Math I Unit 1: Function Families
MATH 1
UNIT 1:
FUNCTION FAMILIES
Page 2
MATH 1 UNIT 1 FUNCTION FAMILIES
CONTENT MAP
Unit 1 – Function Families (4 Weeks)
Essential Question: How do you analyze and interpret the characteristics of linear, quadratic, cubic, absolute value, square root, and rational functions using graphs, tables, and simple algebraic techniques?
Lesson 1 – Functions (2 Hours): Essential Questions
What are the characteristics of a function and how can you use those characteristics to represent the function in multiple ways?
Lesson 2  Linear Functions (1 Hour): Essential Question
How do you analyze and graph linear functions?
Lesson 3  Absolute Value Functions (4 Hours): Essential Question
How will I analyze and graph an absolute value function and how will they be affected by various transformations?
Lesson 4  Quadratic Functions (3 Hours): Essential Question
How do you analyze and graph quadratic functions and how will they be affected by various transformations?
Lesson 5  Cubic Functions (3 Hours): Essential Question
How do you analyze and graph cubic functions and how will they be affected by various transformations?
Lesson 6  Square Root Functions (2 Hours): Essential Question
How do you analyze and graph square root functions and how will they be affected by various transformations?
Lesson 7  Rational Functions (2 Hours): Essential Question
How do you analyze and graph rational functions?
Lesson 8 — Sequences as Functions (1 Hour): Essential Question
How can sequences be expressed and manipulated as functions?
Lesson 9 – Logic
How do you apply the forms and relationships of conditional statements to real life applications?
Summarizer & Evaluation of Unit 1 (2 Hours)
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Mathematics I – Unit 1: Function Families
INTRODUCTION:
In seventh and eighth grade, students learned about functions generally and about linear functions specifically. This unit explores properties of basic quadratic, cubic, absolute value, square root, and rational functions as well as new language and notation for talking about functions. The discussion of function characteristics includes further development of the language of mathematical reasoning to include formal discussion of the logical relationships between a statement and its converse, inverse, and contrapositive.
ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS:
Functions have three parts:
(i) a domain, which is the set of inputs for the function,
(ii) (ii) a range, which is the set of outputs, and
(iii) (iii) some rule or statement of correspondence indicating how each input determines a unique output.
•
The domain and rule of correspondence determine the range of a function.
•
Graphs are geometric representations of functions.
•
Functions are equal if they have the same domain and rule of correspondence.
•
Function notation provides an efficient way to define and communicate functions.
•
The variables used to represent domain values, range values, and the function as a whole, are arbitrary. Changing variable names does not change the function.
•
Logical equivalence is a concept that applies to the form of a conditional statement. A conditional statement and its contrapositive are logically equivalent. Neither the converse nor inverse of a conditional statement is logically equivalent to the statement.
KEY STANDARDS ADDRESSED:
MM1A1. Students will explore and interpret the characteristics of functions, using
graphs, tables, and simple algebraic techniques.
a. Represent functions using function notation.
b. Graph the basic functions f(x) = x
n
where n = 1 to 3, f(x) = x , f(x) = x, and
1
f(x) = . x
c. Graph transformations of basic functions including vertical shifts, stretches, and
shrinks, as well as reflections across the x and yaxes. [Previewed in this unit.]
d. Investigate and explain the characteristics of a function: domain, range, zeros,
intercepts, intervals of increase and decrease, maximum and minimum values, and
end behavior.
e. Relate to a given context the characteristics of a function, and use graphs and
tables to investigate its behavior.
f. Recognize sequences as functions with domains that are whole numbers.
g. Explore rates of change, comparing constant rates of change (i.e., slope) versus
variable rates of change. Compare rates of change of linear, quadratic, square root,
and other function families.
MM1G2. Students will understand and use the language of mathematical argument and justification.
a. Use conjecture, inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning, counterexamples, and indirect proof as appropriate. b. Understand and use the relationships among a statement and its converse, inverse, and contrapositive.
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RELATED STANDARDS ADDRESSED:
MM1A1. Students will explore and interpret the characteristics of functions, using graphs, tables, and simple algebraic techniques.
i. Understand that any equation in x can be interpreted as the equation f(x) = g(x), and
interpret the solutions of the equation as the xvalue(s) of the intersection point(s) of
the graphs of y = f(x) and y = g(x).
MM1A2. Students will simplify and operate with radical expressions, polynomials, and rational expressions.
a. Simplify algebraic and numeric expressions involving square root. b. Perform operations with square roots. e. Add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational expressions.
MM1P1. Students will solve problems (using appropriate technology).
a. Build new mathematical knowledge through problem solving. b. Solve problems that arise in mathematics and in other contexts. c. Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems. d. Monitor and reflect on the process of mathematical problem solving.
MM1P2. Students will reason and evaluate mathematical arguments.
a. Recognize reasoning and proof as fundamental aspects of mathematics. b. Make and investigate mathematical conjectures. c. Develop and evaluate mathematical arguments and proofs. d. Select and use various types of reasoning and methods of proof.
MM1P3. Students will communicate mathematically.
a. Organize and consolidate their mathematical thinking through communication. b. Communicate their mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers,
and others. c. Analyze and evaluate the mathematical thinking and strategies of others. d. Use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely.
MM1P4. Students will make connections among mathematical ideas and to other disciplines.
a. Recognize and use connections among mathematical ideas. b. Understand how mathematical ideas interconnect and build on one another to
produce a coherent whole. c. Recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics.
MM1P5. Students will represent mathematics in multiple ways.
a. Create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical
ideas. b. Select, apply, and translate among mathematical representations to solve problems. c. Use representations to model and interpret physical, social, and mathematical
phenomena.
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UNIT OVERVIEW:
Prior to this unit, students need to have worked extensively with operations on integers, rational numbers, and square roots of nonnegative integers as indicated in the Grade 6 – 8 standards for Number and Operations.
In the unit students will apply and extend the Grade 7 – 8 standards related to writing algebraic expressions, evaluating quantities using algebraic expressions, understanding inequalities in one variable, and understanding relations and linear functions as they develop much deeper and more sophisticated understanding of relationships between two variables. Students are assumed to have a deep understanding of linear relationships between variable quantities.
Students should understand how to find the areas of triangles, rectangles, squares, and circles and the volumes of rectangular solids.
The unit begins with intensive work with function notation. Students learn to use function notation to ask and answer questions about functional relationships presented in tabular, graphical, and algebraic form. The distinction between discrete and continuous domains is explored through comparing and contrasting functions which have the same rule of correspondence, but different domains. Through extensive work with reading and drawing graphs, students learn to view graphs of functional relationships as whole objects rather than collections of individual points and to apply standard techniques used to draw representative graphs of functions with unbounded domains.
The unit includes an introduction to propositional logic of conditional statements, their converses, inverses, and contrapositives. Conditional statements about the absolute value function and vertical translations of the absolute value function give students concrete examples that can be classified as true or false by examining graphs. Combining analysis of conditional statements with further exploration of basic functions demonstrates that conditional statements are important throughout the study of mathematics, not just in geometry where this material has traditionally been introduced.
Average rate of change of a function is introduced through the interpretation of average speed, but is extended to the context of rate of change of revenue for varying quantities of a product sold. Students contrast constant rates of change to variable ones through the concept of average rate of change. The basic function families are introduced primarily through realworld contexts that are modeled by these functions so that students understand that these functions are studied because they are important for interpreting the world in which we live. The work with vertical shifts, stretches and shrinks, and reflections of graphs of basic functions is integrated throughout the unit rather than studied as a topic in isolation. Functions whose graphs are related by one of these transformations arise from the context and the context promotes understanding of the relationship between a change in a formula and the corresponding change in the graph.
Students need facility in working with functions given via tables, graphs, or algebraic formulas, using function notation correctly, and learning to view a function as an entity to be analyzed and compared to other functions.
Throughout this unit, it is important to:
•
Begin exploration of a new function by generating a table of values using a variety of numbers from the domain. Decide, based on the context, what kinds of numbers can be in the domain, and make sure you choose negative numbers or numbers expressed as fractions or decimals if such numbers are included in the domain.
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•
Do extensive graphing by hand. Once students have a deep understanding of the relationships between formulas and graphs, regular use of graphing technology will be important. For this introductory unit, graphing by hand is necessary to develop understanding.
•
Be extremely careful in the use of language. Always use the name of the function, for example f, to refer to the function as a whole and use f(x) to refer to the output when the input is x. For example, when language is used correctly, a graph of the function f in the x, yplane is the graph of the equation y = f(x) since we graph those points, and only those points, of the form (x, y) where the ycoordinates are equal to f(x).
TASKS
:
The remaining content of this framework consists of student learning tasks designed to allow students to learn by investigating situations with a realworld context. The first leaning task is intended to launch the study of functions. Its primary focus is introducing function notation and the more formal approach to functions characteristic of high school mathematics. The second through seventh learning tasks extend students knowledge of functions through in depth consideration of domain, range, average rate of change, and other characteristics of functions basic to the study of high school mathematics. The last task is designed to demonstrate the type of assessment activities students should be comfortable with by the end of the unit.
RESOURCES NEEDED BY THE TEACHER FOR THE LESSONS IN THIS UNIT:
Classroom set of Graphing Calculators, Coordinate Grids, Colored Pencils, Rulers, Masking
Tape, Markers, Unifix Cubes, Roll of Graph Paper with Inch Squares, Pad of Quad Paper,
Glue Sticks, Scissors, Postit Notes, Construction Paper, Poster Board, Copies of all Handouts for Students, Copies of the Standards for Students, Large Copy of the Standards to Post on the Wall
RESOURCES NEEDED BY THE STUDENTS FOR THE LESSONS IN THIS UNIT:
Notebook with at least 10 dividers for the introduction, individual lessons, and culminating activities, pencils, notebook paper, graph paper
Note: A copy of the standards for this unit should be given to the students with discussion to be held throughout the unit concerning their meaning and relation to the learning tasks of the day. Students will need individual copies of all handouts in the lessons of the unit. These should be kept in a math notebook for ease in use.
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Acquisition Lesson Planning Form
Plan for the Concept, Topic, or Skill – Not for the Day
Key Standards addressed in this Lesson: MM1A1a, MM1A1d
Time allotted for this Lesson: 2 Hours
Essential Question: LESSON 1 – FUNCTIONS
What are the characteristics of a function and how can you use those characteristics to represent the function in multiple ways?
Activating Strategies: (Learners Mentally Active)
Math 1 and Math 1 Support:
•
KWL – Have students list what they know about linear functions. As a class, discuss what each student wrote and add it to the teacher’s overhead transparency version of the KWL chart.
•
With their partner, have the students list what they want to find out about linear functions. Each pair must list at least one thing they want to find out about linear functions. Have the 1s from each group give their contributions and add them to the teacher’s overhead transparency version of the KWL chart.
•
Anticipation Guide: The attached anticipation guide can be used as the sole activating strategy or in conjunction with the KWL and summarizer.
Acceleration/Previewing: (Key Vocabulary)
Part 1
Vocabulary: Relation; Function; Domain: Range
Everyday examples of a relation: relation (elements of the first set are linked to elements of the second set) name of students homeroom, names of U. S. citizens Social
Security numbers
In math a relation can be a table, a mapping or a graph.
Table Mapping Graph x y
2 2 x y
2
0
2
2 3
0 1
Page 1
Based on what you know and the previous examples, write a definition for domain and range.
–
Part 2
Determine whether each relation is a function. Review the inverse of a relation, state the inverse of each set below, and determine whether or not it represents a function.
• {(3,1), (5,1), (7,1)}
• {(1,3), (1,5), (1,7)}
• {(2,4), (1,3), (5,2), (1,4)}
• {(5,4), (6,5), (4,5), (0,4)}
• {(3,2), (4,7), (2,5), (4,5)}
Discussion: What do you think makes a relation a function?
Function Notation: Use the graphic organizer to teach function notation.
Teaching Strategies: (Collaborative Pairs; Distributed Guided Practice; Distributed
Summarizing; Graphic Organizers)
Vocabulary Teaching Strategies: Word Wall
Task: Exploring Functions with Fiona Learning Task (Questions #1,#2,#5,#7 only. Other parts which are not referenced in the Strategies may be used if time permits.). Use
Collaborative Pairs (ThinkPairShare)
Lead students through Exploring Functions with the Fiona Learning Task (question #4)
• Have students read question #1 from the Fiona Learning Task individually.
• Then have them “think” individually and answer questions af based on what they know.
• Next, direct them to “pair” with their partner and “share” their answers.
• The partners should compare answers and choose the best answer to incorporate their answers for a more precise answer.
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• After each pair have compiled their answers, direct the groups to pair with another group “pairs squared” and share their answers.
• Each group should compare answers and choose the best answer or incorporate their answers for a more precise answer.
• After each group has compiled their answers, have one person from each group contribute an answer from sections a, b, c, d, e, or f from the Fiona Learning Task.
• Discuss each answer as a class.
• Depending on the number of “pairs squared” in the class, one or more groups may be called upon more than once.
• Since this may be the first exposure to the ThinkPairShare strategy with your students, it may be best to model and direct each step. For instance, during the “think” part of the strategy for part A say aloud how you would identify and explain the independent and dependent variable. For example, “An independent variable is a variable whose value does not depend on the value of any other variable. So a dependent variable must be a variable which “depends” or whose value is determined by the value of another variable in the equation.” Thus, age is the independent variable and height is the dependent variable.” Model the “pair” and “share” part of the strategy with a student.
Once the “ThinkPairShare” strategy has been modeled, have the students repeat the same process with numbers 2, 5, and 7 on the Fiona Learning Task.
The teacher may choose to give each number on the task a specified time limit (ex: 10 minutes) and then have students join another pair (“pairssquared”) to discuss the questions under #2 before discussing them as a class or, the teacher may choose to have them complete numbers 2, 5, and 7, pair with their partner, pair with another pair
(“pairssquared”), and then discuss the answers as a class.
Distributed Guided Practice/Summarizing Prompts: (Prompts Designed to Initiate
Periodic Practice or Summarizing)
Prompt:
What are the domain and range of a linear function? What if the line is vertical or horizontal?
What if the function is not linear (i.e. quadratic)?
How do you graphically represent this type of function?
Extending/Refining Strategies:
__________________________________________________________________________
Task: Exploring Functions with Fiona Learning Task (Question #6)
As a Compare/Contrast Strategy and/or Cause and Effect Strategy
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Be sure to include discussions of characteristics of functions such as domain and range and whether or not the relation is a function.
In order to familiarize the students with the extending thinking skill of comparing and contrasting, have the students complete the compare/contrast graphic organizer on something familiar to them such as hamburgers and hot dogs. Emphasize to the students they are going to use what they learned from completing the compare/contrast graphic organizer with familiar terms to completing the graphic organizer with mathematical terms.
Have the students work individually to complete #6 on the Exploring Functions with the Fiona
Learning Task.
Have the students work in pairs and use the compare and contrast graphic organizer to compare and contrast functions that can and cannot be described by formulas.
Have each pair place their graphic organizer under an Elmo or document camera and share their results with the class. (Note: If this equipment is not available, give the students the graphic organizer on a transparency. They can show and discuss their work on an overhead projector.)
Note: The Extending Thinking Skills activity can also be done with the cause and effect graphic organizer in lieu of the compare and contrast graphic organizer.
Summarizing Strategies: Learners Summarize & Answer Essential Question
Reflection Questions:
1. How do you determine if a function is linear?
2. How do you use the vertical line test to determine a function?
3. What are the characteristics of independent and dependent variables on a graph?
4. What are the different ways to represent linear functions?
Have the students get the anticipation guide back out and discuss their answers now that the concepts of functions have been taught.
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Name: ________________________ Date: ______________ Period: _____
TRUE or FALSE
LESSON 1: ACTIVATING STRATEGY
Anticipation Guide
________ 1. A function crosses a vertical line exactly one time.
________ 2. The first number in the ttable corresponds to x.
________ 3. With the coordinate (6,2), first move to the left 6.
4. The following sets of ordered pairs represent a function.
________ a. {(1,2), (3,5), (4,2)}
________ b. {(0,0), (0,7), (2,4)}
________ 5. Another form for y = x is f(x) = x.
________ 6. The terms ttable and xychart have different meanings.
________ 7. Another term for input/output is xychart.
________ 8. The domain corresponds to the y coordinate.
________ 9. x is to output as y is to input.
10. The following are functions:
________ a. f(x)= 4x + 9 b. ________
X Y
1 2
0 0
1 2
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FALSE
TRUE
FALSE
TRUE
FALSE
TRUE
ANSWER KEY
LESSON 1: ACTIVATING STRATEGY
Anticipation Guide
TRUE or FALSE
1. A function crosses a vertical line exactly one time. TRUE
TRUE 2. The first number in the ttable corresponds to x.
FALSE 3. With the coordinate (6,2), first move to the left 6.
4. The following sets of ordered pairs represent a function.
{(1,2), (4,2)} b. {(0,0), (0,7), (2,4)}
5. Another form for y = x is f(x) = x.
6. Ttables and xycharts are different ways to represent a function.
7. Another way to obtain input/output is with an xychart.
8. The domain corresponds to the y coordinate.
9. In the ordered pair (x,y), x is the input.
10. The following are functions:
TRUE a. f(x)= 4x + 9
X Y
1 2
0 0
1 2
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LESSON 1: ACTIVATOR
KWL
What We Know What We Want to
Find Out
What We
Learned
How Can We
Learn More
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Characteristics of a Function
Look at each relation and tell whether or not it is a function. y y y
Determine the domain and range of each. y x x x
Page 8 y y x x x
Characteristics of a Function  Continued x
5
2 y
3
3 x
5
7 y
8
3
1
4
13
8
4
0
12
9
5
0
12
2
8
1
1
0
7
7
5
1
1
0
7
7
5
1
Draw two graphs, one which represents a function and one which does not represent a function.
Draw two tables of values, one which represents a function and one which does not represent a function.
Draw two mappings, one which represents a function and one which does not represent a function.
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A function is a set of ordered pairs in which each element from the domain (set of all xcoordinates) is paired with one and only one element from the range (set of all ycoordinates).
Ex: Find the domain and range and decide if each of the following is a function:
{ (2, 5), (3, 9), (5, 6), (3, 9) } { (3, 8), (4, 9), (2, 3), (3, 1) }
2
5
3
1
3
2
1
7 x: 3 6 1 8 0 y: 5 2 3 2 0
1 5
7 9
8 4
3 x 5 2 4 5 1
y 3 9 5 2 1
Function Notation: a form of substitution
If f(x) = 2x  3, g(x) =
√ x + 5, h(x) = x
2
 3x + 5, k( x)
⎩
2x 3 x
> −
2
3 x x
≤ −
2
Find each of the following: f(2) g(7) h(3) g(t  3) h(x + 3) f(2x + 2)
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Inverses
Consider the following mapping:
14
7
0
The inverse of this mapping would be:
6
5
20
Essentially an inverse “undoes” what a function does.
6
5
20
14
7
0
If a function maps x onto y, then the inverse of that function maps y back onto x.
In the mappings above, the first mapping maps 7 onto 20. The second mapping then takes the 20 and maps it back onto 7. This is what inverses do.
Sketching a curve and its inverse
The inverse of a curve is its mirror image across the line y = x on a graph.
y = x
f(x)
f
1
(x)
How would you sketch the inverse without folding or guessing? Hint: Remember the mapping concept. Try it on the curve on the following page.
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Sketching Inverses From Points on the Curve
Determine the coordinates of at least 20 points on the curve below. Switch the xcoordinate and the ycoordinate of each point and plot those, connecting them in the same order as the original points. The curve you just sketched is the mirror image of the original curve across the line y = x. Sketch that line in as a dotted line and fold across it. The original curve and the curve you just drew should lie on top of each other. y
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Exploring Functions with Fiona
1
. While visiting her grandmother, Fiona Evans found markings on the inside of a closet door showing the heights of her mother, Julia, and her mother’s brothers and sisters on their birthdays growing up. From the markings in the closet, Fiona wrote down her mother’s height each year from ages 2 to 16. Her grandmother found the measurements at birth and one year by looking in her mother’s baby book. The data is provided in the table below, with heights rounded to the nearest inch.
Age (yrs.)
x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Height
(in.)
y 21 30 35 39 43 46 48 51 53 55 59 62 64 65 65 66 66 a. Which variable is the independent variable, and which is the dependent variable? Explain your choice. b. Make a graph of the data. c. Should you connect the dots on your graph? Explain. d. Describe how Julia’s height changed as she grew up. e. How tall was Julia on her 11th birthday? Explain how you can see this in both the graph and the table. f. What do you think happened to Julia’s height after age 16? Explain. How could you show this on your graph?
In Math 1 and all advanced mathematics, function notation is used as an efficient way to describe relationships between quantities that vary in a functional relationship. In the remaining parts of this investigation, we’ll explore function notation as we look at other growth patterns and situations.
2. In function notation, h(2) means the output value when the input value is 2. In the case of the table above, h(2) means the yvalue when x is 2, which is Julia’s height (in inches) at age 2, or 35. Thus, h(2) = 35. Function notation gives us another way to write about ideas that you began learning in middle school, as shown in the table below.
Type
At age 2, Julia was 35 inches tall. Natural language
When x is 2, y is 35.
When the input is 2, the output is 35. Inputoutput statement
As you can see, function notation provides shorthand for talking about relationships between variables. With function notation, it is easy to indicate simultaneously the values of both the independent and dependent variables. The notation h(x) is typically read “h of x,” though it is helpful to think “h at x,” so that h(2) can be interpreted as “height at age 2,” for example.
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Note: Function notation looks like a multiplication calculation, but the meaning is very different.
To avoid misinterpretation, be sure you know which letters represent functions. For example, if
g represents a function, then g(4) is not multiplication but rather the value of “g at 4,” that is, the output value of the function g when the input is value is 4. a. What is h(11)? What does this mean? b. When x is 3, what is y? Express this fact using function notation. c. Find an x so that h(x) = 53. Explain your method. What does your answer mean? d. From your graph or your table, estimate h(6.5). Explain your method. What does your answer mean? e. Find an x so that h(x) = 60. Explain your method. What does your answer mean? f. Describe what happens to h(x) as x increases from 0 to 16. g. What can you say about h(x) for x greater than 16? h. Describe the similarities and differences you see between these questions and the questions in #1.
3. Fiona has a younger brother, Tyler, who attends a prekindergarten class. One of the math activities during the first month of school was measuring the heights of the children. The class made a large poster to record the information in a bar graph showing the ages and heights of all the children. The children used heights rounded to the nearest whole number of inches; however, the teacher also recorded their heights to the nearest half inch in an
Excel spreadsheet as shown below.
Table A: Class Height Information
August 2007
Student
Number
Last Name First Name
Height in
Inches
1 Barnes Joshua
2 Coleman David 40.5
3 Coleman Diane 40.0
4 Drew Keisha
5 Evans
6 Hagan Emily
7 Nguyen Violet 37.0
8 Ruiz
9 Rader Joshua
10 Vogel Zach 39.5
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After making the Excel table, the teacher decided to also make an
Excel version of the bar graph. While she was working on the bar graph, she had the idea of also graphing the information in the rectangular
50
45
40
35
30
25
Height of Students coordinate system, using the Student Number as the xvalue and the height to the nearest half inch as the yvalue.
Here’s her graph.
20
15
10
5
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Student Number
The relationship that uses Student Number as input and the height of the student with that
1 1 student number as output describes a function because, for each student number, there is exactly one output, the height of the student with that number. a. The graph was drawn with an Excel option named scatter plot. This option allows graphs of relationships whether or not the graphs represent functions. Sketch a scatter plot using student ages as inputs and heights of students as output. Explain why this relationship is not a function. b. In the plot in Graph A, the prekindergarten teacher chose an Excel format that did not connect the dots. Explain why the dots should not be connected. c. Using the information in the Excel spreadsheet about the relationship between student number and height of the corresponding student, fill in each of the following blanks.
The height of student 2 is equal to _____ inches.
The height of student 6 is equal to _____ inches.
The height of student ___ is equal to 37 inches.
For what student numbers is the height equal to 38.5 inches? ________________ d. Using the function name h, we write h(1) = 42 to indicate that the height of student 1 is equal to 42 inches. The following fillintheblank questions repeat the questions from part d) in function notation. Fill in these blanks too.
h(2) = ____ h(6) = _____ h( __ ) = 37
For what values of x does h(x) = 38.5 ? _____________
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4. Fiona attends Peachtree Plains High School. When the school opened five years ago, a few teachers and students put on FallFest, featuring contests, games, prizes, and performances by student bands. To raise money for the event, they sold FallFest Tshirts. The event was very well received, and so FallFest has become a tradition. This year Fiona is one of the students helping with FallFest and is in charge of Tshirt sales. She gathered information about the growth of Tshirt sales for the FallFests so far and created the graph below that shows the function S.
80 a. What are the independent and dependent variables shown in the graph? b. For which years does the graph provide data?
70
60
50
40
S(t),
# of shirts
c. Does it make sense to connect the dots in the graph? Explain. d. What were the Tshirt sales in the first year? Use function
30
20
10
0
0 1 2 3 4 5
t, in years
6
notation to express your result. e. Find S(3), if possible, and explain what it means or would mean. f. Find S(6), if possible, and explain what it means or would mean. g. Find S(2.4), if possible, and explain what it means or would mean. h. If possible, find a t such that S(t) = 65. Explain. i. If possible, find a t such that S(t) = 62. Explain. j. Describe what happens to S(t) as t increases, beginning at t = 1. k. What can you say about S(t) for values of t greater than 6?
Note: As you have seen above, functions can be described by tables and by graphs. In high school mathematics, functions are often given by formulas, but it is important to remember that not all functions can be described by formulas.
5. Fiona’s Tshirt committee decided on a long sleeve Tshirt in royal blue, one of the school colors, with a FallFest logo designed by the art teacher. The committee needs to decide how many Tshirts to order. Fiona was given the job of collecting price information so she checked with several suppliers, both local companies and some on the Web. She found the best price with Peachtree Plains Promotions, a local company owned by parents of a
Peachtree Plains High School senior.
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The salesperson for Peachtree Plains Promotions told Fiona that there would be a $50 fee for setting up the imprint design and different charges per shirt depending on the total number of shirts ordered. For an order of 50 to 250 Tshirts, the cost is $9 per shirt. Based on sales from the previous five years, Fiona was sure that they would order at least 50 Tshirts and would not order more than 250. If x is the number of Tshirts to be ordered and y is the total dollar cost of these shirts, then y is a function of x. Let’s name this function C, for cost function. Fiona started the table below.
x
9x
50 100 150 200 250
450 900 1350
y = C(x)
500 a. Fill in the missing values in the table above. b. Make a graph to show how the cost depends upon the number of Tshirts ordered. You can start by plotting the points corresponding to values in the table. What points are these? Should you connect these points? Explain. Should you extend the graph beyond the first or last point? Explain. c. Write a formula showing how the cost depends upon the number of Tshirts ordered. For what numbers of Tshirts does your formula apply? Explain. d. What does C(70) mean? How can you find the single number value equal to C(70)? Did you use the table, the graph, or the formula? e. If the Tshirt committee decides to order only the 67 Tshirts that are prepaid, how much will it cost? Show how you know. Express the result using function notation. f. If the Tshirt committee decides to order the 67 Tshirts that are prepaid plus 15 more, how much will it cost? Show how you know. Express the result using function notation.
Note: As you have seen above, functions can be described by tables, by graphs, and by formulas. Although there are functions that cannot be described by formulas, many of the functions studied in high school mathematics are given by formulas. We explore such an example below
.
6. Fiona is taking physics. Her sister, Hannah, is taking physical science. Fiona decided to use functions to help Hannah understand one basic idea related to gravity and falling objects.
Fiona explained that, if a ball is dropped from a high place, such as the Tower of Pisa in
Italy, then there is a formula for calculating the distance the ball has fallen. If y, measured in meters, is the distance the ball has fallen and t, measured in seconds, is the time since the ball was dropped, then y is a function of t, and the relationship can be approximated by the formula y = d(t) = 4.9t
2
. Here we name the function d because the outputs are distances.
t (in seconds) t
2 y = d(t) = 4.9t
2
. a. Fill in the missing values in the table above.
Page 17
b. Suppose the ball is dropped from a building at least 100 meters high. Measuring from the top of the building, draw a picture indicating the position of the ball at times indicated in your table of values. c. Draw a graph of t versus y for this situation. Should you connect the dots? Explain. d. What is the relationship between the picture (part b) and the graph (part d)? e. Explain what happens to the speed of the ball as the ball falls. Use your table and your picture to help you justify your reasoning. f. What is f(4)? What does this mean? g. Estimate t such that f(t) = 50. Explain your method. What does it mean? h. In this context, y is proportional to t
2
. Explain what that means. How can you see this in the table?
7. Fiona is paid $7 per hour in her parttime job at the local Dairy Stop. Let t be the amount time that she works, in hours, during the week, and let P(t) be her gross pay (before taxes), in dollars, for the week. a. Make a table showing how her gross pay depends upon the amount of time she works during the week. b. Make a graph illustrating how her gross pay depends upon the amount of time that she works. Should you connect the dots? Explain. c. Write a formula showing how her gross pay depends upon the amount of time that she works. d. What is P(9)? What does it mean? Explain how you can use the graph, the table, and the formula to compute P(9). e. If Towanda works 11 hours and 15 minutes, what will her gross pay be? Show how you know. Express the result using function notation. f. If Towanda works 4 hours and 50 minutes, what will her gross pay be? Show how you know. Express the result using function notation. g. One week Towanda’s gross pay was $42. How many hours did she work? Show how you know. h. Another week Towanda’s gross pay was $57.19. How many hours did she work? Show how you know
.
Page 18
Acquisition Lesson Planning Form
Plan for the Concept, Topic, or Skill –Not for the Day
Key Standards addressed in this Lesson: MM1A1b, MM1A1c, MM1A1d, MM1A1e, Mm1A1g
Time allotted for this Lesson: 1 Hour
Essential Question: LESSON 2 – LINEAR FUNCTIONS f(x) = x
How do I analyze and graph linear functions?
Activating Strategies: (Learners Mentally Active)
(Use one for Math 1 and the other for Math Support.)
Distribute the linear function concept map and have students complete the table and draw the graph. Encourage them to answer as many questions as they can. Look around and see that students are able to complete the table and graph and check on their ability to answer the questions. After about 5 minutes use the questions to begin a review of linear functions.
Use the graphing calculators and have each student graph f(x) = x. Look at the table generated by the calculator. Plot points on a grid and label the ordered pairs and the equation.
Discuss the big picture of intercepts and slope.
Acceleration/Previewing: (Key Vocabulary)
Collinear, xintercept, yintercept, slope, domain, range
Teaching Strategies: (Collaborative Pairs; Distributed Guided Practice; Distributed
Summarizing; Graphic Organizers)
The concept of graphing lines should be a review for students. The discussion should focus on the idea of lines as functions, function notation, transformations, and families of lines.
Students should have been successful in graphing the linear function f(x)=x on the concept map and should have answered many of the questions. Using collaborative pairs the lesson should proceed as follows:
• Have students volunteer their answers on how xintercepts, yintercepts, and slopes can be changed.
• Distribute the concept map on “Families of Linear Functions f(x) = x+b” and have pairs use different colors to graph the four functions on one graph grid. Circulate among students to check their work.
• Have students volunteer to share how the graphs are similar and how they are different.
• Students should complete the concept map by writing the three equations as a summarizer.
Page 1
• Use the graphic organizer to review “What is slope.” Emphasize that the slope (rate of change) is constant from one point to another in a linear function. Have students calculate the slope between various points on the graphs.
• Pairs should graph the equations on the concept map “Linear Functions in the Form
f(x)=ax
”.
• Have volunteers share how the graphs are alike and how they are different.
• Answer the remaining four questions as a summarizer.
• Discuss using decimals in equations as slope by changing them into the form of a fraction.
• Introduce the concept of end behavior by discussing what happens to the graph on the right and left sides.
• Tie the concept of slope to the concept of an increasing or decreasing function.
Distributed Guided Practice/Summarizing Prompts: (Prompts Designed to Initiate
Periodic Practice or Summarizing)
Both concept maps have a set of problems that can be used as summarizing prompts. Use pair shares to check progress.
Extending/Refining Activity/Extending Thinking Skills
Extend discussion to include the idea of that f(x)=x is considered the identity function. After reviewing the fact that 0 and 1 are the additive and multiplicative identity elements, ask student to write an explanation of why f(x)=x is considered the identity function.
Summarizing Strategies: Learners Summarize & Answer Essential Question
Use one of the two tasks to summarize and evaluate the lesson.
Have students begin to create a function family scrapbook which will be added to with each new function introduced.
As a class create function families on the bulletin board, adding to them throughout the unit.
Make a vocabulary foldable using definitions, illustrations, examples, nonexamples, graphs and other representations.
Page 2
Linear Function Concept Map
Linear Function f(x) = x
Plot the points and sketch the graph below. y
Complete the table of values.
4
2
0
1
3
5
Why is this called a linear function?
What is the xintercept?
What is the yintercept?
How could the x and y intercept be changed?
How could the slope be changed?
What is the slope?
Page 3 x
Families of Linear Functions Concept Map
y
Families of
Linear Functions f(x) = x + b
Complete the table on each of the following and draw each in a different color on the graph to the right. f(x) = x + 3 f(x) = x – 4 x f(x)
5
2
0
3 x f(x)
6
3
0
2
How are the lines above alike?
How are they different?
7
5 xint = xint = yint= yint= f(x) = x – 7 x f(x)
2
1
0
4
8 xint = yint= f(x) = x + 6 x f(x)
8
6
1
2
3 xint = yint=
Write the equation of a line in this family with a y –intercept of –2.
_________________
Write the equation of a line in this family with a y –intercept of +5.
_________________
Write the equation of a line in this family with a y –intercept of –10.
_________________
x
Page 4
slope
Slope Graphic Organizer
What is slope?
(x
2
,y
2
)
slope
(y
2
– y
1
)
slope
= y x
2
2
−
− y x
1
1
(x
1
,y
1
)
(x
2
– x
1
)
In the linear function f(x) = ax + b, the slope is represented by the letter a, the coefficient of x.
In the function f(x) = x, the slope is 1 because the understood coefficient of x is 1, which means the rise is 1 and the run is 1.
y
Look at the graph to the right.
Notice the movement from point to point.
The rise is the same as the run.
This shows the slope is 1.
x
Use the grid at the right to graph f(x)= ½ x by starting at (0,0) and using the slope to move to the next point.
Label your points and check them by substituting them back into the function.
How is this graph different from the graph of f(x)=2x
?
y
x
Page 5
Families of Linear Functions Concept Map 2
y
Linear Functions in the Form of f(x) = ax
Graph each of the following functions in different colors on the graph at the right. f(x) = x f(x) = ¼ x f(x) = 4x
How are the graphs alike? How are the graphs different?
x
What does the coefficient of x do to the linear function f(x)=x?
How would the graph of f(x) = 5x compare to the graph of f(x)=x?
How would the graph of f(x) = 3x compare to the graph of f(x)=x?
How would the graph of f(x) =.2x compare to the graph of f(x)=x?
Page 6
Temperature Task*
Consider the linear function F which converts a temperature of c degrees Celsius to the equivalent temperature of F(C) degrees Fahrenheit. The formula is given by F(C) =
9
5
C
+ 32, where C is a temperature in degrees Celsius. a. What is freezing cold in degrees Celsius? in degrees Fahrenheit? Verify that the formula for F converts correctly for freezing temperatures. b. What is boiling hot in degrees Celsius? in degrees Fahrenheit? Verify that the formula for F converts correctly for boiling hot temperatures. c. Draw the graph of F for values of C such that –100 ≤ C ≤ 400. What is the shape of the graph you drew? Is this the shape of the whole graph? What is the domain? What is the range? Should you connect the dots? d. Verify that “if C = 25, then F(C) = 77” is true.
*Adapted from the Wonderland Task.
Page 7
Alternate Task: Which Cell Phone Plan is for YOU?
Three customers are looking for cell phone plans:
Customer 1:
Linda, a retired math teacher, keeps her phone in the car for emergency use only. Historically, she uses the phone for less than 50 minutes each month.
Customer 2:
Keisha, a college student, attends school out of state. She uses her phone to call friends and family at home to keep in touch. She uses about 900 minutes each month.
Customer 3:
Joseph, a traveling salesman, is gone three to four nights a week. He contacts customers, his home office and family when he is away. He uses about 1,500 minutes each month.
Three cell phone plans are available for these customers.
Plan A
: $30 for the first 500 minutes plus $.20 for each additional minute
Plan B
: $40 for the first 700 minutes plus $.30 for each additional minute
Plan C
: $.15 for each minute
Create a table, graph and equation for each plan. Determine which plan is the best for each customer. Justify your selection.
Plan A Plan B Plan C
Number of
Minutes Cost
0
Number of
Minutes Cost
0
Number of
Minutes Cost
0
100
200
100
200
100
200
300
400
300
400
300
400
500
600
500
600
500
600
700
800
700
800
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
Page 8
Plot the points for each plan using a different color marker or pencil.
Write an equation for each plan.
Plan A: ______________________________________________________________
Plan B: ______________________________________________________________
Plan C: ______________________________________________________________
Determine which plan is the best for each customer. Justify your selections.
Page 9
GRAPHING SCRAPBOOK
OBJECTIVE: Make a scrapbook of polynomial functions.
• Look in different magazines to find two examples of each parent function.
• Paste both examples on the same sheet of construction paper. Place the original parent graph on the top half of the paper and the translated graph on the bottom half.
• Place a sheet of transparency film in front of your construction paper.
• On each example, draw the x and y axes of the coordinate plane with a marker very neatly on the transparency so that it overlaps the picture.
• On the transparency, outline the parent graph and the transformation.
• Please state the equation of the graph represented at the top right of your paper. On the right side of the transparency half way down write the equation for the translated graph. Alterations of the equations are highly recommended.
• The project must be bound and include a Table of Contents.
• Each page must be numbered.
• Be neat and creative.
Page 10
Graphing Scrapbook Rubric
1 2 3 4 or Four or five fewer graphs out of the the graphs out of the six are six are represented represented.
All six graphs are represented with less than three showing transformations to the parent function.
All six graphs are represented and each parent function has at least one transformation shown. more pictures are not neatly done.
At least two pictures are not neatly done.
Only one picture is not neatly done.
CREATIVITY Plain with no color.
Some color and designs.
Colored construction paper with designs done attractively.
All pictures are cut neatly with straight lines on the coordinate grids and the outline of the graph visible and neat.
A colorcoordinated and appropriately decorated theme is apparent throughout the project.
5 point deduction for missing a content page.
5 point deduction per page for a missing equation.
5 point deduction per page for each missing parent graph outline.
Page 11
Acquisition Lesson Planning Form
Plan for the Concept, Topic, or Skill – Not for the Day
Key Standards addressed in this Lesson: MM1A1b, MM1A1c, MM1A1d, MM1A1e, Mm1A1g
Time allotted for this Lesson: 4 Hours
Essential Question: LESSON 3 – ABSOLUTE VALUE FUNCTIONS f(x) =  x 
How will I analyze and graph an absolute value function and how will it be affected by various transformations? (Teacher should have a large poster size coordinate plane with the parent graph shown. If this is laminated, it can be used to teach transformations.)
Activating Strategies: (Learners Mentally Active)
As students enter the classroom, each will be given a graphic organizer (GO #1) with a coordinate plane and 5 points from the parent graph of an absolute value function. Each student will plot those points on the coordinate plane. After a minute or so, choose volunteers to use themselves to plot the points on the coordinate plane located on the floor. (Prior to class create a coordinate plane using masking tape, label the axes and points on axes. ) Ask all students to check their graph against the human graph.
Differentiation idea for this activator:
Group 1: Give a visual picture of graphs and have students discuss the change from the parent graph.
f
(
x
)
=
x
,
f
(
x
)
= −
x
,
f
(
x
)
= x +
2
,
f
(
x
)
= x −
2
Group 2: Have students graph
f
(
x
)
= x +
2
, describe and predict what will happen for
f
(
x
)
= x +
10
Group 3: Have students graph
f
(
x
)
= x +
2
, describe and predict what will happen for
f
(
x
)
= x −
5
. Extension: predict for
f
(
x
)
−
5
Acceleration/Previewing: (Key Vocabulary)
Absolute Value, Domain, Range, Maximum, Minimum, Zeros, Parent Graph
Connect Vocabulary – x –intercepts, zeros, solutions, vertical Shift , coefficient , infinity, reflection, increasing, decreasing, stretch, shrink
Also continue to emphasize: Absolute Value, Domain, Range, Maximum, Minimum, Parent
Graph
Teaching Strategies: (Collaborative Pairs; Distributed Guided Practice; Distributed
Summarizing; Graphic Organizers)
Hour 1:
Using the graphic organizer attached (Absolute Value GO #1), guide students to answer the following questions and complete the organizer. This is a teacher guided activity.
While looking at the graph:
• Describe the graph you created from the activating strategy. As you discuss key vocabulary have the students go back to describe what they see in relation to each term.
Page 1
• Discuss Domain and have students list the points from the parent graph table in the organizer that correspond to the domain. Now discuss what other points are also in the domain that are not listed and have students complete that section of the Domain Chart.
(Make sure students understand that all real numbers are part of the Domain for
Absolute value functions.) Notice that the Domain and Range chart is set up like an XY chart for the students to see the connection.
• Find some fractions/decimals that will be part of the Domain and ask where these points will fall on our graph. (Ex. 
1 ,
2
1 , 1.5,
3
7 ) At this point, you will need to review
3 evaluating the function with these fractions.
• Follow the same procedure for Range. Get students started on this and then have them work in collaborative pairs to complete that portion of the graphic organizer. Call on one member of the pair to describe to the class what they wrote. Repeat the process until you have all of the information that students need to have written in their table.
• Have students discuss what they remember about x and y intercepts. Using the graph and table determine the x and y intercepts. Fill in the graphic organizer with a short description of the intercepts and the intercepts for the parent graph. Also describe what happens in the table for each intercept, (i.e. The x value is always 0 for the y intercept, and the y value is always 0 for the x intercept).
• Ask students to describe real life situations where you would see a maximum or minimum (mountain, valley). Ask if the parent graph has a max or min. Discuss the location of the min and indicate this point and description in the max or min box.
Discuss vertex and have students write this term next to max or min.
• Discuss where the graph increases and decreases in terms of x. For example the parent graph decreases over the intervals
(
−∞
, 0 ]
(from ∞ to zero but includes 0) and increases over the intervals
[ 0 , , ) looking at the graph from left to right. The description of increase and decrease comes from the vertical movement but the interval of movement comes from the x axis.
• Have the students describe the end behavior of the graph and write it in the interval box.
Hour 2:
• Have a student come to the board to graph
f
(x )
= x +
2
, then review the characteristics from GO #1 for this graph.
• (Using a graphing calculator) have students explore the vertical shift characteristics with the following functions and graph a sketch of the function (Have color pencils available)
(Absolute Value GO #2):
f
(x )
= x +
2
,
f
(
x
)
=
x
+
1
,
f
(x )
= x +
4
,
f
(x )
= x −
2
,
f
(x )
= x −
5
,
f
(x )
= x −
1
• Discuss as a class how each graph changed from the parent graph and connect the reason for the shift to the function.
Page 2
• Using a graphing calculator, have students explore the function that creates the refection over the x axis. Sketch the function and describe the changes from the parent graph. Ask “What caused this reflection?” (Absolute Value GO #3)
• Have students take two functions (one addition and one subtraction) from the above group and reflect each over the x axis. The students should then label their graph with the function they have created. (This will provide a way of working backwards from the graph to the function.)
• Summarize the change in the parent graph present in the graph of your function.
Hour 3:
• Using (Absolute Value GO #4), students will complete a ttable and plot the parent graph and
f
(
x
)
=
2
x
. Discuss what students see on the ttable and the graph and describe what is happening. Predict what will happen if you use 3, 4, 5, and 8 as coefficients of the absolute value function. Using the graphing calculator, confirm or deny your prediction.
• Students will complete a ttable and plot the parent graph and
f
(
x
)
= −
2
x
. Discuss what students see on the ttable and the graph and describe what is happening. Predict what will happen if you use 3, 4, 5, and 8 as coefficients of the absolute value function. Using the graphing calculator confirm or deny your prediction.
• The teacher will direct the discussion to allow students to see that when
a
>
1
for the graph of
f
(
x
)
=
a x
, the graph is vertically stretched from the parent function.
• Students will answer the questions on the graphic organizer.
• Ask students to predict what will happen to the graph when a is a fraction.
• Using (Absolute Value GO #5), repeat the above for the shrink of a graph using the graphic organizer.
• Establish the rule for vertical shrink when
0
< a <
1
Hour 4:
• Practice putting it all together. Add this function to the bulletin board and to the individual graphing functions portfolio.
Distributed Guided Practice/Summarizing Prompts: (Prompts Designed to Initiate
Periodic Practice or Summarizing)
Give students the function
f
(
x
)
= x −
2
. Students will complete the graphic organizer with this function independently or with a partner. This is based on the level of students within the
Page 3
class or could be differentiated throughout the class based on content.
Extending/Refining Activity/Extending Thinking Skills
At this point, each pair should begin to analyze the work from the other pair. Their job is strictly error analysis. They are to check for errors.
Summarizing Strategies: Learners Summarize & Answer Essential Question
Ticket out the door. Sketch and label 5 features of an absolute value function.
Quiz where students match the graph to the equation.
Students add absolute value functions to their individual portfolios and to the bulletin board.
Page 4
Graphic Organizer #1: ABSOLUTE VALUE FUNCTIONS
Parent Function: f(x) =  x 
y
f(x) =  x  x f(x)
6
4
2
0
2
4
6
x
Describe:
Absolute Value Domain
VOCABULARY
Range Intervals (Increasing and Decreasing) End
Function Notation xintercepts (zeros) yintercept yintercept
Intervals of Increase/Decrease
End Behavior
Max or Min
Page 5
Graphic Organizer #2: ABSOLUTE VALUE FUNCTIONS
Vertical Shift
Function: Color f(x) =  x  + 2 f(x) =  x  + 1 f(x) =  x  + 4 f(x) =  x   2 f(x) =  x  5 f(x) =  x   1
y x
Description:
Page 6
Graphic Organizer #3: ABSOLUTE VALUE FUNCTIONS
Reflection
y
Function: Color f(x) =  x  f(x) =   x  f(x) =  x  + 4 f(x) =   x  + 4 f(x) =  x   2 f(x) =   x   2
x
Description:
Page 7
Graphic Organizer #4: ABSOLUTE VALUE FUNCTIONS
Stretch
Function: Color f(x) =  x  f(x) = 2  x  f(x) = 3  x  f(x) = 4  x  f(x) = 5  x  f(x) =   x  f(x) = 2  x  f(x) = 3  x  f(x) = 4  x  f(x) = 5  x 
y
How does the coefficient affect the graph?
What pattern do you notice for both the positive and the negative?
Rule:
x
Page 8
Graphic Organizer #4 Cont: ABSOLUTE VALUE FUNCTIONS
Shrink
Function: Color f(x) =  x  f(x) =
1  x 
2 f(x) =
1  x 
3 f(x) =
1  x 
4 f(x) =
1  x 
5 f(x) =   x  f(x) = 
1  x 
2 f(x) = 
1  x 
3 f(x) = 
1  x 
4 f(x) = 
1  x 
5
y
How does the coefficient affect the graph?
What pattern do you notice for both the positive and the negative?
Rule:
x
Page 9
5.
3.
1.
ABSOLUTE VALUE FUNCTIONS
Match the graph of each function (16) with the equation of each function (af).
2.
4.
6.
A.
f
(
x
)
+
1
D.
f
(
x
)
= −
3
x
+
3
B.
f
(
x
)
1
4
−
4
E.
f
(
x
)
=
3
x
C.
f
(
x
)
= x −
3
F.
f
(
x
)
= x +
2
Page 10
Acquisition Lesson Planning Form
Plan for the Concept, Topic, or Skill – Not for the Day
Key Standards addressed in this Lesson: MM1A1b, MM1A1c, MM1A1d, MM1A1e, Mm1A1g
Time allotted for this Lesson: 3 Hours
Essential Question: LESSON 4 – QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS f(x) = x
2
How do you analyze and graph a quadratic function and how will it be affected by various transformations?
Activating Strategies: (Learners Mentally Active)
Using real life photos, teacher and students will identify quadratic graphs. Teacher will discuss other curves such as the top of Norman windows which are not quadratic curves.
Acceleration/Previewing: (Key Vocabulary)
Domain, range, maximum, minimum, increase, decrease, end behavior, zeros, xintercepts,
yintercepts, average rate of change, vertical shift, vertical stretch, vertical shrink, reflection over the xaxis, reflection over the yaxis.
Teaching Strategies: (Collaborative Pairs; Distributed Guided Practice; Distributed
Summarizing; Graphic Organizers)
•
With the use of a graphic organizer (“Exploring Quadratic Functions”), students will work in collaborative pairs to complete a table of values and construct a graph by hand of the parent function f(x) = x
2
. Check with a graphing calculator.
•
Using Exploring Quadratic Functions: How do you graph quadratics? Investigate what effects a and k have on the quadratic function. Each student will create equations by replacing a or k and graphing using the graphing calculator. Ones and twos will discuss the differences in their graphs with the parent function from the other graphic organizer.
•
Using groups of three or four, students will graph functions listed on the Exploring
Quadratic Functions chart and discuss how the graph changes, the domain, range, end behavior, minimum or maximum, intervals of increase or decrease, and intercepts.
Through student led discussion, have groups share conclusions from the chart.
•
Teacher will lead discussion of vertical shifts, stretches, shrinks and reflections over the xaxis based on the previous student discussion.
•
Briefly talk about average rate of change for quadratics. Contrast with the average rate of change for the linear function and for the absolute value function, discussing which is constant and which is variable. Discuss how changing points varies the average rate of change in the quadratic function.
•
Pairs complete learning task 5: Walking, Falling, and Making Money #1, #2 and #4 and present their findings to the class.
Extending/Refining/Extending Thinking Skills Activity
Have students work in pairs to add the new information about functions to the bulletin board.
Once completed, have each pair present their part to the class.
Page 1
Distributed Guided Practice/Summarizing Prompts: (Prompts Designed to Initiate
Periodic Practice or Summarizing)
Ones will share with twos the differences in half of the graphs. Twos will share with ones the differences in the other half.
Groups will display and present solutions to the task.
Summarizing Strategies: Learners Summarize & Answer Essential Question
Round the room review. Group of students are randomly selected to rotate to ten posted questions throughout the room. Questions will assess the graphing components of quadratic functions.
Students add quadratic functions to their individual portfolios.
Page 2
Page 3
The top of a Norman window is a semicircle.
The chandelier has metal pieces that are spiral. The globes change the direction of the curve at the top. A parabola neither changes direction nor spirals.
The toe of the shoe is too much like a straight line to be a parabola.
The curve of the heel bends inward toward the arch. A parabola neither bends inward and curves around the vertex..
A slide curves in the opposite direction at the bottom from the direction of the curve at the top.
This is typical of a cubic function rather than a quadratic.
Page 4
Exploring Quadratic Functions
The graph of a quadratic function is called a _________________.
Use a table of values to graph y = x
2
. x f(x) = x
2 y (x,y)
2
1
0
1
2
Verify your graph is correct by graphing the function on your calculator.
Identify the domain of your graph ______________________________
Identify the range of your graph ________________________________
Does your graph have a maximum or a minimum? _____________________
Describe the end behavior of your graph. __________________________
What are the zeros of your function? ____________________________
What is the x intercept of your function? ________________________
What is the y – intercept of your function? _______________________
Page 5
Transformations
(Use the worksheet on the following page.)
y = x
2
is called the parent function.
Let’s explore some transformations of the parent function.
1. Graph: y = x
2
+ 2
Compare your new graph to the parent graph. How does it change?
What characteristics (domain, range, maximum, minimum, zeros, end behavior, intercepts) of the function change? How?
2. Graph: y = x
2
– 2
Compare your new graph to the parent graph. How does it change?
What characteristics (domain, range, maximum, minimum, zeros, end behavior, intercepts) of the function change? How?
3. Graph: y = 2x
2
Compare your new graph to the parent graph. How does it change?
What characteristics (domain, range, maximum, minimum, zeros, end behavior, intercepts) of the function change? How?
4. Graph: y= ½x
2
Compare your new graph to the parent graph. How does it change?
What characteristics (domain, range, maximum, minimum, zeros, end behavior, intercepts) of the function change? How?
5. Graph: y = x
2
Compare your new graph to the parent graph. How does it change?
What characteristics (domain, range, maximum, minimum, zeros, end behavior, intercepts) of the function change? How?
Page 6
How does the graph change?
What is the end behavior?
What is the maximum
/ minimum?
Identify the intervals for which the function is increasing / decreasing.
What are the intercepts ?
Exploring Quadratic Functions  Transformations
How do the transformations relate to the parent graph???
y = x
2
+ 2 y = x
2
– 2 y = 2x
2 y= ½x
What is the range?
What is the domain?
Page 7
y = x
2
Exploring Quadratic
Functions
How do you graph quadratics? y = x
2
Parent Function: y = x
2
+k y = ax
2
y = ax
2
+k
What effect do the variables a and k have on the parent function?
Page 8
Round the Room Review Instructions
Tape the sheets around the room. Since there are 10 sheets, have the students count off to
10. The number they say is the problem number that they are to report to. The student(s) will write the number assigned on their paper and the letter of the answer that they believe to be true. Student will then write that number down and report to the question the answer says to go to. The student will continue until they have worked all ten problems. If they find themselves at the starting number before all ten have been attempted, an error has been made somewhere. The student then needs to retrace his/her steps to find the error. If the student cannot find the error, the teacher may need to help.
This can be taken as a classwork grade.
100 correct on FIRST attempt
90
80 etc. correct on SECOND attempt (teacher had to help once) correct on THIRD attempt (teacher assisted twice)
Page 9
1
Identify the domain and range for f(x) = 5x
2
.
A. Domain: all nonnegative numbers Go to 7
Range: all Real numbers
B. Domain: all Real numbers Go to 6
Range: y > 0
C. Domain: all nonnegative numbers Go to 10
Range: all nonnegative numbers
D. Domain: all Real numbers Go to 4
Range: y < 0
Page 10
2
A. 12 Go to 7
B. and Go 10
C. 12 Go to 4
D. 4 and 3 Go to 8
3
Identify the intervals of increasing and decreasing for y = 3x
2
A. Increasing x < 0 and decreasing x > 0 Go to 9
B. Increasing x > 0 and decreasing x < 0 Go to 2
C. Increasing x < 1 and decreasing x > 1 Go to 4
D. Increasing x > 1 and decreasing x < 1 Go to 8
Page 12
4
What is the slope of the graph at (1, 1) and
(2, 4)?
A. Positive Go to 5
B. Negative Go to 7
C. Zero Go to 2
D. Undefined Go to 1
Page 13
5
Which table matches the graph?
A. Go 2
B.
f(x) 9 1 0
Go to 10
f(x) 9 1 0
C. Go 9
f(x) 4 1 9
D. Go 3
f(x) 1 0 9
Page 14
6
Describe the change in the graph of f(x) = x
2
– 3 as compared to f(x) = x
2
.
A. Reflected over the xaxis Go to 1
B. Moves down 3 units Go to 4
C. Reflected over the xaxis and Go to 5
moves down 3 units
D. Reflected over the xaxis and Go to 9
moves up three units
Page 15
7
Does the function f(x) = 3x – 4.5x
2
open upward or downward?
A. Upward Go to 5
B. Downward Go to 8
Page 16
8
Identify the x and yintercepts of the graph.
A. xintercept: (0, 4) Go to 3
yintercept: (2, 0) and (2, 0)
B. xintercept: (0, 2) and (0, 2) Go to 9
yintercept: (4, 0)
C. xintercept: (4, 0) Go to 7
yintercept: (0, 2) and (0, 2)
D. xintercept: (2, 0) and (2, 0) Go to 2
yintercept: (0, 4)
Page 17
9
Multiplying the parent graph by a positive integer causes it to:
A. Shrink Go to 4
B. Stretch Go to 1
Go 6
D. Move Down Go to 7
Page 18
10
Finding zeros is the same as:
A. finding the yintercepts Go to 3
B. finding the domain Go to 9
C. finding the xintercepts Go to 6
D. finding the slope Go to 5
Page 19
Answer Key:
1 – D
2 – B
3 – A
4 – B
5 – D
6  C
7 – B
8 – D
9 – B
10 – C
Page 20
Walking, Falling, and Making Money Learning Task
In previous mathematics courses, you studied the formula distance = rate x time, which is usually abbreviated d=rt. If you and your family take a trip and spend 4 hours driving 200 miles, then you can substitute 200 for d, 4 for t, and solve the equation 200 = r•4 to find that r = 50. In this case we say that the average speed for the trip was 50 miles per hour. In this task, we develop the idea of average rate of change of a function, and see that it corresponds to average speed in certain situations.
1. To begin a class discussion of speed, Dwain and Bryan want to stage a walking race down the school hallway. After some experimentation with a stop watch, and using the fact that the flooring tiles measure 1 foot by 1 foot, they decide that the distance of the race should be 40 feet and that they will need about 10 seconds to go 40 feet at a walking pace. They decide that the race should end in a tie, so that it will be exciting to watch, and finally they make a table showing how their positions will vary over time. Your job is to help Dwain and
Bryan make sure that they know how they should walk in order to match their plans as closely as possible.
Time (sec.)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Dwain’s position (ft,)
0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40
Bryan’s position (ft.)
0 1 3 6 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 a. Draw a graph for this data. Should you connect the dots? Explain. b. How can you tell that the race is supposed to end in a tie? Provide two explanations. c. Who is ahead 5 seconds into the race? Provide two explanations. d. Describe how Dwain should walk in order to match his data. In particular, should Dwain’s speed be constant or changing? Explain how you know, using observations from both the graph and the table. e. Describe how Bryan should walk in order to match his data. In particular, should Bryan’s speed be constant or changing? Explain how you know, using observations from both the graph and the table. f. In your answers above, sometimes you paid attention to the actual data in table. At other times, you looked at how the data was changing, which involved computing differences between values in the table. Give examples of each. How can you use the graph to distinguish between actual values of the data and differences between data values? g. Someone asks, “What is Bryan’s speed during the race?” Kellee says that this question does not have a specific numeric answer. Explain what she means. h. Christie says that Bryan went 40 feet in 10 seconds, so Bryan’s speed is 4 feet per second. But Kellee thinks that it would be better to say that Bryan’s average speed is 4 feet per second. Is Christie’s calculation sensible? What does Kellee mean?
Page 21
i. Sarah explains that to compute average speed over some time interval, you divide the distance during the time interval by the amount of time. Compute Dwain’s average speed over several time intervals (e.g., from 2 to 5 seconds; from 3 to 8 seconds). What do you notice? Explain the result. j. What can you say about Bryan’s speed during the first five seconds of the race? What about the last five seconds? Explain. k. Trey wants to race alongside Dwain and Bryan. He wants to travel at a constant speed during the first five seconds of the race so that he will be tied with Bryan after five seconds. At what speed should he walk? Explain how Trey’s walking can provide an interpretation of Bryan’s average speed during the first five seconds.
In describing relationships between two variables, it is often useful to talk about rates of change. When the rate of change is not constant, we often talk about average rates of change.
If the variables are called x and y, and y is the dependent variable, then
The change in y
Average Rate of Change =
The change in x
When y is distance and x is time, the average rate of change can be interpreted as an average speed, as we have seen above.
2. Earlier you investigated the distance fallen by a ball dropped from a high place, such as the
Tower of Pisa. In that problem, y, measured in meters, is the distance the ball has fallen and
x, measured in seconds, is the time since the ball was dropped. You saw that y is a function of x, and the relationship can be approximated by the formula y = f(x) = 5x
2
. You completed a table like the one below.
x x
2 y = f(x) = 5x
2
0 20 .
a. What is the average rate of change of the height of the ball during the first second after the ball is dropped? In what units is the average rate of change measured? b. What is the average rate of change of the height of the ball during the second second after the ball is dropped? after the third, fourth, and fifth? What do these answers say about the speed of the ball? c. What is the average rate of change over the first five seconds? Is this the same average speed as the average speed for the fifth second during which the ball is falling? Explain. d. What is the average rate of change over the first two seconds? e. What is the average rate of change from 2 to 5 seconds after the ball is dropped? f. What is the average rate of change from t = 1.5 to t = 2?
Page 22
g. Why is it important to use the phrase “average rate of change” or “average speed” for your calculations in this problem?
Average speed is a common application of the concept of average rate of change but certainly not the only one. There are many applications of analyzing the money a company can make from producing and selling products. The rest of this task explores average rate of change for functions related to the Vee Company and production and sale of a game called Zingo. The
Vee Company is a small privately owned manufacturing company which sells exclusively to a national chain of toy stores. Zingo games are packaged and sold in crates holding 24 games each. Due to the size of the Vee Company work force, the maximum number of games per week that can be produced is 6000, which is enough to fill 250 crates.
3. The table below shows data that the Vee Company has collected about the relationship
between the wholesale price per game and the number of crates of Zingo that the toy store
chain will order each week. In the business world, it generally happens that lowering the
price of a product increases the number that will be bought; this holds true for the Zingo
sales data. Also, it may seem a bit backwards, but in business analysis, price is usually
expressed as a function of the number sold, as indicated in the table.
Number of crates ordered per week, x
$ price per
Zingo game, y
= p(x)
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
14.50 14.00 13.50 13.00 12.50 12.00 11.50 11.00 10.50 10.00
a. When the number of crates ordered increases from 10 crates per week to 20 crates per week, is the change in price positive or negative? How much does the price change? b. Calculate the average rate of change for the price function as the number of crates ordered increases from 10 to 20 per week. c. What is the unit of measure for the average rate of change? d. Calculate the average rate of change for the increase from 20 to 40 crates ordered per week, for the increase from 40 to 70 crates ordered per week, and for the increase from
50 to 100 crates ordered per week. e. Is the average rate of change constant for all these increases in the number of crates ordered, or does it change depending on the initial number of crates involved? f. Based on your calculations of average rate of change, determine whether the relationship between x and p(x) is a linear relationship or a nonlinear relationship. Explain. g. How much does the Vee Company need to change the price of a Zingo game to sell one more crate per week? Does your answer depend on how many crates are currently being sold? Explain. h. Write a formula to calculate p(x).
Page 23
i. Could the function p be considered a finite sequence? Explain. j. Draw a graph of the function p.
4. In business, the term revenue is used to
indicate the money a company receives
for sales of its products. In this context,
revenue is a function of the number of the
product made and sold. The Vee
Company’s financial analyst has
Revenue
in $
determined that its revenue in dollars
for production and sales of the Zingo
game is given by the function R with the formula
R(x) = 360x – 1.20x
2
,
where x is the number of crates sold,
Number of Crates Sold
and R(x) is revenue measured in dollars. a. The graph of the function R is shown at the right. b. Is the relationship between x and R(x) a linear relationship or a nonlinear relationship?
Explain. c. Is the average rate change constant or changing? d. Using the formula for the price function in 3h, find the price per Zingo game when 150,
200, and 250 crates are sold. Find the price per crate when 150, 200, and 250 crates are sold. Do these values agree with the revenue function? Explain. e. Is the average rate of change for the increase from 50 to 150 crates per week sold positive or negative? Explain how to use the graph to find the answer without calculating the value. f. Is the average rate of change for the increase from 150 to 250 crates per week sold positive or negative? Explain how to use the graph to find the answer without calculating the value. g. What is the unit of measure for the average rate of change of function R? h. Calculate the average rate of change for the increase from 50 to 150 crates per week sold to the toy store chain and for the increase from 150 to 250 crates per week. What is the relationship between the values? How is this shown in the graph? i. The average rate of change from 100 crates sold to 200 crates sold is 0. What feature of the graph causes this to be so? Explain and give other examples of the same phenomenon.
Page 24
Acquisition Lesson Planning Form
Plan for the Concept, Topic, or Skill – Not for the Day
Key Standards addressed in this Lesson: MM1A1b, MM1A1c, MM1A1d, MM1A1e, Mm1A1g
Time allotted for this Lesson: 3 Hours
Essential Question: LESSON 5 – CUBIC FUNCTIONS f(x) = x
3
How do I analyze and graph cubic functions and how will it be affected by various transformations?
Activating Strategies: (Learners Mentally Active)
Choose one for Math 1 and use the other for Math 1 Support:
Distribute the cubic function concept map and have students complete the table and draw the graph. Encourage them to answer as many questions as they can. Look around and see that students are able to complete the table and graph and check on their ability to answer the questions. After about 5 minutes use the questions to begin a discussion of functions.
Use the Unifix cubes to construct cubes of sides 1, 2, and 3. Why is the cubic function curved? How is its curve different from the quadratic function curve? Why are the domain and range of cubic functions all real numbers?
Acceleration/Previewing: (Key Vocabulary)
Cube, xintercept, zero of a function, yintercept, slope, domain, range, increasing, decreasing, end behavior
Teaching Strategies: (Collaborative Pairs; Distributed Guided Practice; Distributed
Summarizing; Graphic Organizers)
Use collaborative pairs and the questions on the concept map “Cubic Functions f(x)=x
3
” to initiate the lesson. Students should check their conjectures with a graphing calculator. After having students volunteer ideas on how the graph could be shifted proceed with the lesson as follows:
• Distribute the concept map on “Families of Cubic Functions f(x)=x
3
+b” and have pairs use different colors to graph the four functions on one graph grid. Circulate among students to check their work.
• Have students volunteer to share how the graphs are similar and how they are different.
• Students should complete the concept map by writing the three equations as a summarizer.
• Pairs should graph the equations on the concept map “Cubic Functions in the Form f(x)=ax
3
”.
• Have volunteers share how the graphs are alike and how they are different.
• Answer the remaining four questions as a summarizer.
• Complete the graphic organizer on end behavior and increasing/decreasing intervals.
Page 1
• Pairs summarize their findings and conjectures about max/min values and average rate of change.
• Give each pair transformations of the cubic function. Have them graph on chart paper after checking their conjectures on the graphing calculator. Display results and discuss them. Summarize the transformations on chart paper.
Distributed Guided Practice/Summarizing Prompts: (Prompts Designed to Initiate
Periodic Practice or Summarizing)
Both concept maps, the graphic organizers, and the extensions have a set of problems that can be used as summarizers and for Distributed Guided practice. Use pair shares to check progress.
Extending/Refining Activity/Extending Thinking Skills
Snow Globe Learning Task
Ask to students to consider what would happen if you combined cubes and squares and had the function f(x) = x
3
+ x
2
.
Summarizing Strategies: Learners Summarize & Answer Essential Question
Have students complete the graphic organizer “Exploring Cubic Functions” by giving them several functions of each type to graph and explain.
Students compare and contrast the various types of functions and their characteristics including transformations.
Page 2
Cubic Function f(x) = x
3
Complete the table of values.
2
1
0
1
2
Why is this called a cubic function?
What is the xintercept?
What is the domain?
Plot the points and sketch the graph below.
y
What is the yintercept?
What is the range?
How could this graph be shifted up or down?
Page 3
x
Families of
Cubic Functions f(x) = x
3
+ b
Complete the table on each of the following and draw each in a different color on the graph to the right. f(x) = x
3
+ 2 f(x) = x
3
 2 x f(x)
2
1 x f(x)
2
1
0
1
2
0
1
2 yint = yint = f(x) = x
3
+ 1 f(x) = x
3
 1 x f(x) x f(x)
2
2
1
0
1
0
1
1
2 yint =
2 yint =
y
How are the lines above alike?
How are they different?
Write the equation of a line in this family with a y –intercept of –3.
_________________
Write the equation of a line in this family with a y –intercept of +7
_________________
Write the equation of a line in this family with a y –intercept of –10.
_________________
Page 4
x
Families
Of
Cubic
Functions in the Form of f(x) = ax
3
Graph each of the following functions in different colors on the graph at the right. f(x) = x
3
1
f(x) =
2
x
3 f(x) = 2x
3
How are the graphs alike?
y
How are the graphs different?
What does the coefficient of x do to the cubic function f(x) = x
3
?
How would the graph of f(x) = 6x
3
compare to the graph of f(x) = x
3
?
How would the graph of f(x) = 4x
3
compare to the graph of f(x) = x
3
?
How would the graph of f(x) = 0.1x
3
compare to the graph of f(x) = x
3
?
Page 5
x
Exploring Cubic Functions
How do you graph cubics?
Parent Function: y = x
3
y = x
3
+ b y = ax
3
y = ax
3
+ b
What effect do a and b have on the parent function?
Page 6
x f(x) = x
3
y
4
Cubic Functions Extension
This is the parent cubic function.
Domain:
Range:
2
Maximum/Minimum:
1
Increasing/Decreasing:
0
1 xintercept:
2
4 yintercept: x f(x) = x
3
+2 y
Endbehavior:
This is also a cubic function.
Domain:
4
Range:
2
Maximum/Minimum:
1
Increasing/Decreasing:
0
1 xintercept:
2 yintercept:
4
Endbehavior:
This is another cubic x f(x) = x
3
2 y function.
Domain:
4
2
Range:
1
Maximum/Minimum:
0
Increasing/Decreasing:
1 xintercept: 2
4 yintercept:
Endbehavior:
Page 7
x f(x) = 2x
3
y
4
2
1
0
1
2
4 x f(x)
3
y
4
2
1
0
1
2
4
Page 8
This is another cubic function.
Domain:
Range:
Maximum/Minimum:
Increasing/Decreasing: xintercept: yintercept:
Endbehavior:
This is another cubic function.
Domain:
Range:
Maximum/Minimum:
Increasing/Decreasing: xintercept: yintercept:
Endbehavior:
Snow Globes Learning Task
Brooks Distributing Company distributes various Christmas decorations and supplies. One of their most popular products is a snow globe. Their snow globes that are packed in 1ft cubed boxes. Snow globes can only be ordered and shipped in full crates. There are small, medium, and large crates available for shipments. The dimensions of the small shipping crate are 2ft on each side. The medium crate has each side of 3 feet, and the large 4 feet. a. How many snow globes are included in the small shipping crate? The medium? The large? b. Graph the function created by the shipments of snow globes. Use a scale of 1 for the independent variable and 10 for the dependent variable. c. During December, the Brooks Company offers a promotion on the snow globes. For each crate ordered, the buyer receives an additional 2 free snow globes. Graph the transformation created by this promotion. d. The company can also ship miniature snow globes. Three of the mini snow globes can fit exactly into one of the boxes of the original sized globes. How will this change the number of snow globes that can be shipped in each of the shipping crates? Graph the dilation. e. Why are you not seeing true cubic behavior? Discuss the domain, range, end behavior.
Should the points be connected?
Type of Crate x=?
(a) Number of boxes in each crate
f(x)= x
3
2 ft. crate 3 ft. crate 4 ft. crate
(c) Number of Snow globes including free one f(x)= x
3
+ 2
(d) Number of miniature snow globes
f(x)= 3x
3
Page 9
Acquisition Lesson Planning Form
Plan for the Concept, Topic, or Skill – Not for the Day
Key Standards addressed in this Lesson: MM1A1b, MM1A1c, MM1A1d, MM1A1e, Mm1A1g
Time allotted for this Lesson: 2 Hours
Essential Question: LESSON 6 – SQUARE ROOT FUNCTIONS f(x) =
x
How do you analyze and graph square root functions and how will they be affected by various transformations?
Activating Strategies: (Learners Mentally Active)
In pairs, students will match perfect squares to their square roots. Each pair receives a set of paper cutouts of the perfect squares (1144) and their square roots (112). See attachment.
Acceleration/Previewing: (Key Vocabulary)
Perfect Squares, Square Roots, Principal Root, Index, Radicand
Teaching Strategies: (Collaborative Pairs; Distributed Guided Practice; Distributed
Summarizing; Graphic Organizers)
•
Students will use their paper pairs from the activator and create a ttable where x values are the perfect squares and y values are the square roots. Students should then graph this data and use the data to write the function y= x .
•
The teacher will define the square root function and compare and contrast it to the quadratic function (see the function as an inverse). Extensively discuss domain and range restrictions, maximums and minimums, intervals of increasing and decreasing, yintercept and zeros (xintercepts) and rate of change using the following examples.
1. f(x) = x – 4
2. f(x) = x + 1
3. f(x) = x + 2
4. f(x) =
− x – 3
5. f(x) = 3 x
6. f(x) = ⅓ x
Page 1
Distributed Guided Practice/Summarizing Prompts: (Prompts Designed to Initiate
Periodic Practice or Summarizing)
In pairs, students will be given an equation of a parent function and a written description of the transformation for that function. They will write the equation of the transformed function and graph both the parent function and the transformed function on the same graph. They should describe the domain and range, the maximums and minimums, the intervals of increasing and decreasing and all intercepts and rate of change for the transformation. See attached guided practice activity.
Use the task Salaries at the Sowega Yarn Factory Learning Task to reinforce the concepts about the square root function.
Summarizing Strategies: Learners Summarize & Answer Essential Question
Ticket out the door: Students will determine if the following are true or false and justify their answers:
1. If f(x)=  x + 3, then the range is (∞, 3].
2. If f(x)= x
– 2,
then the domain is (0, ∞).
3. If f(x) = 2 x
,
then the graph of the parent function y= x was vertically stretched.
Ticket out the door 2: On a sticky note, have students describe the characteristics of f(x) = x  7. There are 8 characteristics. 6 of the 8 would receive full credit and a 100. 4 or
5 would receive a 70. Less than 4 would receive a 50.
Page 2
Cut the following numbers out. Organize them according to perfect squares and their square roots. Place them in the appropriate position on the following sheet.
0 1
2 3
4 5
6 7
8 9
10 11
12 0
1 4
9 16
25 36
49 64
81 100
121 144
Page 3
Place numbers from the previous sheet here with the perfect squares under x and their square roots under y.
x y
Equation: __________________
Characteristics:
Page 4
Parent
Function Description
Guided Practice Activity
Function Graph
Characteristics
(Domain,
Range, Maximum, Minimum,
Increasing/Decreasing Intervals,
Average Rate of Change,
Intercepts)
3 units
Reflected over the
x
axis
Shifted down 1 unit
2 units and reflected over the yaxis
Page 5
Parent
Function Description Function
2 units
Graph
Characteristics
(Domain,
Range, Maximum, Minimum,
Increasing/Decreasing Intervals,
Average Rate of Change,
Intercepts)
Shifted down 4 units
Reflected over the yaxis
1 unit and reflected over the xaxis
Page 6
Parent
Function Description Function
3 units
Graph
Characteristics
(Domain,
Range, Maximum, Minimum,
Increasing/Decreasing Intervals,
Average Rate of Change,
Intercepts)
Shifted down 4 units and reflected over the yaxis
Shifted down 2 units
reflected over the xaxis
Page 7
Parent
Function Description Function
Reflected over the yaxis
Graph
Characteristics
(Domain,
Range, Maximum, Minimum,
Increasing/Decreasing Intervals,
Average Rate of Change,
Intercepts)
Shifted down 3 units
2 units and reflected over the xaxis
1 unit
Page 8
Salaries at the Sowega Yarn Factory Learning Task
Sowega Yarn Factory starts employees with a first year salary of $10,000. Raises are given at the end of each calendar year. The salary in tenthousands of dollars is a function of the number of years that an employee has worked. We will name this function S. If t represents the number of years an employee has worked, then
S(t)= t
All employees must retire after 30 years of service due to safety issues. a. What domain of values does Sowega plan to use for the function S? b. Make a table of values of S by choosing twelve values of t from the domain. On a graph, plot the data from this table. c. Let f be the function defined for all real numbers x≥1 by the formula f(x)=
x
.
Make a table of values for f and draw a graph that includes domain values for 1≤x≤30 and indicate the shape of the whole graph. d. The functions S and f both take the square root of the input to find the output. Are their domains the same? Are they equal functions? Explain. e. How can you use the graph of f to obtain the graph of S? function could be considered as a sequence. Do you think it is helpful to think of the function this way? Why or why not? g. What will be the unit for the rate of change comparing number of years to amount of salary? Explain the meaning for this rate of change? h. Between year 1 and year 5, what is the rate of change?
Between year 10 and year 15, what is the rate of change?
Between year 25 and year 30, what is the rate of change? i. Using the sets of years in part (h), which set has the greatest rate of change? What does this mean about your salary increase over 30 years? Why do you think that this set has the greatest rate of change?
Page 9
Acquisition Lesson Planning Form
Plan for the Concept, Topic, or Skill – Not for the Day
Key Standards addressed in this Lesson: MM1A1b, MM1A1c, MM1A1d, MM1A1e, Mm1A1g
Time allotted for this Lesson: 2 Hours
1
Essential Question: LESSON 7 – RATIONAL FUNCTIONS f(x) =
x
How do I analyze and graph rational functions?
Activating Strategies: (Learners Mentally Active)
Choose one for Math 1 and use the other for Support Math 1.
Give students the inverse proportion review problem to solve and graph.
Have students complete a table and graph the function f(x) =
1 x
, given the following values of x: {4, 1, 
1 , 0,
2 of the function.
1 , 1, 4}. Discuss the values that are restricted for the domain and range
2
Acceleration/Previewing: (Key Vocabulary)
Rational Function, Reciprocal Function, xintercept, yintercept, slope, domain, range, increasing, decreasing, end behavior, asymptote, inverse variation, absence of max/min
Teaching Strategies: (Collaborative Pairs; Distributed Guided Practice; Distributed
Summarizing; Graphic Organizers)
After checking the inverse proportion problem, use collaborative pairs to proceed with the lesson as follows:
• Distribute the f(x)=
1 x graph.
concept map and have students complete the table and draw the
• Discuss the answer to each of the questions by having pairs try to answer each and then a sharing their ideas.
• Discuss why neither x nor y can be 0 and mention asymptotes.
• Use the “Southern Yard and Gardening Learning Task” problems 1, 2, and 3 to continue teaching using collaborative pairs. Alternative would be to use the NASCAR activity and collaborative pairs.
Distributed Guided Practice/Summarizing Prompts: (Prompts Designed to Initiate
Periodic Practice or Summarizing)
Answers to questions on the concept map should serve as summarizers.
If you used the NASCAR activity, then questions 7 – 15 could be used as summarizers.
Page 1
Extending/Refining Activity/Extending Thinking Skills
Problems 6 and 7 on “Southern Yard and Gardening Learning Task” should serve as extend and refine.
Summarizing Strategies: Learners Summarize & Answer Essential Question
Problems 4 and 5 on “Southern Yard and Gardening Learning Task” should serve as summary and evaluation.
Page 2
Inverse Proportion Review Problem
It takes 1 person 24 hours to build a storage shed. If two people are working, it takes 12 hours. When three people are working, it takes 8 hours. If the same proportion holds true, complete the following table and plot the results on the grid to the right of the table.
Number of
People
1
Time in
Hours
24
2 12
3 8
4
6
8
12
24 i n
T i m e o u r s
H f(x)
Number of People  x
The above table could be represented by a function. If f(x) is time in
24
hours and x is number of people then we could write f(x) =
x
. Use this function and find additional points to add to the graph above.
Complete the following table and include those points. What we are graphing is called a rational function. x f(x)
5
9
10
14
16
18
20
Page 3
Rational
Functions
1
f(x) =
x
Complete the table of values.
4
3
2
2
3
4
1
3
1
4
1
1
 1
3



2
1
4
1
3
1

4
0
2
3
4
Plot the points and sketch the graph below.
y
Why is this called a rational function?
How does this compare to an inverse variation?
Can x ever have a value of 0?
Can f(x) ever have a value of 0?
Page 4 x
Domain:
Maximum:
Increasing:
What is the xintercept?
Properties
Of
Rational Function f(x) =
1 x
Reflection:
Range:
Minimum:
Decreasing:
What is the yintercept?
Page 5
1
= y x
4
2
 1
3



2
1
4
4
1
0
2
1
4
1
1
4
1
2
4 x f(x) =
1
2 y x
4
2
Rational Functions Extension
This is the parent rational function.
Domain:
Range:
Maximum/Minimum:
Increasing/Decreasing: xintercept: yintercept:
Transformation Type:
This is also a rational function.
Domain:

 1
3
4
1

2
1

4
0
2
1
4
1
1
4
1
2
4
Range:
Maximum/Minimum:
Increasing/Decreasing: xintercept: yintercept:
Transformation Type:
Page 6
x f(x) = 5
1
y x
4
2
 1
3



2
1
4
4
1
0
2
1
4
1
1
4
1
2
4 x f(x) = 
1
y x
4
2
Rational Functions Extension
This is the parent rational function.
Domain:
Range:
Maximum/Minimum:
Increasing/Decreasing: xintercept: yintercept:
Transformation Type:
This is also a rational function.
Domain:

 1
3
4
1

2
1

4
0
2
1
4
1
1
4
1
2
4
Range:
Maximum/Minimum:
Increasing/Decreasing: xintercept: yintercept:
Transformation Type:
Page 7
Southern Yard and Garden Learning Task
In this task, you’ll investigate functions whose formulas involve the algebraic expressions
1
x
and
x
by considering activities of Southern Yard and Garden, a Georgiaowned business that produces grass sod, garden plants, and trees for sale to nurseries and landscaping companies.
Last year, the research and development (R&D) team of the Grass Division at Southern Yard and Garden (SYnG – pronounced “sin gee”) was ready to plant test plots of several new drought resistant grasses that have been under development for the last six months. The R&D
Team wanted each new grass variety planted at five different test plots at the experiment farm.
Each plot would be the same area, 1200 square feet. In addition, to assure consideration of a variety of soil and sun/shade conditions, the plots could not be adjacent, and to prevent any grazing by wildlife in the area, each plot need to be surrounded by a special fence. When the plans were sent to the Chief Financial Officer (CFO) of SYnG for approval, she concluded that a separate fence for each grass test plot would be a major expense and asked the R&D Team how much fencing would be needed. The R&D Team sent a quick email that the length of fencing needed would depend on the perimeter of the plot, and the CFO replied with a request that they provide a detailed analysis of the possible perimeters for the test plots.
1. Before the CFO’s request for an analysis of possible perimeters, the R&D Team had planned to use rectangular plots 24 feet wide and 50 feet long. They chose these dimensions because they would facilitate cutting of the sod for sale. All SYnG machinery is set to cut sod in 3’ by 1’ rectangular sections for sale to nurseries and landscaping companies. a. Verify that a 24’ by 50’ plot has the required area. b. How can such a plot be cut into 3’ by 1’ rectangular sections so that there are no leftover pieces of sod? How many of these sections will be produced in a 24’ by 50’ plot? c. How much fencing is needed for a 24’ by 50’ grass test plot?
2. The Maintenance Division of SYnG is responsible for maintaining all experimental plots of plants, grass, and tree varieties. The R&D Team decided to consult the Maintenance
Division as a first step in developing the analysis for the CFO. The mowing crew needs to mow grass test plots several times before the sod is established, and the gardeners monitor the watering and use of fertilizers and herbicides as directed by the R&D Team. So R&D asked the mowers and gardeners for input. After working with diagrams of mowing patterns for their 60inch blade mowers, the mowers recommended that the plots be 25’ by 48’ and that the fences have gates in opposite corners so that they could enter in one corner, cut five 60inch strips and exit at the opposite corner. a. Use grid paper to represent a 25’ by 48’ rectangle and the mowers plans for cutting the grass. b. Verify that a 25’ by 48’ rectangle has the required area and find its perimeter.
Page 8
The gardeners suggested that the plots be 12’ by 100’ to simplify use of existing 12foot wide equipment currently in use for watering and applying liquid fertilizers. c. Using the same scale from part a, represent a 12’ by 100’ rectangle on your grid paper. d. Find the perimeter of this rectangle.
3. The R&D Team at SYnG let w represent one dimension of a rectangle that has area 1200 square feet, let z represent the other dimension, and explored the relationship between the two variables. a. Why is the relationship a functional relationship? Does it matter which dimension you consider to be the input and which to be the output? Explain. b. Find a formula to write z as a function of x. c. Use your formula to find the value of z when x = 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40. Organize your results in a table, and add the possible values for x and z from 1 and 2 above. d. Because the 60inch mowers must be able to cut the test plots, the smaller dimension of the rectangle must be at least 5’. In this context, what is the domain for the function from part a? e. Draw a graph of the function from part using the same scale on each axis. The graph has a line of symmetry that is neither horizontal nor vertical. Where is the line? f. There a value of x such that x and z are the same. What special shape does the rectangle have when x = z? What is the corresponding point on your graph? g. For what xvalues does the zvalue increase as xincreases? For what xvalues does the
z
value decrease as xincreases? Explain you answer based on the graph and the formula.
4. The R&D Team at SYnG used their formula for z as a function of x to write a formula for the perimeter in terms of x. Let P be the perimeter function for this context. a. Add a column for perimeter to your table from 3c above. b. Using function notation, write a formula to calculate the perimeter for any choice of xdimension of the rectangle. c. What is the domain of P? What is the range of P? d. Draw a graph of the function P. What is the line of symmetry for this graph? e. What is the maximum value for the perimeter? What are the dimensions of any rectangle(s) that have the maximum perimeter? f. What is the minimum value for the perimeter? What are the dimensions of any rectangle(s) that have the minimum perimeter?
Page 9
5. The R&D Team provided the CFO with tables and graphs similar to those you have created in responding to 3 and 4 above. She estimates that the special fencing to surround the test plots will cost approximately $15 per foot installed and that the gate for each fenced area will add $200 to the cost. a. Let C be the cost function where the input is the xdimension of the rectangular plot and
C
(x) is the cost in dollars for fencing a 1200squarefoot plot with the given xdimension.
Using the CFO’s cost estimates, write a formula for C(x). b. Draw a graph of the function C. What is the line of symmetry for this graph? c. What is the domain of C? What is the range of C? d. What is the maximum value for the cost? What are the dimensions of any rectangle(s) that have the maximum cost? e. What is the minimum value for the cost? What are the dimensions of any rectangle(s) that have the minimum cost? f. Redraw the graph of the perimeter function, P, from 4 above, on the same axes as the graph for C. How do the graphs compare? g. Compare the formulas for the functions P and C. How do the relationships in the formulas show in the graphs?
The R&D Team at SYnG is also trying to develop new hardier and more drought tolerant varieties of flowering plants for use in landscaping. The experimental plants are studied for one growing season and are set in square raised beds with one plant for every square foot of area within the beds. Previously, the number of plats had been restricted to those sizes which allowed for a square arrangement of the plants, similar to the pattern of dots considered in the task “Sequences as Functions”, part 5. Last summer, the Maintenance Division, which is responsible for building the raised beds as well as maintaining them, asked for permission to experiment with a variety of sizes for the beds. They pointed out that as long as the number of plants was the same as the number of square feet enclosed by the raised box, they could find an arrangement that gave each plant a square foot of area, although that area for each plant would not necessarily have a square shape.
6. The R&D Team agreed to allow the Maintenance Division to experiment with the size of the raised beds. Pleased with the chance to experiment, the Maintenance Division decided to build beds for every number of plants from 4 to 400. a. The length, in feet, of a side of a raised bed is a function of the number of plants that
Maintenance will plant in the bed. Name this function s. If n represents the number of plants in a raised bed, then s(n) =
n
. b. What domain of values does Maintenance plan to use for the function s?
Page 10
c. Let f be the function defined for all real numbers x ≥ 0 by the formula
f(x) = x
.
Make a table of values for f and draw a graph that includes domain values for 0500x and
indicates the shape of the whole graph. d. The functions f and s both take the square root of the input to find the output. Are their domains the same? Are they equal functions? Explain. e. How can you use the graph of f to obtain the graph of s? f. The function s could be considered as a sequence. Do you think it is helpful to think of the function this way? Why or why not?
7. Maintenance builds the raised beds using recycled railroad cross ties. They arrange the cross ties as shown in the figure at the right. a. The end of each cross tie is square approximately nine inches on a side. What is the length of each cross tie, with length measured in feet, needed to make a box for
4 plants? b. Answer the question from part a for 9 plants, 16 plants, and 23 plants. c. The Maintenance Division needs a crosstie length function that inputs the number of plants, n, and outputs the length L for each cross tie needed to build the raised bed. Write the formula they need to calculate L given n. d. How can you use the graphs of f and s from 6 above to draw the graph of the crosstie length function? e. Draw a plan for a raised bed for 24 plants. Specify the lengths of the crossties and how you would arrange the plants. Explain how you know that your arrangement gives each plant one square foot of growing area.
Page 11
Rational Functions in NASCAR
As part of the development team at NASCAR Datastreams, you’ve been asked to look at data gained at a recent charity race with ten of NASCAR’s leading racecar drivers. The track for the race was 1 mile and drivers had very different experiences.
Day 1
Before getting to the race data, lets review the distance formula. The traditional form of this equation is
d
=
rt
. We will need a different version of the formula, though.
1. Solve the distance formula for t.
2. Now, change the formula to function notation by letting
t
=
f
(r )
.
3. We know the distance of the track to be one mile, so let’s write the function again, letting
d
=
1
.
You should have ended up with
Remember that
f
(r )
f
(
r
)
1
r
is synonymous with time.
In the charity race, Dale Earnhardt drove one lap of the track at 180 miles per hour (mph).
Mark Martin had engine trouble though and was only able to muster 60 mph. Though normally limited to around 200 mph, Jeff Gordon was able to speed around the track at 240 mph. Kasey
Kahne traveled 120 mph. Tony Stewart had a tough night. For some reason, he was never able to shift his car out of first gear, finishing the race with a speed of 30 mph. Jimmie Johnson drove the lap at 90 mph, while Jeff Burton traveled at 150 mph. Finally Matt Kenseth only traveled 15 mph.
In order to work with these speeds we must convert them to miles per minute, per directions of the owner of the company. To review this process, the first conversion is done for you.
Dale Earnhardt
180
miles hour
•
1
hour
60
m inutes
=
180
60
m miles inutes
=
3
mi m in
4. Complete the table on the following page and graph the data on the coordinate plane.
Remember in the graph that speed is the independent variable and time is the dependent variable. You must graph by hand, but may use available technology to check your graph.
Page 12
NASCAR Charity Race Data
Driver Speed f(r) =
1
x
Dale Earnhardt
Jr.
3 mi/min f(3) =
1
3
Mark Martin
Jeff Gordon
Kasey Kahne
Tony Stewart
Jimmie Johnson
Jeff Burton
Matt Kenseth
Time f(r)
1
3
mi m in
5. After completing the graph, please provide the following information for the function o
Domain o
Range o
Where is Graph Increasing – o
Where is Graph Decreasing – o
xintercept(s) o
yintercept(s) o
Zero(s) o
Limited xvalues –
6. How is this graph different than the graph,
Why do you think the graphs are different?
f
(
x
)
1
x
Page 13
Day 2
7. Suppose that a delay is caused by a wreck on the tracks during the charity race. All speeds (rates) stay the same, but an additional 5 minutes is added to the time of each racer to allow time to clear the tracks. How do you think that this change will affect the graph?
8. What is the new function?
9. Create a new ttable and graph for the function.
Driver Speed (r) Time f(r)
Dale Earnhardt Jr.
Mark Martin
Jeff Gordon
Kasey Kahne
Tony Stewart
Jimmie Johnson
Jeff Burton
Matt Kenseth
10. After completing the graph, please provide the following information for the function o
Domain o
Range o
Where is Graph Increasing – o
Where is Graph Decreasing – o
xintercept(s) o
yintercept(s) o
Zero(s) o
Limited xvalues –
Page 14
11. How is this graph different from the original racing graph from Day 1? What do you think caused the changes?
12. Suppose that the original race happened at the Daytona 500, which has a track length of 2.5 miles. By keeping the speeds, or rates, the same, how do you think this change would affect the graph?
13. What is the new function?
14. Create a new ttable and graph for the new function.
Driver Speed (r) Time f(r)
Dale Earnhardt Jr.
Mark Martin
Jeff Gordon
Kasey Kahne
Tony Stewart
Jimmie Johnson
Jeff Burton
Matt Kenseth
15. After completing the graph, please provide the following information for the function o
Domain o
Range o
Where is Graph Increasing – o
Where is Graph Decreasing – o
xintercept(s) o
yintercept(s) o
Zero(s) o
Limited xvalues –
Page 15
16. How is this graph different from the original racing graph from Day 1? What do you think caused the changes?
Page 16
Rational Functions in NASCAR
KEY
As part of the development team at NASCAR Datastreams, you’ve been asked to look at data gained at a recent charity race with ten of NASCAR’s leading racecar drivers. The track for the race was 1 mile and drivers had very different experiences.
Day 1
Before getting to the race data, lets review the distance formula. The traditional form of this equation is
d
=
rt
. We will need a different version of the formula, though.
17. Solve the distance formula for t.
t
=
d r
18. Now, change the formula to function notation by letting
t
=
f
(r )
.
f
(
r
)
=
d r
19. We know the distance of the track to be one mile, so let’s write the function again, letting
d
=
1
.
You should have ended up with
Remember that
f
(r )
f
(
r
)
1
r
is synonymous with time.
In the charity race, Dale Earnhardt drove one lap of the track at 180 miles per hour (mph).
Mark Martin had engine trouble though and was only able to muster 60 mph. Though normally limited to around 200 mph, Jeff Gordon was able to speed around the track at 240 mph. Kasey
Kahne traveled 120 mph. Tony Stewart had a tough night. For some reason, he was never able to shift his car out of first gear, finishing the race with a speed of 30 mph. Jimmie Johnson drove the lap at 90 mph, while Jeff Burton traveled at 150 mph. Finally Matt Kenseth only traveled 15 mph.
In order to work with these speeds we must convert them to miles per minute, per directions of the owner of the company. To review this process, the first conversion is done for you.
Dale Earnhardt
180
miles hour
•
1
hour
60
m inutes
=
180
miles
60
m inutes
=
3
mi m in
20. Complete the table on the following page and graph the data on the coordinate plane.
Remember in the graph that speed is the independent variable and time is the dependent variable. You must graph by hand, but may use available technology to check your graph.
Page 17
NASCAR Charity Race Data
1
x
Time f(r)
Dale Earnhardt Jr. 3 mi/min f(3) =
1
3
1
3
mi m in
Mark Martin 1 1
Jeff Gordon 4 ¼
Kasey Kahne
Tony Stewart
Jimmie Johnson
Jeff Burton
Matt Kenseth
2 ½
½
1 ½
2 ½
¼
2
2/3
2/5
4
21. After completing the graph, please provide the following information for the function
 Domain Positive Real Numbers (Not zero or negatives)
 Range Positive Real Numbers (Not zero or negatives)
 Where is Graph is Increasing – Does not increase
 Where is Graph is decreasing – 0 < x < ∞
 xintercept(s) None
 yintercept(s) None
 Zero(s)
 Limited xvalues – x cannot be zero or any negative real number.
22. How is this graph different than the graph,
Why do you think the graphs are different?
f
(
x
)
1
x
No negative values for x
Page 18
Day 2
23. Suppose that a delay is caused by a wreck on the tracks during the charity race. All speeds (rates) stay the same, but an additional 5 minutes is added to the time of each racer to allow time to clear the tracks. How do you think that this change will affect the graph?
See student responses.
24. What is the new function?
f
(
r
)
=
1
r
+
5
25. Create a new ttable and graph for the function.
Driver Speed (r) Time f(r)
Dale Earnhardt Jr. 3 5 1/3
Mark Martin
Jeff Gordon
Kasey Kahne
Tony Stewart
Jimmie Johnson
Jeff Burton
Matt Kenseth
½
1 ½
2 ½
¼
1
4
2
6
5 ¼
5 ½
7
5 2/3
5 2/5
9
26. After completing the graph, please provide the following information for the function
 Domain All Positive Real Numbers
 Range 5 < y < ∞
 Where is Graph Increasing – Graph does not increase
 Where is Graph Decreasing –
 xintercept(s)
 yintercept(s)
 Zero(s)
None
None
0 < x < ∞
 Limited xvalues – zero and negative real numbers
Page 19
27. How is this graph different from the original racing graph from Day 1? What do you think caused the changes?
Vertical shift up 5 units
28. Suppose that the original race happened at the Daytona 500, which has a track length of 2.5 miles. By keeping the speeds, or rates, the same, how do you think this change would affect the graph?
See Student Responses
29. What is the new function?
f
(
x
)
=
2 .
5
⎝
1
r
30. Create a new ttable and graph for the new function.
Driver Speed (r) Time f(r)
Dale Earnhardt Jr. 3 5/6
Mark Martin
Jeff Gordon
Kasey Kahne
Tony Stewart
Jimmie Johnson
1
4
2
½
1 ½
2 ½
5/8
1 ¼
5
1 2/3
Jeff Burton 2 ½ 1
Matt Kenseth ¼ 10
31. After completing the graph, please provide the following information for the function
 Domain All Positive Real Numbers
 Range All Positive Real Numbers
 Where is Graph Increasing – Does not Increase
 Where is Graph Decreasing – 0 < x < ∞
 xintercept(s) None
 yintercept(s) None
 Zero(s)
 Limited xvalues – zero and negative real numbers
Page 20
32. How is this graph different from the original racing graph from Day 1? What do you think caused the changes?
The graph is dilated. The curve is further from the origin, but keeps the same characteristics of the parent graph.
Note to Teacher: Be sure to include discussion concerning the absence of negative numbers on the graph. Since speed and time cannot be negative, this is not part of the graph. But students should note that the parent graph includes negative values.
Page 21
Acquisition Lesson Planning Form
Plan for the Concept, Topic, or Skill – Not for the Day
Key Standard addressed in this Lesson: MM1A1f
Time allotted for this Lesson: 1 Hour
Essential Question: LESSON 8 – SEQUENCES AS FUNCTIONS
How can sequences be expressed and manipulated as functions?
Activating Strategies: (Learners Mentally Active)
Do question 1 on “Sequences as Functions Learning Task” as an activator.
Acceleration/Previewing: (Key Vocabulary)
Finite sequences, infinite sequences, recursive definition, closed form
Teaching Strategies: (Collaborative Pairs; Distributed Guided Practice; Distributed
Summarizing; Graphic Organizers)
The “Sequences as Functions Learning Task” will serve as the core of this lesson. After reviewing the answers to problem 1, collaborative pairs will proceed with the lesson as follows:
• Discuss the difference in finite and infinite sequences.
• Explain what is meant by a recursive formula and complete problem 2 a, b, and c as a whole group with pairs completing d, e, and f as a summarizer.
• Explain closed form and complete problem 4 as a whole group.
• Have pairs complete problem 5 and 6 and check work using pair shares.
• Discuss problem 7 as a whole group.
Distributed Guided Practice/Summarizing Prompts: (Prompts Designed to Initiate
Periodic Practice or Summarizing)
Selected parts of each problem can be used to summarize.
Extending/Refining Activity/Extending Thinking Skills
Use problem 3 as extend and refine. Problem 9 may be used if time permits. Note that arithmetic sequences is an 8 th
grade standard and geometric sequences are addressed in
Math 2.
Summarizing Strategies: Learners Summarize & Answer Essential Question
Problem 8 (a – d) can serve as both a summary and evaluation.
Page 1
Sequences as Functions Learning Task
In your previous study of functions, you have seen examples that begin with a problem situation. In some of these situations, you needed to extend or generalize a pattern. In the following activities, you will explore patterns as sequences and view sequences as functions.
A sequence is an ordered list of numbers, pictures, letters, geometric figures, or just about any object you like. Each number, figure, or object is called a term in the sequence. For convenience, the terms of sequences are often separated by commas. In Mathematics I, we will focus mostly on sequences of numbers and will often use geometric figures and diagrams as illustrations and contexts for investigating various number sequences.
1. Some sequences follow predictable patterns, though the pattern might not be immediately apparent. Other sequences have no pattern at all. Explain, when possible, patterns in the following sequences: a. 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 b. 3, 5, 1, 2, 4 c. 2, 4, 3, 5, 1, 5, 1, 5, 1, 5, 1, 7 d. S, M, T, W, T, F, S e. 31, 28, 31, 30, 31, 30, 31, 31, 30, 31, 30, 31 f. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, …, 999, 1000 g. 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, … h. 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, … i. 10, 100, 1000, 10000, 100000, …
The first six sequences above are finite sequences, because they contain a finite number of terms. The last three are infinite sequences because they contain an infinite number of terms. The three dots, called ellipses, indicate that some of the terms are missing. Ellipses are necessary for infinite sequences, but ellipses are used for large finite sequences, too. The sixth example consists of the counting numbers from 1 to 1000; using ellipses allows us to indicate the sequence without having to write all of the one thousand numbers in it.
2. In looking for patterns in sequences it is useful to look for a pattern in how each term relates to the previous term. If there is a consistent pattern in how each term relates to the previous one, it is convenient to express this pattern using a recursive definition for the sequence that gives the first term and a formula for how the nth term relates to the (n–1)th term. For each sequence below, match the sequence with a recursive definition that correctly relates each term to the previous term, and then fill in the blank in the recursive definition.
Page 2
a. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, … I. t
1
= _____, t n
= t n1
+ 5 b. 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, … II. t
1
= _____, t n
= t n1
+ 2 c. 1.2, 11.3, 21.4, 31.5, 41.6, 51.7, … III. n
= t n1
+ 1 d. 32, 52, 72, 92, 112, …
e. – 1, 2, –4, 8, –16, …
IV. t
V. t
1
1
= _____, t
= _____, t n n
= 2 t
= t n1 n1
+ 10.1
3. Some recursive definitions are more complex than those given in #2. A recursive definition can give two terms at the beginning of the sequence and then provide a formula the nth term that depends on the two preceding terms, n – 1 and n – 2. It can give three terms at the beginning of the sequence and then provide a formula the nth term that depends on the three preceding terms, n – 1, n – 2, and n – 3; and so forth. The sequence of Fibonacci numbers, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, …, is a well known sequence with such a recursive definition. a. What is the recursive definition for the Fibonacci sequence? b. The French mathematician, Edouard Lucas discovered a related sequence that has many interesting relationships to the Fibonacci sequence. The sequence is 2, 1, 3, 4, 7, 11, 18,
29, …, and it is called the Lucas sequence. For important reasons studied in advanced mathematics, the definition of the Lucas numbers starts with the 0th term. Examine the sequence and complete the recursive definition below. t
0
= 2, t
1
= 1, tn = ____________________,for all integers 2,3,4,... c. What is the 8th term of the Lucas sequence, that is, the term corresponding to n = 8? d. What is the 15th term?
4. Recursive formulas for sequences have many advantages, but they have one disadvantage.
If you need to know the 100th term, for example, you first need to find all the terms before it.
An alternate way to define a sequence uses a closed form definition that indicates how to determine the nth term directly, without the need to calculate other terms. Match each sequence below with a definition in closed form. Verify that the closed form definitions you choose agree with the five terms given for each sequence.
I. t n
= n
3
, for n = 1,2,3,.. a. 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, … b. 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 0, 4, … c. 5, 9, 13, 17, 21, 25, … d. 1, 8, 27, 64, 125, . . .
II. t
III. t
IV. t n n n
= 5n, for n = 1,2,3,..
= 4n + 1, for n = 1,2,3,..
= n +1, if n =1,3,5,...
0, if n =2,4,6,...
Page 3
Sequences do not need to be specified by formulas; in fact, some sequences are impossible to specify with formulas. The two types of formulas that are commonly used are the ones used above: recursive and closed form. In #4, you probably noticed that a closed form definition for a sequence looks very much like a definition for a function. Whether or not you have a formula for the nth term of a sequence, if you think of the index values as input values and the terms of the sequence as output values, then any sequence can be considered to be a function.
5. Consider the sequence of dot figures below. a. The sequence continues so that the number of dots in each figure is the next square
number. Why are these numbers called square numbers? b. What is the next figure in the sequence? What is the next square number? c. What is the 25th square number? Explain. d. Is 156 a square number? Explain. e. Let g be the function that gives the number of dots in the nth figure above. Write a formula for this function. f. Make a table and a graph for the function g. g. What is the domain of the function g? h. What is the range of the function g?
6. Consider a function f that gives the area of a square of sidelength s, shown below. a. What is the area of a square of side length 6? b. Find a formula for the function f. c. Make a table and a graph for the function f. d. Use your formula to find the area of squares with the following
side lengths: 7, 1/2, 1.2, 3, and 200. e. What is the domain of f (in the given context)? f. What are the limiting case(s) in this context? Explain. g. Extend the domain of f to include the limiting case(s). s
Page 4
7. Compare the functions g and f from #5 and #6. a. Explain how similarities and differences in the formulas, tables, and graphs arise from similarities and differences in the contexts. b. Are these functions equal? Explain.
8. Look back at the finite sequences in 1, parts a and b. Consider the sequence in part a to be a function named h and the sequence in part b to be a function named k. a) Make a table and graph for function h and for function k. b) How many points are included in each graph? c) Determine the following: domain of h ______________ range of h ________________
domain of k ______________ range of k ________________ d) Are these functions equal? Explain.
9. Consider each of the following sequences. Tell whether the sequence is arithmetic, geometric, or neither. If it is arithmetic, find the common difference. If it is geometric, find the common ratio.
a) 5
b) 7
1
2
3
11
7
20
11
29
c) 1 1 2 3 5 8
d) 6 3
3
2
3
4
3
8
e) 25 5 1
1
5
1
25
f)
1
2
3
4
7
8
15
16
31
32
63
64
Page 5
Acquisition Lesson Planning Form
Plan for the Concept, Topic, or Skill – Not for the Day
Key Standards addressed in this Lesson: MM1G2a, MM1G2b
Time allotted for this Lesson: 2 Hours
Essential Question: LESSON 9  LOGIC
How do you apply the forms and relationships of conditional statements to real life applications?
Activating Strategies: (Learners Mentally Active)
Read and discuss the Alice in Wonderland passage from the Wonderland task .
Give the students the following statements:
• If it is sugar, then it is sweet.
• If it is sweet, then it is sugar.
• If it is not sugar, then it is not sweet.
• If it is not sweet, then it is not sugar.
Ask students the following questions:
• How are the statements similar?
• How do the statements differ?
• Are they all true?
• Which statements are true?
Acceleration/Previewing: (Key Vocabulary)
Conditional Statement
Negate
Converse
Inverse
Contrapositive
(See attachments #1 and #2)
Teaching Strategies: (Collaborative Pairs; Distributed Guided Practice; Distributed
Summarizing; Graphic Organizers)
Use Task “From Wonderland to Functional Learning Task”; exclude graphing the functions.
Refer to the passage on page 14 in the Unit 1 Framework. Introduce the students to another name for an ifthen statement. Walk the students through the examples of statements and nonstatements on page 14 through number 1 on page 15, Unit 1 Frameworks.
Use numbers 2 and 3 on page 15 in Unit 1 Framework to generate a discussion on the hypothesis and conclusion of a conditional statement.
Walk the students through the Summary of Conditionals graphic organizer (Attachment #3).
Use distributive summarizing to complete the following examples of converse, inverse, and contrapositive.
Page 1
The converse
of a conditional interchanges the hypothesis and conclusion.
Example:
Conditional:
a polygon is a quadrilateral
, then
it has four sides
.
Converse: If , then
it is a quadrilateral
.
The negation
of a statement has the opposite meaning.
Write the negation of each statement. a. Two angles are vertical. b. Two lines are not parallel.
Two angles are not vertical. Two lines are parallel.
The inverse
of a conditional negates both the hypothesis and the conclusion.
The contrapositive
of a conditional interchanges and negates both the hypothesis and the conclusion.
Have the students practice with the following examples:
Write the converse of this statement:
Conditional
: If
two lines are vertical
, then
they are parallel
.
Converse
: If , then
they are vertical
.
Conditional
: If
a figure is a square
, then
it is a rectangle
Negate both.
.
Inverse
: If
a figure is not a square
, then
it is
not
a rectangle
.
Conditional
: If
a figure is a square
, then
it is a rectangle
.
Negate both.
Contrapositive
: If
a figure is not
a square
, then
it is
not
a rectangle
.
Have students complete the graphic organizer and answer the questions on Attachments #4 &
#5.
Page 2
Distributed Guided Practice/Summarizing Prompts: (Prompts Designed to Initiate
Periodic Practice or Summarizing)
Graphic organizer: What are the various forms of conditional statements (see attached)
Use these statements to bring in the concept of biconditional
If the line is horizontal, then its slope is zero.
If the slope is a line is zero, then the line is horizontal.
If the line is not horizontal, then its slope is not zero.
If the slope of a line is not zero, then it is not horizontal.
Summarizing Strategies: Learners Summarize & Answer Essential Question
Cut up the summary conditional statements.
Put students in pairs and give each pair a statement. Instruct students to write. IfThen, converse, inverse, contrapositive, and determine if each statement is true and false. Give a counterexample of all false statements. If time permits allow statements to rotate to all pairs.
Have the students compute the following summarizing activity to answer the essential question.
Page 3
Term
Conditional
Negate
Converse
Inverse
Contrapositive
Acceleration/Previewing: (Key Vocabulary)
Teacher Version – Attachment #2
SortofLike Mathematically Like
“on one condition” ifthen statement with two parts
(hypothesis & conclusion) negative  bad
Converse tennis shoes converse with someone the opposite of turn upside down against
“contrary” to your beliefs positive  good opposite meaning of a statement interchanges the hypothesis and conclusion negates the hypothesis and conclusion interchanges and negates the hypothesis and conclusion
Page 4
Term
Conditional
Negate
Converse
Inverse
Contrapositive
Acceleration/Previewing: (Key Vocabulary)
Student Version  (Attachment #1)
SortofLike Mathematically Like
Page 5
Student Version
Attachment #4
Write the two statements that make up this definition:
A right angle has measure
90º
.
Example:
Conditional:
an angle is a right angle
, then its measure is 90º.
Converse: If , then
it is a right angle
.
On your own: Find the converse, inverse, and contrapositive of each statement.
Conditional:
today is Friday
, then
it is a weekday
.
Converse:
Conditional:
today is Friday
, then
it is a weekday
negate negate
.
Inverse:
Conditional: If
today is Friday
, then
it is a weekday
.
negate both
Contrapositive:
Page 6
Teacher Version Attachment #4
Write the two statements that make up this definition:
A right angle has measure
90º
.
Example:
Conditional:
an angle is a right angle
, then its measure is 90º .
Converse: If , then
it is a right angle
.
On your own: Find the converse, inverse, and contrapositive of each statement.
Conditional:
today is Friday
, then
it is a weekday
.
Converse: If , then
today is Friday
.
Conditional:
today is Friday
, then
it is a weekday
negate negate
.
Inverse: If
today is not Friday
, then
it is not a weekday
.
Conditional: If
today is Friday
, then
it is a weekday
.
negate both
Contrapositive: If
today is not a weekday
, then
it is not Friday
.
Page 7
Teacher Version
Attachment #5
For each statement, write (a) the converse, (b) the inverse, and (c) the contrapositive.
1. If a triangle is a right triangle, then it has a 90° angle.
(a) If a triangle has a 90° angle, then it is a right triangle.
(b) If a triangle is not a right triangle, then it does not have a 90° angle.
(c) If a triangle does not have a 90° angle, then it is not a right triangle.
2. If a quadrilateral has exactly two congruent sides, then it is not a rhombus. a) If a quadrilateral is not a rhombus, then it has exactly two congruent sides. b) If a quadrilateral does not have exactly two congruent sides, then it is a rhombus. c) If a quadrilateral is a rhombus, then it does not have exactly two congruent sides.
3. If two segments are congruent, then they have the same length.
(a) If two segments have the same length, then they are congruent.
(b) If two segments are not congruent, then they have different lengths.
(c) If two segments have different lengths, then they are not congruent.
4. If you do not work, you will not get paid.
(a) If you will not get paid, then you do not work.
(b) If you work, then you will get paid.
(c) If you will get paid, you work.
5. If a polygon is a pentagon, then the sum of the measures of its angles is 540.
(a) If the sum of the measures of the angles of a polygon is 540, then it is a pentagon.
(b) If a polygon is not a pentagon, then the sum of the measures of its angles is not
540.
(c) If the sum of the measures of angles of a polygon is not 540, then it is not a pentagon.
Page 8
Student Version Attachment #5
For each statement, write (a) the converse, (b) the inverse, and (c) the contrapositive.
1. If a triangle is a right triangle, then it has a 90° angle.
(a)
(b)
(c)
2. If a quadrilateral has exactly two congruent sides, then it is not a rhombus.
(a)
(b)
(c)
3. If two segments are congruent, then they have the same length.
(a)
(b)
(c)
4. If you do not work, you will not get paid.
(a)
(b)
(c)
5. If a polygon is a pentagon, then the sum of the measures of its angles is 540.
(a)
(b)
(c)
Page 9
After numbers 18 in the Wonderland task, have students work with their partners to come to some general conclusions about the relationship between a conditional statement and its converse.
For #12 in the Wonderland task, review with students how to write the converse of conditional statements, such as those in #7 in the Wonderland task. Introduce students to the fact that whether a statement is true or false is called the truth value of the statement. Have students work with a partner to organize their work in a table, like the example given in #13 in the Wonderland task, and complete the table.
Have students join another group, “pair squared” and evaluate the converse statements and truth values in their chart.
On #13 parts A & B of the Wonderland task, have the students work individually to complete parts a, b & c. Have them check their answers with their partner and discuss with the class.
Have students complete the attached graphic organizer (Attachment # ___) to summarize the information about forming related conditional statements.
Page 10
Summary of Conditionals
Statement Form Example
Conditional If , then . If an angle is a straight angle , then its measure is 180 .
Converse
Biconditional
If , then . If the measure of an angle is
180 , then it is a straight angle .
not
, then not . If angle , then its measure is not
180.
If and only if .
If the measure of an angle is
not
180 , then it is not a straight angle.
An angle is a straight angle if and only if its measure is 180 .
Page 11
Conditional:
Graphic Organizer Attachment #3
you eat all of your vegetables
, then
you will grow
.
Converse: If
you grow
, then
you eat all of your vegetables.
Conditional:
you eat all of your vegetables
, then
you will grow
negate negate
.
Inverse: If
you do not eat all of your vegetables
, then
you will not grow
.
Conditional: If
you eat all of your vegetables
, then
you will grow
.
negate both
Contrapositive:
If
you do not grow
, then you will not eat all of your vegetables.
Page 12
Attachment #7
All squares are rectangles.
Perpendicular lines form right angles.
If a relation is a function then it passes the vertical line test.
A line has a slope.
Summary Activity Attachment #7
Conditional Statements
Walmart is the savings place.
Dogs have fur.
If it is a line then it has infinite points.
All birds can fly.
If it is a frog, then it jumps.
If x = 2x + 1 then x = 1/3.
Triangles have three sides.
A fish does not have fur.
Page 13
What Are the Various Forms of Conditional Statements?
Attachment #6
q p
~p ~q
~q ~p p q p q
Page 14
From Wonderland to Functionland Learning Task
Consider the following passage from Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland,
Chapter VII, “A Mad Tea Party.”
"Then you should say what you mean." the March Hare went on.
"I do," Alice hastily replied; "at least  at least I mean what I say  that's the same thing, you know."
"Not the same thing a bit!" said the Hatter, "Why, you might just as well say that 'I see what I eat' is the same thing as 'I eat what I see'!"
"You might just as well say," added the March Hare, "that 'I like what I get' is the same thing as 'I get what I like'!"
"You might just as well say," added the Dormouse, who seemed to be talking in his sleep, "that 'I breathe when I sleep' is the same thing as 'I sleep when I breathe'!"
"It is the same thing with you," said the Hatter, and here the conversation dropped, and the party sat silent for a minute.
Lewis Carroll, the author of Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass, was a mathematics teacher who had fun playing around with logic. In this activity, you’ll investigate some basic ideas from logic and perhaps have some fun too.
We need to start with some basic definitions.
A statement is a sentence that is either true or false, but not both.
A conditional statement is a statement that can be expressed in “if … then” form.
A few examples should help clarify these definitions. The following sentences are statements.
•
Atlanta is the capital of Georgia. (This sentence is true.)
•
Jimmy Carter was the thirtyninth president of the United States and was born in Plains,
Georgia. (This sentence is true.)
•
The Atlanta Falcons are a professional basketball team. (This sentence is false.)
•
George Washington had eggs for breakfast on his fifteenth birthday. (Although it is
unlikely that we can find any source that allows us to determine whether this sentence is true or false, it still must either be true or false, and not both, so it is a statement.
)
Here are some sentences that are not statements.
•
What’s your favorite music video? (This sentence is a question.)
•
Turn up the volume so I can hear this song. (This sentence is a command.)
•
This sentence is false. (This sentence is a very peculiar object called a selfreferential
sentence. It creates a logical puzzle that bothered logicians in the early twentieth century. If the sentence is true, then it is also false. If the sentence is false, then it is also true. Logicians finally resolved this puzzling issue by excluding such sentences from the definition of “statement” and requiring that statements must be either true or false, but not both.
)
The last example discussed a sentence that puzzled logicians in the last century. The passage from Alice in Wonderland contains several sentences that may have puzzled you the first time you read them. The next part of this activity will allow you to analyze the passage while learning more about conditional statements.
Page 15
Near the beginning of the passage, the Hatter responds to Alice that she might as well say that
“I see what I eat” means the same thing as “I eat what I see.” Let’s express each of the
Hatter’s example sentences in “if … then” form.
“I see what I eat” has the same meaning as the conditional statement “If I eat a thing, then I see it.” On the other hand, “I eat what I see” has the same meaning as the conditional statement “If I see a thing, then I eat it.”
1. Express each of the following statements from the Mad Tea Party in “if … then” form. a. I like what I get. ___________________________________ b. I breathe when I sleep. ___________________________________
2. We use specific vocabulary to refer to the parts of a conditional statement written in “if … then” form. The hypothesis of a conditional statement is the statement that follows the word
“if.” So, for the conditional statement “If I eat a thing, then I see it,” the hypothesis is the statement “I eat a thing.” Note that the hypothesis does not include the word “if” because the hypothesis is the statement that occurs after the “if.”
Give the hypothesis for each of the conditionals in 1a and 1b above.
3. The conclusion of a conditional statement is the statement that follows the word “then.” So, for the conditional statement “If I eat a thing, then I see it,” the conclusion is the statement “I see it.” Note that the conclusion does not include the word “then” because the conclusion is the statement that occurs after the word “then.”
Give the conclusion for each of the conditionals in 1a and 1b.
Now, let’s get back to the discussion at the Mad Tea Party. When we expressed the Hatter’s example conditional statements in “if … then” form, we used the pronoun “it” in the conclusion of each statement rather than repeat the word “thing.” Now, we want to compare the hypotheses (note that the word “hypotheses” is the plural of the word “hypothesis”) and conclusions of the Hatter’s conditionals. To help us see the key relationship between his two conditional statements, we replace the pronoun “it” with the noun “thing.” This replacement doesn’t change the meaning, and it does help us analyze the relationship between hypotheses and conclusions.
4. a. List the hypothesis and conclusion for the revised version of each of the Hatter’s conditional statements given below.
Hypothesis Conclusion
If I eat a thing, then I see the thing. _______________ _______________
If I see a thing, then I eat the thing. _______________ _______________ b. Explain how the Hatter’s two conditional statements are related.
Page 16
5. There is a term for the new statement you get by swapping the hypothesis and conclusion in a conditional statement. This new statement is called the converse of the first a. Write the converse of each of the conditional statements in 1a and 1b. b. What is the converse of each of the converses in 5a?
6. The March Hare, Hatter, and Dormouse did not use “if … then” form when they stated their conditionals. Write the converse for each conditional statement below without using “if … then” form.
Conditional: I breathe when I sleep. Converse: _____________________
_____________________
Conditional: I see what I eat. Converse:
Conditional: I say what I mean. Converse: _____________________
7. a. What relationship between breathing and sleeping is expressed by the conditional statement “I breathe when I sleep”? If you make this statement, is it true or false? b. What is the relationship between breathing and sleeping expressed by the conditional statement “I sleep when I breathe”? If you make this statement, is it true or false?
8. The conversation in passage from Alice in Wonderland ends with the Hatter’s response to the Dormouse "It is the same thing with you." The Hatter was making a joke. Do you get the joke? If you aren’t sure, you may want to learn more about Lewis Carroll’s characterization of the Dormouse in Chapter VII of Alice in Wonderland.
We want to come to some general conclusions about the logical relationship between a conditional statement and its converse. The next steps are to learn more of the vocabulary for discussing statements and to see more examples.
In English class, you learn about compound sentences. All of the sentences that we put in “if
… then” form in 1 – 4, as well as their “if … then” forms of these sentences, are compound sentences. As far as English is concerned, what makes them “compound”?
In logic, there are several specific ways to combine statements to create a compound
statement,
or compound proposition. Compound statements formed using “and” and “or” are important in the study of probability. In this task, as we focus on compound propositions that are conditional statements, we need a way to talk about the general idea of forming an “if
… then” statement no matter the particular statements we used for the hypothesis and conclusion. In order to do this, we need to use variables to represent statements as a whole.
This use is demonstrated in the formal definition that follows.
Definition:
If p and q are statements, then the statement “if p, then q” is the conditional
statement,
or implication, with hypothesis p and conclusion q.
Page 17
We call the variables used above, statement, or propositional, variables. We seek a general conclusion about the logical relationship between a conditional statement and its converse that is true no matter what particular statements we substitute for the statement variables p and q.
That’s why we need to see more examples.
Our earlier discussions of function notation, domain of a function, and range of a function have included conditional statements about inputs and outputs of a function. For the next part of this activity, we consider conditional statements about a particular function, the absolute value
function f,
defined as follows:
f
is the function with domain all real numbers such that f(x) =  x .
(Note. To give a complete definition of the absolute value function, we must specify the domain and a formula for obtaining the unique output for each input. It is not necessary to specify the range because the domain and the formula determine the set outputs.)
9. We’ll explore the graph of the absolute value function f and then consider some related conditional statements. a. Complete table of values given below. f(x) =  x 
½
0 ½ ½ 5
5
15/2 15/2 10 b. Most graphing calculators have a standard graphing window which shows the portion of the graph of a function corresponding to xvalues from – 10 to 10 and yvalues from –10 to 10. On grid paper, set up such a standard viewing window and then use the table of values above to draw the part of the graph of the function f for this viewing window. Does your graph show all of the input/output pairs listed in your table of values? Does your graph show the input/output pairs for those xvalues from –10 to 10 that were not listed in the table? Explain. c. Think of your graph as a picture. Do you see a familiar shape? Describe the graph to someone who cannot see it. If you extended your graph to include points corresponding to additional values of x, say to include xvalues from –1000 to 1000, would the shape change? What can you do to your sketch to indicate information about the points outside of your “viewing window”? d. For what xvalues shown on your graph of f does the yvalue increase as x increases, that is, for what xvalues is it true that, as you move your finger along your graph so that the xvalues increase, the yvalues also increase? (Be sure to give the xvalues where this happens.) For what xvalues does the yvalue decrease as x increases, that is, for what xvalues is it true that, as you move your finger along your graph so that the xvalues increase, the yvalues decrease? (Be sure to give the xvalues where this happens.) Considering your answers to the questions in part c, for the whole function f, determine (i) those xvalues such that the yvalue increases as x increases and (ii) those
x
values such that the yvalue decreases as x increases.
Page 18
10. Evaluate each of the following expressions written in function notation. Be sure to simplify so that there are no absolute value signs in your answers. Use your graph to verify that each of your statements is true. a. f(0) = ___ b. f(–5) = ___ c. f(– ) = ___ d. f(3) = ___
11. The statements in 6, a – d, are written using the equals sign. The same ideas can be expressed with conditional statements. Fill in the blanks to form such equivalent statements. a. If x = 0, then f(x) = _____ . b. If x = – 5, then f(x) = _____ . c. If the input for the function f is –, then the output for the function f is _____ . d. If the input for the function f is 3 , then the output for the function f is _____ .
12. Write the converse of each of the conditional statements in 7. For each converse, use your graph to determine whether the statement is true or false. In doing so, keep in mind that to say that a conditional is true means that, whenever the hypothesis is true, then the conclusion must also be true; and to say that a conditional is false means that it is possible for hypothesis to be true and yet have a false conclusion. It may be helpful to organize your work in a table such as the one shown below. a. If x = 0, then f(x) = _____. True b. True c. True d. True
13. As indicated in the table above, whether a statement is true or false is called the truth
value
of the statement. In this item, you are asked to decide whether there is a general relationship between the truth value of a conditional statement and the truth value of its converse. Any particular conditional statement can be true or false, so you need to consider examples for both cases. Remember that the converse of the converse is the original statement.
Complete the following sentences to make true statements. Explain your reasoning. Are your answer choices consistent with all of the examples of converse that you have seen in this task so far? a. The converse of a true conditional statement is _______________ .
A) always also true
A) always also false
B) always false
C) sometimes true and sometimes false because whether the converse is true or
false does not depend on whether the original statement is true or false. b. The converse of a false conditional statement is _______________ .
B) always true
C) sometimes true and sometimes false because whether the converse is true or
false does not depend on whether the original statement is true or false.
Page 19
14. Whenever we talk about conditional statements in general, without having a particular example in mind, it is useful to talk about the propositional form “if p, then q” and the converse form “if q, then p.”
We want to determine whether there is any relationship between the truth values for the two forms that holds for all the possible cases of substituting particular statements for the propositional variables. If two propositional forms result in statements with the same truth value for all possible cases of substituting statements for the propositional variables, we say that the forms are logically equivalent. Two propositional forms are not logically
equivalent
if there exists some group of statements that can be substituted into the propositional forms so that the two statements corresponding to the two forms have different truth values. a. Consider your answers to 13, a and b, and decide how to complete the following statement to make it true. Justify your choice.
The propositional form “if p, then q” is/ is not (choose one) logically equivalent to its converse “if q, then p.” b. If you learn a new mathematical fact in the form “if p, then q”, what can you immediately conclude, without any additional information, about the truth value of the converse?
A) no conclusion because the converse is not logically equivalent
B) conclude that the converse is true
C) conclude that the converse is false
15. Look back at the opening of the passage from Alice in Wonderland, when Alice hastily replied "I do, at least  at least I mean what I say  that's the same thing, you know." What statements did Alice think were logically equivalent? What was the Hatter saying about the equivalence of these statements when he replied to Alice by saying "Not the same thing a bit!"?
There are two other statements related to any given conditional statement. We introduce these by exploring another inhabitant of the land of functions.
16. Let g be the function with domain all real numbers such that g(x) =  x  + 3 . a. Complete table of values given below. f(x) =  x  + 3 3 7/2 7/2 8 21/2 21/2 13 b. On grid paper, draw the portion of the graph of g for xvalues such that 1010x. To show all of the points corresponding to input/output pairs shown in the table, how much of the
y
axis should your viewing window include? Is the part of the graph that you have drawn representative of the whole graph? Explain.
Page 20
c. For what xvalues shown on your graph of g does the yvalue increase as x increases?
For what xvalues does the yvalue decrease as x increases? For the whole function g, determine (i) those xvalues such that the yvalue increases as x increases and (ii) those
x
values such that the yvalue decreases as x increases. d. What is the relationship between the graphs of f and g? What in the formulas for f(x) and
g
(x) tells you that the graphs should be related in this way?
17. It is clear from the graphs of f and g that, for each input value, the two functions have different output values. For just one example, we see that f(4) = 4 but g(4) = 7. If we wanted to emphasize that g is not the absolute value function and that g(4) is different from 4, we could write g(4) ≠ 4, which is read “g of 4 is not equal to 4.” We now consider making a conditional from such a statement of inequality. a. Complete each of following conditional statements to indicate that g(4) ≠ 4.
If the input of the function g is 4, then the output of the function g is not __ .
If the output of the function g is 4, then the input of the function g ________ . b. Let’s consider another true statement about the function g using “is not equal to”; for example, g(–3) ≠ 0. Use your graph to verify that this is true and to evaluate g(–3).
Let p represent the statement “The input of the function g is –3.”
Let q represent the statement “The output of the function g is not 0.”
What statement is represented by “if p, then q”? Does this statement tell you that g(–3) ≠
0? c. In logic, we form the negation of a statement p by forming the statement “It is not true that p.” When we replace p by a particular statement in English, we can usually state the negation in a more direct way. For example:
(i) when p represents the statement “The input of the function g is –3,” then “not p” represents “The input of the function of the function g is not –3” and
(ii) when, as above, q represents “The output of the function g is not 0,” then not q represents “The output of the function g is not not 0,” or more simply
“The output of the function g is 0.” d. What statement is represented by “If not p, then not q.”? This statement is called the
inverse
of “if p, then q.” Does it tell you that g(–3) ≠ 0? Is this inverse statement true? e. What statement is represented by “If not q, then not p.”? This statement is called the
contrapositive
of “if p, then q.” Does it tell you that g(–3) ≠ 0? Is this contrapositive statement true?
Page 21
Summarizing the information about forming related conditional statements, we see that the conditional “if p, then q,” has three related conditional statements:
converse
: “if q, then p” (swaps the hypothesis/conclusion)
inverse
: “if not p, then not q” (negates the hypothesis/conclusion)
contrapositive
: “if not q, then not p” (negates hypothesis/conclusion, then swaps)
The next part of this activity investigates inverse and contrapositive further while exploring another function named h.
18. Let h be the function with domain all real numbers such that h(x) = 2 x  . a. On grid paper, draw the portion of the graph of h for xvalues such that 10 10 x . b. For x = 7, 2, 0, 5, 8, compare f(x) and h(x). Does this relationship hold for every real number? How do the graphs of f and h compare? Explain why the graphs have this relationship. c. The table below includes statements about the functions f and h. Fill in the blanks in the table. Be sure that your answers for the truth value columns agree with the graphs for f and h.
Conditional Statement Truth Value
If x = 3, then f(x) = 3 True
If h(x) = 6, then x = 3. False
If x ≠ 3, then f(x) ≠ 3.
If x = 3, then f(x) = 3. True d. For the statements in the table that you classified as false, give a value of x that makes the hypothesis true and the conclusion false. e. Consider the results in the table above, and then decide how to complete the following statement to make it true. Justify your choice.
The propositional form “if p, then q” is/ is not (choose one) logically equivalent to its inverse “if not p, then not q.” f. If you learn a new mathematical result in the form “if p, then q”, what can you immediately conclude, without any additional information, about the truth value of the inverse?
A) no conclusion because the inverse is not logically equivalent
B) conclude that the inverse is true
C) conclude that the inverse is false
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19. a. The table below includes statements about inequalities involving less than or
greater than. Verify the negation that is shown, and then complete the
table below.
Statement Negation x > 0 x ≤ 0 x < 7 x > 11 b. The next table involves conditional statements about the function h. Fill in the blanks in the table. In doing so, keep in mind that to say that a conditional is true means that, whenever the hypothesis is true, then the conclusion must also be true. To say that a conditional is false means that it is possible for hypothesis to be true and yet have a false conclusion. Be sure that your answers are consistent with your graph of h.
Conditional Statement Truth Value Contrapositive Statement Truth
If x > 3, then h(x) > 3. False If h(x) ≤ 3, then _____.
True
If h(x) = 6, then x = 3.
If h(x) ≠ 6, then x ≠ 3.
True
If x < 3, then h(x) < 6. False c. For the statements in the table that you classified as false, give a value of x that makes the hypothesis true and the conclusion false. d. On each line of the table, how do the truth value of the conditional statement and its contrapositive compare? e. Suppose that you are given that “if p, then q” is a true statement for some particular choice of p and q. For example, suppose that there is a function k whose domain and range are all real numbers and it is true that, if the input to the function is 17, then the output is –86. What is the hypothesis of the contrapositive statement? What is the conclusion of the contrapositive statement? Given that k(17) = –86, whenever the hypothesis of the contrapositive is true, must the conclusion of the contrapositive also be true? Explain. f. Suppose that you are given that the contrapositive statement “if not q, then not p” is a true statement for some particular choice of p and q. For example, suppose that there is a function k whose domain and range are all real numbers and it is true that, if the output of the function is not 101, then the input is not 34. What is the hypothesis of the original conditional statement? What is the conclusion of the original conditional statement?
Given that if k(x) ≠ 101, then x ≠ 34, whenever the hypothesis of the original is true, must the conclusion of the original conditional also be true? Explain. g. Consider your answers to d, e, and f, and decide how to complete the following statement to make it true. Justify your choice.
The propositional form “if p, then q” is/ is not (choose one) logically equivalent to its contrapositive “if not q, then not p.”
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h. If you learn a new mathematical result in the form “if p, then q,” what can you immediately conclude, without any additional information, about the truth value of the contrapositive?
A) no conclusion because the contrapositive is not logically equivalent
B) conclude that the contrapositive is true
C) conclude that the contrapositive is false
The absolute value function f and the functions g and h that you have worked with in this investigation are not linear. However, in your study of functions prior to Mathematics I, you have worked with many linear functions. We conclude this investigation with discussion about converse, inverse, and contrapositive using a linear function.
20. Consider the linear function F which converts a temperature of c degrees Celsius to the equivalent temperature of F(c) degrees Fahrenheit. The formula is given by
F
(c) = (9/5) c + 32, where c is a temperature in degrees Celsius. a. What is freezing cold in degrees Celsius? in degrees Fahrenheit? Verify that the formula for F converts correctly for freezing temperatures. b. What is boiling hot in degrees Celsius? in degrees Fahrenheit? Verify that the formula for
F
converts correctly for boiling hot temperatures. c. Draw the graph of F for values of c such that –100 ≤ c ≤ 400. What is the shape of the graph you drew? Is this the shape of the whole graph? d. Verify that “if c = 25, then F(c) = 77” is true. What is the contrapositive of this statement?
How do you know that the contrapositive is true without additional verification? e. What is the converse of “if c = 25, then F(c) = 77”? How can you use the formula for F to verify that the converse is true? What is the contrapositive of the converse? How do you know that this last statement is true without additional verification? f. There is a statement that combines a statement and its converse; it’s called a
biconditional
.
Definition:
If p and q are statements, then the statement “p if and only if q” is called a
biconditional statement
and is logically equivalent to “if q, then p” and ”if p, then q.”
Write three true biconditional statements about values of the function F.
Page 24
Additional Learning
Tasks for
Math 1 Unit 1
Function Families
Page 1
Fences and Functions Learning Task
1. Claire wanted to plant a rectangular garden in her back yard using 30 pieces of fencing that were given to her by a friend. Each piece of fencing was a vinyl panel 1 yard wide and 6 feet high. Claire needed to determine the possible dimensions of her garden, assuming that she used all of the fencing and did not cut any of the panels. She began by placing ten panels
(10 yards) parallel to the back side of her house and then calculated that the other dimension of her garden would be 5 yards, as shown in the diagram below.
Claire looked at the 10 fencing panels lying on the ground and decided that she wanted to consider other possibilities for the dimensions of the garden. In order to organize her thoughts, she let x be the garden dimension parallel to the back of her house, measured in yards, and let y be the other dimension, perpendicular to the back of the house, measured in yards. She recorded the first possibility for the dimensions of the garden as follows: When
x = 10, y = 5.
10 yds.
Garden
5 yds.
House a. Explain why y must be 5 when x is 10. b. Make a table showing the possibilities for x and y. c. Find the perimeter of each of the possible gardens you listed in part b. What do you notice? Explain why this happens. d. Did you consider x = 15 in part b? If x = 15, what must y be? What would the garden look like if Claire chose x = 15? e. Can x be 16? What is the maximum possible value for x? Explain. f. Write a formula relating the ydimension of the garden to the xdimension. g. Make a graph of the possible dimensions of Claire’s garden. h. What would it mean to connect the dots on your graph? Does connecting the dots make sense for this context? Explain. i. As the xdimension of the garden increases by 1 yard, what happens to the ydimension?
Does it matter what xvalue you start with? How do you see this in the graph? In the table? In your formula? What makes the dimensions change together in this way?
Page 2
2. After listing the possible rectangular dimensions of the garden, Claire realized that she needed to pay attention to the area of the garden, because area determines how many plants can be grown. a. Does the area of the garden change as the xdimension changes? Make a prediction, and explain your thinking. b. Use grid paper to make accurate sketches for at least three possible gardens. How is the area of each garden represented on the grid paper? c. Make a table listing all the possible xdimensions for the garden and the corresponding areas. (To facilitate your calculations, you might want to include the ydimensions in your table or add an area column to your previous table.) d. Make a graph showing the relationship between the xdimension and the area of the garden. Should you connect the dots? Explain. e. Write a formula showing how to compute the area of the garden, given its xdimension.
3. Because the area of Claire’s garden depends upon the xdimension, we can say that the area is a function of the xdimension. Let’s use G for the name of the function that uses each xdimension an input value and gives the resulting area of the garden as the corresponding output value. a. Use function notation to write the formula for the garden area function. What does G(11) mean? What is the value of G(11)? What line of your table, from #2, part c, and what point on your graph, from #2, part d, illustrates this same information? b. The set of all possible input values for a function is called the domain of the function.
What is the domain of the garden area function G? How is the question about domain related to the question about connecting the dots on the graph you drew for #2, part d? c. The set of all possible output values is called the range of the function. What is the range of the garden area function G? How can you see the range in your table? In your graph? d. As the xdimension of the garden increases by 1 yard, what happens to the garden area?
Does it matter what xdimension you start with? How do you see this in the graph? In the table? Explain what you notice. e. What is the maximum value for the garden area, and what are the dimensions when the garden has this area? How do you see this in your table? In your graph? f. What is the minimum value for the garden area, and what are the dimensions when the garden has this area? How do you see this in your table? In your graph? g. In deciding how to lay out her garden, Claire made a table and graph similar to those you have made in this investigation. Her neighbor Javier noticed that her graph had symmetry. Your graph should also have symmetry. Describe this symmetry by indicating the line of symmetry. What about the context of the garden situation causes this symmetry? h. After making her table and graph, Claire made a decision, put up the fence, and planted her garden. If it had been your garden, what dimensions would you have used and why?
Page 3
4. Later that summer, Claire’s sisterinlaw Kenya mentioned that she wanted to use 30 yards of chainlink fence to build a new pen for her two pet pot bellied pigs. Claire experienced déjà vu and shared how she had analyzed how to fence her garden. As Claire explained her analysis, Kenya realized that her fencing problem was very similar to Claire’s. a. Does the formula that relates the ydimension of Claire’s garden to the xdimension of her garden apply to the pen for Kenya’s pet pigs? Why or why not? b. Does the formula that relates the area of Claire’s garden to its xdimension apply to the pen for Kenya’s pet pigs? Why or why not? c. Write a formula showing how to compute the area of the pen for Kenya’s pet pigs given the xdimension for the pen. d. Does the xdimension of the pen for Kenya’s pet pigs have to be a whole number?
Explain. e. Let P be the function which uses the xdimension of the pen for Kenya’s pet pigs as input and gives the area of the pen as output. Write the formula for P(x). f. Make a table of input and output values for the function P. Include some values of the xdimension for the pen that could not be used as the xdimension for Claire’s garden. g. Make a graph of the function P. h. Does your graph show any points with xvalues less than 1? Could Kenya have made a pen with ½ yard as the xdimension? If so, what would the other dimension be? How about a pen with an xdimension 0.1 of a yard? How big is a pot bellied pig? Would a pot bellied pig fit into either of these pens? i. Is it mathematically possible to have a rectangle with xdimension equal to ½ yard? How about a rectangle with xdimension 0.1 yard? j. Of course, Kenya would not build a pen for her pigs that did not give enough room for the pigs to turn around or pass by each other. However, in analyzing the function P to decide how to build the pen, Kenya found it useful to consider all the input values that could be the xdimension of a rectangle. She knew that it didn’t make sense to consider a negative number as the xdimension for the pen for her pigs, but she asked herself if she could interpret an xdimension of 0 in any meaningful way. She thought about the formula relating the ydimension to the xdimension and decided to include x = 0. What layout of fencing would correspond to the value x = 0? What area would be included inside the fence? Why could the shape created by this fencing layout be called a “degenerate rectangle”? k. The value x = 0 is called a limiting case. Is there any other limiting case to consider in thinking about values for the xdimension of the pen for Kenya’s pigs? Explain. l. Return to your graph of the function P. Adjust your graph to include all the values that could mathematically be the xdimension of the rectangular pen even though some of these are not reasonable for fencing an area for pot bellied pigs.
Page 4
(Note: You can plot points corresponding to any limiting cases for the function using a small circle. To include the limiting case, fill in the circle to make a solid dot . To not include the limiting case, but just use it to show that the graph does not continue beyond that point,
leave the circle open O.)
5. Use your table, graph, and formula for the function P to answer questions about the pen for
Kenya’s pet pigs. a. Estimate the area of a pen of with an xdimension of 10 feet (not yards). Explain your reasoning. b. Estimate the xdimension of a rectangle with an area of 30 square yards. Explain your reasoning. c. What is the domain of the function P? How do you see the domain in the graph? d. What is the maximum area that the pen for Kenya’s pigs could have? Explain. What do you notice about the shape of the pen? e. What point on the graph corresponds to the ordered pair for the maximum area of the pen? What is unique about this point? f. What is the range of the function P? How can you see the range in the graph? g. How should you move your finger along the xaxis (righttoleft or lefttoright) so that the
xvalue increases as your move your finger? If you move your finger along the graph of the function P in this same direction, do the xvalues of the points still increase? As the xdimension of the pen for Kenya’s pigs increases, sometimes the area increases and sometimes the area decreases. Using your graph, determine the xvalues such that the area increases as x increases. For what xvalues does the area decrease as x increases?
When using tables and formulas we often look at a function a point or two at a time, but in high school mathematics, it is important to begin to think about “the whole function,” which is to say all of the inputoutput pairs. We’ve started working on this idea already by using a single letter such as f, G, or P to refer to the whole collection of inputoutput pairs.
We say that two functions are equal (as whole functions) if they have exactly the same inputoutput pairs. In other words, two functions are equal if they have the same domain and if the output values are the same for each input value in the domain. From a graphical perspective, two functions are equal if their graphs have exactly the same points. Note that the graph of a function consists of all the points which correspond to inputoutput pairs, but when we draw a graph we often can show only some of the points and indicate the rest. For example, if the graph of the function is a line, we show part of the line and use arrowheads to indicate that the line continues without end.
Page 5
6. The possibilities for the pen for Kenya’s pet pigs and for Claire’s garden are very similar in some respects but different in others. These two situations involve different functions, even though the formulas are the same. a. If Kenya makes the pen with maximum area, how much more area will the pen for her pet pigs have than Claire’s garden of maximum area? How much area is that in square feet? b. What could Claire have done to have built her garden with the same area as the maximum area for Kenya’s pen? Do you think this would have been worthwhile? c. Consider the situations that led to the functions G and P and review your tables, graphs, formulas related to the two functions. Describe the similarities and differences between
Kenya’s pig pen problem and Claire’s garden problem. Your response should include a discussion of domain and range for the two functions.
Page 6
Painted Cubes* Learning Task
The Vee Company, which produces the Zingo game, is working on a new product: a puzzle invented by one of its employees. The employee, Martin, made a large cube from 1,000 smaller cubes, each having edge length one centimeter, by using temporary adhesive to hold the small cubes together. He painted the faces of the large cube, but when the paint had dried, he separated the large cube into the original 1000 centimeter cubes. The object of his puzzle is to put the cube back together so that no unpainted faces are showing.
The manager responsible for developing Martin’s puzzle into a Vee Company product thought that 1000 cube puzzle might have too many pieces and decided that he should investigate the puzzle starting with smaller versions.
1. The cube at the right is made of smaller unpainted cubes, each having edge length 1 centimeter. All the faces of the large cube are painted yellow. a. How many small cubes were used to make the large cube? b. If you could separate the large cube into the original centimeter cubes, how many cubes would be painted on
i. three faces?
ii. two faces? iii. one face? iv. no faces?
2. Consider large cubes with edge lengths of 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 centimeters by building and/or sketching models, and answer the same questions that you answered for the large cube of edge length 2. Organize all your answers in a table as shown below.
Edge length of large cube
Number of small centimeter cubes
Number of small centimeter cubes painted on:
3 faces
2 0 face faces
Page 7
3. Study the pattern in the table when the edge length of the large cube is used as input and the output is the number of small centimeter cubes used in constructing the large cube. a. Denote this functional relationship N, for the number of small cubes, and let x represent the edge length of the large cube. Write an equation expressing N(x) in terms of x. b. What is the domain of the function N, given that the input x is the edge length of a large cube made from small centimeter cubes? c. Let f be the function such that the formula for f(x) is the same as the formula for N(x) but the domain is all real numbers. Make a table for values of f. Include the values from the function N and include values of x not in the domain of N, especially some negative numbers and fractions. d. Sketch the graphs of f and N on the same axes. How does the graph of f help you
understand the graph of N? Explain.
4. Study the pattern in the table when the edge length of the large cube is used as input and the output is the number of small centimeter cubes that have 0 faces painted. a. Denote this functional relationship U, for unpainted small cubes, and again let x represent the edge length of the large cube. Write an equation expressing U(x) in terms of x. b. What is the domain of the function U, given that the input x is the edge length of a large cube made from small centimeter cubes? c. Let g be the function such that the formula for g(x) is the same as the formula for U(x) but the domain is all real numbers. Make a table for values of g. Include the values from the function U and include values of x not in the domain of U, especially some negative numbers and fractions. d. Sketch the graphs of g and U on the same axes. How does the graph of g help you understand the graph of U? Explain.
5. Consider the context of the functions, N and U. a. For any edge length x for the large cube, geometrically, what do the numbers N(x) and
U(x) represent? b. Do your formulas for the functions N and U show this relationship? c. How does this relationship show up in the graphs? Explain the relationship in the graphs in terms of inputs and outputs to the two functions. d. Consider the graphs of f and g. Are they related in the same way that the graphs of N and
U are related?
Page 8
6. Use the data in the table above to make a table where edge length of the large cube is used as input and the output is the number of small centimeter cubes that have 1 painted face. a. Give a geometric explanation for why all of the output numbers are multiples of 6. b. Denote this functional relationship S, where S represents the number single face painted, and again let x represent the edge length of the large cube. Write an equation expressing
S(x) in terms of x. c. What is the domain of the function S, given that the input x is the edge length of a large cube made from small centimeter cubes? d. Let h be the function such that the formula for h(x) is the same as the formula for S(x) but the domain is all real numbers. Make a table for values of h. Include the values from the function S and include values of x not in the domain of S, especially some negative numbers and fractions. e. Sketch the graphs of h and S on the same axes. How does the graph of h help you understand the graph of S? Explain.
7. You have seen functions similar to the function h before. In an earlier learning task, you considered the function for the distance y in meters that a ball dropped from a high place falls in x seconds where y = 5x
2
. In another learning task, you considered the function A for the area of a square as a function of the length of a side, s, where A(s) = s
2
.
Consider the related functions whose relationships are specified by the equations below and which each have domain the set of all real numbers.
(i) y = x
2
(ii) y = 5x
2
(iii) y = 6x
2
Each of these equations has the form 2yax, where a is a constant real number. In each of these situations, we say that y varies directly as the square of x. a. On the same axes, sketch the graphs, with domain all real numbers, for equations (i) –
(iii) above. What is the value of a for each of these equations. How does the value of a effect the graphs? b. On the same axes, sketch the graphs of y = x
2
and y =  x
2
. What is the effect of changing the sign of a? Graph y = 5x
2
and y =  5x
2
on the same axes. Is the effect the same? c. Choose two values for a between 0 and 1, and graph y = ax
2
for these two values and y = x
2
on the same axes. Does the value of a affect these graphs in the same way that you described in part a above?
8. Typical braking distances, d, of an automobile for a given speed s are given in the following table. [Note that braking distance is different from stopping distance since there is a reaction time between the time when a driver decides to brake and the time when the brakes are actually applied.]
Speed (miles per hour)
s 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Braking distance (feet)
d 5 20 45 80
Page 9
a. The braking distance for an automobile varies directly as the square of the speed. What is the general form of the equation relating d and s? Use the data in the table to find the specific formula for d as a function of s. b. Fill in the missing value in the table. c. Describe the graph of this function. What is the domain? How does a 10 MPH increase in speed change the braking distance?
9. Use the data in the table from #2 to make a table where edge length of the large cube is used as input and the output is the number of small centimeter cubes that have 2 faces painted. a. Give a geometric explanation for why all of the output numbers are a multiples of 12. b. Denote this functional relationship T, for two faces painted, and again let x represent the edge length of the large cube. Write an equation expressing T(x) in terms of x. c. What is the domain of the function S, given that the input x is the edge length of a large cube made from small centimeter cubes? d. Let k be the function such that the formula for k(x) is the same as the formula for T(x) but the domain is all real numbers. e. Sketch the graphs of k and T on the same axes. What kind of functional relationship does each of these functions possess?
10. Use the data in the table from #2 to make a table where edge length of the large cube is used as input and the output is the number of small centimeter cubes that have 3 faces painted. a. Give a geometric explanation for why all of the output numbers are the same. b. Denote this functional relationship H, for half of the faces painted, and again let x represent the edge length of the large cube. Write the equation for H(x). c. What is the domain of the function H, given that the input x is the edge length of a large cube made from small centimeter cubes? d. Let j be the function such that the formula for j(x) is the same as the formula for H(x) but the domain is all real numbers. e. Sketch the graphs of j and H on the same axes. Why are these called constant functions?
* Adapted from the “Painted Cubes” section of Frogs, Fleas, and Painted Cubes: Quadratic
Relationships in the Connected Mathematics 2 series, Pearson Prentice Hall.
Page 10
Summarize, Review, and Evaluate
Unit 1
Function Families
Plan for the Concept, Topic, or Skill – Not for the Day
Key Standards addressed in this Lesson:
MM1A1a, MM1A1b, MM1A1c, MM1A1d, MM1A1e, MM1A1f, Mm1A1g
Time allotted for this Lesson: 2 Hours
Review ways to explore functions by completing 3 pages of the graphic organizer
“How do you graph transformations.” For each parent function
1
( f(x) = x, f(x)=x
2
, f(x)=x
3
, f(x)= x
, f(x)=x, f(x)= x
) write two equations and students describe the transformation and draw the graph.
Give each student the transformation organizer that describes stretch, shrink, reflection, and vertical shift.
The graphing scrapbook should be completed as a take home task for this unit.
Have students complete the culminating task as the final evaluation of the unit.
Page 1
Vertical Stretch/Shrink:
If a > 1 or a < 1, then you get a vertical stretch.
If –1 < a < 1, then you get a vertical shrink.
Vertical Reflection across the xaxis:
If a < 0, then you get a vertical reflection across the xaxis.
f(x) = ax p
+ b
Vertical Shift:
This shifts the parent function vertically b units.
Page 2
GRAPHING SCRAPBOOK
OBJECT: Make a scrapbook of polynomial functions.
• Look in different magazines to find two examples of each parent function.
• Paste both examples on the same sheet of construction paper. Place the original parent graph on the top half of the paper and the translated graph on the bottom half.
• Place a sheet of transparency film in front of your construction paper.
• On each example, draw the x and y axes of the coordinate plane with a marker very neatly on the transparency so that it overlaps the picture.
• On the transparency, outline the parent graph and the transformation.
• Please state the equation of the graph represented at the top right of your paper. On the right side of the transparency half way down write the equation for the translated graph. Alterations of the equations are highly recommended.
• The project must be bound and include a Table of Content.
• Each page must be numbered.
• Be neat and creative.
Page 3
Ye Old Village Shoppes Culminating Task
Major cities around the world have areas of historical interest that attract local visitors and tourists. Nearby there is often an area of shops specializing in gift items and local products. In one major U.S. city, there is a mall of specialty stores housed in a large warehouse built in the
1800’s. The mall also includes two restaurants, a deli, and a coffee shop.
1. The coffee shop sells pastries and baked goods in addition to a wide selection of coffees and coffeebased drinks. The owner, Mr. Nguyen, regularly evaluates sales of the baked goods in order to discontinue items that do not sell well. The graph below shows daily sales of chocolate éclairs for the first two weeks of this past June. a. What are the independent and dependent variables shown in the graph? b. For which dates does the graph provide data? c. Does it make sense to connect the dots in the graph? Explain. d. Find S(10), if possible, and explain what it means or would mean. e. Find S(15), if possible, and explain what it means or would mean. f. If possible, find a t such that S(t) = 15. Explain the meaning. g. Find all values of t such that S(t) = 12. Explain the meaning. h. Describe what happens to S(t) as t increases, beginning at t = 1. i. Find the domain and range of the function S.
Page 4
2. Mr. Nguyen is planning to add an outdoor seating patio that will be accessible from the coffee shop when he reopens an existing door to the outside. His plans call for a 42inch brick wall surrounding the patio on three sides with the wall of the building enclosing the fourth side, as shown in the diagram below.
Mr. Nguyen has found a supplier who can provide used brick that match the outside wall of the shop reasonably well and, with the help of a local antique dealer, has found some molding from the
1800’s to trim the top of the wall. However, there is only enough molding to cover 80 ft of brick wall.
Inside the Coffee Shop
Patio a. Let x represent the dimension of the patio parallel to the outside wall of the coffee shop and let y represent the other dimension of the patio. Make a table and draw a graph to express y as a function of x. b. What domain for xvalues is shown in your graph? Explain. c. Write a formula to express y as a function of x. d. Explain features of your table, your graph, and your formula that show that y is a linear function of x. e. Mr. Nguyen wants to have at least ten outdoor tables with umbrellas on the patio. The website for this brand of outdoor furniture recommends 64 square feet for each table and chair set. How many square feet of patio area are required for ten tables? Make a table showing some possible values for x and for the corresponding area of the patio, A(x). f. Use the values in your table to draw a graph of the function A. What domain for xvalues is appropriate for this context? What are the limiting values of the domain? How are these shown on the graph? g. Describe the line symmetry of your graph. What about the context causes this symmetry? h. For what xvalues does the value of A(x) increase as x increases? For what xvalues does the value of A(x) decrease as x increases? i. By examining your graph, determine whether it is possible to make a patio that has room for the ten outdoor table and chair sets that Mr. Nguyen would like to place there. Explain your reasoning. j. How would you advise Mr. Nguyen to build the patio and how many of the outdoor table and chair sets should he order? Explain your reasoning.
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3. One day, when business in the coffee shop was slow, Mr.
Nguyen was looking at the outdoor furniture website and began to think in more detail about the table and chair sets.
The website included a diagram, similar to the one at the right, to illustrate the area requirements for each table and chair set. He noticed that the company offered a variety of outdoor dining sets with a range of square foot needs and began to muse about the relationship between the area required by a table and chair set and the length of the line needed to outline this square area. a. For the coffee shop patio, Mr. Nguyen wants to order table and chair sets that require 64 square feet of floor space. What is the length of the side of a square which has area 64 square feet? What is the perimeter of this square? b. What is the perimeter of a square which has area 100 square feet? c. Consider the function P where the independent variable is A, the area of a square measured in square feet, and P(A) is the perimeter of that square, measured in feet.
Make a table of values for the function P, and include the areas from the outdoor furniture website: 49, 64, 81, 100, 144. Also include these values for A: 63, 75, 96. d. Find a formula for P(A). e. Assuming a domain of all real number values of A such that 49144A, graph the function
P
. How does this graph compare to the graph of the square root function?
Many of the stores in Ye Old Village Shoppes sell unique handmade items, and their customers often want their purchases gift wrapped or packaged securely for the journey home.
Fortunately, there is also a shop just for wrapping, packing, and shipping; it is called Pack,
Wrap, Etc.
One spring day a customer came into Pack, Wrap, Etc., to have a silk scarf gift wrapped. The scarf had a colorful geometric design, and the customer wanted wrapping paper with a similar theme. None of the wrapping paper on hand was suitable, so Juanita, the shop manager, used her computer, color printer, and some graphing software to create paper to satisfy the customer. Juanita used yellow paper and a combination of red, blue, and black inks. Use the instructions below to create your own smaller, handmade version of the paper Juanita designed.
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4. On grid paper with quarterinch grids, set up coordinate axes with a graphing window for 6
≤ x ≤ 6 and 6 ≤ y ≤ 6 using oneinch for each unit. Graph all of the following functions in this one graphing window, using the colors indicated. a. Function f
1
: y =  x , red i. Function f
9
: j. Function f
10
: y =   x , blue y =   x   1.25, red b. Function f
2
: y =  x  + 1.75, black c. Function f
3
: y =  x  + 3, blue d. Function f
4
: y =  x  + 3.75, red e. Function f
5
: y =  x  + 4.5, black k. Function f l. Function f
11
12 m. Function f
:
13
:
: y =   x   2.25, black y =   x   3, blue y =   x   3.5, red f. Function f
6
: y = 2.25/x, x > 0, blue n. Function f
14
: y =   x   4.25, black g. Function f
7
: y = 2.25/x, x < 0, red h. Function f
8
: y = 4/x, x ≠ 0, black o. Function f
15
: y = 16/x, x > 0, blue p. Function f
16
: y = 16/x, x < 0, red
Note: To get the best replica of Juanita’s design, create your graph on grid paper and then trace it on plain paper without copying the coordinate axes. Graph functions f
1
and f
9
with a heavy line, approximately 1/16 inch wide, and use successively thinner lines as you graph functions f
2
through f
5
and f
10
through f
14
. Use medium weight lines for f
6
, f
7
, f
8
, f
15
, and f
16
.
5. Design your own wrapping paper and write instructions similar to those in #3. Exchange instructions with a classmate and reproduce each other’s designs.
6. One of the Old Village Shoppes sells handmade jewelry. They stock only one size of jewelry gift box and provide customers with a box for each jewelry item purchased. On a particular summer day, the jewelry shop had several customers who each purchased multiple items, and all of these shoppers arrived at Pack, Wrap, Etc. simultaneously to have their jewelry purchases gift wrapped. For the next half hour, Jen and Brad, employees of
Pack, Wrap, Etc., were busy wrapping the items.
Juanita, the manager, observed Brad as he worked. Several times during the half hour, she noted how many packages he had completed; the data is shown in the table below.
Minutes elapsed, m
0 10 15 20 30
Brad’s total number of boxes wrapped, T(m)
0 2 3 4 6 a. For the first 10 minutes that Brad worked, what is the average rate of change of his total number of packages wrapped? Explain the meaning of this number. b. What is average rate of change of Brad’s total number of packages wrapped for the last
15 minutes he worked? Is the rate of change of Brad’s total number of packages wrapped constant or changing? Based on the data, how would you describe the way Brad worked?
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c. While Brad is wrapping a package, it is difficult to determine exactly when he has
onefourth of the job completed or onehalf of the job done, or, for that matter, any
other fractional part of the work done. So, if we use a function to describe the
relationship between minutes elapsed since Brad started wrapping and the number
of packages Brad has wrapped in the time elapsed, it is reasonable just to count
the whole number
of packages
wrapped at any
point in time.
Consider Graphs
A, B, and C below,
and decide which
one could be the
graph of the
function T, where
T(m) is the whole
number of
packages
completed m minutes after Brad
began wrapping.
Explain.
7. Juanita also observed Jen as she worked. The data for Juanita’s observations of the total number of boxes that Jen wrapped during the half hour are given in the next table.
Minutes elapsed, m
0 10 15 20 30
Jen’s total number of boxes wrapped, J(m)
0 3 5 5 8 a. For the first 10 minutes that Jen worked, what is the average rate of change of her total number of packages wrapped? Explain the meaning of this number. b. What is the average rate of change of Jen’s total number of packages wrapped for the last 10 minutes she worked? for the last 15 minutes? c. Is the rate of change of Jen’s total number of packages wrapped constant or changing?
Based on the data, how would you describe the way Jen worked? d. For this context, what is the domain of the function J? e. For this context, what is the range of the function J?
One of the stores in Ye Old Village Shoppes sells handblown glass creations. Their holiday ornaments are especially popular. Each is of these is unique glass sphere, but the glass blowers consistently create orbs with diameters of approximately 3 inches. When an ornament is purchased, the glass shop wraps it in several layers of tissue paper and then places it in a cubeshaped box 4 inches tall. Customers concerned about their delicate treasures often head straight to Pack, Wrap, Etc. for more protection from accidental breakage.
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8. Because of the popularity of the handblown glass ornaments, Pack, Wrap, Etc. keeps cubical packing boxes on hand. The heights, in inches, of the available box sizes are given by the terms of the following finite sequence: 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5, 7.0, …, 20.0. a. What type of sequence is 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5, 7.0, …, 20.0? b. Write a recursive formula for the sequence of packing box heights. c. Write a closed formula for this sequence.
9. Customers may choose any one of the available cubical packing boxes and have the glass ornament, in its box from the glass store, packed in the larger box surrounded by polyester fiberfill to fill the packing box. a. List the terms of the finite sequence of volumes of the packing boxes. b. Consider the function V, where the input is the height, in inches, of a cubical packing box, and the output is the volume of the box, in cubic inches. If x is the height of a packing box, what is V(x)? c. Consider the function F which outputs the volume of polyester fiberfill surrounding the boxed glass ornament inside a cubical packing box of height x inches. Find a formula for
F
(x). d. In this context, what is the domain for the functions V and F? e. Graph V and F on the same coordinate axes and describe how the graphs are related geometrically.
10. There are two signs of logical interest hanging in Pack, Wrap, Etc. The first hangs near the gift wrap cash register and reads “If we fail to give you a gift wrapping receipt, the service is free.” a. Write the negation of the statement “We fail to give you a gift wrapping receipt” using good English syntax. b. Write a conditional statement using the negation you wrote in part a which is logically equivalent to “If we fail to give you a gift wrapping receipt, the service is free.” c. Does the conditional statement “If we fail to give you a gift wrapping receipt, the service is free” exclude Pack, Wrap, Etc. from providing free gift wrapping service for some reason other than failing to give a receipt? d. Write the converse of “If we fail to give you a gift wrapping receipt, the service is free.” Is the converse logically equivalent to the original? Explain.
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11. The second sign of logical interest is prominently displayed near the packing counter. It reads “Items left over 10 days will be donated to charity.” a. Write a logically equivalent conditional statement. b. Write the inverse of the statement in part a. c. Does the original statement give any information about what Pack, Wrap, Etc. will do with items that are left for 9 days? 8 days? any number of days less than or equal to 10? d. If Pack, Wrap, Etc. donated an item to charity when it had only been 7 days since the customer left it to be packaged, do you think the customer would be upset? Would they have violated their own policy: “Items left over 10 days will be donated to charity.” e. What do you think Pack, Wrap, Etc. intends its policy to be, and how should they state it in order to fully disclose their policy about parcels left for later pick up?
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Graph
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