MySQL Reference Manual
MySQL Reference Manual
c 1997-2004 MySQL AB
Copyright °
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Table of Contents
1
General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
About This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.1 Conventions Used in This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Overview of the MySQL Database Management System . . . . 4
1.2.1 History of MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2.2 The Main Features of MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.2.3 MySQL Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.2.4 How Big MySQL Tables Can Be . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.2.5 Year 2000 Compliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Overview of MySQL AB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.3.1 The Business Model and Services of MySQL AB . . 13
1.3.1.1 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.3.1.2 Training and Certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.3.1.3 Consulting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.3.1.4 Commercial Licenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.3.1.5 Partnering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.3.2 Contact Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
MySQL Support and Licensing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.4.1 Support Offered by MySQL AB. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.4.2 Copyrights and Licenses Used by MySQL. . . . . . . . 17
1.4.3 MySQL Licenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.4.3.1 Using the MySQL Software Under a
Commercial License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.4.3.2 Using the MySQL Software for Free Under
GPL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.4.4 MySQL AB Logos and Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.4.4.1 The Original MySQL Logo. . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
1.4.4.2 MySQL Logos That May Be Used Without
Written Permission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
1.4.4.3 When You Need Written Permission to Use
MySQL Logos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
1.4.4.4 MySQL AB Partnership Logos . . . . . . . . . 21
1.4.4.5 Using the Word MySQL in Printed Text or
Presentations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.4.4.6 Using the Word MySQL in Company and
Product Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
MySQL Development Roadmap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.5.1 MySQL 4.0 in a Nutshell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.5.1.1 Features Available in MySQL 4.0 . . . . . . . 22
1.5.1.2 The Embedded MySQL Server . . . . . . . . . 23
1.5.2 MySQL 4.1 in a Nutshell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.5.2.1 Features Available in MySQL 4.1 . . . . . . . 24
1.5.2.2 Stepwise Rollout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
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1.5.2.3 Ready for Immediate Development Use
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
1.5.3 MySQL 5.0: The Next Development Release . . . . . 26
1.6 MySQL and the Future (the TODO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1.6.1 New Features Planned for 5.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1.6.2 New Features Planned for 5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
1.6.3 New Features Planned for the Near Future . . . . . . 28
1.6.4 New Features Planned for the Mid-Term Future . . 30
1.6.5 New Features We Don’t Plan to Implement . . . . . . 31
1.7 MySQL Information Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
1.7.1 MySQL Mailing Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
1.7.1.1 The MySQL Mailing Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
1.7.1.2 Asking Questions or Reporting Bugs. . . . 33
1.7.1.3 How to Report Bugs or Problems . . . . . . 34
1.7.1.4 Guidelines for Answering Questions on the
Mailing List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
1.7.2 MySQL Community Support on IRC (Internet Relay
Chat) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
1.8 MySQL Standards Compliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
1.8.1 What Standards MySQL Follows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
1.8.2 Selecting SQL Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
1.8.3 Running MySQL in ANSI Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
1.8.4 MySQL Extensions to Standard SQL . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
1.8.5 MySQL Differences from Standard SQL . . . . . . . . . 44
1.8.5.1 Subqueries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
1.8.5.2 SELECT INTO TABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
1.8.5.3 Transactions and Atomic Operations . . . 45
1.8.5.4 Stored Procedures and Triggers . . . . . . . . 47
1.8.5.5 Foreign Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
1.8.5.6 Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
1.8.5.7 ‘--’ as the Start of a Comment. . . . . . . . . 49
1.8.6 How MySQL Deals with Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
1.8.6.1 Constraint PRIMARY KEY / UNIQUE . . . . . . 50
1.8.6.2 Constraint NOT NULL and DEFAULT Values
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
1.8.6.3 Constraint ENUM and SET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
1.8.7 Known Errors and Design Deficiencies in MySQL
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
1.8.7.1 Errors in 3.23 Fixed in a Later MySQL
Version. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
1.8.7.2 Errors in 4.0 Fixed in a Later MySQL
Version. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
1.8.7.3 Open Bugs and Design Deficiencies in
MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
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2
Installing MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
2.1
General Installation Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
2.1.1 Operating Systems Supported by MySQL . . . . . . . 60
2.1.2 Choosing Which MySQL Distribution to Install . . 61
2.1.2.1 Choosing Which Version of MySQL to
Install. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
2.1.2.2 Choosing a Distribution Format . . . . . . . . 64
2.1.2.3 How and When Updates Are Released . . 65
2.1.2.4 Release Philosophy—No Known Bugs in
Releases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
2.1.2.5 MySQL Binaries Compiled by MySQL AB
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
2.1.3 How to Get MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
2.1.4 Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums
or GnuPG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
2.1.4.1 Verifying the MD5 Checksum . . . . . . . . . . 73
2.1.4.2 Signature Checking Using GnuPG . . . . . . . 74
2.1.4.3 Signature Checking Using RPM. . . . . . . . . . 75
2.1.5 Installation Layouts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
2.2 Standard MySQL Installation Using a Binary Distribution
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
2.2.1 Installing MySQL on Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
2.2.1.1 Windows System Requirements . . . . . . . . 78
2.2.1.2 Installing a Windows Binary Distribution
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
2.2.1.3 Preparing the Windows MySQL
Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
2.2.1.4 Selecting a Windows Server . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
2.2.1.5 Starting the Server for the First Time . . 82
2.2.1.6 Starting MySQL from the Windows
Command Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
2.2.1.7 Starting MySQL as a Windows Service . . 84
2.2.1.8 Troubleshooting a MySQL Installation
Under Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
2.2.1.9 Running MySQL Client Programs on
Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
2.2.1.10 MySQL on Windows Compared to
MySQL on Unix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
2.2.2 Installing MySQL on Linux. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
2.2.3 Installing MySQL on Mac OS X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
2.2.4 Installing MySQL on NetWare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
2.2.5 Installing MySQL on Other Unix-Like Systems. . . 97
2.3 MySQL Installation Using a Source Distribution . . . . . . . . . 100
2.3.1 Source Installation Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
2.3.2 Typical configure Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
2.3.3 Installing from the Development Source Tree . . . 106
2.3.4 Dealing with Problems Compiling MySQL . . . . . . 109
2.3.5 MIT-pthreads Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
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2.3.6 Installing MySQL from Source on Windows. . . . . 113
2.3.6.1 Building MySQL Using VC++ . . . . . . . . . 114
2.3.6.2 Creating a Windows Source Package from
the Latest Development Source . . . . . . . . . . . 116
2.3.7 Compiling MySQL Clients on Windows . . . . . . . . 117
2.4 Post-Installation Setup and Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
2.4.1 Windows Post-Installation Procedures . . . . . . . . . . 118
2.4.2 Unix Post-Installation Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
2.4.2.1 Problems Running mysql_install_db
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
2.4.2.2 Starting and Stopping MySQL
Automatically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
2.4.2.3 Starting and Troubleshooting the MySQL
Server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
2.4.3 Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts . . . . . . . . . . 130
2.5 Upgrading/Downgrading MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
2.5.1 Upgrading from Version 4.1 to 5.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
2.5.2 Upgrading from Version 4.0 to 4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
2.5.3 Upgrading from Version 3.23 to 4.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
2.5.4 Upgrading from Version 3.22 to 3.23 . . . . . . . . . . . 143
2.5.5 Upgrading from Version 3.21 to 3.22 . . . . . . . . . . . 145
2.5.6 Upgrading from Version 3.20 to 3.21 . . . . . . . . . . . 145
2.5.7 Upgrading MySQL Under Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
2.5.8 Upgrading the Grant Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
2.5.9 Copying MySQL Databases to Another Machine
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
2.6 Operating System-Specific Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
2.6.1 Linux Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
2.6.1.1 Linux Operating System Notes . . . . . . . . 149
2.6.1.2 Linux Binary Distribution Notes . . . . . . 150
2.6.1.3 Linux Source Distribution Notes . . . . . . 151
2.6.1.4 Linux Post-Installation Notes . . . . . . . . . 152
2.6.1.5 Linux x86 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
2.6.1.6 Linux SPARC Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
2.6.1.7 Linux Alpha Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
2.6.1.8 Linux PowerPC Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
2.6.1.9 Linux MIPS Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
2.6.1.10 Linux IA-64 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
2.6.2 Mac OS X Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
2.6.2.1 Mac OS X 10.x (Darwin) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
2.6.2.2 Mac OS X Server 1.2 (Rhapsody) . . . . . 157
2.6.3 Solaris Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
2.6.3.1 Solaris 2.7/2.8 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
2.6.3.2 Solaris x86 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
2.6.4 BSD Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
2.6.4.1 FreeBSD Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
2.6.4.2 NetBSD Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
2.6.4.3 OpenBSD 2.5 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
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2.7
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2.6.4.4 OpenBSD 2.8 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.4.5 BSD/OS Version 2.x Notes . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.4.6 BSD/OS Version 3.x Notes . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.4.7 BSD/OS Version 4.x Notes . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.5 Other Unix Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.5.1 HP-UX Version 10.20 Notes. . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.5.2 HP-UX Version 11.x Notes. . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.5.3 IBM-AIX notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.5.4 SunOS 4 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.5.5 Alpha-DEC-UNIX Notes (Tru64). . . . . .
2.6.5.6 Alpha-DEC-OSF/1 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.5.7 SGI Irix Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.5.8 SCO Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.5.9 SCO UnixWare Version 7.1.x Notes. . . .
2.6.6 OS/2 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.7 BeOS Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Perl Installation Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7.1 Installing Perl on Unix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7.2 Installing ActiveState Perl on Windows . . . . . . . .
2.7.3 Problems Using the Perl DBI/DBD Interface . . . . .
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163
164
164
165
165
165
167
168
169
170
171
172
176
178
178
179
179
180
180
MySQL Tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
3.1
3.2
3.3
Connecting to and Disconnecting from the Server . . . . . . . . 184
Entering Queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Creating and Using a Database. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
3.3.1 Creating and Selecting a Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
3.3.2 Creating a Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
3.3.3 Loading Data into a Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
3.3.4 Retrieving Information from a Table . . . . . . . . . . . 192
3.3.4.1 Selecting All Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
3.3.4.2 Selecting Particular Rows . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
3.3.4.3 Selecting Particular Columns . . . . . . . . . 195
3.3.4.4 Sorting Rows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
3.3.4.5 Date Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
3.3.4.6 Working with NULL Values . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
3.3.4.7 Pattern Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
3.3.4.8 Counting Rows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
3.3.4.9 Using More Than one Table . . . . . . . . . . 206
3.4 Getting Information About Databases and Tables . . . . . . . 207
3.5 Using mysql in Batch Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
3.6 Examples of Common Queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
3.6.1 The Maximum Value for a Column . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
3.6.2 The Row Holding the Maximum of a Certain
Column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
3.6.3 Maximum of Column per Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
3.6.4 The Rows Holding the Group-wise Maximum of a
Certain Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
3.6.5 Using User Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
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3.6.6 Using Foreign Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.7 Searching on Two Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.8 Calculating Visits Per Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.9 Using AUTO_INCREMENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7 Queries from the Twin Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7.1 Find All Non-distributed Twins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7.2 Show a Table of Twin Pair Status . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8 Using MySQL with Apache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
Using MySQL Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
4.1 Overview of MySQL Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Invoking MySQL Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 Specifying Program Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.1 Using Options on the Command Line . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2 Using Option Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.3 Using Environment Variables to Specify Options
...............................................
4.3.4 Using Options to Set Program Variables . . . . . . . .
5
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216
216
218
218
221
221
222
222
223
224
225
229
229
Database Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
The MySQL Server and Server Startup Scripts . . . . . . . . . . 231
5.1.1 Overview of the Server-Side Scripts and Utilities
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
5.1.2 The mysqld-max Extended MySQL Server . . . . . . 232
5.1.3 The mysqld_safe Server Startup Script . . . . . . . . 234
5.1.4 The mysql.server Server Startup Script . . . . . . . 237
5.1.5 The mysqld_multi Program for Managing Multiple
MySQL Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Configuring the MySQL Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
5.2.1 mysqld Command-Line Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
5.2.2 The Server SQL Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
5.2.3 Server System Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
5.2.3.1 Dynamic System Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
5.2.4 Server Status Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
The MySQL Server Shutdown Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
General Security Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
5.4.1 General Security Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
5.4.2 Making MySQL Secure Against Attackers . . . . . . 292
5.4.3 Startup Options for mysqld Concerning Security
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
5.4.4 Security Issues with LOAD DATA LOCAL . . . . . . . . . . 295
The MySQL Access Privilege System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
5.5.1 What the Privilege System Does . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
5.5.2 How the Privilege System Works. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
5.5.3 Privileges Provided by MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
5.5.4 Connecting to the MySQL Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
5.5.5 Access Control, Stage 1: Connection Verification
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
vii
5.5.6
5.5.7
5.5.8
5.5.9
Access Control, Stage 2: Request Verification . . . 308
When Privilege Changes Take Effect . . . . . . . . . . . 311
Causes of Access denied Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
Password Hashing in MySQL 4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
5.5.9.1 Implications of Password Hashing Changes
for Application Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
5.5.9.2 Password Hashing in MySQL 4.1.0 . . . . 320
5.6 MySQL User Account Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
5.6.1 MySQL Usernames and Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
5.6.2 Adding New User Accounts to MySQL . . . . . . . . . 322
5.6.3 Removing User Accounts from MySQL . . . . . . . . . 326
5.6.4 Limiting Account Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
5.6.5 Assigning Account Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
5.6.6 Keeping Your Password Secure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
5.6.7 Using Secure Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
5.6.7.1 Basic SSL Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
5.6.7.2 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
5.6.7.3 Setting Up SSL Certificates for MySQL
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
5.6.7.4 SSL GRANT Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
5.6.7.5 SSL Command-Line Options . . . . . . . . . . 337
5.6.7.6 Connecting to MySQL Remotely from
Windows with SSH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
5.7 Disaster Prevention and Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
5.7.1 Database Backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
5.7.2 Table Maintenance and Crash Recovery . . . . . . . . 340
5.7.2.1 myisamchk Invocation Syntax . . . . . . . . . 340
5.7.2.2 General Options for myisamchk . . . . . . . 342
5.7.2.3 Check Options for myisamchk . . . . . . . . . 344
5.7.2.4 Repair Options for myisamchk . . . . . . . . 344
5.7.2.5 Other Options for myisamchk . . . . . . . . . 346
5.7.2.6 myisamchk Memory Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
5.7.2.7 Using myisamchk for Crash Recovery . . 347
5.7.2.8 How to Check MyISAM Tables for Errors
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
5.7.2.9 How to Repair Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
5.7.2.10 Table Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
5.7.3 Setting Up a Table Maintenance Schedule . . . . . . 352
5.7.4 Getting Information About a Table . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
5.8 MySQL Localization and International Usage . . . . . . . . . . . 359
5.8.1 The Character Set Used for Data and Sorting . . . 359
5.8.1.1 Using the German Character Set . . . . . . 360
5.8.2 Setting the Error Message Language . . . . . . . . . . . 360
5.8.3 Adding a New Character Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
5.8.4 The Character Definition Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
5.8.5 String Collating Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
5.8.6 Multi-Byte Character Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
5.8.7 Problems With Character Sets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
viii
5.8.8 MySQL Server Time Zone Support . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
The MySQL Log Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
5.9.1 The Error Log. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
5.9.2 The General Query Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
5.9.3 The Update Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
5.9.4 The Binary Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
5.9.5 The Slow Query Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
5.9.6 Log File Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
5.10 Running Multiple MySQL Servers on the Same Machine
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
5.10.1 Running Multiple Servers on Windows . . . . . . . . 373
5.10.1.1 Starting Multiple Windows Servers at the
Command Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
5.10.1.2 Starting Multiple Windows Servers as
Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
5.10.2 Running Multiple Servers on Unix . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
5.10.3 Using Client Programs in a Multiple-Server
Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
5.11 The MySQL Query Cache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
5.11.1 How the Query Cache Operates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
5.11.2 Query Cache SELECT Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
5.11.3 Query Cache Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
5.11.4 Query Cache Status and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . 382
5.9
6
Replication in MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
Introduction to Replication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replication Implementation Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replication Implementation Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.1 Replication Master Thread States . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.2 Replication Slave I/O Thread States . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.3 Replication Slave SQL Thread States . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.4 Replication Relay and Status Files . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Set Up Replication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replication Compatibility Between MySQL Versions . . . . .
Upgrading a Replication Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6.1 Upgrading Replication to 4.0 or 4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6.2 Upgrading Replication to 5.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replication Features and Known Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replication Startup Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replication FAQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting Replication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reporting Replication Bugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
384
384
385
387
387
388
389
391
395
395
395
396
397
400
409
415
416
ix
7
MySQL Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
7.1
Optimization Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
7.1.1 MySQL Design Limitations and Tradeoffs . . . . . . 418
7.1.2 Designing Applications for Portability . . . . . . . . . . 419
7.1.3 What We Have Used MySQL For . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
7.1.4 The MySQL Benchmark Suite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
7.1.5 Using Your Own Benchmarks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
7.2 Optimizing SELECT Statements and Other Queries . . . . . . . 422
7.2.1 EXPLAIN Syntax (Get Information About a SELECT)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
7.2.2 Estimating Query Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
7.2.3 Speed of SELECT Queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
7.2.4 How MySQL Optimizes WHERE Clauses . . . . . . . . . 432
7.2.5 Range Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
7.2.5.1 Range Access Method for Single-Part
Indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
7.2.5.2 Range Access Method for Multiple-Part
Indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
7.2.6 Index Merge Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
7.2.6.1 Index Merge Intersection Access Algorithm
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
7.2.6.2 Index Merge Union Access Algorithm . . 439
7.2.6.3 Index Merge Sort-Union Access Algorithm
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
7.2.7 How MySQL Optimizes IS NULL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
7.2.8 How MySQL Optimizes DISTINCT . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
7.2.9 How MySQL Optimizes LEFT JOIN and RIGHT JOIN
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
7.2.10 How MySQL Optimizes ORDER BY . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
7.2.11 How MySQL Optimizes LIMIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
7.2.12 How to Avoid Table Scans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
7.2.13 Speed of INSERT Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
7.2.14 Speed of UPDATE Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
7.2.15 Speed of DELETE Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
7.2.16 Other Optimization Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
7.3 Locking Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
7.3.1 Locking Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
7.3.2 Table Locking Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
7.4 Optimizing Database Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
7.4.1 Design Choices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
7.4.2 Make Your Data as Small as Possible . . . . . . . . . . 454
7.4.3 Column Indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
7.4.4 Multiple-Column Indexes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456
7.4.5 How MySQL Uses Indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
7.4.6 The MyISAM Key Cache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
7.4.6.1 Shared Key Cache Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460
7.4.6.2 Multiple Key Caches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
7.4.6.3 Midpoint Insertion Strategy. . . . . . . . . . . 462
x
7.4.6.4 Index Preloading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
7.4.6.5 Key Cache Block Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
7.4.6.6 Restructuring a Key Cache . . . . . . . . . . . 464
7.4.7 How MySQL Counts Open Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
7.4.8 How MySQL Opens and Closes Tables . . . . . . . . . 465
7.4.9 Drawbacks to Creating Many Tables in the Same
Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
7.5 Optimizing the MySQL Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
7.5.1 System Factors and Startup Parameter Tuning . . 466
7.5.2 Tuning Server Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467
7.5.3 Controlling Query Optimizer Performance . . . . . . 469
7.5.4 How Compiling and Linking Affects the Speed of
MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470
7.5.5 How MySQL Uses Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
7.5.6 How MySQL Uses DNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
7.6 Disk Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
7.6.1 Using Symbolic Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
7.6.1.1 Using Symbolic Links for Databases on
Unix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
7.6.1.2 Using Symbolic Links for Tables on Unix
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476
7.6.1.3 Using Symbolic Links for Databases on
Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
8
MySQL Client and Utility Programs . . . . . . 479
8.1 Overview of the Client-Side Scripts and Utilities . . . . . . . . .
8.2 myisampack, the MySQL Compressed Read-only Table
Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3 mysql, the Command-Line Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.1 mysql Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.2 Executing SQL Statements from a Text File . . . .
8.3.3 mysql Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.3.1 Displaying Query Results Vertically . . .
8.3.3.2 Using the --safe-updates Option . . . .
8.3.3.3 Disabling mysql Auto-Reconnect . . . . . .
8.4 mysqladmin, Administering a MySQL Server . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5 The mysqlbinlog Binary Log Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.6 mysqlcc, the MySQL Control Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7 The mysqlcheck Table Maintenance and Repair Program
......................................................
8.8 The mysqldump Database Backup Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.9 The mysqlhotcopy Database Backup Program . . . . . . . . . .
8.10 The mysqlimport Data Import Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.11 mysqlshow, Showing Databases, Tables, and Columns . . .
8.12 perror, Explaining Error Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.13 The replace String-Replacement Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
479
480
487
491
495
495
495
496
496
497
501
504
506
508
514
516
518
520
520
xi
9
MySQL Language Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522
10
Language Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
11
Literal Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.1 Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.2 Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.3 Hexadecimal Values. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.4 Boolean Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.5 NULL Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Database, Table, Index, Column, and Alias Names . . . . . .
10.2.1 Identifier Qualifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.2 Identifier Case Sensitivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
User Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.4.1 Structured System Variables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Comment Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Treatment of Reserved Words in MySQL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
523
523
525
525
526
526
526
528
528
530
531
533
534
535
Character Set Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.7
Character Sets and Collations in General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539
Character Sets and Collations in MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540
Determining the Default Character Set and Collation . . . 541
11.3.1 Server Character Set and Collation . . . . . . . . . . . 541
11.3.2 Database Character Set and Collation . . . . . . . . . 542
11.3.3 Table Character Set and Collation . . . . . . . . . . . . 542
11.3.4 Column Character Set and Collation . . . . . . . . . . 543
11.3.5 Examples of Character Set and Collation
Assignment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543
11.3.6 Connection Character Sets and Collations . . . . . 545
11.3.7 Character String Literal Character Set and
Collation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546
11.3.8 Using COLLATE in SQL Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . 547
11.3.9 COLLATE Clause Precedence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548
11.3.10 BINARY Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548
11.3.11 Some Special Cases Where the Collation
Determination Is Tricky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548
11.3.12 Collations Must Be for the Right Character Set
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549
11.3.13 An Example of the Effect of Collation . . . . . . . . 550
Operations Affected by Character Set Support . . . . . . . . . 551
11.4.1 Result Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551
11.4.2 CONVERT() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552
11.4.3 CAST() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552
11.4.4 SHOW Statements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552
Unicode Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554
UTF8 for Metadata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554
Compatibility with Other DBMSs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556
xii
11.8 New Character Set Configuration File Format . . . . . . . . . . 556
11.9 National Character Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556
11.10 Upgrading Character Sets from MySQL 4.0 . . . . . . . . . . . 556
11.10.1 4.0 Character Sets and Corresponding 4.1
Character Set/Collation Pairs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 557
11.10.2 Converting 4.0 Character Columns to 4.1 Format
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558
11.11 Character Sets and Collations That MySQL Supports . . 559
11.11.1 Unicode Character Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560
11.11.2 West European Character Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561
11.11.3 Central European Character Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . 562
11.11.4 South European and Middle East Character Sets
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563
11.11.5 Baltic Character Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563
11.11.6 Cyrillic Character Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564
11.11.7 Asian Character Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564
12
Column Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
Column Type Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566
12.1.1 Overview of Numeric Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566
12.1.2 Overview of Date and Time Types . . . . . . . . . . . . 568
12.1.3 Overview of String Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569
Numeric Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 572
Date and Time Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 574
12.3.1 The DATETIME, DATE, and TIMESTAMP Types . . . 576
12.3.1.1 TIMESTAMP Properties Prior to MySQL 4.1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578
12.3.1.2 TIMESTAMP Properties as of MySQL 4.1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579
12.3.2 The TIME Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582
12.3.3 The YEAR Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 583
12.3.4 Y2K Issues and Date Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 583
String Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584
12.4.1 The CHAR and VARCHAR Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584
12.4.2 The BLOB and TEXT Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585
12.4.3 The ENUM Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 586
12.4.4 The SET Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 588
Column Type Storage Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 589
Choosing the Right Type for a Column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 590
Using Column Types from Other Database Engines . . . . . 591
xiii
13
Functions and Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 592
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6
13.7
13.8
13.9
14
Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.1.1 Operator Precedence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.1.2 Parentheses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.1.3 Comparison Functions and Operators . . . . . . . . .
13.1.4 Logical Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Control Flow Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
String Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3.1 String Comparison Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Numeric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.4.1 Arithmetic Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.4.2 Mathematical Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Date and Time Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Full-Text Search Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.6.1 Boolean Full-Text Searches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.6.2 Full-Text Searches with Query Expansion . . . . .
13.6.3 Full-Text Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.6.4 Fine-Tuning MySQL Full-Text Search . . . . . . . . .
13.6.5 Full-Text Search TODO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cast Functions and Operators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.8.1 Bit Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.8.2 Encryption Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.8.3 Information Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.8.4 Miscellaneous Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Functions and Modifiers for Use with GROUP BY Clauses . .
13.9.1 GROUP BY (Aggregate) Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.9.2 GROUP BY Modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.9.3 GROUP BY with Hidden Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
592
592
593
593
597
599
601
610
612
612
613
619
635
638
639
640
641
643
643
646
646
647
650
655
658
658
660
663
SQL Statement Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665
14.1
Data Manipulation Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.1 DELETE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.2 DO Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.3 HANDLER Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.4 INSERT Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.4.1 INSERT ... SELECT Syntax . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.4.2 INSERT DELAYED Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.5 LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.6 REPLACE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.7 SELECT Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.7.1 JOIN Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.7.2 UNION Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.8 Subquery Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.8.1 The Subquery as Scalar Operand. . . . .
14.1.8.2 Comparisons Using Subqueries . . . . . . .
14.1.8.3 Subqueries with ANY, IN, and SOME . . .
14.1.8.4 Subqueries with ALL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
665
665
667
667
669
672
673
675
682
683
688
690
691
692
693
694
694
xiv
14.1.8.5 Correlated Subqueries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 695
14.1.8.6 EXISTS and NOT EXISTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 695
14.1.8.7 Row Subqueries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 696
14.1.8.8 Subqueries in the FROM clause . . . . . . . . 697
14.1.8.9 Subquery Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 697
14.1.8.10 Optimizing Subqueries . . . . . . . . . . . . . 699
14.1.8.11 Rewriting Subqueries as Joins for Earlier
MySQL Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 700
14.1.9 TRUNCATE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 701
14.1.10 UPDATE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 702
14.2 Data Definition Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 703
14.2.1 ALTER DATABASE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 703
14.2.2 ALTER TABLE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 704
14.2.3 ALTER VIEW Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 708
14.2.4 CREATE DATABASE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 709
14.2.5 CREATE INDEX Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 709
14.2.6 CREATE TABLE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 710
14.2.6.1 Silent Column Specification Changes . . 721
14.2.7 CREATE VIEW Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 722
14.2.8 DROP DATABASE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 723
14.2.9 DROP INDEX Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 723
14.2.10 DROP TABLE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 723
14.2.11 DROP VIEW Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 724
14.2.12 RENAME TABLE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 724
14.3 MySQL Utility Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 725
14.3.1 DESCRIBE Syntax (Get Information About
Columns) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 725
14.3.2 USE Syntax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 726
14.4 MySQL Transactional and Locking Statements . . . . . . . . . 726
14.4.1 START TRANSACTION, COMMIT, and ROLLBACK Syntax
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 726
14.4.2 Statements That Cannot Be Rolled Back . . . . . . 727
14.4.3 Statements That Cause an Implicit Commit . . . 727
14.4.4 SAVEPOINT and ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT Syntax
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 728
14.4.5 LOCK TABLES and UNLOCK TABLES Syntax . . . . . . 728
14.4.6 SET TRANSACTION Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 731
14.5 Database Administration Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 731
14.5.1 Account Management Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 731
14.5.1.1 DROP USER Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 731
14.5.1.2 GRANT and REVOKE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . 732
14.5.1.3 SET PASSWORD Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 738
14.5.2 Table Maintenance Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 739
14.5.2.1 ANALYZE TABLE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 739
14.5.2.2 BACKUP TABLE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 739
14.5.2.3 CHECK TABLE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 740
14.5.2.4 CHECKSUM TABLE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . 742
14.5.2.5 OPTIMIZE TABLE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . 742
xv
14.6
14.5.2.6 REPAIR TABLE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5.2.7 RESTORE TABLE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5.3 SET and SHOW Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5.3.1 SET Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5.3.2 SHOW CHARACTER SET Syntax . . . . . . . . .
14.5.3.3 SHOW COLLATION Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5.3.4 SHOW COLUMNS Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5.3.5 SHOW CREATE DATABASE Syntax . . . . . . .
14.5.3.6 SHOW CREATE TABLE Syntax . . . . . . . . . .
14.5.3.7 SHOW CREATE VIEW Syntax . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5.3.8 SHOW DATABASES Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5.3.9 SHOW ENGINES Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5.3.10 SHOW ERRORS Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5.3.11 SHOW GRANTS Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5.3.12 SHOW INDEX Syntax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5.3.13 SHOW INNODB STATUS Syntax . . . . . . . .
14.5.3.14 SHOW LOGS Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5.3.15 SHOW PRIVILEGES Syntax . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5.3.16 SHOW PROCESSLIST Syntax . . . . . . . . . .
14.5.3.17 SHOW STATUS Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5.3.18 SHOW TABLE STATUS Syntax . . . . . . . . .
14.5.3.19 SHOW TABLES Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5.3.20 SHOW VARIABLES Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5.3.21 SHOW WARNINGS Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5.4 Other Administrative Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5.4.1 CACHE INDEX Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5.4.2 FLUSH Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5.4.3 KILL Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5.4.4 LOAD INDEX INTO CACHE Syntax . . . . . .
14.5.4.5 RESET Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replication Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.6.1 SQL Statements for Controlling Master Servers
...............................................
14.6.1.1 PURGE MASTER LOGS Syntax . . . . . . . . . .
14.6.1.2 RESET MASTER Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.6.1.3 SET SQL_LOG_BIN Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.6.1.4 SHOW BINLOG EVENTS Syntax . . . . . . . . .
14.6.1.5 SHOW MASTER LOGS Syntax . . . . . . . . . . .
14.6.1.6 SHOW MASTER STATUS Syntax . . . . . . . . .
14.6.1.7 SHOW SLAVE HOSTS Syntax . . . . . . . . . . .
14.6.2 SQL Statements for Controlling Slave Servers . .
14.6.2.1 CHANGE MASTER TO Syntax . . . . . . . . . . .
14.6.2.2 LOAD DATA FROM MASTER Syntax . . . . . .
14.6.2.3 LOAD TABLE tbl_name FROM MASTER
Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.6.2.4 MASTER_POS_WAIT() Syntax . . . . . . . . .
14.6.2.5 RESET SLAVE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
743
744
744
745
749
749
750
750
751
751
751
751
753
753
754
755
755
755
757
759
760
761
762
763
765
765
766
767
768
769
769
770
770
770
770
771
771
771
771
771
771
774
775
775
775
xvi
14.7
15
775
776
779
780
780
MySQL Storage Engines and Table Types
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 783
15.1
15.2
15.3
15.4
15.5
16
14.6.2.6 SET GLOBAL SQL_SLAVE_SKIP_COUNTER
Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.6.2.7 SHOW SLAVE STATUS Syntax . . . . . . . . . .
14.6.2.8 START SLAVE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.6.2.9 STOP SLAVE Syntax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SQL Syntax for Prepared Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The MyISAM Storage Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 784
15.1.1 MyISAM Startup Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 786
15.1.2 Space Needed for Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 787
15.1.3 MyISAM Table Storage Formats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 788
15.1.3.1 Static (Fixed-Length) Table
Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 788
15.1.3.2 Dynamic Table Characteristics . . . . . . . 789
15.1.3.3 Compressed Table Characteristics . . . . 790
15.1.4 MyISAM Table Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 790
15.1.4.1 Corrupted MyISAM Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . 790
15.1.4.2 Problems from Tables Not Being Closed
Properly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 791
The MERGE Storage Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 792
15.2.1 MERGE Table Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 794
The MEMORY (HEAP) Storage Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 795
The BDB (BerkeleyDB) Storage Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 797
15.4.1 Operating Systems Supported by BDB . . . . . . . . . 798
15.4.2 Installing BDB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 798
15.4.3 BDB Startup Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 799
15.4.4 Characteristics of BDB Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800
15.4.5 Things We Need to Fix for BDB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 801
15.4.6 Restrictions on BDB Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 802
15.4.7 Errors That May Occur When Using BDB Tables
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 802
The ISAM Storage Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 802
The InnoDB Storage Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 804
16.1
16.2
16.3
16.4
16.5
16.6
InnoDB Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 804
InnoDB Contact Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 804
InnoDB in MySQL 3.23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 805
InnoDB Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 805
InnoDB Startup Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 810
Creating the InnoDB Tablespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 814
16.6.1 Dealing with InnoDB Initialization Problems . . . 815
16.7 Creating InnoDB Tables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 816
16.7.1 How to Use Transactions in InnoDB with Different
APIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 816
16.7.2 Converting MyISAM Tables to InnoDB . . . . . . . . . . 817
xvii
16.8
16.9
16.10
16.11
16.12
16.13
16.14
16.15
16.16
16.17
16.18
16.7.3 How an AUTO_INCREMENT Column Works in InnoDB
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 818
16.7.4 FOREIGN KEY Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 819
16.7.5 InnoDB and MySQL Replication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 822
16.7.6 Using Per-Table Tablespaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 823
Adding and Removing InnoDB Data and Log Files . . . . . . 825
Backing Up and Recovering an InnoDB Database . . . . . . . 826
16.9.1 Forcing Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 828
16.9.2 Checkpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 829
Moving an InnoDB Database to Another Machine . . . . . . 829
InnoDB Transaction Model and Locking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 830
16.11.1 InnoDB and AUTOCOMMIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 830
16.11.2 InnoDB and TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL . . 830
16.11.3 Consistent Non-Locking Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 832
16.11.4 Locking Reads SELECT ... FOR UPDATE and
SELECT ... LOCK IN SHARE MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 832
16.11.5 Next-Key Locking: Avoiding the Phantom
Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 833
16.11.6 An Example of How the Consistent Read Works in
InnoDB. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 834
16.11.7 Locks Set by Different SQL Statements in InnoDB
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 835
16.11.8 When Does MySQL Implicitly Commit or Roll
Back a Transaction? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 836
16.11.9 Deadlock Detection and Rollback . . . . . . . . . . . . 837
16.11.10 How to Cope with Deadlocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 837
InnoDB Performance Tuning Tips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 838
16.12.1 SHOW INNODB STATUS and the InnoDB Monitors
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 840
Implementation of Multi-Versioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 845
Table and Index Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 846
16.14.1 Physical Structure of an Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 847
16.14.2 Insert Buffering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 847
16.14.3 Adaptive Hash Indexes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 847
16.14.4 Physical Record Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 848
File Space Management and Disk I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 848
16.15.1 Disk I/O. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 848
16.15.2 Using Raw Devices for the Tablespace. . . . . . . . 849
16.15.3 File Space Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 850
16.15.4 Defragmenting a Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 850
Error Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 851
16.16.1 InnoDB Error Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 851
16.16.2 Operating System Error Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 852
Restrictions on InnoDB Tables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 856
InnoDB Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 858
16.18.1 Troubleshooting InnoDB Data Dictionary
Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 858
xviii
17
MySQL Cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 860
17.1
17.2
17.3
17.4
17.5
MySQL Cluster Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 860
Basic MySQL Cluster Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 860
MySQL Cluster Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 862
17.3.1 Building from Source Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 862
17.3.2 Installing the Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 862
17.3.3 Quick Test Setup of MySQL Cluster . . . . . . . . . . 862
17.3.4 Configuration File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 865
17.3.4.1 An Example Configuration in a MySQL
Cluster. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 865
17.3.4.2 Defining the Computers in a MySQL
Cluster. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 866
17.3.4.3 Defining the Management Server in a
MySQL Cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 866
17.3.4.4 Defining the Storage Nodes in a MySQL
Cluster. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 867
17.3.4.5 Defining the MySQL Servers in a MySQL
Cluster. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 883
17.3.4.6 Defining TCP/IP Connections in a
MySQL Cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 884
17.3.4.7 Defining Shared-Memory Connections in a
MySQL Cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 885
Process Management in MySQL Cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 886
17.4.1 MySQL Server Process Usage for MySQL Cluster
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 886
17.4.2 ndbd, the Storage Engine Node Process . . . . . . . 887
17.4.3 ndb_mgmd, the Management Server Process . . . . 888
17.4.4 ndb_mgm, the Management Client Process . . . . . 889
17.4.5 Command Options for MySQL Cluster Processes
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 889
17.4.5.1 MySQL Cluster-Related Command
Options for mysqld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 889
17.4.5.2 Command Options for ndbd . . . . . . . . . 890
17.4.5.3 Command Options for ndb_mgmd . . . . . 891
17.4.5.4 Command Options for ndb_mgm . . . . . . 891
Management of MySQL Cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 892
17.5.1 Commands in the Management Client . . . . . . . . . 892
17.5.2 Event Reports Generated in MySQL Cluster. . . 893
17.5.2.1 Logging Management Commands . . . . 893
17.5.2.2 Log Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 894
17.5.3 Single User Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 897
17.5.4 On-line Backup of MySQL Cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . 898
17.5.4.1 Cluster Backup Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . 898
17.5.4.2 Using The Management Server to Create a
Backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 899
17.5.4.3 How to Restore a Cluster Backup . . . . 899
17.5.4.4 Configuration for Cluster Backup . . . . 900
17.5.4.5 Backup Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . 900
xix
18
Introduction to MaxDB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 901
18.1
18.2
18.3
18.4
18.5
18.6
18.7
19
History of MaxDB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Licensing and Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MaxDB-Related Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Basic Concepts of MaxDB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Feature Differences Between MaxDB and MySQL . . . . . .
Interoperability Features Between MaxDB and MySQL . .
Reserved Words in MaxDB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
901
901
901
901
902
902
903
Spatial Extensions in MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . 907
19.1
19.2
19.3
19.4
19.5
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 907
The OpenGIS Geometry Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 907
19.2.1 The Geometry Class Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 908
19.2.2 Class Geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 909
19.2.3 Class Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 910
19.2.4 Class Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 910
19.2.5 Class LineString . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 911
19.2.6 Class Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 911
19.2.7 Class Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 911
19.2.8 Class GeometryCollection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 912
19.2.9 Class MultiPoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 912
19.2.10 Class MultiCurve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 912
19.2.11 Class MultiLineString . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 913
19.2.12 Class MultiSurface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 913
19.2.13 Class MultiPolygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 913
Supported Spatial Data Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 914
19.3.1 Well-Known Text (WKT) Format. . . . . . . . . . . . . 914
19.3.2 Well-Known Binary (WKB) Format. . . . . . . . . . . 915
Creating a Spatially Enabled MySQL Database. . . . . . . . . 915
19.4.1 MySQL Spatial Data Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 916
19.4.2 Creating Spatial Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 916
19.4.2.1 Creating Geometry Values Using WKT
Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 916
19.4.2.2 Creating Geometry Values Using WKB
Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 917
19.4.2.3 Creating Geometry Values Using
MySQL-Specific Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 918
19.4.3 Creating Spatial Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 919
19.4.4 Populating Spatial Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 919
19.4.5 Fetching Spatial Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 921
19.4.5.1 Fetching Spatial Data in Internal Format
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 921
19.4.5.2 Fetching Spatial Data in WKT Format
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 921
19.4.5.3 Fetching Spatial Data in WKB Format
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 921
Analyzing Spatial Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 921
19.5.1 Geometry Format Conversion Functions . . . . . . . 922
xx
19.6
19.7
20
19.5.2 Geometry Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 922
19.5.2.1 General Geometry Functions . . . . . . . . . 922
19.5.2.2 Point Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 924
19.5.2.3 LineString Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 924
19.5.2.4 MultiLineString Functions . . . . . . . . . 926
19.5.2.5 Polygon Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 926
19.5.2.6 MultiPolygon Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . 927
19.5.2.7 GeometryCollection Functions . . . . . . 928
19.5.3 Functions That Create New Geometries from
Existing Ones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 928
19.5.3.1 Geometry Functions That Produce New
Geometries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 929
19.5.3.2 Spatial Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 929
19.5.4 Functions for Testing Spatial Relations Between
Geometric Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 929
19.5.5 Relations on Geometry Minimal Bounding
Rectangles (MBRs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 929
19.5.6 Functions That Test Spatial Relationships Between
Geometries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 930
Optimizing Spatial Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 932
19.6.1 Creating Spatial Indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 932
19.6.2 Using a Spatial Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 933
MySQL Conformance and Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 935
19.7.1 GIS Features That Are Not Yet Implemented . . 935
Stored Procedures and Functions . . . . . . . . 936
20.1
Stored Procedure Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 936
20.1.1 Maintaining Stored Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 937
20.1.1.1 CREATE PROCEDURE and CREATE FUNCTION
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 937
20.1.1.2 ALTER PROCEDURE and ALTER FUNCTION
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 939
20.1.1.3 DROP PROCEDURE and DROP FUNCTION . . 940
20.1.1.4 SHOW CREATE PROCEDURE and SHOW CREATE
FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 940
20.1.2 SHOW PROCEDURE STATUS and SHOW FUNCTION
STATUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 940
20.1.3 CALL Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 940
20.1.4 BEGIN ... END Compound Statement . . . . . . . . . 941
20.1.5 DECLARE Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 941
20.1.6 Variables in Stored Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 941
20.1.6.1 DECLARE Local Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . 941
20.1.6.2 Variable SET Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 941
20.1.6.3 SELECT ... INTO Statement . . . . . . . . . 942
20.1.7 Conditions and Handlers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 942
20.1.7.1 DECLARE Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 942
20.1.7.2 DECLARE Handlers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 942
20.1.8 Cursors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 943
xxi
20.1.8.1 Declaring Cursors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.1.8.2 Cursor OPEN Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.1.8.3 Cursor FETCH Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.1.8.4 Cursor CLOSE Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.1.9 Flow Control Constructs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.1.9.1 IF Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.1.9.2 CASE Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.1.9.3 LOOP Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.1.9.4 LEAVE Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.1.9.5 ITERATE Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.1.9.6 REPEAT Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.1.9.7 WHILE Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21
944
944
944
945
945
945
945
946
946
946
946
947
MySQL APIs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 948
21.1
MySQL Program Development Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 948
21.1.1 msql2mysql, Convert mSQL Programs for Use with
MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 948
21.1.2 mysql_config, Get compile options for compiling
clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 948
21.2 MySQL C API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 949
21.2.1 C API Data types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 950
21.2.2 C API Function Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 953
21.2.3 C API Function Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 957
21.2.3.1 mysql_affected_rows() . . . . . . . . . . . . 957
21.2.3.2 mysql_change_user() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 958
21.2.3.3 mysql_character_set_name(). . . . . . . 959
21.2.3.4 mysql_close() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 960
21.2.3.5 mysql_connect() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 960
21.2.3.6 mysql_create_db() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 961
21.2.3.7 mysql_data_seek() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 961
21.2.3.8 mysql_debug() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 962
21.2.3.9 mysql_drop_db() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 962
21.2.3.10 mysql_dump_debug_info() . . . . . . . . . 963
21.2.3.11 mysql_eof() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 964
21.2.3.12 mysql_errno() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 965
21.2.3.13 mysql_error() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 966
21.2.3.14 mysql_escape_string() . . . . . . . . . . . 966
21.2.3.15 mysql_fetch_field() . . . . . . . . . . . . . 966
21.2.3.16 mysql_fetch_fields() . . . . . . . . . . . . 967
21.2.3.17 mysql_fetch_field_direct() . . . . . 968
21.2.3.18 mysql_fetch_lengths() . . . . . . . . . . . 969
21.2.3.19 mysql_fetch_row() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 970
21.2.3.20 mysql_field_count() . . . . . . . . . . . . . 971
21.2.3.21 mysql_field_seek() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 972
21.2.3.22 mysql_field_tell() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 972
21.2.3.23 mysql_free_result() . . . . . . . . . . . . . 973
21.2.3.24 mysql_get_client_info() . . . . . . . . . 973
21.2.3.25 mysql_get_client_version() . . . . . 974
xxii
21.2.3.26 mysql_get_host_info() . . . . . . . . . . . 974
21.2.3.27 mysql_get_proto_info() . . . . . . . . . . 974
21.2.3.28 mysql_get_server_info() . . . . . . . . . 975
21.2.3.29 mysql_get_server_version() . . . . . 975
21.2.3.30 mysql_info() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 976
21.2.3.31 mysql_init() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 976
21.2.3.32 mysql_insert_id() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 977
21.2.3.33 mysql_kill() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 978
21.2.3.34 mysql_list_dbs(). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 978
21.2.3.35 mysql_list_fields() . . . . . . . . . . . . . 979
21.2.3.36 mysql_list_processes() . . . . . . . . . . 980
21.2.3.37 mysql_list_tables() . . . . . . . . . . . . . 980
21.2.3.38 mysql_num_fields() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 981
21.2.3.39 mysql_num_rows(). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 982
21.2.3.40 mysql_options() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 983
21.2.3.41 mysql_ping() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 985
21.2.3.42 mysql_query() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 986
21.2.3.43 mysql_real_connect() . . . . . . . . . . . . 987
21.2.3.44 mysql_real_escape_string() . . . . . 989
21.2.3.45 mysql_real_query() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 990
21.2.3.46 mysql_reload() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 991
21.2.3.47 mysql_row_seek(). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 992
21.2.3.48 mysql_row_tell(). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 992
21.2.3.49 mysql_select_db() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 993
21.2.3.50 mysql_set_server_option(). . . . . . . 993
21.2.3.51 mysql_shutdown(). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 994
21.2.3.52 mysql_sqlstate(). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 995
21.2.3.53 mysql_ssl_set() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 995
21.2.3.54 mysql_stat() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 996
21.2.3.55 mysql_store_result() . . . . . . . . . . . . 996
21.2.3.56 mysql_thread_id() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 998
21.2.3.57 mysql_use_result() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 998
21.2.3.58 mysql_warning_count() . . . . . . . . . . . 999
21.2.3.59 mysql_commit() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 999
21.2.3.60 mysql_rollback() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1000
21.2.3.61 mysql_autocommit() . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1000
21.2.3.62 mysql_more_results() . . . . . . . . . . . 1001
21.2.3.63 mysql_next_result() . . . . . . . . . . . . 1001
21.2.4 C API Prepared Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1002
21.2.5 C API Prepared Statement Data types . . . . . . . 1003
21.2.6 C API Prepared Statement Function Overview
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1005
21.2.7 C API Prepared Statement Function Descriptions
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1008
21.2.7.1 mysql_stmt_affected_rows() . . . . . 1009
21.2.7.2 mysql_stmt_attr_get() . . . . . . . . . . . 1009
21.2.7.3 mysql_stmt_attr_set() . . . . . . . . . . . 1010
21.2.7.4 mysql_stmt_bind_param() . . . . . . . . . 1010
xxiii
21.2.7.5 mysql_stmt_bind_result() . . . . . . . . 1011
21.2.7.6 mysql_stmt_close() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1012
21.2.7.7 mysql_stmt_data_seek() . . . . . . . . . . 1013
21.2.7.8 mysql_stmt_errno() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1014
21.2.7.9 mysql_stmt_error() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1014
21.2.7.10 mysql_stmt_execute() . . . . . . . . . . . 1015
21.2.7.11 mysql_stmt_free_result() . . . . . . . 1019
21.2.7.12 mysql_stmt_insert_id() . . . . . . . . . 1019
21.2.7.13 mysql_stmt_fetch() . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1020
21.2.7.14 mysql_stmt_fetch_column(). . . . . . 1025
21.2.7.15 mysql_stmt_field_count() . . . . . . . 1025
21.2.7.16 mysql_stmt_init() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1026
21.2.7.17 mysql_stmt_num_rows() . . . . . . . . . . 1026
21.2.7.18 mysql_stmt_param_count() . . . . . . . 1027
21.2.7.19 mysql_stmt_param_metadata() . . . 1027
21.2.7.20 mysql_stmt_prepare() . . . . . . . . . . . 1028
21.2.7.21 mysql_stmt_reset() . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1029
21.2.7.22 mysql_stmt_result_metadata() . . 1029
21.2.7.23 mysql_stmt_row_seek() . . . . . . . . . . 1030
21.2.7.24 mysql_stmt_row_tell() . . . . . . . . . . 1031
21.2.7.25 mysql_stmt_send_long_data() . . . 1031
21.2.7.26 mysql_stmt_sqlstate() . . . . . . . . . . 1033
21.2.7.27 mysql_stmt_store_result(). . . . . . 1034
21.2.8 C API Handling of Multiple Query Execution
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1035
21.2.9 C API Handling of Date and Time Values . . . . 1036
21.2.10 C API Threaded Function Descriptions . . . . . 1037
21.2.10.1 my_init() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1037
21.2.10.2 mysql_thread_init() . . . . . . . . . . . . 1038
21.2.10.3 mysql_thread_end() . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1038
21.2.10.4 mysql_thread_safe() . . . . . . . . . . . . 1038
21.2.11 C API Embedded Server Function Descriptions
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1038
21.2.11.1 mysql_server_init() . . . . . . . . . . . . 1039
21.2.11.2 mysql_server_end() . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1040
21.2.12 Common questions and problems when using the
C API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1040
21.2.12.1 Why mysql_store_result() Sometimes
Returns NULL After mysql_query() Returns
Success . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1040
21.2.12.2 What Results You Can Get from a Query
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1041
21.2.12.3 How to Get the Unique ID for the Last
Inserted Row . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1041
21.2.12.4 Problems Linking with the C API . . 1042
21.2.13 Building Client Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1042
21.2.14 How to Make a Threaded Client . . . . . . . . . . . . 1043
xxiv
21.3
21.4
21.5
21.6
21.7
21.8
21.9
21.10
22
21.2.15 libmysqld, the Embedded MySQL Server Library
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1044
21.2.15.1 Overview of the Embedded MySQL
Server Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1044
21.2.15.2 Compiling Programs with libmysqld
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1045
21.2.15.3 Restrictions when using the Embedded
MySQL Server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1045
21.2.15.4 Using Option Files with the Embedded
Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1045
21.2.15.5 Things left to do in Embedded Server
(TODO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1046
21.2.15.6 A Simple Embedded Server Example
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1046
21.2.15.7 Licensing the Embedded Server . . . . 1050
MySQL ODBC Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1050
21.3.1 What is Connector/ODBC? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1050
21.3.2 What is MyODBC 2.50? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1050
21.3.3 What is MyODBC 3.51? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1050
21.3.4 How to Install MyODBC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1050
21.3.5 How to Fill in the Various Fields in the ODBC
Administrator Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1051
21.3.6 Connect parameters for MyODBC . . . . . . . . . . . 1052
21.3.7 How to Report Problems with MyODBC . . . . . 1054
21.3.8 Applications Tested with MyODBC . . . . . . . . . . 1055
21.3.9 Programs Known to Work with MyODBC . . . . 1056
21.3.10 How to Get the Value of an AUTO_INCREMENT
Column in ODBC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1061
MySQL Java Connectivity (JDBC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1061
MySQL PHP API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1061
21.5.1 Common Problems with MySQL and PHP . . . 1061
MySQL Perl API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1062
MySQL C++ API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1062
21.7.1 Borland C++ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1063
MySQL Python API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1063
MySQL Tcl API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1063
MySQL Eiffel Wrapper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1063
Error Handling in MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1064
xxv
23
Extending MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1088
23.1
MySQL Internals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1088
23.1.1 MySQL Threads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1088
23.1.2 MySQL Test Suite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1088
23.1.2.1 Running the MySQL Test Suite . . . . . 1089
23.1.2.2 Extending the MySQL Test Suite . . . 1089
23.1.2.3 Reporting Bugs in the MySQL Test Suite
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1090
23.2 Adding New Functions to MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1091
23.2.1 CREATE FUNCTION/DROP FUNCTION Syntax . . . . 1092
23.2.2 Adding a New User-defined Function . . . . . . . . . 1092
23.2.2.1 UDF Calling Sequences for simple
functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1094
23.2.2.2 UDF Calling Sequences for aggregate
functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1095
23.2.2.3 Argument Processing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1096
23.2.2.4 Return Values and Error Handling . . 1097
23.2.2.5 Compiling and Installing User-defined
Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1098
23.2.3 Adding a New Native Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1100
23.3 Adding New Procedures to MySQL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1101
23.3.1 Procedure Analyse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1101
23.3.2 Writing a Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1102
Appendix A Problems and Common Errors
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1103
A.1
A.2
A.3
How to Determine What Is Causing a Problem . . . . . . . . 1103
Common Errors When Using MySQL Programs. . . . . . . . 1104
A.2.1 Access denied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1104
A.2.2 Can’t connect to [local] MySQL server . . . . 1104
A.2.3 Client does not support authentication
protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1106
A.2.4 Password Fails When Entered Interactively . . . 1107
A.2.5 Host ’host_name ’ is blocked . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1107
A.2.6 Too many connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1108
A.2.7 Out of memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1108
A.2.8 MySQL server has gone away . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1108
A.2.9 Packet too large . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1109
A.2.10 Communication Errors and Aborted Connections
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1110
A.2.11 The table is full . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1111
A.2.12 Can’t create/write to file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1112
A.2.13 Commands out of sync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1112
A.2.14 Ignoring user . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1113
A.2.15 Table ’tbl_name ’ doesn’t exist . . . . . . . . . . 1113
A.2.16 Can’t initialize character set . . . . . . . . . . 1113
A.2.17 File Not Found . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1114
Installation-Related Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1115
xxvi
A.3.1 Problems Linking to the MySQL Client Library
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1115
A.3.2 How to Run MySQL as a Normal User . . . . . . . 1116
A.3.3 Problems with File Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1117
A.4 Administration-Related Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1117
A.4.1 How to Reset the Root Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1117
A.4.2 What to Do If MySQL Keeps Crashing . . . . . . . 1119
A.4.3 How MySQL Handles a Full Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . 1121
A.4.4 Where MySQL Stores Temporary Files . . . . . . . 1122
A.4.5 How to Protect or Change the MySQL Socket File
‘/tmp/mysql.sock’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1123
A.4.6 Time Zone Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1123
A.5 Query-Related Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1124
A.5.1 Case Sensitivity in Searches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1124
A.5.2 Problems Using DATE Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1124
A.5.3 Problems with NULL Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1125
A.5.4 Problems with Column Aliases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1127
A.5.5 Rollback Failure for Non-Transactional Tables
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1127
A.5.6 Deleting Rows from Related Tables . . . . . . . . . . . 1128
A.5.7 Solving Problems with No Matching Rows . . . . 1128
A.5.8 Problems with Floating-Point Comparisons . . . 1129
A.6 Optimizer-Related Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1131
A.7 Table Definition-Related Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1132
A.7.1 Problems with ALTER TABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1132
A.7.2 How to Change the Order of Columns in a Table
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1132
A.7.3 TEMPORARY TABLE Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1133
Appendix B Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1134
B.1
B.2
B.3
B.4
B.5
B.6
B.7
Developers at MySQL AB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contributors to MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Documenters and translators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Libraries used by and included with MySQL . . . . . . . . . . .
Packages that support MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tools that were used to create MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Supporters of MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1134
1137
1141
1142
1143
1143
1144
xxvii
Appendix C MySQL Change History. . . . . . . 1145
C.1 Changes in release 5.0.x (Development). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1145
C.1.1 Changes in release 5.0.2 (not released yet) . . . . 1145
C.1.2 Changes in release 5.0.1 (27 Jul 2004) . . . . . . . . 1147
C.1.3 Changes in release 5.0.0 (22 Dec 2003: Alpha)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1151
C.2 Changes in release 4.1.x (Gamma) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1152
C.2.1 Changes in release 4.1.6 (not released yet) . . . . 1153
C.2.2 Changes in release 4.1.5 (16 Sep 2004) . . . . . . . . 1154
C.2.3 Changes in release 4.1.4 (26 Aug 2004: Gamma)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1155
C.2.4 Changes in release 4.1.3 (28 Jun 2004: Beta) . . 1157
C.2.5 Changes in release 4.1.2 (28 May 2004) . . . . . . . 1160
C.2.6 Changes in release 4.1.1 (01 Dec 2003) . . . . . . . . 1169
C.2.7 Changes in release 4.1.0 (03 Apr 2003: Alpha)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1174
C.3 Changes in release 4.0.x (Production) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1176
C.3.1 Changes in release 4.0.22 (not released yet) . . . 1177
C.3.2 Changes in release 4.0.21 (06 Sep 2004) . . . . . . . 1178
C.3.3 Changes in release 4.0.20 (17 May 2004) . . . . . . 1180
C.3.4 Changes in release 4.0.19 (04 May 2004) . . . . . . 1180
C.3.5 Changes in release 4.0.18 (12 Feb 2004) . . . . . . . 1184
C.3.6 Changes in release 4.0.17 (14 Dec 2003) . . . . . . . 1187
C.3.7 Changes in release 4.0.16 (17 Oct 2003) . . . . . . . 1189
C.3.8 Changes in release 4.0.15 (03 Sep 2003) . . . . . . . 1192
C.3.9 Changes in release 4.0.14 (18 Jul 2003) . . . . . . . 1196
C.3.10 Changes in release 4.0.13 (16 May 2003) . . . . . 1199
C.3.11 Changes in release 4.0.12 (15 Mar 2003:
Production) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1203
C.3.12 Changes in release 4.0.11 (20 Feb 2003) . . . . . . 1205
C.3.13 Changes in release 4.0.10 (29 Jan 2003) . . . . . . 1206
C.3.14 Changes in release 4.0.9 (09 Jan 2003) . . . . . . . 1207
C.3.15 Changes in release 4.0.8 (07 Jan 2003) . . . . . . . 1207
C.3.16 Changes in release 4.0.7 (20 Dec 2002) . . . . . . . 1208
C.3.17 Changes in release 4.0.6 (14 Dec 2002: Gamma)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1208
C.3.18 Changes in release 4.0.5 (13 Nov 2002). . . . . . . 1210
C.3.19 Changes in release 4.0.4 (29 Sep 2002) . . . . . . . 1212
C.3.20 Changes in release 4.0.3 (26 Aug 2002: Beta)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1214
C.3.21 Changes in release 4.0.2 (01 Jul 2002) . . . . . . . 1215
C.3.22 Changes in release 4.0.1 (23 Dec 2001) . . . . . . . 1219
C.3.23 Changes in release 4.0.0 (Oct 2001: Alpha). . . 1220
C.4 Changes in release 3.23.x (Recent; still supported). . . . . . 1221
C.4.1 Changes in release 3.23.59 (not released yet) . . 1222
C.4.2 Changes in release 3.23.58 (11 Sep 2003) . . . . . . 1223
C.4.3 Changes in release 3.23.57 (06 Jun 2003) . . . . . . 1223
C.4.4 Changes in release 3.23.56 (13 Mar 2003) . . . . . 1225
xxviii
C.4.5 Changes in release 3.23.55 (23 Jan 2003) . . . . . . 1226
C.4.6 Changes in release 3.23.54 (05 Dec 2002) . . . . . . 1226
C.4.7 Changes in release 3.23.53 (09 Oct 2002) . . . . . . 1227
C.4.8 Changes in release 3.23.52 (14 Aug 2002) . . . . . 1228
C.4.9 Changes in release 3.23.51 (31 May 2002) . . . . . 1228
C.4.10 Changes in release 3.23.50 (21 Apr 2002). . . . . 1229
C.4.11 Changes in release 3.23.49 (14 Feb 2002) . . . . . 1230
C.4.12 Changes in release 3.23.48 (07 Feb 2002) . . . . . 1230
C.4.13 Changes in release 3.23.47 (27 Dec 2001) . . . . . 1231
C.4.14 Changes in release 3.23.46 (29 Nov 2001) . . . . 1232
C.4.15 Changes in release 3.23.45 (22 Nov 2001) . . . . 1232
C.4.16 Changes in release 3.23.44 (31 Oct 2001) . . . . . 1232
C.4.17 Changes in release 3.23.43 (04 Oct 2001) . . . . . 1234
C.4.18 Changes in release 3.23.42 (08 Sep 2001) . . . . . 1234
C.4.19 Changes in release 3.23.41 (11 Aug 2001) . . . . 1235
C.4.20 Changes in release 3.23.40 (18 Jul 2001) . . . . . 1235
C.4.21 Changes in release 3.23.39 (12 Jun 2001) . . . . . 1236
C.4.22 Changes in release 3.23.38 (09 May 2001) . . . . 1236
C.4.23 Changes in release 3.23.37 (17 Apr 2001). . . . . 1237
C.4.24 Changes in release 3.23.36 (27 Mar 2001) . . . . 1238
C.4.25 Changes in release 3.23.35 (15 Mar 2001) . . . . 1239
C.4.26 Changes in release 3.23.34a (11 Mar 2001) . . . 1239
C.4.27 Changes in release 3.23.34 (10 Mar 2001) . . . . 1239
C.4.28 Changes in release 3.23.33 (09 Feb 2001) . . . . . 1240
C.4.29 Changes in release 3.23.32 (22 Jan 2001) . . . . . 1241
C.4.30 Changes in release 3.23.31 (17 Jan 2001:
Production) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1242
C.4.31 Changes in release 3.23.30 (04 Jan 2001) . . . . . 1242
C.4.32 Changes in release 3.23.29 (16 Dec 2000) . . . . . 1243
C.4.33 Changes in release 3.23.28 (22 Nov 2000: Gamma)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1245
C.4.34 Changes in release 3.23.27 (24 Oct 2000) . . . . . 1246
C.4.35 Changes in release 3.23.26 (18 Oct 2000) . . . . . 1246
C.4.36 Changes in release 3.23.25 (29 Sep 2000) . . . . . 1247
C.4.37 Changes in release 3.23.24 (08 Sep 2000) . . . . . 1249
C.4.38 Changes in release 3.23.23 (01 Sep 2000) . . . . . 1249
C.4.39 Changes in release 3.23.22 (31 Jul 2000) . . . . . 1250
C.4.40 Changes in release 3.23.21 (04 Jul 2000) . . . . . 1251
C.4.41 Changes in release 3.23.20 (28 Jun 2000: Beta)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1251
C.4.42 Changes in release 3.23.19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1251
C.4.43 Changes in release 3.23.18 (11 Jun 2000) . . . . . 1252
C.4.44 Changes in release 3.23.17 (07 Jun 2000) . . . . . 1252
C.4.45 Changes in release 3.23.16 (16 May 2000) . . . . 1253
C.4.46 Changes in release 3.23.15 (08 May 2000) . . . . 1253
C.4.47 Changes in release 3.23.14 (09 Apr 2000). . . . . 1254
C.4.48 Changes in release 3.23.13 (14 Mar 2000) . . . . 1255
C.4.49 Changes in release 3.23.12 (07 Mar 2000) . . . . 1255
xxix
C.4.50 Changes in release 3.23.11 (16 Feb 2000) . . . . . 1256
C.4.51 Changes in release 3.23.10 (30 Jan 2000) . . . . . 1257
C.4.52 Changes in release 3.23.9 (29 Jan 2000) . . . . . . 1257
C.4.53 Changes in release 3.23.8 (02 Jan 2000) . . . . . . 1258
C.4.54 Changes in release 3.23.7 (10 Dec 1999) . . . . . . 1258
C.4.55 Changes in release 3.23.6 (15 Nov 1999) . . . . . 1259
C.4.56 Changes in release 3.23.5 (20 Oct 1999) . . . . . . 1260
C.4.57 Changes in release 3.23.4 (28 Sep 1999) . . . . . . 1260
C.4.58 Changes in release 3.23.3 (13 Sep 1999) . . . . . . 1261
C.4.59 Changes in release 3.23.2 (09 Aug 1999) . . . . . 1261
C.4.60 Changes in release 3.23.1 (08 Jul 1999) . . . . . . 1262
C.4.61 Changes in release 3.23.0 (05 Jul 1999: Alpha)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1262
C.5 Changes in release 3.22.x (Old; discontinued) . . . . . . . . . . 1264
C.5.1 Changes in release 3.22.35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1264
C.5.2 Changes in release 3.22.34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1265
C.5.3 Changes in release 3.22.33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1265
C.5.4 Changes in release 3.22.32 (14 Feb 2000) . . . . . . 1265
C.5.5 Changes in release 3.22.31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1265
C.5.6 Changes in release 3.22.30 (11 Jan 2000) . . . . . . 1265
C.5.7 Changes in release 3.22.29 (02 Jan 2000) . . . . . . 1265
C.5.8 Changes in release 3.22.28 (20 Oct 1999) . . . . . . 1266
C.5.9 Changes in release 3.22.27 (05 Oct 1999) . . . . . . 1266
C.5.10 Changes in release 3.22.26 (16 Sep 1999) . . . . . 1266
C.5.11 Changes in release 3.22.25 (07 Jun 1999) . . . . . 1266
C.5.12 Changes in release 3.22.24 (05 Jul 1999) . . . . . 1266
C.5.13 Changes in release 3.22.23 (08 Jun 1999) . . . . . 1267
C.5.14 Changes in release 3.22.22 (30 Apr 1999). . . . . 1267
C.5.15 Changes in release 3.22.21 (04 Apr 1999). . . . . 1267
C.5.16 Changes in release 3.22.20 (18 Mar 1999) . . . . 1268
C.5.17 Changes in release 3.22.19 (01 Mar 1999) . . . . 1268
C.5.18 Changes in release 3.22.18 (26 Feb 1999) . . . . . 1268
C.5.19 Changes in release 3.22.17 (22 Feb 1999:
Production) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1268
C.5.20 Changes in release 3.22.16 (05 Feb 1999) . . . . . 1268
C.5.21 Changes in release 3.22.15 (27 Jan 1999) . . . . . 1269
C.5.22 Changes in release 3.22.14 (01 Jan 1999: Gamma)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1269
C.5.23 Changes in release 3.22.13 (16 Dec 1998) . . . . . 1269
C.5.24 Changes in release 3.22.12 (09 Dec 1998) . . . . . 1270
C.5.25 Changes in release 3.22.11 (24 Nov 1998) . . . . 1270
C.5.26 Changes in release 3.22.10 (04 Nov 1998) . . . . 1271
C.5.27 Changes in release 3.22.9 (19 Oct 1998) . . . . . . 1271
C.5.28 Changes in release 3.22.8 (06 Oct 1998) . . . . . . 1272
C.5.29 Changes in release 3.22.7 (21 Sep 1998: Beta)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1272
C.5.30 Changes in release 3.22.6 (31 Aug 1998) . . . . . 1273
xxx
C.5.31 Changes in release 3.22.5 (20 Aug 1998: Alpha)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1273
C.5.32 Changes in release 3.22.4 (06 Jul 1998: Beta)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1275
C.5.33 Changes in release 3.22.3 (30 Jun 1998) . . . . . . 1275
C.5.34 Changes in release 3.22.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1275
C.5.35 Changes in release 3.22.1 (Jun 1998). . . . . . . . . 1276
C.5.36 Changes in release 3.22.0 (18 May 1998: Alpha)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1277
C.6 Changes in release 3.21.x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1278
C.6.1 Changes in release 3.21.33 (08 Jul 1998) . . . . . . 1278
C.6.2 Changes in release 3.21.32 (30 Jun 1998) . . . . . . 1278
C.6.3 Changes in release 3.21.31 (10 Jun 1998) . . . . . . 1279
C.6.4 Changes in release 3.21.30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1279
C.6.5 Changes in release 3.21.29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1279
C.6.6 Changes in release 3.21.28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1280
C.6.7 Changes in release 3.21.27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1280
C.6.8 Changes in release 3.21.26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1280
C.6.9 Changes in release 3.21.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1281
C.6.10 Changes in release 3.21.24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1281
C.6.11 Changes in release 3.21.23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1281
C.6.12 Changes in release 3.21.22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1282
C.6.13 Changes in release 3.21.21a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1282
C.6.14 Changes in release 3.21.21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1282
C.6.15 Changes in release 3.21.20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1283
C.6.16 Changes in release 3.21.19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1283
C.6.17 Changes in release 3.21.18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1283
C.6.18 Changes in release 3.21.17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1283
C.6.19 Changes in release 3.21.16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1284
C.6.20 Changes in release 3.21.15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1284
C.6.21 Changes in release 3.21.14b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1285
C.6.22 Changes in release 3.21.14a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1285
C.6.23 Changes in release 3.21.13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1286
C.6.24 Changes in release 3.21.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1286
C.6.25 Changes in release 3.21.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1287
C.6.26 Changes in release 3.21.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1287
C.6.27 Changes in release 3.21.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1288
C.6.28 Changes in release 3.21.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1288
C.6.29 Changes in release 3.21.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1288
C.6.30 Changes in release 3.21.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1289
C.6.31 Changes in release 3.21.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1289
C.6.32 Changes in release 3.21.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1289
C.6.33 Changes in release 3.21.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1289
C.6.34 Changes in release 3.21.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1290
C.6.35 Changes in release 3.21.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1291
C.7 Changes in release 3.20.x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1292
C.7.1 Changes in release 3.20.18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1292
C.7.2 Changes in release 3.20.17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1292
xxxi
C.7.3 Changes in release 3.20.16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.7.4 Changes in release 3.20.15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.7.5 Changes in release 3.20.14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.7.6 Changes in release 3.20.13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.7.7 Changes in release 3.20.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.7.8 Changes in release 3.20.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.7.9 Changes in release 3.20.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.7.10 Changes in release 3.20.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.7.11 Changes in release 3.20.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.7.12 Changes in release 3.20.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.7.13 Changes in release 3.20.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.7.14 Changes in release 3.20.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.8 Changes in release 3.19.x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.8.1 Changes in release 3.19.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.8.2 Changes in release 3.19.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.8.3 Changes in release 3.19.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.9 InnoDB Change History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.9.1 MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.21, September 10, 2004 . .
C.9.2 MySQL/InnoDB-4.1.4, August 31, 2004 . . . . . . .
C.9.3 MySQL/InnoDB-4.1.3, June 28, 2004 . . . . . . . . .
C.9.4 MySQL/InnoDB-4.1.2, May 30, 2004 . . . . . . . . .
C.9.5 MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.20, May 18, 2004 . . . . . . . .
C.9.6 MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.19, May 4, 2004 . . . . . . . . .
C.9.7 MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.18, February 13, 2004 . . . .
C.9.8 MySQL/InnoDB-5.0.0, December 24, 2003 . . . .
C.9.9 MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.17, December 17, 2003 . . .
C.9.10 MySQL/InnoDB-4.1.1, December 4, 2003 . . . .
C.9.11 MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.16, October 22, 2003 . . . .
C.9.12 MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.58, September 15, 2003
..............................................
C.9.13 MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.15, September 10, 2003 . .
C.9.14 MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.14, July 22, 2003 . . . . . . .
C.9.15 MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.57, June 20, 2003 . . . . . .
C.9.16 MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.13, May 20, 2003 . . . . . . .
C.9.17 MySQL/InnoDB-4.1.0, April 3, 2003. . . . . . . . .
C.9.18 MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.56, March 17, 2003 . . . .
C.9.19 MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.12, March 18, 2003 . . . . .
C.9.20 MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.11, February 25, 2003 . . .
C.9.21 MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.10, February 4, 2003 . . . .
C.9.22 MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.55, January 24, 2003 . . .
C.9.23 MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.9, January 14, 2003 . . . . .
C.9.24 MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.8, January 7, 2003 . . . . . .
C.9.25 MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.7, December 26, 2002 . . .
C.9.26 MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.6, December 19, 2002 . . .
C.9.27 MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.54, December 12, 2002
..............................................
C.9.28 MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.5, November 18, 2002 . . .
C.9.29 MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.53, October 9, 2002 . . . .
1293
1293
1294
1294
1295
1295
1295
1296
1296
1296
1297
1298
1298
1298
1299
1299
1299
1299
1301
1302
1303
1304
1304
1305
1306
1306
1306
1307
1307
1307
1308
1309
1309
1311
1311
1311
1311
1311
1312
1313
1313
1313
1313
1314
1314
1315
xxxii
C.9.30 MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.4, October 2, 2002 . . . . . .
C.9.31 MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.3, August 28, 2002. . . . . .
C.9.32 MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.52, August 16, 2002 . . .
C.9.33 MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.2, July 10, 2002 . . . . . . . .
C.9.34 MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.51, June 12, 2002 . . . . . .
C.9.35 MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.50, April 23, 2002 . . . . .
C.9.36 MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.49, February 17, 2002 . .
C.9.37 MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.48, February 9, 2002 . . .
C.9.38 MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.47, December 28, 2001
..............................................
C.9.39 MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.1, December 23, 2001 . . .
C.9.40 MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.46, November 30, 2001
..............................................
C.9.41 MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.45, November 23, 2001
..............................................
C.9.42 MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.44, November 2, 2001 . .
C.9.43 MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.43, October 4, 2001 . . . .
C.9.44 MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.42, September 9, 2001 . .
C.9.45 MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.41, August 13, 2001 . . .
C.9.46 MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.40, July 16, 2001 . . . . . .
C.9.47 MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.39, June 13, 2001 . . . . . .
C.9.48 MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.38, May 12, 2001 . . . . . .
C.10 MySQL Cluster Change History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.10.1 MySQL Cluster-4.1.6, Q4 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.10.2 MySQL Cluster-4.1.5, sep/oct 2004 . . . . . . . . . .
C.10.3 MySQL Cluster-4.1.4, 31 Aug 2004 . . . . . . . . . .
C.10.4 MySQL Cluster-5.0.1, 27 Jul 2004 . . . . . . . . . . .
C.10.5 MySQL Cluster-4.1.3, 28 Jun 2004 . . . . . . . . . .
1316
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1318
1319
1319
1320
1320
1321
1321
1321
1321
1322
1323
1323
1323
1323
1323
1323
1324
1324
1324
1326
1326
1326
Appendix D Porting to Other Systems . . . . . 1327
D.1 Debugging a MySQL Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1328
D.1.1 Compiling MySQL for Debugging . . . . . . . . . . . . 1328
D.1.2 Creating Trace Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1329
D.1.3 Debugging mysqld under gdb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1330
D.1.4 Using a Stack Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1331
D.1.5 Using Log Files to Find Cause of Errors in mysqld
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1332
D.1.6 Making a Test Case If You Experience Table
Corruption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1332
D.2 Debugging a MySQL Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1333
D.3 The DBUG Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1334
D.4 Comments about RTS Threads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1335
D.5 Differences Between Thread Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1337
Appendix E Environment Variables . . . . . . . . 1338
Appendix F MySQL Regular Expressions . . 1339
xxxiii
Appendix G GNU General Public License . . 1343
Appendix H MySQL FLOSS License Exception
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1349
SQL Command, Type, and Function Index . . 1351
Concept Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1360
Chapter 1: General Information
1
1 General Information
R
The MySQL °
software delivers a very fast, multi-threaded, multi-user, and robust SQL
(Structured Query Language) database server. MySQL Server is intended for missioncritical, heavy-load production systems as well as for embedding into mass-deployed software. MySQL is a registered trademark of MySQL AB.
The MySQL software is Dual Licensed. Users can choose to use the MySQL software as an
Open Source/Free Software product under the terms of the GNU General Public License
(http://www.fsf.org/licenses/) or can purchase a standard commercial license from
MySQL AB. See Section 1.4 [Licensing and Support], page 16.
The MySQL Web site (http://www.mysql.com/) provides the latest information about the
MySQL software.
The following list describes some sections of particular interest in this manual:
• For information about the company behind the MySQL Database Server, see Section 1.3
[What is MySQL AB], page 12.
• For a discussion about the capabilities of the MySQL Database Server, see Section 1.2.2
[Features], page 6.
• For installation instructions, see Chapter 2 [Installing], page 59.
• For tips on porting the MySQL Database Software to new architectures or operating
systems, see Appendix D [Porting], page 1327.
• For information about upgrading from a Version 4.0 release, see Section 2.5.2
[Upgrading-from-4.0], page 134.
• For information about upgrading from a Version 3.23 release, see Section 2.5.3
[Upgrading-from-3.23], page 139.
• For information about upgrading from a Version 3.22 release, see Section 2.5.4
[Upgrading-from-3.22], page 143.
• For a tutorial introduction to the MySQL Database Server, see Chapter 3 [Tutorial],
page 184.
• For examples of SQL and benchmarking information, see the benchmarking directory
(‘sql-bench’ in the distribution).
• For a history of new features and bugfixes, see Appendix C [News], page 1145.
• For a list of currently known bugs and misfeatures, see Section 1.8.7 [Bugs], page 52.
• For future plans, see Section 1.6 [TODO], page 26.
• For a list of all the contributors to this project, see Appendix B [Credits], page 1134.
Important:
Reports of errors (often called “bugs”), as well as questions and comments, should be
sent to the general MySQL mailing list. See Section 1.7.1.1 [Mailing-list], page 32. See
Section 1.7.1.3 [Bug reports], page 34.
The mysqlbug script should be used to generate bug reports on Unix. (Windows distributions contain a file named ‘mysqlbug.txt’ in the base directory that can be used as a
template for a bug report.)
2
MySQL Technical Reference for Version 5.0.1-alpha
For source distributions, the mysqlbug script can be found in the ‘scripts’ directory. For
binary distributions, mysqlbug can be found in the ‘bin’ directory (‘/usr/bin’ for the
MySQL-server RPM package).
If you have found a sensitive security bug in MySQL Server, please let us know immediately
by sending an email message to [email protected]
1.1 About This Manual
This is the Reference Manual for the MySQL Database System. It documents MySQL up to
Version 5.0.1-alpha, but is also applicable for older versions of the MySQL software (such as
3.23 or 4.0-production) because functional changes are indicated with reference to a version
number.
Because this manual serves as a reference, it does not provide general instruction on SQL
or relational database concepts. It also will not teach you how to use your operating system
or command-line interpreter.
The MySQL Database Software is under constant development, and the Reference Manual
is updated frequently as well. The most recent version of the manual is available online in
searchable form at http://dev.mysql.com/doc/. Other formats also are available, including HTML, PDF, and Windows CHM versions.
The primary document is the Texinfo file. The HTML version is produced automatically
using a modified version of texi2html. The plain text and Info versions are produced
with makeinfo. The PostScript version is produced using texi2dvi and dvips. The PDF
version is produced with pdftex.
If you have any suggestions concerning additions or corrections to this manual, please send
them to the documentation team at [email protected]
This manual was initially written by David Axmark and Michael “Monty” Widenius. It
is now maintained by the MySQL Documentation Team, consisting of Arjen Lentz, Paul
DuBois, and Stefan Hinz. For the many other contributors, see Appendix B [Credits],
page 1134.
The copyright (2004) to this manual is owned by the Swedish company MySQL AB. See
Section 1.4.2 [Copyright], page 17. MySQL and the MySQL logo are (registered) trademarks
of MySQL AB. Other trademarks and registered trademarks referred to in this manual are
the property of their respective owners, and are used for identification purposes only.
1.1.1 Conventions Used in This Manual
This manual uses certain typographical conventions:
constant
Constant-width font is used for command names and options; SQL statements;
database, table, and column names; C and Perl code; and environment variables. Example: “To see how mysqladmin works, invoke it with the --help
option.”
constant italic
Italic constant-width font is used to indicate variable input for which you should
substitute a value of your own choosing.
Chapter 1: General Information
3
‘filename’
Constant-width font with surrounding quotes is used for filenames and pathnames. Example: “The distribution is installed under the ‘/usr/local/’ directory.”
‘c’
Constant-width font with surrounding quotes is also used to indicate character
sequences. Example: “To specify a wildcard, use the ‘%’ character.”
italic
Italic font is used for emphasis, like this.
boldface
Boldface font is used in table headings and to convey especially strong emphasis.
When commands are shown that are meant to be executed from within a particular program, the program is indicated by a prompt shown before the command. For example,
shell> indicates a command that you execute from your login shell, and mysql> indicates
a statement that you execute from the mysql client program:
shell> type a shell command here
mysql> type a mysql statement here
The “shell” is your command interpreter. On Unix, this is typically a program such as sh
or csh. On Windows, the equivalent program is command.com or cmd.exe, typically run in
a console window.
When you enter a command or statement shown in an example, do not type the prompt
shown in the example.
Database, table, and column names must often be substituted into statements. To indicate
that such substitution is necessary, this manual uses db name, tbl name, and col name.
For example, you might see a statement like this:
mysql> SELECT col_name FROM db_name.tbl_name ;
This means that if you were to enter a similar statement, you would supply your own
database, table, and column names, perhaps like this:
mysql> SELECT author_name FROM biblio_db.author_list;
SQL keywords are not case sensitive and may be written in uppercase or lowercase. This
manual uses uppercase.
In syntax descriptions, square brackets (‘[’ and ‘]’) are used to indicate optional words or
clauses. For example, in the following statement, IF EXISTS is optional:
DROP TABLE [IF EXISTS] tbl_name
When a syntax element consists of a number of alternatives, the alternatives are separated by
vertical bars (‘|’). When one member from a set of choices may be chosen, the alternatives
are listed within square brackets (‘[’ and ‘]’):
TRIM([[BOTH | LEADING | TRAILING] [remstr ] FROM] str )
When one member from a set of choices must be chosen, the alternatives are listed within
braces (‘{’ and ‘}’):
{DESCRIBE | DESC} tbl_name [col_name | wild ]
An ellipsis (...) indicates the omission of a section of a statement, typically to provide a
shorter version of more complex syntax. For example, INSERT ... SELECT is shorthand for
the form of INSERT statement that is followed by a SELECT statement.
4
MySQL Technical Reference for Version 5.0.1-alpha
An ellipsis can also indicate that the preceding syntax element of a statement may be
repeated. In the following example, multiple reset option values may be given, with each
of those after the first preceded by commas:
RESET reset_option [,reset_option ] ...
Commands for setting shell variables are shown using Bourne shell syntax. For example,
the sequence to set an environment variable and run a command looks like this in Bourne
shell syntax:
shell> VARNAME =value some_command
If you are using csh or tcsh, you must issue commands somewhat differently. You would
execute the sequence just shown like this:
shell> setenv VARNAME value
shell> some_command
1.2 Overview of the MySQL Database Management System
MySQL, the most popular Open Source SQL database management system, is developed,
distributed, and supported by MySQL AB. MySQL AB is a commercial company, founded
by the MySQL developers. It is a second generation open source company that unites open
source values and methodology with a successful business model. See Section 1.3 [What is
MySQL AB], page 12.
The MySQL Web site (http://www.mysql.com/) provides the latest information about
MySQL software and MySQL AB.
MySQL is a database management system.
A database is a structured collection of data. It may be anything from a
simple shopping list to a picture gallery or the vast amounts of information in
a corporate network. To add, access, and process data stored in a computer
database, you need a database management system such as MySQL Server.
Since computers are very good at handling large amounts of data, database
management systems play a central role in computing, as standalone utilities
or as parts of other applications.
MySQL is a relational database management system.
A relational database stores data in separate tables rather than putting all the
data in one big storeroom. This adds speed and flexibility. The SQL part of
“MySQL” stands for “Structured Query Language.” SQL is the most common
standardized language used to access databases and is defined by the ANSI/ISO
SQL Standard. The SQL standard has been evolving since 1986 and several
versions exist. In this manual, “SQL-92” refers to the standard released in 1992,
“SQL:1999” refers to the standard released in 1999, and “SQL:2003” refers to
the current version of the standard. We use the phrase “the SQL standard” to
mean the current version of the SQL Standard at any time.
MySQL software is Open Source.
Open Source means that it is possible for anyone to use and modify the software. Anybody can download the MySQL software from the Internet and use
it without paying anything. If you wish, you may study the source code and
Chapter 1: General Information
5
change it to suit your needs. The MySQL software uses the GPL (GNU General
Public License), http://www.fsf.org/licenses/, to define what you may and
may not do with the software in different situations. If you feel uncomfortable
with the GPL or need to embed MySQL code into a commercial application,
you can buy a commercially licensed version from us. See Section 1.4.3 [MySQL
licenses], page 17.
The MySQL Database Server is very fast, reliable, and easy to use.
If that is what you are looking for, you should give it a try. MySQL Server also
has a practical set of features developed in close cooperation with our users.
You can find a performance comparison of MySQL Server with other database
managers on our benchmark page. See Section 7.1.4 [MySQL Benchmarks],
page 421.
MySQL Server was originally developed to handle large databases much faster
than existing solutions and has been successfully used in highly demanding production environments for several years. Although under constant development,
MySQL Server today offers a rich and useful set of functions. Its connectivity,
speed, and security make MySQL Server highly suited for accessing databases
on the Internet.
MySQL Server works in client/server or embedded systems.
The MySQL Database Software is a client/server system that consists of a multithreaded SQL server that supports different backends, several different client
programs and libraries, administrative tools, and a wide range of application
programming interfaces (APIs).
We also provide MySQL Server as an embedded multi-threaded library that
you can link into your application to get a smaller, faster, easier-to-manage
product.
A large amount of contributed MySQL software is available.
It is very likely that you will find that your favorite application or language
already supports the MySQL Database Server.
The official way to pronounce “MySQL” is “My Ess Que Ell” (not “my sequel”), but we
don’t mind if you pronounce it as “my sequel” or in some other localized way.
1.2.1 History of MySQL
We started out with the intention of using mSQL to connect to our tables using our own fast
low-level (ISAM) routines. However, after some testing, we came to the conclusion that
mSQL was not fast enough or flexible enough for our needs. This resulted in a new SQL
interface to our database but with almost the same API interface as mSQL. This API was
designed to allow third-party code that was written for use with mSQL to be ported easily
for use with MySQL.
The derivation of the name MySQL is not clear. Our base directory and a large number of
our libraries and tools have had the prefix “my” for well over 10 years. However, co-founder
Monty Widenius’s daughter is also named My. Which of the two gave its name to MySQL
is still a mystery, even for us.
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The name of the MySQL Dolphin (our logo) is “Sakila,” which was chosen by the founders
of MySQL AB from a huge list of names suggested by users in our “Name the Dolphin”
contest. The winning name was submitted by Ambrose Twebaze, an Open Source software
developer from Swaziland, Africa. According to Ambrose, the name Sakila has its roots
in SiSwati, the local language of Swaziland. Sakila is also the name of a town in Arusha,
Tanzania, near Ambrose’s country of origin, Uganda.
1.2.2 The Main Features of MySQL
The following list describes some of the important characteristics of the MySQL Database
Software. See also Section 1.5 [Roadmap], page 21 for more information about current and
upcoming features.
Internals and Portability
• Written in C and C++.
• Tested with a broad range of different compilers.
• Works on many different platforms. See Section 2.1.1 [Which OS], page 60.
• Uses GNU Automake, Autoconf, and Libtool for portability.
• APIs for C, C++, Eiffel, Java, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, and Tcl are available. See Chapter 21 [Clients], page 948.
• Fully multi-threaded using kernel threads. It can easily use multiple CPUs
if they are available.
• Provides transactional and non-transactional storage engines.
• Uses very fast B-tree disk tables (MyISAM) with index compression.
• Relatively easy to add another storage engine. This is useful if you want
to add an SQL interface to an in-house database.
• A very fast thread-based memory allocation system.
• Very fast joins using an optimized one-sweep multi-join.
• In-memory hash tables, which are used as temporary tables.
• SQL functions are implemented using a highly optimized class library and
should be as fast as possible. Usually there is no memory allocation at all
after query initialization.
• The MySQL code is tested with Purify (a commercial memory leakage detector) as well as with Valgrind, a GPL tool
(http://developer.kde.org/~sewardj/).
• The server is available as a separate program for use in a client/server networked environment. It is also available as a library that can be embedded
(linked) into standalone applications. Such applications can be used in
isolation or in environments where no network is available.
Column Types
• Many column types: signed/unsigned integers 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 bytes
long, FLOAT, DOUBLE, CHAR, VARCHAR, TEXT, BLOB, DATE, TIME, DATETIME,
TIMESTAMP, YEAR, SET, ENUM, and OpenGIS spatial types. See Chapter 12
[Column types], page 566.
Chapter 1: General Information
7
• Fixed-length and variable-length records.
Statements and Functions
• Full operator and function support in the SELECT and WHERE clauses of
queries. For example:
mysql> SELECT CONCAT(first_name, ’ ’, last_name)
-> FROM citizen
-> WHERE income/dependents > 10000 AND age > 30;
• Full support for SQL GROUP BY and ORDER BY clauses. Support for group
functions (COUNT(), COUNT(DISTINCT ...), AVG(), STD(), SUM(), MAX(),
MIN(), and GROUP_CONCAT()).
• Support for LEFT OUTER JOIN and RIGHT OUTER JOIN with both standard
SQL and ODBC syntax.
• Support for aliases on tables and columns as required by standard SQL.
• DELETE, INSERT, REPLACE, and UPDATE return the number of rows that were
changed (affected). It is possible to return the number of rows matched
instead by setting a flag when connecting to the server.
• The MySQL-specific SHOW command can be used to retrieve information
about databases, tables, and indexes. The EXPLAIN command can be used
to determine how the optimizer resolves a query.
• Function names do not clash with table or column names. For example,
ABS is a valid column name. The only restriction is that for a function call,
no spaces are allowed between the function name and the ‘(’ that follows
it. See Section 10.6 [Reserved words], page 535.
• You can mix tables from different databases in the same query (as of
MySQL 3.22).
Security
• A privilege and password system that is very flexible and secure, and that
allows host-based verification. Passwords are secure because all password
traffic is encrypted when you connect to a server.
Scalability and Limits
• Handles large databases. We use MySQL Server with databases that contain 50 million records. We also know of users who use MySQL Server with
60,000 tables and about 5,000,000,000 rows.
• Up to 64 indexes per table are allowed (32 before MySQL 4.1.2). Each
index may consist of 1 to 16 columns or parts of columns. The maximum
index width is 1000 bytes (500 before MySQL 4.1.2). An index may use a
prefix of a column for CHAR, VARCHAR, BLOB, or TEXT column types.
Connectivity
• Clients can connect to the MySQL server using TCP/IP sockets on any
platform. On Windows systems in the NT family (NT, 2000, or XP), clients
can connect using named pipes. On Unix systems, clients can connect using
Unix domain socket files.
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MySQL Technical Reference for Version 5.0.1-alpha
• The Connector/ODBC (MyODBC) interface provides MySQL support for
client programs that use ODBC (Open Database Connectivity) connections. For example, you can use MS Access to connect to your MySQL
server. Clients can be run on Windows or Unix. MyODBC source is available. All ODBC 2.5 functions are supported, as are many others. See
Section 21.3 [ODBC], page 1050.
• The Connector/J interface provides MySQL support for Java client programs that use JDBC connections. Clients can be run on Windows or
Unix. Connector/J source is available. See Section 21.4 [Java], page 1061.
Localization
• The server can provide error messages to clients in many languages. See
Section 5.8.2 [Languages], page 360.
• Full support for several different character sets, including latin1 (ISO8859-1), german, big5, ujis, and more. For example, the Scandinavian
characters ‘^
a’, ‘ä’ and ‘ö’ are allowed in table and column names. Unicode
support is available as of MySQL 4.1.
• All data is saved in the chosen character set. All comparisons for normal
string columns are case-insensitive.
• Sorting is done according to the chosen character set (using Swedish collation by default). It is possible to change this when the MySQL server
is started. To see an example of very advanced sorting, look at the Czech
sorting code. MySQL Server supports many different character sets that
can be specified at compile time and runtime.
Clients and Tools
• The MySQL server has built-in support for SQL statements to check, optimize, and repair tables. These statements are available from the command
line through the mysqlcheck client. MySQL also includes myisamchk, a
very fast command-line utility for performing these operations on MyISAM
tables. See Chapter 5 [MySQL Database Administration], page 231.
• All MySQL programs can be invoked with the --help or -? options to
obtain online assistance.
1.2.3 MySQL Stability
This section addresses the questions, “How stable is MySQL Server? ” and, “Can I depend
on MySQL Server in this project? ” We will try to clarify these issues and answer some
important questions that concern many potential users. The information in this section is
based on data gathered from the mailing lists, which are very active in identifying problems
as well as reporting types of use.
The original code stems back to the early 1980s. It provides a stable code base, and the
ISAM table format used by the original storage engine remains backward-compatible. At
TcX, the predecessor of MySQL AB, MySQL code has worked in projects since mid-1996,
without any problems. When the MySQL Database Software initially was released to a
wider public, our new users quickly found some pieces of untested code. Each new release
Chapter 1: General Information
9
since then has had fewer portability problems, even though each new release has also had
many new features.
Each release of the MySQL Server has been usable. Problems have occurred only when
users try code from the “gray zones.” Naturally, new users don’t know what the gray zones
are; this section therefore attempts to document those areas that are currently known. The
descriptions mostly deal with Version 3.23, 4.0 and 4.1 of MySQL Server. All known and
reported bugs are fixed in the latest version, with the exception of those listed in the bugs
section, which are design-related. See Section 1.8.7 [Bugs], page 52.
The MySQL Server design is multi-layered with independent modules. Some of the newer
modules are listed here with an indication of how well-tested each of them is:
Replication (Stable)
Large groups of servers using replication are in production use, with good results. Work on enhanced replication features is continuing in MySQL 5.x.
InnoDB tables (Stable)
The InnoDB transactional storage engine has been declared stable in the MySQL
3.23 tree, starting from version 3.23.49. InnoDB is being used in large, heavyload production systems.
BDB tables (Stable)
The Berkeley DB code is very stable, but we are still improving the BDB transactional storage engine interface in MySQL Server, so it will take some time
before this is as well tested as the other table types.
Full-text searches (Stable)
Full-text searching works but is not yet widely used. Important enhancements
have been implemented in MySQL 4.0.
MyODBC 3.51 (Stable)
MyODBC 3.51 uses ODBC SDK 3.51 and is in wide production use. Some issues
brought up appear to be application-related and independent of the ODBC
driver or underlying database server.
Automatic recovery of MyISAM tables (Stable)
This status applies only to the new code in the MyISAM storage engine that
checks when opening a table whether it was closed properly and executes an
automatic check or repair of the table if it wasn’t.
1.2.4 How Big MySQL Tables Can Be
MySQL 3.22 had a 4GB (4 gigabyte) limit on table size. With the MyISAM storage engine in
MySQL 3.23, the maximum table size was increased to 8 million terabytes (2 ^ 63 bytes).
With this larger allowed table size, the maximum effective table size for MySQL databases
now usually is determined by operating system constraints on file sizes, not by MySQL
internal limits.
The InnoDB storage engine maintains InnoDB tables within a tablespace that can be created from several files. This allows a table to exceed the maximum individual file size.
The tablespace can include raw disk partitions, which allows extremely large tables. The
maximum tablespace size is 64TB.
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The following table lists some examples of operating system file-size limits:
Operating System
Linux-Intel 32-bit
Linux-Alpha
Solaris 2.5.1
Solaris 2.6
Solaris 2.7 Intel
Solaris 2.7 UltraSPARC
NetWare w/NSS filesystem
File-size Limit
2GB, much more when using LFS
8TB (?)
2GB (4GB possible with patch)
4GB (can be changed with flag)
4GB
512GB
8TB
On Linux 2.2, you can get MyISAM tables larger than 2GB in size by using the Large File
Support (LFS) patch for the ext2 filesystem. On Linux 2.4, patches also exist for ReiserFS
to get support for big files. Most current Linux distributions are based on kernel 2.4 and
already include all the required LFS patches. However, the maximum available file size still
depends on several factors, one of them being the filesystem used to store MySQL tables.
For a detailed overview about LFS in Linux, have a look at Andreas Jaeger’s Large File
Support in Linux page at http://www.suse.de/~aj/linux_lfs.html.
By default, MySQL creates MyISAM tables with an internal structure that allows a maximum
size of about 4GB. You can check the maximum table size for a table with the SHOW TABLE
STATUS statement or with myisamchk -dv tbl_name . See Section 14.5.3 [SHOW], page 744.
If you need a MyISAM table that will be larger than 4GB in size (and your operating system
supports large files), the CREATE TABLE statement allows AVG_ROW_LENGTH and MAX_ROWS
options. See Section 14.2.6 [CREATE TABLE], page 710. You can also change these options
with ALTER TABLE after the table has been created, to increase the table’s maximum allowable size. See Section 14.2.2 [ALTER TABLE], page 704.
Other ways to work around file-size limits for MyISAM tables are as follows:
• If your large table is read-only, you can use myisampack to compress it. myisampack
usually compresses a table by at least 50%, so you can have, in effect, much bigger
tables. myisampack also can merge multiple tables into a single table. See Section 8.2
[myisampack], page 480.
• Another way to get around the operating system file limit for MyISAM data files is by
using the RAID options. See Section 14.2.6 [CREATE TABLE], page 710.
• MySQL includes a MERGE library that allows you to handle a collection of MyISAM tables
that have identical structure as a single MERGE table. See Section 15.2 [MERGE tables],
page 792.
1.2.5 Year 2000 Compliance
The MySQL Server itself has no problems with Year 2000 (Y2K) compliance:
• MySQL Server uses Unix time functions that handle dates into the year 2037 for
TIMESTAMP values. For DATE and DATETIME values, dates through the year 9999 are
accepted.
• All MySQL date functions are implemented in one source file, ‘sql/time.cc’, and are
coded very carefully to be year 2000-safe.
Chapter 1: General Information
11
• In MySQL 3.22 and later, the YEAR column type can store years 0 and 1901 to 2155 in
one byte and display them using two or four digits. All two-digit years are considered
to be in the range 1970 to 2069, which means that if you store 01 in a YEAR column,
MySQL Server treats it as 2001.
The following simple demonstration illustrates that MySQL Server has no problems with
DATE or DATETIME values through the year 9999, and no problems with TIMESTAMP values
until after the year 2030:
mysql> DROP TABLE IF EXISTS y2k;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)
mysql> CREATE TABLE y2k (date DATE,
->
date_time DATETIME,
->
time_stamp TIMESTAMP);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)
mysql> INSERT INTO y2k VALUES
-> (’1998-12-31’,’1998-12-31 23:59:59’,19981231235959),
-> (’1999-01-01’,’1999-01-01 00:00:00’,19990101000000),
-> (’1999-09-09’,’1999-09-09 23:59:59’,19990909235959),
-> (’2000-01-01’,’2000-01-01 00:00:00’,20000101000000),
-> (’2000-02-28’,’2000-02-28 00:00:00’,20000228000000),
-> (’2000-02-29’,’2000-02-29 00:00:00’,20000229000000),
-> (’2000-03-01’,’2000-03-01 00:00:00’,20000301000000),
-> (’2000-12-31’,’2000-12-31 23:59:59’,20001231235959),
-> (’2001-01-01’,’2001-01-01 00:00:00’,20010101000000),
-> (’2004-12-31’,’2004-12-31 23:59:59’,20041231235959),
-> (’2005-01-01’,’2005-01-01 00:00:00’,20050101000000),
-> (’2030-01-01’,’2030-01-01 00:00:00’,20300101000000),
-> (’2040-01-01’,’2040-01-01 00:00:00’,20400101000000),
-> (’9999-12-31’,’9999-12-31 23:59:59’,99991231235959);
Query OK, 14 rows affected (0.01 sec)
Records: 14 Duplicates: 0 Warnings: 2
mysql> SELECT * FROM y2k;
+------------+---------------------+----------------+
| date
| date_time
| time_stamp
|
+------------+---------------------+----------------+
| 1998-12-31 | 1998-12-31 23:59:59 | 19981231235959 |
| 1999-01-01 | 1999-01-01 00:00:00 | 19990101000000 |
| 1999-09-09 | 1999-09-09 23:59:59 | 19990909235959 |
| 2000-01-01 | 2000-01-01 00:00:00 | 20000101000000 |
| 2000-02-28 | 2000-02-28 00:00:00 | 20000228000000 |
| 2000-02-29 | 2000-02-29 00:00:00 | 20000229000000 |
| 2000-03-01 | 2000-03-01 00:00:00 | 20000301000000 |
| 2000-12-31 | 2000-12-31 23:59:59 | 20001231235959 |
| 2001-01-01 | 2001-01-01 00:00:00 | 20010101000000 |
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| 2004-12-31 | 2004-12-31 23:59:59 | 20041231235959 |
| 2005-01-01 | 2005-01-01 00:00:00 | 20050101000000 |
| 2030-01-01 | 2030-01-01 00:00:00 | 20300101000000 |
| 2040-01-01 | 2040-01-01 00:00:00 | 00000000000000 |
| 9999-12-31 | 9999-12-31 23:59:59 | 00000000000000 |
+------------+---------------------+----------------+
14 rows in set (0.00 sec)
The final two TIMESTAMP column values are zero because the year values (2040, 9999)
exceed the TIMESTAMP maximum. The TIMESTAMP data type, which is used to store the
current time, supports values that range from 19700101000000 to 20300101000000 on 32bit machines (signed value). On 64-bit machines, TIMESTAMP handles values up to 2106
(unsigned value).
Although MySQL Server itself is Y2K-safe, you may run into problems if you use it with
applications that are not Y2K-safe. For example, many old applications store or manipulate
years using two-digit values (which are ambiguous) rather than four-digit values. This
problem may be compounded by applications that use values such as 00 or 99 as “missing”
value indicators. Unfortunately, these problems may be difficult to fix because different
applications may be written by different programmers, each of whom may use a different
set of conventions and date-handling functions.
Thus, even though MySQL Server has no Y2K problems, it is the application’s responsibility
to provide unambiguous input. See Section 12.3.4 [Y2K issues], page 583 for MySQL Server’s
rules for dealing with ambiguous date input data that contains two-digit year values.
1.3 Overview of MySQL AB
MySQL AB is the company of the MySQL founders and main developers. MySQL AB was
originally established in Sweden by David Axmark, Allan Larsson, and Michael “Monty”
Widenius.
The developers of the MySQL server are all employed by the company. We are a virtual organization with people in a dozen countries around the world. We communicate extensively
over the Internet every day with one another and with our users, supporters, and partners.
We are dedicated to developing the MySQL database software and promoting it to new
users. MySQL AB owns the copyright to the MySQL source code, the MySQL logo and
(registered) trademark, and this manual. See Section 1.2 [What-is], page 4.
The MySQL core values show our dedication to MySQL and Open Source.
These core values direct how MySQL AB works with the MySQL server software:
• To be the best and the most widely used database in the world
• To be available and affordable by all
• To be easy to use
• To be continuously improved while remaining fast and safe
• To be fun to use and improve
• To be free from bugs
These are the core values of the company MySQL AB and its employees:
Chapter 1: General Information
•
•
•
•
•
•
13
We subscribe to the Open Source philosophy and support the Open Source community
We aim to be good citizens
We prefer partners that share our values and mindset
We answer email and provide support
We are a virtual company, networking with others
We work against software patents
The MySQL Web site (http://www.mysql.com/) provides the latest information about
MySQL and MySQL AB.
By the way, the “AB” part of the company name is the acronym for the Swedish “aktiebolag,” or “stock company.” It translates to “MySQL, Inc.” In fact, MySQL, Inc. and
MySQL GmbH are examples of MySQL AB subsidiaries. They are located in the US and
Germany, respectively.
1.3.1 The Business Model and Services of MySQL AB
One of the most common questions we encounter is, “How can you make a living from
something you give away for free? ” This is how:
• MySQL AB makes money on support, services, commercial licenses, and royalties.
• We use these revenues to fund product development and to expand the MySQL business.
The company has been profitable since its inception. In October 2001, we accepted venture financing from leading Scandinavian investors and a handful of business angels. This
investment is used to solidify our business model and build a basis for sustainable growth.
1.3.1.1 Support
MySQL AB is run and owned by the founders and main developers of the MySQL database.
The developers are committed to providing support to customers and other users in order
to stay in touch with their needs and problems. All our support is provided by qualified
developers. Really tricky questions are answered by Michael “Monty” Widenius, principal
author of the MySQL Server.
Paying customers receive high-quality support directly from MySQL AB. MySQL AB also
provides the MySQL mailing lists as a community resource where anyone may ask questions.
For more information and ordering support at various levels, see Section 1.4 [Licensing and
Support], page 16.
1.3.1.2 Training and Certification
MySQL AB delivers MySQL and related training worldwide. We offer both open courses
and in-house courses tailored to the specific needs of your company. MySQL Training is
also available through our partners, the Authorized MySQL Training Centers.
Our training material uses the same sample databases used in our documentation and
our sample applications, and is always updated to reflect the latest MySQL version. Our
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trainers are backed by the development team to guarantee the quality of the training and
the continuous development of the course material. This also ensures that no questions
raised during the courses remain unanswered.
Attending our training courses will enable you to achieve your MySQL application goals.
You will also:
• Save time
• Improve the performance of your applications
• Reduce or eliminate the need for additional hardware, decreasing cost
• Enhance security.
• Increase customer and co-worker satisfaction
• Prepare yourself for MySQL Certification
If you are interested in our training as a potential participant or as a training partner,
please visit the training section at http://www.mysql.com/training/, or send email to
[email protected]
For details about the MySQL Certification Program, please see http://www.mysql.com/certification/.
1.3.1.3 Consulting
MySQL AB and its Authorized Partners offer consulting services to users of MySQL Server
and to those who embed MySQL Server in their own software, all over the world.
Our consultants can help you design and tune your databases, construct efficient queries,
tune your platform for optimal performance, resolve migration issues, set up replication,
build robust transactional applications, and more. We also help customers embed MySQL
Server in their products and applications for large-scale deployment.
Our consultants work in close collaboration with our development team, which ensures the
technical quality of our professional services. Consulting assignments range from two-day
power-start sessions to projects that span weeks and months. Our expertise covers not only
MySQL Server, it also extends into programming and scripting languages such as PHP,
Perl, and more.
If you are interested in our consulting services or want to become a consulting partner,
please visit the consulting section of our Web site at http://www.mysql.com/consulting/
or contact our consulting staff at [email protected]
1.3.1.4 Commercial Licenses
The MySQL database is released under the GNU General Public License (GPL). This means
that the MySQL software can be used free of charge under the GPL. If you do not want
to be bound by the GPL terms (such as the requirement that your application must also
be GPL), you may purchase a commercial license for the same product from MySQL AB;
see https://order.mysql.com/. Since MySQL AB owns the copyright to the MySQL
source code, we are able to employ Dual Licensing, which means that the same product is
available under GPL and under a commercial license. This does not in any way affect the
Open Source commitment of MySQL AB. For details about when a commercial license is
required, please see Section 1.4.3 [MySQL licenses], page 17.
Chapter 1: General Information
15
We also sell commercial licenses of third-party Open Source GPL software that adds value
to MySQL Server. A good example is the InnoDB transactional storage engine that offers
ACID support, row-level locking, crash recovery, multi-versioning, foreign key support, and
more. See Chapter 16 [InnoDB], page 804.
1.3.1.5 Partnering
MySQL AB has a worldwide partner program that covers training courses, consulting and
support, publications, plus reselling and distributing MySQL and related products. MySQL
AB Partners get visibility on the http://www.mysql.com/ Web site and the right to use
special versions of the MySQL (registered) trademarks to identify their products and promote their business.
If you are interested in becoming a MySQL AB Partner, please email [email protected]
The word MySQL and the MySQL dolphin logo are (registered) trademarks of MySQL
AB. See Section 1.4.4 [MySQL AB Logos and Trademarks], page 20. These trademarks
represent a significant value that the MySQL founders have built over the years.
The MySQL Web site (http://www.mysql.com/) is popular among developers and users. In
December 2003, we served 16 million page views. Our visitors represent a group that makes
purchase decisions and recommendations for both software and hardware. Twelve percent
of our visitors authorize purchase decisions, and only nine percent have no involvement at
all in purchase decisions. More than 65% have made one or more online business purchases
within the last half-year, and 70% plan to make one in the next few months.
1.3.2 Contact Information
The MySQL Web site (http://www.mysql.com/) provides the latest information about
MySQL and MySQL AB.
For press services and inquiries not covered in our news releases (http://www.mysql.com/news-and-events/),
please send email to [email protected]
If you have a support contract with MySQL AB, you will get timely, precise answers to
your technical questions about the MySQL software. For more information, see Section 1.4.1
[Support], page 16. On our Web site, see http://www.mysql.com/support/, or send email
to [email protected]
For information about MySQL training, please visit the training section at
http://www.mysql.com/training/, or send email to [email protected]
See
Section 1.3.1.2 [Business Services Training], page 13.
For information on the MySQL Certification Program, please see http://www.mysql.com/certification/.
See Section 1.3.1.2 [Business Services Training], page 13.
If you’re interested in consulting, please visit the consulting section of our Web site at
http://www.mysql.com/consulting/, or send email to [email protected] See Section 1.3.1.3 [Business Services Consulting], page 14.
Commercial licenses may be purchased online at https://order.mysql.com/. There you
will also find information on how to fax your purchase order to MySQL AB. More information about licensing can be found at http://www.mysql.com/products/licensing/.
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If you have questions regarding licensing or you want a quote for high-volume licensing,
please fill in the contact form on our Web site (http://www.mysql.com/), or send email to
[email protected] (for licensing questions) or to [email protected] (for sales inquiries).
See Section 1.4.3 [MySQL licenses], page 17.
If you represent a business that is interested in partnering with MySQL AB, please send
email to [email protected] See Section 1.3.1.5 [Business Services Partnering], page 15.
For more information on the MySQL trademark policy, refer to http://www.mysql.com/company/trademark.h
or send email to [email protected] See Section 1.4.4 [MySQL AB Logos and
Trademarks], page 20.
If you are interested in any of the MySQL AB jobs listed in our jobs section
(http://www.mysql.com/company/jobs/), please send email to [email protected] Please
do not send your CV as an attachment, but rather as plain text at the end of your email
message.
For general discussion among our many users, please direct your attention to the appropriate
mailing list. See Section 1.7.1 [Questions], page 32.
Reports of errors (often called “bugs”), as well as questions and comments, should be sent
to the general MySQL mailing list. See Section 1.7.1.1 [Mailing-list], page 32. If you have
found a sensitive security bug in MySQL Server, please let us know immediately by sending
email to [email protected] See Section 1.7.1.3 [Bug reports], page 34.
If you have benchmark results that we can publish, please contact us via email at
[email protected]
If you have suggestions concerning additions or corrections to this manual, please send them
to the documentation team via email at [email protected]
For questions or comments about the workings or content of the MySQL Web site
(http://www.mysql.com/), please send email to [email protected]
MySQL AB has a privacy policy, which can be read at http://www.mysql.com/company/privacy.html.
For any queries regarding this policy, please send email to [email protected]
For all other inquiries, please send email to [email protected]
1.4 MySQL Support and Licensing
This section describes MySQL support and licensing arrangements.
1.4.1 Support Offered by MySQL AB
Technical support from MySQL AB means individualized answers to your unique problems
direct from the software engineers who code the MySQL database engine.
We try to take a broad and inclusive view of technical support. Almost any problem involving MySQL software is important to us if it’s important to you. Typically customers seek
help on how to get different commands and utilities to work, remove performance bottlenecks, restore crashed systems, understand the impact of operating system or networking
issues on MySQL, set up best practices for backup and recovery, utilize APIs, and so on.
Our support covers only the MySQL server and our own utilities, not third-party products
that access the MySQL server, although we try to help with these where we can.
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17
Detailed information about our various support options is given at http://www.mysql.com/support/,
where support contracts can also be ordered online. To contact our sales staff, send email
to [email protected]
Technical support is like life insurance. You can live happily without it for years. However,
when your hour arrives, it becomes critically important, but it’s too late to buy it. If you
use MySQL Server for important applications and encounter sudden difficulties, it may be
too time-consuming to figure out all the answers yourself. You may need immediate access
to the most experienced MySQL troubleshooters available, those employed by MySQL AB.
1.4.2 Copyrights and Licenses Used by MySQL
MySQL AB owns the copyright to the MySQL source code, the MySQL logos and (registered) trademarks, and this manual. See Section 1.3 [What is MySQL AB], page 12. Several
different licenses are relevant to the MySQL distribution:
1. All the MySQL-specific source in the server, the mysqlclient library and the client,
as well as the GNU readline library, are covered by the GNU General Public License.
See Appendix G [GPL license], page 1343. The text of this license can be found as the
file ‘COPYING’ in MySQL distributions.
2. The GNU getopt library is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License. See
http://www.fsf.org/licenses/.
3. Some parts of the source (the regexp library) are covered by a Berkeley-style copyright.
4. Older versions of MySQL (3.22 and earlier) are subject to a stricter license
(http://www.mysql.com/products/licensing/mypl.html). See the documentation
of the specific version for information.
5. The MySQL Reference Manual is not distributed under a GPL-style license. Use of
the manual is subject to the following terms:
• Conversion to other formats is allowed, but the actual content may not be altered
or edited in any way.
• You may create a printed copy for your own personal use.
• For all other uses, such as selling printed copies or using (parts of) the manual in
another publication, prior written agreement from MySQL AB is required.
Please send an email message to [email protected] for more information or if you are
interested in doing a translation.
For information about how the MySQL licenses work in practice, please refer to Section 1.4.3
[MySQL licenses], page 17 and Section 1.4.4 [MySQL AB Logos and Trademarks], page 20.
1.4.3 MySQL Licenses
The MySQL software is released under the GNU General Public License (GPL),
which is probably the best known Open Source license.
The formal terms of
the GPL license can be found at http://www.fsf.org/licenses/.
See also
http://www.fsf.org/licenses/gpl-faq.html and http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/enforcing-gpl.html
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Our GPL licensing is supported by an optional license exception that enables many Free/Libre and Open Source Software (“FLOSS”) applications to include the GPL-licensed MySQL client libraries despite the fact
that not all FLOSS licenses are compatible with the GPL. For details, see
http://www.mysql.com/products/licensing/foss-exception.html.
Because the MySQL software is released under the GPL, it may often be used for free,
but for certain uses you may want or need to buy commercial licenses from MySQL AB
at https://order.mysql.com/. See http://www.mysql.com/products/licensing/ for
more information.
Older versions of MySQL (3.22 and earlier) are subject to a stricter license
(http://www.mysql.com/products/licensing/mypl.html). See the documentation of
the specific version for information.
Please note that the use of the MySQL software under commercial license, GPL, or the old
MySQL license does not automatically give you the right to use MySQL AB (registered)
trademarks. See Section 1.4.4 [MySQL AB Logos and Trademarks], page 20.
1.4.3.1 Using the MySQL Software Under a Commercial License
The GPL license is contagious in the sense that when a program is linked to a GPL program,
all the source code for all the parts of the resulting product must also be released under the
GPL. If you do not follow this GPL requirement, you break the license terms and forfeit
your right to use the GPL program altogether. You also risk damages.
You need a commercial license under these conditions:
• When you link a program with any GPL code from the MySQL software and don’t
want the resulting product to be licensed under GPL, perhaps because you want to
build a commercial product or keep the added non-GPL code closed source for other
reasons. When purchasing commercial licenses, you are not using the MySQL software
under GPL even though it’s the same code.
• When you distribute a non-GPL application that works only with the MySQL software
and ship it with the MySQL software. This type of solution is considered to be linking
even if it’s done over a network.
• When you distribute copies of the MySQL software without providing the source code
as required under the GPL license.
• When you want to support the further development of the MySQL database even if you
don’t formally need a commercial license. Purchasing support directly from MySQL
AB is another good way of contributing to the development of the MySQL software,
with immediate advantages for you. See Section 1.4.1 [Support], page 16.
Our GPL licensing is supported by an optional license exception that enables many Free/Libre and Open Source Software (“FLOSS”) applications to include the GPL-licensed MySQL client libraries despite the fact
that not all FLOSS licenses are compatible with the GPL. For details, see
http://www.mysql.com/products/licensing/foss-exception.html.
If you require a commercial license, you will need one for each installation of the MySQL
software. This covers any number of CPUs on a machine, and there is no artificial limit on
the number of clients that connect to the server in any way.
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19
For commercial licenses, please visit our Web site at http://www.mysql.com/products/licensing/.
For support contracts, see http://www.mysql.com/support/. If you have special needs,
please contact our sales staff via email at [email protected]
1.4.3.2 Using the MySQL Software for Free Under GPL
You can use the MySQL software for free under the GPL if you adhere to the
conditions of the GPL. For additional details about the GPL, including answers
to common questions, see the generic FAQ from the Free Software Foundation at
http://www.fsf.org/licenses/gpl-faq.html.
Our GPL licensing is supported by an optional license exception that enables many Free/Libre and Open Source Software (“FLOSS”) applications to include the GPL-licensed MySQL client libraries despite the fact
that not all FLOSS licenses are compatible with the GPL. For details, see
http://www.mysql.com/products/licensing/foss-exception.html.
Common uses of the GPL include:
• When you distribute both your own application and the MySQL source code under the
GPL with your product.
• When you distribute the MySQL source code bundled with other programs that are
not linked to or dependent on the MySQL system for their functionality even if you sell
the distribution commercially. This is called “mere aggregation” in the GPL license.
• When you are not distributing any part of the MySQL system, you can use it for free.
• When you are an Internet Service Provider (ISP), offering Web hosting with MySQL
servers for your customers. We encourage people to use ISPs that have MySQL support,
because doing so will give them the confidence that their ISP will, in fact, have the
resources to solve any problems they may experience with the MySQL installation.
Even if an ISP does not have a commercial license for MySQL Server, their customers
should at least be given read access to the source of the MySQL installation so that
the customers can verify that it is correctly patched.
• When you use the MySQL database software in conjunction with a Web server, you
do not need a commercial license (so long as it is not a product you distribute). This
is true even if you run a commercial Web server that uses MySQL Server, because
you are not distributing any part of the MySQL system. However, in this case we
would like you to purchase MySQL support because the MySQL software is helping
your enterprise.
If your use of MySQL database software does not require a commercial license, we encourage
you to purchase support from MySQL AB anyway. This way you contribute toward MySQL
development and also gain immediate advantages for yourself. See Section 1.4.1 [Support],
page 16.
If you use the MySQL database software in a commercial context such that you profit by its
use, we ask that you further the development of the MySQL software by purchasing some
level of support. We feel that if the MySQL database helps your business, it is reasonable
to ask that you help MySQL AB. (Otherwise, if you ask us support questions, you are not
only using for free something into which we’ve put a lot a work, you’re asking us to provide
free support, too.)
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1.4.4 MySQL AB Logos and Trademarks
Many users of the MySQL database want to display the MySQL AB dolphin logo on
their Web sites, books, or boxed products. We welcome and encourage this, although
it should be noted that the word MySQL and the MySQL dolphin logo are (registered)
trademarks of MySQL AB and may only be used as stated in our trademark policy at
http://www.mysql.com/company/trademark.html.
1.4.4.1 The Original MySQL Logo
The MySQL dolphin logo was designed by the Finnish advertising agency Priority in 2001.
The dolphin was chosen as a suitable symbol for the MySQL database management system,
which is like a smart, fast, and lean animal, effortlessly navigating oceans of data. We also
happen to like dolphins.
The original MySQL logo may only be used by representatives of MySQL AB and by those
having a written agreement allowing them to do so.
1.4.4.2 MySQL Logos That May Be Used Without Written
Permission
We have designed a set of special Conditional Use logos that may be downloaded from
our Web site at http://www.mysql.com/press/logos.html and used on third-party Web
sites without written permission from MySQL AB. The use of these logos is not entirely
unrestricted but, as the name implies, subject to our trademark policy that is also available
on our Web site. You should read through the trademark policy if you plan to use them.
The requirements are basically as follows:
• Use the logo you need as displayed on the http://www.mysql.com/ site. You may
scale it to fit your needs, but may not change colors or design, or alter the graphics in
any way.
• Make it evident that you, and not MySQL AB, are the creator and owner of the site
that displays the MySQL (registered) trademark.
• Don’t use the trademark in a way that is detrimental to MySQL AB or to the value of
MySQL AB trademarks. We reserve the right to revoke the right to use the MySQL
AB trademark.
• If you use the trademark on a Web site, make it clickable, leading directly to
http://www.mysql.com/.
• If you use the MySQL database under GPL in an application, your application must
be Open Source and must be able to connect to a MySQL server.
Contact us via email at [email protected] to inquire about special arrangements to fit
your needs.
1.4.4.3 When You Need Written Permission to Use MySQL Logos
You need written permission from MySQL AB before using MySQL logos in the following
cases:
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21
• When displaying any MySQL AB logo anywhere except on your Web site.
• When displaying any MySQL AB logo except the Conditional Use logos (mentioned
previously) on Web sites or elsewhere.
Due to legal and commercial reasons, we monitor the use of MySQL (registered) trademarks
on products, books, and other items. We usually require a fee for displaying MySQL AB
logos on commercial products, since we think it is reasonable that some of the revenue is
returned to fund further development of the MySQL database.
1.4.4.4 MySQL AB Partnership Logos
MySQL partnership logos may be used only by companies and persons having a written
partnership agreement with MySQL AB. Partnerships include certification as a MySQL
trainer or consultant. For more information, please see Section 1.3.1.5 [Partnering], page 15.
1.4.4.5 Using the Word MySQL in Printed Text or Presentations
MySQL AB welcomes references to the MySQL database, but it should be noted that
the word MySQL is a registered trademark of MySQL AB. Because of this, you must
append the “registered trademark” notice symbol (R) to the first or most prominent use
of the word MySQL in a text and, where appropriate, state that MySQL is a registered
trademark of MySQL AB. For more information, please refer to our trademark policy at
http://www.mysql.com/company/trademark.html.
1.4.4.6 Using the Word MySQL in Company and Product Names
Use of the word MySQL in company or product names or in Internet domain names is not allowed without written permission from MySQL AB.
http://www.mysql.com/company/contact/.
1.5 MySQL Development Roadmap
This section provides a snapshot of the MySQL development roadmap, including major
features implemented or planned for MySQL 4.0, 4.1, 5.0, and 5.1. The following sections
provide information for each release series.
The production release series is MySQL 4.0, which was declared stable for production use
as of Version 4.0.12, released in March 2003. This means that future 4.0 development is
limited only to bugfixes. For the older MySQL 3.23 series, only critical bugfixes are made.
4.1 is available in gamma status and will soon move to production stage.
Active MySQL development currently is taking place in the MySQL 5.0 release series, this
means that new features are being added there. MySQL 5.0 is available in alpha status.
Before upgrading from one release series to the next, please see the notes at Section 2.5
[Upgrade], page 133.
Plans for some of the most requested features are summarized in the following table.
Feature
MySQL Series
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Unions
Subqueries
R-trees
Stored procedures
Views
Cursors
Foreign keys
Triggers
Full outer join
Constraints
4.0
4.1
4.1 (for MyISAM tables)
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.1 (already implemented in 3.23 for InnoDB)
5.0 and 5.1
5.1
5.1
1.5.1 MySQL 4.0 in a Nutshell
MySQL Server 4.0 is available in production status.
MySQL 4.0 is available for download at http://dev.mysql.com/ and from our mirrors.
MySQL 4.0 has been tested by a large number of users and is in production use at many
large sites.
The major new features of MySQL Server 4.0 are geared toward our existing business and
community users, enhancing the MySQL database software as the solution for missioncritical, heavy-load database systems. Other new features target the users of embedded
databases.
1.5.1.1 Features Available in MySQL 4.0
Speed enhancements
• MySQL 4.0 has a query cache that can give a huge speed boost to applications with repetitive queries. See Section 5.11 [Query Cache], page 379.
• Version 4.0 further increases the speed of MySQL Server in a number of
areas, such as bulk INSERT statements, searching on packed indexes, fulltext searching (using FULLTEXT indexes), and COUNT(DISTINCT).
Embedded MySQL Server introduced
• The new Embedded Server library can easily be used to create standalone
and embedded applications. The embedded server provides an alternative to using MySQL in a client/server environment. See Section 1.5.1.2
[Nutshell Embedded MySQL], page 23.
InnoDB storage engine as standard
• The InnoDB storage engine is offered as a standard feature of the MySQL
server. This means full support for ACID transactions, foreign keys with
cascading UPDATE and DELETE, and row-level locking are now standard
features. See Chapter 16 [InnoDB], page 804.
New functionality
• The enhanced FULLTEXT search properties of MySQL Server 4.0 enables
FULLTEXT indexing of large text masses with both binary and naturallanguage searching logic. You can customize minimal word length and
Chapter 1: General Information
23
define your own stop word lists in any human language, enabling a new set
of applications to be built with MySQL Server. See Section 13.6 [Fulltext
Search], page 635.
Standards compliance, portability, and migration
• Many users will also be happy to learn that MySQL Server now supports
the UNION statement, a long-awaited standard SQL feature.
• MySQL runs natively on the Novell NetWare platform beginning with NetWare 6.0. See Section 2.2.4 [NetWare installation], page 95.
• Features to simplify migration from other database systems to MySQL
Server include TRUNCATE TABLE (as in Oracle).
Internationalization
• Our German, Austrian, and Swiss users will note that MySQL 4.0 now
supports a new character set, latin1_de, which ensures that the German
sorting order sorts words with umlauts in the same order as do German
telephone books.
Usability enhancements
In the process of implementing features for new users, we have not forgotten
requests from our loyal community of existing users.
• Most mysqld parameters (startup options) can be set without taking
down the server. This is a convenient feature for database administrators
(DBAs). See Section 14.5.3.1 [SET OPTION], page 745.
• Multiple-table DELETE and UPDATE statements have been added.
• On Windows, symbolic link handling at the database level is enabled by
default. On Unix, the MyISAM storage engine supports symbolic linking at
the table level (and not just the database level as before).
• SQL_CALC_FOUND_ROWS and FOUND_ROWS() are new functions that make it
possible to find out the number of rows a SELECT query that includes a
LIMIT clause would have returned without that clause.
The news section of this manual includes a more in-depth list of features. See Section C.3
[News-4.0.x], page 1176.
1.5.1.2 The Embedded MySQL Server
The libmysqld embedded server library makes MySQL Server suitable for a vastly expanded
realm of applications. By using this library, developers can embed MySQL Server into
various applications and electronics devices, where the end user has no knowledge of there
actually being an underlying database. Embedded MySQL Server is ideal for use behind
the scenes in Internet appliances, public kiosks, turnkey hardware/software combination
units, high performance Internet servers, self-contained databases distributed on CD-ROM,
and so on.
Many users of libmysqld will benefit from the MySQL Dual Licensing. For those not
wishing to be bound by the GPL, the software is also made available under a commercial
license. The embedded MySQL library uses the same interface as the normal client library,
so it is convenient and easy to use. See Section 21.2.15 [libmysqld], page 1044.
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On windows there are two different libraries:
libmysqld.lib
mysqldemb.lib
Dynamic library for threaded applications.
Static library for not threaded applications.
1.5.2 MySQL 4.1 in a Nutshell
MySQL Server 4.0 laid the foundation for new features implemented in MySQL 4.1, such
as subqueries and Unicode support, and for the work on stored procedures being done in
version 5.0. These features come at the top of the wish list of many of our customers.
Already well-known for its stability, speed, and ease of use, MySQL Server is now able to
fulfill the requirement checklists of very demanding buyers.
MySQL 4.1 is now available in gamma status, and will be production soon.
1.5.2.1 Features Available in MySQL 4.1
This section lists features implemented in MySQL 4.1.
New features currently being coded are or will be available in MySQL 5.0. See Section 1.6.1
[TODO MySQL 5.0], page 26.
Support for subqueries and derived tables
• A “subquery” is a SELECT statement nested within another statement. A
“derived table” (an unnamed view) is a subquery in the FROM clause of
another statement. See Section 14.1.8 [Subqueries], page 692.
Speed enhancements
• Faster binary client/server protocol with support for prepared statements
and parameter binding. See Section 21.2.4 [C API Prepared statements],
page 1002.
• BTREE indexing is supported for HEAP tables, significantly improving response time for non-exact searches.
New functionality
• CREATE TABLE tbl_name2 LIKE tbl_name1 allows you to create, with a
single statement, a new table with a structure exactly like that of an existing table.
• The MyISAM storage engine supports OpenGIS spatial types for storing geographical data. See Chapter 19 [Spatial extensions in MySQL], page 907.
• Replication can be done over SSL connections.
Standards compliance, portability, and migration
• The new client/server protocol adds the ability to pass multiple warnings
to the client, rather than only a single result. This makes it much easier
to track problems that occur in operations such as bulk data loading.
• SHOW WARNINGS shows warnings for the last command. See Section 14.5.3.21
[SHOW WARNINGS], page 763.
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Internationalization and Localization
• To support applications that require the use of local languages, the MySQL
software offers extensive Unicode support through the utf8 and ucs2 character sets.
• Character sets can be defined per column, table, and database. This allows
for a high degree of flexibility in application design, particularly for multilanguage Web sites.
• For documentation for this improved character set support, see Chapter 11
[Charset], page 539.
• Per-connection time zones are supported, allowing individual clients to
select their own time zone when necessary.
Usability enhancements
• In response to popular demand, we have added a server-based HELP command that can be used to get help information for SQL statements. The
advantage of having this information on the server side is that the information is always applicable to the particular server version that you
actually are using. Because this information is available by issuing an SQL
statement, any client can be written to access it. For example, the help
command of the mysql command-line client has been modified to have this
capability.
• In the new client/server protocol, multiple statements can be issued with
a single call. See Section 21.2.8 [C API multiple queries], page 1035.
• The new client/server protocol also supports returning multiple result sets.
This might occur as a result of sending multiple statements, for example.
• A new INSERT ... ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE ... syntax has been implemented. This allows you to UPDATE an existing row if the INSERT would
have caused a duplicate in a PRIMARY or UNIQUE index. See Section 14.1.4
[INSERT], page 669.
• A new aggregate function, GROUP_CONCAT() adds the extremely useful capability of concatenating column values from grouped rows into a single
result string. See Section 13.9 [Group by functions and modifiers], page 658.
The news section of this manual includes a more in-depth list of features. See Section C.2
[News-4.1.x], page 1152.
1.5.2.2 Stepwise Rollout
The gamma version of MySQL 4.1 is available for download. See Section 1.5.2.3 [Nutshell
Ready for Immediate Use], page 26.
MySQL 4.1 is currently in the Gamma stage (indicating that a production release is just
weeks ahead). At the end of this process, MySQL 4.1 will become the new production
release.
Development is already ongoing for version 5.0.
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1.5.2.3 Ready for Immediate Development Use
MySQL 4.1 is currently in the gamma stage, and binaries are available for download at
http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mysql/4.1.html. All binary releases pass our extensive test suite without any errors on the platforms on which we test. See Section C.2
[News-4.1.x], page 1152.
For those wishing to use the most recent development source for MySQL 4.1, we also make
our BitKeeper repositories publicly available. See Section 2.3.3 [Installing source tree],
page 106.
1.5.3 MySQL 5.0: The Next Development Release
New development for MySQL is focused on the 5.0 release, featuring stored procedures,
updatable views, rudimentary triggers, and other new features. See Section 1.6.1 [TODO
MySQL 5.0], page 26.
For those wishing to take a look at the bleeding edge of MySQL development, we make our
BitKeeper repository for MySQL version 5.0 publicly available. See Section 2.3.3 [Installing
source tree], page 106. As of December 2003, binary builds of version 5.0 have also been
available.
1.6 MySQL and the Future (the TODO)
This section summarizes the features that we plan to implement in MySQL Server. The
items are ordered by release series. Within a list, items are shown in approximately the
order they will be done.
Note: If you are an enterprise-level user with an urgent need for a particular feature, please
contact [email protected] to discuss sponsoring options. Targeted financing by sponsor
companies allows us to allocate additional resources for specific purposes. One example of
a feature sponsored in the past is replication.
1.6.1 New Features Planned for 5.0
The following features are planned for inclusion into MySQL 5.0. Some of the features such
as stored procedures are complete and are included in MySQL 5.0 alpha, which is available
now. Others such as cursors are only partially available. Expect these and other features
to mature and be fully supported in upcoming releases.
Note that because we have many developers that are working on different projects, there
will also be many additional features. There is also a small chance that some of these
features will be added to MySQL 4.1. For a list what is already done in MySQL 4.1, see
Section 1.5.2.1 [Nutshell 4.1 features], page 24.
For those wishing to take a look at the bleeding edge of MySQL development, we make our
BitKeeper repository for MySQL version 5.0 publicly available. See Section 2.3.3 [Installing
source tree], page 106. As of December 2003, binary builds of version 5.0 are also available.
Views
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27
• Views, implemented in stepwise fashion up to full functionality. See Section 1.8.5.6 [ANSI diff Views], page 49. See Section 14.2.7 [CREATE
VIEW], page 722.
Stored Procedures
• Stored procedures currently are implemented, based on the SQL:2003 standard. See Chapter 20 [Stored Procedures], page 936.
New functionality
• Elementary cursor support. See Section 20.1.8 [Cursors], page 944.
• The ability to specify explicitly for MyISAM tables that an index should
be created as an RTREE index. (In MySQL 4.1, RTREE indexes are used
internally for geometrical data that use GIS data types, but cannot be
created on request.)
• Dynamic length rows for MEMORY tables.
Standards compliance, portability and migration
• Support for Data Dictionary / INFORMATION_SCHEMA.
• Add true VARCHAR support (column lengths longer than 255, and no stripping of trailing whitespace). There is already support for this in the MyISAM
storage engine, but it is not yet available at the user level.
Speed enhancements
• SHOW COLUMNS FROM tbl_name (used by the mysql client to allow expansions of column names) should not open the table, only the definition file.
This will require less memory and be much faster.
• Allow DELETE on MyISAM tables to use the record cache. To do this, we
need to update the threads record cache when we update the ‘.MYD’ file.
• Better support for MEMORY tables:
• Dynamic length rows.
• Faster row handling (less copying).
Usability enhancements
• Resolving the issue of RENAME TABLE on a table used in an active MERGE
table possibly corrupting the table.
The news section of this manual includes a more in-depth list of features. See Section C.1
[News-5.0.x], page 1145.
1.6.2 New Features Planned for 5.1
New functionality
• FOREIGN KEY support for all table types, not just InnoDB.
• Column-level constraints. See Section 1.8.6 [Constraints], page 50.
• Online backup with very low performance penalty. The online backup will
make it easy to add a new replication slave without taking down the master.
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Speed enhancements
• New text based table definition file format (‘.frm’ files) and a table cache
for table definitions. This will enable us to do faster queries of table structures and do more efficient foreign key support.
• Optimize the BIT type to take one bit. (BIT now takes one byte; it is
treated as a synonym for TINYINT.)
Usability enhancements
• Add options to the client/server protocol to get progress notes for long
running commands.
• Implement RENAME DATABASE. To make this safe for all storage engines, it
should work as follows:
1. Create the new database.
2. For every table, do a rename of the table to another database, as we
do with the RENAME command.
3. Drop the old database.
• New internal file interface change. This will make all file handling much
more general and make it easier to add extensions like RAID.
1.6.3 New Features Planned for the Near Future
New functionality
• Oracle-like CONNECT BY PRIOR to search tree-like (hierarchical) structures.
• Add all missing standard SQL and ODBC 3.0 types.
• Add SUM(DISTINCT).
• INSERT SQL_CONCURRENT and mysqld --concurrent-insert to do a concurrent insert at the end of a table if the table is read-locked.
• Allow variables to be updated in UPDATE statements. For example: UPDATE
foo SET @a:=a+b,[email protected], [email protected]+c.
• Change when user variables are updated so that you can use them with
GROUP BY, as in the following statement: SELECT id, @a:=COUNT(*),
SUM(sum_col )/@a FROM tbl_name GROUP BY id.
• Add an IMAGE option to LOAD DATA INFILE to not update TIMESTAMP and
AUTO_INCREMENT columns.
• Add LOAD DATA INFILE ... UPDATE syntax that works like this:
• For tables with primary keys, if an input record contains a primary key
value, existing rows matching that primary key value are updated from
the remainder of the input columns. However, columns corresponding
to columns that are missing from the input record are not touched.
• For tables with primary keys, if an input record does not contain the
primary key value or is missing some part of the key, the record is
treated as LOAD DATA INFILE ... REPLACE INTO.
• Make LOAD DATA INFILE understand syntax like this:
Chapter 1: General Information
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
29
LOAD DATA INFILE ’file_name.txt’ INTO TABLE tbl_name
TEXT_FIELDS (text_col1, text_col2, text_col3)
SET table_col1=CONCAT(text_col1, text_col2),
table_col3=23
IGNORE text_col3
This can be used to skip over extra columns in the text file, or update
columns based on expressions of the read data.
New functions for working with SET type columns:
• ADD_TO_SET(value,set )
• REMOVE_FROM_SET(value,set )
If you abort mysql in the middle of a query, you should open another
connection and kill the old running query. Alternatively, an attempt should
be made to detect this in the server.
Add a storage engine interface for table information so that you can use it
as a system table. This would be a bit slow if you requested information
about all tables, but very flexible. SHOW INFO FROM tbl_name for basic
table information should be implemented.
Allow SELECT a FROM tbl_name1 LEFT JOIN tbl_name2 USING (a); in
this case a is assumed to come from tbl name1.
DELETE and REPLACE options to the UPDATE statement (this will delete rows
when a duplicate-key error occurs while updating).
Change the format of DATETIME to store fractions of seconds.
Make it possible to use the new GNU regexp library instead of the current
one (the new library should be much faster than the current one).
Standards compliance, portability and migration
• Add ANY(), EVERY(), and SOME() group functions. In standard SQL, these
work only on boolean columns, but we can extend these to work on any
columns or expressions by treating a value of zero as FALSE and non-zero
values as TRUE.
• Fix the type of MAX(column) to be the same as the column type:
mysql> CREATE TABLE t1 (a DATE);
mysql> INSERT INTO t1 VALUES (NOW());
mysql> CREATE TABLE t2 SELECT MAX(a) FROM t1;
mysql> SHOW COLUMNS FROM t2;
Speed enhancements
• Don’t allow more than a defined number of threads to run MyISAM recovery
at the same time.
• Change INSERT INTO ... SELECT to optionally use concurrent inserts.
• Add an option to periodically flush key pages for tables with delayed keys
if they haven’t been used in a while.
• Allow join on key parts (optimization issue).
• Add a log file analyzer that can extract information about which tables are
hit most often, how often multiple-table joins are executed, and so on. This
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MySQL Technical Reference for Version 5.0.1-alpha
should help users identify areas of table design that could be optimized to
execute much more efficient queries.
Usability enhancements
• Return the original column types when doing SELECT MIN(column) ...
GROUP BY.
• Make it possible to specify long_query_time with a granularity in microseconds.
• Link the myisampack code into the server so that it can perform PACK or
COMPRESS operations.
• Add a temporary key buffer cache during INSERT/DELETE/UPDATE so that
we can gracefully recover if the index file gets full.
• If you perform an ALTER TABLE on a table that is symlinked to another
disk, create temporary tables on that disk.
• Implement a DATE/DATETIME type that handles time zone information properly, to make dealing with dates in different time zones easier.
• Fix configure so that all libraries (like MyISAM) can be compiled without
threads.
• Allow user variables as LIMIT arguments; for example, LIMIT @a,@b.
• Automatic output from mysql to a Web browser.
• LOCK DATABASES (with various options).
• Many more variables for SHOW STATUS. Record reads and updates. Selects
on a single table and selects with joins. Mean number of tables in selects.
Number of ORDER BY and GROUP BY queries.
• mysqladmin copy database new-database; this requires a COPY operation
to be added to mysqld.
• Processlist output should indicate the number of queries/threads.
• SHOW HOSTS for printing information about the hostname cache.
• Change table names from empty strings to NULL for calculated columns.
• Don’t use Item_copy_string on numerical values to avoid number-tostring-to-number conversion in case of SELECT COUNT(*)*(id+0) FROM
tbl_name GROUP BY id.
• Change so that ALTER TABLE doesn’t abort clients that execute INSERT
DELAYED.
• Fix so that when columns are referenced in an UPDATE clause, they contain
the old values from before the update started.
New operating systems
• Port the MySQL clients to LynxOS.
1.6.4 New Features Planned for the Mid-Term Future
• Implement function: get_changed_tables(timeout,table1,table2,...).
• Change reading through tables to use mmap() when possible. Now only compressed
tables use mmap().
Chapter 1: General Information
31
• Make the automatic timestamp code nicer. Add timestamps to the update log with
SET TIMESTAMP=val;.
• Use read/write mutex in some places to get more speed.
• Automatically close some tables if a table, temporary table, or temporary file gets error
23 (too many open files).
• Better constant propagation. When an occurrence of col name=n is found in an expression, for some constant n, replace other occurrences of col name within the expression
with n. Currently, this is done only for some simple cases.
• Change all const expressions with calculated expressions if possible.
• Optimize key = expr comparisons. At the moment, only key = column or key =
constant comparisons are optimized.
• Join some of the copy functions for nicer code.
• Change ‘sql_yacc.yy’ to an inline parser to reduce its size and get better error messages.
• Change the parser to use only one rule per different number of arguments in function.
• Use of full calculation names in the order part (for Access97).
• MINUS, INTERSECT, and FULL OUTER JOIN. (Currently UNION and LEFT|RIGHT OUTER
JOIN are supported.)
• Allow SQL_OPTION MAX_SELECT_TIME=val, for placing a time limit on a query.
• Allow updates to be logged to a database.
• Enhance LIMIT to allow retrieval of data from the end of a result set.
• Alarm around client connect/read/write functions.
• Please note the changes to mysqld_safe: According to FSSTND (which Debian tries
to follow), PID files should go into ‘/var/run/<progname>.pid’ and log files into
‘/var/log’. It would be nice if you could put the "DATADIR" in the first declaration of "pidfile" and "log" so that the placement of these files can be changed with
a single statement.
• Allow a client to request logging.
• Allow the LOAD DATA INFILE statement to read files that have been compressed with
gzip.
• Fix sorting and grouping of BLOB columns (partly solved now).
• Change to use semaphores when counting threads. One should first implement a
semaphore library for MIT-pthreads.
• Add full support for JOIN with parentheses.
• As an alternative to the one-thread-per-connection model, manage a pool of threads
to handle queries.
• Allow GET_LOCK() to obtain more than one lock. When doing this, it is also necessary
to handle the possible deadlocks this change will introduce.
1.6.5 New Features We Don’t Plan to Implement
We aim toward full compliance with ANSI/ISO SQL. There are no features we plan not to
implement.
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1.7 MySQL Information Sources
1.7.1 MySQL Mailing Lists
This section introduces the MySQL mailing lists and provides guidelines as to how the lists
should be used. When you subscribe to a mailing list, you will receive all postings to the
list as email messages. You can also send your own questions and answers to the list.
1.7.1.1 The MySQL Mailing Lists
To subscribe to or unsubscribe from any of the mailing lists described in this section, visit
http://lists.mysql.com/. For most of them, you can select the regular version of the list
where you get individual messages, or a digest version where you get one large message per
day.
Please do not send messages about subscribing or unsubscribing to any of the mailing lists,
because such messages are distributed automatically to thousands of other users.
Your local site may have many subscribers to a MySQL mailing list. If so, the site may
have a local mailing list, so that messages sent from lists.mysql.com to your site are
propagated to the local list. In such cases, please contact your system administrator to be
added to or dropped from the local MySQL list.
If you wish to have traffic for a mailing list go to a separate mailbox in your mail program, set
up a filter based on the message headers. You can use either the List-ID: or DeliveredTo: headers to identify list messages.
The MySQL mailing lists are as follows:
announce
This list is for announcements of new versions of MySQL and related programs.
This is a low-volume list to which all MySQL users should subscribe.
mysql
This is the main list for general MySQL discussion. Please note that some
topics are better discussed on the more-specialized lists. If you post to the
wrong list, you may not get an answer.
bugs
This list will be of interest to you if you want to stay informed about issues
reported since the last release of MySQL or if you want to be actively involved
in the process of bug hunting and fixing. See Section 1.7.1.3 [Bug reports],
page 34.
internals
This list is for people who work on the MySQL code. This is also the forum for
discussions on MySQL development and for posting patches.
mysqldoc
This list is for people who work on the MySQL documentation: people from
MySQL AB, translators, and other community members.
benchmarks
This list is for anyone interested in performance issues. Discussions concentrate
on database performance (not limited to MySQL), but also include broader
categories such as performance of the kernel, filesystem, disk system, and so
on.
Chapter 1: General Information
33
packagers
This list is for discussions on packaging and distributing MySQL. This is the
forum used by distribution maintainers to exchange ideas on packaging MySQL
and on ensuring that MySQL looks and feels as similar as possible on all supported platforms and operating systems.
java
This list is for discussions about the MySQL server and Java. It is mostly used
to discuss JDBC drivers, including MySQL Connector/J.
win32
This list is for all topics concerning the MySQL software on Microsoft operating
systems, such as Windows 9x, Me, NT, 2000, and XP.
myodbc
This list is for all topics concerning connecting to the MySQL server with
ODBC.
gui-tools
This list is for all topics concerning MySQL GUI tools, including MySQL
Administrator and the MySQL Control Center graphical client.
cluster
This list is for discussion of MySQL Cluster.
dotnet
This list is for discussion of the MySQL server and the .NET platform. Mostly
related to the MySQL Connector/Net provider.
plusplus
This list is for all topics concerning programming with the C++ API for MySQL.
perl
This list is for all topics concerning the Perl support for MySQL with
DBD::mysql.
If you’re unable to get an answer to your questions from a MySQL mailing list, one option
is to purchase support from MySQL AB. This will put you in direct contact with MySQL
developers. See Section 1.4.1 [Support], page 16.
The following table shows some MySQL mailing lists in languages other than English. These
lists are not operated by MySQL AB.
[email protected]
A French mailing list.
[email protected]
A Korean mailing list. Email subscribe mysql [email protected] to this
list.
[email protected]
A German mailing list. Email subscribe mysql-de [email protected]
to this list.
You can find information about this mailing list at
http://www.4t2.com/mysql/.
[email protected]
A Portuguese mailing list. Email subscribe mysql-br [email protected]
to this list.
[email protected]
A Spanish mailing list. Email subscribe mysql [email protected] to this
list.
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MySQL Technical Reference for Version 5.0.1-alpha
1.7.1.2 Asking Questions or Reporting Bugs
Before posting a bug report or question, please do the following:
• Start by searching the MySQL online manual at http://dev.mysql.com/doc/. We try
to keep the manual up to date by updating it frequently with solutions to newly found
problems. The change history (http://dev.mysql.com/doc/mysql/en/News.html)
can be particularly useful since it is quite possible that a newer version already contains
a solution to your problem.
• Search in the bugs database at http://bugs.mysql.com/ to see whether the bug has
already been reported and fixed.
• Search the MySQL mailing list archives at http://lists.mysql.com/.
• You can also use http://www.mysql.com/search/ to search all the Web pages (including the manual) that are located at the MySQL AB Web site.
If you can’t find an answer in the manual or the archives, check with your local MySQL
expert. If you still can’t find an answer to your question, please follow the guidelines on
sending mail to a MySQL mailing list, outlined in the next section, before contacting us.
1.7.1.3 How to Report Bugs or Problems
The normal place to report bugs is http://bugs.mysql.com/, which is the address for our
bugs database. This database is public, and can be browsed and searched by anyone. If
you log in to the system, you will also be able to enter new reports.
Writing a good bug report takes patience, but doing it right the first time saves time both
for us and for yourself. A good bug report, containing a full test case for the bug, makes
it very likely that we will fix the bug in the next release. This section will help you write
your report correctly so that you don’t waste your time doing things that may not help us
much or at all.
We encourage everyone to use the mysqlbug script to generate a bug report (or a report
about any problem). mysqlbug can be found in the ‘scripts’ directory (source distribution)
and in the ‘bin’ directory under your MySQL installation directory (binary distribution).
If you are unable to use mysqlbug (for example, if you are running on Windows), it is still
vital that you include all the necessary information noted in this section (most importantly,
a description of the operating system and the MySQL version).
The mysqlbug script helps you generate a report by determining much of the following
information automatically, but if something important is missing, please include it with
your message. Please read this section carefully and make sure that all the information
described here is included in your report.
Preferably, you should test the problem using the latest production or development version
of MySQL Server before posting. Anyone should be able to repeat the bug by just using
mysql test < script_file on the included test case or by running the shell or Perl script
that is included in the bug report.
All bugs posted in the bugs database at http://bugs.mysql.com/ will be corrected or
documented in the next MySQL release. If only minor code changes are needed to correct
a problem, we may also post a patch that fixes the problem.
Chapter 1: General Information
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If you have found a sensitive security bug in MySQL, you can send email to
[email protected]
If you have a repeatable bug report, please report it to the bugs database at
http://bugs.mysql.com/. Note that even in this case it’s good to run the mysqlbug
script first to find information about your system. Any bug that we are able to repeat has
a high chance of being fixed in the next MySQL release.
To report other problems, you can use one of the MySQL mailing lists.
Remember that it is possible for us to respond to a message containing too much information, but not to one containing too little. People often omit facts because they think they
know the cause of a problem and assume that some details don’t matter. A good principle is
this: If you are in doubt about stating something, state it. It is faster and less troublesome
to write a couple more lines in your report than to wait longer for the answer if we must
ask you to provide information that was missing from the initial report.
The most common errors made in bug reports are (a) not including the version number of the
MySQL distribution used, and (b) not fully describing the platform on which the MySQL
server is installed (including the platform type and version number). This is highly relevant
information, and in 99 cases out of 100, the bug report is useless without it. Very often we
get questions like, “Why doesn’t this work for me?” Then we find that the feature requested
wasn’t implemented in that MySQL version, or that a bug described in a report has already
been fixed in newer MySQL versions. Sometimes the error is platform-dependent; in such
cases, it is next to impossible for us to fix anything without knowing the operating system
and the version number of the platform.
If you compiled MySQL from source, remember also to provide information about your
compiler, if it is related to the problem. Often people find bugs in compilers and think the
problem is MySQL-related. Most compilers are under development all the time and become
better version by version. To determine whether your problem depends on your compiler,
we need to know what compiler you use. Note that every compiling problem should be
regarded as a bug and reported accordingly.
It is most helpful when a good description of the problem is included in the bug report.
That is, give a good example of everything you did that led to the problem and describe,
in exact detail, the problem itself. The best reports are those that include a full example
showing how to reproduce the bug or problem. See Section D.1.6 [Reproduceable test case],
page 1333.
If a program produces an error message, it is very important to include the message in your
report. If we try to search for something from the archives using programs, it is better that
the error message reported exactly matches the one that the program produces. (Even the
lettercase should be observed.) You should never try to reproduce from memory what the
error message was; instead, copy and paste the entire message into your report.
If you have a problem with Connector/ODBC (MyODBC), please try to generate a trace
file and send it with your report. See Section 21.3.7 [MyODBC bug report], page 1054.
Please remember that many of the people who will read your report will do so using an
80-column display. When generating reports or examples using the mysql command-line
tool, you should therefore use the --vertical option (or the \G statement terminator) for
output that would exceed the available width for such a display (for example, with the
EXPLAIN SELECT statement; see the example later in this section).
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Please include the following information in your report:
• The version number of the MySQL distribution you are using (for example, MySQL
4.0.12). You can find out which version you are running by executing mysqladmin
version. The mysqladmin program can be found in the ‘bin’ directory under your
MySQL installation directory.
• The manufacturer and model of the machine on which you experience the problem.
• The operating system name and version. If you work with Windows, you can usually get
the name and version number by double-clicking your My Computer icon and pulling
down the “Help/About Windows” menu. For most Unix-like operating systems, you
can get this information by executing the command uname -a.
• Sometimes the amount of memory (real and virtual) is relevant. If in doubt, include
these values.
• If you are using a source distribution of the MySQL software, the name and version
number of the compiler used are needed. If you have a binary distribution, the distribution name is needed.
• If the problem occurs during compilation, include the exact error messages and also a
few lines of context around the offending code in the file where the error occurs.
• If mysqld died, you should also report the query that crashed mysqld. You can usually
find this out by running mysqld with query logging enabled, and then looking in the
log after mysqld crashes See Section D.1.5 [Using log files], page 1332.
• If a database table is related to the problem, include the output from mysqldump -no-data db_name tbl_name . This is very easy to do and is a powerful way to get
information about any table in a database. The information will help us create a
situation matching the one you have.
• For speed-related bugs or problems with SELECT statements, you should always include
the output of EXPLAIN SELECT ..., and at least the number of rows that the SELECT
statement produces. You should also include the output from SHOW CREATE TABLE tbl_
name for each involved table. The more information you give about your situation, the
more likely it is that someone can help you.
The following is an example of a very good bug report. It should be posted with the
mysqlbug script. The example uses the mysql command-line tool. Note the use of the
\G statement terminator for statements whose output width would otherwise exceed
that of an 80-column display device.
mysql> SHOW VARIABLES;
mysql> SHOW COLUMNS FROM ...\G
<output from SHOW COLUMNS>
mysql> EXPLAIN SELECT ...\G
<output from EXPLAIN>
mysql> FLUSH STATUS;
mysql> SELECT ...;
<A short version of the output from SELECT,
including the time taken to run the query>
mysql> SHOW STATUS;
<output from SHOW STATUS>
Chapter 1: General Information
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• If a bug or problem occurs while running mysqld, try to provide an input script that
will reproduce the anomaly. This script should include any necessary source files. The
more closely the script can reproduce your situation, the better. If you can make a
reproducible test case, you should post it on http://bugs.mysql.com/ for high-priority
treatment.
If you can’t provide a script, you should at least include the output from mysqladmin
variables extended-status processlist in your mail to provide some information
on how your system is performing.
• If you can’t produce a test case with only a few rows, or if the test table is too big to
be mailed to the mailing list (more than 10 rows), you should dump your tables using
mysqldump and create a ‘README’ file that describes your problem.
Create a compressed archive of your files using tar and gzip or zip, and use FTP to
transfer the archive to ftp://ftp.mysql.com/pub/mysql/upload/. Then enter the
problem into our bugs database at http://bugs.mysql.com/.
• If you think that the MySQL server produces a strange result from a query, include
not only the result, but also your opinion of what the result should be, and an account
describing the basis for your opinion.
• When giving an example of the problem, it’s better to use the variable names, table
names, and so on that exist in your actual situation than to come up with new names.
The problem could be related to the name of a variable or table. These cases are rare,
perhaps, but it is better to be safe than sorry. After all, it should be easier for you to
provide an example that uses your actual situation, and it is by all means better for
us. In case you have data that you don’t want to show to others, you can use FTP to
transfer it to ftp://ftp.mysql.com/pub/mysql/upload/. If the information is really
top secret and you don’t want to show it even to us, then go ahead and provide an
example using other names, but please regard this as the last choice.
• Include all the options given to the relevant programs, if possible. For example, indicate
the options that you use when you start the mysqld server as well as the options that
you use to run any MySQL client programs. The options to programs such as mysqld
and mysql, and to the configure script, are often keys to answers and are very relevant.
It is never a bad idea to include them. If you use any modules, such as Perl or PHP,
please include the version numbers of those as well.
• If your question is related to the privilege system, please include the output of
mysqlaccess, the output of mysqladmin reload, and all the error messages you
get when trying to connect. When you test your privileges, you should first run
mysqlaccess. After this, execute mysqladmin reload version and try to connect
with the program that gives you trouble. mysqlaccess can be found in the ‘bin’
directory under your MySQL installation directory.
• If you have a patch for a bug, do include it. But don’t assume that the patch is all we
need, or that we will use it, if you don’t provide some necessary information such as
test cases showing the bug that your patch fixes. We might find problems with your
patch or we might not understand it at all; if so, we can’t use it.
If we can’t verify exactly what the purpose of the patch is, we won’t use it. Test cases
will help us here. Show that the patch will handle all the situations that may occur.
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•
•
•
•
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MySQL Technical Reference for Version 5.0.1-alpha
If we find a borderline case (even a rare one) where the patch won’t work, it may be
useless.
Guesses about what the bug is, why it occurs, or what it depends on are usually
wrong. Even the MySQL team can’t guess such things without first using a debugger
to determine the real cause of a bug.
Indicate in your bug report that you have checked the reference manual and mail archive
so that others know you have tried to solve the problem yourself.
If you get a parse error, please check your syntax closely. If you can’t find something
wrong with it, it’s extremely likely that your current version of MySQL Server doesn’t
support the syntax you are using. If you are using the current version and the manual at
http://dev.mysql.com/doc/ doesn’t cover the syntax you are using, MySQL Server
doesn’t support your query. In this case, your only options are to implement the syntax
yourself or email [email protected] and ask for an offer to implement it.
If the manual covers the syntax you are using, but you have an older version of MySQL
Server, you should check the MySQL change history to see when the syntax was implemented. In this case, you have the option of upgrading to a newer version of MySQL
Server. See Appendix C [News], page 1145.
If your problem is that your data appears corrupt or you get errors when you access a particular table, you should first check and then try to repair your tables with
CHECK TABLE and REPAIR TABLE or with myisamchk. See Chapter 5 [MySQL Database
Administration], page 231.
If you are running Windows, please verify that lower_case_table_names is 1 or 2 with
SHOW VARIABLES LIKE ’lower_case_table_names’.
If you often get corrupted tables, you should try to find out when and why this happens.
In this case, the error log in the MySQL data directory may contain some information
about what happened. (This is the file with the ‘.err’ suffix in the name.) See
Section 5.9.1 [Error log], page 366. Please include any relevant information from this
file in your bug report. Normally mysqld should never crash a table if nothing killed it
in the middle of an update. If you can find the cause of mysqld dying, it’s much easier
for us to provide you with a fix for the problem. See Section A.1 [What is crashing],
page 1103.
If possible, download and install the most recent version of MySQL Server and check
whether it solves your problem. All versions of the MySQL software are thoroughly
tested and should work without problems. We believe in making everything as
backward-compatible as possible, and you should be able to switch MySQL versions
without difficulty. See Section 2.1.2 [Which version], page 62.
If you are a support customer, please cross-post the bug report to [email protected]
for higher-priority treatment, as well as to the appropriate mailing list to see whether
someone else has experienced (and perhaps solved) the problem.
For information on reporting bugs in MyODBC, see Section 21.3.7 [MyODBC bug report],
page 1054.
For solutions to some common problems, see Appendix A [Problems], page 1103.
When answers are sent to you individually and not to the mailing list, it is considered good
etiquette to summarize the answers and send the summary to the mailing list so that others
may have the benefit of responses you received that helped you solve your problem.
Chapter 1: General Information
39
1.7.1.4 Guidelines for Answering Questions on the Mailing List
If you consider your answer to have broad interest, you may want to post it to the mailing
list instead of replying directly to the individual who asked. Try to make your answer
general enough that people other than the original poster may benefit from it. When you
post to the list, please make sure that your answer is not a duplication of a previous answer.
Try to summarize the essential part of the question in your reply; don’t feel obliged to quote
the entire original message.
Please don’t post mail messages from your browser with HTML mode turned on. Many
users don’t read mail with a browser.
1.7.2 MySQL Community Support on IRC (Internet Relay Chat)
In addition to the various MySQL mailing lists, you can find experienced community people
on IRC (Internet Relay Chat). These are the best networks/channels currently known to
us:
• freenode (see http://www.freenode.net/ for servers)
• #mysql Primarily MySQL questions, but other database and general SQL questions
are welcome. Questions about PHP, Perl or C in combination with MySQL are
also common.
• EFnet (see http://www.efnet.org/ for servers)
• #mysql MySQL questions.
If you are looking for IRC client software to connect to an IRC network, take a look at
X-Chat (http://www.xchat.org/). X-Chat (GPL licensed) is available for Unix as well as
for Windows platforms.
1.8 MySQL Standards Compliance
This section describes how MySQL relates to the ANSI/ISO SQL standards. MySQL Server
has many extensions to the SQL standard, and here you will find out what they are and
how to use them. You will also find information about functionality missing from MySQL
Server, and how to work around some differences.
The SQL standard has been evolving since 1986 and several versions exist. In this manual,
“SQL-92” refers to the standard released in 1992, “SQL:1999” refers to the standard released
in 1999, and “SQL:2003” refers to the current version of the standard. We use the phrase
“the SQL standard” to mean the current version of the SQL Standard at any time.
Our goal is to not restrict MySQL Server usability for any usage without a very good reason
for doing so. Even if we don’t have the resources to perform development for every possible
use, we are always willing to help and offer suggestions to people who are trying to use
MySQL Server in new territories.
One of our main goals with the product is to continue to work toward compliance with
the SQL standard, but without sacrificing speed or reliability. We are not afraid to add
extensions to SQL or support for non-SQL features if this greatly increases the usability
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MySQL Technical Reference for Version 5.0.1-alpha
of MySQL Server for a large segment of our user base. The HANDLER interface in MySQL
Server 4.0 is an example of this strategy. See Section 14.1.3 [HANDLER], page 667.
We will continue to support transactional and non-transactional databases to satisfy both
mission-critical 24/7 usage and heavy Web or logging usage.
MySQL Server was originally designed to work with medium size databases (10-100 million
rows, or about 100MB per table) on small computer systems. Today MySQL Server handles
terabyte-size databases, but the code can also be compiled in a reduced version suitable
for hand-held and embedded devices. The compact design of the MySQL server makes
development in both directions possible without any conflicts in the source tree.
Currently, we are not targeting realtime support, although MySQL replication capabilities
already offer significant functionality.
Database cluster support now exists through third-party clustering solutions as well as the
integration of our acquired NDB Cluster technology into a new storage engine, available
from version 4.1.2. See Chapter 17 [NDBCluster], page 860.
We are also looking at providing XML support in the database server.
1.8.1 What Standards MySQL Follows
We are aiming toward supporting the full ANSI/ISO SQL standard, but without making
concessions to speed and quality of the code.
ODBC levels 0−3.51.
1.8.2 Selecting SQL Modes
The MySQL server can operate in different SQL modes, and can apply these modes differentially for different clients. This allows applications to tailor server operation to their own
requirements.
Modes define what SQL syntax MySQL should support and what kind of validation checks
it should perform on the data. This makes it easier to use MySQL in a lot of different
environments and to use MySQL together with other database servers.
You can set the default SQL mode by starting mysqld with the --sql-mode="modes" option.
Beginning with MySQL 4.1, you can also change the mode after startup time by setting the
sql_mode variable with a SET [SESSION|GLOBAL] sql_mode=’modes’ statement.
For more information on setting the server mode, see Section 5.2.2 [Server SQL mode],
page 251.
1.8.3 Running MySQL in ANSI Mode
You can tell mysqld to use the ANSI mode with the --ansi startup option. See Section 5.2.1
[Server options], page 241.
Running the server in ANSI mode is the same as starting it with these options (specify the
--sql_mode value on a single line):
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--transaction-isolation=SERIALIZABLE
--sql-mode=REAL_AS_FLOAT,PIPES_AS_CONCAT,ANSI_QUOTES,
IGNORE_SPACE,ONLY_FULL_GROUP_BY
In MySQL 4.1, you can achieve the same effect with these two statements (specify the
sql_mode value on a single line):
SET GLOBAL TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE;
SET GLOBAL sql_mode = ’REAL_AS_FLOAT,PIPES_AS_CONCAT,ANSI_QUOTES,
IGNORE_SPACE,ONLY_FULL_GROUP_BY’;
See Section 1.8.2 [SQL mode], page 40.
In MySQL 4.1.1, the sql_mode options shown can be also be set with this statement:
SET GLOBAL sql_mode=’ansi’;
In this case, the value of the sql_mode variable will be set to all options that are relevant
for ANSI mode. You can check the result like this:
mysql> SET GLOBAL sql_mode=’ansi’;
mysql> SELECT @@global.sql_mode;
-> ’REAL_AS_FLOAT,PIPES_AS_CONCAT,ANSI_QUOTES,
IGNORE_SPACE,ONLY_FULL_GROUP_BY,ANSI’;
1.8.4 MySQL Extensions to Standard SQL
MySQL Server includes some extensions that you probably will not find in other SQL
databases. Be warned that if you use them, your code will not be portable to other SQL
servers. In some cases, you can write code that includes MySQL extensions, but is still
portable, by using comments of the form /*! ... */. In this case, MySQL Server will
parse and execute the code within the comment as it would any other MySQL statement,
but other SQL servers will ignore the extensions. For example:
SELECT /*! STRAIGHT_JOIN */ col_name FROM table1,table2 WHERE ...
If you add a version number after the ‘!’ character, the syntax within the comment will be
executed only if the MySQL version is equal to or newer than the specified version number:
CREATE /*!32302 TEMPORARY */ TABLE t (a INT);
This means that if you have Version 3.23.02 or newer, MySQL Server will use the TEMPORARY
keyword.
The following descriptions list MySQL extensions, organized by category.
Organization of data on disk
MySQL Server maps each database to a directory under the MySQL data directory, and tables within a database to filenames in the database directory.
This has a few implications:
• Database names and table names are case sensitive in MySQL Server on
operating systems that have case-sensitive filenames (such as most Unix
systems). See Section 10.2.2 [Name case sensitivity], page 529.
• You can use standard system commands to back up, rename, move, delete,
and copy tables that are managed by the MyISAM or ISAM storage engines.
For example, to rename a MyISAM table, rename the ‘.MYD’, ‘.MYI’, and
‘.frm’ files to which the table corresponds.
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Database, table, index, column, or alias names may begin with a digit (but may
not consist solely of digits).
General language syntax
• Strings may be enclosed by either ‘"’ or ‘’’, not just by ‘’’.
• Use of ‘\’ as an escape character in strings.
• In SQL statements, you can access tables from different databases with the
db name.tbl name syntax. Some SQL servers provide the same functionality but call this User space. MySQL Server doesn’t support tablespaces
such as used in statements like this: CREATE TABLE ralph.my_table...IN
my_tablespace.
SQL statement syntax
• The ANALYZE TABLE, CHECK TABLE, OPTIMIZE TABLE, and REPAIR TABLE
statements.
• The CREATE DATABASE and DROP DATABASE statements. See Section 14.2.4
[CREATE DATABASE], page 709.
• The DO statement.
• EXPLAIN SELECT to get a description of how tables are joined.
• The FLUSH and RESET statements.
• The SET statement. See Section 14.5.3.1 [SET], page 745.
• The SHOW statement. See Section 14.5.3 [SHOW], page 744.
• Use of LOAD DATA INFILE. In many cases, this syntax is compatible with
Oracle’s LOAD DATA INFILE. See Section 14.1.5 [LOAD DATA], page 675.
• Use of RENAME TABLE. See Section 14.2.12 [RENAME TABLE], page 724.
• Use of REPLACE instead of DELETE + INSERT. See Section 14.1.6 [REPLACE],
page 682.
• Use of CHANGE col_name, DROP col_name, or DROP INDEX, IGNORE or
RENAME in an ALTER TABLE statement. Use of multiple ADD, ALTER, DROP,
or CHANGE clauses in an ALTER TABLE statement. See Section 14.2.2 [ALTER
TABLE], page 704.
• Use of index names, indexes on a prefix of a field, and use of INDEX or KEY
in a CREATE TABLE statement. See Section 14.2.6 [CREATE TABLE], page 710.
• Use of TEMPORARY or IF NOT EXISTS with CREATE TABLE.
• Use of IF EXISTS with DROP TABLE.
• You can drop multiple tables with a single DROP TABLE statement.
• The ORDER BY and LIMIT clauses of the UPDATE and DELETE statements.
• INSERT INTO ... SET col_name = ... syntax.
• The DELAYED clause of the INSERT and REPLACE statements.
• The LOW_PRIORITY clause of the INSERT, REPLACE, DELETE, and UPDATE
statements.
• Use of INTO OUTFILE and STRAIGHT_JOIN in a SELECT statement. See
Section 14.1.7 [SELECT], page 683.
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• The SQL_SMALL_RESULT option in a SELECT statement.
• You don’t need to name all selected columns in the GROUP BY part. This
gives better performance for some very specific, but quite normal queries.
See Section 13.9 [Group by functions and modifiers], page 658.
• You can specify ASC and DESC with GROUP BY.
• The ability to set variables in a statement with the := assignment operator:
mysql> SELECT @a:=SUM(total),@b=COUNT(*),@a/@b AS avg
-> FROM test_table;
mysql> SELECT @t1:=(@t2:=1)[email protected]:=4,@t1,@t2,@t3;
Column types
• The column types MEDIUMINT, SET, ENUM, and the different BLOB and TEXT
types.
• The column attributes AUTO_INCREMENT, BINARY, NULL, UNSIGNED, and
ZEROFILL.
Functions and operators
• To make it easier for users who come from other SQL environments,
MySQL Server supports aliases for many functions. For example, all
string functions support both standard SQL syntax and ODBC syntax.
• MySQL Server understands the || and && operators to mean logical OR
and AND, as in the C programming language. In MySQL Server, || and
OR are synonyms, as are && and AND. Because of this nice syntax, MySQL
Server doesn’t support the standard SQL || operator for string concatenation; use CONCAT() instead. Because CONCAT() takes any number of
arguments, it’s easy to convert use of the || operator to MySQL Server.
• Use of COUNT(DISTINCT list) where list has more than one element.
• All string comparisons are case-insensitive by default, with sort ordering
determined by the current character set (ISO-8859-1 Latin1 by default).
If you don’t like this, you should declare your columns with the BINARY
attribute or use the BINARY cast, which causes comparisons to be done
using the underlying character code values rather then a lexical ordering.
• The % operator is a synonym for MOD(). That is, N % M is equivalent to
MOD(N,M). % is supported for C programmers and for compatibility with
PostgreSQL.
• The =, <>, <= ,<, >=,>, <<, >>, <=>, AND, OR, or LIKE operators may be used
in column comparisons to the left of the FROM in SELECT statements. For
example:
mysql> SELECT col1=1 AND col2=2 FROM tbl_name ;
• The LAST_INSERT_ID()
AUTO_INCREMENT value.
page 650.
function that returns the most recent
See Section 13.8.3 [Information functions],
• LIKE is allowed on numeric columns.
• The REGEXP and NOT REGEXP extended regular expression operators.
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• CONCAT() or CHAR() with one argument or more than two arguments. (In
MySQL Server, these functions can take any number of arguments.)
• The BIT_COUNT(), CASE, ELT(), FROM_DAYS(), FORMAT(), IF(),
PASSWORD(), ENCRYPT(), MD5(), ENCODE(), DECODE(), PERIOD_ADD(),
PERIOD_DIFF(), TO_DAYS(), and WEEKDAY() functions.
• Use of TRIM() to trim substrings. Standard SQL supports removal of single
characters only.
• The GROUP BY functions STD(), BIT_OR(), BIT_AND(), BIT_XOR(), and
GROUP_CONCAT(). See Section 13.9 [Group by functions and modifiers],
page 658.
For a prioritized list indicating when new extensions will be added to MySQL Server, you
should consult the online MySQL TODO list at http://dev.mysql.com/doc/mysql/en/TODO.html.
That is the latest version of the TODO list in this manual. See Section 1.6 [TODO],
page 26.
1.8.5 MySQL Differences from Standard SQL
We try to make MySQL Server follow the ANSI SQL standard and the ODBC SQL standard,
but MySQL Server performs operations differently in some cases:
• For VARCHAR columns, trailing spaces are removed when the value is stored. See Section 1.8.7 [Bugs], page 52.
• In some cases, CHAR columns are silently converted to VARCHAR columns when you define
a table or alter its structure. See Section 14.2.6.1 [Silent column changes], page 721.
• Privileges for a table are not automatically revoked when you delete a table. You must
explicitly issue a REVOKE statement to revoke privileges for a table. See Section 14.5.1.2
[GRANT], page 732.
1.8.5.1 Subqueries
MySQL 4.1 supports subqueries and derived tables. A “subquery” is a SELECT statement
nested within another statement. A “derived table” (an unnamed view) is a subquery in
the FROM clause of another statement. See Section 14.1.8 [Subqueries], page 692.
For MySQL versions older than 4.1, most subqueries can be rewritten using joins or other
methods. See Section 14.1.8.11 [Rewriting subqueries], page 700 for examples that show
how to do this.
1.8.5.2 SELECT INTO TABLE
MySQL Server doesn’t support the Sybase SQL extension: SELECT ... INTO TABLE ....
Instead, MySQL Server supports the standard SQL syntax INSERT INTO ... SELECT ...,
which is basically the same thing. See Section 14.1.4.1 [INSERT SELECT], page 672.
INSERT INTO tbl_temp2 (fld_id)
SELECT tbl_temp1.fld_order_id
FROM tbl_temp1 WHERE tbl_temp1.fld_order_id > 100;
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Alternatively, you can use SELECT INTO OUTFILE ... or CREATE TABLE ... SELECT.
From version 5.0, MySQL supports SELECT ... INTO with user variables. The same syntax
may also be used inside stored procedures using cursors and local variables. See Section 20.1.6.3 [SELECT INTO Statement], page 942.
1.8.5.3 Transactions and Atomic Operations
MySQL Server (version 3.23-max and all versions 4.0 and above) supports transactions with
the InnoDB and BDB transactional storage engines. InnoDB provides full ACID compliance.
See Chapter 15 [Table types], page 783.
The other non-transactional storage engines in MySQL Server (such as MyISAM) follow a
different paradigm for data integrity called “atomic operations.” In transactional terms,
MyISAM tables effectively always operate in AUTOCOMMIT=1 mode. Atomic operations often
offer comparable integrity with higher performance.
With MySQL Server supporting both paradigms, you can decide whether your applications
are best served by the speed of atomic operations or the use of transactional features. This
choice can be made on a per-table basis.
As noted, the trade-off for transactional versus non-transactional table types lies mostly
in performance. Transactional tables have significantly higher memory and diskspace requirements, and more CPU overhead. On the other hand, transactional table types such as
InnoDB also offer many significant features. MySQL Server’s modular design allows the concurrent use of different storage engines to suit different requirements and deliver optimum
performance in all situations.
But how do you use the features of MySQL Server to maintain rigorous integrity even
with the non-transactional MyISAM tables, and how do these features compare with the
transactional table types?
1. If your applications are written in a way that is dependent on being able to call
ROLLBACK rather than COMMIT in critical situations, transactions are more convenient.
Transactions also ensure that unfinished updates or corrupting activities are not committed to the database; the server is given the opportunity to do an automatic rollback
and your database is saved.
If you use non-transactional tables, MySQL Server in almost all cases allows you to
resolve potential problems by including simple checks before updates and by running
simple scripts that check the databases for inconsistencies and automatically repair or
warn if such an inconsistency occurs. Note that just by using the MySQL log or even
adding one extra log, you can normally fix tables perfectly with no data integrity loss.
2. More often than not, critical transactional updates can be rewritten to be atomic.
Generally speaking, all integrity problems that transactions solve can be done with
LOCK TABLES or atomic updates, ensuring that you never will get an automatic abort
from the server, which is a common problem with transactional database systems.
3. Even a transactional system can lose data if the server goes down. The difference
between different systems lies in just how small the time-lag is where they could lose
data. No system is 100% secure, only “secure enough.” Even Oracle, reputed to be
the safest of transactional database systems, is reported to sometimes lose data in such
situations.
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To be safe with MySQL Server, whether or not using transactional tables, you only
need to have backups and have binary logging turned on. With this you can recover
from any situation that you could with any other transactional database system. It is
always good to have backups, regardless of which database system you use.
The transactional paradigm has its benefits and its drawbacks. Many users and application
developers depend on the ease with which they can code around problems where an abort
appears to be, or is necessary. However, even if you are new to the atomic operations
paradigm, or more familiar with transactions, do consider the speed benefit that nontransactional tables can offer on the order of three to five times the speed of the fastest and
most optimally tuned transactional tables.
In situations where integrity is of highest importance, MySQL Server offers transactionlevel reliability and integrity even for non-transactional tables. If you lock tables with LOCK
TABLES, all updates will stall until any integrity checks are made. If you obtain a READ LOCAL
lock (as opposed to a write lock) for a table that allows concurrent inserts at the end of the
table, reads are allowed, as are inserts by other clients. The new inserted records will not
be seen by the client that has the read lock until it releases the lock. With INSERT DELAYED,
you can queue inserts into a local queue, until the locks are released, without having the
client wait for the insert to complete. See Section 14.1.4.2 [INSERT DELAYED], page 673.
“Atomic,” in the sense that we mean it, is nothing magical. It only means that you can
be sure that while each specific update is running, no other user can interfere with it, and
there will never be an automatic rollback (which can happen with transactional tables if
you are not very careful). MySQL Server also guarantees that there will not be any dirty
reads.
Following are some techniques for working with non-transactional tables:
• Loops that need transactions normally can be coded with the help of LOCK TABLES, and
you don’t need cursors to update records on the fly.
• To avoid using ROLLBACK, you can use the following strategy:
1. Use LOCK TABLES to lock all the tables you want to access.
2. Test the conditions that must be true before performing the update.
3. Update if everything is okay.
4. Use UNLOCK TABLES to release your locks.
This is usually a much faster method than using transactions with possible rollbacks,
although not always. The only situation this solution doesn’t handle is when someone
kills the threads in the middle of an update. In this case, all locks will be released but
some of the updates may not have been executed.
• You can also use functions to update records in a single operation. You can get a very
efficient application by using the following techniques:
• Modify columns relative to their current value.
• Update only those columns that actually have changed.
For example, when we are doing updates to some customer information, we update
only the customer data that has changed and test only that none of the changed data,
or data that depends on the changed data, has changed compared to the original row.
The test for changed data is done with the WHERE clause in the UPDATE statement. If
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the record wasn’t updated, we give the client a message: “Some of the data you have
changed has been changed by another user.” Then we show the old row versus the new
row in a window so that the user can decide which version of the customer record to
use.
This gives us something that is similar to column locking but is actually even better
because we only update some of the columns, using values that are relative to their
current values. This means that typical UPDATE statements look something like these:
UPDATE tablename SET pay_back=pay_back+125;
UPDATE customer
SET
customer_date=’current_date’,
address=’new address’,
phone=’new phone’,
money_owed_to_us=money_owed_to_us-125
WHERE
customer_id=id AND address=’old address’ AND phone=’old phone’;
This is very efficient and works even if another client has changed the values in the
pay_back or money_owed_to_us columns.
• In many cases, users have wanted LOCK TABLES and/or ROLLBACK for the purpose of
managing unique identifiers. This can be handled much more efficiently without locking
or rolling back by using an AUTO_INCREMENT column and either the LAST_INSERT_ID()
SQL function or the mysql_insert_id() C API function. See Section 13.8.3 [Information functions], page 650. See Section 21.2.3.32 [mysql_insert_id()], page 977.
You can generally code around the need for row-level locking. Some situations really
do need it, and InnoDB tables support row-level locking. With MyISAM tables, you can
use a flag column in the table and do something like the following:
UPDATE tbl_name SET row_flag=1 WHERE id=ID;
MySQL returns 1 for the number of affected rows if the row was found and row_flag
wasn’t already 1 in the original row.
You can think of it as though MySQL Server changed the preceding query to:
UPDATE tbl_name SET row_flag=1 WHERE id=ID AND row_flag <> 1;
1.8.5.4 Stored Procedures and Triggers
Stored procedures are implemented in MySQL version 5.0. See Chapter 20 [Stored Procedures], page 936.
Triggers are currently being implemented, with basic functionality in MySQL version 5.0,
with further development planned for version 5.1. A “trigger” is effectively a type of stored
procedure, one that is invoked when a particular event occurs. For example, you could set
up a stored procedure that is triggered each time a record is deleted from a transactional
table, and that stored procedure automatically deletes the corresponding customer from a
customer table when all their transactions are deleted.
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1.8.5.5 Foreign Keys
In MySQL Server 3.23.44 and up, the InnoDB storage engine supports checking of foreign
key constraints, including CASCADE, ON DELETE, and ON UPDATE. See Section 16.7.4 [InnoDB
foreign key constraints], page 819.
For storage engines other than InnoDB, MySQL Server parses the FOREIGN KEY syntax in
CREATE TABLE statements, but does not use or store it. In the future, the implementation
will be extended to store this information in the table specification file so that it may
be retrieved by mysqldump and ODBC. At a later stage, foreign key constraints will be
implemented for MyISAM tables as well.
Foreign key enforcement offers several benefits to database developers:
• Assuming proper design of the relationships, foreign key constraints make it more
difficult for a programmer to introduce an inconsistency into the database.
• Centralized checking of constraints by the database server makes it unnecessary to perform these checks on the application side. This eliminates the possibility that different
applications may not all check the constraints in the same way.
• Using cascading updates and deletes can simplify the application code.
• Properly designed foreign key rules aid in documenting relationships between tables.
Do keep in mind that these benefits come at the cost of additional overhead for the database
server to perform the necessary checks. Additional checking by the server affects performance, which for some applications may be sufficiently undesirable as to be avoided if
possible. (Some major commercial applications have coded the foreign-key logic at the
application level for this reason.)
MySQL gives database developers the choice of which approach to use. If you don’t need
foreign keys and want to avoid the overhead associated with enforcing referential integrity,
you can choose another table type instead, such as MyISAM. (For example, the MyISAM
storage engine offers very fast performance for applications that perform only INSERT and
SELECT operations, because the inserts can be performed concurrently with retrievals. See
Section 7.3.2 [Table locking], page 452.)
If you choose not to take advantage of referential integrity checks, keep the following considerations in mind:
• In the absence of server-side foreign key relationship checking, the application itself
must handle relationship issues. For example, it must take care to insert rows into
tables in the proper order, and to avoid creating orphaned child records. It must
also be able to recover from errors that occur in the middle of multiple-record insert
operations.
• If ON DELETE is the only referential integrity capability an application needs, note that
as of MySQL Server 4.0, you can use multiple-table DELETE statements to delete rows
from many tables with a single statement. See Section 14.1.1 [DELETE], page 665.
• A workaround for the lack of ON DELETE is to add the appropriate DELETE statement
to your application when you delete records from a table that has a foreign key. In
practice, this is often as quick as using foreign keys, and is more portable.
Be aware that the use of foreign keys can in some instances lead to problems:
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• Foreign key support addresses many referential integrity issues, but it is still necessary
to design key relationships carefully to avoid circular rules or incorrect combinations
of cascading deletes.
• It is not uncommon for a DBA to create a topology of relationships that makes it
difficult to restore individual tables from a backup. (MySQL alleviates this difficulty
by allowing you to temporarily disable foreign key checks when reloading a table that
depends on other tables. See Section 16.7.4 [InnoDB foreign key constraints], page 819.
As of MySQL 4.1.1, mysqldump generates dump files that take advantage of this capability automatically when reloaded.)
Note that foreign keys in SQL are used to check and enforce referential integrity, not to
join tables. If you want to get results from multiple tables from a SELECT statement, you
do this by performing a join between them:
SELECT * FROM t1, t2 WHERE t1.id = t2.id;
See Section 14.1.7.1 [JOIN], page 688. See Section 3.6.6 [example-Foreign keys], page 214.
The FOREIGN KEY syntax without ON DELETE ... is often used by ODBC applications to
produce automatic WHERE clauses.
1.8.5.6 Views
Views (updatable) are being implemented in the 5.0 version of MySQL Server. They are
already available in binary releases from 5.0.1 and up. See Section 14.2.7 [CREATE VIEW],
page 722.
Views are useful for allowing users to access a set of relations (tables) as if it were a single
table, and limiting their access to just that. Views can also be used to restrict access
to rows (a subset of a particular table). For access control to columns, you can also use
the sophisticated privilege system in MySQL Server. See Section 5.5 [Privilege system],
page 296.
In designing an implementation of views, our ambitious goal, as much as is possible within
the confines of SQL, has been full compliance with “Codd’s Rule #6” for relational database
systems: “All views that are theoretically updatable, should in practice also be updatable.”
1.8.5.7 ‘--’ as the Start of a Comment
Some other SQL databases use ‘--’ to start comments. MySQL Server uses ‘#’ as the start
comment character. You can also use the C comment style /* this is a comment */ with
MySQL Server. See Section 10.5 [Comments], page 535.
MySQL Server 3.23.3 and above support the ‘--’ comment style, provided the comment
is followed by a space (or by a control character such as a newline). The requirement for
a space is to prevent problems with automatically generated SQL queries that have used
something like the following code, where we automatically insert the value of the payment
for !payment!:
UPDATE account SET credit=credit-!payment!
Think about what happens if the value of payment is a negative value such as -1:
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UPDATE account SET credit=credit--1
credit--1 is a legal expression in SQL, but if -- is interpreted as the start of a comment,
part of the expression is discarded. The result is a statement that has a completely different
meaning than intended:
UPDATE account SET credit=credit
The statement produces no change in value at all! This illustrates that allowing comments
to start with ‘--’ can have serious consequences.
Using our implementation of this method of commenting in MySQL Server 3.23.3 and up,
credit--1 is actually safe.
Another safe feature is that the mysql command-line client removes all lines that start with
‘--’.
The following information is relevant only if you are running a MySQL version earlier than
3.23.3:
If you have an SQL program in a text file that contains ‘--’ comments, you should use the
replace utility as follows to convert the comments to use ‘#’ characters:
shell> replace " --" " #" < text-file-with-funny-comments.sql \
| mysql db_name
instead of the usual:
shell> mysql db_name < text-file-with-funny-comments.sql
You can also edit the command file “in place” to change the ‘--’ comments to ‘#’ comments:
shell> replace " --" " #" -- text-file-with-funny-comments.sql
Change them back with this command:
shell> replace " #" " --" -- text-file-with-funny-comments.sql
1.8.6 How MySQL Deals with Constraints
MySQL allows you to work with both transactional tables that allow rollback and nontransactional tables that do not, so constraint handling is a bit different in MySQL than in
other databases.
We have to handle the case when you have updated a lot of rows in a non-transactional
table that cannot roll back when an error occurs.
The basic philosophy is to try to give an error for anything that we can detect at compile
time but try to recover from any errors we get at runtime. We do this in most cases, but
not yet for all. See Section 1.6.3 [TODO future], page 28.
The options MySQL has when an error occurs are to stop the statement in the middle or
to recover as well as possible from the problem and continue.
The following sections describe what happens for the different types of constraints.
1.8.6.1 Constraint PRIMARY KEY / UNIQUE
Normally you will get an error when you try to INSERT or UPDATE a row that causes a
primary key, unique key, or foreign key violation. If you are using a transactional storage
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engine such as InnoDB, MySQL will automatically roll back the transaction. If you are
using a non-transactional storage engine, MySQL will stop at the incorrect row and leave
any remaining rows unprocessed.
To make life easier, MySQL supports an IGNORE keyword for most commands that can
cause a key violation (such as INSERT IGNORE and UPDATE IGNORE). In this case, MySQL will
ignore any key violation and continue with processing the next row. You can get information
about what MySQL did with the mysql_info() C API function. See Section 21.2.3.30
[mysql_info()], page 976. In MySQL 4.1 and up, you also can use the SHOW WARNINGS
statement. See Section 14.5.3.21 [SHOW WARNINGS], page 763.
Note that, for the moment, only InnoDB tables support foreign keys. See Section 16.7.4 [InnoDB foreign key constraints], page 819. Foreign key support in MyISAM tables is scheduled
for implementation in MySQL 5.1.
1.8.6.2 Constraint NOT NULL and DEFAULT Values
To be able to support easy handling of non-transactional tables, all columns in MySQL
have an internal/external default values.
The following holds true when you are not using the STRICT_ALL_TABLES or if you are using
STRICT_TRANS_TABLES and the first update to a non-transactional table didn’t produce an
error. See Section 5.2.2 [Server SQL mode], page 251. It’s also true if you are using INSERT
IGNORE or UPDATE IGNORE.
If you insert an “incorrect” value into a column, such as a NULL into a NOT NULL column or
a too-large numerical value into a numerical column, MySQL sets the column to the “best
possible value” instead of producing an error:
• If you try to store a value outside the range in a numerical column, MySQL Server
instead stores zero, the smallest possible value, or the largest possible value in the
column.
• For strings, MySQL stores either the empty string or the longest possible string that
can be in the column.
• If you try to store a string that doesn’t start with a number into a numerical column,
MySQL Server stores 0.
• If you try to store NULL into a column that doesn’t take NULL values, MySQL Server
stores 0 or ’’ (the empty string) instead. This last behavior can, for single-row inserts,
be changed when MySQL is built by using the -DDONT_USE_DEFAULT_FIELDS compile
option.) See Section 2.3.2 [configure options], page 103. This causes INSERT statements to generate an error unless you explicitly specify values for all columns that
require a non-NULL value.
• MySQL allows you to store some incorrect date values into DATE and DATETIME columns
(like ’2000-02-31’ or ’2000-02-00’). The idea is that it’s not the job of the SQL
server to validate dates. If MySQL can store a date value and retrieve exactly the same
value, MySQL stores it as given. If the date is totally wrong (outside the server’s ability
to store it), the special date value ’0000-00-00’ is stored in the column instead.
• If you don’t specify a column that doesn’t have a default value in an INSERT statement,
MySQL will insert an empty string for string columns and 0 for numerical columns.
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The reason for the preceding rules is that we can’t check these conditions until the query
has begun executing. We can’t just roll back if we encounter a problem after updating
a few rows, because the table type may not support rollback. The option of terminating
the statement is not that good; in this case, the update would be “half done,” which is
probably the worst possible scenario. In this case, it’s better to “do the best you can” and
then continue as if nothing happened.
In other words, if you are using STRICT_ALL_TABLES, you risk getting half updates. A safer
setting is to use STRICT_TRANS_TABLES. In this case, a wrong value causes MySQL to roll
back, if it can, all updates done so far (that is, if we have updated only transactional tables).
If you are using non-transactional tables, you should not use MySQL to check column
content. In general, the safest (and often fastest) way is to let the application ensure that
it passes only legal values to the database.
1.8.6.3 Constraint ENUM and SET
In MySQL 4.x, ENUM is not a real constraint, but is a more efficient way to define columns
that can contain only a given set of values. This is for the same reasons that NOT NULL is
not honored. See Section 1.8.6.2 [constraint NOT NULL], page 51.
ENUM columns always have a default value. If you don’t specify a default value, then it will
be NULL for columns that can have NULL, otherwise the first enum value is used as the
default value.
If you insert an incorrect value into an ENUM column or if you force a value into an ENUM
column with IGNORE, it is set to the reserved enumeration value of 0, which is displayed as
an empty string in string context. See Section 12.4.3 [ENUM], page 587.
In MySQL 5.0.2 when using STRICT mode, you will get an error when inserting a wrong
value in an ENUM column. See Section 5.2.2 [Server SQL mode], page 251.
If you insert an incorrect value into a SET column, the incorrect value is ignored. For
example, if the column can contain the values ’a’, ’b’, and ’c’, an attempt to assign
’a,x,b,y’ results in a value of ’a,b’. See Section 12.4.4 [SET], page 588.
1.8.7 Known Errors and Design Deficiencies in MySQL
1.8.7.1 Errors in 3.23 Fixed in a Later MySQL Version
The following known errors or bugs are not fixed in MySQL 3.23 because fixing them would
involve changing a lot of code that could introduce other even worse bugs. The bugs are
also classified as “not fatal” or “bearable.”
• One should avoid having space at end of field names as this can cause weird behavior.
(Fixed in MySQL 4.0). (Bug #4196)
• You can get a deadlock (hung thread) if you use LOCK TABLE to lock multiple tables
and then in the same connection use DROP TABLE to drop one of them while another
thread is trying to lock it. (To break the deadlock, you can use KILL to terminate any
of the threads involved.) This issue is resolved as of MySQL 4.0.12.
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• SELECT MAX(key_column) FROM t1,t2,t3... where one of the tables are empty
doesn’t return NULL but instead returns the maximum value for the column. This
issue is resolved as of MySQL 4.0.11.
• DELETE FROM heap_table without a WHERE clause doesn’t work on a locked HEAP table.
1.8.7.2 Errors in 4.0 Fixed in a Later MySQL Version
The following known errors or bugs are not fixed in MySQL 4.0 because fixing them would
involve changing a lot of code that could introduce other even worse bugs. The bugs are
also classified as “not fatal” or “bearable.”
• In a UNION, the first SELECT determines the type, max_length, and NULL properties for
the resulting columns. This issue is resolved as of MySQL 4.1.1; the property values
are based on the rows from all UNION parts.
• In DELETE with many tables, you can’t refer to tables to be deleted through an alias.
This is fixed as of MySQL 4.1.
• You cannot mix UNION ALL and UNION DISTINCT in the same query. If you use ALL for
one UNION, it is used for all of them. This is fixed as of MySQL 4.1.2. The rules for
mixed UNION types are given in Section 14.1.7.2 [UNION], page 690.
• FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK does not block CREATE TABLE, which may cause a problem with the binary log position when doing a full backup of tables and the binary
log.
1.8.7.3 Open Bugs and Design Deficiencies in MySQL
The following problems are known and fixing them is a high priority:
• Even if you are using lower_case_table_names=2 (which enables MySQL to remember
the used case for databases and table names) MySQL will not on case insensitive
systems remember the used case for database names for the function DATABASE() or in
various logs.
• Dropping a FOREIGN KEY constraint doesn’t work in replication because the constraint
may have another name on the slave.
• REPLACE (and LOAD DATA with the REPLACE option) does not trigger ON DELETE
CASCADE.
• DISTINCT with ORDER BY doesn’t work inside GROUP_CONCAT() if you don’t use all and
only those columns that are in the DISTINCT list.
• GROUP_CONCAT() doesn’t work with BLOB/TEXT columns when you use DISTINCT
or ORDER BY inside GROUP_CONCAT().
To work around this limitation, use
MID(expr,1,255) instead.
• If one user has a long-running transaction and another user drops a table that is
updated in the transaction, there is small chance that the binary log may contain the
DROP TABLE command before the table is used in the transaction itself. We plan to fix
this in 5.0 by having the DROP TABLE wait until the table is not used in any transaction.
• When inserting a big integer value (between 2^63 and 2^64−1) into a decimal/string
column, it is inserted as a negative value because the number is evaluated in a signed
integer context. We plan to fix this in MySQL 4.1.
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FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK does not block COMMIT if the server is running without
binary logging, which may cause a problem (of consistency between tables) when doing
a full backup.
• ANALYZE TABLE on a BDB table may in some cases make the table unusable until you
restart mysqld. If this happens, you will see errors of the following form in the MySQL
error file:
001207 22:07:56
bdb:
log_flush: LSN past current end-of-log
• MySQL accepts parentheses in the FROM clause of a SELECT statement, but silently
ignores them. The reason for not giving an error is that many clients that automatically
generate queries add parentheses in the FROM clause even where they are not needed.
• Concatenating many RIGHT JOINS or combining LEFT and RIGHT join in the same query
may not give a correct answer because MySQL only generates NULL rows for the table
preceding a LEFT or before a RIGHT join. This will be fixed in 5.0 at the same time we
add support for parentheses in the FROM clause.
• Don’t execute ALTER TABLE on a BDB table on which you are running multiple-statement
transactions until all those transactions complete. (The transaction will probably be
ignored.)
• ANALYZE TABLE, OPTIMIZE TABLE, and REPAIR TABLE may cause problems on tables for
which you are using INSERT DELAYED.
• Doing a LOCK TABLE ... and FLUSH TABLES ... doesn’t guarantee that there isn’t a
half-finished transaction in progress on the table.
• BDB tables are a bit slow to open. If you have many BDB tables in a database, it will
take a long time to use the mysql client on the database if you are not using the -A
option or if you are using rehash. This is especially notable when you have a large
table cache.
• Replication uses query-level logging: The master writes the executed queries to the
binary log. This is a very fast, compact, and efficient logging method that works
perfectly in most cases. Although we have never heard of it actually occurring, it is
theoretically possible for the data on the master and slave to become different if a query
is designed in such a way that the data modification is non-deterministic; that is, left
to the will of the query optimizer. (That generally is not a good practice anyway, even
outside of replication!) For example:
− CREATE ... SELECT or INSERT ... SELECT statements that insert zero or NULL
values into an AUTO_INCREMENT column.
− DELETE if you are deleting rows from a table that has foreign keys with ON DELETE
CASCADE properties.
− REPLACE ... SELECT, INSERT IGNORE ... SELECT if you have duplicate key values
in the inserted data.
If and only if all these queries have no ORDER BY clause guaranteeing a deterministic
order.
For example, for INSERT ... SELECT with no ORDER BY, the SELECT may return rows
in a different order (which will result in a row having different ranks, hence getting a
different number in the AUTO_INCREMENT column), depending on the choices made by
Chapter 1: General Information
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the optimizers on the master and slave. A query will be optimized differently on the
master and slave only if:
− The files used by the two queries are not exactly the same; for example, OPTIMIZE
TABLE was run on the master tables and not on the slave tables. (To fix this,
OPTIMIZE TABLE, ANALYZE TABLE, and REPAIR TABLE are written to the binary log
as of MySQL 4.1.1).
− The table is stored using a different storage engine on the master than on the
slave. (It is possible to use different storage engines on the master and slave. For
example, you can use InnoDB on the master, but MyISAM on the slave if the slave
has less available disk space.)
− MySQL buffer sizes (key_buffer_size, and so on) are different on the master and
slave.
− The master and slave run different MySQL versions, and the optimizer code differs
between these versions.
This problem may also affect database restoration using mysqlbinlog|mysql.
The easiest way to avoid this problem in all cases is to add an ORDER BY clause to such
non-deterministic queries to ensure that the rows are always stored or modified in the
same order. In future MySQL versions, we will automatically add an ORDER BY clause
when needed.
The following problems are known and will be fixed in due time:
• Log filenames are based on the server hostname (if you don’t specify a filename with the
startup option). For now you have to use options like --log-bin=old_host_name -bin
if you change your hostname to something else. Another option is to just rename the
old files to reflect your hostname change. See Section 5.2.1 [Server options], page 241.
• mysqlbinlog will not delete temporary files left after a LOAD DATA INFILE command.
See Section 8.5 [mysqlbinlog], page 501.
• RENAME doesn’t work with TEMPORARY tables or tables used in a MERGE table.
• When using the RPAD() function in a query that has to be resolved by using a temporary
table, all resulting strings will have rightmost spaces removed. This is an example of
such a query:
SELECT RPAD(t1.column1, 50, ’ ’) AS f2, RPAD(t2.column2, 50, ’ ’) AS f1
FROM table1 as t1 LEFT JOIN table2 AS t2 ON t1.record=t2.joinID
ORDER BY t2.record;
The final result of this bug is that you will not be able to get spaces on the right side of
the resulting values. The problem also occurs for any other string function that adds
spaces to the right.
The reason for this is due to the fact that HEAP tables, which are used first for temporary
tables, are not capable of handling VARCHAR columns.
This behavior exists in all versions of MySQL. It will be fixed in one of the 4.1 series
releases.
• Due to the way table definition files are stored, you cannot use character 255
(CHAR(255)) in table names, column names, or enumerations. This is scheduled to be
fixed in version 5.1 when we have new table definition format files.
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• When using SET CHARACTER SET, you can’t use translated characters in database, table,
and column names.
• You can’t use ‘_’ or ‘%’ with ESCAPE in LIKE ... ESCAPE.
• If you have a DECIMAL column in which the same number is stored in different formats
(for example, +01.00, 1.00, 01.00), GROUP BY may regard each value as a different
value.
• You cannot build the server in another directory when using MIT-pthreads. Because
this requires changes to MIT-pthreads, we are not likely to fix this. See Section 2.3.5
[MIT-pthreads], page 112.
• BLOB and TEXTvalues can’t “reliably” be used in GROUP BY or ORDER BY or DISTINCT.
Only the first max_sort_length bytes are used when comparing BLOB values in these
cases. The default value of max_sort_length value is 1024. It can be changed at
server startup time. As of MySQL 4.0.3, it can also be changed at runtime. For older
versions, a workaround for most cases is to use a substring. For example:
SELECT DISTINCT LEFT(blob_col,2048) FROM tbl_name ;
• Numeric calculations are done with BIGINT or DOUBLE (both are normally 64 bits long).
Which precision you get depends on the function. The general rule is that bit functions
are done with BIGINT precision, IF and ELT() with BIGINT or DOUBLE precision, and
the rest with DOUBLE precision. You should try to avoid using unsigned long long values
if they resolve to be bigger than 63 bits (9223372036854775807) for anything other than
bit fields. MySQL Server 4.0 has better BIGINT handling than 3.23.
• All string columns, except BLOB and TEXT columns, automatically have all trailing
spaces removed when retrieved. For CHAR types, this is okay. The bug is that in
MySQL Server, VARCHAR columns are treated the same way.
• You can have only up to 255 ENUM and SET columns in one table.
• In MIN(), MAX(), and other aggregate functions, MySQL currently compares ENUM and
SET columns by their string value rather than by the string’s relative position in the
set.
• mysqld_safe redirects all messages from mysqld to the mysqld log. One problem with
this is that if you execute mysqladmin refresh to close and reopen the log, stdout
and stderr are still redirected to the old log. If you use --log extensively, you should
edit mysqld_safe to log to ‘host_name.err’ instead of ‘host_name.log’ so that you
can easily reclaim the space for the old log by deleting the old one and executing
mysqladmin refresh.
• In the UPDATE statement, columns are updated from left to right. If you refer to an
updated column, you get the updated value instead of the original value. For example,
the following statement increments KEY by 2, not 1:
mysql> UPDATE tbl_name SET KEY=KEY+1,KEY=KEY+1;
• You can refer to multiple temporary tables in the same query, but you cannot refer to
any given temporary table more than once. For example, the following doesn’t work:
mysql> SELECT * FROM temp_table, temp_table AS t2;
ERROR 1137: Can’t reopen table: ’temp_table’
• The optimizer may handle DISTINCT differently when you are using “hidden” columns
in a join than when you are not. In a join, hidden columns are counted as part of the
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•
•
•
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result (even if they are not shown), whereas in normal queries, hidden columns don’t
participate in the DISTINCT comparison. We will probably change this in the future to
never compare the hidden columns when executing DISTINCT.
An example of this is:
SELECT DISTINCT mp3id FROM band_downloads
WHERE userid = 9 ORDER BY id DESC;
and
SELECT DISTINCT band_downloads.mp3id
FROM band_downloads,band_mp3
WHERE band_downloads.userid = 9
AND band_mp3.id = band_downloads.mp3id
ORDER BY band_downloads.id DESC;
In the second case, you might in MySQL Server 3.23.x get two identical rows in the
result set (because the values in the hidden id column may differ).
Note that this happens only for queries where you don’t have the ORDER BY columns in
the result.
Because MySQL Server allows you to work with table types that don’t support transactions, and thus can’t roll back data, some things behave a little differently in MySQL
Server than in other SQL servers. This is just to ensure that MySQL Server never
needs to do a rollback for an SQL statement. This may be a little awkward at times
because column values must be checked in the application, but this will actually give
you a nice speed increase because it allows MySQL Server to do some optimizations
that otherwise would be very hard to do.
If you set a column to an incorrect value, MySQL Server will, instead of doing a
rollback, store the “best possible value” in the column. For information about how this
occurs, see Section 1.8.6 [Constraints], page 50.
If you execute a PROCEDURE on a query that returns an empty set, in some cases the
PROCEDURE will not transform the columns.
Creation of a table of type MERGE doesn’t check whether the underlying tables are of
compatible types.
If you use ALTER TABLE first to add a UNIQUE index to a table used in a MERGE table
and then to add a normal index on the MERGE table, the key order will be different for
the tables if there was an old key that was not unique in the table. This is because
ALTER TABLE puts UNIQUE indexes before normal indexes to be able to detect duplicate
keys as early as possible.
The following are known bugs in earlier versions of MySQL:
• In the following case you can get a core dump:
− Delayed insert handler has pending inserts to a table.
− LOCK TABLE with WRITE.
− FLUSH TABLES.
• Before MySQL Server 3.23.2, an UPDATE that updated a key with a WHERE on the same
key may have failed because the key was used to search for records and the same row
may have been found multiple times:
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UPDATE tbl_name SET KEY=KEY+1 WHERE KEY > 100;
A workaround is to use:
UPDATE tbl_name SET KEY=KEY+1 WHERE KEY+0 > 100;
This will work because MySQL Server will not use an index on expressions in the WHERE
clause.
• Before MySQL Server 3.23, all numeric types were treated as fixed-point fields. That
means that you had to specify how many decimals a floating-point field should have.
All results were returned with the correct number of decimals.
For information about platform-specific bugs, see the installation and porting instructions
in Section 2.6 [Operating System Specific Notes], page 149 and Appendix D [Porting],
page 1327.
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2 Installing MySQL
This chapter describes how to obtain and install MySQL:
1. Determine whether your platform is supported. Please note that not all supported
systems are equally good for running MySQL on them. On some it is much more
robust and efficient than others. See Section 2.1.1 [Which OS], page 60 for details.
2. Choose which distribution to install. Several versions of MySQL are available, and
most are available in several distribution formats. You can choose from pre-packaged
distributions containing binary (precompiled) programs or source code. When in doubt,
use a binary distribution. We also provide public access to our current source tree for
those who want to see our most recent developments and help us test new code. To
determine which version and type of distribution you should use, see Section 2.1.2
[Which version], page 62.
3. Download the distribution that you want to install. For a list of sites from which you
can obtain MySQL, see Section 2.1.3 [Getting MySQL], page 73. You can verify the
integrity of the distribution using the instructions in Section 2.1.4 [Verifying Package
Integrity], page 73.
4. Install the distribution. To install MySQL from a binary distribution, use the instructions in Section 2.2 [Quick Standard Installation], page 77. To install MySQL from a
source distribution or from the current development source tree, use the instructions
in Section 2.3 [Installing source], page 100.
Note: If you plan to upgrade an existing version of MySQL to a newer version rather
than installing MySQL for the first time, see Section 2.5 [Upgrade], page 133 for information about upgrade procedures and about issues that you should consider before
upgrading.
If you encounter installation difficulties, see Section 2.6 [Operating System Specific
Notes], page 149 for information on solving problems for particular platforms.
5. Perform any necessary post-installation setup. After installing MySQL, read Section 2.4 [Post-installation], page 117. This section contains important information
about making sure the MySQL server is working properly. It also describes how to
secure the initial MySQL user accounts, which have no passwords until you assign
passwords. The section applies whether you install MySQL using a binary or source
distribution.
6. If you want to run the MySQL benchmark scripts, Perl support for MySQL must be
available. See Section 2.7 [Perl support], page 179.
2.1 General Installation Issues
Before installing MySQL, you should do the following:
1. Determine whether or not MySQL runs on your platform.
2. Choose a distribution to install.
3. Download the distribution and verify its integrity.
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This section contains the information necessary to carry out these steps. After doing so,
you can use the instructions in later sections of the chapter to install the distribution that
you choose.
2.1.1 Operating Systems Supported by MySQL
This section lists the operating systems on which you can expect to be able to run MySQL.
We use GNU Autoconf, so it is possible to port MySQL to all modern systems that have a
C++ compiler and a working implementation of POSIX threads. (Thread support is needed
for the server. To compile only the client code, the only requirement is a C++ compiler.) We
use and develop the software ourselves primarily on Linux (SuSE and Red Hat), FreeBSD,
and Sun Solaris (Versions 8 and 9).
MySQL has been reported to compile successfully on the following combinations of operating
system and thread package. Note that for many operating systems, native thread support
works only in the latest versions.
• AIX 4.x, 5.x with native threads. See Section 2.6.5.3 [IBM-AIX], page 167.
• Amiga.
• BSDI 2.x with the MIT-pthreads package. See Section 2.6.4.5 [BSDI], page 164.
• BSDI 3.0, 3.1 and 4.x with native threads. See Section 2.6.4.5 [BSDI], page 164.
• Digital Unix 4.x with native threads. See Section 2.6.5.5 [Alpha-DEC-UNIX], page 169.
• FreeBSD 2.x with the MIT-pthreads package. See Section 2.6.4.1 [FreeBSD], page 162.
• FreeBSD 3.x and 4.x with native threads. See Section 2.6.4.1 [FreeBSD], page 162.
• FreeBSD 4.x with LinuxThreads. See Section 2.6.4.1 [FreeBSD], page 162.
• HP-UX 10.20 with the DCE threads or the MIT-pthreads package. See Section 2.6.5.1
[HP-UX 10.20], page 165.
• HP-UX 11.x with the native threads. See Section 2.6.5.2 [HP-UX 11.x], page 165.
• Linux 2.0+ with LinuxThreads 0.7.1+ or glibc 2.0.7+ for various CPU architectures.
See Section 2.6.1 [Linux], page 149.
• Mac OS X. See Section 2.6.2 [Mac OS X], page 157.
• NetBSD 1.3/1.4 Intel and NetBSD 1.3 Alpha (requires GNU make). See Section 2.6.4.2
[NetBSD], page 163.
• Novell NetWare 6.0. See Section 2.2.4 [NetWare installation], page 95.
• OpenBSD > 2.5 with native threads. OpenBSD < 2.5 with the MIT-pthreads package.
See Section 2.6.4.3 [OpenBSD], page 163.
• OS/2 Warp 3, FixPack 29 and OS/2 Warp 4, FixPack 4. See Section 2.6.6 [OS/2],
page 178.
• SCO OpenServer with a recent port of the FSU Pthreads package. See Section 2.6.5.8
[SCO], page 172.
• SCO UnixWare 7.1.x. See Section 2.6.5.9 [SCO UnixWare], page 176.
• SGI Irix 6.x with native threads. See Section 2.6.5.7 [SGI-Irix], page 171.
• Solaris 2.5 and above with native threads on SPARC and x86. See Section 2.6.3 [Solaris], page 158.
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• SunOS 4.x with the MIT-pthreads package. See Section 2.6.3 [Solaris], page 158.
• Tru64 Unix. See Section 2.6.5.5 [Alpha-DEC-UNIX], page 169.
• Windows 9x, Me, NT, 2000, and XP. See Section 2.2.1 [Windows installation], page 78.
Not all platforms are equally well-suited for running MySQL. How well a certain platform is
suited for a high-load mission-critical MySQL server is determined by the following factors:
• General stability of the thread library. A platform may have an excellent reputation
otherwise, but MySQL will be only as stable as the thread library if that library is
unstable in the code that is called by MySQL, even if everything else is perfect.
• The capability of the kernel and the thread library to take advantage of symmetric
multi-processor (SMP) systems. In other words, when a process creates a thread, it
should be possible for that thread to run on a different CPU than the original process.
• The capability of the kernel and the thread library to run many threads that acquire
and release a mutex over a short critical region frequently without excessive context
switches. If the implementation of pthread_mutex_lock() is too anxious to yield CPU
time, this will hurt MySQL tremendously. If this issue is not taken care of, adding extra
CPUs will actually make MySQL slower.
• General filesystem stability and performance.
• If your tables are big, the ability of the filesystem to deal with large files at all and to
deal with them efficiently.
• Our level of expertise here at MySQL AB with the platform. If we know a platform
well, we enable platform-specific optimizations and fixes at compile time. We can also
provide advice on configuring your system optimally for MySQL.
• The amount of testing we have done internally for similar configurations.
• The number of users that have successfully run MySQL on the platform in similar
configurations. If this number is high, the chances of encountering platform-specific
surprises are much smaller.
Based on the preceding criteria, the best platforms for running MySQL at this point are x86
with SuSE Linux using a 2.4 kernel, and ReiserFS (or any similar Linux distribution) and
SPARC with Solaris (2.7-9). FreeBSD comes third, but we really hope it will join the top
club once the thread library is improved. We also hope that at some point we will be able
to include into the top category all other platforms on which MySQL currently compiles
and runs okay, but not quite with the same level of stability and performance. This will
require some effort on our part in cooperation with the developers of the operating system
and library components that MySQL depends on. If you are interested in improving one of
those components, are in a position to influence its development, and need more detailed
instructions on what MySQL needs to run better, send an email message to the MySQL
internals mailing list. See Section 1.7.1.1 [Mailing-list], page 32.
Please note that the purpose of the preceding comparison is not to say that one operating
system is better or worse than another in general. We are talking only about choosing
an OS for the specific purpose of running MySQL. With this in mind, the result of this
comparison would be different if we considered more factors. In some cases, the reason one
OS is better than the other could simply be that we have been able to put more effort into
testing and optimizing for a particular platform. We are just stating our observations to
help you decide which platform to use for running MySQL.
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2.1.2 Choosing Which MySQL Distribution to Install
When preparing to install MySQL, you should decide which version to use. MySQL development occurs in several release series, and you can pick the one that best fits your needs.
After deciding which version to install, you can choose a distribution format. Releases are
available in binary or source format.
2.1.2.1 Choosing Which Version of MySQL to Install
The first decision to make is whether you want to use a production (stable) release or a
development release. In the MySQL development process, multiple release series co-exist,
each at a different stage of maturity:
• MySQL 5.0 is the newest development release series and is under very active development for new features. Alpha releases have been issued to allow more widespread
testing.
• MySQL 4.1 is in gamma status, soon moving to production status.
• MySQL 4.0 is the current stable (production-quality) release series. New releases are
issued for bugfixes. No new features are added that could diminish the code stability.
• MySQL 3.23 is the old stable (production-quality) release series. This series is retired,
so new releases are issued only to fix critical bugs.
We don’t believe in a complete freeze, as this also leaves out bugfixes and things that “must
be done.” “Somewhat frozen” means that we may add small things that “almost surely will
not affect anything that’s already working.” Naturally, relevant bugfixes from an earlier
series propagate to later series.
Normally, if you are beginning to use MySQL for the first time or trying to port it to some
system for which there is no binary distribution, we recommend going with the production
release series. Currently this is MySQL 4.0. All MySQL releases, even those from development series, are checked with the MySQL benchmarks and an extensive test suite before
being issued.
If you are running an old system and want to upgrade, but don’t want to take the chance of
having a non-seamless upgrade, you should upgrade to the latest version in the same release
series you are using (where only the last part of the version number is newer than yours).
We have tried to fix only fatal bugs and make small, relatively safe changes to that version.
If you want to use new features not present in the production release series, you can use
a version from a development series. Note that development releases are not as stable as
production releases.
If you want to use the very latest sources containing all current patches and bugfixes, you
can use one of our BitKeeper repositories. These are not “releases” as such, but are available
as previews of the code on which future releases will be based.
The MySQL naming scheme uses release names that consist of three numbers and a suffix;
for example, mysql-4.1.2-alpha. The numbers within the release name are interpreted
like this:
• The first number (4) is the major version and also describes the file format. All Version
4 releases have the same file format.
Chapter 2: Installing MySQL
63
• The second number (1) is the release level. Taken together, the major version and
release level constitute the release series number.
• The third number (2) is the version number within the release series. This is incremented for each new release. Usually you want the latest version for the series you
have chosen.
For each minor update, the last number in the version string is incremented. When there are
major new features or minor incompatibilities with previous versions, the second number
in the version string is incremented. When the file format changes, the first number is
increased.
Release names also include a suffix to indicates the stability level of the release. Releases
within a series progress through a set of suffixes to indicate how the stability level improves.
The possible suffixes are:
• alpha indicates that the release contains some large section of new code that hasn’t
been 100% tested. Known bugs (usually there are none) should be documented in the
News section. See Appendix C [News], page 1145. There are also new commands and
extensions in most alpha releases. Active development that may involve major code
changes can occur in an alpha release, but everything will be tested before issuing a
release. For this reason, there should be no known bugs in any MySQL release.
• beta means that all new code has been tested. No major new features that could cause
corruption in old code are added. There should be no known bugs. A version changes
from alpha to beta when there haven’t been any reported fatal bugs within an alpha
version for at least a month and we have no plans to add any features that could make
any old command unreliable.
• gamma is a beta that has been around a while and seems to work fine. Only minor fixes
are added. This is what many other companies call a release.
• If there is no suffix, it means that the version has been run for a while at many different
sites with no reports of bugs other than platform-specific bugs. Only critical bugfixes
are applied to the release. This is what we call a production (stable) release.
MySQL uses a naming scheme that is slightly different from most other products. In general,
it’s relatively safe to use any version that has been out for a couple of weeks without being
replaced with a new version within the release series.
All releases of MySQL are run through our standard tests and benchmarks to ensure that
they are relatively safe to use. Because the standard tests are extended over time to check
for all previously found bugs, the test suite keeps getting better.
All releases have been tested at least with:
An internal test suite
The ‘mysql-test’ directory contains an extensive set of test cases. We run
these tests for virtually every server binary. See Section 23.1.2 [MySQL test
suite], page 1088 for more information about this test suite.
The MySQL benchmark suite
This suite runs a range of common queries. It is also a test to see whether the
latest batch of optimizations actually made the code faster. See Section 7.1.4
[MySQL Benchmarks], page 421.
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MySQL Technical Reference for Version 5.0.1-alpha
The crash-me test
This test tries to determine what features the database supports and what
its capabilities and limitations are. See Section 7.1.4 [MySQL Benchmarks],
page 421.
Another test is that we use the newest MySQL version in our internal production environment, on at least one machine. We have more than 100GB of data to work with.
2.1.2.2 Choosing a Distribution Format
After choosing which version of MySQL to install, you should decide whether to use a
binary distribution or a source distribution. In most cases, you should probably use a
binary distribution, if one exists for your platform. Binary distributions are available in
native format for many platforms, such as RPM files for Linux or DMG package installers
for Mac OS X. Distributions also are available as Zip archives or compressed tar files.
Reasons to choose a binary distribution include the following:
• Binary distributions generally are easier to install than source distributions.
• To satisfy different user requirements, we provide two different binary versions: one
compiled with the non-transactional storage engines (a small, fast binary), and one
configured with the most important extended options like transaction-safe tables. Both
versions are compiled from the same source distribution. All native MySQL clients can
connect to servers from either MySQL version.
The extended MySQL binary distribution is marked with the -max suffix and is configured with the same options as mysqld-max. See Section 5.1.2 [mysqld-max], page 232.
If you want to use the MySQL-Max RPM, you must first install the standard MySQLserver RPM.
Under some circumstances, you probably will be better off installing MySQL from a source
distribution:
• You want to install MySQL at some explicit location. The standard binary distributions
are “ready to run” at any place, but you may want to have even more flexibility to
place MySQL components where you want.
• You want to configure mysqld with some extra features that are not included in the
standard binary distributions. Here is a list of the most common extra options that
you may want to use:
• --with-innodb (default for MySQL 4.0 and up)
• --with-berkeley-db (not available on all platforms)
• --with-raid
• --with-libwrap
• --with-named-z-libs (this is done for some of the binaries)
• --with-debug[=full ]
• You want to configure mysqld without some features that are included in the standard
binary distributions. For example, distributions normally are compiled with support
for all character sets. If you want a smaller MySQL server, you can recompile it with
support for only the character sets you need.
Chapter 2: Installing MySQL
65
• You have a special compiler (such as pgcc) or want to use compiler options that are
better optimized for your processor. Binary distributions are compiled with options
that should work on a variety of processors from the same processor family.
• You want to use the latest sources from one of the BitKeeper repositories to have access
to all current bugfixes. For example, if you have found a bug and reported it to the
MySQL development team, the bugfix will be committed to the source repository and
you can access it there. The bugfix will not appear in a release until a release actually
is issued.
• You want to read (or modify) the C and C++ code that makes up MySQL. For this
purpose, you should get a source distribution, because the source code is always the
ultimate manual.
• Source distributions contain more tests and examples than binary distributions.
2.1.2.3 How and When Updates Are Released
MySQL is evolving quite rapidly here at MySQL AB and we want to share new developments
with other MySQL users. We try to make a release when we have very useful features that
others seem to have a need for.
We also try to help out users who request features that are easy to implement. We take note
of what our licensed users want to have, and we especially take note of what our extended
email-supported customers want and try to help them out.
No one has to download a new release. The News section will tell you if the new release
has something you really want. See Appendix C [News], page 1145.
We use the following policy when updating MySQL:
• Releases are issued within each series. For each release, the last number in the version
is one more than the previous release within the same series.
• Production (stable) releases are meant to appear about 1-2 times a year. However, if
small bugs are found, a release with only bugfixes will be issued.
• Working releases/bugfixes to old releases are meant to appear about every 4-8 weeks.
• Binary distributions for some platforms are made by us for major releases. Other
people may make binary distributions for other systems, but probably less frequently.
• We make fixes available as soon as we have identified and corrected small or non-critical
but annoying bugs. The fixes are available immediately from our public BitKeeper
repositories, and will be included in the next release.
• If by any chance a fatal bug is found in a release, we will make a new release as soon
as possible. (We would like other companies to do this, too!)
2.1.2.4 Release Philosophy—No Known Bugs in Releases
We put a lot of time and effort into making our releases bug-free. To our knowledge, we have
not released a single MySQL version with any known “fatal” repeatable bugs. (A “fatal”
bug is something that crashes MySQL under normal usage, produces incorrect answers for
normal queries, or has a security problem.)
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We have documented all open problems, bugs, and issues that are dependent on design
decisions. See Section 1.8.7 [Bugs], page 52.
Our aim is to fix everything that is fixable without risk of making a stable MySQL version
less stable. In certain cases, this means we can fix an issue in the development versions, but
not in the stable (production) version. Naturally, we document such issues so that users
are aware of them.
Here is a description of how our build process works:
• We monitor bugs from our customer support list, the bugs database at
http://bugs.mysql.com/, and the MySQL external mailing lists.
• All reported bugs for live versions are entered into the bugs database.
• When we fix a bug, we always try to make a test case for it and include it into our test
system to ensure that the bug will never recur without being detected. (About 90% of
all fixed bugs have a test case.)
• We create test cases for all new features we add to MySQL.
• Before we start to build a new MySQL release, we ensure that all reported repeatable
bugs for the MySQL version (3.23.x, 4.0.x, etc) are fixed. If something is impossible to
fix (due to some internal design decision in MySQL), we document this in the manual.
See Section 1.8.7 [Bugs], page 52.
• We do a build on all platforms for which we support binaries (15+ platforms) and run
our test suite and benchmark suite on all of them.
• We will not publish a binary for a platform for which the test or benchmark suite fails.
If the problem is due to a general error in the source, we fix it and do the build plus
tests on all systems again from scratch.
• The build and test process takes 2-3 days. If we receive a report regarding a fatal bug
during this process (for example, one that causes a core dump), we fix the problem and
restart the build process.
• After publishing the binaries on http://dev.mysql.com/, we send out an announcement message to the mysql and announce mailing lists. See Section 1.7.1.1 [Mailinglist], page 32. The announcement message contains a list of all changes to the release
and any known problems with the release. The Known Problems section in the release
notes has been needed for only a handful of releases.
• To quickly give our users access to the latest MySQL features, we do a new MySQL
release every 4-8 weeks. Source code snapshots are built daily and are available at
http://downloads.mysql.com/snapshots.php.
• If, despite our best efforts, we get any bug reports after the release is done that there
was something critically wrong with the build on a specific platform, we will fix it at
once and build a new ’a’ release for that platform. Thanks to our large user base,
problems are found quickly.
• Our track record for making good releases is quite good. In the last 150 releases, we
had to do a new build for fewer than 10 releases. In three of these cases, the bug was
a faulty glibc library on one of our build machines that took us a long time to track
down.
Chapter 2: Installing MySQL
67
2.1.2.5 MySQL Binaries Compiled by MySQL AB
As a service of MySQL AB, we provide a set of binary distributions of MySQL that are
compiled on systems at our site or on systems where supporters of MySQL kindly have
given us access to their machines.
In addition to the binaries provided in platform-specific package formats, we offer binary
distributions for a number of platforms in the form of compressed tar files (.tar.gz files).
See Section 2.2 [Quick Standard Installation], page 77.
For Windows distributions, see Section 2.2.1 [Windows installation], page 78.
These distributions are generated using the script Build-tools/Do-compile, which compiles the source code and creates the binary tar.gz archive using scripts/make_binary_
distribution.
These binaries are configured and built with the following compilers and options. This information can also be obtained by looking at the variables COMP_ENV_INFO and CONFIGURE_
LINE inside the script bin/mysqlbug of every binary tar file distribution.
The following binaries are built on MySQL AB development systems:
Linux 2.4.xx x86 with gcc 2.95.3:
CFLAGS="-O2 -mcpu=pentiumpro" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O2 mcpu=pentiumpro -felide-constructors" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
--with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client
--enable-local-infile --enable-assembler --disable-shared --withclient-ldflags=-all-static --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static
Linux 2.4.x x86 with icc (Intel C++ Compiler 8.0):
CC=icc CXX=icc CFLAGS="-O3 -unroll2 -ip -mp -no-gcc -restrict"
CXXFLAGS="-O3 -unroll2 -ip -mp -no-gcc -restrict" ./configure
--prefix=/usr/local/mysql --localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data
--libexecdir=/usr/local/mysql/bin --with-extra-charsets=complex
--enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --enableassembler --disable-shared --with-client-ldflags=-all-static
--with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static --with-embedded-server
--with-innodb
Linux 2.4.xx Intel Itanium 2 with ecc (Intel C++ Itanium Compiler 7.0):
CC=ecc CFLAGS="-O2 -tpp2 -ip -nolib_inline" CXX=ecc CXXFLAGS="-O2
-tpp2 -ip -nolib_inline" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
--with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client
--enable-local-infile
Linux 2.4.xx Intel Itanium with ecc (Intel C++ Itanium Compiler 7.0):
CC=ecc CFLAGS=-tpp1 CXX=ecc CXXFLAGS=-tpp1 ./configure -prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enablethread-safe-client --enable-local-infile
Linux 2.4.xx alpha with ccc (Compaq C V6.2-505 / Compaq C++ V6.3-006):
CC=ccc CFLAGS="-fast -arch generic" CXX=cxx CXXFLAGS="fast -arch generic -noexceptions -nortti" ./configure -prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex
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--enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --withmysqld-ldflags=-non_shared --with-client-ldflags=-non_shared
--disable-shared
Linux 2.x.xx ppc with gcc 2.95.4:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fnoexceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql -localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data --libexecdir=/usr/local/mysql/bin
--with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client
--enable-local-infile --disable-shared --with-embedded-server
--with-innodb
Linux 2.4.xx s390 with gcc 2.95.3:
CFLAGS="-O2" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O2 -felide-constructors"
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex
--enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --disable-shared
--with-client-ldflags=-all-static --with-mysqld-ldflags=-allstatic
Linux 2.4.xx x86 64 (AMD64) with gcc 3.2.1:
CXX=gcc ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extracharsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile
--disable-shared
Sun Solaris 8 x86 with gcc 3.2.3:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fnoexceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql -localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data --libexecdir=/usr/local/mysql/bin
--with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client
--enable-local-infile --disable-shared --with-innodb
Sun Solaris 8 SPARC with gcc 3.2:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3
-fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions
-fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extracharsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile
--enable-assembler --with-named-z-libs=no --with-named-curseslibs=-lcurses --disable-shared
Sun Solaris 8 SPARC 64-bit with gcc 3.2:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -m64 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc
CXXFLAGS="-O3 -m64 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors
-fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
--with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client
--enable-local-infile --with-named-z-libs=no --with-named-curseslibs=-lcurses --disable-shared
Chapter 2: Installing MySQL
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Sun Solaris 9 SPARC with gcc 2.95.3:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3
-fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions
-fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extracharsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile
--enable-assembler --with-named-curses-libs=-lcurses --disableshared
Sun Solaris 9 SPARC with cc-5.0 (Sun Forte 5.0):
CC=cc-5.0 CXX=CC ASFLAGS="-xarch=v9" CFLAGS="-Xa -xstrconst
-mt -D_FORTEC_ -xarch=v9" CXXFLAGS="-noex -mt -D_FORTEC_
-xarch=v9" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extracharsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile
--enable-assembler --with-named-z-libs=no --enable-thread-safeclient --disable-shared
IBM AIX 4.3.2 ppc with gcc 3.2.3:
CFLAGS="-O2 -mcpu=powerpc -Wa,-many " CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O2
-mcpu=powerpc -Wa,-many -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions
-fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extracharsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile
--with-named-z-libs=no --disable-shared
IBM AIX 4.3.3 ppc with xlC_r (IBM Visual Age C/C++ 6.0):
CC=xlc_r CFLAGS="-ma -O2 -qstrict -qoptimize=2 -qmaxmem=8192"
CXX=xlC_r CXXFLAGS ="-ma -O2 -qstrict -qoptimize=2 -qmaxmem=8192"
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data
--libexecdir=/usr/local/mysql/bin --with-extra-charsets=complex
--enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --with-named-zlibs=no --disable-shared --with-innodb
IBM AIX 5.1.0 ppc with gcc 3.3:
CFLAGS="-O2 -mcpu=powerpc -Wa,-many" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O2
-mcpu=powerpc -Wa,-many -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions
-fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extracharsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile
--with-named-z-libs=no --disable-shared
IBM AIX 5.2.0 ppc with xlC_r (IBM Visual Age C/C++ 6.0):
CC=xlc_r CFLAGS="-ma -O2 -qstrict -qoptimize=2 -qmaxmem=8192"
CXX=xlC_r CXXFLAGS="-ma -O2 -qstrict -qoptimize=2 -qmaxmem=8192"
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data
--libexecdir=/usr/local/mysql/bin --with-extra-charsets=complex
--enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --with-named-zlibs=no --disable-shared --with-embedded-server --with-innodb
HP-UX 10.20 pa-risc1.1 with gcc 3.1:
CFLAGS="-DHPUX -I/opt/dce/include -O3 -fPIC" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="DHPUX -I/opt/dce /include -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions
-fno-rtti -O3 -fPIC" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
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--with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client -enable-local-infile --with-pthread --with-named-thread-libs=-ldce
--with-lib-ccflags=-fPIC --disable-shared
HP-UX 11.00 pa-risc with aCC (HP ANSI C++ B3910B A.03.50):
CC=cc CXX=aCC CFLAGS=+DAportable CXXFLAGS=+DAportable ./configure
--prefix=/usr/local/mysql --localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data
--libexecdir=/usr/local/mysql/bin --with-extra-charsets=complex
--enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --disable-shared
--with-embedded-server --with-innodb
HP-UX 11.11 pa-risc2.0 64bit with aCC (HP ANSI C++ B3910B A.03.33):
CC=cc CXX=aCC CFLAGS=+DD64 CXXFLAGS=+DD64 ./configure -prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enablethread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --disable-shared
HP-UX 11.11 pa-risc2.0 32bit with aCC (HP ANSI C++ B3910B A.03.33):
CC=cc CXX=aCC CFLAGS="+DAportable" CXXFLAGS="+DAportable"
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data
--libexecdir=/usr/local/mysql/bin --with-extra-charsets=complex
--enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --disable-shared
--with-innodb
HP-UX 11.22 ia64 64bit with aCC (HP aC++/ANSI C B3910B A.05.50):
CC=cc CXX=aCC CFLAGS="+DD64 +DSitanium2" CXXFLAGS="+DD64
+DSitanium2" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql -localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data --libexecdir=/usr/local/mysql/bin
--with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client
--enable-local-infile --disable-shared --with-embedded-server
--with-innodb
Apple Mac OS X 10.2 powerpc with gcc 3.1:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3
-fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions
-fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extracharsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile
--disable-shared
FreeBSD 4.7 i386 with gcc 2.95.4:
CFLAGS=-DHAVE_BROKEN_REALPATH ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
--with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client
--enable-local-infile --enable-assembler --with-named-z-libs=notused --disable-shared
FreeBSD 4.7 i386 using LinuxThreads with gcc 2.95.4:
CFLAGS="-DHAVE_BROKEN_REALPATH -D__USE_UNIX98 -D_REENTRANT
-D_THREAD_SAFE -I/usr/local/include/pthread/linuxthreads"
CXXFLAGS="-DHAVE_BROKEN_REALPATH -D__USE_UNIX98 -D_REENTRANT -D_
THREAD_SAFE -I/usr/local/include/pthread/linuxthreads" ./configure
--prefix=/usr/local/mysql --localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data
--libexecdir=/usr/local/mysql/bin --enable-thread-safe-client
Chapter 2: Installing MySQL
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--enable-local-infile --enable-assembler --with-named-threadlibs="-DHAVE_GLIBC2_STYLE_GETHOSTBYNAME_R -D_THREAD_SAFE -I
/usr/local/include/pthread/linuxthreads -L/usr/local/lib -llthread
-llgcc_r" --disable-shared --with-embedded-server --with-innodb
QNX Neutrino 6.2.1 i386 with gcc 2.95.3qnx-nto 20010315:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3
-fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions
-fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extracharsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile
--disable-shared
The following binaries are built on third-party systems kindly provided to MySQL AB by
other users. These are provided only as a courtesy; MySQL AB does not have full control
over these systems, so we can provide only limited support for the binaries built on them.
SCO Unix 3.2v5.0.6 i386 with gcc 2.95.3:
CFLAGS="-O3 -mpentium" LDFLAGS=-static CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 mpentium -felide-constructors" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
--with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client
--enable-local-infile --with-named-z-libs=no --enable-thread-safeclient --disable-shared
SCO OpenUnix 8.0.0 i386 with CC 3.2:
CC=cc CFLAGS="-O" CXX=CC ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
--with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client
--enable-local-infile --with-named-z-libs=no --enable-thread-safeclient --disable-shared
Compaq Tru64 OSF/1 V5.1 732 alpha with cc/cxx (Compaq C V6.3-029i / DIGITAL
C++ V6.1-027):
CC="cc -pthread" CFLAGS="-O4 -ansi_alias -ansi_args -fast inline speed -speculate all" CXX="cxx -pthread" CXXFLAGS="-O4
-ansi_alias -fast -inline speed -speculate all -noexceptions
-nortti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extracharsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile
--with-prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-named-thread-libs="lpthread -lmach -lexc -lc" --disable-shared --with-mysqld-ldflags=all-static
SGI Irix 6.5 IP32 with gcc 3.0.1:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-O3
-fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions
-fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extracharsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile
--disable-shared
FreeBSD/sparc64 5.0 with gcc 3.2.1:
CFLAGS=-DHAVE_BROKEN_REALPATH ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
--localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data --libexecdir=/usr/local/mysql/bin
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--with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client
--enable-local-infile --disable-shared --with-innodb
The following compile options have been used for binary packages that MySQL AB provided
in the past. These binaries no longer are being updated, but the compile options are listed
here for reference purposes.
Linux 2.2.xx SPARC with egcs 1.1.2:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3
-fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions
-fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extracharsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile
--enable-assembler --disable-shared
Linux 2.2.x with x686 with gcc 2.95.2:
CFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro
-felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure
--prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler --with-mysqldldflags=-all-static --disable-shared --with-extra-charsets=complex
SunOS 4.1.4 2 sun4c with gcc 2.7.2.1:
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -felide-constructors" ./configure
--prefix=/usr/local/mysql --disable-shared --with-extracharsets=complex --enable-assembler
SunOS 5.5.1 (and above) sun4u with egcs 1.0.3a or 2.90.27 or
gcc 2.95.2 and newer:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3
-felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure
--prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-low-memory --with-extracharsets=complex --enable-assembler
SunOS 5.6 i86pc with gcc 2.8.1:
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
--with-low-memory --with-extra-charsets=complex
BSDI BSD/OS 3.1 i386 with gcc 2.7.2.1:
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
--with-extra-charsets=complex
BSDI BSD/OS 2.1 i386 with gcc 2.7.2:
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
--with-extra-charsets=complex
AIX 4.2 with gcc 2.7.2.2:
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
--with-extra-charsets=complex
Anyone who has more optimal options for any of the preceding configurations listed can
always mail them to the MySQL internals mailing list. See Section 1.7.1.1 [Mailing-list],
page 32.
RPM distributions prior to MySQL 3.22 are user-contributed. Beginning with MySQL 3.22,
RPM distributions are generated by MySQL AB.
Chapter 2: Installing MySQL
73
If you want to compile a debug version of MySQL, you should add --with-debug or -with-debug=full to the preceding configure commands and remove any -fomit-framepointer options.
2.1.3 How to Get MySQL
Check the MySQL downloads page (http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/) for information
about the current version and for downloading instructions. For a complete up-to-date list
of MySQL download mirror sites, see http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mirrors.html.
There you will also find information about becoming a MySQL mirror site and how to
report a bad or out-of-date mirror.
Our main mirror is located at http://mirrors.sunsite.dk/mysql/.
2.1.4 Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG
After you have downloaded the MySQL package that suits your needs and before you
attempt to install it, you should make sure that it is intact and has not been tampered
with. MySQL AB offers three means of integrity checking:
• MD5 checksums
• Cryptographic signatures using GnuPG, the GNU Privacy Guard
• For RPM packages, the built-in RPM integrity verification mechanism
The following sections describe how to use these methods.
If you notice that the MD5 checksum or GPG signatures do not match, first try to download
the respective package one more time, perhaps from another mirror site. If you repeatedly
cannot successfully verify the integrity of the package, please notify us about such incidents, including the full package name and the download site you have been using, at
[email protected] or [email protected] Do not report downloading problems using
the bug-reporting system.
2.1.4.1 Verifying the MD5 Checksum
After you have downloaded a MySQL package, you should make sure that its MD5 checksum
matches the one provided on the MySQL download pages. Each package has an individual
checksum that you can verify with the following command, where package_name is the
name of the package you downloaded:
shell> md5sum package_name
Example:
shell> md5sum mysql-standard-4.0.17-pc-linux-i686.tar.gz
60f5fe969d61c8f82e4f7f62657e1f06 mysql-standard-4.0.17-pc-linux-i686.tar.gz
You should verify that the resulting checksum (the string of hexadecimal digits) matches
the one displayed on the download page immediately below the respective package.
Note that not all operating systems support the md5sum command. On some, it is simply
called md5 and others do not ship it at all. On Linux, it is part of the GNU Text Utilities
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package, which is available for a wide range of platforms. You can download the source code
from http://www.gnu.org/software/textutils/ as well. If you have OpenSSL installed,
you can also use the command openssl md5 package_name instead. A DOS/Windows
implementation of the md5 command is available from http://www.fourmilab.ch/md5/.
2.1.4.2 Signature Checking Using GnuPG
Another method of verifying the integrity and authenticity of a package is to use cryptographic signatures. This is more reliable than using MD5 checksums, but requires more
work.
Beginning with MySQL 4.0.10 (February 2003), MySQL AB started signing downloadable
packages with GnuPG (GNU Privacy Guard).
GnuPG is an Open Source alternative
to the very well-known Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) by Phil Zimmermann.
See
http://www.gnupg.org/ for more information about GnuPG and how to obtain and install
it on your system. Most Linux distributions already ship with GnuPG installed by default.
For more information about OpenPGP, see http://www.openpgp.org/.
To verify the signature for a specific package, you first need to obtain a copy of MySQL
AB’s public GPG build key. You can download the key from http://www.keyserver.net/.
The key that you want to obtain is named [email protected] Alternatively, you can cut
and paste the key directly from the following text:
Key ID:
pub 1024D/5072E1F5 2003-02-03
MySQL Package signing key (www.mysql.com) <[email protected]>
Fingerprint: A4A9 4068 76FC BD3C 4567 70C8 8C71 8D3B 5072 E1F5
Public Key (ASCII-armored):
-----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK----Version: GnuPG v1.0.6 (GNU/Linux)
Comment: For info see http://www.gnupg.org
mQGiBD4+owwRBAC14GIfUfCyEDSIePvEW3SAFUdJBtoQHH/nJKZyQT7h9bPlUWC3
RODjQReyCITRrdwyrKUGku2FmeVGwn2u2WmDMNABLnpprWPkBdCk96+OmSLN9brZ
fw2vOUgCmYv2hW0hyDHuvYlQA/BThQoADgj8AW6/0Lo7V1W9/8VuHP0gQwCgvzV3
BqOxRznNCRCRxAuAuVztHRcEAJooQK1+iSiunZMYD1WufeXfshc57S/+yeJkegNW
hxwR9pRWVArNYJdDRT+rf2RUe3vpquKNQU/hnEIUHJRQqYHo8gTxvxXNQc7fJYLV
K2HtkrPbP72vwsEKMYhhr0eKCbtLGfls9krjJ6sBgACyP/Vb7hiPwxh6rDZ7ITnE
kYpXBACmWpP8NJTkamEnPCia2ZoOHODANwpUkP43I7jsDmgtobZX9qnrAXw+uNDI
QJEXM6FSbi0LLtZciNlYsafwAPEOMDKpMqAK6IyisNtPvaLd8lH0bPAnWqcyefep
rv0sxxqUEMcM3o7wwgfN83POkDasDbs3pjwPhxvhz6//62zQJ7Q7TXlTUUwgUGFj
a2FnZSBzaWduaW5nIGtleSAod3d3Lm15c3FsLmNvbSkgPGJ1aWxkQG15c3FsLmNv
bT6IXQQTEQIAHQUCPj6jDAUJCWYBgAULBwoDBAMVAwIDFgIBAheAAAoJEIxxjTtQ
cuH1cY4AnilUwTXn8MatQOiG0a/bPxrvK/gCAJ4oinSNZRYTnblChwFaazt7PF3q
zIhMBBMRAgAMBQI+PqPRBYMJZgC7AAoJEElQ4SqycpHyJOEAn1mxHijft00bKXvu
cSo/pECUmppiAJ41M9MRVj5VcdH/KN/KjRtW6tHFPYhMBBMRAgAMBQI+QoIDBYMJ
YiKJAAoJELb1zU3GuiQ/lpEAoIhpp6BozKI8p6eaabzF5MlJH58pAKCu/ROofK8J
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75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=YJkx
-----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK----You can import the build key into your personal public GPG keyring by using gpg -import. For example, if you save the key in a file named ‘mysql_pubkey.asc’, the import
command looks like this:
shell> gpg --import mysql_pubkey.asc
See the GPG documentation for more information on how to work with public keys.
After you have downloaded and imported the public build key, download your desired
MySQL package and the corresponding signature, which also is available from the download
page. The signature file has the same name as the distribution file with an ‘.asc’ extension.
For example:
Distribution file
Signature file
mysql-standard-4.0.17-pc-linux-i686.tar.gz
mysql-standard-4.0.17-pc-linuxi686.tar.gz.asc
Make sure that both files are stored in the same directory and then run the following
command to verify the signature for the distribution file:
shell> gpg --verify package_name.asc
Example:
shell> gpg --verify mysql-standard-4.0.17-pc-linux-i686.tar.gz.asc
gpg: Warning: using insecure memory!
gpg: Signature made Mon 03 Feb 2003 08:50:39 PM MET
using DSA key ID 5072E1F5
gpg: Good signature from
"MySQL Package signing key (www.mysql.com) <[email protected]>"
The Good signature message indicates that everything is all right. You can ignore the
insecure memory warning.
2.1.4.3 Signature Checking Using RPM
For RPM packages, there is no separate signature. RPM packages have a built-in GPG
signature and MD5 checksum. You can verify a package by running the following command:
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shell> rpm --checksig package_name.rpm
Example:
shell> rpm --checksig MySQL-server-4.0.10-0.i386.rpm
MySQL-server-4.0.10-0.i386.rpm: md5 gpg OK
Note: If you are using RPM 4.1 and it complains about (GPG) NOT OK (MISSING KEYS:
GPG#5072e1f5), even though you have imported the MySQL public build key into your
own GPG keyring, you need to import the key into the RPM keyring first. RPM 4.1
no longer uses your personal GPG keyring (or GPG itself). Rather, it maintains its own
keyring because it is a system-wide application and a user’s GPG public keyring is a userspecific file. To import the MySQL public key into the RPM keyring, first obtain the key as
described in the previous section. Then use rpm --import to import the key. For example,
if you have the public key stored in a file named ‘mysql_pubkey.asc’, import it using this
command:
shell> rpm --import mysql_pubkey.asc
2.1.5 Installation Layouts
This section describes the default layout of the directories created by installing binary
or source distributions provided by MySQL AB. If you install a distribution provided by
another vendor, some other layout might be used.
On Windows, the default installation directory is ‘C:\mysql’, which has the following subdirectories:
Directory
Contents of Directory
‘bin’
Client programs and the mysqld server
‘data’
Log files, databases
‘Docs’
Documentation
‘examples’
Example programs and scripts
‘include’
Include (header) files
‘lib’
Libraries
‘scripts’
Utility scripts
‘share’
Error message files
Installations created from Linux RPM distributions result in files under the following system
directories:
Directory
Contents of Directory
‘/usr/bin’
Client programs and scripts
‘/usr/sbin’
The mysqld server
‘/var/lib/mysql’
Log files, databases
‘/usr/share/doc/packages’
Documentation
‘/usr/include/mysql’
Include (header) files
‘/usr/lib/mysql’
Libraries
‘/usr/share/mysql’
Error message and character set files
‘/usr/share/sql-bench’
Benchmarks
On Unix, a tar file binary distribution is installed by unpacking it at the installation
location you choose (typically ‘/usr/local/mysql’) and creates the following directories in
that location:
Chapter 2: Installing MySQL
Directory
‘bin’
‘data’
‘docs’
‘include’
‘lib’
‘scripts’
‘share/mysql’
‘sql-bench’
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Contents of Directory
Client programs and the mysqld server
Log files, databases
Documentation, ChangeLog
Include (header) files
Libraries
mysql_install_db
Error message files
Benchmarks
A source distribution is installed after you configure and compile it. By default, the installation step installs files under ‘/usr/local’, in the following subdirectories:
Directory
‘bin’
‘include/mysql’
‘info’
‘lib/mysql’
‘libexec’
‘share/mysql’
‘sql-bench’
‘var’
Contents of Directory
Client programs and scripts
Include (header) files
Documentation in Info format
Libraries
The mysqld server
Error message files
Benchmarks and crash-me test
Databases and log files
Within an installation directory, the layout of a source installation differs from that of a
binary installation in the following ways:
• The mysqld server is installed in the ‘libexec’ directory rather than in the ‘bin’
directory.
• The data directory is ‘var’ rather than ‘data’.
• mysql_install_db is installed in the ‘bin’ directory rather than in the ‘scripts’
directory.
• The header file and library directories are ‘include/mysql’ and ‘lib/mysql’ rather
than ‘include’ and ‘lib’.
You can create your own binary installation from a compiled source distribution by executing the ‘scripts/make_binary_distribution’ script from the top directory of the source
distribution.
2.2 Standard MySQL Installation Using a Binary
Distribution
This section covers the installation of MySQL on platforms where we offer packages using
the native packaging format of the respective platform. (This is also known as performing
a “binary install.”) However, binary distributions of MySQL are available for many other
platforms as well. See Section 2.2.5 [Installing binary], page 97 for generic installation
instructions for these packages that apply to all platforms.
See Section 2.1 [General Installation Issues], page 59 for more information on what other
binary distributions are available and how to obtain them.
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2.2.1 Installing MySQL on Windows
The installation process for MySQL on Windows has the following steps:
1. Obtain and install the distribution.
2. Set up an option file if necessary.
3. Select the server you want to use.
4. Start the server.
5. Assign passwords to the initial MySQL accounts.
MySQL for Windows is available in two distribution formats:
• The binary distribution contains a setup program that installs everything you need so
that you can start the server immediately.
• The source distribution contains all the code and support files for building the executables using the VC++ 6.0 compiler.
Generally speaking, you should use the binary distribution. It’s simpler, and you need no
additional tools to get MySQL up and running.
This section describes how to install MySQL on Windows using a binary distribution. To
install using a source distribution, see Section 2.3.6 [Windows source build], page 113.
2.2.1.1 Windows System Requirements
To run MySQL on Windows, you need the following:
• A 32-bit Windows operating system such as 9x, Me, NT, 2000, or XP. The NT family
(Windows NT, 2000, and XP) permits you to run the MySQL server as a service. See
Section 2.2.1.7 [NT start], page 84.
• TCP/IP protocol support.
• A copy of the MySQL binary distribution for Windows, which can be downloaded from
http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/. See Section 2.1.3 [Getting MySQL], page 73.
Note: If you download the distribution via FTP, we recommend the use of an adequate
FTP client with a resume feature to avoid corruption of files during the download
process.
• WinZip or other Windows tool that can read ‘.zip’ files, to unpack the distribution
file.
• Enough space on the hard drive to unpack, install, and create the databases in accordance with your requirements.
• If you plan to connect to the MySQL server via ODBC, you also need a Connector/ODBC driver. See Section 21.3 [ODBC], page 1050.
• If you need tables with a size larger than 4GB, install MySQL on an NTFS or newer
filesystem. Don’t forget to use MAX_ROWS and AVG_ROW_LENGTH when you create tables.
See Section 14.2.6 [CREATE TABLE], page 710.
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2.2.1.2 Installing a Windows Binary Distribution
To install MySQL on Windows using a binary distribution, follow this procedure:
1. If you are working on a Windows NT, 2000, or XP machine, make sure that you have
logged in as a user with administrator privileges.
2. If you are doing an upgrade of an earlier MySQL installation, it is necessary to stop
the current server. On Windows NT, 2000, or XP machines, if you are running the
server as a Windows service, stop it as follows from the command prompt:
C:\> NET STOP MySQL
If you plan to use a different server after the upgrade (for example, if you want to run
mysqld-max rather than mysqld), remove the existing service:
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqld --remove
You can reinstall the service to use the proper server after upgrading.
If you are not running the MySQL server as a service, stop it like this:
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqladmin -u root shutdown
3. Exit the WinMySQLAdmin program if it is running.
4. Unzip the distribution file to a temporary directory.
5. Run the setup.exe program to begin the installation process. If you want to install
MySQL into a location other than the default directory (‘C:\mysql’), use the Browse
button to specify your preferred directory. If you do not install MySQL into the default
location, you will need to specify the location whenever you start the server. The easiest
way to do this is to use an option file, as described in Section 2.2.1.3 [Windows prepare
environment], page 79.
6. Finish the install process.
Important note: Early alpha Windows distributions for MySQL 4.1 do not contain an
installer program. A 4.1 distribution is a Zip file that you just unzip in the location
where you want to install MySQL. For example, to install ‘mysql-4.1.1-alpha-win.zip’
as ‘C:\mysql’, unzip the distribution file on the C: drive, then rename the resulting
‘mysql-4.1.1-alpha’ directory to ‘mysql’.
If you are upgrading to MySQL 4.1 from an earlier version, you will want to preserve your
existing ‘data’ directory that contains the grant tables in the mysql database and your
own databases. Before installing 4.1, stop the server if it is running, and save your ‘data’
directory to another location. Then either rename the existing ‘C:\mysql’ directory or
remove it. Install 4.1 as described in the preceding paragraph, and then replace its ‘data’
directory with your old ‘data’ directory. This will avoid the loss of your current databases.
Start the new server and update the grant tables. See Section 2.5.8 [Upgrading-grant-tables],
page 147.
Please see Section 2.2.1.8 [Windows troubleshooting], page 86 if you encounter difficulties
during installation.
2.2.1.3 Preparing the Windows MySQL Environment
If you need to specify startup options when you run the server, you can indicate them on the
command line or place them in an option file. For options that will be used every time the
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server starts, you will find it most convenient to use an option file to specify your MySQL
configuration. This is true particularly under the following circumstances:
• The installation or data directory locations are different from the default locations
(‘C:\mysql’ and ‘C:\mysql\data’).
• You need to tune the server settings. For example, to use the InnoDB transactional
tables in MySQL 3.23, you must manually add some extra lines to the option file, as
described in Section 16.4 [InnoDB configuration], page 805. (As of MySQL 4.0, InnoDB
creates its data files and log files in the data directory by default. This means you need
not configure InnoDB explicitly. You may still do so if you wish, and an option file will
be useful in this case, too.)
On Windows, the MySQL installer places the data directory directly under the directory
where you install MySQL. If you would like to use a data directory in a different location, you should copy the entire contents of the ‘data’ directory to the new location. For
example, by default, the installer places MySQL in ‘C:\mysql’ and the data directory in
‘C:\mysql\data’. If you want to use a data directory of ‘E:\mydata’, you must do two
things:
• Move the data directory from ‘C:\mysql\data’ to ‘E:\mydata’.
• Use a --datadir option to specify the new data directory location each time you start
the server.
When the MySQL server starts on Windows, it looks for options in two files: the ‘my.ini’
file in the Windows directory, and the ‘C:\my.cnf’ file. The Windows directory typically
is named something like ‘C:\WINDOWS’ or ‘C:\WinNT’. You can determine its exact location
from the value of the WINDIR environment variable using the following command:
C:\> echo %WINDIR%
MySQL looks for options first in the ‘my.ini’ file, then in the ‘my.cnf’ file. However, to
avoid confusion, it’s best if you use only one file. If your PC uses a boot loader where the
C: drive isn’t the boot drive, your only option is to use the ‘my.ini’ file. Whichever option
file you use, it must be a plain text file.
An option file can be created and modified with any text editor, such as the Notepad
program. For example, if MySQL is installed at ‘E:\mysql’ and the data directory is
located at ‘E:\mydata\data’, you can create the option file and set up a [mysqld] section
to specify values for the basedir and datadir parameters:
[mysqld]
# set basedir to your installation path
basedir=E:/mysql
# set datadir to the location of your data directory
datadir=E:/mydata/data
Note that Windows pathnames are specified in option files using forward slashes rather than
backslashes. If you do use backslashes, you must double them.
Another way to manage an option file is to use the WinMySQLAdmin tool. You can find
WinMySQLAdmin in the ‘bin’ directory of your MySQL installation, as well as a help file
containing instructions for using it. WinMySQLAdmin has the capability of editing your
option file, but note these points:
• WinMySQLAdmin uses only the ‘my.ini’ file.
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• If WinMySQLAdmin finds a ‘C:\my.cnf’ file, it will in fact rename it to ‘C:\my_cnf.bak’
to disable it.
Now you are ready to start the server.
2.2.1.4 Selecting a Windows Server
Starting with MySQL 3.23.38, the Windows distribution includes both the normal and the
MySQL-Max server binaries.
Up through the early releases of MySQL 4.1, the servers included in Windows distributions
are named like this:
Binary
Description
mysqld
Compiled with full debugging and automatic memory allocation checking, symbolic links, and InnoDB and BDB tables.
mysqld-opt
Optimized binary. From version 4.0 on, InnoDB is enabled. Before 4.0,
this server includes no transactional table support.
mysqld-nt
Optimized binary for Windows NT, 2000, and XP with support for
named pipes.
mysqld-max
Optimized binary with support for symbolic links, and InnoDB and BDB
tables.
mysqld-max-nt
Like mysqld-max, but compiled with support for named pipes.
We have found that the server with the most generic name (mysqld) is the one that many
users are likely to choose by default. However, that is also the server that results in the
highest memory and CPU use due to the inclusion of full debugging support. The server
named mysqld-opt is a better general-use server choice to make instead if you don’t need
debugging suport and don’t want the maximal feature set offered by the -max servers or
named pipe support offered by the -nt servers.
To make it less likely that the debugging server would be chosen inadvertantly, some name
changes were made from MySQL 4.1.2 to 4.1.4: mysqld has been renamed to mysqld-debug
and mysqld-opt has been renamed to mysqld. Thus, the server that includes debugging
support indicates that in its name, and the server named mysqld is an efficient default
choice. The other servers still have their same names. The resulting servers are named like
this:
Binary
Description
mysqld-debug
Compiled with full debugging and automatic memory allocation checking, symbolic links, and InnoDB and BDB tables.
mysqld
Optimized binary with InnoDB support.
mysqld-nt
Optimized binary for Windows NT, 2000, and XP with support for
named pipes.
mysqld-max
Optimized binary with support for symbolic links, and InnoDB and BDB
tables.
mysqld-max-nt
Like mysqld-max, but compiled with support for named pipes.
The name changes were not both instituted at the same time. If you have MySQL 4.1.2 or
4.1.3, it might be that you have a server named mysqld-debug but not one named mysqld.
In this case, you should have have a server mysqld-opt, which you should choose as your
default server unless you need maximal features, named pipes, or debugging support.
All of the preceding binaries are optimized for modern Intel processors, but should work on
any Intel i386-class or higher processor.
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MySQL supports TCP/IP on all Windows platforms. The mysqld-nt and mysql-max-nt
servers support named pipes on NT, 2000, and XP. However, the default is to use TCP/IP
regardless of the platform. (Named pipes are slower than TCP/IP in many Windows
configurations.) Named pipe use is subject to these conditions:
• Starting from MySQL 3.23.50, named pipes are enabled only if you start the server
with the --enable-named-pipe option. It is now necessary to use this option explicitly
because some users have experienced problems shutting down the MySQL server when
named pipes were used.
• Named pipe connections are allowed only by the mysqld-nt or mysqld-max-nt servers,
and only if the server is run on a version of Windows that supports named pipes (NT,
2000, XP).
• These servers can be run on Windows 98 or Me, but only if TCP/IP is installed; named
pipe connections cannot be used.
• On Windows 95, these servers cannot be used.
Note: Most of the examples in the following sections use mysqld as the server name. If you
choose to use a different server, such as mysqld-opt, make the appropriate substitutions
in the commands that are shown in the examples. One good reason to choose a different
server is that because mysqld contains full debugging support, it uses more memory and
runs slower than the other Windows servers.
2.2.1.5 Starting the Server for the First Time
On Windows 95, 98, or Me, MySQL clients always connect to the server using TCP/IP.
(This will allow any machine on your network to connect to your MySQL server.) Because of
this, you must make sure that TCP/IP support is installed on your machine before starting
MySQL. You can find TCP/IP on your Windows CD-ROM.
Note that if you are using an old Windows 95 release (for example, OSR2), it’s likely that
you have an old Winsock package; MySQL requires Winsock 2! You can get the newest
Winsock from http://www.microsoft.com/. Windows 98 has the new Winsock 2 library,
so it is unnecessary to update the library.
On NT-based systems such as Windows NT, 2000, or XP, clients have two options. They can
use TCP/IP, or they can use a named pipe if the server supports named pipe connections.
In MySQL 4.1 and up, Windows servers also support shared-memory connections if
started with the --shared-memory option. Clients can connect this way by using the
--protocol=memory option.
For information about which server binary to run, see Section 2.2.1.4 [Windows select
server], page 81.
This section gives a general overview of starting the MySQL server. The following sections
provide more specific information for particular versions of Windows.
The examples in these sections assume that MySQL is installed under the default location
of ‘C:\mysql’. Adjust the pathnames shown in the examples if you have MySQL installed
in a different location.
Testing is best done from a command prompt in a console window (a “DOS window”). This
way you can have the server display status messages in the window where they are easy to
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see. If something is wrong with your configuration, these messages will make it easier for
you to identify and fix any problems.
To start the server, enter this command:
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqld --console
For servers that include InnoDB support, you should see the following messages as the server
starts:
InnoDB: The first specified datafile c:\ibdata\ibdata1 did not exist:
InnoDB: a new database to be created!
InnoDB: Setting file c:\ibdata\ibdata1 size to 209715200
InnoDB: Database physically writes the file full: wait...
InnoDB: Log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile0 did not exist: new to be created
InnoDB: Setting log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile0 size to 31457280
InnoDB: Log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile1 did not exist: new to be created
InnoDB: Setting log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile1 size to 31457280
InnoDB: Log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile2 did not exist: new to be created
InnoDB: Setting log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile2 size to 31457280
InnoDB: Doublewrite buffer not found: creating new
InnoDB: Doublewrite buffer created
InnoDB: creating foreign key constraint system tables
InnoDB: foreign key constraint system tables created
011024 10:58:25 InnoDB: Started
When the server finishes its startup sequence, you should see something like this, which
indicates that the server is ready to service client connections:
mysqld: ready for connections
Version: ’4.0.14-log’ socket: ’’ port: 3306
The server will continue to write to the console any further diagnostic output it produces.
You can open a new console window in which to run client programs.
If you omit the --console option, the server writes diagnostic output to the error log in
the data directory (‘C:\mysql\data’ by default). The error log is the file with the ‘.err’
extension.
Note: The accounts that are listed in the MySQL grant tables initially have no passwords.
After starting the server, you should set up passwords for them using the instructions in
Section 2.4 [Post-installation], page 117.
2.2.1.6 Starting MySQL from the Windows Command Line
The MySQL server can be started manually from the command line. This can be done on
any version of Windows.
To start the mysqld server from the command line, you should start a console window (a
“DOS window”) and enter this command:
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqld
On non-NT versions of Windows, this will start mysqld in the background. That is, after
the server starts, you should see another command prompt. If you start the server this
way on Windows NT, 2000, or XP, the server will run in the foreground and no command
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prompt will appear until the server exits. Because of this, you should open another console
window to run client programs while the server is running.
You can stop the MySQL server by executing this command:
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqladmin -u root shutdown
This invokes the MySQL administrative utility mysqladmin to connect to the server and
tell it to shut down. The command connects as root, which is the default administrative
account in the MySQL grant system. Note that users in the MySQL grant system are
wholly independent from any login users under Windows.
If mysqld doesn’t start, check the error log to see whether the server wrote any messages
there to indicate the cause of the problem. The error log is located in the ‘C:\mysql\data’
directory. It is the file with a suffix of ‘.err’. You can also try to start the server as mysqld
--console; in this case, you may get some useful information on the screen that may help
solve the problem.
The last option is to start mysqld with --standalone --debug. In this case, mysqld will
write a log file ‘C:\mysqld.trace’ that should contain the reason why mysqld doesn’t start.
See Section D.1.2 [Making trace files], page 1329.
Use mysqld --help to display all the options that mysqld understands!
2.2.1.7 Starting MySQL as a Windows Service
On the NT family (Windows NT, 2000, or XP), the recommended way to run MySQL
is to install it as a Windows service. Then Windows starts and stops the MySQL server
automatically when Windows starts and stops. A server installed as a service can also be
controlled from the command line using NET commands, or with the graphical Services
utility.
The Services utility (the Windows Service Control Manager) can be found in the Windows Control Panel (under Administrative Tools on Windows 2000 or XP). It is advisable to close the Services utility while performing server installation or removal operations
from this command line. This prevents some odd errors.
To get MySQL to work with TCP/IP on Windows NT 4, you must install service pack 3
(or newer).
Before installing MySQL as a Windows service, you should first stop the current server if
it is running by using the following command:
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqladmin -u root shutdown
This invokes the MySQL administrative utility mysqladmin to connect to the server and
tell it to shut down. The command connects as root, which is the default administrative
account in the MySQL grant system. Note that users in the MySQL grant system are
wholly independent from any login users under Windows.
Now install the server as a service:
C:\> mysqld --install
If you have problems installing mysqld as a service using just the server name, try installing
it using its full pathname:
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C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqld --install
As of MySQL 4.0.2, you can specify a specific service name after the --install option. As
of MySQL 4.0.3, you can in addition specify a --defaults-file option after the service
name to indicate where the server should obtain options when it starts. The rules that
determine the service name and option files the server uses are as follows:
• If you specify no service name, the server uses the default service name of MySQL and
the server reads options from the [mysqld] group in the standard option files.
• If you specify a service name after the --install option, the server ignores the
[mysqld] option group and instead reads options from the group that has the same
name as the service. The server reads options from the standard option files.
• If you specify a --defaults-file option after the service name, the server ignores the
standard option files and reads options only from the [mysqld] group of the named
file.
Note: Prior to MySQL 4.0.17, a server installed as a Windows service has problems starting
if its pathname or the service name contains spaces. For this reason, avoid installing MySQL
in a directory such as ‘C:\Program Files’ or using a service name containing spaces.
In the usual case that you install the server with --install but no service name, the server
is installed with a service name of MySQL.
As a more complex example, consider the following command:
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqld --install mysql --defaults-file=C:\my-opts.cnf
Here, a service name is given after the --install option. If no --defaults-file option
had been given, this command would have the effect of causing the server to read the
[mysql] group from the standard option files. (This would be a bad idea, because that
option group is for use by the mysql client program.) However, because the --defaultsfile option is present, the server reads options only from the named file, and only from
the [mysqld] option group.
You can also specify options as “Start parameters” in the Windows Services utility
before you start the MySQL service.
Once a MySQL server is installed as a service, Windows will start the service automatically
whenever Windows starts. The service also can be started immediately from the Services
utility, or by using the command NET START MySQL. The NET command is not case sensitive.
When run as a service, mysqld has no access to a console window, so no messages can be
seen there. If mysqld doesn’t start, check the error log to see whether the server wrote
any messages there to indicate the cause of the problem. The error log is located in the
‘C:\mysql\data’ directory. It is the file with a suffix of ‘.err’.
When mysqld is running as a service, it can be stopped by using the Services utility,
the command NET STOP MySQL, or the command mysqladmin shutdown. If the service is
running when Windows shuts down, Windows will stop the server automatically.
From MySQL 3.23.44 on, you have the choice of installing the server as a Manual service if
you don’t wish the service to be started automatically during the boot process. To do this,
use the --install-manual option rather than the --install option:
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqld --install-manual
To remove a server that is installed as a service, first stop it if it is running. Then use the
--remove option to remove it:
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C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqld --remove
For MySQL versions older than 3.23.49, one problem with automatic MySQL service shutdown is that Windows waited only for a few seconds for the shutdown to complete, then
killed the database server process if the time limit was exceeded. This had the potential
to cause problems. (For example, the InnoDB storage engine had to perform crash recovery
at the next startup.) Starting from MySQL 3.23.49, Windows waits longer for the MySQL
server shutdown to complete. If you notice this still is not enough for your installation, it
is safest not to run the MySQL server as a service. Instead, start it from the command-line
prompt, and stop it with mysqladmin shutdown.
This change to tell Windows to wait longer when stopping the MySQL server
works for Windows 2000 and XP. It does not work for Windows NT, where
Windows waits only 20 seconds for a service to shut down, and after that kills
the service process. You can increase this default by opening the Registry Editor
‘\winnt\system32\regedt32.exe’ and editing the value of WaitToKillServiceTimeout
at HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control in the Registry tree.
Specify the new larger value in milliseconds. For example, the value 120000 tells Windows
NT to wait up to 120 seconds.
If you don’t want to start mysqld as a service, you can start it from the command line. For
instructions, see Section 2.2.1.6 [Win95 start], page 83.
Please see Section 2.2.1.8 [Windows troubleshooting], page 86 if you encounter difficulties
during installation.
2.2.1.8 Troubleshooting a MySQL Installation Under Windows
When installing and running MySQL for the first time, you may encounter certain errors
that prevent the MySQL server from starting. The purpose of this section is to help you
diagnose and correct some of these errors.
Your first resource when troubleshooting server issues is the error log. The MySQL server
uses the error log to record information relevant to the error that is preventing the server
from starting. The error log is located in the data directory specified in your ‘my.ini’
file. The default data directory location is ‘C:\mysql\data’. See Section 5.9.1 [Error log],
page 366.
Another source of information regarding possible errors is the console messages displayed
when the MySQL service is starting. Use the NET START mysql command from the command
line after installing mysqld as a service to see any error messages regarding the starting of
the MySQL server as a service. See Section 2.2.1.7 [NT start], page 84.
The following are examples of some of the more common error messages you may encounter
when installing MySQL and starting the server for the first time:
System error 1067 has occurred.
Fatal error: Can’t open privilege tables: Table ’mysql.host’ doesn’t exist
These messages occur when the MySQL server cannot find the mysql privileges database
or other critical files. This error is often encountered when the MySQL base or data
directories are installed in different locations than the default locations (‘C:\mysql’ and
‘C:\mysql\data’, respectively).
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If you have installed MySQL to a directory other than ‘C:\mysql’ you will need to ensure that the MySQL server is aware of this through the use of a configuration (my.ini)
file. The my.ini file needs to be located in your Windows directory, typically located at
‘C:\WinNT’ or ‘C:\WINDOWS’. You can determine its exact location from the value of the
WINDIR environment variable by issuing the following command from the command prompt:
C:\> echo %WINDIR%
An option file can be created and modified with any text editor, such as the Notepad
program. For example, if MySQL is installed at ‘E:\mysql’ and the data directory is
located at ‘D:\MySQLdata’, you can create the option file and set up a [mysqld] section to
specify values for the basedir and datadir parameters:
[mysqld]
# set basedir to your installation path
basedir=E:/mysql
# set datadir to the location of your data directory
datadir=D:/MySQLdata
Note that Windows pathnames are specified in option files using forward slashes rather than
backslashes. If you do use backslashes, you must double them:
[mysqld]
# set basedir to your installation path
basedir=C:\\Program Files\\mysql
# set datadir to the location of your data directory
datadir=D:\\MySQLdata
See Section 2.2.1.3 [Windows prepare environment], page 79.
2.2.1.9 Running MySQL Client Programs on Windows
You can test whether the MySQL server is working by executing any of the following
commands:
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqlshow
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqlshow -u root mysql
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqladmin version status proc
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysql test
If mysqld is slow to respond to TCP/IP connections from client programs on Windows
9x/Me, there is probably a problem with your DNS. In this case, start mysqld with the
--skip-name-resolve option and use only localhost and IP numbers in the Host column
of the MySQL grant tables.
You can force a MySQL client to use a named pipe connection rather than TCP/IP by
specifying the --pipe option or by specifying . (period) as the host name. Use the -socket option to specify the name of the pipe. As of MySQL 4.1, you should use the
--protocol=PIPE option.
There are two versions of the MySQL command-line tool:
Binary
Description
mysql
Compiled on native Windows, offering limited text editing capabilities.
mysqlc
Compiled with the Cygnus GNU compiler and libraries, which offers
readline editing.
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If you want to use mysqlc, you must have a copy of the ‘cygwinb19.dll’ library installed
somewhere that mysqlc can find it. Current distributions of MySQL include this library in
the same directory as mysqlc (the ‘bin’ directory under the base directory of your MySQL
installation). If your distribution does not have the cygwinb19.dll library in the ‘bin’
directory, look for it in the lib directory and copy it to your Windows system directory
(‘\Windows\system’ or a similar place).
2.2.1.10 MySQL on Windows Compared to MySQL on Unix
MySQL for Windows has by now proven itself to be very stable. The Windows version
of MySQL has the same features as the corresponding Unix version, with the following
exceptions:
Windows 95 and threads
Windows 95 leaks about 200 bytes of main memory for each thread creation.
Each connection in MySQL creates a new thread, so you shouldn’t run mysqld
for an extended time on Windows 95 if your server handles many connections!
Other versions of Windows don’t suffer from this bug.
Limited number of ports
Windows systems have about 4,000 ports available for client connections, and
after a connection on a port closes, it takes two to four minutes before the port
can be reused. In situations where clients connect to and disconnect from the
server at a high rate, it is possible for all available ports to be used up before
closed ports become available again. If this happens, the MySQL server will
appear to have become unresponsive even though it is running. Note that ports
may be used by other applications running on the machine as well, in which
case the number of ports available to MySQL is lower.
For more information, see http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;1962
Concurrent reads
MySQL depends on the pread() and pwrite() calls to be able to mix INSERT
and SELECT. Currently we use mutexes to emulate pread()/pwrite(). We
will, in the long run, replace the file level interface with a virtual interface so
that we can use the readfile()/writefile() interface on NT, 2000, and XP
to get more speed. The current implementation limits the number of open files
MySQL can use to 2,048 (1,024 before MySQL 4.0.19), which means that you
will not be able to run as many concurrent threads on NT, 2000, and XP as on
Unix.
Blocking read
MySQL uses a blocking read for each connection, which has the following implications if named pipe connections are enabled:
• A connection will not be disconnected automatically after eight hours, as
happens with the Unix version of MySQL.
• If a connection hangs, it’s impossible to break it without killing MySQL.
• mysqladmin kill will not work on a sleeping connection.
• mysqladmin shutdown can’t abort as long as there are sleeping connections.
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We plan to fix this problem when our Windows developers have figured out a
nice workaround.
ALTER TABLE
While you are executing an ALTER TABLE statement, the table is locked from
being used by other threads. This has to do with the fact that on Windows,
you can’t delete a file that is in use by another thread. In the future, we may
find some way to work around this problem.
DROP TABLE
DROP TABLE on a table that is in use by a MERGE table will not work on Windows
because the MERGE handler does the table mapping hidden from the upper layer
of MySQL. Because Windows doesn’t allow you to drop files that are open, you
first must flush all MERGE tables (with FLUSH TABLES) or drop the MERGE table
before dropping the table. We will fix this at the same time we introduce views.
DATA DIRECTORY and INDEX DIRECTORY
The DATA DIRECTORY and INDEX DIRECTORY options for CREATE TABLE are ignored on Windows, because Windows doesn’t support symbolic links. These
options also are ignored on systems that have a non-functional realpath() call.
DROP DATABASE
You cannot drop a database that is in use by some thread.
Killing MySQL from the Task Manager
You cannot kill MySQL from the Task Manager or with the shutdown utility
in Windows 95. You must take it down with mysqladmin shutdown.
Case-insensitive names
Filenames are not case sensitive on Windows, so MySQL database and table
names are also not case sensitive on Windows. The only restriction is that
database and table names must be specified using the same case throughout a
given statement. See Section 10.2.2 [Name case sensitivity], page 529.
The ‘\’ pathname separator character
Pathname components in Windows 95 are separated by the ‘\’ character, which
is also the escape character in MySQL. If you are using LOAD DATA INFILE or
SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE, use Unix-style filenames with ‘/’ characters:
mysql> LOAD DATA INFILE ’C:/tmp/skr.txt’ INTO TABLE skr;
mysql> SELECT * INTO OUTFILE ’C:/tmp/skr.txt’ FROM skr;
Alternatively, you must double the ‘\’ character:
mysql> LOAD DATA INFILE ’C:\\tmp\\skr.txt’ INTO TABLE skr;
mysql> SELECT * INTO OUTFILE ’C:\\tmp\\skr.txt’ FROM skr;
Problems with pipes.
Pipes do not work reliably from the Windows command-line prompt. If the pipe
includes the character ^Z / CHAR(24), Windows will think it has encountered
end-of-file and abort the program.
This is mainly a problem when you try to apply a binary log as follows:
C:\> mysqlbinlog binary-log-name | mysql --user=root
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If you have a problem applying the log and suspect that it is because of a ^Z /
CHAR(24) character, you can use the following workaround:
C:\> mysqlbinlog binary-log-file --result-file=/tmp/bin.sql
C:\> mysql --user=root --execute "source /tmp/bin.sql"
The latter command also can be used to reliably read in any SQL file that may
contain binary data.
Can’t open named pipe error
If you use a MySQL 3.22 server on Windows NT with the newest MySQL client
programs, you will get the following error:
error 2017: can’t open named pipe to host: . pipe...
This happens because the release version of MySQL uses named pipes on NT
by default. You can avoid this error by using the --host=localhost option to
the new MySQL clients or by creating an option file ‘C:\my.cnf’ that contains
the following information:
[client]
host = localhost
Starting from 3.23.50, named pipes are enabled only if mysqld-nt or mysqldmax-nt is started with --enable-named-pipe.
Access denied for user error
If you attempt to run a MySQL client program to connect to a server running on the same machine, but get the error Access denied for user ’someuser ’@’unknown’ to database ’mysql’, this means that MySQL cannot resolve your hostname properly.
To fix this, you should create a file named ‘\windows\hosts’ containing the
following information:
127.0.0.1
localhost
Here are some open issues for anyone who might want to help us improve MySQL on
Windows:
• Add some nice start and shutdown icons to the MySQL installation.
• It would be really nice to be able to kill mysqld from the Task Manager in Windows
95. For the moment, you must use mysqladmin shutdown.
• Port readline to Windows for use in the mysql command-line tool.
• GUI versions of the standard MySQL clients (mysql, mysqlshow, mysqladmin, and
mysqldump) would be nice.
• It would be nice if the socket read and write functions in ‘net.c’ were interruptible.
This would make it possible to kill open threads with mysqladmin kill on Windows.
• Add macros to use the faster thread-safe increment/decrement methods provided by
Windows.
2.2.2 Installing MySQL on Linux
The recommended way to install MySQL on Linux is by using the RPM packages. The
MySQL RPMs are currently built on a SuSE Linux 7.3 system, but should work on most
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versions of Linux that support rpm and use glibc. To obtain RPM packages, see Section 2.1.3 [Getting MySQL], page 73.
Note: RPM distributions of MySQL often are provided by other vendors. Be aware that
they may differ in features and capabilities from those built by MySQL AB, and that
the instructions in this manual do not necessarily apply to installing them. The vendor’s
instructions should be consulted instead.
If you have problems with an RPM file (for example, if you receive the error “Sorry, the
host ’xxxx ’ could not be looked up”), see Section 2.6.1.2 [Binary notes-Linux], page 150.
In most cases, you only need to install the MySQL-server and MySQL-client packages to
get a functional MySQL installation. The other packages are not required for a standard
installation. If you want to run a MySQL-Max server that has additional capabilities, you
should also install the MySQL-Max RPM. However, you should do so only after installing
the MySQL-server RPM. See Section 5.1.2 [mysqld-max], page 232.
If you get a dependency failure when trying to install the MySQL 4.0 packages (for example,
“error: removing these packages would break dependencies: libmysqlclient.so.10
is needed by ...”), you should also install the package MySQL-shared-compat, which
includes both the shared libraries for backward compatibility (libmysqlclient.so.12 for
MySQL 4.0 and libmysqlclient.so.10 for MySQL 3.23).
Many Linux distributions still ship with MySQL 3.23 and they usually link applications
dynamically to save disk space. If these shared libraries are in a separate package (for
example, MySQL-shared), it is sufficient to simply leave this package installed and just
upgrade the MySQL server and client packages (which are statically linked and do not
depend on the shared libraries). For distributions that include the shared libraries in the
same package as the MySQL server (for example, Red Hat Linux), you could either install
our 3.23 MySQL-shared RPM, or use the MySQL-shared-compat package instead.
The following RPM packages are available:
• MySQL-server-VERSION.i386.rpm
The MySQL server. You will need this unless you only want to connect to a MySQL
server running on another machine. Note: Server RPM files were called MySQLVERSION.i386.rpm before MySQL 4.0.10. That is, they did not have -server in the
name.
• MySQL-Max-VERSION.i386.rpm
The MySQL-Max server. This server has additional capabilities that the one provided
in the MySQL-server RPM does not. You must install the MySQL-server RPM first,
because the MySQL-Max RPM depends on it.
• MySQL-client-VERSION.i386.rpm
The standard MySQL client programs. You probably always want to install this package.
• MySQL-bench-VERSION.i386.rpm
Tests and benchmarks. Requires Perl and the DBD::mysql module.
• MySQL-devel-VERSION.i386.rpm
The libraries and include files that are needed if you want to compile other MySQL
clients, such as the Perl modules.
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• MySQL-shared-VERSION.i386.rpm
This package contains the shared libraries (libmysqlclient.so*) that certain languages and applications need to dynamically load and use MySQL.
• MySQL-shared-compat-VERSION.i386.rpm
This package includes the shared libraries for both MySQL 3.23 and MySQL 4.0. Install this package instead of MySQL-shared if you have applications installed that are
dynamically linked against MySQL 3.23 but you want to upgrade to MySQL 4.0 without breaking the library dependencies. This package has been available since MySQL
4.0.13.
• MySQL-embedded-VERSION.i386.rpm
The embedded MySQL server library (from MySQL 4.0).
• MySQL-VERSION.src.rpm
This contains the source code for all of the previous packages. It can also be used to
rebuild the RPMs on other architectures (for example, Alpha or SPARC).
To see all files in an RPM package (for example, a MySQL-server RPM), run:
shell> rpm -qpl MySQL-server-VERSION.i386.rpm
To perform a standard minimal installation, run:
shell> rpm -i MySQL-server-VERSION.i386.rpm
shell> rpm -i MySQL-client-VERSION.i386.rpm
To install just the client package, run:
shell> rpm -i MySQL-client-VERSION.i386.rpm
RPM provides a feature to verify the integrity and authenticity of packages before installing
them. If you would like to learn more about this feature, see Section 2.1.4 [Verifying Package
Integrity], page 73.
The server RPM places data under the ‘/var/lib/mysql’ directory. The RPM also creates
a login account for a user named mysql (if one does not already exist) to use for running the
MySQL server, and creates the appropriate entries in ‘/etc/init.d/’ to start the server
automatically at boot time. (This means that if you have performed a previous installation
and have made changes to its startup script, you may want to make a copy of the script
so that you don’t lose it when you install a newer RPM.) See Section 2.4.2.2 [Automatic
start], page 125 for more information on how MySQL can be started automatically on
system startup.
If you want to install the MySQL RPM on older Linux distributions that do not support
initialization scripts in ‘/etc/init.d’ (directly or via a symlink), you should create a symbolic link that points to the location where your initialization scripts actually are installed.
For example, if that location is ‘/etc/rc.d/init.d’, use these commands before installing
the RPM to create ‘/etc/init.d’ as a symbolic link that points there:
shell> cd /etc
shell> ln -s rc.d/init.d .
However, all current major Linux distributions should already support the new directory
layout that uses ‘/etc/init.d’, because it is required for LSB (Linux Standard Base)
compliance.
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If the RPM files that you install include MySQL-server, the mysqld server should be up
and running after installation. You should now be able to start using MySQL.
If something goes wrong, you can find more information in the binary installation section.
See Section 2.2.5 [Installing binary], page 97.
Note: The accounts that are listed in the MySQL grant tables initially have no passwords.
After starting the server, you should set up passwords for them using the instructions in
Section 2.4 [Post-installation], page 117.
2.2.3 Installing MySQL on Mac OS X
Beginning with MySQL 4.0.11, you can install MySQL on Mac OS X 10.2.x (“Jaguar”)
and up using a Mac OS X binary package in PKG format instead of the binary tarball
distribution. Please note that older versions of Mac OS X (for example, 10.1.x) are not
supported by this package.
The package is located inside a disk image (.dmg) file that you first need to mount by
double-clicking its icon in the Finder. It should then mount the image and display its
contents.
To obtain MySQL, see Section 2.1.3 [Getting MySQL], page 73.
Note: Before proceeding with the installation, be sure to shut down all running MySQL
server instances by either using the MySQL Manager Application (on Mac OS X Server) or
via mysqladmin shutdown on the command line.
To actually install the MySQL PKG file, double-click on the package icon. This launches
the Mac OS X Package Installer, which will guide you through the installation of MySQL.
Due to a bug in the Mac OS X package installer, you may see this error message in the
destination disk selection dialog:
You cannot install this software on this disk. (null)
If this error occurs, simply click the Go Back button once to return to the previous screen.
Then click Continue to advance to the destination disk selection again, and you should be
able to choose the destination disk correctly. We have reported this bug to Apple and it is
investigating this problem.
The Mac OS X PKG of MySQL will install itself into ‘/usr/local/mysql-VERSION ’ and will
also install a symbolic link, ‘/usr/local/mysql’, pointing to the new location. If a directory
named ‘/usr/local/mysql’ already exists, it will be renamed to ‘/usr/local/mysql.bak’
first. Additionally, the installer will create the grant tables in the mysql database by
executing mysql_install_db after the installation.
The installation layout is similar to that of a tar file binary distribution; all MySQL binaries
are located in the directory ‘/usr/local/mysql/bin’. The MySQL socket file is created as
‘/tmp/mysql.sock’ by default. See Section 2.1.5 [Installation layouts], page 76.
MySQL installation requires a Mac OS X user account named mysql. A user account with
this name should exist by default on Mac OS X 10.2 and up.
If you are running Mac OS X Server, you already have a version of MySQL installed. The
versions of MySQL that ship with Mac OS X Server versions are shown in the following
table:
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Mac OS X Server Version
MySQL Version
10.2-10.2.2
3.23.51
10.2.3-10.2.6
3.23.53
10.3
4.0.14
10.3.2
4.0.16
This manual section covers the installation of the official MySQL Mac OS X PKG only.
Make sure to read Apple’s help information about installing MySQL: Run the “Help View”
application, select “Mac OS X Server” help, do a search for “MySQL,” and read the item
entitled “Installing MySQL.”
For pre-installed versions of MySQL on Mac OS X Server, note especially that you should
start mysqld with safe_mysqld instead of mysqld_safe if MySQL is older than version 4.0.
If you previously used Marc Liyanage’s MySQL packages for Mac OS X from
http://www.entropy.ch, you can simply follow the update instructions for packages using
the binary installation layout as given on his pages.
If you are upgrading from Marc’s 3.23.xx versions or from the Mac OS X Server version of
MySQL to the official MySQL PKG, you also need to convert the existing MySQL privilege
tables to the current format, because some new security privileges have been added. See
Section 2.5.8 [Upgrading-grant-tables], page 147.
If you would like to automatically start up MySQL during system startup, you also need
to install the MySQL Startup Item. Starting with MySQL 4.0.15, it is part of the Mac
OS X installation disk images as a separate installation package. Simply double-click the
MySQLStartupItem.pkg icon and follow the instructions to install it.
Note that the Startup Item need be installed only once! There is no need to install it each
time you upgrade the MySQL package later.
The Startup Item will be installed into ‘/Library/StartupItems/MySQLCOM’. (Before
MySQL 4.1.2, the location was ‘/Library/StartupItems/MySQL’, but that collided with
the MySQL Startup Item installed by Mac OS X Server.) Startup Item installation adds a
variable MYSQLCOM=-YES- to the system configuration file ‘/etc/hostconfig’. If you would
like to disable the automatic startup of MySQL, simply change this variable to MYSQLCOM=NO-.
On Mac OS X Server, the default MySQL installation uses the variable MYSQL in the
‘/etc/hostconfig’ file. The MySQL AB Startup Item installer disables this variable by
setting it to MYSQL=-NO-. This avoids boot time conflicts with the MYSQLCOM variable used
by the MySQL AB Startup Item. However, it does not shut down an already running
MySQL server. You should do that yourself.
After the installation, you can start up MySQL by running the following commands in a
terminal window. You must have administrator privileges to perform this task.
If you have installed the Startup Item:
shell> sudo /Library/StartupItems/MySQLCOM/MySQLCOM start
(Enter your password, if necessary)
(Press Control-D or enter "exit" to exit the shell)
For versions of MySQL older than 4.1.3, substitute /Library/StartupItems/MySQLCOM/MySQLCOM
with /Library/StartupItems/MySQL/MySQL above.
If you don’t use the Startup Item, enter the following command sequence:
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shell> cd /usr/local/mysql
shell> sudo ./bin/mysqld_safe
(Enter your password, if necessary)
(Press Control-Z)
shell> bg
(Press Control-D or enter "exit" to exit the shell)
You should now be able to connect to the MySQL server, for example, by running
‘/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql’.
Note: The accounts that are listed in the MySQL grant tables initially have no passwords.
After starting the server, you should set up passwords for them using the instructions in
Section 2.4 [Post-installation], page 117.
You might want to add aliases to your shell’s resource file to make it easier to access
commonly used programs such as mysql and mysqladmin from the command line. The
syntax for tcsh is:
alias mysql /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql
alias mysqladmin /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin
For bash, use:
alias mysql=/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql
alias mysqladmin=/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin
Even better, add /usr/local/mysql/bin to your PATH environment variable. For example,
add the following line to your ‘$HOME/.tcshrc’ file if your shell is tcsh:
setenv PATH ${PATH}:/usr/local/mysql/bin
If no ‘.tcshrc’ file exists in your home directory, create it with a text editor.
If you are upgrading an existing installation, please note that installing a new MySQL
PKG does not remove the directory of an older installation. Unfortunately, the Mac OS
X Installer does not yet offer the functionality required to properly upgrade previously
installed packages.
To use your existing databases with the new installation, you’ll need to copy the contents of the old data directory to the new data directory. Make sure that neither the
old server nor the new one is running when you do this. After you have copied over the
MySQL database files from the previous installation and have successfully started the new
server, you should consider removing the old installation files to save disk space. Additionally, you should also remove older versions of the Package Receipt directories located in
‘/Library/Receipts/mysql-VERSION.pkg’.
2.2.4 Installing MySQL on NetWare
Porting MySQL to NetWare was an effort spearheaded by Novell. Novell customers will be
pleased to note that NetWare 6.5 ships with bundled MySQL binaries, complete with an
automatic commercial use license for all servers running that version of NetWare.
MySQL for NetWare is compiled using a combination of Metrowerks CodeWarrior for
NetWare and special cross-compilation versions of the GNU autotools.
The latest binary packages for NetWare can be obtained at http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/.
See Section 2.1.3 [Getting MySQL], page 73.
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In order to host MySQL, the NetWare server must meet these requirements:
• NetWare 6.5 Support Pack 2 installed and updated with the latest LibC,
or NetWare 6.0 with Support Pack 4 installed and updated with the latest LibC. NetWare 6.5 Support Pack 2 and other updates are available at
http://support.novell.com/filefinder/18197/index.html. NetWare 6.0 Support Pack 4 and other updates are available at http://support.novell.com/filefinder/13659/index.h
The latest LibC is available at http://developer.novell.com/ndk/libc.htm. Steps
to update LibC can be found here: http://developer.novell.com/ndk/doc/libc/index.html?page=/n
enu/data/ajjl0r0.html
• The system must meet Novell’s minimum requirements to run the respective version of
NetWare.
• MySQL data, as well as the binaries themselves, must be installed on an NSS volume;
traditional volumes are not supported.
To install MySQL for NetWare, use the following procedure:
1. If you are upgrading from a prior installation, stop the MySQL server. This is done
from the server console, using the following command:
SERVER: mysqladmin -u root shutdown
2. Log on to the target server from a client machine with access to the location where you
will install MySQL.
3. Extract the binary package Zip file onto the server. Be sure to allow the paths in the
Zip file to be used. It is safe to simply extract the file to ‘SYS:\’.
If you are upgrading from a prior installation, you may need to copy the data directory
(for example, ‘SYS:MYSQL\DATA’) now, as well as ‘my.cnf’, if you have customized it.
You can then delete the old copy of MySQL.
4. You might want to rename the directory to something more consistent and easy to use.
We recommend using ‘SYS:MYSQL’; examples in this manual use this name to refer to
the installation directory in general.
5. At the server console, add a search path for the directory containing the MySQL NLMs.
For example:
SERVER: SEARCH ADD SYS:MYSQL\BIN
6. Initialize the data directory and the grant tables, if needed, by executing mysql_
install_db at the server console.
7. Start the MySQL server using mysqld_safe at the server console.
8. To finish the installation, you should also add the following commands to
autoexec.ncf. For example, if your MySQL installation is in ‘SYS:MYSQL’ and you
want MySQL to start automatically, you could add these lines:
#Starts the MySQL 4.0.x database server
SEARCH ADD SYS:MYSQL\BIN
MYSQLD_SAFE
If you are running MySQL on NetWare 6.0, we strongly suggest that you use the
--skip-external-locking option on the command line:
#Starts the MySQL 4.0.x database server
SEARCH ADD SYS:MYSQL\BIN
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MYSQLD_SAFE --skip-external-locking
It will also be necessary to use CHECK TABLE and REPAIR TABLE instead of myisamchk,
because myisamchk makes use of external locking. External locking is known to have
problems on NetWare 6.0; the problem has been eliminated in NetWare 6.5.
mysqld_safe on NetWare provides a screen presence. When you unload (shut down)
the mysqld_safe NLM, the screen does not by default go away. Instead, it prompts
for user input:
*<NLM has terminated; Press any key to close the screen>*
If you want NetWare to close the screen automatically instead, use the --autoclose
option to mysqld_safe. For example:
#Starts the MySQL 4.0.x database server
SEARCH ADD SYS:MYSQL\BIN
MYSQLD_SAFE --autoclose
9. The latest Netware Perl and PHP modules for MySQL can be downloaded from
http://developer.novell.com/ndk/perl5.htm and http://developer.novell.com/ndk/php2.htm
respectively.
The behavior of mysqld_safe on NetWare is described further in Section 5.1.3 [mysqld_
safe], page 234.
If there was an existing installation of MySQL on the server, be sure to check for existing
MySQL startup commands in autoexec.ncf, and edit or delete them as necessary.
Note: The accounts that are listed in the MySQL grant tables initially have no passwords.
After starting the server, you should set up passwords for them using the instructions in
Section 2.4 [Post-installation], page 117.
2.2.5 Installing MySQL on Other Unix-Like Systems
This section covers the installation of MySQL binary distributions that are provided for
various platforms in the form of compressed tar files (files with a .tar.gz extension). See
Section 2.1.2.5 [MySQL binaries], page 67 for a detailed list.
To obtain MySQL, see Section 2.1.3 [Getting MySQL], page 73.
MySQL tar file binary distributions have names of the form ‘mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz’,
where VERSION is a number (for example, 4.0.17), and OS indicates the type of operating
system for which the distribution is intended (for example, pc-linux-i686).
In addition to these generic packages, we also offer binaries in platform-specific package
formats for selected platforms. See Section 2.2 [Quick Standard Installation], page 77 for
more information on how to install these.
You need the following tools to install a MySQL tar file binary distribution:
• GNU gunzip to uncompress the distribution.
• A reasonable tar to unpack the distribution. GNU tar is known to work. Some
operating systems come with a pre-installed version of tar that is known to have
problems. For example, Mac OS X tar and Sun tar are known to have problems with
long filenames. On Mac OS X, you can use the pre-installed gnutar program. On
other systems with a deficient tar, you should install GNU tar first.
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If you run into problems, please always use mysqlbug when posting questions to a MySQL
mailing list. Even if the problem isn’t a bug, mysqlbug gathers system information that
will help others solve your problem. By not using mysqlbug, you lessen the likelihood of
getting a solution to your problem. You will find mysqlbug in the ‘bin’ directory after you
unpack the distribution. See Section 1.7.1.3 [Bug reports], page 34.
The basic commands you must execute to install and use a MySQL binary distribution are:
shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -g mysql mysql
shell> cd /usr/local
shell> gunzip < /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz | tar xvf shell> ln -s full-path-to-mysql-VERSION-OS mysql
shell> cd mysql
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
shell> chown -R root .
shell> chown -R mysql data
shell> chgrp -R mysql .
shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
For versions of MySQL older than 4.0, substitute bin/safe_mysqld for bin/mysqld_safe
in the final command.
Note: This procedure does not set up any passwords for MySQL accounts. After following
the procedure, proceed to Section 2.4 [Post-installation], page 117.
A more detailed version of the preceding description for installing a binary distribution
follows:
1. Add a login user and group for mysqld to run as:
shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -g mysql mysql
These commands add the mysql group and the mysql user. The syntax for useradd
and groupadd may differ slightly on different versions of Unix. They may also be called
adduser and addgroup.
You might want to call the user and group something else instead of mysql. If so,
substitute the appropriate name in the following steps.
2. Pick the directory under which you want to unpack the distribution, and change location into it. In the following example, we unpack the distribution under ‘/usr/local’.
(The instructions, therefore, assume that you have permission to create files and directories in ‘/usr/local’. If that directory is protected, you will need to perform the
installation as root.)
shell> cd /usr/local
3. Obtain a distribution file from one of the sites listed in Section 2.1.3 [Getting MySQL],
page 73. For a given release, binary distributions for all platforms are built from the
same MySQL source distribution.
4. Unpack the distribution, which will create the installation directory. Then create a
symbolic link to that directory:
shell> gunzip < /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz | tar xvf shell> ln -s full-path-to-mysql-VERSION-OS mysql
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The tar command creates a directory named ‘mysql-VERSION-OS ’. The ln command
makes a symbolic link to that directory. This lets you refer more easily to the installation directory as ‘/usr/local/mysql’.
With GNU tar, no separate invocation of gunzip is necessary. You can replace the first
line with the following alternative command to uncompress and extract the distribution:
shell> tar zxvf /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz
5. Change location into the installation directory:
shell> cd mysql
You will find several files and subdirectories in the mysql directory. The most important
for installation purposes are the ‘bin’ and ‘scripts’ subdirectories.
‘bin’
This directory contains client programs and the server. You should add
the full pathname of this directory to your PATH environment variable so
that your shell finds the MySQL programs properly. See Appendix E
[Environment variables], page 1338.
‘scripts’
This directory contains the mysql_install_db script used to initialize the
mysql database containing the grant tables that store the server access
permissions.
6. If you haven’t installed MySQL before, you must create the MySQL grant tables:
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
If you run the command as root, you should use the --user option as shown. The
value of the option should be the name of the login account that you created in the
first step to use for running the server. If you run the command while logged in as that
user, you can omit the --user option.
Note that for MySQL versions older than 3.22.10, mysql_install_db left the server
running after creating the grant tables. This is no longer true; you will need to restart
the server after performing the remaining steps in this procedure.
7. Change the ownership of program binaries to root and ownership of the data directory to the user that you will run mysqld as. Assuming that you are located in the
installation directory (‘/usr/local/mysql’), the commands look like this:
shell> chown -R root .
shell> chown -R mysql data
shell> chgrp -R mysql .
The first command changes the owner attribute of the files to the root user. The
second changes the owner attribute of the data directory to the mysql user. The third
changes the group attribute to the mysql group.
8. If you would like MySQL to start automatically when you boot your machine, you can
copy support-files/mysql.server to the location where your system has its startup
files. More information can be found in the support-files/mysql.server script itself
and in Section 2.4.2.2 [Automatic start], page 125.
9. You can set up new accounts using the bin/mysql_setpermission script if you install
the DBI and DBD::mysql Perl modules. For instructions, see Section 2.7 [Perl support],
page 179.
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10. If you would like to use mysqlaccess and have the MySQL distribution in some nonstandard place, you must change the location where mysqlaccess expects to find the
mysql client. Edit the ‘bin/mysqlaccess’ script at approximately line 18. Search for
a line that looks like this:
$MYSQL
= ’/usr/local/bin/mysql’;
# path to mysql executable
Change the path to reflect the location where mysql actually is stored on your system.
If you do not do this, you will get a Broken pipe error when you run mysqlaccess.
After everything has been unpacked and installed, you should test your distribution.
You can start the MySQL server with the following command:
shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
For versions of MySQL older than 4.0, substitute bin/safe_mysqld for bin/mysqld_safe
in the command.
More information about mysqld_safe is given in Section 5.1.3 [mysqld_safe], page 234.
Note: The accounts that are listed in the MySQL grant tables initially have no passwords.
After starting the server, you should set up passwords for them using the instructions in
Section 2.4 [Post-installation], page 117.
2.3 MySQL Installation Using a Source Distribution
Before you proceed with the source installation, check first to see whether our binary is
available for your platform and whether it will work for you. We put a lot of effort into
making sure that our binaries are built with the best possible options.
To obtain a source distribution for MySQL, Section 2.1.3 [Getting MySQL], page 73.
MySQL source distributions are provided as compressed tar archives and have names of
the form ‘mysql-VERSION.tar.gz’, where VERSION is a number like 5.0.1-alpha.
You need the following tools to build and install MySQL from source:
• GNU gunzip to uncompress the distribution.
• A reasonable tar to unpack the distribution. GNU tar is known to work. Some
operating systems come with a pre-installed version of tar that is known to have
problems. For example, Mac OS X tar and Sun tar are known to have problems with
long filenames. On Mac OS X, you can use the pre-installed gnutar program. On
other systems with a deficient tar, you should install GNU tar first.
• A working ANSI C++ compiler. gcc 2.95.2 or later, egcs 1.0.2 or later or egcs 2.91.66,
SGI C++, and SunPro C++ are some of the compilers that are known to work. libg++
is not needed when using gcc. gcc 2.7.x has a bug that makes it impossible to compile
some perfectly legal C++ files, such as ‘sql/sql_base.cc’. If you have only gcc 2.7.x,
you must upgrade your gcc to be able to compile MySQL. gcc 2.8.1 is also known to
have problems on some platforms, so it should be avoided if a new compiler exists for
the platform.
gcc 2.95.2 or later is recommended when compiling MySQL 3.23.x.
• A good make program. GNU make is always recommended and is sometimes required.
If you have problems, we recommend trying GNU make 3.75 or newer.
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If you are using a version of gcc recent enough to understand the -fno-exceptions option,
it is very important that you use this option. Otherwise, you may compile a binary that
crashes randomly. We also recommend that you use -felide-constructors and -fnortti along with -fno-exceptions. When in doubt, do the following:
CFLAGS="-O3" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -felide-constructors \
-fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure \
--prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler \
--with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static
On most systems, this will give you a fast and stable binary.
If you run into problems, please always use mysqlbug when posting questions to a MySQL
mailing list. Even if the problem isn’t a bug, mysqlbug gathers system information that
will help others solve your problem. By not using mysqlbug, you lessen the likelihood of
getting a solution to your problem. You will find mysqlbug in the ‘scripts’ directory after
you unpack the distribution. See Section 1.7.1.3 [Bug reports], page 34.
2.3.1 Source Installation Overview
The basic commands you must execute to install a MySQL source distribution are:
shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -g mysql mysql
shell> gunzip < mysql-VERSION.tar.gz | tar -xvf shell> cd mysql-VERSION
shell> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
shell> make
shell> make install
shell> cp support-files/my-medium.cnf /etc/my.cnf
shell> cd /usr/local/mysql
shell> bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
shell> chown -R root .
shell> chown -R mysql var
shell> chgrp -R mysql .
shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
For versions of MySQL older than 4.0, substitute bin/safe_mysqld for bin/mysqld_safe
in the final command.
If you start from a source RPM, do the following:
shell> rpmbuild --rebuild --clean MySQL-VERSION.src.rpm
This will make a binary RPM that you can install. For older versions of RPM, you may
have to replace the command rpmbuild with rpm instead.
Note: This procedure does not set up any passwords for MySQL accounts. After following
the procedure, proceed to Section 2.4 [Post-installation], page 117, for post-installation
setup and testing.
A more detailed version of the preceding description for installing MySQL from a source
distribution follows:
1. Add a login user and group for mysqld to run as:
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3.
4.
5.
6.
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shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -g mysql mysql
These commands add the mysql group and the mysql user. The syntax for useradd
and groupadd may differ slightly on different versions of Unix. They may also be called
adduser and addgroup.
You might want to call the user and group something else instead of mysql. If so,
substitute the appropriate name in the following steps.
Pick the directory under which you want to unpack the distribution, and change location into it.
Obtain a distribution file from one of the sites listed in Section 2.1.3 [Getting MySQL],
page 73.
Unpack the distribution into the current directory:
shell> gunzip < /path/to/mysql-VERSION.tar.gz | tar xvf This command creates a directory named ‘mysql-VERSION ’.
With GNU tar, no separate invocation of gunzip is necessary. You can use the following alternative command to uncompress and extract the distribution:
shell> tar zxvf /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz
Change location into the top-level directory of the unpacked distribution:
shell> cd mysql-VERSION
Note that currently you must configure and build MySQL from this top-level directory.
You cannot build it in a different directory.
Configure the release and compile everything:
shell> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
shell> make
When you run configure, you might want to specify some options. Run ./configure
--help for a list of options. Section 2.3.2 [configure options], page 103, discusses
some of the more useful options.
If configure fails and you are going to send mail to a MySQL mailing list to ask for
assistance, please include any lines from ‘config.log’ that you think can help solve
the problem. Also include the last couple of lines of output from configure. Post the
bug report using the mysqlbug script. See Section 1.7.1.3 [Bug reports], page 34.
If the compile fails, see Section 2.3.4 [Compilation problems], page 109 for help.
Install the distribution:
shell> make install
If you want to set up an option file, use one of those present in the ‘support-files’
directory as a template. For example:
shell> cp support-files/my-medium.cnf /etc/my.cnf
You might need to run these commands as root.
If you want to configure support for InnoDB tables, you should edit the /etc/my.cnf
file, remove the # character before the option lines that start with innodb_..., and
modify the option values to be what you want. See Section 4.3.2 [Option files], page 225
and Section 16.4 [InnoDB configuration], page 805.
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8. Change location into the installation directory:
shell> cd /usr/local/mysql
9. If you haven’t installed MySQL before, you must create the MySQL grant tables:
shell> bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
If you run the command as root, you should use the --user option as shown. The
value of the option should be the name of the login account that you created in the
first step to use for running the server. If you run the command while logged in as that
user, you can omit the --user option.
Note that for MySQL versions older than 3.22.10, mysql_install_db left the server
running after creating the grant tables. This is no longer true; you will need to restart
the server after performing the remaining steps in this procedure.
10. Change the ownership of program binaries to root and ownership of the data directory to the user that you will run mysqld as. Assuming that you are located in the
installation directory (‘/usr/local/mysql’), the commands look like this:
shell> chown -R root .
shell> chown -R mysql var
shell> chgrp -R mysql .
The first command changes the owner attribute of the files to the root user. The
second changes the owner attribute of the data directory to the mysql user. The third
changes the group attribute to the mysql group.
11. If you would like MySQL to start automatically when you boot your machine, you can
copy support-files/mysql.server to the location where your system has its startup
files. More information can be found in the support-files/mysql.server script itself
and in Section 2.4.2.2 [Automatic start], page 125.
12. You can set up new accounts using the bin/mysql_setpermission script if you install
the DBI and DBD::mysql Perl modules. For instructions, see Section 2.7 [Perl support],
page 179.
After everything has been installed, you should initialize and test your distribution using
this command:
shell> /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
For versions of MySQL older than 4.0, substitute safe_mysqld for mysqld_safe in the
command.
If that command fails immediately and prints mysqld ended, you can find some information
in the ‘host_name.err’ file in the data directory.
More information about mysqld_safe is given in Section 5.1.3 [mysqld_safe], page 234.
Note: The accounts that are listed in the MySQL grant tables initially have no passwords.
After starting the server, you should set up passwords for them using the instructions in
Section 2.4 [Post-installation], page 117.
2.3.2 Typical configure Options
The configure script gives you a great deal of control over how you configure a MySQL
source distribution. Typically you do this using options on the configure command line.
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You can also affect configure using certain environment variables. See Appendix E [Environment variables], page 1338. For a list of options supported by configure, run this
command:
shell> ./configure --help
Some of the more commonly used configure options are described here:
• To compile just the MySQL client libraries and client programs and not the server, use
the --without-server option:
shell> ./configure --without-server
If you don’t have a C++ compiler, mysql will not compile (it is the one client program
that requires C++). In this case, you can remove the code in configure that tests
for the C++ compiler and then run ./configure with the --without-server option.
The compile step will still try to build mysql, but you can ignore any warnings about
‘mysql.cc’. (If make stops, try make -k to tell it to continue with the rest of the build
even if errors occur.)
• If you want to build the embedded MySQL library (libmysqld.a) you should use the
--with-embedded-server option.
• If you don’t want your log files and database directories located under
‘/usr/local/var’, use a configure command something like one of these:
shell> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
shell> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local \
--localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data
The first command changes the installation prefix so that everything is installed under
‘/usr/local/mysql’ rather than the default of ‘/usr/local’. The second command
preserves the default installation prefix, but overrides the default location for database
directories (normally ‘/usr/local/var’) and changes it to /usr/local/mysql/data.
After you have compiled MySQL, you can change these options with option files. See
Section 4.3.2 [Option files], page 225.
• If you are using Unix and you want the MySQL socket located somewhere other than
the default location (normally in the directory ‘/tmp’ or ‘/var/run’), use a configure
command like this:
shell> ./configure \
--with-unix-socket-path=/usr/local/mysql/tmp/mysql.sock
The socket filename must be an absolute pathname. You can also change the location
of ‘mysql.sock’ later by using a MySQL option file. See Section A.4.5 [Problems with
‘mysql.sock’], page 1123.
• If you want to compile statically linked programs (for example, to make a binary
distribution, to get more speed, or to work around problems with some Red Hat Linux
distributions), run configure like this:
shell> ./configure --with-client-ldflags=-all-static \
--with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static
• If you are using gcc and don’t have libg++ or libstdc++ installed, you can tell
configure to use gcc as your C++ compiler:
shell> CC=gcc CXX=gcc ./configure
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When you use gcc as your C++ compiler, it will not attempt to link in libg++ or
libstdc++. This may be a good idea to do even if you have these libraries installed,
because some versions of them have caused strange problems for MySQL users in the
past.
The following list indicates some compilers and environment variable settings that are
commonly used with each one.
gcc 2.7.2:
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -felide-constructors"
egcs 1.0.3a:
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -felide-constructors \
-fno-exceptions -fno-rtti"
gcc 2.95.2:
CFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro \
-felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti"
pgcc 2.90.29 or newer:
CFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro -mstack-align-double" CXX=gcc \
CXXFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro -mstack-align-double \
-felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti"
In most cases, you can get a reasonably optimized MySQL binary by using the options
from the preceding list and adding the following options to the configure line:
--prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler \
--with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static
The full configure line would, in other words, be something like the following for all
recent gcc versions:
CFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro \
-felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure \
--prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler \
--with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static
The binaries we provide on the MySQL Web site at http://www.mysql.com/ are all
compiled with full optimization and should be perfect for most users. See Section 2.1.2.5
[MySQL binaries], page 67. There are some configuration settings you can tweak to
make an even faster binary, but these are only for advanced users. See Section 7.5.4
[Compile and link options], page 470.
If the build fails and produces errors about your compiler or linker not being able to
create the shared library ‘libmysqlclient.so.#’ (where ‘#’ is a version number), you
can work around this problem by giving the --disable-shared option to configure.
In this case, configure will not build a shared ‘libmysqlclient.so.#’ library.
• By default, MySQL uses the latin1 (ISO-8859-1) character set. To change the default
set, use the --with-charset option:
shell> ./configure --with-charset=CHARSET
CHARSET may be one of big5, cp1251, cp1257, czech, danish, dec8, dos, euc_kr,
gb2312, gbk, german1, hebrew, hp8, hungarian, koi8_ru, koi8_ukr, latin1, latin2,
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sjis, swe7, tis620, ujis, usa7, or win1251ukr. See Section 5.8.1 [Character sets],
page 359.
As of MySQL 4.1.1, the default collation may also be specified. MySQL uses the
latin1_swedish_ci collation. To change this, use the --with-collation option:
shell> ./configure --with-collation=COLLATION
To change both the character set and the collation, use both the --with-charset and
--with-collation options. The collation must be a legal collation for the character
set. (Use the SHOW COLLATION statement to determine which collations are available
for each character set.)
If you want to convert characters between the server and the client, you should take a
look at the SET CHARACTER SET statement. See Section 14.5.3.1 [SET], page 745.
Warning: If you change character sets after having created any tables, you will have to
run myisamchk -r -q --set-character-set=charset on every table. Your indexes
may be sorted incorrectly otherwise. (This can happen if you install MySQL, create
some tables, then reconfigure MySQL to use a different character set and reinstall it.)
With the configure option --with-extra-charsets=LIST , you can define which additional character sets should be compiled into the server. LIST is either a list of
character set names separated by spaces, complex to include all character sets that
can’t be dynamically loaded, or all to include all character sets into the binaries.
• To configure MySQL with debugging code, use the --with-debug option:
shell> ./configure --with-debug
This causes a safe memory allocator to be included that can find some errors and
that provides output about what is happening. See Section D.1 [Debugging server],
page 1328.
• If your client programs are using threads, you also must compile a thread-safe version of
the MySQL client library with the --enable-thread-safe-client configure option.
This will create a libmysqlclient_r library with which you should link your threaded
applications. See Section 21.2.14 [Threaded clients], page 1043.
• Options that pertain to particular systems can be found in the system-specific section
of this manual. See Section 2.6 [Operating System Specific Notes], page 149.
2.3.3 Installing from the Development Source Tree
Caution: You should read this section only if you are interested in helping us test our new
code. If you just want to get MySQL up and running on your system, you should use a
standard release distribution (either a binary or source distribution will do).
To obtain our most recent development source tree, use these instructions:
1. Download BitKeeper from http://www.bitmover.com/cgi-bin/download.cgi. You
will need Bitkeeper 3.0 or newer to access our repository.
2. Follow the instructions to install it.
3. After BitKeeper has been installed, first go to the directory you want to work from,
and then use one of the following commands to clone the MySQL version branch of
your choice:
To clone the old 3.23 branch, use this command:
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shell> bk clone bk://mysql.bkbits.net/mysql-3.23 mysql-3.23
To clone the 4.0 stable (production) branch, use this command:
shell> bk clone bk://mysql.bkbits.net/mysql-4.0 mysql-4.0
To clone the 4.1 gamma branch, use this command:
shell> bk clone bk://mysql.bkbits.net/mysql-4.1 mysql-4.1
To clone the 5.0 development branch, use this command:
shell> bk clone bk://mysql.bkbits.net/mysql-5.0 mysql-5.0
In the preceding examples, the source tree will be set up in the ‘mysql-3.23/’,
‘mysql-4.0/’, ‘mysql-4.1/’, or ‘mysql-5.0/’ subdirectory of your current directory.
If you are behind a firewall and can only initiate HTTP connections, you can also use
BitKeeper via HTTP.
If you are required to use a proxy server, set the environment variable http_proxy to
point to your proxy:
shell> export http_proxy="http://your.proxy.server:8080/"
Now, simply replace the bk:// with http:// when doing a clone. Example:
shell> bk clone http://mysql.bkbits.net/mysql-4.1 mysql-4.1
The initial download of the source tree may take a while, depending on the speed of
your connection. Please be patient.
4. You will need GNU make, autoconf 2.53 (or newer), automake 1.5, libtool 1.5, and
m4 to run the next set of commands. Even though many operating systems already
come with their own implementation of make, chances are high that the compilation
will fail with strange error messages. Therefore, it is highly recommended that you use
GNU make (sometimes named gmake) instead.
Fortunately, a large number of operating systems already ship with the GNU toolchain
preinstalled or supply installable packages of these. In any case, they can also be
downloaded from the following locations:
• http://www.gnu.org/software/autoconf/
• http://www.gnu.org/software/automake/
• http://www.gnu.org/software/libtool/
• http://www.gnu.org/software/m4/
• http://www.gnu.org/software/make/
If you are trying to configure MySQL 4.1 or later, you will also need GNU bison 1.75
or later. Older versions of bison may report this error:
sql_yacc.yy:#####: fatal error: maximum table size (32767) exceeded
Note: The maximum table size is not actually exceeded; the error is caused by bugs in
older versions of bison.
Versions of MySQL before version 4.1 may also compile with other yacc implementations (for example, BSD yacc 91.7.30). For later versions, GNU bison is required.
The following example shows the typical commands required to configure a source tree.
The first cd command changes location into the top-level directory of the tree; replace
‘mysql-4.0’ with the appropriate directory name.
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5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
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shell> cd mysql-4.0
shell> bk -r edit
shell> aclocal; autoheader; autoconf; automake
shell> (cd innobase; aclocal; autoheader; autoconf; automake)
shell> (cd bdb/dist; sh s_all)
shell> ./configure # Add your favorite options here
make
The command lines that change directory into the ‘innobase’ and ‘bdb/dist’ directories are used to configure the InnoDB and Berkeley DB (BDB) storage engines. You can
omit these command lines if you to not require InnoDB or BDB support.
If you get some strange errors during this stage, verify that you really have libtool
installed.
A collection of our standard configuration scripts is located in the ‘BUILD/’ subdirectory.
You may find it more convenient to use the ‘BUILD/compile-pentium-debug’ script
than the preceding set of shell commands. To compile on a different architecture,
modify the script by removing flags that are Pentium-specific.
When the build is done, run make install. Be careful with this on a production
machine; the command may overwrite your live release installation. If you have another
installation of MySQL, we recommend that you run ./configure with different values
for the --prefix, --with-tcp-port, and --unix-socket-path options than those
used for your production server.
Play hard with your new installation and try to make the new features crash. Start by
running make test. See Section 23.1.2 [MySQL test suite], page 1088.
If you have gotten to the make stage and the distribution does not compile, please report
it in our bugs database at http://bugs.mysql.com/. If you have installed the latest
versions of the required GNU tools, and they crash trying to process our configuration
files, please report that also. However, if you execute aclocal and get a command not
found error or a similar problem, do not report it. Instead, make sure that all the
necessary tools are installed and that your PATH variable is set correctly so that your
shell can find them.
After the initial bk clone operation to obtain the source tree, you should run bk pull
periodically to get updates.
You can examine the change history for the tree with all the diffs by using bk revtool.
If you see some funny diffs or code that you have a question about, do not hesitate
to send email to the MySQL internals mailing list. See Section 1.7.1.1 [Mailing-list],
page 32. Also, if you think you have a better idea on how to do something, send an
email message to the same address with a patch. bk diffs will produce a patch for
you after you have made changes to the source. If you do not have the time to code
your idea, just send a description.
BitKeeper has a nice help utility that you can access via bk helptool.
Please note that any commits (made via bk ci or bk citool) will trigger the posting
of a message with the changeset to our internals mailing list, as well as the usual
openlogging.org submission with just the changeset comments. Generally, you wouldn’t
need to use commit (since the public tree will not allow bk push), but rather use the
bk diffs method described previously.
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You can also browse changesets, comments, and source code online. For example, to browse
this information for MySQL 4.1, go to http://mysql.bkbits.net:8080/mysql-4.1.
The manual is in a separate tree that can be cloned with:
shell> bk clone bk://mysql.bkbits.net/mysqldoc mysqldoc
There are also public BitKeeper trees for MySQL Control Center and MyODBC. They can
be cloned respectively as follows.
To clone MySQL Control center, use this command:
shell> bk clone http://mysql.bkbits.net/mysqlcc mysqlcc
To clone MyODBC, use this command:
shell> bk clone http://mysql.bkbits.net/myodbc3 myodbc3
2.3.4 Dealing with Problems Compiling MySQL
All MySQL programs compile cleanly for us with no warnings on Solaris or Linux using
gcc. On other systems, warnings may occur due to differences in system include files.
See Section 2.3.5 [MIT-pthreads], page 112 for warnings that may occur when using MITpthreads. For other problems, check the following list.
The solution to many problems involves reconfiguring. If you do need to reconfigure, take
note of the following:
• If configure is run after it already has been run, it may use information that was
gathered during its previous invocation. This information is stored in ‘config.cache’.
When configure starts up, it looks for that file and reads its contents if it exists, on
the assumption that the information is still correct. That assumption is invalid when
you reconfigure.
• Each time you run configure, you must run make again to recompile. However, you
may want to remove old object files from previous builds first because they were compiled using different configuration options.
To prevent old configuration information or object files from being used, run these commands before re-running configure:
shell> rm config.cache
shell> make clean
Alternatively, you can run make distclean.
The following list describes some of the problems when compiling MySQL that have been
found to occur most often:
• If you get errors such as the ones shown here when compiling ‘sql_yacc.cc’, you
probably have run out of memory or swap space:
Internal compiler error: program cc1plus got fatal signal 11
Out of virtual memory
Virtual memory exhausted
The problem is that gcc requires a huge amount of memory to compile ‘sql_yacc.cc’
with inline functions. Try running configure with the --with-low-memory option:
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shell> ./configure --with-low-memory
This option causes -fno-inline to be added to the compile line if you are using gcc
and -O0 if you are using something else. You should try the --with-low-memory option
even if you have so much memory and swap space that you think you can’t possibly
have run out. This problem has been observed to occur even on systems with generous
hardware configurations and the --with-low-memory option usually fixes it.
• By default, configure picks c++ as the compiler name and GNU c++ links with -lg++.
If you are using gcc, that behavior can cause problems during configuration such as
this:
configure: error: installation or configuration problem:
C++ compiler cannot create executables.
You might also observe problems during compilation related to g++, libg++, or
libstdc++.
One cause of these problems is that you may not have g++, or you may have g++ but
not libg++, or libstdc++. Take a look at the ‘config.log’ file. It should contain the
exact reason why your C++ compiler didn’t work. To work around these problems, you
can use gcc as your C++ compiler. Try setting the environment variable CXX to "gcc
-O3". For example:
shell> CXX="gcc -O3" ./configure
This works because gcc compiles C++ sources as well as g++ does, but does not link in
libg++ or libstdc++ by default.
Another way to fix these problems is to install g++, libg++, and libstdc++. We
would, however, like to recommend that you not use libg++ or libstdc++ with MySQL
because this will only increase the binary size of mysqld without giving you any benefits.
Some versions of these libraries have also caused strange problems for MySQL users in
the past.
Using gcc as the C++ compiler is also required if you want to compile MySQL with
RAID functionality (see Section 14.2.6 [CREATE TABLE], page 710 for more info on
RAID table type) and you are using GNU gcc version 3 and above. If you get errors
like those following during the linking stage when you configure MySQL to compile
with the option --with-raid, try to use gcc as your C++ compiler by defining the CXX
environment variable:
gcc -O3 -DDBUG_OFF -rdynamic -o isamchk isamchk.o sort.o libnisam.a
../mysys/libmysys.a ../dbug/libdbug.a ../strings/libmystrings.a
-lpthread -lz -lcrypt -lnsl -lm -lpthread
../mysys/libmysys.a(raid.o)(.text+0x79): In function
‘my_raid_create’:: undefined reference to ‘operator new(unsigned)’
../mysys/libmysys.a(raid.o)(.text+0xdd): In function
‘my_raid_create’:: undefined reference to ‘operator delete(void*)’
../mysys/libmysys.a(raid.o)(.text+0x129): In function
‘my_raid_open’:: undefined reference to ‘operator new(unsigned)’
../mysys/libmysys.a(raid.o)(.text+0x189): In function
‘my_raid_open’:: undefined reference to ‘operator delete(void*)’
../mysys/libmysys.a(raid.o)(.text+0x64b): In function
‘my_raid_close’:: undefined reference to ‘operator delete(void*)’
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collect2: ld returned 1 exit status
• If your compile fails with errors such as any of the following, you must upgrade your
version of make to GNU make:
making all in mit-pthreads
make: Fatal error in reader: Makefile, line 18:
Badly formed macro assignment
Or:
make: file ‘Makefile’ line 18: Must be a separator (:
Or:
pthread.h: No such file or directory
Solaris and FreeBSD are known to have troublesome make programs.
GNU make Version 3.75 is known to work.
• If you want to define flags to be used by your C or C++ compilers, do so by adding
the flags to the CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS environment variables. You can also specify the
compiler names this way using CC and CXX. For example:
shell>
shell>
shell>
shell>
shell>
CC=gcc
CFLAGS=-O3
CXX=gcc
CXXFLAGS=-O3
export CC CFLAGS CXX CXXFLAGS
See Section 2.1.2.5 [MySQL binaries], page 67, for a list of flag definitions that have
been found to be useful on various systems.
• If you get an error message like this, you need to upgrade your gcc compiler:
client/libmysql.c:273: parse error before ‘__attribute__’
gcc 2.8.1 is known to work, but we recommend using gcc 2.95.2 or egcs 1.0.3a instead.
• If you get errors such as those shown here when compiling mysqld, configure didn’t
correctly detect the type of the last argument to accept(), getsockname(), or
getpeername():
cxx: Error: mysqld.cc, line 645: In this statement, the referenced
type of the pointer value ’’length’’ is ’’unsigned long’’,
which is not compatible with ’’int’’.
new_sock = accept(sock, (struct sockaddr *)&cAddr, &length);
To fix this, edit the ‘config.h’ file (which is generated by configure). Look for these
lines:
/* Define as the base type of the last arg to accept */
#define SOCKET_SIZE_TYPE XXX
Change XXX to size_t or int, depending on your operating system. (Note that you
will have to do this each time you run configure because configure regenerates
‘config.h’.)
• The ‘sql_yacc.cc’ file is generated from ‘sql_yacc.yy’. Normally the build process
doesn’t need to create ‘sql_yacc.cc’, because MySQL comes with an already generated
copy. However, if you do need to re-create it, you might encounter this error:
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"sql_yacc.yy", line xxx fatal: default action causes potential...
This is a sign that your version of yacc is deficient. You probably need to install bison
(the GNU version of yacc) and use that instead.
• On Debian Linux 3.0, you need to install gawk instead of the default mawk if you want
to compile MySQL 4.1 or higher with Berkeley DB support.
• If you need to debug mysqld or a MySQL client, run configure with the --withdebug option, then recompile and link your clients with the new client library. See
Section D.2 [Debugging client], page 1333.
• If you get a compilation error on Linux (for example, SuSE Linux 8.1 or Red Hat Linux
7.3) similar to the following one:
libmysql.c:1329: warning: passing arg 5 of ‘gethostbyname_r’ from
incompatible pointer type
libmysql.c:1329: too few arguments to function ‘gethostbyname_r’
libmysql.c:1329: warning: assignment makes pointer from integer
without a cast
make[2]: *** [libmysql.lo] Error 1
By default, the configure script attempts to determine the correct number of arguments by using g++ the GNU C++ compiler. This test yields wrong results if g++ is not
installed. There are two ways to work around this problem:
• Make sure that the GNU C++ g++ is installed. On some Linux distributions, the
required package is called gpp; on others, it is named gcc-c++.
• Use gcc as your C++ compiler by setting the CXX environment variable to gcc:
export CXX="gcc"
Please note that you need to run configure again afterward.
2.3.5 MIT-pthreads Notes
This section describes some of the issues involved in using MIT-pthreads.
On Linux, you should not use MIT-pthreads. Use the installed LinuxThreads implementation instead. See Section 2.6.1 [Linux], page 149.
If your system does not provide native thread support, you will need to build MySQL using
the MIT-pthreads package. This includes older FreeBSD systems, SunOS 4.x, Solaris 2.4
and earlier, and some others. See Section 2.1.1 [Which OS], page 60.
Beginning with MySQL 4.0.2, MIT-pthreads is no longer part of the source distribution.
If you require this package, you need to download it separately from
http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Contrib/pthreads-1_60_beta6-mysql.tar.gz
After downloading, extract this source archive into the top level of the MySQL source
directory. It will create a new subdirectory named mit-pthreads.
• On most systems, you can force MIT-pthreads to be used by running configure with
the --with-mit-threads option:
shell> ./configure --with-mit-threads
Building in a non-source directory is not supported when using MIT-pthreads because
we want to minimize our changes to this code.
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• The checks that determine whether to use MIT-pthreads occur only during the part
of the configuration process that deals with the server code. If you have configured
the distribution using --without-server to build only the client code, clients will
not know whether MIT-pthreads is being used and will use Unix socket connections by
default. Because Unix socket files do not work under MIT-pthreads on some platforms,
this means you will need to use -h or --host when you run client programs.
• When MySQL is compiled using MIT-pthreads, system locking is disabled by default
for performance reasons. You can tell the server to use system locking with the -external-locking option. This is needed only if you want to be able to run two
MySQL servers against the same data files, which is not recommended.
• Sometimes the pthread bind() command fails to bind to a socket without any error
message (at least on Solaris). The result is that all connections to the server fail. For
example:
shell> mysqladmin version
mysqladmin: connect to server at ’’ failed;
error: ’Can’t connect to mysql server on localhost (146)’
The solution to this is to kill the mysqld server and restart it. This has only happened
to us when we have forced down the server and done a restart immediately.
• With MIT-pthreads, the sleep() system call isn’t interruptible with SIGINT (break).
This is only noticeable when you run mysqladmin --sleep. You must wait for the
sleep() call to terminate before the interrupt is served and the process stops.
• When linking, you may receive warning messages like these (at least on Solaris); they
can be ignored:
ld: warning: symbol ‘_iob’ has differing sizes:
(file /my/local/pthreads/lib/libpthread.a(findfp.o) value=0x4;
file /usr/lib/libc.so value=0x140);
/my/local/pthreads/lib/libpthread.a(findfp.o) definition taken
ld: warning: symbol ‘__iob’ has differing sizes:
(file /my/local/pthreads/lib/libpthread.a(findfp.o) value=0x4;
file /usr/lib/libc.so value=0x140);
/my/local/pthreads/lib/libpthread.a(findfp.o) definition taken
• Some other warnings also can be ignored:
implicit declaration of function ‘int strtoll(...)’
implicit declaration of function ‘int strtoul(...)’
• We haven’t gotten readline to work with MIT-pthreads. (This isn’t needed, but may
be interesting for someone.)
2.3.6 Installing MySQL from Source on Windows
These instructions describe how to build MySQL binaries from source for versions 4.1 and
above on Windows. Instructions are provided for building binaries from a standard source
distribution or from the BitKeeper tree that contains the latest development source.
Note: The instructions in this document are strictly for users who want to test MySQL on
Windows from the latest source distribution or from the BitKeeper tree. For production use,
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MySQL AB does not advise using a MySQL server built by yourself from source. Normally,
it is best to use precompiled binary distributions of MySQL that are built specifically
for optimal performance on Windows by MySQL AB. Instructions for installing a binary
distributions are available at Section 2.2.1 [Windows installation], page 78.
To build MySQL on Windows from source, you need the following compiler and resources
available on your Windows system:
• VC++ 6.0 compiler (updated with 4 or 5 SP and pre-processor package). The preprocessor package is necessary for the macro assembler. More details can be found at
http://msdn.microsoft.com/vstudio/downloads/updates/sp/vs6/sp5/faq.aspx.
• Approximately 45MB disk space.
• 64MB RAM.
You’ll also need a MySQL source distribution for Windows. There are two ways you can
get a source distribution for MySQL version 4.1 and above:
1. Obtain a source distribution packaged by MySQL AB for the particular
version of MySQL in which you are interested. Prepackaged source distributions are available for released versions of MySQL and can be obtained from
http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/.
2. You can package a source distribution yourself from the latest BitKeeper developer
source tree. If you plan to do this, you must create the package on a Unix system
and then transfer it to your Windows system. (The reason for this is that some of the
configuration and build steps require tools that work only on Unix.) The BitKeeper
approach thus requires:
• A system running Unix, or a Unix-like system such as Linux.
• BitKeeper 3.0 installed on that system.
http://www.bitkeeper.com/.
You can obtain BitKeeper from
If you are using a Windows source distribution, you can go directly to Section 2.3.6.1 [Windows VC++ Build], page 114. To build from the BitKeeper tree, proceed to Section 2.3.6.2
[Windows BitKeeper Build], page 116.
If you find something not working as expected, or you have suggestions about ways to
improve the current build process on Windows, please send a message to the win32 mailing
list. See Section 1.7.1.1 [Mailing-list], page 32.
2.3.6.1 Building MySQL Using VC++
Note: VC++ workspace files for MySQL 4.1 and above are compatible with Microsoft Visual
Studio 6.0 and above (7.0/.NET) editions and tested by MySQL AB staff before each release.
Follow this procedure to build MySQL:
1. Create a work directory (for example, ‘C:\workdir’).
2. Unpack the source distribution in the aforementioned directory using WinZip or other
Windows tool that can read ‘.zip’ files.
3. Start the VC++ 6.0 compiler.
4. In the File menu, select Open Workspace.
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5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Open the ‘mysql.dsw’ workspace you find in the work directory.
From the Build menu, select the Set Active Configuration menu.
Click over the screen selecting mysqld - Win32 Debug and click OK.
Press F7 to begin the build of the debug server, libraries, and some client applications.
Compile the release versions that you want in the same way.
Debug versions of the programs and libraries are placed in the ‘client_debug’ and
‘lib_debug’ directories. Release versions of the programs and libraries are placed in
the ‘client_release’ and ‘lib_release’ directories. Note that if you want to build
both debug and release versions, you can select the Build All option from the Build
menu.
11. Test the server. The server built using the preceding instructions will expect that
the MySQL base directory and data directory are ‘C:\mysql’ and ‘C:\mysql\data’ by
default. If you want to test your server using the source tree root directory and its
data directory as the base directory and data directory, you will need to tell the server
their pathnames. You can either do this on the command line with the --basedir
and --datadir options, or place appropriate options in an option file (the ‘my.ini’
file in your Windows directory or ‘C:\my.cnf’). If you have an existing data directory
elsewhere that you want to use, you can specify its pathname instead.
12. Start your server from the ‘client_release’ or ‘client_debug’ directory, depending on which server you want to use. The general server startup instructions are at
Section 2.2.1 [Windows installation], page 78. You’ll need to adapt the instructions
appropriately if you want to use a different base directory or data directory.
13. When the server is running in standalone fashion or as a service based on your configuration, try to connect to it from the mysql interactive command-line utility that exists
in your ‘client_release’ or ‘client_debug’ directory.
When you are satisfied that the programs you have built are working correctly, stop the
server. Then install MySQL as follows:
1. Create the directories where you want to install MySQL. For example, to install into
‘C:\mysql’, use these commands:
C:\> mkdir C:\mysql
C:\> mkdir C:\mysql\bin
C:\> mkdir C:\mysql\data
C:\> mkdir C:\mysql\share
C:\> mkdir C:\mysql\scripts
If you want to compile other clients and link them to MySQL, you should also create
several additional directories:
C:\> mkdir C:\mysql\include
C:\> mkdir C:\mysql\lib
C:\> mkdir C:\mysql\lib\debug
C:\> mkdir C:\mysql\lib\opt
If you want to benchmark MySQL, create this directory:
C:\> mkdir C:\mysql\sql-bench
Benchmarking requires Perl support.
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2. From the ‘workdir’ directory, copy into the C:\mysql directory the following directories:
C:\> cd \workdir
C:\workdir> copy client_release\*.exe C:\mysql\bin
C:\workdir> copy client_debug\mysqld.exe C:\mysql\bin\mysqld-debug.exe
C:\workdir> xcopy scripts\*.* C:\mysql\scripts /E
C:\workdir> xcopy share\*.* C:\mysql\share /E
If you want to compile other clients and link them to MySQL, you should also copy
several libraries and header files:
C:\workdir> copy lib_debug\mysqlclient.lib C:\mysql\lib\debug
C:\workdir> copy lib_debug\libmysql.* C:\mysql\lib\debug
C:\workdir> copy lib_debug\zlib.* C:\mysql\lib\debug
C:\workdir> copy lib_release\mysqlclient.lib C:\mysql\lib\opt
C:\workdir> copy lib_release\libmysql.* C:\mysql\lib\opt
C:\workdir> copy lib_release\zlib.* C:\mysql\lib\opt
C:\workdir> copy include\*.h C:\mysql\include
C:\workdir> copy libmysql\libmysql.def C:\mysql\include
If you want to benchmark MySQL, you should also do this:
C:\workdir> xcopy sql-bench\*.* C:\mysql\bench /E
Set up and start the server in the same way as for the binary Windows distribution. See
Section 2.2.1 [Windows installation], page 78.
2.3.6.2 Creating a Windows Source Package from the Latest
Development Source
To create a Windows source package from the current BitKeeper source tree, use the following instructions. Please note that this procedure must be performed on a system running a
Unix or Unix-like operating system. For example, the procedure is known to work well on
Linux.
1. Clone the BitKeeper source tree for MySQL (version 4.1 or above, as desired). For
more information on how to clone the source tree, see the instructions at Section 2.3.3
[Installing source tree], page 106.
2. Configure and build the distribution so that you have a server binary to work with.
One way to do this is to run the following command in the top-level directory of your
source tree:
shell> ./BUILD/compile-pentium-max
3. After making sure that the build process completed successfully, run the following
utility script from top-level directory of your source tree:
shell> ./scripts/make_win_src_distribution
This script creates a Windows source package to be used on your Windows system. You
can supply different options to the script based on your needs. It accepts the following
options:
--help
Display a help message.
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--debug
Print information about script operations, do not create package.
--tmp
Specify the temporary location.
--suffix
Suffix name for the package.
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--dirname
Directory name to copy files (intermediate).
--silent
Do not print verbose list of files processed.
--tar
Create ‘tar.gz’ package instead of ‘.zip’ package.
By default, make_win_src_distribution creates a Zip-format archive with the name
‘mysql-VERSION-win-src.zip’, where VERSION represents the version of your
MySQL source tree.
4. Copy or upload to your Windows machine the Windows source package that you have
just created. To compile it, use the instructions in Section 2.3.6.1 [Windows VC++
Build], page 114.
2.3.7 Compiling MySQL Clients on Windows
In your source files, you should include ‘my_global.h’ before ‘mysql.h’:
#include <my_global.h>
#include <mysql.h>
‘my_global.h’ includes any other files needed for Windows compatibility (such as
‘windows.h’) if you compile your program on Windows.
You can either link your code with the dynamic ‘libmysql.lib’ library, which is just a
wrapper to load in ‘libmysql.dll’ on demand, or link with the static ‘mysqlclient.lib’
library.
The MySQL client libraries are compiled as threaded libraries, so you should also compile
your code to be multi-threaded.
2.4 Post-Installation Setup and Testing
After installing MySQL, there are some issues you should address. For example, on Unix,
you should initialize the data directory and create the MySQL grant tables. On all platforms, an important security concern is that the initial accounts in the grant tables have
no passwords. You should assign passwords to prevent unauthorized access to the MySQL
server. For MySQL 4.1.3 and up, you can create time zone tables to enable recognition of
named time zones. (Currently, these tables can be populated only on Unix. This problem
will be addressed soon for Windows.)
The following sections include post-installation procedures that are specific to Windows
systems and to Unix systems. Another section, Section 2.4.2.3 [Starting server], page 127,
applies to all platforms; it describes what to do if you have trouble getting the server to
start. Section 2.4.3 [Default privileges], page 130 also applies to all platforms. You should
follow its instructions to make sure that you have properly protected your MySQL accounts
by assigning passwords to them.
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When you are ready to create additional user accounts, you can find information on the
MySQL access control system and account management in Section 5.5 [Privilege system],
page 296 and Section 5.6 [User Account Management], page 321.
2.4.1 Windows Post-Installation Procedures
On Windows, the data directory and the grant tables do not have to be created. MySQL
Windows distributions include the grant tables already set up with a set of preinitialized
accounts in the mysql database under the data directory. However, you should assign passwords to the accounts. The procedure for this is given in Section 2.4.3 [Default privileges],
page 130.
Before setting up passwords, you might want to try running some client programs to make
sure that you can connect to the server and that it is operating properly. Make sure the
server is running (see Section 2.2.1.5 [Windows server first start], page 82), then issue the
following commands to verify that you can retrieve information from the server. The output
should be similar to what is shown here:
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqlshow
+-----------+
| Databases |
+-----------+
| mysql
|
| test
|
+-----------+
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqlshow mysql
Database: mysql
+--------------+
|
Tables
|
+--------------+
| columns_priv |
| db
|
| func
|
| host
|
| tables_priv |
| user
|
+--------------+
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysql -e "SELECT Host,Db,User FROM db" mysql
+------+-------+------+
| host | db
| user |
+------+-------+------+
| %
| test% |
|
+------+-------+------+
If you are running a version of Windows that supports services and you want the MySQL
server to run automatically when Windows starts, see Section 2.2.1.7 [NT start], page 84.
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2.4.2 Unix Post-Installation Procedures
After installing MySQL on Unix, you need to initialize the grant tables, start the server,
and make sure that the server works okay. You may also wish to arrange for the server to
be started and stopped automatically when your system starts and stops. You should also
assign passwords to the accounts in the grant tables.
On Unix, the grant tables are set up by the mysql_install_db program. For some installation methods, this program is run for you automatically:
• If you install MySQL on Linux using RPM distributions, the server RPM runs mysql_
install_db.
• If you install MySQL on Mac OS X using a PKG distribution, the installer runs mysql_
install_db.
Otherwise, you’ll need to run mysql_install_db yourself.
The following procedure describes how to initialize the grant tables (if that has not already
been done) and then start the server. It also suggests some commands that you can use to
test whether the server is accessible and working properly. For information about starting
and stopping the server automatically, see Section 2.4.2.2 [Automatic start], page 125.
After you complete the procedure and have the server running, you should assign passwords to the accounts created by mysql_install_db. Instructions for doing so are given
in Section 2.4.3 [Default privileges], page 130.
In the examples shown here, the server runs under the user ID of the mysql login account.
This assumes that such an account exists. Either create the account if it does not exist, or
substitute the name of a different existing login account that you plan to use for running
the server.
1. Change location into the top-level directory of your MySQL installation, represented
here by BASEDIR:
shell> cd BASEDIR
BASEDIR is likely to be something like ‘/usr/local/mysql’ or ‘/usr/local’. The
following steps assume that you are located in this directory.
2. If necessary, run the mysql_install_db program to set up the initial MySQL grant
tables containing the privileges that determine how users are allowed to connect to
the server. You’ll need to do this if you used a distribution type that doesn’t run the
program for you.
Typically, mysql_install_db needs to be run only the first time you install MySQL,
so you can skip this step if you are upgrading an existing installation, However, mysql_
install_db does not overwrite any existing privilege tables, so it should be safe to run
in any circumstances.
To initialize the grant tables, use one of the following commands, depending on whether
mysql_install_db is located in the bin or scripts directory:
shell> bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
The mysql_install_db script creates the data directory, the mysql database that
holds all database privileges, and the test database that you can use to test MySQL.
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The script also creates privilege table entries for root accounts and anonymous-user
accounts. The accounts have no passwords initially. A description of their initial
privileges is given in Section 2.4.3 [Default privileges], page 130. Briefly, these privileges allow the MySQL root user to do anything, and allow anybody to create or use
databases with a name of test or starting with test_.
It is important to make sure that the database directories and files are owned by the
mysql login account so that the server has read and write access to them when you
run it later. To ensure this, the --user option should be used as shown if you run
mysql_install_db as root. Otherwise, you should execute the script while logged in
as mysql, in which case you can omit the --user option from the command.
mysql_install_db creates several tables in the mysql database: user, db, host,
tables_priv, columns_priv, func, and possibly others depending on your version
of MySQL.
If you don’t want to have the test database, you can remove it with mysqladmin -u
root drop test after starting the server.
If you have problems with mysql_install_db, see Section 2.4.2.1 [mysql_install_db],
page 123.
There are some alternatives to running the mysql_install_db script as it is provided
in the MySQL distribution:
• If you want the initial privileges to be different from the standard defaults, you
can modify mysql_install_db before you run it. However, a preferable technique
is to use GRANT and REVOKE to change the privileges after the grant tables have
been set up. In other words, you can run mysql_install_db, and then use mysql
-u root mysql to connect to the server as the MySQL root user so that you can
issue the GRANT and REVOKE statements.
If you want to install MySQL on a lot of machines with the same privileges, you
can put the GRANT and REVOKE statements in a file and execute the file as a script
using mysql after running mysql_install_db. For example:
shell> bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
shell> bin/mysql -u root < your_script_file
By doing this, you can avoid having to issue the statements manually on each
machine.
• It is possible to re-create the grant tables completely after they have already been
created. You might want to do this if you’re just learning how to use GRANT and
REVOKE and have made so many modifications after running mysql_install_db
that you want to wipe out the tables and start over.
To re-create the grant tables, remove all the ‘.frm’, ‘.MYI’, and ‘.MYD’ files in
the directory containing the mysql database. (This is the directory named ‘mysql’
under the data directory, which is listed as the datadir value when you run mysqld
--help.) Then run the mysql_install_db script again.
Note: For MySQL versions older than 3.22.10, you should not delete the ‘.frm’
files. If you accidentally do this, you should copy them back into the ‘mysql’
directory from your MySQL distribution before running mysql_install_db.
• You can start mysqld manually using the --skip-grant-tables option and add
the privilege information yourself using mysql:
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shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql --skip-grant-tables &
shell> bin/mysql mysql
From mysql, manually execute the SQL commands contained in mysql_install_
db. Make sure that you run mysqladmin flush-privileges or mysqladmin
reload afterward to tell the server to reload the grant tables.
Note that by not using mysql_install_db, you not only have to populate the
grant tables manually, you also have to create them first.
3. Start the MySQL server:
shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
For versions of MySQL older than 4.0, substitute bin/safe_mysqld for bin/mysqld_
safe in this command.
It is important that the MySQL server be run using an unprivileged (non-root) login
account. To ensure this, the --user option should be used as shown if you run mysql_
safe as root. Otherwise, you should execute the script while logged in as mysql, in
which case you can omit the --user option from the command.
Further instructions for running MySQL as an unprivileged user are given in Section A.3.2 [Changing MySQL user], page 1116.
If you neglected to create the grant tables before proceeding to this step, the following
message will appear in the error log file when you start the server:
mysqld: Can’t find file: ’host.frm’
If you have other problems starting the server, see Section 2.4.2.3 [Starting server],
page 127.
4. Use mysqladmin to verify that the server is running. The following commands provide
simple tests to check whether the server is up and responding to connections:
shell> bin/mysqladmin version
shell> bin/mysqladmin variables
The output from mysqladmin version varies slightly depending on your platform and
version of MySQL, but should be similar to that shown here:
shell> bin/mysqladmin version
mysqladmin Ver 8.40 Distrib 4.0.18, for linux on i586
Copyright (C) 2000 MySQL AB & MySQL Finland AB & TCX DataKonsult AB
This software comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. This is free software,
and you are welcome to modify and redistribute it under the GPL license
Server version
Protocol version
Connection
TCP port
UNIX socket
Uptime:
4.0.18-log
10
Localhost via Unix socket
3306
/tmp/mysql.sock
16 sec
Threads: 1 Questions: 9 Slow queries: 0
Opens: 7 Flush tables: 2 Open tables: 0
Queries per second avg: 0.000
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Memory in use: 132K Max memory used: 16773K
To see what else you can do with mysqladmin, invoke it with the --help option.
5. Verify that you can shut down the server:
shell> bin/mysqladmin -u root shutdown
6. Verify that you can restart the server. Do this by using mysqld_safe or by invoking
mysqld directly. For example:
shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql --log &
If mysqld_safe fails, see Section 2.4.2.3 [Starting server], page 127.
7. Run some simple tests to verify that you can retrieve information from the server. The
output should be similar to what is shown here:
shell> bin/mysqlshow
+-----------+
| Databases |
+-----------+
| mysql
|
| test
|
+-----------+
shell> bin/mysqlshow mysql
Database: mysql
+--------------+
|
Tables
|
+--------------+
| columns_priv |
| db
|
| func
|
| host
|
| tables_priv |
| user
|
+--------------+
shell> bin/mysql -e "SELECT Host,Db,User FROM db" mysql
+------+--------+------+
| host | db
| user |
+------+--------+------+
| %
| test
|
|
| %
| test_% |
|
+------+--------+------+
8. There is a benchmark suite in the ‘sql-bench’ directory (under the MySQL installation
directory) that you can use to compare how MySQL performs on different platforms.
The benchmark suite is written in Perl. It uses the Perl DBI module to provide a
database-independent interface to the various databases, and some other additional
Perl modules are required to run the benchmark suite. You must have the following
modules installed:
DBI
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DBD::mysql
Data::Dumper
Data::ShowTable
These modules can be obtained from CPAN (http://www.cpan.org/).
Section 2.7.1 [Perl installation], page 179.
See
The ‘sql-bench/Results’ directory contains the results from many runs against different databases and platforms. To run all tests, execute these commands:
shell> cd sql-bench
shell> perl run-all-tests
If you don’t have the ‘sql-bench’ directory, you probably installed MySQL using RPM
files other than the source RPM. (The source RPM includes the ‘sql-bench’ benchmark
directory.) In this case, you must first install the benchmark suite before you can
use it. Beginning with MySQL 3.22, there are separate benchmark RPM files named
‘mysql-bench-VERSION-i386.rpm’ that contain benchmark code and data.
If you have a source distribution, there are also tests in its ‘tests’ subdirectory that
you can run. For example, to run ‘auto_increment.tst’, execute this command from
the top-level directory of your source distribution:
shell> mysql -vvf test < ./tests/auto_increment.tst
The expected result of the test can be found in the ‘./tests/auto_increment.res’
file.
9. At this point, you should have the server running. However, none of the initial MySQL
accounts have a password, so you should assign passwords using the instructions in
Section 2.4.3 [Default privileges], page 130.
As of MySQL 4.1.3, the installation procedure creates time zone tables in the mysql
database. However, you must populate the tables manually. Instructions to do this are
given in Section 5.8.8 [Time zone support], page 364.
2.4.2.1 Problems Running mysql_install_db
The purpose of the mysql_install_db script is to generate new MySQL privilege tables.
It will not overwrite existing MySQL privilege tables, and it will not affect any other data.
If you want to re-create your privilege tables, first stop the mysqld server if it’s running.
Then rename the ‘mysql’ directory under the data directory to save it, and then run mysql_
install_db. For example:
shell> mv mysql-data-directory/mysql mysql-data-directory/mysql-old
shell> mysql_install_db --user=mysql
This section lists problems you might encounter when you run mysql_install_db:
mysql_install_db doesn’t install the grant tables
You may find that mysql_install_db fails to install the grant tables and terminates after displaying the following messages:
Starting mysqld daemon with databases from XXXXXX
mysqld ended
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In this case, you should examine the error log file very carefully. The log should
be located in the directory ‘XXXXXX’ named by the error message, and should
indicate why mysqld didn’t start. If you don’t understand what happened,
include the log when you post a bug report. See Section 1.7.1.3 [Bug reports],
page 34.
There is already a mysqld process running
This indicates that the server is already running, in which case the grant tables probably have already been created. If so, you don’t have to run mysql_
install_db at all because it need be run only once (when you install MySQL
the first time).
Installing a second mysqld server doesn’t work when one server is running
This can happen when you already have an existing MySQL installation, but
want to put a new installation in a different location. For example, you might
have a production installation already, but you want to create a second installation for testing purposes. Generally the problem that occurs when you try
to run a second server is that it tries to use a network interface that is already
in use by the first server. In this case, you will see one of the following error
messages:
Can’t start server: Bind on TCP/IP port:
Address already in use
Can’t start server: Bind on unix socket...
For instructions on setting up multiple servers, see Section 5.10 [Multiple
servers], page 372.
You don’t have write access to ‘/tmp’
If you don’t have write access to create temporary files or a Unix socket file in
the default location (the ‘/tmp’ directory), an error will occur when you run
mysql_install_db or the mysqld server.
You can specify different temporary directory and Unix socket file locations by
executing these commands prior to starting mysql_install_db or mysqld:
shell> TMPDIR=/some_tmp_dir/
shell> MYSQL_UNIX_PORT=/some_tmp_dir/mysql.sock
shell> export TMPDIR MYSQL_UNIX_PORT
‘some_tmp_dir’ should be the full pathname to some directory for which you
have write permission.
After this, you should be able to run mysql_install_db and start the server
with these commands:
shell> bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
If mysql_install_db is located in the ‘scripts’ directory, modify the first
command to use scripts/mysql_install_db.
See Section A.4.5 [Problems with ‘mysql.sock’], page 1123. See Appendix E
[Environment variables], page 1338.
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2.4.2.2 Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically
Generally, you start the mysqld server in one of these ways:
• By invoking mysqld directly. This works on any platform.
• By running the MySQL server as a Windows service. This can be done on versions of
Windows that support services (such as NT, 2000, and XP). The service can be set to
start the server automatically when Windows starts, or as a manual service that you
start on request. For instructions, see Section 2.2.1.7 [NT start], page 84.
• By invoking mysqld_safe, which tries to determine the proper options for mysqld and
then runs it with those options. This script is used on systems based on BSD Unix.
See Section 5.1.3 [mysqld_safe], page 234.
• By invoking mysql.server. This script is used primarily at system startup and shutdown on systems that use System V-style run directories, where it usually is installed
under the name mysql. The mysql.server script starts the server by invoking mysqld_
safe. See Section 5.1.4 [mysql.server], page 237.
• On Mac OS X, you can install a separate MySQL Startup Item package to enable the
automatic startup of MySQL on system startup. The Startup Item starts the server by
invoking mysql.server. See Section 2.2.3 [Mac OS X installation], page 93 for details.
The mysql.server and mysqld_safe scripts and the Mac OS X Startup Item can be used
to start the server manually, or automatically at system startup time. mysql.server and
the Startup Item also can be used to stop the server.
To start or stop the server manually using the mysql.server script, invoke it with start
or stop arguments:
shell> mysql.server start
shell> mysql.server stop
Before mysql.server starts the server, it changes location to the MySQL installation directory, and then invokes mysqld_safe. If you want the server to run as some specific user,
add an appropriate user option to the [mysqld] group of the ‘/etc/my.cnf’ option file, as
shown later in this section. (It is possible that you’ll need to edit mysql.server if you’ve
installed a binary distribution of MySQL in a non-standard location. Modify it to cd into
the proper directory before it runs mysqld_safe. If you do this, your modified version of
mysql.server may be overwritten if you upgrade MySQL in the future, so you should make
a copy of your edited version that you can reinstall.)
mysql.server stop brings down the server by sending a signal to it. You can also stop the
server manually by executing mysqladmin shutdown.
To start and stop MySQL automatically on your server, you need to add start and stop
commands to the appropriate places in your ‘/etc/rc*’ files.
If you use the Linux server RPM package (MySQL-server-VERSION.rpm), the mysql.server
script will already have been installed in the ‘/etc/init.d’ directory with the name ‘mysql’.
You need not install it manually. See Section 2.2.2 [Linux-RPM], page 90 for more information on the Linux RPM packages.
Some vendors provide RPM packages that install a startup script under a different name
such as mysqld.
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If you install MySQL from a source distribution or using a binary distribution format that
does not install mysql.server automatically, you can install it manually. The script can
be found in the ‘support-files’ directory under the MySQL installation directory or in a
MySQL source tree.
To install mysql.server manually, copy it to the ‘/etc/init.d’ directory with the name
mysql, and then make it executable. Do this by changing location into the appropriate
directory where mysql.server is located and executing these commands:
shell> cp mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysql
shell> chmod +x /etc/init.d/mysql
Older Red Hat systems use the ‘/etc/rc.d/init.d’ directory rather than ‘/etc/init.d’.
Adjust the preceding commands accordingly. Alternatively, first create ‘/etc/init.d’ as a
symbolic link that points to ‘/etc/rc.d/init.d’:
shell> cd /etc
shell> ln -s rc.d/init.d .
After installing the script, the commands needed to activate it to run at system startup
depend on your operating system. On Linux, you can use chkconfig:
shell> chkconfig --add mysql
On some Linux systems, the following command also seems to be necessary to fully enable
the mysql script:
shell> chkconfig --level 345 mysql on
On FreeBSD, startup scripts generally should go in ‘/usr/local/etc/rc.d/’. The rc(8)
manual page states that scripts in this directory are executed only if their basename matches
the *.sh shell filename pattern. Any other files or directories present within the directory
are silently ignored. In other words, on FreeBSD, you should install the ‘mysql.server’
script as ‘/usr/local/etc/rc.d/mysql.server.sh’ to enable automatic startup.
As an alternative to the preceding setup, some operating systems also use ‘/etc/rc.local’
or ‘/etc/init.d/boot.local’ to start additional services on startup. To start up MySQL
using this method, you could append a command like the one following to the appropriate
startup file:
/bin/sh -c ’cd /usr/local/mysql; ./bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &’
For other systems, consult your operating system documentation to see how to install
startup scripts.
You can add options for mysql.server in a global ‘/etc/my.cnf’ file.
‘/etc/my.cnf’ file might look like this:
[mysqld]
datadir=/usr/local/mysql/var
socket=/var/tmp/mysql.sock
port=3306
user=mysql
[mysql.server]
basedir=/usr/local/mysql
A typical
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The mysql.server script understands the following options: basedir, datadir, and pidfile. If specified, they must be placed in an option file, not on the command line.
mysql.server understands only start and stop as command-line arguments.
The following table shows which option groups the server and each startup script read from
option files:
Script
mysqld
mysql.server
mysqld_safe
Option Groups
[mysqld], [server], [mysqld-major-version]
[mysqld], [mysql.server]
[mysqld], [server], [mysqld_safe]
[mysqld-major-version] means that groups with names like [mysqld-4.0], [mysqld4.1], and [mysqld-5.0] will be read by servers having versions 4.0.x, 4.1.x, 5.0.x, and so
forth. This feature was added in MySQL 4.0.14. It can be used to specify options that will
be read only by servers within a given release series.
For backward compatibility, mysql.server also reads the [mysql_server] group and
mysqld_safe also reads the [safe_mysqld] group. However, you should update your option files to use the [mysql.server] and [mysqld_safe] groups instead when you begin
using MySQL 4.0 or later.
See Section 4.3.2 [Option files], page 225.
2.4.2.3 Starting and Troubleshooting the MySQL Server
If you have problems starting the server, here are some things you can try:
• Specify any special options needed by the storage engines you are using.
• Make sure that the server knows where to find the data directory.
• Make sure the server can use the data directory. The ownership and permissions of the
data directory and its contents must be set such that the server can access and modify
them.
• Check the error log to see why the server doesn’t start.
• Verify that the network interfaces the server wants to use are available.
Some storage engines have options that control their behavior. You can create a ‘my.cnf’
file and set startup options for the engines you plan to use. If you are going to use storage engines that support transactional tables (InnoDB, BDB), be sure that you have them
configured the way you want before starting the server:
• If you are using InnoDB tables, refer to the InnoDB-specific startup options. In MySQL
3.23, you must configure InnoDB explicitly or the server will fail to start. From MySQL
4.0 on, InnoDB uses default values for its configuration options if you specify none. See
Section 16.4 [InnoDB configuration], page 805.
• If you are using BDB (Berkeley DB) tables, you should familiarize yourself with the
different BDB-specific startup options. See Section 15.4.3 [BDB start], page 799.
When the mysqld server starts, it changes location to the data directory. This is where it
expects to find databases and where it expects to write log files. On Unix, the server also
writes the pid (process ID) file in the data directory.
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The data directory location is hardwired in when the server is compiled. This is where the
server looks for the data directory by default. If the data directory is located somewhere
else on your system, the server will not work properly. You can find out what the default
path settings are by invoking mysqld with the --verbose and --help options. (Prior to
MySQL 4.1, omit the --verbose option.)
If the defaults don’t match the MySQL installation layout on your system, you can override
them by specifying options on the command line to mysqld or mysqld_safe. You can also
list the options in an option file.
To specify the location of the data directory explicitly, use the --datadir option. However,
normally you can tell mysqld the location of the base directory under which MySQL is
installed and it will look for the data directory there. You can do this with the --basedir
option.
To check the effect of specifying path options, invoke mysqld with those options followed by
the --verbose and --help options. For example, if you change location into the directory
where mysqld is installed, and then run the following command, it will show the effect of
starting the server with a base directory of ‘/usr/local’:
shell> ./mysqld --basedir=/usr/local --verbose --help
You can specify other options such as --datadir as well, but note that --verbose and
--help must be the last options. (Prior to MySQL 4.1, omit the --verbose option.)
Once you determine the path settings you want, start the server without --verbose and
--help.
If mysqld is currently running, you can find out what path settings it is using by executing
this command:
shell> mysqladmin variables
Or:
shell> mysqladmin -h host_name variables
host name is the name of the MySQL server host.
If you get Errcode 13 (which means Permission denied) when starting mysqld, this means
that the access privileges of the data directory or its contents do not allow the server access.
In this case, you change the permissions for the involved files and directories so that the
server has the right to use them. You can also start the server as root, but this can raise
security issues and should be avoided.
On Unix, change location into the data directory and check the ownership of the data
directory and its contents to make sure the server has access. For example, if the data
directory is ‘/usr/local/mysql/var’, use this command:
shell> ls -la /usr/local/mysql/var
If the data directory or its files or subdirectories are not owned by the account that you use
for running the server, change their ownership to that account:
shell> chown -R mysql /usr/local/mysql/var
shell> chgrp -R mysql /usr/local/mysql/var
If the server fails to start up correctly, check the error log file to see if you can find
out why. Log files are located in the data directory (typically ‘C:\mysql\data’ on Windows, ‘/usr/local/mysql/data’ for a Unix binary distribution, and ‘/usr/local/var’ for
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a Unix source distribution). Look in the data directory for files with names of the form
‘host_name.err’ and ‘host_name.log’, where host name is the name of your server host.
(Older servers on Windows use ‘mysql.err’ as the error log name.) Then check the last
few lines of these files. On Unix, you can use tail to display the last few lines:
shell> tail host_name.err
shell> tail host_name.log
The error log contains information that indicates why the server couldn’t start. For example,
you might see something like this in the log:
000729 14:50:10 bdb: Recovery function for LSN 1 27595 failed
000729 14:50:10 bdb: warning: ./test/t1.db: No such file or directory
000729 14:50:10 Can’t init databases
This means that you didn’t start mysqld with the --bdb-no-recover option and Berkeley
DB found something wrong with its own log files when it tried to recover your databases.
To be able to continue, you should move away the old Berkeley DB log files from the
database directory to some other place, where you can later examine them. The BDB log
files are named in sequence beginning with ‘log.0000000001’, where the number increases
over time.
If you are running mysqld with BDB table support and mysqld dumps core at startup, this
could be due to problems with the BDB recovery log. In this case, you can try starting mysqld
with --bdb-no-recover. If that helps, then you should remove all BDB log files from the
data directory and try starting mysqld again without the --bdb-no-recover option.
If either of the following errors occur, it means that some other program (perhaps another
mysqld server) is already using the TCP/IP port or Unix socket file that mysqld is trying
to use:
Can’t start server: Bind on TCP/IP port: Address already in use
Can’t start server: Bind on unix socket...
Use ps to determine whether you have another mysqld server running. If so, shut down the
server before starting mysqld again. (If another server is running, and you really want to
run multiple servers, you can find information about how to do so in Section 5.10 [Multiple
servers], page 372.)
If no other server is running, try to execute the command telnet your-host-name tcpip-port-number. (The default MySQL port number is 3306.) Then press Enter a couple of
times. If you don’t get an error message like telnet: Unable to connect to remote host:
Connection refused, some other program is using the TCP/IP port that mysqld is trying
to use. You’ll need to track down what program this is and disable it, or else tell mysqld
to listen to a different port with the --port option. In this case, you’ll also need to specify
the port number for client programs when connecting to the server via TCP/IP.
Another reason the port might be inaccessible is that you have a firewall running that blocks
connections to it. If so, modify the firewall settings to allow access to the port.
If the server starts but you can’t connect to it, you should make sure that you have an entry
in ‘/etc/hosts’ that looks like this:
127.0.0.1
localhost
This problem occurs only on systems that don’t have a working thread library and for which
MySQL must be configured to use MIT-pthreads.
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If you can’t get mysqld to start, you can try to make a trace file to find the problem by
using the --debug option. See Section D.1.2 [Making trace files], page 1329.
2.4.3 Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts
Part of the MySQL installation process is to set up the mysql database containing the grant
tables:
• Windows distributions contain preinitialized grant tables that are installed automatically.
• On Unix, the grant tables are populated by the mysql_install_db program. Some
installation methods run this program for you. Others require that you execute it
manually. For details, see Section 2.4.2 [Unix post-installation], page 119.
The grant tables define the initial MySQL user accounts and their access privileges. These
accounts are set up as follows:
• Two accounts are created with a username of root. These are superuser accounts that
can do anything. The initial root account passwords are empty, so anyone can connect
to the MySQL server as root without a password and be granted all privileges.
• On Windows, one root account is for connecting from the local host and the other
allows connections from any host.
• On Unix, both root accounts are for connections from the local host. Connections
must be made from the local host by specifying a hostname of localhost for one
account, or the actual hostname or IP number for the other.
• Two anonymous-user accounts are created, each with an empty username. The anonymous accounts have no passwords, so anyone can use them to connect to the MySQL
server.
• On Windows, one anonymous account is for connections from the local host. It has
all privileges, just like the root accounts. The other is for connections from any
host and has all privileges for the test database or other databases with names
that start with test.
• On Unix, both anonymous accounts are for connections from the local host. Connections must be made from the local host by specifying a hostname of localhost
for one account, or the actual hostname or IP number for the other. These accounts have all privileges for the test database or other databases with names
that start with test_.
As noted, none of the initial accounts have passwords. This means that your MySQL
installation is unprotected until you do something about it:
• If you want to prevent clients from connecting as anonymous users without a password,
you should either assign passwords to the anonymous accounts or else remove them.
• You should assign passwords to the MySQL root accounts.
The following instructions describe how to set up passwords for the initial MySQL accounts,
first for the anonymous accounts and then for the root accounts. Replace “newpwd” in the
examples with the actual password that you want to use. The instructions also cover how
to remove the anonymous accounts, should you prefer not to allow anonymous access at all.
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You might want to defer setting the passwords until later, so that you don’t need to specify
them while you perform additional setup or testing. However, be sure to set them before
using your installation for any real production work.
To assign passwords to the anonymous accounts, you can use either SET PASSWORD or
UPDATE. In both cases, be sure to encrypt the password using the PASSWORD() function.
To use SET PASSWORD on Windows, do this:
shell> mysql -u root
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR ’’@’localhost’ = PASSWORD(’newpwd ’);
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR ’’@’%’ = PASSWORD(’newpwd ’);
To use SET PASSWORD on Unix, do this:
shell> mysql -u root
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR ’’@’localhost’ = PASSWORD(’newpwd ’);
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR ’’@’host_name ’ = PASSWORD(’newpwd ’);
In the second SET PASSWORD statement, replace host name with the name of the server host.
This is the name that is specified in the Host column of the non-localhost record for root
in the user table. If you don’t know what hostname this is, issue the following statement
before using SET PASSWORD:
mysql> SELECT Host, User FROM mysql.user;
Look for the record that has root in the User column and something other than localhost
in the Host column. Then use that Host value in the second SET PASSWORD statement.
The other way to assign passwords to the anonymous accounts is by using UPDATE to modify
the user table directly. Connect to the server as root and issue an UPDATE statement
that assigns a value to the Password column of the appropriate user table records. The
procedure is the same for Windows and Unix. The following UPDATE statement assigns a
password to both anonymous accounts at once:
shell> mysql -u root
mysql> UPDATE mysql.user SET Password = PASSWORD(’newpwd ’)
->
WHERE User = ’’;
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
After you update the passwords in the user table directly using UPDATE, you must tell the
server to re-read the grant tables with FLUSH PRIVILEGES. Otherwise, the change will go
unnoticed until you restart the server.
If you prefer to remove the anonymous accounts instead, do so as follows:
shell> mysql -u root
mysql> DELETE FROM mysql.user WHERE User = ’’;
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
The DELETE statement applies both to Windows and to Unix. On Windows, if you want to
remove only the anonymous account that has the same privileges as root, do this instead:
shell> mysql -u root
mysql> DELETE FROM mysql.user WHERE Host=’localhost’ AND User=’’;
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
This account allows anonymous access but has full privileges, so removing it improves
security.
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You can assign passwords to the root accounts in several ways. The following discussion
demonstrates three methods:
• Use the SET PASSWORD statement
• Use the mysqladmin command-line client program
• Use the UPDATE statement
To assign passwords using SET PASSWORD, connect to the server as root and issue two SET
PASSWORD statements. Be sure to encrypt the password using the PASSWORD() function.
For Windows, do this:
shell> mysql -u root
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR ’root’@’localhost’ = PASSWORD(’newpwd ’);
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR ’root’@’%’ = PASSWORD(’newpwd ’);
For Unix, do this:
shell> mysql -u root
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR ’root’@’localhost’ = PASSWORD(’newpwd ’);
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR ’root’@’host_name ’ = PASSWORD(’newpwd ’);
In the second SET PASSWORD statement, replace host name with the name of the server
host. This is the same hostname that you used when you assigned the anonymous account
passwords.
To assign passwords to the root accounts using mysqladmin, execute the following commands:
shell> mysqladmin -u root password "newpwd "
shell> mysqladmin -u root -h host_name password "newpwd "
These commands apply both to Windows and to Unix. In the second command, replace
host name with the name of the server host. The double quotes around the password are
not always necessary, but you should use them if the password contains spaces or other
characters that are special to your command interpreter.
If you are using a server from a very old version of MySQL, the mysqladmin commands
to set the password will fail with the message parse error near ’SET password’. The
solution to this problem is to upgrade the server to a newer version of MySQL.
You can also use UPDATE to modify the user table directly. The following UPDATE statement
assigns a password to both root accounts at once:
shell> mysql -u root
mysql> UPDATE mysql.user SET Password = PASSWORD(’newpwd ’)
->
WHERE User = ’root’;
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
The UPDATE statement applies both to Windows and to Unix.
After the passwords have been set, you must supply the appropriate password whenever
you connect to the server. For example, if you want to use mysqladmin to shut down the
server, you can do so using this command:
shell> mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown
Enter password: (enter root password here)
Note: If you forget your root password after setting it up, the procedure for resetting it is
covered in Section A.4.1 [Resetting permissions], page 1117.
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To set up new accounts, you can use the GRANT statement. For instructions, see Section 5.6.2
[Adding users], page 322.
2.5 Upgrading/Downgrading MySQL
As a general rule, we recommend that when upgrading from one release series to another,
you should go to the next series rather than skipping a series. For example, if you currently
are running MySQL 3.23 and wish to upgrade to a newer series, upgrade to MySQL 4.0
rather than to 4.1 or 5.0.
The following items form a checklist of things you should do whenever you perform an
upgrade:
• Read the upgrading section for the release series to which you are upgrading. Read
the change notes as well. These provide information about new features you can use.
For example, before upgrading from MySQL 4.1 to 5.0, read the 5.0 upgrading section
(see Section 2.5.1 [Upgrading-from-4.1], page 134) and read the 5.0 change notes (see
Appendix C [News], page 1145).
• Before you do an upgrade, back up your databases.
• If you are running MySQL Server on Windows, see Section 2.5.7 [Windows upgrading],
page 146.
• An upgrade may involve changes to the grant tables that are stored in the mysql
database. Occasionally new columns or tables are added to support new features. To
take advantage of these features, be sure that your grant tables are up to date. The
upgrade procedure is described in Section 2.5.8 [Upgrading-grant-tables], page 147.
• If you are using replication, see Section 6.6 [Replication Upgrade], page 395 for information on upgrading your replication setup.
• If you install a MySQL-Max distribution that includes a server named mysqld-max,
then upgrade later to a non-Max version of MySQL, mysqld_safe will still attempt to
run the old mysqld-max server. If you perform such an upgrade, you should manually
remove the old mysqld-max server to ensure that mysqld_safe runs the new mysqld
server.
You can always move the MySQL format files and data files between different versions on
the same architecture as long as you stay within versions for the same release series of
MySQL. The current production release series is 4.0. If you change the character set when
running MySQL, you must run myisamchk -r -q --set-character-set=charset on all
MyISAM tables. Otherwise, your indexes may not be ordered correctly, because changing the
character set may also change the sort order.
If you upgrade or downgrade from one release series to another, there may be incompatibilities in table storage formats. In this case, you can use mysqldump to dump your tables
before upgrading. After upgrading, reload the dump file using mysql to re-create your
tables.
If you are cautious about using new versions, you can always rename your old mysqld before
installing a newer one. For example, if you are using MySQL 4.0.18 and want to upgrade
to 4.1.1, rename your current server from mysqld to mysqld-4.0.18. If your new mysqld
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then does something unexpected, you can simply shut it down and restart with your old
mysqld.
If, after an upgrade, you experience problems with recompiled client programs, such as
Commands out of sync or unexpected core dumps, you probably have used old header or
library files when compiling your programs. In this case, you should check the date for your
‘mysql.h’ file and ‘libmysqlclient.a’ library to verify that they are from the new MySQL
distribution. If not, recompile your programs with the new headers and libraries.
If problems occur, such as that the new mysqld server doesn’t want to start or that you can’t
connect without a password, verify that you don’t have some old ‘my.cnf’ file from your
previous installation. You can check this with the --print-defaults option (for example,
mysqld --print-defaults). If this displays anything other than the program name, you
have an active ‘my.cnf’ file that affects server or client operation.
It is a good idea to rebuild and reinstall the Perl DBD::mysql module whenever you install
a new release of MySQL. The same applies to other MySQL interfaces as well, such as the
PHP mysql extension and the Python MySQLdb module.
2.5.1 Upgrading from Version 4.1 to 5.0
In general, you should do the following when upgrading to MySQL 5.0 from 4.1:
• Read the 5.0 news items to see what significant new features you can use in 5.0. See
Section C.1 [News-5.0.x], page 1145.
• If you are running MySQL Server on Windows, see Section 2.5.7 [Windows upgrading],
page 146. Also, two of the Windows MySQL servers were renamed. See Section 2.2.1.4
[Windows select server], page 81.
• MySQL 5.0 adds support for stored procedures. This support requires the proc table
in the mysql database. To create this file, you should run the mysql_fix_privilege_
tables script as described in Section 2.5.8 [Upgrading-grant-tables], page 147.
• MySQL 5.0 adds support for views. This support requires the extra privilege columns
in the user and db tables in the mysql database. To create these columns, you should
run the mysql_fix_privilege_tables script as described in Section 2.5.8 [Upgradinggrant-tables], page 147.
• If you are using replication, see Section 6.6 [Replication Upgrade], page 395 for information on upgrading your replication setup.
• If you use MySQL capability to store wrong dates (like ’2004-02-31’) you should start
MySQL with --sql_mode=ALLOW_INVALID_DATES.
• The update log is removed in MySQL 5.0.
The following list describes changes that may affect applications and that you should watch
out for when upgrading to version 5.0:
• The update log is removed, so if you enabled it in the past, you should enable the
binary log instead. See Section C.1 [News-5.0.x], page 1145.
2.5.2 Upgrading from Version 4.0 to 4.1
In general, you should do the following when upgrading to MySQL 4.1 from 4.0:
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• Check the items in the change lists found later in this section to see whether any of
them might affect your applications. Some of them result in incompatibilities with
earlier versions.
• Read the 4.1 news items to see what significant new features you can use in 4.1. See
Section C.2 [News-4.1.x], page 1152.
• If you are running MySQL Server on Windows, see Section 2.5.7 [Windows upgrading],
page 146.
Important note: Early alpha Windows distributions for MySQL 4.1 do not contain
an installer program. See Section 2.2.1.2 [Windows binary installation], page 79 for
instructions on how to install such a distribution.
• After upgrading, update the grant tables to have the new longer Password column
that is needed for more secure handling of passwords. The procedure uses mysql_fix_
privilege_tables and is described in Section 2.5.8 [Upgrading-grant-tables], page 147.
If you don’t do this, MySQL will not us the new more secure protocol to authenticate.
Implications of the password-handling change for applications are given later in this
section.
• If you are using replication, see Section 6.6 [Replication Upgrade], page 395 for information on upgrading your replication setup.
• The Berkeley DB table handler is updated to DB 4.1 (from 3.2) which has a new log
format. If you have to downgrade back to 4.0 you must use mysqldump to dump your
BDB tables in text format and delete all log.XXXXXXXXXX files before you start MySQL
4.0 and reload the data.
• Character set support has been improved. The server now supports multiple character
sets.
• MySQL 4.1.3 introduces support for per-connection time zones. See Section 5.8.8 [Time
zone support], page 364. To enable recognition of named time zones, you should create
the time zone tables in the mysql database. For instructions, see Section 2.4 [Postinstallation], page 117.
• If you are using an old DBD-mysql module (Msql-MySQL-modules) you have to upgrade
to use the newer DBD-mysql module. Anything above DBD-mysql 2.xx should be fine.
If you don’t upgrade, some methods (such as DBI->do()) will not notice error conditions
correctly.
• The --defaults-file=option-file-name option now will give an error if the option
file doesn’t exist.
• Some notes about upgrading from MySQL 4.0 to MySQL 4.1 on Netware: Make sure
to upgrade Perl and PHP versions. Download and install Perl module for MySQL 4.1
from http://forge.novell.com/modules/xfmod/project/showfiles.php?group_
id=1126 and PHP Extension for MySQL 4.1 from http://forge.novell.com/modules/xfmod/project/s
id=1078.
Several visible behaviors have changed between MySQL 4.0 and MySQL 4.1 to fix some
critical bugs and make MySQL more compatible with standard SQL. These changes may
affect your applications.
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Some of the 4.1 behaviors can be tested in 4.0 before performing a full upgrade to 4.1. We
have added to later MySQL 4.0 releases (from 4.0.12 on) a --new startup option for mysqld.
See Section 5.2.1 [Server options], page 241.
This option gives you the 4.1 behavior for the most critical changes. You can also enable
these behaviors for a given client connection with the SET @@new=1 command, or turn them
off if they are on with SET @@new=0.
If you believe that some of the 4.1 changes will affect you, we recommend that before
upgrading to 4.1, you download the latest MySQL 4.0 version and run it with the --new
option by adding the following to your config file:
[mysqld-4.0]
new
That way you can test the new behaviors in 4.0 to make sure that your applications work
with them. This will help you have a smooth, painless transition when you perform a full
upgrade to 4.1 later. Putting the --new option in the [mysqld-4.0] option group ensures
that you don’t accidentally later run the 4.1 version with the --new option.
The following lists describe changes that may affect applications and that you should watch
out for when upgrading to version 4.1:
Server Changes:
• All tables and string columns now have a character set. See Chapter 11 [Charset],
page 539.
Character set information is displayed by SHOW CREATE TABLE and
mysqldump. (MySQL versions 4.0.6 and above can read the new dump files; older
versions cannot.) This change should not affect applications that use only one
character set.
• If you have table columns that store character data represented in a character set that
the 4.1 server now supports directly, you can convert the columns to the proper character set using the instructions in Section 11.10.2 [Charset-conversion], page 558. Also,
database, table, and column identifiers now are stored internally using Unicode (UTF8)
regardless of the default character set. See Section 10.2 [Legal names], page 527.
• Incompatible change: Starting from MySQL 4.1.3, InnoDB uses the same character set
comparison functions as MySQL for non-latin1_swedish_ci character strings that
are not BINARY. This changes the sorting order of space and characters with a code
< ASCII(32) in those character sets. For latin1_swedish_ci character strings and
BINARY strings, InnoDB uses its own pad-spaces-at-end comparison method, which stays
unchanged. If you have an InnoDB table created with MySQL 4.1.2 or earlier, with an
index on a non-latin1 character set (in the case of 4.1.0 and 4.1.1, with any character
set) and the table contains any CHAR/VARCHAR/or TEXT columns that are not BINARY
but may contain characters with a code < ASCII(32), then you should do ALTER TABLE
or OPTIMIZE table on it to regenerate the index, after upgrading to MySQL 4.1.3 or
later.
• MySQL now interprets length specifications in character column definitions in characters. (Earlier versions interpret them in bytes.) For example, CHAR(N ) now means N
characters, not N bytes.
• The table definition format used in ‘.frm’ files has changed slightly in 4.1. MySQL
4.0 versions from 4.0.11 on can read the new ‘.frm’ format directly, but older versions
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•
•
•
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cannot. If you need to move tables from 4.1 to a version earlier than 4.0.11, you should
use mysqldump. See Section 8.8 [mysqldump], page 509.
Important note: If you upgrade to MySQL 4.1.1 or higher, it is difficult to downgrade
back to 4.0 or 4.1.0! That is because, for earlier versions, InnoDB is not aware of
multiple tablespaces.
Incompatible change: In connection with the support for per-connection time zones in
MySQL 4.1.3, the timezone system variable was renamed to system_time_zone.
Windows servers now support connections from local clients using shared memory if
run with the --shared-memory option. If you are running multiple servers this way on
the same Windows machine, you should use a different --shared-memory-base-name
option for each server.
The interface to aggregated UDF functions has changed a bit. You must now declare
a xxx_clear() function for each aggregate function XXX().
Client Changes:
• mysqldump now has the --opt and --quote-names options enabled by default. You
can turn them off with --skip-opt and --skip-quote-names.
SQL Changes:
• Incompatible change: In MySQL 4.1.2, the Type column in the output from SHOW TABLE
STATUS was renamed to Engine.
• Incompatible change: String comparison now works according to SQL standard: Instead of stripping end spaces before comparison, we now extend the shorter string with
spaces. The problem with this is that now ’a’ > ’a\t’, which it wasn’t before. If you
have any tables where you have a CHAR or VARCHAR column in which the last character
in the column may be less than ASCII(32), you should use REPAIR TABLE or myisamchk
to ensure that the table is correct.
• When using multiple-table DELETE statements, you should use the alias of the tables
from which you want to delete, not the actual table name. For example, instead of
doing this:
DELETE test FROM test AS t1, test2 WHERE ...
Do this:
DELETE t1 FROM test AS t1, test2 WHERE ...
This corrects a problem that was present in MySQL 4.0.
• Incompatible change: TIMESTAMP is now returned as a string in ’YYYY-MM-DD
HH:MM:SS’ format (from 4.0.12 the --new option can be used to make a 4.0 server
behave as 4.1 in this respect). See Section 12.3.1.2 [TIMESTAMP 4.1], page 580.
If you want to have the value returned as a number (as MySQL 4.0 does) you should
add +0 to TIMESTAMP columns when you retrieve them:
mysql> SELECT ts_col + 0 FROM tbl_name ;
Display widths for TIMESTAMP columns are no longer supported. For example, if you
declare a column as TIMESTAMP(10), the (10) is ignored.
These changes were necessary for SQL standards compliance. In a future version, a
further change will be made (backward compatible with this change), allowing the
timestamp length to indicate the desired number of digits for fractions of a second.
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• Incompatible change: Binary values such as 0xFFDF now are assumed to be strings
instead of numbers. This fixes some problems with character sets where it’s convenient
to input a string as a binary value. With this change, you should use CAST() if you
want to compare binary values numerically as integers:
mysql> SELECT CAST(0xFEFF AS UNSIGNED INTEGER)
->
< CAST(0xFF AS UNSIGNED INTEGER);
-> 0
If you don’t use CAST(), a lexical string comparison will be done:
mysql> SELECT 0xFEFF < 0xFF;
-> 1
Using binary items in a numeric context or comparing them using the = operator should
work as before. (The --new option can be used from 4.0.13 on to make a 4.0 server
behave as 4.1 in this respect.)
• For functions that produce a DATE, DATETIME, or TIME value, the result returned to the
client now is fixed up to have a temporal type. For example, in MySQL 4.1, you get
this result:
mysql> SELECT CAST(’2001-1-1’ AS DATETIME);
-> ’2001-01-01 00:00:00’
In MySQL 4.0, the result is different:
mysql> SELECT CAST(’2001-1-1’ AS DATETIME);
-> ’2001-01-01’
• DEFAULT values no longer can be specified for AUTO_INCREMENT columns. (In 4.0, a
DEFAULT value is silently ignored; in 4.1, an error occurs.)
• LIMIT no longer accepts negative arguments. Use some large number (maximum
18446744073709551615) instead of -1.
• SERIALIZE is no longer a valid mode value for the sql_mode variable. You should
use SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE instead. SERIALIZE is no
longer valid for the --sql-mode option for mysqld, either. Use --transactionisolation=SERIALIZABLE instead.
• User variables now are not case sensitive. In MySQL 4.1, SET @x = 0; SET @X = 1;
SELECT @x; creates two variables and returns 0. In MySQL 5.0, it creates one variable
and returns 1.
C API Changes:
• Incompatible change: The mysql_shutdown() C API function has an extra parameter
as of MySQL 4.1.3: SHUTDOWN-level. You should convert any mysql_shutdown(X ) call
you have in your application to mysql_shutdown(X,SHUTDOWN_DEFAULT).
• Some C API calls such as mysql_real_query() now return 1 on error, not -1. You
may have to change some old applications if they use constructs like this:
if (mysql_real_query(mysql_object, query, query_length) == -1)
{
printf("Got error");
}
Change the call to test for a non-zero value instead:
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if (mysql_real_query(mysql_object, query, query_length) != 0)
{
printf("Got error");
}
Password-Handling Changes:
The password hashing mechanism has changed in 4.1 to provide better security, but this
may cause compatibility problems if you still have clients that use the client library from
4.0 or earlier. (It is very likely that you will have 4.0 clients in situations where clients
connect from remote hosts that have not yet upgraded to 4.1.) The following list indicates
some possible upgrade strategies. They represent various tradeoffs between the goal of
compatibility with old clients and the goal of security.
• Only upgrade the client to use 4.1 client libraries (not the server). No behavior will
change (except the return value of some API calls), but you cannot use any of the
new features provided by the 4.1 client/server protocol, either. (MySQL 4.1 has an
extended client/server protocol that offers such features as prepared statements and
multiple result sets.) See Section 21.2.4 [C API Prepared statements], page 1002.
• Upgrade to 4.1 and run the mysql_fix_privilege_tables script to widen the
Password column in the user table so that it can hold long password hashes. But run
the server with the --old-passwords option to provide backward compatibility that
allows pre-4.1 clients to continue to connect to their short-hash accounts. Eventually,
when all your clients are upgraded to 4.1, you can stop using the --old-passwords
server option. You can also change the passwords for your MySQL accounts to use
the new more secure format.
• Upgrade to 4.1 and run the mysql_fix_privilege_tables script to widen the
Password column in the user table. If you know that all clients also have been
upgraded to 4.1, don’t run the server with the --old-passwords option. Instead,
change the passwords on all existing accounts so that they have the new format. A
pure-4.1 installation is the most secure.
• Some notes about upgrading from MySQL 4.0 to MySQL 4.1 on Netware:
Make sure to upgrade Perl and PHP versions. Download Perl 5 for Netware
from http://forge.novell.com/modules/xfmod/project/?perl5) and PHP from
http://forge.novell.com/modules/xfmod/project/?php.
Further background on password hashing with respect to client authentication and
password-changing operations may be found in Section 5.5.9 [Password hashing], page 316
and Section A.2.3 [Old client], page 1106.
2.5.3 Upgrading from Version 3.23 to 4.0
In general, you should do the following when upgrading to MySQL 4.0 from 3.23:
• Check the items in the change lists found later in this section to see whether any of
them might affect your applications.
• Read the 4.0 news items to see what significant new features you can use in 4.0. See
Section C.3 [News-4.0.x], page 1176.
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• If you are running MySQL Server on Windows, see Section 2.5.7 [Windows upgrading],
page 146.
• After upgrading, update the grant tables to add new privileges and features. The procedure uses the mysql_fix_privilege_tables script and is described in Section 2.5.8
[Upgrading-grant-tables], page 147.
• If you are using replication, see Section 6.6 [Replication Upgrade], page 395 for information on upgrading your replication setup.
• Edit any MySQL startup scripts or option files to not use any of the deprecated options
described later in this section.
• Convert your old ISAM files to MyISAM files. One way to do this is with the mysql_
convert_table_format script. (This is a Perl script; it requires that DBI be installed.)
To convert the tables in a given database, use this command:
shell> mysql_convert_table_format database db_name
Note that this should be used only if all tables in the given database are ISAM or MyISAM
tables. To avoid converting tables of other types to MyISAM, you can explicitly list the
names of your ISAM tables after the database name on the command line.
Individual tables can be changed to MyISAM by using the following ALTER TABLE statement for each table to be converted:
mysql> ALTER TABLE tbl_name TYPE=MyISAM;
If you are not sure of the table type for a given table, use this statement:
mysql> SHOW TABLE STATUS LIKE ’tbl_name ’;
• Ensure that you don’t have any MySQL clients that use shared libraries (like the
Perl DBD::mysql module). If you do, you should recompile them, because the data
structures used in ‘libmysqlclient.so’ have changed. The same applies to other
MySQL interfaces as well, such as the Python MySQLdb module.
MySQL 4.0 will work even if you don’t perform the preceding actions, but you will not be
able to use the new security privileges in MySQL 4.0 and you may run into problems when
upgrading later to MySQL 4.1 or newer. The ISAM file format still works in MySQL 4.0,
but is deprecated and is not compiled in by default as of MySQL 4.1. MyISAM tables should
be used instead.
Old clients should work with a MySQL 4.0 server without any problems.
Even if you perform the preceding actions, you can still downgrade to MySQL 3.23.52 or
newer if you run into problems with the MySQL 4.0 series. In this case, you must use
mysqldump to dump any tables that use full-text indexes and reload the dump file into the
3.23 server. This is necessary because 4.0 uses a new format for full-text indexing.
The following lists describe changes that may affect applications and that you should watch
out for when upgrading to version 4.0:
Server Changes:
• MySQL 4.0 has a lot of new privileges in the mysql.user table. See Section 5.5.3
[Privileges provided], page 301.
To get these new privileges to work, you must update the grant tables. The procedure
is described in Section 2.5.8 [Upgrading-grant-tables], page 147. Until you do this,
all accounts have the SHOW DATABASES, CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES, and LOCK TABLES
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privileges. SUPER and EXECUTE privileges take their value from PROCESS. REPLICATION
SLAVE and REPLICATION CLIENT take their values from FILE.
If you have any scripts that create new MySQL user accounts, you may want to change
them to use the new privileges. If you are not using GRANT commands in the scripts,
this is a good time to change your scripts to use GRANT instead of modifying the grant
tables directly.
From version 4.0.2 on, the option --safe-show-database is deprecated (and no longer
does anything). See Section 5.4.3 [Privileges options], page 294.
If you get Access denied errors for new users in version 4.0.2 and up, you should check
whether you need some of the new grants that you didn’t need before. In particular,
you will need REPLICATION SLAVE (instead of FILE) for new slave servers.
• safe_mysqld has been renamed to mysqld_safe. For backward compatibility, binary
distributions will for some time include safe_mysqld as a symlink to mysqld_safe.
• InnoDB support is now included by default in binary distributions. If you build MySQL
from source, InnoDB is configured in by default. If you do not use InnoDB and want
to save memory when running a server that has InnoDB support enabled, use the -skip-innodb server startup option. To compile MySQL without InnoDB support, run
configure with the --without-innodb option.
• Values for the startup parameters myisam_max_extra_sort_file_size and myisam_
max_extra_sort_file_size now are given in bytes (they were given in megabytes
before 4.0.3).
• mysqld now has the option --temp-pool enabled by default because this gives better
performance with some operating systems (most notably Linux).
• The mysqld startup options --skip-locking and --enable-locking were renamed
to --skip-external-locking and --external-locking.
• External system locking of MyISAM/ISAM files is now turned off by default. You can
turn this on with --external-locking. (However, this is never needed for most users.)
• The following startup variables and options have been renamed:
Old Name
myisam_bulk_insert_tree_size
query_cache_startup_type
record_buffer
record_rnd_buffer
sort_buffer
warnings
--err-log
New Name
bulk_insert_buffer_size
query_cache_type
read_buffer_size
read_rnd_buffer_size
sort_buffer_size
log-warnings
--log-error (for mysqld_safe)
The startup options record_buffer, sort_buffer, and warnings will still work in
MySQL 4.0 but are deprecated.
SQL Changes:
• The following SQL variables have been renamed:
Old Name
SQL_BIG_TABLES
SQL_LOW_PRIORITY_UPDATES
New Name
BIG_TABLES
LOW_PRIORITY_UPDATES
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SQL_MAX_JOIN_SIZE
SQL_QUERY_CACHE_TYPE
MAX_JOIN_SIZE
QUERY_CACHE_TYPE
The old names still work in MySQL 4.0 but are deprecated.
• You have to use SET GLOBAL SQL_SLAVE_SKIP_COUNTER=skip_count instead of SET
SQL_SLAVE_SKIP_COUNTER=skip_count.
• SHOW MASTER STATUS now returns an empty set if binary logging is not enabled.
• SHOW SLAVE STATUS now returns an empty set if the slave is not initialized.
• SHOW INDEX has two more columns than it had in 3.23 (Null and Index_type).
• The format of SHOW OPEN TABLES has changed.
• ORDER BY col_name DESC sorts NULL values last, as of MySQL 4.0.11. In 3.23 and in
earlier 4.0 versions, this was not always consistent.
• CHECK, LOCALTIME, and LOCALTIMESTAMP now are reserved words.
• DOUBLE and FLOAT columns now honor the UNSIGNED flag on storage (before, UNSIGNED
was ignored for these columns).
• The result of all bitwise operators (|, &, <<, >>, and ~) is now unsigned. This may
cause problems if you are using them in a context where you want a signed result. See
Section 13.7 [Cast Functions], page 643.
Note: When you use subtraction between integer values where one is of type UNSIGNED,
the result will be unsigned. In other words, before upgrading to MySQL 4.0, you
should check your application for cases in which you are subtracting a value from an
unsigned entity and want a negative answer or subtracting an unsigned value from an
integer column. You can disable this behavior by using the --sql-mode=NO_UNSIGNED_
SUBTRACTION option when starting mysqld. See Section 5.2.2 [Server SQL mode],
page 251.
• You should use integers to store values in BIGINT columns (instead of using strings,
as you did in MySQL 3.23). Using strings will still work, but using integers is more
efficient.
• In MySQL 3.23, INSERT INTO ... SELECT always had IGNORE enabled. As of 4.0.1,
MySQL will stop (and possibly roll back) by default in case of an error unless you
specify IGNORE.
• You should use TRUNCATE TABLE when you want to delete all rows from a table and you
don’t need to obtain a count of the number of rows that were deleted. (DELETE FROM
tbl_name returns a row count in 4.0 and doesn’t reset the AUTO_INCREMENT counter,
and TRUNCATE TABLE is faster.)
• You will get an error if you have an active transaction or LOCK TABLES statement when
trying to execute TRUNCATE TABLE or DROP DATABASE.
• To use MATCH ... AGAINST (... IN BOOLEAN MODE) full-text searches with your tables,
you must rebuild their indexes with REPAIR TABLE tbl_name USE_FRM. If you attempt
a boolean full-text search without rebuilding the indexes this way, the search will return
incorrect results. See Section 13.6.4 [Fulltext Fine-tuning], page 641.
• LOCATE() and INSTR() are case sensitive if one of the arguments is a binary string.
Otherwise they are case insensitive.
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• STRCMP() now uses the current character set when performing comparisons. This makes
the default comparison behavior not case sensitive unless one or both of the operands
are binary strings.
• HEX(str ) now returns the characters in str converted to hexadecimal. If you want
to convert a number to hexadecimal, you should ensure that you call HEX() with a
numeric argument.
• RAND(seed) returns a different random number series in 4.0 than in 3.23; this was done
to further differentiate RAND(seed) and RAND(seed+1).
• The default type returned by IFNULL(A,B) is now set to be the more “general” of the
types of A and B. (The general-to-specific order is string, REAL, INTEGER).
C API Changes:
• The old C API functions mysql_drop_db(), mysql_create_db(), and
mysql_connect() are no longer supported unless you compile MySQL with
CFLAGS=-DUSE_OLD_FUNCTIONS. However, it is preferable to change client programs
to use the new 4.0 API instead.
• In the MYSQL_FIELD structure, length and max_length have changed from unsigned
int to unsigned long. This should not cause any problems, except that they may
generate warning messages when used as arguments in the printf() class of functions.
• Multi-threaded clients should use mysql_thread_init() and mysql_thread_end().
See Section 21.2.14 [Threaded clients], page 1043.
Other Changes:
• If you want to recompile the Perl DBD::mysql module, use a recent version. Version
2.9003 is recommended. Versions older than 1.2218 should not be used because they
use the deprecated mysql_drop_db() call.
2.5.4 Upgrading from Version 3.22 to 3.23
MySQL 3.22 and 3.21 clients will work without any problems with a MySQL 3.23 server.
When upgrading to MySQL 3.23 from an earlier version, note the following changes:
Table Changes:
• MySQL 3.23 supports tables of the new MyISAM type and the old ISAM type. By
default, all new tables are created with type MyISAM unless you start mysqld with the
--default-table-type=isam option. You don’t have to convert your old ISAM tables
to use them with MySQL 3.23. You can convert an ISAM table to MyISAM format
with ALTER TABLE tbl_name TYPE=MyISAM or the Perl script mysql_convert_table_
format.
• All tables that use the tis620 character set must be fixed with myisamchk -r or REPAIR
TABLE.
• If you are using the german character sort order for ISAM tables, you must repair them
with isamchk -r, because we have made some changes in the sort order.
Client Program Changes:
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• The MySQL client mysql is now by default started with the --no-named-commands
(-g) option. This option can be disabled with --enable-named-commands (-G). This
may cause incompatibility problems in some cases—for example, in SQL scripts that
use named commands without a semicolon. Long format commands still work from
the first line.
• If you want your mysqldump files to be compatible between MySQL 3.22 and 3.23, you
should not use the --opt or --all option to mysqldump.
SQL Changes:
• If you do a DROP DATABASE on a symbolically linked database, both the link and the
original database are deleted. This didn’t happen in MySQL 3.22 because configure
didn’t detect the availability of the readlink() system call.
• OPTIMIZE TABLE now works only for MyISAM tables. For other table types, you can use
ALTER TABLE to optimize the table. During OPTIMIZE TABLE, the table is now locked
to prevent it from being used by other threads.
• Date functions that work on parts of dates (such as MONTH()) will now return 0 for
0000-00-00 dates. In MySQL 3.22, these functions returned NULL.
• The default return type of IF() now depends on both arguments, not just the first one.
• AUTO_INCREMENT columns should not be used to store negative numbers. The reason
for this is that negative numbers caused problems when wrapping from −1 to 0. You
should not store 0 in AUTO_INCREMENT columns, either; CHECK TABLE will complain
about 0 values because they may change if you dump and restore the table. AUTO_
INCREMENT for MyISAM tables is now handled at a lower level and is much faster than
before. In addition, for MyISAM tables, old numbers are no longer reused, even if you
delete rows from the table.
• CASE, DELAYED, ELSE, END, FULLTEXT, INNER, RIGHT, THEN, and WHEN now are reserved
words.
• FLOAT(p) now is a true floating-point type and not a value with a fixed number of
decimals.
• When declaring columns using a DECIMAL(length,dec) type, the length argument no
longer includes a place for the sign or the decimal point.
• A TIME string must now be of one of the following formats:
[[[DAYS]
[H]H:]MM:]SS[.fraction] or [[[[[H]H]H]H]MM]SS[.fraction].
• LIKE now compares strings using the same character comparison rules as for the =
operator. If you require the old behavior, you can compile MySQL with the CXXFLAGS=DLIKE_CMP_TOUPPER flag.
• REGEXP now is case insensitive if neither of the strings is a binary string.
• When you check or repair MyISAM (‘.MYI’) tables, you should use the CHECK TABLE
statement or the myisamchk command. For ISAM (‘.ISM’) tables, use the isamchk
command.
• Check all your calls to DATE_FORMAT() to make sure that there is a ‘%’ before each
format character. (MySQL 3.22 already allowed this syntax, but now ‘%’ is required.)
• In MySQL 3.22, the output of SELECT DISTINCT ... was almost always sorted. In
MySQL 3.23, you must use GROUP BY or ORDER BY to obtain sorted output.
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• SUM() now returns NULL instead of 0 if there are no matching rows. This is required
by standard SQL.
• An AND or OR with NULL values will now return NULL instead of 0. This mostly affects
queries that use NOT on an AND/OR expression as NOT NULL = NULL.
• LPAD() and RPAD() now shorten the result string if it’s longer than the length argument.
C API Changes:
• mysql_fetch_fields_direct() now is a function instead of a macro. It now returns
a pointer to a MYSQL_FIELD instead of a MYSQL_FIELD.
• mysql_num_fields() no longer can be used on a MYSQL* object (it’s now a function
that takes a MYSQL_RES* value as an argument). With a MYSQL* object, you now should
use mysql_field_count() instead.
2.5.5 Upgrading from Version 3.21 to 3.22
Nothing that affects compatibility has changed between versions 3.21 and 3.22. The only
pitfall is that new tables that are created with DATE type columns will use the new way to
store the date. You can’t access these new columns from an old version of mysqld.
When upgrading to MySQL 3.23 from an earlier version, note the following changes:
• After installing MySQL Version 3.22, you should start the new server and then run the
mysql_fix_privilege_tables script. This will add the new privileges that you need
to use the GRANT command. If you forget this, you will get Access denied when you
try to use ALTER TABLE, CREATE INDEX, or DROP INDEX. The procedure for updating
the grant tables is described in Section 2.5.8 [Upgrading-grant-tables], page 147.
• The C API interface to mysql_real_connect() has changed. If you have an old client
program that calls this function, you must pass a 0 for the new db argument (or recode
the client to send the db element for faster connections). You must also call mysql_
init() before calling mysql_real_connect(). This change was done to allow the new
mysql_options() function to save options in the MYSQL handler structure.
• The mysqld variable key_buffer has been renamed to key_buffer_size, but you can
still use the old name in your startup files.
2.5.6 Upgrading from Version 3.20 to 3.21
If you are running a version older than Version 3.20.28 and want to switch to Version 3.21,
you need to do the following:
You can start the mysqld Version 3.21 server with the --old-protocol option to use it
with clients from a Version 3.20 distribution. In this case, the server uses the old pre-3.21
password() checking rather than the new method. Also, the new client function mysql_
errno() will not return any server error, only CR_UNKNOWN_ERROR. The function does work
for client errors.
If you are not using the --old-protocol option to mysqld, you will need to make the
following changes:
• All client code must be recompiled. If you are using ODBC, you must get the MyODBC
2.x driver.
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• The scripts/add_long_password script must be run to convert the Password field in
the mysql.user table to CHAR(16).
• All passwords must be reassigned in the mysql.user table to get 62-bit rather than
31-bit passwords.
• The table format hasn’t changed, so you don’t have to convert any tables.
MySQL 3.20.28 and above can handle the new user table format without affecting clients.
If you have a MySQL version earlier than 3.20.28, passwords will no longer work with it
if you convert the user table. So to be safe, you should first upgrade to at least Version
3.20.28 and then upgrade to Version 3.21.
The new client code works with a 3.20.x mysqld server, so if you experience problems with
3.21.x, you can use the old 3.20.x server without having to recompile the clients again.
If you are not using the --old-protocol option to mysqld, old clients will be unable to
connect and will issue the following error message:
ERROR: Protocol mismatch. Server Version = 10 Client Version = 9
The Perl DBI interface also supports the old mysqlperl interface. The only change you
have to make if you use mysqlperl is to change the arguments to the connect() function.
The new arguments are: host, database, user, and password (note that the user and
password arguments have changed places).
The following changes may affect queries in old applications:
• HAVING must now be specified before any ORDER BY clause.
• The parameters to LOCATE() have been swapped.
• There are some new reserved words. The most noticeable are DATE, TIME, and
TIMESTAMP.
2.5.7 Upgrading MySQL Under Windows
When upgrading MySQL under Windows, please follow these steps:
1. Download the latest Windows distribution of MySQL.
2. Choose a time of day with low usage, where a maintenance break is acceptable.
3. Alert the users who still are active about the maintenance break.
4. Stop the running MySQL Server (for example, with NET STOP MySQL or with the
Services utility if you are running MySQL as a service, or with mysqladmin
shutdown otherwise).
5. Exit the WinMySQLAdmin program if it is running.
6. Run the installation script of the Windows distribution by clicking the Install button
in WinZip and following the installation steps of the script.
Important note: Early alpha Windows distributions for MySQL 4.1 do not contain
an installer program. See Section 2.2.1.2 [Windows binary installation], page 79 for
instructions on how to install such a distribution.
7. You may either overwrite your old MySQL installation (usually located at ‘C:\mysql’),
or install it into a different directory, such as C:\mysql4. Overwriting the old installation is recommended.
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8. Restart the server. For example, use NET START MySQL if you run MySQL as a service,
or invoke mysqld directly otherwise.
9. Update the grant tables. The procedure is described in Section 2.5.8 [Upgrading-granttables], page 147.
Possible error situations:
A system error has occurred.
System error 1067 has occurred.
The process terminated unexpectedly.
These errors mean that your option file (by default ‘C:\my.cnf’) contains an option that
cannot be recognized by MySQL. You can verify that this is the case by trying to restart
MySQL with the option file renamed to prevent the server from using it. (For example,
rename ‘C:\my.cnf’ to ‘C:\my_cnf.old’.) Once you have verified it, you need to identify
which option is the culprit. Create a new ‘my.cnf’ file and move parts of the old file to it
(restarting the server after you move each part) until you determine which option causes
server startup to fail.
2.5.8 Upgrading the Grant Tables
Some releases introduce changes to the structure of the grant tables (the tables in the mysql
database) to add new privileges or features. To make sure that your grant tables are current
when you update to a new version of MySQL, you should update your grant tables as well.
On Unix or Unix-like systems, update the grant tables by running the mysql_fix_
privilege_tables script:
shell> mysql_fix_privilege_tables
You must run this script while the server is running. It attempts to connect to the server
running on the local host as root. If your root account requires a password, indicate the
password on the command line. For MySQL 4.1 and up, specify the password like this:
shell> mysql_fix_privilege_tables --password=root_password
Prior to MySQL 4.1, specify the password like this:
shell> mysql_fix_privilege_tables root_password
The mysql_fix_privilege_tables script performs any actions necessary to convert your
grant tables to the current format. You might see some Duplicate column name warnings
as it runs; you can ignore them.
After running the script, stop the server and restart it.
On Windows systems, there isn’t an easy way to update the grant tables until MySQL 4.0.15.
From version 4.0.15 on, MySQL distributions include a
‘mysql_fix_privilege_tables.sql’ SQL script that you can run using the mysql client.
If your MySQL installation is located at ‘C:\mysql’, the commands look like this:
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysql -u root -p mysql
mysql> SOURCE C:\mysql\scripts\mysql_fix_privilege_tables.sql
If your installation is located in some other directory, adjust the pathnames appropriately.
The mysql command will prompt you for the root password; enter it when prompted.
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As with the Unix procedure, you might see some Duplicate column name warnings as mysql
processes the statements in the ‘mysql_fix_privilege_tables.sql’ script; you can ignore
them.
After running the script, stop the server and restart it.
If you are upgrading to MySQL 5.0.1 or later, the grant table upgrade procedure just
described will add view-related columns for the CREATE VIEW and SHOW VIEW privileges.
These privileges exist at the global and database levels. However, by default, they are not
enabled for any accounts, so you cannot immediately use GRANT to give them give them to
accounts that should have them. To deal with this, first connect to the server as root and
issue the following statements to give the privileges to the root accounts manually with
UPDATE:
mysql> UPDATE mysql.user SET Show_view_priv = ’Y’, Create_view_priv = ’Y’
-> WHERE User = ’root’;
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
After this, root can use GRANT to give the view privileges to other accounts. Note: You
should issue the statements just shown, GRANT ALL will not work at the global and database
levels, because GRANT ALL requires that you actually possess all privileges.
2.5.9 Copying MySQL Databases to Another Machine
If you are using MySQL 3.23 or later, you can copy the ‘.frm’, ‘.MYI’, and ‘.MYD’ files
for MyISAM tables between different architectures that support the same floating-point format. (MySQL takes care of any byte-swapping issues.) See Section 15.1 [MyISAM Tables],
page 784.
The MySQL ISAM data and index files (‘.ISD’ and ‘*.ISM’, respectively) are architecture
dependent and in some cases operating system dependent. If you want to move your applications to another machine that has a different architecture or operating system than your
current machine, you should not try to move a database by simply copying the files to the
other machine. Use mysqldump instead.
By default, mysqldump will create a file containing SQL statements. You can then transfer
the file to the other machine and feed it as input to the mysql client.
Try mysqldump --help to see what options are available. If you are moving the data to
a newer version of MySQL, you should use mysqldump --opt to take advantage of any
optimizations that result in a dump file that is smaller and can be processed faster.
The easiest (although not the fastest) way to move a database between two machines is to
run the following commands on the machine on which the database is located:
shell> mysqladmin -h ’other_hostname ’ create db_name
shell> mysqldump --opt db_name | mysql -h ’other_hostname ’ db_name
If you want to copy a database from a remote machine over a slow network, you can use:
shell> mysqladmin create db_name
shell> mysqldump -h ’other_hostname ’ --opt --compress db_name | mysql db_name
You can also store the result in a file, then transfer the file to the target machine and load
the file into the database there. For example, you can dump a database to a file on the
source machine like this:
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shell> mysqldump --quick db_name | gzip > db_name.contents.gz
(The file created in this example is compressed.) Transfer the file containing the database
contents to the target machine and run these commands there:
shell> mysqladmin create db_name
shell> gunzip < db_name.contents.gz | mysql db_name
You can also use mysqldump and mysqlimport to transfer the database. For big tables,
this is much faster than simply using mysqldump. In the following commands, DUMPDIR
represents the full pathname of the directory you use to store the output from mysqldump.
First, create the directory for the output files and dump the database:
shell> mkdir DUMPDIR
shell> mysqldump --tab=DUMPDIR db_name
Then transfer the files in the DUMPDIR directory to some corresponding directory on the
target machine and load the files into MySQL there:
shell> mysqladmin create db_name
shell> cat DUMPDIR/*.sql | mysql db_name
shell> mysqlimport db_name DUMPDIR/*.txt
# create database
# create tables in database
# load data into tables
Also, don’t forget to copy the mysql database because that is where the user, db, and host
grant tables are stored. You might have to run commands as the MySQL root user on the
new machine until you have the mysql database in place.
After you import the mysql database on the new machine, execute mysqladmin flushprivileges so that the server reloads the grant table information.
2.6 Operating System-Specific Notes
2.6.1 Linux Notes
This section discusses issues that have been found to occur on Linux. The first few subsections describe general operating system-related issues, problems that can occur when using
binary or source distributions, and post-installation issues. The remaining subsections discuss problems that occur with Linux on specific platforms.
Note that most of these problems occur on older versions of Linux. If you are running a
recent version, you likely will see none of them.
2.6.1.1 Linux Operating System Notes
MySQL needs at least Linux Version 2.0.
Warning: We have seen some strange problems with Linux 2.2.14 and MySQL on SMP
systems. We also have reports from some MySQL users that they have encountered serious
stability problems using MySQL with kernel 2.2.14. If you are using this kernel, you should
upgrade to 2.2.19 (or newer) or to a 2.4 kernel. If you have a multiple-CPU box, then you
should seriously consider using 2.4 because it will give you a significant speed boost. Your
system also will be more stable.
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When using LinuxThreads, you will see a minimum of three mysqld processes running.
These are in fact threads. There will be one thread for the LinuxThreads manager, one
thread to handle connections, and one thread to handle alarms and signals.
2.6.1.2 Linux Binary Distribution Notes
The Linux-Intel binary and RPM releases of MySQL are configured for the highest possible
speed. We are always trying to use the fastest stable compiler available.
The binary release is linked with -static, which means you do not normally need to worry
about which version of the system libraries you have. You need not install LinuxThreads,
either. A program linked with -static is slightly larger than a dynamically linked program,
but also slightly faster (3-5%). However, one problem with a statically linked program is
that you can’t use user-defined functions (UDFs). If you are going to write or use UDFs
(this is something for C or C++ programmers only), you must compile MySQL yourself
using dynamic linking.
A known issue with binary distributions is that on older Linux systems that use libc
(such as Red Hat 4.x or Slackware), you will get some non-fatal problems with hostname
resolution. If your system uses libc rather than glibc2, you probably will encounter
some difficulties with hostname resolution and getpwnam(). This happens because glibc
unfortunately depends on some external libraries to implement hostname resolution and
getpwent(), even when compiled with -static. These problems manifest themselves in
two ways:
• You probably will see the following error message when you run mysql_install_db:
Sorry, the host ’xxxx ’ could not be looked up
You can deal with this by executing mysql_install_db --force, which will not execute the resolveip test in mysql_install_db. The downside is that you can’t use
hostnames in the grant tables: Except for localhost, you must use IP numbers instead. If you are using an old version of MySQL that doesn’t support --force, you
must manually remove the resolveip test in mysql_install using an editor.
• You also may see the following error when you try to run mysqld with the --user
option:
getpwnam: No such file or directory
To work around this, start mysqld by using the su command rather than by specifying
the --user option. This causes the system itself to change the user ID of the mysqld
process so that mysqld need not do so.
Another solution, which solves both problems, is to not use a binary distribution. Get a
MySQL source distribution (in RPM or tar.gz format) and install that instead.
On some Linux 2.2 versions, you may get the error Resource temporarily unavailable
when clients make a lot of new connections to a mysqld server over TCP/IP. The problem
is that Linux has a delay between the time that you close a TCP/IP socket and the time
that the system actually frees it. There is room for only a finite number of TCP/IP slots, so
you will encounter the resource-unavailable error if clients attempt too many new TCP/IP
connections during a short time. For example, you may see the error when you run the
MySQL ‘test-connect’ benchmark over TCP/IP.
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We have inquired about this problem a few times on different Linux mailing lists but have
never been able to find a suitable resolution. The only known “fix” is for the clients to use
persistent connections, or, if you are running the database server and clients on the same
machine, to use Unix socket file connections rather than TCP/IP connections.
2.6.1.3 Linux Source Distribution Notes
The following notes regarding glibc apply only to the situation when you build MySQL
yourself. If you are running Linux on an x86 machine, in most cases it is much better
for you to just use our binary. We link our binaries against the best patched version of
glibc we can come up with and with the best compiler options, in an attempt to make it
suitable for a high-load server. For a typical user, even for setups with a lot of concurrent
connections or tables exceeding the 2GB limit, our binary is the best choice in most cases.
After reading the following text, if you are in doubt about what to do, try our binary first
to see whether it meets your needs. If you discover that it is not good enough, then you
may want to try your own build. In that case, we would appreciate a note about it so that
we can build a better binary next time.
MySQL uses LinuxThreads on Linux. If you are using an old Linux version that doesn’t
have glibc2, you must install LinuxThreads before trying to compile MySQL. You can get
LinuxThreads at http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/os-linux.html.
Note that glibc versions before and including Version 2.1.1 have a fatal bug in pthread_
mutex_timedwait() handling, which is used when you issue INSERT DELAYED statements.
We recommend that you not use INSERT DELAYED before upgrading glibc.
Note that Linux kernel and the LinuxThread library can by default only have 1,024 threads.
If you plan to have more than 1,000 concurrent connections, you will need to make some
changes to LinuxThreads:
• Increase PTHREAD_THREADS_MAX in ‘sysdeps/unix/sysv/linux/bits/local_lim.h’
to 4096 and decrease STACK_SIZE in ‘linuxthreads/internals.h’ to 256KB. The
paths are relative to the root of glibc. (Note that MySQL will not be stable with
around 600-1000 connections if STACK_SIZE is the default of 2MB.)
• Recompile LinuxThreads to produce a new ‘libpthread.a’ library, and relink MySQL
against it.
The page http://www.volano.com/linuxnotes.html contains additional information
about circumventing thread limits in LinuxThreads.
There is another issue that greatly hurts MySQL performance, especially on SMP
systems.
The mutex implementation in LinuxThreads in glibc 2.1 is very bad
for programs with many threads that hold the mutex only for a short time. This
produces a paradoxical result: If you link MySQL against an unmodified LinuxThreads,
removing processors from an SMP actually improves MySQL performance in many
cases. We have made a patch available for glibc 2.1.3 to correct this behavior
(http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Linux/linuxthreads-2.1-patch).
With glibc 2.2.2, MySQL 3.23.36 will use the adaptive mutex, which is much better than
even the patched one in glibc 2.1.3. Be warned, however, that under some conditions,
the current mutex code in glibc 2.2.2 overspins, which hurts MySQL performance. The
likelihood that this condition will occur can be reduced by renicing the mysqld process to
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the highest priority. We have also been able to correct the overspin behavior with a patch,
available at http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Linux/linuxthreads-2.2.2.patch. It
combines the correction of overspin, maximum number of threads, and stack spacing
all in one. You will need to apply it in the linuxthreads directory with patch -p0
</tmp/linuxthreads-2.2.2.patch. We hope it will be included in some form in future
releases of glibc 2.2. In any case, if you link against glibc 2.2.2, you still need to correct
STACK_SIZE and PTHREAD_THREADS_MAX. We hope that the defaults will be corrected
to some more acceptable values for high-load MySQL setup in the future, so that the
commands needed to produce your own build can be reduced to ./configure; make;
make install.
We recommend that you use these patches to build a special static version of libpthread.a
and use it only for statically linking against MySQL. We know that the patches are safe for
MySQL and significantly improve its performance, but we cannot say anything about other
applications. If you link other applications that require LinuxThreads against the patched
static version of the library, or build a patched shared version and install it on your system,
you do so at your own risk.
If you experience any strange problems during the installation of MySQL, or with some
common utilities hanging, it is very likely that they are either library or compiler related.
If this is the case, using our binary will resolve them.
If you link your own MySQL client programs, you may see the following error at runtime:
ld.so.1: fatal: libmysqlclient.so.#:
open failed: No such file or directory
This problem can be avoided by one of the following methods:
• Link clients with the -Wl,r/full/path/to/libmysqlclient.so flag rather than with
-Lpath).
• Copy libmysqclient.so to ‘/usr/lib’.
• Add the pathname of the directory where ‘libmysqlclient.so’ is located to the LD_
RUN_PATH environment variable before running your client.
If you are using the Fujitsu compiler (fcc/FCC), you will have some problems compiling
MySQL because the Linux header files are very gcc oriented. The following configure line
should work with fcc/FCC:
CC=fcc CFLAGS="-O -K fast -K lib -K omitfp -Kpreex -D_GNU_SOURCE \
-DCONST=const -DNO_STRTOLL_PROTO" \
CXX=FCC CXXFLAGS="-O -K fast -K lib \
-K omitfp -K preex --no_exceptions --no_rtti -D_GNU_SOURCE \
-DCONST=const -Dalloca=__builtin_alloca -DNO_STRTOLL_PROTO \
’-D_EXTERN_INLINE=static __inline’" \
./configure \
--prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler \
--with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static --disable-shared \
--with-low-memory
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2.6.1.4 Linux Post-Installation Notes
mysql.server can be found in the ‘support-files’ directory under the MySQL installation directory or in a MySQL source tree. You can install it as ‘/etc/init.d/mysql’ for
automatic MySQL startup and shutdown. See Section 2.4.2.2 [Automatic start], page 125.
If MySQL can’t open enough files or connections, it may be that you haven’t configured
Linux to handle enough files.
In Linux 2.2 and onward, you can check the number of allocated file handles as follows:
shell> cat /proc/sys/fs/file-max
shell> cat /proc/sys/fs/dquot-max
shell> cat /proc/sys/fs/super-max
If you have more than 16MB of memory, you should add something like the following to
your init scripts (for example, ‘/etc/init.d/boot.local’ on SuSE Linux):
echo 65536 > /proc/sys/fs/file-max
echo 8192 > /proc/sys/fs/dquot-max
echo 1024 > /proc/sys/fs/super-max
You can also run the echo commands from the command line as root, but these settings
will be lost the next time your computer restarts.
Alternatively, you can set these parameters on startup by using the sysctl tool, which is
used by many Linux distributions (SuSE has added it as well, beginning with SuSE Linux
8.0). Just put the following values into a file named ‘/etc/sysctl.conf’:
# Increase some values for MySQL
fs.file-max = 65536
fs.dquot-max = 8192
fs.super-max = 1024
You should also add the following to ‘/etc/my.cnf’:
[mysqld_safe]
open-files-limit=8192
This should allow the server a limit of 8,192 for the combined number of connections and
open files.
The STACK_SIZE constant in LinuxThreads controls the spacing of thread stacks in the
address space. It needs to be large enough so that there will be plenty of room for each
individual thread stack, but small enough to keep the stack of some threads from running
into the global mysqld data. Unfortunately, as we have experimentally discovered, the
Linux implementation of mmap() will successfully unmap an already mapped region if you
ask it to map out an address already in use, zeroing out the data on the entire page instead
of returning an error. So, the safety of mysqld or any other threaded application depends
on “gentlemanly” behavior of the code that creates threads. The user must take measures
to make sure that the number of running threads at any time is sufficiently low for thread
stacks to stay away from the global heap. With mysqld, you should enforce this behavior
by setting a reasonable value for the max_connections variable.
If you build MySQL yourself, you can patch LinuxThreads for better stack use. See Section 2.6.1.3 [Source notes-Linux], page 151. If you do not want to patch LinuxThreads,
you should set max_connections to a value no higher than 500. It should be even less
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if you have a large key buffer, large heap tables, or some other things that make mysqld
allocate a lot of memory, or if you are running a 2.2 kernel with a 2GB patch. If you are
using our binary or RPM version 3.23.25 or later, you can safely set max_connections at
1500, assuming no large key buffer or heap tables with lots of data. The more you reduce
STACK_SIZE in LinuxThreads the more threads you can safely create. We recommend values
between 128KB and 256KB.
If you use a lot of concurrent connections, you may suffer from a “feature” in the 2.2 kernel
that attempts to prevent fork bomb attacks by penalizing a process for forking or cloning a
child. This causes MySQL not to scale well as you increase the number of concurrent clients.
On single-CPU systems, we have seen this manifested as very slow thread creation: It may
take a long time to connect to MySQL (as long as one minute), and it may take just as long to
shut it down. On multiple-CPU systems, we have observed a gradual drop in query speed as
the number of clients increases. In the process of trying to find a solution, we have received
a kernel patch from one of our users who claimed it made a lot of difference for his site. The
patch is available at http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Patches/linux-fork.patch. We
have now done rather extensive testing of this patch on both development and production
systems. It has significantly improved MySQL performance without causing any problems
and we now recommend it to our users who still run high-load servers on 2.2 kernels.
This issue has been fixed in the 2.4 kernel, so if you are not satisfied with the current
performance of your system, rather than patching your 2.2 kernel, it might be easier to
upgrade to 2.4. On SMP systems, upgrading also will give you a nice SMP boost in addition
to fixing the fairness bug.
We have tested MySQL on the 2.4 kernel on a two-CPU machine and found MySQL scales
much better. There was virtually no slowdown on query throughput all the way up to 1,000
clients, and the MySQL scaling factor (computed as the ratio of maximum throughput to
the throughput for one client) was 180%. We have observed similar results on a four-CPU
system: Virtually no slowdown as the number of clients was increased up to 1,000, and a
300% scaling factor. Based on these results, for a high-load SMP server using a 2.2 kernel,
we definitely recommend upgrading to the 2.4 kernel at this point.
We have discovered that it is essential to run the mysqld process with the highest possible
priority on the 2.4 kernel to achieve maximum performance. This can be done by adding a
renice -20 $$ command to mysqld_safe. In our testing on a four-CPU machine, increasing
the priority resulted in a 60% throughput increase with 400 clients.
We are currently also trying to collect more information on how well MySQL performs with
a 2.4 kernel on four-way and eight-way systems. If you have access such a system and have
done some benchmarks, please send an email message to [email protected] with the
results. We will review them for inclusion in the manual.
If you see a dead mysqld server process with ps, this usually means that you have found a
bug in MySQL or you have a corrupted table. See Section A.4.2 [Crashing], page 1119.
To get a core dump on Linux if mysqld dies with a SIGSEGV signal, you can start mysqld
with the --core-file option. Note that you also probably need to raise the core file size by
adding ulimit -c 1000000 to mysqld_safe or starting mysqld_safe with --core-filesize=1000000. See Section 5.1.3 [mysqld_safe], page 234.
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2.6.1.5 Linux x86 Notes
MySQL requires libc Version 5.4.12 or newer. It’s known to work with libc 5.4.46. glibc
Version 2.0.6 and later should also work. There have been some problems with the glibc
RPMs from Red Hat, so if you have problems, check whether there are any updates. The
glibc 2.0.7-19 and 2.0.7-29 RPMs are known to work.
If you are using Red Hat 8.0 or a new glibc 2.2.x library, you may see mysqld die in
gethostbyaddr(). This happens because the new glibc library requires a stack size greater
than 128KB for this call. To fix the problem, start mysqld with the --thread-stack=192K
option. (Use -O thread_stack=192K before MySQL 4.) This stack size is now the default
on MySQL 4.0.10 and above, so you should not see the problem.
If you are using gcc 3.0 and above to compile MySQL, you must install the libstdc++v3
library before compiling MySQL; if you don’t do this, you will get an error about a missing
__cxa_pure_virtual symbol during linking.
On some older Linux distributions, configure may produce an error like this:
Syntax error in sched.h. Change _P to __P in the
/usr/include/sched.h file.
See the Installation chapter in the Reference Manual.
Just do what the error message says. Add an extra underscore to the _P macro name that
has only one underscore, then try again.
You may get some warnings when compiling. Those shown here can be ignored:
mysqld.cc -o objs-thread/mysqld.o
mysqld.cc: In function ‘void init_signals()’:
mysqld.cc:315: warning: assignment of negative value ‘-1’ to
‘long unsigned int’
mysqld.cc: In function ‘void * signal_hand(void *)’:
mysqld.cc:346: warning: assignment of negative value ‘-1’ to
‘long unsigned int’
If mysqld always dumps core when it starts, the problem may be that you have an old
‘/lib/libc.a’. Try renaming it, then remove ‘sql/mysqld’ and do a new make install
and try again. This problem has been reported on some Slackware installations.
If you get the following error when linking mysqld, it means that your ‘libg++.a’ is not
installed correctly:
/usr/lib/libc.a(putc.o): In function ‘_IO_putc’:
putc.o(.text+0x0): multiple definition of ‘_IO_putc’
You can avoid using ‘libg++.a’ by running configure like this:
shell> CXX=gcc ./configure
If mysqld crashes immediately and you are running Red Hat Version 5.0 with a version of
glibc older than 2.0.7-5, you should make sure that you have installed all glibc patches.
There is a lot of information about this in the MySQL mail archives, available online at
http://lists.mysql.com/.
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2.6.1.6 Linux SPARC Notes
In some implementations, readdir_r() is broken. The symptom is that the SHOW
DATABASES statement always returns an empty set. This can be fixed by removing
HAVE_READDIR_R from ‘config.h’ after configuring and before compiling.
2.6.1.7 Linux Alpha Notes
MySQL 3.23.12 is the first MySQL version that is tested on Linux-Alpha. If you plan to
use MySQL on Linux-Alpha, you should ensure that you have this version or newer.
We have tested MySQL on Alpha with our benchmarks and test suite, and it appears to
work nicely.
We currently build the MySQL binary packages on SuSE Linux 7.0 for AXP, kernel 2.4.4SMP, Compaq C compiler (V6.2-505) and Compaq C++ compiler (V6.3-006) on a Compaq
DS20 machine with an Alpha EV6 processor.
You can find the preceding compilers at http://www.support.compaq.com/alpha-tools/.
By using these compilers rather than gcc, we get about 9-14% better MySQL performance.
Note that until MySQL version 3.23.52 and 4.0.2, we optimized the binary for the current
CPU only (by using the -fast compile option). This means that for older versions, you
can use our Alpha binaries only if you have an Alpha EV6 processor.
For all following releases, we added the -arch generic flag to our compile options, which
makes sure that the binary runs on all Alpha processors. We also compile statically to avoid
library problems. The configure command looks like this:
CC=ccc CFLAGS="-fast -arch generic" CXX=cxx \
CXXFLAGS="-fast -arch generic -noexceptions -nortti" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --disable-shared \
--with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client \
--with-mysqld-ldflags=-non_shared --with-client-ldflags=-non_shared
If you want to use egcs, the following configure line worked for us:
CFLAGS="-O3 -fomit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc \
CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fomit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors \
-fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --disable-shared
Some known problems when running MySQL on Linux-Alpha:
• Debugging threaded applications like MySQL will not work with gdb 4.18. You should
use gdb 5.1 instead.
• If you try linking mysqld statically when using gcc, the resulting image will dump core
at startup time. In other words, do not use --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static
with gcc.
2.6.1.8 Linux PowerPC Notes
MySQL should work on MkLinux with the newest glibc package (tested with glibc 2.0.7).
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2.6.1.9 Linux MIPS Notes
To get MySQL to work on Qube2 (Linux Mips), you need the newest glibc libraries.
glibc-2.0.7-29C2 is known to work. You must also use the egcs C++ compiler (egcs
1.0.2-9, gcc 2.95.2 or newer).
2.6.1.10 Linux IA-64 Notes
To get MySQL to compile on Linux IA-64, we use the following configure command for
building with gcc 2.96:
CC=gcc \
CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" \
CXX=gcc \
CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors \
-fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
"--with-comment=Official MySQL binary" \
--with-extra-charsets=complex
On IA-64, the MySQL client binaries use shared libraries. This means that if you install our binary distribution at a location other than ‘/usr/local/mysql’, you need to
add the path of the directory where you have ‘libmysqlclient.so’ installed either to the
‘/etc/ld.so.conf’ file or to the value of your LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable.
See Section A.3.1 [Link errors], page 1115.
2.6.2 Mac OS X Notes
On Mac OS X, tar cannot handle long filenames. If you need to unpack a ‘.tar.gz’
distribution, use gnutar instead.
2.6.2.1 Mac OS X 10.x (Darwin)
MySQL should work without any problems on Mac OS X 10.x (Darwin).
Our binary for Mac OS X is compiled on Darwin 6.3 with the following configure line:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc \
CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors \
-fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
--with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client \
--enable-local-infile --disable-shared
See Section 2.2.3 [Mac OS X installation], page 93.
2.6.2.2 Mac OS X Server 1.2 (Rhapsody)
For current versions of Mac OS X Server, no operating system changes are necessary before
compiling MySQL. Compiling for the Server platform is the same as for the client version
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of Mac OS X. (However, note that MySQL comes preinstalled on Mac OS X Server, so you
need not build it yourself.)
For older versions (Mac OS X Server 1.2, a.k.a. Rhapsody), you must first install a pthread
package before trying to configure MySQL.
See Section 2.2.3 [Mac OS X installation], page 93.
2.6.3 Solaris Notes
On Solaris, you may run into trouble even before you get the MySQL distribution unpacked!
Solaris tar can’t handle long filenames, so you may see an error like this when you unpack
MySQL:
x mysql-3.22.12-beta/bench/Results/ATIS-mysql_odbc-NT_4.0-cmp-db2,
informix,ms-sql,mysql,oracle,solid,sybase, 0 bytes, 0 tape blocks
tar: directory checksum error
In this case, you must use GNU tar (gtar) to unpack the distribution. You can find a
precompiled copy for Solaris at http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/os-solaris.html.
Sun native threads work only on Solaris 2.5 and higher. For Version 2.4 and earlier, MySQL
automatically uses MIT-pthreads. See Section 2.3.5 [MIT-pthreads], page 112.
If you get the following error from configure, it means that you have something wrong
with your compiler installation:
checking for restartable system calls... configure: error can not
run test programs while cross compiling
In this case, you should upgrade your compiler to a newer version. You may also be able
to solve this problem by inserting the following row into the ‘config.cache’ file:
ac_cv_sys_restartable_syscalls=${ac_cv_sys_restartable_syscalls=’no’}
If you are using Solaris on a SPARC, the recommended compiler is gcc 2.95.2 or 3.2. You
can find this at http://gcc.gnu.org/. Note that egcs 1.1.1 and gcc 2.8.1 don’t work
reliably on SPARC!
The recommended configure line when using gcc 2.95.2 is:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3" \
CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-low-memory \
--enable-assembler
If you have an UltraSPARC system, you can get 4% better performance by adding -mcpu=v8
-Wa,-xarch=v8plusa to the CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS environment variables.
If you have Sun’s Forte 5.0 (or newer) compiler, you can run configure like this:
CC=cc CFLAGS="-Xa -fast -native -xstrconst -mt" \
CXX=CC CXXFLAGS="-noex -mt" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler
To create a 64-bit binary with Sun’s Forte compiler, use the following configuration options:
CC=cc CFLAGS="-Xa -fast -native -xstrconst -mt -xarch=v9" \
CXX=CC CXXFLAGS="-noex -mt -xarch=v9" ASFLAGS="-xarch=v9" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler
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To create a 64-bit Solaris binary using gcc, add -m64 to CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS and remove
--enable-assembler from the configure line. This works only with MySQL 4.0 and up;
MySQL 3.23 does not include the required modifications to support this.
In the MySQL benchmarks, we got a 4% speedup on an UltraSPARC when using Forte 5.0
in 32-bit mode compared to using gcc 3.2 with the -mcpu flag.
If you create a 64-bit mysqld binary, it is 4% slower than the 32-bit binary, but can handle
more threads and memory.
If you get a problem with fdatasync or sched_yield, you can fix this by adding LIBS=-lrt
to the configure line
For compilers older than WorkShop 5.3, you might have to edit the configure script.
Change this line:
#if !defined(__STDC__) || __STDC__ != 1
To this:
#if !defined(__STDC__)
If you turn on __STDC__ with the -Xc option, the Sun compiler can’t compile with the
Solaris ‘pthread.h’ header file. This is a Sun bug (broken compiler or broken include file).
If mysqld issues the following error message when you run it, you have tried to compile
MySQL with the Sun compiler without enabling the -mt multi-thread option:
libc internal error: _rmutex_unlock: rmutex not held
Add -mt to CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS and recompile.
If you are using the SFW version of gcc (which comes with Solaris 8), you must add
‘/opt/sfw/lib’ to the environment variable LD_LIBRARY_PATH before running configure.
If you are using the gcc available from sunfreeware.com, you may have many problems.
To avoid this, you should recompile gcc and GNU binutils on the machine where you will
be running them.
If you get the following error when compiling MySQL with gcc, it means that your gcc is
not configured for your version of Solaris:
shell> gcc -O3 -g -O2 -DDBUG_OFF -o thr_alarm ...
./thr_alarm.c: In function ‘signal_hand’:
./thr_alarm.c:556: too many arguments to function ‘sigwait’
The proper thing to do in this case is to get the newest version of gcc and compile it with
your current gcc compiler. At least for Solaris 2.5, almost all binary versions of gcc have
old, unusable include files that will break all programs that use threads, and possibly other
programs!
Solaris doesn’t provide static versions of all system libraries (libpthreads and libdl), so
you can’t compile MySQL with --static. If you try to do so, you will get one of the
following errors:
ld: fatal: library -ldl: not found
undefined reference to ‘dlopen’
cannot find -lrt
If you link your own MySQL client programs, you may see the following error at runtime:
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ld.so.1: fatal: libmysqlclient.so.#:
open failed: No such file or directory
This problem can be avoided by one of the following methods:
• Link clients with the -Wl,r/full/path/to/libmysqlclient.so flag rather than with
-Lpath).
• Copy libmysqclient.so to ‘/usr/lib’.
• Add the pathname of the directory where ‘libmysqlclient.so’ is located to the LD_
RUN_PATH environment variable before running your client.
If you have problems with configure trying to link with -lz when you don’t have zlib
installed, you have two options:
• If you want to be able to use the compressed communication protocol, you need to get
and install zlib from ftp.gnu.org.
• Run configure with the --with-named-z-libs=no option when building MySQL.
If you are using gcc and have problems with loading user-defined functions (UDFs) into
MySQL, try adding -lgcc to the link line for the UDF.
If you would like MySQL to start automatically, you can copy ‘support-files/mysql.server’
to ‘/etc/init.d’ and create a symbolic link to it named ‘/etc/rc3.d/S99mysql.server’.
If too many processes try to connect very rapidly to mysqld, you will see this error in the
MySQL log:
Error in accept: Protocol error
You might try starting the server with the --back_log=50 option as a workaround for this.
(Use -O back_log=50 before MySQL 4.)
Solaris doesn’t support core files for setuid() applications, so you can’t get a core file from
mysqld if you are using the --user option.
2.6.3.1 Solaris 2.7/2.8 Notes
Normally, you can use a Solaris 2.6 binary on Solaris 2.7 and 2.8. Most of the Solaris 2.6
issues also apply for Solaris 2.7 and 2.8.
MySQL 3.23.4 and above should be able to detect new versions of Solaris automatically and
enable workarounds for the following problems.
Solaris 2.7 / 2.8 has some bugs in the include files. You may see the following error when
you use gcc:
/usr/include/widec.h:42: warning: ‘getwc’ redefined
/usr/include/wchar.h:326: warning: this is the location of the previous
definition
If this occurs, you can fix the problem by copying /usr/include/widec.h to .../lib/gcclib/os/gcc-version/include and changing line 41 from this:
#if
To this:
!defined(lint) && !defined(__lint)
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!defined(lint) && !defined(__lint) && !defined(getwc)
Alternatively, you can edit ‘/usr/include/widec.h’ directly. Either way, after you make
the fix, you should remove ‘config.cache’ and run configure again.
If you get the following errors when you run make, it’s because configure didn’t detect the
‘curses.h’ file (probably because of the error in ‘/usr/include/widec.h’):
In file included from mysql.cc:50:
/usr/include/term.h:1060: syntax error before ‘,’
/usr/include/term.h:1081: syntax error before ‘;’
The solution to this problem is to do one of the following:
• Configure with CFLAGS=-DHAVE_CURSES_H CXXFLAGS=-DHAVE_CURSES_H ./configure.
• Edit ‘/usr/include/widec.h’ as indicated in the preceding discussion and re-run
configure.
• Remove the #define HAVE_TERM line from the ‘config.h’ file and run make again.
If your linker can’t find -lz when linking client programs, the problem is probably that
your ‘libz.so’ file is installed in ‘/usr/local/lib’. You can fix this problem by one of the
following methods:
• Add ‘/usr/local/lib’ to LD_LIBRARY_PATH.
• Add a link to ‘libz.so’ from ‘/lib’.
• If you are using Solaris 8, you can install the optional zlib from your Solaris 8 CD
distribution.
• Run configure with the --with-named-z-libs=no option when building MySQL.
2.6.3.2 Solaris x86 Notes
On Solaris 8 on x86, mysqld will dump core if you remove the debug symbols using strip.
If you are using gcc or egcs on Solaris x86 and you experience problems with core dumps
under load, you should use the following configure command:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fomit-frame-pointer -DHAVE_CURSES_H" \
CXX=gcc \
CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fomit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors \
-fno-exceptions -fno-rtti -DHAVE_CURSES_H" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
This will avoid problems with the libstdc++ library and with C++ exceptions.
If this doesn’t help, you should compile a debug version and run it with a trace file or under
gdb. See Section D.1.3 [Using gdb on mysqld], page 1330.
2.6.4 BSD Notes
This section provides information about using MySQL on variants of BSD Unix.
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2.6.4.1 FreeBSD Notes
FreeBSD 4.x or newer is recommended for running MySQL, because the thread package is
much more integrated. To get a secure and stable system, you should use only FreeBSD
kernels that are marked -RELEASE.
The easiest (and preferred) way to install MySQL is to use the mysql-server and mysqlclient ports available at http://www.freebsd.org/. Using these ports gives you the
following benefits:
• A working MySQL with all optimizations enabled that are known to work on your
version of FreeBSD.
• Automatic configuration and build.
• Startup scripts installed in ‘/usr/local/etc/rc.d’.
• The ability to use pkg_info -L to see which files are installed.
• The ability to use pkg_delete to remove MySQL if you no longer want it on your
machine.
It is recommended you use MIT-pthreads on FreeBSD 2.x, and native threads on Versions
3 and up. It is possible to run with native threads on some late 2.2.x versions, but you may
encounter problems shutting down mysqld.
Unfortunately, certain function calls on FreeBSD are not yet fully thread-safe. Most notably,
this includes the gethostbyname() function, which is used by MySQL to convert hostnames
into IP addresses. Under certain circumstances, the mysqld process will suddenly cause
100% CPU load and will be unresponsive. If you encounter this problem, try to start
MySQL using the --skip-name-resolve option.
Alternatively, you can link MySQL on FreeBSD 4.x against the LinuxThreads
library, which avoids a few of the problems that the native FreeBSD thread
implementation has.
For a very good comparison of LinuxThreads versus native
threads, see Jeremy Zawodny’s article FreeBSD or Linux for your MySQL Server? at
http://jeremy.zawodny.com/blog/archives/000697.html.
A known problem when using LinuxThreads on FreeBSD is that the wait_timeout value
is not honored (probably a signal handling problem in FreeBSD/LinuxThreads). This is
supposed to be fixed in FreeBSD 5.0. The symptom is that persistent connections can hang
for a very long time without getting closed down.
The MySQL build process requires GNU make (gmake) to work. If GNU make is not
available, you must install it first before compiling MySQL.
The recommended way to compile and install MySQL on FreeBSD with gcc (2.95.2 and
up) is:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O2 -fno-strength-reduce" \
CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O2 -fno-rtti -fno-exceptions \
-felide-constructors -fno-strength-reduce" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler
gmake
gmake install
cd /usr/local/mysql
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bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
bin/mysqld_safe &
If you notice that configure will use MIT-pthreads, you should read the MIT-pthreads
notes. See Section 2.3.5 [MIT-pthreads], page 112.
If you get an error from make install that it can’t find ‘/usr/include/pthreads’,
configure didn’t detect that you need MIT-pthreads. To fix this problem, remove
‘config.cache’, then re-run configure with the --with-mit-threads option.
Be sure that your name resolver setup is correct. Otherwise, you may experience resolver
delays or failures when connecting to mysqld. Also make sure that the localhost entry in
the ‘/etc/hosts’ file is correct. The file should start with a line similar to this:
127.0.0.1
localhost localhost.your.domain
FreeBSD is known to have a very low default file handle limit. See Section A.2.17 [Not
enough file handles], page 1114. Start the server by using the --open-files-limit option
for mysqld_safe, or raise the limits for the mysqld user in ‘/etc/login.conf’ and rebuild
it with cap_mkdb /etc/login.conf. Also be sure that you set the appropriate class for this
user in the password file if you are not using the default (use chpass mysqld-user-name).
See Section 5.1.3 [mysqld_safe], page 234.
If you have a lot of memory, you should consider rebuilding the kernel to allow MySQL to
use more than 512MB of RAM. Take a look at option MAXDSIZ in the LINT config file for
more information.
If you get problems with the current date in MySQL, setting the TZ variable will probably
help. See Appendix E [Environment variables], page 1338.
2.6.4.2 NetBSD Notes
To compile on NetBSD, you need GNU make. Otherwise, the build process will fail when
make tries to run lint on C++ files.
2.6.4.3 OpenBSD 2.5 Notes
On OpenBSD Version 2.5, you can compile MySQL with native threads with the following
options:
CFLAGS=-pthread CXXFLAGS=-pthread ./configure --with-mit-threads=no
2.6.4.4 OpenBSD 2.8 Notes
Our users have reported that OpenBSD 2.8 has a threading bug that causes problems with
MySQL. The OpenBSD Developers have fixed the problem, but as of January 25, 2001,
it’s only available in the “-current” branch. The symptoms of this threading bug are slow
response, high load, high CPU usage, and crashes.
If you get an error like Error in accept:: Bad file descriptor or error 9 when trying to
open tables or directories, the problem is probably that you have not allocated enough file
descriptors for MySQL.
In this case, try starting mysqld_safe as root with the following options:
mysqld_safe --user=mysql --open-files-limit=2048 &
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2.6.4.5 BSD/OS Version 2.x Notes
If you get the following error when compiling MySQL, your ulimit value for virtual memory
is too low:
item_func.h: In method
‘Item_func_ge::Item_func_ge(const Item_func_ge &)’:
item_func.h:28: virtual memory exhausted
make[2]: *** [item_func.o] Error 1
Try using ulimit -v 80000 and run make again. If this doesn’t work and you are using
bash, try switching to csh or sh; some BSDI users have reported problems with bash and
ulimit.
If you are using gcc, you may also use have to use the --with-low-memory flag for
configure to be able to compile ‘sql_yacc.cc’.
If you get problems with the current date in MySQL, setting the TZ variable will probably
help. See Appendix E [Environment variables], page 1338.
2.6.4.6 BSD/OS Version 3.x Notes
Upgrade to BSD/OS Version 3.1. If that is not possible, install BSDIpatch M300-038.
Use the following command when configuring MySQL:
env CXX=shlicc++ CC=shlicc2 \
./configure \
--prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
--localstatedir=/var/mysql \
--without-perl \
--with-unix-socket-path=/var/mysql/mysql.sock
The following is also known to work:
env CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 \
./configure \
--prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
--with-unix-socket-path=/var/mysql/mysql.sock
You can change the directory locations if you wish, or just use the defaults by not specifying
any locations.
If you have problems with performance under heavy load, try using the --skip-threadpriority option to mysqld! This will run all threads with the same priority. On BSDI
Version 3.1, this gives better performance, at least until BSDI fixes its thread scheduler.
If you get the error virtual memory exhausted while compiling, you should try using
ulimit -v 80000 and running make again. If this doesn’t work and you are using bash, try
switching to csh or sh; some BSDI users have reported problems with bash and ulimit.
2.6.4.7 BSD/OS Version 4.x Notes
BSDI Version 4.x has some thread-related bugs. If you want to use MySQL on this, you
should install all thread-related patches. At least M400-023 should be installed.
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On some BSDI Version 4.x systems, you may get problems with shared libraries. The
symptom is that you can’t execute any client programs, for example, mysqladmin. In this
case, you need to reconfigure not to use shared libraries with the --disable-shared option
to configure.
Some customers have had problems on BSDI 4.0.1 that the mysqld binary after a while
can’t open tables. This is because some library/system-related bug causes mysqld to change
current directory without having asked for that to happen.
The fix is to either upgrade MySQL to at least version 3.23.34 or, after running configure,
remove the line #define HAVE_REALPATH from config.h before running make.
Note that this means that you can’t symbolically link a database directories to another
database directory or symbolic link a table to another database on BSDI. (Making a symbolic link to another disk is okay).
2.6.5 Other Unix Notes
2.6.5.1 HP-UX Version 10.20 Notes
There are a couple of small problems when compiling MySQL on HP-UX. We recommend
that you use gcc instead of the HP-UX native compiler, because gcc produces better code.
We recommend using gcc 2.95 on HP-UX. Don’t use high optimization flags (such as -O6)
because they may not be safe on HP-UX.
The following configure line should work with gcc 2.95:
CFLAGS="-I/opt/dce/include -fpic" \
CXXFLAGS="-I/opt/dce/include -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions \
-fno-rtti" \
CXX=gcc \
./configure --with-pthread \
--with-named-thread-libs=’-ldce’ \
--prefix=/usr/local/mysql --disable-shared
The following configure line should work with gcc 3.1:
CFLAGS="-DHPUX -I/opt/dce/include -O3 -fPIC" CXX=gcc \
CXXFLAGS="-DHPUX -I/opt/dce/include -felide-constructors \
-fno-exceptions -fno-rtti -O3 -fPIC" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
--with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client \
--enable-local-infile --with-pthread \
--with-named-thread-libs=-ldce --with-lib-ccflags=-fPIC
--disable-shared
2.6.5.2 HP-UX Version 11.x Notes
For HP-UX Version 11.x, we recommend MySQL 3.23.15 or later.
Because of some critical bugs in the standard HP-UX libraries, you should install the following patches before trying to run MySQL on HP-UX 11.0:
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PHKL_22840 Streams cumulative
PHNE_22397 ARPA cumulative
This will solve the problem of getting EWOULDBLOCK from recv() and EBADF from accept()
in threaded applications.
If you are using gcc 2.95.1 on an unpatched HP-UX 11.x system, you will get the error:
In file included from /usr/include/unistd.h:11,
from ../include/global.h:125,
from mysql_priv.h:15,
from item.cc:19:
/usr/include/sys/unistd.h:184: declaration of C function ...
/usr/include/sys/pthread.h:440: previous declaration ...
In file included from item.h:306,
from mysql_priv.h:158,
from item.cc:19:
The problem is that HP-UX doesn’t define pthreads_atfork() consistently.
It has conflicting prototypes in ‘/usr/include/sys/unistd.h’:184 and
‘/usr/include/sys/pthread.h’:440.
One solution is to copy ‘/usr/include/sys/unistd.h’ into ‘mysql/include’ and edit
‘unistd.h’ and change it to match the definition in ‘pthread.h’. Look for this line:
extern int pthread_atfork(void (*prepare)(), void (*parent)(),
void (*child)());
Change it to look like this:
extern int pthread_atfork(void (*prepare)(void), void (*parent)(void),
void (*child)(void));
After making the change, the following configure line should work:
CFLAGS="-fomit-frame-pointer -O3 -fpic" CXX=gcc \
CXXFLAGS="-felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti -O3" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --disable-shared
If you are using MySQL 4.0.5 with the HP-UX compiler, you can use the following command
(which has been tested with cc B.11.11.04):
CC=cc CXX=aCC CFLAGS=+DD64 CXXFLAGS=+DD64 ./configure \
--with-extra-character-set=complex
You can ignore any errors of the following type:
aCC: warning 901: unknown option: ‘-3’: use +help for online
documentation
If you get the following error from configure, verify that you don’t have the path to the
K&R compiler before the path to the HP-UX C and C++ compiler:
checking for cc option to accept ANSI C... no
configure: error: MySQL requires an ANSI C compiler (and a C++ compiler).
Try gcc. See the Installation chapter in the Reference Manual.
Another reason for not being able to compile is that you didn’t define the +DD64 flags as
just described.
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Another possibility for HP-UX 11 is to use MySQL binaries for HP-UX 10.20. We have
received reports from some users that these binaries work fine on HP-UX 11.00. If you
encounter problems, be sure to check your HP-UX patch level.
2.6.5.3 IBM-AIX notes
Automatic detection of xlC is missing from Autoconf, so a number of variables need to be
set before running configure. The following example uses the IBM compiler:
export CC="xlc_r -ma -O3 -qstrict -qoptimize=3 -qmaxmem=8192 "
export CXX="xlC_r -ma -O3 -qstrict -qoptimize=3 -qmaxmem=8192"
export CFLAGS="-I /usr/local/include"
export LDFLAGS="-L /usr/local/lib"
export CPPFLAGS=$CFLAGS
export CXXFLAGS=$CFLAGS
./configure --prefix=/usr/local \
--localstatedir=/var/mysql \
--sbindir=’/usr/local/bin’ \
--libexecdir=’/usr/local/bin’ \
--enable-thread-safe-client \
--enable-large-files
The preceding options are used to compile the MySQL distribution that can be found at
http://www-frec.bull.com/.
If you change the -O3 to -O2 in the preceding configure line, you must also remove the
-qstrict option. This is a limitation in the IBM C compiler.
If you are using gcc or egcs to compile MySQL, you must use the -fno-exceptions flag,
because the exception handling in gcc/egcs is not thread-safe! (This is tested with egcs
1.1.) There are also some known problems with IBM’s assembler that may cause it to
generate bad code when used with gcc.
We recommend the following configure line with egcs and gcc 2.95 on AIX:
CC="gcc -pipe -mcpu=power -Wa,-many" \
CXX="gcc -pipe -mcpu=power -Wa,-many" \
CXXFLAGS="-felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-low-memory
The -Wa,-many option is necessary for the compile to be successful. IBM is aware of this
problem but is in no hurry to fix it because of the workaround that is available. We don’t
know if the -fno-exceptions is required with gcc 2.95, but because MySQL doesn’t use
exceptions and the option generates faster code, we recommend that you should always use
it with egcs / gcc.
If you get a problem with assembler code, try changing the -mcpu=xxx option to match
your CPU. Typically power2, power, or powerpc may need to be used. Alternatively, you
might need to use 604 or 604e. We are not positive but suspect that power would likely be
safe most of the time, even on a power2 machine.
If you don’t know what your CPU is, execute a uname -m command. It will produce a
string that looks like 000514676700, with a format of xxyyyyyymmss where xx and ss are
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always 00, yyyyyy is a unique system ID and mm is the ID of the CPU Planar. A chart of
these values can be found at http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/doc_link/en_US/a_doc_
lib/cmds/aixcmds5/uname.htm. This will give you a machine type and a machine model
you can use to determine what type of CPU you have.
If you have problems with signals (MySQL dies unexpectedly under high load), you may
have found an OS bug with threads and signals. In this case, you can tell MySQL not to
use signals by configuring as follows:
CFLAGS=-DDONT_USE_THR_ALARM CXX=gcc \
CXXFLAGS="-felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti \
-DDONT_USE_THR_ALARM" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-debug \
--with-low-memory
This doesn’t affect the performance of MySQL, but has the side effect that you can’t kill
clients that are “sleeping” on a connection with mysqladmin kill or mysqladmin shutdown.
Instead, the client will die when it issues its next command.
On some versions of AIX, linking with libbind.a makes getservbyname() dump core.
This is an AIX bug and should be reported to IBM.
For AIX 4.2.1 and gcc, you have to make the following changes.
After configuring, edit ‘config.h’ and ‘include/my_config.h’ and change the line that
says this:
#define HAVE_SNPRINTF 1
to this:
#undef HAVE_SNPRINTF
And finally, in ‘mysqld.cc’, you need to add a prototype for initgroups().
#ifdef _AIX41
extern "C" int initgroups(const char *,int);
#endif
If you need to allocate a lot of memory to the mysqld process, it’s not enough to just use
ulimit -d unlimited. You may also have to modify mysqld_safe to add a line something
like this:
export LDR_CNTRL=’MAXDATA=0x80000000’
You can find more information about using a lot of memory at http://publib16.boulder.ibm.com/pseries/e
US/aixprggd/genprogc/lrg_prg_support.htm.
2.6.5.4 SunOS 4 Notes
On SunOS 4, MIT-pthreads is needed to compile MySQL. This in turn means you will need
GNU make.
Some SunOS 4 systems have problems with dynamic libraries and libtool. You can use
the following configure line to avoid this problem:
./configure --disable-shared --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static
When compiling readline, you may get warnings about duplicate defines. These can be
ignored.
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When compiling mysqld, there will be some implicit declaration of function warnings.
These can be ignored.
2.6.5.5 Alpha-DEC-UNIX Notes (Tru64)
If you are using egcs 1.1.2 on Digital Unix, you should upgrade to gcc 2.95.2, because egcs
on DEC has some serious bugs!
When compiling threaded programs under Digital Unix, the documentation recommends
using the -pthread option for cc and cxx and the -lmach -lexc libraries (in addition to
-lpthread). You should run configure something like this:
CC="cc -pthread" CXX="cxx -pthread -O" \
./configure --with-named-thread-libs="-lpthread -lmach -lexc -lc"
When compiling mysqld, you may see a couple of warnings like this:
mysqld.cc: In function void handle_connections()’:
mysqld.cc:626: passing long unsigned int *’ as argument 3 of
accept(int,sockadddr *, int *)’
You can safely ignore these warnings. They occur because configure can detect only errors,
not warnings.
If you start the server directly from the command line, you may have problems with it dying
when you log out. (When you log out, your outstanding processes receive a SIGHUP signal.)
If so, try starting the server like this:
nohup mysqld [options ] &
nohup causes the command following it to ignore any SIGHUP signal sent from the terminal.
Alternatively, start the server by running mysqld_safe, which invokes mysqld using nohup
for you. See Section 5.1.3 [mysqld_safe], page 234.
If you get a problem when compiling ‘mysys/get_opt.c’, just remove the #define _NO_
PROTO line from the start of that file.
If you are using Compaq’s CC compiler, the following configure line should work:
CC="cc -pthread"
CFLAGS="-O4 -ansi_alias -ansi_args -fast -inline speed all -arch host"
CXX="cxx -pthread"
CXXFLAGS="-O4 -ansi_alias -ansi_args -fast -inline speed all \
-arch host -noexceptions -nortti"
export CC CFLAGS CXX CXXFLAGS
./configure \
--prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
--with-low-memory \
--enable-large-files \
--enable-shared=yes \
--with-named-thread-libs="-lpthread -lmach -lexc -lc"
gnumake
If you get a problem with libtool when compiling with shared libraries as just shown,
when linking mysql, you should be able to get around this by issuing these commands:
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cd mysql
/bin/sh ../libtool --mode=link cxx -pthread -O3 -DDBUG_OFF \
-O4 -ansi_alias -ansi_args -fast -inline speed \
-speculate all \ -arch host -DUNDEF_HAVE_GETHOSTBYNAME_R \
-o mysql mysql.o readline.o sql_string.o completion_hash.o \
../readline/libreadline.a -lcurses \
../libmysql/.libs/libmysqlclient.so -lm
cd ..
gnumake
gnumake install
scripts/mysql_install_db
2.6.5.6 Alpha-DEC-OSF/1 Notes
If you have problems compiling and have DEC CC and gcc installed, try running configure
like this:
CC=cc CFLAGS=-O CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
If you get problems with the ‘c_asm.h’ file, you can create and use a ’dummy’ ‘c_asm.h’
file with:
touch include/c_asm.h
CC=gcc CFLAGS=-I./include \
CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
Note that the following problems with the ld program can be fixed by downloading the
latest DEC (Compaq) patch kit from: http://ftp.support.compaq.com/public/unix/.
On OSF/1 V4.0D and compiler "DEC C V5.6-071 on Digital Unix V4.0 (Rev. 878)," the
compiler had some strange behavior (undefined asm symbols). /bin/ld also appears to
be broken (problems with _exit undefined errors occurring while linking mysqld). On
this system, we have managed to compile MySQL with the following configure line, after
replacing /bin/ld with the version from OSF 4.0C:
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
With the Digital compiler "C++ V6.1-029," the following should work:
CC=cc -pthread
CFLAGS=-O4 -ansi_alias -ansi_args -fast -inline speed \
-speculate all -arch host
CXX=cxx -pthread
CXXFLAGS=-O4 -ansi_alias -ansi_args -fast -inline speed \
-speculate all -arch host -noexceptions -nortti
export CC CFLAGS CXX CXXFLAGS
./configure --prefix=/usr/mysql/mysql \
--with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static --disable-shared \
--with-named-thread-libs="-lmach -lexc -lc"
In some versions of OSF/1, the alloca() function is broken. Fix this by removing the line
in ‘config.h’ that defines ’HAVE_ALLOCA’.
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The alloca() function also may have an incorrect prototype in /usr/include/alloca.h.
This warning resulting from this can be ignored.
configure will use the following thread libraries automatically: --with-named-threadlibs="-lpthread -lmach -lexc -lc".
When using gcc, you can also try running configure like this:
CFLAGS=-D_PTHREAD_USE_D4 CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure ...
If you have problems with signals (MySQL dies unexpectedly under high load), you may
have found an OS bug with threads and signals. In this case, you can tell MySQL not to
use signals by configuring with:
CFLAGS=-DDONT_USE_THR_ALARM \
CXXFLAGS=-DDONT_USE_THR_ALARM \
./configure ...
This doesn’t affect the performance of MySQL, but has the side effect that you can’t kill
clients that are “sleeping” on a connection with mysqladmin kill or mysqladmin shutdown.
Instead, the client will die when it issues its next command.
With gcc 2.95.2, you will probably run into the following compile error:
sql_acl.cc:1456: Internal compiler error in ‘scan_region’,
at except.c:2566
Please submit a full bug report.
To fix this, you should change to the sql directory and do a cut-and-paste of the last gcc
line, but change -O3 to -O0 (or add -O0 immediately after gcc if you don’t have any -O
option on your compile line). After this is done, you can just change back to the top-level
directory and run make again.
2.6.5.7 SGI Irix Notes
If you are using Irix Version 6.5.3 or newer, mysqld will be able to create threads only if
you run it as a user that has CAP_SCHED_MGT privileges (such as root) or give the mysqld
server this privilege with the following shell command:
chcap "CAP_SCHED_MGT+epi" /opt/mysql/libexec/mysqld
You may have to undefine some symbols in ‘config.h’ after running configure and before
compiling.
In some Irix implementations, the alloca() function is broken. If the mysqld server dies
on some SELECT statements, remove the lines from ‘config.h’ that define HAVE_ALLOC and
HAVE_ALLOCA_H. If mysqladmin create doesn’t work, remove the line from ‘config.h’ that
defines HAVE_READDIR_R. You may have to remove the HAVE_TERM_H line as well.
SGI recommends that you install all the patches on this page as a set:
http://support.sgi.com/surfzone/patches/patchset/6.2_indigo.rps.html
At the very minimum, you should install the latest kernel rollup, the latest rld rollup, and
the latest libc rollup.
You definitely need all the POSIX patches on this page, for pthreads support:
http://support.sgi.com/surfzone/patches/patchset/6.2_posix.rps.html
If you get the something like the following error when compiling ‘mysql.cc’:
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"/usr/include/curses.h", line 82: error(1084):
invalid combination of type
Type the following in the top-level directory of your MySQL source tree:
extra/replace bool curses_bool < /usr/include/curses.h > include/curses.h
make
There have also been reports of scheduling problems. If only one thread is running, performance is slow. Avoid this by starting another client. This may lead to a two-to-tenfold
increase in execution speed thereafter for the other thread. This is a poorly understood
problem with Irix threads; you may have to improvise to find solutions until this can be
fixed.
If you are compiling with gcc, you can use the following configure command:
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-thread-safe-client \
--with-named-thread-libs=-lpthread
On Irix 6.5.11 with native Irix C and C++ compilers ver. 7.3.1.2, the following is reported
to work
CC=cc CXX=CC CFLAGS=’-O3 -n32 -TARG:platform=IP22 -I/usr/local/include \
-L/usr/local/lib’ CXXFLAGS=’-O3 -n32 -TARG:platform=IP22 \
-I/usr/local/include -L/usr/local/lib’ \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-innodb --with-berkeley-db \
--with-libwrap=/usr/local \
--with-named-curses-libs=/usr/local/lib/libncurses.a
2.6.5.8 SCO Notes
The current port is tested only on “sco3.2v5.0.5,” “sco3.2v5.0.6,” and “sco3.2v5.0.7” systems. There has also been a lot of progress on a port to “sco 3.2v4.2.” Open Server
5.0.8(Legend) will have native threads and allow files greater than 2GB. The current maximum file size is 2GB.
We have been able to compile MySQL with the following configure command on on
OpenServer with gcc 2.95.3.
CC=gcc CXX=gcc ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
--enable-thread-safe-client --with-innodb \
--with-openssl --with-vio --with-extra-charsets=complex
gcc is available at ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/openserver5/opensrc/gnutools-5.0.7Kj.
This development system requires the OpenServer Execution Enviroment Supplement
oss646B on OpenServer 5.0.6 and oss656B and The OpenSource libraries found in
gwxlibs. All OpenSource tools are in the ‘opensrc’ directory. They are available at
ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/openserver5/opensrc/.
We recommend using the latest production release of MySQL. Currently MySQL-4.0.x is
the latest production release. There were some problems with MySQL 4.0.17 and MySQL
4.0.18, but they have now been fixed.
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SCO provides operating system patches at ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/openserver5 for
OpenServer 5.0.[0-6] and ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/openserverv5/507 for OpenServer
5.0.7.
SCO provides information about security fixes at ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/security/OpenServer
for OpenServer 5.0.x.
The maximum file size on an OpenSever 5.0.x system is 2GB.
The total memory which could be allocated for streams buffers, clists and lock records
cannot exceed 60MB on OpenServer 5.0.x.
Streams buffers are allocated in units of 4096 byte pages, clists are 70 bytes each, and lock
records are 64 bytes each, so:
(NSTRPAGES * 4096) + (NCLIST * 70) + (MAX_FLCKREC * 64) <= 62914560
Follow this procedure to configure the Database Services option. If you are unsure whether
an application requires this, see the documentation provided with the application.
1. Log in as root.
2. Enable the SUDS driver by editing the ‘/etc/conf/sdevice.d/suds’ file. Change the
N in the second field to a Y.
3. Use mkdev aio or the Hardware/Kernel Manager to enable support for asynchronous
I/O and relink the kernel. To allow users to lock down memory for use with this type of
I/O, update the aiomemlock(F) file. This file should be updated to include the names
of users that can use AIO and the maximum amounts of memory they can lock down.
4. Many applications use setuid binaries so that you need to specify only a single user.
See the documentation provided with the application to see if this is the case for your
application.
After you complete this process, reboot the system to create a new kernel incorporating
these changes.
By default, the entries in ‘/etc/conf/cf.d/mtune’ are set as follows:
Value
Default
Min
Max
--------------NBUF
0
24
450000
NHBUF
0
32
524288
NMPBUF
0
12
512
MAX_INODE
0
100
64000
MAX_FILE
0
100
64000
CTBUFSIZE
128
0
256
MAX_PROC
0
50
16000
MAX_REGION
0
500
160000
NCLIST
170
120
16640
MAXUP
100
15
16000
NOFILES
110
60
11000
NHINODE
128
64
8192
NAUTOUP
10
0
60
NGROUPS
8
0
128
BDFLUSHR
30
1
300
MAX_FLCKREC
0
50
16000
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PUTBUFSZ
8000
2000
20000
MAXSLICE
100
25
100
ULIMIT
4194303
2048
4194303
* Streams Parameters
NSTREAM
64
1
32768
NSTRPUSH
9
9
9
NMUXLINK
192
1
4096
STRMSGSZ
16384
4096
524288
STRCTLSZ
1024
1024
1024
STRMAXBLK
524288
4096
524288
NSTRPAGES
500
0
8000
STRSPLITFRAC
80
50
100
NLOG
3
3
3
NUMSP
64
1
256
NUMTIM
16
1
8192
NUMTRW
16
1
8192
* Semaphore Parameters
SEMMAP
10
10
8192
SEMMNI
10
10
8192
SEMMNS
60
60
8192
SEMMNU
30
10
8192
SEMMSL
25
25
150
SEMOPM
10
10
1024
SEMUME
10
10
25
SEMVMX
32767
32767
32767
SEMAEM
16384
16384
16384
* Shared Memory Parameters
SHMMAX
524288
131072
2147483647
SHMMIN
1
1
1
SHMMNI
100
100
2000
FILE
0
100
64000
NMOUNT
0
4
256
NPROC
0
50
16000
NREGION
0
500
160000
We recommend setting these values as follows:
NOFILES should be 4096 or 2048.
MAXUP should be 2048.
To make changes to the kernel, cd to ‘/etc/conf/bin’ and use ./idtune name parameter
to make the changes. For example, to change SEMMS to 200, execute these commands as
root:
# cd /etc/conf/bin
# ./idtune SEMMNS 200
We recommend tuning the system, but the proper parameter values to use depend on the
number of users accessing the application or database and size the of the database (that is,
the used buffer pool). The following will affect the following kernel parameters defined in
‘/etc/conf/cf.d/stune’:
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SHMMAX (recommended setting: 128MB) and SHMSEG (recommended setting: 15). These
parameters have influence on the MySQL database engine to create user buffer pools.
NOFILES and MAXUP should be at to at least 2048.
MAXPROC should be set to at least 3000/4000 (depends on number of users) or more.
Also is recommended to use following formula to count value for SEMMSL, SEMMNS and
SEMMNU:
SEMMSL = 13
The 13 is what has been found to be the best for both Progress and MySQL.
SEMMNS = SEMMSL * number of db servers to be run on the system.
Set SEMMNS to the value of SEMMSL multiplied by the number of db servers (maximum) that
you will be running on the system at one time.
SEMMNU = SEMMNS
Set the value of SEMMNU to equal the value of SEMMNS. You could probably set this to 75%
of SEMMNS, but this is a conservative estimate.
You need to at least install the "SCO OpenServer Linker and Application Development
Libraries" or the OpenServer Development System to use gcc. You cannot just use the
GCC Dev system without installing one of these.
You should get the FSU Pthreads package and install it first. This can be found at
http://moss.csc.ncsu.edu/~mueller/ftp/pub/PART/pthreads.tar.gz. You can also
get a precompiled package from ftp://ftp.zenez.com/pub/zenez/prgms/FSU-threads-3.14.tar.gz.
FSU Pthreads can be compiled with SCO Unix 4.2 with tcpip, or using OpenServer 3.0 or
Open Desktop 3.0 (OS 3.0 ODT 3.0) with the SCO Development System installed using a
good port of GCC 2.5.x. For ODT or OS 3.0, you will need a good port of GCC 2.5.x. There
are a lot of problems without a good port. The port for this product requires the SCO Unix
Development system. Without it, you are missing the libraries and the linker that is needed.
You will also need ‘SCO-3.2v4.2-includes.tar.gz’. This file contains the changes to the
SCO Development include files that are needed to get MySQL to build. You need to replace
the existing system include files with these modified header files. They can be obtained from
ftp://ftp.zenez.com/pub/zenez/prgms/SCO-3.2v4.2-includes.tar.gz.
To build FSU Pthreads on your system, all you should need to do is run GNU make. The
‘Makefile’ in FSU-threads-3.14.tar.gz is already set up to make FSU-threads.
You can run ./configure in the ‘threads/src’ directory and select the SCO OpenServer
option. This command copies ‘Makefile.SCO5’ to ‘Makefile’. Then run make.
To install in the default ‘/usr/include’ directory, log in as root, then cd to the
‘thread/src’ directory and run make install.
Remember that you must use GNU make when making MySQL.
Note: If you don’t start mysqld_safe as root, you probably will get only the default 110
open files per process. mysqld will write a note about this in the log file.
With SCO 3.2V4.2, you should use FSU Pthreads version 3.14 or newer. The following
configure command should work:
CFLAGS="-D_XOPEN_XPG4" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-D_XOPEN_XPG4" \
./configure \
--prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
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--with-named-thread-libs="-lgthreads -lsocket -lgen -lgthreads" \
--with-named-curses-libs="-lcurses"
You may get some problems with some include files. In this case, you can find new SCOspecific include files at ftp://ftp.zenez.com/pub/zenez/prgms/SCO-3.2v4.2-includes.tar.gz.
You should unpack this file in the ‘include’ directory of your MySQL source tree.
SCO development notes:
bullet MySQL should automatically detect FSU Pthreads and link mysqld with -lgthreads
-lsocket -lgthreads.
bullet The SCO development libraries are re-entrant in FSU Pthreads. SCO claims that its
library functions are re-entrant, so they must be re-entrant with FSU Pthreads. FSU
Pthreads on OpenServer tries to use the SCO scheme to make re-entrant libraries.
bullet FSU Pthreads (at least the version at ftp::/ftp.zenez.com) comes linked with GNU
malloc. If you encounter problems with memory usage, make sure that ‘gmalloc.o’ is
included in ‘libgthreads.a’ and ‘libgthreads.so’.
bullet In FSU Pthreads, the following system calls are pthreads-aware: read(), write(),
getmsg(), connect(), accept(), select(), and wait().
bullet The CSSA-2001-SCO.35.2 (the patch is listed in custom as erg711905-dscr remap security patch (version 2.0.0)) breaks FSU threads and makes mysqld unstable. You have
to remove this one if you want to run mysqld on an OpenServer 5.0.6 machine.
bullet SCO provides operating system patches at ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/openserver5 for
OpenServer 5.0.x.
bullet SCO provides security fixes and libsocket.so.2 at ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/security/OpenServer
and ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/security/sse for OpenServer 5.0.x.
bullet Pre-OSR506 security fixes. Also, the telnetd fix at ftp://stage.caldera.com/pub/security/openserv
or ftp://stage.caldera.com/pub/security/openserver/CSSA-2001-SCO.10/ as
both ‘libsocket.so.2’ and ‘libresolv.so.1’ with instructions for installing on
pre-OSR506 systems.
It’s probably a good idea to install these patches before trying to compile/use MySQL.
Begining with Legend, OpenServer will have native threads and no 2GB file size limit.
2.6.5.9 SCO UnixWare Version 7.1.x Notes
We recommend using the latest production release of MySQL. Currently this is MySQL
4.0.x. Should you choose to use an older release of MySQL on UnixWare 7.1.x, you must
use a version of MySQL at least as recent as 3.22.13 to get fixes for some portability and
OS problems.
We have been able to compile MySQL with the following configure command on UnixWare
Version 7.1.x:
CC="cc" CFLAGS="-I/usr/local/include" \
CXX="CC" CXXFLAGS="-I/usr/local/include" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
--enable-thread-safe-client --with-berkeley-db=./bdb \
--with-innodb --with-openssl --with-extra-charsets=complex
If you want to use gcc, you must use gcc 2.95.3 or newer.
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CC=gcc CXX=g++ ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
SCO provides operating system patches at ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/unixware7
for UnixWare 7.1.1,
ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/unixware7/713/ for UnixWare
7.1.3,
ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/unixware7/714/
for
UnixWare
7.1.4,
and
ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/openunix8 for OpenUNIX 8.0.0.
SCO provides information about security fixes at ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/security/OpenUNIX
for OpenUNIX and ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/security/UnixWare for UnixWare.
By default, the maximum file size on a UnixWare 7 system is 1GB. Many OS utilities have
a limitation of 2GB. The maximum possible file size on UnixWare 7 is 1TB with VXFS.
To enable large file support on UnixWare 7.1.x, run fsadm.
# fsadm -Fvxfs -o largefiles /
# fsadm / * Note
# ulimit unlimited
# cd /etc/conf/bin
# ./idtune SFSZLIM 0x7FFFFFFF ** Note
# ./idtune HFSZLIM 0x7FFFFFFF ** Note
# ./idbuild -B
* This should report "largefiles".
** 0x7FFFFFFF represents infinity for these values.
Reboot the system using shutdown.
By default, the entries in ‘/etc/conf/cf.d/mtune’ are set to:
Value
Default
Min
Max
--------------SVMMLIM
0x9000000
0x1000000
0x7FFFFFFF
HVMMLIM
0x9000000
0x1000000
0x7FFFFFFF
SSTKLIM
0x1000000
0x2000
0x7FFFFFFF
HSTKLIM
0x1000000
0x2000
0x7FFFFFFF
We recommend setting these values as follows:
SDATLIM 0x7FFFFFFF
HDATLIM 0x7FFFFFFF
SSTKLIM 0x7FFFFFFF
HSTKLIM 0x7FFFFFFF
SVMMLIM 0x7FFFFFFF
HVMMLIM 0x7FFFFFFF
SFNOLIM 2048
HFNOLIM 2048
We recommend tuning the system, but the proper parameter values to use depend on the
number of users accessing the application or database and size the of the database (that is,
the used buffer pool). The following will affect the following kernel parameters defined in
‘/etc/conf/cf.d/stune’:
SHMMAX (recommended setting: 128MB) and SHMSEG (recommended setting: 15). These
parameters have influence on the MySQL database engine to create user buffer pools.
SFNOLIM and HFNOLIM should be at maximum 2048.
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NPROC should be set to at least 3000/4000 (depends on number of users).
Also is recommended to use following formula to count value for SEMMSL, SEMMNS, and
SEMMNU:
SEMMSL = 13
13 is what has been found to be the best for both Progress and MySQL.
SEMMNS = SEMMSL * number of db servers to be run on the system.
Set SEMMNS to the value of SEMMSL multiplied by the number of db servers (maximum) that
you will be running on the system at one time.
SEMMNU = SEMMNS
Set the value of SEMMNU to equal the value of SEMMNS. You could probably set this to 75%
of SEMMNS, but this is a conservative estimate.
2.6.6 OS/2 Notes
MySQL uses quite a few open files. Because of this, you should add something like the
following to your ‘CONFIG.SYS’ file:
SET EMXOPT=-c -n -h1024
If you don’t do this, you will probably run into the following error:
File ’xxxx ’ not found (Errcode: 24)
When using MySQL with OS/2 Warp 3, FixPack 29 or above is required. With OS/2 Warp
4, FixPack 4 or above is required. This is a requirement of the Pthreads library. MySQL
must be installed on a partition with a type that supports long filenames, such as HPFS,
FAT32, and so on.
The ‘INSTALL.CMD’ script must be run from OS/2’s own ‘CMD.EXE’ and may not work with
replacement shells such as ‘4OS2.EXE’.
The ‘scripts/mysql-install-db’ script has been renamed. It is now called ‘install.cmd’
and is a REXX script, which will set up the default MySQL security settings and create
the WorkPlace Shell icons for MySQL.
Dynamic module support is compiled in but not fully tested. Dynamic modules should be
compiled using the Pthreads runtime library.
gcc -Zdll -Zmt -Zcrtdll=pthrdrtl -I../include -I../regex -I.. \
-o example udf_example.cc -L../lib -lmysqlclient udf_example.def
mv example.dll example.udf
Note: Due to limitations in OS/2, UDF module name stems must not exceed eight characters. Modules are stored in the ‘/mysql2/udf’ directory; the safe-mysqld.cmd script will
put this directory in the BEGINLIBPATH environment variable. When using UDF modules,
specified extensions are ignored—it is assumed to be ‘.udf’. For example, in Unix, the
shared module might be named ‘example.so’ and you would load a function from it like
this:
mysql> CREATE FUNCTION metaphon RETURNS STRING SONAME ’example.so’;
In OS/2, the module would be named ‘example.udf’, but you would not specify the module
extension:
mysql> CREATE FUNCTION metaphon RETURNS STRING SONAME ’example’;
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2.6.7 BeOS Notes
We have in the past talked with some BeOS developers who have said that MySQL is 80%
ported to BeOS, but we haven’t heard from them in a while.
2.7 Perl Installation Notes
Perl support for MySQL is provided by means of the DBI/DBD client interface. The interface
requires Perl Version 5.6.0 or later. It will not work if you have an older version of Perl.
If you want to use transactions with Perl DBI, you need to have DBD::mysql version 1.2216
or newer. Version 2.9003 or newer is recommended.
If you are using the MySQL 4.1 client library, you must use DBD::mysql 2.9003 or newer.
As of MySQL 3.22.8, Perl support is no longer included with MySQL distributions. You
can obtain the necessary modules from http://search.cpan.org for Unix, or by using the
ActiveState ppm program on Windows. The following sections describe how to do this.
Perl support for MySQL must be installed if you want to run the MySQL benchmark scripts.
See Section 7.1.4 [MySQL Benchmarks], page 421.
2.7.1 Installing Perl on Unix
MySQL Perl support requires that you’ve installed MySQL client programming support
(libraries and header files). Most installation methods install the necessary files. However,
if you installed MySQL from RPM files on Linux, be sure that you’ve installed the developer
RPM. The client programs are in the client RPM, but client programming support is in the
developer RPM.
If you want to install Perl support, the files you will need can be obtained from the CPAN
(Comprehensive Perl Archive Network) at http://search.cpan.org.
The easiest way to install Perl modules on Unix is to use the CPAN module. For example:
shell> perl -MCPAN -e shell
cpan> install DBI
cpan> install DBD::mysql
The DBD::mysql installation runs a number of tests. These tests require being able to
connect to the local MySQL server as the anonymous user with no password. If you have
removed anonymous accounts or assigned them passwords, the tests fail. You can use force
install DBD::mysql to ignore the failed tests.
DBI requires the Data::Dumper module. It may already be installed; if not, you should
install it before installing DBI.
It is also possible to download the module distributions in the form of compressed tar
archives and build the modules manually. For example, to unpack and build a DBI distribution, use a procedure such as this:
1. Unpack the distribution into the current directory:
shell> gunzip < DBI-VERSION.tar.gz | tar xvf This command creates a directory named ‘DBI-VERSION ’.
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2. Change location into the top-level directory of the unpacked distribution:
shell> cd DBI-VERSION
3. Build the distribution and compile everything:
shell>
shell>
shell>
shell>
perl Makefile.PL
make
make test
make install
The make test command is important because it verifies that the module is working. Note
that when you run that command during the DBD::mysql installation to exercise the interface code, the MySQL server must be running or the test will fail.
It is a good idea to rebuild and reinstall the DBD::mysql distribution whenever you install a
new release of MySQL, particularly if you notice symptoms such as that all your DBI scripts
fail after you upgrade MySQL.
If you don’t have access rights to install Perl modules in the system directory or
if you want to install local Perl modules, the following reference may be useful:
http://servers.digitaldaze.com/extensions/perl/modules.html#modules
Look under the heading “Installing New Modules that Require Locally Installed Modules.”
2.7.2 Installing ActiveState Perl on Windows
On Windows, you should do the following to install the MySQL DBD module with ActiveState Perl:
• Get ActiveState Perl from http://www.activestate.com/Products/ActivePerl/
and install it.
• Open a console window (a “DOS window”).
• If required, set the HTTP_proxy variable. For example, you might try:
set HTTP_proxy=my.proxy.com:3128
• Start the PPM program:
C:\> C:\perl\bin\ppm.pl
• If you have not already done so, install DBI:
ppm> install DBI
• If this succeeds, run the following command:
install \
ftp://ftp.de.uu.net/pub/CPAN/authors/id/JWIED/DBD-mysql-1.2212.x86.ppd
This procedure should work at least with ActiveState Perl Version 5.6.
If you can’t get the procedure to work, you should instead install the MyODBC driver and
connect to the MySQL server through ODBC:
use DBI;
$dbh= DBI->connect("DBI:ODBC:$dsn",$user,$password) ||
die "Got error $DBI::errstr when connecting to $dsn\n";
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2.7.3 Problems Using the Perl DBI/DBD Interface
If Perl reports that it can’t find the ‘../mysql/mysql.so’ module, then the problem is
probably that Perl can’t locate the shared library ‘libmysqlclient.so’.
You should be able to fix this by one of the following methods:
• Compile the DBD::mysql distribution with perl Makefile.PL -static -config rather
than perl Makefile.PL.
• Copy ‘libmysqlclient.so’ to the directory where your other shared libraries are located (probably ‘/usr/lib’ or ‘/lib’).
• Modify the -L options used to compile DBD::mysql to reflect the actual location of
‘libmysqlclient.so’.
• On Linux, you can add the pathname of the directory where ‘libmysqlclient.so’ is
located to the ‘/etc/ld.so.conf’ file.
• Add the pathname of the directory where ‘libmysqlclient.so’ is located to the LD_
RUN_PATH environment variable. Some systems use LD_LIBRARY_PATH instead.
Note that you may also need to modify the -L options if there are other libraries that the
linker fails to find. For example, if the linker cannot find libc because it is in ‘/lib’ and
the link command specifies -L/usr/lib, change the -L option to -L/lib or add -L/lib to
the existing link command.
If you get the following errors from DBD::mysql, you are probably using gcc (or using an
old binary compiled with gcc):
/usr/bin/perl: can’t resolve symbol ’__moddi3’
/usr/bin/perl: can’t resolve symbol ’__divdi3’
Add -L/usr/lib/gcc-lib/... -lgcc to the link command when the ‘mysql.so’ library
gets built (check the output from make for ‘mysql.so’ when you compile the Perl client).
The -L option should specify the pathname of the directory where ‘libgcc.a’ is located on
your system.
Another cause of this problem may be that Perl and MySQL aren’t both compiled with
gcc. In this case, you can solve the mismatch by compiling both with gcc.
You may see the following error from DBD::mysql when you run the tests:
t/00base............install_driver(mysql) failed:
Can’t load ’../blib/arch/auto/DBD/mysql/mysql.so’ for module DBD::mysql:
../blib/arch/auto/DBD/mysql/mysql.so: undefined symbol:
uncompress at /usr/lib/perl5/5.00503/i586-linux/DynaLoader.pm line 169.
This means that you need to include the -lz compression library on the link line. That can
be done by changing the following line in the file ‘lib/DBD/mysql/Install.pm’:
$sysliblist .= " -lm";
Change that line to:
$sysliblist .= " -lm -lz";
After this, you must run make realclean and then proceed with the installation from the
beginning.
If you want to install DBI on SCO, you have to edit the ‘Makefile’ in DBI-xxx and each
subdirectory. Note that the following assumes gcc 2.95.2 or newer:
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OLD:
CC = cc
CCCDLFLAGS = -KPIC -W1,-Bexport
CCDLFLAGS = -wl,-Bexport
NEW:
CC = gcc
CCCDLFLAGS = -fpic
CCDLFLAGS =
LD = ld
LDDLFLAGS = -G -L/usr/local/lib
LDFLAGS = -belf -L/usr/local/lib
LD = gcc -G -fpic
LDDLFLAGS = -L/usr/local/lib
LDFLAGS = -L/usr/local/lib
LD = ld
OPTIMISE = -Od
LD = gcc -G -fpic
OPTIMISE = -O1
OLD:
CCCFLAGS = -belf -dy -w0 -U M_XENIX -DPERL_SCO5 -I/usr/local/include
NEW:
CCFLAGS = -U M_XENIX -DPERL_SCO5 -I/usr/local/include
These changes are necessary because the Perl dynaloader will not load the DBI modules if
they were compiled with icc or cc.
If you want to use the Perl module on a system that doesn’t support dynamic linking (such
as SCO), you can generate a static version of Perl that includes DBI and DBD::mysql. The
way this works is that you generate a version of Perl with the DBI code linked in and install
it on top of your current Perl. Then you use that to build a version of Perl that additionally
has the DBD code linked in, and install that.
On SCO, you must have the following environment variables set:
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/lib:/usr/lib:/usr/local/lib:/usr/progressive/lib
Or:
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/lib:/lib:/usr/local/lib:/usr/ccs/lib:\
/usr/progressive/lib:/usr/skunk/lib
LIBPATH=/usr/lib:/lib:/usr/local/lib:/usr/ccs/lib:\
/usr/progressive/lib:/usr/skunk/lib
MANPATH=scohelp:/usr/man:/usr/local1/man:/usr/local/man:\
/usr/skunk/man:
First, create a Perl that includes a statically linked DBI module by running these commands
in the directory where your DBI distribution is located:
shell> perl Makefile.PL -static -config
shell> make
shell> make install
shell> make perl
Then you must install the new Perl. The output of make perl will indicate the exact make
command you will need to execute to perform the installation. On SCO, this is make -f
Makefile.aperl inst_perl MAP_TARGET=perl.
Next, use the just-created Perl to create another Perl that also includes a statically linked
DBD::mysql by running these commands in the directory where your DBD::mysql distribution is located:
Chapter 2: Installing MySQL
shell> perl
shell> make
shell> make
shell> make
Finally, you should
command to use.
183
Makefile.PL -static -config
install
perl
install this new Perl. Again, the output of make perl indicates the
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3 MySQL Tutorial
This chapter provides a tutorial introduction to MySQL by showing how to use the mysql
client program to create and use a simple database. mysql (sometimes referred to as the
“terminal monitor” or just “monitor”) is an interactive program that allows you to connect
to a MySQL server, run queries, and view the results. mysql may also be used in batch
mode: you place your queries in a file beforehand, then tell mysql to execute the contents
of the file. Both ways of using mysql are covered here.
To see a list of options provided by mysql, invoke it with the --help option:
shell> mysql --help
This chapter assumes that mysql is installed on your machine and that a MySQL server is
available to which you can connect. If this is not true, contact your MySQL administrator.
(If you are the administrator, you will need to consult other sections of this manual.)
This chapter describes the entire process of setting up and using a database. If you are
interested only in accessing an already-existing database, you may want to skip over the
sections that describe how to create the database and the tables it contains.
Because this chapter is tutorial in nature, many details are necessarily omitted. Consult
the relevant sections of the manual for more information on the topics covered here.
3.1 Connecting to and Disconnecting from the Server
To connect to the server, you’ll usually need to provide a MySQL username when you invoke
mysql and, most likely, a password. If the server runs on a machine other than the one
where you log in, you’ll also need to specify a hostname. Contact your administrator to find
out what connection parameters you should use to connect (that is, what host, username,
and password to use). Once you know the proper parameters, you should be able to connect
like this:
shell> mysql -h host -u user -p
Enter password: ********
host and user represent the hostname where your MySQL server is running and the username of your MySQL account. Substitute appropriate values for your setup. The ********
represents your password; enter it when mysql displays the Enter password: prompt.
If that works, you should see some introductory information followed by a mysql> prompt:
shell> mysql -h host -u user -p
Enter password: ********
Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 25338 to server version: 4.0.14-log
Type ’help;’ or ’\h’ for help. Type ’\c’ to clear the buffer.
mysql>
The prompt tells you that mysql is ready for you to enter commands.
Some MySQL installations allow users to connect as the anonymous (unnamed) user to the
server running on the local host. If this is the case on your machine, you should be able to
connect to that server by invoking mysql without any options:
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shell> mysql
After you have connected successfully, you can disconnect any time by typing QUIT (or \q)
at the mysql> prompt:
mysql> QUIT
Bye
On Unix, you can also disconnect by pressing Control-D.
Most examples in the following sections assume that you are connected to the server. They
indicate this by the mysql> prompt.
3.2 Entering Queries
Make sure that you are connected to the server, as discussed in the previous section. Doing
so will not in itself select any database to work with, but that’s okay. At this point, it’s
more important to find out a little about how to issue queries than to jump right in creating
tables, loading data into them, and retrieving data from them. This section describes the
basic principles of entering commands, using several queries you can try out to familiarize
yourself with how mysql works.
Here’s a simple command that asks the server to tell you its version number and the current
date. Type it in as shown here following the mysql> prompt and press Enter:
mysql> SELECT VERSION(), CURRENT_DATE;
+--------------+--------------+
| VERSION()
| CURRENT_DATE |
+--------------+--------------+
| 3.22.20a-log | 1999-03-19
|
+--------------+--------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)
mysql>
This query illustrates several things about mysql:
• A command normally consists of an SQL statement followed by a semicolon. (There
are some exceptions where a semicolon may be omitted. QUIT, mentioned earlier, is
one of them. We’ll get to others later.)
• When you issue a command, mysql sends it to the server for execution and displays
the results, then prints another mysql> prompt to indicate that it is ready for another
command.
• mysql displays query output in tabular form (rows and columns). The first row contains
labels for the columns. The rows following are the query results. Normally, column
labels are the names of the columns you fetch from database tables. If you’re retrieving
the value of an expression rather than a table column (as in the example just shown),
mysql labels the column using the expression itself.
• mysql shows how many rows were returned and how long the query took to execute,
which gives you a rough idea of server performance. These values are imprecise because
they represent wall clock time (not CPU or machine time), and because they are affected
by factors such as server load and network latency. (For brevity, the “rows in set” line
is not shown in the remaining examples in this chapter.)
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Keywords may be entered in any lettercase. The following queries are equivalent:
mysql> SELECT VERSION(), CURRENT_DATE;
mysql> select version(), current_date;
mysql> SeLeCt vErSiOn(), current_DATE;
Here’s another query. It demonstrates that you can use mysql as a simple calculator:
mysql> SELECT SIN(PI()/4), (4+1)*5;
+-------------+---------+
| SIN(PI()/4) | (4+1)*5 |
+-------------+---------+
|
0.707107 |
25 |
+-------------+---------+
The queries shown thus far have been relatively short, single-line statements. You can even
enter multiple statements on a single line. Just end each one with a semicolon:
mysql> SELECT VERSION(); SELECT NOW();
+--------------+
| VERSION()
|
+--------------+
| 3.22.20a-log |
+--------------+
+---------------------+
| NOW()
|
+---------------------+
| 1999-03-19 00:15:33 |
+---------------------+
A command need not be given all on a single line, so lengthy commands that require several
lines are not a problem. mysql determines where your statement ends by looking for the
terminating semicolon, not by looking for the end of the input line. (In other words, mysql
accepts free-format input: it collects input lines but does not execute them until it sees the
semicolon.)
Here’s a simple multiple-line statement:
mysql> SELECT
-> USER()
-> ,
-> CURRENT_DATE;
+--------------------+--------------+
| USER()
| CURRENT_DATE |
+--------------------+--------------+
| [email protected] | 1999-03-18
|
+--------------------+--------------+
In this example, notice how the prompt changes from mysql> to -> after you enter the first
line of a multiple-line query. This is how mysql indicates that it hasn’t seen a complete
statement and is waiting for the rest. The prompt is your friend, because it provides valuable
feedback. If you use that feedback, you will always be aware of what mysql is waiting for.
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If you decide you don’t want to execute a command that you are in the process of entering,
cancel it by typing \c:
mysql> SELECT
-> USER()
-> \c
mysql>
Here, too, notice the prompt. It switches back to mysql> after you type \c, providing
feedback to indicate that mysql is ready for a new command.
The following table shows each of the prompts you may see and summarizes what they
mean about the state that mysql is in:
Prompt
Meaning
mysql>
Ready for new command.
->
Waiting for next line of multiple-line command.
’>
Waiting for next line, collecting a string that begins with a single quote
(‘’’).
">
Waiting for next line, collecting a string that begins with a double
quote (‘"’).
‘>
Waiting for next line, collecting an identifier that begins with a backtick
(‘‘’).
Multiple-line statements commonly occur by accident when you intend to issue a command
on a single line, but forget the terminating semicolon. In this case, mysql waits for more
input:
mysql> SELECT USER()
->
If this happens to you (you think you’ve entered a statement but the only response is a
-> prompt), most likely mysql is waiting for the semicolon. If you don’t notice what the
prompt is telling you, you might sit there for a while before realising what you need to do.
Enter a semicolon to complete the statement, and mysql will execute it:
mysql> SELECT USER()
-> ;
+--------------------+
| USER()
|
+--------------------+
| [email protected] |
+--------------------+
The ’> and "> prompts occur during string collection. In MySQL, you can write strings
surrounded by either ‘’’ or ‘"’ characters (for example, ’hello’ or "goodbye"), and mysql
lets you enter strings that span multiple lines. When you see a ’> or "> prompt, it means
that you’ve entered a line containing a string that begins with a ‘’’ or ‘"’ quote character,
but have not yet entered the matching quote that terminates the string. That’s fine if you
really are entering a multiple-line string, but how likely is that? Not very. More often,
the ’> and "> prompts indicate that you’ve inadvertantly left out a quote character. For
example:
mysql> SELECT * FROM my_table WHERE name = ’Smith AND age < 30;
’>
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If you enter this SELECT statement, then press Enter and wait for the result, nothing will
happen. Instead of wondering why this query takes so long, notice the clue provided by the
’> prompt. It tells you that mysql expects to see the rest of an unterminated string. (Do
you see the error in the statement? The string ’Smith is missing the second quote.)
At this point, what do you do? The simplest thing is to cancel the command. However,
you cannot just type \c in this case, because mysql interprets it as part of the string that
it is collecting! Instead, enter the closing quote character (so mysql knows you’ve finished
the string), then type \c:
mysql> SELECT * FROM my_table WHERE name = ’Smith AND age < 30;
’> ’\c
mysql>
The prompt changes back to mysql>, indicating that mysql is ready for a new command.
The ‘> prompt is similar to th ’> and "> prompts, but indicates that you have begun but
not completed a backtick-quoted identifier.
It’s important to know what the ’>, ">, and ‘> prompts signify, because if you mistakenly
enter an unterminated string, any further lines you type will appear to be ignored by
mysql—including a line containing QUIT! This can be quite confusing, especially if you
don’t know that you need to supply the terminating quote before you can cancel the current
command.
3.3 Creating and Using a Database
Now that you know how to enter commands, it’s time to access a database.
Suppose that you have several pets in your home (your menagerie) and you’d like to keep
track of various types of information about them. You can do so by creating tables to hold
your data and loading them with the desired information. Then you can answer different
sorts of questions about your animals by retrieving data from the tables. This section shows
you how to:
• Create a database
• Create a table
• Load data into the table
• Retrieve data from the table in various ways
• Use multiple tables
The menagerie database will be simple (deliberately), but it is not difficult to think
of real-world situations in which a similar type of database might be used. For
example, a database like this could be used by a farmer to keep track of livestock,
or by a veterinarian to keep track of patient records.
A menagerie distribution
containing some of the queries and sample data used in the following sections can be
obtained from the MySQL Web site. It’s available in either compressed tar format
(http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Contrib/Examples/menagerie.tar.gz) or Zip
format (http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Contrib/Examples/menagerie.zip).
Use the SHOW statement to find out what databases currently exist on the server:
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mysql> SHOW DATABASES;
+----------+
| Database |
+----------+
| mysql
|
| test
|
| tmp
|
+----------+
The list of databases is probably different on your machine, but the mysql and test
databases are likely to be among them. The mysql database is required because it describes user access privileges. The test database is often provided as a workspace for users
to try things out.
Note that you may not see all databases if you don’t have the SHOW DATABASES privilege.
See Section 14.5.1.2 [GRANT], page 732.
If the test database exists, try to access it:
mysql> USE test
Database changed
Note that USE, like QUIT, does not require a semicolon. (You can terminate such statements
with a semicolon if you like; it does no harm.) The USE statement is special in another way,
too: it must be given on a single line.
You can use the test database (if you have access to it) for the examples that follow, but
anything you create in that database can be removed by anyone else with access to it. For
this reason, you should probably ask your MySQL administrator for permission to use a
database of your own. Suppose that you want to call yours menagerie. The administrator
needs to execute a command like this:
mysql> GRANT ALL ON menagerie.* TO ’your_mysql_name’@’your_client_host’;
where your_mysql_name is the MySQL username assigned to you and your_client_host
is the host from which you connect to the server.
3.3.1 Creating and Selecting a Database
If the administrator creates your database for you when setting up your permissions, you
can begin using it. Otherwise, you need to create it yourself:
mysql> CREATE DATABASE menagerie;
Under Unix, database names are case sensitive (unlike SQL keywords), so you must always
refer to your database as menagerie, not as Menagerie, MENAGERIE, or some other variant.
This is also true for table names. (Under Windows, this restriction does not apply, although
you must refer to databases and tables using the same lettercase throughout a given query.)
Creating a database does not select it for use; you must do that explicitly. To make
menagerie the current database, use this command:
mysql> USE menagerie
Database changed
Your database needs to be created only once, but you must select it for use each time you
begin a mysql session. You can do this by issuing a USE statement as shown in the example.
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Alternatively, you can select the database on the command line when you invoke mysql.
Just specify its name after any connection parameters that you might need to provide. For
example:
shell> mysql -h host -u user -p menagerie
Enter password: ********
Note that menagerie is not your password on the command just shown. If you want to
supply your password on the command line after the -p option, you must do so with no
intervening space (for example, as -pmypassword, not as -p mypassword). However, putting
your password on the command line is not recommended, because doing so exposes it to
snooping by other users logged in on your machine.
3.3.2 Creating a Table
Creating the database is the easy part, but at this point it’s empty, as SHOW TABLES will
tell you:
mysql> SHOW TABLES;
Empty set (0.00 sec)
The harder part is deciding what the structure of your database should be: what tables you
will need and what columns will be in each of them.
You’ll want a table that contains a record for each of your pets. This can be called the pet
table, and it should contain, as a bare minimum, each animal’s name. Because the name
by itself is not very interesting, the table should contain other information. For example,
if more than one person in your family keeps pets, you might want to list each animal’s
owner. You might also want to record some basic descriptive information such as species
and sex.
How about age? That might be of interest, but it’s not a good thing to store in a database.
Age changes as time passes, which means you’d have to update your records often. Instead,
it’s better to store a fixed value such as date of birth. Then, whenever you need age, you can
calculate it as the difference between the current date and the birth date. MySQL provides
functions for doing date arithmetic, so this is not difficult. Storing birth date rather than
age has other advantages, too:
• You can use the database for tasks such as generating reminders for upcoming pet
birthdays. (If you think this type of query is somewhat silly, note that it is the same
question you might ask in the context of a business database to identify clients to whom
you’ll soon need to send out birthday greetings, for that computer-assisted personal
touch.)
• You can calculate age in relation to dates other than the current date. For example, if
you store death date in the database, you can easily calculate how old a pet was when
it died.
You can probably think of other types of information that would be useful in the pet table,
but the ones identified so far are sufficient for now: name, owner, species, sex, birth, and
death.
Use a CREATE TABLE statement to specify the layout of your table:
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mysql> CREATE TABLE pet (name VARCHAR(20), owner VARCHAR(20),
-> species VARCHAR(20), sex CHAR(1), birth DATE, death DATE);
VARCHAR is a good choice for the name, owner, and species columns because the column
values will vary in length. The lengths of those columns need not all be the same, and
need not be 20. You can pick any length from 1 to 255, whatever seems most reasonable to
you. (If you make a poor choice and it turns out later that you need a longer field, MySQL
provides an ALTER TABLE statement.)
Several types of values can be chosen to represent sex in animal records, such as ’m’ and
’f’, or perhaps ’male’ and ’female’. It’s simplest to use the single characters ’m’ and
’f’.
The use of the DATE data type for the birth and death columns is a fairly obvious choice.
Now that you have created a table, SHOW TABLES should produce some output:
mysql> SHOW TABLES;
+---------------------+
| Tables in menagerie |
+---------------------+
| pet
|
+---------------------+
To verify that your table was created the way you expected, use a DESCRIBE statement:
mysql> DESCRIBE pet;
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field
| Type
| Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| name
| varchar(20) | YES |
| NULL
|
|
| owner
| varchar(20) | YES |
| NULL
|
|
| species | varchar(20) | YES |
| NULL
|
|
| sex
| char(1)
| YES |
| NULL
|
|
| birth
| date
| YES |
| NULL
|
|
| death
| date
| YES |
| NULL
|
|
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
You can use DESCRIBE any time, for example, if you forget the names of the columns in
your table or what types they have.
3.3.3 Loading Data into a Table
After creating your table, you need to populate it. The LOAD DATA and INSERT statements
are useful for this.
Suppose that your pet records can be described as shown here. (Observe that MySQL
expects dates in ’YYYY-MM-DD’ format; this may be different from what you are used to.)
name
Fluffy
Claws
Buffy
Fang
owner
Harold
Gwen
Harold
Benny
species
cat
cat
dog
dog
sex
f
m
f
m
birth
1993-02-04
1994-03-17
1989-05-13
1990-08-27
death
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Bowser
Diane dog
m 1979-08-31
1995-07-29
Chirpy
Gwen bird
f
1998-09-11
Whistler Gwen bird
1997-12-09
Slim
Benny snake
m 1996-04-29
Because you are beginning with an empty table, an easy way to populate it is to create a
text file containing a row for each of your animals, then load the contents of the file into
the table with a single statement.
You could create a text file ‘pet.txt’ containing one record per line, with values separated
by tabs, and given in the order in which the columns were listed in the CREATE TABLE
statement. For missing values (such as unknown sexes or death dates for animals that are
still living), you can use NULL values. To represent these in your text file, use \N (backslash,
capital-N). For example, the record for Whistler the bird would look like this (where the
whitespace between values is a single tab character):
name
owner species sex birth
death
Whistler Gwen
bird
\N 1997-12-09
\N
To load the text file ‘pet.txt’ into the pet table, use this command:
mysql> LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE ’/path/pet.txt’ INTO TABLE pet;
Note that if you created the file on Windows with an editor that uses \r\n as a line
terminator, you should use:
mysql> LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE ’/path/pet.txt’ INTO TABLE pet
-> LINES TERMINATED BY ’\r\n’;
You can specify the column value separator and end of line marker explicitly in the LOAD
DATA statement if you wish, but the defaults are tab and linefeed. These are sufficient for
the statement to read the file ‘pet.txt’ properly.
If the statement fails, it is likely that your MySQL installation does not have local file
capability enabled by default. See Section 5.4.4 [LOAD DATA LOCAL], page 295 for information
on how to change this.
When you want to add new records one at a time, the INSERT statement is useful. In
its simplest form, you supply values for each column, in the order in which the columns
were listed in the CREATE TABLE statement. Suppose that Diane gets a new hamster named
Puffball. You could add a new record using an INSERT statement like this:
mysql> INSERT INTO pet
-> VALUES (’Puffball’,’Diane’,’hamster’,’f’,’1999-03-30’,NULL);
Note that string and date values are specified as quoted strings here. Also, with INSERT,
you can insert NULL directly to represent a missing value. You do not use \N like you do
with LOAD DATA.
From this example, you should be able to see that there would be a lot more typing involved
to load your records initially using several INSERT statements rather than a single LOAD DATA
statement.
3.3.4 Retrieving Information from a Table
The SELECT statement is used to pull information from a table. The general form of the
statement is:
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SELECT what_to_select
FROM which_table
WHERE conditions_to_satisfy;
what_to_select indicates what you want to see. This can be a list of columns, or * to
indicate “all columns.” which_table indicates the table from which you want to retrieve
data. The WHERE clause is optional. If it’s present, conditions_to_satisfy specifies
conditions that rows must satisfy to qualify for retrieval.
3.3.4.1 Selecting All Data
The simplest form of SELECT retrieves everything from a table:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet;
+----------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| name
| owner | species | sex | birth
| death
|
+----------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| Fluffy
| Harold | cat
| f
| 1993-02-04 | NULL
|
| Claws
| Gwen
| cat
| m
| 1994-03-17 | NULL
|
| Buffy
| Harold | dog
| f
| 1989-05-13 | NULL
|
| Fang
| Benny | dog
| m
| 1990-08-27 | NULL
|
| Bowser
| Diane | dog
| m
| 1979-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |
| Chirpy
| Gwen
| bird
| f
| 1998-09-11 | NULL
|
| Whistler | Gwen
| bird
| NULL | 1997-12-09 | NULL
|
| Slim
| Benny | snake
| m
| 1996-04-29 | NULL
|
| Puffball | Diane | hamster | f
| 1999-03-30 | NULL
|
+----------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
This form of SELECT is useful if you want to review your entire table, for example, after
you’ve just loaded it with your initial dataset. For example, you may happen to think
that the birth date for Bowser doesn’t seem quite right. Consulting your original pedigree
papers, you find that the correct birth year should be 1989, not 1979.
There are least a couple of ways to fix this:
• Edit the file ‘pet.txt’ to correct the error, then empty the table and reload it using
DELETE and LOAD DATA:
mysql> DELETE FROM pet;
mysql> LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE ’pet.txt’ INTO TABLE pet;
However, if you do this, you must also re-enter the record for Puffball.
• Fix only the erroneous record with an UPDATE statement:
mysql> UPDATE pet SET birth = ’1989-08-31’ WHERE name = ’Bowser’;
The UPDATE changes only the record in question and does not require you to reload the
table.
3.3.4.2 Selecting Particular Rows
As shown in the preceding section, it is easy to retrieve an entire table. Just omit the WHERE
clause from the SELECT statement. But typically you don’t want to see the entire table,
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particularly when it becomes large. Instead, you’re usually more interested in answering
a particular question, in which case you specify some constraints on the information you
want. Let’s look at some selection queries in terms of questions about your pets that they
answer.
You can select only particular rows from your table. For example, if you want to verify the
change that you made to Bowser’s birth date, select Bowser’s record like this:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name = ’Bowser’;
+--------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| name
| owner | species | sex | birth
| death
|
+--------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| Bowser | Diane | dog
| m
| 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |
+--------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
The output confirms that the year is correctly recorded now as 1989, not 1979.
String comparisons normally are case-insensitive, so you can specify the name as ’bowser’,
’BOWSER’, etc. The query result will be the same.
You can specify conditions on any column, not just name. For example, if you want to know
which animals were born after 1998, test the birth column:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE birth >= ’1998-1-1’;
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name
| owner | species | sex | birth
| death |
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Chirpy
| Gwen | bird
| f
| 1998-09-11 | NULL |
| Puffball | Diane | hamster | f
| 1999-03-30 | NULL |
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+-------+
You can combine conditions, for example, to locate female dogs:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE species = ’dog’ AND sex = ’f’;
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name | owner | species | sex | birth
| death |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Buffy | Harold | dog
| f
| 1989-05-13 | NULL |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
The preceding query uses the AND logical operator. There is also an OR operator:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE species = ’snake’ OR species = ’bird’;
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name
| owner | species | sex | birth
| death |
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Chirpy
| Gwen | bird
| f
| 1998-09-11 | NULL |
| Whistler | Gwen | bird
| NULL | 1997-12-09 | NULL |
| Slim
| Benny | snake
| m
| 1996-04-29 | NULL |
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+-------+
AND and OR may be intermixed, although AND has higher precedence than OR. If you use
both operators, it’s a good idea to use parentheses to indicate explicitly how conditions
should be grouped:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE (species = ’cat’ AND sex = ’m’)
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-> OR (species = ’dog’ AND sex = ’f’);
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name | owner | species | sex | birth
| death |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Claws | Gwen
| cat
| m
| 1994-03-17 | NULL |
| Buffy | Harold | dog
| f
| 1989-05-13 | NULL |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
3.3.4.3 Selecting Particular Columns
If you don’t want to see entire rows from your table, just name the columns in which you’re
interested, separated by commas. For example, if you want to know when your animals
were born, select the name and birth columns:
mysql> SELECT name, birth FROM pet;
+----------+------------+
| name
| birth
|
+----------+------------+
| Fluffy
| 1993-02-04 |
| Claws
| 1994-03-17 |
| Buffy
| 1989-05-13 |
| Fang
| 1990-08-27 |
| Bowser
| 1989-08-31 |
| Chirpy
| 1998-09-11 |
| Whistler | 1997-12-09 |
| Slim
| 1996-04-29 |
| Puffball | 1999-03-30 |
+----------+------------+
To find out who owns pets, use this query:
mysql> SELECT owner FROM pet;
+--------+
| owner |
+--------+
| Harold |
| Gwen
|
| Harold |
| Benny |
| Diane |
| Gwen
|
| Gwen
|
| Benny |
| Diane |
+--------+
However, notice that the query simply retrieves the owner field from each record, and some
of them appear more than once. To minimize the output, retrieve each unique output record
just once by adding the keyword DISTINCT:
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mysql> SELECT DISTINCT owner FROM pet;
+--------+
| owner |
+--------+
| Benny |
| Diane |
| Gwen
|
| Harold |
+--------+
You can use a WHERE clause to combine row selection with column selection. For example,
to get birth dates for dogs and cats only, use this query:
mysql> SELECT name, species, birth FROM pet
-> WHERE species = ’dog’ OR species = ’cat’;
+--------+---------+------------+
| name
| species | birth
|
+--------+---------+------------+
| Fluffy | cat
| 1993-02-04 |
| Claws | cat
| 1994-03-17 |
| Buffy | dog
| 1989-05-13 |
| Fang
| dog
| 1990-08-27 |
| Bowser | dog
| 1989-08-31 |
+--------+---------+------------+
3.3.4.4 Sorting Rows
You may have noticed in the preceding examples that the result rows are displayed in no
particular order. It’s often easier to examine query output when the rows are sorted in
some meaningful way. To sort a result, use an ORDER BY clause.
Here are animal birthdays, sorted by date:
mysql> SELECT name, birth FROM pet ORDER BY birth;
+----------+------------+
| name
| birth
|
+----------+------------+
| Buffy
| 1989-05-13 |
| Bowser
| 1989-08-31 |
| Fang
| 1990-08-27 |
| Fluffy
| 1993-02-04 |
| Claws
| 1994-03-17 |
| Slim
| 1996-04-29 |
| Whistler | 1997-12-09 |
| Chirpy
| 1998-09-11 |
| Puffball | 1999-03-30 |
+----------+------------+
On character type columns, sorting—like all other comparison operations—is normally performed in a case-insensitive fashion. This means that the order will be undefined for columns
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that are identical except for their case. You can force a case-sensitive sort for a column by
using the BINARY cast: ORDER BY BINARY col_name.
The default sort order is ascending, with smallest values first. To sort in reverse (descending)
order, add the DESC keyword to the name of the column you are sorting by:
mysql> SELECT name, birth FROM pet ORDER BY birth DESC;
+----------+------------+
| name
| birth
|
+----------+------------+
| Puffball | 1999-03-30 |
| Chirpy
| 1998-09-11 |
| Whistler | 1997-12-09 |
| Slim
| 1996-04-29 |
| Claws
| 1994-03-17 |
| Fluffy
| 1993-02-04 |
| Fang
| 1990-08-27 |
| Bowser
| 1989-08-31 |
| Buffy
| 1989-05-13 |
+----------+------------+
You can sort on multiple columns, and you can sort columns in different directions. For
example, to sort by type of animal in ascending order, then by birth date within animal
type in descending order (youngest animals first), use the following query:
mysql> SELECT name, species, birth FROM pet
-> ORDER BY species, birth DESC;
+----------+---------+------------+
| name
| species | birth
|
+----------+---------+------------+
| Chirpy
| bird
| 1998-09-11 |
| Whistler | bird
| 1997-12-09 |
| Claws
| cat
| 1994-03-17 |
| Fluffy
| cat
| 1993-02-04 |
| Fang
| dog
| 1990-08-27 |
| Bowser
| dog
| 1989-08-31 |
| Buffy
| dog
| 1989-05-13 |
| Puffball | hamster | 1999-03-30 |
| Slim
| snake
| 1996-04-29 |
+----------+---------+------------+
Note that the DESC keyword applies only to the column name immediately preceding it
(birth); it does not affect the species column sort order.
3.3.4.5 Date Calculations
MySQL provides several functions that you can use to perform calculations on dates, for
example, to calculate ages or extract parts of dates.
To determine how many years old each of your pets is, compute the difference in the year
part of the current date and the birth date, then subtract one if the current date occurs
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earlier in the calendar year than the birth date. The following query shows, for each pet,
the birth date, the current date, and the age in years.
mysql> SELECT name, birth, CURDATE(),
-> (YEAR(CURDATE())-YEAR(birth))
-> - (RIGHT(CURDATE(),5)<RIGHT(birth,5))
-> AS age
-> FROM pet;
+----------+------------+------------+------+
| name
| birth
| CURDATE() | age |
+----------+------------+------------+------+
| Fluffy
| 1993-02-04 | 2003-08-19 |
10 |
| Claws
| 1994-03-17 | 2003-08-19 |
9 |
| Buffy
| 1989-05-13 | 2003-08-19 |
14 |
| Fang
| 1990-08-27 | 2003-08-19 |
12 |
| Bowser
| 1989-08-31 | 2003-08-19 |
13 |
| Chirpy
| 1998-09-11 | 2003-08-19 |
4 |
| Whistler | 1997-12-09 | 2003-08-19 |
5 |
| Slim
| 1996-04-29 | 2003-08-19 |
7 |
| Puffball | 1999-03-30 | 2003-08-19 |
4 |
+----------+------------+------------+------+
Here, YEAR() pulls out the year part of a date and RIGHT() pulls off the rightmost five characters that represent the MM-DD (calendar year) part of the date. The part of the expression
that compares the MM-DD values evaluates to 1 or 0, which adjusts the year difference down
a year if CURDATE() occurs earlier in the year than birth. The full expression is somewhat
ungainly, so an alias (age) is used to make the output column label more meaningful.
The query works, but the result could be scanned more easily if the rows were presented
in some order. This can be done by adding an ORDER BY name clause to sort the output by
name:
mysql> SELECT name, birth, CURDATE(),
-> (YEAR(CURDATE())-YEAR(birth))
-> - (RIGHT(CURDATE(),5)<RIGHT(birth,5))
-> AS age
-> FROM pet ORDER BY name;
+----------+------------+------------+------+
| name
| birth
| CURDATE() | age |
+----------+------------+------------+------+
| Bowser
| 1989-08-31 | 2003-08-19 |
13 |
| Buffy
| 1989-05-13 | 2003-08-19 |
14 |
| Chirpy
| 1998-09-11 | 2003-08-19 |
4 |
| Claws
| 1994-03-17 | 2003-08-19 |
9 |
| Fang
| 1990-08-27 | 2003-08-19 |
12 |
| Fluffy
| 1993-02-04 | 2003-08-19 |
10 |
| Puffball | 1999-03-30 | 2003-08-19 |
4 |
| Slim
| 1996-04-29 | 2003-08-19 |
7 |
| Whistler | 1997-12-09 | 2003-08-19 |
5 |
+----------+------------+------------+------+
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To sort the output by age rather than name, just use a different ORDER BY clause:
mysql> SELECT name, birth, CURDATE(),
-> (YEAR(CURDATE())-YEAR(birth))
-> - (RIGHT(CURDATE(),5)<RIGHT(birth,5))
-> AS age
-> FROM pet ORDER BY age;
+----------+------------+------------+------+
| name
| birth
| CURDATE() | age |
+----------+------------+------------+------+
| Chirpy
| 1998-09-11 | 2003-08-19 |
4 |
| Puffball | 1999-03-30 | 2003-08-19 |
4 |
| Whistler | 1997-12-09 | 2003-08-19 |
5 |
| Slim
| 1996-04-29 | 2003-08-19 |
7 |
| Claws
| 1994-03-17 | 2003-08-19 |
9 |
| Fluffy
| 1993-02-04 | 2003-08-19 |
10 |
| Fang
| 1990-08-27 | 2003-08-19 |
12 |
| Bowser
| 1989-08-31 | 2003-08-19 |
13 |
| Buffy
| 1989-05-13 | 2003-08-19 |
14 |
+----------+------------+------------+------+
A similar query can be used to determine age at death for animals that have died. You
determine which animals these are by checking whether the death value is NULL. Then, for
those with non-NULL values, compute the difference between the death and birth values:
mysql> SELECT name, birth, death,
-> (YEAR(death)-YEAR(birth)) - (RIGHT(death,5)<RIGHT(birth,5))
-> AS age
-> FROM pet WHERE death IS NOT NULL ORDER BY age;
+--------+------------+------------+------+
| name
| birth
| death
| age |
+--------+------------+------------+------+
| Bowser | 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |
5 |
+--------+------------+------------+------+
The query uses death IS NOT NULL rather than death <> NULL because NULL is a special
value that cannot be compared using the usual comparison operators. This is discussed
later. See Section 3.3.4.6 [Working with NULL], page 200.
What if you want to know which animals have birthdays next month? For this type of
calculation, year and day are irrelevant; you simply want to extract the month part of the
birth column. MySQL provides several date-part extraction functions, such as YEAR(),
MONTH(), and DAYOFMONTH(). MONTH() is the appropriate function here. To see how it
works, run a simple query that displays the value of both birth and MONTH(birth):
mysql> SELECT name, birth, MONTH(birth) FROM pet;
+----------+------------+--------------+
| name
| birth
| MONTH(birth) |
+----------+------------+--------------+
| Fluffy
| 1993-02-04 |
2 |
| Claws
| 1994-03-17 |
3 |
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| Buffy
| 1989-05-13 |
5 |
| Fang
| 1990-08-27 |
8 |
| Bowser
| 1989-08-31 |
8 |
| Chirpy
| 1998-09-11 |
9 |
| Whistler | 1997-12-09 |
12 |
| Slim
| 1996-04-29 |
4 |
| Puffball | 1999-03-30 |
3 |
+----------+------------+--------------+
Finding animals with birthdays in the upcoming month is easy, too. Suppose that the
current month is April. Then the month value is 4 and you look for animals born in May
(month 5) like this:
mysql> SELECT name, birth FROM pet WHERE MONTH(birth) = 5;
+-------+------------+
| name | birth
|
+-------+------------+
| Buffy | 1989-05-13 |
+-------+------------+
There is a small complication if the current month is December. You don’t just add one to
the month number (12) and look for animals born in month 13, because there is no such
month. Instead, you look for animals born in January (month 1).
You can even write the query so that it works no matter what the current month is. That
way you don’t have to use a particular month number in the query. DATE_ADD() allows you
to add a time interval to a given date. If you add a month to the value of CURDATE(), then
extract the month part with MONTH(), the result produces the month in which to look for
birthdays:
mysql> SELECT name, birth FROM pet
-> WHERE MONTH(birth) = MONTH(DATE_ADD(CURDATE(),INTERVAL 1 MONTH));
A different way to accomplish the same task is to add 1 to get the next month after the
current one (after using the modulo function (MOD) to wrap around the month value to 0 if
it is currently 12):
mysql> SELECT name, birth FROM pet
-> WHERE MONTH(birth) = MOD(MONTH(CURDATE()), 12) + 1;
Note that MONTH returns a number between 1 and 12. And MOD(something,12) returns a
number between 0 and 11. So the addition has to be after the MOD(), otherwise we would
go from November (11) to January (1).
3.3.4.6 Working with NULL Values
The NULL value can be surprising until you get used to it. Conceptually, NULL means missing
value or unknown value and it is treated somewhat differently than other values. To test
for NULL, you cannot use the arithmetic comparison operators such as =, <, or <>. To
demonstrate this for yourself, try the following query:
mysql> SELECT 1 = NULL, 1 <> NULL, 1 < NULL, 1 > NULL;
+----------+-----------+----------+----------+
| 1 = NULL | 1 <> NULL | 1 < NULL | 1 > NULL |
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+----------+-----------+----------+----------+
|
NULL |
NULL |
NULL |
NULL |
+----------+-----------+----------+----------+
Clearly you get no meaningful results from these comparisons. Use the IS NULL and IS NOT
NULL operators instead:
mysql> SELECT 1 IS NULL, 1 IS NOT NULL;
+-----------+---------------+
| 1 IS NULL | 1 IS NOT NULL |
+-----------+---------------+
|
0 |
1 |
+-----------+---------------+
Note that in MySQL, 0 or NULL means false and anything else means true. The default
truth value from a boolean operation is 1.
This special treatment of NULL is why, in the previous section, it was necessary to determine
which animals are no longer alive using death IS NOT NULL instead of death <> NULL.
Two NULL values are regarded as equal in a GROUP BY.
When doing an ORDER BY, NULL values are presented first if you do ORDER BY ... ASC and
last if you do ORDER BY ... DESC.
Note that MySQL 4.0.2 to 4.0.10 incorrectly always sorts NULL values first regardless of the
sort direction.
3.3.4.7 Pattern Matching
MySQL provides standard SQL pattern matching as well as a form of pattern matching
based on extended regular expressions similar to those used by Unix utilities such as vi,
grep, and sed.
SQL pattern matching allows you to use ‘_’ to match any single character and ‘%’ to match
an arbitrary number of characters (including zero characters). In MySQL, SQL patterns
are case-insensitive by default. Some examples are shown here. Note that you do not use =
or <> when you use SQL patterns; use the LIKE or NOT LIKE comparison operators instead.
To find names beginning with ‘b’:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name LIKE ’b%’;
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| name
| owner | species | sex | birth
| death
|
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| Buffy | Harold | dog
| f
| 1989-05-13 | NULL
|
| Bowser | Diane | dog
| m
| 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
To find names ending with ‘fy’:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name LIKE ’%fy’;
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name
| owner | species | sex | birth
| death |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Fluffy | Harold | cat
| f
| 1993-02-04 | NULL |
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| Buffy | Harold | dog
| f
| 1989-05-13 | NULL |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
To find names containing a ‘w’:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name LIKE ’%w%’;
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| name
| owner | species | sex | birth
| death
|
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| Claws
| Gwen | cat
| m
| 1994-03-17 | NULL
|
| Bowser
| Diane | dog
| m
| 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |
| Whistler | Gwen | bird
| NULL | 1997-12-09 | NULL
|
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
To find names containing exactly five characters, use five instances of the ‘_’ pattern character:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name LIKE ’_____’;
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name | owner | species | sex | birth
| death |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Claws | Gwen
| cat
| m
| 1994-03-17 | NULL |
| Buffy | Harold | dog
| f
| 1989-05-13 | NULL |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
The other type of pattern matching provided by MySQL uses extended regular expressions.
When you test for a match for this type of pattern, use the REGEXP and NOT REGEXP operators
(or RLIKE and NOT RLIKE, which are synonyms).
Some characteristics of extended regular expressions are:
• ‘.’ matches any single character.
• A character class ‘[...]’ matches any character within the brackets. For example,
‘[abc]’ matches ‘a’, ‘b’, or ‘c’. To name a range of characters, use a dash. ‘[a-z]’
matches any letter, whereas ‘[0-9]’ matches any digit.
• ‘*’ matches zero or more instances of the thing preceding it. For example, ‘x*’ matches
any number of ‘x’ characters, ‘[0-9]*’ matches any number of digits, and ‘.*’ matches
any number of anything.
• A REGEXP pattern match succeed if the pattern matches anywhere in the value being
tested. (This differs from a LIKE pattern match, which succeeds only if the pattern
matches the entire value.)
• To anchor a pattern so that it must match the beginning or end of the value being
tested, use ‘^’ at the beginning or ‘$’ at the end of the pattern.
To demonstrate how extended regular expressions work, the LIKE queries shown previously
are rewritten here to use REGEXP.
To find names beginning with ‘b’, use ‘^’ to match the beginning of the name:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP ’^b’;
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| name
| owner | species | sex | birth
| death
|
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
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| Buffy | Harold | dog
| f
| 1989-05-13 | NULL
|
| Bowser | Diane | dog
| m
| 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
Prior to MySQL Version 3.23.4, REGEXP is case sensitive, and the previous query will return
no rows. In this case, to match either lowercase or uppercase ‘b’, use this query instead:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP ’^[bB]’;
From MySQL 3.23.4 on, if you really want to force a REGEXP comparison to be case sensitive,
use the BINARY keyword to make one of the strings a binary string. This query will match
only lowercase ‘b’ at the beginning of a name:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP BINARY ’^b’;
To find names ending with ‘fy’, use ‘$’ to match the end of the name:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP ’fy$’;
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name
| owner | species | sex | birth
| death |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Fluffy | Harold | cat
| f
| 1993-02-04 | NULL |
| Buffy | Harold | dog
| f
| 1989-05-13 | NULL |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
To find names containing a ‘w’, use this query:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP ’w’;
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| name
| owner | species | sex | birth
| death
|
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| Claws
| Gwen | cat
| m
| 1994-03-17 | NULL
|
| Bowser
| Diane | dog
| m
| 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |
| Whistler | Gwen | bird
| NULL | 1997-12-09 | NULL
|
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
Because a regular expression pattern matches if it occurs anywhere in the value, it is not
necessary in the previous query to put a wildcard on either side of the pattern to get it to
match the entire value like it would be if you used an SQL pattern.
To find names containing exactly five characters, use ‘^’ and ‘$’ to match the beginning and
end of the name, and five instances of ‘.’ in between:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP ’^.....$’;
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name | owner | species | sex | birth
| death |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Claws | Gwen
| cat
| m
| 1994-03-17 | NULL |
| Buffy | Harold | dog
| f
| 1989-05-13 | NULL |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
You could also write the previous query using the ‘{n}’ “repeat-n-times” operator:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP ’^.{5}$’;
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name | owner | species | sex | birth
| death |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
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| Claws | Gwen
| cat
| m
| 1994-03-17 | NULL |
| Buffy | Harold | dog
| f
| 1989-05-13 | NULL |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
3.3.4.8 Counting Rows
Databases are often used to answer the question, “How often does a certain type of data
occur in a table?” For example, you might want to know how many pets you have, or how
many pets each owner has, or you might want to perform various kinds of census operations
on your animals.
Counting the total number of animals you have is the same question as “How many rows
are in the pet table?” because there is one record per pet. COUNT(*) counts the number of
rows, so the query to count your animals looks like this:
mysql> SELECT COUNT(*) FROM pet;
+----------+
| COUNT(*) |
+----------+
|
9 |
+----------+
Earlier, you retrieved the names of the people who owned pets. You can use COUNT() if you
want to find out how many pets each owner has:
mysql> SELECT owner, COUNT(*) FROM pet GROUP BY owner;
+--------+----------+
| owner | COUNT(*) |
+--------+----------+
| Benny |
2 |
| Diane |
2 |
| Gwen
|
3 |
| Harold |
2 |
+--------+----------+
Note the use of GROUP BY to group together all records for each owner. Without it, all you
get is an error message:
mysql> SELECT owner, COUNT(*) FROM pet;
ERROR 1140: Mixing of GROUP columns (MIN(),MAX(),COUNT()...)
with no GROUP columns is illegal if there is no GROUP BY clause
COUNT() and GROUP BY are useful for characterizing your data in various ways. The following
examples show different ways to perform animal census operations.
Number of animals per species:
mysql> SELECT species, COUNT(*) FROM pet GROUP BY species;
+---------+----------+
| species | COUNT(*) |
+---------+----------+
| bird
|
2 |
| cat
|
2 |
| dog
|
3 |
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| hamster |
1 |
| snake
|
1 |
+---------+----------+
Number of animals per sex:
mysql> SELECT sex, COUNT(*) FROM pet GROUP BY sex;
+------+----------+
| sex | COUNT(*) |
+------+----------+
| NULL |
1 |
| f
|
4 |
| m
|
4 |
+------+----------+
(In this output, NULL indicates that the sex is unknown.)
Number of animals per combination of species and sex:
mysql> SELECT species, sex, COUNT(*) FROM pet GROUP BY species, sex;
+---------+------+----------+
| species | sex | COUNT(*) |
+---------+------+----------+
| bird
| NULL |
1 |
| bird
| f
|
1 |
| cat
| f
|
1 |
| cat
| m
|
1 |
| dog
| f
|
1 |
| dog
| m
|
2 |
| hamster | f
|
1 |
| snake
| m
|
1 |
+---------+------+----------+
You need not retrieve an entire table when you use COUNT(). For example, the previous
query, when performed just on dogs and cats, looks like this:
mysql> SELECT species, sex, COUNT(*) FROM pet
-> WHERE species = ’dog’ OR species = ’cat’
-> GROUP BY species, sex;
+---------+------+----------+
| species | sex | COUNT(*) |
+---------+------+----------+
| cat
| f
|
1 |
| cat
| m
|
1 |
| dog
| f
|
1 |
| dog
| m
|
2 |
+---------+------+----------+
Or, if you wanted the number of animals per sex only for known-sex animals:
mysql> SELECT species, sex, COUNT(*) FROM pet
-> WHERE sex IS NOT NULL
-> GROUP BY species, sex;
+---------+------+----------+
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| species | sex | COUNT(*) |
+---------+------+----------+
| bird
| f
|
1 |
| cat
| f
|
1 |
| cat
| m
|
1 |
| dog
| f
|
1 |
| dog
| m
|
2 |
| hamster | f
|
1 |
| snake
| m
|
1 |
+---------+------+----------+
3.3.4.9 Using More Than one Table
The pet table keeps track of which pets you have. If you want to record other information
about them, such as events in their lives like visits to the vet or when litters are born, you
need another table. What should this table look like? It needs:
• To contain the pet name so you know which animal each event pertains to.
• A date so you know when the event occurred.
• A field to describe the event.
• An event type field, if you want to be able to categorize events.
Given these considerations, the CREATE TABLE statement for the event table might look like
this:
mysql> CREATE TABLE event (name VARCHAR(20), date DATE,
-> type VARCHAR(15), remark VARCHAR(255));
As with the pet table, it’s easiest to load the initial records by creating a tab-delimited text
file containing the information:
name
date
type
remark
Fluffy
1995-05-15 litter
4 kittens, 3 female, 1 male
Buffy
1993-06-23 litter
5 puppies, 2 female, 3 male
Buffy
1994-06-19 litter
3 puppies, 3 female
Chirpy
1999-03-21 vet
needed beak straightened
Slim
1997-08-03 vet
broken rib
Bowser
1991-10-12 kennel
Fang
1991-10-12 kennel
Fang
1998-08-28 birthday
Gave him a new chew toy
Claws
1998-03-17 birthday
Gave him a new flea collar
Whistler
1998-12-09 birthday
First birthday
Load the records like this:
mysql> LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE ’event.txt’ INTO TABLE event;
Based on what you’ve learned from the queries you’ve run on the pet table, you should be
able to perform retrievals on the records in the event table; the principles are the same.
But when is the event table by itself insufficient to answer questions you might ask?
Suppose that you want to find out the ages at which each pet had its litters. We saw earlier
how to calculate ages from two dates. The litter date of the mother is in the event table,
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but to calculate her age on that date you need her birth date, which is stored in the pet
table. This means the query requires both tables:
mysql> SELECT pet.name,
-> (YEAR(date)-YEAR(birth)) - (RIGHT(date,5)<RIGHT(birth,5)) AS age,
-> remark
-> FROM pet, event
-> WHERE pet.name = event.name AND type = ’litter’;
+--------+------+-----------------------------+
| name
| age | remark
|
+--------+------+-----------------------------+
| Fluffy |
2 | 4 kittens, 3 female, 1 male |
| Buffy |
4 | 5 puppies, 2 female, 3 male |
| Buffy |
5 | 3 puppies, 3 female
|
+--------+------+-----------------------------+
There are several things to note about this query:
• The FROM clause lists two tables because the query needs to pull information from both
of them.
• When combining (joining) information from multiple tables, you need to specify how
records in one table can be matched to records in the other. This is easy because they
both have a name column. The query uses WHERE clause to match up records in the two
tables based on the name values.
• Because the name column occurs in both tables, you must be specific about which table
you mean when referring to the column. This is done by prepending the table name to
the column name.
You need not have two different tables to perform a join. Sometimes it is useful to join a
table to itself, if you want to compare records in a table to other records in that same table.
For example, to find breeding pairs among your pets, you can join the pet table with itself
to produce candidate pairs of males and females of like species:
mysql> SELECT p1.name, p1.sex, p2.name, p2.sex, p1.species
-> FROM pet AS p1, pet AS p2
-> WHERE p1.species = p2.species AND p1.sex = ’f’ AND p2.sex = ’m’;
+--------+------+--------+------+---------+
| name
| sex | name
| sex | species |
+--------+------+--------+------+---------+
| Fluffy | f
| Claws | m
| cat
|
| Buffy | f
| Fang
| m
| dog
|
| Buffy | f
| Bowser | m
| dog
|
+--------+------+--------+------+---------+
In this query, we specify aliases for the table name in order to refer to the columns and
keep straight which instance of the table each column reference is associated with.
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3.4 Getting Information About Databases and Tables
What if you forget the name of a database or table, or what the structure of a given table is
(for example, what its columns are called)? MySQL addresses this problem through several
statements that provide information about the databases and tables it supports.
You have already seen SHOW DATABASES, which lists the databases managed by the server.
To find out which database is currently selected, use the DATABASE() function:
mysql> SELECT DATABASE();
+------------+
| DATABASE() |
+------------+
| menagerie |
+------------+
If you haven’t selected any database yet, the result is NULL (or the empty string before
MySQL 4.1.1).
To find out what tables the current database contains (for example, when you’re not sure
about the name of a table), use this command:
mysql> SHOW TABLES;
+---------------------+
| Tables in menagerie |
+---------------------+
| event
|
| pet
|
+---------------------+
If you want to find out about the structure of a table, the DESCRIBE command is useful; it
displays information about each of a table’s columns:
mysql> DESCRIBE pet;
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field
| Type
| Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| name
| varchar(20) | YES |
| NULL
|
|
| owner
| varchar(20) | YES |
| NULL
|
|
| species | varchar(20) | YES |
| NULL
|
|
| sex
| char(1)
| YES |
| NULL
|
|
| birth
| date
| YES |
| NULL
|
|
| death
| date
| YES |
| NULL
|
|
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
Field indicates the column name, Type is the data type for the column, NULL indicates
whether the column can contain NULL values, Key indicates whether the column is indexed,
and Default specifies the column’s default value.
If you have indexes on a table, SHOW INDEX FROM tbl_name produces information about
them.
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3.5 Using mysql in Batch Mode
In the previous sections, you used mysql interactively to enter queries and view the results.
You can also run mysql in batch mode. To do this, put the commands you want to run in
a file, then tell mysql to read its input from the file:
shell> mysql < batch-file
If you are running mysql under Windows and have some special characters in the file that
cause problems, you can do this:
C:\> mysql -e "source batch-file "
If you need to specify connection parameters on the command line, the command might
look like this:
shell> mysql -h host -u user -p < batch-file
Enter password: ********
When you use mysql this way, you are creating a script file, then executing the script.
If you want the script to continue even if some of the statements in it produce errors, you
should use the --force command-line option.
Why use a script? Here are a few reasons:
• If you run a query repeatedly (say, every day or every week), making it a script allows
you to avoid retyping it each time you execute it.
• You can generate new queries from existing ones that are similar by copying and editing
script files.
• Batch mode can also be useful while you’re developing a query, particularly for multipleline commands or multiple-statement sequences of commands. If you make a mistake,
you don’t have to retype everything. Just edit your script to correct the error, then
tell mysql to execute it again.
• If you have a query that produces a lot of output, you can run the output through a
pager rather than watching it scroll off the top of your screen:
shell> mysql < batch-file | more
• You can catch the output in a file for further processing:
shell> mysql < batch-file > mysql.out
• You can distribute your script to other people so they can run the commands, too.
• Some situations do not allow for interactive use, for example, when you run a query
from a cron job. In this case, you must use batch mode.
The default output format is different (more concise) when you run mysql in batch mode
than when you use it interactively. For example, the output of SELECT DISTINCT species
FROM pet looks like this when mysql is run interactively:
+---------+
| species |
+---------+
| bird
|
| cat
|
| dog
|
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| hamster |
| snake
|
+---------+
In batch mode, the output looks like this instead:
species
bird
cat
dog
hamster
snake
If you want to get the interactive output format in batch mode, use mysql -t. To echo to
the output the commands that are executed, use mysql -vvv.
You can also use scripts from the mysql prompt by using the source or \. command:
mysql> source filename;
mysql> \. filename
3.6 Examples of Common Queries
Here are examples of how to solve some common problems with MySQL.
Some of the examples use the table shop to hold the price of each article (item number)
for certain traders (dealers). Supposing that each trader has a single fixed price per article,
then (article, dealer) is a primary key for the records.
Start the command-line tool mysql and select a database:
shell> mysql your-database-name
(In most MySQL installations, you can use the database name test).
You can create and populate the example table with these statements:
mysql>
->
->
->
->
mysql>
->
->
CREATE TABLE shop (
article INT(4) UNSIGNED ZEROFILL DEFAULT ’0000’ NOT NULL,
dealer CHAR(20)
DEFAULT ’’
NOT NULL,
price
DOUBLE(16,2)
DEFAULT ’0.00’ NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY(article, dealer));
INSERT INTO shop VALUES
(1,’A’,3.45),(1,’B’,3.99),(2,’A’,10.99),(3,’B’,1.45),
(3,’C’,1.69),(3,’D’,1.25),(4,’D’,19.95);
After issuing the statements, the table should have the following contents:
mysql> SELECT * FROM shop;
+---------+--------+-------+
| article | dealer | price |
+---------+--------+-------+
|
0001 | A
| 3.45 |
|
0001 | B
| 3.99 |
|
0002 | A
| 10.99 |
|
0003 | B
| 1.45 |
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|
0003 | C
| 1.69 |
|
0003 | D
| 1.25 |
|
0004 | D
| 19.95 |
+---------+--------+-------+
3.6.1 The Maximum Value for a Column
“What’s the highest item number?”
SELECT MAX(article) AS article FROM shop;
+---------+
| article |
+---------+
|
4 |
+---------+
3.6.2 The Row Holding the Maximum of a Certain Column
“Find number, dealer, and price of the most expensive article.”
In standard SQL (and as of MySQL 4.1), this is easily done with a subquery:
SELECT article, dealer, price
FROM
shop
WHERE price=(SELECT MAX(price) FROM shop);
In MySQL versions prior to 4.1, just do it in two steps:
1. Get the maximum price value from the table with a SELECT statement.
mysql> SELECT MAX(price) FROM shop;
+------------+
| MAX(price) |
+------------+
|
19.95 |
+------------+
2. Using the value 19.95 shown by the previous query to be the maximum article price,
write a query to locate and display the corresponding record:
mysql> SELECT article, dealer, price
-> FROM
shop
-> WHERE price=19.95;
+---------+--------+-------+
| article | dealer | price |
+---------+--------+-------+
|
0004 | D
| 19.95 |
+---------+--------+-------+
Another solution is to sort all rows descending by price and only get the first row using the
MySQL-specific LIMIT clause:
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SELECT article, dealer, price
FROM
shop
ORDER BY price DESC
LIMIT 1;
Note: If there were several most expensive articles, each with a price of 19.95, the LIMIT
solution would show only one of them!
3.6.3 Maximum of Column per Group
“What’s the highest price per article?”
SELECT article, MAX(price) AS price
FROM
shop
GROUP BY article
+---------+-------+
| article | price |
+---------+-------+
|
0001 | 3.99 |
|
0002 | 10.99 |
|
0003 | 1.69 |
|
0004 | 19.95 |
+---------+-------+
3.6.4 The Rows Holding the Group-wise Maximum of a Certain
Field
“For each article, find the dealer or dealers with the most expensive price.”
In standard SQL (and as of MySQL 4.1), the problem can be solved with a subquery like
this:
SELECT article, dealer, price
FROM
shop s1
WHERE price=(SELECT MAX(s2.price)
FROM shop s2
WHERE s1.article = s2.article);
In MySQL versions prior to 4.1, it’s best do it in several steps:
1. Get the list of (article,maxprice) pairs.
2. For each article, get the corresponding rows that have the stored maximum price.
This can easily be done with a temporary table and a join:
CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE tmp (
article INT(4) UNSIGNED ZEROFILL DEFAULT ’0000’ NOT NULL,
price
DOUBLE(16,2)
DEFAULT ’0.00’ NOT NULL);
LOCK TABLES shop READ;
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INSERT INTO tmp SELECT article, MAX(price) FROM shop GROUP BY article;
SELECT shop.article, dealer, shop.price FROM shop, tmp
WHERE shop.article=tmp.article AND shop.price=tmp.price;
UNLOCK TABLES;
DROP TABLE tmp;
If you don’t use a TEMPORARY table, you must also lock the tmp table.
“Can it be done with a single query?”
Yes, but only by using a quite inefficient trick called the “MAX-CONCAT trick”:
SELECT article,
SUBSTRING( MAX( CONCAT(LPAD(price,6,’0’),dealer) ), 7) AS dealer,
0.00+LEFT(
MAX( CONCAT(LPAD(price,6,’0’),dealer) ), 6) AS price
FROM
shop
GROUP BY article;
+---------+--------+-------+
| article | dealer | price |
+---------+--------+-------+
|
0001 | B
| 3.99 |
|
0002 | A
| 10.99 |
|
0003 | C
| 1.69 |
|
0004 | D
| 19.95 |
+---------+--------+-------+
The last example can be made a bit more efficient by doing the splitting of the concatenated
column in the client.
3.6.5 Using User Variables
You can use MySQL user variables to remember results without having to store them in
temporary variables in the client. See Section 10.3 [Variables], page 530.
For example, to find the articles with the highest and lowest price you can do this:
mysql> SELECT @min_price:=MIN(price),@max_price:=MAX(price) FROM shop;
mysql> SELECT * FROM shop WHERE [email protected]_price OR [email protected]_price;
+---------+--------+-------+
| article | dealer | price |
+---------+--------+-------+
|
0003 | D
| 1.25 |
|
0004 | D
| 19.95 |
+---------+--------+-------+
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3.6.6 Using Foreign Keys
In MySQL 3.23.44 and up, InnoDB tables support checking of foreign key constraints. See
Chapter 16 [InnoDB], page 804. See also Section 1.8.5.5 [ANSI diff Foreign Keys], page 48.
You don’t actually need foreign keys to join two tables. For table types other than InnoDB,
the only things MySQL currently doesn’t do are 1) CHECK to make sure that the keys you
use really exist in the table or tables you’re referencing and 2) automatically delete rows
from a table with a foreign key definition. Using your keys to join tables will work just fine:
CREATE TABLE person (
id SMALLINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
name CHAR(60) NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (id)
);
CREATE TABLE shirt (
id SMALLINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
style ENUM(’t-shirt’, ’polo’, ’dress’) NOT NULL,
color ENUM(’red’, ’blue’, ’orange’, ’white’, ’black’) NOT NULL,
owner SMALLINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL REFERENCES person(id),
PRIMARY KEY (id)
);
INSERT INTO person VALUES (NULL, ’Antonio Paz’);
INSERT
(NULL,
(NULL,
(NULL,
INTO shirt VALUES
’polo’, ’blue’, LAST_INSERT_ID()),
’dress’, ’white’, LAST_INSERT_ID()),
’t-shirt’, ’blue’, LAST_INSERT_ID());
INSERT INTO person VALUES (NULL, ’Lilliana Angelovska’);
INSERT
(NULL,
(NULL,
(NULL,
(NULL,
INTO shirt VALUES
’dress’, ’orange’, LAST_INSERT_ID()),
’polo’, ’red’, LAST_INSERT_ID()),
’dress’, ’blue’, LAST_INSERT_ID()),
’t-shirt’, ’white’, LAST_INSERT_ID());
SELECT * FROM person;
+----+---------------------+
| id | name
|
+----+---------------------+
| 1 | Antonio Paz
|
| 2 | Lilliana Angelovska |
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+----+---------------------+
SELECT * FROM shirt;
+----+---------+--------+-------+
| id | style
| color | owner |
+----+---------+--------+-------+
| 1 | polo
| blue
|
1 |
| 2 | dress
| white |
1 |
| 3 | t-shirt | blue
|
1 |
| 4 | dress
| orange |
2 |
| 5 | polo
| red
|
2 |
| 6 | dress
| blue
|
2 |
| 7 | t-shirt | white |
2 |
+----+---------+--------+-------+
SELECT
WHERE
AND
AND
s.* FROM person p, shirt s
p.name LIKE ’Lilliana%’
s.owner = p.id
s.color <> ’white’;
+----+-------+--------+-------+
| id | style | color | owner |
+----+-------+--------+-------+
| 4 | dress | orange |
2 |
| 5 | polo | red
|
2 |
| 6 | dress | blue
|
2 |
+----+-------+--------+-------+
3.6.7 Searching on Two Keys
MySQL doesn’t yet optimize when you search on two different keys combined with OR
(searching on one key with different OR parts is optimized quite well):
SELECT field1_index, field2_index FROM test_table
WHERE field1_index = ’1’ OR field2_index = ’1’
The reason is that we haven’t yet had time to come up with an efficient way to handle this
in the general case. (The AND handling is, in comparison, now completely general and works
very well.)
In MySQL 4.0 and up, you can solve this problem efficiently by using a UNION that combines
the output of two separate SELECT statements. See Section 14.1.7.2 [UNION], page 690.
Each SELECT searches only one key and can be optimized:
SELECT field1_index, field2_index
FROM test_table WHERE field1_index = ’1’
UNION
SELECT field1_index, field2_index
FROM test_table WHERE field2_index = ’1’;
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Prior to MySQL 4.0, you can achieve the same effect by using a TEMPORARY table and
separate SELECT statements. This type of optimization is also very good if you are using
very complicated queries where the SQL server does the optimizations in the wrong order.
CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE tmp
SELECT field1_index, field2_index
FROM test_table WHERE field1_index = ’1’;
INSERT INTO tmp
SELECT field1_index, field2_index
FROM test_table WHERE field2_index = ’1’;
SELECT * from tmp;
DROP TABLE tmp;
This method of solving the problem is in effect a UNION of two queries.
3.6.8 Calculating Visits Per Day
The following example shows how you can use the bit group functions to calculate the
number of days per month a user has visited a Web page.
CREATE TABLE t1 (year YEAR(4), month INT(2) UNSIGNED ZEROFILL,
day INT(2) UNSIGNED ZEROFILL);
INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(2000,1,1),(2000,1,20),(2000,1,30),(2000,2,2),
(2000,2,23),(2000,2,23);
The example table contains year-month-day values representing visits by users to the page.
To determine how many different days in each month these visits occur, use this query:
SELECT year,month,BIT_COUNT(BIT_OR(1<<day)) AS days FROM t1
GROUP BY year,month;
Which returns:
+------+-------+------+
| year | month | days |
+------+-------+------+
| 2000 |
01 |
3 |
| 2000 |
02 |
2 |
+------+-------+------+
The query calculates how many different days appear in the table for each year/month
combination, with automatic removal of duplicate entries.
3.6.9 Using AUTO_INCREMENT
The AUTO_INCREMENT attribute can be used to generate a unique identity for new rows:
CREATE TABLE animals (
id MEDIUMINT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
name CHAR(30) NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (id)
);
INSERT INTO animals (name) VALUES (’dog’),(’cat’),(’penguin’),
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(’lax’),(’whale’),(’ostrich’);
SELECT * FROM animals;
Which returns:
+----+---------+
| id | name
|
+----+---------+
| 1 | dog
|
| 2 | cat
|
| 3 | penguin |
| 4 | lax
|
| 5 | whale
|
| 6 | ostrich |
+----+---------+
You can retrieve the most recent AUTO_INCREMENT value with the LAST_INSERT_ID() SQL
function or the mysql_insert_id() C API function. These functions are connectionspecific, so their return value is not affected by another connection also doing inserts.
Note: For a multiple-row insert, LAST_INSERT_ID()/mysql_insert_id() will actually return the AUTO_INCREMENT key from the first of the inserted rows. This allows multiple-row
inserts to be reproduced correctly on other servers in a replication setup.
For MyISAM and BDB tables you can specify AUTO_INCREMENT on a secondary column in a
multiple-column index. In this case, the generated value for the AUTO_INCREMENT column
is calculated as MAX(auto_increment_column)+1 WHERE prefix=given-prefix. This is
useful when you want to put data into ordered groups.
CREATE TABLE animals (
grp ENUM(’fish’,’mammal’,’bird’) NOT NULL,
id MEDIUMINT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
name CHAR(30) NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (grp,id)
);
INSERT INTO animals (grp,name) VALUES(’mammal’,’dog’),(’mammal’,’cat’),
(’bird’,’penguin’),(’fish’,’lax’),(’mammal’,’whale’),
(’bird’,’ostrich’);
SELECT * FROM animals ORDER BY grp,id;
Which returns:
+--------+----+---------+
| grp
| id | name
|
+--------+----+---------+
| fish
| 1 | lax
|
| mammal | 1 | dog
|
| mammal | 2 | cat
|
| mammal | 3 | whale
|
| bird
| 1 | penguin |
| bird
| 2 | ostrich |
+--------+----+---------+
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Note that in this case (when the AUTO_INCREMENT column is part of a multiple-column
index), AUTO_INCREMENT values will be reused if you delete the row with the biggest AUTO_
INCREMENT value in any group. This happens even for MyISAM tables, for which AUTO_
INCREMENT values normally are not reused.)
3.7 Queries from the Twin Project
At Analytikerna and Lentus, we have been doing the systems and field work for a big
research project. This project is a collaboration between the Institute of Environmental
Medicine at Karolinska Institutet Stockholm and the Section on Clinical Research in Aging
and Psychology at the University of Southern California.
The project involves a screening part where all twins in Sweden older than 65 years are
interviewed by telephone. Twins who meet certain criteria are passed on to the next stage.
In this latter stage, twins who want to participate are visited by a doctor/nurse team.
Some of the examinations include physical and neuropsychological examination, laboratory
testing, neuroimaging, psychological status assessment, and family history collection. In
addition, data are collected on medical and environmental risk factors.
More information about Twin studies can be found at: http://www.mep.ki.se/twinreg/index_
en.html
The latter part of the project is administered with a Web interface written using Perl and
MySQL.
Each night all data from the interviews is moved into a MySQL database.
3.7.1 Find All Non-distributed Twins
The following query is used to determine who goes into the second part of the project:
SELECT
CONCAT(p1.id, p1.tvab) + 0 AS tvid,
CONCAT(p1.christian_name, ’ ’, p1.surname) AS Name,
p1.postal_code AS Code,
p1.city AS City,
pg.abrev AS Area,
IF(td.participation = ’Aborted’, ’A’, ’ ’) AS A,
p1.dead AS dead1,
l.event AS event1,
td.suspect AS tsuspect1,
id.suspect AS isuspect1,
td.severe AS tsevere1,
id.severe AS isevere1,
p2.dead AS dead2,
l2.event AS event2,
h2.nurse AS nurse2,
h2.doctor AS doctor2,
td2.suspect AS tsuspect2,
id2.suspect AS isuspect2,
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td2.severe AS tsevere2,
id2.severe AS isevere2,
l.finish_date
FROM
twin_project AS tp
/* For Twin 1 */
LEFT JOIN twin_data AS td ON tp.id = td.id
AND tp.tvab = td.tvab
LEFT JOIN informant_data AS id ON tp.id = id.id
AND tp.tvab = id.tvab
LEFT JOIN harmony AS h ON tp.id = h.id
AND tp.tvab = h.tvab
LEFT JOIN lentus AS l ON tp.id = l.id
AND tp.tvab = l.tvab
/* For Twin 2 */
LEFT JOIN twin_data AS td2 ON p2.id = td2.id
AND p2.tvab = td2.tvab
LEFT JOIN informant_data AS id2 ON p2.id = id2.id
AND p2.tvab = id2.tvab
LEFT JOIN harmony AS h2 ON p2.id = h2.id
AND p2.tvab = h2.tvab
LEFT JOIN lentus AS l2 ON p2.id = l2.id
AND p2.tvab = l2.tvab,
person_data AS p1,
person_data AS p2,
postal_groups AS pg
WHERE
/* p1 gets main twin and p2 gets his/her twin. */
/* ptvab is a field inverted from tvab */
p1.id = tp.id AND p1.tvab = tp.tvab AND
p2.id = p1.id AND p2.ptvab = p1.tvab AND
/* Just the sceening survey */
tp.survey_no = 5 AND
/* Skip if partner died before 65 but allow emigration (dead=9) */
(p2.dead = 0 OR p2.dead = 9 OR
(p2.dead = 1 AND
(p2.death_date = 0 OR
(((TO_DAYS(p2.death_date) - TO_DAYS(p2.birthday)) / 365)
>= 65))))
AND
(
/* Twin is suspect */
(td.future_contact = ’Yes’ AND td.suspect = 2) OR
/* Twin is suspect - Informant is Blessed */
(td.future_contact = ’Yes’ AND td.suspect = 1
AND id.suspect = 1) OR
/* No twin - Informant is Blessed */
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(ISNULL(td.suspect) AND id.suspect = 1
AND id.future_contact = ’Yes’) OR
/* Twin broken off - Informant is Blessed */
(td.participation = ’Aborted’
AND id.suspect = 1 AND id.future_contact = ’Yes’) OR
/* Twin broken off - No inform - Have partner */
(td.participation = ’Aborted’ AND ISNULL(id.suspect)
AND p2.dead = 0))
AND
l.event = ’Finished’
/* Get at area code */
AND SUBSTRING(p1.postal_code, 1, 2) = pg.code
/* Not already distributed */
AND (h.nurse IS NULL OR h.nurse=00 OR h.doctor=00)
/* Has not refused or been aborted */
AND NOT (h.status = ’Refused’ OR h.status = ’Aborted’
OR h.status = ’Died’ OR h.status = ’Other’)
ORDER BY
tvid;
Some explanations:
CONCAT(p1.id, p1.tvab) + 0 AS tvid
We want to sort on the concatenated id and tvab in numerical order. Adding
0 to the result causes MySQL to treat the result as a number.
column id This identifies a pair of twins. It is a key in all tables.
column tvab
This identifies a twin in a pair. It has a value of 1 or 2.
column ptvab
This is an inverse of tvab. When tvab is 1 this is 2, and vice versa. It exists
to save typing and to make it easier for MySQL to optimize the query.
This query demonstrates, among other things, how to do lookups on a table from the same
table with a join (p1 and p2). In the example, this is used to check whether a twin’s partner
died before the age of 65. If so, the row is not returned.
All of the above exist in all tables with twin-related information. We have a key on both
id,tvab (all tables), and id,ptvab (person_data) to make queries faster.
On our production machine (A 200MHz UltraSPARC), this query returns about 150-200
rows and takes less than one second.
The current number of records in the tables used in the query:
Table
person_data
lentus
twin_project
twin_data
informant_data
Rows
71074
5291
5286
2012
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postal_groups
221
381
100
3.7.2 Show a Table of Twin Pair Status
Each interview ends with a status code called event. The query shown here is used to
display a table over all twin pairs combined by event. This indicates in how many pairs
both twins are finished, in how many pairs one twin is finished and the other refused, and
so on.
SELECT
t1.event,
t2.event,
COUNT(*)
FROM
lentus AS t1,
lentus AS t2,
twin_project AS tp
WHERE
/* We are looking at one pair at a time */
t1.id = tp.id
AND t1.tvab=tp.tvab
AND t1.id = t2.id
/* Just the sceening survey */
AND tp.survey_no = 5
/* This makes each pair only appear once */
AND t1.tvab=’1’ AND t2.tvab=’2’
GROUP BY
t1.event, t2.event;
3.8 Using MySQL with Apache
There are programs that let you authenticate your users from a MySQL database and also
let you write your log files into a MySQL table.
You can change the Apache logging format to be easily readable by MySQL by putting the
following into the Apache configuration file:
LogFormat \
"\"%h\",%{%Y%m%d%H%M%S}t,%>s,\"%b\",\"%{Content-Type}o\", \
\"%U\",\"%{Referer}i\",\"%{User-Agent}i\""
To load a log file in that format into MySQL, you can use a statement something like this:
LOAD DATA INFILE ’/local/access_log ’ INTO TABLE tbl_name
FIELDS TERMINATED BY ’,’ OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY ’"’ ESCAPED BY ’\\’
The named table should be created to have columns that correspond to those that the
LogFormat line writes to the log file.
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4 Using MySQL Programs
This chapter provides a brief overview of the programs provided by MySQL AB and discusses how to specify options when you run these programs. Most programs have options
that are specific to their own operation, but the syntax for specifying options is similar
for all of them. Later chapters provide more detailed descriptions of individual programs,
including which options they recognize.
4.1 Overview of MySQL Programs
MySQL AB provides several types of programs:
The MYSQL server and server startup scripts:
• mysqld is the MySQL server
• mysqld_safe, mysql.server, and mysqld_multi are server startup scripts
• mysql_install_db initializes the data directory and the initial databases
These programs are discussed further in Chapter 5 [MySQL Database Administration], page 231.
Client programs that access the server:
• mysql is a command-line client for executing SQL statements interactively
or in batch mode
• mysqlcc (MySQL Control Center) is an interactive graphical tool for executing SQL statements and administration
• mysqladmin is an administrative client
• mysqlcheck performs table maintenance operations
• mysqldump and mysqlhotcopy make database backups
• mysqlimport imports data files
• mysqlshow displays information about databases and tables
These programs are discussed further in Chapter 8 [Client-Side Scripts],
page 479.
Utility programs that operate independently of the server:
• myisamchk performs table maintenance operations
• myisampack produces compressed, read-only tables
• mysqlbinlog is a tool for processing binary log files
• perror displays error code meanings
myisamchk is discussed further in Chapter 5 [MySQL Database Administration],
page 231. The other programs are further in Chapter 8 [Client-Side Scripts],
page 479.
Most MySQL distributions include all of these programs, except for those programs that
are platform-specific. (For example, the server startup scripts are not used on Windows.)
The exception is that RPM distributions are more specialized. There is one RPM for the
server, another for the client programs, and so forth. If you appear to be missing one or
more programs, see Chapter 2 [Installing], page 59 for information on types of distributions
and what they contain. It may be that you need to install something else.
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4.2 Invoking MySQL Programs
To invoke a MySQL program at the command line (that is, from your shell or command
prompt), enter the program name followed by any options or other arguments needed to
instruct the program what you want it to do. The following commands show some sample
program invocations. “shell>” represents the prompt for your command interpreter; it is
not part of what you type. The particular prompt you will see depends on your command
interpreter. Typical prompts are $ for sh or bash, % for csh or tcsh, and C:\> for Windows
command.com or cmd.exe.
shell>
shell>
shell>
shell>
mysql test
mysqladmin extended-status variables
mysqlshow --help
mysqldump --user=root personnel
Arguments that begin with a dash are option arguments. They typically specify the type
of connection a program should make to the server or affect its operational mode. Options
have a syntax that is described in Section 4.3 [Program Options], page 223.
Non-option arguments (arguments with no leading dash) provide additional information to
the program. For example, the mysql program interprets the first non-option argument as
a database name, so the command mysql test indicates that you want to use the test
database.
Later sections that describe individual programs indicate which options a program understands and describe the meaning of any additional non-option arguments.
Some options are common to a number of programs. The most common of these are the -host, --user, and --password options that specify connection parameters. They indicate
the host where the MySQL server is running, and the username and password of your
MySQL account. All MySQL client programs understand these options; they allow you to
specify which server to connect to and the account to use on that server.
You may find it necessary to invoke MySQL programs using the pathname to the ‘bin’
directory in which they are installed. This is likely to be the case if you get a “program not
found” error whenever you attempt to run a MySQL program from any directory other than
the ‘bin’ directory. To make it more convenient to use MySQL, you can add the pathname
of the ‘bin’ directory to your PATH environment variable setting. Then to run a program
you need only type its name, not its entire pathname.
Consult the documentation for your command interpreter for instructions on setting your
PATH. The syntax for setting environment variables is interpreter-specific.
4.3 Specifying Program Options
You can provide options for MySQL programs in several ways:
• On the command line following the program name. This is most common for options
that apply to a specific invocation of the program.
• In an option file that the program reads when it starts. This is common for options
that you want the program to use each time it runs.
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• In environment variables. These are useful for options that you want to apply each
time the program runs, although in practice option files are used more commonly for
this purpose. (Section 5.10.2 [Multiple Unix servers], page 377 discusses one situation
in which environment variables can be very helpful. It describes a handy technique
that uses such variables to specify the TCP/IP port number and Unix socket file for
both the server and client programs.)
MySQL programs determine which options are given first by examining environment variables, then option files, and then the command line. If an option is specified multiple
times, the last occurrence takes precedence. This means that environment variables have
the lowest precedence and command-line options the highest.
You can take advantage of the way that MySQL programs process options by specifying the
default values for a program’s options in an option file. Then you need not type them each
time you run the program, but can override the defaults if necessary by using command-line
options.
4.3.1 Using Options on the Command Line
Program options specified on the command line follow these rules:
• Options are given after the command name.
• An option argument begins with one dash or two dashes, depending on whether it has
a short name or a long name. Many options have both forms. For example, -? and
--help are the short and long forms of the option that instructs a MySQL program to
display a help message.
• Option names are case sensitive. -v and -V are both legal and have different meanings.
(They are the corresponding short forms of the --verbose and --version options.)
• Some options take a value following the option name. For example, -h localhost or
--host=localhost indicate the MySQL server host to a client program. The option
value tells the program the name of the host where the MySQL server is running.
• For a long option that takes a value, separate the option name and the value by an ‘=’
sign. For a short option that takes a value, the option value can immediately follow
the option letter, or there can be a space between. (-hlocalhost and -h localhost
are equivalent.) An exception to this rule is the option for specifying your MySQL
password. This option can be given in long form as --password=pass_val or as -password. In the latter case (with no password value given), the program will prompt
you for the password. The password option also may be given in short form as -ppass_
val or as -p. However, for the short form, if the password value is given, it must follow
the option letter with no intervening space. The reason for this is that if a space
follows the option letter, the program has no way to tell whether a following argument
is supposed to be the password value or some other kind of argument. Consequently,
the following two commands have two completely different meanings:
shell> mysql -ptest
shell> mysql -p test
The first command instructs mysql to use a password value of test, but specifies no
default database. The second instructs mysql to prompt for the password value and to
use test as the default database.
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MySQL 4.0 introduced some additional flexibility in the way you specify options. These
changes were made in MySQL 4.0.2. Some of them relate to the way you specify options
that have “enabled” and “disabled” states, and to the use of options that might be present
in one version of MySQL but not another. Those capabilities are discussed in this section.
Another change pertains to the way you use options to set program variables. Section 4.3.4
[Program variables], page 229 discusses that topic further.
Some options control behavior that can be turned on or off. For example, the mysql
client supports a --column-names option that determines whether or not to display a row
of column names at the beginning of query results. By default, this option is enabled.
However, you may want to disable it in some instances, such as when sending the output
of mysql into another program that expects to see only data and not an initial header line.
To disable column names, you can specify the option using any of these forms:
--disable-column-names
--skip-column-names
--column-names=0
The --disable and --skip prefixes and the =0 suffix all have the same effect: They turn
the option off.
The “enabled” form of the option may be specified in any of these ways:
--column-names
--enable-column-names
--column-names=1
Another change to option processing introduced in MySQL 4.0 is that you can use the
--loose prefix for command-line options. If an option is prefixed by --loose, the program
will not exit with an error if it does not recognize the option, but instead will issue only a
warning:
shell> mysql --loose-no-such-option
mysql: WARNING: unknown option ’--no-such-option’
The --loose prefix can be useful when you run programs from multiple installations of
MySQL on the same machine, at least if all the versions are as recent as 4.0.2. This prefix
is particularly useful when you list options in an option file. An option that may not be
recognized by all versions of a program can be given using the --loose prefix (or loose in
an option file). Versions of the program that do not recognize the option will issue a warning
and ignore it. This strategy requires that versions involved be 4.0.2 or later, because earlier
versions know nothing of the --loose convention.
4.3.2 Using Option Files
MySQL programs can read startup options from option files (also sometimes called configuration files). Option files provide a convenient way to specify commonly used options so
that they need not be entered on the command line each time you run a program. Option
file capability is available from MySQL 3.22 on.
The following programs support option files:
myisamchk, myisampack, mysql,
mysql.server, mysqladmin, mysqlbinlog, mysqlcc, mysqlcheck, mysqld_safe,
mysqldump, mysqld, mysqlhotcopy, mysqlimport, and mysqlshow.
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On Windows, MySQL programs read startup options from the following files:
Filename
Purpose
WINDIR \my.ini
Global options
C:\my.cnf
Global options
WINDIR represents the location of your Windows directory.
This is commonly
‘C:\Windows’ or ‘C:\WinNT’. You can determine its exact location from the value of the
WINDIR environment variable using the following command:
C:\> echo %WINDIR%
On Unix, MySQL programs read startup options from the following files:
Filename
Purpose
/etc/my.cnf
Global options
DATADIR /my.cnf
Server-specific options
defaults-extra-file
The file specified with --defaults-extra-file=path , if any
~/.my.cnf
User-specific options
DATADIR represents the location of the MySQL data directory. Typically this is
‘/usr/local/mysql/data’ for a binary installation or ‘/usr/local/var’ for a source
installation. Note that this is the data directory location that was specified at configuration
time, not the one specified with --datadir when mysqld starts. Use of --datadir at
runtime has no effect on where the server looks for option files, because it looks for them
before processing any command-line arguments.
MySQL looks for option files in the order just described and reads any that exist. If an
option file that you want to use does not exist, create it with a plain text editor. If multiple
option files exist, an option specified in a file read later takes precedence over the same
option specified in a file read earlier.
Any long option that may be given on the command line when running a MySQL program
can be given in an option file as well. To get the list of available options for a program, run
it with the --help option.
The syntax for specifying options in an option file is similar to command-line syntax, except
that you omit the leading two dashes. For example, --quick or --host=localhost on the
command line should be specified as quick or host=localhost in an option file. To specify
an option of the form --loose-opt_name in an option file, write it as loose-opt_name.
Empty lines in option files are ignored. Non-empty lines can take any of the following forms:
#comment
;comment
Comment lines start with ‘#’ or ‘;’. As of MySQL 4.0.14, a ‘#’-comment can
start in the middle of a line as well.
[group ]
group is the name of the program or group for which you want to set options.
After a group line, any opt name or set-variable lines apply to the named
group until the end of the option file or another group line is given.
opt_name
This is equivalent to --opt_name on the command line.
opt_name =value
This is equivalent to --opt_name =value on the command line. In an option
file, you can have spaces around the ‘=’ character, something that is not true on
the command line. As of MySQL 4.0.16, you can quote the value with double
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quotes or single quotes. This is useful if the value contains a ‘#’ comment
character or whitespace.
set-variable = var_name =value
Set the program variable var name to the given value. This is equivalent to
--set-variable=var_name =value on the command line. Spaces are allowed
around the first ‘=’ character but not around the second. This syntax is deprecated as of MySQL 4.0. See Section 4.3.4 [Program variables], page 229 for
more information on setting program variables.
Leading and trailing blanks are automatically deleted from option names and values. You
may use the escape sequences ‘\b’, ‘\t’, ‘\n’, ‘\r’, ‘\\’, and ‘\s’ in option values to represent
the backspace, tab, newline, carriage return, and space characters.
On Windows, if an option value represents a pathname, you should specify the value using
‘/’ rather than ‘\’ as the pathname separator. If you use ‘\’, you must double it as ‘\\’,
because ‘\’ is the escape character in MySQL.
If an option group name is the same as a program name, options in the group apply
specifically to that program.
The [client] option group is read by all client programs (but not by mysqld). This allows
you to specify options that apply to every client. For example, [client] is the perfect
group to use to specify the password that you use to connect to the server. (But make sure
that the option file is readable and writable only by yourself, so that other people cannot
find out your password.) Be sure not to put an option in the [client] group unless it
is recognized by all client programs that you use. Programs that do not understand the
option will quit after displaying an error message if you try to run them.
As of MySQL 4.0.14, if you want to create option groups that should be read only by
one specific mysqld server release series, you can do this by using groups with names of
[mysqld-4.0], [mysqld-4.1], and so forth. The following group indicates that the --new
option should be used only by MySQL servers with 4.0.x version numbers:
[mysqld-4.0]
new
Here is a typical global option file:
[client]
port=3306
socket=/tmp/mysql.sock
[mysqld]
port=3306
socket=/tmp/mysql.sock
key_buffer_size=16M
max_allowed_packet=8M
[mysqldump]
quick
The preceding option file uses var_name =value syntax for the lines that set the key_
buffer_size and max_allowed_packet variables. Prior to MySQL 4.0.2, you would need
to use set-variable syntax instead (described earlier in this section).
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Here is a typical user option file:
[client]
# The following password will be sent to all standard MySQL clients
password="my_password"
[mysql]
no-auto-rehash
set-variable = connect_timeout=2
[mysqlhotcopy]
interactive-timeout
This option file uses set-variable syntax to set the connect_timeout variable. For
MySQL 4.0.2 and up, you can also set the variable using just connect_timeout=2.
If you have a source distribution, you will find sample option files named ‘my-xxxx.cnf’
in the ‘support-files’ directory. If you have a binary distribution, look in the
‘support-files’ directory under your MySQL installation directory (typically ‘C:\mysql’
on Windows or ‘/usr/local/mysql’ on Unix). Currently there are sample option files for
small, medium, large, and very large systems. To experiment with one of these files, copy
it to ‘C:\my.cnf’ on Windows or to ‘.my.cnf’ in your home directory on Unix.
Note: On Windows, the ‘.cnf’ option file extension might not be displayed.
All MySQL programs that support option files handle the following command-line options:
--no-defaults
Don’t read any option files.
--print-defaults
Print the program name and all options that it will get from option files.
--defaults-file=path_name
Use only the given option file. path name is the full pathname to the file.
--defaults-extra-file=path_name
Read this option file after the global option file but before the user option file.
path name is the full pathname to the file.
To work properly, each of these options must immediately follow the command name on
the command line, with the exception that --print-defaults may be used immediately
after --defaults-file or --defaults-extra-file.
In shell scripts, you can use the my_print_defaults program to parse option files. The
following example shows the output that my_print_defaults might produce when asked
to show the options found in the [client] and [mysql] groups:
shell> my_print_defaults client mysql
--port=3306
--socket=/tmp/mysql.sock
--no-auto-rehash
Note for developers: Option file handling is implemented in the C client library simply
by processing all matching options (that is, options in the appropriate group) before any
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command-line arguments. This works nicely for programs that use the last instance of
an option that is specified multiple times. If you have a C or C++ program that handles
multiply specified options this way but doesn’t read option files, you need add only two
lines to give it that capability. Check the source code of any of the standard MySQL clients
to see how to do this.
Several other language interfaces to MySQL are based on the C client library, and some of
them provide a way to access option file contents. These include Perl and Python. See the
documentation for your preferred interface for details.
4.3.3 Using Environment Variables to Specify Options
To specify an option using an environment variable, set the variable using the syntax appropriate for your comment processor. For example, on Windows or NetWare, you can set
the USER variable to specify your MySQL account name. To do so, use this syntax:
SET USER=your_name
The syntax on Unix depends on your shell. Suppose that you want to specify the TCP/IP
port number using the MYSQL_TCP_PORT variable. The syntax for Bourne shell and variants
(sh, bash, zsh, etc.) is:
MYSQL_TCP_PORT=3306
For csh and tcsh, use this syntax:
setenv MYSQL_TCP_PORT 3306
The commands to set environment variables can be executed at your command prompt
to take effect immediately. These settings persist until you log out. To have the settings
take effect each time you log in, place the appropriate command or commands in a startup
file that your command interpreter reads each time it starts. Typical startup files are
‘AUTOEXEC.BAT’ for Windows, ‘.bash_profile’ for bash, or ‘.tcshrc’ for tcsh. Consult
the documentation for your command interpreter for specific details.
Appendix E [Environment variables], page 1338 lists all environment variables that affect
MySQL program operation.
4.3.4 Using Options to Set Program Variables
Many MySQL programs have internal variables that can be set at runtime. As of MySQL
4.0.2, program variables are set the same way as any other long option that takes a value.
For example, mysql has a max_allowed_packet variable that controls the maximum size
of its communication buffer. To set the max_allowed_packet variable for mysql to a value
of 16MB, use either of the following commands:
shell> mysql --max_allowed_packet=16777216
shell> mysql --max_allowed_packet=16M
The first command specifies the value in bytes. The second specifies the value in megabytes.
Variable values can have a suffix of K, M, or G (either uppercase or lowercase) to indicate
units of kilobytes, megabytes, or gigabytes.
In an option file, the variable setting is given without the leading dashes:
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[mysql]
max_allowed_packet=16777216
Or:
[mysql]
max_allowed_packet=16M
If you like, underscores in a variable name can be specified as dashes.
Prior to MySQL 4.0.2, program variable names are not recognized as option names. Instead,
use the --set-variable option to assign a value to a variable:
shell> mysql --set-variable=max_allowed_packet=16777216
shell> mysql --set-variable=max_allowed_packet=16M
In an option file, omit the leading dashes:
[mysql]
set-variable = max_allowed_packet=16777216
Or:
[mysql]
set-variable = max_allowed_packet=16M
With --set-variable, underscores in variable names cannot be given as dashes for versions
of MySQL older than 4.0.2.
The --set-variable option is still recognized in MySQL 4.0.2 and up, but is deprecated.
Some server variables can be set at runtime. For details, see Section 5.2.3.1 [Dynamic
System Variables], page 279.
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5 Database Administration
This chapter covers topics that deal with administering a MySQL installation, such as
configuring the server, managing user accounts, and performing backups.
5.1 The MySQL Server and Server Startup Scripts
The MySQL server, mysqld, is the main program that does most of the work in a MySQL
installation. The server is accompanied by several related scripts that perform setup operations when you install MySQL or that are helper programs to assist you in starting and
stopping the server.
This section provides an overview of the server and related programs, and information about
server startup scripts. Information about configuring the server itself is given in Section 5.2
[Configuring MySQL], page 241.
5.1.1 Overview of the Server-Side Scripts and Utilities
All MySQL programs take many different options. However, every MySQL program provides a --help option that you can use to get a description of the program’s options. For
example, try mysqld --help.
You can override default options for all standard programs by specifying options on the
command line or in an option file. Section 4.3 [Program Options], page 223.
The following list briefly describes the MySQL server and server-related programs:
mysqld
The SQL daemon (that is, the MySQL server). To use client programs, this program must be running, because clients gain access to databases by connecting
to the server. See Section 5.2 [Configuring MySQL], page 241.
mysqld-max
A version of the server that includes additional features. See Section 5.1.2
[mysqld-max], page 232.
mysqld_safe
A server startup script. mysqld_safe attempts to start mysqld-max if it exists,
and mysqld otherwise. See Section 5.1.3 [mysqld_safe], page 234.
mysql.server
A server startup script. This script is used on systems that use run directories
containing scripts that start system services for particular run levels. It invokes
mysqld_safe to start the MySQL server. See Section 5.1.4 [mysql.server],
page 237.
mysqld_multi
A server startup script that can start or stop multiple servers installed on the
system. See Section 5.1.5 [mysqld_multi], page 237.
mysql_install_db
This script creates the MySQL grant tables with default privileges. It is usually
executed only once, when first installing MySQL on a system.
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mysql_fix_privilege_tables
This script is used after an upgrade install operation, to update the grant tables
with any changes that have been made in newer versions of MySQL.
There are several other programs that also are run on the server host:
myisamchk
A utility to describe, check, optimize, and repair MyISAM tables. myisamchk is
described in Section 5.7.2 [Table maintenance], page 340.
make_binary_distribution
This program makes a binary release of a compiled MySQL. This could be sent
by FTP to ‘/pub/mysql/upload/’ on ftp.mysql.com for the convenience of
other MySQL users.
mysqlbug
The MySQL bug reporting script. It can be used to send a bug report to the
MySQL mailing list. (You can also visit http://bugs.mysql.com/ to file a bug
report online.)
5.1.2 The mysqld-max Extended MySQL Server
A MySQL-Max server is a version of the mysqld MySQL server that has been built to
include additional features.
The distribution to use depends on your platform:
• For Windows, MySQL binary distributions include both the standard server
(mysqld.exe) and the MySQL-Max server (mysqld-max.exe), so you need not
get a special distribution. Just use a regular Windows distribution, available at
http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mysql-4.0.html. See Section 2.2.1 [Windows
installation], page 78.
• For Linux, if you install MySQL using RPM distributions, use the regular MySQLserver RPM first to install a standard server named mysqld. Then use the MySQL-Max
RPM to install a server named mysqld-max. The MySQL-Max RPM presupposes that
you have already installed the regular server RPM. See Section 2.2.2 [Linux-RPM],
page 90 for more information on the Linux RPM packages.
• All other MySQL-Max distributions contain a single server that is named mysqld but
that has the additional features included.
You can find the MySQL-Max binaries on the
http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mysql-4.0.html.
MySQL
AB
Web
site
at
MySQL AB builds the MySQL-Max servers by using the following configure options:
--with-server-suffix=-max
This option adds a -max suffix to the mysqld version string.
--with-innodb
This option enables support for the InnoDB storage engine. MySQL-Max servers
always include InnoDB support, but this option actually is needed only for
MySQL 3.23. From MySQL 4 on, InnoDB is included by default in binary distributions, so you do not need a MySQL-Max server to obtain InnoDB support.
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--with-bdb
This option enables support for the Berkeley DB (BDB) storage engine.
CFLAGS=-DUSE_SYMDIR
This define enables symbolic link support for Windows.
MySQL-Max binary distributions are a convenience for those who wish to install precompiled programs. If you build MySQL using a source distribution, you can build your own
Max-like server by enabling the same features at configuration time that the MySQL-Max
binary distributions are built with.
MySQL-Max servers include the BerkeleyDB (BDB) storage engine whenever possible, but
not all platforms support BDB. The following table shows which platforms allow MySQLMax binaries to include BDB:
System
AIX 4.3
HP-UX 11.0
Linux-Alpha
Linux-IA-64
Linux-Intel
Mac OS X
NetWare
SCO OSR5
Solaris-Intel
Solaris-SPARC
UnixWare
Windows/NT
BDB Support
N
N
N
N
Y
N
N
Y
N
Y
Y
Y
To find out which storage engines your server supports, issue the following statement:
mysql> SHOW ENGINES;
Before MySQL 4.1.2, SHOW ENGINES is unavailable. Use the following statement instead and
check the value of the variable for the storage engine in which you are interested:
mysql> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE ’have_%’;
+------------------+----------+
| Variable_name
| Value
|
+------------------+----------+
| have_bdb
| NO
|
| have_crypt
| YES
|
| have_innodb
| YES
|
| have_isam
| NO
|
| have_raid
| NO
|
| have_symlink
| DISABLED |
| have_openssl
| NO
|
| have_query_cache | YES
|
+------------------+----------+
The values in the second column indicate the server’s level of support for each feature:
Value
YES
Meaning
The feature is supported and is active.
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NO
DISABLED
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The feature is not supported.
The feature is supported but has been disabled.
A value of NO means that the server was compiled without support for the feature, so it
cannot be activated at runtime.
A value of DISABLED occurs either because the server was started with an option that
disables the feature, or because not all options required to enable it were given. In the
latter case, the host_name.err error log file should contain a reason indicating why the
option is disabled.
One situation in which you might see DISABLED occurs with MySQL 3.23 when the InnoDB
storage engine is compiled in. In MySQL 3.23, you must supply at least the innodb_
data_file_path option at runtime to set up the InnoDB tablespace. Without this option,
InnoDB disables itself. See Section 16.3 [InnoDB in MySQL 3.23], page 805. You can specify
configuration options for the BDB storage engine, too, but BDB will not disable itself if you
do not provide them. See Section 15.4.3 [BDB start], page 799.
You might also see DISABLED for the InnoDB, BDB, or ISAM storage engines if the server
was compiled to support them, but was started with the --skip-innodb, --skip-bdb, or
--skip-isam options at runtime.
As of Version 3.23, all MySQL servers support MyISAM tables, because MyISAM is the default
storage engine.
5.1.3 The mysqld_safe Server Startup Script
mysqld_safe is the recommended way to start a mysqld server on Unix and NetWare.
mysqld_safe adds some safety features such as restarting the server when an error occurs
and logging runtime information to an error log file. NetWare-specific behaviors are listed
later in this section.
Note: Before MySQL 4.0, mysqld_safe is named safe_mysqld. To preserve backward
compatibility, MySQL binary distributions for some time will include safe_mysqld as a
symbolic link to mysqld_safe.
By default, mysqld_safe tries to start an executable named mysqld-max if it exists, or
mysqld otherwise. Be aware of the implications of this behavior:
• On Linux, the MySQL-Max RPM relies on this mysqld_safe behavior. The RPM installs
an executable named mysqld-max, which causes mysqld_safe to automatically use that
executable from that point on.
• If you install a MySQL-Max distribution that includes a server named mysqld-max,
then upgrade later to a non-Max version of MySQL, mysqld_safe will still attempt to
run the old mysqld-max server. If you perform such an upgrade, you should manually
remove the old mysqld-max server to ensure that mysqld_safe runs the new mysqld
server.
To override the default behavior and specify explicitly which server you want to run, specify
a --mysqld or --mysqld-version option to mysqld_safe.
Many of the options to mysqld_safe are the same as the options to mysqld. See Section 5.2.1
[Server options], page 241.
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All options specified to mysqld_safe on the command line are passed to mysqld. If you
want to use any options that are specific to mysqld_safe and that mysqld doesn’t support,
do not specify them on the command line. Instead, list them in the [mysqld_safe] group
of an option file. See Section 4.3.2 [Option files], page 225.
mysqld_safe reads all options from the [mysqld], [server], and [mysqld_safe] sections
in option files. For backward compatibility, it also reads [safe_mysqld] sections, although
you should rename such sections to [mysqld_safe] when you begin using MySQL 4.0 or
later.
mysqld_safe supports the following options:
--basedir=path
The path to the MySQL installation directory.
--core-file-size=size
The size of the core file mysqld should be able to create. The option value is
passed to ulimit -c.
--datadir=path
The path to the data directory.
--defaults-extra-file=path
The name of an option file to be read in addition to the usual option files.
--defaults-file=path
The name of an option file to be read instead of the usual option files.
--err-log=path
The old form of the --log-error option, to be used before MySQL 4.0.
--ledir=path
The path to the directory containing the mysqld program. Use this option to
explicitly indicate the location of the server.
--log-error=path
Write the error log to the given file. See Section 5.9.1 [Error log], page 366.
--mysqld=prog_name
The name of the server program (in the ledir directory) that you want to start.
This option is needed if you use the MySQL binary distribution but have the
data directory outside of the binary distribution.
--mysqld-version=suffix
This option is similar to the --mysqld option, but you specify only the suffix
for the server program name. The basename is assumed to be mysqld. For example, if you use --mysqld-version=max, mysqld_safe will start the mysqldmax program in the ledir directory. If the argument to --mysqld-version is
empty, mysqld_safe uses mysqld in the ledir directory.
--nice=priority
Use the nice program to set the server’s scheduling priority to the given value.
This option was added in MySQL 4.0.14.
--no-defaults
Do not read any option files.
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--open-files-limit=count
The number of files mysqld should be able to open. The option value is passed
to ulimit -n. Note that you need to start mysqld_safe as root for this to
work properly!
--pid-file=path
The path to the process ID file.
--port=port_num
The port number to use when listening for TCP/IP connections.
--socket=path
The Unix socket file to use for local connections.
--timezone=zone
Set the TZ time zone environment variable to the given option value. Consult
your operating system documentation for legal time zone specification formats.
--user={user_name | user_id }
Run the mysqld server as the user having the name user name or the numeric
user ID user id. (“User” in this context refers to a system login account, not a
MySQL user listed in the grant tables.)
The mysqld_safe script is written so that it normally can start a server that was installed
from either a source or a binary distribution of MySQL, even though these types of distributions typically install the server in slightly different locations. (See Section 2.1.5 [Installation
layouts], page 76.) mysqld_safe expects one of the following conditions to be true:
• The server and databases can be found relative to the directory from which mysqld_
safe is invoked. For binary distributions, mysqld_safe looks under its working directory for ‘bin’ and ‘data’ directories. For source distributions, it looks for ‘libexec’
and ‘var’ directories. This condition should be met if you execute mysqld_safe from
your MySQL installation directory (for example, ‘/usr/local/mysql’ for a binary distribution).
• If the server and databases cannot be found relative to the working directory,
mysqld_safe attempts to locate them by absolute pathnames. Typical locations are
‘/usr/local/libexec’ and ‘/usr/local/var’. The actual locations are determined
from the values configured into the distribution at the time it was built. They should
be correct if MySQL is installed in the location specified at configuration time.
Because mysqld_safe will try to find the server and databases relative to its own working
directory, you can install a binary distribution of MySQL anywhere, as long as you run
mysqld_safe from the MySQL installation directory:
shell> cd mysql_installation_directory
shell> bin/mysqld_safe &
If mysqld_safe fails, even when invoked from the MySQL installation directory, you can
specify the --ledir and --datadir options to indicate the directories in which the server
and databases are located on your system.
Normally, you should not edit the mysqld_safe script. Instead, configure mysqld_safe
by using command-line options or options in the [mysqld_safe] section of a ‘my.cnf’
option file. In rare cases, it might be necessary to edit mysqld_safe to get it to start the
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server properly. However, if you do this, your modified version of mysqld_safe might be
overwritten if you upgrade MySQL in the future, so you should make a copy of your edited
version that you can reinstall.
On NetWare, mysqld_safe is a NetWare Loadable Module (NLM) that is ported from the
original Unix shell script. It does the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Runs a number of system and option checks.
Runs a check on MyISAM and ISAM tables.
Provides a screen presence for the MySQL server.
Starts mysqld, monitors it, and restarts it if it terminates in error.
Sends error messages from mysqld to the ‘host_name.err’ file in the data directory.
Sends mysqld_safe screen output to the ‘host_name.safe’ file in the data directory.
5.1.4 The mysql.server Server Startup Script
MySQL distributions on Unix include a script named mysql.server. It can be used on
systems such as Linux and Solaris that use System V-style run directories to start and stop
system services. It is also used by the Mac OS X Startup Item for MySQL.
mysql.server can be found in the ‘support-files’ directory under your MySQL installation directory or in a MySQL source tree.
If you use the Linux server RPM package (MySQL-server-VERSION.rpm), the mysql.server
script will already have been installed in the ‘/etc/init.d’ directory with the name ‘mysql’.
You need not install it manually. See Section 2.2.2 [Linux-RPM], page 90 for more information on the Linux RPM packages.
Some vendors provide RPM packages that install a startup script under a different name
such as mysqld.
If you install MySQL from a source distribution or using a binary distribution format that
does not install mysql.server automatically, you can install it manually. Instructions are
provided in Section 2.4.2.2 [Automatic start], page 125.
mysql.server reads options from the [mysql.server] and [mysqld] sections of option
files. (For backward compatibility, it also reads [mysql_server] sections, although you
should rename such sections to [mysql.server] when you begin using MySQL 4.0 or
later.)
5.1.5 The mysqld_multi Program for Managing Multiple MySQL
Servers
mysqld_multi is meant for managing several mysqld processes that listen for connections
on different Unix socket files and TCP/IP ports. It can start or stop servers, or report their
current status.
The program searches for groups named [mysqld#] in ‘my.cnf’ (or in the file named by
the --config-file option). # can be any positive integer. This number is referred to in
the following discussion as the option group number, or GNR. Group numbers distinguish
option groups from one another and are used as arguments to mysqld_multi to specify
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which servers you want to start, stop, or obtain a status report for. Options listed in
these groups are the same that you would use in the [mysqld] group used for starting
mysqld. (See, for example, Section 2.4.2.2 [Automatic start], page 125.) However, when
using multiple servers it is necessary that each one use its own value for options such as the
Unix socket file and TCP/IP port number. For more information on which options must
be unique per server in a multiple-server environment, see Section 5.10 [Multiple servers],
page 372.
To invoke mysqld_multi, use the following syntax:
shell> mysqld_multi [options ] {start|stop|report} [GNR [,GNR ]...]
start, stop, and report indicate which operation you want to perform. You can perform
the designated operation on a single server or multiple servers, depending on the GNR list
that follows the option name. If there is no list, mysqld_multi performs the operation for
all servers in the option file.
Each GNR value represents an option group number or range of group numbers. The value
should be the number at the end of the group name in the option file. For example, the
GNR for a group named [mysqld17] is 17. To specify a range of numbers, separate the
first and last numbers by a dash. The GNR value 10-13 represents groups [mysqld10]
through [mysqld13]. Multiple groups or group ranges can be specified on the command
line, separated by commas. There must be no whitespace characters (spaces or tabs) in the
GNR list; anything after a whitespace character is ignored.
This command starts a single server using option group [mysqld17]:
shell> mysqld_multi start 17
This command stops several servers, using option groups [mysql8] and [mysqld10] through
[mysqld13]:
shell> mysqld_multi start 8,10-13
For an example of how you might set up an option file, use this command:
shell> mysqld_multi --example
mysqld_multi supports the following options:
--config-file=name
Specify the name of an alternative option file. This affects where mysqld_multi
looks for [mysqld#] option groups. Without this option, all options are read
from the usual ‘my.cnf’ file. The option does not affect where mysqld_multi
reads its own options, which are always taken from the [mysqld_multi] group
in the usual ‘my.cnf’ file.
--example
Display a sample option file.
--help
Display a help message and exit.
--log=name
Specify the name of the log file. If the file exists, log output is appended to it.
--mysqladmin=prog_name
The mysqladmin binary to be used to stop servers.
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--mysqld=prog_name
The mysqld binary to be used. Note that you can specify mysqld_safe as the
value for this option also. The options are passed to mysqld. Just make sure
that you have the directory where mysqld is located in your PATH environment
variable setting or fix mysqld_safe.
--no-log
Print log information to stdout rather than to the log file. By default, output
goes to the log file.
--password=password
The password of the MySQL account to use when invoking mysqladmin. Note
that the password value is not optional for this option, unlike for other MySQL
programs.
--tcp-ip
Connect to each MySQL server via the TCP/IP port instead of the Unix socket
file. (If a socket file is missing, the server might still be running, but accessible
only via the TCP/IP port.) By default, connections are made using the Unix
socket file. This option affects stop and report operations.
--user=user_name
The username of the MySQL account to use when invoking mysqladmin.
--version
Display version information and exit.
Some notes about mysqld_multi:
• Make sure that the MySQL account used for stopping the mysqld servers (with the
mysqladmin program) has the same username and password for each server. Also,
make sure that the account has the SHUTDOWN privilege. If the servers that you want to
manage have many different usernames or passwords for the administrative accounts,
you might want to create an account on each server that has the same username and
password. For example, you might set up a common multi_admin account by executing
the following commands for each server:
shell> mysql -u root -S /tmp/mysql.sock -proot_password
mysql> GRANT SHUTDOWN ON *.*
-> TO ’multi_admin’@’localhost’ IDENTIFIED BY ’multipass’;
See Section 5.5.2 [Privileges], page 296. You will have to do this for each mysqld server.
Change the connection parameters appropriately when connecting to each one. Note
that the host part of the account name must allow you to connect as multi_admin
from the host where you want to run mysqld_multi.
• The --pid-file option is very important if you are using mysqld_safe to start mysqld
(for example, --mysqld=mysqld_safe) Every mysqld should have its own process ID
file. The advantage of using mysqld_safe instead of mysqld is that mysqld_safe
“guards” its mysqld process and will restart it if the process terminates due to a signal
sent using kill -9, or for other reasons, such as a segmentation fault. Please note
that the mysqld_safe script might require that you start it from a certain place. This
means that you might have to change location to a certain directory before running
mysqld_multi. If you have problems starting, please see the mysqld_safe script.
Check especially the lines:
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---------------------------------------------------------------MY_PWD=‘pwd‘
# Check if we are starting this relative (for the binary release)
if test -d $MY_PWD/data/mysql -a -f ./share/mysql/english/errmsg.sys -a \
-x ./bin/mysqld
---------------------------------------------------------------See Section 5.1.3 [mysqld_safe], page 234. The test performed by these lines should
be successful, or you might encounter problems.
• The Unix socket file and the TCP/IP port number must be different for every mysqld.
• You might want to use the --user option for mysqld, but in order to do this you need
to run the mysqld_multi script as the Unix root user. Having the option in the option
file doesn’t matter; you will just get a warning, if you are not the superuser and the
mysqld processes are started under your own Unix account.
• Important: Make sure that the data directory is fully accessible to the Unix account
that the specific mysqld process is started as. Do not use the Unix root account for
this, unless you know what you are doing.
• Most important: Before using mysqld_multi be sure that you understand the meanings
of the options that are passed to the mysqld servers and why you would want to have
separate mysqld processes. Beware of the dangers of using multiple mysqld servers
with the same data directory. Use separate data directories, unless you know what you
are doing. Starting multiple servers with the same data directory will not give you
extra performance in a threaded system. See Section 5.10 [Multiple servers], page 372.
The following example shows how you might set up an option file for use with mysqld_
multi. The first and fifth [mysqld#] group were intentionally left out from the example to
illustrate that you can have “gaps” in the option file. This gives you more flexibility. The
order in which the mysqld programs are started or stopped depends on the order in which
they appear in the option file.
# This file should probably be in your home dir (~/.my.cnf)
# or /etc/my.cnf
# Version 2.1 by Jani Tolonen
[mysqld_multi]
mysqld
= /usr/local/bin/mysqld_safe
mysqladmin = /usr/local/bin/mysqladmin
user
= multi_admin
password
= multipass
[mysqld2]
socket
port
pid-file
datadir
language
user
=
=
=
=
=
=
/tmp/mysql.sock2
3307
/usr/local/mysql/var2/hostname.pid2
/usr/local/mysql/var2
/usr/local/share/mysql/english
john
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[mysqld3]
socket
port
pid-file
datadir
language
user
=
=
=
=
=
=
/tmp/mysql.sock3
3308
/usr/local/mysql/var3/hostname.pid3
/usr/local/mysql/var3
/usr/local/share/mysql/swedish
monty
[mysqld4]
socket
port
pid-file
datadir
language
user
=
=
=
=
=
=
/tmp/mysql.sock4
3309
/usr/local/mysql/var4/hostname.pid4
/usr/local/mysql/var4
/usr/local/share/mysql/estonia
tonu
241
[mysqld6]
socket
= /tmp/mysql.sock6
port
= 3311
pid-file
= /usr/local/mysql/var6/hostname.pid6
datadir
= /usr/local/mysql/var6
language
= /usr/local/share/mysql/japanese
user
= jani
See Section 4.3.2 [Option files], page 225.
5.2 Configuring the MySQL Server
This section discusses MySQL server configuration topics:
• Startup options that the server supports
• How to set the server SQL mode
• Server system variables
• Server status variables
5.2.1 mysqld Command-Line Options
When you start the mysqld server, you can specify program options using any of the methods
described in Section 4.3 [Program Options], page 223. The most common methods are to
provide options in an option file or on the command line. However, in most cases it is
desirable to make sure that the server uses the same options each time it runs. The best
way to ensure this is to list them in an option file. See Section 4.3.2 [Option files], page 225.
mysqld reads options from the [mysqld] and [server] groups. mysqld_safe reads options
from the [mysqld], [server], [mysqld_safe], and [safe_mysqld] groups. mysql.server
reads options from the [mysqld] and [mysql.server] groups. An embedded MySQL server
usually reads options from the [server], [embedded], and [xxxxx _SERVER] groups, where
xxxxx is the name of the application into which the server is embedded.
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mysqld accepts many command-line options. For a list, execute mysqld --help. Before
MySQL 4.1.1, --help prints the full help message. As of 4.1.1, it prints a brief message; to
see the full list, use mysqld --verbose --help.
The following list shows some of the most common server options. Additional options are
described elsewhere:
• Options that affect security: See Section 5.4.3 [Privileges options], page 294.
• SSL-related options: See Section 5.6.7.5 [SSL options], page 337.
• Binary log control options: See Section 5.9.4 [Binary log], page 367.
• Replication-related options: See Section 6.8 [Replication Options], page 401.
• Options specific to particular storage engines: See Section 15.1.1 [MyISAM start],
page 786, Section 15.4.3 [BDB start], page 799, Section 16.5 [InnoDB start], page 810.
You can also set the value of a server system variable by using the variable name as an
option, as described later in this section.
--help, -?
Display a short help message and exit. Before MySQL 4.1.1, --help displays
the full help message. As of 4.1.1, it displays an abbreviated message only. Use
both the --verbose and --help options to see the full message.
--ansi
Use standard SQL syntax instead of MySQL syntax. See Section 1.8.3 [ANSI
mode], page 40. For more precise control over the server SQL mode, use the
--sql-mode option instead.
--basedir=path, -b path
The path to the MySQL installation directory. All paths are usually resolved
relative to this.
--big-tables
Allow large result sets by saving all temporary sets in files. This option prevents
most “table full” errors, but also slows down queries for which in-memory tables
would suffice. Since MySQL 3.23.2, the server is able to handle large result sets
automatically by using memory for small temporary tables and switching to
disk tables where necessary.
--bind-address=IP
The IP address to bind to.
--console
Write the error log messages to stderr/stdout even if --log-error is specified.
On Windows, mysqld will not close the console screen if this option is used.
--character-sets-dir=path
The directory where character sets are installed. See Section 5.8.1 [Character
sets], page 359.
--chroot=path
Put the mysqld server in a closed environment during startup by using the
chroot() system call. This is a recommended security measure as of MySQL
4.0. (MySQL 3.23 is not able to provide a chroot() jail that is 100% closed.)
Note that use of this option somewhat limits LOAD DATA INFILE and SELECT
... INTO OUTFILE.
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--ndb-connectstring=connect_string
When using the NDB storage engine, it is possible to point out the management
server that distributes the cluster configuration by setting the connect string
option.
--core-file
Write a core file if mysqld dies. For some systems, you must also specify the
--core-file-size option to mysqld_safe. See Section 5.1.3 [mysqld_safe],
page 234. Note that on some systems, such as Solaris, you will not get a core
file if you are also using the --user option.
--datadir=path, -h path
The path to the data directory.
--debug[=debug_options ], -# [debug_options ]
If MySQL is configured with --with-debug, you can use this option to
get a trace file of what mysqld is doing. The debug options string often is
’d:t:o,file_name ’. See Section D.1.2 [Making trace files], page 1329.
--default-character-set=charset
Use charset as the default character set. See Section 5.8.1 [Character sets],
page 359.
--default-collation=collation
Use collation as the default collation. This option is available as of MySQL
4.1.1. See Section 5.8.1 [Character sets], page 359.
--default-storage-engine=type
This option is a synonym for --default-table-type. It is available as of
MySQL 4.1.2.
--default-table-type=type
Set the default table type for tables. See Chapter 15 [Table types], page 783.
--default-time-zone=type
Set the default server time zone. This option sets the global time_zone system
variable. If this option is not given, the default time zone will be the same
as the system time zone (given by the value of the system_time_zone system
variable. This option is available as of MySQL 4.1.3.
--delay-key-write[= OFF | ON | ALL]
How the DELAYED KEYS option should be used. Delayed key writing causes
key buffers not to be flushed between writes for MyISAM tables. OFF disables
delayed key writes. ON enables delayed key writes for those tables that were
created with the DELAYED KEYS option. ALL delays key writes for all MyISAM
tables. Available as of MySQL 4.0.3. See Section 7.5.2 [Server parameters],
page 467. See Section 15.1.1 [MyISAM start], page 786.
Note: If you set this variable to ALL, you should not use MyISAM tables
from within another program (such as from another MySQL server or with
myisamchk) when the table is in use. Doing so will lead to index corruption.
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--delay-key-write-for-all-tables
Old form of --delay-key-write=ALL for use prior to MySQL 4.0.3. As of 4.0.3,
use --delay-key-write instead.
--des-key-file=file_name
Read the default keys used by DES_ENCRYPT() and DES_DECRYPT() from this
file.
--enable-named-pipe
Enable support for named pipes. This option applies only on Windows NT,
2000, and XP systems, and can be used only with the mysqld-nt and mysqldmax-nt servers that support named pipe connections.
--exit-info[=flags ], -T [flags ]
This is a bit mask of different flags you can use for debugging the mysqld server.
Do not use this option unless you know exactly what it does!
--external-locking
Enable system locking. Note that if you use this option on a system on which
lockd does not fully work (as on Linux), you will easily get mysqld to deadlock.
This option previously was named --enable-locking.
Note: If you use this option to enable updates to MyISAM tables from many
MySQL processes, you have to ensure that these conditions are satisfied:
• You should not use the query cache for queries that use tables that are
updated by another process.
• You should not use --delay-key-write=ALL or DELAY_KEY_WRITE=1 on
any shared tables.
The easiest way to ensure this is to always use --external-locking together
with --delay-key-write=OFF --query-cache-size=0.
(This is not done by default because in many setups it’s useful to have a mixture
of the above options.)
--flush
Flush all changes to disk after each SQL statement. Normally MySQL does a
write of all changes to disk only after each SQL statement and lets the operating
system handle the synching to disk. See Section A.4.2 [Crashing], page 1119.
--init-file=file
Read SQL statements from this file at startup. Each statement must be on a
single line and should not include comments.
--innodb-safe-binlog
Adds consistency guarantees between the content of InnoDB tables and the
binary log. See Section 5.9.4 [Binary log], page 367.
--language=lang_name, -L lang_name
Client error messages in given language. lang name can be given as the language name or as the full pathname to the directory where the language files
are installed. See Section 5.8.2 [Languages], page 360.
--log[=file ], -l [file ]
Log connections and queries to this file. See Section 5.9.2 [Query log], page 366.
If you don’t specify a filename, MySQL will use host_name.log as the filename.
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--log-bin=[file ]
The binary log file. Log all queries that change data to this file. Used for
backup and replication. See Section 5.9.4 [Binary log], page 367. If you don’t
specify a filename, MySQL will use host_name -bin as the filename.
--log-bin-index[=file ]
The index file for binary log filenames. See Section 5.9.4 [Binary log], page 367.
If you don’t specify a filename, MySQL will use host_name -bin.index as the
filename.
--log-error[=file ]
Log errors and startup messages to this file. See Section 5.9.1 [Error log],
page 366. If you don’t specify a filename, MySQL will use host_name.err as
the filename.
--log-isam[=file ]
Log all ISAM/MyISAM changes to this file (used only when debugging
ISAM/MyISAM).
--log-long-format
Log some extra information to the log files (update log, binary update log,
and slow queries log, whatever log has been activated). For example, username
and timestamp are logged for queries. If you are using --log-slow-queries
and --log-long-format, queries that are not using indexes also are logged to
the slow query log. Note that --log-long-format is deprecated as of MySQL
version 4.1, when --log-short-format was introduced (the long log format is
the default setting since version 4.1). Also note that starting with MySQL 4.1,
the --log-queries-not-using-indexes option is available for the purpose of
logging queries that do not use indexes to the slow query log.
--log-queries-not-using-indexes
If you are using this option with --log-slow-queries, then queries that are
not using indexes also are logged to the slow query log. This option is available
as of MySQL 4.1. See Section 5.9.5 [Slow query log], page 371.
--log-short-format
Log less information to the log files (update log, binary update log, and slow
queries log, whatever log has been activated). For example, username and
timestamp are not logged for queries. This option was introduced in MySQL
4.1.
--log-slow-queries[=file ]
Log all queries that have taken more than long_query_time seconds to execute
to this file. See Section 5.9.5 [Slow query log], page 371. Note that the default
for the amount of information logged has changed in MySQL 4.1. See the
--log-long-format and --log-short-format options for details.
--log-update[=file ]
Log updates to file# where # is a unique number if not given. See Section 5.9.3
[Update log], page 367. The update log is deprecated and is removed in MySQL
5.0.0; you should use the binary log instead (--log-bin). See Section 5.9.4
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[Binary log], page 367. Starting from version 5.0.0, using --log-update will
just turn on the binary log instead (see Section C.1.3 [News-5.0.0], page 1151).
--log-warnings, -W
Print out warnings such as Aborted connection... to the error log. Enabling
this option is recommended, for example, if you use replication (you will get
more information about what is happening, such as messages about network
failures and reconnections). This option is enabled by default as of MySQL
4.0.19 and 4.1.2; to disable it, use --skip-log-warnings. As of MySQL 4.0.21
and 4.1.3, aborted connections are not logged to the error log unless the value
is greater than 1. See Section A.2.10 [Communication errors], page 1111.
This option was named --warnings before MySQL 4.0.
--low-priority-updates
Table-modifying operations (INSERT, REPLACE, DELETE, UPDATE) will have lower
priority than selects. This can also be done via {INSERT | REPLACE | DELETE
| UPDATE} LOW_PRIORITY ... to lower the priority of only one query, or by
SET LOW_PRIORITY_UPDATES=1 to change the priority in one thread. See Section 7.3.2 [Table locking], page 452.
--memlock
Lock the mysqld process in memory. This works on systems such as Solaris that
support the mlockall() system call. This might help if you have a problem
where the operating system is causing mysqld to swap on disk. Note that use
of this option requires that you run the server as root, which is normally not
a good idea for security reasons.
--myisam-recover [=option [,option...]]]
Set the MyISAM storage engine recovery mode. The option value is any combination of the values of DEFAULT, BACKUP, FORCE, or QUICK. If you specify multiple
values, separate them by commas. You can also use a value of "" to disable this
option. If this option is used, mysqld will, when it opens a MyISAM table, open
check whether the table is marked as crashed or wasn’t closed properly. (The
last option works only if you are running with --skip-external-locking.) If
this is the case, mysqld will run a check on the table. If the table was corrupted,
mysqld will attempt to repair it.
The following options affect how the repair works:
Option
Description
DEFAULT
The same as not giving any option to --myisam-recover.
BACKUP
If the data file was changed during recovery, save a backup of
the ‘tbl_name.MYD’ file as ‘tbl_name-datetime.BAK’.
FORCE
Run recovery even if we will lose more than one row from the
‘.MYD’ file.
QUICK
Don’t check the rows in the table if there aren’t any delete
blocks.
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Before a table is automatically repaired, MySQL will add a note about this in
the error log. If you want to be able to recover from most problems without
user intervention, you should use the options BACKUP,FORCE. This will force a
repair of a table even if some rows would be deleted, but it will keep the old
data file as a backup so that you can later examine what happened.
This option is available as of MySQL 3.23.25.
--ndbcluster
If the binary includes support for the NDB Cluster storage engine (from version
4.1.3, the MySQL-Max binaries are built with NDB Cluster enabled) the default
disabling of support for the NDB Cluster storage engine can be overruled by
using this option. Using the NDB Cluster storage engine is necessary for using
MySQL Cluster. See Chapter 17 [NDBCluster], page 860.
--new
The --new option can be used to make the server behave as 4.1 in certain
respects, easing a 4.0 to 4.1 upgrade:
• Hexadecimal strings such as 0xFF are treated as strings by default rather
than as numbers. (Works in 4.0.12 and up.)
• TIMESTAMP is returned as a string with the format ’YYYY-MM-DD
HH:MM:SS’. (Works in 4.0.13 and up.) See Chapter 12 [Column types],
page 566.
This option can be used to help you see how your applications will behave in
MySQL 4.1, without actually upgrading to 4.1.
--pid-file=path
The path to the process ID file used by mysqld_safe.
--port=port_num, -P port_num
The port number to use when listening for TCP/IP connections.
--old-protocol, -o
Use the 3.20 protocol for compatibility with some very old clients. See Section 2.5.6 [Upgrading-from-3.20], page 145.
--one-thread
Only use one thread (for debugging under Linux). This option is available
only if the server is built with debugging enabled. See Section D.1 [Debugging
server], page 1328.
--open-files-limit=count
To change the number of file descriptors available to mysqld. If this is not set
or set to 0, then mysqld will use this value to reserve file descriptors to use with
setrlimit(). If this value is 0 then mysqld will reserve max_connections*5 or
max_connections + table_cache*2 (whichever is larger) number of files. You
should try increasing this if mysqld gives you the error "Too many open files."
--safe-mode
Skip some optimization stages.
--safe-show-database
With this option, the SHOW DATABASES statement displays only the names of
those databases for which the user has some kind of privilege. As of MySQL
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4.0.2, this option is deprecated and doesn’t do anything (it is enabled by default), because there is now a SHOW DATABASES privilege that can be used to
control access to database names on a per-account basis. See Section 5.5.3
[Privileges provided], page 301.
--safe-user-create
If this is enabled, a user can’t create new users with the GRANT statement, if the
user doesn’t have the INSERT privilege for the mysql.user table or any column
in the table.
--secure-auth
Disallow authentication for accounts that have old (pre-4.1) passwords. This
option is available as of MySQL 4.1.1.
--shared-memory
Enable shared-memory connections by local clients. This option is available
only on Windows. It was added in MySQL 4.1.0.
--shared-memory-base-name=name
The name to use for shared-memory connections. This option is available only
on Windows. It was added in MySQL 4.1.0.
--skip-bdb
Disable the BDB storage engine. This saves memory and might speed up some
operations. Do not use this option if you require BDB tables.
--skip-concurrent-insert
Turn off the ability to select and insert at the same time on MyISAM tables.
(This is to be used only if you think you have found a bug in this feature.)
--skip-delay-key-write
Ignore the DELAY_KEY_WRITE option for all tables. As of MySQL 4.0.3, you
should use --delay-key-write=OFF instead. See Section 7.5.2 [Server parameters], page 467.
--skip-external-locking
Don’t use system locking. To use isamchk or myisamchk, you must shut down
the server. See Section 1.2.3 [Stability], page 8. In MySQL 3.23, you can use
CHECK TABLE and REPAIR TABLE to check and repair MyISAM tables. This option
previously was named --skip-locking.
--skip-grant-tables
This option causes the server not to use the privilege system at all. This gives
everyone full access to all databases! (You can tell a running server to start
using the grant tables again by executing a mysqladmin flush-privileges or
mysqladmin reload command, or by issuing a FLUSH PRIVILEGES statement.)
--skip-host-cache
Do not use the internal hostname cache for faster name-to-IP resolution. Instead, query the DNS server every time a client connects. See Section 7.5.6
[DNS], page 473.
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--skip-innodb
Disable the InnoDB storage engine. This saves memory and disk space and
might speed up some operations. Do not use this option if you require InnoDB
tables.
--skip-isam
Disable the ISAM storage engine. As of MySQL 4.1, ISAM is disabled by default,
so this option applies only if the server was configured with support for ISAM.
This option was added in MySQL 4.1.1.
--skip-name-resolve
Do not resolve hostnames when checking client connections. Use only IP numbers. If you use this option, all Host column values in the grant tables must be
IP numbers or localhost. See Section 7.5.6 [DNS], page 473.
--skip-ndbcluster
Disable the NDB Cluster storage engine. This is the default for binaries that
were built with NDB Cluster storage engine support, this means that the system
will only allocate memory and other resources for this storage engine if it is
explicitly enabled.
--skip-networking
Don’t listen for TCP/IP connections at all. All interaction with mysqld must
be made via named pipes (on Windows) or Unix socket files (on Unix). This
option is highly recommended for systems where only local clients are allowed.
See Section 7.5.6 [DNS], page 473.
--skip-new
Don’t use new, possibly wrong routines.
--skip-symlink
This is the old form of --skip-symbolic-links, for use before MySQL 4.0.13.
--symbolic-links, --skip-symbolic-links
Enable or disable symbolic link support. This option has different effects on
Windows and Unix:
• On Windows, enabling symbolic links allows you to establish a symbolic
link to a database directory by creating a directory.sym file that contains
the path to the real directory. See Section 7.6.1.3 [Windows symbolic links],
page 477.
• On Unix, enabling symbolic links means that you can link a MyISAM index
file or data file to another directory with the INDEX DIRECTORY or DATA
DIRECTORY options of the CREATE TABLE statement. If you delete or rename
the table, the files that its symbolic links point to also are deleted or
renamed. See Section 14.2.6 [CREATE TABLE], page 710.
This option was added in MySQL 4.0.13.
--skip-safemalloc
If MySQL is configured with --with-debug=full, all MySQL programs check
for memory overruns during each memory allocation and memory freeing oper-
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ation. This checking is very slow, so for the server you can avoid it when you
don’t need it by using the --skip-safemalloc option.
--skip-show-database
With this option, the SHOW DATABASES statement is allowed only to users who
have the SHOW DATABASES privilege, and the statement displays all database
names. Without this option, SHOW DATABASES is allowed to all users, but displays each database name only if the user has the SHOW DATABASES privilege or
some privilege for the database.
--skip-stack-trace
Don’t write stack traces. This option is useful when you are running mysqld
under a debugger. On some systems, you also must use this option to get a
core file. See Section D.1 [Debugging server], page 1328.
--skip-thread-priority
Disable using thread priorities for faster response time.
--socket=path
On Unix, this option specifies the Unix socket file to use for local connections.
The default value is ‘/tmp/mysql.sock’. On Windows, the option specifies the
pipe name to use for local connections that use a named pipe. The default
value is MySQL.
--sql-mode=value [,value [,value...]]
Set the SQL mode for MySQL. See Section 5.2.2 [Server SQL mode], page 251.
This option was added in 3.23.41.
--temp-pool
This option causes most temporary files created by the server to use a small set
of names, rather than a unique name for each new file. This works around a
problem in the Linux kernel dealing with creating many new files with different
names. With the old behavior, Linux seems to “leak” memory, because it’s
being allocated to the directory entry cache rather than to the disk cache.
--transaction-isolation=level
Sets the default transaction isolation level, which can be READ-UNCOMMITTED,
READ-COMMITTED, REPEATABLE-READ, or SERIALIZABLE. See Section 14.4.6 [SET
TRANSACTION], page 731.
--tmpdir=path, -t path
The path of the directory to use for creating temporary files. It might be
useful if your default /tmp directory resides on a partition that is too small to
hold temporary tables. Starting from MySQL 4.1, this option accepts several
paths that are used in round-robin fashion. Paths should be separated by colon
characters (‘:’) on Unix and semicolon characters (‘;’) on Windows, NetWare,
and OS/2. If the MySQL server is acting as a replication slave, you should
not set --tmpdir to point to a directory on a memory-based filesystem or to a
directory that is cleared when the server host restarts. A replication slave needs
some of its temporary files to survive a machine restart so that it can replicate
temporary tables or LOAD DATA INFILE operations. If files in the temporary file
directory are lost when the server restarts, replication will fail.
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--user={user_name | user_id }, -u {user_name | user_id }
Run the mysqld server as the user having the name user name or the numeric
user ID user id. (“User” in this context refers to a system login account, not a
MySQL user listed in the grant tables.)
This option is mandatory when starting mysqld as root. The server will change
its user ID during its startup sequence, causing it to run as that particular user
rather than as root. See Section 5.4.1 [Security guidelines], page 290.
Starting from MySQL 3.23.56 and 4.0.12: To avoid a possible security hole
where a user adds a --user=root option to some ‘my.cnf’ file (thus causing
the server to run as root), mysqld uses only the first --user option specified and produces a warning if there are multiple --user options. Options in
‘/etc/my.cnf’ and ‘datadir/my.cnf’ are processed before command-line options, so it is recommended that you put a --user option in ‘/etc/my.cnf’ and
specify a value other than root. The option in ‘/etc/my.cnf’ will be found
before any other --user options, which ensures that the server runs as a user
other than root, and that a warning results if any other --user option is found.
--version, -V
Display version information and exit.
As of MySQL 4.0, you can assign a value to a server system variable by using an option of
the form --var_name =value . For example, --key_buffer_size=32M sets the key_buffer_
size variable to a value of 32MB.
Note that when setting a variable to a value, MySQL might automatically correct it to stay
within a given range, or adjust the value to the closest allowable value if only certain values
are allowed.
It is also possible to set variables by using --set-variable=var_name =value or -O var_
name =value syntax. However, this syntax is deprecated as of MySQL 4.0.
You can find a full description for all variables in Section 5.2.3 [Server system variables],
page 255. The section on tuning server parameters includes information on how to optimize
them. See Section 7.5.2 [Server parameters], page 467.
You can change the values of most system variables for a running server with the SET
statement. See Section 14.5.3.1 [SET OPTION], page 745.
If you want to restrict the maximum value that a startup option can be set to with SET,
you can define this by using the --maximum-var_name command-line option.
5.2.2 The Server SQL Mode
The MySQL server can operate in different SQL modes, and (as of MySQL 4.1) can apply
these modes differentially for different clients. This allows applications to tailor server
operation to their own requirements.
Modes define what SQL syntax MySQL should support and what kind of data validation
checks it should perform. This makes it easier to use MySQL in different environments and
to use MySQL together with other database servers.
You can set the default SQL mode by starting mysqld with the --sql-mode="modes " option. Beginning with MySQL 4.1, you can also change the mode after startup time by setting
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the sql_mode variable with a SET [SESSION|GLOBAL] sql_mode=’modes ’ statement. Setting the GLOBAL variable affects the operation of all clients that connect from that time
on. Setting the SESSION variable affects only the current client. modes is a list of different
modes separated by comma (‘,’) characters. You can retrieve the current mode by issuing
a SELECT @@sql_mode statement. The default value is empty (no modes set).
The value also can be empty (--sql-mode="") if you want to reset it.
The most important sql_mode values are probably:
ANSI
Change syntax and behavior to be more conformant to standard SQL. (New in
MySQL 4.1.1)
STRICT_TRANS_TABLES
Abort statement if a value could not be inserted as given into a transactional
table or an unchanged non-transactional table. (New in MySQL 5.0.2)
TRADITIONAL
Make MySQL behave like a “traditional” SQL database system. A simple
description of this mode is “give an error instead a warning” when inserting
an incorrect value in a column. Note: If you are using non-transactional table
handlers, the INSERT/UPDATE will abort as soon as the error is noticed, which
may not be what you want. (New in MySQL 5.0.2)
When this manual refers to STRICT mode, it means a mode where at least one of STRICT_
TRANS_TABLES or STRICT_ALL_TABLES is enabled.
The following list describes all the supported modes:
ALLOW_INVALID_DATES
Don’t do full checking of dates. Check only that the month is in the range from
1 to 12 and the day is in the range from 1 to 31. This is very convenient for
Web applications where you obtain year, month, and day in three different fields
and you want to store exactly what the user inserted (without date validation).
This mode applies to DATE and DATETIME columns. It does not apply TIMESTAMP
columns, which always require an existing date. (New in MySQL 5.0.2. Before
5.0.2, this was the default MySQL date-handling mode.)
ANSI_QUOTES
Treat ‘"’ as an identifier quote character (like the ‘‘’ quote character) and not
as a string quote character. You can still use ‘‘’ to quote identifers in ANSI
mode. With ANSI_QUOTES enabled, you cannot use double quotes to quote a
literal string, because it will be interpreted as an identifier. (New in MySQL
4.0.0)
ERROR_FOR_DIVISION_BY_ZERO
Produce an error in STRICT mode (otherwise a warning) when we encounter
a division by zero (or MOD(X,0)) during an INSERT/ UPDATE. If this mode is
not given, MySQL instead returns NULL for divisions by zero. If used with
IGNORE, MySQL generates a warning for divisions by zero, but the result of the
operation is NULL. (New in MySQL 5.0.2)
IGNORE_SPACE
Allow spaces between a function name and the ‘(’ character. This forces all
function names to be treated as reserved words. As a result, if you want to
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access any database, table, or column name that is a reserved word, you must
quote it. For example, because there is a USER() function, the name of the
user table in the mysql database and the User column in that table become
reserved, so you must quote them:
SELECT "User" FROM mysql."user";
(New in MySQL 4.0.0)
NO_AUTO_VALUE_ON_ZERO
NO_AUTO_VALUE_ON_ZERO affects handling of AUTO_INCREMENT columns. Normally, you generate the next sequence number for the column by inserting
either NULL or 0 into it. NO_AUTO_VALUE_ON_ZERO suppresses this behavior for
0 so that only NULL generates the next sequence number. This mode can be
useful if 0 has been stored in a table’s AUTO_INCREMENT column. (This is not
a recommended practice, by the way.) For example, if you dump the table
with mysqldump and then reload it, normally MySQL generates new sequence
numbers when it encounters the 0 values, resulting in a table with different contents than the one that was dumped. Enabling NO_AUTO_VALUE_ON_ZERO before
reloading the dump file solves this problem. As of MySQL 4.1.1, mysqldump automatically includes statements in the dump output to enable NO_AUTO_VALUE_
ON_ZERO. (New in MySQL 4.1.1)
NO_DIR_IN_CREATE
When creating a table, ignore all INDEX DIRECTORY and DATA DIRECTORY directives. This option is useful on slave replication servers. (New in MySQL
4.0.15)
NO_FIELD_OPTIONS
Don’t print MySQL-specific column options in the output of SHOW CREATE
TABLE. This mode is used by mysqldump in portability mode. (New in MySQL
4.1.1)
NO_KEY_OPTIONS
Don’t print MySQL-specific index options in the output of SHOW CREATE TABLE.
This mode is used by mysqldump in portability mode. (New in MySQL 4.1.1)
NO_TABLE_OPTIONS
Don’t print MySQL-specific table options (such as ENGINE) in the output of
SHOW CREATE TABLE. This mode is used by mysqldump in portability mode.
(New in MySQL 4.1.1)
NO_ZERO_DATE
Don’t allow ’0000-00-00’ as a valid date. You can still insert zero dates with
the IGNORE option. (New in MySQL 5.0.2)
NO_ZERO_IN_DATE
Don’t accept dates where the month or day part is 0. If used with the IGNORE
option, we insert a ’0000-00-00’ date for any such date. (New in MySQL
5.0.2)
NO_UNSIGNED_SUBTRACTION
In subtraction operations, don’t mark the result as UNSIGNED if one of the
operands is unsigned. Note that this makes UNSIGNED BIGINT not 100% usable
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in all contexts. See Section 13.7 [Cast Functions], page 643. (New in MySQL
4.0.2)
ONLY_FULL_GROUP_BY
Don’t allow queries that in the GROUP BY part refer to a not selected column.
(New in MySQL 4.0.0)
PIPES_AS_CONCAT
Treat || as a string concatenation operator (same as CONCAT()) rather than as
a synonym for OR. (New in MySQL 4.0.0)
REAL_AS_FLOAT
Treat REAL as a synonym for FLOAT rather than as a synonym for DOUBLE. (New
in MySQL 4.0.0)
STRICT_ALL_TABLES
Abort statement if a value could not be inserted as given into any table. This
also enables checking that all columns without a default value are updated.
Note: If you are using non-transactional table handlers, you may get a ’half
update’ if the error was found in the middle of an update, which may not be
what you want. If you don’t want that to happen, consider using STRICT_
TRANS_TABLES instead. (New in MySQL 5.0.2)
STRICT_TRANS_TABLES
Abort statement if a value could not be inserted as given into a transactional
table or an unchanged non-transactional table. Will also enable checking that
all columns without a default value are updated. (New in MySQL 5.0.2)
If you are not using STRICT mode (that is, neither STRICT_TRANS_TABLES nor STRICT_ALL_
TABLES is enabled), MySQL produces a warning for all values that are adjusted on insert.
See Section 14.5.3.21 [SHOW WARNINGS], page 763.
The following special modes are provided as shorthand for combinations of mode values
from the preceding list. All are available as of MySQL 4.1.1, except TRADITIONAL (5.0.2).
ANSI
Equivalent to REAL_AS_FLOAT, PIPES_AS_CONCAT, ANSI_QUOTES, IGNORE_
SPACE, ONLY_FULL_GROUP_BY. See Section 1.8.3 [ANSI mode], page 40.
DB2
Equivalent to PIPES_AS_CONCAT, ANSI_QUOTES, IGNORE_SPACE, NO_KEY_
OPTIONS, NO_TABLE_OPTIONS, NO_FIELD_OPTIONS.
MAXDB
Equivalent to PIPES_AS_CONCAT, ANSI_QUOTES, IGNORE_SPACE, NO_KEY_
OPTIONS, NO_TABLE_OPTIONS, NO_FIELD_OPTIONS.
MSSQL
Equivalent to PIPES_AS_CONCAT, ANSI_QUOTES, IGNORE_SPACE, NO_KEY_
OPTIONS, NO_TABLE_OPTIONS, NO_FIELD_OPTIONS.
MYSQL323
Equivalent to NO_FIELD_OPTIONS.
MYSQL40
Equivalent to NO_FIELD_OPTIONS.
ORACLE
Equivalent to PIPES_AS_CONCAT, ANSI_QUOTES, IGNORE_SPACE, NO_KEY_
OPTIONS, NO_TABLE_OPTIONS, NO_FIELD_OPTIONS.
POSTGRESQL
Equivalent to PIPES_AS_CONCAT, ANSI_QUOTES, IGNORE_SPACE, NO_KEY_
OPTIONS, NO_TABLE_OPTIONS, NO_FIELD_OPTIONS.
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TRADITIONAL
Equivalent to STRICT_TRANS_TABLES, STRICT_ALL_TABLES, NO_ZERO_IN_DATE,
NO_ZERO_DATE, ERROR_FOR_DIVISION_BY_ZERO.
5.2.3 Server System Variables
The server maintains many system variables that indicate how it is configured. All of them
have default values. They can be set at server startup using options on the command line
or in option files. Most of them can be set at runtime using the SET statement.
Beginning with MySQL 4.0.3, the mysqld server maintains two kinds of variables. Global
variables affect the overall operation of the server. Session variables affect its operation for
individual client connections.
When the server starts, it initializes all global variables to their default values. These
defaults can be changed by options specified in option files or on the command line. After
the server starts, those global variables that are dynamic can be changed by connecting to
the server and issuing a SET GLOBAL var_name statement. To change a global variable, you
must have the SUPER privilege.
The server also maintains a set of session variables for each client that connects. The client’s
session variables are initialized at connect time using the current values of the corresponding
global variables. For those session variables that are dynamic, the client can change them by
issuing a SET SESSION var_name statement. Setting a session variable requires no special
privilege, but a client can change only its own session variables, not those of any other
client.
A change to a global variable is visible to any client that accesses that global variable.
However, it affects the corresponding session variable that is initialized from the global
variable only for clients that connect after the change. It does not affect the session variable
for any client that is already connected (not even that of the client that issues the SET
GLOBAL statement).
When setting a variable using a startup option, variable values can be given with a suffix
of K, M, or G to indicate kilobytes, megabytes, or gigabytes, respectively. For example, the
following command starts the server with a key buffer size of 16 megabytes:
mysqld --key_buffer_size=16M
Before MySQL 4.0, use this syntax instead:
mysqld --set-variable=key_buffer_size=16M
The lettercase of suffix letters does not matter; 16M and 16m are equivalent.
At runtime, use the SET statement to set system variables. In this context, suffix letters
cannot be used, but the value can take the form of an expression:
mysql> SET sort_buffer_size = 10 * 1024 * 1024;
To specify explicitly whether to set the global or session variable, use the GLOBAL or SESSION
options:
mysql> SET GLOBAL sort_buffer_size = 10 * 1024 * 1024;
mysql> SET SESSION sort_buffer_size = 10 * 1024 * 1024;
Without either option, the statement sets the session variable.
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The variables that can be set at runtime are listed in Section 5.2.3.1 [Dynamic System
Variables], page 279.
If you want to restrict the maximum value to which a system variable can be set with the
SET statement, you can specify this maximum by using an option of the form --maximumvar_name at server startup. For example, to prevent the value of query_cache_size from
being increased to more than 32MB at runtime, use the option --maximum-query_cache_
size=32M. This feature is available as of MySQL 4.0.2.
You can view system variables and their values by using the SHOW VARIABLES statement.
See Section 10.4 [System Variables], page 531 for more information.
mysql> SHOW VARIABLES;
+---------------------------------+------------------------------+
| Variable_name
| Value
|
+---------------------------------+------------------------------|
| back_log
| 50
|
| basedir
| /usr/local/mysql
|
| bdb_cache_size
| 8388572
|
| bdb_home
| /usr/local/mysql
|
| bdb_log_buffer_size
| 32768
|
| bdb_logdir
|
|
| bdb_max_lock
| 10000
|
| bdb_shared_data
| OFF
|
| bdb_tmpdir
| /tmp/
|
| bdb_version
| Sleepycat Software: ...
|
| binlog_cache_size
| 32768
|
| bulk_insert_buffer_size
| 8388608
|
| character_set
| latin1
|
| character_sets
| latin1 big5 czech euc_kr
|
| concurrent_insert
| ON
|
| connect_timeout
| 5
|
| convert_character_set
|
|
| datadir
| /usr/local/mysql/data/
|
| default_week_format
| 0
|
| delay_key_write
| ON
|
| delayed_insert_limit
| 100
|
| delayed_insert_timeout
| 300
|
| delayed_queue_size
| 1000
|
| flush
| OFF
|
| flush_time
| 0
|
| ft_boolean_syntax
| + -><()~*:""&|
|
| ft_max_word_len
| 84
|
| ft_min_word_len
| 4
|
| ft_query_expansion_limit
| 20
|
| ft_stopword_file
| (built-in)
|
| have_bdb
| YES
|
| have_innodb
| YES
|
| have_isam
| YES
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have_openssl
have_query_cache
have_raid
have_symlink
init_file
innodb_additional_mem_pool_size
innodb_buffer_pool_size
innodb_data_file_path
innodb_data_home_dir
innodb_fast_shutdown
innodb_file_io_threads
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit
innodb_flush_method
innodb_force_recovery
innodb_lock_wait_timeout
innodb_log_arch_dir
innodb_log_archive
innodb_log_buffer_size
innodb_log_file_size
innodb_log_files_in_group
innodb_log_group_home_dir
innodb_mirrored_log_groups
innodb_thread_concurrency
interactive_timeout
join_buffer_size
key_buffer_size
key_cache_age_threshold
key_cache_block_size
key_cache_division_limit
language
large_files_support
local_infile
locked_in_memory
log
log_bin
log_slave_updates
log_slow_queries
log_update
log_warnings
long_query_time
low_priority_updates
lower_case_table_names
max_allowed_packet
max_binlog_cache_size
max_binlog_size
max_connect_errors
max_connections
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YES
NO
DISABLED
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ibdata1:10M:autoextend
ON
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0
50
OFF
1048576
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./
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8
28800
131072
16773120
300
1024
100
/usr/local/mysql/share/...
ON
ON
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
1
10
OFF
0
1047552
4294967295
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10
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max_delayed_threads
max_error_count
max_heap_table_size
max_join_size
max_relay_log_size
max_sort_length
max_tmp_tables
max_user_connections
max_write_lock_count
myisam_max_extra_sort_file_size
myisam_max_sort_file_size
myisam_recover_options
myisam_repair_threads
myisam_sort_buffer_size
net_buffer_length
net_read_timeout
net_retry_count
net_write_timeout
open_files_limit
pid_file
port
protocol_version
query_cache_limit
query_cache_size
query_cache_type
read_buffer_size
read_rnd_buffer_size
rpl_recovery_rank
server_id
skip_external_locking
skip_networking
skip_show_database
slave_net_timeout
slow_launch_time
socket
sort_buffer_size
sql_mode
table_cache
table_type
thread_cache_size
thread_stack
timezone
tmp_table_size
tmpdir
tx_isolation
version
wait_timeout
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16777216
4294967295
0
1024
32
0
4294967295
268435456
2147483647
force
1
8388608
16384
30
10
60
1024
/usr/local/mysql/name.pid
3306
10
1048576
0
ON
131072
262144
0
0
ON
OFF
OFF
3600
2
/tmp/mysql.sock
2097116
64
MYISAM
3
131072
EEST
33554432
/tmp/:/mnt/hd2/tmp/
READ-COMMITTED
4.0.4-beta
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+---------------------------------+------------------------------+
Most system variables are described here. Variables with no version indicated have been
present since at least MySQL 3.22. InnoDB system variables are listed at Section 16.5
[InnoDB start], page 810.
Values for buffer sizes, lengths, and stack sizes are given in bytes unless otherwise specified.
Information on tuning these variables can be found in Section 7.5.2 [Server parameters],
page 467.
ansi_mode
This is ON if mysqld was started with --ansi. See Section 1.8.3 [ANSI mode],
page 40. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.6 and removed in 3.23.41.
See the description for sql_mode.
back_log
The number of outstanding connection requests MySQL can have. This comes
into play when the main MySQL thread gets very many connection requests
in a very short time. It then takes some time (although very little) for the
main thread to check the connection and start a new thread. The back_log
value indicates how many requests can be stacked during this short time before
MySQL momentarily stops answering new requests. You need to increase this
only if you expect a large number of connections in a short period of time.
In other words, this value is the size of the listen queue for incoming TCP/IP
connections. Your operating system has its own limit on the size of this queue.
The manual page for the Unix listen() system call should have more details. Check your OS documentation for the maximum value for this variable.
Attempting to set back_log higher than your operating system limit will be
ineffective.
basedir
The MySQL installation base directory. This variable can be set with the -basedir option.
bdb_cache_size
The size of the buffer that is allocated for caching indexes and rows for BDB
tables. If you don’t use BDB tables, you should start mysqld with --skip-bdb
to not waste memory for this cache. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.14.
bdb_home
The base directory for BDB tables. This should be assigned the same value as
the datadir variable. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.14.
bdb_log_buffer_size
The size of the buffer that is allocated for caching indexes and rows for BDB
tables. If you don’t use BDB tables, you should set this to 0 or start mysqld
with --skip-bdb to not waste memory for this cache. This variable was added
in MySQL 3.23.31.
bdb_logdir
The directory where the BDB storage engine writes its log files. This variable
can be set with the --bdb-logdir option. This variable was added in MySQL
3.23.14.
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bdb_max_lock
The maximum number of locks you can have active on a BDB table (10,000 by
default). You should increase this if errors such as the following occur when
you perform long transactions or when mysqld has to examine many rows to
calculate a query:
bdb: Lock table is out of available locks
Got error 12 from ...
This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.29.
bdb_shared_data
This is ON if you are using --bdb-shared-data. This variable was added in
MySQL 3.23.29.
bdb_tmpdir
The value of the --bdb-tmpdir option. This variable was added in MySQL
3.23.14.
bdb_version
See the description for version_bdb.
binlog_cache_size
The size of the cache to hold the SQL statements for the binary log during
a transaction. A binary log cache is allocated for each client if the server
supports any transactional storage engines and, starting from MySQL 4.1.2,
if the server has binary log enabled (--log-bin option). If you often use big,
multiple-statement transactions, you can increase this to get more performance.
The Binlog_cache_use and Binlog_cache_disk_use status variables can be
useful for tuning the size of this variable. This variable was added in MySQL
3.23.29. See Section 5.9.4 [Binary log], page 367.
bulk_insert_buffer_size
MyISAM uses a special tree-like cache to make bulk inserts faster for INSERT ...
SELECT, INSERT ... VALUES (...), (...), ..., and LOAD DATA INFILE. This
variable limits the size of the cache tree in bytes per thread. Setting it to 0
disables this optimization. Note: This cache is used only when adding data to a
non-empty table. The default value is 8MB. This variable was added in MySQL
4.0.3. This variable previously was named myisam_bulk_insert_tree_size.
character_set
The default character set. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.3, then removed in MySQL 4.1.1 and replaced by the various character_set_xxx variables.
character_set_client
The character set for statements that arrive from the client. This variable was
added in MySQL 4.1.1.
character_set_connection
The character set used for literals that do not have a character set introducer
and for number-to-string conversion. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.1.
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261
character_set_database
The character set used by the default database. The server sets this variable
whenever the default database changes. If there is no default database, the variable has the same value as character_set_server. This variable was added
in MySQL 4.1.1.
character_set_results
The character set used for returning query results to the client. This variable
was added in MySQL 4.1.1.
character_set_server
The server default character set. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.1.
character_set_system
The character set used by the server for storing identifiers. The value is always
utf8. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.1.
character_sets
The supported character sets. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.15 and
removed in MySQL 4.1.1. (Use SHOW CHARACTER SET for a list of character sets.)
character_sets_dir
The directory where character sets are installed. This variable was added in
MySQL 4.1.2.
collation_connection
The collation of the connection character set. This variable was added in
MySQL 4.1.1.
collation_database
The collation used by the default database. The server sets this variable whenever the default database changes. If there is no default database, the variable
has the same value as collation_server. This variable was added in MySQL
4.1.1.
collation_server
The server default collation. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.1.
concurrent_insert
If ON (the default), MySQL allows INSERT and SELECT statements to run concurrently for MyISAM tables that have no free blocks in the middle. You can turn
this option off by starting mysqld with --safe or --skip-new. This variable
was added in MySQL 3.23.7.
connect_timeout
The number of seconds the mysqld server waits for a connect packet before
responding with Bad handshake.
convert_character_set
The current character set mapping that was set by SET CHARACTER SET. This
variable was removed in MySQL 4.1.
datadir
The MySQL data directory. This variable can be set with the --datadir option.
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default_week_format
The default mode value to use for the WEEK() function. This variable is available
as of MySQL 4.0.14.
delay_key_write
This option applies only to MyISAM tables. It can have one of the following
values to affect handling of the DELAY_KEY_WRITE table option that can be
used in CREATE TABLE statements.
Option
Description
OFF
DELAYED_KEY_WRITE is ignored.
ON
MySQL honors the DELAY_KEY_WRITE option for CREATE TABLE.
This is the default value.
ALL
All new opened tables are treated as if they were created with the
DELAY_KEY_WRITE option enabled.
If DELAY_KEY_WRITE is enabled, this means that the key buffer for tables
with this option are not flushed on every index update, but only when
a table is closed. This will speed up writes on keys a lot, but if you
use this feature, you should add automatic checking of all MyISAM tables
by starting the server with the --myisam-recover option (for example,
--myisam-recover=BACKUP,FORCE).
See Section 5.2.1 [Server options],
page 241 and Section 15.1.1 [MyISAM start], page 786.
Note that --external-locking doesn’t offer any protection against index corruption for tables that use delayed key writes.
This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.8.
delayed_insert_limit
After inserting delayed_insert_limit delayed rows, the INSERT DELAYED handler thread checks whether there are any SELECT statements pending. If so, it
allows them to execute before continuing to insert delayed rows.
delayed_insert_timeout
How long an INSERT DELAYED handler thread should wait for INSERT statements
before terminating.
delayed_queue_size
This is a per-table limit on the number of rows to queue when handling INSERT
DELAYED statements. If the queue becomes full, any client that issues an INSERT
DELAYED statement will wait until there is room in the queue again.
expire_logs_days
The number of days for automatic binary log removal. The default is 0, which
means “no automatic removal.” This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.0.
flush
This is ON if you have started mysqld with the --flush option. This variable
was added in MySQL 3.22.9.
Chapter 5: Database Administration
263
flush_time
If this is set to a non-zero value, all tables will be closed every flush_time
seconds to free up resources and sync unflushed data to disk. We recommend
this option only on Windows 9x or Me, or on systems with minimal resources
available. This variable was added in MySQL 3.22.18.
ft_boolean_syntax
The list of operators supported by boolean full-text searches performed using
IN BOOLEAN MODE. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.1. See Section 13.6.1
[Fulltext Boolean], page 638.
The default variable value is ’+ -><()~*:""&|’. The rules for changing the
value are as follows:
• Operator function is determined by position within the string.
• The replacement value must be 14 characters.
• Each character must be an ASCII non-alphanumeric character.
• Either the first or second character must be a space.
• No duplicates are allowed except the phrase quoting operators in positions
11 and 12. These two characters are not required to be the same, but they
are the only two that may be.
• Positions 10, 13, and 14 (which by default are set to ‘:’, ‘&’, and ‘|’) are
reserved for future extensions.
ft_max_word_len
The maximum length of the word to be included in a FULLTEXT index. This
variable was added in MySQL 4.0.0.
Note: FULLTEXT indexes must be rebuilt after changing this variable. Use
REPAIR TABLE tbl_name QUICK.
ft_min_word_len
The minimum length of the word to be included in a FULLTEXT index. This
variable was added in MySQL 4.0.0.
Note: FULLTEXT indexes must be rebuilt after changing this variable. Use
REPAIR TABLE tbl_name QUICK.
ft_query_expansion_limit
The number of top matches to use for full-text searches performed using WITH
QUERY EXPANSION. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.1.
ft_stopword_file
The file from which to read the list of stopwords for full-text searches. All the
words from the file are used; comments are not honored. By default, a built-in
list of stopwords is used (as defined in the ‘myisam/ft_static.c’ file). Setting
this variable to the empty string (’’) disables stopword filtering. This variable
was added in MySQL 4.0.10.
Note: FULLTEXT indexes must be rebuilt after changing this variable. Use
REPAIR TABLE tbl_name QUICK.
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group_concat_max_len
The maximum allowed result length for the GROUP_CONCAT() function. This
variable was added in MySQL 4.1.0.
have_archive
YES if mysqld supports ARCHIVE tables. This variable was added in MySQL
4.1.3.
have_bdb
YES if mysqld supports BDB tables. DISABLED if --skip-bdb is used. This
variable was added in MySQL 3.23.30.
have_compress
Whether the zlib compression library is available to the server. If not, the
COMPRESS() and UNCOMPRESS() functions cannot be used. This variable was
added in MySQL 4.1.1.
have_crypt
Whether the crypt() system call is available to the server. If not, the CRYPT()
function cannot be used. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.10.
have_geometry
Whether the server supports spatial data types. This variable was added in
MySQL 4.1.3.
have_innodb
YES if mysqld supports InnoDB tables. DISABLED if --skip-innodb is used.
This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.37.
have_isam
YES if mysqld supports ISAM tables. DISABLED if --skip-isam is used. This
variable was added in MySQL 3.23.30.
have_ndbcluster
YES if mysqld supports NDB Cluster tables. DISABLED if --skip-ndbcluster
is used. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.2.
have_openssl
YES if mysqld supports SSL (encryption) of the client/server protocol. This
variable was added in MySQL 3.23.43.
have_query_cache
YES if mysqld supports the query cache. This variable was added in MySQL
4.0.2.
have_raid
YES if mysqld supports the RAID option. This variable was added in MySQL
3.23.30.
have_rtree_keys
Whether RTREE indexes are available. (These are used for spatial indexed in
MyISAM tables.) This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.3.
have_symlink
Whether symbolic link support is enabled. This is required on Unix for support
of the DATA DIRECTORY and INDEX DIRECTORY table options. This variable was
added in MySQL 4.0.0.
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265
init_connect
A string to be executed by the server for each client that connects. The string
consists of one or more SQL statements. To specify multiple statements, separate them by semicolon characters. For example, each client begins by default
with autocommit mode enabled. There is no global server variable to specify
that autocommit should be disabled by default, but init_connect can be used
to achieve the same effect:
SET GLOBAL init_connect=’SET AUTOCOMMIT=0’;
This variable can also be set on the command line or in an option file. To set
the variable as just shown using an option file, include these lines:
[mysqld]
init_connect=’SET AUTOCOMMIT=0’
Note that the content of init_connect is not executed for users having the
SUPER privilege; this is in case that content has been wrongly set (contains a
wrong query, for example with a syntax error), thus making all connections
fail. Not executing it for SUPER users enables those to open a connection and
fix init_connect. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.2.
init_file
The name of the file specified with the --init-file option when you start the
server. This is a file containing SQL statements that you want the server to
execute when it starts. Each statement must be on a single line and should not
include comments. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.2.
init_slave
This variable is similar to init_connect, but is a string to be executed by a
slave server each time the SQL thread starts. The format of the string is the
same as for the init_connect variable. This variable was added in MySQL
4.1.2.
innodb_xxx
The InnoDB system variables are listed at Section 16.5 [InnoDB start], page 810.
interactive_timeout
The number of seconds the server waits for activity on an interactive connection before closing it. An interactive client is defined as a client that uses
the CLIENT_INTERACTIVE option to mysql_real_connect(). See also wait_
timeout.
join_buffer_size
The size of the buffer that is used for full joins (joins that do not use indexes).
Normally the best way to get fast joins is to add indexes. Increase the value of
join_buffer_size to get a faster full join when adding indexes is not possible.
One join buffer is allocated for each full join between two tables. For a complex
join between several tables for which indexes are not used, multiple join buffers
might be necessary.
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key_buffer_size
Index blocks for MyISAM and ISAM tables are buffered and are shared by all
threads. key_buffer_size is the size of the buffer used for index blocks. The
key buffer is also known as the key cache.
Increase the value to get better index handling (for all reads and multiple writes)
to as much as you can afford. Using a value that is 25% of total memory on a
machine that mainly runs MySQL is quite common. However, if you make the
value too large (for example, more than 50% of your total memory) your system
might start to page and become extremely slow. MySQL relies on the operating
system to perform filesystem caching for data reads, so you must leave some
room for the filesystem cache.
For even more speed when writing many rows at the same time, use LOCK
TABLES. See Section 14.4.5 [LOCK TABLES], page 728.
You can check the performance of the key buffer by issuing a SHOW
STATUS statement and examining the Key_read_requests, Key_reads,
Key_write_requests, and Key_writes status variables. See Section 14.5.3
[SHOW], page 744.
The Key_reads/Key_read_requests ratio should normally be less than 0.01.
The Key_writes/Key_write_requests ratio is usually near 1 if you are using
mostly updates and deletes, but might be much smaller if you tend to do updates
that affect many rows at the same time or if you are using the DELAY_KEY_WRITE
table option.
The fraction of the key buffer in use can be determined using key_buffer_
size in conjunction with the Key_blocks_used status variable and the buffer
block size. From MySQL 4.1.1 on, the buffer block size is available from the
key_cache_block_size server variable. The fraction of the buffer in use is:
(Key_blocks_used * key_cache_block_size) / key_buffer_size
Before MySQL 4.1.1, key cache blocks are 1024 bytes, so the fraction of the key
buffer in use is:
(Key_blocks_used * 1024) / key_buffer_size
See Section 7.4.6 [MyISAM key cache], page 459.
key_cache_age_threshold
This value controls the demotion of buffers from the hot sub-chain of a key
cache to the warm sub-chain. Lower values cause demotion to happen more
quickly. The minimum value is 100. The default value is 300. This variable
was added in MySQL 4.1.1. See Section 7.4.6 [MyISAM key cache], page 459.
key_cache_block_size
The size in bytes of blocks in the key cache. The default value is 1024. This
variable was added in MySQL 4.1.1. See Section 7.4.6 [MyISAM key cache],
page 459.
key_cache_division_limit
The division point between the hot and warm sub-chains of the key cache buffer
chain. The value is the percentage of the buffer chain to use for the warm subchain. Allowable values range from 1 to 100. The default value is 100. This
Chapter 5: Database Administration
267
variable was added in MySQL 4.1.1. See Section 7.4.6 [MyISAM key cache],
page 459.
language
The language used for error messages.
large_file_support
Whether mysqld was compiled with options for large file support. This variable
was added in MySQL 3.23.28.
license
The type of license the server has. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.19.
local_infile
Whether LOCAL is supported for LOAD DATA INFILE statements. This variable
was added in MySQL 4.0.3.
locked_in_memory
Whether mysqld was locked in memory with --memlock. This variable was
added in MySQL 3.23.25.
log
Whether logging of all queries to the general query log is enabled. See Section 5.9.2 [Query log], page 366.
log_bin
Whether the binary log is enabled. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.14.
See Section 5.9.4 [Binary log], page 367.
log_error
The location of the error log. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.10.
log_slave_updates
Whether updates received by a slave server from a master server should be
logged to the slave’s own binary log. Binary logging must be enabled on the
slave for this to have any effect. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.17.
See Section 6.8 [Replication Options], page 401.
log_slow_queries
Whether slow queries should be logged. “Slow” is determined by the value of
the long_query_time variable. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.2. See
Section 5.9.5 [Slow query log], page 371.
log_update
Whether the update log is enabled. This variable was added in MySQL 3.22.18.
Note that the binary log is preferable to the update log, which is unavailable
as of MySQL 5.0. See Section 5.9.3 [Update log], page 367.
log_warnings
Whether to produce additional warning messages. This variable was added in
MySQL 4.0.3. It is enabled by default as of MySQL 4.0.19 and 4.1.2. As of
MySQL 4.0.21 and 4.1.3, aborted connections are not logged to the error log
unless the value is greater than 1.
long_query_time
If a query takes longer than this many seconds, the Slow_queries status variable is incremented. If you are using the --log-slow-queries option, the
query is logged to the slow query log file. This value is measured in real time,
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not CPU time, so a query that is under the threshold on a lightly loaded system
might be above the threshold on a heavily loaded one. See Section 5.9.5 [Slow
query log], page 371.
low_priority_updates
If set to 1, all INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, and LOCK TABLE WRITE statements wait
until there is no pending SELECT or LOCK TABLE READ on the affected table. This
variable previously was named sql_low_priority_updates. It was added in
MySQL 3.22.5.
lower_case_file_system
This variable indicates whether the filesystem where the data directory is located has case insensitive filenames. ON means filenames are case insensitive,
OFF means they are case sensitive. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.19.
lower_case_table_names
If set to 1, table names are stored in lowercase on disk and table name comparisons are not case sensitive. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.6. If
set to 2 (new in 4.0.18), table names are stored as given but compared in lowercase. From MySQL 4.0.2, this option also applies to database names. From
4.1.1, it also applies to table aliases. See Section 10.2.2 [Name case sensitivity],
page 529.
You should not set this variable to 0 if you are running MySQL on a system
that does not have case-sensitive filenames (such as Windows or Mac OS X).
New in 4.0.18: If this variable is not set at startup and the filesystem on which
the data directory is located does not have case-sensitive filenames, MySQL
automatically sets lower_case_table_names to 2.
max_allowed_packet
The maximum size of one packet or any generated/intermediate string.
The packet message buffer is initialized to net_buffer_length bytes, but can
grow up to max_allowed_packet bytes when needed. This value by default is
small, to catch big (possibly wrong) packets.
You must increase this value if you are using big BLOB columns or long strings.
It should be as big as the biggest BLOB you want to use. The protocol limit for
max_allowed_packet is 16MB before MySQL 4.0 and 1GB thereafter.
max_binlog_cache_size
If a multiple-statement transaction requires more than this amount of memory, you will get the error Multi-statement transaction required more than
’max_binlog_cache_size’ bytes of storage. This variable was added in
MySQL 3.23.29.
max_binlog_size
If a write to the binary log exceeds the given value, rotate the binary logs. You
cannot set this variable to more than 1GB or to less than 4096 bytes. (The
minimum before MYSQL 4.0.14 is 1024 bytes.) The default value is 1GB. This
variable was added in MySQL 3.23.33.
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Note if you are using transactions: A transaction is written in one chunk to the
binary log, hence it is never split between several binary logs. Therefore, if you
have big transactions, you might see binary logs bigger than max_binlog_size.
If max_relay_log_size is 0, the value of max_binlog_size applies to relay
logs as well. max_relay_log_size was added in MySQL 4.0.14.
max_connect_errors
If there are more than this number of interrupted connections from a host, that
host is blocked from further connections. You can unblock blocked hosts with
the FLUSH HOSTS statement.
max_connections
The number of simultaneous client connections allowed. Increasing this value
increases the number of file descriptors that mysqld requires. See Section 7.4.8
[Table cache], page 465 for comments on file descriptor limits. Also see Section A.2.6 [Too many connections], page 1108.
max_delayed_threads
Don’t start more than this number of threads to handle INSERT DELAYED statements. If you try to insert data into a new table after all INSERT DELAYED
threads are in use, the row will be inserted as if the DELAYED attribute wasn’t
specified. If you set this to 0, MySQL never creates a thread to handle DELAYED
rows; in effect, this disables DELAYED entirely. This variable was added in
MySQL 3.23.0.
max_error_count
The maximum number of error, warning, and note messages to be stored for
display by SHOW ERRORS or SHOW WARNINGS. This variable was added in MySQL
4.1.0.
max_heap_table_size
This variable sets the maximum size to which MEMORY (HEAP) tables are allowed
to grow. The value of the variable is used to calculate MEMORY table MAX_ROWS
values. Setting this variable has no effect on any existing MEMORY table, unless
the table is re-created with a statement such as CREATE TABLE or TRUNCATE
TABLE, or altered with ALTER TABLE. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.0.
max_insert_delayed_threads
This variable is a synonym for max_delayed_threads. It was added in MySQL
4.0.19.
max_join_size
Don’t allow SELECT statements that probably will need to examine more than
max_join_size row combinations or are likely to do more than max_join_size
disk seeks. By setting this value, you can catch SELECT statements where keys
are not used properly and that would probably take a long time. Set it if your
users tend to perform joins that lack a WHERE clause, that take a long time, or
that return millions of rows.
Setting this variable to a value other than DEFAULT resets the SQL_BIG_SELECTS
value to 0. If you set the SQL_BIG_SELECTS value again, the max_join_size
variable is ignored.
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If a query result already is in the query cache, no result size check is performed,
because the result has already been computed and it does not burden the server
to send it to the client.
This variable previously was named sql_max_join_size.
max_length_for_sort_data
The cutoff on the size of index values that determines which filesort algorithm
to use. See Section 7.2.10 [ORDER BY optimization], page 442. This variable was
added in MySQL 4.1.1
max_relay_log_size
If a write by a replication slave to its relay log exceeds the given value, rotate
the relay log. This variable enables you to put different size constraints on
relay logs and binary logs. However, setting the variable to 0 makes MySQL
use max_binlog_size for both binary logs and relay logs. You must set max_
relay_log_size to between 4096 bytes and 1GB (inclusive), or to 0. The
default value is 0. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.14. See Section 6.3
[Replication Implementation Details], page 385.
max_seeks_for_key
Limit the assumed maximum number of seeks when looking up rows based on a
key. The MySQL optimizer will assume that no more than this number of key
seeks will be required when searching for matching rows in a table by scanning a
key, regardless of the actual cardinality of the key (see Section 14.5.3.12 [SHOW
INDEX], page 754). By setting this to a low value (100?), you can force MySQL
to prefer keys instead of table scans.
This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.14.
max_sort_length
The number of bytes to use when sorting BLOB or TEXT values. Only the first
max_sort_length bytes of each value are used; the rest are ignored.
max_tmp_tables
The maximum number of temporary tables a client can keep open at the same
time. (This option doesn’t yet do anything.)
max_user_connections
The maximum number of simultaneous connections allowed to any given
MySQL account. A value of 0 means “no limit.” This variable was added in
MySQL 3.23.34.
max_write_lock_count
After this many write locks, allow some read locks to run in between. This
variable was added in MySQL 3.23.7.
myisam_data_pointer_size
The default pointer size in bytes, to be used by CREATE TABLE for MyISAM tables
when no MAX_ROWS option is specified. This variable cannot be less than 2 or
larger than 8. The default value is 4. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.2.
See Section A.2.11 [Full table], page 1111.
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myisam_max_extra_sort_file_size
If the temporary file used for fast MyISAM index creation would be larger than
using the key cache by the amount specified here, prefer the key cache method.
This is mainly used to force long character keys in large tables to use the slower
key cache method to create the index. This variable was added in MySQL
3.23.37. Note: The value is given in megabytes before 4.0.3 and in bytes thereafter.
myisam_max_sort_file_size
The maximum size of the temporary file MySQL is allowed to use while recreating a MyISAM index (during REPAIR TABLE, ALTER TABLE, or LOAD DATA
INFILE). If the file size would be bigger than this value, the index will be
created using the key cache instead, which is slower. This variable was added
in MySQL 3.23.37. Note: The value is given in megabytes before 4.0.3 and in
bytes thereafter.
myisam_recover_options
The value of the --myisam-recover option. This variable was added in MySQL
3.23.36.
myisam_repair_threads
If this value is greater than 1, MyISAM table indexes are created in parallel (each
index in its own thread) during the Repair by sorting process. The default
value is 1. Note: Multi-threaded repair is still alpha quality code. This variable
was added in MySQL 4.0.13.
myisam_sort_buffer_size
The buffer that is allocated when sorting MyISAM indexes during a REPAIR TABLE
or when creating indexes with CREATE INDEX or ALTER TABLE. This variable was
added in MySQL 3.23.16.
named_pipe
On Windows, indicates whether the server supports connections over named
pipes. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.50.
net_buffer_length
The communication buffer is reset to this size between queries. This should not
normally be changed, but if you have very little memory, you can set it to the
expected length of SQL statements sent by clients. If statements exceed this
length, the buffer is automatically enlarged, up to max_allowed_packet bytes.
net_read_timeout
The number of seconds to wait for more data from a connection before aborting
the read. When the server is reading from the client, net_read_timeout is the
timeout value controlling when to abort. When the server is writing to the
client, net_write_timeout is the timeout value controlling when to abort. See
also slave_net_timeout. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.20.
net_retry_count
If a read on a communication port is interrupted, retry this many times before
giving up. This value should be set quite high on FreeBSD because internal
interrupts are sent to all threads. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.7.
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net_write_timeout
The number of seconds to wait for a block to be written to a connection before
aborting the write. See also net_read_timeout. This variable was added in
MySQL 3.23.20.
new
This variable is used in MySQL 4.0 to turn on some 4.1 behaviors. This variable
was added in MySQL 4.0.12.
old_passwords
Whether the server should use pre-4.1-style passwords for MySQL user accounts. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.1.
open_files_limit
The number of files that the operating system allows mysqld to open. This is
the real value allowed by the system and might be different from the value you
gave mysqld as a startup option. The value is 0 on systems where MySQL can’t
change the number of open files. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.20.
optimizer_prune_level
Controls the heuristics applied during query optimization to prune
less-promising partial plans from the optimizer search space. A value of 0
disables heuristics so that the optimizer performs an exhaustive search. A
value of 1 causes the optimizer to prune plans based on the number of rows
retrieved by intermediate plans. This variable was added in MySQL 5.0.1.
optimizer_search_depth
The maximum depth of search performed by the query optimizer. Values larger
than the number of relations in a query result in better query plans, but take
longer to generate an execution plan for a query. Values smaller than the number of relations in a query return an execution plan quicker, but the resulting
plan may be far from being optimal. If set to 0, the system automatically picks
a reasonable value. If set to the maximum number of tables used in a query
plus 2, the optimizer switches to the original algorithm used before MySQL
5.0.1 that performs an exhaustive search. This variable was added in MySQL
5.0.1.
pid_file
The pathname of the process ID (PID) file. This variable can be set with the
--pid-file option. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.23.
port
The port on which the server listens for TCP/IP connections. This variable
can be set with the --port option.
preload_buffer_size
The size of the buffer that is allocated when preloading indexes. This variable
was added in MySQL 4.1.1.
protocol_version
The version of the client/server protocol used by the MySQL server. This
variable was added in MySQL 3.23.18.
query_alloc_block_size
The allocation size of memory blocks that are allocated for objects created
during query parsing and execution. If you have problems with memory frag-
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mentation, it might help to increase this a bit. This variable was added in
MySQL 4.0.16.
query_cache_limit
Don’t cache results that are bigger than this. The default value is 1MB. This
variable was added in MySQL 4.0.1.
query_cache_min_res_unit
The minimum size for blocks allocated by the query cache. The default value
is 4KB. Tuning information for this variable is given in Section 5.11.3 [Query
Cache Configuration], page 381. This variable is present from MySQL 4.1.
query_cache_size
The amount of memory allocated for caching query results. The default value
is 0, which disables the query cache. Note that this amount of memory will
be allocated even if query_cache_type is set to 0. This variable was added in
MySQL 4.0.1.
query_cache_type
Set query cache type. Setting the GLOBAL value sets the type for all clients that
connect thereafter. Individual clients can set the SESSION value to affect their
own use of the query cache.
Option
Description
0 or OFF
Don’t cache or retrieve results. Note that this will not deallocate the query cache buffer. To do that, you should set
query_cache_size to 0.
1 or ON
Cache all query results except for those that begin with
SELECT SQL_NO_CACHE.
2 or DEMAND
Cache results only for queries that begin with SELECT SQL_
CACHE.
This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.3.
query_cache_wlock_invalidate
Normally, when one client acquires a WRITE lock on a MyISAM table, other clients
are not blocked from issuing queries for the table if the query results are present
in the query cache. Setting this variable to 1 causes acquisition of a WRITE lock
for a table to invalidate any queries in the query cache that refer to the table.
This forces other clients that attempt to access the table to wait while the lock
is in effect. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.19.
query_prealloc_size
The size of the persistent buffer used for query parsing and execution. This
buffer is not freed between queries. If you are running complex queries, a
larger query_prealloc_size value might be helpful in improving performance,
because it can reduce the need for the server to perform memory allocation
during query execution operations. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.16.
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range_alloc_block_size
The size of blocks that are allocated when doing range optimization. This
variable was added in MySQL 4.0.16.
read_buffer_size
Each thread that does a sequential scan allocates a buffer of this size for each
table it scans. If you do many sequential scans, you might want to increase
this value. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.3. Previously, it was named
record_buffer.
read_only
When the variable is set to ON for a replication slave server, it causes the slave
to allow no updates except from slave threads or from users with the SUPER
privilege. This can be useful to ensure that a slave server accepts no updates
from clients. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.14.
relay_log_purge
Disables or enables automatic purging of relay logs as soon as they are not
needed any more. The default value is 1 (enabled). This variable was added in
MySQL 4.1.1.
read_rnd_buffer_size
When reading rows in sorted order after a sort, the rows are read through this
buffer to avoid disk seeks. Setting the variable to a large value can improve
ORDER BY performance by a lot. However, this is a buffer allocated for each
client, so you should not set the global variable to a large value. Instead,
change the session variable only from within those clients that need to run
large queries. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.3. Previously, it was
named record_rnd_buffer.
safe_show_database
Don’t show databases for which the user has no database or table privileges.
This can improve security if you’re concerned about people being able to see
what databases other users have. See also skip_show_database.
This variable was removed in MySQL 4.0.5. Instead, use the SHOW DATABASES
privilege to control access by MySQL accounts to database names.
secure_auth
If the MySQL server has been started with the --secure-auth option, it blocks
connections from all accounts that have passwords stored in the old (pre-4.1)
format. In that case, the value of this variable is ON, otherwise it is OFF.
You should enable this option if you want to prevent all usage of passwords in
old format (and hence insecure communication over the network). This variable
was added in MySQL 4.1.1.
Server startup will fail with an error if this option is enabled and the privilege
tables are in pre-4.1 format.
When used as a client-side option, the client refuses to connect to a server if
the server requires a password in old format for the client account.
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server_id
The value of the --server-id option. It is used for master and slave replication
servers. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.26.
shared_memory
Whether or not the server allows shared-memory connections. Currently, only
Windows servers support this. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.1.
shared_memory_base_name
Whether or not the server allows shared-memory connections. Currently, only
Windows servers support this. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.0.
skip_external_locking
This is OFF if mysqld uses external locking. This variable was added in MySQL
4.0.3. Previously, it was named skip_locking.
skip_networking
This is ON if the server allows only local (non-TCP/IP) connections. On Unix,
local connections use a Unix socket file. On Windows, local connections use a
named pipe. On NetWare, only TCP/IP connections are supported, so do not
set this variable to ON. This variable was added in MySQL 3.22.23.
skip_show_database
This prevents people from using the SHOW DATABASES statement if they don’t
have the SHOW DATABASES privilege. This can improve security if you’re concerned about people being able to see what databases other users have. See
also safe_show_database. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.4. As
of MySQL 4.0.2, its effect also depends on the SHOW DATABASES privilege: If
the variable value is ON, the SHOW DATABASES statement is allowed only to users
who have the SHOW DATABASES privilege, and the statement displays all database
names. If the value is OFF, SHOW DATABASES is allowed to all users, but displays
each database name only if the user has the SHOW DATABASES privilege or some
privilege for the database.
slave_compressed_protocol
Whether to use compression of the slave/master protocol if both the slave and
the master support it. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.3.
slave_net_timeout
The number of seconds to wait for more data from a master/slave connection
before aborting the read. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.40.
slow_launch_time
If creating a thread takes longer than this many seconds, the server increments
the Slow_launch_threads status variable. This variable was added in MySQL
3.23.15.
socket
On Unix, this is the Unix socket file used for local client connections. On
Windows, this is the name of the named pipe used for local client connections.
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sort_buffer_size
Each thread that needs to do a sort allocates a buffer of this size. Increase this
value for faster ORDER BY or GROUP BY operations. See Section A.4.4 [Temporary
files], page 1122.
sql_mode
The current server SQL mode. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.41.
It can be set dynamically as of MySQL 4.1.1. See Section 5.2.2 [Server SQL
mode], page 251.
sql_slave_skip_counter
The number of events from the master that a slave server should skip. It was
added in MySQL 3.23.33.
storage_engine
This variable is a synonym for table_type. It was added in MySQL 4.1.2.
sync_binlog
If positive, the MySQL server will synchronize its binary log to disk
(fdatasync()) after every sync_binlog’th write to this binary log. Note that
there is one write to the binary log per statement if in autocommit mode,
and otherwise one write per transaction. The default value is 0 which does no
sync’ing to disk. A value of 1 is the safest choice, because in case of crash you
will lose at most one statement/transaction from the binary log; but it is also
the slowest choice (unless the disk has a battery-backed cache, which makes
sync’ing very fast). This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.3.
sync_frm
This was added as a command-line option in MySQL 4.0.18, and is also a
settable global variable since MySQL 4.1.3. If set to 1, when a non-temporary
table is created it will synchronize its ‘.frm’ file to disk (fdatasync()); this is
slower but safer in case of crash. Default is 1.
system_time_zone
The server system time zone. When the server starts, it attempts to determine
the time zone of the host machine. For example, if the TZ environment variable
is set, its value is used to set system_time_zone. This variable was added in
MySQL 4.1.3.
table_cache
The number of open tables for all threads. Increasing this value increases the
number of file descriptors that mysqld requires. You can check whether you
need to increase the table cache by checking the Opened_tables status variable.
See Section 5.2.4 [Server status variables], page 281. If the value of Opened_
tables is large and you don’t do FLUSH TABLES a lot (which just forces all
tables to be closed and reopened), then you should increase the value of the
table_cache variable.
For more information about the table cache, see Section 7.4.8 [Table cache],
page 465.
table_type
The default table type (storage engine). To set the table type at server startup,
use the --default-table-type option. This variable was added in MySQL
3.23.0. See Section 5.2.1 [Server options], page 241.
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thread_cache_size
How many threads the server should cache for reuse. When a client disconnects,
the client’s threads are put in the cache if there aren’t already thread_cache_
size threads there. Requests for threads are satisfied by reusing threads taken
from the cache if possible, and only when the cache is empty is a new thread
created. This variable can be increased to improve performance if you have
a lot of new connections. (Normally this doesn’t give a notable performance
improvement if you have a good thread implementation.) By examining the
difference between the Connections and Threads_created status variables (see
Section 5.2.4 [Server status variables], page 281 for details) you can see how
efficient the thread cache is. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.16.
thread_concurrency
On Solaris, mysqld calls thr_setconcurrency() with this value. This function
allows applications to give the threads system a hint about the desired number
of threads that should be run at the same time. This variable was added in
MySQL 3.23.7.
thread_stack
The stack size for each thread. Many of the limits detected by the crash-me test
are dependent on this value. The default is large enough for normal operation.
See Section 7.1.4 [MySQL Benchmarks], page 421.
time_zone
The current time zone. The initial value of this is ’SYSTEM’ (use the value of
system_time_zone), but can be specified explicitly at server startup time with
the --default-time-zone option. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.3.
timezone
The time zone for the server. This is set from the TZ environment variable
when mysqld is started. The time zone also can be set by giving a --timezone
argument to mysqld_safe. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.15. As of
MySQL 4.1.3, it is obsolete and has been replaced by the system_time_zone
variable. See Section A.4.6 [Timezone problems], page 1123.
tmp_table_size
If an in-memory temporary table exceeds this size, MySQL automatically converts it to an on-disk MyISAM table. Increase the value of tmp_table_size if
you do many advanced GROUP BY queries and you have lots of memory.
tmpdir
The directory used for temporary files and temporary tables. Starting from
MySQL 4.1, this variable can be set to a list of several paths that are used in
round-robin fashion. Paths should be separated by colon characters (‘:’) on
Unix and semicolon characters (‘;’) on Windows, NetWare, and OS/2.
This feature can be used to spread the load between several physical disks. If
the MySQL server is acting as a replication slave, you should not set tmpdir
to point to a directory on a memory-based filesystem or to a directory that
is cleared when the server host restarts. A replication slave needs some of its
temporary files to survive a machine restart so that it can replicate temporary
tables or LOAD DATA INFILE operations. If files in the temporary file directory
are lost when the server restarts, replication will fail.
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This variable was added in MySQL 3.22.4.
transaction_alloc_block_size
The allocation size of memory blocks that are allocated for storing queries that
are part of a transaction to be stored in the binary log when doing a commit.
This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.16.
transaction_prealloc_size
The size of the persistent buffer for transaction_alloc_blocks that is not
freed between queries. By making this big enough to fit all queries in a common
transaction, you can avoid a lot of malloc() calls. This variable was added in
MySQL 4.0.16.
tx_isolation
The default transaction isolation level. This variable was added in MySQL
4.0.3.
updatable_views_with_limit
This variable controls whether updates can be made using a view that does not
contain a key in the underlying table, if the update contains a LIMIT clause.
(Such updates often are generated by GUI tools.) The variable can have two
values:
• 1 or YES: Issue a warning only (not an error message). This is the default
value.
• 0 or NO: Prohibit the update.
This variable was added in MySQL 5.0.2.
version
The version number for the server.
version_bdb
The BDB storage engine version. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.31
with the name bdb_version and renamed to version_bdb in MySQL 4.1.1.
version_comment
The configure script has a --with-comment option that allows a comment
to be specified when building MySQL. This variable contains the value of that
comment. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.17.
version_compile_machine
The type of machine MySQL was built on. This variable was added in MySQL
4.1.1.
version_compile_os
The type of operating system MySQL was built on. This variable was added
in MySQL 4.0.19.
wait_timeout
The number of seconds the server waits for activity on a non-interactive connection before closing it.
On thread startup, the session wait_timeout value is initialized from the global
wait_timeout value or from the global interactive_timeout value, depending
on the type of client (as defined by the CLIENT_INTERACTIVE connect option to
mysql_real_connect()). See also interactive_timeout.
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5.2.3.1 Dynamic System Variables
Beginning with MySQL 4.0.3, many server system variables are dynamic and can be set at
runtime using SET GLOBAL or SET SESSION. You can also select their values using SELECT.
See Section 10.4 [System Variables], page 531.
The following table shows the full list of all dynamic system variables. The last column
indicates for each variable whether GLOBAL or SESSION (or both) apply.
Variable Name
autocommit
big_tables
binlog_cache_size
bulk_insert_buffer_size
character_set_client
character_set_connection
character_set_results
character_set_server
collation_connection
collation_server
concurrent_insert
connect_timeout
convert_character_set
default_week_format
delay_key_write
delayed_insert_limit
delayed_insert_timeout
delayed_queue_size
error_count
expire_logs_days
flush
flush_time
foreign_key_checks
ft_boolean_syntax
group_concat_max_len
identity
insert_id
interactive_timeout
join_buffer_size
key_buffer_size
last_insert_id
local_infile
log_warnings
long_query_time
low_priority_updates
max_allowed_packet
max_binlog_cache_size
max_binlog_size
Value Type
boolean
boolean
numeric
numeric
string
string
string
string
string
string
boolean
numeric
string
numeric
OFF | ON | ALL
numeric
numeric
numeric
numeric
numeric
boolean
numeric
boolean
numeric
numeric
numeric
boolean
numeric
numeric
numeric
numeric
boolean
numeric
numeric
boolean
numeric
numeric
numeric
Type
SESSION
SESSION
GLOBAL
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL
GLOBAL
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL
GLOBAL
GLOBAL
GLOBAL
SESSION
GLOBAL
GLOBAL
GLOBAL
SESSION
GLOBAL
GLOBAL |
SESSION
SESSION
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL
SESSION
GLOBAL
GLOBAL
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL
GLOBAL
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
280
max_connect_errors
max_connections
max_delayed_threads
max_error_count
max_heap_table_size
max_insert_delayed_threads
max_join_size
max_relay_log_size
max_seeks_for_key
max_sort_length
max_tmp_tables
max_user_connections
max_write_lock_count
myisam_data_pointer_size
myisam_max_extra_sort_file_size
myisam_max_sort_file_size
myisam_repair_threads
myisam_sort_buffer_size
net_buffer_length
net_read_timeout
net_retry_count
net_write_timeout
old_passwords
optimizer_prune_level
optimizer_search_depth
preload_buffer_size
query_alloc_block_size
query_cache_limit
query_cache_size
query_cache_type
query_cache_wlock_invalidate
query_prealloc_size
range_alloc_block_size
read_buffer_size
read_only
read_rnd_buffer_size
rpl_recovery_rank
safe_show_database
secure_auth
server_id
slave_compressed_protocol
slave_net_timeout
slow_launch_time
sort_buffer_size
sql_auto_is_null
sql_big_selects
sql_big_tables
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numeric
numeric
numeric
numeric
numeric
numeric
numeric
numeric
numeric
numeric
numeric
numeric
numeric
numeric
numeric
numeric
numeric
numeric
numeric
numeric
numeric
numeric
numeric
numeric
numeric
numeric
numeric
numeric
numeric
enumeration
boolean
numeric
numeric
numeric
numeric
numeric
numeric
boolean
boolean
numeric
boolean
numeric
numeric
numeric
boolean
boolean
boolean
GLOBAL
GLOBAL
GLOBAL
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL
GLOBAL
GLOBAL
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL
GLOBAL
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL
GLOBAL
GLOBAL
GLOBAL
GLOBAL
GLOBAL
GLOBAL
GLOBAL |
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
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sql_buffer_result
sql_log_bin
sql_log_off
sql_log_update
sql_low_priority_updates
sql_max_join_size
sql_mode
sql_quote_show_create
sql_safe_updates
sql_select_limit
sql_slave_skip_counter
updatable_views_with_limit
sql_warnings
sync_binlog
sync_frm
storage_engine
table_cache
table_type
thread_cache_size
time_zone
timestamp
tmp_table_size
transaction_alloc_block_size
transaction_prealloc_size
tx_isolation
unique_checks
wait_timeout
warning_count
281
boolean
boolean
boolean
boolean
boolean
numeric
enumeration
boolean
boolean
numeric
numeric
enumeration
boolean
numeric
boolean
enumeration
numeric
enumeration
numeric
string
boolean
enumeration
numeric
numeric
enumeration
boolean
numeric
numeric
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
GLOBAL
GLOBAL |
SESSION
GLOBAL
GLOBAL
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL
GLOBAL |
SESSION
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
GLOBAL |
SESSION
GLOBAL |
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
SESSION
Variables that are marked as “string” take a string value. Variables that are marked as
“numeric” take a numeric value. Variables that are marked as “boolean” can be set to 0, 1,
ON or OFF. Variables that are marked as “enumeration” normally should be set to one of the
available values for the variable, but can also be set to the number that corresponds to the
desired enumeration value. For enumeration-valued system variables, the first enumeration
value corresponds to 0. This differs from ENUM columns, for which the first enumeration
value corresponds to 1.
5.2.4 Server Status Variables
The server maintains many status variables that provide information about its operations.
You can view these variables and their values by using the SHOW STATUS statement:
mysql> SHOW STATUS;
+--------------------------+------------+
| Variable_name
| Value
|
+--------------------------+------------+
| Aborted_clients
| 0
|
| Aborted_connects
| 0
|
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|
Bytes_received
Bytes_sent
Connections
Created_tmp_disk_tables
Created_tmp_files
Created_tmp_tables
Delayed_errors
Delayed_insert_threads
Delayed_writes
Flush_commands
Handler_delete
Handler_read_first
Handler_read_key
Handler_read_next
Handler_read_prev
Handler_read_rnd
Handler_read_rnd_next
Handler_update
Handler_write
Key_blocks_used
Key_read_requests
Key_reads
Key_write_requests
Key_writes
Max_used_connections
Not_flushed_delayed_rows
Not_flushed_key_blocks
Open_files
Open_streams
Open_tables
Opened_tables
Qcache_free_blocks
Qcache_free_memory
Qcache_hits
Qcache_inserts
Qcache_lowmem_prunes
Qcache_not_cached
Qcache_queries_in_cache
Qcache_total_blocks
Questions
Select_full_join
Select_full_range_join
Select_range
Select_range_check
Select_scan
Slave_open_temp_tables
Slave_running
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155372598
1176560426
30023
0
60
8340
0
0
0
1
462604
105881
27820558
390681754
6022500
30546748
246216530
16945404
60356676
14955
96854827
162040
7589728
3813196
0
0
0
2
0
1
44600
36
138488
79570
27087
3114
22989
415
912
2026873
0
0
99646
0
30802
0
OFF
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| Slow_launch_threads
| 0
|
| Slow_queries
| 0
|
| Sort_merge_passes
| 30
|
| Sort_range
| 500
|
| Sort_rows
| 30296250
|
| Sort_scan
| 4650
|
| Table_locks_immediate
| 1920382
|
| Table_locks_waited
| 0
|
| Threads_cached
| 0
|
| Threads_connected
| 1
|
| Threads_created
| 30022
|
| Threads_running
| 1
|
| Uptime
| 80380
|
+--------------------------+------------+
Many status variables are reset to 0 by the FLUSH STATUS statement.
The status variables have the following meanings. The Com_xxx statement counter variables
were added beginning with MySQL 3.23.47. The Qcache_xxx query cache variables were
added beginning with MySQL 4.0.1. Otherwise, variables with no version indicated have
been present since at least MySQL 3.22.
Aborted_clients
The number of connections that were aborted because the client died without
closing the connection properly. See Section A.2.10 [Communication errors],
page 1111.
Aborted_connects
The number of tries to connect to the MySQL server that failed. See Section A.2.10 [Communication errors], page 1111.
Binlog_cache_disk_use
The number of transactions that used the temporary binary log cache but that
exceeded the value of binlog_cache_size and used a temporary file to store
statements from the transaction. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.2.
Binlog_cache_use
The number of transactions that used the temporary binary log cache. This
variable was added in MySQL 4.1.2.
Bytes_received
The number of bytes received from all clients. This variable was added in
MySQL 3.23.7.
Bytes_sent
The number of bytes sent to all clients. This variable was added in MySQL
3.23.7.
Com_xxx
The number of times each xxx statement has been executed. There is one status
variable for each type of statement. For example, Com_delete and Com_insert
count DELETE and INSERT statements.
Connections
The number of connection attempts (successful or not) to the MySQL server.
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Created_tmp_disk_tables
The number of temporary tables on disk created automatically by the server
while executing statements. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.24.
Created_tmp_files
How many temporary files mysqld has created. This variable was added in
MySQL 3.23.28.
Created_tmp_tables
The number of in-memory temporary tables created automatically by the server
while executing statements. If Created_tmp_disk_tables is big, you may want
to increase the tmp_table_size value to cause temporary tables to be memorybased instead of disk-based.
Delayed_errors
The number of rows written with INSERT DELAYED for which some error occurred
(probably duplicate key).
Delayed_insert_threads
The number of INSERT DELAYED handler threads in use.
Delayed_writes
The number of INSERT DELAYED rows written.
Flush_commands
The number of executed FLUSH statements.
Handler_commit
The number of internal COMMIT statements. This variable was added in MySQL
4.0.2.
Handler_discover
The MySQL server can ask the NDB Cluster storage engine if it knows about a
table with a given name. This is called discovery. Handler_discover indicates
the number of time tables have been discovered. This variable was added in
MySQL 4.1.2.
Handler_delete
The number of times a row was deleted from a table.
Handler_read_first
The number of times the first entry was read from an index. If this is high, it
suggests that the server is doing a lot of full index scans; for example, SELECT
col1 FROM foo, assuming that col1 is indexed.
Handler_read_key
The number of requests to read a row based on a key. If this is high, it is a
good indication that your queries and tables are properly indexed.
Handler_read_next
The number of requests to read the next row in key order. This will be incremented if you are querying an index column with a range constraint or if you
are doing an index scan.
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Handler_read_prev
The number of requests to read the previous row in key order. This read method
is mainly used to optimize ORDER BY ... DESC. This variable was added in
MySQL 3.23.6.
Handler_read_rnd
The number of requests to read a row based on a fixed position. This will be
high if you are doing a lot of queries that require sorting of the result. You
probably have a lot of queries that require MySQL to scan whole tables or you
have joins that don’t use keys properly.
Handler_read_rnd_next
The number of requests to read the next row in the data file. This will be high
if you are doing a lot of table scans. Generally this suggests that your tables
are not properly indexed or that your queries are not written to take advantage
of the indexes you have.
Handler_rollback
The number of internal ROLLBACK statements. This variable was added in
MySQL 4.0.2.
Handler_update
The number of requests to update a row in a table.
Handler_write
The number of requests to insert a row in a table.
Key_blocks_not_flushed
The number of key blocks in the key cache that have changed but haven’t yet
been flushed to disk. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.1. It used to be
known as Not_flushed_key_blocks.
Key_blocks_unused
This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.2. Section 5.2.3 [Server system variables], page 255.
Key_blocks_used
The number of used blocks in the key cache. You can use this value to determine
how much of the key cache is in use; see the discussion of key_buffer_size in
Section 5.2.3 [Server system variables], page 255.
Key_read_requests
The number of requests to read a key block from the cache.
Key_reads
The number of physical reads of a key block from disk. If Key_reads is big,
then your key_buffer_size value is probably too small. The cache miss rate
can be calculated as Key_reads/Key_read_requests.
Key_write_requests
The number of requests to write a key block to the cache.
Key_writes
The number of physical writes of a key block to disk.
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Last_query_cost
The total cost of the last compiled query as computed by the query optimizer.
Useful for comparing the cost of different query plans for the same query. The
default value of −1 means that no query has been compiled yet. This variable
was added in MySQL 5.0.1.
Max_used_connections
The maximum number of connections that have been in use simultaneously
since the server started.
Not_flushed_delayed_rows
The number of rows waiting to be written in INSERT DELAY queues.
Not_flushed_key_blocks
The old name for Key_blocks_not_flushed before MySQL 4.1.1.
Open_files
The number of files that are open.
Open_streams
The number of streams that are open (used mainly for logging).
Open_tables
The number of tables that are open.
Opened_tables
The number of tables that have been opened. If Opened_tables is big, your
table_cache value is probably too small.
Qcache_free_blocks
The number of free memory blocks in query cache.
Qcache_free_memory
The amount of free memory for query cache.
Qcache_hits
The number of cache hits.
Qcache_inserts
The number of queries added to the cache.
Qcache_lowmem_prunes
The number of queries that were deleted from the cache because of low memory.
Qcache_not_cached
The number of non-cached queries (not cachable, or due to query_cache_type).
Qcache_queries_in_cache
The number of queries registered in the cache.
Qcache_total_blocks
The total number of blocks in the query cache.
Questions
The number of queries that have been sent to the server.
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Rpl_status
The status of failsafe replication (not yet implemented).
Select_full_join
The number of joins that do not use indexes. If this value is not 0, you should
carefully check the indexes of your tables. This variable was added in MySQL
3.23.25.
Select_full_range_join
The number of joins that used a range search on a reference table. This variable
was added in MySQL 3.23.25.
Select_range
The number of joins that used ranges on the first table. (It’s normally not
critical even if this is big.) This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.25.
Select_range_check
The number of joins without keys that check for key usage after each row.
(If this is not 0, you should carefully check the indexes of your tables.) This
variable was added in MySQL 3.23.25.
Select_scan
The number of joins that did a full scan of the first table. This variable was
added in MySQL 3.23.25.
Slave_open_temp_tables
The number of temporary tables currently open by the slave SQL thread. This
variable was added in MySQL 3.23.29.
Slave_running
This is ON if this server is a slave that is connected to a master. This variable
was added in MySQL 3.23.16.
Slow_launch_threads
The number of threads that have taken more than slow_launch_time seconds
to create. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.15.
Slow_queries
The number of queries that have taken more than long_query_time seconds.
See Section 5.9.5 [Slow query log], page 371.
Sort_merge_passes
The number of merge passes the sort algorithm has had to do. If this value
is large, you should consider increasing the value of the sort_buffer_size
system variable. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.28.
Sort_range
The number of sorts that were done with ranges. This variable was added in
MySQL 3.23.25.
Sort_rows
The number of sorted rows. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.25.
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Sort_scan
The number of sorts that were done by scanning the table. This variable was
added in MySQL 3.23.25.
Ssl_xxx
Variables used for SSL connections. These variables were added in MySQL
4.0.0.
Table_locks_immediate
The number of times that a table lock was acquired immediately. This variable
was added as of MySQL 3.23.33.
Table_locks_waited
The number of times that a table lock could not be acquired immediately and
a wait was needed. If this is high, and you have performance problems, you
should first optimize your queries, and then either split your table or tables or
use replication. This variable was added as of MySQL 3.23.33.
Threads_cached
The number of threads in the thread cache. This variable was added in MySQL
3.23.17.
Threads_connected
The number of currently open connections.
Threads_created
The number of threads created to handle connections. If Threads_created is
big, you may want to increase the thread_cache_size value. The cache hit
rate can be calculated as Threads_created/Connections. This variable was
added in MySQL 3.23.31.
Threads_running
The number of threads that are not sleeping.
Uptime
The number of seconds the server has been up.
5.3 The MySQL Server Shutdown Process
The server shutdown process can be summarized like this:
1. The shutdown process is initiated
2. The server creates a shutdown thread if necessary
3. The server stops accepting new connections
4. The server terminates current activity
5. Storage engines are shut down or closed
6. The server exits
A more detailed description of the process follows:
1. The shutdown process is initiated
Server shutdown can be initiated several ways. For example, a user with the SHUTDOWN
privilege can execute a mysqladmin shutdown command. mysqladmin can be used on
any platform supported by MySQL. Other operating sytem-specific shutdown initiation
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methods are possible as well: The server shuts down on Unix when it receives a SIGTERM
signal. A server running as a service on Windows shuts down when the services manager
tells it to.
2. The server creates a shutdown thread if necessary
Depending on how shutdown was initiated, the server might create a thread to handle
the shutdown process. If shutdown was requested by a client, a shutdown thread is
created. If shutdown is the result of receiving a SIGTERM signal, the signal thread might
handle shutdown itself, or it might create a separate thread to do so. If the server tries
to create a shutdown thread and cannot (for example, if memory is exhausted), it issues
a diagnostic message that will appear in the error log:
Error: Can’t create thread to kill server
3. The server stops accepting new connections
To prevent new activity from being initiated during shutdown, the server stops accepting new client connections. It does this by closing the network connections to which it
normally listens for connections: the TCP/IP port, the Unix socket file, the Windows
named pipe.
4. The server terminates current activity
For each thread that is associated with a client connection, the connection to the client
is broken and the thread is marked as killed. Threads die when they notice that they
are so marked. Threads for idle connections die quickly. Threads that currently are
processing queries check their state periodically and take longer to die. For additional
information about thread termination, see Section 14.5.4.3 [KILL], page 767, in particular for the instructions about killed REPAIR TABLE or OPTIMIZE TABLE operations on
MyISAM tables.
For threads that have an open transaction, the tranaction is rolled back. Note that
if a thread is updating a non-transactional table, an operation such as a multiple-row
UPDATE or INSERT may leave the table partially updated, because the operation can
terminate before completion.
If the server is a master replication server, threads associated with currently connected
slaves are treated like other client threads. That is, each one is marked as killed and
exits when it next checks its state.
If the server is a slave replication server, the I/O and SQL threads, if active, are
stopped before client threads are marked as killed. The SQL thread is allowed to finish
its current statement (to avoid causing replication problems) then stops. If the SQL
thread was in the middle of a transaction at this point, the transaction is rolled back.
5. Storage engines are shut down or closed
At this stage, the table cache is flushed and all open tables are closed.
Each storage engine performs any actions necessary for tables that it manages. For
example, MyISAM flushes any pending index writes for a table. InnoDB flushes its
buffer pool to disk, writes the current LSN to the tablespace, and terminates its own
internal threads.
6. The server exits
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5.4 General Security Issues
This section describes some general security issues to be aware of and what you can do
to make your MySQL installation more secure against attack or misuse. For information
specifically about the access control system that MySQL uses for setting up user accounts
and checking database access, see Section 5.5 [Privilege system], page 296.
5.4.1 General Security Guidelines
Anyone using MySQL on a computer connected to the Internet should read this section to
avoid the most common security mistakes.
In discussing security, we emphasize the necessity of fully protecting the entire server host
(not just the MySQL server) against all types of applicable attacks: eavesdropping, altering,
playback, and denial of service. We do not cover all aspects of availability and fault tolerance
here.
MySQL uses security based on Access Control Lists (ACLs) for all connections, queries,
and other operations that users can attempt to perform. There is also some support for
SSL-encrypted connections between MySQL clients and servers. Many of the concepts
discussed here are not specific to MySQL at all; the same general ideas apply to almost all
applications.
When running MySQL, follow these guidelines whenever possible:
• Do not ever give anyone (except MySQL root accounts) access to the user table in
the mysql database! This is critical. The encrypted password is the real password
in MySQL. Anyone who knows the password that is listed in the user table and has
access to the host listed for the account can easily log in as that user.
• Learn the MySQL access privilege system. The GRANT and REVOKE statements are used
for controlling access to MySQL. Do not grant any more privileges than necessary.
Never grant privileges to all hosts.
Checklist:
− Try mysql -u root. If you are able to connect successfully to the server without being asked for a password, you have problems. Anyone can connect to your
MySQL server as the MySQL root user with full privileges! Review the MySQL
installation instructions, paying particular attention to the information about setting a root password. See Section 2.4.3 [Default privileges], page 130.
− Use the SHOW GRANTS statement and check to see who has access to what. Then
use the REVOKE statement to remove those privileges that are not necessary.
• Do not store any plain-text passwords in your database. If your computer becomes
compromised, the intruder can take the full list of passwords and use them. Instead,
use MD5(), SHA1(), or some other one-way hashing function.
• Do not choose passwords from dictionaries. There are special programs to break them.
Even passwords like “xfish98” are very bad. Much better is “duag98” which contains
the same word “fish” but typed one key to the left on a standard QWERTY keyboard.
Another method is to use “Mhall” which is taken from the first characters of each word
in the sentence “Mary had a little lamb.” This is easy to remember and type, but
difficult to guess for someone who does not know it.
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• Invest in a firewall. This protects you from at least 50% of all types of exploits in any
software. Put MySQL behind the firewall or in a demilitarized zone (DMZ).
Checklist:
− Try to scan your ports from the Internet using a tool such as nmap. MySQL uses
port 3306 by default. This port should not be accessible from untrusted hosts.
Another simple way to check whether or not your MySQL port is open is to try
the following command from some remote machine, where server_host is the host
on which your MySQL server runs:
shell> telnet server_host 3306
If you get a connection and some garbage characters, the port is open, and should
be closed on your firewall or router, unless you really have a good reason to keep
it open. If telnet just hangs or the connection is refused, everything is OK; the
port is blocked.
• Do not trust any data entered by users of your applications. They can try to trick
your code by entering special or escaped character sequences in Web forms, URLs, or
whatever application you have built. Be sure that your application remains secure if
a user enters something like “; DROP DATABASE mysql;”. This is an extreme example,
but large security leaks and data loss might occur as a result of hackers using similar
techniques, if you do not prepare for them.
A common mistake is to protect only string data values. Remember to check numeric
data as well. If an application generates a query such as SELECT * FROM table WHERE
ID=234 when a user enters the value 234, the user can enter the value 234 OR 1=1
to cause the application to generate the query SELECT * FROM table WHERE ID=234 OR
1=1. As a result, the server retrieves every record in the table. This exposes every
record and causes excessive server load. The simplest way to protect from this type
of attack is to use apostrophes around the numeric constants: SELECT * FROM table
WHERE ID=’234’. If the user enters extra information, it all becomes part of the string.
In numeric context, MySQL automatically converts this string to a number and strips
any trailing non-numeric characters from it.
Sometimes people think that if a database contains only publicly available data, it need
not be protected. This is incorrect. Even if it is allowable to display any record in the
database, you should still protect against denial of service attacks (for example, those
that are based on the technique in the preceding paragraph that causes the server to
waste resources). Otherwise, your server becomes unresponsive to legitimate users.
Checklist:
− Try to enter ‘’’ and ‘"’ in all your Web forms. If you get any kind of MySQL error,
investigate the problem right away.
− Try to modify any dynamic URLs by adding %22 (‘"’), %23 (‘#’), and %27 (‘’’) in
the URL.
− Try to modify data types in dynamic URLs from numeric ones to character ones
containing characters from previous examples. Your application should be safe
against this and similar attacks.
− Try to enter characters, spaces, and special symbols rather than numbers in numeric fields. Your application should remove them before passing them to MySQL
or else generate an error. Passing unchecked values to MySQL is very dangerous!
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− Check data sizes before passing them to MySQL.
− Consider having your application connect to the database using a different username than the one you use for administrative purposes. Do not give your applications any access privileges they do not need.
• Many application programming interfaces provide a means of escaping special characters in data values. Properly used, this prevents application users from entering values
that cause the application to generate statements that have a different effect than you
intend:
− MySQL C API: Use the mysql_real_escape_string() API call.
− MySQL++: Use the escape and quote modifiers for query streams.
− PHP: Use the mysql_escape_string() function, which is based on the function
of the same name in the MySQL C API. Prior to PHP 4.0.3, use addslashes()
instead.
− Perl DBI: Use the quote() method or use placeholders.
− Java JDBC: Use a PreparedStatement object and placeholders.
Other programming interfaces might have similar capabilities.
• Do not transmit plain (unencrypted) data over the Internet. This information is accessible to everyone who has the time and ability to intercept it and use it for their own
purposes. Instead, use an encrypted protocol such as SSL or SSH. MySQL supports
internal SSL connections as of Version 4.0.0. SSH port-forwarding can be used to create
an encrypted (and compressed) tunnel for the communication.
• Learn to use the tcpdump and strings utilities. For most cases, you can check whether
MySQL data streams are unencrypted by issuing a command like the following:
shell> tcpdump -l -i eth0 -w - src or dst port 3306 | strings
(This works under Linux and should work with small modifications under other systems.) Warning: If you do not see plaintext data, this doesn’t always mean that the
information actually is encrypted. If you need high security, you should consult with a
security expert.
5.4.2 Making MySQL Secure Against Attackers
When you connect to a MySQL server, you should use a password. The password is not
transmitted in clear text over the connection. Password handling during the client connection sequence was upgraded in MySQL 4.1.1 to be very secure. If you are using an older
version of MySQL, or are still using pre-4.1.1-style passwords, the encryption algorithm is
less strong and with some effort a clever attacker who can sniff the traffic between the client
and the server can crack the password. (See Section 5.5.9 [Password hashing], page 316 for
a discussion of the different password handling methods.) If the connection between the
client and the server goes through an untrusted network, you should use an SSH tunnel to
encrypt the communication.
All other information is transferred as text that can be read by anyone who is able to watch
the connection. If you are concerned about this, you can use the compressed protocol (in
MySQL 3.22 and above) to make traffic much more difficult to decipher. To make the
connection even more secure, you should use SSH to get an encrypted TCP/IP connection
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between a MySQL server and a MySQL client. You can find an Open Source SSH client at
http://www.openssh.org/, and a commercial SSH client at http://www.ssh.com/.
If you are using MySQL 4.0 or newer, you can also use internal OpenSSL support. See
Section 5.6.7 [Secure connections], page 330.
To make a MySQL system secure, you should strongly consider the following suggestions:
• Use passwords for all MySQL users. A client program does not necessarily know the
identity of the person running it. It is common for client/server applications that the
user can specify any username to the client program. For example, anyone can use
the mysql program to connect as any other person simply by invoking it as mysql
-u other_user db_name if other user has no password. If all users have a password,
connecting using another user’s account becomes much more difficult.
To change the password for a user, use the SET PASSWORD statement. It is also possible
to update the user table in the mysql database directly. For example, to change the
password of all MySQL accounts that have a username of root, do this:
shell>
mysql>
->
mysql>
mysql -u root
UPDATE mysql.user SET Password=PASSWORD(’newpwd ’)
WHERE User=’root’;
FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
• Don’t run the MySQL server as the Unix root user. This is very dangerous, because
any user with the FILE privilege will be able to create files as root (for example,
~root/.bashrc). To prevent this, mysqld refuses to run as root unless that is specified
explicitly using a --user=root option.
mysqld can be run as an ordinary unprivileged user instead. You can also create a
separate Unix account named mysql to make everything even more secure. Use the
account only for administering MySQL. To start mysqld as another Unix user, add a
user option that specifies the username to the [mysqld] group of the ‘/etc/my.cnf’
option file or the ‘my.cnf’ option file in the server’s data directory. For example:
[mysqld]
user=mysql
This causes the server to start as the designated user whether you start it manually or
by using mysqld_safe or mysql.server. For more details, see Section A.3.2 [Changing
MySQL user], page 1116.
Running mysqld as a Unix user other than root does not mean that you need to change
the root username in the user table. Usernames for MySQL accounts have nothing
to do with usernames for Unix accounts.
• Don’t allow the use of symlinks to tables. (This can be disabled with the --skipsymbolic-links option.) This is especially important if you run mysqld as root,
because anyone that has write access to the server’s data directory then could delete
any file in the system! See Section 7.6.1.2 [Symbolic links to tables], page 476.
• Make sure that the only Unix user with read or write privileges in the database directories is the user that mysqld runs as.
• Don’t grant the PROCESS or SUPER privilege to non-administrative users. The output
of mysqladmin processlist shows the text of the currently executing queries, so any
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user who is allowed to execute that command might be able to see if another user issues
an UPDATE user SET password=PASSWORD(’not_secure’) query.
mysqld reserves an extra connection for users who have the SUPER privilege (PROCESS
before MySQL 4.0.2), so that a MySQL root user can log in and check server activity
even if all normal connections are in use.
The SUPER privilege can be used to terminate client connections, change server operation by changing the value of system variables, and control replication servers.
• Don’t grant the FILE privilege to non-administrative users. Any user that has this
privilege can write a file anywhere in the filesystem with the privileges of the mysqld
daemon! To make this a bit safer, files generated with SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE will
not overwrite existing files and are writable by everyone.
The FILE privilege may also be used to read any file that is world-readable or accessible
to the Unix user that the server runs as. With this privilege, you can read any file
into a database table. This could be abused, for example, by using LOAD DATA to load
‘/etc/passwd’ into a table, which then can be displayed with SELECT.
• If you don’t trust your DNS, you should use IP numbers rather than hostnames in the
grant tables. In any case, you should be very careful about creating grant table entries
using hostname values that contain wildcards!
• If you want to restrict the number of connections allowed to a single account, you can
do so by setting the max_user_connections variable in mysqld. The GRANT statement
also supports resource control options for limiting the extent of server use allowed to
an account.
5.4.3 Startup Options for mysqld Concerning Security
The following mysqld options affect security:
--local-infile[={0|1}]
If you start the server with --local-infile=0, clients cannot use LOCAL in
LOAD DATA statements. See Section 5.4.4 [LOAD DATA LOCAL], page 295.
--safe-show-database
With this option, the SHOW DATABASES statement displays the names of only
those databases for which the user has some kind of privilege. As of MySQL
4.0.2, this option is deprecated and doesn’t do anything (it is enabled by default), because there is now a SHOW DATABASES privilege that can be used to
control access to database names on a per-account basis. See Section 14.5.1.2
[GRANT], page 732.
--safe-user-create
If this is enabled, a user cannot create new users with the GRANT statement
unless the user has the INSERT privilege for the mysql.user table. If you want
a user to have the ability to create new users with those privileges that the user
has right to grant, you should grant the user the following privilege:
mysql> GRANT INSERT(user) ON mysql.user TO ’user_name ’@’host_name ’;
This will ensure that the user can’t change any privilege columns directly, but
has to use the GRANT statement to give privileges to other users.
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--secure-auth
Disallow authentication for accounts that have old (pre-4.1) passwords. This
option is available as of MySQL 4.1.1.
--skip-grant-tables
This option causes the server not to use the privilege system at all. This gives
everyone full access to all databases! (You can tell a running server to start
using the grant tables again by executing a mysqladmin flush-privileges or
mysqladmin reload command, or by issuing a FLUSH PRIVILEGES statement.)
--skip-name-resolve
Hostnames are not resolved. All Host column values in the grant tables must
be IP numbers or localhost.
--skip-networking
Don’t allow TCP/IP connections over the network. All connections to mysqld
must be made via Unix socket files. This option is unsuitable when using a
MySQL version prior to 3.23.27 with the MIT-pthreads package, because Unix
socket files were not supported by MIT-pthreads at that time.
--skip-show-database
With this option, the SHOW DATABASES statement is allowed only to users who
have the SHOW DATABASES privilege, and the statement displays all database
names. Without this option, SHOW DATABASES is allowed to all users, but displays each database name only if the user has the SHOW DATABASES privilege or
some privilege for the database.
5.4.4 Security Issues with LOAD DATA LOCAL
The LOAD DATA statement can load a file that is located on the server host, or it can load a
file that is located on the client host when the LOCAL keyword is specified.
There are two potential security issues with supporting the LOCAL version of LOAD DATA
statements:
• The transfer of the file from the client host to the server host is initiated by the MySQL
server. In theory, a patched server could be built that would tell the client program to
transfer a file of the server’s choosing rather than the file named by the client in the
LOAD DATA statement. Such a server could access any file on the client host to which
the client user has read access.
• In a Web environment where the clients are connecting from a Web server, a user could
use LOAD DATA LOCAL to read any files that the Web server process has read access
to (assuming that a user could run any command against the SQL server). In this
environment, the client with respect to the MySQL server actually is the Web server,
not the program being run by the user connecting to the Web server.
To deal with these problems, we changed how LOAD DATA LOCAL is handled as of MySQL
3.23.49 and MySQL 4.0.2 (4.0.13 on Windows):
• By default, all MySQL clients and libraries in binary distributions are compiled with
the --enable-local-infile option, to be compatible with MySQL 3.23.48 and before.
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• If you build MySQL from source but don’t use the --enable-local-infile option to
configure, LOAD DATA LOCAL cannot be used by any client unless it is written explicitly
to invoke mysql_options(... MYSQL_OPT_LOCAL_INFILE, 0). See Section 21.2.3.40
[mysql_options()], page 983.
• You can disable all LOAD DATA LOCAL commands from the server side by starting mysqld
with the --local-infile=0 option.
• For the mysql command-line client, LOAD DATA LOCAL can be enabled by specifying the -local-infile[=1] option, or disabled with the --local-infile=0 option. Similarly,
for mysqlimport, the --local or -L option enables local data file loading. In any case,
successful use of a local loading operation requires that the server is enabled to allow
it.
• If you use LOAD DATA LOCAL in Perl scripts or other programs that read the [client]
group from option files, you can add the local-infile=1 option to that group. However, to keep this from causing problems for programs that do not understand localinfile, specify it using the loose- prefix:
[client]
loose-local-infile=1
The loose- prefix can be used as of MySQL 4.0.2.
• If LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE is disabled, either in the server or the client, a client that
attempts to issue such a statement receives the following error message:
ERROR 1148: The used command is not allowed with this MySQL version
5.5 The MySQL Access Privilege System
MySQL has an advanced but non-standard security/privilege system. This section describes
how it works.
5.5.1 What the Privilege System Does
The primary function of the MySQL privilege system is to authenticate a user connecting
from a given host, and to associate that user with privileges on a database such as SELECT,
INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE.
Additional functionality includes the ability to have an anonymous user and to grant privileges for MySQL-specific functions such as LOAD DATA INFILE and administrative operations.
5.5.2 How the Privilege System Works
The MySQL privilege system ensures that all users may perform only the operations allowed
to them. As a user, when you connect to a MySQL server, your identity is determined by
the host from which you connect and the username you specify. The system grants privileges
according to your identity and what you want to do.
MySQL considers both your hostname and username in identifying you because there is
little reason to assume that a given username belongs to the same person everywhere on
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the Internet. For example, the user joe who connects from office.com need not be the
same person as the user joe who connects from elsewhere.com. MySQL handles this by
allowing you to distinguish users on different hosts that happen to have the same name:
You can grant joe one set of privileges for connections from office.com, and a different
set of privileges for connections from elsewhere.com.
MySQL access control involves two stages:
• Stage 1: The server checks whether you are even allowed to connect.
• Stage 2: Assuming that you can connect, the server checks each statement you issue
to see whether you have sufficient privileges to perform it. For example, if you try to
select rows from a table in a database or drop a table from the database, the server
verifies that you have the SELECT privilege for the table or the DROP privilege for the
database.
If your privileges are changed (either by yourself or someone else) while you are connected,
those changes will not necessarily take effect immediately for the next statement you issue.
See Section 5.5.7 [Privilege changes], page 311 for details.
The server stores privilege information in the grant tables of the mysql database (that is,
in the database named mysql). The MySQL server reads the contents of these tables into
memory when it starts and re-reads them under the circumstances indicated in Section 5.5.7
[Privilege changes], page 311. Access-control decisions are based on the in-memory copies
of the grant tables.
Normally, you manipulate the contents of the grant tables indirectly by using the GRANT and
REVOKE statements to set up accounts and control the privileges available to each one. See
Section 14.5.1.2 [GRANT], page 732. The discussion here describes the underlying structure
of the grant tables and how the server uses their contents when interacting with clients.
The server uses the user, db, and host tables in the mysql database at both stages of access
control. The columns in these grant tables are shown here:
Table Name
user
db
host
Scope columns
Host
User
Password
Select_priv
Insert_priv
Update_priv
Delete_priv
Index_priv
Alter_priv
Create_priv
Drop_priv
Grant_priv
Create_view_
priv
Show_view_
priv
Host
Db
User
Select_priv
Insert_priv
Update_priv
Delete_priv
Index_priv
Alter_priv
Create_priv
Drop_priv
Grant_priv
Create_view_
priv
Show_view_
priv
Host
Db
Privilege columns
Select_priv
Insert_priv
Update_priv
Delete_priv
Index_priv
Alter_priv
Create_priv
Drop_priv
Grant_priv
Create_view_
priv
Show_view_
priv
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References_
References_
References_
priv
priv
priv
Reload_priv
Shutdown_
priv
Process_priv
File_priv
Show_db_priv
Super_priv
Create_tmp_
Create_tmp_
Create_tmp_
table_priv
table_priv
table_priv
Lock_tables_
Lock_tables_
Lock_tables_
priv
priv
priv
Execute_priv
Repl_slave_
priv
Repl_client_
priv
ssl_type
ssl_cipher
x509_issuer
x509_subject
max_
questions
max_updates
max_
connections
The ssl_type, ssl_cipher, x509_issuer, and x509_subject columns were added in
MySQL 4.0.0.
The Create_tmp_table_priv, Execute_priv, Lock_tables_priv, Repl_client_priv,
Repl_slave_priv, Show_db_priv, Super_priv, max_questions, max_updates, and
max_connections columns were added in MySQL 4.0.2.
The Create_view_priv and Show_view_priv columns were added in MySQL 5.0.1.
During the second stage of access control (request verification), the server may, if the request
involves tables, additionally consult the tables_priv and columns_priv tables that provide
finer control at the table and column levels. The columns in these tables are shown here:
Table Name
tables priv
columns priv
Scope columns
Host
Db
User
Table_name
Host
Db
User
Table_name
Column_name
Privilege columns
Table_priv
Column_priv
Timestamp
Grantor
Column_priv
Other columns
Timestamp
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The Timestamp and Grantor columns currently are unused and are discussed no further
here.
Each grant table contains scope columns and privilege columns:
• Scope columns determine the scope of each entry (row) in the tables; that is, the context in which the entry applies. For example, a user table entry with Host and User
values of ’thomas.loc.gov’ and ’bob’ would be used for authenticating connections
made to the server from the host thomas.loc.gov by a client that specifies a username of bob. Similarly, a db table entry with Host, User, and Db column values of
’thomas.loc.gov’, ’bob’ and ’reports’ would be used when bob connects from the
host thomas.loc.gov to access the reports database. The tables_priv and columns_
priv tables contain scope columns indicating tables or table/column combinations to
which each entry applies.
• Privilege columns indicate the privileges granted by a table entry; that is, what operations can be performed. The server combines the information in the various grant
tables to form a complete description of a user’s privileges. The rules used to do this
are described in Section 5.5.6 [Request access], page 308.
Scope columns contain strings. They are declared as shown here; the default value for each
is the empty string:
Column Name
Host
User
Password
Db
Table_name
Column_name
Type
CHAR(60)
CHAR(16)
CHAR(16)
CHAR(64)
CHAR(60)
CHAR(60)
Before MySQL 3.23, the Db column is CHAR(32) in some tables and CHAR(60) in others.
For access-checking purposes, comparisons of Host values are case-insensitive. User,
Password, Db, and Table_name values are case sensitive. Column_name values are case
insensitive in MySQL 3.22.12 or later.
In the user, db, and host tables, each privilege is listed in a separate column that is
declared as ENUM(’N’,’Y’) DEFAULT ’N’. In other words, each privilege can disabled or
enabled, with the default being disabled.
In the tables_priv and columns_priv tables, the privilege columns are declared as SET
columns. Values in these columns can contain any combination of the privileges controlled
by the table:
Table Name
tables_priv
Column
Name
Table_
priv
Possible Set Elements
’Select’, ’Insert’, ’Update’, ’Delete’,
’Create’, ’Drop’, ’Grant’, ’References’,
’Index’, ’Alter’
tables_priv Column_
’Select’, ’Insert’, ’Update’,
priv
’References’
columns_
Column_
’Select’, ’Insert’, ’Update’,
priv
priv
’References’
Briefly, the server uses the grant tables as follows:
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• The user table scope columns determine whether to reject or allow incoming connections. For allowed connections, any privileges granted in the user table indicate the
user’s global (superuser) privileges. These privileges apply to all databases on the
server.
• The db table scope columns determine which users can access which databases from
which hosts. The privilege columns determine which operations are allowed. A privilege
granted at the database level applies to the database and to all its tables.
• The host table is used in conjunction with the db table when you want a given db table
entry to apply to several hosts. For example, if you want a user to be able to use a
database from several hosts in your network, leave the Host value empty in the user’s
db table entry, then populate the host table with an entry for each of those hosts. This
mechanism is described more detail in Section 5.5.6 [Request access], page 308.
Note: The host table is not affected by the GRANT and REVOKE statements. Most
MySQL installations need not use this table at all.
• The tables_priv and columns_priv tables are similar to the db table, but are more
fine-grained: They apply at the table and column levels rather than at the database
level. A privilege granted at the table level applies to the table and to all its columns.
A privilege granted at the column level applies only to a specific column.
Administrative privileges (such as RELOAD or SHUTDOWN) are specified only in the user
table. This is because administrative operations are operations on the server itself and are
not database-specific, so there is no reason to list these privileges in the other grant tables.
In fact, to determine whether you can perform an administrative operation, the server need
consult only the user table.
The FILE privilege also is specified only in the user table. It is not an administrative
privilege as such, but your ability to read or write files on the server host is independent of
the database you are accessing.
The mysqld server reads the contents of the grant tables into memory when it starts. You
can tell it to re-read the tables by issuing a FLUSH PRIVILEGES statement or executing a
mysqladmin flush-privileges or mysqladmin reload command. Changes to the grant
tables take effect as indicated in Section 5.5.7 [Privilege changes], page 311.
When you modify the contents of the grant tables, it is a good idea to make sure that your
changes set up privileges the way you want. One way to check the privileges for a given
account is to use the SHOW GRANTS statement. For example, to determine the privileges that
are granted to an account with Host and User values of pc84.example.com and bob, issue
this statement:
mysql> SHOW GRANTS FOR ’bob’@’pc84.example.com’;
A useful diagnostic tool is the mysqlaccess script, which Yves Carlier has provided for the
MySQL distribution. Invoke mysqlaccess with the --help option to find out how it works.
Note that mysqlaccess checks access using only the user, db, and host tables. It does not
check table or column privileges specified in the tables_priv or columns_priv tables.
For additional help in diagnosing privilege-related problems, see Section 5.5.8 [Access denied], page 311. For general advice on security issues, see Section 5.4 [Security], page 290.
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5.5.3 Privileges Provided by MySQL
Information about account privileges is stored in the user, db, host, tables_priv, and
columns_priv tables in the mysql database. The MySQL server reads the contents of these
tables into memory when it starts and re-reads them under the circumstances indicated
in Section 5.5.7 [Privilege changes], page 311. Access-control decisions are based on the
in-memory copies of the grant tables.
The names used in this manual to refer to the privileges provided by MySQL are shown in
the following table, along with the table column name associated with each privilege in the
grant tables and the context in which the privilege applies. Further information about the
meaning of each privilege may be found at Section 14.5.1.2 [GRANT], page 732.
Privilege
ALTER
DELETE
INDEX
INSERT
SELECT
UPDATE
CREATE
DROP
GRANT
REFERENCES
CREATE
TEMPORARY
TABLES
EXECUTE
FILE
LOCK TABLES
PROCESS
RELOAD
REPLICATION
CLIENT
REPLICATION
SLAVE
SHOW
DATABASES
SHUTDOWN
SUPER
Column
Alter_priv
Delete_priv
Index_priv
Insert_priv
Select_priv
Update_priv
Create_priv
Drop_priv
Grant_priv
References_
priv
Create_tmp_
table_priv
Context
tables
tables
tables
tables
tables
tables
databases, tables, or indexes
databases or tables
databases or tables
databases or tables
Execute_priv
File_priv
Lock_tables_
priv
Process_priv
Reload_priv
Repl_client_
priv
Repl_slave_
priv
Show_db_priv
server administration
file access on server host
server administration
Shutdown_
priv
Super_priv
server administration
server administration
server administration
server administration
server administration
server administration
server administration
server administration
The CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES,
EXECUTE,
LOCK TABLES,
REPLICATION CLIENT,
REPLICATION SLAVE, SHOW DATABASES, and SUPER privileges were added in MySQL 4.0.2.
The EXECUTE and REFERENCES privileges currently are unused.
The SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE privileges allow you to perform operations on
rows in existing tables in a database.
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SELECT statements require the SELECT privilege only if they actually retrieve rows from a
table. Some SELECT statements do not access tables and can be executed without permission
for any database. For example, you can use the mysql client as a simple calculator to
evaluate expressions that make no reference to tables:
mysql> SELECT 1+1;
mysql> SELECT PI()*2;
The CREATE and DROP privileges allow you to create new databases and tables, or to drop
(remove) existing databases and tables. If you grant the DROP privilege for the mysql
database to a user, that user can drop the database in which the MySQL access privileges
are stored!
The INDEX privilege allows you to create or drop (remove) indexes. INDEX applies to existing
tables. If you have the CREATE privilege for a table, you can include index definitions in the
CREATE TABLE statement.
The ALTER privilege allows you to use ALTER TABLE to change the structure of or rename
tables.
The GRANT privilege allows you to give to other users those privileges that you yourself
possess.
The FILE privilege gives you permission to read and write files on the server host using the
LOAD DATA INFILE and SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE statements. A user who has the FILE
privilege can read any file on the server host that is either world-readable or readable by
the MySQL server. (This implies the user can read any file in any database directory,
because the server can access any of those files.) The FILE privilege also allows the user to
create new files in any directory where the MySQL server has write access. Existing files
cannot be overwritten.
The remaining privileges are used for administrative operations. Many of them can be
performed by using the mysqladmin program or by issuing SQL statements. The following table shows which mysqladmin commands each administrative privilege allows you to
execute:
Privilege
Commands Permitted to Privilege Holders
RELOAD
flush-hosts, flush-logs, flush-privileges, flush-status,
flush-tables, flush-threads, refresh, reload
SHUTDOWN
shutdown
PROCESS
processlist
SUPER
kill
The reload command tells the server to re-read the grant tables into memory. flushprivileges is a synonym for reload. The refresh command closes and reopens the log
files and flushes all tables. The other flush-xxx commands perform functions similar to
refresh, but are more specific and may be preferable in some instances. For example, if
you want to flush just the log files, flush-logs is a better choice than refresh.
The shutdown command shuts down the server. This command can be issued only from
mysqladmin. There is no corresponding SQL statement.
The processlist command displays information about the threads executing within the
server (that is, about the statements being executed by clients associated with other accounts). The kill command terminates server threads. You can always display or kill your
own threads, but you need the PROCESS privilege to display threads initiated by other users
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and the SUPER privilege to kill them. See Section 14.5.4.3 [KILL], page 767. Prior to MySQL
4.0.2 when SUPER was introduced, the PROCESS privilege controls the ability to both see and
terminate threads for other clients.
The CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES privilege allows the use of the keyword TEMPORARY in CREATE
TABLE statements.
The LOCK TABLES privilege allows the use of explicit LOCK TABLES statements to lock tables
for which you have the SELECT privilege. This includes the use of write locks, which prevents
anyone else from reading the locked table.
The REPLICATION CLIENT privilege allows the use of SHOW MASTER STATUS and SHOW SLAVE
STATUS.
The REPLICATION SLAVE privilege should be granted to accounts that are used by slave
servers when they connect to the current server as their master. Without this privilege, the
slave cannot request updates that have been made to databases on the master server.
The SHOW DATABASES privilege allows the account to see database names by issuing the SHOW
DATABASE statement. Accounts that do not have this privilege see only databases for which
they have some privileges, and cannot use the statement at all if the server was started with
the --skip-show-database option.
It is a good idea in general to grant privileges to only those accounts that need them, but
you should exercise particular caution in granting administrative privileges:
• The GRANT privilege allows users to give their privileges to other users. Two users with
different privileges and with the GRANT privilege are able to combine privileges.
• The ALTER privilege may be used to subvert the privilege system by renaming tables.
• The FILE privilege can be abused to read into a database table any files that the
MySQL server can read on the server host. This includes all world-readable files and
files in the server’s data directory. The table can then be accessed using SELECT to
transfer its contents to the client host.
• The SHUTDOWN privilege can be abused to deny service to other users entirely by terminating the server.
• The PROCESS privilege can be used to view the plain text of currently executing queries,
including queries that set or change passwords.
• The SUPER privilege can be used to terminate other clients or change how the server
operates.
• Privileges granted for the mysql database itself can be used to change passwords and
other access privilege information. Passwords are stored encrypted, so a malicious user
cannot simply read them to know the plain text password. However, a user with write
access to the user table Password column can change an account’s password, and then
connect to the MySQL server using that account.
There are some things that you cannot do with the MySQL privilege system:
• You cannot explicitly specify that a given user should be denied access. That is, you
cannot explicitly match a user and then refuse the connection.
• You cannot specify that a user has privileges to create or drop tables in a database but
not to create or drop the database itself.
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5.5.4 Connecting to the MySQL Server
MySQL client programs generally expect you to specify connection parameters when you
want to access a MySQL server:
• The name of the host where the MySQL server is running
• Your username
• Your password
For example, the mysql client can be started as follows from a command-line prompt (indicated here by shell>):
shell> mysql -h host_name -u user_name -pyour_pass
Alternate forms of the -h, -u, and -p options are --host=host_name , --user=user_name ,
and --password=your_pass . Note that there is no space between -p or --password= and
the password following it.
If you use a -p or --password option but do not specify the password value, the client
program will prompt you to enter the password. The password is not displayed as you
enter it. This is more secure than giving the password on the command line. Any user on
your system may be able to see a password specified on the command line by executing a
command such as ps auxww. See Section 5.6.6 [Password security], page 329.
MySQL client programs use default values for any connection parameter option that you
do not specify:
• The default hostname is localhost.
• The default username is ODBC on Windows and your Unix login name on Unix.
• No password is supplied if -p is missing.
Thus, for a Unix user with a login name of joe, all of the following commands are equivalent:
shell> mysql -h localhost -u joe
shell> mysql -h localhost
shell> mysql -u joe
shell> mysql
Other MySQL clients behave similarly.
You can specify different default values to be used when you make a connection so that you
need not enter them on the command line each time you invoke a client program. This can
be done in a couple of ways:
• You can specify connection parameters in the [client] section of an option file. The
relevant section of the file might look like this:
[client]
host=host_name
user=user_name
password=your_pass
Option files are discussed further in Section 4.3.2 [Option files], page 225.
• You can specify some connection parameters using environment variables. The host can
be specified for mysql using MYSQL_HOST. The MySQL username can be specified using
USER (this is for Windows and NetWare only). The password can be specified using
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MYSQL_PWD, although this is insecure; see Section 5.6.6 [Password security], page 329.
For a list of variables, see Appendix E [Environment variables], page 1338.
5.5.5 Access Control, Stage 1: Connection Verification
When you attempt to connect to a MySQL server, the server accepts or rejects the connection based on your identity and whether you can verify your identity by supplying the
correct password. If not, the server denies access to you completely. Otherwise, the server
accepts the connection, then enters Stage 2 and waits for requests.
Your identity is based on two pieces of information:
• The client host from which you connect
• Your MySQL username
Identity checking is performed using the three user table scope columns (Host, User, and
Password). The server accepts the connection only if the Host and User columns in some
user table record match the client hostname and username, and the client supplies the
password specified in that record.
Host values in the user table may be specified as follows:
• A Host value may be a hostname or an IP number, or ’localhost’ to indicate the
local host.
• You can use the wildcard characters ‘%’ and ‘_’ in Host column values. These have
the same meaning as for pattern-matching operations performed with the LIKE operator. For example, a Host value of ’%’ matches any hostname, whereas a value of
’%.mysql.com’ matches any host in the mysql.com domain.
• As of MySQL 3.23, for Host values specified as IP numbers, you can specify a netmask
indicating how many address bits to use for the network number. For example:
mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON db.*
-> TO [email protected]’192.58.197.0/255.255.255.0’;
This allows david to connect from any client host having an IP number client_ip for
which the following condition is true:
client_ip & netmask = host_ip
That is, for the GRANT statement just shown:
client_ip & 255.255.255.0 = 192.58.197.0
IP numbers that satisfy this condition and can connect to the MySQL server are those
that lie in the range from 192.58.197.0 to 192.58.197.255.
• A blank Host value in a db table record means that its privileges should be combined
with those in the entry in the host table that matches the client hostname. The privileges are combined using an AND (intersection) operation, not OR (union). You can
find more information about the host table in Section 5.5.6 [Request access], page 308.
A blank Host value in the other grant tables is the same as ’%’.
Because you can use IP wildcard values in the Host column (for example, ’144.155.166.%’
to match every host on a subnet), someone could try to exploit this capability by naming
a host 144.155.166.somewhere.com. To foil such attempts, MySQL disallows matching
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on hostnames that start with digits and a dot. Thus, if you have a host named something
like 1.2.foo.com, its name will never match the Host column of the grant tables. An IP
wildcard value can match only IP numbers, not hostnames.
In the User column, wildcard characters are not allowed, but you can specify a blank value,
which matches any name. If the user table entry that matches an incoming connection has
a blank username, the user is considered to be an anonymous user with no name, not a user
with the name that the client actually specified. This means that a blank username is used
for all further access checking for the duration of the connection (that is, during Stage 2).
The Password column can be blank. This is not a wildcard and does not mean that any
password matches. It means that the user must connect without specifying a password.
Non-blank Password values in the user table represent encrypted passwords. MySQL does
not store passwords in plaintext form for anyone to see. Rather, the password supplied by
a user who is attempting to connect is encrypted (using the PASSWORD() function). The
encrypted password then is used during the connection process when checking whether the
password is correct. (This is done without the encrypted password ever traveling over the
connection.) From MySQL’s point of view, the encrypted password is the REAL password,
so you should not give anyone access to it! In particular, don’t give non-administrative
users read access to the tables in the mysql database!
From version 4.1 on, MySQL employs a stronger authentication method that has better
password protection during the connection process than in earlier versions. It is secure even
if TCP/IP packets are sniffed or the mysql database is captured. Password encryption is
discussed further in Section 5.5.9 [Password hashing], page 316.
The following examples show how various combinations of Host and User values in the user
table apply to incoming connections:
Host Value
User Value Connections Matched by Entry
’thomas.loc.gov’
’fred’
fred, connecting from thomas.loc.gov
’thomas.loc.gov’
’’
Any
user,
connecting
from
thomas.loc.gov
’%’
’fred’
fred, connecting from any host
’%’
’’
Any user, connecting from any host
’%.loc.gov’
’fred’
fred, connecting from any host in the
loc.gov domain
’x.y.%’
’fred’
fred, connecting from x.y.net, x.y.com,
x.y.edu, and so on. (this is probably not
useful)
’144.155.166.177’
’fred’
fred, connecting from the host with IP address 144.155.166.177
’144.155.166.%’
’fred’
fred, connecting from any host in the
144.155.166 class C subnet
’144.155.166.0/255.255.255.0’’fred’
Same as previous example
It is possible for the client hostname and username of an incoming connection to match
more than one entry in the user table. The preceding set of examples demonstrates this:
Several of the entries shown match a connection from thomas.loc.gov by fred.
When multiple matches are possible, the server must determine which of them to use. It
resolves this issue as follows:
• Whenever the server reads the user table into memory, it sorts the entries.
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• When a client attempts to connect, the server looks through the entries in sorted order.
• The server uses the first entry that matches the client hostname and username.
To see how this works, suppose that the user table looks like this:
+-----------+----------+| Host
| User
| ...
+-----------+----------+| %
| root
| ...
| %
| jeffrey | ...
| localhost | root
| ...
| localhost |
| ...
+-----------+----------+When the server reads in the table, it orders the entries with the most-specific Host values
first. Literal hostnames and IP numbers are the most specific. The pattern ’%’ means
“any host” and is least specific. Entries with the same Host value are ordered with the
most-specific User values first (a blank User value means “any user” and is least specific).
For the user table just shown, the result after sorting looks like this:
+-----------+----------+| Host
| User
| ...
+-----------+----------+| localhost | root
| ...
| localhost |
| ...
| %
| jeffrey | ...
| %
| root
| ...
+-----------+----------+When a client attempts to connect, the server looks through the sorted entries and uses the
first match found. For a connection from localhost by jeffrey, two of the entries in the
table match: the one with Host and User values of ’localhost’ and ’’, and the one with
values of ’%’ and ’jeffrey’. The ’localhost’ entry appears first in sorted order, so that
is the one the server uses.
Here is another example. Suppose that the user table looks like this:
+----------------+----------+| Host
| User
| ...
+----------------+----------+| %
| jeffrey | ...
| thomas.loc.gov |
| ...
+----------------+----------+The sorted table looks like this:
+----------------+----------+| Host
| User
| ...
+----------------+----------+| thomas.loc.gov |
| ...
| %
| jeffrey | ...
+----------------+----------+A connection by jeffrey from thomas.loc.gov is matched by the first entry, whereas a
connection by jeffrey from whitehouse.gov is matched by the second.
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It is a common misconception to think that, for a given username, all entries that explicitly
name that user will be used first when the server attempts to find a match for the connection.
This is simply not true. The previous example illustrates this, where a connection from
thomas.loc.gov by jeffrey is first matched not by the entry containing ’jeffrey’ as
the User column value, but by the entry with no username! As a result, jeffrey will be
authenticated as an anonymous user, even though he specified a username when connecting.
If you are able to connect to the server, but your privileges are not what you expect, you
probably are being authenticated as some other account. To find out what account the
server used to authenticate you, use the CURRENT_USER() function. It returns a value in
user_name @host_name format that indicates the User and Host values from the matching
user table record. Suppose that jeffrey connects and issues the following query:
mysql> SELECT CURRENT_USER();
+----------------+
| CURRENT_USER() |
+----------------+
| @localhost
|
+----------------+
The result shown here indicates that the matching user table entry had a blank User
column value. In other words, the server is treating jeffrey as an anonymous user.
The CURRENT_USER() function is available as of MySQL 4.0.6. See Section 13.8.3 [Information functions], page 650. Another thing you can do to diagnose authentication problems is
to print out the user table and sort it by hand to see where the first match is being made.
5.5.6 Access Control, Stage 2: Request Verification
Once you establish a connection, the server enters Stage 2 of access control. For each
request that comes in on the connection, the server determines what operation you want
to perform, then checks whether you have sufficient privileges to do so. This is where the
privilege columns in the grant tables come into play. These privileges can come from any
of the user, db, host, tables_priv, or columns_priv tables. (You may find it helpful to
refer to Section 5.5.2 [Privileges], page 296, which lists the columns present in each of the
grant tables.)
The user table grants privileges that are assigned to you on a global basis and that apply
no matter what the current database is. For example, if the user table grants you the
DELETE privilege, you can delete rows from any table in any database on the server host!
In other words, user table privileges are superuser privileges. It is wise to grant privileges
in the user table only to superusers such as database administrators. For other users, you
should leave the privileges in the user table set to ’N’ and grant privileges at more specific
levels only. You can grant privileges for particular databases, tables, or columns.
The db and host tables grant database-specific privileges. Values in the scope columns of
these tables can take the following forms:
• The wildcard characters ‘%’ and ‘_’ can be used in the Host and Db columns of either
table. These have the same meaning as for pattern-matching operations performed
with the LIKE operator. If you want to use either character literally when granting
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privileges, you must escape it with a backslash. For example, to include ‘_’ character
as part of a database name, specify it as ‘\_’ in the GRANT statement.
A ’%’ Host value in the db table means “any host.” A blank Host value in the db table
means “consult the host table for further information” (a process that is described
later in this section).
A ’%’ or blank Host value in the host table means “any host.”
A ’%’ or blank Db value in either table means “any database.”
A blank User value in either table matches the anonymous user.
The server reads in and sorts the db and host tables at the same time that it reads the
user table. The server sorts the db table based on the Host, Db, and User scope columns,
and sorts the host table based on the Host and Db scope columns. As with the user table,
sorting puts the most-specific values first and least-specific values last, and when the server
looks for matching entries, it uses the first match that it finds.
The tables_priv and columns_priv tables grant table-specific and column-specific privileges. Values in the scope columns of these tables can take the following form:
• The wildcard characters ‘%’ and ‘_’ can be used in the Host column of either table.
These have the same meaning as for pattern-matching operations performed with the
LIKE operator.
• A ’%’ or blank Host value in either table means “any host.”
• The Db, Table_name, and Column_name columns cannot contain wildcards or be blank
in either table.
The server sorts the tables_priv and columns_priv tables based on the Host, Db, and
User columns. This is similar to db table sorting, but simpler because only the Host column
can contain wildcards.
The request verification process is described here. (If you are familiar with the accesschecking source code, you will notice that the description here differs slightly from the
algorithm used in the code. The description is equivalent to what the code actually does;
it differs only to make the explanation simpler.)
For requests that require administrative privileges such as SHUTDOWN or RELOAD, the server
checks only the user table entry because that is the only table that specifies administrative
privileges. Access is granted if the entry allows the requested operation and denied otherwise. For example, if you want to execute mysqladmin shutdown but your user table entry
doesn’t grant the SHUTDOWN privilege to you, the server denies access without even checking
the db or host tables. (They contain no Shutdown_priv column, so there is no need to do
so.)
For database-related requests (INSERT, UPDATE, and so on), the server first checks the
user’s global (superuser) privileges by looking in the user table entry. If the entry allows
the requested operation, access is granted. If the global privileges in the user table are
insufficient, the server determines the user’s database-specific privileges by checking the db
and host tables:
1. The server looks in the db table for a match on the Host, Db, and User columns. The
Host and User columns are matched to the connecting user’s hostname and MySQL
username. The Db column is matched to the database that the user wants to access. If
there is no entry for the Host and User, access is denied.
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2. If there is a matching db table entry and its Host column is not blank, that entry
defines the user’s database-specific privileges.
3. If the matching db table entry’s Host column is blank, it signifies that the host table
enumerates which hosts should be allowed access to the database. In this case, a further
lookup is done in the host table to find a match on the Host and Db columns. If no
host table entry matches, access is denied. If there is a match, the user’s databasespecific privileges are computed as the intersection (not the union!) of the privileges
in the db and host table entries; that is, the privileges that are ’Y’ in both entries.
(This way you can grant general privileges in the db table entry and then selectively
restrict them on a host-by-host basis using the host table entries.)
After determining the database-specific privileges granted by the db and host table entries,
the server adds them to the global privileges granted by the user table. If the result allows
the requested operation, access is granted. Otherwise, the server successively checks the
user’s table and column privileges in the tables_priv and columns_priv tables, adds those
to the user’s privileges, and allows or denies access based on the result.
Expressed in boolean terms, the preceding description of how a user’s privileges are calculated may be summarized like this:
global privileges
OR (database privileges AND host privileges)
OR table privileges
OR column privileges
It may not be apparent why, if the global user entry privileges are initially found to be
insufficient for the requested operation, the server adds those privileges to the database,
table, and column privileges later. The reason is that a request might require more than
one type of privilege. For example, if you execute an INSERT INTO ... SELECT statement,
you need both the INSERT and the SELECT privileges. Your privileges might be such that
the user table entry grants one privilege and the db table entry grants the other. In this
case, you have the necessary privileges to perform the request, but the server cannot tell
that from either table by itself; the privileges granted by the entries in both tables must be
combined.
The host table is not affected by the GRANT or REVOKE statements, so it is unused in most
MySQL installations. If you modify it directly, you can use it for some specialized purposes,
such as to to maintain a list of secure servers. For example, at TcX, the host table contains
a list of all machines on the local network. These are granted all privileges.
You can also use the host table to indicate hosts that are not secure. Suppose that you have
a machine public.your.domain that is located in a public area that you do not consider
secure. You can allow access to all hosts on your network except that machine by using
host table entries like this:
+--------------------+----+| Host
| Db | ...
+--------------------+----+| public.your.domain | % | ... (all privileges set to ’N’)
| %.your.domain
| % | ... (all privileges set to ’Y’)
+--------------------+----+-
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Naturally, you should always test your entries in the grant tables (for example, by using
SHOW GRANTS or mysqlaccess) to make sure that your access privileges are actually set up
the way you think they are.
5.5.7 When Privilege Changes Take Effect
When mysqld starts, all grant table contents are read into memory and become effective
for access control at that point.
When the server reloads the grant tables, privileges for existing client connections are
affected as follows:
• Table and column privilege changes take effect with the client’s next request.
• Database privilege changes take effect at the next USE db_name statement.
• Changes to global privileges and passwords take effect the next time the client connects.
If you modify the grant tables using GRANT, REVOKE, or SET PASSWORD, the server notices
these changes and reloads the grant tables into memory again immediately.
If you modify the grant tables directly using statements such as INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE,
your changes have no effect on privilege checking until you either restart the server or tell
it to reload the tables. To reload the grant tables manually, issue a FLUSH PRIVILEGES
statement or execute a mysqladmin flush-privileges or mysqladmin reload command.
If you change the grant tables directly but forget to reload them, your changes will have no
effect until you restart the server. This may leave you wondering why your changes don’t
seem to make any difference!
5.5.8 Causes of Access denied Errors
If you encounter problems when you try to connect to the MySQL server, the following
items describe some courses of action you can take to correct the problem.
• Make sure that the server is running. If it is not running, you cannot connect to it.
For example, if you attempt to connect to the server and see a message such as one of
those following, one cause might be that the server is not running:
shell> mysql
ERROR 2003: Can’t connect to MySQL server on ’host_name ’ (111)
shell> mysql
ERROR 2002: Can’t connect to local MySQL server through socket
’/tmp/mysql.sock’ (111)
It might also be that the server is running, but you are trying to connect using a
TCP/IP port, named pipe, or Unix socket file different from those on which the server
is listening. To correct this when you invoke a client program, specify a --port option
to indicate the proper port, or a --socket option to indicate the proper named pipe
or Unix socket file. To find out what port is used, and where the socket is, you can do:
shell> netstat -l | grep mysql
• The grant tables must be properly set up so that the server can use them for access
control. For some distribution types (such as binary distributions on Windows on
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RPM distributions on Linux), the installation process initializes the mysql database
containing the grant tables. For distributions that do not do this, you should initialize
the grant tables manually by running the mysql_install_db script. For details, see
Section 2.4.2 [Unix post-installation], page 119.
One way to determine whether you need to initialize the grant tables is to look for
a ‘mysql’ directory under the data directory. (The data directory normally is named
‘data’ or ‘var’ and is located under your MySQL installation directory.) Make sure
that you have a file named ‘user.MYD’ in the ‘mysql’ database directory. If you do
not, execute the mysql_install_db script. After running this script and starting the
server, test the initial privileges by executing this command:
shell> mysql -u root test
The server should let you connect without error.
After a fresh installation, you should connect to the server and set up your users and
their access permissions:
shell> mysql -u root mysql
The server should let you connect because the MySQL root user has no password
initially. That is also a security risk, so setting the password for the root accounts is
something you should do while you’re setting up your other MySQL users. For instructions on setting the initial passwords, see Section 2.4.3 [Default privileges], page 130.
If you have updated an existing MySQL installation to a newer version, did you run
the mysql_fix_privilege_tables script? If not, do so. The structure of the grant
tables changes occasionally when new capabilities are added, so after an upgrade you
should always make sure that your tables have the current structure. For instructions,
see Section 2.5.8 [Upgrading-grant-tables], page 147.
If a client program receives the following error message when it tries to connect, it
means that the server expects passwords in a newer format than the client is capable
of generating:
shell> mysql
Client does not support authentication protocol requested
by server; consider upgrading MySQL client
For information on how to deal with this, see Section 5.5.9 [Password hashing], page 316
and Section A.2.3 [Old client], page 1106.
If you try to connect as root and get the following error, it means that you don’t have
an entry in the user table with a User column value of ’root’ and that mysqld cannot
resolve the hostname for your client:
Access denied for user ’’@’unknown’ to database mysql
In this case, you must restart the server with the --skip-grant-tables option and
edit your ‘/etc/hosts’ or ‘\windows\hosts’ file to add an entry for your host.
Remember that client programs will use connection parameters specified in option files
or environment variables. If a client program seems to be sending incorrect default
connection parameters when you don’t specify them on the command line, check your
environment and any applicable option files. For example, if you get Access denied
when you run a client without any options, make sure that you haven’t specified an
old password in any of your option files!
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You can suppress the use of option files by a client program by invoking it with the
--no-defaults option. For example:
shell> mysqladmin --no-defaults -u root version
The option files that clients use are listed in Section 4.3.2 [Option files], page 225.
Environment variables are listed in Appendix E [Environment variables], page 1338.
• If you get the following error, it means that you are using an incorrect root password:
shell> mysqladmin -u root -pxxxx ver
Access denied for user ’root’@’localhost’ (using password: YES)
If the preceding error occurs even when you haven’t specified a password, it means
that you have an incorrect password listed in some option file. Try the --no-defaults
option as described in the previous item.
For information on changing passwords, see Section 5.6.5 [Passwords], page 327.
If you have lost or forgotten the root password, you can restart mysqld with --skipgrant-tables to change the password. See Section A.4.1 [Resetting permissions],
page 1117.
• If you change a password by using SET PASSWORD, INSERT, or UPDATE, you must encrypt
the password using the PASSWORD() function. If you do not use PASSWORD() for these
statements, the password will not work. For example, the following statement sets a
password, but fails to encrypt it, so the user will not be able to connect afterward:
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR ’abe’@’host_name ’ = ’eagle’;
Instead, set the password like this:
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR ’abe’@’host_name ’ = PASSWORD(’eagle’);
The PASSWORD() function is unnecessary when you specify a password using the GRANT
statement or the mysqladmin password command, both of which automatically use
PASSWORD() to encrypt the password. See Section 5.6.5 [Passwords], page 327.
• localhost is a synonym for your local hostname, and is also the default host to
which clients try to connect if you specify no host explicitly. However, connections
to localhost on Unix systems do not work if you are using a MySQL version older
than 3.23.27 that uses MIT-pthreads: localhost connections are made using Unix
socket files, which were not supported by MIT-pthreads at that time.
To avoid this problem on such systems, you can use a --host=127.0.0.1 option to
name the server host explicitly. This will make a TCP/IP connection to the local
mysqld server. You can also use TCP/IP by specifying a --host option that uses the
actual hostname of the local host. In this case, the hostname must be specified in a
user table entry on the server host, even though you are running the client program
on the same host as the server.
• If you get an Access denied error when trying to connect to the database with mysql
-u user_name, you may have a problem with the user table. Check this by executing
mysql -u root mysql and issuing this SQL statement:
mysql> SELECT * FROM user;
The result should include an entry with the Host and User columns matching your
computer’s hostname and your MySQL username.
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• The Access denied error message will tell you who you are trying to log in as, the
client host from which you are trying to connect, and whether or not you were using a
password. Normally, you should have one entry in the user table that exactly matches
the hostname and username that were given in the error message. For example, if you
get an error message that contains using password: NO, it means that you tried to log
in without an password.
• If the following error occurs when you try to connect from a host other than the one
on which the MySQL server is running, it means that there is no row in the user table
with a Host value that matches the client host:
Host ... is not allowed to connect to this MySQL server
You can fix this by setting up an account for the combination of client hostname and
username that you are using when trying to connect.
If you don’t know the IP number or hostname of the machine from which you are
connecting, you should put an entry with ’%’ as the Host column value in the user
table and restart mysqld with the --log option on the server machine. After trying to
connect from the client machine, the information in the MySQL log will indicate how
you really did connect. (Then change the ’%’ in the user table entry to the actual
hostname that shows up in the log. Otherwise, you’ll have a system that is insecure
because it allows connections from any host for the given username.)
On Linux, another reason that this error might occur is that you are using a binary
MySQL version that is compiled with a different version of the glibc library than the
one you are using. In this case, you should either upgrade your operating system or
glibc, or download a source distribution of MySQL version and compile it yourself. A
source RPM is normally trivial to compile and install, so this isn’t a big problem.
• If you specify a hostname when trying to connect, but get an error message where the
hostname is not shown or is an IP number, it means that the MySQL server got an
error when trying to resolve the IP number of the client host to a name:
shell> mysqladmin -u root -pxxxx -h some-hostname ver
Access denied for user ’root’@’’ (using password: YES)
This indicates a DNS problem. To fix it, execute mysqladmin flush-hosts to reset
the internal DNS hostname cache. See Section 7.5.6 [DNS], page 473.
Some permanent solutions are:
− Try to find out what is wrong with your DNS server and fix it.
− Specify IP numbers rather than hostnames in the MySQL grant tables.
− Put an entry for the client machine name in /etc/hosts.
− Start mysqld with the --skip-name-resolve option.
− Start mysqld with the --skip-host-cache option.
− On Unix, if you are running the server and the client on the same machine, connect
to localhost. Unix connections to localhost use a Unix socket file rather than
TCP/IP.
− On Windows, if you are running the server and the client on the same machine and
the server supports named pipe connections, connect to the hostname . (period).
Connections to . use a named pipe rather than TCP/IP.
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• If mysql -u root test works but mysql -h your_hostname -u root test results in
Access denied (where your hostname is the actual hostname of the local host), you
may not have the correct name for your host in the user table. A common problem
here is that the Host value in the user table entry specifies an unqualified hostname,
but your system’s name resolution routines return a fully qualified domain name (or
vice versa). For example, if you have an entry with host ’tcx’ in the user table, but
your DNS tells MySQL that your hostname is ’tcx.subnet.se’, the entry will not
work. Try adding an entry to the user table that contains the IP number of your host
as the Host column value. (Alternatively, you could add an entry to the user table
with a Host value that contains a wildcard; for example, ’tcx.%’. However, use of
hostnames ending with ‘%’ is insecure and is not recommended!)
• If mysql -u user_name test works but mysql -u user_name other_db_name does
not, you have not granted database access for other db name to the given user.
• If mysql -u user_name works when executed on the server host, but mysql -h host_
name -u user_name doesn’t work when executed on a remote client host, you have not
enabled access to the server for the given username from the remote host.
• If you can’t figure out why you get Access denied, remove from the user table all
entries that have Host values containing wildcards (entries that contain ‘%’ or ‘_’). A
very common error is to insert a new entry with Host=’%’ and User=’some_user ’,
thinking that this will allow you to specify localhost to connect from the same machine. The reason that this doesn’t work is that the default privileges include an
entry with Host=’localhost’ and User=’’. Because that entry has a Host value
’localhost’ that is more specific than ’%’, it is used in preference to the new entry when connecting from localhost! The correct procedure is to insert a second
entry with Host=’localhost’ and User=’some_user ’, or to delete the entry with
Host=’localhost’ and User=’’. After deleting the entry, remember to issue a FLUSH
PRIVILEGES statement to reload the grant tables.
• If you get the following error, you may have a problem with the db or host table:
Access to database denied
If the entry selected from the db table has an empty value in the Host column, make
sure that there are one or more corresponding entries in the host table specifying which
hosts the db table entry applies to.
• If you are able to connect to the MySQL server, but get an Access denied message
whenever you issue a SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE or LOAD DATA INFILE statement, your
entry in the user table doesn’t have the FILE privilege enabled.
• If you change the grant tables directly (for example, by using INSERT, UPDATE, or
DELETE statements) and your changes seem to be ignored, remember that you must
execute a FLUSH PRIVILEGES statement or a mysqladmin flush-privileges command
to cause the server to re-read the privilege tables. Otherwise, your changes have no
effect until the next time the server is restarted. Remember that after you change the
root password with an UPDATE command, you won’t need to specify the new password
until after you flush the privileges, because the server won’t know you’ve changed the
password yet!
• If your privileges seem to have changed in the middle of a session, it may be that
a MySQL administrator has changed them. Reloading the grant tables affects new
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client connections, but it also affects existing connections as indicated in Section 5.5.7
[Privilege changes], page 311.
• If you have access problems with a Perl, PHP, Python, or ODBC program, try to
connect to the server with mysql -u user_name db_name or mysql -u user_name pyour_pass db_name . If you are able to connect using the mysql client, the problem
lies with your program, not with the access privileges. (There is no space between -p
and the password; you can also use the --password=your_pass syntax to specify the
password. If you use the -p option alone, MySQL will prompt you for the password.)
• For testing, start the mysqld server with the --skip-grant-tables option. Then you
can change the MySQL grant tables and use the mysqlaccess script to check whether
your modifications have the desired effect. When you are satisfied with your changes,
execute mysqladmin flush-privileges to tell the mysqld server to start using the
new grant tables. (Reloading the grant tables overrides the --skip-grant-tables
option. This allows you to tell the server to begin using the grant tables again without
stopping and restarting it.)
• If everything else fails, start the mysqld server with a debugging option (for example, -debug=d,general,query). This will print host and user information about attempted
connections, as well as information about each command issued. See Section D.1.2
[Making trace files], page 1329.
• If you have any other problems with the MySQL grant tables and feel you must post
the problem to the mailing list, always provide a dump of the MySQL grant tables.
You can dump the tables with the mysqldump mysql command. As always, post your
problem using the mysqlbug script. See Section 1.7.1.3 [Bug reports], page 34. In some
cases, you may need to restart mysqld with --skip-grant-tables to run mysqldump.
5.5.9 Password Hashing in MySQL 4.1
MySQL user accounts are listed in the user table of the mysql database. Each MySQL
account is assigned a password, although what is stored in the Password column of the
user table is not the plaintext version of the password, but a hash value computed from it.
Password hash values are computed by the PASSWORD() function.
MySQL uses passwords in two phases of client/server communication:
• When a client attempts to connect to the server, there is an initial authentication step
in which the client must present a password that has a hash value matching the hash
value stored in the user table for the account that the client wants to use.
• After the client connects, it can (if it has sufficient privileges) set or change the password hashes for accounts listed in the user table. The client can do this by using
the PASSWORD() function to generate a password hash, or by using the GRANT or SET
PASSWORD statements.
In other words, the server uses hash values during authentication when a client first attempts
to connect. The server generates hash values if a connected client invokes the PASSWORD()
function or uses a GRANT or SET PASSWORD statement to set or change a password.
The password hashing mechanism was updated in MySQL 4.1 to provide better security
and to reduce the risk of passwords being intercepted. However, this new mechanism is
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understood only by the 4.1 server and 4.1 clients, which can result in some compatibility
problems. A 4.1 client can connect to a pre-4.1 server, because the client understands both
the old and new password hashing mechanisms. However, a pre-4.1 client that attempts
to connect to a 4.1 server may run into difficulties. For example, a 4.0 mysql client that
attempts to connect to a 4.1 server may fail with the following error message:
shell> mysql -h localhost -u root
Client does not support authentication protocol requested
by server; consider upgrading MySQL client
The following discussion describes the differences between the old and new password mechanisms, and what you should do if you upgrade your server to 4.1 but need to maintain
backward compatibility with pre-4.1 clients. Additional information can be found in Section A.2.3 [Old client], page 1106.
Note: This discussion contrasts 4.1 behavior with pre-4.1 behavior, but the 4.1 behavior
described here actually begins with 4.1.1. MySQL 4.1.0 is an “odd” release because it has
a slightly different mechanism than that implemented in 4.1.1 and up. Differences between
4.1.0 and more recent versions are described further in Section 5.5.9.2 [Password hashing
4.1.0], page 321.
Prior to MySQL 4.1, password hashes computed by the PASSWORD() function are 16 bytes
long. Such hashes look like this:
mysql> SELECT PASSWORD(’mypass’);
+--------------------+
| PASSWORD(’mypass’) |
+--------------------+
| 6f8c114b58f2ce9e
|
+--------------------+
The Password column of the user table (in which these hashes are stored) also is 16 bytes
long before MySQL 4.1.
As of MySQL 4.1, the PASSWORD() function has been modified to produce a longer 41-byte
hash value:
mysql> SELECT PASSWORD(’mypass’);
+-----------------------------------------------+
| PASSWORD(’mypass’)
|
+-----------------------------------------------+
| *43c8aa34cdc98eddd3de1fe9a9c2c2a9f92bb2098d75 |
+-----------------------------------------------+
Accordingly, the Password column in the user table also must be 41 bytes long to store
these values:
• If you perform a new installation of MySQL 4.1, the Password column will be made
41 bytes long automatically.
• If you upgrade an older installation to 4.1, you should run the mysql_fix_privilege_
tables script to increase the length of the Password column from 16 to 41 bytes. (The
script does not change existing password values, which remain 16 bytes long.)
A widened Password column can store password hashes in both the old and new formats.
The format of any given password hash value can be determined two ways:
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• The obvious difference is the length (16 bytes versus 41 bytes).
• A second difference is that password hashes in the new format always begin with a ‘*’
character, whereas passwords in the old format never do.
The longer password hash format has better cryptographic properties, and client authentication based on long hashes is more secure than that based on the older short hashes.
The differences between short and long password hashes are relevant both for how the
server uses passwords during authentication and for how it generates password hashes for
connected clients that perform password-changing operations.
The way in which the server uses password hashes during authentication is affected by the
width of the Password column:
• If the column is short, only short-hash authentication is used.
• If the column is long, it can hold either short or long hashes, and the server can use
either format:
− Pre-4.1 clients can connect, although because they know only about the old hashing
mechanism, they can authenticate only for accounts that have short hashes.
− 4.1 clients can authenticate for accounts that have short or long hashes.
For short-hash accounts, the authentication process is actually a bit more secure for 4.1
clients than for older clients. In terms of security, the gradient from least to most secure is:
• Pre-4.1 client authenticating for account with short password hash
• 4.1 client authenticating for account with short password hash
• 4.1 client authenticating for account with long password hash
The way in which the server generates password hashes for connected clients is affected
by the width of the Password column and by the --old-passwords option. A 4.1 server
generates long hashes only if certain conditions are met: The Password column must be
wide enough to hold long values and the --old-passwords option must not be given. These
conditions apply as follows:
• The Password column must be wide enough to hold long hashes (41 bytes). If the
column has not been updated and still has the pre-4.1 width of 16 bytes, the server
notices that long hashes cannot fit into it and generates only short hashes when a client
performs password-changing operations using PASSWORD(), GRANT, or SET PASSWORD.
This is the behavior that occurs if you have upgraded to 4.1 but have not yet run the
mysql_fix_privilege_tables script to widen the Password column.
• If the Password column is wide, it can store either short or long password hashes.
In this case, PASSWORD(), GRANT, and SET PASSWORD generate long hashes unless the
server was started with the --old-passwords option. That option forces the server to
generate short password hashes instead.
The purpose of the --old-passwords option is to allow you to maintain backward compatibility with pre-4.1 clients under circumstances where the server would otherwise generate
long password hashes. The option doesn’t affect authentication (4.1 clients can still use
accounts that have long password hashes), but it does prevent creation of a long password
hash in the user table as the result of a password-changing operation. Were that to occur,
the account no longer could be used by pre-4.1 clients. Without the --old-passwords
option, the following undesirable scenario is possible:
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• An old client connects to an account that has a short password hash.
• The client changes its own password. Without --old-passwords, this results in the
account having a long password hash.
• The next time the old client attempts to connect to the account, it cannot, because
the account now has a long password hash that requires the new hashing mechanism
during authentication. (Once an account has a long password hash in the user table,
only 4.1 clients can authenticate for it, because pre-4.1 clients do not understand long
hashes.)
This scenario illustrates that, if you must support older pre-4.1 clients, it is dangerous to
run a 4.1 server without using the --old-passwords option. By running the server with -old-passwords, password-changing operations will not generate long password hashes and
thus do not cause accounts to become inaccessible to older clients. (Those clients cannot
inadvertently lock themselves out by changing their password and ending up with a long
password hash.)
The downside of the --old-passwords option is that any passwords you create or change
will use short hashes, even for 4.1 clients. Thus, you lose the additional security provided by
long password hashes. If you want to create an account that has a long hash (for example,
for use by 4.1 clients), you must do so while running the server without --old-passwords.
The following scenarios are possible for running a 4.1 server:
Scenario 1: Short Password column in user table:
• Only short hashes can be stored in the Password column.
• The server uses only short hashes during client authentication.
• For connected clients, password hash-generating operations involving PASSWORD(),
GRANT, or SET PASSWORD use short hashes exclusively. Any change to an account’s
password results in that account having a short password hash.
• The --old-passwords option can be used but is superfluous because with a short
Password column, the server will generate only short password hashes anyway.
Scenario 2: Long Password column; server not started with --old-passwords option:
• Short or long hashes can be stored in the Password column.
• 4.1 clients can authenticate for accounts that have short or long hashes.
• Pre-4.1 clients can authenticate only for accounts that have short hashes.
• For connected clients, password hash-generating operations involving PASSWORD(),
GRANT, or SET PASSWORD use long hashes exclusively. A change to an account’s
password results in that account having a long password hash.
As indicated earlier, a danger in this scenario is that it is possible for accounts that have a
short password hash to become inaccessible to pre-4.1 clients. A change to such an account’s
password made via GRANT, PASSWORD(), or SET PASSWORD results in the account being given
a long password hash. From that point on, no pre-4.1 client can authenticate to that account
until the client upgrades to 4.1.
To deal with this problem, you can change a password in a special way. For example,
normally you use SET PASSWORD as follows to change an account password:
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR ’some_user ’@’some_host ’ = PASSWORD(’mypass’);
To change the password but create a short hash, use the OLD_PASSWORD() function instead:
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mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR ’some_user ’@’some_host ’ = OLD_PASSWORD(’mypass’);
OLD_PASSWORD() is useful for situations in which you explicitly want to generate a short
hash.
Scenario 3: Long Password column; server started with --old-passwords option:
• Short or long hashes can be stored in the Password column.
• 4.1 clients can authenticate for accounts that have short or long hashes (but note that
it is possible to create long hashes only when the server is started without --oldpasswords).
• Pre-4.1 clients can authenticate only for accounts that have short hashes.
• For connected clients, password hash-generating operations involving PASSWORD(),
GRANT, or SET PASSWORD use short hashes exclusively. Any change to an account’s
password results in that account having a short password hash.
In this scenario, you cannot create accounts that have long password hashes, because the
--old-passwords option prevents generation of long hashes. Also, if you create an account
with a long hash before using the --old-passwords option, changing the account’s password
while --old-passwords is in effect results in the account being given a short password,
causing it to lose the security benefits of a longer hash.
The disadvantages for these scenarios may be summarized as follows:
In scenario 1, you cannot take advantage of longer hashes that provide more secure authentication.
In scenario 2, accounts with short hashes become inaccessible to pre-4.1 clients if you change
their passwords without explicitly using OLD_PASSWORD().
In scenario 3, --old-passwords prevents accounts with short hashes from becoming inaccessible, but password-changing operations cause accounts with long hashes to revert to
short hashes, and you cannot change them back to long hashes while --old-passwords is
in effect.
5.5.9.1 Implications of Password Hashing Changes for Application
Programs
An upgrade to MySQL 4.1 can cause a compatibility issue for applications that use
PASSWORD() to generate passwords for their own purposes. Applications really should
not do this, because PASSWORD() should be used only to manage passwords for MySQL
accounts. But some applications use PASSWORD() for their own purposes anyway.
If you upgrade to 4.1 and run the server under conditions where it generates long password hashes, an application that uses PASSWORD() for its own passwords will break. The
recommended course of action is to modify the application to use another function, such
as SHA1() or MD5(), to produce hashed values. If that is not possible, you can use the
OLD_PASSWORD() function, which is provided to generate short hashes in the old format.
But note that OLD_PASSWORD() may one day no longer be supported.
If the server is running under circumstances where it generates short hashes,
OLD_PASSWORD() is available but is equivalent to PASSWORD().
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5.5.9.2 Password Hashing in MySQL 4.1.0
Password hashing in MySQL 4.1.0 differs from hashing in 4.1.1 and up. The 4.1.0 differences
are:
• Password hashes are 45 bytes long rather than 41 bytes.
• The PASSWORD() function is non-repeatable. That is, with a given argument X, successive calls to PASSWORD(X ) generate different results.
These differences make authentication in 4.1.0 incompatible with that of releases that follow
it. If you have upgraded to MySQL 4.1.0, it is recommended that you upgrade to a newer
version as soon as possible. After you do, reassign any long passwords in the user table so
that they are compatible with the 41-byte format.
5.6 MySQL User Account Management
This section describes how to set up accounts for clients of your MySQL server. It discusses
the following topics:
• The meaning of account names and passwords as used in MySQL and how that compares to names and passwords used by your operating system
• How to set up new accounts and remove existing accounts
• How to change passwords
• Guidelines for using passwords securely
• How to use secure connections with SSL
5.6.1 MySQL Usernames and Passwords
A MySQL account is defined in terms of a username and the client host or hosts from which
the user can connect to the server. The account also has a password. There are several
distinctions between the way usernames and passwords are used by MySQL and the way
they are used by your operating system:
• Usernames, as used by MySQL for authentication purposes, have nothing to do with
usernames (login names) as used by Windows or Unix. On Unix, most MySQL clients
by default try to log in using the current Unix username as the MySQL username,
but that is for convenience only. The default can be overridden easily, because client
programs allow any username to be specified with a -u or --user option. Because
this means that anyone can attempt to connect to the server using any username, you
can’t make a database secure in any way unless all MySQL accounts have passwords.
Anyone who specifies a username for an account that has no password will be able to
connect successfully to the server.
• MySQL usernames can be up to 16 characters long. Operating system usernames might
have a different maximum length. For example, Unix usernames typically are limited
to eight characters.
• MySQL passwords have nothing to do with passwords for logging in to your operating
system. There is no necessary connection between the password you use to log in to a
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Windows or Unix machine and the password you use to access the MySQL server on
that machine.
• MySQL encrypts passwords using its own algorithm. This encryption is different from
that used during the Unix login process. MySQL password encryption is the same
as that implemented by the PASSWORD() SQL function. Unix password encryption is
the same as that implemented by the ENCRYPT() SQL function. See the descriptions
of the PASSWORD() and ENCRYPT() functions in Section 13.8.2 [Encryption functions],
page 647. From version 4.1 on, MySQL employs a stronger authentication method that
has better password protection during the connection process than in earlier versions.
It is secure even if TCP/IP packets are sniffed or the mysql database is captured. (In
earlier versions, even though passwords are stored in encrypted form in the user table,
knowledge of the encrypted password value could be used to connect to the MySQL
server.)
When you install MySQL, the grant tables are populated with an initial set of accounts.
These accounts have names and access privileges that are described in Section 2.4.3 [Default
privileges], page 130, which also discusses how to assign passwords to them. Thereafter,
you normally set up, modify, and remove MySQL accounts using the GRANT and REVOKE
statements. See Section 14.5.1.2 [GRANT], page 732.
When you connect to a MySQL server with a command-line client, you should specify the
username and password for the account that you want to use:
shell> mysql --user=monty --password=guess db_name
If you prefer short options, the command looks like this:
shell> mysql -u monty -pguess db_name
There must be no space between the -p option and the following password value. See
Section 5.5.4 [Connecting], page 304.
The preceding commands include the password value on the command line, which can be
a security risk. See Section 5.6.6 [Password security], page 329. To avoid this, specify the
--password or -p option without any following password value:
shell> mysql --user=monty --password db_name
shell> mysql -u monty -p db_name
Then the client program will print a prompt and wait for you to enter the password. (In
these examples, db name is not interpreted as a password, because it is separated from the
preceding password option by a space.)
On some systems, the library call that MySQL uses to prompt for a password automatically
limits the password to eight characters. That is a problem with the system library, not
with MySQL. Internally, MySQL doesn’t have any limit for the length of the password. To
work around the problem, change your MySQL password to a value that is eight or fewer
characters long, or put your password in an option file.
5.6.2 Adding New User Accounts to MySQL
You can create MySQL accounts in two ways:
• By using GRANT statements
• By manipulating the MySQL grant tables directly
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The preferred method is to use GRANT statements, because they are more concise and
less error-prone. GRANT is available as of MySQL 3.22.11; its syntax is described in Section 14.5.1.2 [GRANT], page 732.
Another option for creating accounts is to use one of several available third-party programs
that offer capabilities for MySQL account administration. phpMyAdmin is one such program.
The following examples show how to use the mysql client program to set up new users.
These examples assume that privileges are set up according to the defaults described in
Section 2.4.3 [Default privileges], page 130. This means that to make changes, you must
connect to the MySQL server as the MySQL root user, and the root account must have
the INSERT privilege for the mysql database and the RELOAD administrative privilege.
First, use the mysql program to connect to the server as the MySQL root user:
shell> mysql --user=root mysql
If you have assigned a password to the root account, you’ll also need to supply a --password
or -p option for this mysql command and also for those later in this section.
After connecting to the server as root, you can add new accounts. The following statements
use GRANT to set up four new accounts:
mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO ’monty’@’localhost’
->
IDENTIFIED BY ’some_pass’ WITH GRANT OPTION;
mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO ’monty’@’%’
->
IDENTIFIED BY ’some_pass’ WITH GRANT OPTION;
mysql> GRANT RELOAD,PROCESS ON *.* TO ’admin’@’localhost’;
mysql> GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO ’dummy’@’localhost’;
The accounts created by these GRANT statements have the following properties:
• Two of the accounts have a username of monty and a password of some_pass. Both
accounts are superuser accounts with full privileges to do anything. One account
(’monty’@’localhost’) can be used only when connecting from the local host. The
other (’monty’@’%’) can be used to connect from any other host. Note that it is necessary to have both accounts for monty to be able to connect from anywhere as monty.
Without the localhost account, the anonymous-user account for localhost that is
created by mysql_install_db would take precedence when monty connects from the
local host. As a result, monty would be treated as an anonymous user. The reason for
this is that the anonymous-user account has a more specific Host column value than
the ’monty’@’%’ account and thus comes earlier in the user table sort order. (user
table sorting is discussed in Section 5.5.5 [Connection access], page 305.)
• One account has a username of admin and no password. This account can be used only
by connecting from the local host. It is granted the RELOAD and PROCESS administrative
privileges. These privileges allow the admin user to execute the mysqladmin reload,
mysqladmin refresh, and mysqladmin flush-xxx commands, as well as mysqladmin
processlist . No privileges are granted for accessing any databases. You could add
such privileges later by issuing additional GRANT statements.
• One account has a username of dummy and no password. This account can be used only
by connecting from the local host. No privileges are granted. The USAGE privilege in
the GRANT statement allows you to create an account without giving it any privileges.
It has the effect of setting all the global privileges to ’N’. It is assumed that you will
grant specific privileges to the account later.
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As an alternative to GRANT, you can create the same accounts directly by issuing INSERT
statements and then telling the server to reload the grant tables:
shell> mysql --user=root mysql
mysql> INSERT INTO user
->
VALUES(’localhost’,’monty’,PASSWORD(’some_pass’),
->
’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’);
mysql> INSERT INTO user
->
VALUES(’%’,’monty’,PASSWORD(’some_pass’),
->
’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’);
mysql> INSERT INTO user SET Host=’localhost’,User=’admin’,
->
Reload_priv=’Y’, Process_priv=’Y’;
mysql> INSERT INTO user (Host,User,Password)
->
VALUES(’localhost’,’dummy’,’’);
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
The reason for using FLUSH PRIVILEGES when you create accounts with INSERT is to tell
the server to re-read the grant tables. Otherwise, the changes will go unnoticed until you
restart the server. With GRANT, FLUSH PRIVILEGES is unnecessary.
The reason for using the PASSWORD() function with INSERT is to encrypt the password. The
GRANT statement encrypts the password for you, so PASSWORD() is unnecessary.
The ’Y’ values enable privileges for the accounts. Depending on your MySQL version,
you may have to use a different number of ’Y’ values in the first two INSERT statements.
(Versions prior to 3.22.11 have fewer privilege columns, and versions from 4.0.2 on have
more.) For the admin account, the more readable extended INSERT syntax using SET that
is available starting with MySQL 3.22.11 is used.
In the INSERT statement for the dummy account, only the Host, User, and Password columns
in the user table record are assigned values. None of the privilege columns are set explicitly,
so MySQL assigns them all the default value of ’N’. This is equivalent to what GRANT USAGE
does.
Note that to set up a superuser account, it is necessary only to create a user table entry
with the privilege columns set to ’Y’. user table privileges are global, so no entries in any
of the other grant tables are needed.
The next examples create three accounts and give them access to specific databases. Each
of them has a username of custom and password of obscure.
To create the accounts with GRANT, use the following statements:
shell> mysql --user=root mysql
mysql> GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE,CREATE,DROP
->
ON bankaccount.*
->
TO ’custom’@’localhost’
->
IDENTIFIED BY ’obscure’;
mysql> GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE,CREATE,DROP
->
ON expenses.*
->
TO ’custom’@’whitehouse.gov’
->
IDENTIFIED BY ’obscure’;
mysql> GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE,CREATE,DROP
->
ON customer.*
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->
TO ’custom’@’server.domain’
->
IDENTIFIED BY ’obscure’;
The three accounts can be used as follows:
• The first account can access the bankaccount database, but only from the local host.
• The second account can access the expenses database, but only from the host
whitehouse.gov.
• The third account can access the customer database, but only from the host
server.domain.
To set up the custom accounts without GRANT, use INSERT statements as follows to modify
the grant tables directly:
shell> mysql --user=root mysql
mysql> INSERT INTO user (Host,User,Password)
->
VALUES(’localhost’,’custom’,PASSWORD(’obscure’));
mysql> INSERT INTO user (Host,User,Password)
->
VALUES(’whitehouse.gov’,’custom’,PASSWORD(’obscure’));
mysql> INSERT INTO user (Host,User,Password)
->
VALUES(’server.domain’,’custom’,PASSWORD(’obscure’));
mysql> INSERT INTO db
->
(Host,Db,User,Select_priv,Insert_priv,
->
Update_priv,Delete_priv,Create_priv,Drop_priv)
->
VALUES(’localhost’,’bankaccount’,’custom’,
->
’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’);
mysql> INSERT INTO db
->
(Host,Db,User,Select_priv,Insert_priv,
->
Update_priv,Delete_priv,Create_priv,Drop_priv)
->
VALUES(’whitehouse.gov’,’expenses’,’custom’,
->
’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’);
mysql> INSERT INTO db
->
(Host,Db,User,Select_priv,Insert_priv,
->
Update_priv,Delete_priv,Create_priv,Drop_priv)
->
VALUES(’server.domain’,’customer’,’custom’,
->
’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’);
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
The first three INSERT statements add user table entries that allow the user custom to
connect from the various hosts with the given password, but grant no global privileges (all
privileges are set to the default value of ’N’). The next three INSERT statements add db
table entries that grant privileges to custom for the bankaccount, expenses, and customer
databases, but only when accessed from the proper hosts. As usual when you modify the
grant tables directly, you tell the server to reload them with FLUSH PRIVILEGES so that the
privilege changes take effect.
If you want to give a specific user access from all machines in a given domain (for example,
mydomain.com), you can issue a GRANT statement that uses the ‘%’ wildcard character in the
host part of the account name:
mysql> GRANT ...
->
ON *.*
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->
->
TO ’myname’@’%.mydomain.com’
IDENTIFIED BY ’mypass’;
To do the same thing by modifying the grant tables directly, do this:
mysql> INSERT INTO user (Host,User,Password,...)
->
VALUES(’%.mydomain.com’,’myname’,PASSWORD(’mypass’),...);
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
5.6.3 Removing User Accounts from MySQL
To remove an account, use the DROP USER statement, which was added in MySQL 4.1.1. For
older versions of MySQL, use DELETE instead. The account removal procedure is described
in Section 14.5.1.1 [Drop user], page 731.
5.6.4 Limiting Account Resources
Before MySQL 4.0.2, the only available method for limiting use of MySQL server resources
is to set the max_user_connections system variable to a non-zero value. But that method
is strictly global. It does not allow for management of individual accounts. Also, it limits
only the number of simultaneous connections made using a single account, not what a client
can do once connected. Both types of control are interest to many MySQL administrators,
particularly those for Internet Service Providers.
Starting from MySQL 4.0.2, you can limit the following server resources for individual
accounts:
• The number of queries that an account can issue per hour
• The number of updates that an account can issue per hour
• The number of times an account can connect to the server per hour
Any statement that a client can issue counts against the query limit. Only statements that
modify databases or tables count against the update limit.
An account in this context is a single record in the user table. Each account is uniquely
identified by its User and Host column values.
As a prerequisite for using this feature, the user table in the mysql database must contain the resource-related columns. Resource limits are stored in the max_questions, max_
updates, and max_connections columns. If your user table doesn’t have these columns,
it must be upgraded; see Section 2.5.8 [Upgrading-grant-tables], page 147.
To set resource limits with a GRANT statement, use a WITH clause that names each resource
to be limited and a per-hour count indicating the limit value. For example, to create a new
account that can access the customer database, but only in a limited fashion, issue this
statement:
mysql> GRANT ALL ON customer.* TO ’francis’@’localhost’
->
IDENTIFIED BY ’frank’
->
WITH MAX_QUERIES_PER_HOUR 20
->
MAX_UPDATES_PER_HOUR 10
->
MAX_CONNECTIONS_PER_HOUR 5;
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The limit types need not all be named in the WITH clause, but those named can be present
in any order. The value for each limit should be an integer representing a count per hour.
If the GRANT statement has no WITH clause, the limits are each set to the default value of
zero (that is, no limit).
To set or change limits for an existing account, use a GRANT USAGE statement at the global
level (ON *.*). The following statement changes the query limit for francis to 100:
mysql> GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO ’francis’@’localhost’
->
WITH MAX_QUERIES_PER_HOUR 100;
This statement leaves the account’s existing privileges unchanged and modifies only the
limit values specified.
To remove an existing limit, set its value to zero. For example, to remove the limit on how
many times per hour francis can connect, use this statement:
mysql> GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO ’francis’@’localhost’
->
WITH MAX_CONNECTIONS_PER_HOUR 0;
Resource-use counting takes place when any account has a non-zero limit placed on its use
of any of the resources.
As the server runs, it counts the number of times each account uses resources. If an account
reaches its limit on number of connections within the last hour, further connections for the
account are rejected until that hour is up. Similarly, if the account reaches its limit on the
number of queries or updates, further queries or updates are rejected until the hour is up.
In all such cases, an appropriate error message is issued.
Resource counting is done per account, not per client. For example, if your account has a
query limit of 50, you cannot increase your limit to 100 by making two simultaneous client
connections to the server. Queries issued on both connections are counted together.
The current resource-use counts can be reset globally for all accounts, or individually for a
given count:
• To reset the current counts to zero for all accounts, issue a FLUSH USER_RESOURCES
statement. The counts also can be reset by reloading the grant tables (for example,
with a FLUSH PRIVILEGES statement or a mysqladmin reload command).
• The counts for an individual account can be set to zero by re-granting it any of its
limits. To do this, use GRANT USAGE as described earlier and specify a limit value equal
to the value that the account already has.
5.6.5 Assigning Account Passwords
Passwords may be assigned from the command line by using the mysqladmin command:
shell> mysqladmin -u user_name -h host_name password "newpwd "
The account for which this command resets the password is the one with a user table record
that matches user name in the User column and the client host from which you connect in
the Host column.
Another way to assign a password to an account is to issue a SET PASSWORD statement:
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR ’jeffrey’@’%’ = PASSWORD(’biscuit’);
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Only users such as root with update access to the mysql database can change the password
for other users. If you are not connected as an anonymous user, you can change your own
password by omitting the FOR clause:
mysql> SET PASSWORD = PASSWORD(’biscuit’);
You can also use a GRANT USAGE statement at the global level (ON *.*) to assign a password
to an account without affecting the account’s current privileges:
mysql> GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO ’jeffrey’@’%’ IDENTIFIED BY ’biscuit’;
Although it is generally preferable to assign passwords using one of the preceding methods,
you can also do so by modifying the user table directly:
• To establish a password when creating a new account, provide a value for the Password
column:
shell>
mysql>
->
mysql>
mysql -u root mysql
INSERT INTO user (Host,User,Password)
VALUES(’%’,’jeffrey’,PASSWORD(’biscuit’));
FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
• To change the password for an existing account, use UPDATE to set the Password column
value:
shell>
mysql>
->
mysql>
mysql -u root mysql
UPDATE user SET Password = PASSWORD(’bagel’)
WHERE Host = ’%’ AND User = ’francis’;
FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
When you assign an account a password using SET PASSWORD, INSERT, or UPDATE, you must
use the PASSWORD() function to encrypt it. (The only exception is that you need not use
PASSWORD() if the password is empty.) PASSWORD() is necessary because the user table
stores passwords in encrypted form, not as plaintext. If you forget that fact, you are likely
to set passwords like this:
shell>
mysql>
->
mysql>
mysql -u root mysql
INSERT INTO user (Host,User,Password)
VALUES(’%’,’jeffrey’,’biscuit’);
FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
The result is that the literal value ’biscuit’ is stored as the password in the user table, not
the encrypted value. When jeffrey attempts to connect to the server using this password,
the value is encrypted and compared to the value stored in the user table. However, the
stored value is the literal string ’biscuit’, so the comparison fails and the server rejects
the connection:
shell> mysql -u jeffrey -pbiscuit test
Access denied
If you set passwords using the GRANT ... IDENTIFIED BY statement or the mysqladmin
password command, they both take care of encrypting the password for you. The
PASSWORD() function is unnecessary.
Note: PASSWORD() encryption is different from Unix password encryption. See Section 5.6.1
[User names], page 321.
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5.6.6 Keeping Your Password Secure
On an administrative level, you should never grant access to the mysql.user table to any
non-administrative accounts. Passwords in the user table are stored in encrypted form,
but in versions of MySQL earlier than 4.1, knowing the encrypted password for an account
makes it possible to connect to the server using that account.
When you run a client program to connect to the MySQL server, it is inadvisable to specify
your password in a way that exposes it to discovery by other users. The methods you can
use to specify your password when you run client programs are listed here, along with an
assessment of the risks of each method:
• Use a -pyour_pass or --password=your_pass option on the command line. For
example:
shell> mysql -u francis -pfrank db_name
This is convenient but insecure, because your password becomes visible to system status
programs such as ps that may be invoked by other users to display command lines.
MySQL clients typically overwrite the command-line password argument with zeros
during their initialization sequence, but there is still a brief interval during which the
value is visible.
• Use a -p or --password option with no password value specified. In this case, the
client program solicits the password from the terminal:
shell> mysql -u francis -p db_name
Enter password: ********
The ‘*’ characters indicate where you enter your password. The password is not displayed as you enter it.
It is more secure to enter your password this way than to specify it on the command line
because it is not visible to other users. However, this method of entering a password
is suitable only for programs that you run interactively. If you want to invoke a client
from a script that runs non-interactively, there is no opportunity to enter the password
from the terminal. On some systems, you may even find that the first line of your
script is read and interpreted (incorrectly) as your password!
• Store your password in an option file. For example, on Unix you can list your password
in the [client] section of the ‘.my.cnf’ file in your home directory:
[client]
password=your_pass
If you store your password in ‘.my.cnf’, the file should not be accessible to anyone but
yourself. To ensure this, set the file access mode to 400 or 600. For example:
shell> chmod 600 .my.cnf
Section 4.3.2 [Option files], page 225 discusses option files in more detail.
• Store your password in the MYSQL_PWD environment variable. This method of specifying
your MySQL password must be considered extremely insecure and should not be used.
Some versions of ps include an option to display the environment of running processes.
If you set MYSQL_PWD, your password will be exposed to any other user who runs ps.
Even on systems without such a version of ps, it is unwise to assume that there are
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no other methods by which users can examine process environments. See Appendix E
[Environment variables], page 1338.
All in all, the safest methods are to have the client program prompt for the password or to
specify the password in a properly protected option file.
5.6.7 Using Secure Connections
Beginning with version 4.0.0, MySQL has support for secure (encrypted) connections between MySQL clients and the server using the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol. This
section discusses how to use SSL connections. It also describes a way to set up SSH on
Windows.
The standard configuration of MySQL is intended to be as fast as possible, so encrypted
connections are not used by default. Doing so would make the client/server protocol much
slower. Encrypting data is a CPU-intensive operation that requires the computer to do
additional work and can delay other MySQL tasks. For applications that require the security
provided by encrypted connections, the extra computation is warranted.
MySQL allows encryption to be enabled on a per-connection basis. You can choose a normal
unencrypted connection or a secure encrypted SSL connection according the requirements
of individual applications.
5.6.7.1 Basic SSL Concepts
To understand how MySQL uses SSL, it’s necessary to explain some basic SSL and X509
concepts. People who are already familiar with them can skip this part.
By default, MySQL uses unencrypted connections between the client and the server. This
means that someone with access to the network could watch all your traffic and look at the
data being sent or received. They could even change the data while it is in transit between
client and server. To improve security a little, you can compress client/server traffic by
using the --compress option when invoking client programs. However, this will not foil a
determined attacker.
When you need to move information over a network in a secure fashion, an unencrypted
connection is unacceptable. Encryption is the way to make any kind of data unreadable.
In fact, today’s practice requires many additional security elements from encryption algorithms. They should resist many kind of known attacks such as changing the order of
encrypted messages or replaying data twice.
SSL is a protocol that uses different encryption algorithms to ensure that data received
over a public network can be trusted. It has mechanisms to detect any data change, loss, or
replay. SSL also incorporates algorithms that provide identity verification using the X509
standard.
X509 makes it possible to identify someone on the Internet. It is most commonly used in
e-commerce applications. In basic terms, there should be some company called a “Certificate Authority” (or CA) that assigns electronic certificates to anyone who needs them.
Certificates rely on asymmetric encryption algorithms that have two encryption keys (a
public key and a secret key). A certificate owner can show the certificate to another party
as proof of identity. A certificate consists of its owner’s public key. Any data encrypted
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with this public key can be decrypted only using the corresponding secret key, which is held
by the owner of the certificate.
If you need more information about SSL, X509, or encryption, use your favorite Internet
search engine to search for keywords in which you are interested.
5.6.7.2 Requirements
To use SSL connections between the MySQL server and client programs, your system must
be able to support OpenSSL and your version of MySQL must be 4.0.0 or newer.
To get secure connections to work with MySQL, you must do the following:
1. Install the OpenSSL library. We have tested MySQL with OpenSSL 0.9.6. If you need
OpenSSL, visit http://www.openssl.org.
2. When you configure MySQL, run the configure script with the --with-vio and -with-openssl options.
3. Make sure that you have upgraded your grant tables to include the SSL-related columns
in the mysql.user table. This is necessary if your grant tables date from a version
prior to MySQL 4.0.0. The upgrade procedure is described in Section 2.5.8 [Upgradinggrant-tables], page 147.
4. To check whether a running mysqld server supports OpenSSL, examine the value of
the have_openssl system variable:
mysql> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE ’have_openssl’;
+---------------+-------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------+-------+
| have_openssl | YES
|
+---------------+-------+
If the value is YES, the server supports OpenSSL connections.
5.6.7.3 Setting Up SSL Certificates for MySQL
Here is an example for setting up SSL certificates for MySQL:
DIR=‘pwd‘/openssl
PRIV=$DIR/private
mkdir $DIR $PRIV $DIR/newcerts
cp /usr/share/ssl/openssl.cnf $DIR
replace ./demoCA $DIR -- $DIR/openssl.cnf
# Create necessary files: $database, $serial and $new_certs_dir
# directory (optional)
touch $DIR/index.txt
echo "01" > $DIR/serial
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#
# Generation of Certificate Authority(CA)
#
openssl req -new -x509 -keyout $PRIV/cakey.pem -out $DIR/cacert.pem \
-config $DIR/openssl.cnf
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
Sample output:
Using configuration from /home/monty/openssl/openssl.cnf
Generating a 1024 bit RSA private key
................++++++
.........++++++
writing new private key to ’/home/monty/openssl/private/cakey.pem’
Enter PEM pass phrase:
Verifying password - Enter PEM pass phrase:
----You are about to be asked to enter information that will be
incorporated into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name
or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter ’.’, the field will be left blank.
----Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:FI
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:.
Locality Name (eg, city) []:
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:MySQL AB
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:
Common Name (eg, YOUR name) []:MySQL admin
Email Address []:
#
# Create server request and key
#
openssl req -new -keyout $DIR/server-key.pem -out \
$DIR/server-req.pem -days 3600 -config $DIR/openssl.cnf
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
Sample output:
Using configuration from /home/monty/openssl/openssl.cnf
Generating a 1024 bit RSA private key
..++++++
..........++++++
writing new private key to ’/home/monty/openssl/server-key.pem’
Enter PEM pass phrase:
Verifying password - Enter PEM pass phrase:
-----
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#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
You are about to be asked to enter information that will be
incorporated into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name
or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter ’.’, the field will be left blank.
----Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:FI
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:.
Locality Name (eg, city) []:
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:MySQL AB
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:
Common Name (eg, YOUR name) []:MySQL server
Email Address []:
Please enter the following ’extra’ attributes
to be sent with your certificate request
A challenge password []:
An optional company name []:
#
# Remove the passphrase from the key (optional)
#
openssl rsa -in $DIR/server-key.pem -out $DIR/server-key.pem
#
# Sign server cert
#
openssl ca -policy policy_anything -out $DIR/server-cert.pem \
-config $DIR/openssl.cnf -infiles $DIR/server-req.pem
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
333
Sample output:
Using configuration from /home/monty/openssl/openssl.cnf
Enter PEM pass phrase:
Check that the request matches the signature
Signature ok
The Subjects Distinguished Name is as follows
countryName
:PRINTABLE:’FI’
organizationName
:PRINTABLE:’MySQL AB’
commonName
:PRINTABLE:’MySQL admin’
Certificate is to be certified until Sep 13 14:22:46 2003 GMT
(365 days)
Sign the certificate? [y/n]:y
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# 1 out of 1 certificate requests certified, commit? [y/n]y
# Write out database with 1 new entries
# Data Base Updated
#
# Create client request and key
#
openssl req -new -keyout $DIR/client-key.pem -out \
$DIR/client-req.pem -days 3600 -config $DIR/openssl.cnf
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
Sample output:
Using configuration from /home/monty/openssl/openssl.cnf
Generating a 1024 bit RSA private key
.....................................++++++
.............................................++++++
writing new private key to ’/home/monty/openssl/client-key.pem’
Enter PEM pass phrase:
Verifying password - Enter PEM pass phrase:
----You are about to be asked to enter information that will be
incorporated into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name
or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter ’.’, the field will be left blank.
----Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:FI
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:.
Locality Name (eg, city) []:
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:MySQL AB
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:
Common Name (eg, YOUR name) []:MySQL user
Email Address []:
Please enter the following ’extra’ attributes
to be sent with your certificate request
A challenge password []:
An optional company name []:
#
# Remove a passphrase from the key (optional)
#
openssl rsa -in $DIR/client-key.pem -out $DIR/client-key.pem
#
# Sign client cert
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#
openssl ca -policy policy_anything -out $DIR/client-cert.pem \
-config $DIR/openssl.cnf -infiles $DIR/client-req.pem
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
Sample output:
Using configuration from /home/monty/openssl/openssl.cnf
Enter PEM pass phrase:
Check that the request matches the signature
Signature ok
The Subjects Distinguished Name is as follows
countryName
:PRINTABLE:’FI’
organizationName
:PRINTABLE:’MySQL AB’
commonName
:PRINTABLE:’MySQL user’
Certificate is to be certified until Sep 13 16:45:17 2003 GMT
(365 days)
Sign the certificate? [y/n]:y
1 out of 1 certificate requests certified, commit? [y/n]y
Write out database with 1 new entries
Data Base Updated
#
# Create a my.cnf file that you can use to test the certificates
#
cnf=""
cnf="$cnf [client]"
cnf="$cnf ssl-ca=$DIR/cacert.pem"
cnf="$cnf ssl-cert=$DIR/client-cert.pem"
cnf="$cnf ssl-key=$DIR/client-key.pem"
cnf="$cnf [mysqld]"
cnf="$cnf ssl-ca=$DIR/cacert.pem"
cnf="$cnf ssl-cert=$DIR/server-cert.pem"
cnf="$cnf ssl-key=$DIR/server-key.pem"
echo $cnf | replace " " ’
’ > $DIR/my.cnf
To test SSL connections, start the server as follows, where $DIR is the pathname to the
directory where the sample ‘my.cnf’ option file is located:
shell> mysqld --defaults-file=$DIR/my.cnf &
Then invoke a client program using the same option file:
shell> mysql --defaults-file=$DIR/my.cnf
If you have a MySQL source distribution, you can also test your setup by modifying the
preceding ‘my.cnf’ file to refer to the demonstration certificate and key files in the ‘SSL’
directory of the distribution.
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5.6.7.4 SSL GRANT Options
MySQL can check X509 certificate attributes in addition to the usual authentication that is
based on the username and password. To specify SSL-related options for a MySQL account,
use the REQUIRE clause of the GRANT statement. See Section 14.5.1.2 [GRANT], page 732.
There are different possibilities for limiting connection types for an account:
• If an account has no SSL or X509 requirements, unencrypted connections are allowed
if the username and password are valid. However, encrypted connections also can be
used at the client’s option, if the client has the proper certificate and key files.
• REQUIRE SSL option limits the server to allow only SSL encrypted connections for the
account. Note that this option can be omitted if there are any ACL records that allow
non-SSL connections.
mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON test.* TO ’root’@’localhost’
-> IDENTIFIED BY ’goodsecret’ REQUIRE SSL;
• REQUIRE X509 means that the client must have a valid certificate but that the exact
certificate, issuer, and subject do not matter. The only requirement is that it should
be possible to verify its signature with one of the CA certificates.
mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON test.* TO ’root’@’localhost’
-> IDENTIFIED BY ’goodsecret’ REQUIRE X509;
• REQUIRE ISSUER ’issuer’ places the restriction on connection attempts that the client
must present a valid X509 certificate issued by CA ’issuer’. If the client presents a
certificate that is valid but has a different issuer, the server rejects the connection. Use
of X509 certificates always implies encryption, so the SSL option is unneccessary.
mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON test.* TO ’root’@’localhost’
-> IDENTIFIED BY ’goodsecret’
-> REQUIRE ISSUER ’/C=FI/ST=Some-State/L=Helsinki/
O=MySQL Finland AB/CN=Tonu Samuel/[email protected]’;
Note that the ISSUER value should be entered as a single string.
• REQUIRE SUBJECT ’subject’ places the restriction on connection attempts that the
client must present a valid X509 certificate with subject ’subject’ on it. If the client
presents a certificate that is valid but has a different subject, the server rejects the
connection.
mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON test.* TO ’root’@’localhost’
-> IDENTIFIED BY ’goodsecret’
-> REQUIRE SUBJECT ’/C=EE/ST=Some-State/L=Tallinn/
O=MySQL demo client certificate/
CN=Tonu Samuel/[email protected]’;
Note that the SUBJECT value should be entered as a single string.
• REQUIRE CIPHER ’cipher’ is needed to ensure that strong enough ciphers and key
lengths will be used. SSL itself can be weak if old algorithms with short encryption
keys are used. Using this option, we can ask for some exact cipher method to allow a
connection.
mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON test.* TO ’root’@’localhost’
-> IDENTIFIED BY ’goodsecret’
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-> REQUIRE CIPHER ’EDH-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA’;
The SUBJECT, ISSUER, and CIPHER options can be combined in the REQUIRE clause like this:
mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON test.* TO ’root’@’localhost’
-> IDENTIFIED BY ’goodsecret’
-> REQUIRE SUBJECT ’/C=EE/ST=Some-State/L=Tallinn/
O=MySQL demo client certificate/
CN=Tonu Samuel/[email protected]’
-> AND ISSUER ’/C=FI/ST=Some-State/L=Helsinki/
O=MySQL Finland AB/CN=Tonu Samuel/[email protected]’
-> AND CIPHER ’EDH-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA’;
Note that the SUBJECT and ISSUER values each should be entered as a single string.
Starting from MySQL 4.0.4, the AND keyword is optional between REQUIRE options.
The order of the options does not matter, but no option can be specified twice.
5.6.7.5 SSL Command-Line Options
The following list describes options that are used for specifying the use of SSL, certificate
files, and key files. These options are available beginning with MySQL 4.0. They may be
given on the command line or in an option file.
--ssl
For the server, this option specifies that the server allows SSL connections. For
a client program, it allows the client to connect to the server using SSL. This
option is not sufficient in itself to cause an SSL connection to be used. You
must also specify the --ssl-ca, --ssl-cert, and --ssl-key options.
This option is more often used in its opposite form to indicate that SSL should
not be used. To do this, specify the option as --skip-ssl or --ssl=0.
Note that use of --ssl doesn’t require an SSL connection. For example, if
the server or client is compiled without SSL support, a normal unencrypted
connection will be used.
The secure way to ensure that an SSL connection will be used is to create
an account on the server that includes a REQUIRE SSL clause in the GRANT
statement. Then use this account to connect to the server, with both a server
and client that have SSL support enabled.
--ssl-ca=file_name
The path to a file with a list of trusted SSL CAs.
--ssl-capath=directory_name
The path to a directory that contains trusted SSL CA certificates in pem format.
--ssl-cert=file_name
The name of the SSL certificate file to use for establishing a secure connection.
--ssl-cipher=cipher_list
A list of allowable ciphers to use for SSL encryption. cipher list has the same
format as the openssl ciphers command.
Example: --ssl-cipher=ALL:-AES:-EXP
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--ssl-key=file_name
The name of the SSL key file to use for establishing a secure connection.
5.6.7.6 Connecting to MySQL Remotely from Windows with SSH
Here is a note about how to connect to get a secure connection to remote MySQL server
with SSH (by David Carlson [email protected]):
1. Install an SSH client on your Windows machine. As a user, the best non-free one
I’ve found is from SecureCRT from http://www.vandyke.com/. Another option is
f-secure from http://www.f-secure.com/. You can also find some free ones on
Google at http://directory.google.com/Top/Computers/Security/Products_
and_Tools/Cryptography/SSH/Clients/Windows/.
2. Start your Windows SSH client. Set Host_Name = yourmysqlserver_URL_or_IP. Set
userid=your_userid to log in to your server. This userid value may not be the same
as the username of your MySQL account.
3. Set up port forwarding. Either do a remote forward (Set local_port: 3306, remote_
host: yourmysqlservername_or_ip, remote_port: 3306 ) or a local forward (Set
port: 3306, host: localhost, remote port: 3306).
4. Save everything, otherwise you’ll have to redo it the next time.
5. Log in to your server with the SSH session you just created.
6. On your Windows machine, start some ODBC application (such as Access).
7. Create a new file in Windows and link to MySQL using the ODBC driver the same
way you normally do, except type in localhost for the MySQL host server, not
yourmysqlservername.
You should now have an ODBC connection to MySQL, encrypted using SSH.
5.7 Disaster Prevention and Recovery
This section discusses how to make database backups and how to perform table maintenance. The syntax of the SQL statements described here is given in Section 14.5 [Database
Administration], page 731. Much of the information here pertains primarily to MyISAM
tables. InnoDB backup procedures are given in Section 16.9 [Backing up], page 826.
5.7.1 Database Backups
Because MySQL tables are stored as files, it is easy to do a backup. To get a consistent
backup, do a LOCK TABLES on the relevant tables, followed by FLUSH TABLES for the tables.
See Section 14.4.5 [LOCK TABLES], page 728 and Section 14.5.4.2 [FLUSH], page 766. You
need only a read lock; this allows other clients to continue to query the tables while you are
making a copy of the files in the database directory. The FLUSH TABLES statement is needed
to ensure that the all active index pages are written to disk before you start the backup.
If you want to make an SQL-level backup of a table, you can use SELECT INTO ... OUTFILE
or BACKUP TABLE. For SELECT INTO ... OUTFILE, the output file cannot already exist. For
BACKUP TABLE, the same is true as of MySQL 3.23.56 and 4.0.12, because this would be a
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security risk. See Section 14.1.7 [SELECT], page 683 and Section 14.5.2.2 [BACKUP TABLE],
page 740.
Another way to back up a database is to use the mysqldump program or the mysqlhotcopy
script. See Section 8.8 [mysqldump], page 509 and Section 8.9 [mysqlhotcopy], page 515.
1. Do a full backup of your database:
shell> mysqldump --tab=/path/to/some/dir --opt db_name
Or:
shell> mysqlhotcopy db_name /path/to/some/dir
You can also simply copy all table files (‘*.frm’, ‘*.MYD’, and ‘*.MYI’ files) as long as
the server isn’t updating anything. The mysqlhotcopy script uses this method. (But
note that these methods will not work if your database contains InnoDB tables. InnoDB
does not store table contents in database directories, and mysqlhotcopy works only for
MyISAM and ISAM tables.)
2. Stop mysqld if it’s running, then start it with the --log-bin[=file_name] option.
See Section 5.9.4 [Binary log], page 367. The binary log files provide you with the
information you need to replicate changes to the database that are made subsequent
to the point at which you executed mysqldump.
If your MySQL server is a slave replication server, then regardless of the backup method
you choose, you should also back up the ‘master.info’ and ‘relay-log.info’ files when
you back up your slave’s data. These files are always needed to resume replication after you
restore the slave’s data. If your slave is subject to replicating LOAD DATA INFILE commands,
you should also back up any ‘SQL_LOAD-*’ files that may exist in the directory specified
by the --slave-load-tmpdir option. (This location defaults to the value of the tmpdir
variable if not specified.) The slave needs these files to resume replication of any interrupted
LOAD DATA INFILE operations.
If you have to restore MyISAM tables, try to recover them using REPAIR TABLE or myisamchk
-r first. That should work in 99.9% of all cases. If myisamchk fails, try the following
procedure. Note that it will work only if you have enabled binary logging by starting
MySQL with the --log-bin option; see Section 5.9.4 [Binary log], page 367.
1. Restore the original mysqldump backup, or binary backup.
2. Execute the following command to re-run the updates in the binary logs:
shell> mysqlbinlog hostname-bin.[0-9]* | mysql
In your case, you may want to re-run only certain binary logs, from certain positions
(usually you want to re-run all binary logs from the date of the restored backup,
excepting possibly some incorrect queries). See Section 8.5 [mysqlbinlog], page 501
for more information on the mysqlbinlog utility and how to use it.
If you are using the update logs instead, you can process their contents like this:
shell> ls -1 -t -r hostname.[0-9]* | xargs cat | mysql
ls is used to sort the update log filenames into the right order.
You can also do selective backups of individual files:
• To dump the table, use SELECT * INTO OUTFILE ’file_name ’ FROM tbl_name .
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• To reload the table, use and restore with LOAD DATA INFILE ’file_name’ REPLACE ...
To avoid duplicate records, the table must have a PRIMARY KEY or a UNIQUE index. The
REPLACE keyword causes old records to be replaced with new ones when a new record
duplicates an old record on a unique key value.
If you have performance problems with your server while making backups, one strategy
that can help is to set up replication and perform backups on the slave rather than on the
master. See Section 6.1 [Replication Intro], page 384.
If you are using a Veritas filesystem, you can make a backup like this:
1. From a client program, execute FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK.
2. From another shell, execute mount vxfs snapshot.
3. From the first client, execute UNLOCK TABLES.
4. Copy files from the snapshot.
5. Unmount the snapshot.
5.7.2 Table Maintenance and Crash Recovery
The following text discusses how to use myisamchk to check or repair MyISAM tables (tables
with ‘.MYI’ and ‘.MYD’ files). The same concepts apply to using isamchk to check or repair
ISAM tables (tables with ‘.ISM’ and ‘.ISD’ files). See Chapter 15 [Table types], page 783.
You can use the myisamchk utility to get information about your database tables or to
check, repair, or optimize them. The following sections describe how to invoke myisamchk
(including a description of its options), how to set up a table maintenance schedule, and
how to use myisamchk to perform its various functions.
Even though table repair with myisamchk is quite secure, it’s always a good idea to make
a backup before doing a repair (or any maintenance operation that could make a lot of
changes to a table)
myisamchk operations that affect indexes can cause FULLTEXT indexes to be rebuilt with
full-text parameters that are incompatible with the values used by the MySQL server. To
avoid this, read the instructions in Section 5.7.2.2 [myisamchk general options], page 342.
In many cases, you may find it simpler to do MyISAM table maintenance using the SQL
statements that perform operations that myisamchk can do:
• To check or repair MyISAM tables, use CHECK TABLE or REPAIR TABLE.
• To optimize MyISAM tables, use OPTIMIZE TABLE.
• To analyze MyISAM tables, use ANALYZE TABLE.
These statements were introduced in different versions, but all are available from MySQL
3.23.14 on. See Section 14.5.2.1 [ANALYZE TABLE], page 739, Section 14.5.2.3 [CHECK TABLE],
page 740, Section 14.5.2.5 [OPTIMIZE TABLE], page 742, and Section 14.5.2.6 [REPAIR TABLE],
page 743. The statements can be used directly, or by means of the mysqlcheck client
program, which provides a command-line interface to them.
One advantage of these statements over myisamchk is that the server does all the work.
With myisamchk, you must make sure that the server does not use the tables at the same
time. Otherwise, there can be unwanted interaction betweeen myisamchk and the server.
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5.7.2.1 myisamchk Invocation Syntax
Invoke myisamchk like this:
shell> myisamchk [options ] tbl_name
The options specify what you want myisamchk to do. They are described in the following
sections. You can also get a list of options by invoking myisamchk --help.
With no options, myisamchk simply checks your table as the default operation. To get more
information or to tell myisamchk to take corrective action, specify options as described in
the following discussion.
tbl name is the database table you want to check or repair. If you run myisamchk somewhere
other than in the database directory, you must specify the path to the database directory,
because myisamchk has no idea where the database is located. In fact, myisamchk doesn’t
actually care whether the files you are working on are located in a database directory. You
can copy the files that correspond to a database table into some other location and perform
recovery operations on them there.
You can name several tables on the myisamchk command line if you wish. You can also
specify a table by naming its index file (the file with the ‘.MYI’ suffix). This allows you to
specify all tables in a directory by using the pattern ‘*.MYI’. For example, if you are in a
database directory, you can check all the MyISAM tables in that directory like this:
shell> myisamchk *.MYI
If you are not in the database directory, you can check all the tables there by specifying the
path to the directory:
shell> myisamchk /path/to/database_dir/*.MYI
You can even check all tables in all databases by specifying a wildcard with the path to the
MySQL data directory:
shell> myisamchk /path/to/datadir/*/*.MYI
The recommended way to quickly check all MyISAM and ISAM tables is:
shell> myisamchk --silent --fast /path/to/datadir/*/*.MYI
shell> isamchk --silent /path/to/datadir/*/*.ISM
If you want to check all MyISAM and ISAM tables and repair any that are corrupted, you can
use the following commands:
shell> myisamchk --silent --force --fast --update-state \
-O key_buffer=64M -O sort_buffer=64M \
-O read_buffer=1M -O write_buffer=1M \
/path/to/datadir/*/*.MYI
shell> isamchk --silent --force -O key_buffer=64M \
-O sort_buffer=64M -O read_buffer=1M -O write_buffer=1M \
/path/to/datadir/*/*.ISM
These commands assume that you have more than 64MB free. For more information about
memory allocation with myisamchk, see Section 5.7.2.6 [myisamchk memory], page 347.
You must ensure that no other program is using the tables while you are running myisamchk.
Otherwise, when you run myisamchk, it may display the following error message:
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warning: clients are using or haven’t closed the table properly
This means that you are trying to check a table that has been updated by another program
(such as the mysqld server) that hasn’t yet closed the file or that has died without closing
the file properly.
If mysqld is running, you must force it to flush any table modifications that are still buffered
in memory by using FLUSH TABLES. You should then ensure that no one is using the tables
while you are running myisamchk. The easiest way to avoid this problem is to use CHECK
TABLE instead of myisamchk to check tables.
5.7.2.2 General Options for myisamchk
The options described in this section can be used for any type of table maintenance operation
performed by myisamchk. The sections following this one describe options that pertain only
to specific operations, such as table checking or repairing.
--help, -?
Display a help message and exit.
--debug=debug_options, -# debug_options
Write a debugging log. The debug options string often is ’d:t:o,file_name ’.
--silent, -s
Silent mode. Write output only when errors occur. You can use -s twice (-ss)
to make myisamchk very silent.
--verbose, -v
Verbose mode. Print more information. This can be used with -d and -e. Use
-v multiple times (-vv, -vvv) for even more output.
--version, -V
Display version information and exit.
--wait, -w
Instead of terminating with an error if the table is locked, wait until the table
is unlocked before continuing. Note that if you are running mysqld with the
--skip-external-locking option, the table can be locked only by another
myisamchk command.
You can also set the following variables by using --var_name =value options:
Variable
Default Value
decode_bits
9
ft_max_word_len
version-dependent
ft_min_word_len
4
ft_stopword_file
built-in list
key_buffer_size
523264
myisam_block_size
1024
read_buffer_size
262136
sort_buffer_size
2097144
sort_key_blocks
16
write_buffer_size
262136
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It is also possible to set variables by using --set-variable=var_name =value or -O var_
name =value syntax. However, this syntax is deprecated as of MySQL 4.0.
The possible myisamchk variables and their default values can be examined with myisamchk
--help:
sort_buffer_size is used when the keys are repaired by sorting keys, which is the normal
case when you use --recover.
key_buffer_size is used when you are checking the table with --extend-check or when
the keys are repaired by inserting keys row by row into the table (like when doing normal
inserts). Repairing through the key buffer is used in the following cases:
• You use --safe-recover.
• The temporary files needed to sort the keys would be more than twice as big as when
creating the key file directly. This is often the case when you have large key values
for CHAR, VARCHAR, or TEXT columns, because the sort operation needs to store the
complete key values as it proceeds. If you have lots of temporary space and you can
force myisamchk to repair by sorting, you can use the --sort-recover option.
Repairing through the key buffer takes much less disk space than using sorting, but is also
much slower.
If you want a faster repair, set the key_buffer_size and sort_buffer_size variables to
about 25% of your available memory. You can set both variables to large values, because
only one of them is used at a time.
myisam_block_size is the size used for index blocks. It is available as of MySQL 4.0.0.
The ft_min_word_len and ft_max_word_len variables are available as of MySQL 4.0.0.
ft_stopword_file is available as of MySQL 4.0.19.
ft_min_word_len and ft_max_word_len indicate the minimum and maximum word length
for FULLTEXT indexes. ft_stopword_file names the stopword file. These need to be set
under the following circumstances.
If you use myisamchk to perform an operation that modifies table indexes (such as repair
or analyze), the FULLTEXT indexes are rebuilt using the default full-text parameter values
for minimum and maximum word length and the stopword file unless you specify otherwise.
This can result in queries failing.
The problem occurs because these parameters are known only by the server. They are not
stored in MyISAM index files. To avoid the problem if you have modified the minimum or
maximum word length or the stopword file in the server, specify the same ft_min_word_len,
ft_max_word_len, and ft_stopword_file values to myisamchk that you use for mysqld.
For example, if you have set the minimum word length to 3, you can repair a table with
myisamchk like this:
shell> myisamchk --recover --ft_min_word_len=3 tbl_name.MYI
To ensure that myisamchk and the server use the same values for full-text parameters, you
can place each one in both the [mysqld] and [myisamchk] sections of an option file:
[mysqld]
ft_min_word_len=3
[myisamchk]
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ft_min_word_len=3
An alternative to using myisamchk is to use the REPAIR TABLE, ANALYZE TABLE, OPTIMIZE
TABLE, or ALTER TABLE. These statements are performed by the server, which knows the
proper full-text parameter values to use.
5.7.2.3 Check Options for myisamchk
myisamchk supports the following options for table checking operations:
--check, -c
Check the table for errors. This is the default operation if you specify no option
that selects an operation type explicitly.
--check-only-changed, -C
Check only tables that have changed since the last check.
--extend-check, -e
Check the table very thoroughly. This is quite slow if the table has many indexes. This option should only be used in extreme cases. Normally, myisamchk
or myisamchk --medium-check should be able to determine whether there are
any errors in the table.
If you are using --extend-check and have plenty of memory, setting the key_
buffer_size variable to a large value will help the repair operation run faster.
--fast, -F
Check only tables that haven’t been closed properly.
--force, -f
Do a repair operation automatically if myisamchk finds any errors in the table.
The repair type is the same as that specified with the --repair or -r option.
--information, -i
Print informational statistics about the table that is checked.
--medium-check, -m
Do a check that is faster than an --extend-check operation. This finds only
99.99% of all errors, which should be good enough in most cases.
--read-only, -T
Don’t mark the table as checked. This is useful if you use myisamchk to check
a table that is in use by some other application that doesn’t use locking, such
as mysqld when run with the --skip-external-locking option.
--update-state, -U
Store information in the ‘.MYI’ file to indicate when the table was checked and
whether the table crashed. This should be used to get full benefit of the -check-only-changed option, but you shouldn’t use this option if the mysqld
server is using the table and you are running it with the --skip-externallocking option.
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5.7.2.4 Repair Options for myisamchk
myisamchk supports the following options for table repair operations:
--backup, -B
Make a backup of the ‘.MYD’ file as ‘file_name-time.BAK’
--character-sets-dir=path
The directory where character sets are installed. See Section 5.8.1 [Character
sets], page 359.
--correct-checksum
Correct the checksum information for the table.
--data-file-length=#, -D #
Maximum length of the data file (when re-creating data file when it’s “full”).
--extend-check, -e
Do a repair that tries to to recover every possible row from the data file. Normally this will also find a lot of garbage rows. Don’t use this option unless you
are totally desperate.
--force, -f
Overwrite old temporary files (files with names like ‘tbl_name.TMD’) instead of
aborting.
--keys-used=#, -k #
For myisamchk, the option value indicates which indexes to update. Each binary
bit of the option value corresponds to a table index, where the first index is bit
0. For isamchk, the option value indicates that only the first # of the table
indexes should be updated. In either case, an option value of 0 disables updates
to all indexes, which can be used to get faster inserts. Deactivated indexes can
be reactivated by using myisamchk -r or (isamchk -r).
--no-symlinks, -l
Do not follow symbolic links. Normally myisamchk repairs the table that a
symlink points to. This option doesn’t exist as of MySQL 4.0, because versions
from 4.0 on will not remove symlinks during repair operations.
--parallel-recover, -p
Uses the same technique as -r and -n, but creates all the keys in parallel, using
different threads. This option was added in MySQL 4.0.2. This is alpha code.
Use at your own risk!
--quick, -q
Achieve a faster repair by not modifying the data file. You can specify this
option twice to force myisamchk to modify the original data file in case of
duplicate keys.
--recover, -r
Do a repair that can fix almost any problem except unique keys that aren’t
unique (which is an extremely unlikely error with ISAM/MyISAM tables). If you
want to recover a table, this is the option to try first. You should try -o only
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if myisamchk reports that the table can’t be recovered by -r. (In the unlikely
case that -r fails, the data file is still intact.)
If you have lots of memory, you should increase the value of sort_buffer_size.
--safe-recover, -o
Do a repair using an old recovery method that reads through all rows in order
and updates all index trees based on the rows found. This is an order of
magnitude slower than -r, but can handle a couple of very unlikely cases that -r
cannot. This recovery method also uses much less disk space than -r. Normally,
you should repair first with -r, and then with -o only if -r fails.
If you have lots of memory, you should increase the value of key_buffer_size.
--set-character-set=name
Change the character set used by the table indexes.
--sort-recover, -n
Force myisamchk to use sorting to resolve the keys even if the temporary files
should be very big.
--tmpdir=path, -t path
Path of the directory to be used for storing temporary files. If this is not set,
myisamchk uses the value of the TMPDIR environment variable. Starting from
MySQL 4.1, tmpdir can be set to a list of directory paths that will be used
successively in round-robin fashion for creating temporary files. The separator
character between directory names should be colon (‘:’) on Unix and semicolon
(‘;’) on Windows, NetWare, and OS/2.
--unpack, -u
Unpack a table that was packed with myisampack.
5.7.2.5 Other Options for myisamchk
myisamchk supports the following options for actions other than table checks and repairs:
--analyze, -a
Analyze the distribution of keys. This improves join performance by enabling
the join optimizer to better choose the order in which to join the tables and
which keys it should use. To obtain information about the distribution, use a
myisamchk --description --verbose tbl_name command or the SHOW KEYS
FROM tbl_name statement.
--description, -d
Print some descriptive information about the table.
--set-auto-increment[=value ], -A[value ]
Force AUTO_INCREMENT numbering for new records to start at the given value
(or higher, if there are already records with AUTO_INCREMENT values this large).
If value is not specified, AUTO_INCREMENT number for new records begins with
the largest value currently in the table, plus one.
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--sort-index, -S
Sort the index tree blocks in high-low order. This optimizes seeks and makes
table scanning by key faster.
--sort-records=#, -R #
Sort records according to a particular index. This makes your data much more
localized and may speed up range-based SELECT and ORDER BY operations that
use this index. (The first time you use this option to sort a table, it may be very
slow.) To determine a table’s index numbers, use SHOW KEYS, which displays
a table’s indexes in the same order that myisamchk sees them. Indexes are
numbered beginning with 1.
5.7.2.6 myisamchk Memory Usage
Memory allocation is important when you run myisamchk. myisamchk uses no more memory
than you specify with the -O options. If you are going to use myisamchk on very large tables,
you should first decide how much memory you want it to use. The default is to use only
about 3MB to perform repairs. By using larger values, you can get myisamchk to operate
faster. For example, if you have more than 32MB RAM, you could use options such as
these (in addition to any other options you might specify):
shell> myisamchk -O sort=16M -O key=16M -O read=1M -O write=1M ...
Using -O sort=16M should probably be enough for most cases.
Be aware that myisamchk uses temporary files in TMPDIR. If TMPDIR points to a memory
filesystem, you may easily get out of memory errors. If this happens, set TMPDIR to point
at some directory located on a filesystem with more space and run myisamchk again.
When repairing, myisamchk will also need a lot of disk space:
• Double the size of the data file (the original one and a copy). This space is not needed
if you do a repair with --quick; in this case, only the index file is re-created. This
space is needed on the same filesystem as the original data file! (The copy is created
in the same directory as the original.)
• Space for the new index file that replaces the old one. The old index file is truncated at
the start of the repair operation, so you usually ignore this space. This space is needed
on the same filesystem as the original index file!
• When using --recover or --sort-recover (but not when using --safe-recover),
you will need space for a sort buffer. The amount of space required is:
(largest_key + row_pointer_length ) * number_of_rows * 2
You can check the length of the keys and the row_pointer_length with myisamchk
-dv tbl_name . This space is allocated in the temporary directory (specified by TMPDIR
or --tmpdir=path ).
If you have a problem with disk space during repair, you can try to use --safe-recover
instead of --recover.
5.7.2.7 Using myisamchk for Crash Recovery
If you run mysqld with --skip-external-locking (which is the default on some systems,
such as Linux), you can’t reliably use myisamchk to check a table when mysqld is using the
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same table. If you can be sure that no one is accessing the tables through mysqld while you
run myisamchk, you only have to do mysqladmin flush-tables before you start checking
the tables. If you can’t guarantee this, then you must stop mysqld while you check the
tables. If you run myisamchk while mysqld is updating the tables, you may get a warning
that a table is corrupt even when it isn’t.
If you are not using --skip-external-locking, you can use myisamchk to check tables
at any time. While you do this, all clients that try to update the table will wait until
myisamchk is ready before continuing.
If you use myisamchk to repair or optimize tables, you must always ensure that the mysqld
server is not using the table (this also applies if you are using --skip-external-locking).
If you don’t take down mysqld, you should at least do a mysqladmin flush-tables before
you run myisamchk. Your tables may become corrupted if the server and myisamchk access
the tables simultaneously.
This section describes how to check for and deal with data corruption in MySQL databases.
If your tables get corrupted frequently you should try to find the reason why. See Section A.4.2 [Crashing], page 1119.
The MyISAM table section contains reason for why a table could be corrupted. See Section 15.1.4 [MyISAM table problems], page 790.
When performing crash recovery, it is important to understand that each MyISAM table
tbl name in a database corresponds to three files in the database directory:
File
Purpose
‘tbl_name.frm’
Definition (format) file
‘tbl_name.MYD’
Data file
‘tbl_name.MYI’
Index file
Each of these three file types is subject to corruption in various ways, but problems occur
most often in data files and index files.
myisamchk works by creating a copy of the ‘.MYD’ data file row by row. It ends the repair
stage by removing the old ‘.MYD’ file and renaming the new file to the original file name. If
you use --quick, myisamchk does not create a temporary ‘.MYD’ file, but instead assumes
that the ‘.MYD’ file is correct and only generates a new index file without touching the ‘.MYD’
file. This is safe, because myisamchk automatically detects whether the ‘.MYD’ file is corrupt
and aborts the repair if it is. You can also specify the --quick option twice to myisamchk.
In this case, myisamchk does not abort on some errors (such as duplicate-key errors) but
instead tries to resolve them by modifying the ‘.MYD’ file. Normally the use of two --quick
options is useful only if you have too little free disk space to perform a normal repair. In
this case, you should at least make a backup before running myisamchk.
5.7.2.8 How to Check MyISAM Tables for Errors
To check a MyISAM table, use the following commands:
myisamchk tbl_name
This finds 99.99% of all errors. What it can’t find is corruption that involves
only the data file (which is very unusual). If you want to check a table, you
should normally run myisamchk without options or with either the -s or -silent option.
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myisamchk -m tbl_name
This finds 99.999% of all errors. It first checks all index entries for errors and
then reads through all rows. It calculates a checksum for all keys in the rows
and verifies that the checksum matches the checksum for the keys in the index
tree.
myisamchk -e tbl_name
This does a complete and thorough check of all data (-e means “extended
check”). It does a check-read of every key for each row to verify that they
indeed point to the correct row. This may take a long time for a large table
that has many indexes. Normally, myisamchk stops after the first error it finds.
If you want to obtain more information, you can add the --verbose (-v) option.
This causes myisamchk to keep going, up through a maximum of 20 errors.
myisamchk -e -i tbl_name
Like the previous command, but the -i option tells myisamchk to print some
informational statistics, too.
In most cases, a simple myisamchk with no arguments other than the table name is sufficient
to check a table.
5.7.2.9 How to Repair Tables
The discussion in this section describes how to use myisamchk on MyISAM tables (extensions
‘.MYI’ and ‘.MYD’). If you are using ISAM tables (extensions ‘.ISM’ and ‘.ISD’), you should
use isamchk instead; the concepts are similar.
If you are using MySQL 3.23.16 and above, you can (and should) use the CHECK TABLE and
REPAIR TABLE statements to check and repair MyISAM tables. See Section 14.5.2.3 [CHECK
TABLE], page 740 and Section 14.5.2.6 [REPAIR TABLE], page 743.
The symptoms of a corrupted table include queries that abort unexpectedly and observable
errors such as these:
• ‘tbl_name.frm’ is locked against change
• Can’t find file ‘tbl_name.MYI’ (Errcode: ###)
• Unexpected end of file
• Record file is crashed
• Got error ### from table handler
To get more information about the error you can run perror ###, where ### is the
error number. The following example shows how to use perror to find the meanings for
the most common error numbers that indicate a problem with a table:
shell> perror 126 127 132 134 135 136 141 144 145
126 = Index file is crashed / Wrong file format
127 = Record-file is crashed
132 = Old database file
134 = Record was already deleted (or record file crashed)
135 = No more room in record file
136 = No more room in index file
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141 = Duplicate unique key or constraint on write or update
144 = Table is crashed and last repair failed
145 = Table was marked as crashed and should be repaired
Note that error 135 (no more room in record file) and error 136 (no more room in index
file) are not errors that can be fixed by a simple repair. In this case, you have to use ALTER
TABLE to increase the MAX_ROWS and AVG_ROW_LENGTH table option values:
ALTER TABLE tbl_name MAX_ROWS=xxx AVG_ROW_LENGTH=yyy ;
If you don’t know the current table option values, use SHOW CREATE TABLE tbl_name.
For the other errors, you must repair your tables. myisamchk can usually detect and fix
most problems that occur.
The repair process involves up to four stages, described here. Before you begin, you should
change location to the database directory and check the permissions of the table files. On
Unix, make sure that they are readable by the user that mysqld runs as (and to you, because
you need to access the files you are checking). If it turns out you need to modify files, they
must also be writable by you.
The options that you can use for table maintenance with myisamchk and isamchk are
described in several of the earlier subsections of Section 5.7.2 [Table maintenance], page 340.
The following section is for the cases where the above command fails or if you want to use
the extended features that myisamchk and isamchk provide.
If you are going to repair a table from the command line, you must first stop the mysqld
server. Note that when you do mysqladmin shutdown on a remote server, the mysqld server
will still be alive for a while after mysqladmin returns, until all queries are stopped and all
keys have been flushed to disk.
Stage 1: Checking your tables
Run myisamchk *.MYI or myisamchk -e *.MYI if you have more time. Use the -s (silent)
option to suppress unnecessary information.
If the mysqld server is down, you should use the --update-state option to tell myisamchk
to mark the table as ’checked’.
You have to repair only those tables for which myisamchk announces an error. For such
tables, proceed to Stage 2.
If you get weird errors when checking (such as out of memory errors), or if myisamchk
crashes, go to Stage 3.
Stage 2: Easy safe repair
Note: If you want a repair operation to go much faster, you should set the values of the
sort_buffer_size and key_buffer_size variables each to about 25% of your available
memory when running myisamchk or isamchk.
First, try myisamchk -r -q tbl_name (-r -q means “quick recovery mode”). This will
attempt to repair the index file without touching the data file. If the data file contains
everything that it should and the delete links point at the correct locations within the data
file, this should work, and the table is fixed. Start repairing the next table. Otherwise, use
the following procedure:
1. Make a backup of the data file before continuing.
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2. Use myisamchk -r tbl_name (-r means “recovery mode”). This will remove incorrect
records and deleted records from the data file and reconstruct the index file.
3. If the preceding step fails, use myisamchk --safe-recover tbl_name . Safe recovery
mode uses an old recovery method that handles a few cases that regular recovery mode
doesn’t (but is slower).
If you get weird errors when repairing (such as out of memory errors), or if myisamchk
crashes, go to Stage 3.
Stage 3: Difficult repair
You should reach this stage only if the first 16KB block in the index file is destroyed or
contains incorrect information, or if the index file is missing. In this case, it’s necessary to
create a new index file. Do so as follows:
1. Move the data file to some safe place.
2. Use the table description file to create new (empty) data and index files:
shell>
mysql>
mysql>
mysql>
mysql db_name
SET AUTOCOMMIT=1;
TRUNCATE TABLE tbl_name ;
quit
If your version of MySQL doesn’t have TRUNCATE TABLE, use DELETE FROM tbl_name
instead.
3. Copy the old data file back onto the newly created data file. (Don’t just move the old
file back onto the new file; you want to retain a copy in case something goes wrong.)
Go back to Stage 2. myisamchk -r -q should work now. (This shouldn’t be an endless
loop.)
As of MySQL 4.0.2, you can also use REPAIR TABLE tbl_name USE_FRM, which performs the
whole procedure automatically.
Stage 4: Very difficult repair
You should reach this stage only if the ‘.frm’ description file has also crashed. That should
never happen, because the description file isn’t changed after the table is created:
1. Restore the description file from a backup and go back to Stage 3. You can also
restore the index file and go back to Stage 2. In the latter case, you should start with
myisamchk -r.
2. If you don’t have a backup but know exactly how the table was created, create a copy
of the table in another database. Remove the new data file, then move the ‘.frm’
description and ‘.MYI’ index files from the other database to your crashed database.
This gives you new description and index files, but leaves the ‘.MYD’ data file alone. Go
back to Stage 2 and attempt to reconstruct the index file.
5.7.2.10 Table Optimization
To coalesce fragmented records and eliminate wasted space resulting from deleting or updating records, run myisamchk in recovery mode:
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shell> myisamchk -r tbl_name
You can optimize a table in the same way by using the SQL OPTIMIZE TABLE statement.
OPTIMIZE TABLE does a repair of the table and a key analysis, and also sorts the index tree
to give faster key lookups. There is also no possibility of unwanted interaction between a
utility and the server, because the server does all the work when you use OPTIMIZE TABLE.
See Section 14.5.2.5 [OPTIMIZE TABLE], page 742.
myisamchk also has a number of other options you can use to improve the performance of
a table:
• -S, --sort-index
• -R index_num , --sort-records=index_num
• -a, --analyze
For a full description of the options, see Section 5.7.2.1 [myisamchk syntax], page 341.
5.7.3 Setting Up a Table Maintenance Schedule
It is a good idea to perform table checks on a regular basis rather than waiting for problems
to occur. One way to check and repair MyISAM tables is with the CHECK TABLE and REPAIR
TABLE statements. These are available starting with MySQL 3.23.16. See Section 14.5.2.3
[CHECK TABLE], page 740 and Section 14.5.2.6 [REPAIR TABLE], page 743.
Another way to check tables is to use myisamchk. For maintenance purposes, you can use
myisamchk -s. The -s option (short for --silent) causes myisamchk to run in silent mode,
printing messages only when errors occur.
It’s also a good idea to check tables when the server starts. For example, whenever the
machine has done a restart in the middle of an update, you usually need to check all the
tables that could have been affected. (These are “expected crashed tables.”) To check
MyISAM tables automatically, start the server with the --myisam-recover option, available
as of MySQL 3.23.25. If your server is too old to support this option, you could add a test
to mysqld_safe that runs myisamchk to check all tables that have been modified during the
last 24 hours if there is an old ‘.pid’ (process ID) file left after a restart. (The ‘.pid’ file is
created by mysqld when it starts and removed when it terminates normally. The presence
of a ‘.pid’ file at system startup time indicates that mysqld terminated abnormally.)
An even better test would be to check any table whose last-modified time is more recent
than that of the ‘.pid’ file.
You should also check your tables regularly during normal system operation. At MySQL
AB, we run a cron job to check all our important tables once a week, using a line like this
in a ‘crontab’ file:
35 0 * * 0 /path/to/myisamchk --fast --silent /path/to/datadir/*/*.MYI
This prints out information about crashed tables so that we can examine and repair them
when needed.
Because we haven’t had any unexpectedly crashed tables (tables that become corrupted for
reasons other than hardware trouble) for a couple of years now (this is really true), once a
week is more than enough for us.
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We recommend that to start with, you execute myisamchk -s each night on all tables that
have been updated during the last 24 hours, until you come to trust MySQL as much as we
do.
Normally, MySQL tables need little maintenance. If you are changing MyISAM tables with
dynamic-sized rows (tables with VARCHAR, BLOB, or TEXT columns) or have tables with many
deleted rows you may want to defragment/reclaim space from the tables from time to time
(once a month?).
You can do this by using OPTIMIZE TABLE on the tables in question. Or, if you can stop the
mysqld server for a while, change location into the data directory and use this command
while the server is stopped:
shell> myisamchk -r -s --sort-index -O sort_buffer_size=16M */*.MYI
For ISAM tables, the command is similar:
shell> isamchk -r -s --sort-index -O sort_buffer_size=16M */*.MYI
5.7.4 Getting Information About a Table
To obtain a description of a table or statistics about it, use the commands shown here. We
explain some of the information in more detail later:
• myisamchk -d tbl_name
Runs myisamchk in “describe mode” to produce a description of your table. If you
start the MySQL server using the --skip-external-locking option, myisamchk may
report an error for a table that is updated while it runs. However, because myisamchk
doesn’t change the table in describe mode, there is no risk of destroying data.
• myisamchk -d -v tbl_name
Adding -v runs myisamchk in verbose mode so that it produces more information about
what it is doing.
• myisamchk -eis tbl_name
Shows only the most important information from a table. This operation is slow because
it must read the entire table.
• myisamchk -eiv tbl_name
This is like -eis, but tells you what is being done.
Sample output for some of these commands follows. They are based on a table with these
data and index file sizes:
-rw-rw-r-1 monty
tcx
317235748 Jan 12 17:30 company.MYD
-rw-rw-r-1 davida
tcx
96482304 Jan 12 18:35 company.MYM
Example of myisamchk -d output:
MyISAM file:
company.MYI
Record format:
Fixed length
Data records:
1403698 Deleted blocks:
0
Recordlength:
226
table description:
Key Start Len Index
Type
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
2
15
219
63
167
177
155
138
177
193
8
10
8
10
2
4
4
4
4
1
unique
multip.
multip.
multip.
multip.
multip.
multip.
multip.
multip.
double
text packed stripped
double
text packed stripped
unsigned short
unsigned long
text
unsigned long
unsigned long
text
Example of myisamchk -d -v output:
MyISAM file:
company
Record format:
Fixed length
File-version:
1
Creation time:
1999-10-30 12:12:51
Recover time:
1999-10-31 19:13:01
Status:
checked
Data records:
1403698 Deleted blocks:
0
Datafile parts:
1403698 Deleted data:
0
Datafile pointer (bytes):
3 Keyfile pointer (bytes):
3
Max datafile length: 3791650815 Max keyfile length: 4294967294
Recordlength:
226
table description:
Key Start Len Index
1
2
8
unique
2
15
10 multip.
3
219
8
multip.
4
63
10 multip.
5
167
2
multip.
6
177
4
m