Glossary of CCTV Terms

Glossary of CCTV Terms
Glossary of CCTV Terms
3G: 3G, short form for third generation, is the third generation of mobile telecommunications technology after the
analog cellular and digital phones. 3G generally includes high data speeds, always-on data access and greater voice
capacity than previous generations. For e.g. our MDVR MDM0403G & MDM0407 online tracking system support
3G SIM card and 16 Series DVR supports 3G router of most major brands like Aircel / Airtel / BSNL / Idea Net
setter/ MTNL / MTS Mblaze / Reliance / Tata Docomo / Tata Photon/ Vodafone.
4G LTE: 4 Generation Long Term Evolution is a standard for wireless communication of high-speed data for mobile
phones and data terminals. It is based on the GSM / EDGE and UMTS / HSPA network technologies, increasing the
capacity and speed using a different radio interface together with core network improvements. The standard is
developed by the 3GPP. For e.g. our 16 Series DVR supports a 4G router of Airtel.
720p: 720p refers to an image resolution of 1280 pixels wide by 720 pixels tall. Originally a standard for HD (highdefinition) television, it can refer to the resolution of video content, the recording capability of a video camera. For
e.g. our 1MP Series IP camera has 720p resolution.
960H: 960H is a resolution which offers 400% higher image quality as compare to CIF resolution. 960H resolution is
960p (horizontal) x 576p (vertical). This is also known as WD1 resolution. For e.g. 800TVL – HDIS series, 700TVL
Effio Series & 21 Series DVR are based on 960H technology.
960p: An image resolution of 1280 pixels wide by 960 pixels tall. It can refer to the resolution of video content, the
recording capability of a video camera. For e.g. our 1.3MP series IP camera has 960p resolution.
1080p: Represents Full HD 1,920 pixels displayed across a screen horizontally and 1,080 pixels displayed down a
screen vertically. In combination with a 1080p input device (IP Camera) & Recording device (NVR), the picture
quality can be up scaled in HD CCTV industry. For e.g. our 2.4MP series IP camera has 1080p resolution.
Active X: Is a software component of Microsoft Windows, sometimes called add-ons that are used on the
Internet. They can enhance your browsing experience by allowing video & animation.
AGC: Automatic Gain Control automatically increases the video signal in low light conditions. In modern days
AGC is available in most of the cameras.
Alarm Inputs / Outputs: This can be a physical wired device like PIR Sensor, Door sensor, Glass break sensor,
Smoke sensor etc., that recognize any suspicious activity that triggers alarm output like Hooter activation, Auto
dialer, sending e-Mails and uploading video on FTP server etc.
Analog: In CCTV, it refers to Cameras, CRT TV & VCR etc. This refers to systems and components that use the
Video standard NTSC/PAL composite video formats. In Analog products quality is measured in TV Line where else
in digital products quality is measured in Pixels.
Aperture: Aperture refers to F Stop value of a lens. It is the area of the aperture that determines the amount of
light allowed to enter the Image sensor. The lower the F - stop number the more light it is able to absorb, f 1.0
means it can work under low (light) Lux level.
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API: API is an acronym for Application Program Interface. This is used by programmers and refers to the interface
providing the calling conventions for an application program to access the operation system.
Plug n Play: Plug n Play basically means that the product is pre-configured in such a way it may require 0
configurations by the end user or system integrator.
ASCII: An acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. This is a standard format for sending
Aspect Ratio: The ratio of the vertical to the horizontal image size. This is usually 4:3 for analog video. A
widescreen monitor typically has a 16:9 video format option.
ATM / POS Terminal: Is a digital data transaction device which is commonly used in cash collection points
for e.g. Banks, ATM, Petrol Pump, Retail Showroom, Stores, Access Control System & Media Research
Organization etc. ATM / POS enabled DVR can interface with 3rd party product and can enable a link
between Video data & Digital data. This feature is an optional feature available in our 21 series DVR.
ATR: ATR or Adaptive Tone Reproduction function provides gradation compensation to improve the
contrast of subjects. The ATR function improves the visibility of the entire picture by providing the optimum
gradation compensation for the image in one field based on the luminance information. For e.g. our Sony
Effo-E series camera has same function.
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Attenuation: This refers to signal loss in a transmission system over distance.
AI: Auto Iris lens adjusts shutter automatically to allow the right amount of light to fall on the imaging device.
There is a tiny motor and amplifier built in which receives a control signal from the camera to maintain a constant
one volt peak to peak (1.0 Vp-p) video level.
AVI: An acronym for Audio Video Interleaved. This is a typical video format used in the PC world that can be read
by a variety of standard programs. Some DVR manufacturers can export video to AVI files for easy review in a
standard PC.
AWB: A system for detecting errors in color balance in white and black areas of the picture and automatically
adjusting the white and black levels of both the red and blue signals as needed for correction.
Auto Act: Auto act is a special function that can execute any one function if camera is in ideal mode. In security
systems PTZ/ Speed Dome camera can defeat the objective if camera is not put back on the original position.
ATA: Parallel ATA (PATA) is an interface standard for the connection of storage devices such as hard
disks, solid-state drives, floppy drives, and CD-ROM drives in computers. Now this technology is
ASIC: ASIC is a form of modulation that represents digital data as variations in the amplitude of a
carrier wave. The amplitude of an analog carrier signal varies in accordance with the bit stream
(modulating signal), keeping frequency and phase constant. The level of amplitude can be used to
represent binary logic 0s and 1s.
Angle of View: In photography, angle of view describes the angular extent of a given scene that is
imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.
ALC: The process by which the illumination incident upon the face of a pickup device is automatically
adjusted as a function of scene brightness.
AF: Automatic focus systems rely on one or more sensors to determine correct focus.
ADSL: ADSL is a form of the Digital Subscriber Line technology, a data communications technology that
enables faster data transmission over copper telephone lines than a conventional voiceband modem
can provide. It does this by utilizing frequencies that are not used by a voice telephone call. A splitter
allows a single telephone connection to be used for both ADSL service and voice calls at the same
ADPMC: Adaptive DPCM (ADPCM) is a variant of DPCM (differential pulse-code modulation) that
varies the size of the quantization step, to allow further reduction of the required bandwidth for a
given signal-to-noise ratio.
ADC: An Analog to Digital Converter is a device which converts continuous signals to discrete digital
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numbers. The reverse operation is performed by a digital-to-analog converter.
AM: Adaptive Mode device control sensor parameter by itself for improving entered fingerprint status.
When we use this mode, registration takes more time than not using.
AB: Auto Balance is a system for detecting errors in color balance in white and black areas of the
picture and automatically adjusting the white and black levels of both the red and blue signals as
needed for correction.
AWB: Auto White Balance feature on color cameras whereby the camera constantly monitors the light
and adjusts its color to maintain white areas.
Back Focus: Back Focus is a mechanical adjustment in a camera that moves the imaging device relative
to the lens to compensate for different focal lengths of lenses. This is important when a zoom lens is
Backup: In CCTV DVR context backup refers to saving a selected clip of video to an external device for the
purpose of reviewing the clip in a standard PC. This is also called as Export
Balun (Active/ Passive): This is a device that allows video to travel over a twisted pair (Cat 5) wire rather than coax
(RG 59) cable. This device matches the impedances of the different signals. Balun stands for balanced-unbalanced.
A balun is required at the transmitting device (camera) and receiving device (DVR, monitor, etc.). Passive distance
can be up to 990’ (300Mtrs) and active can be up to 9900’ (3 Km).
Bandwidth: Device bandwidth is the range of signal frequencies that a piece of audio or video equipment can
encode or decode (the operating frequency). Video uses a wider/higher frequency range than audio, thus requires
a wider bandwidth.
BLC: Back Light Compensation (BLC) is a feature of modern CCD cameras which electronically compensates for high
background lighting to give detail which would normally be silhouetted.
Balanced Signal: A method of transmitting video, usually over twisted pair cable that consists of two equal but
opposite signals being sent down two conductors.
Black Level: The level of the video signal that corresponds to the maximum limits of the black areas of the picture.
Blanking (Field and Line Flyback Blanking): The operation of turning off the monitor display, or pick-up device,
during sync pulses to avoid thin white lines appearing on the picture.
Blooming: Blooming is the halation and defocusing effect that occurs around the bright areas of the picture
(highlight) whenever there is an increase in the brightness intensity.
Bridging: A term indicating that a high impedance video line is paralleled, usually through a switch, to a source of
video. A separate overall video output.
Back Porch: That portion of the composite picture signal which lies between the trailing edge of the horizontal
sync pulse and the trailing edge of the corresponding blanking pulse.
Pattern Generator: Special test pattern for adjusting color TV receivers or color encoders. The upper portion
consists of vertical bars of saturated colors and white. The power horizontal bars have black and white areas and I
and Q signals.
Bounce: Bounce refers to sudden variations in picture presentation (brightness, size, etc.,) independent of scene
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Brightness: The attribute of visual perception in accordance with which an area appears to emit more of less light.
(Luminance is the recommended name for the photo- electric quantity which has also been called brightness.)
Binary: A base 2 numbering system using the two digits 0 and 1 (as opposed to ten digits [0-9] in the decimal
system). In computer systems, the binary digits are represented by two different voltages or currents, one
corresponding to zero and another corresponding to one, positive logic uses a positive voltage to represent binary
1 and zero volts to represent binary 0.
Bitmap: A pixel-by-pixel description of an image. Each pixel is a separate element. Also a computer file format for
Bit: A contraction of Binary digit. Elementary digital information that can only be 0 or 1. The smallest part of
information in a binary notation system. A bit is a single 1 or 0. In computer terms, a group of 4 bits is a nibble, 8
bits is a byte and 16 bits a word.
Burst: Color burst or chroma burst ten cycles (PAL) or seven to nine cycles (NTSC) of sub-carrier placed near the
end of horizontal blanking to serve as the phase (color) reference for the modulated color sub-carrier. It enables
the monitors' Phase Locked Loop to synchronize and track the change of phase during every line of video.
Byte: Byte is 8 binary bits (ones and zeroes). The greater multiples of bytes are shown below Kilobyte (1,024
bytes), Megabyte (1,024 kilobytes, 10488576), Gigabyte (1,024 Megabytes 1073741824 bytes), Terabyte (1,024
Gigabytes 1099511627776 bytes) etc.
Backlit: A remote control, projector control panel, or other object illuminated from behind. This can be helpful
when working in darkened rooms.
Bit Mapped Graphics: The type of graphic that is defined and addressed on a bit-by-bit basis which makes all
points on the screen display directly accessible.
Build Slide: "Build series" slides show audiences where a topic is heading a line at a time. Each new line added
appears in a bright color while the previous line drops back to a darker color.
Blower: A compressor that is designed to operate at lower pressures. Usually a blower is an air compressor that
operates below 2 bars, it can exhaust hot air from inside the camera to outside generally most useful for outdoor
Base Plate: A metallic structure on which a compressor or other machine is mounted.
By Pass Valve: An automatic or manual valve that causes the flow to be by passed.
Bracket: When camera is hung on the celling or wall, a bracket is used for indoor and a pole stand is used for
Bandwidth Limiter: This refers to a feature in some DVRs and Remote Software that limits the size of the network
traffic provided. This feature restricts DVR/Remote software communication so more bandwidth remains available
for other network traffic.
Base Band Video: This is the video signal used in CCTV. It is the NTSC or PAL format minus the broadcast
frequencymodulation and many other embedded signals used in Broadcast TV. It consists of video, horizontal sync
and vertical sync. This is all that is required to view a video signal on a monitor
Beta Test: This refers to initial testing of a newly developed product that is ready to ship. Terminology differs
between manufacturers. Usually by this stage major bugs that would stop shipment of the product are less likely
than in the alpha test stage.
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Bits: Individual parts of data communication. A bit is the smallest part of the overall data stream. Serial
communication is measured in bits per second (RS-232, RS-485, etc.).
Bit Rate: Bit rate is measured in bits per second. In IP video it usually refers to the bit rate from an IP
camera.Controlling the bit rate controls the bandwidth needed to transfer data from the camera. The camera
processor will automatically limit the maximum bit rate sent from the camera to the bit rate setting selected.
Black Pixels: This refers to hidden (unseen) pixels when megapixel cameras produce more pixels than can be seen
on the monitor used for display. This is an issue as cameras usually lead the pixel count charge. Monitors can’t
display all the pixels available and must “scale” the image (remove/rearrange pixels) to accommodate the display
capability. Although you may be paying for more pixels than you can normally display, there is good news when
you zoom in on a megapixel image. Those black (hidden) pixels can now be used in the expanded portion of the
image providing the same quality level with expanded images. This avoids the fuzzy look produced by standard
resolution zoomed images.
BNC: This is the standard connector type used in CCTV. It provides an easy snap-on connection for a coax cable.
What BNC stands for is less clear. Some say it means British Naval Connector. Others attribute it to the type and
the inventor; Bayonet Neil Councilman.
Browser: In video most manufacturers recommend Internet Explorer as the browser connection for their products.
You can access DVR, NVR and IP cameras just by entering the IP address or domain name in the browser command
line. For e.g. or user name is magus & password is magus.
Cable Modem: This is a modem that allows you to connect to the Internet through your TV cable company. Speeds
are similar to DSL.
CCD: Charged Coupled Device is a type of image sensor used in CCTV cameras. The sensor converts optical images
in to electrical signals. These are also known in the market as HAD CCD, IT CCD, Super HAD CCD.
Camera: This is the basic video collection device that has many forms and configurations. Some are: box cameras
(require a separate lens), bullet cameras (slim line all in one construction), dome camera (all in one in a dome
design), PTZ camera (mounted on a PTZ platform device), PTZ dome (all in one package). An IP camera can be any
of these and connect directly to a network.
C-Mount/ CS-Mount Lens: C-Mount cameras and lenses were the first to be used in CCTV applications. The
lens screws directly into the camera providing a distance of 17.5mm between the back of the lens and the
imager. Current CS lenses are smaller and better suited for smaller cameras. The lens to imager distance is
12.5mm. A 5mm spacer called a C-ring, or C-mount is used with CS lenses to bring the lens to imager distance
to 17.5mm.
CMS: Control Management Software is software used for managing multiple systems.
CAT5: CAT5 is a network cable that supports Ethernet speeds (up to 100 Mbps). As with all other types of twisted
pair EIA/TIA cabling, CAT5 cable runs are limited to a maximum recommended run length of 95mtrs (313 feet) & it
can be available in 2. Market contains four pairs of copper wire.
CAT5e : Is similar to CAT-5, the ‘e’ standing for enhanced. This cable has more ability for data transmission. Cat-5e
also can be used for Gigabit Ethernet and generally has less near-end crosstalk. In new cabling system CAT5e
cables are almost always used over CAT5.
CAT6: is a most sophisticated cables, it is also comprised of four pieces of twisted pair copper wire, it has a
longitudinal separator. This allows the cables to be separated from each other and, in turn, allows not only for an
increased data transfer speed, but less crosstalk and double the bandwidth. CAT6 cabling is a good choice for IP
Camera & NVR, especially those that are evolving and might need more options in the future. CAT-6 is perfect for
10 Gigabit Ethernet and can work at up to 250 MHz.
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CCIR: Committee Consultative International Radiotelegraphique. This is a standards committee of the
International Telecommunications Union, who made the technical recommendation for the European 625 line
standard for video signals (black and white).
CCTV: An acronym for Closed Circuit Television. Originally this was described as a system with cables directly from
cameras to viewing devices with no outside world connections. The Internet has changed all that. Now you can
access any DVR with browser software through the Internet.
Chrominance: This is the color portion of a composite video signal (See Luminance).
CIF: An acronym for Common Intermediate Format, a set of standard video formats, defined by their
resolution. CIF resolution is 352 x 288 pixels and is also known as D1 720 x 576, 2CIF, 4CIF, 960H.
Client Server Network: This is a network where a server (an unattended PC) stores information and shares it with
the clients (the attended workstations). The clients depend on the servers for normal operation. The workstations
do not necessarily talk to each other.
CATV: Short for Cable Access Television. The method for distributing RF signals via coaxial cable rather than
radiated through the air.
Coaxial Cable: A type of shielded cable capable of carrying a wide range of frequencies (video or radio) with very
low signal loss.
Color Encoder: Color encoder is a device which produces an NTSC color signal from separate R, G, and B video
Color Saturation: Color saturation refers to the degree to which a color is free of white light.
Client: In CCTV DVR context the Client is the PC running the remote software that accesses the DVR or other
device. The device originating the video is the Server.
CMOS: Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor imaging chip is a type of Active Pixel Sensor made using the
CMOS semiconductor process. Extra circuitry next to each photo sensor converts the light energy to a voltage.
Additional circuitry on the chip may be included to convert the voltage to digital data. CMOS cameras were
originally low in quality but typically less expensive than a CCD sensor. This has been known in the market as HDIS/
HQIS/ DIS/ QIS Sensors, or flicker less camera etc.
CMS Software: This is an acronym for Central Management Software. This is a generic term used to indicate the
installable remote software packages provided by any DVR manufacturer. Each manufacturer has a specific name
for their CMS product.
CODEC: This stands for Compressor/de-compressor. Some people call it encoder/decoder. This refers to the
software that compresses or decompresses the video.
Composite Video: The complete visual wave form of the color video signal composed of chrominance and
luminance picture information; blanking pedestal; field, line, and color sync pulses; and field equalizing pulses.
More simply for CCTV purposes it contains the video signal and horizontal and vertical sync pulses on a single wire.
Compression: Video must be compressed in size in order to make it manageable in the record and remote transmit
functions. Typical compression standards include H.264 / M-JPEG & MPEG-4. Some DVR manufacturers use
proprietary compression methods that are usually modified versions of the standards.
Covert Camera: A covert camera is not visible to the operator of the system. It is intentionally obscured from view
and often used for surveillance of employees. An authorized operator with the proper password privileges can
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view the camera and recorded information.
CRI: Color Rendition Index is a measurement of how accurately a camera captures the reflected color in animage
(a scale of 1 – 100). High CRI numbers provide the best results. Faithful color rendition in lighting is said to
improve the morale of those working in the environment.
CRT: Cathode Ray Tube is the picture tube of a normal monitor or television.
CSI: An acronym for Construction Standards Institute. CSI standards cover the entire construction process of
buildings including all the systems installed in the building. CCTV/security is only one system of many included in
the specs. Some CCTV manufacturers are writing their A&E specs to follow the CSI format.
CVBS: An acronym for Composite Video Baseband Signal. This is the portion of the NTSC broadcast video signal
that is used in traditional CCTV. It is the basic video composite signal (video, horizontal and vertical sync signals)
minus the carrier frequencies, audio, closed caption and many embedded signals used on broadcast video.
Interestingly, the same acronym is also used for Composite Video Broadcast Signal.
Contrast Ratio: The ratio between white and black. The larger the contrast ratio the greater the ability of a
projector to show subtle color details and tolerate extraneous room light. There are two methods used by the
projection industry: 1) Full On/Off contrast measures the ratio of the light output of an all white image (full on)
and the light output of an all-black (full off) image. 2) ANSI contrast is measured with a pattern of 16 alternating
black and white rectangles. The average light output from the white rectangles is divided by the average light
output of the black rectangles to determine the ANSI contrast ratio. When comparing the contrast ratio of
projectors make sure you are comparing the same type of contrast. Full On/Off contrast will always be a larger
number than ANSI contrast for the same projector.
Compressor: A machine which usually sucks in air and compresses same so that it ultimately occupies a smaller
volume. The resulting air will not only occupy a smaller volume, it will have a higher pressure and a higher
Compression Ratio: The ratio of the absolute discharge pressure to the absolute intake pressure.
Channel Relay: A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching
mechanism, but other operating principles are also used.
Control Panel: A control panel is a device which can control the access to the gate. (Exclude Reader)
Contrast: Contrast is the difference in the color and brightness of the object and other objects within the same
field of view.
CODEC: A codec is a device or computer program capable of encoding and/or decoding a digital data stream or
Data Lifetime: This is the name generally given to a feature that ensures that data is not retained on the system for
more than a specified amount of time. This is a legal requirement in many European countries.
Data Card: Data card is basically a USB modem. Some of the products can support data card for video surveillance
application. Dynamic location such as vehicle or undeveloped areas like rural village, construction sites, mining
area, hill station, estates, farm house, agriculture land, beach, park, tourist place can be brought under
surveillance. These locations need to be covered under Mobile network such as GSM / GPRS / CDMA / 2G / 3G or
4G. For e.g. 16 Series & MDM0205 DVR can support this function.
D/N: Day & Night Operation refers to cameras that are capable of providing usable images at night by changing
camera parameters to work more efficiently in low light. A basic example of day/night operation is the use of IR
LEDs within the camera housing. Some very inexpensive cameras can provide usable images in total darkness.
More sophisticated changes in more expensive cameras include switching the camera to black and white mode at
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night and reducing the image capture rate to allow more light to reach the imager.
dB: Decibel is a logarithmic measure of the ratio between two powers, voltages, currents, sound intensities, etc.
Signal-to-noise ratios are expressed in decibels.
Depth of Field: This is the in-focus range of the image produced by the lens. Objects in the focus area are clear.
They will become less clear as they get closer to, or further away from the camera. The distance of the area of
clear focus is the depth of field.
DNS: Domain Name System matches internet computer names to IP numbers. This allows you to type in the
URL of the IP address
DDNS: To access DVR/IP camera on internet requires a static IP, it’s a recurring expenses to the client in order
to promote their products some of manufacturer use to offer DDNS service to resolve Dynamic IP into domain
name. For e.g. is a free DDNS.
Dongle: Dongle is a hardware lock. This is a little device that plugs into the USB or serial port of a computer. Its
purpose is to protect piracy of the software applications. If you have never seen a dongle, don't be surprised.
They are only used with expensive, high-end software programs that most people have never heard of, much
less used. When a program that comes with a dongle runs, it checks the dongle for verification as it is loading.
If it doesn't find the dongle, usually promote key missing over the program just quits. For e.g. our SVR is based
on dongle.
Driver: Device Driver is a software program that allows a computer to communicate with a peripheral. You need
the appropriate driver to allow your printer to work with your system. Many drivers are available on a PC as part of
the operating system. However, don’t depend on this as drivers for devices newer than the operating system will
not be installed. You typically get a copy of the driver with the purchased device. The manufacturer’s web site is a
common place to get the latest available drivers for a device. Drivers are often referred to as DLLs (dynamic link
library). Virtually all drivers used in CCTV devices are proprietary. So once you get away from the standard stuff
you have to rely upon the manufacturer’s good will for interface help.
DHCP: This is an acronym for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. This is a function that allows a network to
automatically assign an IP address to a PC when the user logs on to the system. All devices on a network require an
IP address. DHCP does this automatically. The alternative is to manually enter a static IP address in each device.
Dial-up: This is a slow speed network connection using ordinary telephone lines and modems. The maximum
connection speed is reported as 56K but most provide closer to 30K.
Digitized Signal: This is an analog signal that has been converted to a digital form so that it can be processed and
Digital: In CCTV, digital refers to devices that operate in pixel formats. Analog video devices use traditional NTSC
and PAL formats. The lines of difference are blurred when you consider the analog signal is converted to digital and
back again (often several times) within a traditional CCTV system. Pure end-to-end digital video is achieved using IP
cameras through a network to NVRs and LCD monitors.
Digital Zoom: This refers to enlarging a portion of an image by adding additional pixels within the image to fill the
larger area. It makes the picture area larger at the expense of video quality. The intelligence for this feature can be
in a camera or a DVR.
Distribution Amplifier: Distribution amps take an incoming video signal and split it into separate signals that are
sent to multiple devices. Dist. Amps come in a range of sizes (1x4, 16x4, etc). Despite the name, few of these
devices actually amplify the Video signal. They separate and distribute a single input to several outputs. They don’t
increase the maximum cable distance.
Domain: A number of computer devices administered as a group. A Domain server is set up and maintained by the
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network administrator (the person in charge of the network).
DSL: An acronym for Digital Subscriber Line. This is a high speed network connection typically used in homes and
DSP: Acronym for Digital Signal Processor. DSP chips compress video freeing the CPU processor for other tasks.
This increases compression capabilities at an additional cost.
Dual Stream: This term is typically used to indicate a device capable of providing two different application or
Examples:The dual steam can meet different demands one for hard disk storage and the other for network transmission.
Parameters of stream output can be set independently like resolution, frame rate, bit rate, quality and others.
DVR that can display live video in H.264 and transmits in M-JPEG compression. This may be sometimes
referred as Dual Codec / Dual streaming. Our network products like 11series / 21 series / Professional IP series
as can work real time even in network. Refer the images given below.
DVR: An acronym for Digital Video Recorder, this is a manufacturer designed hardware platform for recording. It
may have many functions like Recorder/ Multiplexer/ Remote surveillance/ Alert notification. It is a proprietary
design that is unique to an individual manufacturer. This also know in the market as Embedded DVR / Standalone
DVD: An acronym for Digital Video Disk. This is the standard media used for PCs and movies.
Dynamic IP: This refers to IP addresses that are automatically assigned to a network device when the user logs on
to the system. See DHCP.
DR: An acronym for Dynamic Range. Dynamic range is the difference between the maximum acceptable signal
level and the minimum acceptable signal level.
Direct X: Microsoft DirectX is a collection of application programming interfaces (APIs) for handling tasks related
to multimedia, especially game programming and video, on Microsoft platforms.
DC Iris: DC Iris is a type of lens with internal circuit which receives voltage and a video signal from the camera to
adjust the iris. IRIS are two kinds DC-IRIS and other one is a Video IRIS this is been known in the name of Auto iris
DC Drive or Video Drive for controlling iris inside the camera.
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Digital Recording: This is the latest form of recording and is relatively new to the CCTV industry as a result is not
the most economical method however it does have several advantages over the VCR analogue tape recorders.
First of all it enables quick access to the desired image or picture. Digital images can also be enhanced or
processed further which can help detect images that may normally go unnoticed. One of the better properties of
Digital Recording is that there is no replay degradation due to poor tape quality and unlike conventional video
recording methods Digital Recording provides a clear image when paused.
Decoder: The circuitry in a color TV receiver which transforms the detected color signals into a form suitable to
operate the color tube.
Duplex: Device can perform two simultaneous functions like record and configure the monitor display.
EI: Electronic Iris shuttering is the ability of the camera to compensate for moderate light changes in indoor
applications without the use of auto iris lenses.
EIA: The American 525 line standard for the Black and White video signal.
EIDE: Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics. This is the cable connection from a PC motherboard to a disk drive,
CD drive or other devices. This is an eighty pin ribbon connector cable. This is a later development to IDE.
EIS: Acronym for Electronic Image Stabilization. This feature is an option on some camcorders. It helps to keep the
image from shaking with hand held movement. This feature is available in some CCTV cameras.
E-Map: (Electronic map). This term is used to describe a feature on some DVRs. It allows you to import an image
(like a layout drawing of a building) and place camera icons within the image to represent installed camera
locations. Some allow you to click on an icon to see the actual camera video, initiate and cancel alarms, etc. Also
see GEO map.
Email Alert: is a service offered by the product vendor for various failures for e.g. [email protected]
(XXXX is Device serial number) you can get mail from this id to your personal mail id. During intrusion it can general
real time event message so you can immediate action during unusual.
Enterprise Software: This is a term used to describe control software used to manage multiple systems. CMS
(Control Management System/Software) and VMS (Video Management System/Software) are often used
Event List: This is a list of alarms that have occurred in the unit. The list typically indicates the logs like Date &
time. The type of alarm such as Video loss/ Motion detection/ HDD Error/ Network disconnect/ Remote login and
any other information that is deemed relevant by the design.
Ethernet: Ethernet is a family of frame-based computer networking technologies for local area networks (LANs).
The name comes from the physical concept of the ether. It defines a number of wiring and signaling standards
for the Physical Layer of the OSI networking model as well as a common addressing format and Media Access
Control at the Data Link Layer.
EGA: AKA Enhanced Graphics Array, EGA is an image which displays 640 pixels by 350 lines with 16 colors from a
palette of 64 colors.
Equalization: The process of correcting losses of certain components in a signal.
Encoding: Encoding is the process of transforming information from one format to another. The opposite
operation is called decoding.
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Effective Pixel: The number of effective pixels that an image sensor has is the count of elementary pixel sensors
that contribute to the final image, as opposed to the number of total pixels, which includes unused or lightshielded pixels around the edges.
Effio: Newly developed Chip set. This enables to provide clearer pictures with higher sensitivity compared to
conventional CCTV cameras. It’s a trademark component of Sony Corporation. For e.g. our 700TVL series based
on Effio-E & Effio-P chipset
EMS: Electromagnetic interference from outside the component or device to withstand the measured level
Ext. Sync: External Sync is the ability of CCTV equipment, normally cameras, to accept one or more of the
standard sync formats so as to align itself to the rest of the system.
Exmor: is the name of a technology Sony implemented on some of their CMOS image sensors. It produce HD image
quality this can be used for analogue or IP CCTV cameras, it has special function like Noise Reduction, wide
dynamic range, low lux and many more. For e.g. our analog 1000TVL series cameras based on IMX138/ IMX238 &
2.4MP IP series camera based on IMX222 sensors.
Factory Defaults: This term refers to the initial menu settings of a device when it was shipped from the factory.
When problems are encountered after changing menu settings it sometimes helps to restore the factory settings
and start over.
Fiber Optic Backbone: This refers to an infrastructure of fiber connections within a campus, area, city or country. A
fiber backbone provides a great method for sending very large amounts of data (video, etc.) over long distances.
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Field: Each complete video image in NTSC/PAL (frame) is composed of two fields. One field consists of the odd
numbered lines in the frame and the other field consists of the even numbered lines. When viewed together in
rapid succession, these lines form the complete frame image. The NTSC and PAL formats called for double
scanning fields to reduce the visual flicker that was common on early TV monitors. Monitors got better over time
but the “standard” did not change. Each individual field independently forms a picture. A CIF image is typically
derived from a single field. 4CIF (and D1) images require a full frame.
Field of View: This is the entire visible area of the image produced by the camera/lens.
Flash Drive: A small USB memory device. Connect it to a USB port to import and export files. These devices are
commonly used to export video from a DVR, upgrade firmware, etc. These are also called Thumb Drives.
Focal length: The distance between the secondary principal point in the lens and the plane of the imaging device.
The longer the focal length, the narrower is the angle of view.
FPS: Frame Per Second means how many snapshots camera can capture the images, it is a tool to measure of how
motion video is recorded, to make conclusion 25FPS is required to analyze data if event took place or not. In the
motion picture industry uses 25 snap shots to create 1second video clip.
PAL: The standard used in India it delivers 25 FPS.
NTSC: The standard used in United States of America It delivers 30 FPS.
For e.g. take cricket match, there are several umpires are there 1 umpire can take decision in most of the case.
The human eye and brain interface can process 10 to 12 FPS only, so some of the critical decision can’t be taken by
himself, in such case he will escalate the case to 3 umpire for decision making, video systems can process more
than 25FPS so 3rd umpire able to judge our not out.
FTP: File Transfer Protocol transfer documents between different types of computers.
Full Duplex: A duplex communication system is a system composed of two connected parties or devices that can
communicate with one another in both directions. (The term multiplexing is used when describing communication
between more than two parties or devices.)
Duplex systems are employed in many communications networks, either to allow for a communication "two-way
street" between two connected parties or to provide a "reverse path" for the monitoring and remote adjustment
of equipment in the field.
Frame Rate: Frame rate, also known as frame frequency and frames per second (FPS), is the frequency (rate) at
which an imaging device produces unique consecutive images called frames.
Flicker: Contrast this time replaced with the shift, I feel I see the eyes blink phenomenon. The frequency change is
relatively easy to feel not only accepted. In general CMOS camera never flickers.
Geo Maps: Geographical Maps are usually more sophisticated than E-maps. These maps may provide more
functionality. The actual background map can be any file including CAD drawings, AVI, bit maps, screen captures
and the often used Google Earth map. Just use the Print Screen key to capture any image and save it to Paint (print
screen is a one page buffer that is overwritten each time you press the print screen key). In Paint, select edit, paste
to show the image. Crop and Save it to a folder.
GUI: An acronym for Graphical User Interface. This is the visual display that the operator uses to use the system.
Gateway: This is the hardware/software device used to connect LANs with dissimilar operating systems. The
gateway often refers to an Internet connection. The gateway is a single device that provides a single IP address
to the outside world and routes traffic to the appropriate internal IP addresses.
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Gain Value: This means value for increase that transferring from device.
Gain: When change light which is damascened from subject to biographical signal, it means conversion ratio. If
GAIN grows, because of change to big electric signal using light which is less, noise is grown on screen.
Gamma Correction: To provide for a linear transfer characteristic from input to output device.
Gray Scale: The number of variations from white to gray to black.
H.264: This video compression method is an improvement over earlier formats like JPEG, M-Jpeg, MPEG-4
providing smaller average usable file sizes.
HD: An acronym for High Definition closed circuit television. This is an emerging new standard for sending video
over standard RG-59 coax cable. One purpose of the standard is to take advantage of HD monitors and provide
the clearest live picture possible. The standard requires modified hardware in cameras, DVRs and monitors. This
is expected to be available early 2010. This sounds like a local live improvement but recording and sending the
data through the Internet will require compression to be effective. We’ll see the results when it is available at
trade shows.
HDD: An acronym for Hard Disk Drive.
HDIS: High Definition Image Sensor is a technology introduced which offers HD quality images in Analog & IP
cameras. 700TVL, 800TVL, 1000TVL & IP cameras are based on HDIS technology. It’s a far better technology as
compare to HQIS available in the market. It is most suitable for people who expect quality.
HDMI: Acronym for High Definition Multimedia Interface. This is a single cable connection used in consumer
electronics providing a high level of clarity. This type of connection is beginning to show up in CCTV products.
Home Position: This refers to PTZ cameras. The camera will return to a preset position after a selected period of
inactivity. The preset position is usually preset #1. This feature ensures that the dome returns to a known position
after an operator has moved it from the home position.
HTTP: Hyper Text Transfer Protocol used to transfer information from web servers to web browsers.
Hybrid: Hybrid refers to combinations of analog and IP video solutions. Originally this meant connecting analog
cameras to video encoders for connection to an NVR. More recent Hybrid systems are a combination DVR /
NVR allowing both analog (BNC) and Ethernet connected IP cameras.
Horizontal Resolution: Images can be distinguished by lines of horizontal resolution up to. TV on the screen, as
determined by the number of black vertical lines indicates. The unit will use this, or Line.
High Gain Screen: A screen that uses one of more methods to collect light and reflect it back to the viewing
audience, which will increase the brightness of the image over a white-wall or semi-matte screen.
HQIS: Acronym for High quality image sensor
Hz: Frequency (f) the rate at which a wave completes one full cycle. The rate per second is expressed in Hertz
(Hz). Power frequency is 60 Hz in the United States but 50 Hz used in India most other industrialized nations.
DC having the lowest frequency 0 and gamma rays having the highest.
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ID: Identification Devices in a system typically have a unique ID number assigned to the products, for e.g. Speed
Dome we can set ID to differentiate cameras, like network products has unique id for remote surveillance like P2P/
IDE: Integrated Drive Electronics is the cable connection from a PC motherboard to a disk drive, CD drive or
other devices. This is a forty pin ribbon connector cable. EIDE is an updated configuration 80 pin connections
providing an individual ground for each data signal.
Instant Replay: This is a term used to describe a DVR’s ability to playback recorded information within a few
seconds of the original recording. Most DVR’s record video in a buffer for a period of time before writing the
information to the Disk Drive(s). The ability to retrieve video from the buffer before it is written to the drive allows
an operator to review information immediately. This is very helpful in an attended system application where the
operator is watching shoplifters in a store. The information is confirmed before the person leaves the store. Few
DVRs do this well.
Interlace: Interlace 2:1 pattern described by two separate field scans when they join to form a complete video
frame. As the video picture is transmitted, the first field picks up even-numbered scan lines - the second, oddnumbered ones. The two interleave together to form a single, complete frame.
Internal Sync: Crystal Controlled camera that generates its sync pulses without reference to any other
source. Normally using a crystal controlled oscillator. This is needed on non-mains powered cameras (Any
generator or Inverter powered cameras).
Internet: This is the term for the interconnection of computers on the “world wide web.” This is how you connect
to your favorite websites and to remote DVRs.
Image Compression: Image compression is to reduce image data for storing or transmitting data more efficiently.
Most common compressing methods are JPEG, MPEG and H.264.
Image Sensor: Image sensor is a device that converts optical images (light) into electric charge and processes it
into electronic signals. CCD and CMOS are image sensors with different technologies for capturing images digitally;
each has unique strengths and weaknesses giving advantages in different applications. Neither is categorically
superior to the other, although vendors selling only one technology have usually claimed otherwise.
CCD: Charge Coupled Device this has been is known in the market as per given below.
CCD, HAD CCD, Super HAD CCD, Super HAD CCD II (760H or 960H), Ex-view HAD CCD, IT CCD,
Progressive Scan CCD etc.,
COMS: Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor this has been known in the market as per given
Proprietary sensor, DIS Sensor, QIS Sensor, HQIS & HDIS (Advanced Technology HD-SDI)
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1/2.8” PS CMOS
1/2” ITCCD
1/3” HAD CCD
1/4” CCD
500 x 582 Pixel
752 x 582 Pixel
752 x 582 Pixel
2144 x 1588 3Mega Pixel
CCD Sensor
It Offer superior Image quality
Image sensor is an Analog Device
It offer superior flexibility
It require more power to operate
R&D Cost is less but Higher cost in production
CMOS Sensor
Image quality is standard as compare to CCD
image sensor is a type of Active Pixel
It offer superior Integration
It requires less power to operate
CMOS R&D Cost is high but less cost in production
I/O: Input/ output ports in main unit peripheral devices can be connected. This can produce alarms in case sensor
activates (Input device called as a sensors such as a door switch, smoke detector, PIR sensor or glass break
detector can be used for triggering an alarm event and it can be connected as inputs port. Output ports can be
connected to control devices or relays, for instance, to open/close doors or turn on/off lights upon alarm). For e.g
our MD2104, MD2108, MD2116 all in one IP camera like MCIPDVGS02, MIPD13AWP4A, MIPD24AWP4A & alarm
panel MALP1604 has this function. In high security this can be more useful for taking action during the event.
IP66: This stands for Ingress Protection. It is a measure of the ability of an enclosure to resist dust and water. It is
expressed (usually) as two numbers as in IP66. This rating would mean your outdoor dome enclosure is totally
resistant to dust and water entry. Some of these claims are overstated (like air holes in the dome skin when it’s
rated as wind driven proof).
IP Address: An acronym for Internet Protocol. IP is a unique number/ IP address assigned by an internet authority
that identifies a computer on the internet. The number consists of four groups of numbers between 0 and 255,
separated by periods (dots). For example, is an IP address.
IP Cameras: These are IP based video cameras using IP networking as their basis rather than the traditional video
signal used in broadcast and closed circuit systems.
IPv4: IPv4 Internet Protocol Address form of IP address is a number address of 32 bits appearing by 4 numbers that
is parted by period. Each number can be from to 255 from 0.
IPv6: Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the next-generation Internet Protocol version designated as the
successor to IPv4, the first implementation used in the internet that is still in dominant use currently. It is an
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Internet Layer Protocol for packet-switched internetworks. The main driving force for the redesign of Internet
Protocol is the foreseeable IPv4 address exhaustion. IPv6 was defined in December 1998 by the Internet
Engineering Task Force (IETF) with the publication of an Internet standard specification, RFC 2460.
IPS: Image Per Second is the combination of two interlaced fields. The frame frequency is half the field frequency.
50IPS = 25FPS (one ODD frame & one Even frame makes 1FPS )
IR: Infra-Red light is the wavelength of light produced below the visible part of the spectrum. Humans can’t see
this light but cameras can. IR cameras use Infra-Red LEDs to light an area and provide usable (black and white)
images in total darkness.
IR Camera: Refers to cameras that have IR LEDs installed that turn on in low light providing a usable image in even
total darkness. The effectiveness and distance varies widely based on the number of LEDs and overall quality of the
IR Cut Filter: IR light can distort colors in CCD and CMOS cameras. An IR filter is often used in cameras to filter out
IR light during bright daylight conditions. An IR cut filter is automatically removed at low light to allow the camera
to take advantage of IR light in lower light conditions. The camera usually switches to black and white operation at
this time since B/W works better than color in low light.
Iris: The mechanism can be adjusted to vary the amount of light falling on the imaging device.
IR Remote: This is similar to remote controls used with a variety of electronic devices. In CCTV context the IR
Remote controls the DVR including all functions of the menu and PTZ control.
IR Synchronous: General process of precisely coordinating or matching two or more activities in a device for e.g.
Magus ranges of products IR illuminator are synchronous with lenses in all most in all cameras. This may not be
applicable for Optical Zoom camera & Fish Eye cameras where in Magus implement same thing in IR Speed Domes
& Fish Eye Dome so customer can get best coverage even in night time.
ISDN: (Integrated Services Digital Network). ISDN telephone lines have a speed of 128Kbps (two 64K “B” channels).
This type of connection is usually limited to businesses.
ISO: Acronym for International Organization for Standardization, the quality management system of a company,
location is certified for conformance with ISO 9001:2008 after it has demonstrated such conformance through
the audit process.
ISP: This is an acronym for Internet Service Provider. ISPs provide your connection to the Internet.
JBOD: Acronym for Just a Bunch of Drives. This is typically similar in appearance to a RAID system. There is no
redundant capability. You just keep filling the drives as one large storage capacity. JBOD can store as much as twice
the capacity of RAID systems because of the redundant nature of RAID.
Jog Shuttle: This is a front panel knob sometimes installed on DVRs and VCRs. Moving the jog shuttle’s inner and
outer rings provide control for playback and menu navigation. The jog shuttle is usually in addition to traditional
VCR style button controls.
JPEG: Joint Photographic Experts Group is a video compression method for single images. It was originally
developed to reduce video image file sizes for transfer through the Internet. See M-JPEG, MPEG-4 and H.264.
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KLR: This is an acronym for Known Limitations Report. A KLR is often a requirement inside a manufacturing
organization so that known problems are not forgotten in a newly designed product. This is a convenient list of
what needs to be fixed in the next software release.
Keystone Correction: A projectors ability to correct the effects of "pointing up" or "pointing down" at a screen
enabling the projector user’s audience to view a rectangular image rather than one with a wider top or bottom.
Key Tag: It is a sort of hardware security token which has a built-in entry access control cognition device that gives
individuals privileges to access the controlled entry area. As a house or a car key, electronic keys have a role of
controlling access of the network services and the information. Electronic keys provide double authentication as
other smart cards. The user who wants to be authorized should possess the electronic key and should know the
personal identification number (PIN) to prove the ownership of the electronic key.
KVM Switch: This is a switching device that allows one operator to control multiple PCs (DVRs, NVRs, etc.) using a
single monitor mouse and keyboard. KVM stands for Keyboard, Video and Mouse. Systems can range from two and
four unit options up to hundreds of units.
LAN: An acronym for Local Area Network. This could be as small as a two computer system, or, it could incorporate
hundreds of users in a campus environment. It is local in that there is a direct wire connection between all parts of
the network.
LCD: Liquid Crystal Display is a flat-screen slim profile video display.
LED: A LED is a Light Emitting Diode.
Legacy: This term refers to existing products in the field. Some disappear quickly and some hang on seemingly
forever. Manufacturers typically use the term to identify previously sold and now discontinued products that they
are still obligated to service and support.
Lens: A transparent optical component that converges light rays to from a two dimensional image of that object.
Level of Service: This is the degree of effort applied to the manufacturer’s service capability as measured in
funding budget, number of service personnel, equipment, training etc.
Levels of Support: This refers to the individual levels of support functions in an organization. The terminology
varies from company to company. The basic idea is this: Level #1 is the service tech at a customer site. Level #2 is
whoever he calls for help. Level #3 is whoever Level #2 calls etc. Eventually the level reaches to the engineering
development group. For e.g. magus secure is service & support oriented organization they use to generate
tickets for customer troubles and it use to address the issues before closing the tickets.
[email protected]
Line Lock: The sync pulses of cameras are locked to the AC mains frequency (50/60 Hz).
Line Powered Camera: A camera in which the power is supplied along the same coaxial cable that carries the video
signal. This was once common before digital devices showed up in CCTV. The DC offset may destroy a DVR.
Linked alarms: Allow one alarm to trigger another. An example is an alarm on one camera may be configured to
move another PTZ camera to a preset position.
Live Video: Live displays current activity. This can be at the camera location or at a remote site connected to the
cameras through the Internet.
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Log: This log is a gathering of information about system operation. In a DVR it would list occurrences like log
on/log off, menu access and changes, remote connections, and any other operation information that is relevant.
Loop Out: This term refers to the additional BNC connectors installed for the purpose connecting the incoming
video to additional devices. You will see these installed on many CCTV products.
Luminance: Brightness. This is the black and white portion of the composite video signal. See Chrominance.
Lux: It measures the amount of uniform light that falls on one square meter. Security camera specs use the lux to
indicate how much light they require to operate, with lower lux levels indicating a camera as more effective in
lower ambient light.
Matrix Switch: This is a very large device to manage large numbers of cameras, monitors and operator options.
Don’t think boxes, think rows of equipment racks. A large Matrix Switch system can handle up to 4,000+ cameras
and a couple of hundred monitors. You’ll find these installed in casinos, airports and hospitals. Miles of cable is
installed to connect each camera to the Matrix Switch.
MP: Megapixel refers to cameras with pixel content higher than NTSC/PAL formats. Current sizes of up to10
megapixels are available. The size will continue to grow. If you want to estimate the megapixel size used in
security video next year just check the pixel size of consumer point and shoot cameras today.
Megapixel Lens: Megapixel imagers have more pixels than standard imagers. A standard lens can’t focus light fine
enough to resolve to a single pixel in megapixel formats. Megapixel lens have additional optical elements that
allow light to focus on individual pixels. You will see the difference if you test the same camera with both lenses.
The megapixel advantage can be lost with a less effective lens.
Monochrome: Having only one color. In television it is black and white.
Manual Recording: The function is 'The Key Record' that can be started to record, stop immediately by the record
button of the front side or a remote controller, the record order of GUI.
Matrix Switcher: Matrix Switcher A switcher able to route any of its camera inputs any of its monitor output: a
name usually reserved for large systems that often includes telemetry control.
MAC Address: A MAC address is a unique identifier associated with a piece of networking equipment, or more
specifically, its interface with the network. For example, the network card in a computer has its own MAC address.
MD: Motion Detection a method of detecting movement in the view of the camera by the electronic analysis of
the change in picture contrast.
Menu: This is the generic term used to describe the setup screens in a variety of devices.
M-JPEG: Motion JPEG: This is a series of compressed JPEG images to produce a moving image. See M-JPEG, MPEG4 and H.264.
Motion Alarms: Video motion alarms are triggered by recognizing changes in the video image. There is no physical
connection causing the alarm condition.
MPEG-4: Motion Picture Experts Group is a video compression method and is an improvement over MJPEG providing smaller average usable file sizes. See M-JPEG, MPEG-4 and H.264.
Multiplexer: An electronic system that can accept a number of camera inputs and record them virtually
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simultaneously. They can also provide multi-screen displays with four, nine, sixteen etc. cameras on the screen
at once. Multiplexers can be used to transmit multiple pictures down a single video line whether it is a coaxial
cable, microwave, infrared link etc. This requires a multiplexer at each end of the line.
NAS: Network Attached Storage (NAS) is a data storage mechanism that uses special devices connected directly to
the network media.
Network: Allows two or more computers to exchange information quickly and easily.
Network Bandwidth: This refers to the total amount of network traffic that is allowed on the network. A typical
LAN connection is 100Mbps. All devices on that leg of the network share the available bandwidth. WAN traffic is
much slower because of the slower connection to the outside world.
Network Camera: This refers to a network based camera. An IP camera can connect to an NVR. You can see the
video with the NVR remote software. You can also connect directly to the network camera through a browser
Network Switch: A hardware device used to connect multiple devices to a network. These devices usually have
from four to 32 inputs. They can be connected together to make any size network.
N/O, N/C: Acronyms for Normally Open and Normally Closed. This refers alarm inputs/outputs and alarm devices.
Most common alarm devices provide a contact closure to initiate the alarm. Some devices are normally an open
circuit that closes a switch on alarm and others do the opposite. Most DVRs will accommodate either type with a
menu selection.
Node: Any device connected to the network. It could be a workstation PC, a server, a printer, etc. This can be any
device with its own IP address on the network (including DVRs and IP cameras).
Noise: Any unwanted signal that affects the video signal. This is usually random electrical energy or interference. In
video, noise can produce a random salt and pepper pattern over the picture. Heavy video noise is called snow.
NTP: Acronym for Network Time Protocol: This network feature allows the time on PCs to be time synced with a
server on the network. This assures that all network devices are systematically corrected to the same time at
selected intervals.
NTSC: National Television Systems Committee of the Electronics Industries Association (EIA) which prepared
the NTSC format specifications approved by the Federal Communications Commission, for US commercial
color broadcasting. `NTSC' also refers to a color television format having 525 scan lines, a field frequency of
60 Hz, a broadcast bandwidth of 4 MHz, line frequency of 15.75 KHz, frame frequency of 1/30 of a second,
and a color subcarrier frequency of 3.58 MHz.
NVR: This is an acronym for Network Video Recorder. An NVR is a server hardware platform with proprietary
video recording software installed. NVRs are designed to operate with IP cameras providing an all-digital
ODD: Acronym for Optical Disk Drive (CD/DVD).
OFC: Optic Fiber cable this refers to a communication hardware method using fine fiber optic tubes to transmit
light pulses. Standard data communication methods can be converted to fiber and back again at the receiving
end. This can be pricy but very effective over miles of distance.
ONVIF: Acronym for Open Network Video Interface Forum. This is a growing standard for IP camera interface. For
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e.g. Magus professional IP series based on ONVIF protocol it’s compatible with many major brand like Axis, ACTi,
Bosch, CNB, Dahua, Everfocus, Hikvision, iCaNTek, JVC, Honeywell, Magus, Panasonic, Pelco, Samsung, Sony, Tele
Eye, Vivotek and many more.
OS Operating System this is the program that controls the basic operations of a computer. Examples are Windows
7, Windows Vista, Windows XP, Linux, Apple, and UNIX.
Optical Zoom: This is the normal zoom capability of a variable focal lens. Example: A 5mm to 50mm zoom lens
can be positioned any distance with no loss in video quality. By comparison, digital zoom enlarges the image but
reduces the quality.
Over all Zoom: Refers to camera zoom capability. This is the total of optical zoom and digital zoom. Example:
Optical zoom 37X and digital zoom 16X = 592x is overall zoom.
OSD: Acronym for On Screen Display.
OSI: Open Systems Interconnection OSI model are the rules for network communication that the TCP/IP protocol
carries out.
Operating Temperature: The device can operate is the relative operating temperature range.
Operating Humidity: The device can operate is the humidity range.
P2P: Peer to Peer is a network where all users can share information equally. You share the information on each
computer’s drives with all the other computers in the workgroup. The workstations (each PC) communicate
directly with each other.
PAL: Phase Alternation Line; the European standard color television system, except for France. PAL's image
format is 4:3, 625 lines, 50 Hz and 4 MHz video bandwidth with a total 8 MHz of video channel width.
Password/ Passcode: is the act of establishing or confirming something (or someone) as authentic i.e.
that claims made by or about the subject are true.
Patch Panel: A panel where circuits are terminated and facilities provided for interconnecting between circuits by
means of jacks and plugs.
Pattern: Refers to PTZ cameras. You can save a series of camera movements and then replay the pattern
of movements. Just select the Pattern number from the PTZ GUI.
PC: An acronym for Personal Computer.
PC based DVR: This is a DVR that is based on a standard PC hardware platform. There may be several
proprietary components installed but the unit is primarily a PC with some modifications as opposed to a unique
proprietary design.
Peak to Peak: The measurement of any signal from the lowest value to the highest. In a composite or full video
signal, this should be 1 Volt.
Pentaplex: devices can perform five different tasks at the same time. Real time DVRs are all Pentaplex devices
which can record, playback, live view, remote live view, remote search, and remote configuration change
simultaneously. 11 & 21 series support the same. This indicates the device’s capacities.
Ping: Ping is a computer network administration utility used to test whether a particular host is reachable across
an Internet Protocol (IP) network and to measure the round-trip time for packets sent from the local host to a
destination computer, including the local host's own interfaces.
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Pinhole Lens: Lens used for applications where the camera/lens must be hidden. Front of lens has a small opening
to allow the lens to view an entire room through a small hole in a wall.
PIR: A Passive Infrared sensor (PIR sensor) is an electronic device that measures infrared (IR) light radiating from
objects in its field of view. PIR sensors are often used in the construction of PIR-based motion detectors. Apparent
motion is detected when an infrared source with one temperature, such as a human, passes in front of an infrared
source with another temperature, such as a wall.
Pixel: Picture element. This is the smallest software addressable point on the image. The number of pixels in an
image is measured horizontally first, then vertical (ex. 320x240).
Player Software: This is the generic term used to identify software used to review exported DVR video in a
standard PC. The proprietary DVR video format requires this software to play the video in a PC and it is usually
exported to the device along with the video. Some manufacturers require you to install the player on your PC.
Others run directly from the device (thumb drive, DVD, etc.).
POE: Acronym for Power over Ethernet. This is a network device that provides power to a device using one of
theCAT-5 cable twisted pairs. This is an installation advantage eliminating the need for a locally installed AC
POS: An acronym for Point Of Sale. This usually refers to cash register data.
Pre Alarm: In record on alarm only mode a DVR hard drive is not recording until an alarm is encountered. Some
number of seconds or minutes prior to the alarm event can be recovered from a software buffer that is
continuously overwriting itself. The video recovered from prior to the alarm is called Pre Alarm.
Preset: The pre-positioning of pan, tilt and zoom cameras by the use of potentiometers in the moving parts of the
camera head. These allow the control equipment to store and move to a set reference point when the controller
dictates or when an alarm exists. Special telemetry equipment is required.
Privacy Mask: This function is use to purpose to hide specific area for protecting individual privacy area
Privacy Zones: This refers to the ability of a camera to mask parts of its normal viewing area to prevent the
operator from viewing the protected areas. This can be in fixed cameras or in PTZ cameras. The intelligence for
operating this feature can be included in a dome, a DVR or in a Matrix switch.
Private Networks: The term private network is pretty generic. Generally it means that the network is restricted to
specific users. This could range from a separate grouping of computers connected locally, two LANs connected
together through a phone connection, to a complex “Intranet” that is accessed through the Internet, yet only
available to authorized users. The Intranet version is often referred to as a “Virtual Private Network.” In the case of
Digital Video Recorders and their remote software connections, we refer to a private network as a separate
grouping of security devices that are not connected directly to the normal company business network. The
advantage of this private network is that you have all the bandwidth available for a specific purpose and you will
not affect other company business in the case of a failure.
Progressive Scan: The progressive scan format outputs data from the camera (the signal) in sequential order as it is
scanned. The scan format produces a full frame of video in a continuous stream, rather than half the image per
output sequence in traditional RS-170 CCD cameras. Standard RS-170 video is interlaced and output in two
separate fields, generating essentially half the image at a time. With Cohu's new 6600 Series Progressive Scan
Camera, a new, full image is output from the camera every 1/60th second, making it ideal for machines to more
quickly process and display information, or act according to programmed instructions.
Proprietary: In CCTV context proprietary indicates a non-standard method of accomplishing something. This may
be good or bad depending on the results. Some proprietary software solutions were developed by manufacturers
before the current standards were implemented. Some are attempts to intentionally circumvent the ability to
work with other manufacturer’s equipment. Most were just developed separately with no thought of how anyone
else approached the same issue.
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Protocol: In CCTV context a protocol is the command set used to control one device from another. An example is
that each manufacture develops their own code to send commands to PTZ domes. This is why you see so many
options for camera control in DVRs. The protocol is the software element. The hardware element is RS-422, RS485, etc.
Port: It means connect point between DVR and other devices. For e.g. default port for http 80, FTP 21, SMTP 25
Post Alarm: In record on alarm only mode a DVR can be set to record for a specific amount of time when an alarm
is encountered. This time period after the alarm is called Post Alarm.
PSIM: Physical Security Information Management is a concept where all security systems are tied together (video,
access control, fire and safety, etc.) to provide a cohesive picture of your security capability. Several manufactures
claim that their equipment is PSIM capable. Detractors point out that the PSIM claim is limited to products in each
manufactures product line and not tied to an open standard that will allow individual products to work together.
PTZ: Pan Tilt Zoom a device that can be remotely controlled to provide both vertical and horizontal movement
for a camera, with zoom. This is a movable mechanical base for a camera.
PTZ Dome: A fully contained PTZ mechanism and camera installed in the same dome housing.
PPPoE: It means assigning a changeable IP address to a DVR to connect DVRs at remote places.
PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network standard phone lines used to dial automatically during event. For e.g.
our MALP1000TWLR & MALP1604THBR are based on PSTN landline telephone.
QCIF: CIF defines a video sequence with a resolution of 352 × 288. QCIF means "Quarter CIF". To have one fourth
of the area as "quarter" implies the height and width of the frame are halved.
Quad: The name given to a video device that displays four cameras on a single monitor. The quad hardware
digitizes each of the four camera images and resizes them to fit in the quad format.
Quad Screen: Display where 4 cameras are viewed on the same screen, each camera image occupying a quarter of
the display area. Quad screens can be seen in devices with any number of camera inputs. The quad screen is just
one of several multi-screen formats available.
QSG: Acronym for Quick Start Guide. A QSG is a short manual or pamphlet shipped with a product to assist the
installer/operator in completing the initial installation.
QSXGA: QSXGA is a display resolution of 2560×2048 pixels with a 5:4 aspect ratio.
QVGA: QVGA display with 320 x 240 display resolution. The name comes from having a quarter of the 640 × 480
maximum resolution of the original IBM VGA display technology.
QXGA: QXGA is a display resolution of 2048×1536 pixels with a 4:3 aspect ratio.
19" Rack: An industrial standard housing 19” Rack Mount.
RAID: An acronym for Redundant Array of Independent Drives. There are several different levels of RAID
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devices. The key is that if one of the drives fails, the information from that device is retained in the remaining
drives. The different RAID levels range from storing all information in two separate locations, to using software
gymnastics to share information on all drives so that any single drive failure will not allow any loss of data.
RCA Connector: The connector used with TVs and audio systems.
RCA Jack: This is a standard connection used for audio. These connections are typically used for audio in CCTV.
RF: Radio Frequency Signals with a repetition rate above audible range, but below the frequencies associated 4
with heat and light.
RG-59: A video coaxial cable with 75 Ohm characteristic impedance. A type of coaxial cable that is most
common in use in small to medium-size CCTV systems. It has an outer diameter of approx. 6 mm and it is a
good compromise between maximum distances achievable (up to 266m) and good transmission.
ROM: Read Only Memory is an electronic chip, containing digital information that does not disappear when
power is turned off.
RS485: It is used to communicate between DVR and peripheral device such as keyboard or speed dome to
control the camera’s movement via RS-485 communication style. This is an advanced format of digital
communications compared to RS-232. It is a balanced line transmission system. It is classically a half-duplex 2
wire presentation.
RS232: A commonly used computer serial interface.
RT: Real Times there are several interpretations of this phrase. Most people refer to it as full motion video, just
like TV (25FPS in PAL). For e.g. Our 11 & 21 series DVR are Real Time in Live, Playback & even in Network.
Record Duration: In CCTV context record duration refers to the amount of time that a DVR will record before
writing over the database with newer information.
Resolution: Analog video resolution is based on viewing a test pattern and determining the “TV lines of resolution”
number by how well you can differentiate a series of converging lines before the black and white lines fade to gray.
This is very subjective and rarely accurate. This method depends on the other equipment used to be a higher
quality than the tested device. In digital products like DVR, NVR & IP camera resolution is the same as the pixel
count. Using the analog test pattern method the resolution number will always be smaller than the pixel count.
Router: This is the hardware device that provides a gateway to the Internet.
Scene Illumination: The density of light falling on the area to be viewed. For best results the ratio of the lightest
to the darkest areas should not be more than a factor of two.
Screen Splitter: A term usually used for a device that can combine the views from two cameras on a single
screen. Normally the camera syncs need to be locked together.
SATA: Acronym for Serial Advanced Technology Attachment. This is the cable that connects a PC motherboard to
a disk drive or optical drive. It is a thin round cable providing serial communication. This is a newer technology
than traditional parallel connections (ribbon cables). So you must know what type of drive each DVR requires.
SDK: Acronym for Software Developer’s Kit. This provides enough information for a third party to develop
software that will interface with your device.
Search: In CCTV context search refers to methods used to find video in a recorded database. Typical search
methods are by time/date, alarm list, smart search by video movement.
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SECAM: Sequential Color A Memoire (sequential color with memory), the French color TV system also adopted in
Russia. The basis of operation is the sequential recording of primary colors in alternate lines. The image format is
4:3, 625 lines, 50 Hz and 6-MHz video bandwidth with a total 8 MHz of video channel width.
SMART: Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology S.M.A.R.T. is a monitoring system for HDD to
detect and report on various indicator of reliability in the hope of anticipation failures before they happen
(drives, fans, temperature, etc.).
STP: Screened Twisted Pair cables have a conducting shield made of metallic foil encasing the twisted wire pairs,
which blocks out electromagnetic interference, allowing it to carry data at a faster rate of speed known as
network cable CAT 5 STP or CAT 6 STP
SSNR: Samsung Super Noise Reduction is a state-of-the-art technology exclusively developed by Samsung and
SSNRIII is the 3rd generation technology features powerful functions. Camera can provide virtually the same image
of what it actually sees by remarkably reducing random and fixed noise under low illumination. It’s a trade mark
products of Samsung Techwin.
SMTP: Acronym for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (refers to Internet mail).
Spot Monitor: This is a secondary monitor connected to a DVR, Multiplexer, etc. This is also called a Call
Monitor. The video displayed is typically a single image. Some units provide multiple outputs.
Static IP Address: This is the name given to a manually entered IP address. In large networks IP addresses
are usually automatically assigned by DHCP.
S/N Ratio: Signal to Noise Ratio Measure of noise levels of a video signal. A measurement of the noise level in a
signal is expressed in dB (decibels). A higher Signal to Noise ratio provides a higher quality signal.
Simplex: A multiplexer with 1 frame store that can either time multiplex records or show multi-screen pictures in
live or play back. It cannot record the multiplexer pictures whilst showing multi- screen pictures.
SIM: Subscriber Identification Module a removable card this can be inserted in MDVR, GSM Alarm panel & guard
tour system which enables tracking movement for vehicle / guard this enable remote connectivity between
dynamic to static location.
SVGA: Refers to a computer signal that is higher than the standard VGA resolution of 640 pixels by 480 lines with
16 or 256 colors. SVGA graphics cards may output resolutions such as 1024 x 768, 1280 x 1024, 1600 x 1200 pixels
or higher, with 16.7 million colors displayed.
Switcher: A device used to switch the video signal from two or more camera on a monitor.
Shutter: Ability to control the integration (of light) time to the sensor to less than 1/60 second; e.g.: stop motion of
moving traffic.
Schedule Recording: This function is record the image during the given time by the setting.
Scanning: The rapid movement of the election beam in a pickup device of a camera or in the CRT of a television
receiver. It is formatted in a line-for-line manner across the photo sensitive surface which produces or reproduces
the video picture. When referred to a video surveillance field, it is the panning or the horizontal camera motion
Standalone System: A device that runs independently without the need to be connected with other devices.
Subnet Mask: This is a 32 bit binary number used as part of IP addressing. Each octet is expressed as a number
between zero and 255. The subnet mask numbers define the network number.
S-Video: Type of video signal used in the SVHS videotape format. S-video transmits luminance and color portions
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separately, using multiple wires, thus avoiding the color encoding process and its inevitable loss of picture quality.
This provides the video and sync signals on different wires.
Task Manager: This is the Windows Task Manager program that allows you to view Applications, Processes,
Performance, Networking and Users information. Right click on the lower Windows Task bar and select Task
Manager from the popup menu. Task Manager can be very useful for checking CPU usage and network traffic in a
video network.
TCP/IP: This is an acronym for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. This is the most common protocol
for communicating through the Internet.
Technical Support: This refers to the organization and individuals that provide after sale support for installation
and repair of products and systems. For e.g. if you require technical support pl. send email to
[email protected]
Telemetry: The system by which a signal is transmitted to a remote location in order to control CCTV equipment.
Example: To control pan and tilt and zoom functions, switch on lights, move to preset positions etc. The controller
at the operator position is the transmitter and there is a receiver at the remote (camera) location. The signal can
be transmitted along a simple `twisted pair' cable or along the same coaxial cable that carries the video signal
using UTC.
Thumb Drive: A small USB memory device. Connect it to a USB port to import and export files. These devices are
commonly used to export video from a DVR, upgrade firmware, etc. These are also called Flash Drives.
Thumbnail: Refers to a small individual camera image.
Triplex: devices are capable of three tasks at the same time (usually record, playback, and remote live view
Touch screen : A system by which all the camera controls are displayed on the screen of a special monitor. To
control any function simply requires the screen to be touched at the appropriate symbol which can be to select a
camera, Unlock door, MP3 player etc., for e.g. our 7” WDP support touch screen function.
Tour: Refers to PTZ control: You can select a series of cameras, Presets and Patterns into a tour. This will switch
from one camera, preset or pattern to another in the order and for the time selected. The result is a tour (the
name is derived from a guard tour where the guard physically goes from location to location) of video from a
central location.
UDP: (User Datagram Protocol): Transfers information between two applications. Usually used for messages or
commands between applications. The data is not guaranteed accurate as with TCP.
Under Scan : A technique generally used by some TV and video systems as a way of ensuring that the complete
image is always visible within a display area; the opposite of over scanning.
USB: Acronym for Universal Serial Bus. This is standard PC hardware. It allows external devices to be easily
connected to a PC, DVR, etc. Connected devices are typically hard drives, CD/DVDs and flash drives.
UTC: This is an acronym for Up-The-Coax. This refers to sending telemetry information (PTZ control data) to a PTZ
device on the same coax cable that provides the video. The data is transferred during the Vertical Blanking Interval
(that wide black line you might see on a rolling image) and does not interfere with the video display.
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UTP: An acronym for Unshielded Twisted Pair, known as network cable CAT 5 UTP or CAT 6 UTP
Varifocal Lens: This is a lens with a manually adjusted focal length. The field of view can be adjusted easily after
the camera is installed. This simplifies installation with one lens type accommodating multiple locations.
VDA: Video Distribution Amplifier a special amplifier for buffering the video signal so that it can be supplied to a
number of items of equipment at the same time. Each output will need to be individually terminated at 75 Ohms.
Vertical Resolution: The total number of horizontal lines that can be perceived in the vertical direction of the
VGA: Vector Graphics Array. The standard computer monitor is a VGA.
Video Amplifier: A wideband amplifier used for passing picture signals.
Video Loss: This does not come in the state of the video (image) inputs. Video input line cut or the camera is
turned off, etc. This means that the state does not transmit video.
Video Decoder: A video decoder is a device which does the reverse of an encoder. It converts digital signal to
analog signal.
Video Format: Ability of projection units to transmit and receive data to read and/or project various video files
standards such as NTSC, PAL, SECAM and S-VHS.
Video Server: Video server converts analog video signals into network video streams. This is also known in the
market by the name of Encoder. This can convert analog cameras into an IP stream.
Video Analytics: This is the generic term used to identify any number of software based video tools used to make
determinations based on the changing video content of a camera. A few examples of video analytics are: Auto
tracking, missing object, Unattended object, people count, Face detection etc. for e.g. Our SVR can support 4type
analytical & SVR advance has more than 8 types analytical.
Video Clip: This is a (usually) short video saved from a database to document an issue. The video clip can be
reviewed in a PC and maintained as a record of the incident. A video clip is often provided to the police to
investigate an incident and/or used as evidence in a court case.
Video Loss: This term refers to cameras that were once an active part of the system (connected to a DVR) and the
video signal has been lost. This provides an alarm to alert the operator to the video lost situation. This loss could
be due to vandalism or to a component failure. Most likely it is due to a bad cable connection.
VMS: Video Management System is a Monitoring / Management software used to manage multiple DVR and NVR
systems. The name may change from company to company.
WAN: Acronym for Wide Area Network. A WAN is typically a number of individual LANs connected together
through telecommunication links (ISDN, T1, DSL, etc.) either directly, or, through the Internet.
Watchdog: This is the name given to a diagnostic/recovery tool that is incorporated into many DVRs. Several
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“heart beat” signals are constantly monitored during normal operation of the unit. If a signal is no longer present
the unit will automatically reboot in an attempt to restore normal operation.
WDR: Acronym for Wide Dynamic Range. This refers to cameras. This is a high end feature. A camera viewing an
image with very bright and very dark sections will probably not show any detail in the dark areas as the camera is
adjusted to tone down the bright areas. With WDR the camera view will be much improved showing detail in both
light and dark areas. This feature also provides better image detail in low light conditions. For e.g. MCCM70 &
1000TVL series are based on WDR technology.
Website: It’s hard to find a company without a website these days. It is even easy to generate your own website.
With a company’s URL all you have to do is type it in the command line of your browser and you can see all they
have to offer.
White Level: The brightest part of a video signal corresponding to approximately 1.0 Volt.
Wi-Fi: is a WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) technology. It provides short-range wireless high-speed data
connections between IP cameras to nearby Wi-Fi access points. Wi-Fi has different types of encryptions standard
WPA / WPA2 / WEP for secured access. There are variants of Wi-Fi, 802.11g, is capable of providing speeds of up to
54Mbps and is backwards compatible with 802.11b.
Wired Alarms: Alarms generated by physical devices connected to the alarm inputs of video devices. Typical
devices provide a simple contact closure (connect the input to ground) to initiate the alarm action.
Wireless: This refers to any device that can operate without the need for installing wires. High priced wireless
systems have become very reliable. The low priced variety (the ones that would sell in typical low end CCTV
applications,) need improvement in the reliability area.
WB: White balance an electronic process used in video cameras to retain true colors. It is performed electronically
and is set on the basis of a white object in the picture.
Watermark: (Digital) watermarking is the process of embedding information into a digital signal in a way that is
difficult to remove. The signal may be audio, pictures or video, for example. If the signal is copied, then the
information is also carried in the copy. A signal may carry several different watermarks at the same time.
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XGA: Today, it usually means 1024×768 pixels display resolution, but the official definition is broader than that.
Y/C Video: Same as S-video. The video signal components (chrominance and luminance,) horizontal sync and
vertical sync sent between devices on individual wires as compared to composite video where all the signals are
sent on a single wire. The S-video advantage is higher video quality because it does not go through the combining
and separating process needed with composite video.
Y/C Connector: A 4-pin DIN connector used for high-end S-video sources.
Y Signal: A signal transmitted in color television containing brightness information. This signal produces a black and
white picture on a standard monochrome receiver. In a color picture it supplies fine detail and brightness
Zoom Ratio: The ratio of the starting focal length (wide position) to the ending focal length (telephoto position) of
a zoom lens. A lens with a 10X zoom ratio will magnify the image at the wide angle end by 10 times when at the
telephoto position.
Zoom: To enlarge or reduce, on a continuously variable basis, the size of a televised image primarily by varying lens
focal length.
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