IMPORTANT FEATURES OF ANY CAMCORDER MICROPHONE

IMPORTANT FEATURES OF ANY CAMCORDER MICROPHONE

MICROPHONE

IMPORTANT FEATURES OF ANY CAMCORDER

DISPLAY

RECORDING

FORMAT

LENSE

MICROPHONE

1/8” jack?

XLR jack?

Shotgun or lav mic?

IMPORTANT FEATURES OF ANY CAMCORDER

DISPLAY

Eyepiece viewer?

Flip out screen?

Additional LCD

Screen?

LENSE

Zeiss Lense?

How far Optical Zoom?

Type of Mount?

Diameter?

Lense Hood?

RECORDING

FORMAT

SD or HD?

HDV or AVCHD

Or XDCAM?

Frame rate?

Progressive or

Interlaced?

Camera Model: SONY HVR-

TRV900

Recording Format: DV (Tape)

Lense/Sensor Quality: Fair/Good

Experience Level: Novice

Rental Price: Low

Camera Model: SONY HVR-FX7

Recording Format: HDV/DV/DVCAM (Tape)

Lense/Sensor Quality: Good/Good

Experience Level: Novice

Rental Price: Low

Camera Model: SONY HVR-

Z7U

Recording Format: HDV, DV, DVCAM (Tape/CF Memory Card)

Lense/Sensor Quality: Excellent/Good

Experience Level: Experienced

Rental Price: High

Camera Model: SONY PMW-

EX1

Recording Format: XDCAM (SxS Memory Card)

Lense/Sensor Quality: Excellent/Excellent

Experience Level: Experienced

Rental Price: High

Camera Etiquette

Handling

Always keep your camera in the case until just before you need to use it.

Tripods

Hold the camera by the approved handles ( never by the viewfinder etc)

Never lift a camera from the tripod using a handle (always disengage the camera

From the tripod mount before moving the tripod.

Lenses

Keep the lense cap on until right before you need to film.

Never touch a lense with your fingers.

Always mount a UV filter on the front of your Lense.

Tapes

Store your DV tapes on their ends.

Never put labels anywhere but on the spines.

Always keep your tapes in their protective plastic box.

FORMAT

Quality of video essentially depends on the capturing method and storage used.

These are the criteria to judge any particular format:

Framerate

Is it Interlaced or Progressive?

Display resolution

Aspect ratio

Color space and bits per pixel

Video compression method (digital only)

Bit rate (digital only)

FORMAT

Quality of video essentially depends on the capturing method and storage used.

These are the criteria to judge any particular format:

Framerate

Is it Interlaced or Progressive?

Display resolution

Aspect ratio

Color space and bits per pixel

Video compression method (digital only)

Bit rate (digital only)

Framerate

Framerate is Measured in Frames Per Second or FPS

Historical

18fps – Super8mm film

24fps – Cinema

25fps – PAL (Standard def / European) TV

30fps – NTSC (standard def / North American) TV

60fps – Some types of HD video

Framerate

Framerate is Measured in Frames Per Second or FPS

Practical

Progressive Formats

24P

25P

30P

60P

Interlaced Formats

50I

60I

INTERLACED PROGRESSIVE

Aspect Ratio

SD = Standard Definition

HD = High Definition

Aperture

Shutter Speed

Focus

Focal Length

Image Control Basics

APERTURE

F-STOP Numbers aperture or iris: regulate the exposure and to control depth of field;

SHUTTER

* 1/1000 s

* 1/500 s

* 1/250 s

* 1/125 s

* 1/60 s

* 1/30 s

* 1/15 s

* 1/8 s

* 1/4 s

* 1/2 s

* 1 s shutter speed: to regulate the exposure and to maintain desired motion portrayal;

FOCUS

Shallow Depth of Field Deep Depth of Field

FOCUS

FOCAL LENGTH

ZOOM

A zoom lens is a mechanical assembly of lens elements with the ability to vary its focal length (and thus angle of view).

ADDITIONAL CONTROLS

GAIN

WHITE BALANCE

ND FILTER

ZEBRA STRIPES

GAIN

Gain: to amplify signal strength in low-light conditions;

WHITE BALANCE

If we can tell the camera which object in the room is white and supposed to come out white in the picture, the camera can calculate the difference between the current colour temperature of that object and the correct colour temperature of a white object. And then shift all colours by that difference.

WHITE BALANCE

COLOUR TEMPERATURE

ND FILTER

In photography and optics, a neutral density filter or ND filter can be colorless (clear) or grey filter. An ideal neutral density filter reduces and/or modifies intensity of all wavelengths or colors of light equally, giving no changes in hue of color rendition.

The purpose of standard photographic neutral density filters is to allow the photographer greater flexibility to change the aperture, exposure time and/or blur of subject in different situations and conditions of Atmosphere of Earth.

neutral density: filter to regulate the exposure.

ZEBRA STRIPES

The 70, 80 and 90 settings tell the camera to assign zebras to areas of the video signal that are 70 IRE's 80 IRE's or 90 IRE's. Many cameras also have a setting for 100 IRE's.

Basically, 0 IRE is Black and 100 IRE is White.

Light skin is correctly measured at 80 IRE, so if you're shooting an interview and your camera is set to 90 IRE's, your iris should be adjusted until there are subtle zebra's on the forehead, nose, and cheekbones since these are typically the "hotspots" on a face and would typically be measured above 80 IRE.

IRE = Institute of Radio Engineers

ZEBRA STRIPES

NEVER TRUST A MONITOR.

NOT EVEN THE VIEWFINDER.

Trust the Zebras for accurate lighting levels.

MANUAL VS AUTOMATIC

Manual Controls let the Camera person have fine control over the various

Picture controls

Automatic Controls determine the best Image setting for the situation or use Presets to determine the setting.

Generally

Consumer Cameras have few manual controls

Professional Cameras have many optional* manual controls

*Many cameras have a full auto mode often denoted by a Green square.

Types of Mics

Lav mics or Lavaliere Mics

Types of Mics

Wireless Lav mic

Types of Mics

Shotgun Mic

Type of Connectors

BETTER

BALANCED AUDIO : Less prone UNBALANCED AUDIO to interference. You can run cables long

Distances

XLR : Professional Mic adapters. 1/8” Consumer Mic Adapter

Type of Connectors: XLR interface

NOTE: This model does not provide PHANTOM POWER.

Type of Power for Mics

Built in Power

Power for Mic comes from a AA battery

In the case of the mic.

E.G.

Sony ECM 55B

Phantom Power

Power comes from the recording

Device – in this case the

Camcorder.

Usually this needs to be switched on

With a switch or menu option.

E.G.

Samson C02 stereo mics

Some mics can be powered by either method E.G. ME66 Shotgun.

Tips for Sound

ALWAYS wear a set of headphones plugged into the headphone jack of your camcorder.

Don't use the built in camcorder mic if possible.

Get your Mic as close as you can to the person speaking.

Have a separate person in charge of holding the mic if possible.

Move the mic around gently, don't bump it or rustle your clothes

Around it.

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