happens
that both 60,000 and 120,000 miles
are multiples of 15,000 and the table
indicates that a 15,000 mile interval
will also occur at 60,000 and 120,000
miles.
NOTE
If a scheduled service interval is
shaded, skip to the next interval.
The frequency of each service
operation is identified by open
(non-shaded areas).
5-16
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE AND LUBRICATION
TABLE KEY
A
I
R
G2
Part Of Federal Annual Inspection Every 120,000 Miles (192,000 km)
Inspect
Replace
Synthetic Lube Required - 500,000 Drain
Table 9 Maintenance Schedule
OPERATION \ FREQUENCY
INITIAL DRIVE-IN
Clutch Brake Operation
Clutch Pedal Free Travel _____ inches
Glass for Cracks or Chips
Door Window Operation
Interior Lights
Interior Appearance:/Condition:
Seats
Floor Mats
Door Panels
Headliner
Dash
Covers
Wiper Operation
Wiper Blade Condition
INTERVALS
7,500 mi 15,000 mi 60,000 mi
(12,000
(24,000
(96,000 km)
km)
km)
A
I
B
I
I
I
C
I
I
I
COMMENTS
120,000 mi
(193,000
km)
Annually
D
I
I
A
5
Replace As Required
Check For Tears, Stains, Wear
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
A
A
5-17
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE AND LUBRICATION
OPERATION \ FREQUENCY
Horns (Electric and Air)
Mirrors
SAFETY EQUIPMENT
Drain Water from Air Tanks
Air Tank Check Valve
Emergency Operation of Spring Brakes
Air Press. Build-up time: _______ min.
Governed Air Pressure: _______ psi
Air Press. Drop-Brakes not Applied: ___
Air Press. Drop-Brakes Applied: ___
Fire Extinguisher Charge
5
Flare Kit/Reflectors
CIRCLE INSPECTION
Physical Damage:
Exterior Sheet Metal
Grille and Radiator
Trailer Light Cord and Connectors
Air Lines and Gladhands
Pintle - Hook/Eye Condition
5th Wheel Mounting and Condition
Headlights - High and Low Beams
Road Lights
Marker Lights
Turn Signals
5-18
INTERVALS
7,500 mi 15,000 mi 60,000 mi
(12,000
(24,000
(96,000 km)
km)
km)
I
I
A
I
I
I
I
I
B
I
I
I
I
I
C
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
COMMENTS
120,000 mi
(193,000
km)
Annually
A
A
D
I
A
A
A
A
A
A
Daily
Replace or Recharge Per Extinguisher
Manufacturer Recommendations
A
B
C
A
D
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE AND LUBRICATION
OPERATION \ FREQUENCY
Emergency Flasher
Brake Lights
Backup/Loading Lights
License Plates: Permits and Mounting
Mud Flaps/Serviceable
Fuel Tank Mounting
Exhaust System-Condition and Mounting
Bolts
Frame Fastener Torque:
Lubricate:
Door Hinges and Latches
Body Mounts (Straight Truck Only)
Body Sides and Roof Panels (Straight
trucks)
Cab Air Suspension Mounts
Hood:
Hold Down Latches
Safety Lock
Front Pivot Assembly
INTERVALS
7,500 mi 15,000 mi 60,000 mi
(12,000
(24,000
(96,000 km)
km)
km)
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
COMMENTS
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
120,000 mi
(193,000
km)
Annually
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
I
A
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
See Table Key on page 5-17.
See Manufacturers Recommendations
Replace If Damaged
5
Replace As Required
5-19
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE AND LUBRICATION
OPERATION \ FREQUENCY
5
ENGINE SERVICE
Engine Oil - Change
Engine Oil Level
Oil Filters
Fuel Filters
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
Drain Water from Fuel System
Engine Tune-up
Cooling:
Check Supplemental Additive/Conditioner
to Manufacturer Specifications_______%
Coolant Level
Coolant Protection: _______ degrees
Pressure Test
Replace Water Filter
Hose Condition and Connections
Radiator Mounting
Fan Shroud
Ring Shroud
Fan Assembly and Idler Pulley
Check Water Pump for Leaks/Play
Radiator - Exterior Condition
Replace Engine Coolant
5-20
INTERVALS
7,500 mi 15,000 mi 60,000 mi
(12,000
(24,000
(96,000 km)
km)
km)
A
B
C
COMMENTS
120,000 mi
(193,000
km)
Annually
D
See Engine Manufacturers Operator
Manual provided with this chassis
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
R
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
Check At Time Of Coolant Replacement
New Release At 100-120K - Per Engine
Filter Manufacturer Recommendations
No Service Required on ESI Units
Once every 240,000 Miles (384,000 km)
For coolant replacement, please see
engine Operator’s Manual included with
this chassis
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE AND LUBRICATION
OPERATION \ FREQUENCY
INTERVALS
7,500 mi 15,000 mi 60,000 mi
(12,000
(24,000
(96,000 km)
km)
km)
Charge Air Cooler Piping (CAC)
COMMENTS
120,000 mi
(193,000
km)
Annually
*
R
Air Cleaner:
Air Intake Pipe Clamps
*
I
Contaminant Accumulation
Air Cleaner Restriction ___ (replace if
greater than 20)
Vacuator Valve-Operation & Condition
Mounting Bolts
Leaks
Interference
Hose Condition and Connections
Power Steering - Reservoir Level
Power Steering Fluid - Replace
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
R
R
R
R
I
I
Power Steering Filter - Replace
Fan and Accessory Drive Belt(s) Condition
I
Tighten clamps after the first 500 miles (800
km).
* See Pipe and Hose Clamp Torque Values
on page 5-89.
Replace Annually/Air Cleaner Restriction:
Replace If Greater Than 20
Tighten clamps after the first 500 miles (800
km).
* See Pipe and Hose Clamp Torque Values
on page 5-89.
Check Every 15,000 Miles (24,000 km) in
Dirty Conditions
5
Check For Leaks and Cracking
Service 2 Times Per Year - 60,000 Mile
Intervals
See Table Key on page 5-17
For details on belt replacement see the
Engine Operator's Manual included with
this chassis.
5-21
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE AND LUBRICATION
OPERATION \ FREQUENCY
5
Air Conditioner Compressor Mounting
Cold Start Aids
Governor and Pump Security Seals OK
High Idle: ________ RPM
Emergency Shutdown
Vibration Damper Condition
Cranking System:
Check Harness/Cables For Loose
Connections, Chafing, Broken Retention
Clips
Starter Draw: _________ volts
Alternator/Charging System:
Check Harness/Cables For Loose
Connections, Chafing, Broken Retention
Clips
Output Voltage: _________ volts
Exhaust System
INTERVALS
7,500 mi 15,000 mi 60,000 mi
(12,000
(24,000
(96,000 km)
km)
km)
I
I
I
I
5-22
I
I
I
I
I
I
A
I
Rear Engine Mounts
FRONT COMPONENTS
Steering Components Condition:
Steering Gear
Steering Shaft Splines and Joint(s)
Pitman Arm
Drag Link
Steering Arms
I
I
COMMENTS
120,000 mi
(193,000
km)
Annually
I
I
A
A
I
I
I
A
B
I
I
I
I
I
I
C
I
I
I
I
I
I
To ensure proper inspection it may be
necessary to inspect under and inside frame
rails and unclip harness/cable bundles.
Check for leaks and proper support.
Tighten leg to mount flange head bolts to
210-230 Lb-Ft (284-311 Nm) torque
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To ensure proper inspection it may be
necessary to inspect under and inside frame
rails and unclip harness/cable bundles.
D
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A
A
A
A
A
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE AND LUBRICATION
INTERVALS
7,500 mi 15,000 mi 60,000 mi
(12,000
(24,000
(96,000 km)
km)
km)
COMMENTS
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120,000 mi
(193,000
km)
Annually
A
A
A
A
A
A
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Front Hub Lubricant Level
Spring Leaves
Air Springs - AG130
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A
A
A
U-Bolt and Suspension Fastener Torque
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OPERATION \ FREQUENCY
Tie Rod Arms
Tie Rod Ends
Radius Rods/Torque Arms
Chassis Frame Cracks or Breaks
Spring Shackles and Hanger Brackets
Spring Pins
King Pin Wear
Steering Axle Wheel Bearing - End Play
Adjustment and Inspection
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No Service Required on ESI Units
No Service Required on ESI Units
Inspect for leaks and check for end-play:
12 mo.\100,000 miles.
See hub manufacturer's service manual for
details:
http://www.conmet.com/pdfs/
preset_service_manual.pdf
If no oil leaks, then no need for service prior
to 3 years/350,000 miles.
See for Front Suspension U-Bolt torque. on
page 5-99
Tighten U-bolts after the first 500 miles (800
km).
See Table Key on page 5-17.
5-23
5
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE AND LUBRICATION
OPERATION \ FREQUENCY
REAR COMPONENTS
Rear Suspension Components - Condition
Track/Torque Rods
Suspension Brackets & Welds - Cracks
Springs, Hangers & Shackles
Walking Beams
Bushings - Worn
Air Springs & Mounts
Lubrication
Suspension Air Fittings - Leaks
U-Bolt and Suspension Fastener Torque
INTERVALS
7,500 mi 15,000 mi 60,000 mi
(12,000
(24,000
(96,000 km)
km)
km)
A
B
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C
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COMMENTS
120,000 mi
(193,000
km)
Annually
D
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For other suspension, "see manufacturers
recommendations". Rear suspension
fasteners: re-torque after first 2,000 miles
(3,218 km). See Rear Suspension U-Bolt
torque on page 5-115.
I
5
For Kenworth Non-Proprietary
Suspensions, See your Kenworth
Dealer
For Preventive Maintenance
Specifications/Schedule
Leaks:
Coolant
Engine Oil
Power Steering
Fuel
Transmission
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Axles
Inner and Outer Hub Seals
Engine and Transmission Mounts
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5-24
See Transmission Maintenance Interval
on page 5-137 section for recommended
inspection.
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE AND LUBRICATION
OPERATION \ FREQUENCY
INTERVALS
7,500 mi 15,000 mi 60,000 mi
(12,000
(24,000
(96,000 km)
km)
km)
Drivelines - U-joints and Slip Yokes
Rear Axle Lubricant Level
Rear Axle Lubricant Flush & Refill
Rear Axle Breathers - Clear
Vehicle Protection Valve Breakaway Test
Brake Chamber Mounting Bolt Torque
Brake Hoses for Cracks and Chafing
Adjust Brakes
Front & Rear Brake Camshaft Tube
Lubrication
Clutch Pedal Shaft
Clutch Linkage
Suspension Air Fittings
Clutch Release Bearing
Driveline Center Bearing
Automatic Slack Adjusters
Automatic Slack Adjusters
Brakes: Lining Remaining (replace as
required)
RF ______
RRF ______
RRR ______
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COMMENTS
120,000 mi
(193,000
km)
Annually
I
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Non-ESI - 250,000 Miles/ESI - 500,000
Miles.
See Table Key on page 5-17.
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Synthetic Grease Required - Special Fitting
No Service Required on ESI Units
5
Required Extended Fittings
No Service Required on ESI Units
Standard (non-LMS)
With LMS, Synthetic Lube Required Special Fitting
A
5-25
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE AND LUBRICATION
OPERATION \ FREQUENCY
INTERVALS
7,500 mi 15,000 mi 60,000 mi
(12,000
(24,000
(96,000 km)
km)
km)
LF ______
LRF ______
LRR ______
Drum Condition:
RF ______
RRF ______
RRR ______
LF ______
LRF ______
LRR ______
Chassis Lubrication
Transmission Lubricant Level
5
Transmission Lubricant and Filter Change
Rear Axle Lubricant Change
Front Hub Lubricant Change
BATTERIES
Check Harness/Cables For Loose
Connections, Chafing, Broken Retention
Clips
Signs of Over-Charging
Remove Corrosion and Seal Terminals
Hold-down and Box - Mounting Bolts
Load Test Batteries
Sealed Type - Condition:
5-26
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COMMENTS
120,000 mi
(193,000
km)
Annually
A
B
C
A
A
A
D
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See Transmission Manufacturers
Specifications and Recommendations
Supplied With Vehicle.
Synthetic Lube Required - 500,000 Drain.
Synthetic Lube Required - 500,000 Drain.
Synthetic Lube Required - 500,000 Drain.
To ensure proper inspection it may be
necessary to inspect under and inside frame
rails and unclip harness/cable bundles.
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE AND LUBRICATION
OPERATION \ FREQUENCY
(Color of charge indicator for each battery)
1 ______ 2 ______ 3 ______
TIRES AND WHEELS
Missing Valve Caps and Stem Locks
Cracks or Loose Wheel lugs
Tandem Mating
Irregular Wear
Tire Pressure (Record below)
Remaining Tread (Record below)
Tires & Wheels Inspection
Right
INTERVALS
7,500 mi 15,000 mi 60,000 mi
(12,000
(24,000
(96,000 km)
km)
km)
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A
I
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B
I
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C
I
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COMMENTS
120,000 mi
(193,000
km)
Annually
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5
Left
Air Pressure Adjusted to: _____________
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5-27
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE AND LUBRICATION
OPERATION \ FREQUENCY
5
ALIGNMENT
Toe-in: ______________ in (mm)
Caster: L ________ R ________
Rear Axle Alignment
ROAD TEST
Steering/Steering Play
Shifting
Brakes
Engine Operation (noises, surging, black
smoke)
Throttle Linkage
Engine Brake Operation
Seat Belts
Air Seat Operation
Cab Heater
Air Conditioner
Instruments and Gauges:
Speedometer/odometer
Tachometer
Oil Pressure
Engine Temperature
Illumination
SRS Warning
ABS Warning
Low Brake Pressure Warning Devices
5-28
INTERVALS
7,500 mi 15,000 mi 60,000 mi
(12,000
(24,000
(96,000 km)
km)
km)
A
A
I
I
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B
I
I
I
B
I
I
I
I
C
I
I
COMMENTS
120,000 mi
(193,000
km)
Annually
D
C
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A
D
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MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE AND LUBRICATION
Lubrication Specifications
You will find a complete Engine
Lubrication Service Guide in the Engine
Operation and Maintenance Manual.
There, the engine manufacturer
explains more fully all the maintenance
operations you and a qualified service
mechanic will need. And please
remember: one key to keeping your
Kenworth running at top economy
and in prolonging its life is proper
lubrication servicing. Neglecting this
essential aspect of vehicle care can
cost time and money in the long run.
Below you will find basic information
needed to perform routine vehicle
lubrication. Of course you will want
to schedule service more frequently
if operating in severe conditions
such as extreme heat or cold, with
very heavy loads, off-road, etc. For
any special service requirements,
consult your service manuals and your
lubricant supplier. The component
manufacturer's specification and
requirements take precedence over
other specifications.
CAUTION
Do not mix different types of
lubricants.
Mixing lubricants (oil
and grease) of different brands
or types could damage vehicle
components; therefore, drain (or
remove) old lubricants from the unit
before refilling it.
CAUTION
Handle lubricants carefully. Vehicle
lubricants (oil and grease) can be
poisonous and cause sickness.
They can also damage the paint on
the vehicle.
5
5-29
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE AND LUBRICATION
Oil Reservoirs
Lubrication Chart
For oil reservoirs with side filler plugs
(transmissions, axles, steering gear
boxes, transfer cases, etc.), the oil
must be level with the filler opening.
The following lubrication specifications
(Table 10) are for an ambient operating
temperature range of -15° to 100°
F (-26° to 38° C). For extreme
temperature operations, consult the
component manufacturers manuals.
NOTE
Use care when checking the oil level
with a finger. Just because you can
reach the oil level with a finger, does
not mean the oil level is correct.
NOTE
5
Factory oil level may be above this
level because it is measured as a
volume and not as a specific oil
level. This is acceptable to the
axle manufacturers; however, refill
should be per the Proper Oil Level
as shown in the figure below.
5-30
1
2
Improper Oil Level
Proper Oil Level
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE AND LUBRICATION
Table 10 Recommended Lubrication Types * Non-ESI Units
COMPONENTS
Power Steering Gear
Manual Steering Gear
Driveline U-Joints
Slip-Joint Splines
Hood Pivots
Fan Drive
Clutch Pedal Shaft
Clutch Linkage
Other chassis grease fittings not covered below.
Wheel Bearings-Non Driving Axles
Including Steerable Pushers and Tag Axles
Wheel Bearings-Non Steerable Pushers and Tag Axles
Threaded Pins & Bushings (e.g., spring pins & bushings)
Suspension Fittings (other than threaded pins & bushings)
RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT
ATF Dexron® III
SAE 80W-90 CP gear oil, miL-L-2105D, API GL5.
EP chassis grease, lithium 12-hydroxystearate or lithium complex base,
NLGI 2.
OIL LUBRICATED: SAE 80W-90 EP gear oil, miL-L-2105D, API GL5; or
SAE 50 Synthetic Transmission Oil (CD50).
GREASE LUBRICATED: EP chassis grease, lithium 12-hydroxystearate
or lithium complex base, NLGI 2.
OIL LUBRICATED: SAE 80W-90EP gear oil, miL-L-2105D, API GL5; or
SAE 75W-90 Synthetic Oil
GREASE LUBRICATED: EP chassis grease, lithium 12-hydroxystearate
or lithium complex base, NLGI 2.
EP grease, lithium 12-hydroxystearate or lithium complex base, NLGI 2,
with 3% molybdenum additive: Mobil Grease Special (Mobil), Molygrease
EP (Chevron), or equal.
EP chassis grease, lithium 12-hydroxystearate or lithium complex base,
NLGI 2.
EP chassis grease, lithium 12-hydroxystearate base, NLGI 2.
Steering Axle: Grease Fittings on Steering Arm; Tie Rod Ends; Drag
Link; King Pins
Clutch Release Bearing (remove inspection plate for access); Driveshaft High temperature ball bearing grease. Chevron SRI Mobil Grease HP,
Center Bearing
Texaco Multifax 2, or equivalent.
Manual Slack Adjusters
EP chassis grease, lithium 12-hydroxystearate base, NLGI 2.
5-31
5
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE AND LUBRICATION
COMPONENTS
Automatic Slack Adjusters; Wedge Brake Components; Disc Brake
Caliper
Cam Brake Camshaft Splines; Disc Brake Shaft Splines and Slide Pin
Retainers; Brake Clevis Pins
Brake Camshaft Bushings
RECOMMENDED LUBRICANT
High temperature EP grease; Texaco Thermotex EP-1, Shell Darina
EP-1, Mobilith AW-1, Meritor 0-616A, or equivalent.
Anti-seize type grease, Meritor specification 0-637.
EP Chassis grease, lithium 12-hydroxystearate base, NLGI 2.
CAUTION
Do not contaminate brake linings with grease.
Steering Shaft Grease Fittings
Brake Treadle Hinge and Roller
Lock Cylinders
Door Hinges
Door Latches & Striker Plates
Door Weatherstrip
Axle U-Bolt Threads
5
Hub-piloted Aluminum Wheels
Other Items
5-32
EP chassis grease, lithium 12-hydroxystearate base, NLGI 2.
Engine oil
Lock lubricant.
Not required - Teflon bushings
Polyethylene grease stick.
Silicone lubricant.
Chevron Zinc Lubrication anti-seize compound is recommended; or use
EP chassis grease, lithium 12-hydroxystearate or lithium complex base,
NLGI 2
Coat the wheel pilot or hub pads with Freylube #3 lubricant (light colored)
or Chevron Zinc lube. Do not get lubricant on the face of the wheel or
the hub.
Use manufacturers manuals.
AIR SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
AIR SYSTEM
MAINTENANCE
Introduction
you are certain all system
pressure has been depleted.
•
Never exceed recommended
air pressure and always wear
safety glasses when working
with air pressure. Never look
into air jets or direct them at
anyone.
•
Never attempt to disassemble a
component until you have read
and understood recommended
procedures. Some components
contain powerful springs and
injury or death can result if not
properly disassembled. Use
only proper tools and observe
all precautions pertaining to the
use of those tools.
WARNING
Prior to the removal of any air
system component, always block
and hold the vehicle by a secure
means other than the vehicle's
own brakes. Depleting air system
pressure may cause vehicle to
roll unexpectedly resulting in an
accident. Keep hands away from
chamber push rods and slack
adjusters, they may apply as system
pressure drops. Failure to comply
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
•
Never connect or disconnect
a hose or line containing air
pressure. It may whip as air
escapes. Never remove a
component or pipe plug unless
WARNING
Do not release the parking brake or
attempt to move the vehicle until air
pressure in both circuits is at least
100 psi (690 kPa), the level required
for normal brake operation. Failure
to comply may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
•
•
Do not use the trailer hand brake
control to hold vehicle while
parked. This control utilizes air
pressure for brake application.
Because acceptable air leakage
levels cause all truck air
systems to gradually lose
pressure, vehicle rollaway
could occur, resulting in an
accident, injuries or death.
Always apply the vehicle and
trailer parking brakes when the
vehicle is unattended.
5-33
5
AIR SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
and suspension height control
valves. To keep contaminants to the
lowest possible level, follow these
maintenance procedures.
Contamination of the air supply
system is the major cause of problems
in air-operated components such
as brake valves, wiper motors,
Scheduled Maintenance
Use the following table, to schedule
service operations and air system
tests.
Table 11 Air System Scheduled Maintenance
TEST
5
Air Compressor
Air Dryer
Air Governor
System Leakage
Dual Air Brake Treadle Valve
Hand Operated Trailer Brake Valve
Vehicle Parking Valve
Parking Brake Valve
Trailer Air Supply
Vehicle Protection Valves
Relay Valve
Spring Brake Inversion Valve
Automatic Limiting Valve
Single Check Valves
Double Check Valves
Stop Light Switch
Low Pressure Wig Wag
Low Pressure Switch
5-34
EACH WEEK
EACH MONTH
(10,000 mi)
(16,000 km)
MAXIMUM INTERVALS
SIX MONTHS
THREE MONTHS
(50,000 mi)
(25,000 mi)
(80,000 km)
(40,000 km)
●
●
●
ANNUALLY
(100,000 mi)
(160,000 km)
●
● –––––– or –––––– ●
● –––––– or –––––– ●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
AIR SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
TEST
Automatic Drain Valve
Safety Valve
Quick Release Valve
Manual Drain Valve
Air System Function Test
Scheduled maintenance should be
performed on the Kenworth's air
system, as outlined on Table 11.
In addition, perform an Air System
Function Test at least every 3 months
or if there is any indication of a potential
problem.
EACH WEEK
EACH MONTH
(10,000 mi)
(16,000 km)
●
MAXIMUM INTERVALS
SIX MONTHS
THREE MONTHS
(50,000 mi)
(25,000 mi)
(80,000 km)
(40,000 km)
ANNUALLY
(100,000 mi)
(160,000 km)
●
●
●
Air Tanks
Periodically: Clean filter screens
ahead of the valves by removing the
screens and soaking them in solvent.
Blow them dry with pressurized air
before reinstalling them.
WARNING
To eject moisture from the air system
tanks, pull the line which is connected
to the moisture ejection valve.
Continue pulling until the air comes out
free of water.
Daily: The supply and service air
tanks, must be drained on a daily
basis. Operate air devices daily to
circulate lubricants within the unit.
If the supply and service air tanks
are not drained at the recommended
frequency, water could enter the
air lines and valves. This could
cause corrosion or blockage, which
could compromise the brake system
safety and potentially cause an
accident. Failure to comply may
result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
5-35
5
AIR SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
Air Gauges and Air Leaks
CAUTION
Do not use penetrating oil, brake
fluid, or wax-based oils in the air
system. These fluids may cause
severe damage to air system
components.
•
Maintain the air compressor to
prevent excessive oil bypass.
•
Replace worn seals in valves and
air motors as they are needed.
Your Kenworth Dealer carries
rebuild kits for most units.
5
Your Kenworth comes with two
separate air pressure gauges for
two separate systems, Primary and
Secondary: the Primary gauge
indicates pressure in the rear braking
system; the Secondary gauge
indicates pressure in the front braking
system. Each gauge indicates the
amount of air pressure in pounds per
square inch (psi).
WARNING
Do not operate the vehicle if leakage
in the air system is detected. Failure
to check the brakes or follow these
procedures could cause a system
failure, increasing the risk of an
accident and may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
If the light and alarm do not turn off at
start-up, do not try to drive the vehicle
5-36
until the problem is found and fixed. If
the pressure in either or both systems
is too low for normal brake operation,
i.e., the pointer of one gauge falls
below 60 psi (414 kPa), a warning light
on the gauge will glow and the audible
alarm will sound.
Primary Air Pressure Gauge
Secondary Air Pressure Gauge
Follow the procedure below to
check the compressed air system
for leaks:
AIR SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
1.
Periodically, or after maintenance
or replacement of air system
components:
2.
Build up air pressure in the system
to the governor cutout point or until
120 psi (827 kPa) is reached.
3.
Stop the engine and release the
service brakes.
4.
Without applying the brake pedal,
observe the rate of air pressure
drop. This rate should not exceed
2.0 psi (14 kPa) per minute.
5.
Start the engine and build up the
air pressure again.
6.
Stop the engine, and apply the
brakes fully. Apply the brake pedal
and hold it down for five minutes.
The pressure drop should not
exceed 3.0 psi (21 kPa) per
minute.
7.
If you detect excessive leakage
(air pressure loss greater than
3.0 psi after five minutes of brake
application), a leakage test should
be made at the air line connections
and at all air brake control units.
These tests should determine
where air is escaping.
Air Compressor
Operation
All compressors, regardless of make
or model, run continuously while the
engine is running. System pressure
is controlled by the governor. The
governor acts in conjunction with
the unloading mechanism in the
compressor cylinder block to start
and stop compression of air. The
compressor is unloaded when the
system pressure reaches 120 psi (827
kPa) and compression is reestablished
when system pressure falls to 100 psi
(690 kPa).
5
5-37
AIR SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
Preventive Maintenance
•
The following service checks are
provided for your information only
and should be performed by a
certified mechanic. Contact your
Kenworth Dealer or the engine
manufacturer's Maintenance Manual
for further information on servicing air
compressors.
After completing any repairs to the air
system, always test for air leaks, and
check the brakes for safe operation
before putting the vehicle in service.
5
According to Table 11, Air System
Scheduled Maintenance on page 5-34:
•
Inspect compressor air filter
element, if so equipped, and
replace element if clogged. Check
compressor mounting and drive
for alignment and belt tension.
Adjust if necessary.
5-38
•
Remove compressor discharge
valve cap nuts and check for
presence of excessive carbon. If
excessive carbon is found, clean
or replace the compressor cylinder
head. Also, check compressor
discharge line for carbon, and
clean or replace the discharge line
if necessary.
Disassemble compressor and
thoroughly clean and inspect
all parts. Repair or replace
all worn or damaged parts, or
replace compressor with a factory
exchange unit.
CAUTION
When draining the engine cooling
system is required, to prevent
damage
from
freezing,
the
compressor must also be drained at
the cylinder head and block. Engine
damage could occur if the cooling
system is not periodically drained
and maintained.
See Cooling
System on page 5-60 for further
information.
AIR SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
Air Dryer
and non-compressing cycle) in a
normal fashion or it may be due to
excessive leaks in the air system.
valves and checking for presence of
water.
The function of the air dryer is to collect
and remove air system contaminants in
solid, liquid and vapor form before they
enter the brake system. It provides
clean, dry air to the components of
the brake system, which increases
the life of the system and reduces
maintenance costs.
NOTE
Because no two vehicles operate
under
identical
conditions,
maintenance and maintenance
intervals will vary. Experience is a
valuable guide in determining the
best maintenance interval for any
one particular operation.
NOTE
A small amount of oil in the system
may be normal and should not,
in itself, be considered a reason
to replace the desiccant cartridge.
Oil stained desiccant can function
adequately.
A tablespoon of water found in the
air tank would point to the need for a
desiccant cartridge change. However,
the following conditions can also
cause water accumulation and should
be considered before replacing the
desiccant cartridge.
•
Every 900 operating hours or 25,000
miles or every three (3) months check
for moisture in the air brake system
by opening air tanks, drain cocks, or
•
In areas where more than a 30°
F (17° C) range of temperature
occurs in one day, small amounts
of water can accumulate in
the air brake system due to
condensation. Under these
conditions, the presence of small
amounts of moisture is normal
and should not be considered as
an indication that the dryer is not
performing properly.
•
An outside air source has been
used to charge the air system.
This air did not pass through the
drying bed.
Air usage is exceptionally high
and not normal for a highway
vehicle. This may be due to
accessory air demands or some
unusual air requirement that
does not allow the compressor
to load and unload (compressing
5-39
5
AIR SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
Overhaul
Bendix AD-IS Series Air Dryer
Maintenance intervals typical for
on-highway operation would be 2 - 3
years, 350,000 miles or 10,800 hours.
Your Kenworth vehicle may be
equipped with a Bendix AD-IS series
air dryer. Any air dryer replacement
should be made with an identical
component.
NOTE
Maintenance intervals typical for high
duty cycle usage such as transit bus,
refuse hauler, dump truck, cement
mixers and off-highway operation
would be 1 year, 100,000 miles or
3,600 hours.
NOTE
5
Review the warranty policy before
performing
any
maintenance
procedures. An extended warranty
may be voided if unauthorized
maintenance is performed during
this period.
5-40
WARNING
If a different air dryer brand or model
is installed on the vehicle other
than what was originally installed,
it could cause the air system to
not perform correctly unless the
full air system design is reviewed
and modifications made to comply
with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety
Standards (FMVSS) 121 - Air Brake
Systems. Failure to abide by this
warning and maintain compliance
to FMVSS 121 could cause loss
of vehicle control and may lead to
serious personal injury or death.
The AD-IS Series air dryer has
incorporated into its design various
components that have typically been
installed separately on the vehicle.
See below for components/areas
affected.
•
Pressure protection valves
•
Safety valve
•
Governor and plumbing
•
Plumbing of the front and rear
service air tanks
•
Plumbing to accessory systems
AIR SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
These components are required to
meet the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety
Standards (FMVSS 121 - Air Brake
Systems). As the Warning above
states, any other type of air dryer
installed in the place of an AD-IS Series
will require changes, modifications,
and/or additions to your vehicle’s
air system to maintain compliance
with FMVSS 121. Kenworth strongly
recommends that if the air dryer
is changed from an AD-IS series,
you consult your nearest authorized
Kenworth dealer.
Air Intake System
CAUTION
Engine heat, vibration, and age
combine to loosen air intake
connections and cause cracks in
the tubing and elbows. Leaks in the
intake system allow abrasive dust to
enter the engine and quickly cause
expensive damage. During your daily
walk-around inspection, carefully
check all tubing, elbows, clamps
supports and fasteners for condition
and tightness.
•
Do not use air intake pipes and
connections as a step or to pull
yourself up. This could loosen the
connections and open the system to
unfiltered air which could damage
the engine.
Check the Charge-Air-Cooler for
air leaks annually. The air leaks
can be caused by cracked tubes
or header. For service see your
authorized Kenworth Dealer.
5
5-41
AIR SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
Turbocharger
When servicing the air intake and
exhaust systems on a turbocharged
engine, check the items listed below.
WARNING
Do not operate engine with
turbocharger
intake
piping
disconnected. A suction is created
when the engine is running. This
suction could draw your hand or
anything else near it into the impeller
fan. You could be injured. Always
keep the intake piping connected
when you will be running the engine.
5
Lubricating System: Check the oil
lines, housing, and connections. Look
for leaks, damage, or deterioration.
Leaks could mean you have damaged
oil lines or oil seals.
5-42
Manifold: With the engine operating,
check for leaking manifold or flange
gaskets.
High Frequency Vibration: Vibration
may indicate turbo rotor imbalance.
Have your Kenworth Dealer investigate
this immediately. If you detect any
deficiencies, take the vehicle to
an authorized Kenworth Dealer for
servicing. Delay could lead to severe
and expensive damage to your vehicle.
Air Cleaners and Filter
Replacement
The following service information is
basic to all air cleaner makes and
models. Service the filter elements
when the (option) locks in the extreme
High position. Have the element
serviced at an authorized Kenworth
Dealer. Paper elements require care
and proper handling, because they are
critical to engine service life.
Service the air cleaner periodically.
If the vehicle operates in areas with
heavy dust, maintenance should be
more frequent.
BRAKE SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
BRAKE SYSTEM
MAINTENANCE
•
brake linings
•
brake chambers
Introduction
•
slack adjusters
To operate your vehicle safely, you
need some understanding of its brake
systems. Brake adjustment and brake
balance must be set carefully to allow
equal stopping forces at all wheels.
Tires are also a very important part of
the whole system. How fast you can
stop depends on how much friction
there is between the road and your
tires.
All of the following areas are
interrelated and must conform to
original specifications:
•
tire size
•
cam radius
•
wedge angle
•
drum radius
NOTE
The air brake system of this
vehicle was configured for ONE
of
the
following
operations,
TRACTOR
or
TRUCK,
and
complies with the respective
portions of Federal Motor Vehicle
Safety Standards (FMVSS) 121.
A tractor shall not be operated
or configured as a truck, nor
shall a truck be operated or
configured as a tractor without
significant modifications to the
air brake system in order to retain
compliance with FMVSS 121.
Contact your Kenworth dealer for
instructions.
Once a brake system is set to
specifications, changing any one of
its components or any combination of
components may cause the system not
to work as well. All parts have to work
together to perform as they should.
Because your brake system is air
operated, see Air System Maintenance
on page 5-33 for more information on
checking your brakes.
Any replacement components in
the brake system should be the
same or better than the original
components. Any changes from the
original specifications can affect the
performance of the entire system.
5-43
5
BRAKE SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
Lubrication
5
WARNING
WARNING
Do not use any replacement part in
the brake system unless it conforms
exactly to original specifications.
A nonconforming part in your
vehicle's brake system could cause
a malfunction resulting in an injury
accident.
Sizes and types are
so related to one another that a
seemingly unimportant change in
one may result in a change in how
well the brakes work for you on the
road. If parts do not work together
properly, you could lose control of
your vehicle, which could cause a
serious accident. Failure to comply
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
Do not work on the brake system
without the parking brake set and
wheels chocked securely. If the
vehicle is not secured to prevent
uncontrolled vehicle movement, it
could roll and may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
5-44
CAUTION
Use wood blocks (4 in. X 4 in.
or larger) against the front and rear
surfaces of the tires. Be sure the
vehicle cannot move.
Cam-actuated brake components
such as anchor pins and brake
camshafts are subjected to high
temperatures, and must be lubricated
with non-melting, water resistant brake
grease meeting R-S Specification
0-616 (NLGI-Grade 1).
•
Lubricate according to Table
6, Recommended Lubrication
Intervals on page 5-11.
WARNING
Do not apply too much lubricant
to brake components, lubricate
sparingly.
Excessive amounts
of lubricant could contaminate
brake linings, which could reduce
brake effectiveness and cause an
accident. Failure to comply may
result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
BRAKE SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
Brake and Slack Adjuster
Lubrication
According to the interval, pressure
lubricate the slack adjuster and brake
camshaft (bracket/tube). Two grease
fittings are provided for both the slack
adjuster and camshaft bracket/tube.
•
Use standard chassis lubricant
(meeting No. 1 grade high
temperature, water proof
specifications).
•
Do not use moly-disulfide loaded
grease or oil (they may shorten the
service life of the slack adjuster).
•
Do not use pressure-release
grease fittings when lubricating
the slack adjuster.
Checks and Adjustments
Brake Linings
All vehicle Operator's should check the
brakes regularly. Always adjust the
brakes when they are cool.
•
WARNING
Do not use brake linings with
a thickness below the specified
minimum. Such linings will have
lining rivets exposed that can
damage the brake drum and reduce
brake efficiency, which could cause
an accident or system failure.
Failure to comply may result in
personal injury, death, equipment or
property damage.
Park the vehicle on a level surface
and block the wheels before
attempting any brake checks or
adjustments.
•
Brake linings should be inspected
by a qualified mechanic at an
authorized Kenworth Dealer for
wear. See Table 9, Maintenance
Schedule on page 5-17. In severe
service applications inspect the
linings more frequently.
5-45
5
BRAKE SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
Automatic Slack Adjusters
NOTE
Depending on your vehicles service
package (ESI or Non-ESI), brake
service requirements will vary.
Your Kenworth is equipped with
automatic brake (slack) adjusters.
WARNING
Do not work on the brake system
without the parking brake set and/or
the wheels chocked securely. If the
vehicle is not secured to prevent
uncontrolled vehicle movement, it
could roll and may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
CAUTION
5
Use wood blocks (4 in. X 4 in.
or larger) against the front and rear
surfaces of the tires. Be sure the
vehicle cannot move.
5-46
Periodically, brake adjustment
should be checked using the
following procedure:
1.
Check brakes when the
temperature of the service
brake linings are cool and the
system air pressure at 100 psi
(690 kPa) minimum.
NOTE
Chock the tires before proceeding.
2.
Release the parking brakes to
allow the slack adjusters to retract.
3.
Measure the retracted pushrod
length from the face of the brake
chamber to the center of the
pushrod pin.
4.
Apply 80 to 90 psi brake application
and measure the same distance.
5.
The difference is the pushrod
travel distance (applied stroke).
BRAKE SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
6.
Verify that the result is within the
correct range. See the following
Brake Adjuster Stroke table for
acceptable limits.
Measuring Pushrod Travel
1
2
3
Short as Possible Without
Brakes Dragging "Applied
Stroke"
Released Position
Applied Position
WARNING
Automatic slack adjusters should
not be manually adjusted to correct
excessive pushrod travel/stroke.
Excessive pushrod travel indicates
a problem in either the automatic
slack adjuster itself, the adjuster
installation or with related foundation
brake components.
Improperly
adjusting the slack adjuster(s) could
reduce brake effectiveness and lead
to an accident. Failure to comply
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
Correctly installed and functioning
automatic slack adjusters will produce
the pushrod travel for each chamber
type listed in the following table.
Table 12 Brake Adjuster Stroke
80-90 PSI (552 - 621 KPA) BRAKE
APPLICATION
BRAKE
AIR
PUSHROD
CHAMBER
TRAVEL
TYPE (Size)
(Applied
Stroke)
20-24
Front
1 to 1-3/4 in.
(25-44mm)
16
Front
3/4 in. to 1-1/2
in.(19-38mm)
30
Rear
1-1/2 to 2 in.
(38-51mm)
•
If the pushrod travel exceeds
the above specifications, have
your Kenworth dealer inspect the
slack adjuster and all other brake
related components for excessive
wear and/or damage. Replace
components that are damaged or
show signs of excessive wear.
5-47
5
BRAKE SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
NOTE
The automatic brake adjuster
alone does not ensure proper
brake operation. Inspect all brake
components. All brake components
work together and must be checked
periodically to ensure the brake
system works properly.
Anti-Lock Braking System
(ABS)
Below are some general notes on your
Kenworth anti-lock braking system. All
service work should be performed by
a qualified technician at an authorized
Kenworth Dealer. The foundation
brake system must be in proper
working order to ensure the best ABS
performance.
CAUTION
Before welding anywhere on the
vehicle, detach the ABS Electronic
Control Unit (ECU) connector and
all other electronic control units.
Failure to comply may result in
equipment damage.
5
5-48
CAUTION
Never detach the ECU connector
with the ignition turned on. Failure
to comply may result in equipment
damage.
NOTE
Check ABS wiring harnesses
and piping periodically for chafing
or other problems.
No regular
maintenance is required on the ABS
components.
NOTE
During wheel balancing, dyno
testing, or any time the ignition is on
with part of the ABS disconnected,
a failure code will be recorded.
Consult with your authorized
Kenworth Dealer for information on
clearing the failure code.
BRAKE SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
If, due to operating conditions, a brake
application causes either wheel on the
same axle to begin skidding, wheel
speed sensors immediately signal the
anti-lock controller in the modulator
assembly. The controller responds
instantly by signaling the solenoids in
the modulator which activate the air
valves, reducing application pressure
as needed to prevent the wheels from
locking up. If this over-riding correction
is effective, application pressure is
allowed to build up to the original input.
Any malfunction of the anti-lock
system on one or more axles will
cause the system to fail-safe, and
the panel-mounted amber warning
light will come on, indicating both a
malfunction, and automatic shut-down
of the system. If the air system is intact
(indicated by the pressure gauges),
the service brakes will continue to
function normally, but without benefit
of the anti-lock feature.
•
NOTE
WARNING
If one wheel on any driven axle
continues to slip or spin for
approximately 4 seconds, this will
cause the anti-lock controller for that
axle to go into the fail-safe mode,
and the warning light will give a
shutdown signal.
Do not attempt to recycle the
anti-lock system by turning the key
switch OFF and ON until the vehicle
has been brought to a full stop and
the parking brakes set. Failure to do
so could adversely affect steering
and braking control, and may result
in loss of vehicle control and an
accident. Failure to comply may
result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
In this case, the anti-lock system
can be turned back on, and the
warning light extinguished, by
turning the key switch OFF and
ON, after the vehicle has been
brought to a full stop. When the
key switch is turned back on, the
warning light will illuminate and
remain on for 3 to 5 seconds. This
is a built-in function test of the
warning light.
5
5-49
BRAKE SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
WARNING
Do not operate the vehicle in the
event of a malfunction in any air
circuit. Such a malfunction may
prevent the brake system from
operating properly, and could result
in an injury accident. The vehicle
should not be operated until the
system is repaired and both braking
circuits, including all pneumatic
and mechanical components, are
working properly. Failure to comply
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
5
5-50
CAB MAINTENANCE
CAB MAINTENANCE
Chrome and Aluminum Surfaces
Exterior Maintenance
To prevent rust, keep chromed parts
clean and protected with wax at all
times, especially in winter conditions
where the roads are salted.
Painted Surfaces
Wash painted surfaces frequently to
remove grime and caustic deposits
which may stain the finish. See
Cleaning, Protecting, and Weather
Stripping on page 5-52.
•
If necessary, use a commercial
chrome cleaner to remove light
rust.
•
Chrome surfaces are best
cleaned with fresh water. Wipe
dry to preserve their luster. A
commercial chrome cleaner will
remove light rust. After cleaning,
wax flat surfaces and apply a thin
coat of rust preventive lubricant
around bolts or other fasteners.
•
•
Under corrosive conditions, such
as driving on salted roads, clean
aluminum parts with steam or high
pressure water from a hose. A
mild soap solution will help. Rinse
thoroughly.
5
Clean aluminum wheels and
bumpers with warm water. Tar
remover will get rid of heavy
deposits of road grime. To prevent
spotting, wipe aluminum surfaces
dry after washing.
5-51
CAB MAINTENANCE
Tail Pipe Surface Cleaning
Stainless Steel
To maintain your quality finish, wash
with a soft cloth, mild soap and water
or glass cleaner. A non-abrasive
chrome polish can be used sparingly
on hard to clean areas. Do Not clean
your high heat chrome using scouring
pads, abrasive chrome polish, highly
acidic chemical cleaners or any other
abrasive cleaners.
Even high quality stainless steel parts
can rust under prolonged exposure
to salt water, especially when the
salt-laden moisture is held against
the metal surface by road grime. It
is, therefore, important to frequently
clean salty moisture and grime from
stainless steel surfaces.
•
If surface rust is encountered,
wash the surface and use a
commercial polishing compound
to clean off the rust, followed by
a coating of wax (do not apply
wax to hot parts, such as exhaust
pipes).
•
Never use steel wool when
cleaning stainless steel because
minute particles of the steel wool
can embed in the surface of the
stainless steel and cause rust
staining.
CAUTION
Using improper cleaning agents can
harm your high heat chrome and
invalidate your warranty.
5
5-52
Cleaning, Protecting and
Weather Stripping
Frequent washings of the vehicle
are required to remove grime and
contaminants that can stain and
oxidize paint and accelerate corrosion
of plated and polished metal surfaces.
Waxing offers added protection against
staining and oxidation. But to allow
enough time for your truck's finish to
cure, wait about 30 days after the date
of manufacture before waxing. Do not
apply wax in the hot sun and do not
friction burn the paint with a buffing
machine.
Occasionally spray weather-stripping
on doors and windows with silicone
compound to help preserve resiliency.
This is especially useful in freezing
weather to prevent doors and windows
from sticking shut with ice.
CAB MAINTENANCE
or other volatile cleaning fluids.
They may be toxic, flammable or
hazardous in other ways.
Vehicle Cleaning
Precautions
WARNING
•
Handle cleaning agents carefully.
Cleaning agents may be poisonous.
Keep them out of the reach of
children.
•
Observe all caution labels.
•
Always read directions on the
container before using any
product.
•
Do not use any solution that can
damage the body paint.
•
Most chemical cleaners are
concentrates which require
dilution.
•
Only use spot removing fluids in
well ventilated areas.
•
Do not use gasoline, kerosene,
naphtha, nail polish remover
Do not clean the underside of
chassis, fenders wheel covers,
etc. without protecting your hands
and arms. You may cut yourself
on sharp-edged metal parts.
•
Moisture, ice, and road salt
on brakes may affect braking
efficiency. Test the brakes
carefully after each vehicle wash.
•
Any vehicle is subjected to
deterioration from industrial
fumes, ice, snow, corrosive road
salt, etc., to name just a few
causes. A well-cared-for vehicle
can look like new many years
later. Regular and correct care
will contribute to maintaining the
beauty and the value of your
vehicle.
Your Kenworth Dealer has a number of
vehicle-care products and can advise
you on which ones to use for cleaning
the exterior and interior of your vehicle.
CAUTION
Do not aim the water jet directly at
door locks or latch. Tape the key
holes to prevent water from seeping
into the lock cylinders. Water in lock
cylinders should be removed with
compressed air. To prevent locks
from freezing in the winter, squirt
glycerin or lock deicer into the lock
cylinders.
5
5-53
CAB MAINTENANCE
might scratch the finishes during
the washing operation.
Washing the Exterior
1.
2.
5
3.
Begin by spraying water over the
dry surface to remove all loose dirt
before applying the car wash and
wax solution.
Do not wash the vehicle in direct
sunshine.
Do not spray water directly into the
cab and sleeper vents.
Using soapy water, wash the
vehicle with a clean soft cloth or
a soft brush made for automotive
cleaning.
Use cool or warm water and a
mild, household type soap. Strong
industrial detergents and cleaning
agents are not recommended.
Do not use stiff brushes, paper
towels, steel wool, or abrasive
cleaning compounds because
they will scratch painted, plated,
and polished metal surfaces.
Rinse surfaces frequently while
washing to flush away dirt that
5-54
4.
Wipe everything dry with a
chamois to avoid water spots.
To prevent water spotting, dry off
the cosmetic surfaces with a clean
cloth or chamois.
5.
Remove road tar with an
automotive type tar remover or
mineral spirits.
6.
After cleaning and drying, apply a
quality automotive wax.
°
Do not apply wax in the hot
sun.
°
Never dust off dry surfaces
with a cloth because it will
scratch the finishes.
NOTE
To allow enough time for your truck's
finish to cure, wait at least thirty days
after the date of manufacture before
waxing.
CAB MAINTENANCE
Cleaning the Chassis
•
•
Hose dirt and grime from the
entire chassis. Then, if an oil
leak develops, you will be able to
detect it easier.
Corrosive materials used for ice
and snow removal and dust control
can collect on the underbody. If
these materials are not removed,
accelerated corrosion (rust) can
occur on underbody parts such as
fuel lines, frames, floor pan, and
exhaust system, even though they
have been provided with corrosion
protection.
At least every spring, flush these
materials from the under body with
plain water. Be sure to clean any
area where mud and other debris can
collect. Sediment packed in closed
areas of the frame should be loosened
before being flushed. If desired, your
Kenworth Dealer can do this service
for you.
Cleaning Interior Vinyl and
Upholstery
•
Wipe vinyl upholstery and lining
with a good commercial upholstery
cleaner. Do not use acetone or
lacquer thinner.
•
Clean fabric upholstery with
upholstery shampoo specially
formulated for this purpose. Follow
instructions on the container.
Safety Restraint System Inspection
The seat belt system, including
webbing, buckles, latches, and
mounting hardware, endures heavy
use in heavy-duty vehicles, much more
than seat belt systems in passenger
cars. All users should be aware of the
factors contributing to this heavy use
and reduced belt life.
WARNING
Failure to properly inspect and
maintain restraint systems can
lead to injury or loss of life.
Without
periodic
inspection
and
maintenance
to
detect
unsafe conditions, seat restraint
components can wear out or not
protect you in an accident.
5-55
5
CAB MAINTENANCE
Factors contributing to reduced
seat belt life:
•
•
5
High mileage heavy trucks, often
accumulate mileage in excess of
500,000 total miles (800,000 km)
during the vehicle lifetime. This
is much greater than a typical
passenger car, which frequently
will not exceed 125,000 total miles
(200,000 km).
Seat and cab movement in
trucks, there is almost constant
movement of the belt due to ride
characteristics and seat design.
The constant movement of the belt
inside the restraint hardware and
the potential for the belt to come
in contact with the cab and other
vehicle parts, contributes to the
wear of the entire system.
5-56
•
Environmental conditions, such as
dirt and ultraviolet rays from the
sun, will reduce the life of the seat
belt system.
Due to these factors, the three-point
safety belt system installed in your
vehicle requires thorough inspection
every 20,000 miles (32,000 km). If
the vehicle is exposed to severe
environmental or working conditions,
more frequent inspections may be
necessary.
Any seat belt system that shows cuts,
fraying, extreme or unusual wear,
significant discoloration due to UV
(ultraviolet) exposure, abrasion to the
seat belt webbing, or damage to the
buckle, latch plate, retractor hardware
or any other obvious problem should
be replaced immediately, regardless
of mileage.
WARNING
It is important to remember that
any time a vehicle is involved in an
accident, the entire seat belt system
must be replaced.
Unexposed
damage caused by the stress of an
accident could prevent the system
from functioning properly the next
time it is needed. Failure to comply
may result in personal injury or
death.
CAB MAINTENANCE
other parts of the cab interior.
These areas are typical places
where the web will experience
cutting or abrasion. Cuts, fraying,
or excessive wear would indicate
the need for replacement of the
seat belt system.
Inspection Guidelines
Follow these guidelines when
inspecting for cuts, fraying, extreme
or unusual wear of the webbing,
and damage to the buckle, retractor,
hardware, or other factors. Damage to
these areas indicates that belt system
replacement is necessary.
2.
The pillar web guide (D-loop) is
the area where almost constant
movement of the seat belt
webbing occurs because of
relative movement between the
seat and cab.
3.
Check the Comfort Clip for cracks
or possible damage and check for
proper operation.
WARNING
Replace the entire belt system
(retractor and buckle side) if
replacement of any one part is
necessary.
Unexposed damage
to one or more components could
prevent the system from functioning
properly the next time it is needed.
Failure to comply may result in
personal injury or death.
1.
Check the web wear in the system.
The webbing must be closely
examined to determine if it is
coming into contact with any sharp
or rough surfaces on the seat or
4.
5.
Check buckle and latch for proper
operation and to determine if
latch plate is worn, deformed, or
damaged.
occupant restraint system and can
often be damaged if abused, even
unintentionally. Check operation
to ensure that it is not locked up
and that it spools out and retracts
webbing properly.
6.
If tethers are used, be sure they
are properly attached to the
seat and, if adjustable, that they
are adjusted in accordance with
installation instructions. Tethers
must also be inspected for web
wear and proper tightness of
mounting hardware.
7.
Mounting hardware should be
evaluated for corrosion, and for
tightness of bolts and nuts.
8.
Check web in areas exposed to
ultraviolet rays from the sun.
Inspect the retractor web storage
device, which is mounted on the
floor of the vehicle, for damage.
The retractor is the heart of the
5-57
5
CAB MAINTENANCE
If the color of the web in these
areas is gray to light brown, the
physical strength of the web
may have deteriorated due to
exposure to the sun's ultraviolet
rays. Replace the system.
3
4
5
6
7
8
Comfort Clip cracked or
damaged.
Buckle casting broken.
Retractor Web Storage for
damage. (located behind
trim panel)
Tethers for web wear and
proper tightness of mounting
hardware.
Mounting hardware for
corrosion, proper tightness
of bolts and nuts.
Web for deterioration, due
to exposure to the sun
WARNING
5
Seat Belt Inspection Points
1
2
5-58
Web cut or frayed or
extremely worn at latch
area.
Web cut or frayed at D-loop
web guide.
Failure to adjust tether belts properly
can cause excessive movement
of the seat in an accident. Tether
belts should be adjusted so that
they are taut when the seat is in its
most upward and forward position.
Failure to comply may result in
personal injury or death.
Once the need for replacement of
the seat belt has been determined,
be certain it is only replaced with
an authorized PACCAR Parts
replacement seat belt.
If the inspection indicates that any
part of the seat belt system requires
replacement, the entire system must
be replaced. An installation guide is
attached to every replacement belt.
Utilize the proper guide for your type
of seat, and follow the instructions
very closely. It is vitally important
that all components be reinstalled
in the same position as the original
components that were removed and
that the fasteners be torqued to
specification. This will maintain the
design integrity of the mounting points
for the seat belt assembly. Contact
your Authorized Kenworth Dealer if
you have any questions concerning
seat belt replacement.
CAB MAINTENANCE
Windshield Wiper/Washer
The windshield wiper system is
maintenance free. Check wiper
blades annually or every 60,000 miles
(96,000 km). Anco wiper blades
are recommended. See Windshield
Wipers/Washer on page 3-102, for
more information.
Washer Reservoir
CAUTION
Do not use antifreeze or engine
coolant in the windshield washer
reservoir, damage to seals and other
components will result.
Daily: Check reservoir water level,
located in the engine compartment. If
necessary, refill to the proper level.
5
5-59
COOLING SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
COOLING SYSTEM
MAINTENANCE
WARNING
Do not remove the radiator cap on
a hot engine. It can cause scalding
coolant to spray out and you could
be burned. If the engine has been
operated within the last 30 minutes,
be very careful in removing the
radiator cap.
Failure to comply
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
WARNING
5
Do not work on the fan with the
engine running. The engine fan can
engage at any time without warning.
Anyone near the fan when it turns
on could be injured. Before turning
on the ignition be sure that no one
is near the fan. Failure to comply
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
5-60
Topping Up
Kenworth Trucks are standard with
Air-to-Air cooling systems. These
cooling systems incorporate a radiator
to cool engine jacket water, a Charge
Air Cooler to cool turbo-charged engine
intake air, and a refrigerant condenser
to provide cab air conditioning.
Check the coolant level after each
trip when the engine has cooled. The
coolant level should be visible within
the sight gauge (glass level indicator)
on the surge tank. Add coolant as
necessary (see Adding Coolant on
page 5-62).
With the engine cold, top up with
premixed coolant. Add the coolant
through the pressure cap neck on the
surge tank. The surge tank is located
on the firewall, right side.
With the engine cold, the coolant level
should be at the full cold coolant level.
Use caution not to overfill the system
with coolant. An overfilled cooling
system will cause loss of cool ant
through the radiator cap as the coolant
expands during heating.
COOLING SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
Replacement or makeup coolant
should have the same antifreeze
concentration and corrosion inhibitor
content as the original coolant in the
cooling system. Never add 100%
antifreeze to the cooling system.
Always dilute anti-freeze to the
correct concentration based on freeze
protection prior to adding it to the
cooling system. Adding or using 100%
antifreeze in a cooling system may
result in cooling system plugging and
overheating problems.
WARNING
Do not remove the radiator cap on
a hot engine. It can cause scalding
coolant to spray out and you could
be burned. If the engine has been
operated within the last 30 minutes,
be very careful in removing the
radiator cap.
•
Protect face, hands, and arms
against escaping fluid and
steam by covering the cap with
a large, thick rag.
•
Carefully and slowly turn cap (on
expansion surge tank) one quarter
of a turn to allow excess pressure
to escape before completely
removing cap. If you see any
steam or coolant escaping, do
not even try to remove it until the
radiator cools down.
NOTE
If frequent topping up is necessary
and there are not visible signs of
coolant leaks when the engine is
cold, check for leaks with the engine
operating at normal operating
temperature.
If you see nothing escaping, still
remove the cap very slowly and
carefully. Be ready to back off if
any steam or coolant begins to
escape.
WARNING
Handle coolant and antifreeze
carefully. Ethylene glycol antifreeze
is poisonous. Store in original fluid
container only, and always keep
out of reach of children. Failure
to comply may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
5
WARNING
Never remove the cap on the surge
tank while the engine is still hot.
Wait until the coolant temperature
is below 120º F (50º C). Scalding
steam and fluid under pressure may
escape and cause personal injuries.
5-61
COOLING SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
Adding Coolant
Coolant Conditioner
A mixture of water and low silicate
antifreeze should be used for
coolant. Water must be clean and
free of corrosive and scale-forming
chemicals. Drinking water may not be
good for your vehicle. New vehicles
come premixed with antifreeze and
corrosion inhibitor. Be sure different
types of coolant are not mixed. Stay
with the same coolant until a complete
Replacement is performed.
A variety of test methods are available
for measuring coolant conditioner
levels. Test strips provide convenient
and consistent results with minimal
training. Other test methods can be
used when appropriate training is
provided. The actual test (i.e. test
strips, etc.) and coolant conditioner
maintenance schedule should be
done in accordance with the actual
coolant conditioner manufacturer
recommendations.
WARNING
Do not work on the fan with the
engine running. The engine fan can
engage at any time without warning.
Anyone near the fan when it turns
on could be injured. Before turning
on the ignition, be sure that no one
is near the fan.
NOTE
Excess coolant may result in
overflow, loss of antifreeze, and
reduced corrosion protection. For a
cold engine, the proper coolant level
is 1 in. below the radiator cap seal.
For normal operating temperatures,
coolant should be even with the
radiator cap seal.
5
5-62
The coolant conditioner should be
recharged according to Table 6,
Recommended Lubrication Intervals
on page 5-11, unless otherwise
specified in the Engine Manufacturers
Maintenance Manual.
COOLING SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
For more detailed
recommendations check with
your Kenworth Dealer or check the
manufacturer's Engine Operation
and Maintenance Manual.
Additives
If you add supplemental coolant
additives to the radiator, maintain them
at the recommended levels. Read
the label carefully. Too much additive
could harm your vehicle.
•
Approved additives help neutralize
the water's harmful effects on your
vehicle's cooling system. Ask your
dealer to recommend the best ones
for you.
•
•
Do not mix inhibitor types. Improper
mixing of coolant may damage the
engine.
•
For coolant conditioner recharge
intervals see the Engine Operation
and Maintenance Manual.
CAUTION
Do not add rust inhibitors,
radiator sealants, or water pump
lubricants containing soluble oil to
the coolant. These additives can
cause the anti-corrosion chemicals
not to work.
If the cooling system in your truck
has a treated spin-on water filter,
install the service filter on all B or E
scheduled service intervals. See
Table 9, Maintenance Schedule
on page 5-17.
Antifreeze solutions containing
anti-leak additives will quickly
restrict the water filter. If this
happens, the filter will not work.
So stay away from anti-leak
additives.
CAUTION
Do not add inhibitor if the engine has
a Dry Charge Additive (DCA4) water
filter cartridge containing corrosion
inhibitor, engine damage from over
concentration of silicates may occur.
•
5
The water filter cartridge
containing DCA4 inhibitor must
be periodically changed. Refer
to the Engine Operation and
Maintenance Manual for details.
5-63
COOLING SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
Change and Refilling
Refilling
The coolant must be changed
periodically. When draining coolant,
capture old coolant and dispose of it
properly.
To refill the cooling system, follow
the recommendations below:
1.
Before refilling be sure the radiator
and engine block drains are
closed.
2.
Move the heater control to
maximum heat position.
3.
Remove the surge tank pressure
cap.
4.
Through the surge tank, fill the
system with premixed coolant.
Pour it in a steady flow until the
radiator is full.
5
5-64
5.
Start the engine and idle it at low
RPM.
6.
Complete the filling as quickly
as possible. Idle the engine
until it reaches normal operating
temperature.
7.
Fill the radiator as necessary
to raise the coolant level to the
proper level.
8.
Replace the surge tank pressure
cap.
You may find the coolant level is not
up to the correct level soon after you
have filled the radiator. This may
be because all the trapped air in the
system has not yet been purged. It
takes a little time for all the air to leave
the system after you fill the radiator.
For further details on coolant, coolant
capacities, water filters, and antifreeze
mixture see the Engine Operation and
Maintenance Manual (supplied with
the vehicle).
COOLING SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
Radiator Cap
Engine (Block) Heater
CAUTION
CAUTION
When replacing the radiator cap
always use one with the correct
rated pressure. Failure to do so
could cause engine or cooling
system damage.
All radiator caps are marked with the
rated pressure (psi) of the cap.
Regularly inspect the engine block
heater wiring and connector for
damaged or frayed wires. Contact
your authorized Kenworth Dealer or
the manufacturer of the heater if you
are in need of repairs or information.
WARNING
Do not use the heater if there are
any signs of problems. Engine block
heaters can cause fires resulting in
personal injury, death, equipment
or property damage if not properly
maintained and operated.
Always unplug the block heater
before
starting
your
engine.
Damage to the cooling system could
occur if not turned OFF (unplugged).
Use a solution of half ethylene glycol
antifreeze and half water for best
heater performance. Do not use
more than 65 percent concentration of
antifreeze, as a shortened heater life
will result.
After servicing the cooling system,
operate the vehicle for a day or two
before using the heater. Trapped
air inside the engine needs time to
escape.
5-65
5
ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE
ELECTRICAL
MAINTENANCE
Fuses, Circuit Breakers, And
Relays
Electrical System
Fuses, circuit breakers, and relays
are located in the Power Distribution
Box to the left of the steering column
behind the clutch pedal. See Power
Distribution Box on page 5-68.
Additional fuses for the alternator,
engine electronics and trailer battery
charge circuit may be located in the
Power Distribution Center (PDC) inside
the battery box and/ or on the engine
side of the cab firewall.
WARNING
Battery posts, terminals and related
accessories contain lead and lead
compounds, chemicals known to the
State of California to cause cancer
and reproductive harm. Wash hands
after handling.
CAUTION
5
Do not modify or improperly repair
the vehicles electrical system or
power distribution box. All electrical
repairs should be performed by
an authorized Kenworth dealer.
Improper repair or modifications will
void your warranty and/or cause
serious damage to your vehicle.
5-66
Power Distribution Center (shown
without fuse cover)
1.
2.
MEGA FUSE
MIDI FUSE
ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE
Fuse Inspection And
Replacement
WARNING
Do not replace a fuse with a fuse of a
higher rating. Doing so may damage
the electrical system and cause a
fire. Failure to comply may result in
personal injury, death, equipment or
property damage.
CAUTION
If a circuit keeps blowing fuses,
have the electrical system inspected
for a short circuit or overload by
an authorized Kenworth dealer as
soon as possible. Failure to do so
could cause serious damage to the
electrical system and/or vehicle.
your chassis stops working, the first
thing you should check for is a blown
fuse.
1.
Turn OFF all lights and accessories
and remove the ignition key to
avoid damaging the electrical
system.
2.
Determine from the chart on the
fuse panel which fuse controls that
component.
3.
Remove that fuse and see if it is
blown.
NOTE
CAUTION
Before replacing a fuse, turn OFF all
lights and accessories and remove
the ignition key to avoid damaging
the electrical system.
If a fuse of the same rating is not
available, a fuse of a lower rating
may be temporarily substituted. You
can also use a fuse from a circuit
you can do temporarily without (for
example an accessory circuit or
radio).
CAUTION
Never patch fuses with tin foil or
wire.
This may cause serious
damage elsewhere in the electrical
circuit, and it may cause a fire.
See the Kenworth Shop Manual for
instructions on fuse replacement.
5
If a fuse is blown, replace it with a fuse
of the same rating.
1
Blown
All the electrical circuits have fuses
to protect them from a short circuit or
overload. If something electrical on
5-67
ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE
Adding Electrical Options
WARNING
Do not add a fuse with a rating
higher than 30 amps.
Follow
the circuit protection size/type
recommended by the component
manufacturer.
Installing a fuse
or circuit breaker greater than
designated may damage the
electrical system which could lead to
equipment damage and/or personal
injury.
CAUTION
5
Follow all manufacturers' circuit
protection recommendations for
the components and wires being
added. Failure to comply may result
in equipment damage.
5-68
NOTE
WARNING
If you are unfamiliar with proper
electrical repair practices and
procedures, see your authorized
Kenworth dealer for assistance.
Never install a circuit breaker in a
circuit that is designated as “fuseonly” circuit(s). Fuse-only circuits
are marked with an * on the reverse
side of the Power Distribution Box
cover. Using a circuit breaker in
those fuse-only circuits may cause
the circuit to overheat when a short
exists which could lead to equipment
damage and/or personal injury.
NOTE
Easy addition of circuits is provided
by plug-in connectors that have a
ground and a power wire.
For proper electrical system
performance, refer to a wiring
diagram for your chassis before adding
electrical options.
ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE
NOTE
Do not install a circuit breaker in
place of a fuse for the following
circuits:
•
ACC FEED
•
BODY IGN
•
CAB ABS - BATT
•
CAB ABS - IGN
•
CAB ACC
•
CB PWR
•
CECU - BATT (2 PLCS)
•
CECU IGN
•
DOOR IGN
•
ENG AUX
•
ENG SD
•
FOG LMPS
•
GAUGE CL
•
HIGH BEAM SUP
•
LH DR / DOOR LOCK
•
LOW BEAM SUP
•
PARK LMP SNSE
•
RADIO MEM
•
RADIO PWR
•
RH DOOR
•
RKE
•
TRLR ABS
•
TURN MOD PWR
Power Distribution Box: Typical - See
reverse side of Power Distribution Box
cover for fuse and relay locations
1.
Clutch Pedal
5
5-69
ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE
5
Power Distribution Box
(2010 T6 - T8 - T4)
5-70
ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE
5
Power Distribution Box
(2013 T440 - 470)
5-71
ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE
5
Chassis Load Center Fuse Box (Cummins)
5-72
ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE
Batteries
In-Cab Battery Box
Battery Access
Your vehicle may be equipped with
Optima brand Absorbed Glass Mat
(AGM) batteries located in the cab
under the passenger’s seat. The glass
mat in AGM batteries is designed to
absorb the battery acid inside the
battery that can leak or spill out in
conventional batteries. This design
feature allows Optima batteries to be
positioned in any orientation without
risk of leaking.
WARNING
The vehicle is originally equipped with
three or four batteries. Replacement
batteries must meet the following
specifications: maintenance-free,
group 31 size, threaded stud, 12V/ 650
cold cranking ampere (CCA), and 160
minutes of reserve capacity.
The battery compartment is located on
the left side of the vehicle, under the
cab access steps.
1.
Remove steps by removing 2 bolts
from each step.
2.
Remove 4 bolts and washers from
forward fairing.
3.
Remove 2 bolts (A) from step strut.
4.
Remove battery cover for access.
Replace only with Optima brand
AGM (Group 31) batteries. Use of
other batteries could result in acid
leaks causing personal injury in the
event of a vehicle accident. Failure
to comply may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
To access the batteries:
1.
2.
Remove 6 fasteners securing the
passenger side seat base to the
battery box assembly.
5
Remove the seat and seat base
as one unit to gain access to the
batteries.
5-73
ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE
WARNING
WARNING
WARNING
Battery cables and air/electrical
harnesses are mounted to the
bottom of the floor. Do not drill
or screw into floor pan without
first checking the location of the
cables, harnesses or any other
component that might be damaged.
Damaging any component could
result in electrical shock which could
cause personal injury and/or loss
of a critical truck system. Failure
to comply may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
Electrical damage or battery
explosion
can
occur
when
improperly
charging
batteries.
Refer to the operation and service
manual for appropriate charging
instructions. Failure to comply may
result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
Batteries release gases that are
flammable. Batteries are equipped
with vent tubes and flash arrestors
which vent battery gases out of
the cab. Ensure all vent tubes,
flash arrestors and grommets are
properly installed and ensure they
are clear and functioning properly.
Failure to reinstall or keep the vent
tubes and grommets clear or ensure
the flash arrestor(s) are functioning
properly could result in personal
injury or equipment damage. Failure
to comply may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
5
CAUTION
Do not store other items in this
battery box. Failure to comply could
result in damage to the truck and/or
batteries.
5-74
ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE
CAUTION
Properly secure battery tie downs
and battery box cover when
reinstalling batteries after service.
Do not over tighten. Over tightening
can crack the battery case which
can lead to equipment damage.
Replacing Parts Removed for
Access
1.
Replace battery cover.
2.
Install 2 bolts in step strut. Torque
to 24-32 lb-ft (33-43 Nm).
3.
Install fairing and install 4 bolts.
Torque to 6-7 lb-ft (8-9 Nm).
4.
Install steps by installing 2 bolts in
each step. Torque to 24-32 lb-ft
(33-43 Nm).
WARNING
Always reinstall the steps before
entering the cab. Without the steps
you could slip and fall, resulting in
possible injury to yourself.
WARNING
Fairings not installed properly
could come loose and cause other
motorists to have an injury accident.
It is important that fairings be
installed properly. Failure to comply
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
WARNING
Before attempting any work on
the batteries or electrical system,
remove all jewelry. If metal jewelry
or other metal comes in contact with
electrical circuits, a short circuit may
occur causing you to be injured, as
well as electrical system failure and
damage.
5-75
5
ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE
Battery Care
Removing and Installing Batteries:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Be sure all switches on the vehicle
are turned OFF.
Disconnect negative ground cable
first.
NOTE
Make sure to reconnect the ground
(negative) cable last.
1.
Place batteries in vehicle and
tighten bolt of holding plate.
2.
Reconnect positive cable.
3.
Reconnect ground (negative)
ground cable.
Disconnect positive cable.
Unscrew bolt of holding plate with
open end wrench.
NOTE
5
Always dispose of automotive
batteries in a safe and responsible
manner. Contact your authorized
Kenworth dealer for disposal
standards.
Call your local
authorized recycling center for
information on recycling automotive
batteries.
Follow the procedure below to reinstall
batteries on the vehicle:
5-76
CAUTION
Battery replacement may alter or
disturb battery cable routing. Check
to insure battery cables are free
from any point of chaffing. Failure
to do so could result in personnel
injury or property damage.
Regular attention to the charging
system will help prolong the service
life of the batteries. Here are some
common causes of battery failure:
Overcharge: this condition results
from improper voltage regulator
adjustment. It results in overheating
of the battery, warped plates, and
evaporation of electrolyte.
Undercharge: the voltage regulator
is malfunctioning, the drive belt is
slipping, or your vehicle has undergone
long periods of standing idle or short
distance driving. These conditions
result in battery plates becoming
covered with a hard coating.
Vibration: loose battery hold-downs
may cause battery plate failure.
ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE
Short Circuits: these discharge the
battery by draining electricity.
Dirty or Loose Connections:
improper connections may stop the
flow of electrical power to and from the
battery.
Battery Charging
•
Except for using small trickle charges
to maintain battery condition, you
should have your vehicle's batteries
charged by a qualified service facility.
Before attempting any service
in the electrical installation,
disconnect the battery negative
cable.
•
Allow no sparks or open flame
anywhere near the charging area.
•
Charge a battery only in a
well-ventilated area, such as
outdoors or in a fully open garage
which contains no pilot lights or
other flames. Gases generated
during the charging process must
be allowed to escape.
•
Always make sure the battery
charger is OFF before connecting
or disconnecting the cable clamps.
WARNING
Batteries can injure you severely.
They contain acid,
produce
poisonous and explosive gases, and
supply levels of electric current high
enough to cause burns. A spark
or flame near a battery on charge
may cause it to explode with great
force. Never remove or tamper with
the battery caps. Failure to comply
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
To help reduce the risk of personal
injuries, follow these guidelines
carefully when recharging a battery:
5-77
5
ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE
•
To avoid short circuits, damage
to the vehicle, or personal injury,
never place metal tools or jumper
cables on the battery or nearby.
Metal that accidentally comes in
contact with the positive battery
terminal or any other metal on the
vehicle (that is in contact with the
positive terminal), could cause a
short circuit or an explosion.
5
5-78
Charging Reminders
•
Use protective eyewear.
•
Keep all batteries away from
children.
•
Never reverse battery poles.
•
Never attempt to place the vehicle
in motion, or run the engine with
batteries disconnected.
•
Keep the battery clean and dry.
•
Look for any signs of damage.
•
Battery terminals should not
be coated with improper
grease. Use petroleum jelly
or commercially available,
noncorrosive, nonconductive
terminal coatings.
•
Never use a fast charger as a
booster to start the engine. This
can seriously damage sensitive
electronic components such
as relays, radio, etc., as well
as the battery charger. Fast
charging a battery is dangerous
and should only be attempted by
a competent mechanic with the
proper equipment.
ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE
To reduce the danger of
explosions and resulting
personal injury, do not connect
or disconnect charger cables
while the charger is operating.
Electrical and Alternator
Precautions
1.
Disconnect the battery cables.
•
2.
Connect charger cables.
3.
Start charging the battery at a rate
not over 6 amperes. Normally, a
battery should be charged at no
more than 10 percent of its rated
capacity.
Do not start the engine
with alternator disconnected
(connections removed) from the
circuit.
•
Before welding, disconnect all
electronic connections to the
vehicle batteries.
•
Remove battery power cable and
insulate it from the vehicle.
•
Do not run the engine with the
batteries disconnected.
•
Do not disconnect the battery
cables or alternator connection
cables with the engine running.
•
Never turn the ignition switch from
the ON position to the START
position with the engine running.
Slow Battery Charging
NOTE
Follow the instructions that come
with your battery charger.
•
It is not necessary to remove the
battery from the compartment.
WARNING
Charger cables must be connected
positive to positive (+ to +) and
negative to negative (- to -). If
connected improperly, batteries
could explode. Failure to comply
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
•
Always make sure the
battery charger is OFF before
connecting or disconnecting
the cable clamps.
4.
After charging, turn OFF charger
and disconnect charger cables.
Take the following precautions to
avoid burning out alternator diodes:
5-79
5
ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE
•
•
•
When charging the battery
(installed in the vehicle) disconnect
the battery cables.
Do not reverse the cables of the
alternator, starter motor, or battery.
Do not polarize the alternator. The
alternator should not be polarized
like a generator. To ensure correct
polarity, use a test lamp or a
voltmeter.
Remote Keyless Entry
Troubleshooting
The remote keyless entry system may
become non-operational due to failure
of a key fob battery. If you have issues
with a key fob, replace the battery and
re-synchronize the key fob. In some
situations, the key fob may need to
be replaced and in others, a fuse may
have failed and may render both key
fobs inoperative.
Contact your dealer for more help, if
a key fob does not work and it is not
because of a bad battery.
5
To Synchronize A Key Fob
5-80
1.
Hold the key fob near the
passenger door switch module
(near the glove box).
2.
Press and hold both the Lock and
Unlock buttons at the same time
for approximately 7 seconds.
°
When the key fob is
resynchronized the doors
will lock, then immediately
unlock.
°
If the fob fails to synchronize,
it could be programmed to a
different vehicle or could have
failed.
ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE
Halogen/HID Lamp
Headlamp Servicing
A Halogen or HID (High Intensity
Discharge) Projector headlamp
assembly comprises of a Halogen
or HID projector low beam, a
complex reflector high beam, two side
marker/turn signal lamps, housing and
mounting/wiring hardware.
Servicing
Removing Ignition Device
Access is gained from the rear of the
assembly.
1.
Rear Of Halogen/HID Housing
Rotate low-beam access cover
counter-clockwise and remove
cover.
Low-Beam Access Cover
NOTE
It is normal for some fogging on the
inside of the lens to occur. This
condensation may be removed by
driving the vehicle for an extended
period with the headlights turned
on. Servicing is required if water
droplets or puddles of water form on
the inside of the headlamp.
1
Low-beam Access Cover
Follow the procedure below to replace
HID bulbs.
2.
5
Rotate Ignition Device 25°
counter-clockwise.
°
High-voltage line will be
automatically ejected as a
safety precaution.
5-81
ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE
Ignition Device
Projector Housing Spring Clips
Cleaning Or Disposal
NOTE
1
2
5
3.
High-voltage cable
ejected
Ignition Device
Pull Ignition Device away from
bulb.
Remove HID Bulb
1.
Squeeze the two projector housing
spring ends marked with arrows
towards each other and then
deflect away from bulb housing.
2.
CAUTION
The spring clip cannot be displaced
“upwards.” The arms of the spring
can be moved only so far apart to
remove the bulb. Discharge bulbs
are filled with overpressure. The
glass bulb may burst if improperly
handled.
3.
5-82
Release spring ends and let hang
free.
Carefully remove the bulb.
Do not touch glass bulb with
bare fingers. Oil from your skin
can damage the life of the bulb.
If touched, the glass can be
cleaned with de-natured alcohol and
wiped clean with a lint-free cloth.
Discharge bulbs may be filled with
a trace amount of mercury. The
bulb will be marked with a Symbol
indicating Mercury (Hg).
Follow
Hazardous Waste regulations for
disposal.
ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE
Bulb Details
Bulb
NOTE
There are two indexing grooves (12
o’clock and 2 o’clock) located on the
largest diameter of the bulb. These
index the bulb only one way in the
projector housing.
3.
1
Squeeze the two projector housing
spring ends towards each other
and then make sure they engage
in the grooves.
Symbol Indicating Mercury
(Hg)
Bulb Installation
1.
During installation of the bulb the
wire with the ceramic insulation
should be pointed down.
1
2
2.
5
Ceramic Insulated Wire
Indexing Grooves
Install bulb into the projector
housing.
5-83
ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE
Projector Housing Installation
Ignition Device Installation
Ignition Device
CAUTION
Care must be taken to NOT install
the High-voltage cable until after
the Ignition device is fully installed,
otherwise, damage may result to
either the Ignition Device or the HID
Bulb.
1.
1
2
3
5
Spring Grooves
Index Points (12 o’clock
and 2 o’clock)
White Tab
2.
5-84
Verify white ring alignment. If
needed, carefully rotate ring with
a small blunt tool, so that the 4
grooves in the housing and ring
are aligned or the device cannot
be installed.
This tab indexes with white tab on
projector housing (see following
Fig.).
1
2
White Ring
Tab
3.
Push Ignition Device onto back of
projector housing.
4.
Rotate Ignition Device 25°
clockwise until it locks into place.
5.
Lastly, install the high-voltage
cable to the ignition device.
ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE
Ignition Device Installed
Close Low-Beam Access Cover
Close Cover
Final Checks
1.
1.
After everything is reconnected,
turn on your headlamps and check
for operation.
2.
Have your headlamps periodically
checked for proper alignment.
Headlamps should be adjusted to
-0.6° (-1.0%) Vertical.
Install and rotate low-beam access
cover clockwise.
3.
Keep your headlamps clean. A
dirty headlamp reduces headlamp
performance and creates glare.
°
Use only clean soap and
water.
°
Your headlamp is coated with
a special substance to resist
chips and hazing. Harsh
chemicals and polishing can
remove this coating.
5
5-85
ENGINE MAINTENANCE
ENGINE MAINTENANCE
Engine Maintenance
WARNING
5
Exhaust fumes from the engine
contain carbon monoxide,
a
colorless and odor less gas. Do
not breathe the engine exhaust
gas. A poorly maintained, damaged
or corroded exhaust system can
allow carbon monoxide to enter the
cab. Entry of carbon monoxide into
the cab is also possible from other
vehicles nearby. Failure to properly
maintain your vehicle could cause
carbon monoxide to enter the cab
and cause illness or death.
5-86
WARNING
Never idle your vehicle for prolonged
periods of time if you sense that
exhaust fumes are entering the cab.
Investigate the cause of the fumes
and correct it as soon as possible.
If the vehicle must be driven under
these conditions, drive only with the
windows open. Failure to repair
the source of the exhaust fumes
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
NOTE
Keep the engine exhaust system
and the vehicles cab ventilation
system properly maintained.
It is recommended that the vehicles
exhaust system and cab be inspected:
•
By a competent technician every
15,000 miles
•
Whenever a change is noticed in
the sound of the exhaust system
•
Whenever the exhaust system,
underbody or cab is damaged
ENGINE MAINTENANCE
Engine Lubrication
Refer to the engine manufacturer's
Engine Operation and Maintenance
Manual supplied with your vehicle for
information about draining and refilling
engine oil, engine crank case capacity,
engine oil type, and changing oil filters,
etc.
Inspection of the Engine Oil Level
1.
Make sure that the vehicle frame
rail is standing on a flat and level
surface.
2.
Make sure that the vehicle is
horizontal, both lengthwise and
crosswise. Check this carefully
on a vehicle with air suspension.
Note that the engine may be
inclined up to 4° depending on the
vehicle model and wheelbase.
3.
Twist the dipstick handle to unlock
it, then pull the dipstick out of the
holder.
4.
Wipe the dipstick clean with a
lint-free cloth.
5.
Place the dipstick back into the
holder.
6.
Pull the dipstick out again and
check the oil level. The oil level
should always be between the 2
marks on the dipstick.
NOTE
It takes approximately 15 minutes
for all the oil to run into the sump
when the engine is ‘warm.’ If the
level is checked immediately after
switching off the engine, the dipstick
will show a low oil level.
WARNING
Hot engine oil can be dangerous.
You could be burned. Let the engine
oil cool down before changing it.
Failure to comply may result in
personal injury, death, equipment or
property damage.
5-87
5
ENGINE MAINTENANCE
7.
5
Reinstall the dipstick and twist to
lock it in place.
1.
2.
5-88
Engine Oil High Level
Engine Oil Low Level
Topping Up the Engine Oil
Pipe and Hose Clamps
1.
Top up with oil, if necessary, via
the filler opening. Use the correct
grade in the correct quantity. For
oil replacement, please see engine
Operator’s Manual included with
this chassis.
Use the following table for torque
specifications to check pipe and hose
clamps.
2.
After topping up, wait 1 minute and
check the oil level again.
3.
Reinstall the oil fill cap and twist
to lock it in place.
ENGINE MAINTENANCE
Table 13 Pipe and Hose Clamp Torque Values
APPLICATION
Radiator & Heat Exchanger Hoses
Heater Hoses
Air Intake Pipes
Charge Air Intake Hoses
Fuel, Oil & Water Heat Exchangers (for
hoses less than 9/16 diameter)
Exhaust Clamps
APPROVED CLAMP
Constant-Torque CT-L
Constant Tension
Hi-Torque HTM-L
Flex Seal 667
B9296
Miniature 3600L
TORQUE
Nm
10.2-12.5
not required
11.3-14.2
7.9-11.3
6-7
1.1-1.7
Lb-In
90-110
not required
100-125
70-100
50-60
10-15
54
480
Breeze V-Band
Fuel System
Installing Fuel Filters
Please follow these recommendations
when you are changing your fuel filters
or strainer elements. Your vehicle's
engine will run better and last longer if
you do. See the engine manufacturer's
recommendations for proper water and
micron requirements.
When removing filters, cover any
electrical equipment and wiring that
might get soaked with fuel. Diesel fuel
may permanently damage electrical
insulation.
When installing spin-on (throwaway)
filters:
1.
Pre-fill filter with fuel.
2.
Moisten gasket with diesel fuel
3.
Hand tighten them only to 1/2 - 2/3
turn after gasket contact.
Mechanical tightening of these
filters may distort or crack the filter
head.
•
When replacing a fuel filter
element, do not use a substitute.
Install only filter elements designed
for fuel filtration. First clean and
inspect the shell. Then insert the
new element and fill the container
at least 2/3 full of clean fuel before
installing the shell.
5-89
5
ENGINE MAINTENANCE
Filter Draining
NOTE
To expel air from density-type
strainer elements, soak them in
clean fuel before installing them.
•
Throw away old gaskets. Replace
them with new ones to ensure a
positive seal.
•
Position the shell and gasket
properly. Then tighten the cover
nut or bolt just enough to prevent
fuel leakage.
•
5
After starting the engine, check for
leaks around the filter.
5-90
1.
Check fuel filter/water separator
daily. Check with engine OFF.
Depending on the fuel storage
facility, more frequent draining
may be required.
2.
Open drain valve (by hand only):
turn valve screw counter clockwise
approximately 1- to 2 turns until
draining occurs. Drain filter sump
of water until clear fuel is visible.
3.
If entrapped water exceeds sump
volume, you can either:
4.
Close valve and run engine until
smooth idle is established, then
repeat drain procedures.
5.
Remove filter from mounting head,
completely drain all fluid, and
reassemble filter assembly. Be
sure to follow new filter assembly
instructions.
6.
Close drain valve by turning valve
screw clockwise approximately 1to 2 turns.
CAUTION
Do not overtighten the valve. Over
tightening can damage the threads.
ENGINE MAINTENANCE
Accessory Drive Belts
Engine Fan
Fan Drive and Blade
Thermatic (Clutch) Type Fan
You can avoid costly downtime by
periodically checking belt wear and
replacing worn and damaged belts.
Neglect could cause belt failure. The
result could be the loss of the electrical
or air system as well as possible
engine damage from overheating. So,
it is a good idea to check the belts
frequently and replace them as soon
as you detect trouble.
WARNING
Do not work on the fan with the
engine running. The engine fan can
engage at any time without warning.
Anyone near the fan when it turns
on could be injured. Before turning
on the ignition, be sure that no one
is near the fan.
To Check the Fan:
•
Check the fan assembly mounting
bolts for tightness. Inspect the
blades for damage.
•
Check the clutch operation by
starting the engine when it is cold.
Then idle it at about 800 rpm.
Listen for air leaks.
Fan Blade Clearance: Around the fan
shroud, the recommended distance
is 1 in. (25 mm) from front edge of
any fan blade-to-radiator side member.
Minimum clearance is 3/4 in. (19 mm).
•
Rear edge of any blade must be
no closer than 3/8 in. (9 mm) to
the nearest engine component. If
this cannot be obtained, the fan
spacer or fan is not correct.
•
The leading edge of any fan blade
must be 1 in. (25 mm) from the
inside edge of the shroud.
5
5-91
ENGINE MAINTENANCE
5
Engine Mounting
Exhaust System
All Models
Periodic Inspection:Inspect newly
installed engine mounts every 60,000
miles. Check for the following:
The exhaust system is part of the
noise control system. Periodically
check the exhaust for wear and loose
or missing parts. For details see Noise
and Emission Control on page 5-103.
Proper operation, driving techniques
and maintenance are key factors in
obtaining the maximum service life of
the muffler and/or converter. Some
precautions should be taken if the
engine is equipped with a muffler
and converter. Avoid excess idling.
Excessive idling or extended low load
periods can cause the muffler and
converter to plug. A plugged muffler
and converter will lead to an increase
in exhaust back pressure. Operating
the engine in extremely cold conditions
can cause the muffler and converter to
plug sooner. Use the procedure below
to clean out the muffler and converter
if extended idle periods or extended
low load periods are required.
•
Inspect both mount and leg
fasteners. Check for loose
or broken bolts. Replace as
necessary.
•
Check mount and leg for fractures,
breaks or deformation. Replace
as necessary.
•
Check for complete insertion
of motor mount. Replace as
necessary.
•
Tighten leg to mount flange head
bolts to 210-230 Lb-Ft (284-311
Nm) torque.
1.
5-92
Operate the engine at rated
conditions for five to fifteen
minutes.
ENGINE MAINTENANCE
2.
Contact an authorized Engine
Service Center, if the engine
continues to run at low power
or the engine does not respond
properly.
Multi-Function Message
Display
The Multi-function Display will display
diagnostic messages that are intended
to alert you that trouble may be
developing in one of the systems, do
not ignore these messages, they are
important indicators that your vehicle
should be serviced immediately.
See your Kenworth Dealer for trouble
shooting and diagnostic information.
5
5-93
FRAME MAINTENANCE
FRAME MAINTENANCE
Emergency Welding
Introduction
Kenworth DOES NOT recommend
frame welding. The high heat of
welding nullifies the special heat
treatment of the rails, greatly reducing
the tensile strength of the frame
rail. If a frame member becomes
cracked from overloading, fatigue,
surface damage or a collision, the only
permanent repair is to replace the
damaged frame member with a new
part. In an emergency, a temporary
repair may be performed. Observe
the following precautions to protect
electronic systems during welding
operations.
WARNING
Do not cut, splice or weld frame
rails or drill through the top or
bottom flanges of the rails. These
operations could affect frame rail
strength leading to a failure resulting
in an accident. Rail failures resulting
from such modifications are not
warrantable.
Failure to comply
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
5
Welding Precautions
In the event of emergency welding of a
frame rail and when welding any other
part of your truck or any component
attached to your truck, observe the
following precautions before welding:
5-94
•
Disconnect all electronic devices.
It is not possible to list all of the
electronics that could be affected,
but a few examples include the
following: alternator, engine
Electronic Control Unit (ECU),
transmission ECU, ABS ECU,
navigation devices, diagnostic
devices, and monitoring devices.
•
Disconnect battery cables and
insulate them from the vehicle.
•
Do not use the ECU or engine
ground stud for the ground of the
welding probe.
•
Ensure that the ground connection
for the welder is as close to the
weld point as possible. This
ensures maximum weld current
and minimum risk to damage
of electrical components on the
vehicle.
FRAME MAINTENANCE
Painting
Fifth Wheel Maintenance
Do not electrostatically paint your
truck or any component on your
truck without first removing all of
the electronic components from the
truck. It is not possible to list all of
the electronics that could be affected,
but a few examples include the
alternator, engine Electronic Control
Unit (ECU), transmission ECU, ABS
ECU, navigation devices, diagnostic
devices, and monitoring devices.
Proper preventive maintenance is
essential to trouble-free service and
safe operation of the fifth wheel.
•
Refer to specific manufacturer's
literature for any special
instructions.
Every 2 Months or 25,000 Miles:
•
Remove fifth wheel from vehicle.
Refer to the Kenworth Shop
Manual, “Fifth Wheel Removal.”
•
Steam clean the fifth wheel and
mounting brackets.
•
Check all moving parts for
excessive wear or damage.
Replace all worn or broken parts.
•
Complete two-month service
procedure.
•
Install fifth wheel. Refer to the
Kenworth Shop Manual, “Fifth
Wheel Installation.”
•
Refer to specific manufacturer's
literature for any special
instructions.
•
Steam clean the fifth wheel.
•
Check lock guard operation using
a commercial lock tester.
•
Clean and oil all moving parts.
•
Lubricate the following part with a
lithium-base grease.
°
•
Lock mechanism
All grease fittings (especially those
which grease the top surface of
the fifth wheel).
Every 6 Months or 50,000 Miles:
5
5-95
FRAME MAINTENANCE
Frame Fastener Torque
Requirements
•
Tighten all frame fasteners
with a torque wrench. Torque
specifications apply to the
following fasteners with lightly
lubricated threads.
NOTE
Whenever possible, torque all frame
fasteners on the nut end, not the bolt
head.
5
5-96
Sliding Fifth Wheels
Table 14 Standard Grade 8 UNF or UNC
and Metric
TORQUE *
FASTENER
SIZE
Nm
Lb-Ft
22-30
16-22
5/16
41-54
30-40
3/8
75-88
55-65
7/16
109-122
80-90
1/2
156-190
115-140
9/16
224-265
165-195
5/8
394-462
290-340
3/4
517-626
380-460
7/8
1
952-1,129
700-830
1,346-1,591
990-1,170
1-1/8
1,877-2,217
1,380-1,630
1-1/4
METRIC WITH NYLON INSERT NUTS
M5
8-12
6-9
M6
9-15
7-11
M8
23-31
17-23
M10
33-43
24-32
55-75
M12
75-101
M16
163-217
120-160
M20
352-460
260-340
* ESNA Style Lock Nut, with nylon insert.
Lubricate nylon insert nut lightly with SAE
20/30 oil.
•
Lubricate bearing surface of
support bracket through the
grease fittings on the side of the
fifth wheel plate. Use a water
resistant lithium-base grease.
NOTE
The plate must be lifted up slightly
to relieve the weight of the bracket
while applying grease.
FRONT AXLE AND SUSPENSION MAINTENANCE
FRONT AXLE
AND SUSPENSION
MAINTENANCE
Axle Lubrication
•
•
Change bearing lubrication
when seals are replaced, or
brakes are relined. See Table
6, Recommended Lubrication
Intervals on page 5-11.
Thoroughly clean hubs and
bearings with solvent and a stiff
bristle brush, then dry and inspect
components for wear or damage.
Re-lubricate with approved axle
lubricant.
Kingpin Lubrication
Suspension Lubrication
•
Each standard spring anchor pin has
a grease fitting. Pressure lubricate
spring pins as specified. See Table 6,
Recommended Lubrication Intervals
on page 5-11.
Lubricate with approved lubricant.
Lubricate knuckle thrust bearings,
knuckle pins, and tie rod ends.
See Table 6, Recommended
Lubrication Intervals on page
5-11. Lack of lubrication causes
premature wear and hard steering.
Lubrication schedule may be
shortened if necessary.
•
At regular intervals, the spring
leaves may be lubricated with a
rust-inhibiting oil applied with a
spray gun or brush.
•
Depending on your suspension,
lubricate all spring pins until
grease flows out of both ends of
the bushing. Look for signs of rust
or water in the flushed grease.
If a pin will not accept grease, it
should be removed, cleaned, and
inspected.
CAUTION
Do not spray the suspension with
chemical products or mineral oil; it
can cause damage to the bushings.
5-97
5
FRONT AXLE AND SUSPENSION MAINTENANCE
Inspection
Wheel Alignment
U-Bolt Torque
•
For driving safety and comfort, and
to prolong the life of your vehicle, it
is important to have wheels correctly
aligned. Check tire wear frequently.
Uneven tire wear is a sign that the
wheels may be misaligned.
It is important that U-bolts remain tight.
Severe use of your vehicle will cause
them to loosen faster. But all vehicles
need to have their U-bolts checked and
tightened regularly. Be sure someone
with the proper training and the right
tools checks and tightens the U-bolts
on your Kenworth.
•
5
•
For all vehicles, mandatory
maintenance procedures include
retightening all U-bolts and
inspecting the suspension for
loose fasteners, abnormal wear,
or damage. However, even with
proper maintenance, the service
life of leaf springs is affected by
many factors, such as: fatigue,
vehicle gross weight, type of
load, road conditions, and vehicle
speed.
Check for cracks, wear marks,
splits, or other defects on the
surface of the spring. Defective
parts must be replaced. Because
repaired springs cannot be
fully restored to their original
service life, replace the complete
assembly if cracks or other defects
are detected.
Visually inspect shock absorbers
and rubber bushings.
5-98
If you see uneven wear, take your
vehicle to a Kenworth Dealer familiar
with aligning wheels on Kenworth
vehicles.
New springs can settle in after service,
relieving the tension on the U-bolts.
Loose U-bolts can cause leaf spring
breakage, axle misalignment, hard
steering and abnormal tire wear.
•
All vehicles should have
suspension U-bolts tightened
after the first 500 miles (800 km) of
operation. And re-torque the front
spring pinch bolts and shackle
pinch bolts.
FRONT AXLE AND SUSPENSION MAINTENANCE
WARNING
Do not operate the vehicle if the
U-bolts are not properly tightened.
Loose U-bolts will cause the axle
to not be properly secured to the
suspension, which could cause
loss of vehicle control and an
accident. Loose U-bolts can also
cause uneven tire wear and poor
alignment. Failure to comply may
result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
U-bolts are difficult to tighten unless
you have the right equipment. If you
cannot tighten them correctly yourself,
be sure to have them checked and
tightened regularly by an authorized
mechanic.
Chevron zinc lubricant (SAE 20 or 30
oils acceptable but not preferred).
WARNING
Do not replace U-bolts and nuts
with common U-bolts or standard
nuts. These parts are critical to
vehicle safety. If the wrong U-bolts
or nuts are used, the axle could
loosen or separate from the vehicle
and cause a serious accident. Use
only U-bolts and nuts of SAE Grade
8 specification or better. Failure
to comply may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
Table 15 Front Spring Suspension U-Bolts,
Grade 8
U-BOLT SIZE
DIAMETER
(Inch
Dimensions)
3/4
7/8
1
1-1/8
1-1/4
1-1/2
TORQUE
Nm
Lb-Ft
333-408
598-734
925-1,060
1,470-1,660
1,890-2,120
3,130-3,860
245-300
440-540
680-780
1,080-1,220
1,390-1,560
2,300-2,840
5
Tighten U-bolt nuts to the specified
torque value with the vehicle loaded to
its normal gross weight. The following
torque values apply to U-bolts and
nuts with clean threads lubricated with
5-99
HEATER AND AIR CONDITIONER MAINTENANCE
HEATER AND AIR
CONDITIONER
MAINTENANCE
•
Whenever a change is noticed in
the sound of the exhaust system
•
Whenever the exhaust system,
underbody or cab is damaged
Introduction
Special Precautions
WARNING
Excessive heat may cause the
pressurized components of the air
conditioning system to explode.
Never weld, solder, steam clean, or
use a blow torch near any part of
the air conditioning system. Failure
to comply may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
NOTE
The combination heater-air conditioner
provides comfort for those in the cab
through accurate control of the cab
environment in all weather conditions.
Regular attention to the items below
will help you keep the heater-air
conditioner unit running well.
To allow for proper operation of the
vehicle ventilation system, proceed
as follows:
•
NOTE
Keep the vehicles ventilation
system, engine exhaust system and
cab joints properly maintained.
5
It is recommended that the vehicles
exhaust system and cab be serviced
as follows:
•
Inspected by a competent
technician every 15,000 miles
5-100
•
Keep the inlet grille at the base of
the windshield clear of snow, ice,
leaves and other obstructions at
all times.
Keep the exhaust pipe area clear
to help reduce the buildup of
exhaust gas under the vehicle.
•
If a refrigerant leak develops in
the presence of excessive heat
or an open flame, hazardous
gases may be generated.
These gases may cause
unconsciousness or death.
If you become aware of a
refrigerant leak on your vehicle
have your system service
immediately and observe the
following precautions:
HEATER AND AIR CONDITIONER MAINTENANCE
°
°
°
Stay away from the hot
engine until the exhaust
manifold has cooled.
Do not permit any open
flame in the area. Even a
match or a cigarette lighter
may generate a hazardous
quantity of poisonous gas.
Heater
CAUTION
•
Check all heater controls for
full-range operation.
•
Check hoses, connections, and
heater core for condition and
leaks.
•
Check the drain tube of the fresh
air inlet for trapped water before
assuming that there is a leak in the
heating system. If the heater core
is leaking, a reliable radiator shop
should be able to repair it.
•
Check the heater core for debris
blocking the air flow. If the blower
and air controls are functioning
properly, yet the heater is not
operating properly, the heater
core or the hot water valves may
be clogged or closed. Clean the
heater core if necessary. If the
condition persists, take the vehicle
to a Kenworth Dealer for proper
heater service or repair.
Do not smoke in the area.
Inhaling gaseous refrigerant
through a cigarette may
cause violent illness.
During extreme cold weather, do
not blow hot defroster air onto cold
windshields. This could crack the
glass. Turn the air direction lever
to Defrost and adjust the fan speed
accordingly while the engine warms.
If the engine is already warm,
move the temperature selector to
Cool, then gradually increase the
temperature when you see that the
windshield is starting to warm-up.
5
5-101
HEATER AND AIR CONDITIONER MAINTENANCE
Air Conditioner
necessary. Small particles may
be removed with compressed
air blown through the core in the
opposite direction of normal air
flow.
WARNING
The air conditioning system is
under pressure.
If not handled
properly during servicing, it could
explode. Any servicing that requires
depressurizing and recharging the
air conditioning system must be
conducted by a qualified technician
with the right facilities to do the
job. Failure to comply may result in
personal injury, death, equipment or
property damage.
•
5
•
Check the compressor and drive
clutch for noise and vibration.
If you find problems, have the
system checked thoroughly. A
malfunctioning clutch usually
indicates trouble elsewhere in the
system.
Check the evaporator core, filter,
and condenser core for debris
restricting air flow. Clean if
5-102
WARNING
Wear eye protection any time
you blow compressed air. Small
particles blown by compressed air
could injure your eyes.
•
Inspect and clean cab air filter
element every 3 - 6 months
of service. Depending on the
operating environment, if air flow
from the air conditioner and heater
is less efficient or windows fog
easier, you may need to replace
the cab air filter.
•
Check the compressor belt for
condition and proper tension.
•
Check all hoses for kinks,
deterioration, chafing, and leaks.
Adjust kinked or chafing hoses to
eliminate restrictions and prevent
further wear.
•
Check all components and
connections for refrigerant leaks.
If you discover a leak, do not try to
tighten a connection. Tightening
a connection may cause a worse
leak. Have a qualified technician
correct the problem.
NOTE
A leaking evaporator or condenser
core cannot be repaired; it must be
replaced.
Have the air conditioning system fully
serviced annually by your Kenworth
Dealer. Qualified service technicians
will have to evacuate and recharge the
system.
NOISE AND EMISSION CONTROL MAINTENANCE
NOISE AND
EMISSION CONTROL
MAINTENANCE
Noise Emission Warranty
Kenworth Truck Company warrants
to the first person who purchases this
vehicle (for purposes other than resale)
and to each subsequent purchaser:
that this vehicle, as manufactured
by Kenworth Truck Company, was
designed, built and equipped to
conform, at the time it left Kenworth's
control, with all applicable U.S. EPA
Noise Control Regulations.
This warranty covers this vehicle
as designed, built and equipped by
Kenworth, and is not limited to any
particular part, component or system of
the vehicle manufactured by Kenworth.
Defects in design, assembly or in any
part, component or system of the
vehicle as manufactured by Kenworth,
which at the time it left Kenworth's
control caused noise emissions
to exceed Federal standards, are
covered by this warranty for the life of
the vehicle.
Tampering with Noise Control
System
Federal law prohibits the following
acts or the causing thereof:
1.
The removal or rendering
inoperative by any person other
than for purposes of maintenance,
repair, or replacement, of any
device or element of design
incorporated into any new vehicle
for the purpose of noise control
prior to its sale or delivery to the
ultimate purchaser or while it is in
use, or
2.
The use of the vehicle after such
device or element of design
has been removed or rendered
inoperative by any person.
Among those acts presumed to
constitute tampering are the acts listed
below:
5-103
5
NOISE AND EMISSION CONTROL MAINTENANCE
Air Intake System
Fuel System
•
•
Removing or rendering engine
speed governor inoperative,
allowing engine speed to exceed
manufacturer's specifications.
•
Removing of air signal attenuator
on engines equipped with this
device.
Removing or rendering inoperative
the air cleaner/silencers or intake
piping.
Engine Cooling System
•
Removing or rendering inoperative
the fan clutch.
•
Removing the fan shroud.
Engine
5
•
Removing or rendering engine
speed governor inoperative so as
to allow engine speed to exceed
manufacturer's specifications.
•
Modifying ECU parameters.
Exhaust System
•
Removing or rendering inoperative
exhaust system components.
5-104
Inner Fender Shields and Cab Skirts
•
Removing shield or skirts.
•
Cutting away parts of shields,
skirts or damaged or loose
portions of shields or skirts.
Noise Insulating Blankets
•
Removing noise insulators from
engine block or from around the
oil pan.
•
Cutting holes in, or cutting away
part of noise insulators.
•
Removing hood-mounted noise
insulation.
NOISE AND EMISSION CONTROL MAINTENANCE
Inspection and Maintenance
Instructions
The following instructions are based on
inspection of the noise control system
at regular intervals as indicated in the
Noise Control System Maintenance
Log on page 5-111.
If, during periodic inspection and
maintenance of other systems and
components, it is found that parts of the
noise control system require attention,
we recommend that those parts be
inspected at more frequent intervals
to assure adequate maintenance and
performance.
Air Intake System
Engine Mounted Noise Insulators
•
Do all checks and maintenance
procedures listed in this manual
under Engine Air Intake System
and Air Cleaner. See Air Dryer on
page 4-18.
•
•
Check the induction tubing, elbow
connections, clamps, brackets,
and fasteners for deterioration,
cracks, and security.
Check condition. Is the insulator
secure? How you do this will
depend on the method of attaching
the noise insulators on the engine
and around the oil pan (bolts,
snap fasteners, or straps). Tighten
loose fasteners and repair or
replace any worn or damaged
fasteners.
•
If you find an air leak anywhere
between the air cleaner and
the engine, repair that leak
immediately.
•
Check insulators around fasteners
and stress points, especially
where they may be affected by
engine vibration. Repair any
cracked or damaged mounting
points. Use suitable reinforcing
plates to ensure that the insulators
will remain in position.
CAUTION
Air leaks cause excessive noise and
may result in serious damage to the
engine. If you do not repair them the
engine damage will not be covered
by your warranty. Repair all air leaks
as soon as you find them.
5-105
5
NOISE AND EMISSION CONTROL MAINTENANCE
Exhaust System
Joints and Clamps
Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR)
•
Check for exhaust leaks,
which would indicate a leaking
manifold gasket; replace gasket if
necessary.
•
•
•
Check cap screws for tightness,
including those at the flanges.
Refer to the engine manufacturer's
service manual for proper
tightening sequence and torque
values.
5
5-106
Check for leaks, and tighten as
necessary. Check for deterioration
or dents in pipes and clamps which
could allow exhaust to escape.
Check SCR canister filter, clamps
and mounting brackets. Tighten if
necessary. Inspect SCR canister
for signs of rust or corrosion.
NOISE AND EMISSION CONTROL MAINTENANCE
Piping
Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF)
Mufflers
•
•
Check diesel particulate filter
(DPF), clamps, and mounting
brackets. Tighten if necessary.
Inspect diesel particulate filter
(DPF) for signs of rust or corrosion.
•
Check muffler, clamps, and
mounting brackets. Tighten if
necessary. Inspect muffler for
signs of rust or corrosion.
•
•
Check internal baffling. You can
do this by listening for rattling
sounds while tapping on the diesel
particulate filter (DPF) with a
rubber mallet or revving the engine
up and down through its normal
operating range.
Check internal baffling. You can
do this by listening for rattling
sounds while tapping the muffler
with a rubber mallet or revving the
engine up and down through its
normal operating range.
Check exhaust piping for rust,
corrosion, or damage. Replace
deteriorated piping before holes
appear. If piping is perforated at
any point, temporary patching or
lagging is acceptable until you can
have permanent repairs made.
On turbocharged engines, check
joints at flanges and mounting
brackets for tightness.
5
5-107
NOISE AND EMISSION CONTROL MAINTENANCE
Exhaust Tail Pipe
•
Engine Fan and Shroud
Check the mounting. Tighten as
necessary. The miter cut at the tip
of the pipe must be facing the rear
of the vehicle. Do not modify the
end of the pipe in any way.
5
5-108
WARNING
Do not work on the fan with the
engine running. The engine fan can
engage at any time without warning.
Anyone near the fan when it turns
on could be injured. Before turning
on the ignition, be sure that no one
is near the fan.
•
Check all fasteners for tightness.
Check for stress cracks in the
shroud. Make sure the shroud is
adjusted so that it does not touch
the fan blades.
•
Check to verify that the fan is
disengaged (not turning) with
the engine running at normal
operating temperatures (from cold
to the point that the fan engages).
•
Check fan blade mounting bolts.
Inspect fan blades to be sure they
are not cracked or bent.
Transmission and Driveline
•
Substituting a different main
transmission or driveline
components, other than
design-specified units, may
result in increased vehicle noise
emission.
NOISE AND EMISSION CONTROL MAINTENANCE
Hood Insulation Blanket
Blanket
Inner Fender Shields and Cab Skirts
•
•
•
Check all fasteners for condition
and security. Repair or replace
any broken or defective fasteners.
Check for chafing or tears. Patch
it if necessary. Find the cause of
the damage. If any component
or accessory is causing wear or
damage and cannot be relocated,
put reinforcing pads on the blanket
at the site of wear.
Check all fasteners, especially the
self-tapping hex head screws. Are
they secure? Remove and replace
any loose rivets.
5
5-109
NOISE AND EMISSION CONTROL MAINTENANCE
Shields and Skirts
•
NOTE
Check shields and skirts for cracks
at mounting and stress points.
Check fender shields for tire
marks, worn spots, or damage
from objects thrown from tire
treads. You can repair cracked or
damaged fiberglass fender shields
with fiberglass and resin.
•
If you find damage at a fastening
point, you can gain additional
strength by installing a suitable
reinforcing plate. This plate
should be drilled to accept a rivet
and laminated to the shield with
fiberglass and resin.
•
Check cab skirts, sills, and
brackets for overall condition
and repair them as necessary.
Damaged rubber fender shields
or cab skirting cannot be repaired.
You will need to replace it.
5
5-110
Your Kenworth Dealer can perform
all of these checks and repairs or
replacements.
Noise Control System Maintenance Log
To ensure your Kenworth's noise
control requirements are maintained,
record maintenance checks. Use the
following log sheet and retain copies
of documents regarding maintenance
services performed and parts replaced
on the vehicle.
NOISE AND EMISSION CONTROL MAINTENANCE
Table 16 Noise Control System - Maintenance Log
Recommended
Interval (Miles)
25,000
Exhaust System
Routing Integrity
25,000
Shutters
Shrouds
Hood Insulation
10,000
Blanket
Engine Mounted
10,000
Hose Insulators
Fasteners
Inner Fender
50,000
Shields
50,000
Cab Skirts
Fasteners
Air Intake
5,000
System Integrity
Element
10,000
Clutch Type Fan
Drive
Component
Date & R.O. No.
Repair Facility Work
& Location
Performed
Date & R.O. No.
Repair Facility & Work
Performed
Location
5
5-111
REAR AXLE AND SUSPENSION MAINTENANCE
REAR AXLE AND
SUSPENSION
MAINTENANCE
General Maintenance
Your vehicle's suspension, by
design, requires a minimal amount of
maintenance. However, suspensions
in over-the-road operations require
periodic inspection to ensure troublefree performance.
WARNING
Do not work on the vehicle without
the parking brake set and wheels
chocked securely. If the vehicle is
not secured to prevent uncontrolled
vehicle movement, it could roll and
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
5
NOTE
Use wood blocks (4 in. X 4 in.
or larger) against the front and rear
surfaces of the tires. Be sure the
vehicle cannot move.
5-112
WARNING
Do not operate the vehicle if the
U-bolts are not properly tightened.
Loose U-bolts will cause the axle
to not be properly secured to the
suspension, which could cause
loss of vehicle control and an
accident. Loose U-bolts can also
cause uneven tire wear and poor
alignment. Failure to comply may
result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
WARNING
Failure to maintain the specified
torque values or to replace worn
parts can cause component system
failure, possibly resulting in an
accident.
Improperly tightened
(loose) suspension U-bolts can
lead to unsafe vehicle conditions,
including:
hard steering, axle
misalignment,
spring breakage
or abnormal tire wear.
See
Front Spring Suspension U-bolts
on page 5-99 for proper torque
specifications. Failure to comply
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
CAUTION
Do not spray the suspension with
chemical products or mineral oil; it
can cause damage to the bushings.
REAR AXLE AND SUSPENSION MAINTENANCE
Visual Inspection
NOTE
Failure
to
follow
recommendations
could
warranty.
these
void
For all vehicles, mandatory
maintenance procedures include
retightening of U-bolts and complete
inspection. However, even with proper
maintenance, many factors affect the
service life of springs and suspension
components, such as: fatigue, vehicle
gross weight, type of load, road
conditions and vehicle speed.
It is important that U-bolts remain tight.
Severe use of your vehicle can cause
them to loosen faster. But all vehicles
need to have their U-bolts checked and
tightened regularly. Be sure someone
with the proper training and the right
tools checks and tightens the U-bolts
on your Kenworth.
•
After the first 500 miles (800 km) of
operation, inspect the suspension
periodically, as noted below:
•
Visually check for loose or missing
fasteners, cracks in hanger or axle
connection brackets.
•
Check that springs are centered in
hangers and in good condition.
•
Check for cracks, wear marks,
splits, or other defects on the
surface of the spring.
•
Replace defective parts. Because
repaired springs cannot be
fully restored to their original
service life, replace the complete
assembly if cracks or other defects
are detected.
•
After replacement of any part or
discovery of loose components,
check the torque of all fasteners.
•
New springs settle-in after the
vehicle's initial service, causing
the U-bolts to become loose.
5-113
5
REAR AXLE AND SUSPENSION MAINTENANCE
Rear Suspension Fasteners
U-Bolt Torque
NOTE
To maintain the performance of the
air suspension, check fastener torque
values after the first 2,000 miles (3,218
km) of service and every 60,000 miles
(96,000 km) thereafter.
NOTE
To ensure an accurate torque
reading, use properly maintained
and calibrated torque wrenches.
•
Torque recommendations apply to
fasteners supplied and installed
by Kenworth. The values listed in
Table 17 and Table 18 below, are for
cadmium plated or phosphate and oil
fasteners only.
5
U-bolts are difficult to tighten unless
you have the right equipment. If you
cannot tighten them correctly yourself,
be sure to have them checked and
tightened regularly by an authorized
mechanic.
5-114
Clean the nut and bolt. No dirt,
grit, or rust should be present.
WARNING
Do not operate the vehicle if the
U-bolts are not properly tightened.
Loose U-bolts will cause the axle
to not be properly secured to the
suspension, which could cause
loss of vehicle control and an
accident. Loose U-bolts can also
cause uneven tire wear and poor
alignment. Failure to comply may
result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
Torque all fasteners on the nut end.
Table 17 Rear Suspension Fasteners
(Metric & Standard)
SIZE/TYPE
TORQUE
Nm
LbFt
163-217
120-160
M16
nylon-insert
nuts
M20
352-460
260-340
nylon-insert
nuts
M20 all-metal
427-475
315-350
lock nuts
109-122
80-90
1/2 in. nut
394-462
290-340
3/4 in. nut
1-1/4 in. nut 1,877-2,217 1,380-1,630
* Torque requirements apply to Kenworth
proprietary suspensions. All other
suspensions must refer and adhere to
original manufacturers shop manual.
REAR AXLE AND SUSPENSION MAINTENANCE
Table 18 Rear Suspension U-Bolts, Grade
8 (lubricated*)
U-BOLT SIZE
TORQUE**
DIAMETER
Nm
Lb-Ft
THREAD
333-408
245-300
3/4
598-734
440-540
7/8
1
925-1,060
680-780
1,470-1,660 1,080-1,220
1-1/8
1,890-2,120 1,390-1,560
1-1/4
3,130-3,860 2,300-2,840
1-1/2
*Chevron Zinc Lubricant or SAE 20/30 oil
should be used on U-Bolt threads
•
Load the vehicle to its normal
gross weight before tightening
U-bolts. Loading the vehicle
ensures proper adjustment of the
U-bolt and spring assembly.
WARNING
Do not replace U-bolts and nuts
with common U-bolts or standard
nuts. These parts are critical to
vehicle safety. If the wrong U-bolts
or nuts are used, the axle could
loosen or separate from the vehicle
and cause a serious accident. Use
only U-bolts and nuts of SAE Grade
8 specification or better. Failure
to comply may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
Rear Axle Lubrication
•
Check oil level with the vehicle
parked on level ground and the
fluid warm. The level should be
even with the bottom of the filler
hole.
CAUTION
Do not mix lubricants of different
grades; although, mixing different
brands of the same grade
lubricant (meeting miLL2105C), is
acceptable. Lubricants of different
grades are not compatible and
could damage the axle.
5
NOTE
In all cases, lubricant supplier
assumes full responsibility for the
performance of their product, and
for product and patent liability.
5-115
REAR AXLE AND SUSPENSION MAINTENANCE
Dana Spicer and Fabco
For recommended types and brands
of lubricants, contact your Kenworth
Dealer.
No initial drain is required on Dana
Spicer axles that are factory filled with
an Dana Spicer-approved synthetic
lubricant.
•
Petroleum-based lubricants must
be drained within the first 5,000
miles (8,000 km) if converting to
an approved synthetic lubricant.
Initial Change: See Table 6,
Recommended Lubrication Intervals
on page 5-11 for standard rear
axle service intervals. Change
mineral-based lubricant in other Dana
Spicer and Fabco axle assemblies
(new or rebuilt) within the first 3,000 to
5,000 miles (4,800 to 8,000 km).
5
•
5-116
For petroleum-based axles, use
lubricants meeting miL L2105C/D
grade specifications or approved
synthetic lubrication. Do not use
oil additives.
All Vehicles with Dana Spicer
and Fabco Axles: See Table 6,
Recommended Lubrication Intervals
on page 5-11. Contact your Kenworth
Dealer for approved synthetic lubricant
brands.
•
Dana Spicer Axles with synthetic
lubrication and Out Runner Seals:
drain, flush, and refill at 500,000
miles (804,000 km).
REAR AXLE AND SUSPENSION MAINTENANCE
Axle Housing Breather Vent
Meritor
Rear Axle Alignment
•
See Meritor Lubrication Maintenance
Manual (MM1).
Continual road shock and load
stresses may force the rear axles
out of alignment. If you detect rapid
tire wear on the rear axles, you may
have misaligned axles. If you suspect
rapid tire wear, have your rear axle
alignment checked and adjusted by a
Kenworth Dealer.
Check and clean the axle housing
breather vent at each oil level
check.
In addition to pre-delivery inspections,
suspension alignment should be
checked when any one of the following
conditions exist:
•
Discovery of loose suspension
fasteners. (Loose, defined as any
torque below the recommended
torque value.)
•
Discovery of elongated holes in a
suspension component.
•
Bushing replacement.
•
Excessive or abnormal tire wear.
5-117
5
STEERING AND DRIVELINE MAINTENANCE
STEERING AND
DRIVELINE
MAINTENANCE
WARNING
Do not operate the vehicle if the
steering system is not working
properly. You could lose control of
your vehicle if the steering system is
not in good working condition, which
could result in a serious accident.
For driving safety, visually check
the steering gear and components.
Frequent checks are important
for driving safety, especially after
traveling over rough roads. Failure
to comply may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
Power Steering
Oil (under low pressure) provides the
power to operate the steering gear. It
also serves to lubricate moving parts
and remove heat. A loss of steering
efficiency will occur if too much heat
builds up in the system.
5
NOTE
If the steering feels unbalanced from
side-to-side while turning, check for
the following possible causes:
•
5-118
unequal tire pressures
•
vehicle overloaded or unevenly
distributed load
•
wheels out of alignment
•
wheel bearings improperly
adjusted
If you cannot correct the problem,
check with an authorized Kenworth
Dealer.
The Kenworth is equipped with integral
power steering. The system includes
an engine-driven fluid pump, a fluid
reservoir, the steering gear, and
connecting hoses. Because of the
hydraulic power assist, little effort is
required to turn the steering wheel.
When no input is applied through the
steering wheel, the steering gear will
return to the neutral position. If, for
any reason, the power assist system
goes out, steering the vehicle is still
possible, yet it will require much
greater effort.
STEERING AND DRIVELINE MAINTENANCE
Visually check the following parts:
•
Crosstube: Is it straight?
•
Draglink tube clamp: Check for
looseness or interference.
•
Ball joints and steering U-joints:
Check for looseness.
•
Steering wheel for excessive
free-play. Check the simplest
probable causes first:
•
°
unequal tire pressures
°
loose cap nuts
°
bent crosstube
°
lack of lubrication
If these checks do not reveal the
problem, or if you correct them
and still have a steering problem,
take your truck to an authorized
Kenworth Dealer for evaluation.
Fluid Level and Refill
Have the power steering fluid and
filters changed at an authorized
Kenworth Dealer.
•
is at its proper level. Both checks
are with the engine NOT running.
1.
If you check the fluid with the
engine and steering system
COLD, the fluid level should be
at/or above the Minimum indicator
level and should generally not
exceed the middle point between
Maximum and Minimum level
indicators.
2.
If you check the fluid with the
engine and steering system
WARM, the fluid should NOT
exceed the Maximum level
indicator and should generally
not drop below the middle point
between the Maximum and
Minimum level indicators.
Check and completely change
the fluid level according to Table
6, Recommended Lubrication
Intervals on page 5-11. Use the
following procedure:
NOTE
Before removing reservoir cover,
wipe outside of cover so that no dirt
can fall into the reservoir.
•
Maximum/Minimum level is
indicated on the reservoir. These
same levels are also indicated by
two lines on the dipstick in the
reservoir.
•
There are two ways to check
whether the power steering fluid
5-119
5
STEERING AND DRIVELINE MAINTENANCE
Fluid Refill
Steering Driveline
The following recommendations are
for general purpose steering systems,
commonly installed on Kenworth
vehicles.
The following are common torque
specifications for most drivelines.
•
•
•
5
•
For normal temperatures, use
Automatic Transmission Fluid
(ATF) Type E or F or Dexron® III.
Torque on U–joint pinch bolt and
nut (7/16 in) 74–81 Nm (55 to 60
lb-ft), lubricated.
•
For cold temperatures of -22º F
(-30º C) and above use ATF Type
A.
Torque on Pitman arm clamp bolt
and nut (3/4 in): 406–433 Nm (300
to 320 lb-ft), lubricated.
•
For off–highway vehicles, tighten
the U–bolts after the first day or
two of operation. Then check
weekly.
For extremely cold temperatures
between -22º F (-30º C) and -40º
F (-40º C) use ATF Type B.
5-120
WARNING
If this chassis is equipped with an
electronic stability system (ESP) and
any part of the steering system (e.g.
linkage, steering driveline, column,
front-end alignment, etc) is repaired,
removed, or disassembled in any
way, or if the steering angle sensor is
replaced, the steering angle sensor
must be recalibrated. Failure to
do so could cause loss of vehicle
control. Any repairs or adjustments
to any part of the steering system
must be performed by an authorized
Kenworth Dealer. Failure to comply
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
Failure to comply may result in
personal injury, death, equipment or
property damage.
STEERING AND DRIVELINE MAINTENANCE
Driveshaft
U-Joints
The slip joints and universal joints of
the drive shaft should be lubricated
periodically.
•
•
Use a good quality
lithium-soap-base or equivalent
extreme pressure (E.P.) grease:
NLGI Grade 2.
For Towing Guidelines and Returning a
Towed Vehicle to Service see Vehicle
Recovery Guidelines on page 2-12.
The slip joints and universal
joints of the drive shaft should
be lubricated according to Table
6, Recommended Lubrication
Intervals on page 5-11.
Use a good quality lithium-soap-base
or equivalent extreme pressure (E.P.)
grease: NLGI Grade 2.
WARNING
Improper lubrication of U-joints can
cause them to fail prematurely. The
driveshaft could separate from the
vehicle and result in an accident.
Make sure lubricant is purged at all
four ends of each U-joint and loosen
caps if necessary. Also, regularly
inspect U-joints for excessive wear
or movement,
and repair or replace as necessary.
Failure to comply may result in
personal injury, death, equipment or
property damage.
5
5-121
TIRES AND WHEEL MAINTENANCE
TIRES AND WHEEL
MAINTENANCE
Introduction
Keeping the tires in good condition is
essential to the safe, efficient operation
of your Kenworth. Regular, frequent
inspection and the right care will give
you the assurance of safe and reliable
tire operation.
5
5-122
General Safety
Requirements
•
Each mounting system is
engineered only for use with its
correct mating part. Be sure that
properly matched components
are used for each type of
mounting. The comparison
chart, Comparing Hub-piloted
and Ball-seat Wheels on
page 5-133, illustrates the
differences between parts used
in hub-piloted mount and ball
seat mount applications. Only
OEM supplied hub-piloted or
ball-seat mounted wheels may
be used on this vehicle.
WARNING
Use only original equipment
manufactured (OEM) components.
Use of non-original equipment could
cause wheel breakage and wheel
separation from vehicle. Failure
to comply may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
•
If you are not fully qualified and
not equipped with the proper
tools and equipment, do not
attempt to raise the vehicle or
remove or install the damaged
tire and wheel assembly. Obtain
expert help. A person can be
injured and/or damage can
result from using the wrong
service methods. Truck tires
and wheels should be serviced
only by trained personnel using
proper equipment.
TIRES AND WHEEL MAINTENANCE
Do not reinflate a tire that has
been run flat or is low on air
without first removing the tire
from the rim and inspecting for
damage.
•
Follow OSHA regulations per
section 1910.177.
•
Do not exceed the speed rating
of tires. Exceeding the speed
rating may result in sudden
tire failure and loss of vehicle
control.
•
Follow all warnings and
cautions contained within the
tire and wheel manufacturers
literature.
•
Speed Restricted Tires
WARNING
Always support the vehicle with
appropriate safety stands if it is
necessary to work underneath the
vehicle. A jack is not adequate
for this purpose. Failure to comply
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
WARNING
This vehicle may be equipped
with speed restricted tires. Check
each tires sidewall for maximum
rated speed. Vehicle should not
be operated at sustained speed in
excess of maximum rated speed.
Failure to comply with these speed
restrictions could cause sudden tire
failure which may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
5
Only properly trained personnel
should service tire and rim
assemblies.
5-123
TIRES AND WHEEL MAINTENANCE
Tire Inspection and
Replacement
Visually inspect your tires frequently
for any abnormal conditions such as
scrapes, bulges, and uneven wear.
This must be done immediately after
known or suspected contact with an
object in the road, with a pothole,
road irregularity or after severe
braking. Refer these conditions to an
Authorized Tire Service Center for
repair or replacement. Never drive on
a tire if such conditions appear.
5
If the tire looks under-inflated, stand
off to the side and check for damage
to the wheel assembly. This can be
done by visually comparing the wheel
in question to other wheels on the
vehicle. For dual wheel assemblies,
check between the wheels for damage.
If any damage is found, or you suspect
damage, do not attempt further repair.
Call for expert tire service.
5-124
Tire Inflation and Loading
Tire Inflation
Low pressure is a tire's worst enemy.
Under-inflation allows tires to flex
improperly, causing high temperatures
to build up. Heat causes early tire
damage such as flex break, radial
cracks, and ply separation. And low
pressure may affect control of your
vehicle, especially at the front wheels.
Most tire wear problems are caused
by under-inflation as the result of
slow leaks. So you will want to check
tire pressure regularly. Give the tires
a visual test every day, and check
inflation with a gauge every week.
WARNING
Do not operate vehicle with
under-inflated tires. The extra heat
caused by under-inflation can cause
sudden tire failure such as a tire
fire or blow out. Low pressure may
affect control at the front wheels,
which could result in an accident.
Keep your tires inflated to the
manufacturer's recommended air
pressure. Failure to comply may
result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
When checking tire pressure, inspect
each tire for damage to sidewalls,
cuts, cracks, uneven wear, rocks
between dual wheels (tires), etc. If a
tire appears under-inflated, check for
damage to the wheel assembly. Do not
forget to check between dual wheels.
If you find wheel damage, have an
expert tire service repair it.
TIRES AND WHEEL MAINTENANCE
WARNING
Do not repair damaged tires unless
you are fully qualified and equipped
to do so. Wheel and tire assemblies
cannot be worked on without proper
tools and equipment, such as:
safety cages or restraining devices.
Have all tire repairs performed by
an expert. And stand away from
the tire assembly while the expert
is working. Failure to comply may
result in personal injury or death.
Under-inflated tires will adversely
affect the operation of the vehicle
and tires:
Pressure should be checked when
the tires are cool. Warm or hot tires
cause pressure buildup and will give
you an inaccurate reading. So never
deflate a warm tire to the specified
pressure. Failure to comply may
result in equipment damage.
Proper-Inflation: the
correct profile for full
contact with the road.
•
making steering difficult
•
causing extra strain on the tire
sidewalls
TREAD CONTACT
WITH ROAD
•
reducing the tread life of tires
due to the high temperatures
generated from excess flexing of
the tire
2
•
CAUTION
1
Inflate tires to the manufacturer's
cold air pressure specification
molded into the tire side wall.
Under-Inflation:
causes abnormal tire
deflection, which builds
up excessive heat,
running the risk of
TREAD CONTACT failure. It also causes
WITH ROAD
irregular wear.
5
Lower tire pressure does not give
you more traction on ice or snow.
under-inflation actually reduces
traction and steering control. See the
tire manufacturer's Drivers Handbook
for more information on proper
operation and use of tires.
5-125
TIRES AND WHEEL MAINTENANCE
Tire Loading
WARNING
3
TREAD CONTACT
WITH ROAD
•
5
Over-Inflation:
reduces the tread
contact area with
the road surface,
concentrating all of
the vehicle weight
on the center of the
tread. This causes
premature wear of the
tire.
Too much air pressure reduces the
tire tread contact area and results
in rapid wear in the center of the
tire. It also causes tires to run hard
and makes them more vulnerable
to impact and other road hazard
damage.
5-126
Over-inflated tires can cause
accidents. They wear more quickly
than properly inflated tires and
are more subject to punctures,
cracks, and other damage. They
could fail and cause you to lose
control of your vehicle resulting in
an accident. Be sure all tires are
inflated correctly according to the
manufacturer's recommendations.
Failure to comply may result in
personal injury, death, equipment or
property damage.
If over-inflation is noted during travel,
do not deflate tires. The increased
pressure is caused by temperature
build-up during operation. This
condition has been taken into account
during manufacturing of the tires.
Allow tires to cool, then recheck and
adjust if necessary.
WARNING
Do not exceed the load rating of
your tires (molded on the side
wall of your tire) or the maximum
vehicle load rating, whichever is
less. Overloading could result in
premature tire failure causing you
to loose control of your vehicle and
result in an accident. The maximum
vehicle load rating (GVWR) is found
on the Tire and Rim Data label on
the driver's door. Failure to comply
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
TIRES AND WHEEL MAINTENANCE
Overloading your vehicle is as
damaging to the tires as under-inflation.
It significantly affects the expected
life (total mileage of a tire). The
following chart shows how neglect or
deliberate abuse can affect the life of
your vehicle's tires.
Table 19 Effect of Load Pressure on Tire Life
Vehicle Load
Tire Pressure
Expected Total
Tire Mileage
Normal
Normal
Normal
Wheel Mounting and
Fastening
After the vehicle travels about 50 to 100
miles (80 to 160 km), wheel mountings
seat in and will lose some initial torque.
Check hub/wheel mountings after this
initial period and retighten.
20% Over
20% Low
70%
40% Over
30% Low
50%
60% Over
35% Low
40%
80% Over
45% Low
30%
100% Over
55% Low
25%
Wheel Cap Nut Torque
WARNING
At the first scheduled lube interval,
have all wheel cap nuts torqued to their
specified value. See Table 20, Wheel
Cap Nut Torque on page 5-127. After
that, check wheel cap nuts at least
once a week. Contact an authorized
Kenworth Dealer for information on the
proper installation procedure for the
wheels on your truck. This is a job you
may not be able to do yourself. You
need the right torquing equipment to
do it.
Never use oil or grease on studs or
nuts; improper torque readings will
result, which could cause improper
wheel clamping and could lead
to a wheel failure resulting in an
accident. Failure to comply may
result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
5-127
5
TIRES AND WHEEL MAINTENANCE
Wheel Bearing Adjustment
For safe, reliable operation and
adequate service life, your wheel
bearings must be adjusted properly at
the recommended intervals. See Table
9, Maintenance Schedule on page
5-17 and Steering Axle Wheel Bearing
- End Play Adjustment and Inspection
on page 5-17. Contact your authorized
Kenworth Dealer to make sure the
wheel bearings are properly adjusted.
5
5-128
TIRES AND WHEEL MAINTENANCE
Table 20 Wheel Cap Nut Torque
WHEEL & NUT CONFIGURATION
STUD SIZE
Steel or Aluminum Disc-Type
Wheel; Double Cap Nut Mounting;
Standard 7/8 Radius Ball Seat
Heavy-Duty Steel Disc-Type Wheel;
Double Cap Nut Mounting;
1-3/16 Radius Ball Seat:
Hub-Piloted Disc-Type Wheel
w/Two Piece Flanged Cap Nuts:
Steel or Aluminum Wheel
Stud Backnuts (when used)
3/4-16
1-1/8-16
TORQUE FOR INNER & OUTER CAP NUTS & RIM CLAMP NUTS
Nm
Lb-Ft
610-680
450-500
610-680
450-500
15/16-12
1-1/8-16
1-15/16-12
M22-1.5
1,020-1,220
1,020-1,220
1,020-1,220
610-680
750-900
750-900
750-900
450-500
3/4-16
1-14
240-270
240-410
175-200
175-300
Threads should be clean and dry. Do
not lubricate wheel nuts or studs.
5
5-129
TIRES AND WHEEL MAINTENANCE
Wheel Replacement With
Disc Brake Option
Proper Torque and Sequence
Proper wheel torque can best be
obtained on level ground. Install lug
nuts and finger-tighten in the numerical
sequence as shown below, see Nut
Tightening Sequence for Hub Piloted
Disc Wheels on page 5-130 or Nut
Tightening Sequence for Stud Piloted
Disc Wheels on page 5-130. This
procedure will ensure that the wheel is
drawn evenly against the hub. Torque
each nut to the torque value listed in
Table 20, Wheel Cap Nut Torque.
WARNING
5
Tighten wheel cap nuts properly.
If they are not tightened properly,
wheel nuts could eventually cause
the wheel to become loose, to fail,
and/or to come off while the vehicle
is moving, possibly causing loss of
control and may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
5-130
Nut Tightening Sequence for Hub
Piloted Disc Wheels
Nut Tightening Sequence for Stud
Piloted Disc Wheels
Use only the wheel brand, size and
part number originally installed by
Kenworth. Use of a different wheel
brand or size could cause valve stem
to interfere with a brake component
which could lead to loss of vehicle
control and may lead to personal injury.
Vehicles equipped with front disc
brakes are fitted with wheels designed
specifically for disc brake applications.
If it ever becomes necessary to
replace an original equipment wheel,
the replacement wheel must be the
same brand and size as the take-off
wheel. On vehicles equipped with 22.5
in. disc wheels, installing the wrong
replacement wheel could result in the
wheel valve stem making contact with
the disc brake assembly.
TIRES AND WHEEL MAINTENANCE
When installing any replacement
wheel, always inspect the tires/wheels
to ensure there is adequate clearance
between other vehicle components.
With the hood open, check for
clearance between the wheel and disc
brake assembly. Use a hydraulic jack
to raise the front of the vehicle off
the ground to allow the wheel to spin
freely. While rotating the wheel, check
to ensure there is adequate clearance
between the wheel and disc brake
assembly
WARNING
If the hood falls, anyone under it
could be injured. Always attach the
safety cable and/or hood stop when
the hood is in its open position any
time anyone gets under the hood
for any reason. Failure to comply
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
Disc Wheels
WARNING
Always support the vehicle with
appropriate safety stands if it is
necessary to work underneath the
vehicle. A jack is not adequate for
this purpose.
WARNING
Improperly
mounting
and
demounting tire and rim assemblies
is dangerous. Failure to observe
proper precautions could cause
the tire-rim assembly to burst
explosively,
causing
serious
injury or death. See the wheel
manufacturer's literature for the
proper way to mount and demount
your tires and rims. Follow their
precautions exactly.
WARNING
Use the correct components and
tools when working on wheels.
Grooves in the wheel disc or other
damage to the disc can weaken the
wheel and cause it to eventually
come off. This could cause you to
lose control of your vehicle, and
may result in an accident. Failure
to comply may result in personal
injury, death, equipment or property
damage.
The end of the wheel wrench must
be smooth. Burrs on the end of the
wrench can tear grooves in the disc.
These grooves may lead to cracks in
the disc, and can cause it to fail.
5-131
5
TIRES AND WHEEL MAINTENANCE
Comparing Hub Piloted and
Ball Seat Parts
WARNING
5
Do
not
mismatch
wheel
components.
Equipment that
does not exactly match original
specifications or that is mismatched
could cause the wheels to break
and separate from the vehicle. The
resulting accident could be very
serious.
Each mounting system
is engineered for use only with
its correct mating part. Be sure
properly matched components are
used for each type of mounting.
Failure to comply may result in
personal injury, death, equipment or
property damage.
The following comparison (Table 21,
Comparing Hub-piloted and Ball-seat
Wheels), shows the difference
between parts used in hub pilot mount
and ball seat mount applications.
5-132
TIRES AND WHEEL MAINTENANCE
Table 21 Comparing Hub-piloted and Ball-seat Wheels
HUB-PILOTED MOUNT
BALLSEAT MOUNT
Hub, Drum, and Stud Assembly
Hub-piloted mountings use M22 x 1.5 metric threads (about 7/8 in.
Ball-seat (stud-piloted) mountings use 3/4x16 or 1-1/8x16 threads. The
diameter). The stud stands out at least 1.94 in. beyond the brake drum. dual mounting studs provide 1.30 in. 1.44 in. standout. Right-hand and
All studs are right-hand threads. Pilot bosses (machined surfaces) on the left-hand threads are required. Inner and outer wheel nuts center the
hub, fit tightly to the wheel center bore.
wheels by seating against wheel ball seats.
Wheels
Hub-piloted wheels have stud holes reamed straight through (no ball
Ball-seat wheels have spherical chamfers machined on each stud hole.
seats). Center bore diameter is 8-21/32 in.
Center bore diameter is 8-23/32 in.
Wheel Nuts
Hub-piloted wheel nuts have a hex body and a flange for clamping
Ball-seat inner and outer wheel nuts mate with spherical chamfers on
against wheel face. Hex size is 1-5/16 in. (33 mm).
wheels. The inner nut has 13/16 in. square end. The outer nut has
a 1-1/2 in. hex.
Tire Replacement
Front: replace front tires when less
than 4/32 in. of tread depth remains.
Check depth at three places equally
spaced around the tire.
Drive Axles or Trailers: replace tires
on drive axles when less than 2/32 in.
of tread depth remains in any major
groove. Check depth at three places
equally spaced around the tire.
5-133
5
TIRES AND WHEEL MAINTENANCE
WARNING
NOTE
Do not install regrooved or
reinforcement- repaired tires on
steering axles.
They could fail
unexpectedly and cause you to
lose control of your vehicle resulting
in an accident. Failure to comply
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
To prolong the tires' life and make
them safer, have their radial and
lateral run-out checked at your
Kenworth Dealer. And of course
have the tires balanced any time
you change a tire.
WARNING
5
Do not replace original equipment
tires with load ratings less than the
original tires. Doing so could lead
to unintentional overloading of the
tire, which could cause a failure
resulting in loss of vehicle control
and an accident. Failure to comply
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
5-134
TIRES AND WHEEL MAINTENANCE
Matching Tires
Be sure to buy matched tires for
your vehicle, especially on the rear
axles. Mismatched tires can cause
stress between axles and cause the
temperature of the axle lubricant to get
too hot. Matched tires will help the
driveline last longer and will give you
better tire mileage.
require different sizes on front and rear
wheels. For safety, always use the
recommended size and type of tires.
WARNING
Do not mismatch tires, it can be
dangerous.
Never mix tires of
different design such as steel belted
radials and bias ply tires, etc. Mixing
tire types and sizes will adversely
affect the road-holding ability of both
types of tires and can lead to loss
of vehicle control. Failure to comply
may result in personal injury, death,
equipment or property damage.
5
Make sure, too, that you use the right
size tires on each wheel. Some trucks
5-135
TRANSMISSION AND CLUTCH MAINTENANCE
TRANSMISSION
AND CLUTCH
MAINTENANCE
Introduction
Follow the procedures below to
ensure parts are properly lubricated:
5
•
Maintain oil level, check it regularly
•
Change oil regularly
•
Use the correct grade and type of
oil
•
Buy oil from a reputable dealer
5-136
All Transmissions
Oil Change
Initial Change: drain and replace
according to Table 6, Recommended
Lubrication Intervals on page 5-11; for
some transmissions this may not be
required.
Change fluid according to change
procedures specified in the
Transmission Service Manual.
Use the recommended types of oil
as specified in the Operation and
Service Manual (included with vehicle).
Select from the appropriate lubricant
for varying ambient (outside air)
temperatures.
TRANSMISSION AND CLUTCH MAINTENANCE
Transmission Lubricants
CAUTION
When adding oil, types and
brands of oil should not be
intermixed because of possible
incompatibility,
which
could
decrease the effectiveness of the
lubrication or cause component
failure.
Manual Transmission
Service Intervals
Manual transmissions are designed so
that the internal parts operate in a bath
of oil circulated by the motion of gears
and shafts.
For recommended types and brands
of all lubricants, see the transmission
manufacturer's Service Manual and
Table 6, Recommended Lubrication
Intervals on page 5-11.
Check all hoses for kinks, deterioration,
chafing, and leaks. Adjust kinked or
chafing hoses to eliminate restrictions
and prevent further wear. To ensure
proper inspection, it may be necessary
to inspect under and inside frame rails
and unclip harnesses, hoses and cable
bundles.
5
5-137
TRANSMISSION AND CLUTCH MAINTENANCE
Standard Transmission Oil Level
Automatic Transmissions
Automatic Transmission Oil Level
Service Intervals
NOTE
The vehicle must be parked on
level ground.See the Transmission
Operator's Manual for information
on checking the transmission oil
level.
5
5-138
NOTE
Check daily with engine idling. See
Table 6, Recommended Lubrication
Intervals on page 5-11 for service
intervals.
The vehicle must be parked on level
ground.
See the Transmission Operator's
Manual for information on checking the
transmission oil level.
TRANSMISSION AND CLUTCH MAINTENANCE
Clutch System Introduction
Free pedal is the distance the clutch
pedal moves by applying only slight
pressure. During free pedal the
release yoke in the transmission
moves until its bearing pads contact
the release bearing. This movement of
the release yoke is called free travel.
Thus, free pedal and free travel are
directly related to each other.
When all free pedal and free travel are
gone, the clutch requires adjustment.
The clutch is adjusted by turning an
adjustment ring that is built into the
clutch. When the ring is turned, the
release bearing moves back toward
the transmission, restoring free pedal
and clutch free travel. Under normal
clutch wear this is the only adjustment
needed. Do not attempt to change any
other component.
Clutch Linkage
Have your authorized Kenworth
Dealer service the clutch according
to the clutch manufacturer's service
guidelines.
•
The Kenworth is equipped with a
rod and lever mechanical clutch
linkage. Lubricate each pivot point
on the clutch linkage.
As the clutch pedal is depressed
further, with harder pressure, the
release yoke moves the release
bearing away from the engine. This
causes the clutch plate to release from
the driven disks in the clutch. This is
called release travel. And finally, as the
pedal is pushed to the last 1/2 to 1 inch
of travel, the release bearing contacts
and engages the clutch brake. This
is called clutch brake squeeze. When
the clutch wears, the release bearing
gradually moves toward the engine,
decreasing free pedal and free travel.
5
5-139
TRANSMISSION AND CLUTCH MAINTENANCE
Clutch Adjustment - Normal
Wear
See the clutch manufacturer's Service
Manual for the proper adjustment
procedures.
External Linkage Adjustment
1.
Adjust clutch to clutch
manufacturer's specification.
2.
Verify 1/8 in. free travel (distance
the release yoke moves before the
release yoke bearing pads contact
the release bearing).
3.
Verify free pedal of 1.75 in. (44
mm ± 6 mm).
NOTE
This procedure is all that is
required
for
normal
clutch
adjustment.
Adjustment of any
other components is not required.
5
5-140
INFORMATION
CONSUMER INFORMATION AND VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION
Introduction . . . . . .
Reporting Safety Defects
Vehicle Identification . .
Certification Labels . . .
Component Identification.
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6-3
6-3
6-4
6-5
6-8
6
6-1
CONSUMER INFORMATION AND VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION
CONSUMER
INFORMATION
AND VEHICLE
IDENTIFICATION
Introduction
WARNING
This vehicle contains material
known by the State of California to
cause cancer and/or birth defects
or other reproductive harm. This
warning requirement is mandated
by California law (Proposition 65)
and does not result from any change
in the manner in which Kenworth
trucks are manufactured.
Reporting Safety Defects
United States
If you believe that your vehicle has
a defect which could cause a crash
or could cause injury or death, you
should immediately inform the National
Highway Traffic Safety Administration
(NHTSA) in addition to notifying
Kenworth Truck Company.
If NHTSA receives similar complaints,
it may open an investigation, and
if it finds that a safety defect exists
in a group of vehicles, it may order
a recall and remedy campaign.
However, NHTSA cannot get involved
in individual problems between you,
your Kenworth Dealer, and Kenworth
Truck Company.
Administrator, NHTSA, 400 Seventh
Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20590.
You can also get other information
about auto safety from the Hotline.
Canada
Canadian customers who wish to report
a safety-related defect to Transport
Canada, Defect Investigations and
Recalls, may telephone the toll free
hotline 1-800-333-0510, or contact
Transport Canada by mail at: Transport
Canada, ASFAD, Place de Ville Tower
C, 330 Sparks Street, Ottawa ON K1A
0N5.
For additional road safety information,
please visit the Road Safety website
at:
http://www.tc.gc.ca/roadsafety/menu.htm
To contact NHTSA, you may either
call the Auto Safety Hotline toll-free
at 1-800-424-9393 (366-0123 in
Washington, D.C.) or write to:
6-3
6
CONSUMER INFORMATION AND VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION
Vehicle Identification
The 17-digit Vehicle Identification
Number (VIN) is used to register
your vehicle for warranty, license and
insurance.
1
2
3
4
5
6
6
6-4
Manufacturer Identifier
Vehicle Attributes
Reserved Space
Model Year
Assembly Plant (Chassis
Number)
Serial Number (Chassis
Number)
Assembly Plant Code
Table 22 Model Year Designations
CODE
9
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
YEAR
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
F = KENMEX
M = Ste. Therese
R = Renton
J = Chillicothe
CONSUMER INFORMATION AND VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION
VIN Location
Chassis Number
Certification Labels
The full, 17-digit VIN is exclusively
located on the Weight Rating Data
Label. The label is located on the
driver's side door edge or on the
driver's side door frame.
The Chassis Number refers to the
last seven characters of the VIN.
This number will allow your Kenworth
Dealer to identify your vehicle. You will
be asked for this number when you
bring it in for service.
Vehicle information and specifications
for your Kenworth are documented on
labels. As noted below, each label
contains specific information pertaining
to vehicle capacities and specifications
that you should be aware of.
Chassis Number Locations
•
Right frame rail, top flange, about
3 ft. from the front end
•
Cab back, left-hand rear panel,
lower edge
•
Tire, Rim, and Weight Rating Data
label (truck)
•
Components and Weights label
•
Noise Emission label
•
Paint Identification label
6
6-5
CONSUMER INFORMATION AND VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION
Components and Weights Label
Tire and Rim Data Label
The Components and Chassis Weight
Label is located on either the driver’s
side door edge or on the driver’s
side door frame. It includes chassis
number, chassis weight and gross
weight, plus model information for the
vehicle, engine, transmission, and
axles.
The Tire, Rim And Weight Rating
Data Label is located on the driver’s
side door edge or on the driver’s side
door frame. It contains the following
information:
WARNING
•
GVWR - Gross Vehicle Weight
Rating
•
GAWR FRONT, INTERMEDIATE
and REAR - Gross Axle Weight
Ratings for Front, Intermediate
and Rear Axle
•
TIRE/RIM SIZES AND INFLATION
PRESSURES - Tire/Rim Sizes
and Cold Pressure Minimums
•
VIN including CHASSIS NUMBER
Do not exceed the specified load
rating. Overloading can result in
loss of vehicle control and personal
injury, either by causing component
failures or by affecting vehicle
handling. Exceeding load ratings
can also shorten the service life of
the vehicle.
The components of your vehicle
are designed to provide satisfactory
service if the vehicle is not loaded
in excess of either the gross vehicle
weight rating (GVWR), or the maximum
front and rear gross axle weight ratings
(GAWRs).
NOTE
6
GVW is the TOTAL SCALE WEIGHT
the vehicle is designed to carry.
This includes the weight of the
empty vehicle, loading platform,
occupants, fuel, and any load.
6-6
CONSUMER INFORMATION AND VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION
Noise Emission Label
Paint Identification Label
The Noise Emission Label is located
in the drivers side door frame. It
contains information regarding U.S.
noise emission regulations, chassis
number, and date of manufacture.
The Paint Identification Label contains
the paint colors used by the factory
to paint your vehicle. It lists frame,
wheels, cab interior and exterior
colors. This label is located inside the
glove box.
Federal Safety Standard
Certification Label
The NHTSA regulations require a label
certifying compliance with Federal
Safety Standards, for United States
and U.S. Territories, be affixed to
each motor vehicle and prescribe
where such label may be located.
This certification label, which indicates
the date of manufacture and other
pertinent information, is located on
the driver’s side door edge or on the
driver’s side door frame.
6
6-7
CONSUMER INFORMATION AND VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION
Component Identification
Each of the major components on
your vehicle has an identification label
or tag. For easy reference, record
component numbers such as, model,
serial, and assembly number.
Engine: For further information,
please refer to the Engine Operation
and Maintenance Manual.
Transmission: For both manual
and automatic transmissions, the
identification number is stamped on a
tag affixed to the right rear side of the
transmission case.
Clutch: Enclosed in clutch housing.
Location depends on manufacturer.
6
Steer Axle: The front axle serial
number is stamped on a plate located
on the center of the axle beam.
Drive Axles: The drive axle numbering
system includes three labels or stamps:
6-8
1.
Axle Specification Number, usually
stamped on the right rear side of
the axle housing. This number
identifies the complete axle.
2.
Axle Housing Number Tag, usually
located on the left forward side
of the housing arm. This tag
identifies the axle housing.
3.
Axle Differential Carrier
Identification, usually located
on the top side of the differential
carrier. The following information
is either stamped, or marked with a
metal tag: Model No., Production
Assembly No., Serial No., Gear
Ratio, and Part Number.
Index
Index
5th wheel
maintenance 5-95
A
About This Manual 1-3
Accessories
cigarette lighter 3-6
radio 3-6
Adding electrical options 5-68
Additional sources of information 1-7
california proposition 65
warning 1-7
data recorder 1-8
installed equipment - operator's
manuals 1-7
other sources 1-7
Adjustable auxiliary axles 4-56
liftable/non-steerable pusher
calibration 4-60
liftable/steerable calibration 4-60
tag axle calibration 4-60
Adjustments 5-45
Air cleaner and filter 5-42
Air cleaner restriction gauge 5-42
Air compressor 5-37
Air dryer 4-18, 5-39
Air dryer (Bendix AD-IS series) 5-40
Air dryer overhaul 5-40
Air filter restriction pressure
gauge 3-52
Air gauges
air filter restriction pressure 3-52
air pressure #1 & #2 3-60
air pressure - air suspension air
bags #1 & #2 3-62
brake application air pressure 3-54
pusher axle(s) air pressure 3-53
tag axle air pressure 3-54
tractor air brake pressure 3-63
tractor air brake pressure primary/secondary 3-61
trailer air brake pressure 3-63
trailer air tank pressure 3-64
Air intake system 5-41
Air system
air cleaner 5-42
air compressor 5-37
air dryer 5-39
air gauges and air leaks 5-36
air intake system 5-41
draining air tanks 5-35
filter elements 5-42
primary air pressure gauge 5-36
scheduled maintenance 5-34
scheduled maintenance table 5-34
secondary air pressure gauge 5-36
turbocharger 5-42
Air system maintenance 5-33
Air tanks 5-35
Alarms 3-66
engine oil pressure 3-21
fifth wheel slide 3-22
low air warning alarm - primary 3-20
low air warning alarm secondary 3-20
low coolant level 3-22
Index-1
7
Index
7
park brake 3-21
stop engine alarm 3-20
turn signal/hazard 3-23
Alert screens
alarm clock active 3-69
circuit failure 3-69
cruise control 3-69
cruise control rationality 3-67
DEF 3-68
disabled alert 3-73
engine over-speed shutdown low
air warning 3-70
engine protection shutdown
timer 3-70
fault alert 3-72
front drive axle speed warning 3-70
hydrocarbon burn 3-69
impact alert 3-72
lamp faults 3-67
level 1 following distance alert 3-72
level 2 following distance alert 3-71
level 3 following distance alert 3-71
low voltage disconnect 3-68
no-idle shutdown 3-67
not available alert 3-73
over-crank protection 3-68
Index-2
park brake on while moving 3-67
SCR/DEF 3-68
stationary object alert 3-72
trailer detect 3-68
water in fuel (WIF) 3-69
Wingman® ACB alert screens 3-71
Ammeter 3-52
Analog clock 3-7
Anti-lock brakes 4-27
trailer ABS 4-31
trailer ABS (without PLC) 4-32
wheel spin control 4-28
Appliances 3-8
Ashtray 3-7
Audible alerts 3-17
Automatic transmissions
auxiliary transmission 4-71
oil level 5-138
operation 4-70
service intervals 5-138
Auxiliary axles 4-56
Axle
Steerable Drive Axle 4-71
B
Batteries
battery access 5-73
battery care 5-76
battery charging 5-77
jump starting vehicles 2-9
removing and installing
batteries 5-76
Brake air pressure gauge 3-54
Brake gauges
brake pedal or trailer brake hand
valve pressure 3-54
tractor air brake pressure 3-63
tractor primary/secondary air brake
pressure 3-61
trailer air brake pressure 3-63
trailer air tank pressure 3-64
Brake system 4-17
air supply system 4-18
anti-lock brakes 4-27
anti-lock braking system
(ABS) 5-48
automatic (slack) adjusters 5-46
brake adjuster stroke 5-47
brake and slack adjuster
lubrication 5-45
Index
brake component descriptions 4-36
brake linings 5-45
cam-actuated component
lubrication 5-44
emergency braking 4-26
engine brake 4-35
engine retarders 4-33
exhaust brake 4-34
front brakes 4-19
modulating valve 4-19
overheated brakes 4-27
parking brake system 4-20
parking brake valve 4-20
releasing combination of
brakes 4-22
releasing trailer brakes 4-22
releasing truck or tractor parking
brakes 4-21
safety - tractor/trailer 4-26
system park tractor 4-25
tractor/trailer air supply valve 4-23
trailer brake hand valve 4-32
trailer charge 4-25
trailer emergency brake
application 4-24
trailer parking brake 4-24
treadle valve - front circuit 4-19
treadle valve - rear circuit 4-20
wet brake components 4-19
Brake system maintenance 5-43
C
Cab and frame access 1-21
Cab storage 3-7
ashtray 3-7
glove box 3-7
interior compartments 3-8
California Proposition 65 Warning 1-7
Certification labels
components and weights label 6-6
federal safety standard certification
label 6-7
noise emission label 6-7
part identification label 6-7
tire and rim data label 6-6
Chains 2-18
Checks and adjustments 5-45
Cigarette lighter 3-6
Clock
clock display 3-80
clock settings menu 3-80
lamp test 3-83
to set alarm time 3-82
to set clock display 3-81
to set clock home/local time 3-81
to turn alarm ON/OFF 3-82
Clutch
clutch adjustment 4-69
clutch brake 4-65
clutch linkage 5-139
clutch linkage adjustment 5-140
clutch linkage lubrication
(non-ESI) 5-31
clutch pedal shaft lubrication 5-31
clutch release bearing
lubrication 5-31
clutch ring adjustment 5-139
clutch travel 4-65
double clutching 4-68
identification 6-8
introduction 5-139
riding the clutch 4-68
Component identification
reference 6-8
Consumer information 6-3
reporting safety defects 6-3
Controls 3-6
Index-3
7
Index
indicators 3-24
Cooling system
adding coolant 5-62
additives 5-63
coolant 5-60
coolant change and refilling 5-64
engine (block) heater 5-65
fan 5-91
fan clutch 5-91
maintenance 5radiator cap 5-65
topping up 5-60
Cooling system maintenance 5Cruise control 4-12
D
7
Daily checks 1-29
Data recorder 1-8
Daytime running light (DRL) 3-96
Differential lock (driver
controlled) 4-53
Displays/menu screens
clock display 3-80
clock home/local time 3-81
clock settings menu 3-80
Index-4
diagnostic display 3-79
fuel economy 3-76
ignition timer 3-77
lamp test 3-83
left hand menu bar 3-76
multi-function display 3-74
multi-function menu items 3-75
outside air temperature
display 3-51
RPM detail 3-76
speed control management
display 3-80
to set language 3-83
to set standard or metric units 3-83
transmission display 3-79
trip information 3-77
trip meter 3-49
truck information 3-78
Door lock 1-18
key fob synchronization 1-21, 5-80
key fob troubleshooting 5-80
remote keyless entry (RKE)
system 1-19
Drive axle(s) oil temperature
gauge 3-53
Drive axles
identification 6-8
Driver controlled main differential
lock 4-53
Driver's
check list 1-28
daily checks 1-29
weekly checks 1-32
Driving tips 4-5
coasting 4-5
descending a grade 4-6
economy 4-6
engine RPM 4-7
using the tachometer 4-7
Dual range (two-speed) rear axle 4-54
E
Electrical and alternator
precautions 5-79
Electrical gauges
ammeter 3-52
voltmeter 3-65
Electrical system
adding electrical options 5-68
batteries 5-73
battery care 5-76
Index
battery charging 5-77
electrical and alternator
precautions 5-79
fuses, circuit breakers, and
relays 5-66
jump starting vehicles 2-9
removing and installing
batteries 5-76
Electrical system maintenance 5-66
Emergency
battery connections 2-11
emergency equipment kit 1-28
jump starting vehicles 2-9
Engine
drive belts 5-91
engine fan 5-91
exhaust system 5-92
fuel filters 5-89
identification 6-8
lubrication 5-87
pipe and hose clamp torque
values 5-88
Engine (block) heater 5-65
Engine lubrication 5-87
Engine maintenance 5-86
Engine operation 4-38
cruise control 4-46
engine block heater 4-42
engine control display 4-49
engine fan control 4-48
engine idling 4-45
engine shutdown system 4-49
engine warm-up 4-42
shut-down 4-72
starting procedure - cold
weather 4-41
starting procedure - normal
temperature 4-39
winterfronts 4-44
Engine retarders 4-33
Engine temperature gauge
engine (overheating) 3-55
F
Fan clutch 5-91
Fifth wheel 4-14
air-controlled sliding 4-15
jaw lock 4-15
maintenance 5-95
Frame fastener torque
requirements 5-96
Freeing the vehicle from sand, mud,
snow and ice 2-17
Front axle and suspension
maintenance 5-97
Fuel economy
driving habits 4-8
fuel consumption 4-8
Fuel filters
draining 5-90
installing 5-89
Fuel gauges
fuel filter restriction pressure 3-58
fuel tank(s) level 3-59
Fuel shut-off valve 4-74
Fuel specification 4-74
Fuses, circuit breakers and
relays 5-66
G
Gauge panel
A - Panel 3-17
Gauge symbols
air brake application pressure 3-46
air filter restriction pressure 3-46
ammeter 3-46
Index-5
7
Index
7
auxiliary transmission oil
temperature 3-48
diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) 3-46
drive axle(s) oil temperature 3-46
engine coolant temperature 3-47
engine oil pressure 3-47
engine oil temperature 3-47
fuel filter restriction pressure 3-47
fuel level (primary and
secondary) 3-47
general air pressure #1 & #2 3-47
general oil temperature 3-47
main transmission oil
temperature 3-48
manifold boost pressure 3-47
primary and secondary air
pressure 3-47
pusher axles #1, #2 & #3 air
pressure 3-46
suspension load air pressure, #1 &
#2 3-48
symbols table 3-45
tag axle air pressure 3-46
tractor brake application air
pressure 3-48
trailer air tank pressure 3-48
Index-6
trailer brake application air
pressure 3-48
transfer case oil temperature 3-48
transmission retarder oil
temperature 3-48
voltmeter 3-48
Gauges
air filter restriction pressure 3-52
air pressure - primary 3-61
air pressure - secondary 3-61
ammeter 3-52
auxiliary transmission oil
temperature 3-65
brake application air pressure 3-54
diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) 3-54
drive axle(s) oil temperature 3-53
engine coolant (water)
temperature 3-55
engine hour meter 3-51
engine oil pressure 3-57
engine oil temperature 3-58
fuel filter restriction pressure 3-58
fuel tank(s) level 3-59
general air pressure #1 3-60
general air pressure #2 3-60
general oil temperature 3-60
main transmission oil
temperature 3-64
manifold pressure (turbo
boost) 3-60
odometer 3-49
primary air pressure 5-36
pusher axle(s) air pressure 3-53
secondary air pressure 5-36
speedometer 3-49
suspension load air pressure
#1 3-62
suspension load air pressure
#2 3-62
tachometer 3-50, 4-7
tag axle air pressure 3-54
tractor brake application air
pressure 3-63
trailer air tank air pressure 3-64
trailer brake application air
pressure 3-63
transfer case oil temperature 3-64
transmission retarder oil
temperature 3-65
transmission temperature 4-70
voltmeter 3-65
Index
GAWR - Gross Axle Weight
Rating 1-27
GCW - Gross Combination
Weight 1-27
Glove box 3-7
GVWR - Gross Vehicle Weight
Rating 1-27
H
Headlamps
halogen/hid lamp servicing 5-81
Headlamps with Wipers
to activate headlamps with
wipers 3-83
Headlight switch 3-97
Heater and air conditioner 5-100
air conditioner 5-102
heater 5-101
Heater and air conditioner
maintenance 5-100
Heating and air conditioning
air flow control dial 3-14
cab controls 3-13
cooling 3-15
dash and floor vents 3-14
dash vents 3-14
defrost vents 3-14
dehumidify 3-15
fan control dial 3-14
floor and defrost vents 3-14
floor vents 3-14
fresh air mode 3-14
fresh air/recirculation switch 3-14
heating 3-15
precautions 3-10
recirculation switch 3-14
temperature control dial 3-14
what each control does 3-14
windshield defog and defrost 3-16
Hood hold downs 1-23
Hood tilting 1-24
audible warning or alarm tone 3-66
indicator light(s) 3-66
Multi-function message
display 5-93
warning and information
screens 3-67
Wingman® ACB alert screens 3-71
Wingman® ACB warning tone 3-71
Instrumentation
A - Panel 3-17
Interior compartments 3-8
I
Keys
Remote Keyless Entry (RKE) 1-18
Kingpin lubrication 5-97
Ignition key switch 3-95
Indicators 3-24
Installed Equipment - Operator's
Manuals 1-7
Instrument panel
A - Panel 3-17
alert screens 3-67
J
Jump starting vehicles 2-9
K
L
Lap/Shoulder belt 1-11
Load distribution 1-27
Low voltage disconnect (LVD) 3-91
Index-7
7
Index
Lubricant specifications 5-29
M
7
Maintenance
5th wheel 5-95
air conditioner 5-102
air system 5-33
anti-lock braking system
(ABS) 5-48
brake system 5-43
chrome and aluminum
surfaces 5-51
cleaning vinyl and upholstery 5-55
cooling system 5driver's check list 1-28
electrical system 5-66
emergency welding 5-94
engine 5-86
environmental protection 5-8
exterior 5-51
frame fastener torque
requirements 5-96
frame fastener torque table 5-96
front axle and suspension
lubrication 5-97
Index-8
heater 5-101
inspection 5-98
introduction 5-7
lubricant specifications 5-29
lubricant specifications table 5-30
maintenance schedule table
key 5-17
noise and emission control
standards 5-103
oil reservoir levels 5-30
painted surfaces 5-51
rear axle alignment 5-117
rear axle and suspension 5-112
rear axle housing breather
vent 5-117
rear axle lubrication 5-115
rear suspension fasteners torque
table 5-114
rear suspension U-bolt torque
table 5-115
recommended lubrication
intervals 5-11
safety precautions 5-7
safety restraint system inspection 5-55
safety restraint system - inspection
guidelines 5-57
sliding fifth wheel 5-96
spicer driveshaft lubrication cycle
table 5-15
spicer driveshaft lubrication interval
table 5-14
stainless steel 5-52
steering and driveline 5-118
tail pipe surface cleaning 5-52
tire and wheel 5-122
transmission and clutch 5-136
U-bolt torque 5-98
U-bolt torque table 5-99
vehicle cleaning 5-53
washing chassis 5-55
washing exterior 5-54
wheel alignment 5-98
windshield wiper/washer 5-59
Maintenance and lubrication 5-11
Maintenance interval 5-16
Maintenance Procedures
inspection of the engine oil
level 5-87
topping up the engine oil 5-88
Maintenance schedule 5-16
Index
Maintenance schedule and
lubrication
introduction 5-10
Manual transmission 4-65
clutch adjustment 4-69
clutch brake 4-67
clutch travel 4-67
double clutching 4-68
release bearing wear 4-69
riding the clutch 4-68
shifting gears 4-67
Mirrors 3-112
mirror heat button 3-114
power mirror switch 3-112
Multi-function display 3-74
display panel 3-74
left hand menu bar 3-76
left hand menu bar - menu
items 3-76
menu items 3-75
right hand status bar 3-75
N
Noise and emission control
maintenance 5-103
Noise control inspections 5-105
air intake system 5-105
blanket 5-109
diesel particulate filters 5-107
engine fan and shroud 5-108
engine mounted noise
insulators 5-105
exhaust system 5-106
exhaust tail pipe 5-108
hood insulation blanket 5-109
inner fender shields and cab
skirt 5-109
joints and clamps 5-106
maintenance log 5-110
mufflers and exhaust tail pipe 5-107
piping 5-107
shields and skirts 5-110
transmission or driveline 5-108
O
Oil gauges
auxiliary transmission oil
temperature 3-65
drive axle(s) oil temperature 3-53
engine oil pressure 3-57
engine oil temperature 3-58
general oil temperature 3-60
main transmission oil
temperature 3-64
transfer case oil temperature 3-64
transmission retarder oil
temperature 3-65
Operating the transmission 4-64
cold weather warm-up 4-64
Overheating engine 3-55
P
Painting 5-95
Parking brake system 4-20
Pipe and hose clamp torque
values 5-88
Pressure gauges
engine oil pressure 3-57
manifold pressure (turbo
boost) 3-60
Preventive maintenance 5-10
Pusher axle(s) air pressure
gauge 3-53
7
Index-9
Index
R
S
Rear axle - dual range
(two-speed) 4-54
Rear axle and suspension
maintenance 5-112
rear suspension fasteners 5-114
visual inspection 5-113
Rear/Drive axle 4-50
inter-axle differential lock 4-50
inter-axle differential lock locking 4-52
inter-axle differential lock unlocking 4-52
Recommended lubrication
intervals 5-11
Recovery 2-12
Refueling 4-74
fuel specification 4-74
Remote Keyless Entry (RKE)
key fob operation 1-19
key fob synchronization 1-21
troubleshooting 5-80
Repairs 1-6
Safe vehicle operation 1-26
Safety
about this manual 1-3
air suspension height/air
pressure 4-12
cruise control 4-12
deflated air springs 4-13
driver's check list 1-28
emergency equipment kit 1-28
introduction 1-3
safe operation and driving 4-10
safe vehicle operation 1-26
safety alerts 1-3
suspension air pressure
gauge 4-13
vehicle loading 1-27
vehicle safety 1-5
Safety alerts 1-3
Safety restraint belts 1-10
belt damage and repair 1-17
during pregnancy 1-17
inspection 5-55
proper safety belt adjustment 1-11
safety restraint tips 1-13
Seat adjustment 1-9
7
Index-10
driver's seat with air suspension 1-9
reclining seats 1-10
standard driver's seat 1-9
Seat belts 1-9
adjustments 1-9
belt damage and repair 1-17
during pregnancy 1-17
komfort-lok feature 1-16
lap/shoulder belt 1-11
proper safety belt adjustment 1-11
safety restraint tips 1-13
Seats
adjustments 1-9
komfort-lok feature 1-16
tether adjustment 1-15
tether belts 1-14
Seats and restraints 1-9
Shut-down
before stopping the engine 4-73
final stopping procedures 4-72
fuel specification 4-74
introduction 4-72
location of fuel shut-off valves 4-74
refueling 4-74
turbocharger cool down 4-73
Sliding 5th wheel
Index
maintenance 5-96
Sliding Fifth wheel
maintenance 5-96
SmartWheel control system 3-107
Spring brakes - manual release 2-15
Starting procedure (cold
weather) 4-41
Starting procedure (normal
temperature) 4-39
Steer axle
identification 6-8
Steerable Drive Axle 4-71
Steering and driveline
maintenance 5-118
driveshaft 5-121
fluid level and refill 5-119
steering driveline 5-120
Steering column 3-100
adjustable tilt and
telescoping 3-106
trailer brake hand valve 3-104
turn signal/high beam switch 3-100
Suspension lubrication 5-97
Switches
ABS off-road switch 3-86
accessory air switch 3-87
air conditioner switch 3-14
air-controlled sliding fifth wheel
switch 4-15
auxiliary light switch 3-88
axle switch, diff-lock - dual 3-86
axle switch, diff-lock - forward
rear 3-86
axle switch, diff-lock - front 3-86
axle switch, diff-lock - rear rear 3-86
axle switch, diff-lock - single
rear 3-86
axle switch, inter axle differential
locked (tandem) 3-86
axle switch, pusher 3-89
axle switch, tag 3-89
axle switch, two speed 3-86
back up alarm mute switch 3-86
beacon light switch 3-88
brake level switch 3-87
brake on/off switch 3-87
brake/clutch kickout power take-off
(PTO) switch 3-89
cruise control on/off switch 3-87
cruise control set/resume
switch 3-87
cruise control switch 4-12
dash panel (dimmer) switch 3-97
dash switches 3-86
daytime running light switch 3-88
diesel particulate filter (DPF)
regeneration switch 3-87
dome light switch 3-88
dual range rear axle switch 4-54
dump truck gate switch 3-86
engine fan override switch 3-87
engine fan switch 4-48
engine heater switch 3-87
engine retarder - high switch 3-109
engine retarder - low switch 3-109
engine retarder - medium
switch 3-109
engine retarder - off switch 3-109
ether start switch 3-87
exhaust brake switch 4-34
fifth wheel slide switch 3-87
flood light switch 3-88
fog light switch 3-88
forward power take-off (PTO)
switch 3-89
forward trailer axle lift switch 3-90
fresh air/recirculation switch 3-14
fuel heater switch 3-87
Index-11
7
Index
7
hazard light switch 3-88
headlight flash switch 3-111
headlight switch 3-88
ignition key switch 3-87
inter-axle differential lock
switch 4-50
low voltage disconnect (LVD) 3-86
marker lamp flash switch 3-111
marker light switch 3-88
marker/clearance/cab light
switch 3-88
marker/clearance/trailer light
switch 3-88
mud & snow traction control 3-89
off-road ABS function switch
(option) 4-29
optional deep snow and mud
switch 4-29
optional push button starter
switch 4-39
panel dimmer switch 3-88
park light switch 3-88
parking brake valve 3-86
power take-off (PTO) switch 3-89
rear power take-off (PTO)
switch 3-89
Index-12
rear trailer axle lift switch 3-90
remote throttle switch 3-87
roofdenser switch 3-89
shutdown switch 3-87
spare switch 3-87
spot light switch 3-88
suspension dump switch 3-89
suspension lift switch 3-89
third axle lift switch 3-89
tow hook switch 3-89
trailer air supply valve 3-89
trailer axle (3rd axle) lift switch 3-89
trailer belly dump switch 3-90
trailer center dump gate
switch 3-90
trailer dump gate switch 3-90
trailer front dump gate switch 3-90
trailer hotline switch 3-90
trailer marker light interrupter
switch 3-100
trailer rear dump gate switch 3-90
trailer suspension air dump
switch 3-90
turn signal/high beam switch 3-100
wheel differential switch 4-52
winch clutch switch 3-90
T
Tag axle air pressure gauge 3-54
Temperature gauges
drive axle(s) oil temperature 3-53
engine (overheating) 3-55
engine oil temperature 3-58
transmission retarder oil
temperature 3-65
water temperature (engine
coolant) 3-55
Tether belts 1-14
Tire and wheel maintenance 5-122
Tire chains 2-18
Tires and wheels
comparing hub-piloted and ball-seat
wheels 5-132
inspection and replacement 5-124
matched tires 5-135
speed restricted tires 5-123
tire inflation and loading 5-124
tire replacement 5-133
wheel cap nut torque
sequence 5-130
wheel cap nut torque table 5-129
wheel mounting and
fastening 5-127
Index
Towing 2-12
Trailer brake hand valve 4-32
Trailer Detect
to activate trailer detect 3-83
Transmission
auxiliary 4-71
identification 6-8
lubricants 5-137
maintenance 5-136
oil change 5-136
operation 4-64
shifting gears in a new vehicle 4-67
temperature gauge 4-70
transmission tips 4-68
warm-up 4-64
Transmission and clutch
maintenance 5-136
Transmission temperature gauge 4-70
Transmission temperature gauges
auxiliary transmission oil
temperature 3-65
main transmission oil
temperature 3-64
Turbocharger 4-73, 5-42
V
W
Vehicle identification
assembly plant code 6-4
chassis number 6-5
chassis number locations 6-5
model year designations table 6-4
vehicle information and specification
label locations 6-5
VIN number 6-4
VIN number location 6-5
Vehicle loading 1-27
GAWR 1-27
GCW 1-27
GVWR 1-27
load distribution 1-27
Vehicle recovery 2-12
recovery rigging 2-14
returning vehicle to service 2-15
spring brakes 2-15
tire chains 2-18
Vehicle safety 1-5
repairs 1-6
Vehicle/Trailer air supply valve 4-23
Voltmeter 3-65
Warning light/indicator symbols
alarm on indicator 3-75
anti-lock brake system (ABS) 3-31
anti-lock brake system (ABS),
trailer 3-31
axle, traction control 3-33
check transmission 3-44
cruise control active icon 3-75
diesel particulate filter (DPF) 3-34
dump truck, body up 3-34
engine brakesaver or transmission
retarder 3-34
engine, check engine 3-35
engine, ether start 3-35
engine, fan 3-37
engine, heater 3-37
engine, low coolant level 3-37
engine, overspeed 3-38
engine, retarder (brake) 3-38
engine, stop engine 3-38
engine, wait to start 3-39
fifth wheel slide 3-44
gear display 3-75
high exhaust system
temperature 3-39
Index-13
7
Index
7
hill hold 3-35
inter axle lock 3-40
king pin lock 3-44
lane departure warning (LDW) 3-36
lights, high beam 3-39
malfunction indicator lamp
(MIL) 3-43
message waiting 3-41
park brake 3-41
power take off (PTO) 3-40
pump mode 3-40
seat belt, fasten 3-42
service transmission 3-36
shift indicator 3-75
trailer body up 3-41
transmission, oil temperature
high 3-42
turn signal, left 3-42
turn signal, right 3-43
water in fuel (WIF) 3-43
worn brake 3-36
Weekly checks 1-32
Welding (emergency) 5-94
What to do if... 2-3
check engine lamp turns on 2-5
engine is overheating 2-5
Index-14
engine oil pressure lamp turns
on 2-4
fuse or relay blows 2-7
low air alarm turns on 2-3
stop engine lamp turns on 2-4
you need roadside assistance 2-3
Windshield wiper/washer 5-59
Windshield wipers/washer
switch 3-102
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