Juniper Networks Secure Access Administration Guide

Juniper Networks Secure Access Administration Guide
Juniper Networks Secure Access
Administration Guide
Release 5.5
Juniper Networks, Inc.
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Copyright © 2006, Juniper Networks, Inc.
All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Juniper Networks Secure Access Administration Guide, Release 5.5
Writers: Paul Battaglia, Gary Beichler, Claudette Hobbart, Mark Smallwood
Editor: Claudette Hobbart
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Table of Contents
About This Guide
xxiii
Audience..................................................................................................... xxiii
Where to find additional information.......................................................... xxiii
Administrator and developer documentation ....................................... xxiii
Error Message Documentation ............................................................. xxiv
Hardware documentation ..................................................................... xxiv
Product downloads............................................................................... xxiv
Conventions................................................................................................ xxiv
Documentation ............................................................................................ xxv
Release Notes ........................................................................................ xxv
Web Access ........................................................................................... xxv
Contacting Customer Support ...................................................................... xxv
Part 1
Getting started
Chapter 1
Initial Verification and Key Concepts
3
Verifying user accessibility ............................................................................... 3
Creating a test scenario to learn IVE concepts and best practices .................... 5
Defining a user role ................................................................................... 6
Defining a resource profile ........................................................................ 8
Defining an authentication server............................................................ 10
Defining an authentication realm ............................................................ 13
Defining a sign-in policy .......................................................................... 16
Using the test scenario ............................................................................ 19
Configuring default settings for administrators .............................................. 22
Chapter 2
Introduction to the IVE
23
What is the IVE?............................................................................................. 23
What can I do with the IVE?........................................................................... 25
Can I use the IVE to secure traffic to all of my company’s applications,
servers, and Web pages?................................................................... 25
Can I use my existing servers to authenticate IVE users? ......................... 27
Can I fine-tune access to the IVE and the resources it intermediates?...... 27
Can I create a seamless integration between the IVE and the resources it
intermediates? .................................................................................. 28
Can I use the IVE to protect against infected computers and other security
concerns?.......................................................................................... 29
Can I ensure redundancy in my IVE environment?.................................. 29
Can I make the IVE interface match my company’s look-and-feel?.......... 29
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Can I enable users on a variety of computers and devices to use the IVE?...
30
Can I provide secure access for my international users? .......................... 30
How do I start configuring the IVE?................................................................ 31
Part 2
Access management framework
Chapter 3
General access management
35
Licensing: Access management availability....................................................35
Policies, rules & restrictions, and conditions overview ................................... 35
Accessing authentication realms.............................................................. 36
Accessing user roles ................................................................................ 37
Accessing resource policies...................................................................... 37
Policies, rules & restrictions, and conditions evaluation ................................. 38
Dynamic policy evaluation ............................................................................. 40
Understanding dynamic policy evaluation ............................................... 40
Understanding standard policy evaluation ............................................... 41
Enabling dynamic policy evaluation ........................................................ 42
Configuring security requirements .................................................................42
Specifying source IP access restrictions ................................................... 43
Specifying browser access restrictions..................................................... 44
Specifying certificate access restrictions .................................................. 47
Specifying password access restrictions................................................... 48
Specifying Host Checker access restrictions............................................. 49
Specifying Cache Cleaner access restrictions ........................................... 49
Specifying limits restrictions.................................................................... 49
Chapter 4
User roles
51
Licensing: User roles availability .................................................................... 52
User role evaluation ....................................................................................... 52
Permissive merge guidelines ................................................................... 53
Configuring user roles .................................................................................... 54
Configuring general role options.............................................................. 55
Configuring role restrictions .................................................................... 56
Specifying role-based source IP aliases ....................................................57
Specifying session options ....................................................................... 57
Specifying customized UI settings............................................................ 60
Defining default options for user roles ..................................................... 64
Customizing user roles UI views..................................................................... 66
Chapter 5
Resource profiles
71
Licensing: Resource profile availability........................................................... 72
Task summary: Configuring resource profiles ................................................ 72
Resource profile components......................................................................... 72
Defining resources................................................................................... 75
Defining autopolicies ............................................................................... 76
Defining roles .......................................................................................... 77
Defining bookmarks ................................................................................ 78
Resource profile templates............................................................................. 79
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Chapter 6
Resource policies
81
Licensing: Resource policies availability ......................................................... 82
Resource policy components ......................................................................... 82
Specifying resources for a resource policy ............................................... 83
Resource policy evaluation............................................................................. 86
Creating detailed rules for resource policies ................................................... 87
Writing a detailed rule ............................................................................. 88
Customizing resource policy UI views ............................................................ 89
Chapter 7
Authentication and directory servers
91
Licensing: Authentication server availability................................................... 92
Task summary: Configuring authentication servers........................................ 92
Defining an authentication server instance ....................................................93
Defining an authentication server instance.............................................. 94
Modifying an existing authentication server instance .............................. 94
Configuring an anonymous server instance ................................................... 94
Anonymous server restrictions ................................................................ 95
Defining an anonymous server instance.................................................. 95
Configuring an ACE/Server instance............................................................... 96
Defining an ACE/Server instance ............................................................. 97
Generating an ACE/Agent configuration file ............................................. 98
Configuring an Active Directory or NT Domain instance ................................ 99
Defining an Active Directory or Windows NT domain server instance...100
Multi-domain user authentication ..........................................................102
Active Directory and NT group lookup support ......................................104
Configuring a certificate server instance........................................................... 105
Configuring an LDAP server instance ...........................................................106
Defining an LDAP server instance .........................................................107
Configuring LDAP search attributes for meeting creators ......................110
Monitoring and deleting active user sessions .........................................110
Enabling LDAP password management .................................................111
Configuring a local authentication server instance .......................................115
Defining a local authentication server instance......................................115
Creating user accounts on a local authentication server.........................117
Managing user accounts ........................................................................118
Delegating user administration rights to end-users ................................119
Configuring an NIS server instance ..............................................................120
Configuring a RADIUS server instance .........................................................120
User experience for RADIUS users.........................................................121
Configuring the IVE to work with a RADIUS server ................................122
Enabling RADIUS accounting.................................................................125
Configuring an eTrust SiteMinder server instance ........................................133
eTrust SiteMinder overview ...................................................................134
Configuring SiteMinder to work with the IVE .........................................138
Configuring the IVE to work with SiteMinder .........................................144
Debugging SiteMinder and IVE issues ....................................................156
Configuring a SAML Server instance.............................................................156
Using the artifact profile and the POST profile.......................................157
Creating a new SAML Server instance....................................................161
Chapter 8
Authentication realms
165
Licensing: Authentication realms availability................................................166
Creating an authentication realm .................................................................166
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Defining authentication policies ...................................................................168
Creating role mapping rules .........................................................................169
Specifying role mapping rules for an authentication realm ....................170
Customizing user realm UI views .................................................................178
Chapter 9
Sign-in policies
181
Licensing: Sign-in policies and pages availability..........................................183
Task summary: Configuring sign-in policies .................................................183
Configuring sign-in policies ..........................................................................183
Defining user sign in policies .................................................................183
Defining meeting sign-in policies...........................................................185
Enabling and disabling sign-in policies ..................................................186
Specifying the order in which sign-in policies are evaluated ..................187
Configuring sign-in pages .............................................................................187
Configuring standard sign-in pages........................................................188
Chapter 10
Single sign-on
191
Licensing: Single sign-on availability ............................................................191
Single sign-on overview ...............................................................................191
Multiple sign-in credentials overview ...........................................................193
Task Summary: Configuring multiple authentication servers .................193
Task Summary: Enabling SSO to resources protected by basic
authentication .................................................................................194
Task Summary: Enabling SSO to resources protected by NTLM.............194
Multiple sign-in credentials execution ....................................................196
Configuring SAML ........................................................................................201
Configuring SAML SSO profiles ....................................................................204
Creating an artifact profile .....................................................................204
Creating a POST profile .........................................................................208
Creating an access control policy...........................................................211
Creating a trust relationship between SAML-enabled systems ...............214
Part 3
Endpoint defense
Chapter 11
Host Checker
223
Licensing: Host Checker availability .............................................................224
Task summary: Configuring Host Checker ...................................................224
Creating global Host Checker policies ..........................................................226
Enabling pre-defined client-side policies (Windows only) ......................227
Creating and configuring new client-side policies ..................................231
Enabling customized server-side policies ...............................................242
Enabling the Secure Virtual Workspace........................................................244
Secure Virtual Workspace features ........................................................245
Secure Virtual Workspace restrictions and defaults ...............................245
Configuring the Secure Virtual Workspace.............................................246
Implementing Host Checker policies ............................................................251
Executing Host Checker policies ............................................................252
Configuring Host Checker restrictions....................................................253
Remediating Host Checker policies ..............................................................255
Host Checker remediation user experience ...........................................256
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Configuring Host Checker remediation ..................................................257
Defining Host Checker pre-authentication access tunnels ............................258
Specifying Host Checker pre-authentication access tunnel definitions ...259
Specifying general Host Checker options .....................................................262
Specifying Host Checker installation options................................................264
Removing the Juniper ActiveX Control...................................................265
Using Host Checker with the GINA automatic sign-in function...............266
Automatically install Host Checker ........................................................266
Manually install Host Checker................................................................267
Using Host Checker logs...............................................................................267
Chapter 12
Cache Cleaner
269
Licensing: Cache Cleaner availability............................................................269
Setting global Cache Cleaner options ...........................................................270
Implementing Cache Cleaner options ..........................................................273
Executing Cache Cleaner .......................................................................273
Specifying Cache Cleaner restrictions ....................................................275
Specifying Cache Cleaner installation options ..............................................277
Using Cache Cleaner logs .............................................................................278
Part 4
Remote access
Chapter 13
Web rewriting
281
Licensing: Web rewriting availability............................................................282
Task summary: Configuring the Web rewriting feature ................................282
Web URL rewriting overview .......................................................................283
Remote SSO overview ...........................................................................285
Passthrough-proxy overview..................................................................286
Defining resource profiles: Custom Web applications ..................................288
Defining base URLs ...............................................................................290
Defining a Web access control autopolicy..............................................290
Defining Web resources ........................................................................291
Defining a single sign-on autopolicy ......................................................292
Defining a caching autopolicy................................................................296
Defining a Java access control autopolicy ..............................................298
Defining a rewriting autopolicy..............................................................300
Defining a Web compression autopolicy................................................304
Defining a Web bookmark.....................................................................305
Defining resource profiles: Citrix Web applications......................................307
Defining resource profiles: Microsoft OWA ..................................................311
Defining resource profiles: Lotus iNotes .......................................................313
Defining resource profiles: Microsoft Sharepoint..........................................315
Defining role settings: Web URLs .................................................................316
Creating bookmarks through existing resource profiles .........................317
Creating standard Web bookmarks .......................................................317
Specifying general Web browsing options .............................................319
Defining resource policies: Overview ...........................................................322
Defining resource policies: Web access........................................................324
Defining resource policies: Single sign-on ....................................................325
Writing a Basic Authentication or NTLM Intermediation resource policy326
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Writing a remote SSO Form POST resource policy ................................328
Writing a remote SSO Headers/Cookies resource policy ........................330
Defining resource policies: Caching..............................................................332
Writing a caching resource policy ..........................................................332
Creating OWA and Lotus Notes caching resource policies .....................335
Specifying general caching options........................................................335
Defining resource policies: External Java applets .........................................336
Writing a Java access control resource policy ........................................336
Writing a Java code signing resource policy...........................................338
Defining resource policies: Rewriting ...........................................................339
Creating a selective rewriting resource policy ........................................340
Creating a pass-through proxy resource policy ......................................342
Creating a custom header resource policy .............................................344
Creating an ActiveX parameter resource policy .....................................346
Restoring the default IVE ActiveX resource policies ...............................348
Creating rewriting filters ........................................................................349
Defining resource policies: Web compression ..............................................349
Writing a Web compression resource policy..........................................350
Defining an OWA compression resource policy.....................................351
Defining resource policies: Web proxy.........................................................351
Writing a Web proxy resource policy.....................................................351
Specifying Web proxy servers ...............................................................353
Defining resource policies: HTTP 1.1 protocol..............................................354
Defining resource policies: General options..................................................355
Managing resource policies: Customizing UI views.......................................356
Chapter 14
Hosted Java applets
357
Licensing: Hosted Java applets availability ...................................................357
Task Summary: Hosting Java applets ...........................................................357
Hosted Java applets overview.......................................................................358
Uploading Java applets to the IVE ..........................................................359
Signing uploaded Java applets ...............................................................360
Creating HTML pages that reference uploaded Java applets...................361
Accessing Java applet bookmarks ..........................................................361
Defining resource profiles: Hosted Java applets............................................362
Defining a hosted Java applet bookmark ...............................................363
Use case: Creating a Citrix JICA 8.0 Java applet bookmark...........................368
Chapter 15
File rewriting
371
Licensing: File rewriting availability .............................................................371
Defining resource profiles: File rewriting......................................................371
Defining file resources ...........................................................................373
Defining a file access control autopolicy ................................................374
Defining a file compression autopolicy ..................................................374
Defining a single sign-on autopolicy (Windows only) .............................375
Defining a file bookmark .......................................................................376
Defining role settings: Windows resources...................................................378
Creating advanced bookmarks to Windows resources...........................379
Creating Windows bookmarks that map to LDAP servers......................380
Defining general file browsing options ..................................................381
Defining resource policies: Windows file resources......................................381
Canonical format: Windows file resources.............................................382
Writing a Windows access resource policy ............................................383
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Writing a Windows SSO resource policy................................................384
Writing a Windows compression resource policy ..................................386
Defining general file writing options ......................................................387
Defining role settings: UNIX/NFS file resources ............................................387
Creating advanced bookmarks to UNIX resources .................................388
Defining general file browsing options ..................................................389
Defining resource policies: UNIX/NFS file resources .....................................389
Canonical format: UNIX/NFS file resources............................................390
Writing UNIX/NFS resource policies.......................................................391
Writing a Unix/NFS compression resource policy ..................................392
Defining general file writing options ......................................................393
Chapter 16
Secure Application Manager
395
Licensing: Secure Application Manager availability ......................................396
Task Summary: Configuring WSAM .............................................................396
W-SAM overview..........................................................................................397
Securing client/server traffic using WSAM .............................................397
Antivirus and VPN client application compatibility ................................400
Launching Network Connect during a WSAM session ............................401
Debugging WSAM issues .......................................................................401
Defining resource profiles: WSAM................................................................401
Creating WSAM client application resource profiles...............................402
Creating WSAM destination network resource profiles ..........................403
Defining role settings: WSAM.......................................................................404
Specifying applications and servers for WSAM to secure .......................405
Specifying applications that need to bypass WSAM ...............................407
Specifying role-level WSAM options.......................................................408
Downloading WSAM applications ..........................................................410
Defining resource policies: WSAM................................................................410
Specifying application servers that users can access..............................410
Specifying resource level WSAM options ...............................................412
Using the W-SAM launcher...........................................................................413
Running scripts manually ......................................................................414
Running scripts automatically................................................................415
Task Summary: Configuring JSAM................................................................416
J-SAM overview ............................................................................................417
Using JSAM for client/server communications .......................................418
Linux and Macintosh support ................................................................426
Standard application support: MS Outlook.............................................427
Standard application support: Lotus Notes.............................................428
Standard application support: Citrix Web Interface for MetaFrame (NFuse
Classic)............................................................................................430
Custom application support: Citrix published applications configured from
the native client ..............................................................................431
Custom application support: Citrix secure gateways ..............................434
Defining resource profiles: JSAM ..................................................................435
Defining role settings: JSAM .........................................................................439
Specifying applications for JSAM to secure ............................................439
Specifying role level JSAM options .........................................................442
Defining resource policies: JSAM ..................................................................443
Automatically launching JSAM ...............................................................443
Specifying application servers that users can access..............................445
Specifying resource level JSAM options..................................................447
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Chapter 17
Telnet/SSH
449
Licensing: Telnet/SSH availability .................................................................450
Task summary: Configuring the Telnet/SSH feature .....................................450
Defining resource profiles: Telnet/SSH .........................................................450
Defining a Telnet/SSH resource profile bookmark..................................452
Defining role settings: Telnet/SSH ................................................................454
Creating advanced session bookmarks ..................................................454
Configuring general Telnet/SSH options.................................................455
Defining resource policies: Telnet/SSH .........................................................456
Writing Telnet/SSH resource policies .....................................................457
Matching IP addresses to host names ....................................................458
Chapter 18
Terminal Services
461
Licensing: Terminal Services availability ......................................................461
Task Summary: Configuring the Terminal Services feature ..........................461
Terminal Services overview .........................................................................463
Terminal Services user experience ........................................................463
Terminal Services execution ..................................................................464
Configuring Citrix to support ICA load balancing ...................................467
Comparing IVE access mechanisms for configuring Citrix .....................469
Defining resource profiles: Terminal Services .............................................470
Defining a Windows profile or Citrix profile using default ICA settings ..470
Defining a Citrix profile using a custom ICA settings .............................476
Defining role settings: Terminal Services .....................................................480
Creating advanced Terminal Services session bookmarks .....................481
Creating links from an external site to a terminal services session bookmark
485
Specifying general Terminal Services options ........................................487
Defining resource policies: Terminal Services ..............................................489
Configuring Terminal Services resource policies ....................................489
Specifying the Terminal Services resource option..................................490
Chapter 19
Secure Meeting
493
Licensing: Secure Meeting availability ..........................................................493
Task Summary: Configuring Secure Meeting ................................................494
Secure Meeting overview .............................................................................495
Scheduling meetings..............................................................................496
Sending notification emails ...................................................................497
Joining meetings....................................................................................498
Attending meetings ...............................................................................500
Conducting meetings.............................................................................500
Presenting meetings ..............................................................................501
Creating instant meetings and support meetings...................................501
Defining role settings: Secure Meeting .........................................................503
Enabling and configuring Secure Meeting ..............................................503
Permissive merge guidelines for Secure Meeting ...................................506
Specifying authentication servers that meeting creators can access ......507
Defining resource policies: Secure Meeting ..................................................508
Troubleshooting Secure Meeting ..................................................................511
Monitoring Secure Meeting ..........................................................................512
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Chapter 20
Email Client
513
Licensing: Email Client availability ...............................................................514
Email Client overview ..................................................................................514
Choosing an email client .......................................................................514
Working with a standards-based mail server .........................................515
Working with the Microsoft Exchange Server ........................................515
Working with Lotus Notes and the Lotus Notes Mail Server ...................517
Defining role settings: Email Client ..............................................................517
Defining resource policies: Email Client .......................................................518
Chapter 21
Network Connect
521
Licensing: Network Connect availability.......................................................523
Task Summary: Configuring Network Connect.............................................523
Network Connect overview ..........................................................................524
Network Connect execution ..................................................................525
Network Connect Connection Profiles with support for multiple DNS
settings ...........................................................................................530
Provisioning your network for Network Connect ...................................531
Client-side logging .................................................................................532
Network Connect proxy support............................................................532
Network Connect Quality of Service ......................................................533
Network Connect Multicast Support.......................................................533
Defining role settings: Network Connect ......................................................534
Defining resource policies: Network Connect ...............................................536
Defining Network Connect access control policies.................................537
Defining Network Connect logging policies............................................538
Creating Network Connect connection profiles......................................539
Defining Network Connect split tunneling policies.................................544
Use case: Network Connect resource policy configuration .....................546
Defining system settings: Network Connect .................................................547
Specifying IP filters................................................................................547
Downloading the Network Connect installer..........................................548
Network Connect Installation Process Dependencies.............................549
Network Connect Un-installation Process Dependencies .......................551
Using the Network Connect Launcher (NC Launcher) ...................................552
Troubleshooting Network Connect errors.....................................................553
nc.windows.app.23792 .........................................................................553
Version conflict on downgrade ..............................................................554
Part 5
System management
Chapter 22
General system management
557
Licensing: System management availability .................................................557
Task summary: Configuring management capabilities .................................558
Configuring network settings .......................................................................558
Bonding ports ........................................................................................559
Configuring general network settings ....................................................559
Configuring internal and external ports .................................................561
Configuring SFP ports............................................................................563
Configuring the Management Port .........................................................564
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Configuring VLANs ................................................................................565
Configuring virtual ports ........................................................................566
Task Summary: Defining Subnet Destinations Based on Roles ..............568
Configuring static routes for network traffic ..........................................569
Creating ARP caches..............................................................................570
Specifying host names for the IVE to resolve locally ..............................571
Specifying IP filters................................................................................571
Using central management features.............................................................571
Modifying Central Management dashboard graphs................................572
Configuring system utilities ..........................................................................574
Reviewing system data..........................................................................574
Upgrading or downgrading the IVE .......................................................575
Setting system options ..........................................................................575
Downloading application installers ........................................................577
Configuring licensing, security, and NCP......................................................580
Entering or upgrading IVE licenses ........................................................580
Activating and deactivating emergency mode .......................................586
Setting security options .........................................................................587
Configuring NCP and JCP.......................................................................589
Installing a Juniper software service package.........................................590
Configuring and using the Management Port ...............................................591
Configuring Management Port network settings ....................................592
Adding static routes to the management route table .............................593
Assigning certificate to Management Port..............................................593
Controlling administrator sign-in access ................................................594
Signing in over the Management Port....................................................595
Setting role-mapping rules using custom expressions............................595
Troubleshooting the Management Port..................................................596
Using the Management Port on a cluster ...............................................597
Importing configurations to a system with the Management Port enabled ..
597
Chapter 23
Certificates
599
Licensing: Certificate availability ..................................................................600
Using device certificates...............................................................................600
Importing certificates into the IVE .........................................................601
Downloading a device certificate from the IVE ......................................603
Creating a certificate signing request (CSR) for a new certificate ...........604
Using intermediate server CA certificates ..............................................605
Using multiple IVE device certificates ....................................................605
Using trusted client CAs ...............................................................................607
Enabling trusted client CAs....................................................................608
Enabling client CA hierarchies ...............................................................614
Enabling CRLs .......................................................................................615
Enabling OCSP ......................................................................................619
Using trusted server CAs ..............................................................................621
Uploading trusted server CA certificates ................................................621
Renewing a trusted server CA certificate ...............................................622
Deleting a trusted server CA certificate..................................................622
Viewing trusted server CA certificate details ..........................................623
Using code-signing certificates .....................................................................623
Additional considerations for SUN JVM users.........................................625
Task Summary: Configuring the IVE to sign or re-sign java applets .......625
Importing a code-signing certificate.......................................................626
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Chapter 24
System archiving
627
Licensing: System archiving availability .......................................................627
Archiving IVE binary configuration files .......................................................628
Creating local backups of IVE configuration files ..........................................630
Importing and exporting IVE configuration files...........................................632
Exporting a system configuration file ....................................................632
Importing a system configuration file ....................................................633
Exporting local user accounts or resource policies .................................634
Importing local user accounts or resource policies.................................635
Importing and exporting XML configuration files .........................................635
Creating and modifying XML instances .................................................637
Referential integrity constraints.............................................................641
Mapping the XML instance to UI components .......................................642
XML import modes................................................................................643
Downloading the schema file ................................................................645
Strategies for working with XML instances ............................................646
XML Import/Export use cases ................................................................650
Importing to a system with the Management Port.................................656
Pushing configurations from one IVE to another ..........................................656
Defining the target IVEs.........................................................................657
Pushing the configuration settings .........................................................658
Chapter 25
Logging and monitoring
663
Licensing: Logging and monitoring availability.............................................663
Logging and Monitoring overview ................................................................664
Log file severity levels............................................................................665
Custom filter log files.............................................................................666
Dynamic log filters ................................................................................666
Viewing and deleting user sessions........................................................666
Configuring the Log Monitoring features ......................................................668
Configuring events, user access, admin access, IDP sensor, and NC packet logs
668
Creating, resetting, or saving a dynamic log query ................................669
Specifying which events to save in the log file .......................................670
Creating, editing, or deleting log filters ..................................................672
Creating custom filters and formats for your log files ............................672
Monitoring the IVE as an SNMP agent..........................................................673
Viewing system statistics .............................................................................679
Enabling client-side logs...............................................................................679
Enabling client-side logging and global options......................................680
Enabling client-side log uploads.............................................................681
Viewing uploaded client-side logs ..........................................................682
Viewing general status .................................................................................683
Viewing system capacity utilization .......................................................683
Specifying time range and data to display in graphs..............................684
Configuring graph appearance...............................................................684
Viewing critical system events...............................................................685
Downloading the current service package .............................................685
Editing the system date and time ..........................................................685
Monitoring active users ................................................................................686
Viewing and cancelling scheduled meetings.................................................687
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Chapter 26
Troubleshooting
689
Licensing: Troubleshooting availability.........................................................689
Simulating or tracking events.......................................................................690
Simulating events that cause a problem ................................................690
Tracking events using policy tracing ......................................................692
Recording sessions.......................................................................................694
Creating snapshots of the IVE system state ..................................................695
Creating TCP dump files...............................................................................696
Testing IVE network connectivity.................................................................697
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) ........................................................697
Ping .......................................................................................................697
Traceroute .............................................................................................698
NSlookup ...............................................................................................698
Running debugging tools remotely...............................................................699
Creating debugging logs ...............................................................................699
Monitoring cluster nodes..............................................................................700
Configuring group communication monitoring on a cluster .........................701
Configuring network connectivity monitoring on a cluster ...........................702
Chapter 27
Clustering
705
Licensing: Clustering availability ..................................................................706
Task summary: Deploying a cluster .............................................................706
Creating and configuring a cluster................................................................707
Defining and initializing a cluster...........................................................708
Joining an existing cluster......................................................................710
Configuring cluster properties ......................................................................712
Deploying two nodes in an Active/Passive cluster..................................712
Deploying two or more units in an Active/Active cluster........................714
Synchronizing the cluster state ..............................................................715
Configuring cluster properties................................................................718
Managing and configuring clusters...............................................................720
Adding multiple cluster nodes ...............................................................720
Managing network settings for cluster nodes.........................................721
Upgrading clustered nodes ....................................................................721
Upgrading the cluster service package ...................................................722
Deleting a cluster...................................................................................723
Restarting or rebooting clustered nodes ................................................723
Admin console procedures ....................................................................724
Monitoring clusters ................................................................................725
Troubleshooting clusters........................................................................726
Serial console procedures.............................................................................728
Chapter 28
Delegating administrator roles
733
Licensing: Delegated administration role availability....................................734
Creating and configuring administrator roles ...............................................734
Creating administrator roles ..................................................................735
Modifying administrator roles................................................................735
Deleting administrator roles ..................................................................736
Specifying management tasks to delegate....................................................736
Delegating system management tasks...................................................737
Delegating user and role management ..................................................737
Delegating user realm management ......................................................738
Delegating administrative management ................................................739
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Delegating resource policy management ...............................................741
Delegating resource profile management ..............................................742
Defining general system administrator role settings ....................................743
Defining default options for administrator roles ....................................743
Managing general role settings and options ...........................................743
Specifying access management options for the role ..............................744
Specifying general session options ........................................................744
Specifying UI options.............................................................................745
Delegating access to IVS systems ..........................................................746
Chapter 29
Instant Virtual System (IVS)
747
Licensing: IVS availability.............................................................................748
Deploying an IVS .........................................................................................748
Virtualized IVE architecture ...................................................................750
Signing in to the root system or the IVS .......................................................751
Signing-in using the sign-in URL prefix ..................................................751
Signing-in over virtual ports...................................................................753
Signing-in over a VLAN interface ...........................................................754
Navigating to the IVS .............................................................................754
Determining the subscriber profile...............................................................754
IVS Configuration Worksheet.................................................................754
Administering the root system ..............................................................756
Configuring the root administrator ........................................................757
Provisioning an IVS ......................................................................................757
Understanding the provisioning process ......................................................758
Configuring sign-in ports ..............................................................................760
Configuring the external port.................................................................760
Configuring a virtual port for sign-in on the external port ......................761
Configuring a virtual port for sign-in on the internal port.......................761
Configuring a Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN).........................................762
Configuring VLANs on the virtualized IVE..............................................763
Adding static routes to the VLAN route table .........................................764
Deleting a VLAN ....................................................................................765
Loading the certificates server......................................................................766
Creating a virtual system (IVS profile) ..........................................................766
Creating a new IVS profile .....................................................................766
Signing in directly to the IVS as an IVS administrator...................................768
Configuring role-based source IP aliasing .....................................................769
Associating roles with VLANs and the source IP address........................770
Configuring virtual ports for a VLAN ......................................................770
Associating roles with source IP addresses in an IVS .............................770
Configuring policy routing rules on the IVS ..................................................771
Routing Rules ........................................................................................772
Overlapping IP address spaces ..............................................................773
Define Resource policies........................................................................773
Clustering a virtualized IVE ..........................................................................773
Configuring DNS for the IVS.........................................................................774
Accessing a DNS server on the MSP network.........................................775
Accessing a DNS server on a subscriber company intranet....................775
Configuring Network Connect for use on a virtualized IVE ...........................777
Configuring the Network Connect connection profile ............................777
Configuring Network Connect on backend routers ................................777
Configuring a centralized DHCP server ........................................................780
Configuring authentication servers...............................................................782
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Rules governing access to authentication servers ..................................782
Configuring authentication on a RADIUS server.....................................783
Configuring authentication on Active Directory .....................................783
Delegating administrative access to IVS systems..........................................784
Accessing standalone installers ....................................................................784
Performing export and import of IVS configuration files ..............................785
Exporting and importing the root system configuration ........................785
Monitoring subscribers.................................................................................787
Suspending subscriber access to the IVS................................................787
Troubleshooting VLANs................................................................................788
Performing TCPDump on a VLAN..........................................................788
Using commands on a VLAN (Ping, traceroute, NSLookup, ARP) ...........789
IVS use cases................................................................................................789
Policy routing rules resolution use case for IVS......................................789
Configuring a global authentication server for multiple subscribers .......795
Configuring a DNS/WINS server IP address per subscriber ....................795
Configuring access to Web applications and Web browsing for each
subscriber .......................................................................................796
Configuring file browsing access for each subscriber .............................797
Setting up multiple subnet IP addresses for a subscriber’s end-users.....798
Configuring multiple IVS systems to allow access to shared server........799
Chapter 30
IVE and IDP Interoperability
801
Licensing: IDP availability ............................................................................802
Deployment scenarios .................................................................................802
Configuring the IVE to Interoperate with an IDP ..........................................803
Configuring IDP connections .................................................................803
Identifying and managing quarantined users manually .........................807
Part 6
System services
Chapter 31
IVE serial console
811
Licensing: Serial console availability.............................................................811
Connecting to an IVE appliance’s serial console...........................................811
Rolling back to a previous system state........................................................812
Rolling back to a previous system state through the admin console ......813
Rolling back to a previous system state through the serial console ........813
Resetting an IVE appliance to the factory setting .........................................814
Performing common recovery tasks ............................................................817
Chapter 32
Customizable admin and end-user UIs
819
Licensing: Customizable UI availability ........................................................819
Customizable admin console elements overview .........................................819
Customizable end-user interface elements overview....................................821
Chapter 33
Secure Access 6000
823
Standard hardware ......................................................................................823
Secure Access 6000 field-replaceable units ..................................................824
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Chapter 34
Secure Access FIPS
827
Licensing: Secure Access FIPS availability ....................................................827
Secure Access FIPS execution ......................................................................828
Creating administrator cards........................................................................829
Administrator card precautions .............................................................830
Deploying a cluster in an Secure Access FIPS environment..........................830
Creating a new security world......................................................................832
Creating a security world on a stand-alone IVE......................................833
Creating a security world in a clustered environment ............................834
Replacing administrator cards ...............................................................834
Recovering an archived security world.........................................................835
Importing a security world into a stand-alone IVE............................... 836
Importing a security world into a cluster ...............................................837
Chapter 35
Compression
839
Licensing: Compression availability .............................................................839
Compression execution................................................................................839
Supported data types ...................................................................................840
Enabling compression at the system level....................................................841
Creating compression resource profiles and policies ....................................842
Chapter 36
Multi-language support
843
Licensing: Multi-language support availability ..............................................844
Encoding files ..............................................................................................844
Localizing the user interface.........................................................................844
Localizing custom sign-in and system pages ................................................845
Chapter 37
Handheld devices and PDAs
847
Licensing: Handheld and PDA support availability .......................................848
Task summary: Configuring the IVE for PDAs and handhelds ......................848
Defining client types ....................................................................................849
Enabling WSAM on PDAs.............................................................................851
Part 7
Supplemental information
Appendix A
Writing custom expressions
855
Licensing: Custom expressions availability...................................................855
Custom expressions .....................................................................................855
Wildcard matching ................................................................................859
DN variables and functions....................................................................859
System variables and examples ...................................................................860
Using system variables in realms, roles, and resource policies.....................869
Using multi-valued attributes .................................................................870
Specifying fetch attributes in a realm ....................................................871
Specifying the homeDirectory attribute for LDAP ..................................872
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About This Guide
This guide provides the information you need to understand, configure, and
maintain a Juniper Networks Instant Virtual Extranet (IVE) appliance, including:
„
Overview material to familiarize yourself with Secure Access products and the
underlying access management system
„
Overview material describing baseline and advanced features, as well as
upgrade options
„
Instructions for configuring and managing your IVE appliance or cluster
Audience
This guide is for the system administrator responsible for configuring Secure Access
and Secure Access FIPS products.
Where to find additional information
Administrator and developer documentation
„
To download a PDF version of this administration guide, go to the IVE OS
Product Documentation page of the Juniper Networks Customer Support Center.
„
For information about the changes that Secure Access clients make to client
computers, including installed files and registry changes, and for information
about the rights required to install and run Secure Access clients, refer to the
Client-side Changes Guide.
„
For information on how to develop Web applications that are compliant with
the IVE Content Intermediation Engine, refer to the Content Intermediation
Engine Best Practices Guide.
„
For information on how to personalize the look-and-feel of the preauthentication, password management, and Secure Meeting pages that the IVE
displays to end-users and administrators, refer to the Custom Sign-In Pages
Solution Guide.
Audience
„
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Juniper Networks Secure Access Administration Guide
„
For information on how to write and implement solutions through Host
Checker client and server APIs, and for information about how to check for
specific third-party solutions through Host Checker, refer to the J.E.D.I. Solution
Guide.
Error Message Documentation
„
For information about error messages that Network Connect and WSAM
displays to end-users, refer to Network Connect and WSAM Error Messages.
„
For information about error messages that Secure Meeting displays to
administrators end-users, refer to Secure Meeting Error Messages.
Hardware documentation
„
For help during installation, refer to the Quick Start Guide that comes with the
product.
„
For Secure Access and Secure Access FIPS safety information, refer to the
Juniper Networks Security Products Safety Guide.
„
For information on how to install hard disks, power supplies, and cooling fans
on Secure Access 6000 appliances, refer to the Secure Access 6000 Field
Replaceable Units Guide.
„
To download the latest build of the Secure Access and Secure Access FIPS OS
and release notes, go to the IVE OS Software page of the Juniper Networks
Customer Support Center.
Product downloads
Conventions
Table 1 defines notice icons used in this guide, and Table 2 defines text
conventions used throughout the book.
Table 1: Notice icons
Icon
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Conventions
Meaning
Description
Informational note
Indicates important features or instructions.
Caution
Indicates that you may risk losing data or damaging your
hardware.
Warning
Alerts you to the risk of personal injury.
About This Guide
Table 2: Text conventions (except for command syntax)
Convention
Description
Examples
Bold typeface
Indicates buttons, field names, dialog
box names, and other user interface
elements.
Use the Scheduling and Appointment tabs to
schedule a meeting.
Plain sans serif typeface
Represents:
Examples:
„ Code, commands, and keywords
„ Code:
„ URLs, file names, and directories
certAttr.OU = 'Retail Products Group'
„ URL:
Download the JRE application from:
http://java.sun.com/j2se/
Italics
Identifies:
Examples:
„ Terms defined in text
„ Defined term:
„ Variable elements
„ Book names
An RDP client is a Windows component that
enables a connection between a Windows
server and a user’s machine.
Variable element:
Use settings in the Users > User Roles >
Select Role > Terminal Services page to create
a terminal emulation session.
„ Book name:
See the IVE Supported Platforms document.
Documentation
Release Notes
Release notes are included with the product software and are available on the Web.
In the Release Notes, you can find the latest information about features, changes,
known problems, and resolved problems. If the information in the Release Notes
differs from the information found in the documentation set, follow the Release
Notes.
Web Access
To view the documentation on the Web, go to:
http://www.juniper.net/techpubs/
Contacting Customer Support
For technical support, contact Juniper Networks at support@juniper.net, or at 1-888314-JTAC (within the United States) or 408-745-9500 (from outside the United
States).
Documentation
„
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„
Contacting Customer Support
Part 1
Getting started
The IVE is a hardened network appliance that provides robust security by
intermediating the data streams that flow between external users and internal
resources. This section contains the following information about beginning to use
and understand the IVE:
„
“Initial Verification and Key Concepts” on page 3
„
“Introduction to the IVE” on page 23
„
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Juniper Networks Secure Access Administration Guide
2
„
Chapter 1
Initial Verification and Key Concepts
This section describes the tasks designed to follow initially installing and
configuring your IVE. The contents in this section assume that you have already
followed the Task Guide in the admin console to update your software image and
generate and apply your Secure Access license key.
Verifying user accessibility
You can easily create a user account in the system authentication server for use in
verifying user accessibility to your IVE. After creating the account through the
admin console, sign in as the user on IVE user sign-in page.
To verify user accessibility:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Auth. Servers.
2. Select System Local.
3. Select the Users tab.
4. Click New.
5. On the New Local User page, enter “testuser1” as the username and a
password, and then click Save Changes. The IVE creates the testuser1 account.
6. In another browser window, enter the machine’s URL to access the user sign-in
page. The URL is in the format: https://a.b.c.d, where a.b.c.d is the machine IP
address you entered in the serial console when you initially configured your
IVE. When prompted with the security alert to proceed without a signed
certificate, click Yes. If the user sign-in page appears, you have successfully
connected to your IVE appliance.
Verifying user accessibility
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Figure 1: User Sign-in Page
7. On the sign-in page, enter the username and password you created for the user
account and then click Sign In to access the IVE home page for users.
Figure 2: User Home Page (default)
8. In the browser Address field, enter the URL to an internal Web server and click
Browse. The IVE opens the Web page in the same browser window, so to
return to the IVE home page, click the center icon in the browsing toolbar that
appears on the target Web page.
4
„
Verifying user accessibility
Chapter 1: Initial Verification and Key Concepts
Figure 3: Example Internal Web Page with Browsing Toolbar
9. On the IVE home page, enter the URL to your external corporate site and click
Browse. The IVE opens the Web page in the same browser window, so use the
browsing toolbar to return to the IVE home page.
10. On the IVE home page, click Browsing > Windows Files to browse available
Windows file shares or Browsing > UNIX/NFS Files to browse available
UNIX/NFS file shares.
After verifying user accessibility, return to the admin console to go through an
introduction of key concepts, as described in “Creating a test scenario to learn IVE
concepts and best practices” on page 5.
Creating a test scenario to learn IVE concepts and best practices
The IVE provides a flexible access management system that makes it easy to
customize a user’s remote access experience through the use of roles, resource
policies, authentication servers, authentication realms, and sign-in policies. To
enable you to quickly begin working with these entities, the IVE ships with system
defaults for each. This section describes these system defaults and shows you how
to create each access management entity by performing the following tasks:
„
“Defining a user role” on page 6
„
“Defining a resource profile” on page 8
„
“Defining an authentication server” on page 10
„
“Defining an authentication realm” on page 13
„
“Defining a sign-in policy” on page 16
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„
“Using the test scenario” on page 19
NOTE: The IVE supports two types of users:
„
Administrators—An administrator is a person who may view or modify IVE
configuration settings. You create the first administrator account through the
serial console.
„
Users—A user is a person who uses the IVE to gain access to corporate
resources as configured by an administrator. You create the first user account
(testuser1) in “Verifying user accessibility” on page 3.
The following test scenario focuses on using the IVE access management elements
to configure access parameters for a user. For information about the system
default settings for administrators, see “Configuring default settings for
administrators” on page 22.
Defining a user role
The IVE is pre-configured with one user role called “Users.” This pre-defined role
enables the Web and file browsing access features, enabling any user mapped to the
Users role to access the Internet, corporate Web servers, and any available Windows
and UNIX/NFS file servers. You can view this role on the Users > User Roles page.
NOTE: After you enable an access feature for a role (on the Users > User Roles >
Role Name page), configure the appropriate corresponding options that are
accessible from the access feature’s configuration tab.
To define a user role:
1. In the admin console, choose Users > User Roles.
2. On the Roles page, click New Role.
3. On the New Role page, enter “Test Role” in the Name field and then click Save
Changes. Wait for the IVE to display the General > Overview page for Test
Role.
4. On the Overview page, select the Web checkbox under Access features and
then click Save Changes.
5. Choose Web > Options.
6. Select the User can type URLs in the IVE browser bar checkbox, and then
click Save Changes.
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Creating a test scenario to learn IVE concepts and best practices
Chapter 1: Initial Verification and Key Concepts
After completing these steps, you have defined a user role. When you create
resource profiles, you can apply them to this role. You can also map users to this
role through role mapping rules defined for an authentication realm.
NOTE: To quickly create a user role that enables Web and file browsing, duplicate
the Users role, and then enable additional access features as desired.
Figure 4: Users > User Roles > New Role page
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Figure 5: Users > User Roles > Test Role > General > Overview
Defining a resource profile
A resource profile is a set of configuration options that contains all of the resource
policies, role assignments, and end-user bookmarks required to provide access to
an individual resource.
Within a resource profile, a resource policy specifies the resources to which the
policy applies (such as URLs, servers, and files) and whether the IVE grants access
to a resource or performs an action. Note that the IVE is pre-configured with two
types of resource policies:
8
„
„
Web Access—The pre-defined Web Access resource policy enables all users to
access the Internet and all corporate Web servers through the IVE. By default,
this resource policy applies to the Users role.
„
Windows Access—The pre-defined Windows Access resource policy enables
all users mapped to the Users role to access all corporate Windows file servers.
By default, this resource policy applies to the Users role.
Creating a test scenario to learn IVE concepts and best practices
Chapter 1: Initial Verification and Key Concepts
NOTE: Delete the default Web Access and Windows Access resource policies if you
are concerned about users having access to all of your Web and file content. You
can access the default Web and file resource policies on the Users > Resource
Policies > Web > Access and Users > Resource Policies > Files > Access >
Windows pages.
To define a resource profile:
1. In the admin console, choose Users > Resource Profiles > Web > Web
Applications/Pages.
2. On the Web Applications Resource Profile page, click New Profile.
3. On the New Web Applications Resource Profile page:
a.
In the Type field, keep the default option (Custom)
b. In the Name field, enter “Test Web Access”
c.
In the Base URL field, enter “http://www.google.com”
d. In the Autopolicy: Web Access Control section, select the checkbox next
to the default policy created by the IVE (http://www.google.com:80/*) and
choose Delete.
e.
In the Autopolicy: Web Access Control section, enter
“http://www.google.com” in the Resource field, select Deny from the
Action list, and click Add.
f.
Click Save and Continue.
4. In the Roles tab:
a.
Select “Test Role” in the Available Roles field and click Add to move it to
the Selected Roles field.
b. Click Save Changes.
The IVE adds “Test Web Access” to the Web Application Resource Policies page
and automatically creates a corresponding bookmark that links to google.com.
After completing these steps, you have configured a Web Access resource profile.
Note that even though the IVE comes with a resource policy that enables access to
all Web resources, users mapped to Test Role are still prohibited from accessing
http://www.google.com. These users are denied access because the autopolicy you
created during the resource profile configuration takes precedence over the default
Web access policy that comes with the IVE.
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Figure 6: Users > Resource Profiles > Web > Web Applications/Pages > New Profile
Defining an authentication server
An authentication server is a database that stores user credentials—username and
password—and typically group and attribute information. When a user signs in to
an IVE, the user specifies an authentication realm, which is associated with an
authentication server. The IVE forwards the user’s credentials to this authentication
server to verify the user’s identity.
The IVE supports the most common authentication servers, including Windows NT
Domain, Active Directory, RADIUS, LDAP, NIS, RSA ACE/Server, SAML Server, and
eTrust SiteMinder, and enables you to create one or more local databases of users
who are authenticated by the IVE. The IVE is pre-configured with one local
authentication server for users called “System Local.” This pre-defined local
authentication server is an IVE database that enables you to quickly create user
accounts for user authentication. This ability provides flexibility for testing
purposes and for providing third-party access by eliminating the need to create
user accounts in an external authentication server.
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Chapter 1: Initial Verification and Key Concepts
You can view the default local authentication server on the Authentication >
Auth. Servers page.
NOTE: The IVE also supports authorization servers. An authorization server (or
directory server) is a database that stores user attribute and group information.
You can configure an authentication realm to use a directory server to retrieve
user attribute or group information for use in role mapping rules and resource
policies.
To define an authentication server:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Auth. Servers.
2. On the Authentication Servers page, choose Local Authentication from the
New list and then click New Server.
3. On the New Local Authentication page, enter “Test Server” in the Name field
and then click Save Changes. Wait for the IVE to notify you that the changes
are saved, after which additional configuration tabs appear.
4. Click the Users tab and then click New.
5. On the New Local User page, enter “testuser2” in the Username field, enter a
password, and then click Save Changes to create the user’s account in the Test
Server authentication server.
After completing these steps, you have created an authentication server that
contains one user account. This user can sign in to an authentication realm that
uses the Test Server authentication server.
NOTE: The admin console provides last access statistics for each user account on
the respective authentication servers pages, on the Users tab under a set of
columns titled Last Sign-in Statistic. The statistics reported include the last
successful sign-in date and time for each user, the user’s IP address, and the agent
or browser type and version.
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Juniper Networks Secure Access Administration Guide
Figure 7: Authentication > Auth. Servers > New Server
Figure 8: Authentication > Auth. Servers > Test Server > Users > New
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Creating a test scenario to learn IVE concepts and best practices
Chapter 1: Initial Verification and Key Concepts
Figure 9: Authentication > Auth. Servers > Test Server > Users
Defining an authentication realm
An authentication realm is a grouping of authentication resources, including:
„
An authentication server, which verifies a user’s identity. The IVE forwards
credentials submitted on a sign-in page to an authentication server.
„
An authentication policy, which specifies realm security requirements that
need to be met before the IVE submits credentials to an authentication server
for verification.
„
A directory server, which is an LDAP server that provides user and group
attribute information to the IVE for use in role mapping rules and resource
policies (optional).
„
Role mapping rules, which are conditions a user must meet in order for the IVE
to map a user to one or more roles. These conditions are based on information
returned by the realm's directory server, the person’s username, or certificate
attributes.
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„
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The IVE is pre-configured with one user realm called “Users.” This pre-defined
realm uses the System Local authentication server, an authentication policy that
requires a minimum password length of four characters, no directory server, and
contains one role mapping rule that maps all users who sign in to the Users realm
to the Users role. The “testuser1” account you create in “Verifying user
accessibility” on page 3 is part of the Users realm, because this account is created
in the System Local authentication server. The “testuser2” account you create in
“Defining an authentication server” on page 10 is not part of the Users realm,
because you create the user account in the new “Test Server” authentication server,
which is not used by the Users realm.
You can view the default user authentication realm on the Users > User Realms page.
To define an authentication realm:
1. In the admin console, choose User Realms.
2. On the User Authentication Realms page, click New.
3. On the New Authentication Realm page:
a.
In the Name field, enter: Test Realm
b. Under Servers, choose “Test Server” from the Authentication list.
c.
Click Save Changes. Wait for the IVE to notify you that the changes are
saved and to display the realm’s configuration tabs.
4. On the Role Mapping tab, click New Rule.
5. On the Role Mapping Rule page:
a.
Under Rule: If username..., enter “testuser2” in the value field.
b. Under ...then assign these roles, select “Test Role” in the Available Roles
field and click Add to move it to the Selected Roles field.
c.
Click Save Changes.
After completing these steps, you have finished creating an authentication realm.
This realm uses Test Server to authenticate users and a role mapping rule to map
“testuser2” to Test Role. Because the Test Web Access resource policy applies to
Test Role, any user mapped to this role cannot access http://www.google.com.
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Creating a test scenario to learn IVE concepts and best practices
Chapter 1: Initial Verification and Key Concepts
Figure 10: Users > User Realms > New Realm
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Juniper Networks Secure Access Administration Guide
Figure 11: Users > User Realms > Test Server > New Rule
Defining a sign-in policy
A sign-in policy is a system rule that specifies:
„
A URL at which a user may sign in to the IVE
„
A sign-in page to display to the user
„
Whether or not the user needs to type or select an authentication realm to
which the IVE submits credentials
„
The authentication realms to which the sign-in policy applies
All Secure Access and Secure Access FIPS IVEs are pre-configured with one sign-in
policy that applies to users: */. This default user sign-in policy (*/) specifies that
when a user enters the URL to the IVE, the IVE displays the default sign-in page for
users and requires the user to select an authentication realm (if more than one
realm exists). The */ sign-in policy is configured to apply to the Users authentication
realm, therefore this sign-in policy does not apply to the authentication realm you
create in “Defining an authentication realm” on page 13.
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Chapter 1: Initial Verification and Key Concepts
You can view the default user sign-in policy on the Authentication >
Authentication > Signing In Policies page. If your IVE has the Secure Meeting
Upgrade license, the */meeting sign-in policy is also listed on this page. This policy
enables you to customize the sign-in page for secure meetings.
The default sign-in policy applies to all users. You can modify the URL to the IVE user
sign-in page by adding to the path, such as “*/employees,” but you cannot create
additional sign-in policies unless you purchase the Advanced license for your IVE.
To define a sign-in policy:
1.
In the admin console, choose Authentication > Signing in > Sign-in Policies.
2. On the Sign-in Policies page, click */.
3. On the */ page:
a.
In the Sign-in URL field, enter “test” after “*/.”
b. Under Authentication realm, select User picks from a list of
authentication realms, and then select “Test Realm” in the Available
Roles field and click Add to move it to the Selected Realms field. (Repeat
this process for the Users role if it is not already in the Selected Realms
field.)
c.
Click Save Changes.
After completing these steps, you have finished modifying the default users sign-in
policy.
Optional:
1. Choose Authentication > Authentication > Signing In Pages, and then click
New Page.
2. On the New Sign-In Page page, enter “Test Sign-in Page” in the Name field,
enter “#FF0000” (red) in the Background color field, and then click Save
Changes.
3. Choose Authentication > Authentication > Signing In Policies, and then
click New URL.
4. On the New Sign-in Policy page, enter “*/test/” in the Name field, select
Default Sign-in Page in the Sign-in Page field, and click Save Changes.
5. Choose Authentication > Authentication > Signing In Policies, and then
click */test/ under User URLs.
6. On the */test/ page, choose “Test Sign-in Page” from the Sign-in page list and
then click Save Changes.
After completing these optional steps, you have finished defining a new sign-in
page that is associated with the “*/test/” sign-in policy.
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Juniper Networks Secure Access Administration Guide
Figure 12: Authentication > Authentication > Signing In Policies > */
Figure 13: Authentication > Authentication > Signing In Policies > */test/ — Using New
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Creating a test scenario to learn IVE concepts and best practices
Chapter 1: Initial Verification and Key Concepts
Sign-in Page
Using the test scenario
The test scenario enables you to:
„
Access the user console using the modified default sign-in policy
„
Sign in as the user created in Test Server to the Test Realm
„
Test your Web browsing capabilities, which are dependent upon the proper
configuration of Test Role and Test Web Access
To use the test scenario:
1. In a browser, enter the machine’s URL followed by “/test” to access the user
sign-in page. The URL is in the format: https://a.b.c.d/test, where a.b.c.d is the
machine IP address you entered in the serial console during initial
configuration. When prompted with the security alert to proceed without a
signed certificate, click Yes. If the user sign-in page appears, you have
successfully connected to your IVE appliance.
Creating a test scenario to learn IVE concepts and best practices
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Juniper Networks Secure Access Administration Guide
Figure 14: User Sign-in Page
NOTE: If you performed the optional configuration steps in “Defining a sign-in
policy” on page 16, the header color is red.
2. On the sign-in page, enter the username and password you created for the user
account in Test Server, specify “Test Realm” in the Realm field, and then click
Sign In to access the IVE home page for users.
The IVE forwards the credentials to Test Realm, which is configured to use Test
Server. Upon successful verification by this authentication server, the IVE
processes the role mapping rule defined for Test Realm, which maps “testuser2”
to Test Role. Test Role enables Web browsing for users.
Figure 15: User Home Page
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Creating a test scenario to learn IVE concepts and best practices
Chapter 1: Initial Verification and Key Concepts
3. In the browser Address field, enter the URL to your corporate Web site and
click Browse. The IVE opens the Web page in the same browser window, so to
return to the IVE home page, click the center icon in the browsing toolbar that
appears on the target Web page.
4. On the IVE home page, enter “www.google.com” and click Browse. The IVE
displays an error message, because the Test Web Access resource policy denies
access to this site for users mapped to Test Role.
Figure 16: Example Error Message for Denied Resource
5. Return to the IVE home page, click Sign Out, and then return to the user sign-in
page.
6. Enter the credentials for testuser1, specify the Users realm, and then click Sign
In.
7. On the IVE home page, enter “www.google.com” and click Browse. The IVE
opens the Web page in the same browser window.
The test scenario demonstrates the basic IVE access management mechanisms.
You can create very sophisticated role mapping rules and resource policies that
control user access depending on factors such as a realm’s authentication policy, a
user’s group membership, and other variables. To learn more about IVE access
management, we recommend that you take a few minutes to review the online
Help to familiarize yourself with its contents.
NOTE:
„
When you configure the IVE for your enterprise, we recommend that you
perform user access configuration in the order presented in this section.
„
For detailed configuration information, see the instructions in other sections of
this guide.
„
Before you make your IVE available from external locations, we recommend
that you import a signed digital certificate from a trusted certificate authority
(CA).
Creating a test scenario to learn IVE concepts and best practices
„
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Juniper Networks Secure Access Administration Guide
Configuring default settings for administrators
Just like for users, the IVE provides default settings that enable you to quickly
configure accounts for administrators. This list summarizes the system default
settings for administrators:
„
Administrator roles
„
.Administrators — This built-in role permits administrators to manage all
aspects of the IVE. The administrator user you create in the serial console
is mapped to this role.
„
.Read-Only Administrators — This built-in role permits users mapped to
the role to view (but not configure) all IVE settings. You need to map
administrators to this role if you want to restrict their access.
NOTE: You need the Advanced license in order to create additional administrator
roles.
22
„
„
Administrators local authentication server — The Administrators
authentication server is an IVE database that stores administrator accounts.
You create the first administrator account in this server through the serial
console. (The IVE adds all administrator accounts created through the serial
console to this server.) You cannot delete this local server.
„
Admin Users authentication realm — The Admin Users authentication realm
uses the default Administrators authentication server, an authentication policy
that requires a minimum password length of four characters, no directory
server, and contains one role mapping rule that maps all users who sign in to
the Admin Users realm to the .Administrators role. The administrator account
you create in the serial console is part of the Admin Users realm.
„
*/admin sign-in policy — The default administrator sign-in policy (*/admin)
specifies that when a user enters the URL to the IVE followed by “/admin,” the
IVE displays the default sign-in page for administrators. This policy also
requires the administrator to select an authentication realm (if more than one
realm exists). The */admin sign-in policy is configured to apply to the Admin
Users authentication realm, therefore this sign-in policy applies to the
administrator account you create through the serial console.
Configuring default settings for administrators
Chapter 2
Introduction to the IVE
The Juniper Networks Instant Virtual Extranet (IVE) platform serves as the
underlying hardware and software for the Juniper Networks SSL VPN appliances.
These products enable you to give employees, partners, and customers secure and
controlled access to your corporate data and applications including file servers,
Web servers, native messaging and email clients, hosted servers, and more from
outside your trusted network using just a Web browser.
This section contains the following information about the IVE:
„
“What is the IVE?” on page 23
„
“What can I do with the IVE?” on page 25
„
“How do I start configuring the IVE?” on page 31
What is the IVE?
The IVE is a hardened network operating system that acts as the platform for all
Juniper Networks Secure Access products. These appliances provide a range of
enterprise-class scalability, high availability, and security features that extend
secure, remote access to network resources.
The IVE provides robust security by intermediating the data that flows between
external users and your company’s internal resources. Users gain authenticated
access to authorized resources via an extranet session hosted by the appliance.
During intermediation, the IVE receives secure requests from the external,
authenticated users and then makes requests to the internal resources on behalf of
those users. By intermediating content in this way, the IVE eliminates the need to
deploy extranet toolkits in a traditional DMZ or provision a remote access VPN for
employees.
To access the intuitive IVE home page, your employees, partners, and customers
need only a Web browser that supports SSL and an Internet connection. This page
provides the window from which your users can securely browse Web or file
servers, use HTML-enabled enterprise applications, start the client/server
application proxy, begin a Windows, Citrix, or Telnet/SSH terminal session, access
corporate email servers, start a secured layer three tunnel, or schedule or attend a
secure online meeting.1
1. These capabilities depend upon the Juniper Networks Secure Access product and upgrade options you have
purchased.
What is the IVE?
„
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Juniper Networks Secure Access Administration Guide
Figure 17: The IVE working within a LAN
You can configure a Juniper Networks Secure Access appliance to:
„
Provide users with secure access to a variety of resources. The IVE
intermediates access to multiple types of applications and resources such as
Web-based enterprise applications, Java applications, file shares, terminal
hosts, and other client/server applications such as Microsoft Outlook, Lotus
Notes, the Citrix ICA Client, and pcAnywhere. Additionally, administrators can
provision an access method that allows full Layer 3 connectivity, providing the
same level of access that a user would get if they were on the corporate LAN.
„
Fine-tune user access to the appliance, resource types, or individual resources
based on factors such as group membership, source IP address, certificate
attributes, and endpoint security status. For instance, you can use dual-factor
authentication and client-side digital certificates to authenticate users to the IVE
and use LDAP group membership to authorize users’ ability to access individual
applications.
„
Assess the security status of your users’ computers by checking for endpoint
defense tools such as current antivirus software, firewalls, and security patches.
You can then allow or deny users access to the appliance, resource types, or
individual resources based on the computer’s security status.
The IVE acts as a secure, application-layer gateway intermediating all requests
between the public Internet and internal corporate resources. All requests that
enter the IVE are already encrypted by the end user's browser, using SSL/HTTPS
128-bit or 168-bit encryption—unencrypted requests are dropped. Since the IVE
provides a robust security layer between the public Internet and internal resources,
administrators do not need to constantly manage security policies and patch
security vulnerabilities for numerous different application and Web servers
deployed in the public-facing DMZ.
24
„
What is the IVE?
Chapter 2: Introduction to the IVE
What can I do with the IVE?
The IVE offers a wide variety of features that you can use to secure your company’s
resources and easily maintain your environment. The following sections answer
questions you may have about the IVE’s security and management capabilities:
„
“Can I use the IVE to secure traffic to all of my company’s applications, servers,
and Web pages?” on page 25
„
“Can I use my existing servers to authenticate IVE users?” on page 27
„
“Can I fine-tune access to the IVE and the resources it intermediates?” on
page 27
„
“Can I create a seamless integration between the IVE and the resources it
intermediates?” on page 28
„
“Can I use the IVE to protect against infected computers and other security
concerns?” on page 29
„
“Can I ensure redundancy in my IVE environment?” on page 29
„
“Can I make the IVE interface match my company’s look-and-feel?” on page 29
„
“Can I enable users on a variety of computers and devices to use the IVE?” on
page 30
„
“Can I provide secure access for my international users?” on page 30
Can I use the IVE to secure traffic to all of my company’s applications, servers, and Web
pages?
The IVE enables you to secure access to a wide variety of applications, servers, and
other resources through its remote access mechanisms. Once you have chosen
which resource you want to secure, you can then choose the appropriate access
mechanism.
For instance, if you want to secure access to Microsoft Outlook, you can use the
Secure Application Manager (SAM). The Secure Application Manager intermediates
traffic to client/server applications including Microsoft Outlook, Lotus Notes, and
Citrix. Or, if you want to secure access to your company Intranet, you can use the
Web rewriting feature. This feature uses the IVE’s Content Intermediation Engine to
intermediate traffic to Web-based applications and Web pages.
What can I do with the IVE?
„
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Juniper Networks Secure Access Administration Guide
The IVE includes remote access mechanisms that intermediate the following types
of traffic:
26
„
What can I do with the IVE?
„
Web-based traffic, including Web pages and Web-based applications: Use
the Web rewriting feature to intermediate this type of content. The Web
rewriting feature includes templates that enable you to easily configure access
to applications such as Citrix, OWA, Lotus iNotes, and Sharepoint. In addition,
you can use the Web rewriting custom configuration option to intermediate
traffic from a wide variety of additional Web-based applications and Web
pages, including custom-built Web applications.
„
Java applets, including Web applications that use Java applets: Use the
hosted Java applets feature to intermediate this type of content. This feature
enables you to host Java applets and the HTML pages that they reference
directly on the IVE rather than maintaining a separate Java server.
„
File traffic, including file servers and directories: Use the file rewriting
feature to intermediate and dynamically “webify” access to file shares. The file
rewriting feature enables you to secure traffic to a variety of Windows and Unix
based servers, directories, and file shares.
„
Client/server applications: Use the Secure Application Manager feature to
intermediate this type of content. The Secure Application Manager comes in
two varieties (Windows and Java versions, or WSAM and JSAM). The WSAM
and JSAM features include templates that enable you to easily configure access
to applications such as Lotus Notes, Microsoft Outlook, NetBIOS file browsing,
and Citrix. In addition, you can use the WSAM and JSAM custom configuration
options to intermediate traffic from a wide variety of additional client/server
applications and destination networks.
„
Telnet and SSH terminal emulation sessions: Use the Telnet/SSH feature to
intermediate this type of content. This feature enables you to easily configure
access to a variety of networked devices that utilize terminal sessions including
UNIX servers, networking devices, and other legacy applications.
„
Windows Terminal Servers and Citrix server terminal emulation sessions:
Use the Terminal Services feature to intermediate this type of content. This
feature enables you to easily configure access to Windows Terminal Servers,
Citrix MetaFrame Servers, and Citrix Presentation Servers (formerly known as
Nfuse servers). You can also use this feature to deliver the terminal services
clients directly from the IVE, eliminating the need to use another Web server to
host the clients.
„
Email clients based on the IMAP4, POP3, and SMTP protocols: Use the email
client feature to intermediate this type of content. This feature enables you to
easily configure access to any corporate mail server based on the IMAP4,
POP3, and SMTP protocols, such as Microsoft Exchange Server and Lotus Notes
Mail servers.
„
All network traffic: Use the Network Connect feature to create a secure, layer
3 tunnel over the SSL connection, allowing access to any type of application
available on the corporate network. This feature enables you to easily connect
remote users into your network by tunneling network traffic over port 443,
enabling users full access to all of your network resources without configuring
access to individual servers, applications, and resources.
Chapter 2: Introduction to the IVE
For more information about securing traffic using the IVE remote access
mechanisms, see “Remote access” on page 279.
Can I use my existing servers to authenticate IVE users?
You can easily configure the IVE to use your company’s existing servers to
authenticate your end-users—Users do not need to learn a new username and
password to access the IVE. The IVE supports integration with LDAP, RADIUS, NIS,
Windows NT Domain, Active Directory, eTrust SiteMinder, SAML, and RSA
ACE/Servers.
Or, if you do not want to use one of these standard servers, you can store
usernames and credentials directly on the IVE and use the IVE itself as an
authentication server. In addition, you can choose to authenticate users based on
attributes contained in authentication assertions generated by SAML authorities or
client-side certificates. Or, if you do not want to require your users to sign into the
IVE, you can use the IVE anonymous authentication server, which allows users to
access the IVE without providing a username or password.
For more information about protecting access to the IVE using authentication
servers, see “Authentication and directory servers” on page 91.
Can I fine-tune access to the IVE and the resources it intermediates?
In addition to using authentication servers to control access to the IVE, you can
control access to the IVE and the resources it intermediates using a variety of
additional client-side checks. The IVE enables you to create a multi-layered
approach to protect the IVE and your resources:
1. First, you can perform pre-authentication checks that control user access to the
IVE sign-in page. For instance, you might configure the IVE to check whether or
not the user’s computer is running a particular version of Norton Antivirus. If it
is not running, you can determine that the user’s computer is unsecure and
disable access to the IVE sign-in page until the user has updated the computer’s
antivirus software.
2. Once a user has successfully accessed the IVE sign-in page, you can perform
realm-level checks to determine whether he can access the IVE end-user home
page. The most common realm-level check is performed by an authentication
server. (The server determines whether the user enters a valid username and
password.) You can perform other types of realm-level checks, however, such
as checking that the user’s IP address is in your network or that the user is
using the Web browser type that you specify.
If a user passes the realm-level checks that you specify, he can access the IVE
end-user home page. Otherwise, the IVE does not enable him to sign in, or the
IVE displays a “stripped down” version of the IVE home page that you create.
Generally, this stripped down version contains significantly less functionality
than is available to your standard users because the user has not passed all of
your authentication criteria. The IVE provides extremely flexible policy
definitions, enabling you to dynamically alter end-user resource access based
on corporate security policies.
What can I do with the IVE?
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Juniper Networks Secure Access Administration Guide
3. After the IVE successfully assigns a user to a realm, the appliance maps him to
a role based on your selection criteria. A role specifies which access
mechanisms a selected group of users can access. It also controls session and
UI options for that group of users. You can use a wide variety of criteria to map
users to roles. For instance, you can map users to different roles based on
endpoint security checks or on attributes obtained from an LDAP server or
client-side certificate.
4. In most cases, a user’s role assignments control which individual resources he
can access. For instance, you might configure access to your company’s
Intranet page using a Web resource profile and then specify that all members
of the “Employees” role can access that resource.
However, you can choose to further fine-tune access to individual resources.
For instance, you may enable members of the “Employees” role to access your
company’s Intranet (as described above), but add a resource policy detailed
rule that requires users to meet additional criteria in order to access the
resource. For example, you may require users to be members of the
“Employees” role and to sign into the IVE during business hours in order to
access your company Intranet.
For more information about fine-tuning access to the IVE and the resources it
intermediates, see “Access management framework” on page 33.
Can I create a seamless integration between the IVE and the resources it intermediates?
In a typical IVE configuration, you could add bookmarks directly to the IVE enduser home page. These bookmarks are links to the resources that you configure the
IVE to intermediate. Adding these bookmarks enables users to sign into a single
place (the IVE) and find a consolidated list of all of the resources available to them.
Within this typical configuration, you can streamline the integration between the
IVE and the intermediated resources by enabling single sign-on (SSO). SSO is a
process that allows pre-authenticated IVE users to access other applications or
resources that are protected by another access management system without having
to re-enter their credentials. During IVE configuration, you can enable SSO by
specifying user credentials that you want the IVE to pass to the intermediated
resources. For more information, see “Single sign-on” on page 191.
Or, if you do not want to centralize user resources on the IVE end-user home page,
you could create links to the IVE-intermediated resources from another Web page.
For instance, you can configure bookmarks on the IVE, and then add links to those
bookmarks from your company’s Intranet. Your users can then sign into your
company Intranet and click the links there to access the intermediated resources
without going through the IVE home page. As with standard IVE bookmarks, you
can enable SSO for these external links.
28
„
What can I do with the IVE?
Chapter 2: Introduction to the IVE
Can I use the IVE to protect against infected computers and other security concerns?
The IVE enables you to protect against viruses, attacks, and other security concerns
using the Host Checker feature. Host Checker performs security checks on the
clients that connect to the IVE. For instance, you can use Host Checker verify that
end-user systems contain up-to-date antivirus software, firewalls, critical software
hotfixes, and other applications that protect your users’ computers. You can then
enable or deny users access to the IVE sign-in pages, realms, roles, and resources
based on the results that Host Checker returns. Or, you can display remediation
instructions to users so they can bring their computers into compliance.
You can also use Host Checker to create a protected workspace on clients running
Windows 2000 or Windows XP. Through Host Checker, you can enable the Secure
Virtual Workspace (SVW) feature which creates a protected workspace on the client
desktop, ensuring that any end-user signing in to your intranet must perform all
interactions within a completely protected environment. Secure Virtual Workspace
encrypts information that applications write to disk or the registry and then
destroys all information pertaining to itself or the IVE session when the session is
complete.
You can also secure your network from hostile outside intrusion by integrating your
IVE with a Juniper Networks Intrusion Detection and Prevention (IDP) Sensor. You
can use IDP devices to detect and block most network worms based on software
vulnerabilities, non-file-based Trojan Horses, the effects of Spyware, Adware, and
Key Loggers, many types of malware, and zero day attacks through the use of
anomaly detection.
For more information about Host Checker and other native IVE endpoint defense
mechanisms, see “Endpoint defense” on page 221. For more information about
integrating the IVE with IDP, see “IVE and IDP Interoperability” on page 801.
Can I ensure redundancy in my IVE environment?
You can ensure redundancy in your IVE environment using the IVE clustering
feature. With this feature, you can deploy two or more appliances as a cluster,
ensuring no user downtime in the rare event of failure and stateful peering that
synchronizes user settings, system settings, and user session data.
These appliances support Active/Passive or Active/Active configurations across a
LAN or a WAN. In Active/Passive mode, one IVE actively serves user requests while
the other IVE runs passively in the background to synchronize state data. If the
active IVE goes off-line, the standby IVE automatically starts servicing user
requests. In Active/Active mode, all the machines in the cluster actively handle user
requests sent by an external load balancer or Round-Robin DNS. The load balancer
hosts the cluster VIP and routes user requests to an IVE defined in its cluster group
based on source-IP routing. If an IVE goes off-line, the load balancer adjusts the
load on the active IVEs.
Can I make the IVE interface match my company’s look-and-feel?
The IVE enables you to customize a variety of elements in the end-user interface.
Using these customization features, you can update the look-and-feel of the IVE
end-user console so it will look like one of your standard company Web pages or
applications.
What can I do with the IVE?
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Juniper Networks Secure Access Administration Guide
For instance, you can easily customize the headers, background colors, and logos
that the IVE displays in the IVE sign-in page and end-user console to match your
company’s style. You can also easily customize the order in which the IVE displays
bookmarks and the help system that the IVE displays to users.
Or, if you do not want to display the IVE end-user home page to users (either in
standard or customized form), you can choose to redirect users to a different page
(such as your company Intranet) when users first sign into the IVE console. If you
choose to use this option, you may want to add links to your IVE bookmarks on the
new page, as explained in “Can I create a seamless integration between the IVE
and the resources it intermediates?” on page 28.
If you want to further customize the IVE sign-in page, you can use the IVE’s custom
sign-in pages feature. Unlike the standard customization options that you can
configure through the IVE administration console, the custom sign-in pages feature
does not limit the number of customizations you can make to your pages. Using
this feature, you can use an HTML editor to develop a sign-in page that exactly
matches your specifications.
For more information about customizing the look-and-feel of the IVE, see
“Customizable admin and end-user UIs” on page 819.
Can I enable users on a variety of computers and devices to use the IVE?
In addition to allowing users to access the IVE from standard workstations and
kiosks running Windows, Macintosh, and Linux operating systems, the IVE also
allows end-users to access the IVE from connected PDAs, handhelds and smart
phones such as i-mode and Pocket PC. When a user connects from a PDA or
handheld device, the IVE determines which IVE pages and functionality to display
based on settings that you configure.
For more information about specifying which pages the IVE displays to different
devices, see the IVE Supported Platforms Document available on the IVE OS
Software page of the Juniper Networks Customer Support Center.
For more information about the exact operating systems, PDAs, and handheld
devices that the IVE supports, see “Handheld devices and PDAs” on page 847.
Can I provide secure access for my international users?
The IVE supports English (US), French, German, Spanish, Simplified Chinese,
Traditional Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. When your users sign into the IVE, the
IVE automatically detects the correct language to display based on the user’s Web
browser setting. Or, you can use end-user localization and custom sign-in pages
options to manually specify the language that you want to display to your endusers.
For more information about localization, see “Multi-language support” on
page 843.
30
„
What can I do with the IVE?
Chapter 2: Introduction to the IVE
How do I start configuring the IVE?
To enable users to start using your Secure Access appliance, you must complete the
following basic steps:
1. Plug in the appliance, connect it to your network, and configure its initial
system and network settings. This quick and easy process is detailed in the
Secure Access Quick Start Guide.
2. After you connect the IVE to your network, you need to set the system date and
time, upgrade to the latest service package, and install your product licenses.
When you first sign into the administration console, the IVE displays an initial
configuration task guide that quickly walks you through this process.
3. After you install your product licenses, you need to set up your access
management framework to enable your users to authenticate and access
resources. Configuration steps include:
a.
Define an authentication server that verifies the names and passwords of
your users.
b. Create user roles that enable access mechanisms, session options, and UI
options for user groups.
c.
Create a user authentication realm that specifies the conditions that users
must meet in order to sign into the IVE.
d. Define a sign-in policy that specifies the URL that users must access in
order to sign into the IVE and the page that they see when they sign in.
e.
Create resource profiles that control access to resources, specify which
user roles can access them, and include bookmarks that link to the
resources.
The IVE includes a task guide in its administration console that quickly walks
you through this process. To access this task guide, click the Guidance link.
Then, under Recommended Task Guides, select Base Configuration. Or, you
can use the tutorial included in this guide. For more information, see “Initial
Verification and Key Concepts” on page 3.
Once you have completed these basic steps, your Secure Access appliance is ready
for use. You can start using it as is, or configure additional advanced features such
as endpoint defense and clustering.
How do I start configuring the IVE? „ 31
Juniper Networks Secure Access Administration Guide
32
„
How do I start configuring the IVE?
Part 2
Access management framework
The IVE protects resources by using the following access management
mechanisms:
„
Authentication realm—Resource accessibility begins with the authentication
realm. An authentication realm specify conditions that users must meet in order
to sign into the IVE. An authentication realm specification includes several
components, including an authentication server which verifies that the user is
who he claims to be. The user must meet the security requirements you define
for a realm's authentication policy or else the IVE does not forward the user's
credentials to the authentication server.
„
User roles—A role's configuration serves as the second level of resource access
control. A role is a defined entity that specifies IVE session properties for users
who are mapped to the role. Not only does a role specify the access
mechanisms available to a user, but you can also specify restrictions with
which users must comply before they are mapped to a role.
„
Resource policies—A resource policy serves as the third level of resource
access control. A resource policy is a set of resource names (such as URLs, host
names, and IP address/netmask combinations) to which you grant or deny
access or other resource-specific actions, such as rewriting and caching. While
a role may grant access to certain types of access features and resources (such
as bookmarks and applications), whether or not a user can access a specific
resource is controlled by resource policies. Note that you can create separate
resource policies or you can create automatic resource policies (called
autopolicies) during resource profile configuration (recommended).
This section contains the following information about the IVE access management
framework:
„
“General access management” on page 35
„
“User roles” on page 51
„
“Resource profiles” on page 71
„
“Resource policies” on page 81
„
“Authentication and directory servers” on page 91
„
“Authentication realms” on page 165
„
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34
„
„
“Sign-in policies” on page 181
„
“Single sign-on” on page 191
Chapter 3
General access management
The IVE enables you to secure your company resources using authentication
realms, user roles, and resource policies. These three levels of accessibility allow
you to control access from a very broad level (controlling who may sign into the
IVE) down to a very granular level (controlling which authenticated users may
access a particular URL or file). You can specify security requirements that users
must meet to sign in to the IVE, to gain access to IVE features, and even to access
specific URLs, files, and other server resources. The IVE enforces the policies, rules
and restrictions, and conditions that you configure to prevent users from
connecting to or downloading unauthorized resources and content.
This section contains the following information about the access management
framework:
„
“Licensing: Access management availability” on page 35
„
“Policies, rules & restrictions, and conditions overview” on page 35
„
“Policies, rules & restrictions, and conditions evaluation” on page 38
„
“Dynamic policy evaluation” on page 40
„
“Configuring security requirements” on page 42
Licensing: Access management availability
The IVE access management framework is available on all Secure Access products.
The access management features, including realms, roles, resource policies, and
servers, are the base of the IVE platform on which all Secure Access products are
built.
Policies, rules & restrictions, and conditions overview
The IVE enables you to secure your company resources using authentication
realms, user roles, and resource policies. These three levels of accessibility allow
you to control access from a very broad level (controlling who may sign into the
IVE) down to a very granular level (controlling which authenticated users may
access a particular URL or file).
Licensing: Access management availability
„
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Juniper Networks Secure Access Administration Guide
This section contains the following information about access management policies,
rules, restrictions, and conditions:
„
“Accessing authentication realms” on page 36
„
“Accessing user roles” on page 37
„
“Accessing resource policies” on page 37
Accessing authentication realms
Resource accessibility begins with the authentication realm. An authentication realm
is a grouping of authentication resources, including:
„
An authentication server, which verifies that the user is who he claims to be.
The IVE forwards credentials that a user submits on a sign-in page to an
authentication server. For more information, see “Authentication and directory
servers” on page 91.
„
An authentication policy, which specifies realm security requirements that
need to be met before the IVE submits a user's credentials to an authentication
server for verification. For more information, see “Defining authentication
policies” on page 168.
„
A directory server, which is an LDAP server that provides user and group
information to the IVE that the IVE uses to map users to one or more user roles.
For more information, see “Authentication and directory servers” on page 91.
„
Role mapping rules, which are conditions a user must meet in order for the
IVE to map the user to one or more user roles. These conditions are based on
either user information returned by the realm's directory server or the user's
username. For more information, see “Creating role mapping rules” on
page 169.
You can associate one or more authentication realms with an IVE sign-in page.
When more than one realm exists for a sign-in page, a user must specify a realm
before submitting her credentials. When the user submits her credentials, the IVE
checks the authentication policy defined for the chosen realm. The user must meet
the security requirements you define for a realm's authentication policy or else the
IVE does not forward the user's credentials to the authentication server.
At the realm level, you can specify security requirements based on various
elements such as the user's source IP address or the possession of a client-side
certificate. If the user meets the requirements specified by the realm's
authentication policy, then the IVE forwards the user's credentials to the
appropriate authentication server. If this server successfully authenticates the user,
then the IVE evaluates the role mapping rules defined for the realm to determine
which roles to assign to the user.
For more information, see “Authentication realms” on page 165.
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„
Policies, rules & restrictions, and conditions overview
Chapter 3: General access management
Accessing user roles
A role is a defined entity that specifies IVE session properties for users who are
mapped to the role. These session properties include information such as session
time-outs and enabled access features. A role's configuration serves as the second
level of resource access control. Not only does a role specify the access
mechanisms available to a user, but you can also specify restrictions with which
users must comply before they are mapped to a role. The user must meet these
security requirements or else the IVE does not map the user to a role.
At the role level, you can specify security requirements based on elements such as
the user's source IP address and possession of a client-side certificate. If the user
meets the requirements specified either by a role mapping rule or a role's
restrictions, then the IVE maps the user to the role. When a user makes a request to
the backend resources available to the role, the IVE evaluates the corresponding
access feature resource policies.
Note that you may specify security requirements for a role in two places—in the
role mapping rules of an authentication realm (using custom expressions) or by
defining restrictions in the role definition. The IVE evaluates the requirements
specified in both areas to make sure the user complies before it maps the user to a
role.
For more information, see “User roles” on page 51.
Accessing resource policies
A resource policy is a set of resource names (such as URLs, host names, and IP
address/netmask combinations) to which you grant or deny access or other
resource-specific actions, such as rewriting and caching. A resource policy serves as
the third level of resource access control. While a role may grant access to certain
types of access features and resources (such as bookmarks and applications),
whether or not a user can access a specific resource is controlled by resource
policies. These policies may even specify conditions that, if met, either deny or
grant user access to a server share or file. These conditions may be based on
security requirements that you specify. The user must meet these security
requirements or else the IVE does not process the user's request.
At the resource level, you can specify security requirements based elements such
as the user's source IP address or possession of a client-side certificate. If the user
meets the requirements specified by a resource policy's conditions, then the IVE
either denies or grants access to the requested resource. You may enable Web
access at the role level, for example, and a user mapped to the role may make a
Web request. You may also configure a Web resource policy to deny requests to a
particular URL or path when Host Checker finds an unacceptable file on the user's
machine. In this scenario, the IVE checks to see if Host Checker is running and
indicates that the user's machine complies with the required Host Checker policy. If
the user's machine complies, meaning the unacceptable file is not found, then the
IVE grants the user access to the requested Web resource.
Note that you can create separate resource policies or you can create automatic
resource policies (called autopolicies) during resource profile configuration
(recommended). For more information, see:
„
“Resource policies” on page 81
Policies, rules & restrictions, and conditions overview
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Juniper Networks Secure Access Administration Guide
„
“Resource profile components” on page 72
Policies, rules & restrictions, and conditions evaluation
The following diagram illustrates the access management security checks that the
IVE performs when a user tries to access resources through the IVE. A detailed
description of each step follows after the diagram.
Figure 18: Security checks performed by the IVE during a user session
1. The user enters the URL of the IVE end-user console (such as
http://employees.yourcompany.com/marketing) in a Web browser.
2. The IVE evaluates its sign-in policies (starting with the administrator URLs and
continuing to user URLs) until it matches the hostname entered by the user.
38
„
Policies, rules & restrictions, and conditions evaluation
Chapter 3: General access management
3. The IVE evaluates pre-authentication restrictions and determines if the user’s
system passes host checks and other requirements. If the pre-authentication
checks fail, the IVE denies the user access. If the checks pass, the IVE prompts
the user to enter the username and password for the realms whose preauthentication checks succeeded. (If required by the realm, the IVE prompts
the user to enter two sets of credentials.) If more than one realm exists, the
user must enter a realm or choose one from a list.
4. The IVE evaluates the post-authentication restrictions and determines whether
the user’s password conforms to specified limits and requirements. If the postauthentication checks fail, the IVE denies the user access. If the checks pass,
the IVE passes the user’s credentials to the realm’s authentication server.
5. The IVE forwards the user’s username and password to the authentication
server, which returns success or failure. (A RADIUS or SiteMinder
authentication server also returns attributes for the IVE to use in role mapping.)
If the authentication server returns failure, the IVE denies the user access. If the
server returns success, the IVE stores the user’s credentials. If the realm has a
separate LDAP authorization server, the IVE also queries the LDAP server for
attribute and group information and saves the information returned by LDAP.
If the realm includes a secondary authentication server, the IVE repeats this
process with the secondary server.
6. The IVE evaluates the realm’s role mapping rules and determines the roles for
which the user is eligible. The IVE determines eligibility using information from
the LDAP or RADIUS server or the user’s username.
7. The IVE evaluates the restrictions of the eligible roles, enabling the user to
access those roles whose restrictions the user’s computer meets. Restrictions
may include source IP, browser type, client-side certificate, Host Checker, and
Cache Cleaner.
8. The IVE creates a “session role,” determining the user’s session permissions. If
you enable permissive merging, the IVE determines session permissions by
merging all valid roles and granting the allowed resources from each valid role.
If you disable merging, the IVE assigns the user to the first role to which he is
mapped. For more information, see “User role evaluation” on page 52.
9. When the user requests a resource, the IVE checks whether the corresponding
access feature is enabled for the session user role. If not, the IVE denies the
user access. If the access feature is enabled, the evaluates resource policies.
10. The IVE evaluates resource profiles and policies related to the user’s request,
sequentially processing each until it finds the profile or policy whose resource
list and designated roles match the user’s request. The IVE denies user access
to the resource if specified by the profile or policy. Otherwise, the IVE
intermediates the user request if the profile or policy enables access. For more
information, see “Resource policy evaluation” on page 86.
11. The IVE intermediates the user request, forwarding the user’s request and
credentials (if necessary) to the appropriate server. Then, the IVE forwards the
the server’s response to the user.
Policies, rules & restrictions, and conditions evaluation
„
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12. The user accesses the requested resource or application server. The user
session ends when the user signs out or his session times out due to time limits
or inactivity. The IVE may also force the user out if the session if you enable
dynamic policy evaluation and the user fails a policy. For more information,
see “Dynamic policy evaluation” on page 40.
NOTE: If you enable dynamic policy evaluation, the IVE performs additional
checks beyond the ones mentioned here. For more information, see “Dynamic
policy evaluation” on page 40.
Dynamic policy evaluation
Dynamic policy evaluation allows you to automatically or manually refresh the
assigned roles of users by evaluating a realm’s authentication policy, role
mappings, role restrictions, and resource policies. When the IVE performs a
dynamic evaluation, it checks whether the client’s status has changed. (For
instance, the client’s Host Checker status may have changed. Or, if the user is
roaming, the computer’s IP address may have changed.) If the status has changed,
the IVE enables or denies the user access to the dependent realms, roles, or
resource policies accordingly.
NOTE: The IVE does not check for changes in user attributes from a RADIUS,
LDAP, or SiteMinder server when performing dynamic policy evaluation. Instead,
the IVE re-evaluates rules and policies based on the original user attributes that it
obtained when the user signed into the IVE.
This section contains the following information about dynamic policy evaluation:
„
“Understanding dynamic policy evaluation” on page 40
„
“Understanding standard policy evaluation” on page 41
„
“Enabling dynamic policy evaluation” on page 42
Understanding dynamic policy evaluation
During dynamic policy evaluation, the IVE evaluates the following types of resource
policies:
40
„
Dynamic policy evaluation
„
Windows Secure Application Manager
„
Java Secure Application Manager
„
Network Connect
„
Telnet/SSH
„
Terminal services (Windows and Citrix)
„
Java Access
Chapter 3: General access management
„
Code signing (for java applet)
NOTE: Because the IVE evaluates Web and Files resource policies whenever the
user makes a request for a resource, dynamic policy evaluation is unnecessary for
Web and Files. The IVE does not use dynamic policy evaluation for Meetings
resource policies and Email Client resource policies.
If the IVE determines after a dynamic policy evaluation that a user no longer meets
the security requirements of a policy or role, the IVE terminates the connection
immediately with the user. The user may see the closing of a TCP or application
connection, or the termination of a user session for Network Connect, Secure
Application Manager, Terminal or Telnet/SSH. The user must take the necessary
steps to meet the security requirements of the policy or role, and then sign into the
IVE again.
The IVE logs information about policy evaluation and changes in roles or access in
the Event log.
Understanding standard policy evaluation
If you do not use dynamic policy evaluation, the IVE evaluates policies and roles
only when the following events occur:
„
When the user first tries to access the IVE sign-in page, the IVE evaluates the
Host Checker and Cache Cleaner policies (if any) for a realm.
„
Immediately after the user’s initial authentication, the IVE evaluates the user’s
realm restrictions in the authentication policy, role mapping rules, and role
restrictions.
„
Whenever the user makes a request for a resource, the IVE evaluates resource
policies.
„
Whenever the Host Checker and Cache Cleaner status of the user’s machine
changes, the IVE evaluates the Host Checker and Cache Cleaner policies (if any)
for a role.
If you do not use dynamic policy evaluation and you make changes to an
authentication policy, role mapping rules, role restrictions, or resource policies, the
IVE enforces those changes only when the events described above occur. (For more
information, see “Policies, rules & restrictions, and conditions evaluation” on
page 38.)
If you do use dynamic policy evaluation, the IVE enforces changes when the events
described above occur and it also enforces changes at the times you specify. For
more information, see “Enabling dynamic policy evaluation” on page 42.
Dynamic policy evaluation
„
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Enabling dynamic policy evaluation
You can use dynamic policy evaluation in the following ways:
„
Evaluate all signed-in users in a realm—You can automatically or manually
refresh the roles of all currently signed-in users of a realm by using the General
tab of the Administrators > Admin Realms > Select Realm or Users > User
Realms > Select Realm page. You can trigger the IVE to perform a dynamic
policy evaluation at the realm level based on:
„
An automatic timer—You can specify a refresh interval that determines
how often the IVE performs an automatic policy evaluation of all currently
signed-in realm users, such as every 30 minutes. When using the refresh
interval, you can also fine-tune IVE performance by specifying whether or
not you want to refresh roles and resource policies as well as the
authentication policy, role mapping rules, and role restrictions.
„
On-demand—At any time, you can manually evaluate the authentication
policy, role mapping rules, role restrictions, and resource policies of all
currently signed-in realm users. This technique is especially useful if you
make changes to an authentication policy, role mapping rules, role
restrictions, or resource policies and you want to immediately refresh the
roles of a realm’s users.
„
Evaluate all signed-in users in all realms—At any time, you can manually
refresh the roles of all currently signed-in users in all realms by using settings in
the System > Status >Active Users page. For information, see “Monitoring
active users” on page 686.
„
Evaluate individual users—You can automatically refresh the roles of
individual users by enabling dynamic policy evaluation for Host Checker on the
Authentication > Endpoint Security > Host Checker page. Host Checker can
trigger the IVE to evaluate resource policies whenever a user’s Host Checker
status changes. (If you do not enable dynamic policy evaluation for Host
Checker, the IVE does not evaluate resource policies but it does evaluate the
authentication policy, role mapping rules, and role restrictions whenever a
user’s Host Checker status changes.) For more information, see “Specifying
general Host Checker options” on page 262.
Configuring security requirements
An IVE makes it easy to specify security requirements for administrators and users
through the options and features described in the following sections:
42
„
„
“Specifying source IP access restrictions” on page 43
„
“Specifying browser access restrictions” on page 44
„
“Specifying certificate access restrictions” on page 47
„
“Specifying password access restrictions” on page 48
„
“Specifying Host Checker access restrictions” on page 49
Configuring security requirements
Chapter 3: General access management
„
“Specifying Cache Cleaner access restrictions” on page 49
Specifying source IP access restrictions
Use a source IP restriction to control from which IP addresses users can access an
IVE sign-in page, be mapped to a role, or access a resource.
You can restrict resource access by source IP:
„
When administrators or users try to sign in to the IVE —The user must sign
in from a machine whose IP address/netmask combination meets the specified
source IP requirements for the selected authentication realm. If the user's
machine does not have the IP address/netmask combination required by the
realm, the IVE does not forward the user's credentials to the authentication
server and the user is denied access to the IVE. You can allow or deny access to
any specific IP address/netmask combination. For example, you can deny
access to all users on a wireless network (10.64.4.100), and allow access to all
other network users (0.0.0.0).
„
When administrators or users are mapped to a role—The authenticated user
must be signed in from a machine whose IP address/netmask combination
meets the specified Source IP requirements for each role to which the IVE may
map the user. If the user's machine does not have the IP address/netmask
combination required by a role, then the IVE does not map the user to that
role.
„
When users request a resource—The authenticated, authorized user must
make a resource request from a machine whose IP address/netmask
combination meets the specified Source IP requirements for the resource
policy corresponding to the user's request. If the user's machine does not have
the required IP address/netmask combination required by the resource, then
the IVE does not allow the user to access the resource.
To specify source IP restrictions:
1. Select the level at which you want to implement IP restrictions:
„
„
Realm level—navigate to:
‰
Administrators > Admin Realms > SelectRealm > Authentication
Policy > Source IP
‰
Users > User Realms > SelectRealm > Authentication Policy >
Source IP
Role level—Navigate to:
‰
Administrators > Admin Roles > Select Role > General >
Restrictions > Source IP
‰
Users > User Roles > Select Role > General > Restrictions >
Source IP
Configuring security requirements „ 43
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„
Resource policy level—Navigate to: Users > Resource Policies > Select
Resource > Select Policy > Detailed Rules > Select|CreateRule >
Condition Field
2. Choose one of the following options:
„
Allow users to sign in from any IP address — Enables users to sign into
the IVE from any IP address in order to satisfy the access management
requirement.
„
Allow or deny users from the following IP addresses — Specifies
whether to allow or deny users access to the IVE from all of the listed IP
addresses, based on their settings. To specify access from an IP address:
i.
Enter the IP address and netmask.
ii.
Select either:
‰
Allow to allow users to sign in from the specified IP address.
‰
Deny to prevent users from signing in from the specified IP address.
iii. Click Add.
iv. If you add multiple IP addresses, move the highest priority restrictions
to the top of the list by selecting the checkbox next to the IP address,
and then clicking the up arrow button. For example, to deny access to
all users on a wireless network (10.64.4.100) and allow access to all
other network users (0.0.0.0), move the wireless network address
(10.64.4.100) to the top of the list and move the (0.0.0.0) network
below the wireless network.
„
Enable administrators to sign in on the external port — Enables
administrators to sign in to the IVE from the external interface. You must
enable the external port before setting this option.
3. Click Save Changes to save your settings.
Specifying browser access restrictions
Use a browser restriction to control from which Web browsers users can access an
IVE sign-in page, be mapped to a role, or access a resource. If a user tries to sign in
to the IVE using an unsupported browser, the sign-in attempt fails and a message
displays stating that an unsupported browser is being used. This feature also
enables you to ensure that users sign in to the IVE from browsers that are
compatible with corporate applications or are approved by corporate security
policies.
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Configuring security requirements
Chapter 3: General access management
You can restrict IVE and resource access by browser-type:
„
When administrators or users try to sign in to the IVE—The user must sign in
from a browser whose user-agent string meets the specified user-agent string
pattern requirements for the selected authentication realm. If the realm
“allows” the browser's user-agent string, then the IVE submits the user's
credentials to the authentication server. If the realm “denies” the browser's
user-agent string, then the IVE does not submit the user's credentials to the
authentication server.
„
When administrators or users are mapped to a role—The authenticated user
must be signed in from a browser whose user-agent string meets the specified
user-agent string pattern requirements for each role to which the IVE may map
the user. If the user-agent string does not meet the “allowed” or “denied”
requirements for a role, then the IVE does not map the user to that role.
„
When users request a resource—The authenticated, authorized user must
make a resource request from a browser whose user-agent string meets the
specified “allowed” or “denied” requirements for the resource policy
corresponding to the user's request. If the user-agent string does not meet the
“allowed” or “denied” requirements for a resource, then the IVE does not allow
the user to access the resource.
NOTE: The browser restrictions feature is not intended as a strict access control
since browser user-agent strings can be changed by a technical user. It serves as
an advisory access control for normal usage scenarios.
Specifying browser restrictions
To specify browser restrictions:
1. Select the level at which you want to implement browser restrictions:
„
„
Realm level—Navigate to:
‰
Administrators > Admin Realms > Select Realm > Authentication
Policy > Browser
‰
Users > User Realms > Select Realm > Authentication Policy >
Browser
Role level—Navigate to:
‰
Administrators > Admin Realms > Select Realm > Role Mapping >
Select|Create Rule > Custom Expressions
‰
Administrators > Admin Roles > Select Role > General >
Restrictions > Browser
‰
Users > User Realms > Select Realm > Role Mapping >
Select|Create Rule > Custom Expression
Configuring security requirements „ 45
Juniper Networks Secure Access Administration Guide
‰
„
Users > User Roles > Select Role > General > Restrictions >
Browser
Resource policy level—Navigate to: Users > Resource Policies > Select
Resource > Select Policy > Detailed Rules > Select|Create Rule >
Condition Field
2. Choose one of the following options:
„
Allow all users matching any user-agent string sent by the browser—
Allows users to access the IVE or resources using any of the supported Web
browsers.
„
Only allow users matching the following User-agent policy—Allows you
to define browser access control rules. To create a rule:
i.
For the User-agent string pattern, enter a string in the format
*<browser_string>*
where start (*) is an optional character used to match any character
and <browser_string> is a case-sensitive pattern that must match a
substring in the user-agent header sent by the browser. Note that you
cannot include escape characters (\) in browser restrictions.
ii.
Select either:
‰
Allow to allow users to use a browser that has a user-agent header
containing the <browser_string> substring
‰
Deny to prevent users from using a browser that has a user-agent
header containing the <browser_string> substring.
iii. Click Add.
3. Click Save Changes to save your settings.
NOTE:
„
Rules are applied in order, so the first matched rule applies.
„
Literal characters in rules are case sensitive, and spaces are allowed as literal
characters.
For example, the string *Netscape* matches any user-agent string that contains the
substring Netscape.
The following rule set grants resource access only when users are signed in using
Internet Explorer 5.5x or Internet Explorer 6.x. This example takes into account
some major non-IE browsers that send the 'MSIE' substring in their user-agent
headers:
*Opera*Deny
*AOL*Deny
46
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Configuring security requirements
Chapter 3: General access management
*MSIE 5.5*Allow
*MSIE 6.*Allow
* Deny
Specifying certificate access restrictions
When you install a client-side certificate on the IVE through the System >
Configuration > Certificates > Trusted Client CAs page of the admin console,
you can restrict IVE and resource access by requiring client-side certificates:
„
When administrators or users try to sign in to the IVE—The user must sign in
from a machine that possesses the specified client-side certificate (from the
proper certificate authority (CA) and possessing any optionally specified
field/value pair requirements). If the user's machine does not possess the
certificate information required by the realm, the user can access the sign-in
page, but once the IVE determines that the user's browser does not possess the
certificate, the IVE does not submit the user's credentials to the authentication
server and the user cannot access features on the IVE.
To implement certificate restrictions at the realm level, navigate to:
„
„
Administrators > Admin Realms > SelectRealm > Authentication
Policy > Certificate
„
Users > User Realms > SelectRealm > Authentication Policy >
Certificate
When administrators or users are mapped to a role—The authenticated user
must be signed in from a machine that meets the specified client-side
certificate requirements (proper certificate authority (CA) and optionally
specified field/value pair requirements) for each role to which the IVE may map
the user. If the user's machine does not possess the certificate information
required by a role, then the IVE does not map the user to that role.
To implement certificate restrictions at the role level, navigate to:
„
„
Administrators > Admin Roles > SelectRole > General > Restrictions
> Certificate
„
Users > User Realms > SelectRealm > Role Mapping >
Select|CreateRule > CustomExpression
„
Users > User Roles > SelectRole > General > Restrictions >
Certificate
When users request a resource—The authenticated, authorized user must
make a resource request from a machine that meets the specified client-side
certificate requirements (proper certificate authority (CA) and optionally
specified field/value pair requirements) for the resource policy corresponding
to the user's request. If the user's machine does not possess the certificate
information required by a resource, then the IVE does not allow the user to
access the resource.
Configuring security requirements „ 47
Juniper Networks Secure Access Administration Guide
To implement certificate restrictions at the resource policy level, navigate to:
Users > Resource Policies > SelectResource > SelectPolicy > Detailed Rules
> Select|CreateRule > ConditionField
Specifying password access restrictions
You can restrict IVE and resource access by password-length when administrators
or users try to sign in to an IVE. The user must enter a password whose length
meets the minimum password-length requirement specified for the realm. Note
that local user and administrator records are stored in the IVE authentication
server. This server requires that passwords are a minimum length of 6 characters,
regardless of the value you specify for the realm's authentication policy.
To specify password restrictions:
1. Select an administrator or user realm for which you want to implement
password restrictions.
Navigate to:
„
Administrators > Admin Realms > Select Realm > Authentication
Policy > Password
„
Users > User Realms > Select Realm > Authentication Policy >
Password
2. Choose one of the following options:
„
Allow all users (passwords of any length) — Does not apply password
length restrictions to users signing in to the IVE.
„
Only allow users that have passwords of a minimum length — Requires
the user to enter a password with a minimum length of the number
specified.
3. Select Enable Password Management if you want to enable password
management. You must also configure password management on the IVE
authentication server configuration page (local authentication server) or
through an LDAP server. For more information about password management,
see “Enabling LDAP password management” on page 111.
4. If you have enabled a secondary authentication server, specify password length
restrictions using the restrictions above as a guideline.
5. Click Save Changes to save your settings.
NOTE: By default, the IVE requires that user passwords entered on the sign-in page
be a minimum of four characters. The authentication server used to validate a
user’s credentials may require a different minimum length. The IVE local
authentication database, for example, requires user passwords to be a minimum
length of six characters.
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Configuring security requirements
Chapter 3: General access management
Specifying Host Checker access restrictions
For information about restricting a user’s access to the IVE, a role, or a resource
based on his Host Checker status, see “Implementing Host Checker policies” on
page 251.
Specifying Cache Cleaner access restrictions
For information about restricting a user’s access to the IVE, a role, or a resource
based on his Cache Cleaner status, see “Implementing Cache Cleaner options” on
page 273.
Specifying limits restrictions
In addition to the access management options you may specify for an
authentication policy, you may also specify a limit for concurrent users. A user who
enters a URL to one of this realm’s sign-in pages must meet any access
management and concurrent user requirements specified for the authentication
policy before the IVE presents the sign-in page to the user.
Use limits restrictions to set minimum and maximum concurrent users on the
realm.
To specify the limits restrictions:
1. Select an administrator or user realm for which you want to implement limits
restrictions.
Navigate to:
„
Administrators > Admin Realms > SelectRealm > Authentication
Policy > Limits
„
Users > User Realms > SelectRealm > Authentication Policy > Limits
2. To limit the number of concurrent users on the realm, select Limit the number
of concurrent users and then specify limit values for these options:
a.
Guaranteed minimum—You can specify any number of users between
zero (0) and the maximum number of concurrent users defined for the
realm, or you can set the number up to the maximum allowed by your
license if there is no realm maximum.
b. Maximum (optional)—You can specify any number of concurrent users
from the minimum number you specified up to the maximum number of
licensed users. If you enter a zero (0) into the Maximum field, no users are
allowed to login to the realm.
3. Click Save Changes.
Configuring security requirements „ 49
Juniper Networks Secure Access Administration Guide
50
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Configuring security requirements
Chapter 4
User roles
A user role is an entity that defines user session parameters (session settings and
options), personalization settings (user interface customization and bookmarks),
and enabled access features (Web, file, application, telnet/SSH, terminal services,
network, meeting, and email access). A user role does not specify resource access
control or other resource-based options for an individual request. For example, a
user role may define whether or not a user can perform Web browsing, however,
the individual Web resources that a user may access are defined by the Web
resource policies that you configure separately.
The IVE supports two types of user roles:
„
Administrators—An administrator role is an entity that specifies IVE
management functions and session properties for administrators who map to
the role. You can customize an administrator role by selecting the IVE feature
sets and user roles that members of the administrator role are allowed to view
and manage. You can create and configure administrator roles through the
Administrators > Admin Roles page of the admin console.
„
Users—A user role is an entity that defines user session parameters,
personalization settings, and enabled access features. You can customize a
user role by enabling specific IVE access features, defining Web, application,
and session bookmarks, and configuring session settings for the enabled access
features. You can create and configure user roles through the Users > User
Roles page of the admin console.
This section includes the following information about roles:
„
“Licensing: User roles availability” on page 52
„
“User role evaluation” on page 52
„
“Configuring user roles” on page 54
„
“Customizing user roles UI views” on page 66
„
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Juniper Networks Secure Access Administration Guide
Licensing: User roles availability
User roles are an integral part of the IVE access management framework, and
therefore are available on all Secure Access products. However, you can only access
features through a user role if you are licensed for the feature. For instance, if you
are using an SA-700 appliance and have not purchased a Core Clientless Access
upgrade license, you cannot enable Web rewriting for a user role.
User role evaluation
The IVE’s role mapping engine determines a user’s session role, or combined
permissions valid for a user session, as illustrated in the following diagram. A
detailed description of each step follows after the diagram.
Figure 19: Security checks performed by the IVE to create a session role
1. The IVE begins rule evaluation with the first rule on the Role Mapping tab of
the authentication realm to which the user successfully signs in. During the
evaluation, the IVE determines if the user meets the rule conditions. If so, then:
a.
The IVE adds the corresponding roles to a list of “eligible roles” available to
the user.
b. The IVE considers whether or not the “stop on match” option is configured.
If so, then the engine jumps to step 5.
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Licensing: User roles availability
Chapter 4: User roles
2. The IVE evaluates the next rule on the authentication realm’s Role Mapping
tab according to the process in the previous step and repeats this process for
each subsequent rule. When the IVE evaluates all role mapping rules, it
compiles a comprehensive list of eligible roles.
3. The IVE evaluates the definition for each role in the eligibility list to determine
if the user complies with any role restrictions. The IVE then uses this
information to compile a list of valid roles, whose requirements the user also
meets.
If the list of valid roles contains only one role, then the IVE assigns the user to
that role. Otherwise, the IVE continues the evaluation process.
4. The IVE evaluates the setting specified on the Role Mapping tab for users who
are assigned to more than one role:
„
Merge settings for all assigned roles—If you choose this option, then the
IVE performs a permissive merge of all the valid user roles to determine
the overall (net) session role for a user session.
„
User must select from among assigned roles—If you choose this option,
then the IVE presents a list of eligible roles to an authenticated user. The
user must select a role from the list, and the IVE assigns the user to that
role for the duration of the user session.
„
User must select the sets of merged roles assigned by each rule—If you
choose this option, the IVE presents a list of eligible rules to an
authenticated user (that is, rules whose conditions the user has met). The
user must select a rule from the list, and the IVE performs a permissive
merge of all the roles that map to that rule.
NOTE: If you use automatic (time-based) dynamic policy evaluation or you
perform a manual policy evaluation, the IVE repeats the role evaluation process
described in this section. For more information, see “Dynamic policy evaluation”
on page 40.
Permissive merge guidelines
A permissive merge is a merge of two or more roles that combines enabled features
and settings following these guidelines:
„
Any enabled access feature in one role takes precedence over the same feature
set to disabled in another role. For example, if a user maps to two roles, one of
which disables Secure Meeting while the other role enables Secure Meeting, the
IVE allows the user to use Secure Meeting for that session.
„
In the case of Secure Application Manager, the IVE enables the version
corresponding to first role that enables this feature. Furthermore, the IVE
merges the settings from all the roles that correspond to the selected version.
„
In the case of user interface options, the IVE applies the settings that
correspond to the user’s first role.
User role evaluation
„
53
Juniper Networks Secure Access Administration Guide
„
In the case of session timeouts, the IVE applies the greatest value from all of
the roles to the user’s session.
„
If more than role enables the Roaming Session feature, then the IVE merges
the netmasks to formulate a greater netmask for the session.
„
When merging two roles a user is mapped to—one in which bookmarks open
in a new window and one in which bookmarks open in the same window—the
merged role opens bookmarks in the same window.
„
When merging two roles in which the first role disables the browsing toolbar
and the second role enables either the framed or standard toolbar, the merged
role uses the settings from the second role and displays the specified browsing
toolbar.
„
The merged role uses the highest value listed for the HTTP Connection
Timeout on the Users > User Roles > Select Role > Web > Options page.
Configuring user roles
To create a user role:
1. In the admin console, choose Users > User Roles.
2. Click New Role and then enter a name and optionally a description. This name
appears in the list of Roles on the Roles page.
Once you have created a role, you can click the role’s name to begin configuring it
using the instructions in the following sections:
54
„
Configuring user roles
„
“Configuring general role options” on page 55
„
“Configuring role restrictions” on page 56
„
“Specifying role-based source IP aliases” on page 57
„
“Specifying session options” on page 57
„
“Specifying customized UI settings” on page 60
„
“Defining default options for user roles” on page 64
Chapter 4: User roles
NOTE:
„
When you delete a role, the personal bookmarks, SAM settings, and other
settings may not be removed. Therefore, if you add a new role with the same
name, any users added to that new role may acquire the old bookmarks and
settings. In general, the IVE enforces referential integrity rules and does not
allow you to delete any objects if they are referenced elsewhere. For example,
if a role is used in any of the realm's role mapping rules, then the IVE rejects
the deletion of the role unless you modify or delete the mapping rules.
„
To create individual user accounts, you must add the users through the
appropriate authentication server (not the role). For instructions, see
“Creating user accounts on a local authentication server” on page 117 for
local authentication servers. Or for instructions on how to create users on
third-party servers, see the documentation that comes with that product.
Configuring general role options
Use the Overview tab to edit a role’s name and description, toggle session and user
interface options on and off, and enable access features. When you enable an
access feature, make sure to create corresponding resource policies.
To manage general role settings and options:
1. In the admin console, choose Users > User Roles > RoleName > General >
Overview.
2. Revise the name and description and then click Save Changes. (optional)
3. Under Options, check the role-specific options that you want to enable for the
role. If you do not select role-specific options, the IVE uses default settings
instead, as described in “Defining default options for user roles” on page 64.
Role-specific options include:
„
VLAN/Source IP—Select this option to apply the settings configured in the
General > VLAN/Source IP tab to the role. For more information, see
“Specifying role-based source IP aliases” on page 57.
„
Session Options—Select this option to apply the settings in the General >
Session Options tab to the role. For more information, see “Specifying
session options” on page 57.
„
UI Options—Select this option to apply the settings in the General > UI
Options tab to the role. For more information, see “Specifying customized
UI settings” on page 60.
4. Under Access features, check the features you want to enable for the role.
Options include:
„
Web—For more information, see “Web rewriting” on page 281
Configuring user roles „ 55
Juniper Networks Secure Access Administration Guide
„
Files (Windows or UNIX/NFS version)—For more information, see “File
rewriting” on page 371
„
Secure Application Manager (Windows version or Java version)—For
more information, see “Secure Application Manager” on page 395
„
Telnet/SSH—For more information, see “Telnet/SSH” on page 449
„
Terminal Services—For more information, see “Terminal Services” on
page 461
„
Meetings—For more information, see “Secure Meeting” on page 493
„
Email Client—For more information, see “Email Client” on page 513
„
Network Connect—For more information, see “Network Connect” on
page 521
5. Click Save Changes to apply the settings to the role.
Configuring role restrictions
Use the Restrictions tab to specify access management options for the role. The
IVE considers these restrictions when determining whether or not to map a user to
the role. The IVE does not map users to this role unless they meet the specified
restrictions. For more information, see “General access management” on page 35.
You may configure any number of access management options for the role. If a
user does not conform to all of the restrictions, then the IVE does not map the user
to the role.
To specify access management options for the role:
1. In the admin console, choose Users > User Roles > RoleName > General >
Restrictions.
2. Click the tab corresponding to the option you want to configure for the role,
and then configure it using instructions in the following sections:
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Configuring user roles
„
“Specifying source IP access restrictions” on page 43
„
“Specifying browser access restrictions” on page 44
„
“Specifying certificate access restrictions” on page 47
„
“Specifying password access restrictions” on page 48
„
“Specifying Host Checker access restrictions” on page 49
„
“Specifying Cache Cleaner access restrictions” on page 49
Chapter 4: User roles
Specifying role-based source IP aliases
Use the VLAN/Source IP tab to define role-based source IP aliases. If you want to
direct traffic to specific sites based on roles, you can define a source IP alias for
each role. You use these aliases to configure virtual ports you define for the internal
interface source IP address. A back-end device can then direct end-user traffic
based on these aliases, as long as you configure the back-end device, such as a
firewall, to expect the aliases in place of the internal interface source IP address.
This capability enables you to direct various end-users to defined sites based on
their roles, even though all of the end-user traffic has the same internal interface
source IP address.
NOTE: You must define virtual ports to take advantage of the role-based Source IP
aliases. For more information on virtual ports, see “Configuring internal and
external ports” on page 561 and “Configuring virtual ports” on page 566.
To specify a source IP alias for the role:
1. In the admin console, choose Users > User Roles > RoleName > General >
VLAN/Source IP.
2. Select the VLAN you want to use from the VLAN drop-down menu, if you have
defined VLAN ports on your system.
If you have not defined VLAN ports, the option defaults to the Internal Port IP
address. If you have provisioned IVS systems, and you have defined VLAN
ports and you want any of those VLAN ports to appear in this drop-down menu,
you must include the VLAN ports in the Selected VLANs text box on the Root
IVS configuration page.
3. Select a source IP address from the drop-down menu.
4. Click Save Changes to apply the settings to the role.
NOTE:
„
If an end-user is mapped to multiple roles and the IVE merges roles, the IVE
associates the source IP address configured for the first role in the list with the
merged role.
„
You can specify the same Source IP address for multiple roles. You cannot
specify multiple Source IP addresses for one role.
Specifying session options
Use the Session tab to specify session time limits, roaming capabilities, session and
password persistency, request follow-through options, and idle timeout application
activity. Check the Session Options checkbox on the Overview tab to enable these
settings for the role.
Configuring user roles „ 57
Juniper Networks Secure Access Administration Guide
To specify general session options:
1. In the admin console, choose Users > User Roles > RoleName > General >
Session Options.
2. Under Session Lifetime, specify values for:
„
Idle Timeout—Specify the number of minutes a non-administrative user
session may remain idle before ending. The minimum is 5 minutes. The
default idle session limit is ten minutes, which means that if a user’s
session is inactive for ten minutes, the IVE ends the user session and logs
the event in the system log (unless you enable session timeout warnings
described below).
„
Max. Session Length—Specify the number of minutes an active nonadministrative user session may remain open before ending. The
minimum is 6 minutes. The default time limit for a user session is sixty
minutes, after which the IVE ends the user session and logs the event in
the system log. During an end-user session, prior to the expiration of the
maximum session length, the IVE prompts the user to re-enter
authentication credentials, which avoids the problem of terminating the
user session without warning.
„
Reminder Time—Specify when the IVE should prompt non-administrative
users, warning them of an impending session or idle timeout. Specify in
number of minutes before the timeout is reached.
NOTE: If you are using Secure Meeting, you can configure meeting session limits
through the Users > Resource Policies > Meetings page of the admin console.
For more information, see “Defining resource policies: Secure Meeting” on
page 508.
3. Under Enable session timeout warning:
a.
Select Enabled to notify non-administrative users when they are about to
reach a session or idle timeout limit.
These warnings prompt users to take the appropriate action when they are
close to exceeding their session limits or idle timeouts, helping them save
any in-progress form data that would otherwise be lost. Users approaching
the idle timeout limit are prompted to reactivate their session. Users
approaching the session time limit are prompted to save data.
For example, an IVE user may unknowingly reach the idle timeout set for
his role while using an email client configured to work with the IVE,
because the IVE does not receive data while the user composes email. If
the session timeout warning is enabled, however, IVE prompts the user to
reactivate his IVE session before the session times out and forces the user’s
IVE session to end. This warning gives the user the opportunity to save his
partially composed email.
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Configuring user roles
Chapter 4: User roles
b. Check the Display sign-in page on max session time out checkbox if you
want to display a new browser sign-in page to the end-user when their
session times out. This option only appears when you choose to enable the
session timeout warning.
NOTE:
„
If you do not select this option, the IVE only displays expiration messages to
users—it does not give them the option to extend their sessions. Instead,
users need to access the IVE sign-in page and authenticate into a new session.
„
This option only applies to expiration messages displayed by the end-user's
browser, not by other clients such as WSAM or Network Connect.
4. Under Roaming session, specify:
„
Enabled—To enable roaming user sessions for users mapped to this role. A
roaming user session works across source IP addresses, which allows
mobile users (laptop users) with dynamic IP addresses to sign in to the IVE
from one location and continue working from another. However, some
browsers may have vulnerabilities that can allow malicious code to steal
user cookies. A malicious user could then use a stolen IVE session cookie to
sign in to the IVE.
„
Limit to subnet—To limit the roaming session to the local subnet specified
in the Netmask field. Users may sign in from one IP address and continue
using their sessions with another IP address as long as the new IP address
is within the same subnet.
„
Disabled—To disable roaming user sessions for users mapped to this role.
Users who sign in from one IP address may not continue an active IVE
session from another IP address; user sessions are tied to the initial source
IP address.
5. Under Persistent session, select Enabled to write the IVE session cookie to the
client hard disk so that the user’s IVE credentials are saved for the duration of
the IVE session.
By default, the IVE session cookie is flushed from the browser’s memory when
the browser is closed. The IVE session length is determined by both the idle
timeout value and maximum session length value that you specify for the role.
The IVE session does not terminate when a user closes the browser; an IVE
session only terminates when a user signs out of the IVE.
NOTE: If you enable the Persistent session option and a user closes the browser
window without signing out, any user may open another instance of the same
browser to access the IVE without submitting valid credentials, posing a potential
security risk. We recommend that you enable this feature only for roles whose
members need access to applications that require IVE credentials and that you
make sure these users understand the importance of signing out of the IVE when
they are finished.
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Juniper Networks Secure Access Administration Guide
6. Under Persistent password caching, select Enabled to allow cached
passwords to persist across sessions for a role.
The IVE supports NTLM and HTTP Basic Authentication and supports servers
that are set up to accept both NTLM and anonymous sign-in. The IVE caches
NTLM and HTTP Basic Authentication passwords provided by users so that the
users are not repeatedly prompted to enter the same credentials used to sign in
to the IVE server or another resource in the NT domain. By default, the IVE
server flushes cached passwords when a user signs out. A user can delete
cached passwords through the Advanced Preferences page.
7. Under Browser request follow-through, select Enabled to allow the IVE to
complete a user request made after an expired user session after the user reauthenticates.
8. Under Idle timeout application activity, select Enabled to ignore activities
initiated by Web applications (such as polling for emails) when determining
whether a session is active. If you disable this option, periodic pinging or other
application activity may prevent an idle timeout.
9. Under Upload Logs, select the Enable Upload Logs option to allow the user to
transmit (upload) client logs to the IVE.
NOTE: You must also enable client-side logs on the System > Log/Monitoring >
Client Logs > Settings page to completely enable this option for the user. For
more information, see “Enabling client-side logs” on page 679.
10. Click Save Changes to apply the settings to the role.
Specifying customized UI settings
Use the UI Options tab to specify customized settings for the IVE welcome page
and the browsing toolbar for users mapped to this role. The IVE welcome page (or
home page) is the Web interface presented to authenticated IVE users. Check the
UI Options checkbox on the Overview tab to enable custom settings for the role;
otherwise, the IVE uses the default settings.
Personalization settings including the sign-in page, page header, page footer, and
whether or not to display the browsing toolbar. If the user maps to more than one
role, then the IVE displays the user interface corresponding to the first role to which
a user is mapped.
To customize the IVE welcome page for role users:
1. Choose Users > User Roles > RoleName > General > UI Options.
2. Under Header, specify a custom logo and alternate background color for the
header area of the IVE welcome page (optional):
„
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Configuring user roles
Click the Browse button and locate your custom image file. The Current
appearance displays the new logo only after you save your changes.
Chapter 4: User roles
NOTE: You can only specify a JPEG or GIF file for a custom logo image. Other
graphics formats are not displayed properly in the JSAM status window on some
OS platforms.
„
Type the hexidecimal number for the background color or click the Color
Palette icon and pick the desired color. The Current appearance updates
immediately.
3. Under Sub-headers, select new background and text colors (optional):
„
Type the hexidecimal number for the Background color or click the Color
Palette icon and pick the desired color. The Current appearance updates
immediately.
„
Type the hexidecimal number for the Text color or click the Color Palette
icon and pick the desired color. The Current appearance updates
immediately.
4. Under Start page, specify the start page you want users to see after they sign in
and when they click the Home icon on the toolbar:
„
Bookmarks page—Select this option to display the standard IVE
Bookmarks page.
„
Custom page—Select this option to display a custom start page and then
specify the URL to the page. The IVE rewrites the URL and creates an
access control rule to allow users access to the URL. (Note that users can
also enter the custom URL in the IVE Browse field on the toolbar.) The IVE
evaluates the access control rule after all other policies, which means
another policy could deny access to the URL.
„
Also allow access to directories below this url—Select this option to
allow users access to subdirectories of the custom-page URL. For example,
if you specify http://www.domain.com/, users can also access
http://www.domain.com/dept/.
5. Under Bookmarks Panel Arrangement, arrange the panels as you want to
display them on the user's bookmarks page:
a.
Select the name of a panel in the Left Column or Right Column list.
b. To position a panel above or below the other panels, click Move Up or
Move Down.
c.
To move a panel to the other side of the user's bookmarks page, click
Move > or < Move.
NOTE: The IVE displays all panels under Bookmarks Panel Arrangement for all
licensed features regardless of whether or not you enable the corresponding
feature for the role.
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Juniper Networks Secure Access Administration Guide
6. Under Help page, select options to control the Help page that appears when
users click the Help button on the toolbar:
„
Disable help link—Select this option to prevent users from displaying Help
by removing the Help button from the toolbar.
„
Standard help page—Select this option to display the standard IVE
end-user Help.
„
Custom help page—Select this option to display a custom Help page.
Specify the URL to the custom help page, and then provide an optional
width and height for the help page’s window. The IVE rewrites the URL and
creates an access control rule to allow users access to the URL. (Note that
users can also enter the custom URL in the IVE Browse field on the
toolbar.) The IVE evaluates the access control rule after all other policies,
which means another policy could deny access to the URL. (Note that when
you choose this option, the IVE disables the Tips link next to the Browse
field.)
„
Also allow access to directories below this url—Select this option to
allow users access to subdirectories of the custom help-page URL. For
example, if you specify http://www.domain.com/help, users can also access
http://www.domain.com/help/pdf/.
7. Under User toolbar, select options for the toolbar on the IVE Bookmarks page
and other secure gateway pages on the IVE:
„
Home—Select this option to display the Home icon on the IVE
Bookmarks page and other secure gateway pages on the IVE.
„
Preferences—Select this option to display the Preferences button.
„
Session Counter—Select this option to display a time value on the user
toolbar that indicates the maximum remaining time allowed in the user’s
current session. Note that a period of user inactivity could also end the
current session before this maximum time expires.
„
Client Application Sessions—Select this option to display the Client Apps
button on the user toolbar. Users can click this button to display the Client
Application Sessions page where they can start client applications such as
Network Connect or Secure Application Manager. If you do not select this
option, the IVE displays the Client Application Sessions panel on the IVE
Bookmarks page.
8. Under Browsing toolbar, select options for the toolbar that users see when
browsing pages not located on the IVE, such as external Web sites:
„
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Configuring user roles
Show the browsing toolbar—Select this option to display the browsing
toolbar.
Chapter 4: User roles
„
Toolbar type—Select the type of browsing toolbar you want to display:
‰
Standard—Users can move this toolbar to the top left or top right side
of the browser window. Users can also collapse and expand the
toolbar. When collapsed, the toolbar displays the Custom Logo only.
The toolbar’s default state is expanded and on the top right side of the
browser window.
‰
Framed—This toolbar remains fixed in a framed header section at the
top of the page.
„
Toolbar logo and Toolbar logo (mobile)—Specify a custom logo (such as
your company’s logo) that you want to display on the standard and framed
toolbars by browsing to the image file (optional). When the user clicks the
logo, the page you specify for the Logo links to option appears. The
current logo for the browsing toolbar appears next to these options.
„
Logo links to— Select an option to link the browsing toolbar logo to a page
that appears when users click the logo:
„
‰
Bookmarks page—Links the logo to the IVE Bookmarks page.
‰
“Start Page” settings—Links the logo to the custom start page you
specified under the Start Page section.
‰
Custom URL—Links the logo to the URL you enter in the associated
text box (optional). This resource must be accessible to the IVE. The
IVE rewrites the URL and creates an access control rule to allow users
access to the URL. (Note that users can also enter the custom URL in
the IVE Browse field on the toolbar.) The IVE evaluates the access
control rule after all other policies, which means another policy could
deny access to the URL.
‰
Also allow access to directories below this url—Select this option to
allow users access to subdirectories of the custom URL.
Specify the items you want to display in the browsing toolbar:
‰
Enable "Home" link—Select this option to display the Home Page
button, which is linked to the IVE Bookmarks page.
‰
Enable "Add Bookmark" link—Select this option to display the
Bookmark this Page button.
‰
Enable "Bookmark Favorites" link—Select this option to display the
Bookmark Favorites button. When the user clicks this button, the IVE
displays a drop-down list of the bookmarks that the user specified as
favorites on the Add Web Bookmark page of the secure gateway.
‰
Display Session Counter— Select this option to display a time value
on the browsing toolbar that indicates the maximum remaining time
allowed in the user’s current session. Note that a period of user
inactivity could also end the current session before this maximum time
expires.
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Juniper Networks Secure Access Administration Guide
‰
Enable "Help" link—Select this option to display the Help button,
which is linked to the Help page you specify for under Help page.
NOTE: If you disable the User can add bookmarks option on the Users > User
Roles > RoleName > Web > Options page, the IVE does not display the
Bookmark this Page and Bookmark Favorites buttons on the browsing toolbar
regardless of whether or not you select the Enable "Add Bookmark" link and
Enable "Bookmark Favorites" link options.)
9. Under Personalized greeting, specify a greeting and notification message on
the IVE Bookmarks page (optional):
„
Select Enabled to display the personalized greeting. The IVE displays the
username if the full name is not configured.
„
Select Show notification message and enter a message in the associated
text box (optional). The message appears at the top of the IVE Bookmarks
page after you save changes and the user refreshes that page. You may
format text and add links using the following HTML tags: <i>, <b>, <br>,
<font>, and <a href>. However, the IVE does not rewrite links on the sign-in
page (since the user has not yet authenticated), so you should only point to
external sites. Links to sites behind a firewall will fail. You may also use IVE
system variables and attributes in this field, as explained in “Using system
variables in realms, roles, and resource policies” on page 869.
NOTE:
„
The length of the personalized greeting cannot exceed 12k, or 12288
characters.
„
If you use unsupported HTML tags in your custom message, the IVE may
display the end user’s IVE home page incorrectly.
10. Choose whether or not you want the copyright notice and label shown in the
footer (optional). This setting applies only to those users whose license permits
disabling the copyright notice. For more information about this feature, call
Juniper Networks Support.
11. Click Save Changes. The changes take effect immediately, but current user
browser sessions may need to be refreshed to see the changes.
12. Click Restore Factory Defaults to reset all user-interface options back to
factory defaults (optional).
Defining default options for user roles
You can define default options for all user roles, just as you can for delegated
administrator roles. The options include, but are not limited to:
„
Session options
„
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Configuring user roles
Session lifetime—Define the idle timeout and maximum session length in
minutes.
Chapter 4: User roles
„
„
Session timeout warning—Determine if warning and login page display.
„
Roaming session—Define level of mobility access.
„
Persistent session—Define state across browser instances.
„
Cookie state at session termination—Define cookie state.
„
Persistent password caching—Define password state across sessions.
„
Browser request follow-through—Define response to browser session
expiration.
„
Basic authentication intermediation—Define intermediation of
authentication.
„
Idle timeout application activity—Define IVE response to application
session activity.
„
Cache Cleaner frequency—Define frequency of Cache Cleaner checking.
UI options
„
Header
„
Sub-headers
„
Start page
„
Bookmarks panel arrangement
„
Help page
„
User toolbar
„
Browsing toolbar
„
Personalized greeting
Defining default options for user roles
To define the default options for all user roles:
1. Choose Users > User Roles.
2. Click Default Options.
3. Modify settings in the Session Options, UI Options, and Custom Messages
tabs using instructions in “Configuring general role options” on page 55 and
“Customizing messages” on page 66.
4. Click Save Changes. These become the new defaults for all new user roles.
Configuring user roles „ 65
Juniper Networks Secure Access Administration Guide
NOTE: If you do not want user roles to see the copyright notice, you can also
deselect the option in the Default Settings for user roles, in general. That way, all
subsequent roles you create do not allow the notice to appear on the end-user UI.
Customizing messages
You can customize three basic messages that may be displayed to your end-users
when they sign in to the IVE. You can change the message text, and you can add
internationalized versions of the messages in Chinese (Simplified), Chinese
(Traditional), French, German, Japanese, Korean, and Spanish, in addition to
English.
To customize messages
1. Select Users > User Roles.
2. In the Roles page, click Default Options.
3. Select the Custom Messages tab.
4. Select the language you want to use from the drop down menu.
5. Enter your text in the Custom Message field, below the default message you
want to override.
6. Click Save Changes.
7. Repeat the process to create messages in additional languages.
Customizing user roles UI views
You can use customization options on the Roles page to quickly view the settings
that are associated with a specific role or set of roles. For instance, you can view all
of the user roles and any Web bookmarks that you have associated with them.
Additionally, you can use these customized views to easily link to the bookmarks
and other configuration settings associated with a role.
To view a sub-set of data on the Roles page:
1. Navigate to Users > User Roles.
2. Select an option from the View menu at the top of the page. For information
about these options, see Table 3.
3. Select one of the following options from the for list:
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Customizing user roles UI views
„
All roles—Displays the selected bookmarks for all user roles.
„
Selected roles—Displays the selected bookmarks for the user roles you
choose. If you select this option, select one or more of the checkboxes in
the Role list.
Chapter 4: User roles
4. Click Update.
Table 3: View menu options
Option
Description
Enabled Settings
Displays a graph outlining the remote access mechanisms and
general options that you have enabled for the specified roles. Also
displays links (the checkmarks) that you can use to access the
corresponding remote access and general option configuration
pages.
Restrictions
Displays Host Checker and Cache Cleaner restrictions that you
have enabled for the specified roles. Also displays links you can use
to access the corresponding Host Checker and Cache Cleaner
configuration pages.
Meetings
Displays Secure Meeting settings that you have configured for the
specified roles. Also displays links you can use to access the
corresponding Secure Meeting configuration pages.
Network Connect
Displays Network Connect settings that you have configured for
the specified roles. Also displays links you can use to access the
corresponding Network Connect configuration pages.
Role Mapping Rule &
Realms
Displays the assigned authentication realms, role mapping rule
conditions, and permissive merge settings for the specified
roles.Also displays links you can use to access the corresponding
realm and role mapping configuration pages.
Bookmarks: All
Displays the names and types of all of the bookmarks that you
have enabled for the specified roles. Also displays links you can use
to access the corresponding bookmark configuration pages. (Note
that if you created a bookmark through a resource profile, the link
appears in the Resource column. Otherwise, the link appears in
the Bookmark column.)
Bookmarks: Web
Displays the Web bookmarks that you have enabled for the
specified roles. Also displays links you can use to access the
corresponding bookmark configuration pages. (Note that if you
created a bookmark through a resource profile, the link appears in
the Resource column. Otherwise, the link appears in the Web
Bookmark column.)
Bookmarks: Files
(Windows)
Displays the Windows File bookmarks that you have enabled for
the specified roles. Also displays links you can use to access the
corresponding bookmark configuration pages. (Note that if you
created a bookmark through a resource profile, the link appears in
the Resource column. Otherwise, the link appears in the Windows
File Bookmark column.)
Bookmarks: Files (UNIX)
Displays the UNIX/NFS File bookmarks that you have enabled for
the specified roles. Also displays links you can use to access the
corresponding bookmark configuration pages. (Note that if you
created a bookmark through a resource profile, the link appears in
the Resource column. Otherwise, the link appears in the UNIX File
Bookmark column.)
Bookmarks: Telnet
Displays the Telnet/SSH bookmarks that you have enabled for the
specified roles. Also displays links you can use to access the
corresponding bookmark configuration pages. (Note that if you
created a bookmark through a resource profile, the link appears in
the Resource column. Otherwise, the link appears in the
Telnet/SSH Session column.)
Customizing user roles UI views
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Juniper Networks Secure Access Administration Guide
Table 3: View menu options
Option
Description
Bookmarks: Terminal
Services
Displays the Terminal Services bookmarks that you have enabled
for the specified roles. Also displays links you can use to access the
corresponding bookmark configuration pages. (Note that if you
created a bookmark through a resource profile, the link appears in
the Resource column. Otherwise, the link appears in the Terminal
Services Session column.)
ACL Resource Policies: All Displays the resource policies that are associated with the specified
roles. Includes the type, name, description, action, and resources
for each policy. Also displays links you can use to access the
corresponding policy configuration pages.
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Customizing user roles UI views
ACL Resource Policies:
Web
Displays the Web resource policies that are associated with the
specified roles. Includes the type, name, description, action, and
resources for each policy. Also displays links you can use to access
the corresponding policy configuration pages.
ACL Resource Policies:
Files (Windows)
Displays the Windows file resource policies that are associated
with the specified roles. Includes the type, name, description,
action, and resources for each policy. Also displays links you can
use to access the corresponding policy configuration pages.
ACL Resource Policies:
Files (UNIX)
Displays the UNIX file resource policies that are associated with the
specified roles. Includes the type, name, description, action, and
resources for each policy. Also displays links you can use to access
the corresponding policy configuration pages.
ACL Resource Policies:
SAM
Displays the JSAM and WSAM resource policies that are associated
with the specified roles. Includes the type, name, description,
action, and resources for each policy. Also displays links you can
use to access the corresponding policy configuration pages.
ACL Resource Policies:
Telnet
Displays the Telnet/SSH resource policies that are associated with
the specified roles. Includes the type, name, description, action,
and resources for each policy. Also displays links you can use to
access the corresponding policy configuration pages.
ACL Resource Policies:
Terminal Services
Displays the Terminal Services resource policies that are associated
with the specified roles. Includes the type, name, description,
action, and resources for each policy. Also displays links you can
use to access the corresponding policy configuration pages.
ACL Resource Policies:
Network Connect
Displays the Network Connect resource policies that are associated
with the specified roles. Includes the type, name, description,
action, and resources for each policy. Also displays links you can
use to access the corresponding policy configuration pages.
Resource Profiles: All
Displays the resource profiles that are associated with the specified
roles. Includes the type, name, bookmarks, and supporting policies
for each profile. Also displays links you can use to access the
corresponding resource profile configuration pages.
Resource Profiles: Web
Applications
Displays the Web application resource profiles that are associated
with the specified roles. Includes the name, bookmarks, and
supporting policies for each profile. Also displays links you can use
to access the corresponding resource profile configuration pages.
Resource Profiles: Web
Hosted Java Applets
Displays the hosted Java applet resource profiles that are
associated with the specified roles. Includes the name, bookmarks,
and supporting policies for each profile. Also displays links you can
use to access the corresponding resource profile configuration
pages.
Chapter 4: User roles
Table 3: View menu options
Option
Description
Resource Profiles: Files
(Windows)
Displays the Windows file resource profiles that are associated
with the specified roles. Includes the name, bookmarks, and
supporting policies for each profile. Also displays links you can use
to access the corresponding resource profile configuration pages.
Resource Profiles: Files
(UNIX)
Displays the UNIX file resource profiles that are associated with the
specified roles. Includes the name, bookmarks, and supporting
policies for each profile. Also displays links you can use to access
the corresponding resource profile configuration pages.
Resource Profiles: SAM
Client Applications
Displays the JSAM and WSAM application resource profiles that are
associated with the specified roles. Includes the name, bookmarks,
and supporting policies for each profile. Also displays links you can
use to access the corresponding resource profile configuration
pages.
Resource Profiles: SAM
WSAM destinations
Displays the WSAM destination resource profiles that are
associated with the specified roles. Includes the name, bookmarks,
and supporting policies for each profile. Also displays links you can
use to access the corresponding resource profile configuration
pages.
Resource Profiles:
Telnet/SSH
Displays the Telnet/SSH resource profiles that are associated with
the specified roles. Includes the name, bookmarks, and supporting
policies for each profile. Also displays links you can use to access
the corresponding resource profile configuration pages.
Resource Profiles:
Terminal Services
Displays the Terminal Services resource profiles that are associated
with the specified roles. Includes the name, bookmarks, and
supporting policies for each profile. Also displays links you can use
to access the corresponding resource profile configuration pages.
Customizing user roles UI views
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Chapter 5
Resource profiles
A resource profile contains all of the resource policies, role assignments, and enduser bookmarks required to provide access to an individual resource. Resource
profiles simplify resource configuration by consolidating the relevant settings for an
individual resource into a single page within the admin console.
The IVE comes with two types of resource profiles:
„
Standard resource profiles enable you to configure settings for a variety of
resource types, such as Web sites, client/server applications, directory servers,
and terminal servers. When you use this method, you choose a profile type that
corresponds to your individual resource and then provide details about the
resource.
„
Resource profile templates enable you to configure settings for specific
applications. When you use this method, you choose a specific application
(such as the Citrix NFuse version 4.0). Then, the IVE pre-populates a variety of
values for you based on your chosen application and prompts you to configure
additional settings as necessary.
NOTE: For administrators who are accustomed to using a pre-5.3 version of the
IVE product, note that you can still use the IVE role and resource policy
framework to create bookmarks and associated policies. We recommend that you
use resource profiles instead, however, since they provide a simpler, more unified
configuration structure.
This section contains the following information about resource profiles:
„
“Licensing: Resource profile availability” on page 72
„
“Task summary: Configuring resource profiles” on page 72
„
“Resource profile components” on page 72
„
“Resource profile templates” on page 79
„
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Juniper Networks Secure Access Administration Guide
Licensing: Resource profile availability
Resource profiles are an integral part of the IVE access management framework,
and therefore are available on all Secure Access products. However, you can only
access resource profile types that correspond to your licensed features. For
instance, if you are using an SA-700 appliance and have not purchased a Core
Clientless Access upgrade license, you cannot create Web resource profiles.
Task summary: Configuring resource profiles
To create resource profiles, you must:
1. Create user roles through the Users > User Roles page of the admin console.
For instructions, see “Configuring user roles” on page 54.
2. Create resource profiles through the Users > Resource Profiles page of the
admin console. When creating the resource profile, specify the resource, create
autopolicies, associate the profile with user roles, and create bookmarks as
necessary. For more information, see “Resource profile components” on
page 72.
Resource profile components
Resource profiles contain the following components:
72
„
„
Resources—When you are defining a resource profile, you must specify the
individual resource that you want to configure (such as your company Intranet
site or a Lotus Notes application). All other major settings within the profile
branch from this resource. You can configure a variety of resource types,
including Web sites, client/server applications, directory servers, and terminal
servers. For more information, see “Defining resources” on page 75.
„
Autopolicies—When you are defining a resource profile, you generally create
autopolicies that establish the access requirements and other settings for the
specified resource. The most common type of autopolicy enables access to the
primary resource defined in the profile. Other policy types (such as
compression and caching autopolicies) “fine-tune” how the IVE handles the
data that it passes to and from the specified resource. For more information,
see “Defining autopolicies” on page 76.
„
Roles—When you are defining a resource profile, you generally associate the
profile with user roles. The specified roles then inherit the autopolicies and
(optionally) the bookmarks defined in the resource profile. For more
information, see “Defining roles” on page 77.
Licensing: Resource profile availability
Chapter 5: Resource profiles
„
Bookmarks—When you are defining a resource profile, you may optionally
create a bookmark that links to the profile’s primary resource (such as your
company intranet’s main page). You can also create additional bookmarks that
link to various sites within the resource’s domain (such as the Sales and
Marketing intranet pages). The IVE displays these bookmarks to users who are
assigned to the user roles that you specify. For more information, see “Defining
bookmarks” on page 78.
The following diagrams illustrate how resource profiles simplify the configuration of
individual resources.
The first diagram shows how to configure resources using roles and resource
policies. Note that to enable a bookmark for multiple user roles, you must manually
re-create the bookmark and enable the appropriate access mechanism for each
role. You must also use a variety of pages in the administrator console to create
associated resource policies enabling access to the resource and other configuration
options.
The second diagram shows how to configure resources using resource profiles.
Note that you can create a bookmark, associate it with multiple user roles, and
create the associated autopolicies enabling access to the resource and other
configuration options through a single section in the administrator console. Also
note that the IVE automatically enables the appropriate access mechanism to the
roles to which you assign the bookmark.
Resource profile components
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Figure 20: Using roles and resource policies to configure resources
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Chapter 5: Resource profiles
Figure 21: Using resource profiles to configure resources
Defining resources
When you are defining a resource profile, you must specify the individual resource
that you want to configure. The type of profile that you choose is dependent on the
type of resource you want to configure, as described in the following table:
Table 4: Resource profile types and configuration information
Use this type of resource To configure this type of
profile:
resource:
For configuration instructions,
see:
Web application/pages
URLs to Web applications, “Defining resource profiles: Custom
Web servers, and Web
Web applications” on page 288
pages; Java applets that are
stored on third party
servers
Hosted java applet
Java applets that you
upload directly to the IVE
“Defining resource profiles: Hosted
Java applets” on page 362
File browsing
Windows and UNIX/NFS
servers, shares, and file
paths
“Defining resource profiles: File
rewriting” on page 371
SAM client application
Client/server applications
“Defining resource profiles: WSAM”
on page 401 and “Defining resource
profiles: JSAM” on page 435
WSAM destination
Destination networks or
servers
“Defining resource profiles: WSAM”
on page 401
Telnet/SSH
Telnet or SSH servers
“Defining resource profiles:
Telnet/SSH” on page 450
Resource profile components
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Table 4: Resource profile types and configuration information
Use this type of resource To configure this type of
profile:
resource:
For configuration instructions,
see:
Terminal Services
“Defining resource profiles: Terminal
Services” on page 470
Windows and Citrix
terminal servers
NOTE: You cannot configure applications through Network Connect using resource profiles.
Instead, you must use roles and resource policies. For more information, see “Network Connect”
on page 521.
When defining resources, you can use IVE variables, such as <user> to dynamically
link users to the correct resources. For instance, you can specify the following Web
resource in order to direct users to their own individual intranet pages:
http://yourcompany.intranet/<user>
Defining autopolicies
When you are defining a resource profile, you generally create autopolicies that
establish the access requirements and other settings for the specified resource. The
most common type of autopolicy enables access to the primary resource defined in
the profile. Other policy types (such as compression and caching autopolicies)
“fine-tune” how the IVE handles the data that it passes to and from the specified
resource.
When creating resource profiles, the IVE only displays those autopolicies that are
relevant to the resource profile type. For instance, you may choose to enable access
to a client/server application through a WSAM resource profile. When you do, the
IVE displays autopolicies that you can use to enable access to the specified
application’s server. On the other hand, the IVE does not display Java access
control autopolicies, since Java settings do not apply to WSAM.
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Chapter 5: Resource profiles
Additionally, the IVE consolidates all of the relevant autopolicy options in a single
page of the user interface, enabling you to understand all of the configuration
possibilities and requirements for any given resource type.
NOTE:
„
Access control autopolicies are generally based on the primary resource that
you define in the resource profile. If you change the profile’s primary
resource, however, the IVE does not necessarily update the corresponding
autopolicies. You should re-evaluate your autopolicies after changing the
profile’s primary resource.
„
For administrators who are accustomed to using a pre-5.3 version of the IVE
product, note that autopolicies are resource policies. The IVE allows you to
sort and order autopolicies along with standard resource policies in the Users
> Resource Policies pages of the admin console. However, the IVE does not
allow you to access more detailed configuration options for autopolicies
through this section of the admin console. Instead, if you want to change the
configuration of an autopolicy, you must access it through the appropriate
resource profile.
„
For administrators who are accustomed to using a pre-5.3 version of the IVE
product, note that you can also automatically create resource policies by
enabling the Auto-allow option at the role level. However, note that we
recommend that you use autopolicies instead, since they directly correspond
to the resource you are configuring rather than all resources of a particular
type. (You may also choose to enable the Auto-allow option for a role-level
feature and create autopolicies for resources of the same type. When you do,
the IVE creates policies for both and displays them in the appropriate
resource policies page of the admin console.)
Defining roles
Within a resource profile, you can assign user roles to the profile. For instance, you
might create a resource profile specifying that members of the “Customers” role
can access your company’s Support Center, while members of the “Evaluators” role
cannot. When you assign user roles to a resource profile, the roles inherit all of the
autopolicies and bookmarks defined in the resource profile.
Since the resource profile framework does not include options for creating roles,
you must create user roles before you can assign them to resource profiles.
However, the resource profile framework does include some user role configuration
options. For instance, if you assign a user role to a Web resource profile, but you
have not enabled Web rewriting for the role, the IVE automatically enables it for
you.
NOTE: Note that you can assign roles to a resource profile through the IVE role
framework as well as the resource profile framework.
Resource profile components
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Defining bookmarks
When you create a resource profile, the IVE generally creates a bookmark that links
to the profile’s primary resource1 (such as your company intranet’s main page).
Optionally, you may also create additional bookmarks that link to various sites
within the primary resource’s domain (such as the Sales and Marketing intranet
pages). When you create these bookmarks, you can assign them to user roles,
thereby controlling which bookmarks users see when they sign into the IVE enduser console.
For example, you may create a resource profile that controls access to your
company intranet. Within the profile, you may specify:
„
Resource profile name: Your Intranet
„
Primary resource: http://intranet.com
„
Web access control autopolicy: Allow access to http://intranet.com:80/*
„
Roles: Sales, Engineering
When you create this policy, the IVE automatically creates a bookmark called “Your
Intranet” enabling access to http://intranet.com and displays the bookmark to
members of the Sales and Engineering roles.
You may then choose to create the following additional bookmarks to associate
with the resource profile:
„
“Sales Intranet” bookmark: Creates a link to the http://intranet.com/sales
page and displays the link to members of the Sales role.
1. WSAM and JSAM resource profiles do not include bookmarks, since the IVE cannot launch the applications
specified in the resource profiles.
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Chapter 5: Resource profiles
„
“Engineering Intranet” bookmark: Creates a link to the
http://intranet.com/engineering page and displays the link to members of the
Engineering role.
NOTE: When configuring bookmarks, note that:
„
You can only assign bookmarks to roles that you have already associated with
the resource profile—not all of the roles defined on the IVE. To change the list
of roles associated with the resource profile, use settings in its Roles tab.
„
Bookmarks simply control which links the IVE displays to users—not which
resources the users can access. For instance, in the example used above, a
member of the Sales role would not see a link to the Engineering Intranet
page, but he could access it by entering http://intranet.com/engineering his
Web browser’s address bar. Similarly, if you delete a bookmark, users can still
access the resource defined in the profile.
„
The IVE allows you to create multiple bookmarks to the same resource. If you
assign duplicate bookmarks to the same user role, however, the IVE only
displays one of them to the users.
„
Bookmarks link to the primary resource that you define in the resource profile
(or a sub-directory of the primary resource). If you change the profile’s
primary resource, the IVE updates the corresponding bookmarks accordingly.
Resource profile templates
Resource profile templates enable you to configure settings for specific
applications. When you use this method, you choose a specific application (such as
the Citrix NFuse version 4.0). Then, the IVE pre-populates a variety of values for
you based on your chosen application and prompts you to configure additional
settings as necessary.
Currently, the IVE includes templates for the following third-party applications:
„
Citrix—For more information, see “Defining resource profiles: Citrix Web
applications” on page 307.
„
Lotus Notes—For more information, see “Defining resource profiles: WSAM”
on page 401 and “Defining resource profiles: JSAM” on page 435.
„
Microsoft Outlook—For more information, see “Defining resource profiles:
WSAM” on page 401 and “Defining resource profiles: JSAM” on page 435.
„
NetBIOS file browsing—For more information, see “Defining resource profiles:
WSAM” on page 401 and “Defining resource profiles: JSAM” on page 435.
Resource profile templates
„
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Chapter 6
Resource policies
A resource policy is a system rule that specifies resources and actions for a
particular access feature. A resource is either a server or file that can be accessed
through an IVE appliance, and an action is to “allow” or “deny” a resource or to
perform or not perform a function. Each access feature has one or more types of
policies, which determine the IVE appliance’s response to a user request or how to
enable an access feature (in the case of Secure Meeting and Email Client). You may
also define detailed rules for a resource policy, which enable you to evaluate
additional requirements for specific user requests.
You can create the following types of resource policies through the Resource
Policies pages of the IVE:
„
Web Resource Policies—The Web resource policies specify the Web resources
to which users may or may not browse. They also contain additional
specifications such as header caching requirements, servers to which java
applets can connect, code-signing certificates that the IVE should use to sign
java applets, resources that the IVE should and should not rewrite, applications
for which the IVE performs minimal intermediation, and single sign-on options.
„
File Resource Policies—The file resource policies specify the Windows, UNIX,
and NFS file resources to which users may or may not browse. hey also contain
additional specifications such as file resources for which users need to provide
additional credentials.
„
Secure Application Manager Resource Policies—The Secure Application
Manager resource policies allow or deny access to applications configured to
use JSAM or WSAM to make socket connections.
„
Telnet/SSH Resource Policies—The Telnet/SSH resource policies allow or deny
access to the specified servers.
„
Terminal Services Policies—The Terminal Services resource policies allow or
deny access to the specified Windows servers or Citrix Metaframe servers.
„
Network Connect Resource Policies—The Network Connect resource policies
allow or deny access to the specified servers and specify IP address pools.
„
Secure Meeting Resource Policies—The Secure Meeting resource policy allows
you to enable various features such as email notifications, session limits,
daylight savings adjustments, and color-depth settings.
„
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Secure Email Client Resource Policies—The Secure Email Client access
resource policy allows you to enable or disable email client support.
NOTE: You can also create resource policies as part of the resource profile
configuration process. In this case, the resource policies are called “advanced
policies.” For more information, see “Resource profiles” on page 71.
This section provides the following information:
„
“Licensing: Resource policies availability” on page 82
„
“Resource policy components” on page 82
„
“Resource policy evaluation” on page 86
„
“Creating detailed rules for resource policies” on page 87
„
“Customizing resource policy UI views” on page 89
Licensing: Resource policies availability
Resource policies are an integral part of the IVE access management framework,
and therefore are available on all Secure Access products. However, you can only
access resource policy types that correspond to your licensed features. For
instance, if you are using an SA-700 appliance and have not purchased a Core
Clientless Access upgrade license, you cannot create Web resource policy.
Resource policy components
A resource policy contains the following information:
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„
„
Resources: A collection of resource names (URLs, host names, or IP
address/netmask combinations) that specifies the resources to which the policy
applies. You can specify a resource using a wildcard prefix to match host
names. The default resource for a policy is star (*), meaning that the policy
applies to all related resources. For more information, see “Specifying
resources for a resource policy” on page 83.
„
Roles: An optional list of user roles to which this policy applies. The default
setting is to apply the policy to all roles.
„
Action: The action for an IVE to take when a user requests the resource
corresponding to the Resource list. An action may specify to allow or deny a
resource or to perform or not perform an action, such as to rewrite Web
content or allow Java socket connections.
Licensing: Resource policies availability
Chapter 6: Resource policies
„
Detailed Rules: An optional list of elements that specifies resource details
(such as a specific URL, directory path, file, or file type) to which you want to
apply a different action or for which you want to evaluate conditions before
applying the action. You can define one or more rules and specify the order in
which the IVE evaluates them. For more information, see “Creating detailed
rules for resource policies” on page 87.
Specifying resources for a resource policy
The IVE platform’s engine that evaluates resource policies requires that the
resources listed in a policy’s Resources list follow a canonical format. This section
describes the canonical formats available for specifying Web, file, and server
resources. When a user tries to access a specific resource, an IVE appliance
compares the requested resource to the resources specified in the corresponding
policies, starting with the first policy in a policy list. When the engine matches a
requested resource to a resource specified in a policy’s Resources list, it then
evaluates further policy constraints and returns the appropriate action to the
appliance (no further policies are evaluated). If no policy applies, then the appliance
evaluates the auto-allow bookmarks (if defined); otherwise the default action for the
policy is returned.
NOTE: You may not see the auto-allow option, if you are using a new installation,
if you use resource profiles rather than resource policies, or if an administrator
has hidden the option. For more information on this option, see “Setting system
options” on page 575.
General notes about the canonical formats
„
If a path component ends with forward-slash_star (/*), then it matches the leaf
node and everything below. If the path component ends with forwardslash_percent (/%), then it matches the leaf node and everything one-level
below only. For example:
„
/intranet/* matches:
/intranet
/intranet/home.html
/intranet/elee/public/index.html
„
/intranet/% matches:
/intranet
/intranet/home.html
but NOT /intranet/elee/public/index.html
„
A resource’s host name and IP address are passed to the policy engine at the
same time. If a server in a policy’s Resources list is specified as an IP address,
then the evaluation is based on the IP address. Otherwise, the engine tries to
match the two host names—it does not perform a reverse-DNS-lookup to
determine the IP.
Resource policy components
„
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„
If a host name in a policy’s Resources list is not fully qualified, such as
“juniper” is specified instead of “intranet.juniper.net”, then the engine
performs the evaluation as-is; no further qualification for the host name is
performed.
Specifying server resources
When specifying server resources for Telnet/SSH, Terminal Services, or Network
Connect resource policies, note the following guidelines.
Canonical format: [protocol://] host [:ports]
The components are:
„
Protocol (optional)—Possible case-insensitive values:
„
tcp
„
udp
„
icmp
If the protocol is missing, then all protocols are assumed. If a protocol is
specified, then the delimiter “://” is required. No special characters are
allowed.
NOTE: Available only to Network Connect policies. For other access feature
resource policies, such as Secure Application Manager and Telnet/SSH, it is invalid
to specify this component.
„
Host (required)—Possible values:
„
IP address/Netmask—The IP address needs to be in the format: a.b.c.d
The netmask may be in one of two formats:
‰
Prefix: High order bits
‰
IP: a.b.c.d
For example: 10.11.149.2/24 or 10.11.149.2/255.255.255.0
No special characters are allowed.
„
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Resource policy components
DNS Hostname—For example: www.juniper.com
Chapter 6: Resource policies
Special characters allowed include:
Table 5: DNS Hostname Special Characters
*
Matches ALL characters
%
Matches any character except dot (.)
?
Matches exactly one character
NOTE: You cannot specify a host name for a Network Connect resource policy.
You can only specify an IP address.
„
Ports (optional)—Possible values:
Table 6: Port possible values
*
Matches ALL ports; no other special characters are allowed
port[,port]*
A comma-delimited list of single ports. Valid port numbers are [165535].
[port1]-[port2]
A range of ports, from port1 to port2, inclusive.
NOTE: You may mix port lists and port ranges, such as: 80,443,8080-8090
If the port is missing, then the default port 80 is assigned for http, 443 for https.
If a port is specified, then the delimiter “:” is required. For example:
<username>.danastreet.net:5901-5910
10.10.149.149:22,23
tcp://10.11.0.10:80
udp://10.11.0.10:*
NOTE: If you configure IPsec enforcement for an that has multiple interfaces in
the source zone, the configures a unique IKE gateway, VPN, and tunnel policy for
each interface. To distinguish between the tunnel policies, the displays the name
of the vpn for each tunnel policy in the VPN column on the page after you click
Save Changes.
Resource policy components
„
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Resource policy evaluation
When an IVE appliance receives a user request, it evaluates the resource policies
corresponding to the type of request. When it processes the policy that corresponds
to the requested resource, it applies the specified action to the request. This action
is defined on the policy’s General tab or Detailed Rules tab. For example, if a user
requests a Web page, the IVE knows to use the Web resource policies. In the case
of Web requests, the IVE always starts with the Web Rewriting policies (Selective
Rewriting and Pass through Proxy) to determine whether or not to handle the
request. If none of these policies applies (or none is defined), the IVE then evaluates
the Web Access policies until it finds one that pertains to the requested resource.
An IVE appliance evaluates a set of resource policies for an access feature from the
top down, meaning that it starts with the policy numbered one and then continues
down the policy list until it finds a matching policy. If you defined detailed rules for
the matching policy, the IVE evaluates the rules from the top down, starting with
the rule numbered one and stopping when it finds a matching resource in the rule’s
Resource list. The following diagram illustrates the general steps of policy
evaluation:
Figure 22: Resource policy evaluation steps
Details regarding each evaluation step:
1. The IVE receives a user request and evaluates the user’s session role to
determine if the corresponding access feature is enabled. A user’s “session
role” is based on either the role or roles to which the user is assigned during the
authentication process. The access features enabled for a user are determined
by an authentication realm’s role mapping configuration. (For more
information, see “User role evaluation” on page 52.)
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Chapter 6: Resource policies
2. The IVE determines which policies match the request. The IVE evaluates the
resource policies related to the user request, sequentially processing each
policy until finding the one whose resource list and designated roles match the
request. (If you configure the IVE using resource profiles, the IVE evaluates the
advanced policies that you configure as part of the resource profile.)
The Web and file access features have more than one type of policy, so the IVE
first determines the type of request (such as to a Web page, Java applet, or
UNIX file) and then evaluates the policies related to the request. In the case of
the Web access feature, the Rewriting policies are evaluated first for every Web
request. The remaining five access features—Secure Application Manager,
Secure Terminal Access, Secure Meeting, and Secure Email Client—have only
one resource policy.
3. The IVE evaluates and executes the rules specified in the matching policies.
You can configure policy rules to do two things:
„
Specify resources to which an action applies at a more granular level. For
example, if you specify a Web server in the main policy settings for a Web
Access resource policy, you can define a detailed rule that specifies a
particular path on this server and then change the action for this path.
„
Require the user to meet specific conditions written as boolean
expressions or custom expressions in order to apply the action. for more
information, see “Creating detailed rules for resource policies” on page 87).
4. The IVE stops processing resource policies as soon as the requested resource is
found in a policy’s Resource list or detailed rule. .
NOTE: If you use automatic (time-based) dynamic policy evaluation or you
perform a manual policy evaluation, the IVE repeats the resource evaluation
process described in this section. For more information, see “Dynamic policy
evaluation” on page 40.
Creating detailed rules for resource policies
The Web, file, Secure Application Manager, Telnet/SSH, and Network Connect
access features enable you to specify resource policies for individual Web, file,
application, and telnet servers. The Secure Meeting and Email Client access
features each have one policy that applies globally. For these two policies, you
specify server settings that are used for every role that enables these access
features. For all other access features, you can specify any number of resource
polices, and for each, you can define one or more detailed rules.
A detailed rule is a an extension of a resource policy that may specify:
„
Additional1 resource information—such as a specific path, directory, file, or file
type—for resources listed on the General tab.
1. Note that you may also specify the same resource list (as on the General tab) for a detailed rule if the only
purpose of the detailed rule is to apply conditions to a user request.
Creating detailed rules for resource policies
„
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„
An action different from that specified on the General tab (although the options
are the same).
„
Conditions that must be true in order for the detailed rule to apply.
In many cases, the base resource policy—that is, the information specified on the
General tab of a resource policy—provides sufficient access control for a resource:
If a user belonging to the (defined_roles) tries to access the (defined_resources),
DO the specified (resource_action).
You may want to define one or more detailed rules for a policy when you want
perform an action based on a combination of other information, which can include:
„
A resource’s properties, such as its header, content-type, or file type
„
A user’s properties, such as the user’s username and roles to which the user
maps
„
A session’s properties, such as the user’s source IP or browser type, whether
the user is running Host Checker or Cache Cleaner, the time of day, and
certificate attributes
Detailed rules add flexibility to resource access control by enabling you to leverage
existing resource and permission information to specify different requirements for
different users to whom the base resource policy applies.
Writing a detailed rule
Detailed rules add flexibility to resource access control by enabling you to leverage
existing resource and permission information to specify different requirements for
different users to whom the base resource policy applies.
To write a detailed rule for a resource policy:
1. On the New Policy page for a resource policy, enter the required resource and
role information.
2. In the Action section, select Use Detailed Rules and then click Save Changes.
3. On the Detailed Rules tab, click New Rule.
4. On the Detailed Rule page:
a.
In the Action section, configure the action you want to perform if the user
request matches a resource in the Resource list (optional). Note that the
action specified on the General tab is carried over by default.
b. In the Resources section, specify any of the following (required):
‰
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Creating detailed rules for resource policies
The same or a partial list of the resources specified on the General tab.
Chapter 6: Resource policies
c.
‰
A specific path or file on the server(s) specified on the General tab,
using wildcards when appropriate. For information about how to use
wildcards within a Resources list, see the documentation for the
corresponding resource policy.
‰
A file type, preceded by a path if appropriate or just specify
*/*.file_extension to indicate files with the specified extension within
any path on the server(s) specified on the General tab.
In the Conditions section, specify one or more expressions to evaluate in
order to perform the action (optional):
‰
Boolean expressions: Using system variables, write one or more
boolean expressions using the NOT, OR, or AND operators. See
“System variables and examples” on page 860 for a list of variables
available in resource policies.
‰
Custom expressions: Using the custom expression syntax, write one or
more custom expressions. See “Custom expressions” on page 855 for
syntax and variable information. Note that custom expressions are
available only with the Advanced license.
NOTE: You can use the <USER> substitution variable in ACLs for web pages, telnet,
files, and SAM. You cannot use the variable in Network Connect ACLs.
d. Click Save Changes.
5. On the Detailed Rules tab, order the rules according to how you want the IVE
to evaluate them. Keep in mind that once the IVE matches the resource
requested by the user to a resource in a rule’s Resource list, it performs the
specified action and stops processing rules (and other resource policies).
Customizing resource policy UI views
You can limit which resource policies the IVE displays on any given resource policy
page based on user roles. For instance, you can configure the Users > Resource
Policies > Web page of the admin console to only display those resource policies
that are assigned to the “Sales” user role.
To control which resource policies the IVE displays:
1. Navigate to Users > Resource Policies > Policy Type.
2. From the Show all policies that apply to list, select All Roles or an individual
role.
3. Click Update. The IVE displays resource policies that are assigned to the
selected roles.
Customizing resource policy UI views
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Customizing resource policy UI views
Chapter 7
Authentication and directory servers
An authentication server is a database that stores user credentials—username and
password—and typically group information. When a user signs in to the IVE, the
user specifies an authentication realm, which is associated with an authentication
server. If the user meets the realm’s authentication policy, the IVE forwards the
user’s credentials to the associated authentication server. The authentication
server’s job is to verify that the user exists and is who she claims to be. After
verifying the user, the authentication server sends approval to the IVE and, if the
realm also uses the server as a directory/attribute server, the user’s group
information or other user attribute information. The IVE then evaluates the realm’s
role mapping rules to determine to which user roles the user may be mapped.
The Juniper Networks Instant Virtual Extranet platform supports the most common
authentication servers, including Windows NT Domain, Active Directory, RADIUS,
LDAP, NIS, RSA ACE/Server, and eTrust SiteMinder, and enables you to create one
or more local databases of users who are authenticated by the IVE. For server
overview and configuration information, see “Authentication and directory servers”
on page 91.
A directory server is a database that stores user and typically group information.
You can configure an authentication realm to use a directory server to retrieve user
or group information for use in role mapping rules and resource policies. Currently,
the IVE supports LDAP servers for this purpose, which means you can use an LDAP
server for both authentication and authorization. You simply need to define one
server instance, and then the LDAP server’s instance name appears in both the
Authentication and Directory/Attribute drop-down lists on a realm’s General tab.
You can use the same server for any number of realms.
In addition to LDAP, you can use a RADIUS or SiteMinder server for retrieving user
attributes that can be used in role mapping rules. Unlike an LDAP server instance,
however, a RADIUS or SiteMinder server instance name does not appear in a
realm’s Directory/Attribute drop-down list. To use a RADIUS or SiteMinder server
to retrieve user information, you simply choose its instance name in the
Authentication list and then choose Same as Above in the Directory/Attribute list.
Then, you configure role mapping rules to use attributes from the RADIUS or
SiteMinder server, which the IVE provides in an attribute list on the Role Mapping
Rule page after you select Rule based on User attribute.
This section contains the following information about authentication and directory
servers:
„
“Licensing: Authentication server availability” on page 92
„
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„
“Task summary: Configuring authentication servers” on page 92
„
“Defining an authentication server instance” on page 93
„
“Configuring an anonymous server instance” on page 94
„
“Configuring an ACE/Server instance” on page 96
„
“Configuring an Active Directory or NT Domain instance” on page 99
„
“Configuring a certificate server instance” on page 105
„
“Configuring an LDAP server instance” on page 106
„
“Configuring a local authentication server instance” on page 115
„
“Configuring an NIS server instance” on page 120
„
“Configuring a RADIUS server instance” on page 120
„
“Configuring an eTrust SiteMinder server instance” on page 133
„
“Configuring a SAML Server instance” on page 156
Licensing: Authentication server availability
Authentication servers are an integral part of the IVE access management
framework, and therefore available on all Secure Access products. Note, however,
that the eTrust Siteminder server is not available on the SA 700 appliance and is
only available on other Secure Access appliances with an Advanced license.
Task summary: Configuring authentication servers
To specify an authentication server that a realm may use, you must first configure a
server instance on the Authentication > Auth. Servers page. When you save the
server’s settings, the server name (the name assigned to the instance) appears on
the realm’s General tab in the Authentication drop-down list. If the server is a(n):
„
LDAP or Active Directory server—The instance name also appears in the
Directory/Attribute drop-down list on the realm’s General tab. You may use
the same LDAP or Active Directory server for both authentication and
authorization for a realm, as well as use these servers for authorization for any
number of realms that use different authentication servers.
„
RADIUS server—The instance name also appears in the Accounting dropdown list on the realm’s General tab. You may use the same RADIUS server for
both authentication and accounting for a realm, as well as use these servers for
accounting for any number of realms that use different authentication servers.
To configure authentication servers:
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1. Set up your authentication/authorization server using instructions from the
provider.
2. Create an instance of the server starting at the Authentication >
Authentication > Auth. Servers page in the admin console.
3. Create an authentication realm using settings in the Users > User Realms or
Administrators > Admin Realms page of the admin console. For instructions,
see “Creating an authentication realm” on page 166.
4. Local authentication servers only: Add users to the server using settings in the
Authentication > Auth. Servers > Select Local Server > Users page of the
admin console. For instructions, see “Creating user accounts on a local
authentication server” on page 117.
5. Password management only: set up password management options using
instructions in “Enabling LDAP password management” on page 111.
NOTE: An authentication server must be able to contact the IVE. If an
authentication server such as RSA ACE/Server does not use IP addresses for the
agent hosts, the authentication server must be able to resolve the IVE host name,
either through a DNS entry or an entry in the authentication server’s host file.
NOTE: When determining which server type to select:
„
You can only create one eTrust Siteminder server instance per IVE.
„
If you authenticate your Active Directory server with:
„
„
NTLM protocol—Choose Active Directory/Windows NT Domain. For
more information, see “Configuring an ACE/Server instance” on page 96.
„
LDAP protocol—Choose LDAP Server. For more information, see
“Configuring an LDAP server instance” on page 106.
If you are creating a local authentication server instance to authenticate user
administrators, you must select Local Authentication. For more information,
see “Configuring a local authentication server instance” on page 115.
Defining an authentication server instance
Use the Auth. Servers page to define authentication server instances.
Authentication servers authenticate user credentials and authorization servers
provide user information that the IVE uses to determine user privileges within the
system. For example, you can specify a certificate server instance to authenticate
users based on their client-side certificate attributes and then create an LDAP server
instance to authorize the users based on values contained within a CRL (certificate
revocation list). For more information about authentication servers, see
“Authentication and directory servers” on page 91.
Defining an authentication server instance
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This section contains the following information about authentication servers:
„
“Defining an authentication server instance” on page 94
„
“Modifying an existing authentication server instance” on page 94
Defining an authentication server instance
To define an authentication server instance:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Auth. Servers.
2. Choose a server type from the New drop down menu.
3. Click New Server.
4. Depending on which server you selected, specify settings for the individual
server instance.
5. Specify which realms should use the server to authenticate and authorize
administrators and users. For more information, see “Defining authentication
policies” on page 168.
6. If you are configuring the local authentication server, define local user
accounts. For instructions, see “Configuring a local authentication server
instance” on page 115.
Modifying an existing authentication server instance
To modify an authentication server instance:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Auth. Servers.
2. Click the link to the server you want to modify.
3. Make your modifications on the appropriate server page.
4. Click Save Changes.
Configuring an anonymous server instance
The anonymous server feature allows users to access the IVE without providing a
username or password. Instead, when a user enters the URL of a sign-in page that
is configured to authenticate against an anonymous server, the IVE bypasses the
standard IVE sign-in page, and immediately displays the IVE welcome page to the
user.
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Chapter 7: Authentication and directory servers
You may choose to use anonymous authentication if you think that the resources
on the IVE do not require extreme security, or if you think that other security
measures provided through the IVE are sufficient. For example, you may create a
user role with limited access to internal resources, and then authenticate that role
with a policy that only requires users to sign in from an IP address that resides
within your internal network. This method presumes that if a user can access your
internal network, s/he is qualified to view the limited resources provided through
the user role.
This section contains the following information about anonymous servers:
„
“Anonymous server restrictions” on page 95
„
“Defining an anonymous server instance” on page 95
Anonymous server restrictions
When defining and monitoring an anonymous server instance, note that:
„
You can only add one anonymous server configuration.
„
You cannot authenticate administrators using an anonymous server.
„
During configuration, you must choose the anonymous server as both the
authentication server and the directory/attribute server in the Users > User
Realms > General tab. For more information, see “Creating an authentication
realm” on page 166.
„
When creating role mapping rules through the Users > User Realms > Role
Mapping tab (as explained in “Creating role mapping rules” on page 169), the
IVE does not allow you to create mapping rules that apply to specific users
(such as “Joe”), since the anonymous server does not collect username
information. You can only create role mapping rules based on a default
username (*), certificate attributes, or custom expressions.
„
For security reasons, you may want to limit the number of users who sign in
through an anonymous server at any given time. To do this, use the option on
the Users > User Realms > [Realm] > Authentication Policy > Limits tab
(where [Realm] is the realm that is configured to use the anonymous server to
authenticate users). For more information, see “Specifying limits restrictions”
on page 49.
„
You cannot view and delete the sessions of anonymous users through a Users
tab (as you can with other authentication servers), because the IVE cannot
display individual session data without collecting usernames.
Defining an anonymous server instance
To define an anonymous server:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Auth. Servers.
Configuring an anonymous server instance
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2. Do one of the following:
„
To create a new server instance on the IVE, select Anonymous Server
from the New list, and then click New Server.
„
To update an existing server instance, click the appropriate link in the
Authentication/Authorization Servers list.
3. Specify a name to identify the server instance.
4. Click Save Changes.
5. Specify which realms should use the server to authorize users. For more
information, see “Defining authentication policies” on page 168.
Configuring an ACE/Server instance
When authenticating users with an RSA ACE/Server, users may sign in using two
methods:
„
Using a hardware token and the standard IVE sign-in page—The user
browses to the standard IVE sign-in page, then enters her username and
password (consisting of the concatenation of her PIN and her RSA SecurID
hardware token’s current value). The IVE then forwards the user’s credentials
to ACE/Server.
„
Using a software token and the custom SoftID IVE sign-in page—The user
browses to the SoftID custom sign-in page. Then, using the SoftID plug-in, she
enters her username and PIN. The SoftID plug-in generates a pass phrase by
concatenating the user’s PIN and token and passes the pass phrase to the IVE.
For information about enabling the SoftID custom sign-in pages, the Custom
Sign-In Pages Solution Guide.
If ACE/Server positively authenticates the user, she gains access to the IVE.
Otherwise, the ACE/Server:
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„
Denies the user access to the system if the user’s credentials were not
recognized.
„
Prompts the user to generate a new PIN (New PIN mode) if the user is signing
in to the IVE for the first time. (The user sees different prompts depending on
the method she uses to sign in. If the user signs in using the SoftID plug-in, she
sees the RSA prompts for creating a new pin; otherwise the user sees the IVE
prompts.)
„
Prompts the user to enter her next token (Next Token mode) if the token
entered by the user is out of sync with the token expected by ACE/Server. (Next
Token mode is transparent to users signing in using a SoftID token. The RSA
SecurID software passes the token through the IVE to ACE/Server without user
interaction.)
Configuring an ACE/Server instance
Chapter 7: Authentication and directory servers
„
Redirects the user to the standard IVE sign-in page (SoftID only) if the user tries
to sign-in to the RSA SecurID Authentication page on a computer that does
not have the SecurID software installed.
When a user enters the New PIN or Next Token mode, she has three minutes to
enter the required information before the IVE cancels the transaction and notifies
the user to re-enter her credentials.
The IVE can handle a maximum of 200 ACE/Server transactions at any given time.
A transaction only lasts as long as is required to authenticate against the
ACE/Server. For example, when a user signs into the IVE, the ACE/Server
transaction is initiated when the user submits her request for authentication and
ends once the ACE/Server has finished processing the request. The user may then
keep her IVE session open, even though her ACE/Server transaction is closed.
The IVE supports the following ACE/Server features: New PIN mode, Next Token
mode, DES/SDI encryption, AES encryption, slave ACE/Server support, name
locking, and clustering. The IVE also supports the New PIN and Next Token modes
of RSA SecurID through the RADIUS protocol.
NOTE: Due to UNIX limitations of the ACE/Server library, you may define only one
ACE/Server configuration. For information on generating an ACE/Agent
configuration file for the IVE on the ACE server, see “Generating an ACE/Agent
configuration file” on page 98.
This section contains the following information about ACE/Servers:
„
“Defining an ACE/Server instance” on page 97
„
“Generating an ACE/Agent configuration file” on page 98
Defining an ACE/Server instance
NOTE: You can add only one ACE/Server instance.
To define an ACE/Server:
1. Generate an ACE/Agent configuration file (sdconf.rec) for the IVE on the ACE
server. For more information, see “Generating an ACE/Agent configuration file”
on page 98.
2. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Auth. Servers.
3. Do one of the following:
„
To create a new server instance on the IVE, select ACE Server from the
New list, and then click New Server.
„
To update an existing server instance, click the appropriate link in the
Authentication/Authorization Servers list.
4. Specify a name to identify the server instance.
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5. Specify a default port the ACE Port field. Note that the IVE only uses this setting
if no port is specified in the sdconf.rec file.
6. Import the RSA ACE/Agent configuration file. Make sure to update this file on
the IVE anytime you make changes to the source file. Likewise, if you delete
the instance file from the IVE, go to the ACE Server Configuration Management
application, as described in “Generating an ACE/Agent configuration file” on
page 98, and remove the check from the Sent Node Secret checkbox.
7. Click Save Changes. If you are creating the server instance for the first time,
the Settings and Users tabs appear.
8. Specify which realms should use the server to authenticate and authorize
administrators and users. For more information, see “Defining authentication
policies” on page 168.
NOTE: For information about monitoring and deleting the sessions of users who
are currently signed in through the server, see “Monitoring active users” on
page 686.
Generating an ACE/Agent configuration file
If you use ACE/Server for authentication, you must generate an ACE/Agent
configuration file (sdconf.rec) for the IVE on the ACE Server.
To generate an ACE/Agent configuration file:
1. Start the ACE/Server Configuration Management application and click Agent
Host.
2. Click Add Agent Host.
3. For Name, enter a name for the IVE agent.
4. For Network Address, enter the IP address of the IVE.
5. Enter a Site configured on your ACE server.
6. For Agent Type, select Communication Server.
7. For Encryption Type, select DES.
8. Verify that Sent Node Secret is not selected (when creating a new agent).
The first time that the ACE server successfully authenticates a request sent by
the IVE, the ACE server selects Sent Node Secret. If you later want the ACE
server to send a new Node Secret to the IVE on the next authentication request,
do the following:
a.
Click the Sent Node Secret checkbox to uncheck it.
b. Sign in to the admin console and choose Authentication > Auth. Servers.
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c.
Click the name of the ACE server in the Authentication/Authorization
Servers list.
d. Under Node Verification File, select the appropriate checkbox and click
Delete. These steps ensure that the IVE and ACE server are in sync.
Likewise, if you delete the verification file from the IVE, you should
uncheck the Sent Node Secret checkbox on the ACE server.
9. Click Assign Acting Servers and select your ACE server.
10. Click Generate Config File. When you add the ACE server to the IVE, you will
import this configuration file.
Configuring an Active Directory or NT Domain instance
When authenticating users with an NT Primary Domain Controller (PDC) or Active
Directory, users sign in to the IVE using the same username and password they use
to access their Windows desktops. The IVE supports Windows NT authentication
and Active Directory using NTLM or Kerberos authentication.
If you configure a native Active Directory server, you may retrieve group
information from the server for use in a realm’s role mapping rules. In this case,
you specify the Active Directory server as the realm’s authentication server, and
then you create a role mapping rule based on group membership. The IVE displays
all groups from the configured domain controller and its trusted domains.
The IVE provides separate checkboxes for each of the primary authentication
protocols: Kerberos, NTLMv2, and NTLMv1, allowing you to select or ignore each of
these protocols independent of one another. This more granular control of the
authentication process avoids unnecessarily raising the failed login count policy in
Active Directory and lets you fine-tune the protocols based on your system
requirements.
Configuring an Active Directory or NT Domain instance
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See “Creating role mapping rules” on page 169 for more information.
NOTE:
„
The IVE honors trust relationships in Active Directory and Windows NT
environments.
„
When sending user credentials to an Active Directory authentication server,
the IVE uses whichever authentication protocol(s) you specify on the New
Active Directory/Windows NT page. The IVE defaults to the authentication
protocols in order. In other words, if you have selected the checkboxes for
Kerberos and NTLMv2, the IVE sends the credentials to Kerberos. If Kerberos
succeeds, the IVE does not send the credentials to NTLMv2. If Kerberos is not
supported or fails, the IVE uses NTLMv2 as the next protocol in order. The
configuration sets up a cascading effect if you choose to use it by setting
multiple checkboxes.For more information, see “Defining resource policies:
UNIX/NFS file resources” on page 389.
„
The IVE supports Domain Local Groups, Domain Global Groups, and Universal
Groups defined in the Active Directory forest. It also supports Domain Local
and Domain Global groups for NT4 servers.
„
The IVE allows only Active Directory security groups, not distribution groups.
Security groups allow you to use one type of group for not only assigning
rights and permissions, but also as a distribution list for email.
This section contains the following information about Active Directory and NT
Domain servers:
„
“Defining an Active Directory or Windows NT domain server instance” on
page 100
„
“Multi-domain user authentication” on page 102
„
“Active Directory and NT group lookup support” on page 104
Defining an Active Directory or Windows NT domain server instance
To define an Active Directory or Windows NT Domain server:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Auth. Servers.
2. Do one of the following:
„
To create a new server instance on the IVE, select Active Directory/
Windows NT from the New list and then click New Server.
„
To update an existing server instance, click the appropriate link in the
Authentication/Authorization Servers list.
3. Specify a name to identify the server instance.
4. Specify the name or IP address for the primary domain controller or Active
Directory server.
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5. Specify the IP address of your back-up domain controller or Active Directory
server. (optional)
6. Enter the domain name of the Active Directory or Windows NT domain. For
example, if the Active Directory domain name is us.amr.asgqa.net and you
want to authenticate users who belong to the US domain, enter US in the
domain field.
7. If you want to specify a computer name, enter it into the Computer Name
field. The computer name field is where you specify the name that the IVE uses
to join the specified Active Directory domain as a computer. Otherwise, leave
the default identifier which uniquely identifies your system.
NOTE: You may note that the computer name is pre-filled with an entry in the
format of vcNNNNHHHHHHHH, where, in an IVS system, the NNNN is the IVS ID
(assuming you have an IVS license) and the HHHHHHHH is a hex representation of
the IP address of the IVE. A unique name, either the one provided by default or
one of your own choosing, you can more easily identify your systems in the
Active Directory. In a non-IVS system, the first six characters of the name will be
‘vc0000’ because there is no IVS ID to display. For example, the name could be
something like ‘vc0000a1018dF2’ for a non-IVS system.
In a clustered environment with the same AD authentication server, this name is
also unique among all cluster nodes, and the IVE displays all of the identifiers for
all attached cluster nodes.
8. Select the Allow domain to be specified as part of username checkbox to
allow users to sign in by entering a domain name in the Username field in the
format: domain\username
9. Select the Allow trusted domains checkbox to get group information from all
trusted domains within a forest.
10. For Admin Username and Admin Password, enter an administrator username
and password for the AD or NT server.
NOTE:
„
Make sure the administrator you specify is a domain administrator in the
same domain as the AD or NT server.
„
Do not include a domain name with the server administrator username in the
Admin Username field.
„
After you save changes, the IVE masks the administrator password using five
asterisk characters, regardless of the password length.
Configuring an Active Directory or NT Domain instance
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11. Under Authentication Protocol, specify which protocol the IVE should use
during authentication.
12. Under Kerberos Realm Name:
„
Select Use LDAP to get Kerberos realm name if you want the IVE to
retrieve the Kerberos realm name from the Active Directory server using
the specified administrator credentials.
„
Enter the Kerberos realm name in the Specify Kerberos realm name field
if you know the realm name.
13. Click Test Configuration to verify the Active Directory server configuration
settings, such as do the specified domain exists, are the specified controllers
Active Directory domain controllers, does the selected authentication protocol
work, and so forth. (optional)
14. Click Save Changes. If you are creating the server instance for the first time,
the Settings and Users tabs appear.
15. Specify which realms should use the server to authenticate and authorize
administrators and users. For more information, see “Creating an
authentication realm” on page 166.
NOTE:
„
For information about monitoring and deleting the sessions of users who are
currently signed in through the server, see “Monitoring active users” on
page 686.
„
The admin console provides last access statistics for each user account on
various Users tabs throughout the console, under a set of columns titled Last
Sign-in Statistic. The statistics reported include the last successful sign-in date
and time for each user, the user’s IP address, and the agent or browser type
and version.
Multi-domain user authentication
The IVE allows for multi-domain Active Directory and Windows NT authentication.
The IVE authenticates users in the domain you configure on the Authentication >
Auth. Servers > New Active Directory / Windows NT page, users in child
domains, and users in all domains trusted by the configured domain.
After you specify the address of a domain controller and a default domain in the
IVE Active Directory server configuration, users in the default domain authenticate
to the IVE using either just their username, or using the default domain plus
username in the format defaultdomain\username.
When you enable trusted domain authentication, users in trusted or child domains
authenticate to the IVE using the name of the trusted or child domain plus the
username in the format trusteddomain\username. Note that enabling trusted
domain authentication adds to the server’s response time.
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Windows 2000 and Windows 2003 multi-domain authentication
The IVE supports Kerberos-based Active Directory authentication with Windows
2000 and Windows 2003 domain controllers. When a user logs in to the IVE, the
IVE performs Kerberos authentication and attempts to fetch the Kerberos realm
name for the domain controller, as well as all child and trusted realms, using LDAP
calls.
You can alternately specify the Kerberos realm name when configuring an Active
Directory authentication server, but we do not recommend this method for two
reasons:
„
You cannot specify more than one realm name. The IVE cannot then
authenticate against child or trusted realms of the realm you specify.
„
If you misspell the realm name, the IVE cannot authenticate users against the
proper realm.
Windows NT4 multi-domain authentication
The IVE does not support Kerberos-based authentication in Windows NT4 domain
controllers. Instead of Kerberos authentication, the IVE uses NTLM authentication.
NOTE:
„
For user authentication, the IVE joins the default domain controller server
using the machine name in the format <IVE-IPaddress>.
„
If the DNS configuration on the Windows NT4 domain controller changes,
make sure that the IVE can still resolve names (child and trusted domains)
using either WINS, DNS, or the Hosts file, that were able to resolve the names
prior to the configuration change.
NT user normalization
In order to support multi-domain authentication, the IVE uses “normalized” NT
credentials when contacting an Active Directory or NT4 domain controller for
authentication. Normalized NT credentials include both the domain name and the
username: domain\username. Regardless of how the user signs in to the IVE, either
using just a username or using the domain\username format, the IVE always treats
the username in the domain\username format.
When a user attempts to authenticate using only their username, the IVE always
normalizes their NT credentials as defaultdomain\username. Authentication
succeeds only if the user is a member of the default domain.
For a user who signs to the IVE using the domain\username format, the IVE always
attempts to authenticate the user as members of the domain the user specifies.
Authentication succeeds only if the user-specified domain is a trusted or child
domain of the default domain. If the user specifies an invalid or untrusted domain,
authentication fails.
Configuring an Active Directory or NT Domain instance
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Two variables, <NTUser> and <NTDomain>, allow you to individually refer to
domain and NT username values. The IVE populates these two variables with the
domain and NT username information.
NOTE: When using pre-existing role mapping rules or writing a new role mapping
rule for Active Directory authentication where USER = someusername, the IVE
treats this rule semantically as NTUser = someusername AND NTDomain =
defaultdomain. This allows the IVE to work seamlessly with pre-existing role
mapping rules.
Active Directory and NT group lookup support
The IVE supports user group lookup in Domain Local, Domain Global, and Universal
groups in the Active Directory forest, and Domain Local, and Domain Global groups
for NT4 servers.
NOTE: For the NT/AD group lookup to work, the IVE first tries to join the domain
using the default computer name. For this operation to succeed, you must specify
valid domain administrator credentials in the Active Directory server
configuration on the IVE.
Active Directory lookup requirements
The IVE supports user group lookup in Domain Local, Domain Global, and Universal
groups in the default domain, child domains, and all trusted domains. The IVE
obtains group membership using one of three methods that have different
capabilities:
„
Group information in User’s Security Context—Returns information about a
user’s Domain Global groups.
„
Group information obtained using LDAP search calls—Returns information
about the user’s Domain Global groups, and information about the user’s
Universal groups if the IVE queries the Global Catalog Server.
„
Group information using native RPC calls—Returns information about the
user’s Domain Local Group.
With respect to role mapping rules, The IVE attempts group lookup in the following
order:
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„
„
The IVE checks for all Domain Global groups using the user’s security context.
„
If the IVE has not found that the user is a member of some of the groups
referenced in the role mapping rules, the IVE performs an LDAP query to
determine the user’s group membership.
„
If the IVE has not found that the user is a member of some of the groups
referenced in the role mapping rules, the IVE performs an RPC lookup to
determine the user’s Domain Local group membership.
Configuring an Active Directory or NT Domain instance
Chapter 7: Authentication and directory servers
NT4 group lookup requirements
The IVE supports group lookup in the Domain Local and Domain Global groups
created in the default domain, as well as all child, and other trusted domains. The
IVE obtains Domain Global group information from the user’s security context, and
Domain Local information using RPC calls. The IVE uses no LDAP-based search
calls in the NT4 environment.
Configuring a certificate server instance
The certificate server feature allows users to authenticate based on attributes
contained in client-side certificates. You may use certificate server by itself or in
conjunction with another server to authenticate users and map them to roles.
For example, you may choose to authenticate users solely based on their certificate
attributes. If the IVE determines that the user’s certificate is valid, it signs the user
in based on the certificate attributes you specify and does not prompt the user to
enter a username or password.
Or, you may choose to authenticate users by passing their client-side certificate
attributes to a second authentication server (such as LDAP). In this scenario, the
certificate server first determines if the user’s certificate is valid. Then, the IVE can
use realm-level role-mapping rules to compare the certificate attributes with the
user’s LDAP attributes. If it cannot find the proper match, the IVE can deny or limit
the user’s access based on your specifications.
NOTE: When using client-side certificates, we strongly recommend that you train
your end-users to close their Web browsers after signing out of the IVE. If they do
not, other users may be able to use their open browser sessions to access
certificate-protected resources on the IVE without re-authenticating. (After loading
a client-side certificate, both Internet Explorer and Netscape cache the certificate’s
credentials and private key. The browsers keep this information cached until the
user closes the browser (or in some cases, until the user reboots the workstation).
For details, see: http://support.microsoft.com/?kbid=290345.) To remind users to
close their browsers, you may modify the sign out message in the Authentication
> Authentication > Signing In Pages tab.
When defining a certificate server on the IVE, you must perform the following
steps:
1. Use settings in the System > Configuration > Certificates > CA Certificates
tab to import the CA certificate used to sign the client-side certificates.
2. Create a certificate server instance:
a.
Navigate to Authentication > Auth. Servers.
b. Select Certificate Server from the New list, and then click New Server.
c.
Specify a name to identify the server instance.
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d. In the User Name Template field, specify how the IVE should construct a
username. You may use any combination of certificate variables contained
in angle brackets and plain text. For a list of certificate variables, see
“System variables and examples” on page 860.
NOTE: If you choose a certificate attribute with more than one value, the IVE uses
the first matched value. For example, if you enter <certDN.OU> and the user has
two values for the attribute (ou=management, ou=sales), the IVE uses the
“management” value. To use all values, add the SEP attribute to the variable. For
example, if you enter <certDN.OU SEP=”:”> the IVE uses “management:sales”.
e.
Click Save Changes. If you are creating the server instance for the first
time, the Settings and Users tabs appear.
NOTE: For information about monitoring and deleting the sessions of users who
are currently signed in through the server, see “Monitoring active users” on
page 686.
3. If you want to verify certificate attributes against an LDAP server, use settings
in the Authentication > Auth. Servers page to create an LDAP server
instance. Note that you must use the Finding user entries section in the LDAP
configuration page to retrieve the user-specific attributes that you want verify
through the certificate.
4. Use settings in the Users > User Realms > RealmName > General tab or
Administrators > Admin Realms > RealmName > General tab to specify
which realms should use the certificate server to authenticate users. (You may
also use settings in these tabs to specify realms that should use an LDAP server
to verify certificate attributes.)
5. Use settings in the Authentication > Authentication > Signing In Policies
page to associate the realms configured in the previous step with individual
sign-in URLs.
6. If you want to restrict users’ access to realms, roles, or resource policies based
on individual certificate attributes, use the settings described in “Specifying
certificate access restrictions” on page 47.
Configuring an LDAP server instance
The IVE supports two LDAP-specific authentication options:
„
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Unencrypted, in which the IVE sends the username and password to the LDAP
Directory Service in clear, simple text.
Configuring an LDAP server instance
Chapter 7: Authentication and directory servers
„
LDAPS, in which the IVE encrypts the data in the LDAP authentication session
using Secure Socket Layer (SSL) protocol before sending it to the LDAP
Directory Service.
The IVE performs substantial input validation for the following items:
„
LDAP Server—The IVE provides a warning if the server is not reachable.
„
LDAP Port—The IVE provides a warning if the LDAP server is not reachable.
„
Administrator credentials—The IVE generates an error if the verification of
admin credentials fails.
„
Base DN for users—The IVE generates an error if the base-level search on the
Base DN value fails.
„
Base DN for groups—The IVE generates an error if the base-level search on the
Base DN value fails.
This section contains the following information about LDAP servers:
„
“Defining an LDAP server instance” on page 107
„
“Configuring LDAP search attributes for meeting creators” on page 110
„
“Monitoring and deleting active user sessions” on page 110
„
“Enabling LDAP password management” on page 111
Defining an LDAP server instance
To define an LDAP server instance:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Auth. Servers.
2. Do one of the following:
„
To create a new server instance on the IVE, select LDAP Server from the
New list and then click New Server.
„
To update an existing server instance, click the appropriate link in the
Authentication/Authorization Servers list.
3. Specify a name to identify the server instance.
4. Specify the name or IP address of the LDAP server that the IVE uses to validate
your users.
5. Specify the port on which the LDAP server listens. This port is typically 389
when using an unencrypted connection and 636 when using SSL.
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6. Specify parameters for backup LDAP servers (optional). The IVE uses the
specified servers for failover processing; each authentication request is first
routed to the primary LDAP server and then to the specified backup server(s) if
the primary server is unreachable.
NOTE: Backup LDAP servers must be the same version as the primary LDAP
server. Also, we recommend that you specify the IP address of a backup LDAP
server instead of its host name, which may accelerate failover processing by
eliminating the need to resolve the host name to an IP address.
7. Specify the type of LDAP server that you want to authenticate users against.
8. Specify whether or not the connection between the IVE and LDAP Directory
Service should be unencrypted, use SSL (LDAPs), or should use TLS.
9. Specify how long you want the IVE to wait for a connection to the primary
LDAP server first, and then each backup LDAP server in turn.
10. Specify how long you want the IVE to wait for search results from a connected
LDAP server.
11. Click Test Connection to verify the connection between the IVE appliance and
the specified LDAP server(s). (optional)
12. Select the Authentication required to search LDAP checkbox if the IVE needs
to authenticate against the LDAP directory to perform a search or to change
passwords using the password management feature. Then, enter an
administrator DN and password. For more about password management, see
“Enabling LDAP password management” on page 111. For example:
CN=Administrator,CN=Users,DC=eng,DC=Juniper,DC=com
13. Under Finding user entries, specify a:
„
Base DN at which to begin searching for user entries. For example:
DC=eng,DC=Juniper,DC=com
„
Filter if you want to fine-tune the search. For example:
samAccountname=<username> or cn=<username>
‰
Include <username> in the filter to use the username entered on the
sign-in page for the search.
‰
Specify a filter that returns 0 or 1 user DNs per user; the IVE uses the
first DN returned if more than 1 DN is returned.
14. The IVE supports both static and dynamic groups. (Note that the IVE only
supports dynamic groups with LDAP servers.) To enable group lookup, you
need to specify how the IVE searches the LDAP server for a group. Under
Determining group membership, specify a:
„
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Configuring an LDAP server instance
Base DN at which to begin searching for user groups.
Chapter 7: Authentication and directory servers
„
Filter if you want to fine-tune the search for a user group.
„
Member Attribute to identify all the members of a static group. For
example:
member
uniquemember (iPlanet-specific)
„
Query Attribute to specify an LDAP query that returns the members of a
dynamic group. For example:
memberURL
„
Nested Group Level to specify how many levels within a group to search
for the user. Note that the higher the number, the longer the query time, so
we recommend that you specify to perform the search no more than 2
levels deep.
„
Nested Group Search to search by:
‰
Nested groups in the LDAP Server Catalog. This option is faster
because it can search within the implicit boundaries of the nested
group.
‰
Search all nested groups. With this option, the IVE searches the
Server Catalog first. If the IVE finds no match in the catalog, then it
queries LDAP to determine if a group member is a sub-group.
NOTE: Because the IVE looks in the Server Catalog to determine if a member of a
parent group is a user object or group object, you must add both the parent and all
child (nested) groups to the Server Catalog.
15. Under Bind Options, select:
„
Simple bind to send a user’s credentials in the clear (no encryption) to the
LDAP Directory Service.
„
StartTLS bind to encrypt a user’s credentials using the Transport Layer
Security (TLS) protocol before the IVE sends the data to the LDAP Directory
Service.
16. Click Save Changes. If you are creating the server instance for the first time,
the Settings and Users tabs appear.
17. Specify which realms should use the server to authenticate and authorize
administrators and users. For more information, see “Defining authentication
policies” on page 168.
If you want to create a Windows File bookmark that maps to a user’s LDAP home
directory, see “Creating Windows bookmarks that map to LDAP servers” on
page 380.
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NOTE: The IVE supports referral chasing if enabled on your LDAP server.
Configuring LDAP search attributes for meeting creators
Use options in the Meetings tab to specify individual LDAP attributes that a meeting
creator may use to search for IVE users when scheduling a meeting.
To configure Secure Meeting search attributes:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Auth. Servers.
2. Click on an LDAP server instance.
3. Choose the Meetings tab.
4. In the User Name field, enter the username attribute for this server. For
example, enter SamAccountName for an Active Directory server or uid for an
iPlanet server.
5. In the Email Address field, enter the email attribute for this server.
6. In the Display Name, Attributes field, enter any additional LDAP attributes
whose contents you want to allow meeting creators to view (optional). (For
example, to help the meeting creator easily distinguish between multiple
invitees with the same name, you may want to expose an attribute that
identifies the departments of individual users.) Enter the additional attributes
one per line using the format: DisplayName,AttributeName. You may enter up to
10 attributes.
7. Click Save Changes.
Monitoring and deleting active user sessions
For information about monitoring and deleting the sessions of users who are
currently signed in through the server, see “Monitoring active users” on page 686.
NOTE: The admin console provides last access statistics for each user account on
various Users tabs throughout the console, under a set of columns titled Last
Sign-in Statistic. The statistics reported include the last successful sign-in date
and time for each user, the user’s IP address, and the agent or browser type and
version.
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Chapter 7: Authentication and directory servers
Enabling LDAP password management
The IVE password management feature enables users who authenticate through an
LDAP server to manage their passwords through the IVE using the policies defined
on the LDAP server. For example, if a user tries to sign in to the IVE with an LDAP
password that is about to expire, the IVE catches the expired password notification,
presents it to the user through the IVE interface, and then passes the user’s
response back to the LDAP server without requiring the user to sign in to the LDAP
server separately.
Users, administrators, and help desk administrators who work in environments
where passwords have set expiration times may find the password management
feature very helpful. When users are not properly informed that their passwords
are about to expire, they can change them themselves through the IVE rather than
calling the Help Desk.
The password management feature enables users to change their passwords when
prompted or at will. For example, during the sign-in process, the IVE may inform
the user that his password is expired or about to expire. If expired, the IVE prompts
the user to change his password. If the password has not expired, the IVE may
allow the user to sign in to the IVE using his existing password. After he has signed
in, he may change his password from the Preferences page.
The password management feature enables users to change their passwords when
prompted or at will. For example, during the sign-in process, the IVE may inform
the user that his password is expired or about to expire. If expired, the IVE prompts
the user to change his password. If the password has not expired, the IVE may
allow the user to sign in to the IVE using his existing password. After he has signed
in, he may change his password from the Preferences page.
Once enabled, the IVE performs a series of queries to determine user account
information, such as when the user’s password was last set, if his account is
expired, and so forth. The IVE does this by using its internal LDAP or Samba client.
Many servers, such as Microsoft Active Directory or Sun iPlanet, offer an
Administrative Console to configure account and password options.
This section includes the following topics with information about the LDAP
password management feature:
„
“Task summary: Enabling LDAP password management” on page 111
„
“Supported LDAP directories and servers” on page 112
„
“Supported LDAP password management functions” on page 113
Task summary: Enabling LDAP password management
To enable password management through the IVE, you must:
1. Install a UPG-Password Management Integration license or the Advanced
license through the System > Configuration > Licensing page of the admin
console.
2. Create an instance of the LDAP server through the Authentication> Auth.
Servers page of the admin console.
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3. Associate the LDAP server with a realm through the Administrators/Users >
User Realms > [Realm] > General page of the admin console.
4. Enable password management for the realm in the Administrators/Users >
User Realms > [Realm] > Authentication Policy >Password page of the
admin console. Note that the Enable Password Management option only
appears if the realm’s authentication server is an LDAP or NT/AD server.
Supported LDAP directories and servers
The IVE supports password management with the following LDAP directories:
„
Microsoft Active Directory/Windows NT
„
Sun iPlanet
„
Novell eDirectory
„
Generic LDAP directories, such as IBM Secure Directory and OpenLDAP
Additionally, the IVE supports password management with the following Windows
servers:
„
Microsoft Active Directory
„
Microsoft Active Directory 2003
„
Windows NT 4.0
The following sections list specific issues related to individual server types.
Microsoft Active Directory
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„
„
Changes on the Active Directory domain security policy may take 5 minutes or
more to propagate among Active Directory domain controllers. Additionally,
this information does not propagate to the domain controller on which it was
originally configured for the same time period. This is a limitation of Active
Directory.
„
When changing passwords in Active Directory using LDAP, the IVE
automatically switches to LDAPS, even if LDAPS is not the configured LDAP
method. To support LDAPS on the Active Directory server, you must install a
valid SSL certificate into the server’s personal certificate store. Note that the
certificate must be signed by a trusted CA and the CN in the certificate’s Subject
field must contain the exact host name of the Active Directory server, for
example: adsrv1.company.com. To install the certificate, select the Certificates
Snap-In in the Microsoft Management Console (MMC).
„
The Account Expires option in the User Account Properties tab only changes
when the account expires, not when the password expires. As explained in
“Supported LDAP password management functions” on page 113, Microsoft
Active Directory calculates the password expiration using the Maximum
Password Age and Password Last Set values retrieved from the User Policy
and Domain Security Policy LDAP objects.
Configuring an LDAP server instance
Chapter 7: Authentication and directory servers
Sun iPlanet
When you select the User must change password after reset option on the iPlanet
server, you must also reset the user’s password before this function takes effect.
This is a limitation of iPlanet.
General
The IVE only displays a warning about password expiry if the password is
scheduled to expire in 14 days or less. The IVE displays the message during each
IVE sign in attempt. The warning message contains the remaining number of days,
hours, and minutes that the user has to change his password before it expires on
the server. The default value is 14 days; however, you may change it through the
Administrators|Users > Admin Realms|User Realms> Authorization >
Password configuration page of the admin console.
Supported LDAP password management functions
The following matrix describes the password management functions supported by
Juniper Networks, their corresponding function names in the individual LDAP
directories, and any additional relevant details. These functions must be set
through the LDAP server itself before the IVE can pass the corresponding messages,
functions, and restrictions to end-users. When authenticating against a generic
LDAP server, such as IBM Secure Directory, the IVE only supports authentication
and allowing users to change their passwords.
Table 7: Supported password management functions
Function
Active Directory
iPlanet
Novell eDirectory
Generic
Authenticate user
unicodePwd
Allow user to change
password if licensed
and if enabled
Server tells us in bind
response (uses
ntSecurityDescriptor)
userPassword
userPassword
userPassword
If passwordChange ==
ON
If passwordAllowChange
== TRUE
Yes
Log out user after
password change
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Force password
change at next login
If pwdLastSet == 0
If passwordMustChange
== ON
If pwdMustChange ==
TRUE
Password expired
notification
userAccountControl==
0x80000
If Bind Response includes
Check date/time value in
OID
2.16.840.1.113730.3.4.4
== 0
passwordExpirationTime
Password expiration
notification (in X
days/hours)
if pwdLastSet - now() <
maxPwdAge - 14 days
If Bind Response includes
control OID
If now() passwordExpirationTime<
2.16.840.1.113730.3.4.5
14 days
(maxPwdAge is read from
(contains
date/time)
(IVE displays warning if less
domain attributes)
(IVE displays warning if less (IVE displays warning if less than 14 days)
than 14 days)
than 14 days)
Disallow
authentication if
"account
disabled/locked
userAccountControl==
0x2 (Disabled)
accountExpires
userAccountControl ==
0x10 (Locked)
lockoutTime
Bind ErrorCode: 53
"Account Inactivated"
Bind Error Code: 19
"Exceed Password Retry
Limit"
Bind ErrorCode: 53
"Account Expired"
Bind ErrorCode: 53 "Login
Lockout"
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Table 7: Supported password management functions (Continued)
Function
Active Directory
iPlanet
Novell eDirectory
Honor "password
history"
Server tells us in bind
response
Server tells us in bind
response
Server tells us in bind
response
Generic
Enforce "minimum
password length"
If set, IVE displays message If set, IVE displays message If set, IVE displays message
telling user minPwdLength telling user
telling user
passwordMinLength
passwordMinimumLength
Disallow user from
changing password
too soon
If pwdLastSet - now() <
minPwdAge, then we
disallow
Honor "password
complexity"
If pwdProperties == 0x1, Server tells us in bind
then enabled. Complexity
response
means the new password
does not contain username,
first or last name, and must
contain characters from 3
of the following 4
categories: English
uppercase, English
lowercase, Digits, and Nonalphabetic characters (ex. !,
$, %)
If passwordMinAge > 0,
Server tells us in bind
then if now() is earlier than response
passwordAllowChangeTime
, then we disallow
Server tells us in bind
response
AD/NT Password Management Matrix
The following matrix describes the Password Management functions supported by
Juniper Networks.
Table 8: AD/NT Password Management Matrix
Function
Active Directory
Active Directory 2003 Windows NT
Authenticate user
Yes
Yes
Yes
Allow user to change password if licensed and
if enabled
Yes
Yes
Yes
Log out user after password change
Yes
Yes
Yes
Force password change at next login
Yes
Yes
Yes
Password expired notification
Yes
Yes
Yes
Account disabled
Yes
Yes
Yes
Account expired
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Troubleshooting LDAP password management on the IVE
When troubleshooting, please provide any pertinent IVE logs, server logs,
configuration information, and a TCP trace from the IVE. If you are using LDAPS,
please switch to the “Unencrypted” LDAP option in the IVE LDAP server
configuration while taking the LDAP TCP traces.
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Chapter 7: Authentication and directory servers
Configuring a local authentication server instance
The IVE enables you to create one or more local databases of users who are
authenticated by the IVE. You might want to create local user records for users who
are normally verified by an external authentication server that you plan to disable
or if you want to create a group of temporary users. Note that all administrator
accounts are stored as local records, but you can choose to authenticate
administrators using an external server using instructions in “Defining
authentication policies” on page 168.
This section contains the following information about local authentication servers:
„
“Defining a local authentication server instance” on page 115
„
“Creating user accounts on a local authentication server” on page 117
„
“Managing user accounts” on page 118
„
“Delegating user administration rights to end-users” on page 119
Defining a local authentication server instance
When defining a new local authentication server instance, you need to give the
server a unique name and configure password options and password management.
These password options enable you to control the password length, character
composition, and uniqueness. If desired, you can enable users to change their
passwords and to force users to change passwords after a specified number of
days. You can also prompt the user to change the password within a certain
number of days of its expiration date.
To define a local authentication server instance:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Auth. Servers.
2. Do one of the following:
„
To create a new server instance on the IVE, select Local Authentication
from the New list, and then click New Server.
„
To update an existing server instance, click the appropriate link in the
Authentication/Authorization Servers list.
3. Specify a name to identify the new server instance or edit the current name for
an existing server.
4. Specify password options:
a.
Under Password options, set the minimum character length for
passwords.
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b. Set the maximum character length for passwords (optional). The
maximum length cannot be less than the minimum length. There is no
maximum limit to the length.
NOTE:
„
If the maximum length set on the authentication server is shorter than the
maximum length specified on the IVE, you may receive an error if you enter a
password that is longer than that specified on the authentication server. The
admin console allows you to enter passwords of any length, but your
authentication server maximum determines the validity of the password
length.
„
If you want all passwords to be the same character length, set both the
minimum and maximum lengths to the same value.
c.
Enable the Password must have at least_digits checkbox and specify the
number of digits required in a password (optional). Do not require more
digits than the value of the Maximum length option.
d. Enable the Password must have at least_letters checkbox and specify the
number of letters required in a password (optional). Do not require more
letters than the value of the Maximum length option. If you enable the
previous option, the combined total of the two options cannot exceed that
of the value specified in the Maximum length option.
e.
Enable the Password must have mix of UPPERCASE and lowercase
letters checkbox if you want all passwords to contain a mixture of upperand lowercase letters (optional).
NOTE: Require passwords to contain at least two letters if you also require a mix of
upper- and lowercase letters.
f.
Enable the Password must be different from username checkbox if the
password cannot equal the username (optional).
g.
Enable the New passwords must be different from previous password
checkbox if a new password cannot equal the previous password
(optional).
5. Specify password management options:
a.
Under Password management, enable the Allow users to change their
passwords checkbox if you want users to be able to change their
passwords (optional).
b. Enable the Force password change after _ days checkbox and specify the
number of days after which a password expires (optional).
NOTE: The default is 64 days, but you can set this value to any number you desire.
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c.
Enable the Prompt users to change their password _ days before current
password expires checkbox and provide the number of days before
password expiration to prompt the user (optional).
NOTE: The default value is 14 days, but you can set the value to any number up to
the number placed in the previous option.
6. Click Save Changes. If you are creating the server instance for the first time,
the Users tabs and Admin Users tabs appear.
NOTE: After you set password options and password management options, you
also need to specify which realms should use the server to authenticate and
authorize administrators and users. Use the Enable Password Management
option on the Administrators|Users > Admin Realms|User Realms > Realm >
Authentication Policy > Password page to specify whether or not the realm
inherits password management settings from the local authentication server
instance. See “Specifying password access restrictions” on page 48 for
information about enabling password management.
Creating user accounts on a local authentication server
When you create a local authentication server instance, you need to define local
user records for that database. A local user record consists of a username, the
user’s full name, and the user’s password. You may want to create local user
records for users who are normally verified by an external authentication server
that you plan to disable or if you want to quickly create a group of temporary users.
To create local user records for a local authentication server:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Auth. Servers.
2. Click the IVE database to which you want to add a user account.
3. Select the Users tab and click New.
4. Enter a username and user’s full name. Note:
„
Do not include “~~” in a username.
„
If you want to change a user’s username after creating the account, you
must create an entirely new account.
5. Enter and confirm the password. Make sure that the password you enter
conforms to the password options specified for the associated local
authentication server instance.
6. Select One-time use (disable account after the next successful sign-in) if you
want to limit the user to one login. After one successful login, the user’s login
state is set to Disabled and the user receives an error message when
attempting subsequent sign ins. However, you can manually reset this option
in the admin console to allow the same user to login again. If you leave this
option unchecked, it means that you are creating a permanent user.
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7. Select Enabled if not already selected. This option is used by the administrator
to selectively enable or disable any user (one time or permanent). Selected by
default. If the One-time use option is checked, this option changes to Disabled
after the user logs in successfully. If a permanent or one-time user is logged in
and you disable this option, the user is immediately logged out of the system
and receives an error message.
8. Select Require user to change password at next sign in if you want to force
the user to change his or her password at the next login.
NOTE: If you force the user to change passwords, you must also enable the Allow
users to change their passwords option. Use options on the
Administrators|Users > Admin Realms|User Realms > [Realm] >
Authentication Policy > Password page to specify which realms should inherit
the server's password management capabilities.
9. Click Save Changes. The user record is added to the IVE database.
NOTE: The admin console provides last access statistics for each user account on
various Users tabs throughout the console, under a set of columns titled Last
Sign-in Statistic. The statistics reported include the last successful sign-in date
and time for each user, the user’s IP address, and the agent or browser type and
version.
Managing user accounts
To manage a local user account:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Auth. Servers.
2. Click the appropriate server link in the Authentication/Authorization Servers
list.
3. Select the Users tab.
4. Perform any of the following tasks:
„
Enter a username in the Show users named field and click Update to
search for a specific user.
Alternatively, you can use an asterisk (*) as a wildcard, where * represents
any number of zero or more characters. For example, if you want to search
for all usernames that contain the letters jo, enter *jo* in the Show users
named field. The search is case-sensitive. To display the entire list of
accounts again, either enter * or delete the field’s contents and click
Update.
„
118
„
Enter a number in the Show N users field and click Update to control the
number of users displayed on the page.
Configuring a local authentication server instance
Chapter 7: Authentication and directory servers
„
Click the checkbox next to individual users and click Delete to terminate
their IVE sessions.
Delegating user administration rights to end-users
User administrators can manage local authentication servers. User administrators
cannot manage realms or role mappings. Therefore, we recommend enabling the
User Admin feature only if the authentication realm’s role mapping rules permit
“unmatched” users (*) to sign in to the IVE so the user administrator can
successfully add new users without administrator interference. (When the role
mappings are automatic, the user administrator does not need the administrator to
manually map the new users to a role.)
To delegate user administration rights to an end-user:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Auth. Servers.
2. Select the local authentication server instance that you want the user
administrator to manage, and then click the Admin Users tab.
NOTE: User administrators can only administer local authentication servers.
3. Enter the Username of the user who you want to manage accounts for the
selected authentication server. This user does not need to be added as a local
user on the server that she manages.
NOTE: Be careful when entering the user administrator’s username—it must
match exactly.
4. Select the Authentication Realm that the user administrator maps to when
she signs in to the IVE.
5. Click Add. The IVE adds the new user administrator to the User Admins list
using the format: username@servername.
6. If the specified user administrator maps to multiple realms, optionally repeat
steps 3-5 for each realm so that she may manage the server regardless of
which account she uses to sign in to the IVE.
7. To revoke a user’s administration rights, select her name from the User
Admins list and click Remove.
NOTE: For information about managing users from the secure gateway home
page, see the “Adding and Modifying Users” topic in the end-user help, which is
available when signing in to the IVE as an end-user.
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Configuring an NIS server instance
When authenticating users with a UNIX/NIS server, the IVE verifies that the
username and password entered through the sign-in page correspond to a valid
user ID and password pair in the NIS server. Note that the username submitted to
the IVE cannot contain two consecutive tilde symbols (~~).
NOTE: You can only use NIS authentication with the IVE if your passwords are
stored on the NIS server using Crypt or MD5 formats. Also note that you can only
add one NIS server configuration to the IVE, but you can use that configuration to
authenticate any number of realms.
To define an NIS server instance:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Auth. Servers.
2. Do one of the following:
„
To create a new server instance on the IVE, select NIS Server from the New
list, and then click New Server.
„
To update an existing server instance, click the appropriate link in the
Authentication/Authorization Servers list.
3. Specify a name to identify the server instance.
4. Specify the name or IP address of the NIS server.
5. Specify the domain name for the NIS server.
6. Click Save Changes. If you are creating the server instance for the first time,
the Settings and Users tabs appear.
7. Specify which realms should use the server to authenticate and authorize
administrators and users. For more information, see “Defining authentication
policies” on page 168.
NOTE: For information about monitoring and deleting the sessions of users who
are currently signed in through the server, see “Monitoring active users” on
page 686.
Configuring a RADIUS server instance
A Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) server is a type of server
that allows you to centralize authentication and accounting for remote users. When
using a RADIUS server to authenticate IVE users, you need to configure it to
recognize the IVE as a client and specify a shared secret for the RADIUS server to
use to authenticate the client request.
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Configuring an NIS server instance
Chapter 7: Authentication and directory servers
The IVE supports the standard RADIUS authentication schemes, including:
„
Access-Request
„
Access-Accept
„
Access-Reject
„
Access-Challenge
The IVE also supports the RSA ACE/Server using the RADIUS protocol and a SecurID
token (available from Security Dynamics). If you use SecurID to authenticate users,
users must supply their user ID and the concatenation of a PIN and the token value.
When defining a RADIUS server, the IVE gives administrators the ability to use
either hard-coded (default) challenge expressions that support Defender 4.0 and
some RADIUS server implementations (such as Steelbelted-RADIUS and RSA
RADIUS) or to enter custom challenge expressions that allow the IVE to work with
many different RADIUS implementations and new versions of the RADIUS server,
such as Defender 5.0. The IVE looks for the response in the Access-Challenge
packet from the server and issues an appropriate Next Token, New Pin, or Generic
Passcode challenge to the user.
This topic contains the following information about RADIUS servers:
„
“User experience for RADIUS users” on page 121
„
“Configuring the IVE to work with a RADIUS server” on page 122
„
“Enabling RADIUS accounting” on page 125
User experience for RADIUS users
The user experience varies depending on whether you are using a PassGo Defender
RADIUS server or CASQUE authentication.
Using a PassGo Defender RADIUS Server
If you are using a PassGo Defender RADIUS Server, the user sign-in process is:
1. The user signs in to the IVE with a username and password. The IVE forwards
these credentials to Defender.
2. Defender sends a unique challenge string to the IVE and the IVE displays this
challenge string to the user.
3. The user enters the challenge string in a Defender token and the token
generates a response string.
4. The user enters the response string on the IVE and clicks Sign In.
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Using CASQUE authentication
CASQUE authentication uses a token-based challenge/response authentication
mechanism employing a CASQUE player installed on the client system. Once
configured with CASQUE authentication, the RADIUS server issues a challenge with
a response matching the custom challenge expression (:([0-9a-zA-Z/+=]+):). The IVE
then generates an intermediate page that automatically launches the CASQUE
player installed on the user’s system.
NOTE: If the CASQUE player does not launch automatically, click the Launch
CASQUE Player link.
Users must then use their CASQUE Optical Responder tokens to generate the
corresponding passcode, enter the passcode in the Response field, and click Sign
In.
Figure 23: CASQUE authentication Challenge/Response page with CASQUE player
Configuring the IVE to work with a RADIUS server
This section includes the following instructions for configuring the IVE and RADIUS
server to work together:
„
“Defining an IVE RADIUS server instance” on page 122
„
“Configuring the RADIUS server to recognize the IVE” on page 124
Defining an IVE RADIUS server instance
To configure a connection to the RADIUS server on the IVE:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Auth. Servers.
2. Do one of the following:
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To create a new server instance on the IVE, select Radius Server from the
New list, and then click New Server.
„
To update an existing server instance, click the appropriate link in the
Authentication/Authorization Servers list.
Configuring a RADIUS server instance
Chapter 7: Authentication and directory servers
3. At the top of the Radius Server page, specify a name to identify the server
instance.
4. Specify the name or IP address of the RADIUS server.
5. Enter the authentication port value for the RADIUS server. Typically this port is
1812, but some legacy servers might use 1645.
6. Enter a string for the shared secret. You also need to enter this string when
configuring the RADIUS server to recognize the IVE machine as a client.
7. Enter the accounting port value for the RADIUS server. Typically this port is
1813, but some legacy servers might use 1646.
8. Enter the NAS IP Address. This allows you to control the NAS IP address value
passed to RADIUS requests. If you leave this field empty, then the IVE’s internal
IP address will be passed to RADIUS requests. If you configure the NAS IP
address, then the value will be passed, regardless of which cluster node sends
the requests.
9. Enter the interval of time for the IVE to wait for a response from the RADIUS
server before timing out the connection.
10. Enter the number of times for the IVE to try to make a connection after the first
attempt fails.
11. Select the Users authenticate using tokens or one-time passwords checkbox
if you do not want to submit the password entered by the user to other SSOenabled applications. You should generally select this option if the users submit
one-time use passwords to the IVE. For more information, see “Multiple sign-in
credentials overview” on page 193.
12. In the Backup Server section, enter a secondary RADIUS server for the IVE to
use if the primary server—the one defined in this instance—is unreachable. For
the secondary server, enter the server:
a.
Name or IP address
b. Authentication port
c.
Shared secret
d. Accounting port
13. If you want to track IVE user activity using this instance of the RADIUS server,
enter the following information in the Radius Accounting section:
a.
In the NAS-Identifier field, enter the name that identifies the IVE Network
Access Server (NAS) client that communicates with the RADIUS server. If
you leave this field empty, the IVE uses the value specified in the
Hostname field of the System > Network > Overview page of the admin
console. If no value is specified in Hostname field, the IVE uses the value
“Juniper IVE.”
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b. In the User-Name field, specify the user information that the IVE should
send to the RADIUS accounting server. You may enter any of the
applicable session variables described in “System variables and examples”
on page 860. Applicable variables include those that are set at the time
after the user signs in and maps to a role. The default variables for this field
are:
c.
‰
<username> logs the user’s IVE username to the accounting server.
‰
<REALM> logs the user’s IVE realm to the accounting server.
‰
<ROLE> logs the user’s IVE role to the accounting server. If the user is
assigned to more than one role, the IVE comma-separates them.
Add an Interim Update Level (in minutes). The interim update level
enables you to accomplish more precise billing for long-lived session
clients and in case of a network failure. For more information, see
“Understanding the interim update feature” on page 133.
14. Add a custom challenge expression (optional). Three types of challenge
expressions exist with each automatically set to its pre-populated default. The
custom option allows the administrator to configure the actual string pattern to
match for any of the three modes. To add a custom expression, select the
Custom radio button under the appropriate challenge expression type, and add
a custom expression in the associated text box.
NOTE: When using CASQUE authentication, specify:([0-9a-zA-Z/+=]+): as the
custom expression for the Generic Login Challenge Expression.
15. Click Save Changes. If you are creating the server instance for the first time,
the Settings and Users tabs appear.
16. Specify which realms should use the server to authenticate, authorize, or
account for administrators and users. For more information, see “Defining
authentication policies” on page 168.
NOTE: For information about monitoring and deleting the sessions of users from
this server who are currently signed, see “Monitoring active users” on page 686.
Configuring the RADIUS server to recognize the IVE
You need to configure the RADIUS server to recognize the IVE by specifying:
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„
The host name given to the IVE.
„
The network IP address of the IVE.
„
The IVE client type—if applicable. If this option is available, select Single
Transaction Server or its equivalent.
„
The type of encryption to use for authenticating client communication. This
choice should correspond to the client type.
Configuring a RADIUS server instance
Chapter 7: Authentication and directory servers
„
The shared secret you entered in the admin console for the RADIUS server on
the Authentication > Auth. Servers > Radius Server page.
Enabling RADIUS accounting
You can configure the IVE to send session start and stop messages to a RADIUS
accounting server. The IVE recognizes two categories of sessions—user-sessions
and sub-sessions. A user session may contain multiple sub-sessions. The IVE
recognizes the following types of sub-sessions:
„
JSAM
„
WSAM
„
Network Connect
The IVE sends a user-session start message after the user successfully signs in and
the IVE maps him to a role. The IVE sends a sub-session start message when the
sub-session becomes active; for example, after launching JSAM. The IVE sends a
sub-session stop message when there is an explicit request from the user to
terminate a sub-session, or if the user-session terminates.
Whenever a user session terminates, the IVE sends a user-session stop message to
the accounting server. A user session terminates whenever the user:
„
Manually signs out of the IVE
„
Times out of the IVE either due to inactivity or because of exceeding the
maximum session length
„
Is denied access due to Host Checker or Cache Cleaner role-level restrictions
„
Is manually forced out of the IVE by an administrator or due to dynamic policy
evaluation.
The IVE also sends stop messages for all active sub-sessions. The stop-messages for
the sub-sessions precede the stop-messages for the user-session.
.
NOTE: If users are signed into an IVE cluster, the RADIUS accounting messages
may show the users signing in to one node and signing out of another.
The following three tables describe the attributes that are common to start and stop
messages, attributes that are unique to start messages, and attributes that are
unique to stop messages.
Table 9: Attributes common to both start and stop messages
Attribute
Description
User-Name (1)
String that the IVE administrator specifies during RADIUS server
configuration
NAS-IP-Address (4)
IVE’s IP address
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Table 9: Attributes common to both start and stop messages (Continued)
Attribute
Description
NAS-Port (5)
The IVE sets this attribute to 0 if the user signed in using an
internal port, or 1 if an external port.
Framed-IP-Address (8)
User’s source IP address
NAS-Identifier (32)
Configured name for the IVE client under the RADIUS server
configuration
Acct-Status-Type (40)
The IVE sets this attribute to 1 for a start message, or 2 for a stop
message in a user-session or a sub-session
Acct-Session-Id (44)
Unique accounting ID that matches start and stop messages
corresponding to a user-session or to a sub-session.
Acct-Multi-Session-Id (50)
Unique accounting ID that you can use to link together multiple
related sessions. Each linked session must have a unique AcctSession-Id and the same Acct-Multi-Session-Id.
Acct-Link-Count (51)
The count of links in a multi-link session at the time the IVE
generates the accounting record
Table 10: Start attributes
Attribute
Description
Acct-Authentic (45)
The IVE sets this attribute to:
„ RADIUS—if the user authenticated to a RADIUS server
„ Local—if the user authenticated to an Local Authentication
Server
„ Remote—for anything else
Table 11: Stop attributes
Attribute
Description
Acct-Session-Time (46)
Duration of the user-session or the sub-session
Acct-Terminate-Cause (49)
The IVE uses one of the following values to specify the event that
caused the termination of a user session or a sub-session:
„ User Request (1) – User manually signs out
„ Idle Timeout (4) – User Idle time out
„ Session Timeout (5) – User Max Session Timeout
„ Admin Reset (6) – User Forced Out from Active Users page
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„
Acct-Input-Octets
Octet-based count of JSAM/WSAM/NC session level when session
was terminated and of user session level when the session was
terminated and the interim update time arrived. From IVE to
client.
Acct-Output-Octets
Octet-based count of JSAM/WSAM/NC session level when session
was terminated and of user session level when the session was
terminated and the interim update time arrived. From client to
IVE.
Configuring a RADIUS server instance
Chapter 7: Authentication and directory servers
To distinguish between a user-session and the sub-sessions it contains, examine the
Acct-Session-Id and the Acct-Multi-Session-Id. In a user-session, both of these
attributes are the same. In a sub-session, the Acct-Multi-Session-Id is the same as
the one for the parent user-session, and the IVE indicates the sub-session by using
one of the following suffixes in the Acct-Session-Id:
„
“JSAM” for JSAM sessions
„
“WSAM” for WSAM sessions
„
“NC” for Network Connect sessions
Supported RADIUS attributes
The following RADIUS attributes are supported in RADIUS role mapping. For more
information, see the full descriptions (from which these descriptions were derived)
at the FreeRADIUS website located at http://www.freeradius.org/rfc/attributes.html.
Table 12: RADIUS role mapping attributes
Attribute
Description
ARAP-Challenge-Response
Sent in an Access-Accept packet with Framed-Protocol
of ARAP, and contains the response to the dial-in
client's challenge.
ARAP-Features
Sent in an Access-Accept packet with FramedProtocol of ARAP. Includes password information that
the NAS must send to the user in an ARAP feature
flags packet.
ARAP-Password
Present in an Access-Request packet containing a
Framed-Protocol of ARAP. Only one of User-Password,
CHAP-Password, or ARAP-Password must be included
in an Access-Request, or one or more EAP-Messages.
ARAP-Security
Identifies the ARAP Security Module to be used in an
Access-Challenge packet.
ARAP-Security-Data
Contains a security module challenge or response, and
is in Access-Challenge and Access-Request packets.
ARAP-Zone-Access
Indicates how to use the ARAP zone list for the user.
Access-Accept
Provides specific configuration information necessary
to begin delivery of service to the user.
Access-Challenge
To send the user a challenge requiring a response, the
RADIUS server must respond to the Access-Request by
transmitting a packet with the Code field set to 11
(Access-Challenge).
Access-Reject
If any value of the received Attributes is not
acceptable, then the RADIUS server must transmit a
packet with the Code field set to 3 (Access-Reject).
Access-Request
Conveys information specifying user access to a
specific NAS, and any special services requested for
that user.
Accounting-Request
Conveys information used to provide accounting for a
service provided to a user.
Accounting-Response
Acknowledges that the Accounting-Request has been
received and recorded successfully.
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Table 12: RADIUS role mapping attributes (Continued)
128
„
Attribute
Description
Acct-Authentic
Indicates how the user was authenticated, whether by
RADIUS, the NAS itself, or another remote
authentication protocol.
Acct-Delay-Time
Indicates how many seconds the client has been
trying to send this record.
Acct-Input-Gigawords
Indicates how many times the Acct-Input-Octets
counter has wrapped around 2^32 over the course of
this service being provided.
Acct-Input-Octets
Indicates how many octets have been received from
the port during the current session.
Acct-Input-Packets
Indicates how many packets have been received from
the port during the session provided to a Framed User
Acct-Interim-Interval
Indicates the number of seconds between each
interim update in seconds for this specific session.
Acct-Link-Count
The count of links known to have been in a given
multilink session at the time the accounting record is
generated.
Acct-Multi-Session-Id
A unique Accounting ID to make it easy to link
together multiple related sessions in a log file.
Acct-Output-Gigawords
Indicates how many times the Acct-Output-Octets
counter has wrapped around 2^32 during the current
session.
Acct-Output-Octets
Indicates how many octets have been sent to the port
during this session.
Acct-Output-Packets
Indicates how many packets have been sent to the
port during this session to a Framed User.
Acct-Session-Id
A unique Accounting ID to make it easy to match start
and stop records in a log file.
Acct-Session-Time
Indicates how many seconds the user has received
service.
Acct-Status-Type
Indicates whether this Accounting-Request marks the
beginning of the user service (Start) or the end (Stop).
Acct-Terminate-Cause
Indicates how the session was terminated.
Acct-Tunnel-Connection
Indicates the identifier assigned to the tunnel session.
Acct-Tunnel-Packets-Lost
Indicates the number of packets lost on a given link.
CHAP-Challenge
Contains the CHAP Challenge sent by the NAS to a
PPP Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol
(CHAP) user.
CHAP-Password
The response value provided by a PPP ChallengeHandshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) user in
response to the challenge.
Callback-Id
The name of a location to be called, to be interpreted
by the NAS.
Callback-Number
The dialing string to be used for callback.
Called-Station-Id
Allows the NAS to send the phone number that the
user called, using Dialed Number Identification (DNIS)
or similar technology.
Configuring a RADIUS server instance
Chapter 7: Authentication and directory servers
Table 12: RADIUS role mapping attributes (Continued)
Attribute
Description
Calling-Station-Id
Allows the NAS to send the phone number that the call
came from, using Automatic Number Identification
(ANI) or similar technology.
Class
Sent by the server to the client in an Access-Accept
and then sent unmodified by the client to the
accounting server as part of the Accounting-Request
packet, if accounting is supported.
Configuration-Token
For use in large distributed authentication networks
based on proxy.
Connect-Info
Sent from the NAS to indicate the nature of the user's
connection.
EAP-Message
Encapsulates Extended Access Protocol [3] packets to
allow the NAS to authenticate dial-in users by means
of EAP without having to understand the EAP
protocol.
Filter-Id
The name of the filter list for this user.
Framed-AppleTalk-Link
The AppleTalk network number used for the serial link
to the user, which is another AppleTalk router.
Framed-AppleTalk-Network
The AppleTalk Network number which the NAS can
probe to allocate an AppleTalk node for the user.
Framed-AppleTalk-Zone
The AppleTalk Default Zone to be used for this user.
Framed-Compression
A compression protocol to be used for the link.
Framed-IP-Address
The address to be configured for the user.
Framed-IP-Netmask
The IP netmask to be configured for the user when the
user is a router to a network.
Framed-IPv6-Pool
Contains the name of an assigned pool used to assign
an IPv6 prefix for the user.
Framed-IPv6-Route
Routing information to be configured for the user on
the NAS.
Framed-IPX-Network
The IPX Network number to be configured for the
user.
Framed-MTU
The Maximum Transmission Unit to be configured for
the user, when it is not negotiated by some other
means (such as PPP).
Framed-Pool
The name of an assigned address pool used to assign
an address for the user.
Framed-Protocol
The framing to be used for framed access.
Framed-Route
Routing information to be configured for the user on
the NAS.
Framed-Routing
The routing method for the user, when the user is a
router to a network.
Idle-Timeout
Sets the maximum number of consecutive seconds of
idle connection allowed to the user before termination
of the session or prompt.
Keep-Alives
Use SNMP instead of keep-alives.
Login-IP-Host
Indicates the system with which to connect the user,
when the Login-Service Attribute is included.
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Table 12: RADIUS role mapping attributes (Continued)
130
„
Attribute
Description
Login-LAT-Group
Contains a string identifying the LAT group codes that
this user is authorized to use.
Login-LAT-Node
Indicates the Node with which the user is to be
automatically connected by LAT.
Login-LAT-Port
Indicates the Port with which the user is to be
connected by LAT.
Login-LAT-Service
Indicates the system with which the user is to be
connected by LAT.
Login-Service
Indicates the service to use to connect the user to the
login host.
Login-TCP-Port
Indicates the TCP port with which the user is to be
connected, when the Login-Service Attribute is also
present.
MS-ARAP-Challenge
Only present in an Access-Request packet containing
a Framed-Protocol Attribute with the value 3 (ARAP).
MS-ARAP-Password-Change-Reason
Indicates the reason for a server-initiated password
change.
MS-Acct-Auth-Type
Represents the method used to authenticate the dialup user.
MS-Acct-EAP-Type
Represents the Extensible Authentication Protocol
(EAP) [15] type used to authenticate the dial-up user.
MS-BAP-Usage
Describes whether the use of BAP is allowed,
disallowed or required on new multilink calls.
MS-CHAP-CPW-1
Allows the user to change password if it has expired.
MS-CHAP-CPW-2
Allows the user to change password if it has expired.
MS-CHAP-Challenge
Contains the challenge sent by a NAS to a Microsoft
Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol (MSCHAP) user.
MS-CHAP-Domain
Indicates the Windows NT domain in which the user
was authenticated.
MS-CHAP-Error
Contains error data related to the preceding MS-CHAP
exchange.
MS-CHAP-LM-Enc-PW
Contains the new Windows NT password encrypted
with the old LAN Manager password hash.
MS-CHAP-MPPE-Keys
Contains two session keys for use by the Microsoft
Point-to-Point Encryption Protocol (MPPE).
MS-CHAP-NT-Enc-PW
Contains the new Windows NT password encrypted
with the old Windows NT password hash.
MS-CHAP-Response
Contains the response value provided by a PPP
Microsoft Challenge-Handshake Authentication
Protocol (MS-CHAP) user in response to the challenge.
MS-CHAP2-CPW
Allows the user to change password if it has expired.
MS-CHAP2-Response
Contains the response value provided by an MSCHAP-V2 peer in response to the challenge.
MS-CHAP2-Success
Contains a 42-octet authenticator response string.
MS-Filter
Used to transmit traffic filters.
Configuring a RADIUS server instance
Chapter 7: Authentication and directory servers
Table 12: RADIUS role mapping attributes (Continued)
Attribute
Description
MS-Link-Drop-Time-Limit
Indicates the length of time (in seconds) that a link
must be underutilized before it is dropped.
MS-Link-Utilization-Threshold
Represents the percentage of available bandwidth
utilization below which the link must fall before the
link is eligible for termination.
MS-MPPE-Encryption-Policy
Signifies whether the use of encryption is allowed or
required.
MS-MPPE-Encryption-Types
Signifies the types of encryption available for use with
MPPE.
MS-MPPE-Recv-Key
Contains a session key for use by the Microsoft Pointto-Point Encryption Protocol (MPPE).
MS-MPPE-Send-Key
Contains a session key for use by the Microsoft Pointto-Point Encryption Protocol (MPPE).
MS-New-ARAP-Password
Transmits the new ARAP password during an ARAP
password change operation.
MS-Old-ARAP-Password
Transmits the old ARAP password during an ARAP
password change operation.
MS-Primary-DNS-Server
Indicates the address of the primary Domain Name
Server (DNS) [16, 17] server to be used by the PPP
peer.
MS-Primary-NBNS-Server
Indicates the address of the primary NetBIOS Name
Server (NBNS) [18] server to be used by the PPP peer.
MS-RAS-Vendor
Indicates the manufacturer of the RADIUS client
machine.
MS-RAS-Version
Indicates the version of the RADIUS client software.
MS-Secondary-DNS-Server
Indicates the address of the secondary DNS server to
be used by the PPP peer.
MS-Secondary-NBNS-Server
Indicates the address of the secondary DNS server to
be used by the PPP peer.
NAS-IP-Address
Indicates the identifying IP Address of the NAS that is
requesting authentication of the user, and must be
unique to the NAS within the scope of the RADIUS
server.
NAS-Identifier
Contains a string identifying the NAS originating the
Access-Request.
NAS-Port
Indicates the physical port number of the NAS that is
authenticating the user.
NAS-Port-Id
Contains a text string that identifies the port of the
NAS that is authenticating the user.
NAS-Port-Type
Indicates the type of the physical port of the NAS that
is authenticating the user.
Password-Retry
Indicates how many authentication attempts a user is
allowed to attempt before being disconnected.
Port-Limit
Sets the maximum number of ports to be provided to
the user by the NAS.
Prompt
Indicates to the NAS whether it should echo the user's
response as it is entered, or not echo it.
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Table 12: RADIUS role mapping attributes (Continued)
132
„
Attribute
Description
Proxy-State
A proxy server can send this attribute to another
server when forwarding an Access-Request. The
attribute must be returned unmodified in the AccessAccept, Access-Reject or Access-Challenge.
Reply-Message
Text that can be displayed to the user.
Service-Type
The type of service the user has requested, or the type
of service to be provided.
Session-Timeout
Sets the maximum number of seconds of service to be
provided to the user before termination of the session
or prompt.
State
A packet must have only zero or one State Attribute.
Usage of the State Attribute is implementation
dependent.
Telephone-number
Using the Calling-Station-Id and Called-Station-Id
RADIUS attributes, authorization and subsequent
tunnel attributes can be based on the phone number
originating the call, or the number being called.
Termination-Action
The action the NAS should take when the specified
service is completed.
Tunnel-Assignment-ID
Indicates to the tunnel initiator the particular tunnel to
which a session is to be assigned.
Tunnel-Client-Auth-ID
Specifies the name used by the tunnel initiator during
the authentication phase of tunnel establishment.
Tunnel-Client-Endpoint
Contains the address of the initiator end of the tunnel.
Tunnel-Link-Reject
Marks the rejection of the establishment of a new link
in an existing tunnel.
Tunnel-Link-Start
Marks the creation of a tunnel link.
Tunnel-Link-Stop
Marks the destruction of a tunnel link.
Tunnel-Medium-Type
The transport medium to use when creating a tunnel
for those protocols (such as L2TP) that can operate
over multiple transports.
Tunnel-Medium-Type
The transport medium to use when creating a tunnel
for those protocols (such as L2TP) that can operate
over multiple transports.
Tunnel-Password
A password to be used to authenticate to a remote
server.
Tunnel-Preference
If the RADIUS server returns more than one set of
tunneling attributes to the tunnel initiator, you should
include this attribute in each set to indicate the
relative preference assigned to each tunnel.
Tunnel-Private-Group-ID
The group ID for a particular tunneled session.
Tunnel-Reject
Marks the rejection of the establishment of a tunnel
with another node.
Tunnel-Server-Auth-ID
Specifies the name used by the tunnel terminator
during the authentication phase of tunnel
establishment.
Tunnel-Server-Endpoint
The address of the server end of the tunnel.
Configuring a RADIUS server instance
Chapter 7: Authentication and directory servers
Table 12: RADIUS role mapping attributes (Continued)
Attribute
Description
Tunnel-Start
Marks the establishment of a tunnel with another
node.
Tunnel-Stop
Marks the destruction of a tunnel to or from another
node.
Tunnel-Type
The tunneling protocol(s) to be used (in the case of a
tunnel initiator) or the tunneling protocol in use (in the
case of a tunnel terminator).
User-Name
The name of the user to be authenticated.
User-Password
The password of the user to be authenticated, or the
user's input following an Access-Challenge.
Understanding clustering issues
Accounting messages are sent to the RADIUS server by each cluster node without
consolidation. RADIUS accounting on the IVE follows these assumptions:
„
If the cluster is active/passive, all users are connected to one node at a time.
„
If the cluster is active/active and does not use a balancer, users are connected
to different nodes but are static.
„
If the cluster is active/active and uses a balancer, the balancer usually enforces
a persistent source IP. In this case, users are always connected to the same
node.
The IVE does not support load balancing for RADIUS.
Understanding the interim update feature
If you want a server to receive interim accounting messages, you can statically
configure an interim value on the client, in which case, the locally-configured value
overrides any value that might be included in the RADIUS Access-Accept message.
The octet count reported in the accounting messages is the cumulative total since
the beginning of the user session.
The interim update byte count is only supported based on a user session, not on
SAM or NC sessions.
Configuring an eTrust SiteMinder server instance
When you configure the IVE to authenticate users with an eTrust SiteMinder policy
server, the IVE passes the user’s credentials to SiteMinder during authentication.
Once SiteMinder receives the credentials, it may use standard username and
password authentication, ACE SecurID tokens, or client-side certificates to
authenticate the credentials (as explained in “Authentication using various
authentication schemes” on page 136).
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The IVE also passes a protected resource to SiteMinder during authentication in
order to determine which SiteMinder realm it should use to authenticate the user.
When the IVE passes the protected resource, SiteMinder authorizes the user’s URL
against the realm that is associated with the resource and allows the user to
seamlessly access any resources whose protection levels are equal to or less than
the resource the IVE passed (as explained in “Configuring the IVE to grant users
different protected resources” on page 145). If the user attempts to access a Web
resource with a higher protection level, either SiteMinder or the IVE handles the
request (as explained in “Reauthentication of users with insufficient protection
levels” on page 137).
This topic includes the following information about eTrust SiteMinder servers:
„
“eTrust SiteMinder overview” on page 134
„
“Configuring SiteMinder to work with the IVE” on page 138
„
“Configuring the IVE to work with SiteMinder” on page 144
eTrust SiteMinder overview
The IVE enables single sign-on (SSO) from the IVE to SiteMinder-protected
resources using SMSESSION cookies. A SMSESSION cookie is a security token that
encapsulates SiteMinder session information. Depending on your configuration,
either the SiteMinder Web agent or the IVE creates a SMSESSION cookie and then
posts the cookie to the following locations so the user does not have to reauthenticate if he wants to access additional resources:
„
The IVE: If the user tries to access a SiteMinder resource from within his IVE
session (for example, from the IVE file browsing page), the IVE passes its
cached SMSESSION cookie to the Web agent for authentication.
„
The user’s Web browser: If the user tries to access a SiteMinder resource from
outside of his IVE session (for example, when using a protected resource on a
standard agent), SiteMinder uses the cached SMSESSION cookie stored in the
user’s Web browser to authenticate/authorize the user.
If you enable the Automatic Sign-In option (as explained in “Automatic Sign-In” on
page 148), the IVE can use an SMSESSION cookie generated by another agent to
enable single sign-on from a SiteMinder resource to the IVE. When a user accesses
the IVE sign-in page with an SMSESSION cookie, the IVE verifies the SMSESSION
cookie. Upon successful verification, the IVE establishes an IVE session for the user.
You can use the following authentication mechanisms when you enable automatic
sign-in through the IVE:
„
134
„
Custom agent: The IVE authenticates the user against the policy server and
generates a SMSESSION cookie. When you select this option, you can enable
SSO on other SiteMinder agents that use the same policy server. To enable SSO
on these agents, update each of them to accept third party cookies (as
explained in “Authenticate using custom agent” on page 149). If you select this
option and the user enters his IVE session with an SMSESSION cookie, the IVE
attempts automatic sign-in when the user enters the IVE session.
Configuring an eTrust SiteMinder server instance
Chapter 7: Authentication and directory servers
„
HTML form post: The IVE posts credentials to a standard Web agent that you
have already configured. The Web agent then creates SMSESSION cookies. If
you select this option, you cannot use SecurID New Pin and Next Token modes
or client-side certificate authentication (as explained in on “Authenticate using
HTML form post” on page 150). If you select this option and the user enters his
IVE session with an SMSESSION cookie, the IVE attempts automatic sign-in
when the user enters the IVE session.
„
Delegated authentication: The IVE delegates authentication to a standard
agent. If this option is enabled, the IVE tries to determine the FCC URL
associated with the protected resource. The IVE then redirects the user to the
FCC URL with the IVE sign-in URL as the TARGET. Upon successful
authentication, the user is redirected back to the IVE with an SMSESSION
cookie and the IVE does an automatic sign-in for the user (as explained in
“Delegate authentication to a standard agent” on page 151).
NOTE:
„
At the time of this printing, Juniper Networks supports eTrust SiteMinder
server version 6.0 and version 5.5 with standard agent versions 6 and
5QMR5. If you run older agents than the supported agents, you may
experience cookie validation problems, including crossed log entries and
intermittent user timeouts.
„
You can choose which eTrust SiteMinder server version you want to support
when you create a server instance. You can choose version 5.5, which
supports both versions 5.5 and 6.0, or you can choose version 6.0, which
supports only version 6.0.
„
SiteMinder does not store the IP address in the SMSESSION cookie, and
therefore cannot pass it to the IVE appliance.
„
SiteMinder sends the SMSESSION cookie to the IVE as a persistent cookie. To
maximize security, the IVE resets the persistent cookie as a session cookie
once authentication is complete.
„
When you use SiteMinder to authenticate, the IVE disregards any IVE session
and idle timeouts and uses session and idle timeouts set through the
SiteMinder realm instead.
„
The IVE logs any SiteMinder error codes on the System > Log/Monitoring >
User Access page. For information on the SiteMinder error codes, see the
SiteMinder documentation.
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Authentication using various authentication schemes
Within SiteMinder, an authentication scheme is a way to collect user credentials and
determine the identity of a user. You may create different authentication schemes
and associate different protection levels with each. For example, you may create
two schemes—one that authenticates users based solely on the users’ client-side
certificates and provides them a low protection level, and a second that uses ACE
SecurID token authentication and provides users a higher protection level. The IVE
works with the following types of SiteMinder authentication schemes:
„
Basic username and password authentication—The user’s name and
password are passed to the SiteMinder policy server. The policy server may
then authenticate them itself or pass it to another server for authentication.
„
ACE SecurID token authentication—The SiteMinder policy server
authenticates users based on a username and password generated by an ACE
SecurID token.
„
Client-side certificate authentication—The SiteMinder policy server
authenticates users based on their client-side certificate credentials. If you
choose this authentication method, the Web browser displays a list of client
certificates from which users can select.
NOTE:
„
If you choose to authenticate users with this method, you must import the
client certificate into the IVE through the System > Certificates > Trusted
Client CAs tab. For more information, see “Using trusted client CAs” on
page 607.
„
If you do not want to display the standard IVE sign in page to users, you may
change it using the customizable sign-in pages feature. For more information,
see the Custom Sign-In Pages Solution Guide.
„
SiteMinder client-side certificate authentication is separate from IVE clientside certificate authentication. If you choose both, the IVE first authenticates
using the IVE configuration parameters. If this succeeds, it then passes
certificate values to SiteMinder for authentication.
For configuration information, see:
136
„
„
“Creating a SiteMinder authentication scheme for the IVE” on page 139
„
“Configuring the IVE to work with multiple authentication schemes” on
page 144
Configuring an eTrust SiteMinder server instance
Chapter 7: Authentication and directory servers
Reauthentication of users with insufficient protection levels
During IVE configuration, you must specify a protected resource in order to control
the protection level allowed in the user’s SiteMinder session, as explained in
“eTrust SiteMinder overview” on page 134. If a user attempts to access a Web
resource that requires a higher protection level than he is authorized to access,
however, the IVE can also handle re-authentication by directing him to an
intermediate page (provided you have enabled the Resource for insufficient
protection level option on during IVE configuration). For more information, see
“Resource for insufficient protection level” on page 152.
The IVE intermediate page contains two options:
„
Continue—When the user selects this option, the IVE signs him out of his
current session, prompts him for the credentials required by the higher level
resource, and directs him to the page he is trying to access if his credentials
authenticate. (Note that if the user is running Host Checker or Cache Cleaner
and does not choose to enter his credentials when the IVE prompts him to reauthenticate, the Host Checker and/or Cache Cleaner application continues to
run on the user’s system until his IVE session times out.)
„
Cancel—When the user selects this option, he is redirected to the previous
page.
Otherwise, if you choose not to re-authenticate through the IVE, the reauthentication process is dependent on whether or not the policy server returns an
authentication scheme URL to the user. If the policy server:
„
Does not return an authentication scheme URL—The IVE returns a validation
failure message to the user and re-authenticates through the standard IVE signin page. The user is prompted to sign back in, but is assigned his original
protection level and may still be unable to sign in to the desired page.
„
Returns an authentication scheme URL—The IVE redirects to the Web agent
you specify in the IVE to handle re-authentication.
For information about making the IVE handle re-authentication, see “Creating a
SiteMinder authentication scheme for the IVE” on page 139.
Determining the user’s username
With the availability of different authentication schemes and sign-in points, the IVE
may obtain a username from various sources, such as a policy server header,
certificate attribute, or from the IVE sign-in page. Listed below are the various
methods a user may employ to access the IVE and how the IVE determines the
username for each. When a user:
„
Signs in through the standard IVE sign-in page—The IVE first checks the
username that the policy server returned in its OnAuthAccept response header.
If SiteMinder does not define a username, the IVE uses the name that the user
entered during sign-in. Otherwise, if neither SiteMinder nor the user provide a
username because the user authenticates using a client certificate, the IVE uses
the UserDN value set by the policy server.
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„
Automatically signs in to the IVE using SiteMinder credentials—The IVE first
checks the username that the policy server returned in its OnAuthAccept
response header. If SiteMinder does not define a username, the IVE checks the
SMSESSION cookie. Otherwise, if SiteMinder does not populate the response
header or SMSESSION cookie with a username, the IVE checks the UserDN
value in the SMSESSION cookie.
Once the IVE determines which username to use, it saves it in its session cache and
references it when a user wants to access additional resources (as explained in
“eTrust SiteMinder overview” on page 134).
In order to consistently return the correct username to the IVE, you should
configure the OnAuthAccept response on the SiteMinder policy server, as explained
in “Creating a rule/response pair to pass usernames to the IVE” on page 142.
Configuring SiteMinder to work with the IVE
The following procedures outline how to configure a SiteMinder policy server to
work with the IVE. These are not complete SiteMinder configuration instructions—
they are only intended to help you make SiteMinder work with the IVE. For indepth SiteMinder configuration information, refer to the documentation provided
with your SiteMinder policy server.
NOTE: The instructions shown here are for SiteMinder policy server version 5.5.
Instructions may vary slightly if you are using a different product version.
To configure SiteMinder to work with the IVE, you must:
1. “Configuring the SiteMinder agent” on page 139
2. “Creating a SiteMinder authentication scheme for the IVE” on page 139
3. “Creating a SiteMinder domain for the IVE” on page 141
4. “Creating a SiteMinder realm for the IVE” on page 141
5. “Creating a rule/response pair to pass usernames to the IVE” on page 142
6. “Creating a SiteMinder policy under the domain” on page 144
138
„
Configuring an eTrust SiteMinder server instance
Chapter 7: Authentication and directory servers
Configuring the SiteMinder agent
A SiteMinder agent filters user requests to enforce access controls. For instance,
when a user requests a protected resource, the agent prompts the user for
credentials based on an authentication scheme, and sends the credentials to a
SiteMinder policy server. A Web agent is simply an agent that works with a Web
server. When configuring SiteMinder to work with the IVE, you must configure the
IVE as a Web agent in most cases.
NOTE: If you select the Delegate authentication to a standard agent option, you
must set the following options in the agent configuration object of the standard
Web agent host the FCC URL:
„
EncryptAgentName=no
„
FCCCompatMode=no
To configure the IVE as a Web agent on the SiteMinder policy server:
1. In the SiteMinder Administration interface, choose the System tab.
2. Right-click on Agents and choose Create Agent.
3. Enter a name for the Web agent and (optionally) a description. Note that you
need to enter this name when creating a SiteMinder realm, (as explained in
“Creating a SiteMinder realm for the IVE” on page 141) and when configuring
the IVE (as explained in “Agent Name, Secret” on page 147).
4. You must select the Support 5.x agents option for compatibility with the IVE.
5. Under Agent Type, select SiteMinder and then select Web Agent from the
drop-down list. You must select this setting for compatibility with the IVE.
6. Under IP Address or Host Name, enter the name or IP address of the IVE.
7. In the Shared Secret fields, enter and confirm a secret for the Web agent. Note
that you need to enter this secret when configuring the IVE (as explained in
“Agent Name, Secret” on page 147).
8. Click OK.
Creating a SiteMinder authentication scheme for the IVE
Within SiteMinder, an authentication scheme provides a way to collect credentials
and determine the identity of a user.
To configure a SiteMinder authentication scheme for the IVE:
1. In the SiteMinder Administration interface, choose the System tab.
2. Right-click on Authentication Schemes and choose Create Authentication
Scheme.
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3. Enter a name for the scheme and (optionally) a description. Note that you need
to enter this name when configuring the SiteMinder realm (as explained in
“Creating a SiteMinder realm for the IVE” on page 141).
4. Under Authentication Scheme Type, select one of the following options:
„
Basic Template
„
HTML Form Template
„
SecurID HTML Form Template1
„
X509 Client Cert Template
„
X509 Client Cert and Basic Authentication
NOTE:
„
The IVE only supports the authentication scheme types listed here.
„
You must select HTML Form Template if you want the IVE to handle reauthentication (as described in “Reauthentication of users with insufficient
protection levels” on page 137).
„
If you select X509 Client Cert Template or X509 Client Cert and Basic
Authentication, you must import the certificate into the IVE through the
System > Certificates > Trusted Client CAs tab. For more information, see
“Using trusted client CAs” on page 607.
5. Enter a protection level for the scheme. Note that this protection level carries
over to the SiteMinder realm that you associate with this scheme. For more
information, see “Creating a SiteMinder realm for the IVE” on page 141.
6. Select the Password Policies Enabled for this Authentication Scheme if you
want to reauthenticate users who request resources with a higher protection
level than they are authorized to access.
7. In the Scheme Setup tab, enter the options required by your authentication
scheme type.
If you want the IVE to re-authenticate users who request resources with a
higher protection level than they are authorized to access, you must enter the
following settings:
„
Under Server Name, enter the IVE host name (for example,
sales.yourcompany.net).
„
Select the Use SSL Connection checkbox.
1. If you are using SecurID authentication, you must choose SecurID HTML Form Template (instead of SecurID
Template). Choosing this option enables the Policy Server to send ACE sign-in failure codes to the IVE.
140
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Chapter 7: Authentication and directory servers
„
Under Target, enter the IVE sign-in URL defined in this step’s first bullet
plus the parameter “ive=1” (for example, /highproturl?ive=1). (The IVE
must have a sign-in policy that uses */highproturl as the sign-in URL and
only uses the corresponding SiteMinder authentication realm.)
NOTE: When you save changes, ive=1 disappears from the target. This is OK. The
policy server includes ive=1 in the full authentication scheme URL that it sends to
the IVE, as you can see in the in the Parameter field of the Advanced tab.
„
De-select the Allow Form Authentication Scheme to Save Credentials
checkbox.
„
Leave Additional Attribute List empty.
8. Click OK.
NOTE:
„
If you change a SiteMinder authentication scheme on the policy server, you
must flush the cache using the Flush Cache option on the Advanced tab.
„
For information about configuring the IVE to handle multiple authentication
schemes, see “Configuring the IVE to work with multiple authentication
schemes” on page 144.
Creating a SiteMinder domain for the IVE
Within SiteMinder, a policy domain is a logical grouping of resources associated
with one or more user directories. Policy domains contain realms, responses, and
policies. When configuring the IVE to work with SiteMinder, you must give IVE
users access to a SiteMinder resource within a realm, and then group the realm into
a domain.
To configure a SiteMinder domain for the IVE, in the SiteMinder Administration
interface, choose the System tab, right-click on Domains and choose Create
Domain. Or, click on Domains and choose an existing SiteMinder domain. Note
that you need to add a realm to this domain (as explained in “Creating a SiteMinder
realm for the IVE” on page 141).
Creating a SiteMinder realm for the IVE
Within SiteMinder, a realm is a cluster of resources within a policy domain grouped
together according to security requirements. When configuring SiteMinder to work
with the IVE, you must define realms to determine which resources IVE users may
access.
To configure a SiteMinder realm for the IVE:
1. In the SiteMinder Administration interface, choose the Domains tab.
2. Expand the domain that you created for the IVE. For more information, see
“Creating a SiteMinder domain for the IVE” on page 141.
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3. Right-click on Realms and choose Create Realm.
4. Enter a name and (optionally) description for the realm.
5. In the Agent field, select the Web agent that you created for the IVE. For more
information, see “Configuring the SiteMinder agent” on page 139.
6. In the Resource Filter field, enter a protected resource. This resource inherits
the protection level specified in the corresponding authentication scheme. For
the default protection level, enter /ive-authentication. Note that you need to
enter this resource when configuring the IVE (as explained in “Protected
Resource” on page 147). Or, if you use sign-in policies with non-default URLs
such as */nete or */cert, you must have corresponding resource filters in the
SiteMinder configuration.
7. From the Authentication Schemes list, select the scheme that you created for
the IVE (as explained in “Creating a SiteMinder authentication scheme for the
IVE” on page 139).
8. Click OK.
Creating a rule/response pair to pass usernames to the IVE
Within SiteMinder, you can use rules to trigger responses when authentication or
authorization events take place. A response passes DN attributes, static text, or
customized active responses from the SiteMinder policy server to a SiteMinder
agent. When you configure SiteMinder to work with the IVE, you must create a rule
that fires when a user successfully authenticates. Then, you must create a
corresponding response that passes the user’s username to the IVE Web agent.
To create a new rule:
1. In the SiteMinder Administration interface, choose the Domains tab.
2. Expand the domain that you created for the IVE (as explained in “Creating a
SiteMinder domain for the IVE” on page 141) and then expand Realms.
3. Right-click on the realm that you created for the IVE (as explained in “Creating
a SiteMinder realm for the IVE” on page 141) and choose Create Rule under
Realm.
4. Enter a name and (optionally) description for the rule.
5. Under Action, choose Authentication Events and then select OnAuthAccept
from the drop-down list.
6. Select Enabled.
7. Click OK.
To create a new response:
1. In the SiteMinder Administration interface, choose the Domains tab.
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Chapter 7: Authentication and directory servers
2. Expand the domain that you created for the IVE (as explained in “Creating a
SiteMinder domain for the IVE” on page 141).
3. Right-click on Responses and select Create Response.
4. Enter a name and (optionally) a description for the response.
5. Select SiteMinder and then select the IVE Web agent (as explained in
“Configuring the SiteMinder agent” on page 139).
6. Click Create.
7. From the Attribute list, select WebAgent-HTTP-Header-Variable.
8. Under Attribute Kind, select Static.
9. Under Variable Name, enter IVEUSERNAME.
10. Under Variable Value, enter a user name.
11. Click OK.
Creating SiteMinder user attributes for IVE role mapping
If you create SiteMinder user attributes on a SiteMinder policy server, you can use
those user attributes in IVE role mapping rules to map users to roles. For example,
you might want to map users to various IVE roles based on their department. To
use a SiteMinder user attribute in a role mapping rule, you reference the cookie
name contained in the SiteMinder user attribute cookie.
The following procedure is required only if you want to use SiteMinder user
attributes in IVE role mapping rules.
To create user attributes on a SiteMinder server:
1. In the SiteMinder Administration interface, choose the Domains tab.
2. Expand the domain that you created for the IVE (as explained in “Creating a
SiteMinder domain for the IVE” on page 141).
3. Right-click on Responses and select Create Response.
4. Enter a name and (optionally) a description for the response.
5. Select SiteMinder and then select the IVE Web agent (as explained in
“Configuring the SiteMinder agent” on page 139).
6. Click Create.
7. From the Attribute list, select WebAgent-HTTP-Cookie-Variable.
8. Under Attribute Kind, select User Attribute.
9. For Cookie Name, enter a name for the cookie, such as department. You can
reference this cookie name in an IVE role mapping rule.
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10. For Attribute Name, enter the name of the attribute in the SiteMinder user
directory. (This refers to the attribute in the LDAP server that SiteMinder uses.)
11. Click OK.
12. Assign the User Attribute response to an OnAuthAccept type rule. (See
“Creating a rule/response pair to pass usernames to the IVE” on page 142.)
13. Reference the cookie name in a role mapping rule for an IVE realm that uses
the SiteMinder policy server. For instructions, see “Using SiteMinder user
attributes for IVE role mapping” on page 154.
Creating a SiteMinder policy under the domain
Within SiteMinder, a policy associates users with rules. To configure a SiteMinder
policy under a domain, in the SiteMinder Administration interface, choose the
Domains tab, select the domain to which you want to add a policy, right-click on
Policies, and choose Create Policy.
Configuring the IVE to work with SiteMinder
This section includes the following instructions for configuring the IVE to work with
a SiteMinder policy server:
„
“Configuring the IVE to work with multiple authentication schemes” on
page 144
„
“Configuring the IVE to grant users different protected resources” on page 145
„
“Defining an eTrust SiteMinder server instance” on page 146
„
“Defining a SiteMinder realm for automatic sign-in” on page 155
Configuring the IVE to work with multiple authentication schemes
To configure the IVE to work with multiple SiteMinder authentication schemes, you
must:
1. Configure the authentication schemes on the SiteMinder policy server. For
instructions, see “Creating a SiteMinder authentication scheme for the IVE” on
page 139.
2. Create one IVE instance of the SiteMinder policy server for all SiteMinder
authentication schemes you want to use. For instructions, see “Defining an
eTrust SiteMinder server instance” on page 146.
3. Specify which IVE realm should use the IVE instance of the SiteMinder policy
server to authenticate and authorize administrators and users. For instructions,
see “Creating an authentication realm” on page 166.
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Chapter 7: Authentication and directory servers
4. For each protected resource on the SiteMinder policy server, create an IVE signin policy. In the Authentication > Authentication > Signing In Policies >
New Sign-In Policy page:
„
Specify an IVE sign-in URL that matches the SiteMinder protected resource
URL on the policy server. Make the path portion of the URL match the
SiteMinder resource filter in the SiteMinder realm configuration. For
example, you can specify */ACE/ as an IVE sign-in URL to match a
SiteMinder URL of XYZ/ACE, where XYZ is the name of a realm.
„
Select the IVE realm that you specified should use the SiteMinder policy
server.
For instructions, see “Configuring sign-in policies” on page 183.
The user signs into the IVE using one of the IVE sign-in URLs. The IVE sends the
protected resource URL to SiteMinder, and based on the resource, SiteMinder
determines which type of scheme to use to authenticate the user. The IVE collects
the credentials that the authentication scheme requires, and then passes them to
SiteMinder for authentication.
Configuring the IVE to grant users different protected resources
To configure the IVE to grant users access to various SiteMinder protected
resources (and by association, different protection levels), you must:
1. Define which resources the SiteMinder server should protect. Each of these
resources inherits a protection level from a corresponding SiteMinder
authentication scheme. For instructions, see “Creating a SiteMinder realm for
the IVE” on page 141.
2. Create one IVE instance of the SiteMinder policy server for all protected
resources and corresponding protection levels that you want to allow. For
instructions, see “Defining an eTrust SiteMinder server instance” on page 146.
3. Specify which IVE realm should use the IVE instance of the SiteMinder policy
server. For instructions, see “Creating an authentication realm” on page 166.
4. For each resource on the SiteMinder policy server, create an IVE sign-in policy
for each realm-level resource filter. In the configuration page for the sign-in
policy, specify:
„
An IVE sign-in URL that matches the protected resource URL on the policy
server. Make the path portion of the URL match the SiteMinder resource
filter. For example, you may define the following URLs:
https://employees.yourcompany.com/sales
https://employees.yourcompany.com/engineering
When users sign into the first URL, they can access the “sales” protected
resource, and when they sign into the second URL, they can access the
“engineering” protected resource.
To define a default resource (ive-authentication), enter * in the path portion
of the URL.
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„
Select the IVE realm that you specified should use the SiteMinder policy
server.
For instructions, see“Configuring sign-in policies” on page 183.
During production, the user signs into the IVE using one of the URLs. The IVE
extracts the protected resource from the URL and authenticates the user against the
appropriate realm.
Defining an eTrust SiteMinder server instance
Within the IVE, a SiteMinder instance is a set of configuration settings that defines
how the IVE interacts with the SiteMinder policy server. After defining the
SiteMinder server instance, specify which IVE realm(s) should use the IVE instance
of the SiteMinder policy server to authenticate and authorize administrators and
users. For instructions, see “Creating an authentication realm” on page 166.
To define an eTrust SiteMinder server instance:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Auth. Servers.
2. Do one of the following:
„
To create a new server instance on the IVE, select SiteMinder Server from
the New list, and then click New Server.
„
To update an existing server instance, click the appropriate link in the
Authentication/Authorization Servers list.
3. Configure the server using the settings described in Table 13.
4. To add SiteMinder user attributes to the SiteMinder server instance:
a.
Click Server Catalog to display the server catalog.
b. Enter the SiteMinder user attribute cookie name in the Attribute field in
the server catalog and then click Add Attribute. (For information on
SiteMinder user attribute cookies, see “Creating SiteMinder user attributes
for IVE role mapping” on page 143.)
c.
When you are finished adding cookie names, click OK. The IVE displays
the names of the SiteMinder user attribute cookies in the Attribute list on
the Role Mapping Rule page. For configuration instructions, see “Using
SiteMinder user attributes for IVE role mapping” on page 154.
5. Click Save Changes.
6. Set advanced SiteMinder configuration options (optional) using the settings
described in Table 14.
NOTE: For information on monitoring and deleting the sessions of users who are
currently signed in through the server, see “Monitoring active users” on page 686.
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Table 13: eTrust SiteMinder configuration options
Option
Description
Name
Enter a name to identify the server instance.
Policy Server
Enter the name or IP address of the SiteMinder policy server that you
want to use to authenticate users.
Backup Server(s),
Failover Mode
Enter a comma-delimited list of backup policy servers (optional). Then,
choose a failover mode:
„ Select Yes to have the IVE appliance use the main policy server
unless it fails.
„ Select No to have the IVE appliance load balance among all the
specified policy servers.
Agent Name,
Secret
Enter the shared secret and agent name specified in “Configuring the
SiteMinder agent” on page 139. Note that these are case-sensitive.
Compatible with
Choose a SiteMinder server version. Version 5.5 supports versions 5.5
and 6.0. Version 6.0 supports only version 6.0 of the SiteMinder server
API. The default value is 5.5 policy servers.
On logout, redirect to Specify a URL to which users are redirected when they sign out of the
IVE (optional). If you leave this field empty, users see the default IVE
sign-in page.
Note: The On logout, redirect to field is included in the product release
for backwards-compatibility, but is scheduled for discontinuance. If you
want to redirect users to a different sign-in page when they sign out, we
strongly recommend that you use the customizable sign-in pages
feature instead. For more information, see the Custom Sign-In Pages
Solution Guide.
Protected Resource
Specify a default protected resource specified in “Creating a SiteMinder
realm for the IVE” on page 141. If you do not create sign-in policies for
SiteMinder, the IVE uses this default URL to set the user’s protection
level for the session. The IVE also uses this default URL if you select the
Automatic Sign-In option. If your users are signing in to the “*” URL
(default IVE sign-in page), enter any URL (“/IVE-authentication” is the
default) to set the protection level to the default IVE value. If you do
create sign-in policies for SiteMinder, the IVE uses those sign-in policies
instead of this default URL.
Note: You must enter a forward slash (/) at the beginning of the
resource (for example, “/ive-authentication”).
Resource Action
(Read-only) For new SiteMinder server instances, the IVE sets the
resource action to GET. If your SiteMinder instance is upgraded from a
3.x instance, the IVE uses the resource action (for example, GET, POST,
or PUT) that you previously chose. Note that to change an existing
resource action to GET, you must delete the old SiteMinder server
instance and then create a new instance that uses GET.
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Table 13: eTrust SiteMinder configuration options (Continued)
Option
Description
SMSESSION cookie settings
Cookie Domain
Enter the cookie domain of the IVE. (A cookie domain is a domain in
which the user’s cookies are active—The IVE sends cookies to the user’s
browser in this domain.)
Note:
„ Multiple domains should use a leading period and be comma-
separated. For example: .sales.myorg.com, .marketing.myorg.com
„ Domain names are case-sensitive.
„ You cannot use wildcard characters.
For example, if you define “.juniper.net”, the user must access the IVE
as “http://ive.juniper.net” in order to ensure that his SMSESSION cookie
is sent back to the IVE.
Protocol
(Read-only) Indicates that the IVE uses HTTPS protocol to send cookies
to the user’s Web browser.
IVE Cookie Domain
Enter the Internet domain(s) to which the IVE sends the SMSESSION
cookie using the same guidelines outlined for the Cookie Domain field.
(An IVE cookie domain enables single sign-on across multiple cookie
domains. It allows a user’s information to carry with him when he
navigates from one domain to another.) If you have configured a cookie
provider to enable single sign-on across multiple cookie domains, enter
the domain of the cookie provider. Otherwise, enter the domain(s) of
the Web agents for which single sign-on is desired. For example:
.juniper.net
Protocol
Choose HTTPS to send cookies securely if other Web agents are set up
to accept secure cookies, or HTTP to send cookies non-securely.
SiteMinder authentication settings
Automatic Sign-In
Select the Automatic Sign-In option to automatically sign in users who
have a valid SMSESSION cookie in to the IVE. Then, select the
authentication realm to which the users are mapped. If you select this
option, note that:
„ If the protection level associated with a user’s SMSESSION cookie is
different from the protection level of the IVE realm, the IVE uses the
protection level associated with the cookie.
„ In order to enable single sign-on from another Web agent to the IVE,
the IVE needs to validate an existing SMSESSION cookie created by a
standard Web agent.
„ The IVE supports the following realm and role limitations with the
Automatic Sign-in feature: Host Checker, Cache Cleaner, IP address,
browser, and concurrent user limit checks. Certificate and password
restrictions are not supported since they are not applicable to
automatically signed-in users.
„ The IVE does not support the Automatic Sign in feature for
administrator roles. This feature is only available for end-users.
When you select the Automatic Sign-In option, you must also configure
the following sub-options:
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Table 13: eTrust SiteMinder configuration options (Continued)
Option
Description
„ To assign user roles, use this authentication realm
Select an authentication realm for automatically signed-in users. The
IVE maps the user to a role based on the role mapping rules defined
in the selected realm.
Note: If you map users to roles based on username, see
“Determining the user’s username” on page 137 for information
about which username the IVE uses.
„ If Automatic Sign In fails, redirect to
Enter an alternative URL for users who sign into the IVE through the
Automatic Sign-In mechanism explained in “Automatic Sign-In” on
page 148. The IVE redirects users to the specified URL if the IVE fails
to authenticate and no redirect response is received from the
SiteMinder policy server. If you leave this field empty, users are
prompted to sign back in to the IVE.
Note:
„ Users who sign in through the IVE sign-in page are always
redirected back to the IVE sign-in page if authentication fails.
„ If you are using the customizable UI (Custom Pages) option
explained in the Custom Sign-In Pages Solution Guide. note that the
IVE redirects to welcome.cgi in two different cases. You must
account for both of these special cases in your custom page:
Session and idle timeouts: /dana-na/auth/welcome.cgi?p=timedout
Failed cookie validation: /dana-na/auth/welcome.cgi?p=failed
Authenticate using
custom agent
Choose this option if you want to authenticate using the IVE custom
Web agent. Note that if you select this option, you must also:
„ Update all of your standard Web agents to the appropriate Siteminder
Agent Quarterly Maintenance Release (QMR) in order to accept the
cookies created by the IVE. If you are running SiteMinder version 5
Web agents, use the QMR5 hot fix. The IVE is compatible with
version 5.x and later SiteMinder agents. Older versions of SiteMinder
agents are susceptible to cookie validation failures.
„ Set the Accept Third Party Cookie attribute (AcceptTPCookie) to yes in
the Web agent’s configuration file (webagent.conf) or to 1 in the
Windows Registry for the IIS Web server. The location of the attribute
depends on the SiteMinder version and Web server you are using.
For more information, please refer to the documentation provided
with your SiteMinder server.
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Table 13: eTrust SiteMinder configuration options (Continued)
Option
Description
Authenticate using
HTML form post
Choose this option if you want to post user credentials to a standard
Web agent that you have already configured rather than contacting the
SiteMinder policy server directly. If you select this option, the Web
agent contacts the policy server to determine the appropriate sign-in
page to display to the user. In order to configure the IVE to “act like a
browser” that posts credentials to the standard Web agent, you must
enter the information defined below. The easiest way to find this
information is to:
1. Open a Web browser and enter the URL of the standard web agent
that you want to use. For example, http://webagent.juniper.net
2. Note the URL of the SiteMinder sign-in page that appears. For
example:
http://webagent.juniper.net/siteminderagent/forms/login.fcc?TYPE=
33554433&REALMOID=06-2525fa65-5a7f-11d5-9ee00003471b786c&GUID=&SMAUTHREASON=0&TARGET=$SM$http
%3a%2f%2fwebagent%2ejuniper%2enet%2fportal%2findex%2ejs
p
3. Extract information from the URL to enter in the fields that follow.
Note:
„ You cannot use SecurID New Pin and Next Token modes, client-side
certificate authentication, or SNMP traps with the Authenticate using
HTML form post option.
„ The Authorize While Authenticating option is not applicable with
the HTML form post option.
„ You can authenticate users using this option, but if you want to
authorize them as well, you must select Authenticate using custom
agent.
When you select the Authenticate using HTML form post option, you
must also configure the following sub-options:
„ Target
URL on the external, eTrust-enabled Web server. In the Web agent
sign-in page URL, the target appears after &TARGET=$SM$. For
example, in the URL shown in “Authenticate using HTML form post”
on page 150, the target is:
http%3a%2f%2fwebagent%2ejuniper%2enet%2fportal%2findex%2ejsp
After converting special characters (%3a=colon, %2f=backslash,
%2e=period), the final target is:
http://webagent.juniper.net/portal/index.jsp
„ Protocol
Protocol for communication between IVE and the specified Web
agent. Use HTTP for non-secure communication or HTTPS for secure
communication. In the Web agent sign-in page URL, the protocol
appears first. For example, in the URL shown in “Authenticate using
HTML form post” on page 150, the protocol is HTTP.
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Table 13: eTrust SiteMinder configuration options (Continued)
Option
Description
„ Web Agent
Name of the Web agent from which the IVE is to obtain SMSESSION
cookies. An IP address is not allowed for this field. (Specifying the IP
address as the Web agent prevents some browsers from accepting
cookies.) In the Web agent sign-in page URL, the Web agent appears
after the protocol. For example, in the URL shown above in
“Authenticate using HTML form post” on page 150, the Web agent is:
webagent.juniper.net
„ Port
Port 80 for HTTP or port 443 for HTTPS.
„ Path
Path of the Web agent’s sign-in page. Note that the path must start
with a backslash (/) character. In the Web agent sign-in page URL, the
path appears after the Web agent. For example, in the URL shown in
“Authenticate using HTML form post” on page 150, the path is:
/siteminderagent/forms/login.fcc
„ Parameters
Post parameters to be sent when a user signs in. Common SiteMinder
variables that you can use include _ _USER_ _,
_ _PASS_ _, and _ _TARGET_ _. These variables are replaced by the
username and password entered by the user on the Web agent’s
sign-in page and by the value specified in the Target field. These are
the default parameters for login.fcc—if you have made
customizations, you may need to change these parameters.
Delegate
authentication to a
standard agent
Choose this option if you want to delegate authentication to a standard
agent. When the user accesses the IVE sign-in page, the IVE determines
the FCC URL associated with the protected resource’s authentication
scheme. The IVE redirects the user to that URL, setting the IVE sign-in
URL as the target. After successfully authenticating with the standard
agent, an SMSESSION cookie is set in the user’s browser and he is
redirected back to the IVE. The IVE then automatically signs in the user
and establishes an IVE session. For information about configuring the
authentication scheme, see “Creating a SiteMinder authentication
scheme for the IVE” on page 139.
NOTE:
„ You must enable the Automatic Sign-In option in order to use this
feature.
„ If you enable this option and a user already has a valid SMSESSION
cookie when he tries to access a resource, the IVE tries to
automatically sign in using the existing SMSESSION cookie. If the
cookie is invalid, the IVE clears the SMSESSION cookie and
corresponding IVE cookies and presents the user with a “timeout”
page. The IVE successfully delegates authentication when the user
clicks the “sign back in” option.
„ If you select this option, your authentication scheme must have an
associated FCC URL.
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Table 13: eTrust SiteMinder configuration options (Continued)
Option
Description
Authorize requests
against SiteMinder
policy server
Select to use SiteMinder policy server rules to authorize user Web
resource requests. If you select this option, make sure that you create
the appropriate rules in SiteMinder that start with the server name
followed by a forward slash, such as: "www.yahoo.com/",
"www.yahoo.com/*", and "www.yahoo.com/r/f1". For more information,
please refer to the documentation provided with your SiteMinder
server.
If authorization fails,
redirect to
Enter an alternative URL that users are redirected to if the IVE fails to
authorize and no redirect response is received from the SiteMinder
policy server. If you leave this field empty, users are prompted to sign
back in to the IVE.
Resource for
insufficient
protection level
Enter a resource on the Web agent to which the IVE redirects users
when they do not have the appropriate permission.
When user accesses a resource with protection level higher than the one
in his SMSESSION cookie, he gets a secured sign-in page. Then after he
re-authenticates, he obtains a SMSESSION cookie with the higher
protection level and gets redirected to a Web page. The type of web
page IVE displays depends on which method you use to re-authenticate
users*:
„ A standard Web agent with "FCCCompatMode = yes"
If you set your Web agent’s forms credential collector (FCC)**
compatibility mode to yes, users are redirected to page you specify in
the Resource for insufficient protection level field.
Note:
- You must redirect users to a page on the standard Web agent. The
IVE cannot direct the user to the original resource that he wanted to
access.
- You do not need to enter the entire URL leading to the resource (for
example:
https://sales.yourcompany.com/,DanaInfo=www.stdwebagent.com+inde
x.html)—you only need to enter the resource (index.html).
„ A standard Web agent with "FCCCompatMode = no"
If you set your Web agent’s forms credential collector (FCC)**
compatibility mode to yes, users are redirected to page you specify in
the Resource for insufficient protection level field. Or, if you leave
this field empty, the user is redirected to the original resource that he
wanted to access.
„ The IVE
If you re-authenticate users through the IVE, users are redirected to
the IVE intermediate page described in “Reauthentication of users
with insufficient protection levels” on page 137. Note that if you want
the IVE to redirect the user to the original resource that he wanted to
access, you must enable the Browser request follow through option
on the Users > User Roles > [Role] > General > Session Options
page of the admin console. (If you leave this field empty but do not
enable the Browser request follow through option, the IVE redirects
the user to the standard IVE user’s bookmark page.)
* For information about specifying a re-authentication method, see
“Creating a SiteMinder authentication scheme for the IVE” on page 139.
** When a user makes a request to a protected resource, SiteMinder
routes it to a forms credential collector (FCC) which then invokes a Web
form on the policy server to collect credentials.
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Table 13: eTrust SiteMinder configuration options (Continued)
Option
Description
Ignore authorization
for files with
extensions
Enter file extensions corresponding to file types that do not require
authorization. You must enter the extensions of each file type that you
want to ignore, separating each with a comma. For example, enter “.gif,
.jpeg, .jpg, .bmp” to ignore various image types. You cannot use
wildcards characters (such *, *.*, or .*) to ignore a range of file types.
Table 14: eTrust SiteMinder advanced configuration options
Option
Description
Poll Interval
Enter the interval at which IVE polls the Siteminder policy server to
check for a new key.
Max. Connections
Controls the maximum number of simultaneous connections that the
IVE is allowed to make to the policy server. The default setting is 20.
Max. Requests/
Connection
Controls the maximum number of requests that the policy server
connection handles before the IVE ends the connection. If necessary,
tune to increase performance. The default setting is 1000.
Idle Timeout
Controls the maximum number of minutes a connection to the policy
server may remain idle (the connection is not handling requests) before
the IVE ends the connection. The default setting of “none” indicates no
time limit.
Authorize while
Authenticating
Specifies that the IVE should look up user attributes on the policy server
immediately after authentication to determine if the user is truly
authenticated. For example, if your eTrust server authenticates users
based on an LDAP server setting, you can select this option to indicate
that the IVE should authenticate users through the eTrust server and
then authorize them through the LDAP server before granting them
access. If the user fails authentication or authorization, he is redirected
to the page configured on the policy server.
Note:
„ If you do not select this option and you have authorization options
setup through the Policy Users > Exclude tab of the policy server
configuration utility, a user whom you have denied access may
successfully authenticate into the IVE. Not until the user tries to
access a protected resource does the IVE check his authorization
rights and deny him access.
„ The IVE sends the same resource to the policy server for
authorization as for authentication.
„ This option is not supported with the Authenticate using HTML form
post option described in “Authenticate using HTML form post” on
page 150 or the Automatic sign-in option described in “Automatic
Sign-In” on page 148.
You can eliminate the overhead of verifying a user’s SMSESSION cookie
each time the user requests the same resource by indicating that the
IVE should consider the cookie valid for a certain period of time. During
Validate cookie every that period, the IVE assumes that its cached cookie is valid rather than
re-validating it against the policy server. If you do not select this option,
N seconds
the IVE checks the user’s SMSESSION cookie on each request. Note that
the value entered here does not affect session or idle timeout checking.
Enable Session Grace
Period,
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Table 14: eTrust SiteMinder advanced configuration options (Continued)
Option
Description
Ignore Query Data
By default, when a user requests a resource, the IVE sends the entire
URL for that resource to the policy server (including the query
parameter, if present). For example, the IVE may send the following
URL to the policy server: http://foo/bar?param=value. (Query data
appears after the ? character in the URL. Within this URL, param=value
represents the query parameter.)
The IVE then caches the result of the authorization request for 10
minutes, including the query parameter. If the user then requests the
same resource that is specified in the cached URL, the request fails
since the query portion of the cached URL does not match the new
request. The IVE then has to re-contact the policy server to make a
request that includes the new query parameter.
If you select the Ignore Query Data option, the IVE does not cache the
query parameter in its URLs. Therefore, if a user requests the same
resource as is specified in the cached URL, the request should not fail.
For example, if you enable the Ignore Query Data option, both of the
following URLs are considered the same resource:
http://foo/bar?param=value1
http://foo/bar?param=value2
Enabling this option may improve performance.
Accounting Port
The value entered in this field must match the accounting port value
entered through the Policy Server Management Console. By default, this
field matches the policy server’s default setting of 44441.
Authentication Port
The value entered in this field must match the authentication port value
entered through the Policy Server Management Console. By default, this
field matches the policy server’s default setting of 44442.
Authorization Port
The value entered in this field must match the authorization port value
entered through the Policy Server Management Console. By default, this
field matches the policy server’s default setting of 44443.
Flush Cache
Use to delete the IVE’s resource cache, which caches resource
authorization information for 10 minutes.
Using SiteMinder user attributes for IVE role mapping
After you create user attributes on a SiteMinder policy server (see “Creating
SiteMinder user attributes for IVE role mapping” on page 143), you can use them in
role mapping rules for a realm that uses the SiteMinder policy server.
To use SiteMinder user attributes for IVE role mapping:
1. In the admin console, choose Administrators > Admin Realms or Users >
User Realms.
2. On the General tab of the Authentication Realms page for the IVE realm that
uses the SiteMinder policy server, choose Same as Above from the
Directory/Attribute list. (For instructions, see “Creating an authentication
realm” on page 166.)
NOTE: If you choose LDAP from the Directory/Attribute list instead of Same as
Above, you can use both SiteMinder and LDAP attributes in role mapping rules.
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3. On the IVE Role Mapping tab, create a rule based on IVE user attributes that
references a SiteMinder user attribute cookie.
For example, to reference a SiteMinder user attribute cookie named
department, add department to the list of IVE user attributes on the IVE Role
Mapping tab. Then specify a value for the SiteMinder user attribute cookie,
such as sales. For instructions, see “Creating role mapping rules” on page 169.
You can also use the following syntax to reference a SiteMinder user attribute
cookie in a custom expression for a role mapping rule:
userAttr.<cookie-name>
For example:
userAttr.department = ("sales" and "eng")
Defining a SiteMinder realm for automatic sign-in
SiteMinder Automatic Sign In requires a realm whose authentication server is the
SiteMinder server. If you perform an upgrade and you have already defined the
Automatic Sign In realm that does not specify the SiteMinder server for
authentication, and you have configured the SiteMinder server:
„
The realms do not appear in the SiteMinder realm list under SiteMinder
authentication settings in the admin console.
„
The upgrade process creates a new realm called eTrust-Auto-Login-Realm
which is based on your existing realm, but which configures the SiteMinder
server as its authentication server.
To configure the SiteMinder realm on a new installation:
1. Select Authentication > Auth. Servers.
2. Choose SiteMinder from the New list and click New Server.
3. Specify the settings you want, as described in “Defining an eTrust SiteMinder
server instance” on page 146.
4. Click Save Changes.
5. Configure the realm, as described in “Creating an authentication realm” on
page 166, and select the SiteMinder server as the authentication server.
6. Select Authentication > Auth. Servers.
7. Choose the SiteMinder server you defined previously.
8. Under SiteMinder authentication settings, select the Automatic Sign In
checkbox.
9. Choose the realm you just configured from the user authentication realm list.
10. Click Save Changes.
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NOTE: The user authentication realm list on the SiteMinder server page only
displays realms that are configured for SiteMinder. If you have not configured any
SiteMinder realms, the drop down menu is empty.
Debugging SiteMinder and IVE issues
At some point, you may encounter problems configuring the eTrust SiteMinder
server interactions with the IVE. You can use a number of debugging tools to
identify and resolve problems:
„
Review the IVE log file. The IVE tracks failures of cookie validation, authorizing
requests, and key rollovers.
„
Review the Policy Server Authentication and Authorization log files.
„
Review the Standard Web Agent log file if you have selected the
Authentication using HTLM Form POST option.
„
Confirm that the IVE contains the proper suffix that you defined in the Cookie
Domain field. If the IVE is not properly addressed, the browser may not
forward the correct SMSESSION cookie to the IVE and you may not be able to
sign in. You must enter the IVE’s FQDN on the browser, not the IVE IP address,
otherwise, your login fails.
„
Confirm that the IVE system time is synchronized with the SiteMinder server’s
system time. If the two system times are too divergent, the timeout settings
may not function correctly, rejecting your attempts to sign in.
„
In the SiteMinder server, confirm that you have defined the proper Session
Timeout options max timeout and idle in the Siteminder Realm dialog.
„
If you sign in to the IVE and browse to a eTrust-protected Web agent, then
reach the eTrust sign-in page instead of the single sign on (SSO) page, check the
IVE Cookie Domain value to confirm that the domain matches the domain of
the eTrust-protected Web agent. Review the setting for the Send Cookie
Securely option. If Send Cookie Securely is set to yes, SSO works only with
secure https:// sites. If Send Cookie Securely is set to no, SSO works with both
http:// and https:// sites.
Configuring a SAML Server instance
The IVE accepts authentication assertions generated by a SAML authority using
either an artifact profile or a POST profile. This feature allows a user to sign in to a
source site or portal without going through the IVE first. and then to access the IVE
with single sign-on (SSO) through the SAML consumer service.
As a result, the user who authenticates elsewhere is able to access resources behind
the IVE without signing in again.
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Using the artifact profile and the POST profile
The two supported profiles provide different methods of accomplishing the same
task. The end-user’s goal is to sign in to all desired resources once, without
experiencing multiple sign-in pages for different resources or applications.
Although the end-user wants transparency, you, the administrator, want to ensure
complete security across the resources on your system, regardless of the servers or
sites represented.
The artifact profile requires that you construct an automated request-response
HTTP message that the browser can retrieve based on an HTTP GET request. For
details about this method, see “Using the artifact profile scenario” on page 157.
The POST profile requires that you construct an HTML form that can contain the
SAML assertion, and which can be submitted by an end-user action or a script
action, using an HTTP POST method. For more details about this method, see
“Using the POST profile scenario” on page 158.
Using the artifact profile scenario
The SAML server generally supports the following artifact profile scenario:
1. The user accesses a source site via a browser. The source site might be a
corporate portal using a non-IVE authentication access management system.
2. The source site challenges the user for username and password.
3. The user provides username and password, which the source site authenticates
through a call to an LDAP directory or other authentication server.
4. The user then clicks on a link on the source site, which points to a resource on
a server that is protected behind the IVE.
5. The link redirects the user to the Intersite Transfer Service URL on the source
site. The source site pulls an authentication assertion message from its cache
and encloses it in a SOAP message. The source site constructs a SAML artifact
(a Base64 string) that it returns to the browser in a URI along with the
destination and assertion address.
6. The destination site queries the authenticated assertion from the source site,
based on the artifact it receives from the source site.
7. If the elapsed time falls within the allowable clock skew time, the IVE accepts
the assertion as a valid authentication, and the user meets any other IVE policy
restrictions, the IVE grants the user access to the requested resource.
The main tasks you are required to fulfill to support the IVE as the relying party
with the artifact profile include:
„
Implement the assertion consumer service, which:
„
Receives the redirect URL containing the artifact
„
Generates and sends the SAML request
„
Receives and processes the SAML response
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„
Integrate the assertion consumer service with the existing IVE process, which:
„
Maps the SAML assertion to a local user
„
Creates an IVE user session
„
Performs local authorization
„
Serves the resource or denies access
Using the POST profile scenario
The SAML server generally supports the POST profile scenario, as follows:
1. The end-user accesses the source Web site, hereafter known as the source site.
2. The source site verifies whether or not the user has a current session.
3. If not, the source site prompts the user to enter user credentials.
4. The user supplies credentials, for example, username and password.
5. If the authentication is successful, the source site authentication server creates
a session for the user and displays the appropriate welcome page of the portal
application.
6. The user then selects a menu option or link that points to a resource or
application on a destination Web site.
7. The portal application directs the request to the local inter-site transfer service,
which can be hosted on the source site. The request contains the URL of the
resource on the destination site, in other words, the TARGET URL.
8. The inter-site transfer service sends an HTML form back to the browser. The
HTML FORM contains a SAML response, within which is a SAML assertion. The
response must be digitally signed. Typically the HTML FORM will contain an
input or submit action that will result in an HTTP POST. This can be a userclickable Submit button or a script that initiates the HTTP POST
programmatically.
9. The browser, either due to a user action or by way of an auto-submit action,
sends an HTTP POST containing the SAML response to the destination Web
site’s assertion consumer service.
10. The replying party's assertion consumer (in this case, on the destination Web
site) validates the digital signature on the SAML Response.
11. If valid, the assertion consumer sends a redirect to the browser, causing the
browser to access the TARGET resource.
12. The IVE, on the destination site, verifies that the user is authorized to access
the destination site and the TARGET resource.
13. If the user is authorized to access the destination site and the TARGET
resource, the IVE returns the TARGET resource to the browser.
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The main tasks you are required to fulfill to support the IVE as the relying party
with the POST profile include:
„
Implement the assertion consumer service, which receives and processes the
POST form
„
Integrate the assertion consumer service with the existing IVE process, which:
„
Maps the SAML assertion to a local user
„
Creates an IVE user session
„
Performs local authorization
„
Serves the resource or denies access
Understanding Assertions
Each party in the request-response communication must adhere to certain
requirements. The requirements provide a predictable infrastructure so that the
assertions and artifacts can be processed correctly.
„
The artifact is a Base64-encoded string of 40 bytes. An artifact acts as a token
that references an assertion on the source site, so the artifact holder—the IVE—
can authenticate a user who has signed in to the source site and who now
wants to access a resource protected by the IVE. The source site sends the
artifact to the IVE in a redirect, after the user attempts to access a resource
protected by the IVE. The artifact contains:
„
TypeCode—2-byte hex code of 0x0001 that identifies the artifact type.
„
SourceID—20-byte encrypted string that determines the source site
identity and location. The IVE maintains a table of SourceID values and the
URL for the corresponding SAML responder. The IVE and the source site
communicate this information in a back channel. On receiving the SAML
artifact, the IVE determines whether or not the SourceID belongs to a
known source site, and, if it does, obtains the site location before sending a
SAML request. The source site generates the SourceID by computing the
SHA-1 hash of the source site’s own URL.
„
AssertionHandle—20-byte random value that identifies an assertion stored
or generated by the source site. At least 8 bytes of this value should be
obtained from a cryptographically secure RNG or PRNG.
„
The inter-site transfer service is the identity provider URL on the source site
(not the IVE). Your specification of this URL in the admin console enables the
IVE to construct an authentication request to the source site, which holds the
user’s credentials in cache. The request is similar to the following example:
GET http://<inter-site transfer host name and path>?TARGET=<Target>…<HTTPVersion><other HTTP 1.0 or 1.1 components>
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In the preceding sample, <inter-site transfer host name and path> consists of the
host name, port number, and path components of the inter-site transfer URL at
the source and where Target=<Target> specifies the requested target resource
at the destination (IVE protected) site. This request might look like:
GET http://10.56.1.123:8002/xferSvc?TARGET=http://www.dest.com/sales.htm
„
The inter-site transfer service redirects the user’s browser to the assertion
consumer service at the destination site—in this case, the IVE. The HTTP
response from the source site inter-site transfer service must be in the
following format:
<HTTP-Version> 302 <Reason Phrase>
<other headers>
Location : http://<assertion consumer host name and path>?<SAML
searchpart><other HTTP 1.0 or 1.1 components>
In the preceding sample, <assertion consumer host name and path> provides
the host name, port number, and path components of an assertion consumer
URL at the destination site and where <SAML searchpart>= …TARGET=<Target>
…SAMLart=<SAML artifact>… consists of one target description, which must be
included in the <SAML searchpart> component. At least one SAML artifact must
be included in the SAML <SAML searchpart> component. The asserting party
can include multiple SAML artifacts.
NOTE:
„
You can use status code 302 to indicate that the requested resource
resides temporarily under a different URI.
„
If <SAML searchpart> contains more than one artifact, all of the artifacts
must share the same SourceID.
The redirect might look like:
HTTP/1.1 302 Found
Location:
http://www.ive.com:5802/artifact?TARGET=/www.ive.com/&SAMLart=artifact
„
The user's browser accesses the assertion consumer service, with a SAML
artifact representing the user's authentication information attached to the URL.
The HTTP request must appear as follows:
GET http://<assertion consumer host name and path>?<SAML searchpart>
<HTTP-Version><other HTTP 1.0 or 1.1 request components>
In the preceding sample, <assertion consumer host name and path> provides
the host name, port number, and path components of an assertion consumer
URL at the destination site.
<SAML searchpart>= …TARGET=<Target>…SAMLart=<SAML artifact> …
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A single target description MUST be included in the <SAML searchpart>
component. At least one SAML artifact MUST be included in the <SAML
searchpart> component; multiple SAML artifacts MAY be included. If more than
one artifact is carried within <SAML searchpart>, all the artifacts MUST have the
same SourceID.
You should not expose the assertion consumer URL unless over SSL 3.0 or TLS
1.0. Otherwise, transmitted artifacts might be available in plain text to an
attacker.
„
The issuer value is typically the URL of the source site. You can specify the
<ISSUER> variable which will return the issuer value from the assertion.
„
The user name template is a reference to the SAML name identifier element,
which allows the asserting party to provide a format for the user name. The
SAML specification allows for values in the following formats:
„
Unspecified—indicates that interpretation of the content is left up to the
individual implementations. In this case, you can use the variable
assertionName.
„
Email Address—indicates that content is in the form of an email address.
In this case, you can use the variable assertionName.
„
X.509 Subject Name—indicates that the content is in the form of an X.509
subject name. In this case, you can use the variable
assertionNameDN.<RDN>.
„
Windows Domain Qualified Name—indicates that the content is a string
in the form of DomainName\Username.
You should define the user name template to accept the type of user name your
SAML assertion contains.
„
To prevent eavesdropping on the SAML artifact, source and destination sites
should synchronize their clocks as closely as possible. The IVE provides an
Allowed Clock Skew attribute that dictates the maximum time difference
allowed between the IVE and the source site. The IVE rejects any assertions
whose timing exceeds the allowed clock skew.
Creating a new SAML Server instance
To create a new SAML server instance, and configure the common elements:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Auth. Servers.
2. Select SAML Server from the New list, and then click New Server.
3. Specify a name to identify the server instance.
4. Under Settings, specify the Source Site Inter-Site Transfer Service URL.
5. Specify the issuer value for the source site. Typically the URI or hostname of
the issuer of the assertion.
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6. Specify the user name template, which is a mapping string from the SAML
assertion to an IVE user realm. For example, enter <assertionNameDN.CN>,
which derives the username from the CN value in the assertion. For more
information about allowable values for this object, see “Configuring a SAML
Server instance” on page 156.
7. Specify the Allowed Clock Skew value, in minutes. This value determines the
maximum allowed difference in time between the IVE clock and the source site
clock.
8. Proceed to define the configuration for either the artifact profile, as described
in “Configuring the SAML Server instance to use an artifact profile” on
page 162 or for the POST profile as described in “Configuring the SAML server
instance to use the POST profile” on page 162.
Configuring the SAML Server instance to use an artifact profile
To configure the SAML Server to use an artifact profile, continue the following
procedure from the last step in “Creating a new SAML Server instance” on
page 161.
1. On the New SAML Server page, enter the Source ID. The source ID is the 20byte identifier that the IVE uses to recognize an assertion from a given source
site.
2. Enter the Source SOAP Responder Service URL. You should specify this URL
in the form of an HTTPS: protocol.
3. Choose the type of SOAP Client Authentication.
„
If you choose HTTP Basic, you must then enter the username and
password, and confirm the password.
„
If you choose SSL Client Certificate, choose an IVE certificate from the
drop down menu.
4. Click Save Changes. If you are creating the server instance for the first time,
the Settings and Users tabs appear.
The Settings tab allows you to modify any of the settings pertaining to the
SAML Server instance and the artifact profile. The Users tab lists valid users of
the server.
Configuring the SAML server instance to use the POST profile
To configure the SAML Server to use a POST profile, continue the following
procedure from the last step in “Creating a new SAML Server instance” on
page 161.
1. On the New SAML Server page, select the Post option.
2. Enter the name of, or browse to locate, the Response Signing Certificate. This is
the PEM-formatted signing certificate, which is loaded for the SAML response
signature verification.
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The certificate you select should be the same certificate used for signing the
SAML response at the source site. The source site may send this certificate
along with the SAML response, depending on the source site configuration. By
default, the system performs signature verification of the SAML response first
on the locally configured certificate. If a certificate is not configured locally in
the SAML authentication server, then the system performs the signature
verification on the certificate included in the SAML response from the source
site.
3. Select the Enable Signing Certificate status checking option if you want the
IVE to be able to check the validity of the signing certificate configured in the
SAML authentication server POST profile. It is possible that the certificate has
already expired is has been revoked..
4. If you already have a certificate loaded and want to use another, locate the
certificate, then click Delete. You can then install another certificate.
5. Click Save Changes. If you are creating the server instance for the first time,
the Settings and Users tabs appear.
The Settings tab allows you to modify any of the settings pertaining to the
SAML Server instance and the artifact profile. The Users tab lists valid users of
the server.
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Chapter 8
Authentication realms
An authentication realm specifies the conditions that users must meet in order to
sign into the IVE. A realm consists of a grouping of authentication resources,
including:
„
An authentication server, which verifies that the user is who he claims to be.
The IVE forwards credentials that a user submits on a sign-in page to an
authentication server. For more information, see “Authentication and directory
servers” on page 91.
„
A directory server, which is an LDAP server that provides user and group
information to the IVE that the IVE uses to map users to one or more user roles.
For more information, see “Authentication and directory servers” on page 91.
„
An authentication policy, which specifies realm security requirements that
need to be met before the IVE submits a user's credentials to an authentication
server for verification. For more information, see “Defining authentication
policies” on page 168.
„
Role mapping rules, which are conditions a user must meet in order for the
IVE to map the user to one or more user roles. These conditions are based on
either user information returned by the realm's directory server or the user's
username. For more information, see “Creating role mapping rules” on
page 169.
This section contains the following information about authentication realms:
„
“Licensing: Authentication realms availability” on page 166
„
“Creating an authentication realm” on page 166
„
“Defining authentication policies” on page 168
„
“Creating role mapping rules” on page 169
„
“Customizing user realm UI views” on page 178
„
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Licensing: Authentication realms availability
Authentication realms are an integral part of the IVE access management
framework, and therefore are available on all Secure Access products. Note,
however that custom expressions are not available on the SA 700 appliance and are
only available on all other Secure Access products by special license. Therefore,
when creating a realm, not all administrators can create advanced role-mapping
rules using custom expressions.
Creating an authentication realm
To create an authentication realm:
1. In the admin console, choose Administrators > Admin Realms or Users >
User Realms.
2. On the respective Authentication Realms page, click New. Or, select a realm
and click Duplicate to base your realm on an existing realm.
3. Enter a name to label this realm and (optionally) a description.
4. If you are copying an existing realm, click Duplicate. Then, if you want to
modify any of its settings, click the realm’s name to enter into edit mode.
5. Select When editing, start on the Role Mapping page if you want the Role
Mapping tab to be selected when you open the realm for editing.
6. Under Servers, specify:
„
An authentication server to use for authenticating users who sign in to this
realm.
„
A directory/attribute server to use for retrieving user attribute and group
information for role mapping rules and resource policies. (optional)
„
A RADIUS accounting server to use to track when a user signs in and out of
the IVE (optional).
NOTE: When your LDAP server is down, user authentication fails. You can find
messages and warnings in the event log files. When an attribute server is down,
user authentication does not fail. Instead, the groups/attributes list for role
mapping and policy evaluation is empty.
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7. If you want to submit secondary user credentials to an SSO-enabled resource or
enable two-factor authentication to access the IVE (as explained in “Multiple
sign-in credentials overview” on page 193), select Additional authentication
server. Then:
a.
Select the name of the secondary authentication server. Note that you
cannot choose an anonymous server, certificate server, or Netegrity
SiteMinder server.
b. Select Username is specified by user on sign-in page if you want to
prompt the user to manually submit his username to the secondary server
during the IVE sign-in process. Otherwise, if you want to automatically
submit a username to the secondary server, enter static text or a valid
variable in the predefined as field. By default, the IVE submits the
<username> session variable, which holds the same username used to sign
in to the primary authentication server.
c.
Select Password is specified by user on sign-in page if you want to
prompt the user to manually submit his password to the secondary server
during the IVE sign-in process. Otherwise, if you want to automatically
submit a password to the secondary server, enter static text or a valid
variable in the predefined as field.
d. Select the End session if authentication against this server fails if you
want to control access to the IVE based on the successful authentication of
the user’s secondary credentials.
8. If you want to use dynamic policy evaluation for this realm (as explained in
“Dynamic policy evaluation” on page 40), select Dynamic policy evaluation to
enable an automatic timer for dynamic policy evaluation of this realm’s
authentication policy, role mapping rules, and role restrictions. Then:
a.
Use the Refresh interval option to specify how often you want the IVE to
perform an automatic policy evaluation of all currently signed-in realm
users. Specify the number of minutes (5 to 1440).
b. Select Refresh roles to also refresh the roles of all users in this realm. (This
option does not control the scope of the Refresh Now button.)
c.
Select Refresh resource policies to also refresh the resource policies (not
including Meeting and Email Client) for all users in this realm. (This option
does not control the scope of the Refresh Now button.)
NOTE: If you select Dynamic policy evaluation and you do not select Refresh
roles and Refresh resource policies, the IVE evaluates the realm’s authentication
policy, role mapping rules, and role restrictions only.
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d. Click Refresh Now to manually evaluate the realm’s authentication policy,
role mapping rules, role restrictions, user roles, and resource policies of all
currently signed-in realm users. Use this button if you make changes to an
authentication policy, role mapping rules, role restrictions, or resource
policies and you want to immediately refresh the roles of this realm’s
users.
NOTE: Since dynamic policy evaluation can potentially impact system
performance, keep these guidelines in mind:
„
Since automatic (timer-based) refreshing of user roles and resource policies
can affect system performance, you can improve performance by disabling
either or both of the Refresh roles and Refresh resource policies options to
reduce the scope of the refresh.
„
To improve performance, set the Refresh interval option to a longer time
period.
„
Use the Refresh Now button at times when users may not be affected.
9. Click Save Changes to create the realm on the IVE. The General,
Authentication Policy, and Role Mapping tabs for the authentication realm
appear.
10. Perform the next configuration steps:
a.
Configure one or more role mapping rules as described in “Creating role
mapping rules” on page 169.
b. Configure an authentication policy for the realm as described in “Defining
authentication policies” on page 168.
Defining authentication policies
An authentication policy is a set of rules that controls one aspect of access
management—whether or not to present a realm’s sign-in page to a user. An
authentication policy is part of an authentication realm’s configuration, specifying
rules for the IVE to consider before presenting a sign-in page to a user. If a user
meets the requirements specified by the realm's authentication policy, then the IVE
presents the corresponding sign-in page to the user and then forwards the user's
credentials to the appropriate authentication server. If this server successfully
authenticates the user, then the IVE moves on to the role evaluation process.
To specify an authentication realm policy:
1. In the admin console, choose Administrators > Admin Realms or Users >
User Realms.
2. On the respective Authentication Realms page, click a realm and then click
the Authentication Policy tab.
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3. On the Authentication Policy page, configure one or more of the access
management options described in the following sections:
„
“Specifying source IP access restrictions” on page 43
„
“Specifying browser access restrictions” on page 44
„
“Specifying certificate access restrictions” on page 47
„
“Specifying password access restrictions” on page 48
„
“Specifying Host Checker access restrictions” on page 49
„
“Specifying Cache Cleaner access restrictions” on page 491
„
“Specifying limits restrictions” on page 49
Creating role mapping rules
Role mapping rules are conditions a user must meet in order for the IVE to map the
user to one or more user roles. These conditions are based on either user
information returned by the realm's directory server or the user's username. You
must specify role mapping directives in the following format:
If the specified condition is|is not true, then map the user to the selected roles.
You create a role mapping rule on Role Mapping tab of an authentication realm.
(For administrators, you create role mapping rules on the Administrators >
Admin Realms > [Realm] > Role Mapping tab. For users, you create role
mapping rules on the Users > User Realms > [Realm] > Role Mapping tab.)
When you click New Rule on this tab, the Role Mapping Rule page appears with
an inline editor for defining the rule. This editor leads you through the three steps
of creating a rule:
1. Specify the type of condition on which to base the rule. Options include:
„
Username
„
User attribute
„
Certificate or certificate attribute
„
Group membership
„
Custom expressions
2. Specify the condition to evaluate, which consists of:
a.
Specifying one or more usernames, user attributes, certificate attributes,
groups (LDAP), or expressions depending on the type of condition selected
in step 1.
1. Not available in administrator realms.
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b. Specifying to what the value(s) should equate, which may include a list of
usernames, user attribute values from a RADIUS or LDAP server, client-side
certificate values (static or compared to LDAP attributes), LDAP groups, or
pre-defined custom expressions.
3. Specify the roles to assign to the authenticated user.
The IVE compiles a list of eligible roles to which a user may be mapped, which are
roles specified by the role mapping rules to which the user conforms. Next, the IVE
evaluates the definition for each role to determine if the user complies with any
role restrictions. The IVE uses this information to compile a list of valid roles, which
are roles for which the user meets any additional requirements. Finally, the IVE
either performs a permissive merge of the valid roles or presents a list of valid roles
to the user, depending on the configuration specified on the realm’s Role Mapping
tab.
For more information about roles, see “User roles” on page 51. For more
information about specifying role mapping rules, see “Specifying role mapping
rules for an authentication realm” on page 170.
Specifying role mapping rules for an authentication realm
When creating a new rule that uses LDAP or SiteMinder user attributes, LDAP group
information, or custom expressions, you must use the server catalog. For
information about this catalog, see “Using the LDAP server catalog” on page 172.
To specify role mapping rules for an authentication realm:
1. In the admin console, choose Administrators > Admin Realms or Users >
User Realms.
2. On the respective Authentication Realms page, select a realm and then click
the Role Mapping tab.
3. Click New Rule to access the Role Mapping Rule page. This page provides an
inline editor for defining the rule.
4. In the Rule based on list, choose one of the following:
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„
Username—Username is the IVE username entered on the sign-in page.
Choose this option if you want to map users to roles based on their IVE
usernames. This type of rule is available for all realms.
„
User attribute—User attribute is a user attribute from a RADIUS, LDAP, or
SiteMinder server. Choose this option if you want to map users to roles
based on an attribute from the corresponding server. This type of rule is
available only for realms that use a RADIUS server for the authentication
server, or that use an LDAP or SiteMinder server for either the
authentication server or directory server. After choosing the User attribute
option, click Update to display the Attribute list and the Attributes button.
Click the Attributes button to display the server catalog.
Chapter 8: Authentication realms
I
‰
To add SiteMinder user attributes, enter the SiteMinder user attribute
cookie name in the Attribute field in the server catalog, and then click
Add Attribute. When you are finished adding cookie names, click OK.
The IVE displays the names of the SiteMinder user attribute cookies in
the Attribute list on the Role Mapping Rule page.
‰
For information on how to use the server catalog to add LDAP user
attributes, see “Using the LDAP server catalog” on page 172).
„
Certificate or Certificate attribute—Certificate or Certificate attribute is an
attribute supported by the users’ client-side certificate. Choose this option
if you want to map users to roles based on certificate attributes. The
Certificate option is available for all realms; the Certificate attribute option is
available only for realms that use LDAP for the authentication or directory
server. After choosing this option, click Update to display the Attribute
text box.
„
Group membership—Group membership is group information from an
LDAP or native Active Directory server that you add to the server catalog
Groups tab. Choose this option if you want to map users to roles based on
either LDAP or Active Directory group information. This type of rule is
available only for realms that use an LDAP server for either the
authentication server or directory server or that use an Active Directory
server for authentication. (Note that you cannot specify an Active Directory
server as an authorization server for a realm.)
„
Custom Expressions—Custom Expressions is one or more custom
expressions that you define in the server catalog. Choose this option if you
want to map users to roles based on custom expressions. This type of rule
is available for all realms. After choosing this option, click Update to
display the Expressions lists. Click the Expressions button to display the
Expressions tab of the server catalog.
NOTE: If you add more than one custom expression to the same rule, the IVE
creates an “OR” rule for the expressions. For example, you might add the
following expressions to a single rule:
„
Expression 1: cacheCleanerStatus = 1
„
Expression 2: loginTime = (8:00AM TO 5:00PM)
Based on these expressions, a user would match this rule if Cache Cleaner was
running on his system OR if he signed into the IVE between 8:00 and 5:00.
5. Under Rule, specify the condition to evaluate, which corresponds to the type of
rule you select and consists of:
a.
Specifying one or more usernames, SiteMinder user attribute cookie
names, RADIUS or LDAP user attributes, certificate attributes, LDAP
groups, or custom expressions.
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b. Specifying to what the value(s) should equate, which may include a list of
IVE usernames, user attribute values from a RADIUS, SiteMinder, or LDAP
server, client-side certificate values (static or LDAP attribute values), LDAP
groups, or custom expressions.
For example, you can choose a SiteMinder user attribute cookie named
department from the Attribute list, choose is from the operator list, and
then enter "sales" and "eng" in the text box.
Or, you can enter a custom expression rule that references the SiteMinder
user attribute cookie named department:
userAttr.department = ("sales" and "eng")
6. Under ...then assign these roles:
a.
Specify the roles to assign to the authenticated user by adding roles to the
Selected Roles list.
b. Check Stop processing rules when this rule matches if you want the IVE
to stop evaluating role mapping rules if the user meets the conditions
specified for this rule.
7. Click Save Changes to create the rule on the Role Mapping tab. When you are
finished creating rules:
„
Make sure to order them in the order in which you want the IVE to evaluate
them. This task is particularly important when you want to stop processing
role mapping rules upon a match.
„
Specify whether or not you want to merge settings for all assigned roles.
See “Permissive merge guidelines” on page 53.
Using the LDAP server catalog
The LDAP server catalog is a secondary window through which you specify
additional LDAP information for the IVE to use when mapping users to roles,
including:
„
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Attributes—The Server Catalog Attributes tab shows a list of common LDAP
attributes, such as cn, uid, uniquemember, and memberof. This tab is accessible
only when accessing the Server Catalog of an LDAP server. You can use this tab
to manage an LDAP server’s attributes by adding custom values to and deleting
values from its IVE server catalog. Note that the IVE maintains a local copy of
the LDAP server’s values; attributes are not added to or deleted from your
LDAP server’s dictionary.
Chapter 8: Authentication realms
„
Groups—The Server Catalog Groups tab provides a mechanism to easily
retrieve group information from an LDAP server and add it to the server’s IVE
server catalog. You specify the BaseDN of your groups and optionally a filter to
begin the search. If you do not know the exact container of your groups, you
can specify the domain root as the BaseDN, such as dc=juniper, dc=com.The
search page returns a list of groups from your server, from which you can
choose groups to enter into the Groups list.
NOTE: The BaseDN value specified in the LDAP server’s configuration page under
"Finding user entries" is the default BaseDN value. The Filter value defaults to
(cn=*).
You can also use the Groups tab to specify groups. You must specify the Fully
Qualified Distinguished Name (FQDN) of a group, such as cn=GoodManagers,
ou=HQ, ou=Juniper, o=com, c=US, but you can assign a label for this group
that appears in the Groups list. Note that this tab is accessible only when
accessing the Server Catalog of an LDAP server.
„
Expressions—The Server Catalog Expressions tab provides a mechanism to
write custom expressions for the role mapping rule. For more information
about custom expressions, see “Writing custom expressions” on page 855.
To display the LDAP server catalog:
1. After choosing the User attribute option on the Role Mapping Rule page (see
“Specifying role mapping rules for an authentication realm” on page 170), click
Update to display the Attribute list and the Attributes button.
2. Click the Attributes button to display the LDAP server catalog. (You can also
click Groups after choosing the Group membership option, or click
Expressions after choosing the Custom Expressions option.)
Figure 24: Server Catalog > Attributes tab — Adding an attribute for LDAP
Creating role mapping rules
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Figure 25: Attribute added in Server Catalog is available for role mapping rule
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Figure 26: Server Catalog > Groups tab — Adding LDAP groups
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Figure 27: Server Catalog > Groups tab — Adding Active Directory groups
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Figure 28: Server Catalog > Expressions tab — Adding a custom expression
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Figure 29: Custom expression added in Server Catalog is available for role mapping rule
Customizing user realm UI views
You can use customization options on the User Authentication Realms page to
quickly view the settings that are associated with a specific realm or set of realms.
For instance, you can view the role-mapping rules that you have associated with all
your user realms. Additionally, you can use these customized views to easily link to
the authentication policies, servers, role-mapping rules, and roles associated with a
user realms.
To view a sub-set of data on the User Authentication Realms page:
1. Navigate to Users > User Realms.
2. Select one of the following options from the View menu:
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„
Overview—Displays the authentication servers and dynamic policy
evaluation settings that you have set for the specified user realms. You may
also use this setting to link to the specified server configuration pages.
„
Authentication Policy—Displays Host Checker and Cache Cleaner
restrictions that you have enabled for the specified user realms. You may
also use this setting to link to the specified Host Checker and Cache
Cleaner configuration pages.
Chapter 8: Authentication realms
„
Role Mapping—Displays rule conditions and corresponding role
assignments that you have enabled for the specified user realms. You may
also use this setting to link to the specified rule conditions and role
assignments configuration pages.
„
Servers—Displays authentication server names and corresponding types
that you have enabled for the specified user realms. You may also use this
setting to link to the specified server configuration pages.
„
Roles—Displays role assignments and corresponding permissive merge
settings that you have enabled for the specified user realms.
3. Select one of the following options from the for list:
„
All realms—Displays the selected settings for all user realms.
„
Selected realms—Displays the selected settings for the user realms you
choose. If you select this option, select one or more of the checkboxes in
the Authentication Realm list.
4. Click Update.
Customizing user realm UI views
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Customizing user realm UI views
Chapter 9
Sign-in policies
Sign-in policies define the URLs that users and administrators can use to access to
the IVE and the sign-in pages that they see. The IVE comes with two sign-in
policies—one for users and one for administrators. When configuring these
policies, you associate each with the appropriate realms, sign-in pages, and URLs.
For example, in order to allow all users to sign in to the IVE, you must add all user
authentication realms to the user sign-in policy. You may also choose to modify the
standard URL that the end-users use to access the IVE and the sign-in page that they
see. Or, if you have the proper license, you can create multiple user sign-in policies,
enabling different users to sign into different URLs and pages.
Additionally, appliances equipped with a Secure Meeting license come with a
meeting URL. You can use this URL to control the sign-in page that users see when
they sign into a meeting on the IVE appliance. If you have the proper license, you
may also create additional meeting sign-in pages, enabling different Secure Meeting
users to sign into different URLs and pages.
If you have an Advanced license, you can create multiple sign-in policies,
associating different sign-in pages with different URLs. When configuring a sign-in
policy, you must associate it with a realm or realms. Then, only members of the
specified authentication realm(s) may sign in using the URL defined in the policy.
Within the sign-in policy, you may also define different sign-in pages to associate
with different URLs.
For example, you can create sign-in policies that specify:
„
Members of the “Partners” realm can sign in to the IVE using the URLs:
partner1.yourcompany.com and partner2.yourcompany.com. Users who sign into
the first URL see the “partners1” sign-in page; users who sign into the second
URL see the “partners2” sign-in page.
„
Members of the “Local” and “Remote” realms can sign into the IVE using the
URL: employees.yourcompany.com. When they do, they see the “Employees”
sign-in page.
„
Members of the “Admin Users” realm can sign into the IVE using the URL:
access.yourcompany.com/super. When they do, they see the “Administrators”
sign-in page.
„
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When defining sign-in policies, you may use different host names (such as
partners.yourcompany.com and employees.yourcompany.com) or different paths
(such as yourcompany.com/partners and yourcompany.com/employees) to
differentiate between URLs.
NOTE: If a user attempts to sign in while there is another active user session with
the same sign-in credentials, the IVE displays a warning page showing the IP
address of the existing session and two buttons: Continue and Cancel. By clicking
the Cancel button, the user terminates the current sign-in process and redirects
the user back to the Sign-in page. By clicking the Continue button, the IVE
creates the new user session and terminates the existing session.
NOTE: When enabling multiple sign-in URLs, note that in some cases the IVE must
use cookies on the user’s machine to determine which sign-in URL and
corresponding sign-in page to display to the user. The IVE creates these cookies
when the user signs into the IVE. (When a user signs into the IVE, the IVE
responds with a cookie that includes the sign-in domain of the URL. The IVE then
attaches this cookie to every IVE request the user makes.) Generally, these cookies
ensure that the IVE displays the correct sign-in URL and page to the user. For
example, if a user signs into the IVE using the URL
http://yourcompany.net/employees and then her session times out, the IVE uses
the cookie to determine that it must display the
http://yourcompany.net/employees sign-in URL and corresponding page to the
user when she requests another IVE resource.
However, in isolated cases, the cookie on the user’s machine may not match the
resource she is trying to access. The user may sign into one URL and then try to
access a resource that is protected by a different URL. In this case, the IVE
displays the sign-in URL and corresponding sign-in page that the user signed into
most recently. For example, a user may sign into the IVE using the sign-in URL
http://yourcompany.net/employees. Then she may try to access an IVE resource
using a link on an external server, such as
https://yourcompany.net/partners/dana/term/winlaunchterm.cgi?host=<termsrvIP
>. Or, she may try to open a bookmark that she created during a different session,
such as
https://yourcompany.net/partners/,DanaInfo=.awxyBmszGr3xt1r5O3v.,SSO=U+. In
these cases, the IVE would display the http://yourcompany.net/employees sign-in
URL and page to the user, rather than the sign-in URL or page that is associated
with the external link or saved bookmark that she is trying to access.
This section contains the following information about sign-in policies:
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„
„
“Licensing: Sign-in policies and pages availability” on page 183
„
“Task summary: Configuring sign-in policies” on page 183
„
“Configuring sign-in policies” on page 183
„
“Configuring sign-in pages” on page 187
Chapter 9: Sign-in policies
Licensing: Sign-in policies and pages availability
Sign-in policies and pages are an integral part of the IVE access management
framework, and therefore are available on all Secure Access products. However,
note that the following advanced sign-in features are not available on the SA 700
and are only available on all other Secure Access products by special license:
„
The ability to create multiple sign-in policies
„
The ability to create sign-in pages for Secure Meeting users
„
The ability to create and upload custom sign-in pages to the IVE
Task summary: Configuring sign-in policies
To configure sign-in policies, you must:
1. Create an authentication realm through one of the Administrators > Admin
Realms or Users > User Realms page of the admin console.
2. (Optional) Modify an existing sign-in page or create a new one using options in
the Authentication > Signing In > Sign-in Pages page of the admin console.
3. Specify a sign-in policy that associates a realm, sign-in URL, and sign-in page
using settings in the Authentication > Signing In > Sign-in Policies page of
the admin console.
4. If you differentiate between URLs using host names, you must associate each
host name with its own certificate or upload a wildcard certificate into the IVE
using options in the System > Configuration > Certificates > Device
Certificates page.
Configuring sign-in policies
Sign-in policies define the URLs that users and administrators can use to access the
IVE, as explained in “Sign-in policies” on page 181.
This section contains the following information about sign-in policies:
„
“Defining user sign in policies” on page 183
„
“Defining meeting sign-in policies” on page 185
„
“Specifying the order in which sign-in policies are evaluated” on page 187
„
“Enabling and disabling sign-in policies” on page 186
Defining user sign in policies
To create or configure administrator or user sign-in policies:
Licensing: Sign-in policies and pages availability
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1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Signing In > Sign-in
Policies.
2. To create a new sign-in policy, click New URL. Or, to edit an existing policy,
click a URL in the Administrator URLs or User URLs column.
3. Select Users or Administrators to specify which type of user can sign into the
IVE using the access policy.
4. In the Sign-in URL field, enter the URL that you want to associate with the
policy. Use the format <host>/<path> where <host> is the host name of the
IVE, and <path> is any string you want users to enter. For example:
partner1.yourcompany.com/outside. To specify multiple hosts, use the *
wildcard character. For instance:
„
To specify that all administrator URLs within the specified realm(s) should
use the sign-in page, enter */admin.
„
To specify that all end-user URLs within the specified realm(s) should use
the sign-in page, enter */.
NOTE: You may only use wildcard characters (*) in the beginning of the host name
portion of the URL. The IVE does not recognize wildcards in the URL path.
5. Enter a Description for the policy (optional).
6. From the Sign-in Page list, select the page that you want to associate with the
policy. You may select the default page that comes with the IVE, a variation of
the standard sign-in page, or a custom page that you create using the
customizable UI feature. For more information, see “Configuring standard signin pages” on page 188.
7. (User URLs only) In the Meeting URL field, select the meeting URL that you
want to associate with this sign-in policy. The IVE applies the specified meeting
URL to any meeting created by a user who signs into this user URL.
8. Under Authentication realm, specify which realm(s) map to the policy, and
how users and administrators should pick from amongst realms. If you select:
„
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User types the realm name—The IVE maps the sign-in policy to all
authentication realms, but does not provide a list of realms from which the
user or administrator can choose. Instead, the user or administrator must
manually enter his realm name into the sign-in page.
Chapter 9: Sign-in policies
„
User picks from a list of authentication realms—The IVE only maps the
sign-in policy to the authentication realms that you choose. The IVE
presents this list of realms to the user or administrator when he signs-in to
the IVE and allows him to choose a realm from the list. (Note that the IVE
does not display a drop-down list of authentication realms if the URL is
only mapped to one realm. Instead, it automatically uses the realm you
specify.)
NOTE: If you allow the user to pick from multiple realms and one of those realms
uses an anonymous authentication server, the IVE does not display that realm in
the drop-down realm list. To effectively map your sign-in policy to an anonymous
realm, you must add only that realm to the Authentication realm list.
9. Click Save Changes.
Defining meeting sign-in policies
To create or configure meeting sign-in policies:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Authentication > Signing In
Policies.
2. To create a new sign-in policy, click New URL. Or, to edit an existing policy,
click a URL in the Meeting URLs column.
3. Select Meeting.
4. In the Sign-in URL field, enter the URL that you want to associate with the
meeting policy. Use the format <host>/<path> where <host> is the host name
of the IVE, and <path> is any string you want users to enter. For example:
Partner1.YourCompany.com/OnlineConference. When creating the meeting URL,
note that:
„
You cannot modify the URL of the default meeting URL (*/meeting) that
comes with the product.
„
If you want to enable users to sign into meetings using all of the host
names defined in the associated user URL, use the * wildcard character in
your meeting URL definition. For example, you might associate the
following hosts with your user URL:
‰
YourInternalServer.YourCompany.net
‰
YourExternalServer.YourCompany.com
Then, if you create an */OnlineConference meeting URL definition and
associate it with the user URL, users can access the meeting sign-in page
using either of the following URLs:
‰
http://YourInternalServer.YourCompany.net/OnlineConference
‰
http://YourExternalServer.YourCompany.com/OnlineConference
Configuring sign-in policies
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„
If you create a meeting URL that includes the * wildcard character and
enable email notifications, the IVE constructs the meeting URL in the
notification email using the host name specified by the user when signing
into the IVE. For instance, a user might sign into the IVE using the
following URL from the previous example:
http://YourInternalServer.YourCompany.net
Then, if the user creates a meeting, the IVE specifies the following sign-in
URL for that meeting in the email notification:
http://YourInternalServer.YourCompany.net/OnlineConference
Note that since the email link references an internal server, out-of-network
users cannot access the meeting.
„
If you only want to enable users to sign into meetings using a sub-set of the
host names defined in the associated user URL, or if you want to require
users to use a completely different URL to sign into meetings, do not
include the * wildcard character in your meeting URL definition. Instead,
create a unique and specific meeting URL definition.
For instance, you can create the following meeting URL definition and
associate it with the user URL from the previous example in order to
specify that all meetings contain links to the external server only:
YourExternalServer.YourCompany.com/OnlineConference
5. Enter a Description for the policy (optional).
6. From the Sign-in Page list, select the sign-in page(s) that you want to appear to
users who access meetings using this policy. You may select the default pages
that come with the IVE, a variation of the standard sign-in pages, or customized
pages that you create using the customizable UI feature. For more information,
see “Configuring standard sign-in pages” on page 188.
7. Click Save Changes.
Enabling and disabling sign-in policies
To enable and disable sign-in policies:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Signing In > Sign-in
Policies.
2. To enable or disable:
„
An individual policy—Select the checkbox next to the policy that you
want to change, and then click Enable or Disable.
„
All user and meeting policies—Select or deselect the Restrict access to
administrators only checkbox at the top of the page.
3. Click Save Changes.
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Chapter 9: Sign-in policies
Specifying the order in which sign-in policies are evaluated
The IVE evaluates sign-in policies in the same order that you list them on the Signin Policies page. When it finds a URL that matches exactly, it stops evaluating and
presents the appropriate sign-in page to the administrator or user. For example,
you may define two administrator sign-in policies with two different URLs:
„
The first policy uses the URL */admin and maps to the default administrator
sign-in page.
„
The second policy uses the URL yourcompany.com/admin and maps to a custom
administrator sign-in page.
If you list the policies in this order on the Sign-in Policies page, the IVE never
evaluates or uses the second policy because the first URL encompasses the second.
Even if an administrator signs in using the yourcompany.com/admin URL, the IVE
displays the default administrator sign-in page. If you list the policies in the
opposite order, however, the IVE displays the custom administrator sign-in page to
those administrators who access the IVE using the yourcompany.com/admin URL.
Note that the IVE only accepts wildcard characters in the host name section of the
URL and matches URLs based on the exact path. For example, you may define two
administrator sign-in policies with two different URL paths:
„
The first policy uses the URL */marketing and maps to a custom sign-in page
for the entire Marketing Department.
„
The second policy uses the URL */marketing/joe and maps to a custom sign-in
page designed exclusively for Joe in the Marketing Department.
If you list the policies in this order on the Sign-in Policies page, the IVE displays
Joe’s custom sign-in page to him when he uses the yourcompany.com/marketing/joe
URL to access the IVE. He does not see the Marketing sign-in page, even though it is
listed and evaluated first, because the path portion of his URL does not exactly
match the URL defined in the first policy.
To change the order in which administrator sign-in policies are evaluated:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Signing In > Sign-in
Policies.
2. Select a sign-in policy in the Administrator URLs, User URLs, or Meeting URLs
list.
3. Click the up and down arrows to change the selected policy’s placement in the
list.
4. Click Save Changes.
Configuring sign-in pages
A sign-in page defines the customized properties in the end-user’s welcome page
such as the welcome text, help text, logo, header, and footer. The IVE allows you to
create two types of sign-in pages to present to users and administrators:
Configuring sign-in pages
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„
Standard sign-in pages—Standard sign-in pages are produced by Juniper and
are included with all versions of the IVE. You can modify standard sign-in pages
through the Authentication > Signing In > Sign-in Pages tab of the admin
console. For more information, see “Configuring standard sign-in pages” on
page 188.
„
Customized sign-in pages—Customized sign-in pages are THTML pages that
you produce using the Template Toolkit and upload to the IVE in the form of an
archived ZIP file. The customized sign-in pages feature is a licensed feature that
enables you to use your own pages rather than having to modify the sign-in
page included with the IVE.
For more information on customized sign-in pages, see the Custom Sign-In Pages
Solution Guide.
Configuring standard sign-in pages
Standard sign-in pages that come with the IVE include:
„
Default Sign-In Page—By default, the IVE displays this page to users when
they sign into the IVE.
„
Meeting Sign-In Page—By default, the IVE displays this page to users when
they sign into a meeting. This page is only available if you install a Secure
Meeting license on the IVE.
You can modify these pages or create new pages that contain custom text, logo,
colors, and error message text using settings in the Authentication > Signing In
> Sign-in Pages tab of the admin console.
To create or modify a standard sign-in page:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Signing In > Sign-in Pages.
2. If you are:
„
Creating a new page—Click New Page.
„
Modifying an existing page—Select the link corresponding to the page you
want to modify.
3. (New pages only) Under Page Type, specify whether this is an
administrator/user access page or a meeting page.
4. Enter a name to identify the page.
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Chapter 9: Sign-in policies
5. In the Custom text section, revise the default text used for the various screen
labels as desired. When adding text to the Instructions field, note that you may
format text and add links using the following HTML tags: <i>, <b>, <br>, <font>,
and <a href>. However, the IVE does not rewrite links on the sign-in page (since
the user has not yet authenticated), so you should only point to external sites.
Links to sites behind a firewall will fail.
NOTE: If you use unsupported HTML tags in your custom message, the IVE may
display the end-user’s IVE home page incorrectly.
6. In the Header appearance section, specify a custom logo image file for the
header and a different header color.
7. In the Custom error messages section, revise the default text that is displayed
to users if they encounter certificate errors. (Not available for the Secure
Meeting sign-in page.)
8. To provide custom help or additional instructions for your users, select Show
Help button, enter a label to display on the button, and specify an HTML file to
upload to the IVE. Note that the IVE does not display images and other content
referenced in this HTML page. (Not available for the Secure Meeting sign-in
page.)
9. Click Save Changes. The changes take effect immediately, but users with active
sessions might need to refresh their Web browsers.
NOTE: Click Restore Factory Defaults to reset the sign-in page, IVE user home
page, and admin console appearance.
Configuring sign-in pages
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Configuring sign-in pages
Chapter 10
Single sign-on
Single sign-on (SSO) is a process that allows pre-authenticated IVE users to access
other applications or resources that are protected by another access management
system without having to re-enter their credentials.
This section contains the following information about single-sign on features:
„
“Licensing: Single sign-on availability” on page 191
„
“Single sign-on overview” on page 191
„
“Multiple sign-in credentials overview” on page 193
„
“Configuring SAML” on page 201
„
“Configuring SAML SSO profiles” on page 204
Licensing: Single sign-on availability
All Secure Access products contain some single sign-on features. However, note
that the Remote SSO, SAML, and eTrust SSO advanced sign-in features are not
available on the SA 700 and are only available on all other Secure Access products
by special license. Additionally, the basic authentication, NTLM intermediation, and
Telnet SSO features are only available on the SA 700 appliance if you have the Core
Clientless Access upgrade license.
Single sign-on overview
The IVE provides several integration mechanisms that allow you to configure SSO
connections from the IVE to other servers, applications, and resources. SSO
mechanisms include:
„
Remote SSO—The IVE provides loose integration with any application that
uses a static POST action within an HTML form to sign in users. You can
configure the IVE to post IVE credentials, LDAP attributes, and certificate
attributes to a Web-enabled application, as well as set cookies and headers,
allowing users to access the application without re-authenticating. For more
information, see “Remote SSO overview” on page 285.
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„
Single sign-on overview
„
SAML—The IVE provides loose integration with selected access management
systems that use the Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) to
communicate with other systems. You can enable users to sign in to the IVE
and then sign in to and access resources protected by the access management
system without re-authenticating. You can also enable users to sign in to
another access management system and then access resources protected by
the IVE, without re-authenticating. For more information, see “Configuring
SAML” on page 201.
„
Basic authentication and NTLM intermediation to Intranet sites—The IVE
allows you to automatically submit IVE user credentials to other Web sites and
proxies within the same Intranet zone. When you enable basic authentication
intermediation through the Users > Resource Profiles > Web
Applications/Pages page of the admin console, the IVE submits the cached
credentials to Intranet Web sites whose host names end in the DNS suffix
configured in the System > Network > Overview page. To maximize
security, you may also configure the IVE to use base-64 encoding to protect the
cached credentials. For more information, see “Defining a single sign-on
autopolicy” on page 292.
„
Active Directory server—The IVE allows you to automatically submit Active
Directory SSO credentials to other Web sites and Windows file shares within
the same Intranet zone that are protected by native NTLM authentication.
When you enable this option, the IVE submits cached credentials to NTLMprotected Web sites whose host names end in the DNS suffix configured in the
System > Network > Overview page of the admin console. For more
information, see “Configuring an Active Directory or NT Domain instance” on
page 99.
„
eTrust SiteMinder policy server—When you authenticate IVE users using a
eTrust SiteMinder policy server, you can enable them access to SiteMinder
protected resources without re-authenticating (provided they are authorized
with the correct protection level). Additionally, you can re-authenticate users
through the IVE if they request resources for which their current protection
level is inadequate and you can enable users to sign into the policy server first
and then access the IVE without re-authenticating. For more information, see
“Configuring an eTrust SiteMinder server instance” on page 133.
„
Terminal Sessions—When you enable the Terminal Services feature for a role,
you allow users to connect to applications that are running on a Windows
terminal server or Citrix MetaFrame server without re-authenticating. For more
information, see “Terminal Services” on page 461. You may also pass a
username to the Telnet/SSH server, as explained in “Terminal Services” on
page 461.
„
Email clients—When you enable the Email Client feature for a role and then
create a corresponding resource policy, you allow users to access standardsbased email such as Outlook Express, Netscape Communicator, or
Qualcomm’s Eudora without re-authenticating. For more information, see
“Email Client” on page 513.
Chapter 10: Single sign-on
The IVE determines which credentials to submit to the SSO-enabled server,
application, or resource based on the mechanism you use to connect. Most
mechanisms allow you to collect user credentials for up to two authentication
servers in the IVE sign-in page and then submit those credentials during SSO. For
more information, see “Multiple sign-in credentials overview” on page 193.
The remaining mechanisms (SAML, eTrust SiteMinder, and the Email Client) use
unique methods for enabling SSO from the IVE to the supported application. For
more information, see:
„
“Configuring SAML” on page 201
„
“Configuring SAML SSO profiles” on page 204
„
“Configuring an eTrust SiteMinder server instance” on page 133
„
“Email Client” on page 513
Multiple sign-in credentials overview
When configuring an authentication realm, you can enable up to two
authentication servers for the realm. Enabling two authentication servers allows
you to require two different sets of credentials—one for the IVE and another for
your SSO-enabled resource—without requiring the user to enter the second set of
credentials when accessing the resource. It also allows you to require two-factor
authentication in order to access the IVE.
This section contains the following information about multiple sign-in credentials:
„
“Task Summary: Configuring multiple authentication servers” on page 193
„
“Task Summary: Enabling SSO to resources protected by basic authentication”
on page 194
„
“Task Summary: Enabling SSO to resources protected by NTLM” on page 194
„
“Multiple sign-in credentials execution” on page 196
Task Summary: Configuring multiple authentication servers
To enable multiple authentication servers:
1. Create authentication server instances through the Authentication > Auth.
Servers page of the admin console. For configuration instructions, see
“Defining an authentication server instance” on page 93.
2. Associate the authentication servers with a realm using settings in the following
pages of the admin console:
„
Users > User Realms > Select Realm > General
„
Administrators > Admin Realms > Select Realm > General
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For configuration instructions, see “Creating an authentication realm” on
page 166.
3. (Optional) Specify password length restrictions for the secondary
authentication server using settings in the following pages of the admin
console:
„
Users > User Realms > Select Realm > Authentication Policy >
Password
„
Administrators > Admin Realms > Select Realm > Authentication
Policy > Password
For configuration instructions, see “Specifying password access restrictions” on
page 48.
Task Summary: Enabling SSO to resources protected by basic authentication
To enable single sign-on to Web servers and Web proxies that are protected by
basic authentication, you must:
1. Specify an IVE host name that ends with the same prefix as your protected
resource using settings in the System > Network > Overview page of the
admin console. (The IVE checks the host names to ensure that it is only
enabling SSO to sites within the same Intranet.)
2. Enable users to access Web resources, specify the sites to which you want the
IVE to submit credentials, create autopolicies that enable basic authentication
intermediation single sign-on, and create bookmarks to the selected resources
using settings in the Users > Resource Profiles > Web Application/Pages >
[Profile] page of the admin console.
3. If you want users to access Web servers through a proxy, configure the IVE to
recognize the appropriate servers and proxies using settings in the following
pages of the admin console:
a.
Use settings in Users > Resource Policies > Web > Web proxy >
Servers page to specify which Web servers you want to protect with the
proxy.
b. Use settings in the Users > Resource Policies > Web > Web proxy >
Policies page to specify which proxies you want to use and which servers
(above) you want the proxies to protect. You may specify individual
resources on the server or the entire server.
Task Summary: Enabling SSO to resources protected by NTLM
To enable single sign-on to Web servers, Windows file servers, and Web proxies
that are protected by NTLM, you must:
1. Specify an IVE host name that ends with the same suffix as your protected
resource using settings in the System > Network > Overview page of the
admin console. (The IVE checks the host names to ensure that it is only
enabling SSO to sites within the same Intranet.)
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Chapter 10: Single sign-on
2. Enable users to access the appropriate type of resource (Web or file), specify
the sites or servers to which you want the IVE to submit credentials, create
autopolicies that enable NTLM single sign-on, and create bookmarks to the
selected resources using settings in the following pages of the admin console:
„
Users > Resource Profiles > Web Application/Pages > [Profile]
„
Users > Resource Profiles > File Browsing Resource Profiles> [Profile]
3. If you want users to access Web servers through a proxy, configure the IVE to
recognize the appropriate servers and proxies using settings in the following
pages of the admin console:
a.
Use settings in Users > Resource Policies > Web > Web proxy >
Servers page to specify which Web servers you want to protect with the
proxy.
b. Use settings in the Users > Resource Policies > Web > Web proxy >
Policies page to specify which proxies you want to use and which servers
(above) you want the proxies to protect. You may specify individual
resources on the server or the entire server.
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Multiple sign-in credentials execution
The following diagram illustrates the process that the IVE uses to collect and
authenticate multiple user credentials and submit them to SSO-enabled resources.
Each of the steps in the diagram are described in further detail in the sections that
follow.
Figure 30: Collecting and submitting credentials from multiple servers
Step 1: The IVE collects the user’s primary credentials
When the user signs in to the IVE, the IVE prompts him to enter his primary server
credentials. The IVE saves these credentials to submit to the SSO resource later, if
necessary. Note that the IVE saves the credentials exactly as the user enters them—
it does not pre-pend or append them with additional information such as the user’s
domain.
Step 2: The IVE collects or generates the user’s secondary credentials
You may configure the IVE to either manually collect or automatically generate the
user’s secondary set of credentials. If you configure the IVE to:
„
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Manually collect the user’s secondary credentials—The user must enter his
secondary credentials directly after entering his primary credentials.
Multiple sign-in credentials overview
Chapter 10: Single sign-on
„
Automatically generate the user’s credentials—The IVE submits the values
you specified in the administration console during setup. By default, the IVE
uses the <username> and <password> variables, which hold the username and
password entered by the user for the primary authentication server.
For example, you may configure an LDAP server as your primary authentication
server and an Active Directory server as your secondary authentication server.
Then, you may configure the IVE to infer the user’s Active Directory username but
require the user to manually enter his Active Directory password. When the IVE
infers the Active Directory username, it simply takes the name entered for the
LDAP server (for example, JDoe@LDAPServer) and resubmits it to the Active
Directory (for example, JDoe@ActiveDirectoryServer).
Step 3: The IVE authenticates the primary credentials
After the IVE collects all required credentials, it authenticates the user’s first set of
credentials against the primary authentication server. Then:
„
If the credentials successfully authenticate, the IVE stores them in the
<username> and <password> session variables and continues on to
authenticate the secondary credentials.
NOTE: If you authenticate against a RADIUS server that accepts dynamic, timesensitive passwords, you may choose to not store user passwords using the IVE
session variable. For more information, see “Configuring a RADIUS server
instance” on page 120.
„
If the credentials do not successfully authenticate, the IVE denies the user
access to the IVE.
Step 4: The IVE authenticates the secondary credentials
After authenticating the primary credentials, the IVE authenticates the secondary
credentials. Then:
„
If the credentials successfully authenticate, the IVE stores them in the
<username[2]> and <password[2]> session variables and allows the user access
to the IVE. You may also access these variables using the syntax
<username@SecondaryServer> and <password@SecondaryServer>.
NOTE: If you authenticate against a RADIUS server that accepts dynamic, timesensitive passwords, you may choose to not store user passwords using the IVE
session variable. For more information, see “Configuring a RADIUS server
instance” on page 120.
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„
If the credentials do not successfully authenticate, the IVE does not save them.
Depending on how you configure your authentication realm, the IVE may allow
or deny the user access to the IVE if his secondary credentials do not
successfully authenticate.
NOTE: You can detect that secondary authentication failed by creating a custom
expression that checks for an empty user@secondaryAuth variable. You may want
to do this so that you can assign users to roles based on successful authentication.
For example, the following expression assigns users to the “MoreAccess” role if
they successfully authenticate against the “ACE server” secondary authentication
server:
user@{ACE Server} != "" then assign role MoreAccess
Note “Ace server” is shown in curly braces since the authentication server’s name
contains spaces.
Step 5: The IVE submits credentials to an SSO-enabled resource
After the user successfully signs in to the IVE, he may try to access an SSO-enabled
resource using a pre-configured bookmark or other access mechanism. Then,
depending on which type of resource the user is trying to access, the IVE submits
different credentials. If the user is trying to access a:
„
Web SSO, Terminal Services, or Telnet/SSH resource—The IVE submits the
credentials that you specify through the admin console, such as <username>
(which submits the user’s primary credentials to the resource) or
<username[2]> (which submits the user’s secondary credentials to the
resource). Or, if the user has entered a different username and password
through the end user console, the IVE submits the user-specified credentials.
NOTE: The IVE does not support submitting ACE server, certificate server, or
anonymous server credentials to a Web SSO, terminal services, or Telnet/SSH
resource. If you configure the IVE to submit credentials from one of these types of
primary authentication servers, the IVE submits credentials from the user’s
secondary authentication server instead. If these credentials fail, the IVE prompts
the user to manually enter his username and password.
„
Resource protected by a Web server, Windows server, or Web proxy that is
using NTLM authentication—The IVE submits credentials to the backend
server or proxy that is protecting the Web or file resource. Note that you cannot
disable NTLM authentication through the IVE—If a user tries to access a
resource that is protected by NTLM, the IVE automatically intermediates the
authentication challenge and submits credentials in the following order:
a.
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(Windows file resources only) Administrator-specified credentials—If
you create a resource profile that specifies credentials for a Windows file
resource and the user then accesses the specified resource, the IVE submits
the specified credentials.
Chapter 10: Single sign-on
a.
Cached credentials—If the IVE does not submit administrator-specified
credentials or the credentials fail, the IVE determines whether it has stored
credentials for the specified user and resource in its cache. (See below for
information about when the IVE caches credentials.) If available, the IVE
submits its stored credentials.
b. Primary credentials—If the IVE does not submit cached credentials or the
credentials fail, the IVE submits the user’s primary IVE credentials
provided that following conditions are true:
c.
‰
The resource is in the same Intranet zone as the IVE (that is, the
resource’s host name ends in the DNS suffix configured in the System
> Network > Overview page of the admin console).
‰
(Web proxies only) You have configured the IVE to recognize the Web
proxy through settings in the Users > Resource Policies > Web >
Web Proxy pages of the admin console.
‰
The credentials are not ACE credentials.
‰
(RADIUS credentials only) You specify in the RADIUS configuration
page that the RADIUS server does not accept one-time passwords.
Secondary credentials—If the primary credentials fail, the IVE determines
whether it has secondary credentials for the user. If available, the IVE
submits the user’s secondary IVE credentials provided that the conditions
described for primary credentials are true.
d. Last-entered credentials—If the IVE does not submit secondary
credentials or if the credentials fail, the IVE determines whether it has
stored credentials for the specified user and a different resource in its
cache. (See below for information about when the IVE caches credentials.)
If available, the IVE submits its stored credentials provided the conditions
described for primary credentials are true.
e.
„
User-specified credentials (prompt)—If the IVE does not submit lastentered credentials or if the credentials fail, the IVE prompts the user to
manually enter his credentials in the intermediate sign-in page. If the user
selects the Remember password? checkbox, the IVE caches the userspecified credentials and, if necessary, resubmits them when the user tries
to access the same resource again. Note that when the IVE caches these
credentials, it remembers the specific user and resource, even after the
user signs out of the IVE.
Resource protected by a Web server or Web proxy using basic
authentication—The IVE submits credentials in the following order to the
backend server or proxy that is protecting the Web resource:
a.
Cached credentials—If the IVE does not submit administrator-specified
credentials or the credentials fail, the IVE determines whether it has stored
credentials for the specified user and resource in its cache. (See above for
information about when the IVE caches credentials.) If available, the IVE
submits its stored credentials.
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b. Primary credentials—If the IVE does not submit cached credentials or the
credentials fail, the IVE submits the user’s primary IVE credentials
provided that following conditions are true:
c.
‰
The resource is in the same Intranet zone as the IVE (that is, the
resource’s host name ends in the DNS suffix configured in the System
> Network > Overview page of the admin console).
‰
(Web proxies only) You have configured the IVE to recognize the Web
proxy through settings in the Users > Resource Policies > Web >
Web Proxy pages of the admin console.
‰
The credentials are not ACE credentials.
‰
(RADIUS credentials only) You specify in the RADIUS configuration
page that the RADIUS server does not accept one-time passwords.
Secondary credentials—If the primary credentials fail, the IVE determines
whether it has secondary credentials for the user. If available, the IVE
submits the user’s secondary IVE credentials provided that the conditions
described for primary credentials are true.
d. Last-entered credentials—If the IVE does not submit secondary
credentials or if the credentials fail, the IVE determines whether it has
stored credentials for the specified user and a different resource in its
cache. (See below for information about when the IVE caches credentials.)
If available, the IVE submits its stored credentials provided the conditions
described for primary credentials are true.
e.
User-specified credentials (prompt)—If the IVE does not submit lastentered credentials or if the credentials fail, the IVE prompts the user to
manually enter his credentials in the intermediate sign-in page. If the user
selects the Remember password? checkbox, the IVE caches the userspecified credentials and, if necessary, resubmits them when the user tries
to access the same resource again. Note that when the IVE caches these
credentials, it remembers the specific user and resource, even after the
user signs out of the IVE.
NOTE:
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The IVE does not support the multiple credential authentication mechanism
described in this section with the Email client and SAML SSO mechanisms.
„
You cannot define an anonymous server, certificate server, or eTrust
SiteMinder server as a secondary authentication server.
„
If you define an eTrust SiteMinder server as your primary authentication
server, you cannot define a secondary authentication server.
„
The IVE supports basic authentication and NTLM challenge/response scheme
for HTTP when accessing web applications, but does not support HTTP-based
cross-platform authentication via the negotiate protocol.
Multiple sign-in credentials overview
Chapter 10: Single sign-on
For more information about how the IVE uses multiple authentication within the
larger IVE authentication and authorization process, see “Policies, rules &
restrictions, and conditions evaluation” on page 38.
Configuring SAML
The IVE enables you to pass user and session state information between the IVE
and another trusted access management system that supports the Secure Access
Markup Language (SAML). SAML provides a mechanism for two disparate systems
to create and exchange authentication and authorization information using an XML
framework, minimizing the need for users to re-enter their credentials when
accessing multiple applications or domains1. The IVE supports SAML version 1.1.
SAML exchanges are dependent upon a trusted relationship between two systems
or domains. In the exchanges, one system acts as a SAML authority (also called an
asserting party or SAML responder) that asserts information about the user. The
other system acts as a relying party (also called a SAML receiver) that relies on the
statement (also called an assertion) provided by the SAML authority. If it chooses to
trust the SAML authority, the relying party authenticates or authorizes the user
based on the information provided by the SAML authority.
The IVE supports two SAML use case scenarios:
„
The IVE as the SAML authority—The user signs into a resource by way of the
IVE first, and all other systems are SAML receivers, relying on the IVE for
authentication and authorization of the user. Under this scenario, the IVE can
use either an artifact profile or a POST profile. For more information, see
“Configuring SAML SSO profiles” on page 204.
„
The IVE as the SAML receiver—The user signs into another system on the
network first, and the IVE is the SAML receiver, relying on the other system for
authentication and authorization of the user.
For example, in the first scenario, an authenticated IVE user named John Smith
may try to access a resource protected by an access management system. When he
does, the IVE acts as a SAML authority and declares “This user is John Smith. He
was authenticated using a password mechanism.” The access management system
(the relying party) receives this statement and chooses to trust the IVE (and
therefore trust that the IVE has properly identified the user). The access
management system may still choose to deny the user access to the requested
resource (for instance, because John Smith has insufficient access privileges on the
system), while trusting the information sent by the IVE.
In the second scenario, John Smith signs in to his company portal and is
authenticated using an LDAP server sitting behind the company’s firewall. On the
company’s secure portal, John Smith clicks a link to a resource protected by the
IVE. The following process occurs:
1. The Secure Access Markup Language is developed by Security Services Technical Committee (SSTC) of the
OASIS standards organization. For a technical overview of SAML, see the OASIS web site:
http://www.oasis-open.org/committees/download.php/5836/sstc-saml-tech-overview-1.1-draft-03.pdf
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1. The link redirects John Smith to an Intersite Transfer Service on the company
portal, which constructs an artifact URL. The artifact URL contains a reference
to a SAML assertion stored in the company portal’s cache.
2. The portal sends the URL to the IVE, which can decide whether or not to link to
the reference.
3. If the IVE links to the reference, the portal sends a SOAP message containing
the SAML assertion (an XML message containing the user’s credentials) to the
IVE, which can then decide whether or not to allow the user access to the
requested resource.
4. If the IVE allows the user access, the IVE presents to the user the requested
resource.
5. If the IVE rejects the SAML assertion, or the user credentials, the IVE responds
to the user with an error message.
When configuring the IVE, you can use SAML for:
„
Single sign-on (SSO) authentication—In a SAML SSO transaction, an
authenticated user is seamlessly signed into another system without resubmitting his credentials. In this type of transaction, the IVE can be either the
SAML authority or the SAML receiver. When acting as the SAML authority, the
IVE makes an authentication statement, which declares the user’s username and
how he was authenticated. If the relying party (called an assertion consumer
service in SAML SSO transactions) chooses to trust the IVE, the user is
seamlessly signed into the assertion consumer service using the username
contained in the statement.
When acting as the SAML receiver, the IVE requests credential confirmation
from the SAML authority, which is the other access management system, such
as LDAP or another authentication server. The SAML authority sends an
assertion by way of a SOAP message. The assertion is a set of XML statements
that the IVE must interpret, based on criteria that the IVE administrator has
specified in a SAML server instance definition. If the IVE chooses to trust the
asserting party, the IVE allows the user to sign in seamlessly using the
credentials contained in the SAML assertion.
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Chapter 10: Single sign-on
„
Access control authorization—In a SAML access control transaction, the IVE
asks an access management system whether the user has access. In this type
of transaction, the IVE is the relying party (also called a policy enforcement
point in access control transactions). It consumes and enforces an authorization
decision statement provided by the access management system (SAML
authority), which declares what the user is allowed to access. If the SAML
authority (also called a policy decision point in access control transactions)
declares that the IVE user has sufficient access privileges, the user may access
the requested resource.
NOTE:
„
The IVE does not support attribute statements, which declare specific details
about the user (such as “John Smith is a member of the gold group”).
„
The IVE does not generate authorization decision statements—it only
consumes them.
„
In addition to providing users access to a URL based on the authorization
decision statement returned by a SAML authority, the IVE also allows you to
define users’ access rights to a URL using IVE-only mechanisms (Users >
Resource Profiles > Web Applications/Pages tab). If you define access
controls through the IVE as well as through a SAML authority, both sources
must grant access to a URL in order for a user to access it. For example, you
may configure an IVE access policy that denies members of the “Users” role
access to www.google.com, but configure another SAML policy that bases a
user’s access rights on an attribute in an access management system. Even if
the access management system permits users access to www.google.com,
users are still denied access based on the IVE access policy.
„
When asked if a user may access a resource, access management systems
that support SAML may return a response of permit, deny, or indeterminate.
If the IVE receives an indeterminate response, it denies the user access.
„
The session timeouts on the IVE and your access management system may
not coordinate with one another. If a user’s access management system
session cookie times out before his IVE cookie (DSIDcookie) times out, then
single sign-on between the two systems is lost. The user is forced to sign in
again when he times out of the access management system.
For more information, see:
„
“Configuring SAML SSO profiles” on page 204.
„
“Creating an access control policy” on page 211
„
“Creating a trust relationship between SAML-enabled systems” on
page 214
„
“Configuring SAML” on page 201
„
“Configuring a SAML Server instance” on page 156
„
“Task Summary: Configuring SAML through the IVE” on page 218
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Configuring SAML SSO profiles
When enabling SSO transactions to a trusted access management system, you
must indicate whether the access management system should “pull” user
information from the IVE or whether the IVE should “push” it to the access
management system. You indicate which communication method the two systems
should use by selecting a profile during configuration. A profile is a method that two
trusted sites use to transfer a SAML statement. When configuring the IVE, you may
choose to use an artifact or POST profile.
Creating an artifact profile
When you choose to communicate using the artifact profile (also called
Browser/Artifact profile) the trusted access management server “pulls”
authentication information from the IVE, as shown in Figure 31.
Figure 31: Artifact profile
The IVE and an assertion consumer service (ACS) use the following process to pass
information:
1. The user tries to access a resource—A user is signed into the IVE and tries to
access a protected resource on a Web server.
2. The IVE sends an HTTP or HTTPS GET request to the ACS—The IVE
intercepts the request and checks whether it has already performed the
necessary SSO operation to honor the request. If not, the IVE creates an
authentication statement and passes an HTTP query variable called an artifact
to the assertion consumer service.
An artifact profile is a base-64 encoded string that contains the source ID of the
source site (that is, a 20-byte string that references the IVE) and a randomlygenerated string that acts as a handle to the authentication statement. (Note
that a handle expires 5 minutes after the artifact is sent, so if the assertion
consumer service responds after 5 minutes, the IVE does not send a statement.
Also note that the IVE discards a handle after its first use to prevent the handle
from being used twice.)
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Chapter 10: Single sign-on
3. The ACS sends a SAML request to the IVE—The assertion consumer service
uses the source ID sent in the previous step to determine the location of the
IVE. Then, the assertion consumer service sends a statement request wrapped
in a SOAP message to the following address on the IVE:
https://<IVEhostname>/dana-ws/saml.ws
The request includes the statement handle passed in the previous step.
NOTE: The IVE only supports type 0x0001 artifacts. This type of artifact passes a
reference to the source site’s location (that is, the source ID of the IVE), rather
than sending the location itself. To handle type 0x0001 artifacts, the assertion
consumer service must maintain a table that maps source IDs to the locations of
partner source sites.
4. The IVE sends an authentication statement to the ACS—The IVE uses the
statement handle in the request to find the correct statement in the IVE cache
and then sends the appropriate authentication statement back to the to the
assertion consumer service. The unsigned statement contains the user's
identity and the mechanism he used to sign into the IVE.
5. The ACS sends a cookie to the IVE—The assertion consumer service accepts
the statement and then it sends a cookie back to the IVE that enables the user’s
session.
6. The IVE sends the cookie to the Web server—The IVE caches the cookie to
handle future requests. Then the IVE sends the cookie in an HTTP request to
the Web server whose domain name matches the domain in the cookie. The
Web server honors the session without prompting the user for credentials.
NOTE: If you configure the IVE to use artifact profiles, you must install the IVE’s
Web server certificate on the assertion consumer service (as explained in
“Configuring certificates” on page 215).
To write a SAML SSO artifact profile resource policy:
1. In the admin console, navigate to Users > Resource Policies > Web.
2. If your administrator view is not already configured to show SAML policies,
make the following modifications:
a.
Click the Customize button in the upper right corner of the page.
b. Select the SSO checkbox.
c.
Select the SAML checkbox below the SSO checkbox.
d. Click OK.
3. Select the SSO > SAML tab.
4. Click New Policy.
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5. On the New Policy page, enter:
a.
A name to label this policy.
b. A description of the policy (optional).
6. In the Resources section, specify the resources to which this policy applies. See
“Specifying resources for a resource policy” on page 83 for more information.
To enable IP-based or case sensitivity matching for these resources, see
“Writing a Web proxy resource policy” on page 351.
7. In the Roles section, specify:
„
Policy applies to ALL roles—To apply this policy to all users.
„
Policy applies to SELECTED roles—To apply this policy only to users who
are mapped to roles in the Selected roles list. Make sure to add roles to this
list from the Available roles list.
„
Policy applies to all roles OTHER THAN those selected below—To apply
this policy to all users except for those who map to the roles in the Selected
roles list. Make sure to add roles to this list from the Available roles list.
8. In the Action section, specify:
„
Use the SAML SSO defined below—The IVE performs a single-sign on
(SSO) request to the specified URL using the data specified in the SAML
SSO details section. The IVE makes the SSO request when a user tries to
access to a SAML resource specified in the Resources list.
„
Do NOT use SAML—The IVE does not perform a SSO request.
„
Use Detailed Rules—To specify one or more detailed rules for this policy.
9. In the SAML SSO Details section, specify:
„
SAML Assertion Consumer Service URL—Enter the URL that the IVE
should use to contact the assertion consumer service (that is, the access
management server). For example, https://hostname/acs. (Note that the
IVE also uses this field to determine the SAML recipient for its assertions.)
NOTE: If you enter a URL that begins with HTTPS, you must install the assertion
consumer service’s root CA on the IVE (as explained in “Configuring certificates”
on page 215).
„
Profile—Select Artifact to indicate that the assertion consumer service
should “pull” information from the IVE during SSO transactions.
„
Source ID—Enter the source ID for the IVE. If you enter a:
‰
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Plain text string—The IVE converts, pads, or truncates it to a 20-byte
string.
Chapter 10: Single sign-on
‰
Base-64 encoded string—The IVE decodes it and ensures that it is 20
bytes.
If your access management system requires base-64 encoded source IDs,
you can create a 20 byte string and then use a tool such as OpenSSL to
base-64 encode it.
NOTE: The IVE identifier (that is, the source ID) must map to the following URL on
the assertion consumer service (as explained in “Configuring trusted application
URLs” on page 215): https://<IVEhostname>/dana-ws/saml.ws
„
Issuer—Enter a unique string that the IVE can use to identify itself when it
generates assertions (typically its host name).
NOTE: You must configure the assertion consumer service to recognize the IVE’s
unique string (as explained in “Configuring an issuer” on page 215).
10. In the User Identity section, specify how the IVE and the assertion consumer
service should identify the user:
„
„
Subject Name Type—Specify which method the IVE and assertion
consumer service should use to identify the user:
‰
DN—Send the username in the format of a DN (distinguished name)
attribute.
‰
Email Address—Send the username in the format of an email address.
‰
Windows—Send the username in the format of a Windows domain
qualified username.
‰
Other—Send the username in another format agreed upon by the IVE
and the assertion consumer service.
Subject Name—Use the variables described in “System variables and
examples” on page 860 to specify the username that the IVE should pass to
the assertion consumer service. Or, enter static text.
NOTE: You must send a username or attribute that the assertion consumer service
will recognize (as explained in “Configuring user identity” on page 218).
11. In the Web Service Authentication section, specify the authentication method
that the IVE should use to authenticate the assertion consumer service:
„
None—Do not authenticate the assertion consumer service.
„
Username—Authenticate the assertion consumer service using a
username and password. Enter the username and password that the
assertion consumer service must send the IVE.
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„
Certificate Attribute—Authenticate the assertion consumer service using
certificate attributes. Enter the attributes that the assertion consumer
service must send the IVE (one attribute per line). For example, cn=sales.
You must use values that match the values contained in the assertion
consumer service’s certificate.
NOTE: If you select this option, you must install the assertion consumer service’s
root CA on the IVE (as explained in “Configuring certificates” on page 215).
12. Cookie Domain—Enter a comma-separated list of domains to which we send
the SSO cookie.
13. Click Save Changes.
14. On the SAML SSO Policies page, order the policies according to how you want
the IVE to evaluate them. Keep in mind that once the IVE matches the resource
requested by the user to a resource in a policy’s (or a detailed rule’s) Resource
list, it performs the specified action and stops processing policies.
Creating a POST profile
When you choose to communicate using a POST profile (also called Browser/POST
profile), the IVE “pushes” authentication data to the access management system
using an HTTP POST command over an SSL 3.0 connection, as shown in Figure 32.
Figure 32: POST profile
The IVE and an access management (AM) system use the following process to pass
information:
1. The user tries to access a resource—A user is signed into the IVE and tries to
access a protected resource on a Web server.
2. The IVE posts a statement—The IVE intercepts the request and checks
whether it has already performed the necessary SSO operation to honor the
request. If not, the IVE creates an authentication statement, digitally signs it,
and posts it directly to the access management server. Since the statement is
signed, the access management server must trust the certificate authority that
was used to issue the certificate. Note that you must configure which certificate
the IVE uses to sign the statement.
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3. The AM establishes a session—If the user has the proper permissions, the
access management server sends a cookie back to the IVE that enables the
user’s session.
4. The IVE sends the cookie to the Web server—The IVE caches the cookie to
handle future requests. Then the IVE sends the cookie in an HTTP request to
the Web server whose domain name matches the domain in the cookie. The
Web server honors the session without prompting the user for credentials.
NOTE: If you configure the IVE to use POST profiles, you must install the assertion
consumer service’s root CA on the IVE and determine which method the assertion
consumer service uses to trust the certificate (as explained in “Configuring
certificates” on page 215).
To write a SAML SSO POST profile resource policy:
1. In the admin console, navigate to Users > Resource Policies > Web.
2. If your administrator view is not already configured to show SAML policies,
make the following modifications:
a.
Click the Customize button in the upper right corner of the page.
b. Select the SSO checkbox.
c.
Select the SAML checkbox below the SSO checkbox.
d. Click OK.
3. Select the SSO > SAML tab.
4. Click New Policy.
5. On the SAML SSO Policy page, enter:
a.
A name to label this policy.
b. A description of the policy (optional).
6. In the Resources section, specify the resources to which this policy applies. See
“Specifying resources for a resource policy” on page 83 for more information.
To enable IP-based or case sensitivity matching for these resources, see
“Writing a Web proxy resource policy” on page 351.
7. In the Roles section, specify:
„
Policy applies to ALL roles—To apply this policy to all users.
„
Policy applies to SELECTED roles—To apply this policy only to users who
are mapped to roles in the Selected roles list. Make sure to add roles to this
list from the Available roles list.
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Policy applies to all roles OTHER THAN those selected below—To apply
this policy to all users except for those who map to the roles in the Selected
roles list. Make sure to add roles to this list from the Available roles list.
8. In the Action section, specify:
„
Use the SAML SSO defined below—The IVE performs a single-sign on
(SSO) request to the specified URL using the data specified in the SAML
SSO details section. The IVE makes the SSO request when a user tries to
access to a SAML resource specified in the Resources list.
„
Do NOT use SAML—The IVE does not perform a SSO request.
„
Use Detailed Rules—To specify one or more detailed rules for this policy.
9. In the SAML SSO Details section, specify:
„
SAML Assertion Consumer Service URL—Enter the URL that the IVE
should use to contact the assertion consumer service (that is, the access
management server). For example, https://hostname/acs.
„
Profile—Select POST to indicate that the IVE should “push” information to
the assertion consumer service during SSO transactions.
„
Issuer—Enter a unique string that the IVE can use to identify itself when it
generates assertions (typically its host name).
NOTE: You must configure the assertion consumer service to recognize the IVE’s
unique string (as explained in “Configuring an issuer” on page 215).
„
Signing Certificate—Specify which certificate the IVE should use to sign its
assertions.
10. In the User Identity section, specify how the IVE and the assertion consumer
service should identify the user:
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Subject Name Type—Specify which method the IVE and assertion
consumer service should use to identify the user:
‰
DN—Send the username in the format of a DN (distinguished name)
attribute.
‰
Email Address—Send the username in the format of an email address.
‰
Windows—Send the username in the format of a Windows domain
qualified username.
‰
Other—Send the username in another format agreed upon by the IVE
and the assertion consumer service.
Chapter 10: Single sign-on
„
Subject Name—Use the variables described in “System variables and
examples” on page 860 to specify the username that the IVE should pass to
the assertion consumer service. Or, enter static text.
NOTE: You must send a username or attribute that the assertion consumer service
will recognize (as explained in “Configuring user identity” on page 218).
11. Cookie Domain—Enter a comma-separated list of domains to which we send
the SSO cookie.
12. Click Save Changes.
13. On the SAML SSO Policies page, order the policies according to how you want
the IVE to evaluate them. Keep in mind that once the IVE matches the resource
requested by the user to a resource in a policy’s (or a detailed rule’s) Resource
list, it performs the specified action and stops processing policies.
Creating an access control policy
When enabling access control transactions to a trusted access management
system, the IVE and trusted access management system exchange information
using the method shown in Figure 33.
Figure 33: Access control policies
The IVE and an access management (AM) system use the following process to pass
information:
1. The user tries to access a resource—A user is signed into the IVE and tries to
access a protected resource on a Web server.
2. The IVE posts an authorization decision query—If the IVE has already made
an authorization request and it is still valid, the IVE uses that request. (The
authorization request is valid for the period of time specified in the admin
console.) If it does not have a valid authorization request, the IVE posts an
authorization decision query to the access management system. The query
contains the user’s identity and the resource that the access management
system needs to authorize.
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3. The AM posts an authorization decision statement—The access management
system sends an HTTPS POST containing a SOAP message that contains the
authorization decision statement. The authorization decision statement
contains a result of permit, deny, or indeterminate.
4. The IVE sends the request to the Web browser—If the authorization decision
statement returns a result of permit, the IVE allows the user access. If not, the
IVE presents an error page to the user telling him that he does not have the
proper access permissions.
NOTE: If you configure the IVE to use access control transactions, you must install
the SAML Web service’s root CA on the IVE (as explained in “Configuring
certificates” on page 215).
To write a SAML Access Control resource policy:
1. In the admin console, navigate to Users > Resource Policies > Web.
2. If your administrator view is not already configured to show SAML policies,
make the following modifications:
a.
Click the Customize button in the upper right corner of the page.
b. Select the SAML ACL checkbox below the Access checkbox.
c.
Click OK.
3. Select the Access > SAML ACL tab.
4. On the SAML Access Control Policies page, click New Policy.
5. On the New Policy page, enter:
a.
A name to label this policy.
b. A description of the policy (optional).
6. In the Resources section, specify the resources to which this policy applies. See
“Specifying resources for a resource policy” on page 83 for more information.
To enable IP-based or case sensitivity matching for these resources, see
“Writing a Web proxy resource policy” on page 351.
7. In the Roles section, specify:
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„
Policy applies to ALL roles—To apply this policy to all users.
„
Policy applies to SELECTED roles—To apply this policy only to users who
are mapped to roles in the Selected roles list. Make sure to add roles to this
list from the Available roles list.
„
Policy applies to all roles OTHER THAN those selected below—To apply
this policy to all users except for those who map to the roles in the Selected
roles list. Make sure to add roles to this list from the Available roles list.
Chapter 10: Single sign-on
8. In the Action section, specify:
„
Use the SAML Access Control checks defined below—The IVE performs
an access control check to the specified URL using the data specified in the
SAML Access Control Details section.
„
Do not use SAML Access—The IVE does not perform an access control
check.
„
Use Detailed Rules—To specify one or more detailed rules for this policy.
9. In the SAML Access Control Details section, specify:
„
SAML Web Service URL—Enter the URL of the access management
system’s SAML server. For example, https://hostname/ws.
„
Issuer—Enter the host name of the issuer, which in most cases is the host
name of the access management system.
NOTE: You must enter unique string that the SAML Web service uses to identify
itself in authorization assertions (as explained in “Configuring an issuer” on
page 215).
10. In the User Identity section, specify how the IVE and the SAML Web service
should identify the user:
„
„
Subject Name Type—Specify which method the IVE and SAML Web
service should use to identify the user:
‰
DN—Send the username in the format of a DN (distinguished name)
attribute.
‰
Email Address—Send the username in the format of an email address.
‰
Windows—Send the username in the format of a Windows domain
qualified username.
‰
Other—Send the username in another format agreed upon by the IVE
and the SAML Web service.
Subject Name—Use the variables described in “System variables and
examples” on page 860 to specify the username that the IVE should pass to
the SAML Web service. Or, enter static text.
NOTE: You must send a username or attribute that the SAML Web service will
recognize (as explained in “Configuring user identity” on page 218).
11. In the Web Service Authentication section, specify the authentication method
that the SAML Web service should use to authenticate the IVE:
„
None—Do not authenticate the IVE.
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„
Username—Authenticate the IVE using a username and password. Enter
the username and password that the IVE must send the Web service.
„
Certificate Attribute—Authenticate the IVE using a certificate signed by a
trusted certificate authority. If you have more than one certificate installed
on the IVE, use the drop-down list to select which certificate to send to the
Web service.
NOTE: If you select this option, you must install the IVE Web server’s certificate on
the access management system’s Web server and determine which method the
SAML Web service uses to trust the certificate (as explained in “Configuring
certificates” on page 215).
12. In the Options section, specify:
„
Maximum Cache Time—You can eliminate the overhead of generating an
authorization decision each time the user request the same URL by
indicating that the IVE must cache the access management system’s
authorization responses. Enter the amount of time the IVE should cache
the responses (in seconds).
„
Ignore Query Data—By default, when a user requests a resource, the IVE
sends the entire URL for that resource (including the query parameter) to
the SAML Web service and caches the URL. You can specify that the IVE
should remove the query string from the URL before requesting
authorization or caching the authorization response.
13. Click Save Changes.
14. On the SAML Access Control Policies page, order the policies according to
how you want the IVE to evaluate them. Keep in mind that once the IVE
matches the resource requested by the user to a resource in a policy’s (or a
detailed rule’s) Resource list, it performs the specified action and stops
processing policies.
Creating a trust relationship between SAML-enabled systems
In order to ensure that SAML-enabled systems are only passing information
between trusted sources, you must create a trust relationship between the
applications that are sending and receiving information. To create a trust
relationship between the IVE and another SAML-enabled application, you must
configure the following types of information on each system:
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“Configuring trusted application URLs” on page 215
„
“Configuring an issuer” on page 215
„
“Configuring certificates” on page 215
„
“Configuring user identity” on page 218
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Chapter 10: Single sign-on
Configuring trusted application URLs
In a trust relationship, you must provide the SAML-enabled systems with the URLs
they need to contact each other. In some transactions, only the system that
initiates the transaction (the IVE) needs to know the URL of the other system. (The
IVE uses the URL to initiate the transaction.) In other transactions (SSO transactions
using artifact profiles), you need to configure each system with the URL of the
other.
Listed below are the different transaction types and the URLs you must configure
for each:
„
SSO transactions: Artifact profile—On the IVE, you must enter the URL of the
assertion consumer service. For example: https://hostname/acs
Also, you must enter the following URL for the IVE on the assertion consumer
service: https://<IVEhostname>/dana-ws/saml.ws
„
SSO transactions: POST profile—On the IVE, you must enter the URL of the
assertion consumer service. For example: https://hostname/acs
„
Access control transactions—On the IVE, you must enter the URL of the SAML
Web service. For example: https://hostname/ws
Configuring an issuer
Before accepting a statement from another system, a SAML-enabled entity must
trust the issuer of the statement. You can control which issuers a system trusts by
specifying the unique strings of the trusted issuers during the system’s
configuration. (When sending a statement, an issuer identifies itself by including its
unique string in the statement. SAML-enabled applications generally use host
names to identify issuers, but the SAML standard allows applications to use any
string.) If you do not configure a system to recognize an issuer’s unique string, the
system will not accept that issuer’s statements.
Listed below are the different transaction types and the issuers you must configure
for each:
„
SSO transactions—You must specify a unique string on the IVE (typically its
host name) that it can use to identify itself and then configure the access
management system to recognize that string.
„
Access control transactions—You must specify a unique string on the access
management system (typically its host name) that it can use to identify itself
and then configure the IVE to recognize that string.
Configuring certificates
Within SSL transactions, the server must present a certificate to the client, and then
the client must verify (at minimum) that it trusts the certificate authority who
issued the server’s certificate before accepting the information. You can configure
all of the IVE’s SAML transactions to use SSL (HTTPS). The following sections list
different transaction types and the certificate requirements for each.
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Configuring SSO transactions: Artifact profile
Artifact profile transactions involve numerous communications back and forth
between the IVE and access management system. The methods you use to pass
data and authenticate the two systems affect which certificates you must install and
configure. Listed below are the different artifact profile configuration options that
require special certificate configurations:
„
All artifact profile transactions—Regardless of your artifact profile
configuration, you must install the certificate of the CA that signed the IVE Web
server’s certificate on the access management system. (The IVE requires the
access management system to use an SSL connection when requesting an
authentication statement. In an SSL connection, the initiator must trust the
system to which it is connecting. By installing the CA certificate on the access
management system, you ensure that the access management system will trust
the CA that issued the IVE’s certificate.)
„
Sending artifacts over an SSL connection (HTTPS GET requests)—If you
choose to send artifacts to the access management system using an SSL
connection, you must install the access management system’s root CA
certificate on the IVE. (In an SSL connection, the initiator must trust the system
to which it is connecting. By installing the access management system’s CA
certificate on the IVE, you ensure that the IVE will trust the CA that issued the
access management system’s certificate.) You can install the root CA from the
System > Configuration > Certificates > Trusted Client CAs page in the
admin console. For more information, see “Using trusted client CAs” on
page 607. If you do not want to send artifacts over an SSL connection, you do
not need to install any additional certificates.
To enable SSL-based communications from the IVE to the access management
system, enter a URL that begins with HTTPS in the SAML Assertion Consumer
Service URL field during IVE configuration. You may also need to enable SSL
on the access management system.
„
Transactions using certificate authentication—If you choose to authenticate
the access management system using a certificate, you must:
„
Install the access management system’s root CA certificate on the IVE. You
can install the root CA from the System > Configuration > Certificates
> Trusted Client CAs page in the admin console. For more information,
see “Using trusted client CAs” on page 607.
„
Specify which certificate values the IVE should use to validate the access
management system. You must use values that match the values contained
in the access management server’s certificate.
If you do not choose to authenticate the access management system, or if you
choose to use username/password authentication, you do not need to install
any additional certificates.
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Configuring SSO transactions: POST profile
In a POST profile transaction, the IVE sends signed authentication statements to the
access management system. Generally, it sends them over an SSL connection
(recommended), but in some configurations, the IVE may send statements via a
standard HTTP connection. Listed below are the different POST profile
configuration options that require special certificate configurations:
„
All POST profile transactions—Regardless of your POST profile configuration,
you must specify which certificate the IVE should use to sign its statements.
You can choose a certificate in the Users > Resource Policies > Web > SSO
> SAML > [Policy] > General page in the admin console. For more
information, see “Configuring SAML” on page 201. Then, you must install the
IVE’s device certificate on the access management system. You can download
the IVE’s certificate from the System > Configuration > Certificates >
Device Certificates > [Certificate] > Certificate Details page.
„
Sending POST data over an SSL connection (HTTPS)—If you choose to send
statements to the access management system using an SSL connection, you
must install the access management system’s root CA certificate on the IVE. (In
an SSL connection, the initiator must trust the system to which it is connecting.
By installing the access management system’s certificate on the IVE, you
ensure that the IVE will trust the CA that issued the access management
system’s certificate.) You can install the root CA from the System >
Configuration > Certificates > Trusted Client CAs page in the admin
console. For more information, see “Using trusted client CAs” on page 607. If
you do not want to post statements over an SSL connection, you do not need to
install any additional certificates.
To enable SSL-based communications from the IVE to the access management
system, enter a URL that begins with HTTPS in the SAML Assertion Consumer
Service URL field during IVE configuration. You may also need to enable SSL
on the access management system.
Configuring access control transactions
In an access control transaction, the IVE posts an authorization decision query to
the access management system. To ensure that the access management system
responds to the query, you must determine which certificate options are required
by your configuration. Listed below are the different access control configuration
options that require special certificate configurations:
„
Sending authorization data over an SSL connection—If you choose to
connect to the access management system using an SSL connection, you must
install the access management system’s root CA on the IVE. (In an SSL
connection, the initiator must trust the system to which it is connecting. By
installing the access management system’s certificate on the IVE, you ensure
that the IVE will trust the CA that issued the access management system’s
certificate.) You can install the root CA from the System > Configuration >
Certificates > Trusted Client CAs page in the admin console. For more
information, see “Using trusted client CAs” on page 607.
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„
Transactions using certificate authentication—If you choose to use certificate
authentication, you must configure the access management system to trust the
CA that issued the IVE’s certificate. Optionally, you may also choose to accept
the certificate based on the following additional options:
„
Upload the IVE certificate’s public key to the access management system.
„
Validate the IVE using specific certificate attributes.
These options require that you specify which certificate the IVE should pass to
the access management system. You can choose a certificate in the Users >
Resource Policies > Web > Access > SAML ACL > [Policy] > General page
in the admin console. For more information, see “Configuring SAML SSO
profiles” on page 204.
To determine how to configure your access management system to validate the
IVE’s certificate, see your access management system’s documentation. If your
access management system does not require certificate authentication, or if it
uses username/password authentication, you do not need to configure the IVE
to pass the access management server a certificate. If you do not specify a trust
method, your access management system may accept authorization requests
from any system.
Configuring user identity
In a trust relationship, the two entities must agree on a way to identify users. You
may choose to share a username across systems, select an LDAP or certificate user
attribute to share across systems, or hard-code a user ID. (For example, you may
choose to set the Subject Name field to “guest” to easily allow access across
systems.)
To ensure that the two systems are passing common information about users, you
must specify which information the IVE should pass using options in the User
Identity section of the Users > Resource Policies > Web > SSO > SAML >
[Policy] > General page (for more information, see “Configuring SAML” on
page 201) and the Users > Resource Policies > Web > Access > SAML ACL >
[Policy] > General page of the admin console. Choose a username or attribute that
the access management system will recognize.
Task Summary: Configuring SAML through the IVE
To configure SAML through the IVE, you must:
1. Configure a Web resource policy for a URL through the Users > Resource
Policies > Web > Access > SAML ACL and Users > Resource Policies >
Web > SSO > SAML tabs in the admin console. For more instructions, see
“Configuring SAML” on page 201.
2. Within the policy, provide information about the IVE, the trusted access
management system, and the mechanism they should use to share
information, as explained in “Creating a trust relationship between SAMLenabled systems” on page 214.
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3. Give IVE users within a role access to the Web resource policy through the
Users > User Roles > Select Role > General tab of the admin console. For
instructions, see “Configuring general role options” on page 55.
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Part 3
Endpoint defense
Juniper Networks has developed the Juniper Endpoint Defense Initiative (J.E.D.I.) to
provide a comprehensive solution to assess the trust worthiness of SSL VPN
endpoints. J.E.D.I. uses a layered approach to address the full range of risks that
endpoints can pose to your enterprise network. Using J.E.D.I. components, you can
secure the systems of users inside and outside your network before allowing them
to connect to your IVE appliance.
J.E.D.I. components include:
„
Host Checker—Host Checker (also called native Host Check and policy-based
enforcement) is a native IVE component that you can use to perform endpoint
checks on hosts that connect to the IVE. Host Checker checks for third party
applications, files, process, ports, registry keys, and custom DLLs and denies or
enables access based on the results of the checks. When properly licensed, you
can also use Host Checker to download advanced malware detection software
directly to the user’s computer. When a user’s computer does not meet the
requirements you specify, you can display remediation instructions to users so
they can bring their computers into compliance. For more information, see
“Host Checker” on page 223.
„
Host Check Client Interface (Windows only)—The Host Check Client
Interface is an API that allows you to run your own DLLs using Host Checker.
Through the interface, you can prompt Host Checker to run a DLL that you
already installed on the user’s system or distributed as part of a corporate OS
image, including programs that check compliance with corporate images,
antivirus software, and personal firewall clients. Host Checker runs the
specified DLL when a user signs into the IVE, and then bases its subsequent
actions on the success or failure result that the DLL returns. For example, you
may deny a user access to the IVE if the client check software fails. For more
information, see the J.E.D.I. Solution Guide available on the Juniper Networks
Customer Support Center.
„
Host Check Server Integration Interface (Windows only)—The Host Check
Server Integration Interface is an API that allows you to tightly integrate a
J.E.D.I. compliant system with the IVE. Like the Host Check Client Interface,
you can use the Host Check Server Integration Interface to prompt Host
Checker to run third-party software on the client, including host integrity scans,
malware detectors, and virtual environments. With this interface, you may also
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specify with granularity what Host Checker should do based on the result of the
diverse policy checks that the third-party applications conduct. You can invoke
these policies to dynamically map users to realms, roles, and resources based
on the results of individual policies contained in your software package. For
more information, see the J.E.D.I. Solution Guide available on the Juniper
Networks Customer Support Center.
„
Cache Cleaner (Windows only)—Cache Cleaner is a native IVE component
that you can use to remove residual data, such as cookies, temporary files, or
application caches, from a user’s machine after an IVE session. Cache Cleaner
helps secure the user’s system by preventing subsequent users from finding
temporary copies of the files that the previous user was viewing and by
preventing Web browsers from permanently storing the usernames,
passwords, and Web addresses that users enter in Web forms. For more
information, see “Cache Cleaner” on page 269.
Using these endpoint defense components, you can develop a layered protection
approach, managing and provisioning a variety of endpoint checks all from within
the IVE. For example, you may choose to check for virus detection before allowing
a user access to any of the IVE realms, launch the software on the user’s system if
necessary, map the user to roles based on individual policies defined in your own
DLL, and then further restrict access to individual resources based on the existence
of spyware detection software.
Then, you may use Cache Cleaner to remove residual files and clear the user’s
application cache once the user has terminated the IVE session.
This section includes the following information about endpoint defense:
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“Host Checker” on page 223
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“Cache Cleaner” on page 269
Chapter 11
Host Checker
Host Checker is a client-side agent that performs endpoint checks on hosts that
connect to the IVE. You can invoke Host Checker before displaying an IVE sign-in
page to a user and when evaluating a role mapping rule or resource policy.
The IVE can check hosts for endpoint properties using a variety of rule types,
including rules that check for and install advanced malware protection; predefined
rules that check for antivirus software, firewalls, malware, spyware, and specific
operating systems from a wide variety of industry leaders; and custom rules that
check for certain third party DLLs, ports, processes, files, and registry key settings.
If the user’s computer does not meet any of the Host Checker policy requirements,
you can display a custom-made HTML remediation page to the user. This page can
contain your specific instructions as well as links to resources to help the user bring
his computer into compliance with each Host Checker policy.
This section contains the following information about Host Checker:
„
“Licensing: Host Checker availability” on page 224
„
“Task summary: Configuring Host Checker” on page 224
„
“Creating global Host Checker policies” on page 226
„
“Enabling the Secure Virtual Workspace” on page 244
„
“Implementing Host Checker policies” on page 251
„
“Remediating Host Checker policies” on page 255
„
“Defining Host Checker pre-authentication access tunnels” on page 258
„
“Specifying general Host Checker options” on page 262
„
“Specifying Host Checker installation options” on page 264
„
“Using Host Checker logs” on page 267
„
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Licensing: Host Checker availability
Host Checker is a standard feature on all Secure Access appliances. You do not
need a special license to use the baseline Host Checker features. However, note
that Host Checker custom expressions, Host Checker detailed rules, Host Checker
remediation, and other features may not be available on the SA 700 and are only
available on all other Secure Access products by special license. Additionally, in
order to support more than 25 users with the advanced endpoint defense malware
detection policies, you must buy an upgrade license.
Task summary: Configuring Host Checker
To configure Host Checker, you must perform these tasks:
1. Create and enable Host Checker policies through the Authentication >
Endpoint Security > Host Checker page of the admin console, as explained in
“Creating global Host Checker policies” on page 226.
2. Configure additional system-level options through the Authentication >
Endpoint Security > Host Checker page of the admin console as necessary:
„
If you want to display remediation information to users when they fail to
meet the requirements of a Host Checker policy, configure remediation
options through the Authentication > Endpoint Security > Host
Checker page of the admin console, as explained in “Remediating Host
Checker policies” on page 255.
„
For Windows clients, determine whether you need to use a
pre-authentication access tunnel between the clients and policy server(s) or
resources. If necessary, create a manifest.hcif file with the tunnel definition
and upload it through the Authentication > Endpoint Security > Host
Checker page of the admin console, as explained in “Defining Host
Checker pre-authentication access tunnels” on page 258.
„
If you want to change the default Host Checker settings, configure them
through the Authentication > Endpoint Security > Host Checker page
of the admin console, as explained in “Specifying general Host Checker
options” on page 262.
3. Determine at which levels within the IVE access management framework you
want to enforce the policies:
„
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To enforce Host Checker policies when the user first accesses the IVE,
implement the policies at the realm level by using the Administrators >
Admin Realms > Select Realm > Authentication Policy > Host Checker
or the Users > User Realms > Select Realm > Authentication Policy >
Host Checker pages of the admin console.
Chapter 11: Host Checker
„
To allow or deny users access to roles based on their compliance with Host
Checker policies, implement the policies at the role level by using the
Administrators > Admin Roles > Select Role > General > Restrictions
> Host Checker or the Users > User Roles > Select Role > General >
Restrictions > Host Checker pages of the admin console.
„
To map users to roles based on their compliance with Host Checker
policies, use custom expressions in the Administrators > Admin Realms
> Select Realm > Role Mapping or the Users > User Realms > Select
Realm > Role Mapping pages of the admin console.
„
To allow or deny users access to individual resources based on their
compliance with Host Checker policies, use conditions in the Users >
Resource Policies > Select Resource > Select Policy > Detailed Rules >
Select|Create Rule page of the admin console.
For more information, see “Configuring Host Checker restrictions” on
page 253.
4. Specify how users can access the Host Checker client-side agent that enforces
the policies you define:
„
To enable automatic installation of the Host Checker client-side agent on all
platforms, use the Administrators > Admin Realms > Select Realm >
Authentication Policy > Host Checker page or the Users > User Realms
> Select Realm > Authentication Policy > Host Checker page of the
admin console.
„
To download the Host Checker installer and manually install it on your
Windows users’ systems, use the Maintenance > System > Installers
page of the admin console.
For configuration instructions, see “Specifying Host Checker installation
options” on page 264.
NOTE: Users must enable signed ActiveX components or signed Java applets
within their browsers in order for Host Checker to download, install, and launch
the client applications.
5. Determine whether you want to create client-side logs. If you enable client-side
logging through the System > Log/Monitoring > Client Logs page of the
admin console, the IVE appliance creates log files on your users’ systems and
writes to the file whenever Host Checker runs. For configuration instructions,
see “Using Host Checker logs” on page 267.
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Creating global Host Checker policies
In order to use Host Checker as a policy enforcement tool for managing endpoints,
you must create global Host Checker policies at the system level through the
Authentication > Endpoint Security > Host Checker page of the admin console,
and then implement the policies at the realm, role, and resource policy levels.
The IVE provides several mechanisms that you can use to enable, create, and
configure Host Checker policies:
„
Pre-defined policies (prevent in-network attacks or downloads malware
detection software)—The IVE comes equipped with two types of pre-defined
client-side Host Checker policies that you simply need to enable, not create or
configure, in order to use them. The Connection Control policy prevents attacks
on Windows client computers from other infected computers on the same
network. The Advanced Endpoint Defense: Malware Protection policies
download malware protection software to client computers before users sign
into the IVE. Note that these policies only work on Windows systems. For more
information, see “Enabling pre-defined client-side policies (Windows only)” on
page 227.
„
Pre-defined rules (check for third party applications)—Host Checker comes
pre-equipped with a vast array of pre-defined rules that check for antivirus
software, firewalls, malware, spyware, and specific operating systems from a
wide variety of industry leaders. You can enable one or more of these rules
within a Host Checker client-side policy in order to ensure that the integrated
third party applications that you specify are running on your users’ computers
in accordance with your specifications. For more information, see “Checking
for third-party applications using pre-defined rules (Windows only)” on
page 232.
„
Custom rules (check for additional requirements)—If the pre-defined clientside policies and rules that come with the IVE do not meet your needs, you can
create custom rules within a Host Checker policy to define requirements that
your users’ computers must meet. Using custom rules, you can:
„
Configure Host Checker to check for custom third party DLLs that perform
customized client-side checks.
„
Verify that certain ports are open or closed on the user’s computer.
„
Confirm that certain processes are or are not running on the user’s
computer.
„
Check that certain files are or are not present on the client machine.
„
Evaluate the age and content of required files through MD5 checksums.
„
Confirm that registry keys are set on the client machine.
For more information, see “Specifying customized requirements using custom
rules” on page 236.
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„
Custom integrated applications (implement through server API)—For
Windows clients, you can define Host Checker server-side policies using the
Host Check Server Integration Interface (API) and zip up the policies into a
third-party integration package. The IVE recognizes the policies when you
upload your third-party integration package to the IVE. For more information
about creating these policies, see the J.E.D.I. Solution Guide available on the
Juniper Networks Customer Support Center.
For information about enabling the server-side policies that you create, see
“Enabling customized server-side policies” on page 242.
Within a single policy, you can create different Host Checker requirements for
Windows, Macintosh, and Linux, checking for different files, processes, and
products on each operating system. You can also can combine any number of host
check types within a single policy and check for alternative sets of rules.
Enabling pre-defined client-side policies (Windows only)
The IVE comes equipped with two types of pre-defined client-side Host Checker
policies that you simply need to enable, not create or configure, in order to use
them:
„
The connection control policy prevents attacks on Windows client computers
from other infected computers on the same network. For more information,
see “Enabling connection control policies” on page 228.
„
The advanced endpoint defense malware detection policies download Whole
Security’s Confidence Online software to client computers. This software
protects users from malicious software such as worms, viruses, key logger
software, screen capture software, and trojan horses. For more information,
see “Enabling advanced malware protection policies” on page 228.
NOTE:
„
The connection control and advanced endpoint defense malware detection
policies only work on Windows systems.
„
The connection control policy is not supported on Windows 98 systems.
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Enabling connection control policies
The pre-defined connection control Host Checker policy prevents attacks on
Windows client computers from other infected computers on the same physical
network. The Host Checker connection control policy blocks all incoming TCP
connections. This policy allows all outgoing TCP and Network Connect traffic, as
well as all connections to DNS servers, WINS servers, DHCP servers, proxy servers,
and the IVE.
NOTE:
„
Users must have administrator privileges in order for Host Checker to enforce
the connection control policy on the client computer.
„
The IVE does not support the Host Checker connection control policy on
Windows 98 client computers.
To enable the pre-defined Host Checker connection control policy:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Endpoint Security > Host
Checker.
2. Under Options, select the Create Host Checker Connection Control Policy
checkbox.
3. Click Save Changes. The IVE enables the Host Checker connection control
policy.
NOTE: Note that you cannot modify this policy—only enable or disable it. Also
note that since you cannot modify this policy, the IVE does not display it in the
Policies section of the Authentication > Endpoint Security > Host Checker
page with other configurable policies.
4. Implement the Host Checker connection control policy at the realm, role, or
resource policy levels using the options described in “Configuring Host Checker
restrictions” on page 253.
NOTE: You must evaluate or enforce the connection control policy at the realm
level to make the policy effective on client computers.
Enabling advanced malware protection policies
If you are properly licensed, you can enable advanced endpoint defense malware
detection policies through Host Checker. These policies download and run Whole
Security Confidence Online software on your users’ computers. This software scans
for malicious programs, including:
„
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Trojan horses—Hackers write trojan horses to remotely administer an infected
machine. Trojan horses almost always install themselves on a user’s computer
without the authorized user’s knowledge.
Creating global Host Checker policies
Chapter 11: Host Checker
„
Key logger software—Hackers write key logger software to eavesdrop on a user
by capturing and logging his typed keystrokes. Key logger software installs
itself on a user’s computer without the authorized user’s knowledge.
„
Monitoring applications—Monitoring applications are end-user software
applications that monitor and record user activity. Users typically install this
software themselves to monitor the activity of children, spouses, and other
users who share their computers.
„
Remote controls—Remote control applications are commercial applications
such as VNC that offer easy remote access to an authorized user for computer
administration activities.
To use the Whole Security malware protection software, you need to enable the
Advanced Endpoint Defense Malware Detection option at the system level and
enforce it at the realm, role, and/or resource policy levels.
You do not need to create or configure advanced endpoint defense malware
detection policies—Host Checker creates them for you when you enable the option
at the system level. Note that we recommend that you require and enforce an
advanced endpoint defense malware detection policy at the realm level so that
Host Checker can download the Confidence Online software to your users’
computers and check for potential threats before they sign in to the IVE, but after
their Windows logon. Once Confidence Online begins running, it continues to scan
for and block threats throughout the user’s IVE session.
NOTE: Each user’s computer must be able to access the Whole Security site
(update.wholesecurity.com) so that Confidence Online can periodically download
the latest definition files.
To enable and configure advanced endpoint defense malware detection policies:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Endpoint Security > Host
Checker.
2. Under Options, select the Enable Advanced Endpoint Defense: Malware
Protection checkbox.
3. Select the Enable Silent Enforcement of Signature Scan checkbox if you do
not want Confidence Online to notify users when it blocks trojan horse, key
logger software, and other applications that it deems malicious. (Note that
Confidence Online accesses a Whole Security server on a daily basis in order to
keep its list of malicious applications current.)
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4. Select the Enable User Control over disabling Behavior Blocker checkbox if
you want to enable users to choose whether or not to block monitoring
applications, remote control software, and other potentially legitimate
applications. If you select this option, users can view and control blocked
applications through a Confidence Online icon in their system trays. (For more
information, see the Confidence Online end-user help system.) If you do not
select this option, Confidence Online simply blocks these applications without
user interaction.
NOTE:
„
Category 1 and Category 2 Signature Scans—Restricted users, power users,
and administrators can install and run the scanning feature in Confidence
Online. The scanning feature is supported on Windows 98 SE, Windows ME,
Windows NT4, Windows 2000, and Windows XP systems.
„
Behavior Blocker—Only administrators can install and run the behavior
blocker feature in Confidence Online. The behavior blocker feature is
supported on Windows 2000 and Windows XP systems.
5. Click Save Changes. The IVE enables the following advanced endpoint defense
malware detection policies:
„
Advanced Endpoint Defense: Malware Protection.Behavior Blocker—
This policy is created by Whole Security. It enables the Confidence Online
behavior blocker software to block keystroke logger software, screen
capture software, and other applications that try to eavesdrop on user
sessions.
„
Advanced Endpoint Defense: Malware Protection.Category One Threats
(Trojan Horses and Key Loggers)—This policy is created by Whole
Security. It enables the Confidence Online software to block trojan horse
programs, spyware, malware, and other malicious applications.
„
Advanced Endpoint Defense: Malware Protection.Category Two Threats
(Monitoring Applications and Remote Controls)—This policy is created
by Whole Security. It enables the Confidence Online software to block
monitoring applications, remote control software, and other potentially
legitimate applications.
Each of these policies includes remediation instructions that display a message
to users if they do not pass the specified policy. The message tells the users to
follow instructions in the pop-up window to remediate their machines.
6. Implement the advanced endpoint defense malware detection policies at the
realm, role, or resource policy levels using the options described in
“Configuring Host Checker restrictions” on page 253. (You must at least
evaluate or enforce a advanced endpoint defense malware detection policy at
the realm level to make the policy effective on client computers.)
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NOTE: When enforcing advanced endpoint defense malware detection policies,
note that:
„
You cannot modify these policies—only enable or disable them. Also, since
you cannot modify these policies, the IVE does not display them in the
Policies section of the Authentication > Endpoint Security > Host Checker
page with other configurable policies.
„
If your concurrent user licenses for the IVE and Whole Security do not match,
you are constrained by the lesser of the two licenses. For example, if you have
a license that allows 100 concurrent IVE users and another license that allows
for 50 concurrent Whole Security users, this constraint allows only 50
concurrent users to access an IVE enabled with Advanced Endpoint Defense
Malware Protection policies.
„
If you have licensed GINA and Whole Security, you should be aware that GINA
runs prior to the user’s Windows logon, and the download of the Whole
Security Confidence Online software occurs after the user signs in to
Windows. Therefore, Whole Security does not perform its stated malware
protection until after Windows logon. If you are using Network Connect, Host
Checker, GINA, and Whole Security, but the end-user is not in user mode
when their system tries to initiate Host Checker, the end-user may receive
errors. Make certain you have configured the system to start GINA prior to the
Windows logon, and Whole Security after Windows logon.
NOTE: The Whole Security Confidence Online feature supported by Host Checker
cannot be localized currently. For more information about localizing the IVE, see
“Localizing the user interface” on page 844.
Creating and configuring new client-side policies
You can create a variety of policies through the Host Checker client that check for
antivirus software, firewalls, malware, spyware, and specific operating systems
from a wide variety of industry leaders. You can also create checks for custom
third-party DLLs, ports, processes, files, and registry keys. When creating the
policies, you must define the policy name, enable pre-defined rules, or create
custom rules that run the specified checks. Optionally, you can specify how Host
Checker should evaluate multiple rules within a single policy.
When creating the policies, you must define the policy name, and either enable
pre-defined rules, or create custom rules that run the specified checks. Optionally,
you can specify how Host Checker should evaluate multiple rules within a single
policy.
To create a standard client-side policy:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Endpoint Security > Host
Checker.
2. Under Policies, click New.
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3. Enter a name in the Policy Name field and then click Continue. (Users see this
name on the Host Checker remediation page if you enable custom instructions
for this policy.)
4. Create one or more rules to associate with the policy using instructions in the
following sections:
„
“Checking for third-party applications using pre-defined rules (Windows
only)” on page 232
„
“Specifying customized requirements using custom rules” on page 236
5. Specify how Host Checker should evaluate multiple rules within the policy
using instructions in “Evaluating multiple rules in a single Host Checker policy”
on page 242.
6. (Recommended) Specify remediation options for users whose computers do
not meet the requirements specified in the policy. For instructions, see
“Configuring Host Checker remediation” on page 257. (If you do not create
remediation instructions and the policy fails, your users will not know why they
cannot access their resources.)
7. Implement the policy at the realm, role, or resource policy levels using the
options described in “Configuring Host Checker restrictions” on page 253.
Checking for third-party applications using pre-defined rules (Windows
only)
Host Checker comes pre-equipped with a vast array of pre-defined rules that check
for antivirus software, firewalls, malware, spyware, and specific operating systems
from a wide variety of industry leaders. You can enable one or more of these rules
within a Host Checker client-side policy in order to ensure that the integrated third
party applications that you specify are running on your users’ computers in
accordance with your specifications.
To create an integrated third-party application policy using pre-defined rules:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Endpoint Security > Host
Checker.
2. Create a new policy using instructions in “Creating and configuring new clientside policies” on page 231 or click on an existing policy in the Policies section
of the page.
3. Under Rule Settings, choose one of the following options and click Add:
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„
„
Predefined: AntiVirus—Select this option to create a rule that checks for
the antivirus software that you specify.
„
Predefined: Firewall—Select this option to create a rule that checks for the
firewall software that you specify.
„
Predefined: Malware—Select this option to create a rule that checks for
the malware protection software that you specify.
Creating global Host Checker policies
Chapter 11: Host Checker
„
Predefined: Spyware—Select this option to create a rule that checks for
the spyware protection software that you specify.
„
Predefined: OS Checks—Select this option to create a rule that checks for
the Windows operating systems and minimum service pack versions that
you specify. (Any service pack whose version is greater than or equal to the
version you specify satisfies the policy.)
4. In the Add Predefined Rule page:
„
In the Rule Name field, enter an identifier for the rule.
„
Under Criteria, choose the specific application versions or operating
systems that you want to check for and click Add. (When checking for an
operating system, you may also specify a service pack version.)
NOTE: When you select more than one type of software within a pre-defined rule,
Host Checker considers the rule satisfied if any of the selected software
applications are present on the user’s machine.
„
(Antivirus policies only) Select Specify age in days to configure this Host
Checker policy to require a maximum acceptable age of the virus definition
files. For Maximum age of definition files, specify the maximum number
of days.
„
(Antivirus policies only) Select Virus signatures must be up to date to
configure this Host Checker policy to require current virus signatures on
the client computer. To enable this functionality in the policy, you must
also manually or automatically import the current virus signature list on the
Authentication > Endpoint Security > Host Checker page. (See
“Configuring virus signature version monitoring” on page 234.)
„
Click Save Changes.
5. Optionally add additional rules to the policy, specify how Host Checker should
evaluate multiple rules within the policy, and define remediation options using
instructions in “Creating and configuring new client-side policies” on page 231.
NOTE: To view the currently supported applications, go to Authentication >
Endpoint Security > Host Checker and create a new policy. You can choose predefined rule types from the Select Rule Type drop down list box to see a list of the
supported applications within that category. The lists of applications can be quite
extensive and are updated at each support release, so it is useful to check the list
periodically.
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Configuring virus signature version monitoring
You can configure Host Checker to monitor and verify that the virus signatures
installed on client computers are up to date. Host Checker uses a list of the current
virus signatures from the vendor(s) you specify for pre-defined antivirus rules in a
Host Checker policy. If a client computer does not have the current virus signatures
installed, the Host Checker policy fails.
You can obtain the current virus signatures list from a staging site at Juniper
Networks. You can manually download and import the current list into the IVE, or
you can automatically import the current list from the Juniper Networks staging site
or your own staging site at a specified interval.
For example, you might want to manually download and import the current virus
signatures list from a network server or local drive if you want to first test the list,
or if the IVE is unable to automatically access the Juniper Networks staging site. Or,
you can manually download the current list to a local staging site on your internal
network, and then automatically import the list from that internal staging site.
To configure virus signature version monitoring:
1. While adding a pre-defined antivirus rule on the Authentication > Endpoint
Security > Host Checker > Select Policy > Add Predefined Rule: Antivirus
page, select the Virus signatures must be up to date option. (See “Checking
for third-party applications using pre-defined rules (Windows only)” on
page 232.)
2. Choose Authentication > Endpoint Security > Host Checker.
3. Click Virus signature version monitoring.
4. To configure the IVE to automatically import the current virus signatures list:
a.
Select Auto-update virus signatures list.
b. For Download path, enter the URL of the staging site where the current
virus signatures list is stored. You can specify the URL of the Juniper
Networks staging site or your own staging site. The default URL is the path
to the Juniper Networks staging site:
https://download.juniper.net/software/av/uac/avupdate.dat
c.
For Download interval, specify how often you want the IVE to
automatically import the current virus signatures list.
d. If the staging site is password protected, enter the credentials in Username
and Password. To access the Juniper Networks staging site, you must enter
the credentials for a Juniper Networks Support account. You can also use
basic HTTP authentication to protect and access your own staging site.
5. To manually import the current virus signatures list:
a.
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Creating global Host Checker policies
Download the virus signatures list from the staging site to a network server
or local drive on your computer.
Chapter 11: Host Checker
b. Under Manually import virus signatures list, click Browse, select the virus
signatures list, and then click OK.
6. Click Save Changes.
NOTE: If you use your own staging site for storing the current virus signatures list,
you must upload the trusted root certificate of the CA that signed the staging’s
server certificate to the IVE. For more information, see “Uploading trusted server
CA certificates” on page 621.
Upgrading the Endpoint Security Assessment Plug-in
The Endpoint Security Assessment Plug-in (ESAP) on the IVE checks third-party
applications on endpoints for compliance with the pre-defined rules you configure
in a Host Checker policy. (See “Checking for third-party applications using predefined rules (Windows only)” on page 232.) This plug-in is included in the IVE
system software package.
Juniper Networks frequently adds enhancements, bug fixes, and support for new
third-party applications to the plug-in. New plug-in releases are available
independently and more frequently than new releases of the IVE system software
package. If necessary, you can upgrade the plug-in on the IVE independently of
upgrading the IVE system software package.
You can upload up to four versions of the plug-in to the IVE, but the IVE uses only
one version at a time (called the active version). If necessary, you can rollback to a
previously active version of the plug-in.
To upgrade the Endpoint Security Assessment Plug-in:
1. Download the Endpoint Security Assessment Plug-in from the Juniper Networks
Customer Support Center to your computer:
a.
Open the following page:
https://www.juniper.net/customers/csc/software/ive/
b. To access the Customer Support Center, enter a user name and password
for a Juniper Networks Support account.
c.
Click the ESAP link.
d. Download the plug-in zip file to your computer.
2. Choose Authentication > Endpoint Security > Host Checker.
3. At the bottom of the Host Checker page under Manage Endpoint Security
Assessment Plug-In Versions:
a.
If you have previously uploaded four versions of the component software,
you must delete one of the versions before you can upload another one.
Select the version you want to delete and click Delete.
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b. If you want the IVE to actively begin using the new component software
immediately after you upload it, select the Set as active after upload
option.
c.
Click Browse, select the plug-in file you want to upload to the IVE, and click
OK.
d. Click Upload. While the IVE uploads and decrypts the plug-in .zip file, the
message “Loading...” appears in the plug-in list under Manage Endpoint
Security Assessment Plug-In Versions. If the IVE is a member of a cluster,
the IVE displays the message “Loading...” while the plug-in is transferred to
the other cluster nodes. After the plug-in is installed, the date and time of
the plug-in installation appears in the plug-in list.
e.
If you did not select the Set as active after upload option, activate the
plug-in you want to use by selecting the version in the plug-in list and
clicking Activate.
NOTE:
„
If you attempt to activate a version of the plug-in that does not support all of
the pre-defined rules already configured in all Host Checker policies, the IVE
does not allow activation of that plug-in version. For example, if a Host
Checker policy is configured to use a pre-defined rule to check for a version of
antivirus software, and you attempt to activate a plug-in version that does not
support that particular version of the antivirus software, the IVE does not
allow you to activate that plug-in version. To view the list of supported
products for a particular plug-in version, click the plug-in’s version number
under Manage Endpoint Security Assessment Plug-In Versions.
„
You can rollback to an older plug-in version after upgrading to a later version
by selecting the older version as the active version. But, if you modified any
Host Checker policies after upgrading to the later version, the rollback may
not succeed. Rollback is guaranteed to succeed only if the policies did not
change.
„
If you upgrade the IVE system software to a newer version, or you import a
user configuration file, the currently active plug-in version does not change. If
you want to use a different plug-in version after upgrading or importing a user
configuration file, you must manually activate that plug-in version.
„
If the IVE already has four versions of the plug-in installed when you upgrade
the IVE system software to a newer version, the IVE automatically deletes the
oldest plug-in version and installs, but does not activate, the plug-in included
with the new IVE system software.
Specifying customized requirements using custom rules
If the pre-defined client-side policies and rules that come with the IVE do not meet
your needs, you can create custom rules within a Host Checker policy to define
requirements that your users’ computers must meet. Using custom rules, you can:
„
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„
Configure Host Checker to check for custom DLLs that perform customized
client-side checks.
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„
Verify that certain ports are open or closed on the user’s computer.
„
Confirm that certain processes are or are not running on the user’s computer.
„
Check that certain files are or are not present on the client machine.
„
Evaluate the age and content of required files through MD5 checksums.
„
Confirm that registry keys are set on the client machine.
NOTE: You can only check for registry keys and custom third-party DLLs on
Windows computers.
To create a client-side Host Checker policy:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Endpoint Security > Host
Checker.
2. Create a new policy using instructions in “Creating and configuring new clientside policies” on page 231 or click on an existing policy in the Policies section
of the page.
3. Click the tab that corresponds to the operating system for which you want to
specify Host Checker options—Windows, Mac, or Linux. In the same policy,
you can specify different Host Checker requirements on each operating
system. For example, you can create one policy that checks for different files or
processes on each operating system.
4. Under Rule Settings, choose one of the following options and click Add. The
Add Custom Rule page for the rule type appears.
„
3rd Party NHC Check (Windows only)—Use this rule type to specify the
location of a custom DLL that you write with the Host Check Client
Interface. Host Checker calls the DLL to perform customized client-side
checks. If the DLL returns a success value to Host Checker, then the IVE
considers the rule met. (For information about creating a custom DLL using
the Host Check Client Interface, see the J.E.D.I. Solution Guide on the
Juniper Networks Customer Support Center.) In the 3rd Party NHC Check
configuration page:
i.
Enter a name and vendor for the 3rd Party NHC Check rule
ii.
Enter the location of the DLL on client machines (path and file name).
iii. Click Save Changes.
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„
Ports—Use this rule type to control the network connections that a client
can generate during a session. This rule type ensures that certain ports are
open or closed on the client machine before the user can access the IVE. In
the Ports configuration page:
i.
Enter a name for the port rule.
ii.
Enter a comma delimited list (without spaces) of ports or port ranges,
such as: 1234,11000-11999,1235.
iii. Select Required to require that these ports are open on the client
machine or Deny to require that they are closed.
iv. Click Save Changes.
„
Process—Use this rule type to control the software that a client may run
during a session. This rule type ensures that certain processes are running
or not running on the client machine before the user can access resources
protected by the IVE. In the Processes configuration page:
i.
Enter a name for the process rule.
ii.
Enter the name of a process (executable file), such as: good-app.exe.
You can use a wildcard character to specify the process name. For
example:
good*.exe
For more information, see “Using a wildcard or environment variable
in a Host Checker rule” on page 241.
iii. Select Required to require that this process is running or Deny to
require that this process is not running.
iv. Specify the MD5 checksum value of each executable file to which you
want the policy to apply (optional). For example, an executable may
have different MD5 checksum values on a desktop, laptop, or different
operating systems. On a system with OpenSSL installed—many
Macintosh and Linux systems have OpenSSL installed by default—you
can determine the MD5 checksum by using this command:
openssl md5 <processFilePath>
v.
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Click Save Changes.
Chapter 11: Host Checker
„
File—Use this rule type to ensure that certain files are present or not
present on the client machine before the user can access the IVE. You may
also use file checks to evaluate the age and content (through MD5
checksums) of required files and allow or deny access accordingly. In the
Files configuration page:
i.
ii.
Enter a name for the file rule.
Enter the name of a file (any file type), such as: c:\temp\bad-file.txt or
/temp/bad-file.txt.
You can use a wildcard character to specify the file name. For
example:
*.txt
You can also use an environment variable to specify the directory path
to the file. (You cannot use a wildcard character in the directory path.)
Enclose the variable between the <% and %> characters. For example:
<%windir%>\bad-file.txt
For more information, see “Using a wildcard or environment variable
in a Host Checker rule” on page 241.
iii. Select Required to require that this file is present on the client
machine or Deny to require that this file is not present.
iv. Specify the minimum version of the file (optional). For example, if you
require notepad.exe to be present on the client, you can enter 5.0 in
the field. Host Checker accepts version 5.0 and above, of notepad.exe.
v.
Specify the maximum age (File modified less than n days) (in days)
for a file (optional). If the file is older than the specified number of
days, then the client does not meet the attribute check requirement.
NOTE: You can use the maximum age option to check the age of virus signatures.
Make sure you specify the path to a file in the File Name field whose timestamp
indicates when virus signatures were last updated, such as a virus signature
database or log file that updates each time the database updates. For example, if
you use TrendMicro, you may specify:
C:\Program Files\Trend Micro\OfficeScan Client\TmUpdate.ini.
vi. Specify the MD5 checksum value of each file to which you want the
policy to apply (optional). On Macintosh and Linux, you can determine
the MD5 checksum by using this command:
openssl md5 <filePath>
vii. Click Save Changes.
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„
Registry Setting (Windows only)—Use this rule type to control the
corporate PC images, system configurations, and software settings that a
client must have in order to access the IVE. This rule type ensures that
certain registry keys are set on the client machine before the user can
access the IVE. You may also use registry checks to evaluate the age of
required files and allow or deny access accordingly. In the Registry
Settings configuration page:
i.
Enter a name for the registry setting rule.
ii.
Select a root key from the drop-down list.
iii. Enter the path to the application folder for the registry subkey.
iv. Enter the name of the key’s value that you want to require (optional).
This name appears in the Name column of the Registry Editor.
v.
Select the key value’s type (String, Binary, or DWORD) from the dropdown list (optional). This type appears in the Type column of the
Registry Editor.
vi. Specify the required registry key value (optional). This information
appears in the Data column of the Registry Editor.
If the key value represents an application version, select Minimum
version to allow the specified version or newer versions of the
application. For example, you can use this option to specify version
information for an antivirus application to make sure that the client
antivirus software is current. The IVE uses lexical sorting to determine
if the client contains the specified version or higher. For example:
3.3.3 is newer than 3.3
4.0 is newer than 3.3
4.0a is newer than 4.0b
4.1 is newer than 3.3.1
vii. Click Save Changes.
NOTE: If you specify only the key and subkey, Host Checker simply verifies the
existence of the subkey folder in the registry.
5. Optionally add additional rules to the policy, specify how Host Checker should
evaluate multiple rules within the policy, and define remediation options using
instructions in “Creating and configuring new client-side policies” on page 231.
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Using a wildcard or environment variable in a Host Checker rule
You can use the following wildcards to specify a file name in a Custom File rule or
a process name in a Custom Process rule:
Table 15: Wildcard characters for specifying a file name or process name
Wildcard Character
Description
Example
*
Matches any character
*.txt
?
Matches exactly one character
app-?.exe
In a Custom File rule for Windows, you can use the following environment
variables to specify the directory path to a file:
Table 16: Environment variables for specifying a directory path on Windows
Environment variable
Example Windows Value
<%APPDATA%>
C:\Documents and Settings\jdoe\Application Data
<%windir%>
C:\WINDOWS
<%ProgramFiles%>
C:\Program Files
<%CommonProgramFiles%>
C:\Program Files\Common Files
<%USERPROFILE%>
C:\Documents and Settings\jdoe
<%HOMEDRIVE%>
C:
<%Temp%>
C:\Documents and Settings \<user name>\Local
Settings\Temp
In an Custom File rule for Macintosh and Linux, you can use the following
environment variables to specify the directory path to a file:
Table 17: Environment variables for specifying a directory path on Macintosh and Linux
Environment variable Example Macintosh Value
Example Linux Value
<%java.home%>
/System/Library/Frameworks/JavaVM /local/local/java/j2sdk1.4.1_02/
.framework/ Versions/1.4.2/Home
jre
<%java.io.tmpdir%>
/tmp
/tmp
<%user.dir%>
/Users/admin
/home-shared/cknouse
<%user.home%>
/Users/admin
/home/cknouse
NOTE: Although environment variables are formatted in the same way as Toolkit
Template directives, they are not interchangeable and you should not confuse
them.
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Evaluating multiple rules in a single Host Checker policy
If you choose to include multiple rules within a single client-side policy, you must
specify how Host Checker should evaluate those rules.
To specify requirements for multiple rules within a Host Checker policy:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Endpoint Security > Host
Checker.
2. In the Policies section of the page, click on an existing policy that includes
multiple rules.
3. In the Require section, select one of the following options:
„
All of the above rules—Select this option to specify that the user’s
computer must return a success value for all of the policy’s rules in order to
gain access.
„
Any of the above rules—Select this option to specify that the user’s
computer must return a success value for any of the policy’s rules in order
to gain access.
„
Custom—Select this option to customize the rules that the user’s computer
must meet in order to gain access. Then, create the custom rule using
instructions in the following step.
4. (Custom expressions only) If you want to use alternative sets of rules in the
policy, combine rules with Boolean operators (AND, OR) using the following
guidelines:
„
Enter the name of the rules in the Rules expression text box.
„
Use the AND operator to require two rules or sets of rules to return a true
value.
„
Use the OR operator to require either of two rules or sets to return a true
value.
„
Use parenthesis to combine sets of rules.
For example, you can use the following expression to require a personal
firewall to run, and require either of two possible antivirus products to run:
ZoneLabsFirewall AND (McAfeeAntivirus OR NortonAntivirus)
5. Click Save Changes.
Enabling customized server-side policies
For Windows clients, you can create global Host Checker policies which take a
J.E.D.I. DLL that you upload to the IVE and run it on client machines. For more
information about creating these policies, see the J.E.D.I. Solution Guide on the
Juniper Networks Customer Support Center.
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Uploading a Host Checker policy package to the IVE
In order for the IVE to recognize a package definition file, you must:
1. Name the package definition file MANIFEST.HCIF and include it a folder named
META-INF.
2. Create a Host Checker policy package by creating a zip archive. The archive
should include the META-INF folder that contains the MANIFEST.HCIF file along
with the interface DLL and any initialization files. For example, Host Checker
policy package might contain:
META-INF/MANIFEST.HCIF
hcif-myPestPatrol.dll
hcif-myPestPatrol.ini
3. Upload the Host Checker package (or packages) to the IVE using the
instructions in “Enabling customized server-side policies” on page 242. You
can upload multiple policy packages to the IVE, each containing a different
MANIFEST.HCIF file.
NOTE: After you upload a Host Checker policy package to the IVE, you cannot
modify the package contents on the server. Instead, you must modify the package
on your local system and then upload the modified version to the IVE.
Host Checker creates tunnels for all of the tunnel definitions in all of the
MANIFEST.HCIF files, assuming the definitions are unique. To view the list of
pre-authentication access tunnel definition(s) for a policy package, click the
name of the policy package under 3rd Party Policy on the Host Checker
Configuration page. The IVE lists the tunnel definition(s) under Host Checker
Preauth Access Tunnels on the 3rd Party Policy page.
4. Implement the policy at the realm, role, or resource policy levels using the
options described in “Configuring Host Checker restrictions” on page 253. If
you want to verify that the package itself is installed and running on the client
computer (as opposed to a specific policy in the package passing or failing) you
can use the name you specified when you uploaded the policy package (for
example, myPestPatrol). To enforce a particular policy in the package, use the
syntax <PackageName>.<PolicyName>. For example, to enforce the FileCheck
policy in the myPestPatrol package, use myPestPatrol.FileCheck. For instructions,
see “Configuring Host Checker restrictions” on page 253.
To enable a customized server-side Host Checker policy:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Endpoint Security > Host
Checker.
2. Under Policies, click New 3rd Party Policy.
3. Enter a name to identify your zip file on the IVE.
4. Browse to the local directory where your zip file is located.
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5. (Optional) Specify remediation instructions and actions for users whose
computers do not meet the requirements specified in the policy. For
instructions, see “Configuring Host Checker remediation” on page 257.
6. Click Save Changes. The IVE adds the policies defined in your zip file to the list
of policies on the Host Checker page.
7. Implement the policies at the realm, role, or resource policy levels using the
options described in “Configuring Host Checker restrictions” on page 253.
Enabling the Secure Virtual Workspace
The Secure Virtual Workspace guarantees the integrity of IVE session data on a
client machine running Windows 2000 or Windows XP by creating a protected
workspace on the client desktop. By enabling the Secure Virtual Workspace, you
ensure that any end-user signing in to your intranet must perform all interactions
within a completely protected environment. If the user’s applications and
interactions result in data being written to disk or to the registry, the Secure Virtual
Workspace encrypts that information. When the IVE session is complete, the
Secure Virtual Workspace destroys all information pertaining to itself or to the
session, by default. However, you can configure the state of this type of
information to suit your particular needs. For example, you might decide to allow
data to persist across Secure Virtual Workspace sessions.
The IVE follows the DoD 5220.M cleaning and sanitization standard for securely
deleting Secure Virtual Workspace data that is stored on the hard disk.
The Secure Virtual Workspace:
„
Removes workspace data and resources when the session ends.
„
Ensures that no browser Helper Objects latch onto an Internet Explorer process
before launching IE.
„
Prohibits desktop search products from intercepting Web traffic and indexing
the contents.
„
Enters all of its configuration and run-time operations in IVE logs.
The IVE hosts the Secure Virtual Workspace binary, which the client system
downloads from the IVE whenever a user connects. The Secure Virtual Workspace
creates a virtual file system and a virtual registry on the client.
You define and configure the applications that are allowed to run within the Secure
Virtual Workspace. For example, you can configure the following types of
application configurations:
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Restrict launching of Internet Explorer and Outlook to the Secure Virtual
Workspace.
„
Restrict application installations and executions within a Secure Virtual
Workspace session. This ensures that even the application binaries are
completely removed from the client machine after the session ends.
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Chapter 11: Host Checker
Secure Virtual Workspace features
The IVE implementation of the Secure Virtual Workspace:
„
Does not require the client desktop user to have administrator privileges to
download and run the Secure Virtual Workspace.
„
Supports the use of the Secure Virtual Workspace in conjunction with Host
Checker, which will automatically launch in the secure workspace, when
initiated.
„
Provides the Secure Virtual Workspace as a J.E.D.I. module, to allow you to
create Secure Virtual Workspace policies at the user role or realm level.
Secure Virtual Workspace restrictions and defaults
The Secure Virtual Workspace imposes certain restrictions on its use, and
establishes defaults, which you may be able to modify.
„
By default, a platform-specific browser is allowed to run in the SVW, unless
explicitly restricted by the administrator.
„
The IVE does not allow software applications that update the HKLM registry
entries on installation to operate within the SVW.
„
The IVE does not support the standard JSAM applications Outlook and Netbios
file browsing through SVW, since these applications require registry key
changes. However, the IVE does support the Citrix and Lotus Notes JSAM
standard applications through SVW.
„
By default, the IVE does not allow access to external storage or printing devices
by some applications running in the SVW. You can enable access to these
devices on a role or realm basis, if needed.
„
By default, end-users are unable to access network shares, unless you configure
access to network shares in the SVW policy.
„
If your end-users use firewalls or other applications that run in the kernel
space, they may experience problems when trying to download IVE client
components in SVW. Low-level administrative applications may display
message boxes requiring user interaction. If you set the option to allow
switching to the default or real desktop, the user may be able to dismiss the
message boxes. If the switching option is disabled, users may be unable to fix
the problem.
„
The Secure Virtual Workspace does not support 16-bit applications.
„
Some Windows keyboard shortcuts may not work properly inside an SVW
session.
„
To display the Windows Task Manager while in SVW, you cannot use the
standard keyboard shortcut Ctrl+Alt+Del. You must right-click on the
Windows taskbar (typically on the bottom of the screen, unless you have
moved it) to display a popup menu, from which you can select Task Manager.
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If you set the Host Checker status update interval to a value of zero (0), Host
Checker will perform the status check once and then quit. If Host Checker
quits, SVW also quits. As a result, the end-user is unable to initiate an SVW
session. Set the Host Checker status update interval to a non-zero value.
„
SVW only scans for file system drives when the user first starts his session. If
the user starts a session and then adds a drive (such as a USB drive), he will not
be able to access the drive during that session.
Configuring the Secure Virtual Workspace
You configure the Secure Virtual Workspace within the context of a Host Checker
policy and all Secure Virtual Workspace policies you define appear in a list at
Authentication > Endpoint Security > Host Checker.
NOTE: Because the Secure Virtual Workspace session data is stored on the enduser’s real desktop, you should implement the persistence feature only if each of
your end-users always uses the same client machine.
NOTE: No provision has been made to ensure that you cannot configure a sign-in
URL mapping to more than one realm configured with an SVW policy. If you
configure multiple mappings to more than one realm, the results are
unpredictable. You must explicitly configure the secure virtual desktop to allow
only one SVW policy to be evaluated at the user end.
Defining Secure Virtual Workspace permissions
You can specify which devices and resources the end-user can access when using
the Secure Virtual Workspace.
To define a new Secure Virtual Workspace permissions policy:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Endpoint Security > Host
Checker.
2. Under Policies, click New Secure Virtual Workspace Policy.
3. Under Permissions, check the appropriate checkboxes for the items to which
you want to grant permissions:
„
Printers—Select to allow end-user access to network printers.
„
Restricted View of Files—When Restricted View is set, only the directories
Documents and Settings, Program Files, and the Windows system folders
on the system drive (typically c:) are available within SVW.
NOTE: If you set the Restricted View of Files option, and your end-users configure
partitioned drives, they will be unable to access any applications or files residing
on any drive other than the system (c:) drive. If you allow your end-users to
partition drives, you should not use the Restricted View.
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„
Removable Drives—Select to allow end-user access to removable drives
on the end-user’s client machine.
If an end-user installs a USB removable storage device he may experience
the two following behaviors, depending also on how you set this option:
‰
If the user connects the USB device before initiating an SVW session,
the device will appear to be a fixed hard drive and the user will not be
able to read or write to the device during an SVW session, even when
you have set the Removable Drives option.
‰
If the user connects the USB device after initiating an SVW session, the
device appears to be removable media and the user can access it, if
you have set the Removable Drives option when configuring SVW.
„
Network Share Access—Select to allow end-user access to network share
drives.
„
Switch to Real Desktop—Select to allow end-user to toggle between the
Secure Virtual Workspace and the end-user’s client desktop.
„
Desktop Persistence—Select to allow end-users to maintain a Secure
Virtual Workspace across client sessions on NTFS file systems only.
NOTE:
„
Desktop persistence and switching are not supported on FAT16 or FAT32 file
systems.
„
If you select this option, note that multiple users using the same password to
encrypt their SVW workspace on the same host could gain access to the
persistent data storage protected by that static password. We recommend
that your users employ strong password when securing their SVW persistent
data store on multi-user systems.
4. Continue to define the policy or click Save Changes.
Defining a Secure Virtual Workspace application policy
You can specify which applications the end-user can install or run when using the
Secure Virtual Workspace.
To define a new Secure Virtual Workspace application policy:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Endpoint Security > Host
Checker.
2. Under Policies, click New Secure Virtual Workspace Policy or click the
hyperlinked name of an existing Secure Virtual Workspace policy.
3. Under Applications, select the checkboxes for the types of applications you
want to enable:
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„
Control panel—Select to allow the end-user to access the Windows control
panel while in the Secure Virtual Workspace.
„
Run menu—Select to allow the end-user to access the Windows run menu
while in the Secure Virtual Workspace.
„
Registry editor—Select to allow the end-user to access the Windows
registry editor (regedt32.exe) while in the Secure Virtual Workspace.
„
Task manager—Select to allow the end-user to access the Windows Task
Manager (taskmgr.exe) and system processes while in the Secure Virtual
Workspace.
„
Command window—Select to allow the end-user to access the Windows
Command window (cmd.exe) and execute commands while in the Secure
Virtual Workspace.
„
Custom applications—You can identify custom applications that the enduser is allowed to run while in the Secure Virtual Workspace. For example,
you might include in-house applications, non-default browsers, and other
types of applications. Enter one application, including the .exe extension
per line in the multiline text box. You can also use the * wildcard for an
entire class of applications, and you can include an optional MD5 hash
value following the executable name and a comma, telnet.exe,0414ea8.
„
Applications to deny—You can identify applications you want to restrict
from end-user use while in the Secure Virtual Workspace. Enter one
application, including the extension for each executable per line in the
multiline text box.
NOTE:
„
Any custom application that is not listed in the Custom applications field is
denied by default.
„
If you add the same application to the Custom applications text box and to
the Applications to deny text box, the deny action takes precedence and
users will be denied access to the application SVW sessions. Be aware that
this can happen if you use wildcards to specify applications in both lists. For
example, if you specify *plore.exe in the allow list and iex*.exe in the deny
list, then iexplore.exe will be denied.
4. Continue to define the policy or click Save Changes.
After you define one or more Virtual Workspace policies, you must enable them as
Realm authentication policies at the user level, as described in “Implementing Host
Checker policies” on page 251.
Defining a Secure Virtual Workspace security policy
You can specify encryption levels and can control the use of 3rd-party extensions in
Internet Explorer and Outlook.
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To specify security options for a new Secure Virtual Workspace policy:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Endpoint Security > Host
Checker.
2. Under Policies, click New Secure Virtual Workspace Policy or click the
hyperlinked name of an existing Secure Virtual Workspace policy.
3. Specify the type of AES encryption key the IVE uses to enable the Secure
Virtual Workspace on the client. The available options are 128, 192, and 256byte encryption keys.
4. Identify the IE or Outlook extensions you want to allow by including each
allowable DLL on a separate line in the IE/Outlook extensions to allow text
box. Any extension that is not listed is denied, by default.
These extensions are small applications that are passed into and out of the
Secure Virtual Workspace session.
5. Continue to define the policy or click Save Changes.
Defining Secure Virtual Workspace environment options
To specify environment options for a new Secure Virtual Workspace policy:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Endpoint Security > Host
Checker.
2. Under Policies, click New Secure Virtual Workspace Policy or click the
hyperlinked name of an existing Secure Virtual Workspace policy.
3. Under Options, specify the maximum length of time (in minutes) a client’s
Secure Virtual Workspace session can remain idle before the connection to the
IVE times out.
4. Specify the desktop wallpaper image (Optional).
5. Specify the desktop background color (Optional).
6. Specify the sign-in URL to use to access the SVW.
The available URLs include the default User sign-in URL and any URLs you have
defined in Authentication > Signing in > Sign-in Policies. The first time
SVW puts the user into the virtual workspace and initiates a browser, it takes
the user to the IVE using a sign-in URL. By default, this sign-in URL is the same
one that the user has entered to start their IVE session. You can configure a
different sign-in URL through this option.
NOTE: The IVE does not support host names that contain a wildcard, such as
*.host.com/[path].
7. Continue to define the policy or click Save Changes.
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Defining Secure Virtual Workspace remediation policy
To specify remediation options for a new Virtual Workspace policy:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Endpoint Security > Host
Checker.
2. Under Policies, click New Secure Virtual Workspace Policy or click the
hyperlinked name of an existing Secure Virtual Workspace policy.
3. Under Remediation, select remediation options for users whose computers do
not meet the requirements specified in the policy. For instructions, see
“Configuring Host Checker remediation” on page 257.
NOTE: If you do not create remediation instructions and the policy fails, your users
will not know why they cannot launch the Secure Virtual Workspace or access
local resources.
„
Enable Custom Instructions—Select to expand text box in which you can
enter custom instructions, using either text or HTML, that will be presented
to end-users when the Secure Virtual Workspace encounters a remediation
problem.
„
Evaluate Other Policies—Select to open list boxes that allow you to
choose other existing Host Checker policies to be evaluated when initiating
the Secure Virtual Workspace.
„
Remediate—Select to apply remediation rules.
„
Kill Processes—Select to open text box in which you enter application
processes and MD5 hash values for the processes you want killed. For
example:
Application.exe
MD5: 6A7DFAF12C3183B56C44E89B12DBEF56
MD5: 9S3AJ912CC3183B56C44E89B12DI2AC9
„
Delete Files—Select to open text box in which you can enter file names,
one per line, of files you want deleted.
4. Click Save Changes.
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Implementing Host Checker policies
After you create global policies through the Authentication > Endpoint Security
> Host Checker page of the admin console, you can restrict IVE and resource
access by requiring Host Checker in a:
„
Realm authentication policy—When administrators or users try to sign in to
the IVE, the IVE evaluates the specified realm’s authentication policy to
determine if the pre-authentication requirements include Host Checker. You
can configure a realm authentication policy to download Host Checker, launch
Host Checker and enforce Host Checker policies specified for the realm, or not
require Host Checker. The user must sign in using a computer that adheres to
the Host Checker requirements specified for the realm. If the user’s computer
does not meet the requirements, then the IVE denies access to the user unless
you configure remediation actions to help the user bring his computer into
compliance. You can configure realm-level restrictions through the
Administrators > Admin Realms > SelectRealm > Authentication Policy >
Host Checker page or the Users > User Realms > SelectRealm >
Authentication Policy > Host Checker page of the admin console.
„
Role—When the IVE determines the list of eligible roles to which it can map an
administrator or user, it evaluates each role’s restrictions to determine if the
role requires that the user’s computer adheres to certain Host Checker policies.
If it does and the user's computer does not follow the specified Host Checker
policies, then the IVE does not map the user to that role unless you configure
remediation actions to help the user bring his computer into compliance. You
can configure role-mapping using settings in the Users > User Realms >
SelectRealm > Role Mapping page. You can configure role-level restrictions
through the Administrators > Admin Roles > SelectRole > General >
Restrictions > Host Checker page of the admin console or the Users > User
Roles> SelectRole > General > Restrictions > Host Checker page.
„
Resource policy—When a user requests a resource, the IVE evaluates the
resource policy’s detailed rules to determine if the resource requires that the
user’s computer adheres to certain Host Checker policies. The IVE denies
access to the resource if the user's computer does not follow the specified Host
Checker policies unless you configure remediation actions to help the user
bring his computer into compliance. To implement Host Checker restrictions at
the resource policy level, use settings in the Users > Resource Policies >
SelectResource > SelectPolicy > Detailed Rules page.
You may specify that the IVE evaluate your Host Checker policies only when the
user first tries to access the realm, role, or resource that references the Host
Checker policy. Or, you may specify that the IVE periodically re-evaluate the
policies throughout the user’s session. If you choose to periodically evaluate Host
Checker policies, the IVE dynamically maps users to roles and allows users access
to new resources based on the most recent evaluation.
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Executing Host Checker policies
When the user tries to access the IVE, Host Checker evaluates its policies in the
following order:
1. Initial evaluation—When a user first tries to access the IVE sign-in page, Host
Checker performs an initial evaluation. Using the rules you specify in your
policies, Host Checker verifies that the client meets your endpoint
requirements and returns its results to the IVE. Host Checker performs an
initial evaluation regardless of whether you have implemented Host Checker
policies at the realm, role, or resource policy level.
If the user navigates away from the IVE sign-in page after Host Checker starts
running but before signing in to the IVE, Host Checker continues to run on the
user’s machine until the Host Checker process times out.
If the IVE does not receive a result from Host Checker for any reason (including
because the user manually terminated Host Checker), the IVE displays an error
and directs the user back to the sign-in page.
Otherwise, if the Host Checker process returns a result, the IVE goes on to
evaluate the realm level policies.
2. Realm-level policies—The IVE uses the results from Host Checker’s initial
evaluation to determine which realms the user may access. Then, the IVE
displays or hides realms from the user, only allowing him to sign into those
realms that you enable for the sign-in page, and if he meets the Host Checker
requirements for each realm. If the user cannot meet the Host Checker
conditions required by any of the available realms, the IVE does not display the
sign-in page. Instead, it displays an error stating the user has no access unless
you configure remediation actions to help the user bring his computer into
compliance.
Note that Host Checker only performs realm-level checks when the user first
signs into the IVE. If the state of the user’s system changes during his session,
the IVE does not remove him from the current realm or allow him access to a
new realm based on his new system state.
3. Role-level policies—After the user signs into a realm, the IVE evaluates rolelevel policies and maps the user to the role or roles if he meets the Host
Checker requirements for those role(s). Then, the IVE displays the IVE
homepage to the user and enables those options that the mapped role(s) allow.
If Host Checker returns a different status during a periodic evaluation, the IVE
dynamically remaps the user to roles based on the new results. If the user loses
rights to all available roles during one of the periodic evaluations, the IVE
disconnects the user’s session unless you configure remediation actions to help
the user bring his computer into compliance.
4. Resource-level policies—After the IVE allows the user to access the
homepage, the user may try to access a resource that is controlled by a
resource policy. When he does, the IVE determines whether or not to perform
the action specified in the resource policy based on the last status returned by
Host Checker.
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Chapter 11: Host Checker
If Host Checker returns a different status during a periodic evaluation, the new
status only impacts new resources that the user tries to access. For example, if
the user successfully initiates a Network Connect session and then fails his next
resource-level host check, he may continue to access the open Network
Connect session. The IVE only denies him access if he tries to open a new
Network Connect session. The IVE checks the last status returned by Host
Checker whenever the user tries to access a new Web resource or open a new
Secure Application Manager, Network Connect, or Secure Terminal Access
session.
With either a success or fail result, Host Checker remains on the client. Windows
users may manually uninstall the agent by running uninstall.exe in the directory
where Host Checker is installed. If you enable client-side logging through the
System > Log/Monitoring > Client Logs page, this directory also contains a log
file, which the IVE rewrites each time Host Checker runs.
If you enable dynamic policy evaluation for Host Checker (see “Dynamic policy
evaluation” on page 40), the IVE evaluates resource policies implemented at the
realm level whenever a user’s Host Checker status changes. If you do not enable
dynamic policy evaluation for Host Checker, the IVE does not evaluate resource
policies but it does evaluate the authentication policy, role mapping rules, and role
restrictions whenever a user’s Host Checker status changes. For configuration
instructions, see “Specifying general Host Checker options” on page 262.
Configuring Host Checker restrictions
To specify Host Checker restrictions:
1. Navigate to: Authentication > Endpoint Security > Host Checker and
specify global options for Host Checker to apply to any user for whom Host
Checker is required in an authentication policy, a role mapping rule, or a
resource policy.
2. If you want to implement Host Checker at the realm level:
a.
Navigate to:
‰
Administrators > Admin Realms > Select Realm > Authentication
Policy > Host Checker
‰
Users > User Realms > Select Realm > Authentication Policy >
Host Checker
b. Choose one of the following options for either all available policies or for
individual policies listed in the Available Policies column:
‰
Evaluate Policies—Evaluates without enforcing the policy on the client
and allows user-access. This option does not require Host Checker to
be installed during the evaluation process; however, Host Checker is
installed once the user signs in to the IVE.
Implementing Host Checker policies
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‰
c.
Require and Enforce—Requires and enforces the policy on the client
in order for the user to log in to the specified realm. Requires that Host
Checker is running the specified Host Checker policies in order for the
user to meet the access requirement. Requires the IVE to download
Host Checker to the client machine. If you choose this option for a
realm’s authentication policy, then the IVE downloads Host Checker to
the client machine after the user is authenticated and before the user is
mapped to any roles in the system. Selecting this option automatically
enables the Evaluate Policies option.
Select the Allow access to realm if any ONE of the selected “Require and
Enforce” policies is passed checkbox if you do not want to require users
to meet all of the requirements in all of the selected policies. Instead, the
user can access the realm if he meets the requirements of any one of the
selected Host Checker policies.
3. If you want to implement Host Checker at the role level:
a.
Navigate to:
‰
Administrators > Admin Roles > Select Role > General >
Restrictions > Host Checker
‰
Users > User Roles > Select Role > General > Restrictions > Host
Checker
b. Choose one of the following options:
c.
‰
Allow all users — Does not require Host Checker to be installed in
order for the user to meet the access requirement.
‰
Allow only users whose workstations meet the requirements
specified by these Host Checker policies — Requires that Host
Checker is running the specified Host Checker policies in order for the
user to meet the access requirement.
Select the Allow access to role if any ONE of the selected “Require and
Enforce” policies is passed checkbox if you do not want to require users
to meet all of the requirements in all of the selected policies. Instead, the
user can access the role if he meets the requirements of any one of the
selected Host Checker policies.
4. If you want to create role-mapping rules based on a user’s Host Checker status:
a.
Navigate to: Users > User Realms > Select Realm > Role Mapping.
b. Click New Rule, select Custom Expressions from the Rule based on list,
and click Update. Or, to update an existing rule, select it from the When
users meet these conditions list.
c.
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Click Expressions.
Chapter 11: Host Checker
d. Write a custom expression for the role mapping rule to evaluate Host
Checker’s status using the hostCheckerPolicy variable. For help writing the
custom expressions, use tips in the Expressions Dictionary. Or, see
“Custom expressions” on page 855.
e.
In the ...then assign these roles section, select the roles that the IVE
should map users to when they meet the requirements specified in the
custom expression and click Add.
f.
Select the Stop processing rules when this rule matches if you want the
IVE to stop evaluating role mapping rules if the user successfully meets the
requirements defined in this rule.
5. If you want to implement Host Checker at the resource policy level:
a.
Navigate to: Users > Resource Policies > Select Resource > Select Policy
> Detailed Rules.
b. Click New Rule or select an existing rule from the Detailed Rules list.
c.
Write a custom expression for the detailed rule to evaluate Host Checker’s
status using the hostCheckerPolicy variable. For help writing the custom
expressions, use tips in the Conditions Dictionary. Or, see “Custom
expressions” on page 855.
These options allow you to control which version of an application or service runs
on client machines.
Remediating Host Checker policies
When defining a Host Checker policy, you can specify remediation actions that you
want Host Checker to take if a user’s computer does not meet the requirements of
the policy. For example, you can display a remediation page to the user that
contains your specific instructions and links to resources to help the user bring his
computer into compliance with the Host Checker policy requirements.
For example, the user may see the following remediation page that contains
custom instructions and a link to resources:
Your computer's security is unsatisfactory.
Your computer does not meet the following security requirements. Please follow
the instructions below to fix these problems. When you are done click Try Again. If
you choose to Continue without fixing these problems, you may not have access
to all of your intranet servers.
1. Symantec
Instructions: You do not have the latest signature files. Click here to download
the latest signature files.
For each Host Checker policy, you can configure two types of remediation actions:
Remediating Host Checker policies
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User-driven—Using custom instructions, you can inform the user about the
failed policy and how to make his computer conform. The user must take
action to successfully re-evaluate the failed policy. For instance, you can create
a custom page that is linked to a policy server or Web page and enables the
user to bring his computer into compliance.
„
Automatic (system-driven)—You can configure Host Checker to automatically
remediate the user’s computer. For example, you can kill processes, delete
files, or launch an alternate policy when the initial policy fails. On Windows,
you can also call the HCIF_Module.Remediate () API function as part of a J.E.D.I.
DLL. Host Checker does not inform users when performing automatic actions.
(You could, however, include information in your custom instructions about the
automatic actions.)
You can enable these remediation actions in both client-side and server-side
policies. For configuration instructions, see “Creating and configuring new clientside policies” on page 231 or “Enabling customized server-side policies” on
page 242.
Host Checker remediation user experience
Users may see the remediation page in the following situations:
„
Before the user signs in:
„
If you enable custom instructions for a policy that fails, the IVE displays the
remediation page to the user. The user has two choices:
‰
Take the appropriate actions to make his computer conform to the
policy and then click the Try Again button on the remediation page.
Host Checker checks the user’s computer again for compliance with
the policy.
‰
Leave his computer in its current state and click the Continue button
to sign in to the IVE. He cannot access the realm, role, or resource that
requires compliance with the failed policy.
NOTE: If you do not configure the IVE with at least one realm that allows access
without enforcing a Host Checker policy, the user must bring his computer into
compliance before signing into the IVE.
„
„
After the user signs in:
„
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If you do not enable custom instructions for a policy that fails, Host
Checker does not display the remediation page to the user. Instead, the IVE
displays the sign-in page but does not allow the user to access any realms,
roles, or resources that have a failed Host Checker policy.
(Windows only) During a session, if a user’s Windows computer becomes
non-compliant with the requirements of a Host Checker policy, an icon
appears in the system tray along with a pop-up message that informs the
user of the non-compliance. The user can then click the pop-up message to
display the remediation page.
Chapter 11: Host Checker
„
(Macintosh or Linux) During a session, if a user’s Macintosh or Linux
computer becomes non-compliant with the requirements of a Host
Checker policy, the IVE displays the remediation page to inform the user of
the non-compliance.
NOTE: If the user hides the remediation page by setting a user preference, he may
only continue using the secure gateway if you configure other realms and roles
that do not enforce a Host Checker policy.
Configuring Host Checker remediation
To specify remediation actions for a Host Checker policy:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Endpoint Security > Host
Checker.
2. Create or enable Host Checker policies using instructions in either of the
following sections:
„
“Creating and configuring new client-side policies” on page 231
„
“Enabling customized server-side policies” on page 242
3. Specify the remediation actions that you want Host Checker to perform if a
user’s computer does not meet the requirements of the current policy:
„
Enable Custom Instructions—Enter the instructions you want to display
to the user on the Host Checker remediation page. You can use the
following HTML tags to format text and add links to resources such as
policy servers or web sites: <i>, <b>, <br>, <font>, and <a href>. For
example:
You do not have the latest signature files.
<a href="www.company.com">Click here to download the latest signature
files.</a>
NOTE: For Windows clients, if you include in the instructions a link to an IVEprotected policy server, define a pre-authentication access tunnel. For
information, see “Specifying Host Checker pre-authentication access tunnel
definitions” on page 259.
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„
Evaluate other policies—You can select one or more alternate policies
that you want Host Checker to evaluate if the user’s computer does not
meet the current policy requirements. For example, if a user attempts to
access the IVE from an outside client computer such as a kiosk, you can
use this option to evaluate an alternate policy that requires the user to
access the IVE in a Sygate Virtual Desktop environment. Select the
alternate policy in the HC Policies list and then click Add.
NOTE: If you configure an alternate policy to use its own alternate policy, Host
Checker does not evaluate that “second-level” alternate policy for the current
policy. In other words, Host Checker only evaluates one alternate policy per
transaction.
„
Remediate—(Third party DLLs only) You can select this option to perform
remediation actions specified by means of the Remediate () API function in
a third-party J.E.D.I. DLL. For more information, see the J.E.D.I. Solution
Guide on the Juniper Networks Customer Support Center.
„
Kill Processes—On each line, enter the name of one or more processes
you want to kill if the user’s computer does not meet the policy
requirements. You can include an optional MD5 checksum for the process.
(You cannot use wildcards in the process name.) For example:
keylogger.exe
MD5: 6A7DFAF12C3183B56C44E89B12DBEF56
„
Delete Files—Enter the names of files you want to delete if the user’s
computer does not meet the policy requirements. (You cannot use
wildcards in the file name.) Enter one file name per line. For example:
c:\temp\bad-file.txt
/temp/bad-file.txt
4. Click Save Changes.
Defining Host Checker pre-authentication access tunnels
If your policies require Host Checker rules or third-party J.E.D.I. DLLs to access a
policy server (or other resource) to check compliance before users are
authenticated, you can use one of the following methods to make the resource
available to the Host Checker Windows clients:
„
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„
Deploy the policy server in a DMZ where Host Checker rules or third-party
J.E.D.I. DLLs can access the server directly instead of going through the
IVE—This deployment is the simplest solution because you do not have to
define a Host Checker pre-authentication access tunnel through the IVE
between clients and the policy server.
Defining Host Checker pre-authentication access tunnels
Chapter 11: Host Checker
„
Deploy the policy server in a protected zone behind the IVE (Windows
only)—This deployment requires you to define a pre-authentication access
tunnel. A pre-authentication access tunnel enables Host Checker rules or thirdparty J.E.D.I. DLLs to access the IVE-protected policy server or resource before
the IVE authenticates users. To define a pre-authentication access tunnel, you
associate a loopback address (or host name) and port on the client with an IP
address and port on the policy server. You add one or more tunnel definitions
to a MANIFEST.HCIF file, which you then upload to the IVE. You can upload
multiple MANIFEST.HCIF files to the IVE. For all third-party policies enabled on a
realm, Host Checker creates tunnels for all of the tunnel definitions in all of the
MANIFEST.HCIF files, assuming the definitions are unique. For configuration
instructions, see “Uploading a Host Checker policy package to the IVE” on
page 243.
While running on a Windows client, Host Checker listens for a connection on
each loopback address and port you specify in the tunnel definitions. The
connections can originate from the integrated Host Checker rules and from
client-side or server-side J.E.D.I. DLLs. Host Checker uses the preauthentication access tunnel(s) to forward the connections through the IVE to
the policy server(s) or other resource.
Figure 34: Host Checker creates a tunnel from a client to a policy server behind the IVE
NOTE: Host Checker pre-authentication access tunnels are supported on Windows
only.
Specifying Host Checker pre-authentication access tunnel definitions
For Windows clients, you can define a pre-authentication access tunnel that
enables Host Checker methods or third-party J.E.D.I. DLLs to access an IVEprotected policy server (or other resource) before users are authenticated.
A definition for a Host Checker pre-authentication access tunnel configures access
to one policy server or other resource. Each tunnel definition consists of a pair of IP
addresses and ports: one loopback IP address and port on the client, and one IP
address and port on the policy server.
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You specify one or more tunnel definition(s) in a Host Checker policy package
definition file. The package definition file, which must be named MANIFEST.HCIF,
defines the name of an interface DLL, the Host Checker policies defined in the DLL,
and the pre-authentication access tunnel definitions. Note that if you do not include
policies in your package, Host Checker simply enforces that the package has run on
the client. If you do declare policies through this file, they become available through
the admin console where you can implement them at the realm, role, and resource
policy levels.
Within the MANIFEST.HCIF file, you must include one definition per line, with a
blank line between each definition, using the following format:
HCIF-Main: <DLLName>
HCIF-Policy: <PolicyName>
HCIF-IVE-Tunnel: <client-loopback>:port
<policy-server>:port
where:
<DLLName> is the name of the interface DLL, such as myPestPatrol.dll. Even if you
are not using an interface DLL, you must include a dummy DLL as a placeholder file
that has this exact name.
<PolicyName> is the name of a policy defined in the DLL, such as myFileCheck. You
can define multiple policies by using the HCIF-Policy statement for each policy. If
you are not using an interface DLL, you can use any policy name as a placeholder.
The syntax of a Host Checker tunnel definition is:
HCIF-IVE-Tunnel: <client-loopback>:port
<policy-server>:port
where:
<client-loopback> is a loopback address that begins with 127. and takes any of the
following forms:
„
An IP address and port that takes the form of 127.*.*.*:port. To avoid conflicts
with JSAM, do not use 127.0.0.1 with port 80, but you can use 127.0.0.1 with
other ports. For example: 127.0.0.1:3220
„
A host name that resolves to a loopback address that begins with 127. You can
use a local hosts file on each client computer or a DNS server to resolve the
loopback address.
„
A host name that does not resolve to a loopback address, or resolves to a nonloopback address. In these cases, Host Checker allocates a loopback address
and updates the local hosts file on the client with the mapping. Note that the
user must have administrator privileges in order for Host Checker to modify
the local hosts file. If the user does not have administrator privileges, Host
Checker cannot update the hosts file and cannot open the pre-authentication
access tunnel. In that case, Host Checker logs an error.
<policy-server> is the IP address or host name of the back-end policy server. The IVE
resolves the host name you specify.
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For example, in the following tunnel definition, 127.0.0.1:3220 is the client
loopback address and port, and mysygate.company.com:5500 is the policy server
host name and port:
HCIF-IVE-Tunnel: 127.0.0.1:3220
mysygate.company.com:5500
Or you can use a host name for the client, as in this example:
HCIF-IVE-Tunnel: mysygate.company.com:3220
mysygate.company.com:5500
Keep the following in mind when specifying tunnel definitions:
„
You must add a blank line between each line in the MANIFEST.HCIF file, and you
can use a semi-colon at the beginning of a line to indicate a comment. For
example:
HCIF-Main: myPestPatrol.dll
HCIF-Policy: myFileCheck
HCIF-Policy: myPortCheck
; Tunnel definitions
HCIF-IVE-Tunnel: 127.0.0.1:3220 mysygate.company.com:5500
HCIF-IVE-Tunnel: 127.1.1.1:3220 mysygate2.company.com:5500
HCIF-IVE-Tunnel: mysygate.company.com:3220 mysygate3.company.com:5500
„
Host Checker pre-authentication access tunnels are supported on Windows
only.
„
If <client-loopback> is a non-loopback address, then Host Checker cannot open
the pre-authentication access tunnel and logs an error instead.
„
If you use a loopback address other than 127.0.0.1 (such as 127.0.0.2 and
above), clients who are using Windows XP Service Pack 2 must install the XP
SP2 Hot Fix. See:
http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;884020
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NOTE: If you are deploying a client-side or server-side third-party DLL, keep the
following in mind:
„
Unzip the server-side third-party DLL package and add the tunnel definitions
to the MANIFEST.HCIF file that contain the policies for the third-party DLL. (The
DLL must use the same <client-loopback> address and port or host name that
you specify in the MANIFEST.HCIF file.)
„
Since a pre-authentication access tunnel is open only while Host Checker is
running, a third-party DLL can access its IVE-protected policy server only
while Host Checker is running.
„
If a third-party DLL uses HTTPS to connect to its policy server via a host name
that resolves properly to the loopback address, no server certificate warnings
appear. However, if the third-party DLL connects explicitly via a loopback
address, then server certificate warnings do appear because the host name in
the certificate does not match the loopback address. (The developer of the
third-party DLL can configure the DLL to ignore these warnings.)
For more information on third-party DLLs, see the J.E.D.I. Solution Guide on the
Juniper Networks Customer Support Center.
Specifying general Host Checker options
You can specify global options for Host Checker that apply to any user for whom
Host Checker is required in an authentication policy, a role mapping rule, or a
resource policy.
To specify general Host Checker options:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Endpoint Security > Host
Checker.
2. Under Options:
„
In the Perform check every X minutes field, specify the interval at which
you want Host Checker to perform policy evaluation on a client machine. If
the client machine fails to meet the requirements of the Host Checker
policies required by a role or resource policy, then the IVE denies the
associated user requests.
For example, you may require that a user runs a specific third-party
antivirus application in order to map to Role A, which enables network
connections from an external location. If the user’s client machine is
running the required antivirus application when the user signs in to the
IVE, then the user maps to Role A and is granted all access features
enabled for Role A. If the antivirus application stops running during the
user session, however, the next time Host Checker runs, the user fails to
meet the security requirements for Role A and therefore loses all access
privileges for Role A.
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Chapter 11: Host Checker
When an end-user logs into a Realm, Host Checker performs an initial
policy check, regardless of whether or not the policy is enforced at the
Realm, Role, and/or Resource level. The initial policy check establishes a
start time. Host Checker evaluates policies at the frequency set by the
Perform check every X minutes option starting the clock at the initial
policy check. Although the frequency setting is set globally for all Host
Checker policy checking, it is not synchronized for all end-user clients
connected to the IVE. Each client performs its own initial policy check and
starts its own X minute countdown.
If you configure the authentication policy within a realm where Host
Checker enforces policies (versus installing), the enforcement occurs only
during the pre-authentication phase. After an end-user signs in and for the
duration of the user’s session, any subsequent Host Checker policy checks
have no impact on realm access, meaning that there is no concept of
removing an end-user session from a realm once an end-user successfully
authenticates into that realm.
If you configure a role restriction where Host Checker enforces policies, the
enforcement occurs just after authentication during role mapping. Role
restrictions are enforced periodically during the end-user session at an
interval specified using the Host Checker frequency setting. If the end-user
successfully passes the Host Checker evaluation during role mapping but
later fails X minutes after login, that specific user loses rights to that role. If
the end-user loses rights to all available roles due to Host Checker policy
evaluation, the end-user session is disconnected.
If you configure a resource-based policy rule where Host Checker enforces
policies, the enforcement occurs when the end-user attempts to access the
resource/backend server. For web resources, the Host Checker evaluation
occurs at each request. For SAM and STA resources, the Host Checker
evaluation occurs when the IVE activates the connection to the backend
application/server. For Network Connect access, the Host Checker
evaluation occurs when the IVE initiates Network Connect. Existing
connections of applications running by way of SAM, Telnet/SSH
connection, and Network Connect connections are not affected by further
Host Checker evaluations. Only new Web requests, new applications
across SAM, new instances of STA, and launching Network Connect are
affected. The Host Checker evaluation is based on the most recent policy
check that occurred X minutes ago. Example, if you configure the
frequency setting to Perform check every five minutes and the end-user
attempts to access a protected resource or attempts to launch Network
Connect four minutes after the last check, then the policy evaluation is
based on the state of the client machine four minutes ago, not at the
moment the end-user attempted to access the resource.
NOTE: If you enter a value of zero, Host Checker only runs on the client machine
when the user first signs into the IVE.
„
For the Client-side process, login inactivity timeout option, specify an
interval to control timing out in the following situations:
Specifying general Host Checker options
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‰
If the user navigates away from the IVE sign-in page after Host Checker
starts running but before signing in to the IVE, Host Checker continues
to run on the user’s machine for the interval you specify.
‰
If the user is downloading Host Checker over a slow connection,
increase the interval to allow enough time for the download to
complete.
NOTE: If you configure the Client-side process, login inactivity timeout option
for both Host Checker and Cache Cleaner, the IVE uses the larger of the two
timeout settings.
„
Select Perform dynamic policy reevaluation to automatically refresh the
roles of individual users by enabling dynamic policy evaluation for Host
Checker. Host Checker can trigger the IVE to evaluate resource policies
whenever a user’s Host Checker status changes. (If you do not select this
option, the IVE does not evaluate resource policies but it does evaluate the
authentication policy, role mapping rules, and role restrictions whenever a
user’s Host Checker status changes.) For more information, see “Dynamic
policy evaluation” on page 40.
3. Click Save Changes.
Specifying Host Checker installation options
If you implement any policy at the realm, role, or resource policy level that requires
Host Checker, you must provide a mechanism by which the IVE or the user can
install Host Checker on the client machine. Otherwise, when the IVE evaluates the
Host Checker policy, the user’s machine fails because the Host Checker client is not
available to return a success status.
You can use two methods to install Host Checker on a user’s system:
„
The IVE automatically installs Host Checker—Enable automatic installation
through the Users/Administrators > User Realms/Administrator Realms >
[Realm] > Authentication Policy > Host Checker page of the admin console.
(For configuration instructions, see “Configuring Host Checker restrictions” on
page 253.) When you do, the IVE evaluates the realm-level option when the
user accesses the IVE sign-in page and then determines if the current version of
Host Checker is installed on the user’s machine. If Host Checker is not installed,
the IVE attempts to install it using either an ActiveX or a Java delivery method.
When a Windows user signs in to the IVE, the IVE attempts to install an ActiveX
control on the user’s system. If the IVE successfully installs the ActiveX control,
the control manages the installation of the Host Checker program.
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Chapter 11: Host Checker
If the IVE cannot install the ActiveX control because ActiveX is turned off on the
user’s system, the IVE attempts to install Host Checker using Java. For
Macintosh and Linux hosts, the IVE always uses the Java delivery method. The
Java delivery method requires only user privileges, but Java must be enabled on
the user’s system. For the Firefox browser on Linux, the Java runtime and
plug-in must be installed.
NOTE: If Microsoft Vista is running on the user’s system, the user must click the
setup link that appears during the installation process to continue installing the
setup client and Host Checker. On all other Microsoft operating systems, the setup
client and Host Checker install automatically.
„
The user or administrator manually installs Host Checker (Windows only)—
Download the Host Checker installer from the Maintenance > System >
Installers page of the admin console and use it to manually install Host
Checker on the user’s system.
NOTE: To install Host Checker, users must have appropriate privileges, as
described in the Client-side Changes Guide on the Juniper Networks Customer
Support Center. If the user does not have these privileges, use the Juniper Installer
Service available from the Maintenance > System > Installers page of the
admin console to bypass this requirement.
Removing the Juniper ActiveX Control
If Microsoft Windows XP is running on the user’s system and you want to remove
the Juniper set-up ActiveX control:
1. Open Internet Explorer.
2. Click the Tools button and then click Internet Options.
3. Click Settings, then View Objects.
4. Select JuniperSetupSP1 and press Delete.
If Microsoft Vista is running on the user’s system and you want to remove the
Juniper set-up ActiveX control:
1. Open Internet Explorer.
2. Click the Tools button and then click Manage Add-ons.
3. In the Show list, click Downloaded ActiveX controls to display all ActiveX
controls.
4. Click JuniperSetupClient and then click Delete.
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Using Host Checker with the GINA automatic sign-in function
Using Host Checker in conjunction with the Windows Graphical Identification and
Authorization (GINA) sign-in function for Network Connect requires that you pay
particular attention to the type, level, and number of items to verify on the client
before granting or rejecting access to the IVE. Since the GINA sign-in function takes
place before Windows has completely launched on the client, and therefore, before
the user profile on Windows is created, we recommend you adopt the following
practices when creating Host Checker policies you plan to use for Windows clients
featuring the GINA sign-in function:
„
You can check system-level processes at both realm enforce and realm
evaluate. You can check user-level processes only at realm evaluate.
„
If you have user-level processes at realm evaluate, create a separate Network
Connect role featuring only system-level policy checks that can be performed
before Windows has completely launched on the client. Ensure that this role
allows connectivity to the Windows Domain infrastructure in your secure
network to support drive mapping, software updates, and group policies, for
example. Mapping your users to this role allows the GINA authentication to
complete. This role is in addition to the final role that you want the user to be
mapped.
NOTE: For more information on the GINA automatic sign-in function, see
“Automatically signing into Network Connect using GINA” on page 527.
Automatically install Host Checker
To automatically install Host Checker on client computers:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Endpoint Security > Host
Checker.
2. Under Options, select Auto-upgrade Host Checker if you want the IVE to
automatically download the Host Checker application to a client computer
when the version of Host Checker on the IVE is newer than the version
installed on the client. Here is a summary of what happens when the Autoupgrade Host Checker option is selected or not selected:
„
If Host Checker is not installed on the client computer, Host Checker is
installed automatically regardless of whether the Auto-upgrade Host
Checker option is selected or not selected.
„
If the Auto-upgrade Host Checker option is selected and a previous
version of Host Checker is installed, Host Checker is upgraded on the client
automatically.
„
If the Auto-upgrade Host Checker option is not selected and a previous
version of Host Checker is installed, Host Checker is not upgraded the
client automatically.
If you select the Auto-upgrade Host Checker option, note the following:
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Chapter 11: Host Checker
‰
On Windows, the user must have administrator privileges in order for
the IVE to automatically install the Host Checker application on the
client. For more information, see the Client-side Changes Guide on the
Juniper Networks Customer Support Center.
‰
If a user uninstalls Host Checker and then signs in to an IVE for which
the Auto-upgrade Host Checker option is not enabled, the user no
longer has access to Host Checker.
3. Click Save Changes.
Manually install Host Checker
The Maintenance > System > Installers page of the admin console provides
several applications and a service for download. You can download an application
or service as a Windows executable file, which enables you to:
„
Distribute the file to client machines using software distribution tools. This
option enables you to install an application or service on client machines
whose users do not have Administrator privileges, which are required to install
the application or service.
„
Post the executable in a secure repository so that users with the proper
administrator right may download and install the appropriate version.
„
Download and execute a script that automatically retrieves the proper version
of the installer from an FTP server.
Using Host Checker logs
Use the System > Log/Monitoring > Client Logs > Settings tab to enable clientside logging for the Host Checker. When you enable this option, the IVE writes a
client-side log to any client that uses Host Checker. The IVE appends to the log file
each time the feature is invoked during subsequent user sessions. This feature is
useful when working with the support team to debug problems with the respective
feature.
NOTE: Since these settings are global, the IVE writes a log file to all clients that use
the feature for which you enable client-side logging. Also, the IVE does not remove
client-side logs. Users need to manually delete log files from their clients. For
information about where the IVE installs log files, see the Client-side Changes Guide
on the Juniper Networks Customer Support Center.
To specify global client-side logging settings:
1. In the admin console, choose System > Log/Monitoring > Client Log >
Settings.
2. Select the desired features for which the IVE writes client-side logs.
3. Click Save Changes to save these settings globally.
Using Host Checker logs
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NOTE: For new IVE 5.x systems, all options are disabled by default. If you upgrade
your IVE from a 3.x configuration, all log options are enabled by default.
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Chapter 12
Cache Cleaner
Cache Cleaner is a Windows client-side agent that removes residual data, such as
temporary files or application caches, left on a user’s machine after an IVE session.
For example, when a user signs in to the IVE from an Internet kiosk and opens a
Microsoft Word document using a browser plug-in, Cache Cleaner can remove the
temporary copy of the Word file stored in the browser cache (Windows folder)
when the session terminates. By removing the copy, Cache Cleaner prevents other
kiosk users from finding and opening the Word document after the IVE user
concludes the session.
Cache Cleaner can also prevent Web browsers from permanently storing the
usernames, passwords, and Web addresses that users enter in Web forms. By
preventing browsers from improperly caching this information, Cache Cleaner
keeps confidential user information from being stored on untrusted systems.
This section contains the following information about Cache Cleaner:
„
“Licensing: Cache Cleaner availability” on page 269
„
“Setting global Cache Cleaner options” on page 270
„
“Implementing Cache Cleaner options” on page 273
„
“Specifying Cache Cleaner installation options” on page 277
„
“Using Cache Cleaner logs” on page 278
Licensing: Cache Cleaner availability
Cache Cleaner is a standard feature on all Secure Access appliances—you do not
need a special license to use it.
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Setting global Cache Cleaner options
When you enable Cache Cleaner, it clears all content downloaded through the IVE’s
Content Intermediation Engine from a user’s system. In addition, you can use
settings in the Authentication > Endpoint Security > Cache Cleaner page of the
admin console to clear content from:
„
Specified hosts and domains—If you enable WSAM or JSAM, you may want to
configure Cache Cleaner to clear additional hosts and domains. When a user
browses the Internet outside the IVE using WSAM or JSAM, Internet files appear
in his temporary Internet file folder. To delete these files using Cache Cleaner,
you must specify the appropriate host name (for example, www.yahoo.com).
„
Specified files and folders—If you enable your users to access client-server
applications on their local systems, you may want to configure Cache Cleaner
to clear the temporary files and folders that the applications create on the
users’ systems.
NOTE: If you configure Cache Cleaner to remove files from a directory, Cache
Cleaner clears all files, including those that the user has explicitly saved to the
directory and files that were in the directory prior to the IVE session.
To specify global Cache Cleaner options:
1. In the admin console, choose Authentication > Endpoint Security > Cache
Cleaner.
2. Under Options:
a.
In the Cleaner Frequency field, specify how often Cache Cleaner runs.
Valid values range from 1-60 minutes. Each time Cache Cleaner runs, it
clears all content downloaded through the IVE’s Content Intermediation
Engine plus the browser cache, files, and folders you specify in the
Browser Cache and Files and Folders sections below.
b. In the Status Update Frequency field, specify how often the IVE expects
Cache Cleaner to update itself. Valid values range from 1-60 minutes.
„
For the Client-side process, login inactivity timeout option, specify an
interval to control timing out in the following situations:
‰
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If the user navigates away from the IVE sign-in page after Cache
Cleaner starts running but before signing in to the IVE, Cache Cleaner
continues to run on the user’s machine for the interval you specify.
Chapter 12: Cache Cleaner
‰
If the user is downloading Cache Cleaner over a slow connection,
increase the interval to allow enough time for the download to
complete.
NOTE: If you configure the Client-side process, login inactivity timeout option
for both Host Checker and Cache Cleaner, the IVE uses the larger of the two
timeout settings.
c.
Select the Disable AutoComplete of web addresses checkbox to prevent
the browser from using cached values to automatically fill in Web
addresses during the user’s IVE session.
When you select this option, the IVE sets the following Windows registry
value to 0 during the user’s IVE session:
HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\\Microsoft\\Windows\\CurrentVersion\\Ex
plorer\ AutoComplete. Then, at the end of the session, the IVE restores the
registry value to its original setting.
d. Select the Disable AutoComplete of usernames and passwords checkbox
to prevent Internet Explorer from automatically filling in user credentials in
Web forms using cached values. Selecting this option also disables the
“Save Password?” prompt on Windows systems. When you select this
option, the IVE sets the following Windows registry values to 0:
e.
‰
HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Internet
Explorer\Main\FormSuggest Passwords
‰
HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Internet
Explorer\Main\FormSuggest Passwords\FormSuggest PW Ask
‰
HKEY_CURRENT_USER\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\
Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings\ DisablePasswordCaching
Select the Flush all existing AutoComplete Passwords checkbox to clear
any cached passwords that Internet Explorer has cached on the user’s
system. When you select this option, the IVE sets the following Windows
registry value to 0: HKEY_CURRENT_USER \Software\\Microsoft\\Internet
Explorer\\IntelliForms\\SPW
Then, select one of the following options:
f.
‰
Select For IVE session only to specify that the IVE should restore the
user’s cached passwords at the end of his IVE session.
‰
Select Permanently to permanently delete the user’s cached
passwords.
Select the Uninstall Cache Cleaner at logout checkbox if you want the IVE
to uninstall Cache Cleaner from the client machine when a user’s session
ends.
Setting global Cache Cleaner options
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3. Under Browser Cache, enter one or more host names or domains (wildcards
are permitted). When a user session ends, Cache Cleaner removes any content
in the browser cache that originates from these servers. Cache Cleaner also
removes this content when it runs at the specified cleaner frequency interval.
Note that the IVE does not resolve host names, so enter all possible
representations of a server, such as its host name, FQDN, and IP address.
4. Under Files and Folders:
a.
Specify either:
‰
the name of a file that you want Cache Cleaner to remove or
‰
the complete directory path to a folder whose contents you want
Cache Cleaner to remove. If you specify a directory, select Clear
Subfolders to also clear the contents of any subdirectories within this
directory.
b. Select the Clear folders only at the end of session checkbox if you want
Cache Cleaner to clear directory contents only at the end of the user
session. Otherwise, Cache Cleaner also clears files and folders at the
specified cleaner frequency interval.
NOTE: When specifying files and folders to clear, note the following:
„
Cache Cleaner uses a cookie called DSPREAUTH to send the client’s status to
the IVE. If you delete this cookie from the user’s client, Cache Cleaner does
not work properly. To avoid problems, do not specify Internet Explorer
directories such as <userhome>\Local Settings\Temporary Internet Files\* in
the Files and Folders field. Note that Cache Cleaner still clears all of the
Internet Explorer cache downloaded from the IVE host and the other hosts
specified in the Hostnames field, regardless of what directories you specify
under Files and Folders.
„
For the Firefox browser, Cache Cleaner clears only those directories you
specify under Files and Folders.
5. Click Save Changes to save these settings globally.
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Chapter 12: Cache Cleaner
Implementing Cache Cleaner options
After you specify which hosts, domains, files, and folders to clear using settings in
the Authentication > Endpoint Security > Cache Cleaner page of the admin
console, you can restrict IVE and resource access by requiring Cache Cleaner in a:
„
Realm authentication policy—When users try to sign in to the IVE, the IVE
evaluates the specified realm’s authentication policy to determine if the preauthentication requirements include Cache Cleaner. You can configure a realm
authentication policy to download Cache Cleaner, download and start running
Cache Cleaner, or not require Cache Cleaner. The user must sign in using a
computer that adheres to the Cache Cleaner requirements specified for the
realm. If the user’s computer does not meet the requirements, then the user is
denied access to the IVE. You can configure realm-level restrictions through the
Users > User Realms > Realm > Authentication Policy > Cache Cleaner
page of the admin console.
„
Role—When the IVE determines the list of eligible roles to which it can map an
administrator or user, it evaluates each role’s restrictions to determine if the
role requires Cache Cleaner to run on the user's workstation. If it does and the
user's machine is not already running Cache Cleaner, then the IVE does not
map the user to that role. You can control which roles the IVE maps a user to
by using settings in Users > User Realms > Select Realm > Role Mapping >
Select|Create Rule > Custom Expression. You can configure role-level
restrictions through the Users > User Roles > Role > General >
Restrictions > Cache Cleaner page of the admin console.
„
Resource policy—When a user requests a resource, the IVE evaluates the
resource policy’s detailed rules to determine whether or not Cache Cleaner
needs to be installed or running on the user's workstation. The IVE denies
access to the resource if the user's machine does not meet the Cache Cleaner
requirement. To implement Cache Cleaner restrictions at the resource policy
level, navigate to: Users > Resource Policies > Select Resource > Select Policy
> Detailed Rules > Select|Create Rule > Condition Field.
You may specify that the IVE evaluate your Cache Cleaner policies only when the
user first tries to access the realm, role, or resource that references the Cache
Cleaner policy. Or, you may use settings in the Authentication > Endpoint
Security > Cache Cleaner tab to specify that the IVE periodically re-evaluate the
policies throughout the user’s session. If you choose to periodically evaluate Cache
Cleaner policies, the IVE dynamically maps users to roles and allows users access to
new resources based on the most recent evaluation.
Executing Cache Cleaner
When the user tries to access the IVE, the IVE determine’s the client system’s
Cache Cleaner status and prompts it to start running using the following process:
1. Initial evaluation—When a user first tries to access the IVE sign-in page, the
IVE determines whether Cache Cleaner is running on the user’s machine. The
IVE performs this initial evaluation regardless of whether you have
implemented Cache Cleaner policies at the realm, role, or resource policy level.
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If the user navigates away from the IVE sign-in page after Cache Cleaner starts
running but before signing in to the IVE, Cache Cleaner continues to run on the
user’s machine until the Cache Cleaner process times out.
If the IVE does not receive a Cache Cleaner status result for any reason
(including because the user failed to enter his credentials in the sign-in page),
the IVE displays an error and directs the user back to the sign-in page.
Otherwise, if the IVE Cache Cleaner process returns a status, the IVE goes on to
execute the realm-level policies.
2. Realm-level policies—The IVE uses the results from the initial evaluation to
determine which realms the user may access. Then, the IVE displays or hides
realms from the user, only allowing him to sign into those realms that you
enable for the sign-in page, and if he meets the Cache Cleaner requirements for
each realm. If the user cannot meet the Cache Cleaner conditions required by
any of the available realms, the IVE does not display the sign-in page. Instead,
it displays an error stating that the computer does not comply with the
endpoint policy.
Note that the IVE only performs realm-level Cache Cleaner checks when the
user first signs into the IVE. If the state of the user’s system changes during his
session, the IVE does not remove him from the current realm or allow him
access to a new realm based on his new system state.
3. Role-level policies—After the user signs into a realm, the IVE evaluates rolelevel policies and maps the user to the role or roles if he meets the Cache
Cleaner requirements for those role(s). Then, the IVE displays the IVE
homepage to the user and enables those options that the mapped role(s) allow.
If Cache Cleaner returns a different status during a periodic evaluation, the IVE
dynamically remaps the user to roles based on the new results. If the end user
loses rights to all available roles during one of the periodic evaluations, the IVE
disconnects the user’s session.
4. Resource-level policies—Once the IVE allows the user to access the
homepage, the user may try to access a resource that is controlled by a
resource policy. When he does, the IVE determines whether or not to perform
the action specified in the resource policy based on the last status returned by
Cache Cleaner.
If Cache Cleaner returns a different status during a periodic evaluation, the new
status only impacts new resources that the user tries to access. For example, if
successfully initiates a Network Connect session, and then fails his next
resource-level Cache Cleaner status check, he may continue to access the open
Network Connect session. The IVE only denies him access if he tries to open a
new Network Connect session. The IVE checks the last status returned by
Cache Cleaner whenever the user tries to access a new Web resource or open a
new Secure Application Manager, Network Connect, or Secure Terminal Access
session.
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Chapter 12: Cache Cleaner
5. Final clean-up—Cache Cleaner performs a final cleanup and restores registry
settings when:
„
The user explicitly signs out of the user session—When a user clicks Sign
Out on the IVE home page, Cache Cleaner performs a final cleanup and
then uninstalls itself from the user’s system.
„
The user session times out—When a user session times out, Cache
Cleaner performs a cleanup, and then if user signs in again, Cache Cleaner
performs another cleanup. Cache Cleaner is aware of session timeouts,
because it periodically checks the validity of a session at the interval you
specify on the Authentication > Endpoint Security > Cache Cleaner
tab.
NOTE: When checking the validity of a user session, Cache Cleaner connects to the
IVE. This action may trigger warnings on personal firewalls. Users must permit
this traffic to ensure that Cache Cleaner functions correctly. Also note that users
with personal firewalls see a log entry every time Cache Cleaner clears the cache.
„
A client system restarts after an abnormal termination—If Cache
Cleaner terminates abnormally due to a system, session, or network
connection problem, Cache Cleaner performs a final cleanup and uninstalls
itself from the user’s system after the system restarts. Note that Cache
Cleaner cannot log data after it terminates. Also, all changes made to the
user’s registry settings after termination and before signing back in to the
IVE are lost.
With either a running or not running status, Cache Cleaner remains on the client.
Users may manually uninstall the agent by running uninstall.exe in the directory
where Cache Cleaner is installed. If you enable client-side logging through the
System > Log/Monitoring > Client Logs > Settings page, this directory also
contains a log file, which is rewritten each time Cache Cleaner runs. (Cache Cleaner
does not log entries to the standard IVE log, but can log data to the temporary
client-side text file. This encrypted log is deleted when Cache Cleaner uninstalls
itself.)
Specifying Cache Cleaner restrictions
To specify Cache Cleaner restrictions:
1. Navigate to: Authentication > Endpoint Security > Cache Cleaner and
specify global options for Cache Cleaner to apply to any user for whom Cache
Cleaner is required in an authentication policy, a role mapping rule, or a
resource policy.
2. If you want to implement Cache Cleaner at the realm level:
a.
Navigate to: Users > User Realms > Select Realm > Authentication
Policy > Cache Cleaner
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b. Choose one of the following options:
‰
Disable Cache Cleaner — Does not require Cache Cleaner to be
installed or running in order for the user to meet the access
requirement.
‰
Just load Cache Cleaner — Does not require Cache Cleaner to be
running in order for the user to meet the access requirement but
ensures that it is available for future use. If you choose this option for a
realm’s authentication policy, then the IVE downloads Cache Cleaner
to the client machine after the user is authenticated and before the
user is mapped to any roles on the system.
‰
Load and enforce Cache — Requires the IVE to download and run
Cache Cleaner in order for the user to meet the access requirement. If
you choose this option for a realm’s authentication policy, then the IVE
downloads Cache Cleaner to the client machine before the user may
access the IVE sign-in page.
3. If you want to implement Cache Cleaner at the role level:
a.
Navigate to:
‰
Administrators > Admin Roles > Select Role > General >
Restrictions > Cache Cleaner
‰
Users > User Roles > Select Role > General > Restrictions >
Cache Cleaner
b. Check the Enable Cache Cleaner option. Requires Cache Cleaner to be
running in order for the user to meet the access requirement.
4. If you want to create role-mapping rules based on a user’s Cache Cleaner status:
a.
Navigate to: Users > User Realms > Select Realm > Role Mapping >
Select|CreateRule > CustomExpression
b. Write a custom expression for the role mapping rule to evaluate Cache
Cleaner’s status using the cacheCleaner variable.
5. If you want to implement Cache Cleaner at the resource policy level:
a.
Navigate to: Users > Resource Policies > Select Resource > Select Policy
> Detailed Rules > Select|Create Rule > Condition Field
b. Create a custom expression in a detailed rule.
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Chapter 12: Cache Cleaner
Specifying Cache Cleaner installation options
If you implement any policy at the realm, role, or resource policy level that requires
Cache Cleaner, you must provide a mechanism by which the IVE or the user can
install Cache Cleaner on the client machine. Otherwise, when the IVE evaluates the
Cache Cleaner policy, the user’s machine fails because the Cache Cleaner client is
not available.
Enable automatic installation through the Users > User Realms > Realm >
Authentication Policy > Cache Cleaner page of the admin console to allow the
IVE to attempt to install Cache Cleaner on the user’s system. When you do, the IVE
evaluates the realm-level option when the user accesses the IVE sign-in page and
then determines if the current version of Cache Cleaner is installed on the user’s
machine. If Cache Cleaner is not installed, the IVE attempts to install it using either
an ActiveX or a Java delivery method.
When a user signs in to the IVE, the IVE attempts to install an ActiveX control on
the user’s system. If the IVE successfully installs the ActiveX control, the control
manages the installation of the Cache Cleaner program.
If the IVE cannot install the ActiveX control due to the user’s lack of administrator
or power user privileges, or because ActiveX is turned off on the user’s system, the
IVE attempts to install Cache Cleaner using Java. The Java delivery method requires
only user privileges, but Java must be enabled on the user’s system.
NOTE: If Microsoft Vista is running on the user’s system, the user must click the
setup link that appears during the installation process to continue installing the
setup client and Cache Cleaner. On all other Microsoft operating systems, the
setup client and Cache Cleaner install automatically.
If the IVE cannot use the Java delivery method because Java is disabled on the
user’s system, the IVE displays an error message informing the user that the user’s
system does not allow installation of ActiveX or Java applications, therefore some
of the access security functions are not able to run.
NOTE:
„
To install Cache Cleaner, users must have appropriate privileges, as described
in the Client-side Changes Guide on the Juniper Networks Customer Support
Center. If the user does not have these privileges, use the Juniper Installer
Service available from the Maintenance > System > Installers page of the
admin console to bypass this requirement.
„
Users must enable signed ActiveX components or signed Java applets within
their browsers in order for Host Checker to download, install, and launch the
client applications.
For information on removing the Juniper ActiveX control, see “Removing the
Juniper ActiveX Control” on page 265.
Specifying Cache Cleaner installation options
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Using Cache Cleaner logs
Use the System > Log/Monitoring > Client Logs > Settings tab to enable clientside logging for the Cache Cleaner. When you enable this option, the IVE writes a
client-side log to any client that uses Cache Cleaner. The IVE appends to the log file
each time the feature is invoked during subsequent user sessions. This feature is
useful when working with the support team to debug problems with the respective
feature.
NOTE: Since these settings are global, the IVE writes a log file to all clients that use
the feature for which you enable client-side logging. Also, the IVE does not remove
client-side logs. Users need to manually delete log files from their clients. For
information about where the IVE installs log files, see the Client-side Changes Guide
on the Juniper Networks Customer Support Center.
To specify global client-side logging settings:
1. In the admin console, choose System > Log/Monitoring > Client Logs >
Settings.
2. Select the desired features for which the IVE writes client-side logs.
3. Click Save Changes to save these settings globally.
NOTE: For new IVE 5.x systems, all options are disabled by default. If you upgrade
your IVE from a 3.x configuration, all log options are enabled by default.
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Part 4
Remote access
The IVE enables you to secure access to a wide variety of applications, servers, and
other resources through its remote access mechanisms. Once you have chosen
which resource you want to secure, you can then choose the appropriate access
mechanism (as explained in “Can I use the IVE to secure traffic to all of my
company’s applications, servers, and Web pages?” on page 25.
For instance, if you want to secure access to Microsoft Outlook, you can use the
Secure Application Manager (SAM). The Secure Application Manager intermediates
traffic to client/server applications including Microsoft Outlook, Lotus Notes, and
Citrix. Or, if you want to secure access to your company Intranet, you can use the
Web rewriting feature. This feature uses the IVE’s Content Intermediation Engine to
intermediate traffic to Web-based applications and Web pages.
Table 18 briefly compares three of the IVE’s access mechanisms: Network Connect,
Windows Secure Application Manager (WSAM), and Java Secure Application
Manager (JSAM).
Table 18: Comparison of remote client access methods
Network Connect
WSAM
JSAM
Secure network-layer access.
Performs as virtual IPsec
enabled tunnel. Compatible
with client-side firewalls and
proxies.
Secure application-layer
access. Supports Win32
Transport Data Interface (TDI)
service installation.
Compatible with client-side
firewalls and proxies.
Secure application-layer
access. Java applet-based TCP
port forwarding for
provisioned enterprise hosts.
Compatible with client-side
firewalls and proxies.
Installation handled via
Active X control for Windows
and Java applet for Mac.
Requires only a single Java
Installation handled via
Active X control, Java delivery, applet installed on the client
and standalone installers.
Provisioning requires a static
IP address pool allocated for
network resources or a DHCP
server present on the network.
Provisioning requires a list of
IP addresses, Windows
applications, and destination
hosts to be secured. Access
control dependent upon IP
addresses.
Provisioning requires a list of
hosts and ports at the group
level. Allows users option to
define client-server
applications and security
settings. Host names preferred
over IP addresses.
Supports Windows, Mac, and
Linux clients.
Supports Windows clients.
Supports Windows, Mac, and
Linux clients.
This section contains the following information about remote access mechanisms:
„
“Web rewriting” on page 281
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280
„
„
“Hosted Java applets” on page 357
„
“File rewriting” on page 371
„
“Secure Application Manager” on page 395
„
“Telnet/SSH” on page 449
„
“Terminal Services” on page 461
„
“Secure Meeting” on page 493
„
“Email Client” on page 513
„
“Network Connect” on page 521
Chapter 13
Web rewriting
The IVE Web rewriting feature enables you to intermediate Web URLs through the
Content Intermediation Engine. You can intermediate URLs on the World Wide
Web or on your corporate Intranet.
This section contains the following information about intermediating Web content:
„
“Licensing: Web rewriting availability” on page 282
„
“Task summary: Configuring the Web rewriting feature” on page 282
„
“Web URL rewriting overview” on page 283
„
“Defining resource profiles: Custom Web applications” on page 288
„
“Defining resource profiles: Citrix Web applications” on page 307
„
“Defining resource profiles: Microsoft OWA” on page 311
„
“Defining resource profiles: Lotus iNotes” on page 313
„
“Defining resource profiles: Microsoft Sharepoint” on page 315
„
“Defining role settings: Web URLs” on page 316
„
“Defining resource policies: Overview” on page 322
„
“Defining resource policies: Web access” on page 324
„
“Defining resource policies: Single sign-on” on page 325
„
“Defining resource policies: Caching” on page 332
„
“Defining resource policies: External Java applets” on page 336
„
“Defining resource policies: Rewriting” on page 339
„
“Defining resource policies: Web compression” on page 349
„
“Defining resource policies: Web proxy” on page 351
„
“Defining resource policies: HTTP 1.1 protocol” on page 354
„
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„
“Defining resource policies: General options” on page 355
„
“Managing resource policies: Customizing UI views” on page 356
Licensing: Web rewriting availability
Web rewriting is a standard feature on all Secure Access appliances except the SA
700. If you are using an SA-700 appliance, you must install a Core Clientless Access
upgrade license in order to access baseline Web rewriting features. Note, however,
that the following advanced Web rewriting features are not available on the SA 700,
even if you have the Core Clientless Access upgrade license:
„
Remote SSO
„
WSAM & JSAM rewriting policies (available through Web application resource
profiles)
„
Non-Java ICA rewriting options (available through Citrix templates)
Task summary: Configuring the Web rewriting feature
To configure the Web rewriting feature:
1. Create resource profiles that enable access to Web sites, create supporting
autopolicies (such as single sign-on and Java access control policies) as
necessary, include bookmarks that link to the Web sites, and assign the policies
and bookmarks to user roles using settings in the Users > Resource Profiles>
Web Application Pages page of the admin console. For instructions, see:
„
“Defining resource profiles: Custom Web applications” on page 288
„
“Defining resource profiles: Citrix Web applications” on page 307
We recommend that you use resource profiles to configure Web rewriting (as
described above). However, if you do not want to use resource profiles, you can
configure Web rewriting using role and resource policy settings in the following
pages of the admin console instead:
a.
Create resource policies that enable access to Web sites using settings in
the Users > Resource Policies> Web > Access > Web ACL page of the
admin console. For instructions, see “Defining resource policies: Web
access” on page 324.
b. As necessary, create supporting resource policies (such as single sign-on
and Java access control policies) using settings in the Users > Resource
Policies> Select Policy Type pages of the admin console. For instructions,
see:
282
„
Licensing: Web rewriting availability
‰
“Defining resource policies: Single sign-on” on page 325
‰
“Defining resource policies: Caching” on page 332
Chapter 13: Web rewriting
c.
‰
“Defining resource policies: External Java applets” on page 336
‰
“Defining resource policies: Rewriting” on page 339
‰
“Defining resource policies: Web compression” on page 349
‰
“Defining resource policies: Web proxy” on page 351
‰
“Defining resource policies: HTTP 1.1 protocol” on page 354
Determine which user roles may access the Web sites that you want to
intermediate, and then enable Web access for those roles through the
Users > User Roles > Select Role > General > Overview page of the
admin console. For instructions, see “Configuring general role options” on
page 55.
d. Create bookmarks to your Web sites using settings in the Users > User
Roles > Select Role > Web > Bookmarks page of the admin console. For
instructions, see “Defining role settings: Web URLs” on page 316.
e.
As necessary, enable Web general options that correspond to the types of
Web content you are intermediating (such as Java) using settings in the
Users > User Roles > Select Role > Web > Options page of the admin
console. For instructions, see “Specifying general Web browsing options”
on page 319.
2. After enabling access to Web applications or sites using Web rewriting resource
profiles or roles and resource policies, you can modify general role and
resource options in the following pages of the admin console:
a.
(Optional) Set additional Web browsing options (such as allowing users to
create their own bookmarks or enabling hostname masking) Users > User
Roles > Select Role > Web > Options page of the admin console. For
instructions, see “Specifying general Web browsing options” on page 319.
b. (Optional) Set additional Web options for individual resources (such as
enabling the IVE to match IP addresses to host names) using settings in the
Users > Resource Policies> Web > Options page of the admin console.
For instructions, see “Defining resource policies: General options” on
page 355.
NOTE: Certain Web rewriting features (such as pass-through proxy and SSO to
NTLM resources) require additional configuration. For more information, see the
appropriate configuration instructions.
Web URL rewriting overview
When you intermediate standard Web content through the IVE, you can create
supplemental policies that “fine-tune” the access requirements and processing
instructions for the intermediated content. You can create these supplemental
policies through resource profiles (recommended) or resource policies.
Web URL rewriting overview
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Standard Web rewriting policy types include:
284
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Web URL rewriting overview
„
Web access control—Web access policies control which Web resources users
can access in order to connect to the Internet, intranet, or extranet. For
configuration instructions, see “Defining a Web access control autopolicy” on
page 290 (recommended) or “Defining resource policies: Web access” on
page 324.
„
Single sign-on—Single sign-on policies enable you to automatically pass user
credentials to a Web application. You can configure single sign-on policies to
intercept basic authentication and NTLM challenges or post the credentials and
headers that you specify to the Web application, as explained in “Remote SSO
overview” on page 285. For configuration instructions, see “Defining a single
sign-on autopolicy” on page 292 (recommended) or “Defining resource
policies: Single sign-on” on page 325.
„
Caching—Caching policies control which Web content the IVE caches on a
user’s machine. For configuration instructions, see “Defining a caching
autopolicy” on page 296 (recommended) or “Defining resource policies:
Caching” on page 332.
„
Java—Java policies control to which servers and ports Java applets can connect.
These policies also specify trusted servers for which the IVE resigns content.
For configuration instructions, see “Defining a Java access control autopolicy”
on page 298 (recommended) or “Defining resource policies: External Java
applets” on page 336.
„
Rewriting—Rewriting policies specify resources that the IVE should not
intermediate, minimally intermediation (as explained in “Passthrough-proxy
overview” on page 286), or only intermediate selectively. For configuration
instructions, see “Defining a rewriting autopolicy” on page 300
(recommended) or “Defining resource policies: Rewriting” on page 339.
„
Web compression—Web compression policies specify which types of Web
data the IVE should and should not compress, as explained in “Compression”
on page 839. For configuration instructions, see “Defining a Web compression
autopolicy” on page 304 (recommended) or “Defining resource policies: Web
compression” on page 349.
„
Web proxy—(Resource policies only) Web proxy resource policies specify Web
proxy servers for which the IVE should intermediate content. Note that the IVE
intermediates both forward and backwards proxies, but only enables single
sign-on to trusted proxies. For configuration instructions, see “Defining
resource policies: Web proxy” on page 351.
„
Launch JSAM—(Resource policies only) Launch JSAM policies specify URLs for
which the IVE automatically launches J-SAM on the client. This feature is useful
if you enable applications that require J-SAM but do not want to require users to
run J-SAM unnecessarily. For configuration instructions, see “Automatically
launching JSAM” on page 443.
„
Protocol—(Resource policies only) Protocol resource policies enable or disable
HTTP 1.1 protocol support on the IVE. For configuration instructions, see
“Defining resource policies: HTTP 1.1 protocol” on page 354.
Chapter 13: Web rewriting
„
Options— (Resource policies only) You can enable IP based matching for
hostnames as well as case-sensitive matching for path and query strings in
Web resources through resource policy options. For configuration instructions,
see “Defining resource policies: General options” on page 355.
Remote SSO overview
The Remote Single Sign-On (SSO) feature enables you to specify the URL sign-in
page of an application to which you want the IVE to post a user’s credentials,
minimizing the need for users to re-enter their credentials when accessing multiple
back-end applications. You may also specify additional forms values and custom
headers (including cookies) to post to an application’s sign-in form.
Remote SSO configuration consists of specifying Web resource policies:
„
Form POST policy—This type of Remote SSO policy specifies the sign-in page
URL of an application to which you want to post IVE data and the data to post.
This data can include the user’s primary or secondary IVE username and
password (as explained in “Multiple sign-in credentials overview” on page 193)
as well as system data stored by system variables (described in “System
variables and examples” on page 860). You can also specify whether or not
users can modify this information.
„
Headers/Cookies policy—This type of Remote SSO policy specifies resources,
such as customized applications, to which you can send custom headers and
cookies.
If a user’s IVE credentials differ from those required by the back-end application,
the user can alternatively access the application:
„
By signing in manually—The user can quickly access the back-end application
by entering his credentials manually into the application’s sign-in page. The
user may also permanently store his credentials and other required
information in the IVE through the Preferences page as described below, but is
not required to enter information in this page.
„
Specifying the required credentials on the IVE—The user must provide the
IVE with his correct application credentials by setting them through the
Preferences page. Once set, the user must sign out and sign back in to save his
credentials on the IVE. Then, the next time the user clicks the Remote SSO
bookmark to sign in to the application, the IVE sends the updated credentials.
NOTE: Use the Remote SSO feature to pass data to applications with static POST
actions in their HTML forms. It is not practical to use Remote SSO with
applications that employ frequently changing URL POST actions, time-based
expirations, or POST actions that are generated at the time the form is generated.
For information about configuring Remote SSO:
„
“Defining a single sign-on autopolicy” on page 292 (recommended method)
„
“Writing a remote SSO Form POST resource policy” on page 328
„
“Writing a remote SSO Headers/Cookies resource policy” on page 330
Web URL rewriting overview
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Passthrough-proxy overview
The pass-through proxy feature enables you to specify Web applications for which
the IVE performs minimal intermediation. Unlike traditional reverse proxy
functionality, which also rewrites only selective parts of a server response but
requires network changes as well as complex configuration, this feature only
requires that you specify application servers and the way in which the IVE receives
client requests to those application servers:
„
Via an IVE port—When specifying an application for the pass-through proxy to
intermediate, you specify a port on which the IVE listens for client requests to
the application server. When the IVE receives a client request for the
application server, it forwards the request to the specified application server
port. When you choose this option, you must open traffic to the specified IVE
port on your corporate firewall.
„
Via virtual host name—When specifying an application for the pass-through
proxy to intermediate, you specify an alias for the application server host
name. You need to add an entry for this alias in your external DNS server that
resolves to the IVE. When the IVE receives a client request for the alias, it
forwards the request to the port you specify for the application server.
This option is useful if your company has restrictive policies about opening
firewall ports to either internal servers or servers in the DMZ. When using this
option, we recommend that each host name alias contains the same domain
substring as your IVE host name and that you upload a wild card server
certificate to the IVE in the format: *.domain.com.
For example, if your IVE is iveserver.yourcompany.com, then a host name alias
should be in the format appserver.yourcompany.com and the wild card
certificate format would be *.yourcompany.com. If you do not use a wild card
certificate, then a client’s browser issues a certificate name check warning
when a user browses to an application server, because the application server
host name alias does not match the certificate domain name. This behavior
does not prevent a user from accessing the application server, however.
NOTE: When you configure pass-through proxy to work in virtual host name
mode, users must use the IVE host name that you specify through the System >
Network > Overview page of the admin console when signing into the IVE. They
cannot access use pass-through proxy if they sign into the IVE using its IP address.
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Chapter 13: Web rewriting
Just as with the Content Intermediation Engine, the pass-through proxy option
offers increased security relative to the Secure Application Manager, because when
enabled for an application, the IVE allows the client to send only layer-7 traffic
directed to fixed application ports to the enterprise network. Use this option to
enable the IVE to support applications with components that are incompatible with
the Content Intermediation Engine, such as Java applets in Oracle e-business suite
applications or applets that run in an unsupported Java Virtual Machine (JVM).
NOTE:
„
Pass-through proxy URLs must be host names. Paths of host names are not
supported.
„
Juniper Networks strongly recommends that you not mix pass-through proxy
Port mode and pass-through proxy Host mode.
„
The pass-through proxy option works only for applications that listen on fixed
ports and where the client does not make direct socket connections.
„
To use pass-through proxy with Oracle E-Business applications, you must
install a real certificate on the IVE and you must configure Oracle Forms to
use the Forms Listener Servlet mode.
Task summary: Configuring pass-through proxy
To configure the Web rewriting feature:
1. Create resource profiles that enable access to Web applications, create
supporting Web rewriting autopolicies that enable pass-through proxy, include
bookmarks that link to the Web applications, and assign the policies and
bookmarks to user roles using settings in the Users > Resource Profiles>
Web Application Pages page of the admin console. For instructions, see
“Defining resource profiles: Custom Web applications” on page 288.
Alternatively, you can:
a.
Create resource policies that enable access to Web applications using
settings in the Users > Resource Policies> Web > Access > Web ACL
page of the admin console. For instructions, see “Defining resource
policies: Web access” on page 324.
b. Create supporting Web rewriting resource policies that enable pass-through
proxy using settings in the Users > Resource Policies> Web >
Rewriting > Web ACL page of the admin console. For instructions, see
“Defining resource policies: Rewriting” on page 339.
c.
Determine which user roles may access the Web applications that you
want to intermediate with pass-through proxy, and then enable Web
access for those roles through the Users > User Roles > Select Role >
General > Overview page of the admin console. For instructions, see
“Configuring general role options” on page 55.
Web URL rewriting overview
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d. Create bookmarks to your Web sites using settings in the Users > User
Roles > Select Role > Web > Bookmarks page of the admin console. For
instructions, see “Defining role settings: Web URLs” on page 316.
2. If your pass-through proxy resource policy enables the IVE to receive client
requests through an IVE port, open traffic to the specified port in your
corporate firewall. Or, if your policy enables requests through a virtual host
name:
a.
Add an entry for each application server host name alias in your external
DNS that resolves to the IVE.
b. Define the IVE name and host name through the System > Network >
Internal Port page of the admin console. For instructions, see “Configuring
network settings” on page 558.
c.
Upload a wildcard certificate to the IVE through the System >
Configuration > Certificates > Device Certificates page of the admin
console. Or, upload multiple certificates and associate a virtual port with
each certificate using settings in the same page. For instructions, see
“Importing an existing root certificate and private key” on page 601 and
“Associating a certificate with a virtual port” on page 606.
Examples of using pass-through proxy
If your IVE is iveserver.yourcompany.com and you have an Oracle server at
oracle.companynetwork.net:8000, you could specify the following application
parameters when specifying an IVE port:
Server: oracle.companynetwork.net
Port: 8000
IVE port: 11000
When the IVE receives Oracle client traffic sent to
iveserver.yourcompany.com:11000, it forwards the traffic to
oracle.companynetwork.net:8000.
Or, if you want to specify a host name alias, you could configure the application
with these parameters:
Server: oracle.companynetwork.net
Port: 8000
IVE alias: oracle.yourcompany.com
When the IVE receives Oracle client traffic sent to oracle.yourcompany.com, it
forwards the traffic to oracle.companynetwork.net:8000
Defining resource profiles: Custom Web applications
A custom Web application resource profile is a resource profile that controls access
to a Web application, Web server, or HTML page. (For more information about
resource profiles, see “Resource profiles” on page 71.)
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Chapter 13: Web rewriting
To create a custom Web application resource profile:
1. Navigate to the Users > Resource Profiles > Web Applications/Pages page in
the admin console.
2. Click New Profile.
3. Enter a unique name and optionally a description for the resource profile.
4. In the Base URL field, enter the URL of the Web application or page for which
you want to control access using the format: [protocol://]host[:port][/path]. For
detailed guidelines, see “Defining base URLs” on page 290. (The IVE uses the
specified URL to define the default bookmark for the resource profile.)
5. In the Autopolicy: Web Access Control section, create a policy that allows or
denies users access to the resource specified in the Base URL field. (By default,
the IVE automatically creates a policy for you that enables access to the Web
resource and all of its sub-directories.) For more detailed instructions, see
“Defining a Web access control autopolicy” on page 290.
6. (Optional) Click Show ALL autopolicy types to create additional autopolicies
that fine-tune access to the resource. Then, create the autopolicies using
instructions in the following sections:
„
“Defining a single sign-on autopolicy” on page 292
„
“Defining a caching autopolicy” on page 296
„
“Defining a Java access control autopolicy” on page 298
„
“Defining a rewriting autopolicy” on page 300
„
“Defining a Web compression autopolicy” on page 304
7. Click Save and Continue.
8. In the Roles tab, select the roles to which the resource profile applies and click
Add.
The selected roles inherit the autopolicies and bookmarks created by the
resource profile. If it is not already enabled, the IVE also automatically enables
the Web option in the Users > User Roles > Select Role > General >
Overview page of the admin console for all of the roles you select.
9. Click Save Changes.
10. (Optional) In the Bookmarks tab, modify the default bookmark created by the
IVE and/or create new ones using instructions in “Defining a Web bookmark”
on page 305. (By default, the IVE creates a bookmark to the base URL defined
in the Base URL field and displays it to all users assigned to the role specified in
the Roles tab.)
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Defining base URLs
When creating a Web resource profile, you must use the following format when
defining base URLs:
[protocol://]host[:port][/path]
Within this format, the components are:
„
Protocol (required)—Possible values: http:// and https://. Note that you cannot
use special characters within the protocol.
„
Host (required)—Possible values:
„
DNS Hostname—For example: www.juniper.com
„
IP address—You must enter the IP address in the format: a.b.c.d. For
example: 10.11.149.2. You cannot use special characters in the IP address.
„
Ports (optional)—You must use the delimiter “:” when specifying a port. For
example: 10.11.149.2/255.255.255.0:*
„
Path (optional)—When specifying a path for a base URL, the IVE does not allow
special characters. If you specify a path, you must use the “/” delimiter. For
example, http://www.juniper.net/sales.
Defining a Web access control autopolicy
Web access policies control which Web resources users can access in order to
connect to the Internet, intranet, or extranet. When defining a custom Web
resource profile, you must enable a corresponding Web access control autopolicy
that enables access to the profile’s primary resource. The IVE simplifies the process
for you by automatically creating an autopolicy that allows access to the Web
resource and all of its sub-directories.
If necessary, you may choose to modify this default autopolicy or create
supplementary Web access control autopolicies that control access to additional
resources. For instance, your IT department may use one server to store Web pages
for your company intranet (http://intranetserver.com) and another server to store
the images that the Web pages reference (http://imagesserver.com). In this case,
you can create two Web access control autopolicies that enable access to both
servers so that your users can access both your Web pages and the corresponding
images.
To create a new Web access control autopolicy:
1. Create a custom Web application resource profile, as explained in the following
sections:
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„
„
“Defining resource profiles: Custom Web applications” on page 288
„
“Defining resource profiles: Citrix Web applications” on page 307
„
“Defining resource profiles: Microsoft OWA” on page 311
„
“Defining resource profiles: Lotus iNotes” on page 313
Defining resource profiles: Custom Web applications
Chapter 13: Web rewriting
„
“Defining resource profiles: Microsoft Sharepoint” on page 315
2. If available, click the Show ALL autopolicy types button to display the
autopolicy configuration options.
3. If it is not already enabled, select the Autopolicy: Web Access Control
checkbox.
4. In the Resource field, specify the Web server or HTML page to which you want
to control access using the format: [protocol://]host[:ports][/path]. For detailed
guidelines, see “Defining Web resources” on page 291.
5. From the Action list, choose Allow to enable access to the specified resource or
Deny to block access to the specified resource.
6. Click Add.
7. Click Save Changes.
Defining Web resources
When creating a Web resource profile (for example, in “Defining resource profiles:
Custom Web applications” on page 288), you must use the following format when
defining resources for autopolicies:
[protocol://]host[:ports][/path]
Within this format, the four components are:
„
Protocol (required)—Possible values: http:// and https://. Note that you cannot
use special characters within the protocol.
„
Host (required)—Possible values:
„
DNS Hostname—For example: www.juniper.com
You may use the following special characters allowed in the hostname:
Table 19: DNS hostname special characters
*
Matches ALL characters.
%
Matches any character except dot (.)
?
Matches exactly one character
„
IP address/Netmask—You must enter the IP address in the format: a.b.c.d
You may use one of two formats for the netmask:
‰
Prefix: High order bits
‰
IP: a.b.c.d
For example: 10.11.149.2/24 or 10.11.149.2/255.255.255.0
You cannot use special characters in the IP address or netmask.
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„
Ports (optional)—You must use the delimiter “:” when specifying a port. For
example: 10.11.149.2/255.255.255.0:*
Table 20: Port possible values
*
Matches ALL ports; you cannot use any other special characters
port[,port]*
A comma-delimited list of single ports. Valid port numbers are [165535].
[port1]-[port2]
A range of ports, from port1 to port2, inclusive.
NOTE: You can mix port lists and port ranges, such as: 80,443,8080-8090
If the port is missing, then the default port 80 is assigned for http, 443 for https.
„
Path (optional)—When specifying a path for a Web access control autopolicy,
you may use a * character, meaning ALL paths match. (The IVE does not
support any other special characters.) If you specify a path, you must use the
“/” delimiter. For example:
„
http://www.juniper.net/sales
„
http://www.juniper.net:80/*
„
https://www.juniper.net:443/intranet/*
Defining a single sign-on autopolicy
Single sign-on policies enable you to automatically pass user credentials to the Web
application specified in your policy, as explained in “Single sign-on” on page 191.
Single sign-on autopolicies also intermediate the data that you pass.
NOTE: For information about configuring advanced SSO options that are not
available through resource profiles, including disabling intermediation for
specified resources or using SAML for individual resources, see “Defining resource
policies: Single sign-on” on page 325.
To create a single sign-on (SSO) autopolicy:
1. Create a Web resource profile, as explained in the following sections:
„
“Defining resource profiles: Custom Web applications” on page 288
„
“Defining resource profiles: Citrix Web applications” on page 307
„
“Defining resource profiles: Lotus iNotes” on page 313
„
“Defining resource profiles: Microsoft Sharepoint” on page 315
2. If available, click the Show ALL autopolicy types button to display the
autopolicy configuration options.
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Chapter 13: Web rewriting
3. Select the Autopolicy: Single Sign-On checkbox.
4. Select a single sign-on method and configure the corresponding SSO options:
„
Basic Auth—Enables the IVE to intermediate the challenge/response
sequence during basic authentication and use the credentials it collects to
sign into a protected resource within the same Intranet zone. For detailed
configuration instructions, see “Specifying basic authentication or NTLM
SSO autopolicy options” on page 293. (This option does not apply to Citrix
resource profiles.)
„
NTLM—Enables the IVE to intermediate the challenge/response sequence
during NTLM authentication and use the credentials it collects to sign into a
protected resource within the same Intranet zone. For detailed
configuration instructions, see “Specifying basic authentication or NTLM
SSO autopolicy options” on page 293. (This option does not apply to Citrix
resource profiles.)
„
Remote SSO—Enables the IVE to post the data that you specify (including
IVE usernames, passwords, and system data stored by variables) to Web
applications. This option also enables you specify custom headers and
cookies to post to Web applications. For detailed configuration
instructions, see “Specifying remote SSO autopolicy options” on page 294.
5. Click Save Changes.
Specifying basic authentication or NTLM SSO autopolicy options
To configure basic authentication or NTLM SSO autopolicy options:
1. Create an SSO autopolicy and choose Basic Auth or NTLM, as explained in
“Defining a single sign-on autopolicy” on page 292.
2. In the Resource field, specify the resources to which this policy applies. For
detailed guidelines, see “Defining Web resources” on page 291.
NOTE: When entering a resource in this field, note that:
„
If you want the IVE to automatically post values to a specific URL when an
end-user clicks on an IVE bookmark, the resource that you enter here must
exactly match the URL that you specify in the Base URL field of the resource
profile.
„
If you want the IVE to automatically submit IVE user credentials to other Web
sites within the same Intranet zone, the host name that you enter here must
end in the DNS suffix configured in the System > Network > Overview page
of the admin console.
3. Select one of the following Action options:
„
Use system credentials—The IVE intermediates the challenge/response
sequence, caches the credentials it collects, and uses them to enable single
sign-on based on any system credentials you have previously configured
on the IVE.
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„
„
Use predefined credentials—The IVE intermediates the
challenge/response sequence, caches the credentials it collects, and uses
them to enable single sign-on. When you select this option, you must also
specify the following intermediation credential parameters:
‰
Username—Specifies the SSO user name that the IVE uses to validate
sign-in credentials.
‰
Password—Specifies the SSO password that the IVE uses to validate
sign-in credentials. You may use a static password (such as
“open_sesame”) or variable password (such as <PASSWORD>) to
validate sign-in credentials.
‰
(NTLM only) Domain—Specifies the domain name.
Disable SSO—The IVE disables automatic SSO authentication for this user
role and, instead, prompts the user for sign-in credentials.
Specifying remote SSO autopolicy options
To configure remote SSO autopolicy options:
1. Create an SSO autopolicy through a custom Web resource profile and choose
Remote SSO, as explained “Defining a single sign-on autopolicy” on page 292.
Or, create a custom Citrix resource profile and choose Autopolicy: Single Sign
on as explained in “Defining resource profiles: Citrix Web applications” on
page 307.
2. If you want to perform a form POST when a user makes a request to the
resource specified in the Resource field, select the POST the following data
checkbox. Then:
a.
In the Resource field, specify the application’s sign-in page, such as:
http://yourcompany.com. The IVE does not accept wildcard characters in
this field.
NOTE: If you want the IVE to automatically post values to a specific URL when an
end-user clicks on an IVE bookmark, the resource that you enter here must
exactly match the URL that you specify in the Base URL or Web Interface (NFuse)
URL field of the resource profile.
b. In the Post URL field, specify the absolute URL where the application posts
the user’s credentials, such as: http://yourcompany.com/login.cgi. You can
determine the appropriate URL using a TCP dump or by viewing the
application’s sign-in page source and searching for the POST parameter in
the FORM tag.
c.
Optionally specify the user data you want to post and user modification
permissions.
To specify user data to post, enter data in the following fields and click
Add:
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‰
Label—The label that appears on a user’s Preferences page in the IVE.
This field is required if you either enable or require users to modify
data to post to back-end applications.
‰
Name—The name to identify the data of the Value field. (The back-end
application should expect this name.)
‰
Value—The value to post to the form for the specified Name. You can
enter static data, a system variable (see “System variables and
examples” on page 860 for a list of valid variables), or IVE session
variables containing username and password values (see “Multiple
sign-in credentials overview” on page 193 for more information).
‰
User modifiable? setting—Set to Not modifiable if you do not want
the user to be able to change the information in the Value field. Set to
User CAN change value if you want the user to have the option of
specifying data for a back-end application. Set to User MUST change
value if users must enter additional data in order to access a back-end
application. If you choose either of the latter settings, a field for data
entry appears on the user’s Advanced Preferences page in the IVE.
This field is labeled using the data you enter in the User label field. If
you enter a value in the Value field, this data appears in the field but is
editable.
d. Select the Deny direct login for this resource checkbox if you do not want
allow users to manually enter their credentials in a sign-in page. (Users
may see a sign-in page if the form POST fails.)
e.
Select the Allow multiple POSTs to this resource checkbox if you want
the IVE to send POST and cookie values to the resource multiple times if
required. If you do not select this option, the IVE does not attempt single
sign-on when a user requests the same resource more than once during the
same session.
3. If you want to post header data to the specified URL when a user makes a
request to a resource specified in the Resource field, select the Send the
following data as request headers checkbox. Then:
a.
In the Resource section, specify the resources to which this policy applies.
See “Defining Web resources” on page 291 for more information.
b. Optionally specify the header data to post by entering data in the following
fields and clicking Add:
‰
Header name—The text for the IVE to send as header data.
‰
Value—The value for the specified header.
4. Click Save Changes.
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Defining a caching autopolicy
Caching policies control which Web content the IVE caches on a user’s machine.
NOTE: For information about configuring advanced caching options not available
through resource profiles, including specifying the maximum allowable image size
for cached content, see “Defining resource policies: Caching” on page 332. For
information about recommended caching settings for OWA and Lotus Notes
applications, see “Creating OWA and Lotus Notes caching resource policies” on
page 335.
To create a Web caching autopolicy:
1. Create a custom Web application resource profile, as explained in the following
sections:
„
“Defining resource profiles: Custom Web applications” on page 288
„
“Defining resource profiles: Microsoft OWA” on page 311
„
“Defining resource profiles: Lotus iNotes” on page 313
2. If available, click the Show ALL autopolicy types to display the autopolicy
configuration options.
3. Select the Autopolicy: Caching checkbox.
4. In the Resource field, specify the resources to which this policy applies. For
detailed guidelines, see “Defining Web resources” on page 291.
5. In the Action field, select one of the following options:
„
Smart—Select this option to allow the IVE to send a cache-control:no-store
header or a cache-control:no-cache header based on the user’s Web browser
and content type.
When you select this option, the IVE makes media files and zip files work
properly by removing their origin server's cache-control headers. For
example, the following logic searches for “msie” or “windows-media-player”
in user-agent headers in order to remove cache or cache-control:no-store
response headers and make the files cacheable:
(if content type has "audio/x-pn-realaudio" OR
if content type begins with "video/" OR
if content type begins with "audio/" OR
if content type is "application/octet-stream" and the file extension begins
with "rm" or "ram"
)
If the IVE finds “msie” or “windows-media-player” in the user-agent header
and any of the following apply:
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‰
Request is for Flash, .xls, .pps, .ppt files
‰
Content-type is application/, text/rtf, text/xml, model/
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‰
Origin server sends a content-disposition header
then IVE sends the cache-control:no-store header and removes the origin
server's cache-control header.
In all other cases, the IVE adds the pragma:no-cache or cache-control:nostore response headers.
NOTE: Citrix .ica and QuickPlace files get some special treatment. Citrix .ica files
are always cacheable and get cache-control:private as well. QuickPlace files that do
not match a specified rule files (which takes precedence) get CCNS and cachecontrol:private.
Also note that if you select this option, enable GZIP compression, and try to access
a text file attachment using Domino Web Access 6.5 through Internet Explorer,
you cannot open the attachment. To enable text attachments, you must either
install the Internet Explorer 323308 patch or enable the No Store option.
„
No-Store—Select this option to deliver attachments to Internet Explorer
without saving them to the disk. (The browser temporarily writes files to
the disk, but immediately removes them once it has opened the file in the
browser.) When you select this option, the IVE removes the origin server's
cache-control header and adds a cache-control:no-store response header if
the user-agent string sent by the browser contains “msie” or “windowsmedia-player.”
This option might slow browsing by causing repeated content fetches,
which can cause performance issues on very slow connections.
„
No-Cache—Select this option to prevent the user’s browser from caching
files to the disk. When you select this option, the IVE adds the standard
HTTP pragma:no-cache header and cache-control:no-cache (CCNC) header
(HTTP 1.1) to response files. Also, the IVE does not forward the origin
server's caching headers, such as age, date, etag, last-modified, expires.
NOTE: When no-cache headers are present on certain types of attachments (PDF,
PPT, streaming files), Internet Explorer does not properly render the documents
because the rendering process requires the browser to temporarily writes these
files to cache.
„
Unchanged—The IVE does not add the pragma:no-cache or cachecontrol:no-store response headers and forwards the origin server's caching
headers.
6. Click Add.
7. Click Save Changes.
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Defining a Java access control autopolicy
A Java access control autopolicy defines the list of servers and ports to which Java
applets can connect, as explained in “Using code-signing certificates” on page 623.
This autopolicy also specifies which resources the IVE signs using the code-signing
certificate that you upload to the IVE.
When you enable Java access control using this autopolicy, the IVE automatically
enables the Allow Java applets option on the Users > User Roles > Select Role >
Web > Options page of the admin console.
NOTE:
„
For information about configuring advanced Java options that are not
available through resource profiles, including preventing Java applets from
connecting to servers that you specify, see “Defining resource policies:
External Java applets” on page 336.
„
For information about hosting Java applets directly on the IVE, see “Hosted
Java applets” on page 357.
To create a Java access control autopolicy:
1. Create a custom Web application resource profile, as explained in “Defining
resource profiles: Custom Web applications” on page 288.
2. Click Show ALL autopolicy types.
3. Select the Autopolicy: Java Access Control checkbox.
4. In the Resource field, specify the server resources to which this policy applies
using the format: host:[ports]. (By default, the IVE populates this field with the
server specified in your resource profile’s base URL.) For more detailed
instructions, see “Defining a server to which Java applets can connect” on
page 299.
5. Select one of the following options from the Action list:
„
Allow socket access—To enable Java applets to connect to the servers
(and optionally ports) in the Resource list.
„
Deny socket access—To prevent Java applets from connecting to the
servers (and optionally ports) in the Resource list.
6. Click Add.
7. Select the Sign applets with code-signing certificate checkbox to resign the
specified resources using the certificate uploaded through the System >
Configuration > Certificates > Code-signing Certificates page of the admin
console. (The IVE uses the imported certificate to sign the server resources that
you specify in the Resources field.)
8. Click Save Changes.
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Defining a server to which Java applets can connect
When defining servers to which Java applets can connect, you must use the
following format:
host[:ports]
Within this format, the two components are:
„
Host (required)—Possible values:
„
DNS Hostname—For example: www.juniper.com
You may use the following special characters allowed in the hostname:
Table 21: DNS hostname special characters
*
Matches ALL characters.
%
Matches any character except dot (.)
?
Matches exactly one character
„
IP address/Netmask—You must enter the IP address in the format: a.b.c.d.
You may use one of two formats for the netmask:
‰
Prefix: High order bits
‰
IP: a.b.c.d
For example: 10.11.149.2/24 or 10.11.149.2/255.255.255.0
You cannot use special characters in the IP address or netmask.
„
Ports—You must use the delimiter “:” when specifying a port. For example:
10.11.149.2/255.255.255.0:*
Table 22: Port possible values
*
Matches ALL ports; you cannot use any other special characters
port[,port]*
A comma-delimited list of single ports. Valid port numbers are [165535].
[port1]-[port2]
A range of ports, from port1 to port2, inclusive.
NOTE: You can mix port lists and port ranges, such as: 80,443,8080-8090.
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Defining a rewriting autopolicy
By default, the IVE intermediates all user requests to Web hosts—unless you have
configured the IVE to serve requests to certain hosts using a different mechanism,
such as the Secure Application Manager. Rewriting autopolicies enable you to “finetune” the default options by changing which mechanisms the IVE should use to
rewrite Web data and defining resources that you want to minimally rewrite or not
rewrite at all.
NOTE: For information about configuring advanced rewriting options not available
through resource profiles, including specifying ActiveX parameters that the IVE
should rewrite, see “Defining resource policies: Rewriting” on page 339.
To create a rewriting autopolicy:
1. Create a custom Web application resource profile, as explained in “Defining
resource profiles: Custom Web applications” on page 288.
2. Click Show ALL autopolicy types.
3. Select the Autopolicy: Rewriting Options checkbox.
4. Select one of the following options:
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„
Passthrough Proxy—Select this option to specify Web applications for
which the Content Intermediation Engine performs minimal
intermediation (as explained in “Passthrough-proxy overview” on
page 286). For detailed configuration instructions, see “Specifying passthrough proxy autopolicy options” on page 301.
„
No rewriting (use WSAM)—Select this option to intermediate content
using WSAM instead of the Content Intermediation Engine. (For
information about WSAM, see “W-SAM overview” on page 397.) Then,
specify the application server for which you want to intermediate content.
(At minimum, you need to click Add in order to intermediate content to
and from the server that the IVE extracts from the Web access control
policy.) For detailed configuration instructions, see “Specifying WSAM
rewriting autopolicy options” on page 302.
„
No rewriting (use JSAM)—Select this option to intermediate content using
JSAM instead of the Content Intermediation Engine. (For information about
JSAM, see “J-SAM overview” on page 417.) Then, specify the application
server for which you want to intermediate content.(At minimum, you need
to click Add in order to intermediate content to and from the server that
the IVE extracts from the Web access control policy.) For detailed
configuration instructions, see “Specifying JSAM rewriting autopolicy
options” on page 303.
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„
No rewriting—Select this option to automatically create a selective
rewriting policy for the autopolicy’s URL, thereby configuring the IVE not
intermediate any content to and from the resource. For example, you may
choose this option if you do not want the IVE to intermediate traffic from
Web sites that reside outside of the corporate network, such as yahoo.com.
If you select this option, you do not have to configure any additional
rewriting settings.
5. Click Save Changes.
Specifying pass-through proxy autopolicy options
To configure pass-through proxy autopolicy options:
1. Create an rewriting autopolicy and select Passthrough Proxy, as explained in
“Defining a rewriting autopolicy” on page 300.
2. Choose the way in which you want to enable the pass-through proxy feature:
„
Use virtual hostname—If you choose this option, specify a host name
alias for the application server. When the IVE receives a client request for
the application server host name alias, it forwards the request to the
specified application server port in the Base URL field.
„
Use IVE port—If you choose this option, specify a unique IVE port in the
range 11000-11099. The IVE listens for client requests to the application
server on the specified IVE port and forwards any requests to the
application server port specified in the Base URL field.
NOTE:
„
The corresponding URL for the resource profile must specify the application
server host name and the port used to access the application internally. You
cannot enter a path for the base URL.
„
In order to make Sharepoint work successfully through the IVE, you must
select the Override automatic cookie handling checkbox in Internet
Explorer under Tools Internet options > Privacy > Advanced Privacy
Settings if the following conditions true:
„
You select the Use virtual hostname option during Pass Through Proxy
configuration.
„
The virtual hostname that you specify in your Sharepoint configuration is
different from the hostname that you configure through IVE setup (that is,
if the domains are different).
„
You enable persistent cookies through the Users > User Roles > Select
Role > General > Session Options page of the admin console.
3. Select the Rewrite XML checkbox if you want the IVE to rewrite URLs
contained within XML content. If this option is disabled, the IVE passes the
XML content “as is” to the server.
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4. Select the Rewrite external links checkbox if you want the IVE to rewrite all
the URLs presented to the proxy. If this option is disabled, the IVE rewrites only
those URLs where the hostname is configured as part of the pass-through proxy
policy.
5. Select the Block cookies from being sent to the browser checkbox if you
want the IVE to block cookies destined for the client’s browser. The IVE stores
the cookies locally and sends them to applications whenever they are
requested.
6. Select the Host-Header forwarding checkbox if you want the IVE to pass the
hostname as part of the host header instead of the actual host identifier.
NOTE: The Host-Header forwarding option is only valid in pass-through proxy
Virtual hostname mode.
7. Click Save Changes.
8. If you select:
„
Use virtual hostname, you must also:
i.
Add an entry for each application server host name alias in your
external DNS that resolves to the IVE.
ii.
Upload a wildcard server certificate to the IVE (recommended). For
more information about wildcard certificates, see “Associating a
certificate with a virtual port” on page 606.
iii. Define the IVE name and host name in the Network Identity section of
the System > Network > Internal Port tab.
„
Use IVE port, you must also open traffic to the IVE port you specified for
the application server in your corporate firewall.
NOTE: If your application listens on multiple ports, configure each application port
as a separate pass-through proxy entry with a separate IVE port. If you intend to
access the server using different host names or IP addresses, configure each of
those options separately; in this case, you can use the same IVE port.
Specifying WSAM rewriting autopolicy options
To configure WSAM rewriting autopolicy options:
1. Create an rewriting autopolicy and select No rewriting (use WSAM), as
explained in “Defining a rewriting autopolicy” on page 300.
2. In the Destination field, specify resources for which WSAM secures
client/server traffic between the client and the IVE. By default, the IVE extracts
the correct server from the Web access control policy. You may choose to use
this server as-is, modify it, and/or add new servers to the list.
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When specifying a server, specify the host name (the wild cards '*' or '?' are
accepted) or an IP/netmask pair. Specify multiple ports for a host as separate
entries.
3. Click Add.
4. Click Save Changes.
When you intermediation through WSAM using this autopolicy, the IVE
automatically enables the Secure Application Manager option on the Users >
User Roles > Select Role > General > Overview page of the admin console.
Specifying JSAM rewriting autopolicy options
To configure JSAM rewriting autopolicy options:
1. Create an rewriting autopolicy and select No rewriting (use JSAM), as
explained in “Defining a rewriting autopolicy” on page 300.
2. In the Server Name field, enter the DNS name of the application server or the
server IP address.
3. In the Server Port field, enter the port on which the remote server listens for
client connections.
For example, to forward Telnet traffic from a remote machine, specify port 23
for both the client port (on which JSAM listens) and the server port (on which
the Telnet server listens).
NOTE: To enable drive mapping to this resource, enter 139 as the server port.
4. In the Client Loopback IP field, provide a static loopback address. If you do not
provide a static IP loopback address, the IVE assigns an IP loopback address
dynamically. For more information about static loopback addresses, see
“J-SAM overview” on page 417.
5. In the Client Port field, enter the port on which JSAM should listen for client
application connections.
Typically, the local port value is the same value as the server port; the local port
value usually only differs for Linux or Macintosh users who want to add
applications for port forwarding that use ports under 1024.
NOTE: To enable drive mapping to this resource, enter 139 as the server port.
You may configure more than one application on a single port, such as
app1.mycompany.com, app2.mycompany.com, app3.mycompany.com. Either you
assign a static loopback address or the IVE assigns a dynamic loopback address
(127.0.1.10, 127.0.1.11, 127.0.1.12) to each application. JSAM then listens on
these multiple loopback addresses on the specified port. For example, when
there is traffic on 127.0.1.12 on the specified port, the IVE forwards the traffic
to the app3.mycompany.com destination host.
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6. Select Launch JSAM to automatically start JSAM when the IVE encounters the
Base URL.
7. Click Add.
8. Click Save Application or Save + New.
Defining a Web compression autopolicy
Web compression autopolicies specify which types of Web data the IVE should and
should not compress. For example, since javascript does not work when
compressed, you might use this feature to specify that the IVE should not compress
javascript data going to and from an email server by entering the following
resource: http://owa.juniper.net/*.js. For more information about how the IVE
compresses data, see “Compression” on page 839.
NOTE: In order to properly compress data, you must enable compression at the
system level as well as creating compression autopolicies. To enable compression,
use settings in the Maintenance > System > Options page of the admin
console. For instructions, see “Enabling compression at the system level” on
page 841.
To create a Web compression autopolicy:
1. Create a custom Web application resource profile, as explained in the following
sections:
„
“Defining resource profiles: Custom Web applications” on page 288
„
“Defining resource profiles: Microsoft OWA” on page 311
„
“Defining resource profiles: Lotus iNotes” on page 313
2. If available, click the Show ALL autopolicy types button to display the
autopolicy configuration options.
3. Select the Autopolicy: Web compression checkbox.
4. In the Resource field, specify the resources to which this policy applies. For
detailed guidelines, see “Defining Web resources” on page 291.
5. Select one of the following options from the Action list:
„
Compress—The IVE compresses the supported content types from the
specified resource.
„
Do not compress—The IVE does not compress the supported content
types from the specified resource.
6. Click Add.
7. Click Save Changes.
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Defining a Web bookmark
When you create a Web resource profile, the IVE automatically creates a bookmark
that links to the primary URL or domain that you specified in the resource profile.
The IVE enables you to modify this bookmark as well as create additional
bookmarks within the same domain.
For example, you may create a resource profile that controls access to your
company intranet. Within the profile, you may specify:
„
Resource profile name: Your Intranet
„
Primary resource: http://intranet.com
„
Web access control autopolicy: Allow access to http://intranet.com:80/*
„
Roles: Sales, Engineering
When you create this policy, the IVE automatically creates a bookmark called “Your
Intranet” enabling access to http://intranet.com and displays the bookmark to
members of the Sales and Engineering roles.
You may then choose to create the following additional bookmarks to associate
with the resource profile:
„
“Sales Intranet” bookmark: Creates a link to the http://intranet.com/sales
page and displays the link to members of the Sales role.
„
“Engineering Intranet” bookmark: Creates a link to the
http://intranet.com/engineering page and displays the link to members of the
Engineering role.
NOTE: When configuring bookmarks, note that:
„
You can only assign bookmarks to roles that you have already associated with
the resource profile—not all of the roles defined on the IVE. To change the list
of roles associated with the resource profile, use settings in its Roles tab.
„
Bookmarks simply control which links the IVE displays to users—not which
resources the users can access. For instance, in the example used above, a
member of the Sales role would not see a link to the Engineering Intranet
page, but he could access it by entering http://intranet.com/engineering his
Web browser’s address bar.
„
You cannot create bookmarks that link to additional URLs and domains
defined through Web access control autopolicies.
For more information about resource profile bookmarks, see “Defining
bookmarks” on page 78.
To configure Web resource profile bookmarks:
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1. If you want to create a resource profile bookmark through the standard
resource profiles page:
a.
Navigate to the Users > Resource Profiles > Web > Select Resource
Profile > Bookmarks page in the admin console.
b. Click the appropriate link in the Bookmark column if you want to modify
an existing bookmark. Or, click New Bookmark to create an additional
bookmark.
Alternatively, if you want to create a resource profile bookmark through the
user roles page:
a.
Navigate to the Users > User Roles > Select Role > Web > Bookmarks
page in the admin console.
b. Click New Bookmark.
c.
From the Type list, choose Pick a Web Resource Profile. (The IVE does not
display this option if have not already created a Web resource profile.)
d. Select an existing resource profile.
e.
Click OK. (If you have not already associated the selected role with the
resource profile, the IVE automatically makes the association for you. The
IVE also enables any access control policies for the role that are required by
the resource profile.)
f.
If this role is not already associated with the selected resource profile, the
IVE displays an informational message. If you see this message, click Save
Changes to add this role to the resource profile’s list of roles and to update
the profile’s autopolicies as required. Then, repeat the previous steps to
create the bookmark.
NOTE: When you create a resource profile bookmark through the user roles page
(instead of the standard resource profiles page), the IVE only associates the
generated bookmark with the selected role. The IVE does not assign the
bookmark to all of the roles associated with the selected resource profile.
2. Optionally change the name and description of the bookmark. (By default, the
IVE populates names the bookmark using the resource profile name.)
3. In the URL field, add a suffix to the URL if you want to create links to subsections of the domain defined in the primary resource profile. For information
about system variables and attributes that you can include in the bookmark,
see “Using system variables in realms, roles, and resource policies” on
page 869.
NOTE: Make sure to enter a unique URL in this field. If you create two bookmarks
with the same URL, the IVE deletes one of the bookmarks from the end-user view.
You will still be able to see both bookmarks, however, in the administrator
console.
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4. Under Options, select the Bookmark opens in new window checkbox if want
to enable the IVE to automatically open the Web resource in a new browser
window. Next, select:
„
Do not display browser address bar—Select this option to remove the
address bar from the browser window. This feature forces all Web traffic
through the IVE by precluding users in the specified role from typing a new
URL in the address bar, which circumvents the IVE.
„
Do not display browser toolbar—Select this option to remove the menu
and toolbar from the browser. This feature removes all menus, browsing
buttons, and bookmarks from the browser window so that the user
browses only through the IVE.
5. If you are configuring the bookmark through the resource profile pages, under
Roles, specify the roles to which you want to display the bookmark:
„
ALL selected roles—Select this option to display the bookmark to all of the
roles associated with the resource profile.
„
Subset of selected roles—Select this option to display the bookmark to a
subset of the roles associated with the resource profile. Then select roles
from the ALL Selected Roles list and click Add to move them to the Subset
of selected roles list.
6. Click Save Changes.
Defining resource profiles: Citrix Web applications
A Citrix Web template is a resource profile that controls access to Citrix
applications and configures Citrix settings as necessary. Citrix Web templates
significantly reduce your configuration time by consolidating configuration settings
into one place and by pre-populating a variety of resource policy settings for you
depending on the type of Citrix setup you select.
Due to their highly simplified configurations, templates are the ideal Citrix
configuration method if you want to deliver ActiveX or Java applets from a third
party Web server through the IVE or if you are using the Citrix fat clients. We
strongly recommend using Citrix templates instead of the traditional role and
resource policy configuration options available through the IVE.
Other Citrix configuration methods available through the IVE include Network
Connect, hosted Java applets, and Terminal Services. Use hosted Java applets if you
want to deliver Citrix Java applets directly from the IVE instead of a third party Web
server (as explained in “Hosted Java applets” on page 357), or use Terminal
Services if you want to deliver the Citrix client directly from the IVE instead of a
third party Web server (as explained in “Terminal Services” on page 461).
Defining resource profiles: Citrix Web applications
„
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For more information about resource profile templates, see “Resource profiles” on
page 71.
NOTE: You cannot use Citrix templates in conjunction with Network Connect.
To create a resource profile using the Citrix template:
1. Navigate to the Users > Resource Profiles > Web Applications/Pages page in
the admin console.
2. Click New Profile.
3. Select Citrix Web Interface/JICA from the Type list.
4. Enter a unique name and optionally a description for the Citrix resource profile.
5. In the Web Interface (NFuse) URL field, enter the URL of the Citrix resource to
which you want to control access using the format:
[protocol://]host[:port][/path]. For instance, enter the URL of an NFuse server,
the Web interface for a Citrix Metaframe Presentation Server, or a Web servers
from which the IVE can download Citrix Java applets or Citrix cab files. (The
IVE uses the specified URL to define the default bookmark for the Citrix
resource profile.) You may enter a directory URL or a file URL. For detailed
guidelines on how to format Web resources, see “Defining base URLs” on
page 290.
6. Specify which type of Citrix implementation you are using in your environment
by selecting one of the following options:
„
Java ICA Client with Web Interface (NFuse)—Select this option if you
have deployed Citrix using Java ICA clients and the Citrix Web Interface for
MPS (i.e., NFuse).
„
Java ICA Client without Web Interface (NFuse)—Select this option if you
have deployed Citrix using Java ICA clients without the Citrix Web Interface
for MPS (i.e., NFuse).
„
Non-Java ICA Client with Web Interface (NFuse)—Select this option if
you have deployed Citrix using non-Java ICA clients and the Citrix Web
Interface for MPS (i.e., NFuse).
„
Non-Java ICA Client without Web Interface (NFuse)—(Read only) If you
have deployed a non-Java ICA client without the Citrix Web Interface for
MPS (i.e., NFuse), you cannot create a Citrix resource profile through this
template. Instead, click the client application profile link beneath this
option. The link brings you to the Client Application Profiles page, where
you can create a SAM resource profile. For instructions, see “Specifying
applications and servers for WSAM to secure” on page 405.
7. From the Web Interface (NFuse) version list, select which Citrix version you
are using. (The IVE uses this value to pre-populate the Forms POST SSO values
in your single sign-on autopolicy. For more information, see “Specifying
remote SSO autopolicy options” on page 294.)
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8. In the MetaFrame servers section, specify the Metaframe Servers to which you
want to control access and click Add. When specifying servers, you can enter
wildcards or IP ranges.
The IVE uses the values that you enter to automatically create a corresponding
resource policy that enables access to the necessary resources. For instance, if
you choose a Java ICA client option above, the IVE creates a corresponding Java
ACL resource policy that enables Java applets to connect to the specified
Metaframe servers. If you choose the non-Java ICA client option above, the IVE
creates a corresponding SAM resource policy that enables users to access the
specified Metaframe servers.
9. (Java ICA clients only) If you have deployed Citrix using a Java ICA Client, select
the Sign applets with code-signing certificate checkbox to resign the specified
resources using the certificate uploaded through the System > Configuration
> Certificates > Code-signing Certificates page of the admin console. (For
instructions, see “Using code-signing certificates” on page 623.)
When you select this option, the IVE uses all of the “allow” values that you
enter in the resource profile’s Web access control autopolicy to automatically
create a corresponding code-signing resource policy. Within this policy, the IVE
uses the specified Web resources to create a list of trusted servers.
10. (Non-Java ICA clients only) If you have deployed Citrix using a non-Java ICA
Client with a Web interface, you must use the Secure Application Manager or
Network Connect to secure traffic to your Metaframe servers instead of the
Content Intermediation Engine. To secure traffic through Network Connect, see
instructions in “Network Connect” on page 521.
To secure traffic through the Secure Application Manager, select one of the
following options in the ICA Client Access section:
„
ICA client connects over WSAM—Select this option to secure traffic using
WSAM instead of the Content Intermediation Engine.
„
ICA client connects over JSAM—Select this option to secure traffic using
JSAM instead of the Content Intermediation Engine. When you select this
option, the IVE automatically launches JSAM when a user connects to the
Web interface server that you define.
After you select ICA client connects over JSAM, configure the following
options:
i.
Number of Metaframe servers—Specify the number of Metaframe
servers in your environment so the IVE can provision the correct
number of loopback IP addresses for your configuration. (For instance,
if you have five Metaframe servers and two ports, the IVE opens ten
loopback IP addresses.) For more information about loopback
addresses, see “Assigning IP loopback addresses to servers” on
page 421.
ii.
Citrix Ports—Specify the ports on which the Metaframe servers listen.
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When you enable intermediation through WSAM or JSAM using these options,
the IVE automatically enables the Secure Application Manager option on the
Users > User Roles > Select Role > General > Overview page of the admin
console.
NOTE: You cannot enable WSAM and JSAM for the same role. Therefore, if you try
to create a Citrix resource profile that uses one of these access mechanisms (for
instance, JSAM) and another profile associated with role already uses the other
access mechanism (for instance, WSAM), the IVE does not enable the new access
mechanism (JSAM) for the role. Also note that you can only use WSAM or JSAM to
configure access to one Citrix application per user role.
11. In the Autopolicy: Web Access Control section, create a policy that allows or
denies users access to the resource specified in the Web Interface (NFuse)
URL field. (By default, the IVE automatically creates a policy for you that
enables access to the resource and all of its sub-directories.) For more detailed
instructions, see “Defining a Web access control autopolicy” on page 290.
12. If you selected one of the Web interface options in above, update the SSO
policy created by the Citrix template in the Autopolicy: Single Sign on section.
(Single sign-on autopolicies configure the IVE to automatically pass IVE data
such as usernames and passwords to the Citrix application. The IVE
automatically adds the most commonly used values to the single sign-on
autopolicy based on the Citrix implementation you choose.)
At minimum, you need to select the Autopolicy: Single Sign on checkbox,
double-click the Value in the Domain column, fill in the appropriate domain,
and click the check mark on the right side of the column. For more detailed
instructions, see “Specifying remote SSO autopolicy options” on page 294.
Or, if you selected the non-Web interface option, you may optionally create
your own single sign-on autopolicy using instructions in “Defining a single signon autopolicy” on page 292.
13. Click Save and Continue.
14. In the Roles tab, select the roles to which the Citrix resource profile applies and
click Add.
The selected roles inherit the autopolicies and bookmarks created by the Citrix
resource profile. If it is not already enabled, the IVE also automatically enables
the Web option in the Users > User Roles > Select Role > General >
Overview page of the admin console and the Allow Java Applets option Users
> User Roles > Select Role > Web > Options page of the admin console for
all of the roles you select.
15. Click Save Changes.
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16. (Optional) In the Bookmarks tab, modify the default bookmark created by the
IVE and/or create new ones using instructions in “Defining a Web bookmark”
on page 305. (By default, the IVE creates a bookmark to the Web interface
(NFuse) URL defined in the Web Interface (NFuse) URL field and displays it to
all users assigned to the role specified in the Roles tab.)
Defining resource profiles: Microsoft OWA
A Microsoft Outlook Web Access (OWA) template is a resource profile that controls
access to the application and configures OWA settings as necessary. OWA
templates significantly reduce your configuration time by consolidating
configuration settings into one place and by pre-populating a variety of resource
policy settings for you depending on the type of setup you select.
The pre-populated values vary depending on the version of OWA you select and are
based on the most common deployment of the servers.
To create a resource profile using the Microsoft OWA template:
1. Navigate to the Users > Resource Profiles > Web Applications/Pages page in
the admin console.
2. Click New Profile.
3. Select Microsoft OWA 2000 or Microsoft OWA 2003 from the Type list.
4. Enter a unique name and optionally a description for the Citrix resource profile.
5. In the Base URL field, enter the URL of the OWA resource to which you want to
control access using the format: [protocol://]host[:port][/path]. The IVE uses the
specified URL to define the default bookmark for the OWA resource profile.
You may enter a directory URL or a file URL. For detailed guidelines on how to
format Web resources, see “Defining base URLs” on page 290.
6. Select Allow caching on client to let Web browsers store non-user data, such
as Javascript and CSS files, on a user’s machine. Select Minimize caching on
client to allow the IVE to send a cache-control:no-store header or a cachecontrol:no-cache header based on the user’s Web browser and content type.
This is the same as smart caching.
The Allow caching on client option caches content the backend OWA server
typically caches. This caching option improves performance by using the
cached content instead of retrieving the content from the server the next time
the page displays. The Minimize caching on client option provides security by
sending a cache-control:no-store header or a cache-control:no-cache header to
either not store content or to re-validate the cached content each time it is
requested. With both caching option, you can choose to either allow or prevent
the uploading or downloading of attachments.
7. Select Prevent download of attachments to prohibit users from downloading
attachments to their systems. Select Prevent upload of attachments to
prevent users from transmitting (uploading) attachments to the IVE.
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8. In the Autopolicy: Web Access Control section, create a policy that allows or
denies users access to the Web resource (and all of its sub-directories) listed in
the Resource field.
a.
in the Resource field, specify the Web server or HTML page to which you
want to control access using the format: [protocol://]host[:port][/path]. For
detailed guidelines, see “Defining Web resources” on page 291.
b. From the Action list, choose Allow to enable access to the specified
resource or Deny to block access to the specified resource.
c.
Click Add.
9. In the Autopolicy: Caching section, specify the resources to which this policy
applies in the Resource field. To create the caching autopolicy, follow the
instructions in “Defining a caching autopolicy” on page 296.
10. In the Autopolicy: Web Compression section, create a policy that specify
which types of Web data the IVE should and should not compress.
a.
In the Resources field, specify the resources to which this policy applies.
For detailed guidelines, see “Defining Web resources” on page 291.
b. Select one of the following options from the Action list:
c.
‰
Compress—The IVE compresses the supported content types from the
specified resource.
‰
Do not compress—The IVE does not compress the supported content
types from the specified resource.
Click Add.
11. Select the Autopolicy: Single Sign-On checkbox to pass IVE data such as the
username and password to the OWA application. To create the single sign-on
autopolicy, follow the instructions in “Defining a single sign-on autopolicy” on
page 292.
12. Click Save and Continue.
13. In the Roles tab, select the roles to which the resource profile applies and click
Add.
The selected roles inherit the autopolicies and bookmarks created by the
Microsoft OWA resource profile. If it is not already enabled, the IVE also
automatically enables the Web option in the Users > User Roles > Select Role
> General > Overview page of the admin console.
14. Click Save Changes.
15. (Optional) In the Bookmarks tab, modify the default bookmark created by the
IVE and/or create new ones using instructions in “Defining a Web bookmark”
on page 305.
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Defining resource profiles: Lotus iNotes
A Lotus iNotes template is a resource profile that controls access to the web
application and configures iNotes settings as necessary. Lotus iNotes templates
significantly reduce your configuration time by consolidating configuration settings
into one place and by pre-populating a variety of resource policy settings for you
depending on the type of setup you select.
The pre-populated values vary depending on the version of iNotes you select and
are based on the most common deployment of the servers.
To create a resource profile using the Lotus iNotes template:
1. Navigate to the Users > Resource Profiles > Web Applications/Pages page in
the admin console.
2. Click New Profile.
3. Select the Lotus Notes version from the Type list.
4. Enter a unique name and optionally a description for the Lotus Notes resource
profile.
5. In the Base URL field, enter the URL of the Lotus iNotes resource to which you
want to control access using the format: [protocol://]host[:port][/path]. The IVE
uses the specified URL to define the default bookmark for the Lotus iNotes
resource profile. You may enter a directory URL or a file URL. For detailed
guidelines on how to format Web resources, see “Defining base URLs” on
page 290.
6. Select Allow caching on client to let Web browsers store non-user data, such
as Javascript and CSS files, on a user’s machine. Select Minimize caching on
client to allow the IVE to send a cache-control:no-store header or a cachecontrol:no-cache header based on the user’s Web browser and content type.
This is the same as smart caching. For more information, see “Defining
resource policies: Caching” on page 332.
The Allow caching on client option caches content the backend iNotes server
typically caches. This caching option improves performance by using the
cached content instead of retrieving the content from the server the next time
the page displays. The Minimize caching on client option provides security by
sending a cache-control:no-store header or a cache-control:no-cache header to
either not store content or to re-validate the cached content each time it is
requested. With both caching option, you can choose to either allow or prevent
the uploading or downloading of attachments.
7. Select Prevent download of attachments to prohibit users from downloading
attachments to their systems. Select Prevent upload of attachments (available
only for Lotus iNotes 6.5 and Lotus iNotes 7) to prevent users from transmitting
(uploading) attachments to the IVE.
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8. In the Autopolicy: Web Access Control section, create a policy that allows or
denies users access to the Web resource (and all of its sub-directories) listed in
the Resource field.
a.
in the Resource field, specify the Web server or HTML page to which you
want to control access using the format: [protocol://]host[:port][/path]. For
detailed guidelines, see “Defining Web resources” on page 291.
b. From the Action list, choose Allow to enable access to the specified
resource or Deny to block access to the specified resource.
c.
Click Add.
9. In the Autopolicy: Caching section, specify the resources to which this policy
applies in the Resource field. To create the caching autopolicy, follow the
instructions in “Defining a caching autopolicy” on page 296.
10. In the Autopolicy: Web Compression section, create a policy that specify
which types of Web data the IVE should and should not compress.
a.
In the Resources field, specify the resources to which this policy applies.
For detailed guidelines, see “Defining Web resources” on page 291.
b. Select one of the following options from the Action list:
c.
‰
Compress—The IVE compresses the supported content types from the
specified resource.
‰
Do not compress—The IVE does not compress the supported content
types from the specified resource.
Click Add.
11. Select the Autopolicy: Single Sign-On checkbox to pass IVE data such as the
username and password to the Lotus iNotes application. To create the single
sign-on autopolicy, follow the instructions in “Defining a single sign-on
autopolicy” on page 292.
12. Click Save and Continue.
13. In the Roles tab, select the roles to which the Lotus iNotes resource profile
applies and click Add.
The selected roles inherit the autopolicies and bookmarks created by the Lotus
iNotes resource profile. If it is not already enabled, the IVE also automatically
enables the Web option in the Users > User Roles > Select Role > General >
Overview page of the admin console.
14. Click Save Changes.
15. (Optional) In the Bookmarks tab, modify the default bookmark created by the
IVE and/or create new ones using instructions in “Defining a Web bookmark”
on page 305.
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Defining resource profiles: Microsoft Sharepoint
A Microsoft Sharepoint template is a resource profile that controls access to the
application and configures Sharepoint settings as necessary. Microsoft Sharepoint
templates significantly reduce your configuration time by consolidating
configuration settings into one place and by pre-populating a variety of resource
policy settings for you depending on the type of setup you select.
NOTE: In the current release, we support sending contact information from
Sharepoint to your Outlook client through the rewriter. Transferring the contact
information to the backend Exchange server requires WSAM, JSAM, or Network
Connect. To import contact information into the Sharepoint server from your
Outlook client, first export your contacts and then upload them to the Sharepoint
server.
To create a resource profile using the Microsoft Sharepoint template:
1. Navigate to the Users > Resource Profiles > Web Applications/Pages page in
the admin console.
2. Click New Profile.
3. Select Microsoft Sharepoint from the Type list.
4. Enter a unique name and optionally a description for the Sharepoint resource
profile.
5. In the Base URL field, enter the URL of the Sharepoint resource to which you
want to control access using the format: [protocol://]host[:port][/path]. The IVE
uses the specified URL to define the default bookmark for the Sharepoint
resource profile. You may enter a directory URL or a file URL. For detailed
guidelines on how to format Web resources, see “Defining base URLs” on
page 290.
6. In the Sharepoint Settings section, select Allow in-line editing of documents
within explorer view to allow users to modify files displayed in the explorer
view.
a.
Under Explorer View URL, click Add and enter the URL to the explorer
view page.
b. To order the resources in the list, select the checkbox next to an item and
then use the up and down arrows to move it to the correct place in the list.
c.
In the Persistent cookie timeout field, enter the number of minutes a
persistent cookie resides on a user’s computer before it expires.
Do not confuse this timeout field with Max. Session Length which
determines the number of minutes an active non-administrative user
session may remain open before ending. For more information on Max.
Session Length, see “Specifying session options” on page 57.
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7. In the Autopolicy: Web Access Control section, create a policy that allows or
denies users access to the Web resource (and all of its sub-directories) listed in
the Resource field.
a.
in the Resource field, specify the Web server or HTML page to which you
want to control access using the format: [protocol://]host[:port][/path]. For
detailed guidelines, see “Defining Web resources” on page 291.
b. From the Action list, choose Allow to enable access to the specified
resource or Deny to block access to the specified resource.
c.
Click Add.
8. (Optional) Click Show ALL autopolicy types to create additional autopolicies
that fine-tune access to the resource. Then, create the autopolicies using
instructions in the following sections:
„
“Defining a single sign-on autopolicy” on page 292
„
“Defining a caching autopolicy” on page 296
„
“Defining a rewriting autopolicy” on page 300
„
“Defining a Web compression autopolicy” on page 304
9. Click Save and Continue.
10. In the Roles tab, select the roles to which the resource profile applies and click
Add.
The selected roles inherit the autopolicies and bookmarks created by the
Microsoft Sharepoint resource profile. If it is not already enabled, the IVE also
automatically enables the Web option in the Users > User Roles > Select Role
> General > Overview page of the admin console.
11. Click Save Changes.
12. (Optional) In the Bookmarks tab, modify the default bookmark created by the
IVE and/or create new ones using instructions in “Defining a Web bookmark”
on page 305.
Defining role settings: Web URLs
You can use two different methods to create Web bookmarks:
„
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Create bookmarks through existing resource profiles (recommended)—
When you select this method, the IVE automatically populates the bookmark
with key parameters (such as the Web interface (NFuse) URL) using settings
from the resource profile. Additionally, while you are creating the associated
resource profile, the IVE guides you through the process of creating any
required policies to enable access to the bookmark. For configuration
instructions, see “Creating bookmarks through existing resource profiles” on
page 317.
Chapter 13: Web rewriting
„
Create standard bookmarks—When you select this option, you must manually
enter all bookmark parameters during configuration. Additionally, you must
enable access to the Web feature and create resource policies that enable
access to the Web sites defined in the bookmark (as explained in “Task
summary: Configuring the Web rewriting feature” on page 282). For
configuration instructions, see “Creating standard Web bookmarks” on
page 317.
This section contains information about configuring bookmarks using both of these
methods. This section also contains information about defining general role-level
settings for the Web rewriting feature. For configuration instructions, see
“Specifying general Web browsing options” on page 319.
Creating bookmarks through existing resource profiles
To associate a bookmark with an existing resource profile:
1. Navigate to the Users > User Roles > Select Role > Web > Bookmarks page
of the admin console.
2. Click New Bookmark.
3. From the Type list, choose Pick a Web Resource Profile.
NOTE: The IVE does not display this option if have not already created a Web
resource profile.
4. Select an existing resource profile.
5. Click OK. (If you have not already associated the selected role with the resource
profile, the IVE automatically makes the association for you.)
6. Click Save Changes or Save + New to add another.
7. (Optional) to change the properties of the bookmark, click the link in the
Resource column of the role page. Then, click the bookmark link in the
resource profile page and update the bookmark’s settings using instructions in
“Defining a Web bookmark” on page 305.
Creating standard Web bookmarks
NOTE: Information in this section is provided for backwards compatibility. We
recommend that you configure access to Web URLs and servers through resource
profiles instead, since they provide a simpler, more unified configuration method.
For more information, see “Defining resource profiles: Custom Web applications”
on page 288 and “Defining resource profiles: Citrix Web applications” on
page 307.
Use the Bookmarks tab to create bookmarks that appear on the welcome page for
users mapped to this role. You can create two types of bookmarks through this
page:
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„
Web URL bookmarks—These bookmarks link the user to Web URLs on the
World Wide Web or on your corporate Intranet. When you create Web
bookmarks, you can insert the user’s IVE username in the URL path to provide
single sign-on access to back-end Web applications. For Web bookmark
configuration instructions, see the instructions that follow.
„
Java applet bookmarks—These bookmarks link the user to a Java applets that
you upload to the IVE through the Users > Resource Profiles > Web >
Hosted Java Applets page of the admin console. For Java applet bookmark
configuration instructions, see “Defining resource profiles: Hosted Java applets”
on page 362.
When you create either of these bookmark types, the corresponding links appear
on the welcome page for users mapped to this role.
To create a bookmark to a Web resource:
1. In the admin console, choose Users > User Roles > Role > Web >
Bookmarks.
2. Click New Bookmark.
3. Enter a name and description for the bookmark (optional). This information
displays on the IVE home page instead of the URL.
4. Select Web URL.
5. Enter the URL to bookmark. If you want to insert the user’s username, enter
<username> at the appropriate place in the URL. For information about
additional system variables and attributes that you can include in the
bookmark, see “Using system variables in realms, roles, and resource policies”
on page 869.
NOTE: Make sure to enter a unique URL in this field. If you create two bookmarks
with the same URL, the IVE deletes one of the bookmarks from the end-user view.
You will still be able to see both bookmarks, however, in the administrator
console.
6. Under Auto-allow, click Auto-allow Bookmark to enable the IVE to
automatically create a corresponding Web access resource policy. Note that
this functionality applies only to role bookmarks and not bookmarks created by
users. Next, select:“Defining role settings: Web URLs” on page 316
„
Only this URL to allow users to access only the URL.
„
Everything under this URL to allow the user to access any path under the
URL.
NOTE: You may not see the Auto-allow option if you are using a new installation
or if an administrator hides the option. For more information on this option, see
“Setting system options” on page 575.
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7. Under Display options, click Open bookmark in a new window to enable the
IVE to automatically open the Web resource in a new browser window. Note
that this functionality applies only to role bookmarks and not bookmarks
created by users. Next, select:
„
Do not display the URL address bar if you want to remove the address
bar from the browser window. This feature forces all Web traffic through
the IVE by precluding users in the specified role from typing a new URL in
the address bar, which circumvents the IVE.
„
Do not display the menu and the toolbar to remove the menu and
toolbar from the browser. This feature removes all menus, browsing
buttons, and bookmarks from the browser window so that the user
browses only through the IVE.
8. Click Save Changes or Save + New to add another.
Specifying general Web browsing options
The IVE enables you to configure a wide-variety of Web browsing options for a user
role. This section includes instructions for configuring basic Web browsing options
and advanced Web browsing options.
Configuring basic Web browsing options
To configure basic Web browsing options for a role:
1. In the admin console, choose Users > User Roles > RoleName > Web >
Options.
2. Select User can type URLs in IVE browse bar if you want to enable users to
enter URLs on the welcome page and browse to Internet sites.
3. Select User can add bookmarks if you want to enable users to create personal
Web bookmarks on the IVE welcome page.
4. Select Mask hostnames while browsing if you want the IVE to obscure the
target resources in the URLs to which users browse. When you select this
option, the IVE masks IP addresses and host names in the user’s:
„
Web browser address bar (when the user navigates to a page)
„
Web browser status bar (when a user hovers over a hyperlink)
„
HTML source files (when the user chooses to View Source)
The host name encoding feature (also called host name obfuscation or URL
obfuscation) prevents casual observers from noting the URL of an internal
resource by obscuring the target server within the URL without masking the full
path name, target file, or port number. For example, if a user navigates to
www.msn.com without selective rewriting or host name encoding enabled, the
IVE displays an un-obscured URL in his Web browser’s address bar:
http://www.msn.com/
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If you then enable selective rewriting, the IVE might display the following URL:
https://mycompanyserver.com/,DanaInfo=www.msn.com,SSO=U+
If you then enable host name encoding, and the same user navigates to the
same site, he sees a URL in which the host name (www.msn.com) is obscured:
https://i5.asglab.juniper.net/,DanaInfo=.awxyCqxtGkxw,SSO=U+
Host name encoding uses a lightweight reversible algorithm so that users can
bookmark encoded URLs. (The IVE can translate the encoded URL and resolve
it back to the original URL.) For compatibility, previously created bookmarks to
unmasked URLs continue to work when host name encoding is enabled.
NOTE:
„
If you enable selective rewriting and host name encoding, the IVE only
obscures the host names and IP addresses of those servers that you have
chosen to rewrite using the selective rewrite feature.
„
If you enable the framed toolbar and host name encoding, the IVE does not
obscure host names that the user enters in the framed toolbar’s browse field.
„
The IVE does not obscure host names and IP addresses in log entries,
including host name encoding log entries.
5. Click Save Changes.
Configuring advanced Web browsing options
To configure advanced Web browsing options for a role:
1. In the admin console, choose Users > User Roles > RoleName > Web >
Options.
2. Select the View advanced options checkbox.
3. Select Allow Java applets if you want to enable users to browse to Web pages
containing client-side Java applets. The IVE server appears to the application
server as a browser over SSL. The IVE transparently handles any HTTP requests
and TCP connections initiated by a Java applet and handles signed Java applets.
If you enable this feature, users can launch Java applets and run applications
that are implemented as client-side Java applets, such as the Virtual Computing
(VNC) Java client, Citrix NFuse Java client, WRQ Reflections Web client, and
Lotus WebMail. For more information, see “Defining a Java access control
autopolicy” on page 298.
4. Select Allow Flash content to enable the IVE to intermediate Flash content
through its Content Intermediation Engine. Note that IVE provides limited
support for ActionScript 2.0 and Flash Remoting, and does not support
XMLSocket connections.
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5. Select Persistent cookies to enable users to customize their browsing
experiences by enabling them to keep persistent cookies. By default, the IVE
flushes Web cookies that are stored during a user session. A user can delete
cookies through the Advanced Preferences page if you enable this option.
6. Select Unrewritten pages open in new window to configure the IVE to open
content in a new browser window when a user access a un-rewritten Web
page. Opening content in a new windows can help remind users that they still
have a secure session. When a user request is made to a resource to which this
option applies, the IVE displays a page that contains a link to the requested
resource and directs the users to click on the link. This link opens the resource
in a new browser window and the page from which the request originates
continues to display in the IVE.
If you un-check this box, users might not realize that their IVE session is still
active and that to return to the IVE, they need to use the browser’s Back
button. Users must return to the IVE to sign out. If they simply close the
browser window, their sessions remain active until the session time limit
expires.
7. Select Allow browsing untrusted SSL Web servers to enable users to access
untrusted Web sites through the IVE. Untrusted Web sites are those whose
server certificates are not installed through the System > Configuration >
Certificates > Trusted Servers CAs tab of the admin console. For more
information, see “Using trusted server CAs” on page 621.
If you enable this option, you can specify what choices the IVE gives users
when they navigate to an untrusted Web site:
„
Warn users about the certificate problems—If enabled, the IVE displays a
warning to the user when he first accesses an untrusted Web site telling
him why the site’s certificate is untrusted and allowing him to either
continue or cancel. If the user chooses to continue after the IVE displays a
warning, the IVE does not display any more warnings for that site during
the current IVE session.
NOTE: If you select the Warn users about the certificate problems option and the
user accesses non-HTML content (such as images, js, and css) served from a
different SSL server than the HTML page, the page containing the links may not
display correctly. You can avoid this problem either by deselecting this option or
by uploading a valid production SSL certificate on the servers that serve the nonHTML content.
Defining role settings: Web URLs
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„
Allow users to bypass warnings on a server-by-server basis—If enabled,
the IVE allows the user to suppress all further warnings for an untrusted
Web site. If a user chooses this option, he never sees a warning for this site
again, provided that he accesses it from the current IVE or cluster.
NOTE: If you choose to allow users to access untrusted Web sites without seeing a
warning, the IVE still logs a message to the user access log whenever a user
navigates to an untrusted site. Also note that if a user chooses to suppress
warnings, he can clear the persistent settings of the untrusted Web sites using the
Delete Passwords option in the System > Preferences > Advanced tab in the
end user console.
8. Select Rewrite file:// URLs to configure the IVE to rewrite file:// URLs so that
they are routed through the IVE’s file browsing CGI.
9. Select Rewrite links in PDF files to configure the IVE to rewrite hyperlinks in
PDFs.
10. Under HTTP Connection Timeout, accept the default value or set the duration
to tell the IVE how long to wait for a response from an HTTP server before
timing out and closing the connection. Use values from 30 to 1800 seconds.
NOTE: Higher timeout values might exhaust IVE resources if applications do not
close connections properly or take too long to close the connections. Unless an
application requires a higher timeout value, we recommend accepting the default
value.
11. Click Save Changes.
Defining resource policies: Overview
When you enable the Web access feature for a role, you need to create resource
policies that specify which resources a user can access, whether or not the IVE
needs to rewrite the content requested by the user, and caching, applet, or single
sign-on requirements. For every Web request, the IVE first evaluates the rewriting
policies you configure1. If the user’s request is to a resource specified as “don’t
rewrite” due to either a selective rewriting or pass-through proxy resource policy,
then the IVE forwards the user’s request to the appropriate back-end resource.
Otherwise, the IVE continues to evaluate those resource policies corresponding to
the request, such as Java resource policies for a request to fetch a Java applet. After
matching a user’s request to a resource listed in a relevant policy, the IVE performs
the action specified for the resource.
You can create resource policies through the standard interface (as described in this
section) or through resource profiles (recommended method).
1. If you do not configure “rewriting” resource policies, then the IVE continues the evaluation process using the
policies that apply to the user request.
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Chapter 13: Web rewriting
When writing a Web resource policy, you need to supply key information:
„
Resources—A resource policy must specify one or more resources to which the
policy applies. When writing a Web policy, you need to specify Web servers or
specific URLs, as explained in the section that follows.
„
Roles—A resource policy must specify the roles to which it applies. When a
user makes a request, the IVE determines what policies apply to the role and
then evaluates those policies that correspond to the request.
„
Actions—Each type of resource policy performs a certain action, which is
either to allow or deny a resource or to perform or not perform some function,
such as rewrite content, re-sign an applet, or post Web data. You can also write
detailed rules that apply more conditions to a user request. See “Writing a
detailed rule” on page 88.
The IVE platform’s engine that evaluates resource policies requires that the
resources listed in a policy’s Resources list follow a canonical format, as explained
in “Specifying resources for a resource policy” on page 83.
This section outlines special considerations you must consider when specifying a
Web resource using the canonical format.
Canonical format:
[protocol://]host[:ports][/path]
The four components are:
„
Protocol (optional)—Possible values: http and https (case-insensitive)
If the protocol is missing, then both http and https are assumed. If a protocol is
specified, then the delimiter “://” is required. No special characters are
allowed.
„
Host (required)—Possible values:
„
DNS Hostname—For example: www.juniper.com
Special characters allowed are described in the following table:
Table 23: DNS hostname special characters
*
Matches ALL characters
%
Matches any character except dot (.)
?
Matches exactly one character
„
IP address/Netmask—The IP address needs to be in the format: a.b.c.d
The netmask can be in one of two formats:
‰
Prefix: High order bits
‰
IP: a.b.c.d
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For example: 10.11.149.2/24 or 10.11.149.2/255.255.255.0
No special characters are allowed.
„
Ports—You must specify a port when specifying IP/netmask as a resource. The
port is optional when specifying a DNS host name. If a port is specified, then
the delimiter “:” is required. For example: 10.11.149.2/255.255.255.0:*
Table 24: Port possible values
*
Matches ALL ports; no other special characters are allowed
port[,port]*
A comma-delimited list of single ports. Valid port numbers are [165535].
[port1]-[port2]
A range of ports, from port1 to port2, inclusive.
NOTE: You can mix port lists and port ranges, such as: 80,443,8080-8090
If the port is missing, then the default port 80 is assigned for http, 443 for https.
„
Path (optional)—If the path is missing, then star (*) is assumed, meaning ALL
paths match. If a path is specified, then the delimiter “/” is required. No other
special characters are supported. For example:
„
http://www.juniper.com:80/*
„
https://www.juniper.com:443/intranet/*
„
*.yahoo.com:80,443/*
„
%.danastreet.net:80/share/users/<username>/*
Defining resource policies: Web access
Web access resource policies control which Web resources users can access in
order to connect to the Internet, intranet, or extranet. You can deny or allow access
to Web resources by URL or IP range. For URLs, you can use the “*” and “?”
wildcards to efficiently specify multiple host names and paths. For resources that
you specify by host name, you can also choose either HTTP, HTTPS, or both
protocols.
To write a Web Access resource policy:
1. In the admin console, choose Users > Resource Policies > Web > Access >
Web ACL.
2. On the Web Access Policies page, click New Policy.
3. On the New Policy page, enter:
a.
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A name to label this policy.
Chapter 13: Web rewriting
b. A description of the policy (optional).
4. In the Resources section, specify the resources to which this policy applies. See
“Specifying resources for a resource policy” on page 83 for more information.
To enable IP-based or case sensitivity matching for these resources, see
“Defining resource policies: General options” on page 355.
5. In the Roles section, specify:
„
Policy applies to ALL roles—To apply this policy to all users.
„
Policy applies to SELECTED roles—To apply this policy only to users who
are mapped to roles in the Selected roles list. Make sure to add roles to this
list from the Available roles list.
„
Policy applies to all roles OTHER THAN those selected below —To apply
this policy to all users except for those who map to the roles in the Selected
roles list. Make sure to add roles to this list from the Available roles list.
6. In the Action section, specify:
„
Allow access—To grant access to the resources specified in the Resources
list.
„
Deny access—To deny access to the resources specified in the Resources
list.
„
Use Detailed Rules—To specify one or more detailed rules for this policy.
See “Writing a detailed rule” on page 88 for more information.
7. Click Save Changes.
8. On the Web Access Policies page, order the policies according to how you
want the IVE to evaluate them. Keep in mind that once the IVE matches the
resource requested by the user to a resource in a policy’s (or a detailed rule’s)
Resource list, it performs the specified action and stops processing policies.
For an example Web resource policy, see the figures in “Defining resource policies:
Overview” on page 322.
Defining resource policies: Single sign-on
Single sign-on policies enable you to automatically pass user credentials to the Web
application specified in your policy. You can configure single sign-on policies to
intercept basic authentication and NTLM challenges, display an intermediate sign-in
page to collect credentials for the Web resource, and then rewrite the credentials
along with the entire challenge/response sequence. Or, you can post the credentials
and headers that you specify to the Web application.
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This section contains the following instructions for creating single sign-on resource
policies:
„
“Writing a Basic Authentication or NTLM Intermediation resource policy” on
page 326
„
“Writing a remote SSO Form POST resource policy” on page 328
„
“Writing a remote SSO Headers/Cookies resource policy” on page 330
Writing a Basic Authentication or NTLM Intermediation resource policy
Basic Authentication or NTLM Intermediation resource policies enable you to
control NTLM intermediation on the IVE. If a user accesses a Web resource that
sends a basic authentication challenge, the IVE can intercept the challenge, display
an intermediate sign-in page to collect credentials for the Web resource, and then
rewrite the credentials along with the entire challenge/response sequence.
To write a Basic Authentication or NTLM Intermediation resource policy:
1. In the admin console, navigate to Users > Resource Policies > Web.
2. If your administrator view is not already configured to show SSO policies, make
the following modifications:
a.
Click the Customize button in the upper right corner of the page.
b. Select the SSO checkbox.
c.
Select the Basic Auth/NTLM checkbox below the SSO checkbox.
d. Click OK.
3. Select the SSO > Basic Auth/NTLM tab.
4. On the Basic Auth and NTLM policies page, click New Policy.
5. On the New Policy page, enter a name to label this policy (required) and a
description of the policy (optional).
6. In the Resources section, specify the resources to which this policy applies. See
“Specifying resources for a resource policy” on page 83 for more information.
To enable IP-based or case sensitivity matching for these resources, see
“Defining resource policies: General options” on page 355.
NOTE: If you want the IVE to automatically post values to a specific URL when an
end-user clicks on an IVE bookmark, the resource that you enter here must
exactly match the URL that you specify in the Users > User Roles > Role > Web
> Bookmarks page of the admin console.
7. In the Roles section, specify:
„
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Policy applies to ALL roles—To apply this policy to all users.
Defining resource policies: Single sign-on
Chapter 13: Web rewriting
„
Policy applies to SELECTED roles—To apply this policy only to users who
are mapped to roles in the Selected roles list. Make sure to add roles to this
list from the Available roles list.
„
Policy applies to all roles OTHER THAN those selected below—To apply
this policy to all users except for those who map to the roles in the Selected
roles list. Make sure to add roles to this list from the Available roles list.
8. In the Action section, specify:
„
Basic—This option specifies that the IVE use the Basic Authentication
Intermediation method to control SSO behavior.
‰
Enable Intermediation—When you select this option, you must also
specify the type of Basic Authentication Intermediation: Use System
Credentials for SSO, Use Specified Credentials for SSO, or Disable
SSO. These three options are described under the NTLM item, below.
‰
Disable Intermediation—When you select this option, The IVE does
not intermediate the challenge/response sequence.
NOTE:
„
The IVE always intermediates requests to Web proxies that require basic
authentication, even if you select Disable Intermediation.
„
Although you are given an option to disable basic authentication
intermediation, we do not recommend this option, as it is a very insecure
authentication method and, in some cases, can transmit user credentials over
the network in clear (unencrypted) text.
„
NTLM—This option specifies that the IVE use the Microsoft NTLM
Intermediation method to control SSO behavior.
‰
Use System Credentials for SSO—The IVE intermediates the
challenge/response sequence, caches the credentials it collects, and
uses them to enable single sign-on based on any system credentials
you have previously configured on the IVE.
‰
Use Specified Credentials for SSO—The IVE intermediates the
challenge/response sequence, caches the credentials it collects, and
uses them to enable single sign-on. When you select this option, you
must also specify the following Intermediation credential parameters:
Username—Specifies the SSO user name that the IVE uses to validate
sign-in credentials.
Variable password—Specifies the SSO variable password that the IVE
uses to validate sign-in credentials. The variable password is the text,
“<PASSWORD>” and means that the IVE uses the user’s sign-in
password as the authentication method when presenting credentials
for SSO.
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Password—Specifies the static SSO password that the IVE uses to
validate sign-in credentials. For example, you can specify a password
like “open_sesame” that the IVE automatically presents to the
authentication server when intermediating user credentials.
Domain—Specifies the domain name. Use the <userDN.DC> variable if
you are using an LDAP server. The IVE populates this variable with the
domain name. If left blank, the IVE sends the domain returned from
the NTLM challenge to the server as part of the NTLM response.
‰
„
Disable SSO—The IVE disables automatic SSO authentication for this
user role and, instead, prompts the user for sign-in credentials.
Use Detailed Rules—To specify one or more detailed rules for this policy.
See “Writing a detailed rule” on page 88 for more information.
9. Click Save Changes.
10. On the Basic Auth and NTLM policies page, order the policies according to
how you want the IVE to evaluate them. Keep in mind that once the IVE
matches the resource requested by the user to a resource in a policy’s (or a
detailed rule’s) Resource list, it performs the specified action and stops
processing policies.
For an example Web resource policy, see the figures in “Defining resource policies:
Overview” on page 322.
Writing a remote SSO Form POST resource policy
Remote SSO Form POST resource policies specify Web applications to which the
IVE posts data. This data can include a user’s IVE username and password, as well
as system data stored by system variables. For more information, see “Remote
SSO overview” on page 285.
To write a remote SSO Form POST resource policy:
1. In the admin console, navigate to Users > Resource Policies > Web.
2. If your administrator view is not already configured to show SSO policies, make
the following modifications:
a.
Click the Customize button in the upper right corner of the page.
b. Select the SSO checkbox.
c.
Select the Form Post checkbox below the SSO checkbox.
d. Click OK.
3. Select the SSO> Form Post tab.
4. On the Form POST Policies page, click New Policy.
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Chapter 13: Web rewriting
5. On the New Policy page, enter a name to label this policy (required) and a
description of the policy (optional).
6. In the Resources section, specify the application’s sign-in page, such as:
http://yourcompany.com. See “Specifying resources for a resource policy” on
page 83 for more information. To enable IP-based or case sensitivity matching
for these resources, see “Defining resource policies: General options” on
page 355.
NOTE: If you want the IVE to automatically post values to a specific URL when an
end-user clicks on an IVE bookmark, the resource that you enter here must
exactly match the URL that you specify in the Users > User Roles > Role > Web
> Bookmarks page of the admin console.
7. In the Roles section, specify:
„
Policy applies to ALL roles—To apply this policy to all users.
„
Policy applies to SELECTED roles—To apply this policy only to users who
are mapped to roles in the Selected roles list. Make sure to add roles to this
list from the Available roles list.
„
Policy applies to all roles OTHER THAN those selected below—To apply
this policy to all users except for those who map to the roles in the Selected
roles list. Make sure to add roles to this list from the Available roles list.
8. In the Action section, specify:
„
Perform the POST defined below—The IVE performs a form POST with
the user data specified in the POST details section to the specified URL
when a user makes a request to a resource specified in the Resources list.
„
Do NOT perform the POST defined below—The IVE does not perform a
form POST with the user data specified in the POST details section.
„
Use Detailed Rules—To specify one or more detailed rules for this policy.
See “Writing a detailed rule” on page 88 for more information.
9. In the POST details section:
„
In the POST to URL field, specify the absolute URL where the application
posts the user’s credentials, such as: http://yourcompany.com/login.cgi. You
can determine the appropriate URL using a TCP dump or by viewing the
application’s sign-in page source and searching for the POST parameter in
the FORM tag. (The IVE does not accept wildcard characters in this field.)
„
Check Deny direct login for this resource if you do not want users to be
able to access the URL directly.
„
Select the Allow multiple POSTs to this resource checkbox if you want
the IVE to send POST and cookie values to the resource multiple times if
required. If you do not select this option, the IVE does not attempt single
sign-on when a user requests the same resource more than once during the
same session.
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„
Specify the user data to post and user modification permission:
‰
User label—The label that appears on a user’s Preferences page in the
IVE. This field is required if you either enable or require users to
modify data to post to back-end applications.
‰
Name—The name to identify the data of the Value field. (The back-end
application should expect this name.)
‰
Value—The value to post to the form for the specified Name. You can
enter static data, a system variable (see “System variables and
examples” on page 860 for a list of valid variables), or IVE session
variables containing username and password values (see “Multiple
sign-in credentials overview” on page 193 for more information).
‰
User modifiable? setting—Set to Not modifiable if you do not want
the user to be able to change the information in the Value field. Set to
User CAN change value if you want the user to have the option of
specifying data for a back-end application. Set to User MUST change
value if users must enter additional data in order to access a back-end
application. If you choose either of the latter settings, a field for data
entry appears on the user’s Advanced Preferences page in the IVE.
This field is labeled using the data you enter in the User label field. If
you enter a value in the Value field, this data appears in the field but is
editable.
10. Click Save Changes.
11. On the Form POST Policies page, order the policies according to how you want
the IVE to evaluate them. Keep in mind that once the IVE matches the resource
requested by the user to a resource in a policy’s (or a detailed rule’s) Resource
list, it performs the specified action and stops processing policies.
For an example Web resource policy, see the figures in “Defining resource policies:
Overview” on page 322.
Writing a remote SSO Headers/Cookies resource policy
Remote SSO Headers/Cookies resource policies specify customized Web
applications to which the IVE posts custom headers and cookies. For more
information, see “Remote SSO overview” on page 285.
NOTE: When creating a Headers/Cookies policy, note that the IVE does not parse
or “understand” the headers that you enter in this section. For instance, if you add
an Accept-Encoding: gzip or Accept-Encoding:deflate header, it does not mean that
the IVE can handle gzip content or deflated content.
To write a remote SSO Headers/Cookies resource policy:
1. In the admin console, navigate to Users > Resource Policies > Web.
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Chapter 13: Web rewriting
2. If your administrator view is not already configured to show SSO policies, make
the following modifications:
a.
Click the Customize button in the upper right corner of the page.
b. Select the SSO checkbox.
c.
Select the Headers/Cookies checkbox below the SSO checkbox.
d. Click OK.
3. Select the SSO > Headers/Cookies tab.
4. On the Headers/Cookies Policies page, click New Policy.
5. On the New Policy page, enter:
a.
A name to label this policy.
b. A description of the policy (optional).
6. In the Resources section, specify the resources to which this policy applies. See
“Specifying resources for a resource policy” on page 83 for more information.
To enable IP-based or case sensitivity matching for these resources, see
“Defining resource policies: General options” on page 355.
7. In the Roles section, specify:
„
Policy applies to ALL roles—To apply this policy to all users.
„
Policy applies to SELECTED roles—To apply this policy only to users who
are mapped to roles in the Selected roles list. Make sure to add roles to this
list from the Available roles list.
„
Policy applies to all roles OTHER THAN those selected below—To apply
this policy to all users except for those who map to the roles in the Selected
roles list. Make sure to add roles to this list from the Available roles list.
8. In the Action section, specify:
„
Append headers as defined below—The IVE posts the user data specified
in the POST details section to the specified URL when a user makes a
request to a resource specified in the Resources list.
„
Do NOT append headers as defined below—The IVE does not post the
user data specified in the POST details section to the specified URL when a
user makes a request to a resource specified in the Resources list.
„
Use Detailed Rules—To specify one or more detailed rules for this policy.
See “Writing a detailed rule” on page 88 for more information.
9. In the Headers and values section, specify the:
„
Header name—The text for the IVE to send as header data.
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Juniper Networks Secure Access Administration Guide
„
Value—The value for the specified header.
NOTE: If you need to forward a cookie to a backend server, you must set the
Header Name field to "Cookie" and the Value field to
"CookieName=CookieValue".
10. Click Save Changes.
11. On the Headers/Cookies Policies page, order the policies according to how you
want the IVE to evaluate them. Keep in mind that once the IVE matches the
resource requested by the user to a resource in a policy’s (or a detailed rule’s)
Resource list, it performs the specified action and stops processing policies.
For an example Web resource policy, see the figures in “Defining resource policies:
Overview” on page 322.
Defining resource policies: Caching
Caching resource policies control which Web content is cached on a user’s
machine.
This section contains the following information about caching policies:
„
“Writing a caching resource policy” on page 332
„
“Creating OWA and Lotus Notes caching resource policies” on page 335
„
“Specifying general caching options” on page 335
Writing a caching resource policy
To write a Web Caching resource policy:
1. In the admin console, navigate to Users > Resource Policies > Web.
2. If your administrator view is not already configured to show caching policies,
make the following modifications:
a.
Click the Customize button in the upper right corner of the page.
b. Select the Caching checkbox.
c.
Select the Policies checkbox below the Caching checkbox.
d. Click OK.
3. Select the Caching > Policies tab.
4. On the Web Caching Policies page, click New Policy.
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Chapter 13: Web rewriting
5. On the New Policy page, enter:
a.
A name to label this policy.
b. A description of the policy (optional).
6. In the Resources section, specify the resources to which this policy applies. See
“Writing a detailed rule” on page 88 for more information. To enable IP-based
or case sensitivity matching for these resources, see “Defining resource
policies: General options” on page 355.
7. In the Roles section, specify:
„
Policy applies to ALL roles—To apply this policy to all users.
„
Policy applies to SELECTED roles—To apply this policy only to users who
are mapped to roles in the Selected roles list. Make sure to add roles to this
list from the Available roles list.
„
Policy applies to all roles OTHER THAN those selected below—To apply
this policy to all users except for those who map to the roles in the Selected
roles list. Make sure to add roles to this list from the Available roles list.
8. In the Action section, select one of the following options:
„
Smart Caching (send headers appropriate for content and browser)—
Select this option to allow the IVE to send a cache-control:no-store header or
a cache-control:no-cache header based on the user’s Web browser and
content type.
When you select this option, the IVE makes media files and zip files work
properly by removing their origin server's cache-control headers. For
example, the following logic searches for “msie” or “windows-media-player”
in user-agent headers in order to remove cache or cache-control:no-store
response headers and make the files cacheable:
(if content type has "audio/x-pn-realaudio" OR
if content type begins with "video/" OR
if content type begins with "audio/" OR
if content type is "application/octet-stream" and the file extension begins
with "rm" or "ram"
)
If the IVE finds “msie” or “windows-media-player” in the user-agent header
and any of the following apply:
‰
Request is for Flash, .xls, .pps, .ppt files
‰
Content-type is application/, text/rtf, text/xml, model/
‰
Origin server sends a content-disposition header
then IVE sends the cache-control:no-store header and removes the origin
server's cache-control header.
Defining resource policies: Caching
„
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In all other cases, the IVE adds the pragma:no-cache or cache-control:nostore response headers.
NOTE: Citrix .ica and QuickPlace files get some special treatment. Citrix .ica files
are always cacheable and get cache-control-private as well. QuickPlace files that
do not match a specified rule files (which takes precedence) get CCNS and cachecontrol:private.
Also note that if you select this option, enable GZIP compression, and try to access
a text file attachment using Domino Web Access 6.5 through Internet Explorer,
you cannot open the attachment. To enable text attachments, you must either
install the Internet Explorer 323308 patch or enable the Don't Cache (send
"Cache Control: No Store") option.
„
Don't Cache (send "Cache Control: No Store")—Select this option to
deliver attachments to Internet Explorer without saving them to the disk.
(The browser temporarily writes files to the disk, but immediately removes
them once it has opened the file in the browser.) When you select this
option, the IVE removes the origin server's cache-control header and adds
a cache-control:no-store response header if the user-agent string sent by the
browser contains “msie” or “windows-media-player.”
This option might slow browsing by causing repeated content fetches,
which can cause performance issues on very slow connections.
Alternatively, you can specify a policy that allows certain kinds of content
to be cached, such as images that do not exceed a specified size limit.
„
Don't Cache (send "Pragma: No Cache")—Select this option to prevent
the user’s browser from caching files to the disk. When you select this
option, the IVE adds the standard HTTP pragma:no-cache header and cachecontrol:no-cache (CCNC) header (HTTP 1.1) to response files. Also, the IVE
does not forward the origin server's caching headers, such as age, date,
etag, last-modified, expires.
NOTE: When no-cache headers are present on certain types of attachments (PDF,
PPT, streaming files), Internet Explorer does not properly render the documents
because the rendering process requires the browser to temporarily writes these
files to cache.
„
Unchanged (do not add/modify caching headers)—The IVE does not add
the pragma:no-cache or cache-control:no-store response headers and
forwards the origin server's caching headers.
„
Use Detailed Rules—To specify one or more detailed rules for this policy.
See “Writing a detailed rule” on page 88 for more information.
9. Click Save Changes.
10. On the Web Caching Policies page, order the policies according to how you
want the IVE to evaluate them. Keep in mind that once the IVE matches the
resource requested by the user to a resource in a policy’s (or a detailed rule’s)
Resource list, it performs the specified action and stops processing policies.
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Chapter 13: Web rewriting
For an example Web resource policy, see the figures in “Defining resource policies:
Overview” on page 322.
Creating OWA and Lotus Notes caching resource policies
The following tables include examples of some of the content types that the IVE
supports with the Outlook Web Access (OWA) and Lotus iNotes applications.
Additionally, it specifies the cache control directives that you must implement in
Microsoft Internet Explorer in order to support opening and saving the specified
content types.
Note that for performance reasons, we recommend creating caching policies for
everything in the iNotes directory.
Table 25: OWA caching resource policies
Attachment type
To open the attachment, use:
To save the attachment, use:
zip
Cache
Smart caching
ppt
Smart caching
Smart caching
doc
Smart caching
Smart caching
xls
Smart caching
Smart caching
pdf
Smart caching
Smart caching
txt
Cache
Cache control: No store
html
Smart caching
Cache control: No store
Table 26: iNotes caching resource policies
Attachment type
To open the attachment, use:
To save the attachment, use:
zip
Cache control: No store
Cache control: No store
ppt
Cache control: No store
Cache control: No store
doc
Smart caching
Smart caching
xls
Cache control: No store
Cache control: No store
pdf
Cache control: No store
Cache control: No store
txt
Cache control: No store
Cache control: No store
html
Cache control: No store
Cache control: No store
other file types
Cache control: No store
Cache control: No store
Specifying general caching options
You can use caching options to specify the maximum image file size that is cached
on a client. If the content-type header from the origin server begins with "image/"
and the content-length header specifies a size less than the maximum size
configured for this option, then the IVE passes along the origin server's caching
headers. Otherwise, the IVE treats the request as though caching is disabled.
To specify caching options:
1. In the admin console, navigate to Users > Resource Policies > Web.
Defining resource policies: Caching
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2. If your administrator view is not already configured to show caching policies,
make the following modifications:
a.
Click the Customize button in the upper right corner of the page.
b. Select the Caching checkbox.
c.
Select the Options checkbox below the Caching checkbox.
d. Click OK.
3. Select the Caching > Options tab.
4. On the Caching Options page, specify a maximum allowable image size in the
Clients should cache all images less than field.
5. Click Save Changes.
Defining resource policies: External Java applets
This section contains the following information about rewriting Java applets on an
external server:
„
“Writing a Java access control resource policy” on page 336
„
“Writing a Java code signing resource policy” on page 338
NOTE: For information about hosting Java applets directly on the IVE, see “Hosted
Java applets” on page 357.
Writing a Java access control resource policy
Java access control resource policies control to which servers and ports Java applets
can connect.
To write a Java access control resource policy:
1. In the admin console, navigate to Users > Resource Policies > Web.
2. If your administrator view is not already configured to show java policies, make
the following modifications:
a.
Click the Customize button in the upper right corner of the page.
b. Select the Java checkbox.
c.
Select the Access Control checkbox below the Java checkbox.
d. Click OK.
3. Select the Java > Access Control tab.
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Chapter 13: Web rewriting
4. On the Java Access Policies page, click New Policy.
5. On the New Policy page, enter:
a.
A name to label this policy.
b. A description of the policy (optional).
6. In the Resources section, specify the resources to which this policy applies. See
“Specifying resources for a resource policy” on page 83 for more information.
To enable IP-based or case sensitivity matching for these resources, see
“Defining resource policies: General options” on page 355.
7. In the Roles section, specify:
„
Policy applies to ALL roles—To apply this policy to all users.
„
Policy applies to SELECTED roles—To apply this policy only to users who
are mapped to roles in the Selected roles list. Make sure to add roles to this
list from the Available roles list.
„
Policy applies to all roles OTHER THAN those selected below —To apply
this policy to all users except for those who map to the roles in the Selected
roles list. Make sure to add roles to this list from the Available roles list.
8. In the Action section, specify:
„
Allow socket access—To enable Java applets to connect to the servers
(and optionally ports) in the Resources list.
„
Deny socket access—To prevent Java applets from connecting to the
servers (and optionally ports) in the Resources list.
„
Use Detailed Rules—To specify one or more detailed rules for this policy.
See “Writing a detailed rule” on page 88 for more information.
9. Click Save Changes.
10. On the Java Access Policies page, order the policies according to how you want
the IVE to evaluate them. Keep in mind that once the IVE matches the resource
requested by the user to a resource in a policy’s (or a detailed rule’s) Resource
list, it performs the specified action and stops processing policies.
11. (Optional) To improve the performance of your Java applications:
a.
Select Enable Java instrumentation caching on the Maintenance >
System > Options page of the admin console. This option can improve
the performance of downloading Java applications. For more information,
see “Setting system options” on page 575.
b. After you finish configuring the IVE, cache your Java applet and access it as
end-user. This action eliminates the performance hit that occurs through
the intermediation engine when the first end-user accesses the applet.
Defining resource policies: External Java applets
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For an example Web resource policy, see the figures in “Defining resource policies:
Overview” on page 322.
Writing a Java code signing resource policy
Java code signing resource policies specify how the IVE rewrites Java applets. By
default, when the IVE intermediates a signed Java applet, it re-signs the applet with
its own certificate, which is not chained to a standard root certificate. When a user
requests an applet that performs potentially high-risk tasks, such as accessing
network servers, the user’s browser displays a security warning that the root is not
a trusted root. To forestall this warning, you can import a code-signing certificate
that the IVE uses to re-sign applets that it intermediates. For more information
about code-signing certificates, see “Using code-signing certificates” on page 623.
When configuring Java code signing resource policies, enter the servers from which
you trust applets. You can enter a server IP address or domain name. The IVE only
re-signs applets served by a trusted server. If a user requests an applet from server
not on the list, the IVE does not use the imported production certificates to sign the
applet, which means the user is prompted by the browser with a security warning.
For Sun JVM users, the IVE additionally checks that the root CA of the original
applet certificate is on its list of trusted root certificate authorities.
To write a Java code signing resource policy:
1. In the admin console, navigate to Users > Resource Policies > Web.
2. If your administrator view is not already configured to show java policies, make
the following modifications:
a.
Click the Customize button in the upper right corner of the page.
b. Select the Java checkbox.
c.
Select the Code-Signing checkbox below the Java checkbox.
d. Click OK.
3. Select the Java > Code-Signing tab.
4. On the Java Signing Policies page, click New Policy.
5. On the New Policy page, enter:
a.
A name to label this policy.
b. A description of the policy (optional).
6. In the Resources section, specify the resources to which this policy applies. See
“Specifying resources for a resource policy” on page 83 for more information.
To enable IP-based or case sensitivity matching for these resources, see
“Defining resource policies: General options” on page 355.
7. In the Roles section, specify:
„
338
„
Policy applies to ALL roles—To apply this policy to all users.
Defining resource policies: External Java applets
Chapter 13: Web rewriting
„
Policy applies to SELECTED roles—To apply this policy only to users who
are mapped to roles in the Selected roles list. Make sure to add roles to this
list from the Available roles list.
„
Policy applies to all roles OTHER THAN those selected below—To apply
this policy to all users except for those who map to the roles in the Selected
roles list. Make sure to add roles to this list from the Available roles list.
8. In the Action section, specify:
„
Resign applets using applet certificate—To enable Java applets to
connect to the servers (and optionally ports) in the Resources list.
„
Resign applets using default certificate—To prevent Java applets from
connecting to the servers (and optionally ports) in the Resources list.
„
Use Detailed Rules—To specify one or more detailed rules for this policy.
See “Writing a detailed rule” on page 88 for more information.
9. Click Save Changes.
10. On the Java Signing Policies page, order the policies according to how you
want the IVE to evaluate them. Keep in mind that once the IVE matches the
resource requested by the user to a resource in a policy’s (or a detailed rule’s)
Resource list, it performs the specified action and stops processing policies.
For an example Web resource policy, see the figures in “Defining resource policies:
Overview” on page 322.
Defining resource policies: Rewriting
Rewriting resource policies control which Web data the IVE rewrites or does not
rewrite through the Content Intermediation Engine. This section contains the
following information about creating rewriting resource policies:
„
“Creating a selective rewriting resource policy” on page 340
„
“Creating a pass-through proxy resource policy” on page 342
„
“Creating a custom header resource policy” on page 344
„
“Creating an ActiveX parameter resource policy” on page 346
„
“Restoring the default IVE ActiveX resource policies” on page 348
„
“Creating rewriting filters” on page 349
Defining resource policies: Rewriting
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Creating a selective rewriting resource policy
Selective rewriting resource policies enable you to define a list of hosts for which
you want the IVE to intermediate content as well as exceptions to this list. By
default, the IVE intermediates all user requests to Web hosts—unless you have
configured the IVE to serve requests to certain hosts using a different mechanism,
such as the Secure Application Manager.
Create a selective rewriting policy if you do not want the IVE to intermediate traffic
from Web sites that reside outside of the corporate network, such as yahoo.com, or
if you do not want the IVE to intermediate traffic for client/server applications you
have deployed as Web resources, such as Microsoft OWA (Outlook Web Access).
To write a selective rewriting resource policy:
1. In the admin console, navigate to Users > Resource Policies > Web.
2. If your administrator view is not already configured to show rewriting policies,
make the following modifications:
a.
Click the Customize button in the upper right corner of the page.
b. Select the Rewriting checkbox.
c.
Select the Selective Rewriting checkbox below the Rewriting checkbox.
d. Click OK.
3. Select the Rewriting > Selective Rewriting tab.
4. On the Web Rewriting Policies page, click New Policy.
5. On the New Policy page, enter:
a.
A name to label this policy.
b. A description of the policy (optional).
6. In the Resources section, specify the resources to which this policy applies. See
“Specifying resources for a resource policy” on page 83 for more information.
To enable IP-based or case sensitivity matching for these resources, see
“Defining resource policies: General options” on page 355.
7. In the Roles section, specify:
340
„
„
Policy applies to ALL roles—To apply this policy to all users.
„
Policy applies to SELECTED roles—To apply this policy only to users who
are mapped to roles in the Selected roles list. Make sure to add roles to this
list from the Available roles list.
„
Policy applies to all roles OTHER THAN those selected below—To apply
this policy to all users except for those who map to the roles in the Selected
roles list. Make sure to add roles to this list from the Available roles list.
Defining resource policies: Rewriting
Chapter 13: Web rewriting
8. In the Action section, specify:
„
Rewrite content—The IVE intermediates all Web content from the
resources specified in the Resources list.1
„
Rewrite content as...—The IVE intermediates all Web content from the
resources specified in the Resources list and rewrites the content as if it
were the file type specified in the drop-down list.1 The available options
are:
„
‰
HTML—Rewrite content as Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
‰
XML—Rewrite content as Extensible Markup Language (XML)
‰
Javascript—Rewrite content as Java scripting language
‰
VBScript—Rewrite content as Virtual Basic scripting language
‰
CSS—Rewrite content as Cascading Style Sheets
‰
XSLT—Rewrite content as XML Style Sheets
‰
Flash—Rewrite content as Shockwave Flash
‰
DTD—Rewrite content as Document Type Definitions (DTD)
‰
HTC—Rewrite content as HTML component
Don’t rewrite content: Redirect to target Web server—The IVE does not
intermediate Web content from the resources specified in the Resources
list and automatically redirects the request to the target Web server. This is
the default option for all rewrite resource policies that you create. If you
select this option, you might want to specify that the IVE open the
unrewritten pages in a new window using options in “Defining resource
policies: General options” on page 355.
NOTE: Do not select this option if the specified content needs to access resources
inside your corporate network. For instance, if you specify that the IVE should not
rewrite a particular file, and that file calls another file within your network, the
user will see an error.
1. New IVE appliances come with an Initial Rewrite Policy that rewrites all content for all roles.
Defining resource policies: Rewriting
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„
Don’t rewrite content: Do not redirect to target Web server—The IVE
retrieves the content from the original Web server, but does not modify it.
This is useful in cases where users may not be able to reach the original
server, thus disabling redirection. (For example, if the Web server is not
accessible from the public internet because it resides behind a firewall.)
NOTE: The Don’t rewrite content: Do not redirect to target Web server option
allows users to download data from network resources via the IVE, but bypasses
the IVE rewriting engine in the process. We recommend you use this feature only
when rewriting signed Java applets—not other content types. For other content
types such as HTML and Javascript, use the Don’t rewrite content: Redirect to
target Web server option to download an applet via the IVE, thus enabling direct
connections to network resources.
„
Use Detailed Rules—To specify one or more detailed rules for this policy.
See “Writing a detailed rule” on page 88 for more information.
9. Click Save Changes.
10. On the Web Rewriting Policies page, order the policies according to how you
want the IVE to evaluate them. Keep in mind that once the IVE matches the
resource requested by the user to a resource in a policy’s (or a detailed rule’s)
Resource list, it performs the specified action and stops processing policies.
For an example Web resource policy, see the figures in “Defining resource policies:
Overview” on page 322.
Creating a pass-through proxy resource policy
Pass-through proxy resource policies specify Web applications for which the IVE
performs minimal intermediation, as explained in “Passthrough-proxy overview”
on page 286. To create a pass-through proxy resource policy, you need to specify
two things:
„
Which Web application to intermediate with the pass-through proxy
„
How the IVE listens for client requests to the application server
To write a pass-through proxy resource policy:
1. In the admin console, navigate to Users > Resource Policies > Web.
2. If your administrator view is not already configured to show rewriting policies,
make the following modifications:
a.
Click the Customize button in the upper right corner of the page.
b. Select the Rewriting checkbox.
c.
Select the Passthrough Proxy checkbox below the Rewriting checkbox.
d. Click OK.
3. Select the Rewriting > Passthrough Proxy tab.
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4. On the Passthrough Proxy Policies page, click New Application.
5. On the New Passthrough Application page, enter:
a.
A name to label this policy.
b. A description of the policy (optional).
6. In the URL field, specify the application server host name and the port used to
access the application internally. Note that you cannot enter a path in this field.
7. Choose the way in which you want to enable the pass-through proxy feature:
„
Use virtual hostname—If you choose this option, specify a host name
alias for the application server. When the IVE receives a client request for
the application server host name alias, it forwards the request to the
specified application server port in the URL field.
NOTE:
„
If you choose this option, you must also define the IVE name and host name
in the Network Identity section of the System > Network > Internal Port
tab.
„
In order to make Sharepoint work successfully through the IVE, you must
select the Override automatic cookie handling checkbox in Internet
Explorer under Tools Internet options > Privacy > Advanced Privacy
Settings if the following conditions true:
„
You select the Use virtual hostname option during Pass Through Proxy
configuration.
„
The virtual hostname that you specify in your Sharepoint configuration is
different from the hostname that you configure through IVE setup (that is,
if the domains are different).
„
You enable persistent cookies through the Users > User Roles > Select
Role > General > Session Options page of the admin console.
„
Use IVE port—If you choose this option, specify a unique IVE port in the
range 11000-11099. The IVE listens for client requests to the application
server on the specified IVE port and forwards any requests to the
application server port specified in the URL field.
8. In the Action section, specify the method for the IVE to use to intermediate
traffic:
„
Rewrite XML—If you select this option, the IVE rewrites URLs contained
within XML content. If you disable this option, the IVE passes the XML
content “as is” to the server.
„
Rewrite external links—If you select this option, the IVE rewrites all URLs.
If you disable this option, the IVE rewrites only those URLs that contain a
hostname specified in the pass-through proxy policy.
Defining resource policies: Rewriting
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„
Block cookies from being sent to the browser—If you select this option,
the IVE blocks cookies destined for the client’s browser. The IVE stores the
cookies locally and sends them to applications whenever they are
requested.
„
Host-Header forwarding—If you select this option, the IVE passes the
hostname as part of the host header instead of the actual host identifier.
NOTE: The Host-Header forwarding option is only valid in pass-through proxy
Virtual Host mode.
9. Click Save Changes.
10. On the Pass-through Proxy Policies page, order the policies according to how
you want the IVE to evaluate them. Keep in mind that once the IVE matches
the application requested by the user to an application specified in a policy’s
(or a detailed rule’s) Resource list, it performs the specified action and stops
processing policies.
11. If you select:
„
„
Use virtual hostname, you must also:
i.
Add an entry for each application server host name alias in your
external DNS that resolves to the IVE.
ii.
Upload a wildcard server certificate to the IVE (recommended). For
more information about wildcard certificates, see “Associating a
certificate with a virtual port” on page 606.
Use IVE port, open traffic to the IVE port you specified for the application
server in your corporate firewall.
NOTE: If your application listens on multiple ports, configure each application port
as a separate pass-through proxy entry with a separate IVE port. If you intend to
access the server using different host names or IP addresses, configure each of
those options separately; in this case, you can use the same IVE port.
For an example Web resource policy, see the figures in “Defining resource policies:
Overview” on page 322.
Creating a custom header resource policy
By default, the IVE rewriting engine only sends selected custom headers to
browsers (clients) and backend servers. You can use custom header resource
policies, however, to allow or deny custom headers for specific resources.
NOTE: Note that custom header resource policies do not control standard HTTP
headers such as Content-Type.
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Chapter 13: Web rewriting
To write a custom header resource policy:
1. In the admin console, navigate to Users > Resource Policies > Web.
2. If your administrator view is not already configured to show rewriting policies,
make the following modifications:
a.
Click the Customize button in the upper right corner of the page.
b. Select the Rewriting checkbox.
c.
Select the Custom Headers checkbox below the Rewriting checkbox.
d. Click OK.
3. Select the Rewriting > Custom Headers tab.
4. On the Custom Header Policies page, click New Policy.
5. On the New Policy page, enter:
a.
A name to label this policy.
b. A description of the policy (optional).
6. In the Resources section, specify the resources to which this policy applies. See
“Specifying resources for a resource policy” on page 83 for more information.
To enable IP-based or case sensitivity matching for these resources, see
“Defining resource policies: General options” on page 355.
7. In the Roles section, specify:
„
Policy applies to ALL roles—To apply this policy to all users.
„
Policy applies to SELECTED roles—To apply this policy only to users who
are mapped to roles in the Selected roles list. Make sure to add roles to this
list from the Available roles list.
„
Policy applies to all roles OTHER THAN those selected below—To apply
this policy to all users except for those who map to the roles in the Selected
roles list. Make sure to add roles to this list from the Available roles list.
8. In the Action section, specify:
„
Allow Custom Headers—Select this option to prevent the IVE from
blocking the headers to browsers (clients) and backend servers.
„
Deny Custom Headers—Select this option to use the default custom
header behavior on the IVE. When you select this option, the IVE blocks
custom headers for added security.
„
Use Detailed Rules—To specify one or more detailed rules for this policy.
See “Writing a detailed rule” on page 88 for more information.
9. Click Save Changes.
Defining resource policies: Rewriting
„
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10. On the Web Rewriting Policies page, order the policies according to how you
want the IVE to evaluate them. Keep in mind that once the IVE matches the
resource requested by the user to a resource in a policy’s (or a detailed rule’s)
Resource list, it performs the specified action and stops processing policies.
For an example Web resource policy, see the figures in “Defining resource policies:
Overview” on page 322.
Creating an ActiveX parameter resource policy
When the IVE rewrites a Web page, it does not rewrite the ActiveX controls that are
embedded in the Web page. However, you can create resource policies specifying
that the IVE should rewrite the URL and host name parameters that are passed by
the Web page to the Active X controls. To configure these resource policies, you
must obtain the following information:
„
Class ID—Web pages generally use a class ID to embed an ActiveX control. A
class ID is a unique, constant string that uniquely identifies an ActiveX control.
You can determine what an ActiveX object's class ID is using
Internet Explorer 6: Select Tools > Internet Options, click Settings, and then
click View Objects. Select the ActiveX object, right-click, and select Properties.
The ActiveX object’s ID is highlighted.
„
Language—Web pages can use either static or dynamic HTML (that is, by using
JavaScript) to embed an Active X control. When a Web page uses static HTML,
the IVE can rewrite the specified ActiveX parameters on the IVE itself while it
intermediates traffic, since all of the required information passes between the
user's browser and the application's Web server. When a Web page uses
dynamic HTML to embed an ActiveX control, however, the page frequently
pulls information from the client and then generates HTML to embed the
ActiveX control. Therefore, the IVE needs to run script in the user's browser in
order to obtain the information it needs to rewrite the specified ActiveX
parameters.
„
Parameter type—When configuring the IVE to rewrite a parameter, you must
determine whether the parameter is a URL or host name. The IVE does not
support any other parameter types.
„
Parameter name—You must specify the name of the parameter that you want
the IVE to rewrite. You can find the parameters by searching for the param tag
within an object tag. For example, you might find a flash movie embedded in a
page using the following code:
<object classid="clsid:D27CDB6E-AE6D-11cf-96B8-444553540000" > <param
name="movie" value="mymovie.swf" />
<param name="quality" value="high" />
</object>
When configuring the corresponding resource policy, you should enter movie in
the Parameter name field because movie refers to the URL requires rewriting.
Frequently, pages contain multiple param tags, but not all of them require
rewriting. In this example, the quality parameter does not require rewriting.
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Chapter 13: Web rewriting
To write an ActiveX parameter rewriting resource policy:
1. In the admin console, navigate to Users > Resource Policies > Web.
2. If your administrator view is not already configured to show rewriting policies,
make the following modifications:
a.
Click the Customize button in the upper right corner of the page.
b. Select the Rewriting checkbox.
c.
Select the ActiveX Parameter Rewriting checkbox below the Rewriting
checkbox.
d. Click OK.
3. Select the Rewriting > ActiveX Parameter Rewriting tab.
4. On the ActiveX Parameter Rewriting Policies page, click New Policy.
5. On the New Policy page, enter:
a.
The class ID of the ActiveX control that you want to control with the policy.
b. A description of the policy (optional).
6. In the Parameters section, specify the ActiveX parameters that you want to
control with the policy and the corresponding actions. Possible actions include:
„
Rewrite URL and response (Static HTML only)—The IVE rewrites the
specified URL parameter on the IVE. The IVE also rewrites any response
from the Web server requesting the URL. Note that you should select this
option if the Web page embeds the ActiveX control using only static HTML.
„
Rewrite URL and response (Static and dynamic HTML)—The IVE
rewrites the specified URL on the client in addition to rewriting on the IVE.
The IVE also rewrites any response from the Web server requesting the
URL. Note that you should select this option if the Web page embeds the
ActiveX control using dynamic HTML.
„
Rewrite URL (Static HTML only)—The IVE rewrites the specified URL
parameter on the IVE. Note that you should select this option if the Web
page embeds the ActiveX control using only static HTML.
„
Rewrite URL (Static and dynamic HTML)—The IVE rewrites the specified
URL on the client in addition to rewriting on the IVE. Note that you should
select this option if the Web page embeds the ActiveX control using
dynamic HTML.
„
Rewrite hostname (Static HTML only)—The IVE rewrites the specified
host name parameter on the IVE. Note that you should select this option if
the Web page embeds the ActiveX control using only static HTML.
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„
Rewrite hostname (Static and dynamic HTML)—The IVE rewrites the
specified host name on the client in addition to rewriting on the IVE. Note
that you should select this option if the Web page embeds the ActiveX
control using dynamic HTML.
„
Do not rewrite—The IVE does not rewrite any of the ActiveX component’s
parameters.
7. Click Save Changes.
For an example Web resource policy, see the figures in “Defining resource policies:
Overview” on page 322.
Restoring the default IVE ActiveX resource policies
The IVE comes with several predefined resource policies for rewriting the
parameters of commonly used ActiveX objects. If you choose to delete any of these
policies and then want to restore them later, you can recreate them using the
following table as a guideline.
Table 27: Predefined resource policies
Description
Class ID
Parameter
Action
Citrix NFuse
xginen_EmbeddedApp object
238f6f83-b8b4-11cf-877100a024541ee3
ICAFile
Rewrite URL and response
(Static HTML only)
OrgPlus OrgViewer
DCB98BE9-88EE-4AD0-9790- URL
2B169E8D5BBB
Rewrite URL and response
(Static HTML only)
Quickplace
05D96F71-87C6-11D3-9BE400902742D6E0
GeneralURL
Rewrite URL and response
(Static and dynamic HTML)
General_ServerName
Rewrite host name (Static and
dynamic HTML)
FullURL
Rewrite URL and response
(Static and dynamic HTML)
iNotes Discussion
5BDBA960-6534-11D3-97C700500422B550
B20D9D6A-0DEC-4d76-9BEF- B20D9D6A-0DEC-4d76-9BEF- ServerURL
175896006B4A
175896006B4A
Error URL
Rewrite URL and response
(Static HTML only)
Rewrite URL and response
(Static HTML only)
Citrix NFuse Elite
2E687AA8-B276-4910-BBFB4E412F685379
ServerURL
Rewrite URL and response
(Static HTML only)
WebPhotos LEAD
00120000-B1BA-11CE-ABC6F5B2E79D9E3F
BitmapDataPath
Rewrite URL and response
(Static and dynamic HTML)
Shockwave Flash
D27CDB6E-AE6D-11cf-96B8444553540000
Src
Rewrite URL and response
(Static and dynamic HTML)
Movie
Rewrite URL and response
(Static and dynamic HTML)
iNotes Blue
348
„
3BFFE033-BF43-11d5-A27100A024A51325
Defining resource policies: Rewriting
General_URL
Rewrite URL and response
(Static and dynamic HTML)
General_ServerName
Rewrite host name (Static and
dynamic HTML)
Chapter 13: Web rewriting
Table 27: Predefined resource policies (Continued)
Description
Class ID
Parameter
Action
Tabular Data Control
333C7BC4-460F-11D0-BC040080C7055A83
DataURL
Rewrite URL (Static HTML
only)
Windows Media Player
6BF52A52-394A-11D3-B15300C04F79FAA6
URL
Rewrite URL and response
(Static HTML only)
FlowPartPlace
4A266B8B-2BB9-47db-9B0E6226AF6E46FC
URL
Rewrite URL and response
(Static HTML only)
HTML Help
adb880a6-d8ff-11cf-937700aa003b7a11
Item1
Rewrite URL and response
(Static and dynamic HTML)
MS Media Player
22d6f312-b0f6-11d0-94ab0080c74c7e95
FileName
Rewrite URL and response
(Static HTML only)
CSV Files Handler
333c7bc4-460f-11d0-bc040080c7055a83
DataURL
Rewrite URL and response
(Static HTML only)
Special ActiveX control for
Microsoft OWA
D801B381-B81D-47a7-8EC4EFC111666AC0
mailboxUrl
Rewrite URL and response
(Static HTML only)
FlowPartPlace1
639325C9-76C7-4d6c-9B4A523BAA5B30A8
Url
Rewrite URL and response
(Static HTML only)
scriptx print control
5445be81-b796-11d2-b931002018654e2e
Path
Rewrite URL and response
(Static HTML only)
94F40343-2CFD-42A1-A7744E7E48217AD4
94F40343-2CFD-42A1-A7744E7E48217AD4
HomeViewURL
Rewrite URL and response
(Static HTML only)
Microsoft License Manager
5220cb21-c88d-11cf-b34700aa00a28331
LPKPath
Rewrite URL and response
(Static HTML only)
Domino 7 beta 2
UploadControl
E008A543-CEFB-4559-912FC27C2B89F13B
General_URL
Rewrite URL and response
(Static and dynamic HTML)
General_ServerName
Rewrite host name (Static and
dynamic HTML)
General_URL
Rewrite URL and response
(Static and dynamic HTML)
General_ServerName
Rewrite host name (Static and
dynamic HTML)
iNotes
1E2941E3-8E63-11D4-9D5A00902742D6E0
ActiveCGM
F5D98C43-DB16-11CF-8ECA- FileName
0000C0FD59C7
Rewrite URL and response
(Static HTML only)
00130000-B1BA-11CE-ABC6F5B2E79D9E3F
00130000-B1BA-11CE-ABC6F5B2E79D9E3F
Rewrite URL and response
(Static and dynamic HTML)
BitmapDataPath
Creating rewriting filters
Only use the Rewriting Filters tab when instructed to do so by the Juniper
Networks Support team.
Defining resource policies: Web compression
This section contains the following information about defining compression
resource policies:
„
“Writing a Web compression resource policy” on page 350
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„
“Defining an OWA compression resource policy” on page 351
Writing a Web compression resource policy
The IVE comes pre-equipped with one Web compression policy (*:*/*) which
compresses all applicable Web data. You can enable this policy through the Users
> Resource Policies > Web > Compression pages of the admin console.
To write a Web compression resource policy:
1. In the admin console, navigate to Users > Resource Policies > Web.
2. If your administrator view is not already configured to show compression
policies, make the following modifications:
a.
Click the Customize button in the upper right corner of the page.
b. Select the Compression checkbox.
c.
Click OK.
3. Select the Compression tab.
4. On the Web Compression Policies page, click New Policy.
5. On the New Policy page, enter:
a.
A name to label this policy.
b. A description of the policy (optional).
6. In the Resources section, specify the URLs to which this policy applies. See
“Specifying resources for a resource policy” on page 83 for more information.
To enable IP-based or case sensitivity matching for these resources, see
“Defining resource policies: General options” on page 355.
7. In the Roles section, specify:
„
Policy applies to ALL roles—To apply this policy to all users.
„
Policy applies to SELECTED roles—To apply this policy only to users who
are mapped to roles in the Selected roles list. Make sure to add roles to this
list from the Available roles list.
„
Policy applies to all roles OTHER THAN those selected below—To apply
this policy to all users except for those who map to the roles in the Selected
roles list. Make sure to add roles to this list from the Available roles list.
8. In the Action section, specify:
„
350
„
Compress—The IVE compresses the supported content types from the
specified resource.
Defining resource policies: Web compression
Chapter 13: Web rewriting
„
Do not compress—The IVE does not compress the supported content
types from the specified resource.
„
Use Detailed Rules—To specify one or more detailed rules for this policy.
See “Writing a detailed rule” on page 88 for more information.
9. Click Save Changes.
Defining an OWA compression resource policy
Due to caching issues with OWA, the IVE comes with the following built-in resource
policies specifying that the IVE should not compress Javascript or CSS files that are
routed through OWA:
1. Do Not Compress *:*/exchWeb/controls/*.css (all roles)
2. Do Not Compress *:*/exchWeb/controls/*.js (all roles)
3. Do Not Compress *:*/exchWeb/*/controls/*.css (all roles)
4. Do Not Compress *:*/exchWeb/*/controls/*.js (all roles)
In the last two policies, a wildcard (*) is included in the path to account for different
OWA build versions.
Juniper Networks recommends that you do not change the compression resource
policies for OWA unless absolutely necessary.
Defining resource policies: Web proxy
Web proxy resource policies specify Web proxy servers for which the IVE should
intermediate content. Note that the IVE intermediates both forward and backwards
proxies, but only enables single sign-on to a proxy when you use these tabs to
configure the proxy and thereby specify that you trust it. For more information, see
“Single sign-on” on page 191.
This section contains the following information about Web proxy resource policies:
„
“Writing a Web proxy resource policy” on page 351
„
“Specifying Web proxy servers” on page 353
Writing a Web proxy resource policy
To write a Web proxy resource policy:
1. In the admin console, navigate to Users > Resource Policies > Web.
2. If your administrator view is not already configured to show Web proxy
policies, make the following modifications:
a.
Click the Customize button in the upper right corner of the page.
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b. Select the Web Proxy checkbox.
c.
Select the Policies checkbox below the Web Proxy checkbox.
d. Click OK.
3. Select the Web Proxy > Policies tab.
4. On the Web Proxy Policies page, click New Policy.
5. On the New Policy page, enter:
a.
A name to label this policy.
b. A description of the policy (optional).
6. In the Resources section, specify the resources to which this policy applies. See
“Specifying resources for a resource policy” on page 83 for more information.
To enable IP-based or case sensitivity matching for these resources, see
“Defining resource policies: General options” on page 355.
7. In the Roles section, specify:
„
Policy applies to ALL roles—To apply this policy to all users.
„
Policy applies to SELECTED roles—To apply this policy only to users who
are mapped to roles in the Selected roles list. Make sure to add roles to this
list from the Available roles list.
„
Policy applies to all roles OTHER THAN those selected below—To apply
this policy to all users except for those who map to the roles in the Selected
roles list. Make sure to add roles to this list from the Available roles list.
8. In the Action section, specify:
„
Access Web resources directly—The IVE intermediates the user’s request
to a back-end server and the server’s response to the user for requests
made to a resource specified in the Resources list.
„
Access Web resources through a Web proxy—Specify a Web proxy
server in the drop-down list that you have defined in the Users >
Resource Policies > Web > Web Proxy > Servers tab. See “Defining
resource policies: Web proxy” on page 351 to define Web proxy servers.
„
Use Detailed Rules—To specify one or more detailed rules for this policy.
See “Writing a detailed rule” on page 88 for more information.
9. Click Save Changes.
10. On the Web Proxy Policies page, order the policies according to how you want
the IVE to evaluate them. Keep in mind that once the IVE matches the resource
requested by the user to a resource in a policy’s (or a detailed rule’s) Resource
list, it performs the specified action and stops processing policies.
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Chapter 13: Web rewriting
For an example Web resource policy, see the figures in “Defining resource policies:
Overview” on page 322.
Specifying Web proxy servers
You can direct all Web requests made through the IVE to a Web proxy rather than
using the IVE to connect directly to Web servers. This feature can be useful if your
network security policy requires this configuration or if you want to use a caching
Web proxy to improve performance.
To specify servers for Web proxy resource policies:
1. In the admin console, navigate to Users > Resource Policies > Web.
2. If your administrator view is not already configured to show Web proxy
policies, make the following modifications:
a.
Click the Customize button in the upper right corner of the page.
b. Select the Web Proxy checkbox.
c.
Select the Servers checkbox below the Web Proxy checkbox.
d. Click OK.
3. Select the Web Proxy > Servers tab.
4. Under Web Proxy Servers, enter the name or IP address of the Web proxy
server and the port number at which the proxy server listens, and then click
Add.
5. Repeat this step to specify additional Web proxy servers.
Defining resource policies: Web proxy
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Defining resource policies: HTTP 1.1 protocol
Protocol resource policies enable or disable HTTP 1.1 protocol support between the
IVE and backend servers. The IVE supports chunked Transfer-Encoding, gzip and
deflate Content-Encoding, connection persistence, and caching headers such as IfModified-Since, If-None-Match, If-Unmodified-Since and If-Match. The IVE supports
range requests with partial content when you select the Don’t rewrite content: Do
not redirect to target web server selective rewrite option.
NOTE:
„
For a detailed description of the HTTP 1.1 protocol, refer to the Hyptertext
Transfer Protocol -- HTTP 1.1 specification from the World Wide Web
Consortium.
„
The IVE only communicates with network servers using HTTP 1.1 if the client
also communicates using HTTP 1.1. If the client uses HTTP 1.0, the IVE
communicates with backend servers using HTTP 1.0, regardless of whether or
not HTTP 1.1 is enabled.
„
If you want to use HTTP 1.1 for a specific resource, enable HTTP 1.1 for that
policy and ensure that the new policy appears above the default in the list of
configured policies. You should add the HTTP 1.1 policy to the top of the
policy list because the policy evaluation engine evaluates policies from top to
bottom, stopping when it encounters a match. For more information, see
“Resource policy evaluation” on page 86.
„
The IVE comes with a default policy that disables HTTP 1.1 for all resources. If
you want to use HTTP 1.1 for all resources, either redefine the “*:*/*” policy
or create a new policy enabling HTTP 1.1 and move it to the top of your policy
list. If you delete this default policy (and any other policies that disable HTTP
1.1), the IVE uses HTTP 1.0 for all resources
To write an HTTP 1.1 protocol resource policy:
1. In the admin console, navigate to Users > Resource Policies > Web.
2. If your administrator view is not already configured to show protocol policies,
make the following modifications:
a.
Click the Customize button in the upper right corner of the page.
b. Select the Protocol checkbox.
c.
Click OK.
3. Select the Protocol tab.
4. On the Web Protocol Policies page, click New Policy.
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Chapter 13: Web rewriting
5. On the New Policy page, enter:
a.
A name to label this policy.
b. A description of the policy (optional).
6. In the Resources section, specify the URLs to which this policy applies. See
“Specifying resources for a resource policy” on page 83 for more information.
To enable IP-based or case sensitivity matching for these resources, see
“Defining resource policies: General options” on page 355.
7. In the Roles section, specify:
„
Policy applies to ALL roles—To apply this policy to all users.
„
Policy applies to SELECTED roles—To apply this policy only to users who
are mapped to roles in the Selected roles list. Make sure to add roles to this
list from the Available roles list.
„
Policy applies to all roles OTHER THAN those selected below—To apply
this policy to all users except for those who map to the roles in the Selected
roles list. Make sure to add roles to this list from the Available roles list.
8. In the Action section, specify:
„
Disable HTTP 1.1—The IVE automatically communicates with backend
servers via the HTTP 1.0 protocol.
„
Enable HTTP 1.1—The IVE automatically communicates with backend
servers using the HTTP 1.1 protocol as long as the client also
communicates using the HTTP 1.1 protocol.
„
Use Detailed Rules—To specify one or more detailed rules for this policy.
See “Writing a detailed rule” on page 88 for more information.
9. Click Save Changes.
Defining resource policies: General options
When you enable the Web resource policy options described in this section, the IVE
compiles a list of host names specified in the Resources field of each Web resource
policy. The IVE then applies the enabled options to this comprehensive list of host
names.
To specify Web resource options:
1. In the admin console, navigate to Users > Resource Policies > Web.
2. If your administrator view is not already configured to show Web options,
make the following modifications:
a.
Click the Customize button in the upper right corner of the page.
Defining resource policies: General options
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b. Select the Options checkbox.
c.
Click OK.
3. Select the Options tab.
4. Select IP based matching for Hostname based policy resources if you want
the to IVE look up IP address corresponding to each host name specified in a
Web resource policy. When a user tries to access a server by specifying an IP
address rather than the host name, the IVE compares the IP to its cached list of
IP addresses to determine if a host name matches an IP. If there is a match,
then the IVE accepts the match as a policy match and applies the action
specified for the resource policy.
NOTE: This option does not apply to host names that include wildcards and
parameters.
5. Select Case sensitive matching for the Path and Query string components in
Web resources if you want to require users to enter a case-sensitive URL to a
resource. For example, use this option when passing username or password
data in a URL.
6. Click Save Changes.
Managing resource policies: Customizing UI views
You can control which Web resource policy configuration pages the IVE displays so
that you only have to view those pages that you actually use. Or, if you have a new
IVE installation, you can use these settings to display additional pages (since the IVE
only displays the most commonly used resource policy pages to new users).
To control which Web resource policy configuration pages the IVE displays:
1. Navigate to Users > Resource Policies > Web > Policy Type.
2. Click the Customize View button in the upper right corner of the console:
3. In the Customize View dialog box, specify which Web resource policies you
want to display in the admin console. You may manually select individual
checkboxes, click All Pages to display all Web resource policy configuration
pages, or click Common Pages to display the most commonly used Web
resource policy configuration pages. (Note that the IVE does not allow you to
hid the Web Access Policies page.)
4. Click OK.
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„
Managing resource policies: Customizing UI views
Chapter 14
Hosted Java applets
The IVE Java applet upload feature enables you to store the Java applets of your
choice directly on the IVE without employing a separate Web server to host them.
When you use this feature, you simply upload the applets to the IVE (along with
additional files that the applets reference) and create a simple Web page through
the IVE that references the files. Then, the IVE intermediates the Web page and
Java applet content using its Content Intermediation Engine.
This section contains the following information about hosting Java applets on the
IVE:
„
“Licensing: Hosted Java applets availability” on page 357
„
“Task Summary: Hosting Java applets” on page 357
„
“Hosted Java applets overview” on page 358
„
“Defining resource profiles: Hosted Java applets” on page 362
„
“Use case: Creating a Citrix JICA 8.0 Java applet bookmark” on page 368
Licensing: Hosted Java applets availability
The hosted Java applets feature is a standard feature on all Secure Access
appliances except the SA 700. If you are using an SA-700 appliance, you must
install a Core Clientless Access upgrade license in order to access the hosted Java
applets feature.
Task Summary: Hosting Java applets
The IVE Java applet upload feature enables you to store the Java applets of your
choice directly on the IVE without employing a separate Web server to host them,
as explained in “Hosted Java applets overview” on page 358.
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To host Java applets on the IVE:
1. Specify which applets you want to upload, create IVE bookmarks that reference
the uploaded applets, and specify which roles can access the bookmarks using
settings in the Users > Resource Profiles > Web > Hosted Java Applets
page of the admin console. For instructions, see “Defining resource profiles:
Hosted Java applets” on page 362.
2. If you choose to sign your Java applets, use settings in the System >
Configuration > Certificates > Code-Signing Certificates page of the admin
console to upload the Java certificate to the IVE (optional). If you choose to skip
this step, the user sees an untrusted certificate warning each time he accesses
the corresponding bookmark. For instructions, see “Using code-signing
certificates” on page 623.
3. (Optional) To improve the performance of your Java applications:
a.
Select Enable Java instrumentation caching on the Maintenance >
System > Options page of the admin console. This option can improve
the performance of downloading Java applications. For more information,
see “Setting system options” on page 575.
b. After you finish configuring the IVE, cache your Java applet and access it as
end-user. This action eliminates the performance hit that occurs through
the intermediation engine when the first end-user accesses the applet.
Hosted Java applets overview
The IVE Java applet upload feature enables you to store the Java applets of your
choice directly on the IVE without employing a separate Web server to host them.
When you use this feature, you simply upload the applets to the IVE (along with
additional files that the applets reference) and create a simple Web page through
the IVE that references the files. Then, the IVE intermediates the Web page and
Java applet content using its Content Intermediation Engine.
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„
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Chapter 14: Hosted Java applets
For example, you might want to use the IVE to intermediate traffic between an IBM
AS/400 system on your network and individual 5250 terminal emulators on your
users’ computers. To configure the IVE to intermediate this traffic, obtain the 5250
terminal emulator’s Java applet. Then, you can upload this applet to the IVE and
create a simple Web page that references the applet. After you create the Web page
through the IVE, the IVE creates a corresponding bookmark that users can access
through their home pages.
NOTE: Please note the following:
„
You must have a good understanding of Java applets, Java applet parameters,
and HTML to use this feature.
„
For information about intermediating Java applets that are hosted on an
external server, see “Defining resource policies: External Java applets” on
page 336.
„
Configuration options for the hosted Java applet feature have moved to the
Users > Resource Profiles > Web > Hosted Java Applets page in the
admin console. If you are upgrading the product from a pre-5.3 version, the
IVE automatically creates resource profiles from your old resource policies. If
your old bookmark referenced multiple Java applets, the IVE creates a single
container archive for the applets and associates the archive with your new
resource profile.
The following sections contain information about uploading, enabling, and
accessing Java applets through the IVE:
„
“Uploading Java applets to the IVE” on page 359
„
“Signing uploaded Java applets” on page 360
„
“Creating HTML pages that reference uploaded Java applets” on page 361
„
“Accessing Java applet bookmarks” on page 361
„
“Use case: Creating a Citrix JICA 8.0 Java applet bookmark” on page 368
Uploading Java applets to the IVE
The IVE Java applet upload feature enables you to store the Java applets of your
choice directly on the IVE without employing a separate Web server to host them.
You can then use these applets to intermediate traffic to various types of
applications through the IVE. For example, you can upload the 3270 applet, 5250
applet, or Citrix Java applet to the IVE. These applets enable users to establish
sessions to IBM mainframes, AS/400s, and Citrix MetaFrame servers through
terminal emulators. (Note that to enable the Citrix Java ICA client through an IVE
session, you must upload multiple Citrix .jar and .cab files to the IVE. For more
information, see “Use case: Creating a Citrix JICA 8.0 Java applet bookmark” on
page 368.)
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The IVE enables you to upload individual .jar and .cab files or .zip, .cab, or .tar
archive files. Archive files can contain Java applets and files referenced by the
applets. Within the .zip, .cab, or .tar file, the Java applet must reside at the top level
of the archive. You can upload any number of files to the IVE as long as their
combined size does not exceed 100 MB.
To ensure compatibility with both Sun and Microsoft Java Virtual Machines (JVMs),
you must upload both .jar and .cab files to the IVE. (The Sun JVM uses .jar files,
whereas the Microsoft JVM uses .cab files.)
NOTE:
„
When you upload Java applets to the IVE, the IVE asks you to read a legal
agreement before it finishes installing the applets. Please read this agreement
carefully—it obligates you to take full responsibility for the legality, operation,
and support of the Java applets that you upload.
„
You can only upload 100 MB of Java applets to the IVE. The IVE displays the
size of each applet that you upload to the IVE on the Java Applets page so you
can determine, if necessary, which applets you want to delete.
„
Uploading Java applets requires signed ActiveX or signed Java applets to be
enabled within the browser to download, install, and launch the client
applications.
You can upload Java applets to the IVE using resource profiles. For instructions, see
“Defining resource profiles: Hosted Java applets” on page 362.
Signing uploaded Java applets
Unlike other Java applets that users can access through the IVE, you do not have to
create a separate code-signing policy for the Java applets that you upload to the IVE.
The IVE automatically signs (or resigns) them using the appropriate code-signing
certificate. A code-signing certificate (also called an applet certificate) is a type of
server-side certificate that re-signs Java applets intermediated by the IVE, as
explained in “Using code-signing certificates” on page 623.
The IVE automatically signs (or resigns) your hosted Java applets with the codesigning certificate that you install through the System > Configuration >
Certificates > Code-signing Certificates page of the admin console. If you do not
install a code-signing certificate on the IVE, the IVE uses its self-signed applet
certificate to sign or resign the applets. In this case, users see an “untrusted
certificate issuer” warning whenever they access the Java applets through the IVE.
NOTE: The IVE re-instruments and re-signs your uploaded java applets whenever
you change (that is, import, renew, or delete) the corresponding code-signing
certificate on the IVE.
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Chapter 14: Hosted Java applets
Creating HTML pages that reference uploaded Java applets
When uploading a Java applet to the IVE, you must create a simple Web page that
references the applet. Users can access this Web page through a bookmark on their
IVE home pages or from external Web servers (as explained in “Accessing Java
applet bookmarks” on page 361).
The Web page must contain a simple HTML page definition that references the
uploaded Java applet. The Web page can also contain any additional HTML and
JavaScript that you choose. The IVE can generate some of this Web page for you,
including the HTML page definition and the references to your Java applet. (Note,
however, that the IVE is not aware of all the applet-specific parameters that are
required by your applet—you must find and fill these parameters in yourself.)
When the IVE generates this HTML, it creates place holders for any undefined
values and prompts you to fill in the necessary values.
You can create these Web pages through Java applet upload resource profiles. For
instructions, see “Defining a hosted Java applet bookmark” on page 363.
Accessing Java applet bookmarks
Users can access the applets you upload to the IVE using two methods:
„
Bookmarks on the IVE end user console—When you create a Web page that
references your uploaded Java applets, the IVE creates a corresponding link to
the Web page and displays that link in the Bookmarks section of the IVE end
user console. Users who map to the appropriate role can simply click the link to
access the Java applet.
„
Links on external Web servers—Users can link to the Java applet bookmarks
from an external Web server by simply using the correct URLs. When the user
enters a bookmark’s URL (or clicks an external link that contains the URL), the
IVE prompts the user to enter his IVE username and password. If he properly
authenticates, the IVE allows him to access the bookmark. You can construct
the URL to the Java applet bookmark using the syntax described in either of the
following lines:
https://<IVE_hostname>/dana/home/launchWebapplet.cgi?bmname=<bookmar
kName>
https://<IVE_hostname>/dana/home/launchWebapplet.cgi?id=<resourceID>&b
mname=<bookmarkName>
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(You can determine the ID for a Java applet bookmark by accessing it through
the IVE home page and then extracting the ID from the Web browser’s address
bar.)
NOTE:
„
Although the IVE enables you to create multiple bookmarks with the same
name, we strongly recommend that you use a unique name for each. If
multiple bookmarks have the same name and a user accesses one of these
bookmarks using a URL that includes the bmname parameter, the IVE
randomly picks which of the identically named bookmarks to display to the
user. Also note that the bmname parameter is case-sensitive.
„
If you create links on external servers to Java applet bookmarks on the IVE
and you are using multiple customized sign-in URLs, some restrictions occur.
For more information, see the note in “Sign-in policies” on page 181.
For information about creating bookmarks, see “Defining a hosted Java applet
bookmark” on page 363.
Defining resource profiles: Hosted Java applets
To create a hosted Java applet resource profile:
1. Navigate to the Users > Resource Profiles > Hosted Java Applet page in the
admin console.
2. Click New Profile.
3. Enter a unique name and optionally a description for the resource profile.
4. In the Upload Applet Resources section:
a.
Browse to the applet that you want to upload to the IVE. You can upload
applets (.jar or .cab files) or archives (.zip, .jar, and .tar files) that contain
applets and all of the resources that the applets need.
b. Select the Expand uploaded archive checkbox if the actual Java applet is
archived within the file you specified above.
5. If your Java applets need to make socket connections, use settings in the
Autopolicy: Java Access Control section to enable access. For more detailed
instructions, see “Defining a Java access control autopolicy” on page 298.
6. Click Save and Continue.
7. When the following upload agreement appears, read it and click OK if you
accept its terms:
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Chapter 14: Hosted Java applets
You are about to load third party software onto the Juniper product. Before you
do, you must read and agree to the following terms on behalf of yourself (as the
purchaser of the equipment) or the organization that purchased the Juniper
product, as applicable.
By loading the third party software onto the Juniper product, you are
responsible for obtaining all rights necessary for using, copying, and/or
distributing such software in or with the Juniper product. Juniper is not
responsible for any liability arising from use of such third party software and
will not provide support for such software. The use of third party software may
interfere with the proper operation of the Juniper product and/or Juniper
software, and may void any warranty for the Juniper product and/or software.
Click on the OK button if you agree and wish to continue.
8. Read the details in the Upload Status dialog box and click OK when it is done.
Once you accept the agreement, the IVE rewrites and signs the Java content,
which may cause delay (depending on the size of the applet).
9. In the Roles tab, select the roles to which the resource profile applies and click
Add.
The selected roles inherit the autopolicies and bookmarks created by the
resource profile. If it is not already enabled, the IVE also automatically enables
the Web option in the Users > User Roles > Select Role > General >
Overview page of the admin console and the Allow Java Applets option Users
> User Roles > Select Role > Web > Options page of the admin console for
all of the roles you select.
10. Click Save Changes.
11. In the Bookmarks tab, create bookmarks using instructions in “Defining a
hosted Java applet bookmark” on page 363.
Defining a hosted Java applet bookmark
You must create bookmarks to your hosted Java applets in order to enable endusers to access the applets. For more information about resource profile
bookmarks, see “Defining bookmarks” on page 78.
To configure hosted Java applet resource profile bookmarks:
1. If you want to create a resource profile bookmark through the standard
resource profiles page:
a.
Navigate to the Users > Resource Profiles > Web > Hosted Java
Applets > Select Resource Profile > Bookmarks page in the admin
console.
b. Click the appropriate link in the Bookmark column if you want to modify
an existing bookmark. Or, click New Bookmark to create an additional
bookmark.
Alternatively, if you want to create a resource profile bookmark through the
user roles page:
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a.
Navigate to the Users > Roles > Select Role > Web > Bookmarks page
in the admin console.
b. Click New Bookmark.
c.
From the Type list, choose Pick an Applet Resource Profile. (The IVE does
not display this option if you have not already created a hosted Java applet
resource profile.)
d. Select an existing resource profile.
e.
Click OK. (If you have not already associated the selected role with the
resource profile, the IVE automatically makes the association for you. The
IVE also enables any access control policies for the role that are required by
the resource profile.)
f.
If this role is not already associated with the selected resource profile, the
IVE displays an informational message. If you see this message, click Save
Changes to add this role to the resource profile’s list of roles and to update
the profile’s autopolicies as required. Then, repeat the previous steps to
create the bookmark.
NOTE: When you create a resource profile bookmark through the user roles page
(instead of the standard resource profiles page), the IVE only associates the
generated bookmark with the selected role. The IVE does not assign the
bookmark to all of the roles associated with the selected resource profile.
2. Enter a name and optionally a description for the bookmark. This information
displays on the IVE home page. (By default, the IVE names the bookmark the
same name as the corresponding resource profile.)
NOTE: We strongly recommend that you use a unique name for each bookmark in
order to make it clear to users which link they are accessing. For more
information, see “Creating HTML pages that reference uploaded Java applets” on
page 361.
3. Click Generate HTML to create an HTML page definition that includes
references to your Java applets. Then, fill in any required attributes and
parameters using guidelines in the following sections:
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“Required attributes for uploaded Java applets” on page 365
„
“Required parameters for uploaded Java applets” on page 367
Defining resource profiles: Hosted Java applets
Chapter 14: Hosted Java applets
You can also add any additional HTML or JavaScript that you choose to this
Web page definition. The IVE rewrites all of the code that you enter in this field.
NOTE: Make sure to enter unique HTML in this field. If you create two bookmarks
with the same HTML code, the IVE deletes one of the bookmarks in the end-user
view. You will still be able to see both bookmarks, however, in the administrator
console.
4. Under Display options, click Bookmark opens new window to enable the IVE
to automatically open the Web resource in a new browser window. Note that
this functionality applies only to role bookmarks and not bookmarks created by
users. Next, select the following options if you want to hide UI elements from
the user:
„
Do not display the browser address bar—Select this option to remove the
address bar from the browser window. This feature forces all Web traffic
through the IVE by precluding users in the specified role from typing a new
URL in the address bar, which circumvents the IVE.
„
Do not display the browser toolbar—Select this option to remove the
menu and toolbar from the browser. This feature removes all menus,
browsing buttons, and bookmarks from the browser window so that the
user browses only through the IVE.
5. If you are configuring the bookmark through the resource profile pages, under
Roles, specify the roles to which you want to display the bookmark:
„
ALL selected roles—Select this option to display the bookmark to all of the
roles associated with the resource profile.
„
Subset of selected roles—Select this option to display the bookmark to a
subset of the roles associated with the resource profile. Then select roles
from the ALL Selected Roles list and click Add to move them to the Subset
of selected roles list.
6. Click Save Changes.
Required attributes for uploaded Java applets
When you create a Java applets bookmark through the IVE, you must define the
following attributes and their corresponding values. If you use the Generate HTML
feature, the IVE populates some of this information for you and adds
PLEASE_SPECIFY to those attributes whose values you must specify. When
specifying attributes and their corresponding values, use the attribute=”value”
format.
NOTE: The IVE generates parameters that it knows are required. Note, however,
that the IVE is not aware of all the applet-specific parameters that are required by
your applet—you must find and fill in these parameters yourself.
Attributes that are required by the IVE include:
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„
code—Indicates which class file to invoke in your Java applet. Use this value to
point to your Java applet’s main function. Example:
applet code="com.citrix.JICA"
„
codebase—Indicates where the Web browser can fetch the applet. Use the
<<CODEBASE>> variable, which points to the location on the IVE where the IVE
stores the Java applet. When entering a path to a file, note that
<<CODEBASE>> includes a trailing slash, which means the following
example works:
<img src="<<CODEBASE>>path/to/file">
Whereas this example does not work:
<img src="<<CODEBASE>>/path/to/file">
„
archive—Indicates which archive file (that is, .jar, .cab, or .zip file) the Web
browser should fetch. Example:
archive="JICAEngN.jar"
„
width and height—Indicates the size of the Java applet window (optional).
Example:
width="640" height="480"
„
name—Specifies a label for the Java applet (optional). Example:
name="CitrixJICA"
„
align—Indicates the Java applet window’s alignment within the browser
window (optional). Example:
align="top"
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Chapter 14: Hosted Java applets
NOTE: When defining attributes and their corresponding values, please note the
following:
„
We strongly recommend that you not include useslibrarycabbase parameter
in the HTML, because it causes the cab file to be permanently installed on the
user’s machine. If you later change a cab file on the IVE, all users will have to
manually delete the cab files on their machines in order to get the new
version from the IVE.
„
We do not support applet tags that are constructed through the
document.write function because the dynamic HTML interferes with the IVE's
parser.
„
We do not support relative links to URLs, documents, or images in your
HTML. If you do, the links will break when the user tries to access them from
the IVE end user console. Instead, you should include absolute links. If you
are linking to a document or image included in your zip file, use the
<<CODEBASE>> variable to indicate that the IVE can find the file in zip archive
uploaded to the IVE. For example:
<img src="<<CODEBASE>>yourcompany_logo.gif" alt="YourCompany">
Required parameters for uploaded Java applets
When you create a Java applets bookmark through the IVE, you must specify
parameters and values that the IVE should pass to the Java applet. These
parameters are completely applet-specific. When specifying parameters and their
corresponding values, use the following format:
<param name=”parameterName” value=”valueName”>
Where all of the text is literal except parameterName and valueName.
You can use IVE variables to pass values to the Java applet by enclosing the variable
names in double-brackets. For example, you might choose to pass the
<<username>> and <<password>> values to the Java applet. For a list of available
IVE variables, see “System variables and examples” on page 860.
If you find a Web page that contains an applet that you want to use, go to the
demonstration site and view the source on the page that runs the Java applet.
Within the source, look at the applet tag. Pick out the code attribute in the source
and determine if it contains any special parameters that you need to pass to the
browser. In most cases, you should be able to copy/paste the code attribute and its
corresponding parameters directly into the HTML field for your IVE bookmark.
Note, however, that if a parameter references a resource on the local Web server,
you cannot copy/paste the reference into the IVE bookmark since the IVE does not
have access to the other Web server’s local resources. When copy/pasting
parameters from another source, always check the values of the parameters.
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Use case: Creating a Citrix JICA 8.0 Java applet bookmark
This section discusses how to enable access to a Citrix Metaframe server through
the IVE using the 8.0 Java version of the Citrix ICA client (JICA).
To enable the Citrix JICA 8.0 client using the Java applet upload feature:
1. Import code-signing certificates as explained in “Using code-signing
certificates” on page 623.
2. Zip up the following .jar and .cab files into a single archive:
„
JICA-configN.jar
„
JICA-coreN.jar
„
JICA-configM.cab
„
JICA-coreM.cab
(You can find these files on the Citrix Web site.)
3. Create a hosted Java applet resource profile through the Users > Resource
Profiles > Web > Hosted Java Applets page of the admin console. When
defining the resource profile:
a.
Upload the archived Citrix container file to the IVE.
b. Select the Expand uploaded archive checkbox since the container file
contains multiple jar and cab files.
c.
Specify any Metaframe servers to which these applets may connect.
d. Assign the resource profile to the appropriate roles.
(For detailed instructions, see “Defining resource profiles: Hosted Java applets”
on page 362.)
4. In the resource profile’s Bookmarks tab, generate the Web page for the
bookmark. The IVE automatically inserts all of the .jar and .cab files into the
corresponding Web page. Then, specify parameters for the Citrix client using
the following example as a guide. (Note that the bookmark below can contain
references to the jar and cab files that are in the zip file.)
<html>
<head>
<title>CitrixJICA Applet.</title>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1">
</head>
<body>
<applet code="com.citrix.JICA"
codebase="<< CODEBASE >>"
archive="JICA-configN.jar,JICA-coreN.jar"
width="640" height="480"
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Chapter 14: Hosted Java applets
name="CitrixJICA" align="top">
<param name="code" value="com.citrix.JICA">
<param name="codebase" value="<< CODEBASE >>">
<param name="archive" value="JICA-configN.jar,JICA-coreN.jar">
<param name="cabbase" value="JICA-configM.cab,JICA-coreM.cab">
<param name="name" value="CitrixJICA">
<param name="width" value="640">
<param name="height" value="480">
<param name="align" value="top">
<!-Please specify additional params here after the comment.
<param name="paramname" value="paramvalue">
-->
<param name="Address" value="YourMetaFrameServer.YourCompany.net">
<param name="Username" value="<<USERNAME>>">
<param name="password" value="<<PASSWORD>>"> <param
name="initialprogram" value="#notepad">
<param name="EncryptionLevel" value="1">
<param name="BrowserProtocol" value="HTTPonTCP">
</applet>
</body>
</html>
Use case: Creating a Citrix JICA 8.0 Java applet bookmark
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Use case: Creating a Citrix JICA 8.0 Java applet bookmark
Chapter 15
File rewriting
A file resource profile controls access to resources on Windows server shares or
Unix servers. This section contains the following information about configuring file
writing options:
„
“Licensing: File rewriting availability” on page 371
„
“Defining resource profiles: File rewriting” on page 371
„
“Defining role settings: Windows resources” on page 378
„
“Defining resource policies: Windows file resources” on page 381
„
“Defining role settings: UNIX/NFS file resources” on page 387
„
“Defining resource policies: UNIX/NFS file resources” on page 389
Licensing: File rewriting availability
File rewriting is a standard feature on all Secure Access appliances except the SA
700. If you are using an SA-700 appliance, you must install a Core Clientless Access
upgrade license in order to access file rewriting features.
Defining resource profiles: File rewriting
A file resource profile controls access to resources on Windows server shares or
Unix servers. (For more information about resource profiles, see “Resource
profiles” on page 71.)
To create a file rewriting resource profile:
1. Navigate to the Users > Resource Profiles > Files page in the admin console.
2. Click New Profile.
3. From the Type list, select Windows or Unix.
4. Enter a unique name and optionally a description for the resource profile. (This
name becomes the default bookmark’s name.)
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5. Enter the resource to which you want to control access. Note that the format of
the resource varies depending on which type of resource profile you are
creating:
„
Windows—Enter the server name or IP address, share name, and
optionally the path that you want to control access to in the Server/share
field. When entering the resource, use the format: \\server[\share[\path]].
„
Unix—Enter the server name or IP address and optionally the path that
you want to control access to in the Server field. When entering the
resource, use the format: server[/path]
For detailed guidelines, see “Defining file resources” on page 373. (The IVE
uses the specified directory to define the default bookmark for the resource
profile.)
6. In the Autopolicy: Windows File Access Control section or the Autopolicy:
Unix Access Control section, create a policy that allows or denies users access
to the resource specified the previous step. (At minimum, you need to click
Add in order to use the access control policy that the IVE automatically creates
for you. This policy allows access to the specified directory and all of its subdirectories.) For more detailed instructions, see “Defining a file access control
autopolicy” on page 374.
7. (Optional) Click Show ALL autopolicy types to create additional autopolicies
that fine-tune access to the resource. Then, create the autopolicies using
instructions in the following sections:
„
“Defining a file compression autopolicy” on page 374
„
“Defining a single sign-on autopolicy (Windows only)” on page 375
NOTE: For information about specifying encoding options for Window or Unix
resources, see “Encoding files” on page 844. (Encoding is an advanced option that
currently you can only configure through resource policies.)
8. Click Save and Continue.
9. In the Roles tab, select the roles to which the resource profile applies and click
Add.
The selected roles inherit the autopolicies and bookmarks created by the
resource profile. If it is not already enabled, the IVE also automatically enables
the Files, Windows option or the Files, UNIX/NFS option in the Users > User
Roles > Select Role > General > Overview page of the admin console for all
of the roles you select.
10. Click Save Changes.
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Chapter 15: File rewriting
11. (Optional) In the Bookmarks tab, modify the default bookmark created by the
IVE and/or create new ones using instructions in “Defining a file bookmark” on
page 376. (By default, the IVE creates a bookmark to the resource defined in
the Windows or Unix field and displays it to all users assigned to the role
specified in the Roles tab.)
Defining file resources
When creating a file resource profile (as explained in “Defining resource profiles:
File rewriting” on page 371), you must use the following formats when defining a
resource policy’s primary resource as well as its autopolicy resources.
Windows resources:
\\server[\share[\path]]
Unix resources:
server[/path]
Within these formats, the three components are:
„
Server (required)—Possible values:
„
Hostname—You may use the system variable <username> when defining
the hostname.
„
IP address—The IP address needs to be in the format: a.b.c.d
The leading two back slashes are required for Windows, non-Nfs resources.
„
Share (required, Windows only)—The system variable <username> is allowed.
Note that when the IVE tries to connect to a Windows file share, it connects to
ports 445 and 139.
„
Path (optional)—Special characters allowed include:
Table 28: Path special characters
*
Matches any character. Note that you cannot use the * wildcard
character when defining a resource profile’s primary resource
(that is, the Server/share field for Windows resources or the
Server field for Unix resources).
%
Matches any character except slash (/)
?
Matches exactly one character
Valid Windows resources include:
\\juniper.com\dana
\\10.11.0.10\share\web
\\10.11.254.227\public\test.doc
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Valid Unix resources include:
juniper.com/dana
10.11.0.10/share/web
10.11.254.227/public/test.doc
Defining a file access control autopolicy
File access control policies specify resources on your file servers that users may
access. When defining a file resource profile, you must create a corresponding
access control autopolicy that enables access to the profile’s primary resource. The
IVE simplifies the process for you by automatically creating an autopolicy that
allows access to the directory specified in the Server/share field (Windows) or the
Server field (Unix) and all of its sub-directories. To enable this autopolicy, you
simply need to select it and click Add.
If necessary, you may choose to modify this default autopolicy or create
supplementary file access control autopolicies that allow or deny access to
additional resources.
To create a new file access control autopolicy:
1. Create a file resource profile, as explained in “Defining resource profiles: File
rewriting” on page 371.
2. If it is not already enabled, select the Autopolicy: Windows File Access
Control checkbox or the Autopolicy: Unix Access Control checkbox.
3. In the Resource field, specify the resource to which this policy applies using the
format: \\server[\share[\path]] for Windows resources and \\server[\path] for
Unix resources. For detailed guidelines, see “Defining file resources” on
page 373.
4. From the Action list, select one of the following options:
„
Allow—Select this option to enable access to the specified resource.
„
Read-only—Select this option to allow users to view but not edit the
specified resource.
„
Deny—Select this option to block access to the specified resource.
5. Click Add.
6. Click Save Changes.
Defining a file compression autopolicy
Compression autopolicies specify which types of file data the IVE should compress
when you enable GZIP compression through the Maintenance > System >
Options page of the admin console. For more information, see “Compression
execution” on page 839.
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Chapter 15: File rewriting
To create a file compression autopolicy:
1. Create a file resource profile, as explained in “Defining resource profiles: File
rewriting” on page 371.
2. Click Show ALL autopolicy types.
3. Select the Autopolicy: Windows File Compression checkbox or the
Autopolicy: Unix File Compression checkbox.
4. In the Resource field, specify the resource to which this policy applies using the
format: \\server[\share[\path]] for Windows resources and \\server[\path] for
Unix resources. For detailed guidelines, see “Defining file resources” on
page 373.
5. In the Action field, select one of the following options:
„
Compress—Select this option to compress data from the specified
resource.
„
Do not compress—Select this option to disable compression for the
specified resource.
For a list of the types of data the IVE compresses, see “Supported data types”
on page 840.
6. Click Add.
Defining a single sign-on autopolicy (Windows only)
Single sign-on (SSO) autopolicies configure the IVE to automatically submit
credentials to a Windows share or directory so that the user does not have to
reenter his credentials, as explained in “Single sign-on” on page 191.
To create a Windows SSO autopolicy:
1. Create a Windows file resource profile, as explained in “Defining resource
profiles: File rewriting” on page 371.
2. Click Show ALL autopolicy types.
3. Select the Autopolicy: Windows Server Single Sign-On checkbox.
4. In the Resource field, specify the resource to which this policy applies using the
format: \\server[\share[\path]]. For detailed guidelines, see “Defining file
resources” on page 373.
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5. Select one of the following options:
„
Use predefined credentials—Select this option if you want to specify
credentials to pass to the Windows share or directory. Then:
i.
In the Username field, enter variable (such as <USERNAME>) or a static
username (such as administrator) to submit to the Windows share or
directory. When entering a variable, you may also include a domain.
For example, yourcompany.net\<USERNAME>.
ii.
Enter an IVE variable (such as <PASSWORD>) in the Variable Password
field or enter a static password in the Variable field. Note that the IVE
masks the password you enter here with asterisks.
When entering static credentials, note that the IVE file browsing server
maintains the connections open to a server share, however, so connecting
to a different folder on the same share using a different account may not
work reliably.
If the specified credentials fail, the IVE may submit alternative credentials,
as explained in “Multiple sign-in credentials overview” on page 193.
„
Disable SSO—Select this option if you do not want the IVE to automatically
submit credentials to the specified Windows share or directory.
6. Click Save Changes.
Defining a file bookmark
When you create a file resource profile, the IVE automatically creates a bookmark
that links to the primary resource that you specified in the resource profile. The IVE
enables you to modify this bookmark as well as create additional bookmarks within
the same domain.
NOTE: When configuring bookmarks, note that:
376
„
„
You can only assign bookmarks to roles that you have already associated with
the resource profile—not all of the roles defined on the IVE. To change the list
of roles associated with the resource profile, use settings in its Roles tab.
„
Bookmarks simply control which links the IVE displays to users—not which
resources the users can access. For instance, if you enable access to a
Windows directory but do not create a bookmark to that directory, users can
access the directory through Windows Explorer.
„
You cannot create bookmarks that link to additional servers defined through
file access control autopolicies.
„
If you use a bookmark to reference a file shortcut, note that the IVE only
displays bookmarks with shortcuts to files or folders on a network share such
as \\server5\share\users\jdoe\file.txt. However, the IVE does not display
bookmarks with shortcuts to local directories such as C:\users\jdoe\file.txt.
Defining resource profiles: File rewriting
Chapter 15: File rewriting
For more information about resource profile bookmarks, see “Defining
bookmarks” on page 78.
To configure file resource profile bookmarks:
1. If you want to create a resource profile bookmark through the standard
resource profiles page:
a.
Navigate to the Users > Resource Profiles > Files > Select Resource
Profile > Bookmarks page in the admin console.
b. Click the appropriate link in the Bookmark column if you want to modify
an existing bookmark. Or, click New Bookmark to create an additional
bookmark.
Alternatively, if you want to create a resource profile bookmark through the
user roles page:
a.
Navigate to the Users > User Roles > Select Role > Files > Windows
Bookmarks|Unix Bookmarks page in the admin console.
b. Click New Bookmark.
c.
From the Type list, choose File Resource Profile. (The IVE does not display
this option if have not already created a file resource profile.)
d. Select an existing resource profile.
e.
Click OK. (If you have not already associated the selected role with the
resource profile, the IVE automatically makes the association for you. The
IVE also enables any access control policies for the role that are required by
the resource profile.)
f.
If this role is not already associated with the selected resource profile, the
IVE displays an informational message. If you see this message, click Save
Changes to add this role to the resource profile’s list of roles and to update
the profile’s autopolicies as required. Then, repeat the previous steps to
create the bookmark.
NOTE: When you create a resource profile bookmark through the user roles page
(instead of the standard resource profiles page), the IVE only associates the
generated bookmark with the selected role. The IVE does not assign the
bookmark to all of the roles associated with the selected resource profile.
2. Optionally change the name and description of the bookmark. (By default, the
IVE populates names the bookmark using the resource profile name.)
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3. In the File Browsing Path field, add a suffix to the resource if you want to
create links to sub-directories of the resource defined in the primary resource
profile. For information about system variables and attributes that you can
include in the bookmark, see “Using system variables in realms, roles, and
resource policies” on page 869.
NOTE: Make sure to enter a unique server and path in this field. If you create two
bookmarks that contain the same concatenated server and path string, the IVE
deletes one of the bookmarks from the end-user view. You will still be able to see
both bookmarks, however, in the administrator console.
4. In the Appearance section, choose one of the following options:
„
Appear as bookmark on homepage and in file browsing—Select this
option if you want the bookmark to appear both on a user’s welcome page
and when browsing network files.
„
Appear in file browsing only—Select this option if you want the
bookmark to appear only when users are browsing network files.
5. If you are configuring the bookmark through the resource profile pages, under
Roles, specify the roles to which you want to display the bookmark:
„
ALL selected roles—Select this option to display the bookmark to all of the
roles associated with the resource profile.
„
Subset of selected roles—Select this option to display the bookmark to a
subset of the roles associated with the resource profile. Then select roles
from the ALL Selected Roles list and click Add to move them to the Subset
of selected roles list.
6. Click Save Changes.
Defining role settings: Windows resources
You can use two different methods to create Windows file bookmarks:
378
„
„
Create bookmarks through existing resource profiles (recommended)—
When you select this method, the IVE automatically populates the bookmark
with key parameters (such as the primary server and share) using settings from
the resource profile. Additionally, while you are creating the associated
resource profile, the IVE guides you through the process of creating any
required policies to enable access to the bookmark. For configuration
instructions, see “Defining a file bookmark” on page 376.
„
Create standard bookmarks—When you select this option, you must manually
enter all bookmark parameters during configuration. Additionally, you must
enable access to the file browsing at the role level and create resource policies
that enable access to the servers defined in the bookmark. For configuration
instructions, see “Creating advanced bookmarks to Windows resources” on
page 379.
Defining role settings: Windows resources
Chapter 15: File rewriting
You can create Windows bookmarks that appear on the welcome page for users
mapped to this role. You can insert the user’s IVE username in the URL path to
provide quick access to the user’s network directories.
When IVE users are browsing files on a Dfs server, the Dfs server uses the site
configuration data stored in Active Directory to return Dfs referrals to the IVE in the
right order. Referrals to closer servers are put higher in the list than referrals to
servers that are farther away. Clients try referrals in the order in which they are
received. If a request comes from a client which resides in a subnet which is not in
this list, the server will not know where the client is coming from and will return
the list of referrals to the customer in an arbitrary order. This could potentially
cause the Dfs requests from the IVE (acting as the client in this case) to access a
server much farther away. In turn, this could cause serious delays, especially if the
IVE attempts to access a server which is unreachable from the subnet which the IVE
resides in. If the IVE is installed on a subnet which is not in the Dfs server's list, the
Dfs administrator may use the “Active Directory Sites and Services” tool on the
domain controller to add the IVE's subnet to the appropriate site.
This section contains the following information about defining bookmarks and rolelevel settings for Windows file browsing resources:
„
“Creating advanced bookmarks to Windows resources” on page 379
„
“Creating Windows bookmarks that map to LDAP servers” on page 380
„
“Defining general file browsing options” on page 381
Creating advanced bookmarks to Windows resources
NOTE: Information in this section is provided for backwards compatibility. We
recommend that you configure access to Windows shares and directories through
resource profiles instead, since they provide a simpler, more unified configuration
method. For more information, see “Defining resource profiles: File rewriting” on
page 371.
To create a bookmark to a Windows resource:
1. In the admin console, choose Users > User Roles > RoleName > Files >
Windows Bookmarks.
2. Click New Bookmark and then browse to or enter the server and share name.
Specify a path to further restrict access. If you want to insert the user’s
username, enter <username> at the appropriate place in the path. For
information about additional system variables and attributes that you can
include in the bookmark, see “Using system variables in realms, roles, and
resource policies” on page 869. If you specify a name and description for the
bookmark, this information displays on the IVE home page instead of the
server/share.
Defining role settings: Windows resources
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NOTE:
„
You may not bookmark a Windows server. You must specify both the server
and share name.
„
Make sure to enter a unique server and path in this field. If you create two
bookmarks that contain the same concatenated server and path string, the
IVE deletes one of the bookmarks from the end-user view. You will still be
able to see both bookmarks, however, in the administrator console.
3. For Appearance, choose either:
„
Appear as bookmark on homepage and in file browsing if you want the
bookmark to appear both on a user’s welcome page and when browsing
network files.
„
Appear in file browsing only if you want the bookmark to appear only
when browsing network files.
4. For Access, click Enable auto-allow access to this bookmark if you want the
IVE to automatically create a corresponding Windows Access resource policy.
Note that this functionality applies only to role bookmarks and not bookmarks
created by users. Next, select:
„
Read-write access to enable users to save files on the server. Note that
users cannot upload files greater than 500 MB to the server.
„
Include sub-folders to enable users to view files in directories below the
specified bookmark path.
NOTE: You may not see the Auto-allow option if you are using a new installation
or if an administrator hides the option. For more information on this option, see
“Setting system options” on page 575.
5. Click Save Changes or Save + New to add another.
Creating Windows bookmarks that map to LDAP servers
To create a bookmark that automatically maps to a user’s LDAP home directory:
1. Create an LDAP server instance, as described in “Defining an LDAP server
instance” on page 107.
2. Add the LDAP attribute homeDirectory to the Server Catalog.
3. Configure a realm and bind LDAP as the authentication server, as described in
“Defining an LDAP server instance” on page 107.
4. Configure role-mapping rules, as needed.
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„
Defining role settings: Windows resources
Chapter 15: File rewriting
5. Create a Windows bookmark using instructions in one of the following
sections:
„
“Defining a file bookmark” on page 376
„
“Creating advanced bookmarks to Windows resources” on page 379
During configuration, specify <userAttr.homeDirectory> in the bookmark.
6. Click Save Changes.
Defining general file browsing options
To specify general Windows file browsing options:
1. In the admin console, choose Users > User Roles > RoleName > Files >
Options.
2. Under Windows Network Files, specify which options to enable for users:
„
User can browse network file shares—If enabled, users can view and
create bookmarks to resources on available Windows file shares.
„
User can add bookmarks—If enabled, users can view and create
bookmarks to resources on available Windows file shares.
3. Click Save Changes.
Defining resource policies: Windows file resources
When you enable the File access feature for a role, you need to create resource
policies that specify which Windows and UNIX/NFS resources a user may access, as
well as the encoding to use when communicating with Windows and NFS file
shares. When a user makes a file request, the IVE evaluates the resource policies
corresponding to the request, such as Windows access resource policies for a
request to fetch an MS Word document (.doc file). After matching a user’s request
to a resource listed in a relevant policy, the IVE performs the action specified for
the resource.
You can create resource policies through the standard interface (as described in this
section) or through resource profiles (recommended method).
When writing a File resource policy, you need to supply key information:
„
Resources—A resource policy must specify one or more resources to which the
policy applies. When writing a File policy, you need to specify File servers or
specific shares.
„
Roles—A resource policy must specify the roles to which it applies. When a
user makes a request, the IVE determines what policies apply to the role and
then evaluates those policies that correspond to the request.
Defining resource policies: Windows file resources
„
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„
Actions—Each type of resource policy performs a certain action, which is
either to allow or deny a resource or to perform or not perform some function,
such as allow a user to write to a directory. You can also write detailed rules
that apply more conditions to a user request. See “Writing a detailed rule” on
page 88.
The IVE engine that evaluates resource policies requires that the resources listed in
a policy’s Resources list follow a canonical format.
This section contains the following information about writing UNIX/NFS file
resource policies:
„
“Canonical format: Windows file resources” on page 382
„
“Writing a Windows access resource policy” on page 383
„
“Writing a Windows SSO resource policy” on page 384
„
“Writing a Windows compression resource policy” on page 386
„
“Defining general file writing options” on page 387
Canonical format: Windows file resources
NOTE: Information in this section is provided for backwards compatibility. We
recommend that you configure access to Windows file servers through resource
profiles instead, since they provide a simpler, more unified configuration method.
For more information, see “Defining resource profiles: File rewriting” on
page 371.
When writing a resource policy for a Windows file resource, you need to
understand the following canonical format.
Canonical format:
\\server[\share[\path]]
The three components are:
„
Server (required)—Possible values:
„
Hostname—The system variable <username> may be used.
„
IP address—The IP address needs to be in the format: a.b.c.d
The leading two back slashes are required.
„
382
„
Share (optional)—If the share is missing, then star (*) is assumed, meaning ALL
paths match. The system variable <username> is allowed.
Defining resource policies: Windows file resources
Chapter 15: File rewriting
„
Path (optional)—Special characters allowed include:
Table 29: Path special characters
*
Matches any character
%
Matches any character except slash (/)
?
Matches exactly one character
If the path is missing, then slash (/) is assumed, meaning only top-level folders
are matched. For example:
\\%.danastreet.net\share\<username>\*
\\*.juniper.com\dana\*
\\10.11.0.10\share\web\*
\\10.11.254.227\public\%.doc
Writing a Windows access resource policy
NOTE: Information in this section is provided for backwards compatibility. We
recommend that you configure access to Windows file servers through resource
profiles instead, since they provide a simpler, more unified configuration method.
For more information, see “Defining resource profiles: File rewriting” on
page 371.
To write a Windows access resource policy:
1. In the admin console, choose Users > Resource Policies > Files > Access >
Windows.
2. On the Windows File Access Policies page, click New Policy.
3. On the New Policy page, enter:
a.
A name to label this policy.
b. A description of the policy. (optional)
4. In the Resources section, specify the resources to which this policy applies. See
“Canonical format: Windows file resources” on page 382 for more information.
5. In the Roles section, specify:
„
Policy applies to ALL roles—To apply this policy to all users.
„
Policy applies to SELECTED roles—To apply this policy only to users who
are mapped to roles in the Selected roles list. Make sure to add roles to this
list from the Available roles list.
„
Policy applies to all roles OTHER THAN those selected below—To apply
this policy to all users except for those who map to the roles in the Selected
roles list. Make sure to add roles to this list from the Available roles list.
Defining resource policies: Windows file resources
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6. In the Action section, specify:
„
Allow access—To grant access to the resources specified in the Resources
list. Check Read-only to prevent users from saving files on the server.
„
Deny access—To deny access to the resources specified in the Resources
list.
„
Use Detailed Rules—To specify one or more detailed rules for this policy.
See “Writing a detailed rule” on page 88 for more information.
7. Click Save Changes.
8. On the Windows File Access Policies page, order the policies according to how
you want the IVE to evaluate them. Keep in mind that once the IVE matches
the resource requested by the user to a resource in a policy’s (or a detailed
rule’s) Resource list, it performs the specified action and stops processing
policies.
If you want to write a File resource policy that enables you to specify credentials for
the IVE to submit to a file server when a user request matches a resource in the
Resource list, you can use the following procedure to do so. You can also configure
the IVE to prompt users for credentials.
Writing a Windows SSO resource policy
NOTE: Information in this section is provided for backwards compatibility. We
recommend that you configure access to Windows file servers through resource
profiles instead, since they provide a simpler, more unified configuration method.
For more information, see “Defining resource profiles: File rewriting” on
page 371.
To write a Windows credentials resource policy:
1. In the admin console, choose Users > Resource Policies > Files > SSO >
Windows.
2. On the Windows Credentials Policies page, click New Policy.
3. On the New Policy page, enter:
a.
A name to label this policy.
b. A description of the policy. (optional)
4. In the Resources section, specify the resources to which this policy applies. See
“Canonical format: Windows file resources” on page 382 for more information.
5. In the Roles section, specify:
„
384
„
Policy applies to ALL roles—To apply this policy to all users.
Defining resource policies: Windows file resources
Chapter 15: File rewriting
„
Policy applies to SELECTED roles—To apply this policy only to users who
are mapped to roles in the Selected roles list. Make sure to add roles to
this list from the Available roles list.
„
Policy applies to all roles OTHER THAN those selected below—To apply
this policy to all users except for those who map to the roles in the
Selected roles list. Make sure to add roles to this list from the Available
roles list.
6. In the Action section, specify:
„
Use static credentials—This option enables you to specify static
administrator credentials that the IVE submits to resources specified in the
Resources list at the folder and file level. The IVE file browsing server
maintains the connections open to a server\share, however, so connecting
to a different folder on the same share using a different account may not
work reliably. If the specified credentials fail, the IVE may submit
alternative credentials, as explained in “Single sign-on” on page 191. Note
that the IVE masks the password you enter here with asterisks.
„
Use variable credentials—This option enables you to specify variable
administrator credentials that the IVE submits to resources specified in the
Resources list at the folder and file level. Note that you may enter IVE
variables such as <USERNAME> and <PASSWORD> in these fields as well as
a domain. For example: yourcompany.net\<USERNAME>. If the specified
credentials fail, the IVE may submit alternative credentials, as explained in
“Single sign-on” on page 191.
„
Prompt for user credentials—If a file share on a resource specified in the
Resources list requires credentials, then IVE intermediates the challenge
by presenting an authentication challenge in the IVE. The user needs to
enter the credentials for the share that he is trying to access. If the
specified credentials fail, the IVE denies the user access to the resource.
„
Use Detailed Rules—To specify one or more detailed rules for this policy.
See “Writing a detailed rule” on page 88 for more information.
7. Click Save Changes.
8. On the Windows File Access Policies page, order the policies according to how
you want the IVE to evaluate them. Keep in mind that once the IVE matches
the resource requested by the user to a resource in a policy’s (or a detailed
rule’s) Resource list, it performs the specified action and stops processing
policies.
Defining resource policies: Windows file resources
„
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Writing a Windows compression resource policy
NOTE: Information in this section is provided for backwards compatibility. We
recommend that you configure compression through resource profiles instead,
since they provide a simpler, more unified configuration method. For more
information, see “Defining a file compression autopolicy” on page 374.
Compression policies specify which types of file data the IVE should compress
when you enable GZIP compression through the Maintenance > System >
Options page of the admin console. For more information, see “Compression
execution” on page 839.
The IVE comes pre-equipped with two file compression policies (*:*/*) which
compress all applicable file data. You may enable these policies through the
Resource Policies > Files > Compression pages of the admin console.
To write a Windows file compression resource policy:
1. In the admin console, choose Resource Policies > Files > Compression.
2. Select the Windows tab.
3. Click New Policy.
4. On the New Policy page, enter:
a.
A name to label this policy.
b. A description of the policy (optional).
5. In the Resources section, specify the resources to which this policy applies. See
“Specifying resources for a resource policy” on page 83 for more information.
6. In the Roles section, specify:
„
Policy applies to ALL roles—To apply this policy to all users.
„
Policy applies to SELECTED roles—To apply this policy only to users who
are mapped to roles in the Selected roles list. Make sure to add roles to this
list from the Available roles list.
„
Policy applies to all roles OTHER THAN those selected below—To apply
this policy to all users except for those who map to the roles in the Selected
roles list. Make sure to add roles to this list from the Available roles list.
7. In the Action section, specify:
386
„
„
Compress—The IVE compresses the supported content types from the
specified resource.
„
Do not compress—The IVE does not compress the supported content
types from the specified resource.
„
Use Detailed Rules—To specify one or more detailed rules for this policy.
See “Writing a detailed rule” on page 88 for more information.
Defining resource policies: Windows file resources
Chapter 15: File rewriting
8. Click Save Changes.
Defining general file writing options
You can specify File resource options that apply to your File resource policies.
When you enable a File resource policy option, the IVE compiles a list of host
names specified in the Resources field of each File resource policy. The IVE then
applies the enabled options to this comprehensive list of host names.
To specify resource options for Windows file servers:
1. In the admin console, choose Users > Resource Policies > Files > Options.
2. Select:
„
IP based matching for Hostname based policy resources—The IVE looks
up the IP address corresponding to each host name specified in a File
resource policy. When a user tries to access a server by specifying an IP
address rather than the host name, the IVE compares the IP to its cached
list of IP addresses to determine if a host name matches an IP. If there is a
match, then the IVE accepts the match as a policy match and applies the
action specified for the resource policy.
NOTE: This option does not apply to host names that include wildcards and
parameters.
„
Allow NTLM V1—Select this option to fall back to NTLM version 1
authentication if Kerberos authentication of administrator credentials fails.
3. Click Save Changes.
Defining role settings: UNIX/NFS file resources
You can use two different methods to create Unix file bookmarks:
„
Create bookmarks through existing resource profiles (recommended)—
When you select this method, the IVE automatically populates the bookmark
with key parameters (such as the server) using settings from the resource
profile. Additionally, while you are creating the associated resource profile, the
IVE guides you through the process of creating any required policies to enable
access to the bookmark. For configuration instructions, see “Defining a file
bookmark” on page 376.
„
Create standard bookmarks—When you select this option, you must manually
enter all bookmark parameters during configuration. Additionally, you must
enable access to the file browsing at the role level and create resource policies
that enable access to the servers defined in the bookmark. For configuration
instructions, see “Creating advanced bookmarks to UNIX resources” on
page 388.
Defining role settings: UNIX/NFS file resources
„
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You can create Unix bookmarks that appear on the welcome page for users
mapped to this role. You can insert the user’s IVE username in the URL path to
provide quick access to the user’s network directories.
This section contains the following information about defining bookmarks and rolelevel settings for Unix file browsing resources:
„
“Creating advanced bookmarks to UNIX resources” on page 388
„
“Defining general file browsing options” on page 389
Creating advanced bookmarks to UNIX resources
NOTE: Information in this section is provided for backwards compatibility. We
recommend that you configure access to Unix servers through resource profiles
instead, since they provide a simpler, more unified configuration method. For
more information, see “Defining resource profiles: File rewriting” on page 371.
You can create UNIX/NFS bookmarks that appear on the IVE home page. You can
insert the user’s IVE username in the URL path to provide quick access to the user’s
network directories.
To create a bookmark to a UNIX/NFS resource:
1. In the admin console, choose Users > User Roles > RoleName > Files >
UNIX Bookmarks.
2. Click New Bookmark and then enter the server host name or IP address and
the path to the share. If you want to insert the user’s username, enter
<username> at the appropriate place in the path. If you specify a name and
description for the bookmark, this information displays on the IVE home page
instead of the server/path.
NOTE: Make sure to enter a unique server and path in this field. If you create two
bookmarks that contain the same concatenated server and path string, the IVE
deletes one of the bookmarks from the end-user view. You will still be able to see
both bookmarks, however, in the administrator console.
3. For Appearance, choose either:
388
„
„
Appear as bookmark on homepage and in file browsing if you want the
bookmark to appear both on a user’s welcome page and when browsing
network files.
„
Appear in file browsing only if you want the bookmark to appear only
when browsing network files.
Defining role settings: UNIX/NFS file resources
Chapter 15: File rewriting
4. For Access, click Enable auto-allow access to this bookmark if you want the
IVE to automatically create a corresponding UNIX/NFS resource policy. Note
that this functionality applies only to role bookmarks and not bookmarks
created by users. Next, select:
„
Read-write access to enable users to save files on the server. Note that
users cannot upload files greater than 500 MB to the server.
„
Include sub-folders to enable users to view files in directories below the
specified bookmark path.
NOTE: You may not see the Auto-allow option if you are using a new installation
or if an administrator hides the option. For more information on this option, see
“Setting system options” on page 575.
5. Click Save Changes or Save + New to add another.
Defining general file browsing options
To specify general file browsing options:
1. In the admin console, choose Users > User Roles > RoleName > Files >
Options.
2. Under UNIX Network Files, specify which options to enable for users:
„
User can browse network file shares—If enabled, users can view and
create bookmarks to resources on available UNIX file shares.
„
User can add bookmarks—If enabled, users can view and create
bookmarks to resources on available UNIX file shares.
„
Allow automount shares—If enabled, users access to automount shares
specified on a NIS server.
3. Click Save Changes.
Defining resource policies: UNIX/NFS file resources
When you enable the File access feature for a role, you need to create resource
policies that specify which Windows and UNIX/NFS resources a user may access, as
well as the encoding to use when communicating with Windows and NFS file
shares. When a user makes a file request, the IVE evaluates the resource policies
corresponding to the request, such as Windows access resource policies for a
request to fetch an MS Word document (.doc file). After matching a user’s request
to a resource listed in a relevant policy, the IVE performs the action specified for
the resource.
You can create resource policies through the standard interface (as described in this
section) or through resource profiles (recommended method).
Defining resource policies: UNIX/NFS file resources
„
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When writing a File resource policy, you need to supply key information:
„
Resources—A resource policy must specify one or more resources to which the
policy applies. When writing a File policy, you need to specify File servers or
specific shares.
„
Roles—A resource policy must specify the roles to which it applies. When a
user makes a request, the IVE determines what policies apply to the role and
then evaluates those policies that correspond to the request.
„
Actions—Each type of resource policy performs a certain action, which is
either to allow or deny a resource or to perform or not perform some function,
such as allow a user to write to a directory. You can also write detailed rules
that apply more conditions to a user request. See “Writing a detailed rule” on
page 88.
The IVE engine that evaluates resource policies requires that the resources listed in
a policy’s Resources list follow a canonical format.
This section contains the following information about writing UNIX/NFS file
resource policies:
„
“Canonical format: UNIX/NFS file resources” on page 390
„
“Writing UNIX/NFS resource policies” on page 391
„
“Writing a Unix/NFS compression resource policy” on page 392
„
“Defining general file writing options” on page 393
Canonical format: UNIX/NFS file resources
When writing a resource policy for a UNIX/NFS file resource, you need to
understand the following canonical format.
Canonical format:
server[/path]
The two components are:
„
Server (required)—Possible values:
„
Hostname—The system variable <username> may be used.
„
IP address—The IP address needs to be in the format: a.b.c.d
The leading two back slashes are required.
„
Path (optional)—Special characters allowed include:
Table 30: Path special characters
390
„
*
Matches any character
%
Matches any character except back slash (\)
Defining resource policies: UNIX/NFS file resources
Chapter 15: File rewriting
Table 30: Path special characters (Continued)
Matches exactly one character
?
If the path is missing, then back slash (\) is assumed, meaning only top-level
folders are matched. For example:
%.danastreet.net/share/users/<username>/*
*.juniper.com/dana/*
10.11.0.10/web/*
10.11.254.227/public/%.txt
Writing UNIX/NFS resource policies
NOTE: Information in this section is provided for backwards compatibility. We
recommend that you configure access to Unix file servers through resource
profiles instead, since they provide a simpler, more unified configuration method.
For more information, see “Defining resource profiles: File rewriting” on
page 371.
To write a UNIX/NFS resource policy:
1. In the admin console, choose Users > Resource Policies > Files > Access >
Unix/NFS.
2. On the Unix/NFS File Access Policies page, click New Policy.
3. On the New Policy page, enter:
a.
A name to label this policy.
b. A description of the policy. (optional)
4. In the Resources section, specify the resources to which this policy applies. See
“Canonical format: UNIX/NFS file resources” on page 390 for more
information.
5. In the Roles section, specify:
„
Policy applies to ALL roles—To apply this policy to all users.
„
Policy applies to SELECTED roles—To apply this policy only to users who
are mapped to roles in the Selected roles list. Make sure to add roles to this
list from the Available roles list.
„
Policy applies to all roles OTHER THAN those selected below—To apply
this policy to all users except for those who map to the roles in the Selected
roles list. Make sure to add roles to this list from the Available roles list.
6. In the Action section, specify:
„
Allow access—To grant access to the resources specified in the Resources
list. Check Read-only to prevent users from saving files on the server.
Defining resource policies: UNIX/NFS file resources
„
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„
Deny access—To deny access to the resources specified in the Resources
list.
„
Use Detailed Rules—To specify one or more detailed rules for this policy.
See “Writing a detailed rule” on page 88 for more information.
7. Click Save Changes.
8. On the Unix/NFS File Access Policies page, order the policies according to how
you want the IVE to evaluate them. Keep in mind that once the IVE matches
the resource requested by the user to a resource in a policy’s (or a detailed
rule’s) Resource list, it performs the specified action and stops processing
policies.
Writing a Unix/NFS compression resource policy
NOTE: Information in this section is provided for backwards compatibility. We
recommend that you configure access to Unix file servers through resource
profiles instead, since they provide a simpler, more unified configuration method.
For more information, see “Defining resource profiles: File rewriting” on
page 371.
Compression policies specify which types of file data the IVE should compress
when you enable GZIP compression through the Maintenance > System >
Options page of the admin console. For more information, see “Compression
execution” on page 839.
The IVE comes pre-equipped with two file compression policies (*:*/*) which
compress all applicable file data. You may enable these policies through the
Resource Policies > Files > Compression pages of the admin console.
To write a Unix/NFS file compression resource policy:
1. In the admin console, choose Resource Policies > Files > Compression.
2. Select the Unix/NFS tab.
3. Click New Policy.
4. On the New Policy page, enter:
a.
A name to label this policy.
b. A description of the policy (optional).
5. In the Resources section, specify the resources to which this policy applies. See
“Specifying resources for a resource policy” on page 83 for more information.
6. In the Roles section, specify:
„
392
„
Policy applies to ALL roles—To apply this policy to all users.
Defining resource policies: UNIX/NFS file resources
Chapter 15: File rewriting
„
Policy applies to SELECTED roles—To apply this policy only to users who
are mapped to roles in the Selected roles list. Make sure to add roles to this
list from the Available roles list.
„
Policy applies to all roles OTHER THAN those selected below—To apply
this policy to all users except for those who map to the roles in the Selected
roles list. Make sure to add roles to this list from the Available roles list.
7. In the Action section, specify:
„
Compress—The IVE compresses the supported content types from the
specified resource.
„
Do not compress—The IVE does not compress the supported content
types from the specified resource.
„
Use Detailed Rules—To specify one or more detailed rules for this policy.
See “Writing a detailed rule” on page 88 for more information.
8. Click Save Changes.
Defining general file writing options
You can specify File resource options that apply to your File resource policies.
When you enable a File resource policy option, the IVE compiles a list of host
names specified in the Resources field of each File resource policy. The IVE then
applies the enabled options to this comprehensive list of host names.
To specify options for UNIX/NFS resources:
1. In the admin console, choose Users > Resource Policies > Files > Options.
2. Select:
„
IP based matching for Hostname based policy resources—The IVE looks
up the IP address corresponding to each host name specified in a File
resource policy. When a user tries to access a server by specifying an IP
address rather than the host name, the IVE compares the IP to its cached
list of IP addresses to determine if a host name matches an IP. If there is a
match, then the IVE accepts the match as a policy match and applies the
action specified for the resource policy.
NOTE: This option does not apply to host names that include wildcards and
parameters.
„
Case sensitive matching for the Path component in File resources—
Select this option to require users to enter a case-sensitive URL to an NFS
resource. Use this option when passing username or password data in a
URL.
Defining resource policies: UNIX/NFS file resources
„
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NOTE: This option does not apply to Windows servers.
„
Allow NTLM V1—Select this option to fall back to NTLM version 1
authentication if Kerberos authentication of administrator credentials fails.
3. Click Save Changes.
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„
Defining resource policies: UNIX/NFS file resources
Chapter 16
Secure Application Manager
The Secure Application Manager option provides secure, application-level remote
access to enterprise servers from client applications. You may deploy two versions
of the Secure Application Manager:
„
Windows version (W-SAM)—The Windows version of the Secure Application
Manager is a Windows-based solution that enables you to secure traffic to
individual client/server applications and application servers.
„
Java version (J-SAM)—The Java version of the Secure Application Manager
provides support for static TCP port client/server applications, including
enhanced support for Microsoft MAPI, Lotus Notes, and Citrix NFuse. J-SAM
also provides NetBIOS support, which enables users to map drives to specified
protected resources.
This section contains the following information about Secure Application Manager:
„
“Licensing: Secure Application Manager availability” on page 396
„
“Task Summary: Configuring WSAM” on page 396
„
“W-SAM overview” on page 397
„
“Defining resource profiles: WSAM” on page 401
„
“Defining role settings: WSAM” on page 404
„
“Defining resource policies: WSAM” on page 410
„
“Using the W-SAM launcher” on page 413
„
“Task Summary: Configuring JSAM” on page 416
„
“J-SAM overview” on page 417
„
“Defining resource profiles: JSAM” on page 435
„
“Defining role settings: JSAM” on page 439
„
“Defining resource policies: JSAM” on page 443
„
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Licensing: Secure Application Manager availability
The Secure Application Manager features (WSAM and JSAM) are not available on
the SA 700 appliance.
Task Summary: Configuring WSAM
This section provides high-level WSAM configuration steps. These steps do not
account for preliminary IVE configuration steps such as specifying the IVE’s
network identity or adding user IDs to the IVE.
To configure WSAM:
1. Create resource profiles that enable access to client/server applications or
destination networks, create supporting autopolicies as necessary, and assign
the policies to user roles using settings in the Users > Resource Profiles>
SAM pages of the admin console. For instructions, see “Defining resource
profiles: WSAM” on page 401.
We recommend that you use resource profiles to configure WSAM (as
described above). However, if you do not want to use resource profiles, you can
configure WSAM using role and resource policy settings in the following pages
of the admin console instead:
a.
Enable access to WSAM at the role-level using settings in the Users > User
Roles > Role > General > Overview page of the admin console. For
instructions, see “Configuring user roles” on page 54.
b. Specify which client/server applications and servers WSAM should
intermediate using settings in the Users > User Roles > SAM >
Applications page of the admin console. For instructions, see “Specifying
applications and servers for WSAM to secure” on page 405.
c.
Specify which application servers users can access through WSAM using
settings in the Users > Resource Policies > SAM > Access page of the
admin console. For instructions, see “Specifying application servers that
users can access” on page 410.
2. After enabling access to client/server applications and/or destination networks
using WSAM resource profiles or roles and resource policies, you can modify
general role and resource options in the following pages of the admin console:
a.
(Optional) Configure role-level options such as whether the IVE should
automatically launch and upgrade WSAM using settings in the Users >
User Roles > SAM > Options page of the admin console. For
instructions, see “Specifying resource level WSAM options” on page 412.
b. (Optional) Control IP based hostname matching at the resource level using
settings in the Users > Resource Policies > SAM > Options page of the
admin console. For instructions, see “Specifying resource level WSAM
options” on page 412.
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Chapter 16: Secure Application Manager
3. Ensure that an appropriate version of WSAM is available to remote clients using
settings in the Maintenance > System > Installers page of the admin
console. For instructions, see “Downloading application installers” on
page 577.
4. If you want to enable or disable client-side logging for WSAM, configure the
appropriate options through the System > Configuration > Security >
Client-side Logs tab of the admin console. For instructions, see “Enabling
client-side logs” on page 679.
W-SAM overview
WSAM is a Windows-based solution that enables you to secure traffic to individual
client/server applications such as Lotus Notes, Microsoft Outlook, Citrix, and
NetBIOS file browsing as well as application servers. You can download and launch
WSAM using an ActiveX control hosted on the IVE, a Java delivery mechanism, or
the W-SAM launcher pre-installed on the client.
You can also enable WSAM on handheld/PDA devices. For specific information
regarding configuration and support for PDAs, see “Enabling WSAM on PDAs” on
page 851.
This section contains the following information about WSAM:
„
“Securing client/server traffic using WSAM” on page 397
„
“Antivirus and VPN client application compatibility” on page 400
„
“Launching Network Connect during a WSAM session” on page 401
„
“Debugging WSAM issues” on page 401
Securing client/server traffic using WSAM
The following diagram illustrates how WSAM secures client-server traffic. A
description of each of the steps follows the diagram.
W-SAM overview
„
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Figure 35: Windows Secure Application Manager
1. The user invokes WSAM through his IVE session. The user can invoke WSAM
automatically or manually. If you configure WSAM to auto-launch, the user
invokes WSAM simply by signing into the IVE. Or, if you or the user disables
the auto-launch option, the user can manually invoke WSAM by clicking its link
on the IVE home page. (If you enable auto-launch, users can override the
setting through the Preferences > Applications page of the end-user console.)
2. If WSAM is not already installed on the user’s system, the IVE downloads it to
the user’s machine. The delivery mechanism then installs the W-SAM software
on the client machine. WSAM delivery mechanisms include:
„
ActiveX control—This primary software delivery mechanism controls all
W-SAM installation functions. It downloads from the IVE when a user
launches WSAM from the IVE home page.
„
Java delivery—The IVE appliance provides this secondary delivery
mechanism if the IVE fails to download or upgrade the ActiveX control due
to browser restrictions. As with the ActiveX control, the Java delivery
mechanism controls all W-SAM installation functions.
NOTE: If Microsoft Vista is running on the user’s system, the user must click the
setup link that appears during the installation process to continue installing the
setup client and W-SAM. On all other Microsoft operating systems, the setup client
and W-SAM install automatically.
For information on removing the Juniper ActiveX control, see “Removing
the Juniper ActiveX Control” on page 265.
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Chapter 16: Secure Application Manager
„
Scriptable W-SAM Launcher—This tool enables users to launch W-SAM
manually from a command line or automatically from a batch file, an
application that performs a shell call, or a Win32 service. To use this
mechanism, you need to distribute the launcher to users, as described in
“Downloading application installers” on page 577. Users can then invoke
WSAM through a command prompt window using the command line
arguments described in “Using the W-SAM launcher” on page 413. Or, an
application or script may launch W-SAM by passing parameters to the
launcher. (For example, a PC batch-file script can invoke the W-SAM
launcher when the computer boots.)
NOTE: For information about the directories in which the WSAM delivery
mechanisms run, files they install on the user’s computer, log file locations, the
rights that users must have in order to run each of these delivery mechanisms,
and browser settings users must enable, see the Client-side Changes Guide on the
Juniper Networks Customer Support Center.
The IVE feeds role and client information defined on the server to the WSAM
client machine during WSAM initialization. (If the filtering policies change, the
client machine does not reflect those changes until the next sign-in session.
Any changes to the IVE server access control rules take effect immediately.)
3. The WSAM client installs a Layered Service Provider (LSP) or Transport Driver
Interface (TDI) driver on the client to secure application traffic. (If the traffic
originates from a Windows 98 or Windows Millennium system, WSAM uses an
LSP mechanism. If the traffic originates from a Windows 2000 or Windows XP
system, WSAM uses a TDI mechanism.) The WSAM status window icon
appears in the system tray. Users can double-click this icon to see the current
session status and a list of applications and hosts specified for WSAM to
intermediate.
4. The user launches an application or requests data from a server that you have
configured through WSAM. When the client application or the process tries to
connect to the resource, WSAM intercepts the request. WSAM intercepts TCP
and UDP connection calls from applications and DNS queries for destination
server host names.
5. WSAM forwards the host name of the client application or destination server to
the IVE over SSL.
6. The IVE resolves the host name against the DNS server.
7. The IVE returns up to 8 resolved IP addresses of the target host to WSAM.
W-SAM overview
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8. WSAM automatically configures a port-forwarding channel using a preprovisioned localhost IP address.
NOTE:
„
If you enable the Persistent Session option on the Users > User Roles >
Role > General > Session Options tab, the IVE caches the username and
password in the persistent session cookie after the first successful
authentication. This poses a potential security risk since the W-SAM launcher
uses the information stored in the persistent session cookie for all subsequent
sign-in attempts during the existing session even if you terminate the W-SAM
connection. For more information about persistent sessions, see “Specifying
session options” on page 57.
„
Users may experience problems waiting for the Secure Application Manager
to fully load if they enable pop-up blockers through their Web browsers. This
problem occurs because a pop-up window alerting users to accept the Secure
Application Manager plug-in may appear in the background (behind the Web
browser window) where users cannot see it.
Antivirus and VPN client application compatibility
Table 31 shows the compatibility of several antivirus and VPN client applications
with W-SAM and Windows 98 and Windows Millennium.
Table 31: WSAM for Windows 98 and Windows Millennium compatibility
Software
Version
Compatible?
Norton AntiVirus
2003
Yes
Norton AntiVirus
2004
Yes
Norton AntiVirus Professional
2004
Yes
Norton AntiVirus Corporate Edition
8.0
Yes
McAfee
7.0
No
McAfee
8.0
Yes
NOTE: If a conflict exists between WSAM and one of the third-party applications
on Windows 98 or Windows Millennium, the IVE blocks the download and
displays an error message detailing the conflict.
Table 32 shows the compatibility of several antivirus and VPN client applications
with W-SAM for Windows 2000 and Windows XP.
Table 32: WSAM for Windows 2000 and Windows XP compatibility
Software
Version File-sharing disabled
File-sharing enabled
Norton AntiVirus
2003
Yes
Yes
Norton AntiVirus
2004
Yes
Yes
Norton AntiVirus Professional
2004
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Norton AntiVirus Corporate Edition 8.0
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Chapter 16: Secure Application Manager
Table 32: WSAM for Windows 2000 and Windows XP compatibility (Continued)
Software
Version File-sharing disabled
File-sharing enabled
Trend Micro PC-cillin
2004
No
Yes
TheGreenBow Personal Firewall
2.5
Yes
Yes
Launching Network Connect during a WSAM session
Users can launch Network Connect while signed in to the IVE via WSAM. If they do,
however, the Network Connect installer automatically terminates the WSAM
session prior to launching Network Connect. During the process, the IVE prompts
users with a warning message informing them that they are about to terminate
their WSAM session in favor of launching Network Connect.
To deal with situation, we recommend that you give users as much access to
network resources through Network Connect as through WSAM. If you do, when
the users choose to launch Network Connect (simultaneously terminating WSAM),
they will still be able to access the same network resources. For more information,
refer to “Launching Network Connect during a Windows Secure Application
Manager session” on page 529.
Debugging WSAM issues
You can use the Secure Application Manager dialog box on the an end-user’s
system to view the WSAM status and a variety of details about the user’s session.
For instance, the Secure Application Manager dialog box displays the applications
and servers that WSAM is configured to secure, event logs and Winsock data for the
user’s session, and various system diagnostics and performance data. This
information can help you or a Juniper Networks Support representative debug any
problems your users may encounter.
To access the Secure Application Manager dialog box, users simply need to
double-click the WSAM icon on their Windows task bars:
For more information about viewing information in the Secure Application
Manager dialog box, see the end-user help system available from the Help link in
the IVE end-user console.
Defining resource profiles: WSAM
You can create two types of WSAM resource profiles:
„
WSAM application resource profiles—These resource profiles configure
WSAM to secure traffic to a client/server application. When you create a WSAM
application resource profile, the WSAM client intercepts requests from the
specified client applications to servers in your internal network.
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„
WSAM destination network resource profiles—These resource profiles
configure WSAM to secure traffic to a server. When you create a WSAM
destination network resource profile, the WSAM client intercepts requests from
processes running on the client that are connecting to the specified internal
hosts.
For more information about resource profiles, see “Resource profiles” on page 71.
For more information about WSAM, see “W-SAM overview” on page 397.
NOTE:
„
When creating WSAM resource profiles, note that the resource profiles do not
contain bookmarks. To access the applications and servers that WSAM
intermediates, users must first launch WSAM and then launch the specified
application or server using standard methods (such as the Windows Start
menu or a desktop icon). For information about automatically launching
WSAM when the user signs into the IVE, see “Specifying role-level WSAM
options” on page 408.
„
When you enable JSAM or WSAM through Web rewriting autopolicies in the
Users > Resource Profiles > Web Applications/Pages page of the admin
console, the IVE automatically creates JSAM or WSAM autopolicies for you.
You can only view these SAM policies through the appropriate Web resource
profile—not through the SAM resource profile pages of the admin console. For
more information, see “Defining a rewriting autopolicy” on page 300.
„
For tips on configuring PDA applications through WSAM, see “Enabling
WSAM on PDAs” on page 851.
Creating WSAM client application resource profiles
When you create a WSAM application resource profile, the WSAM client intercepts
requests from the specified client applications to servers in your internal network.
To create a WSAM application resource profile:
1. Navigate to the Users > Resource Profiles > SAM > Client Applications
page in the admin console.
2. Click New Profile.
3. From the Type list, choose WSAM.
4. From the Application list, select one of the following options:
„
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Custom—When you select this option, you must manually enter your
custom application’s executable file name (such as telnet.exe). Additionally,
you may specify this file’s path and MD5 hash of the executable file
(although it is not required that you specify the exact path to the
executable). If you enter an MD5 hash value, WSAM verifies that the
checksum value of the executable matches this value. If the values do not
match, WSAM notifies the user that the identity of the application could not
be verified and does not forward connections from the application to the
IVE.
Chapter 16: Secure Application Manager
„
Lotus Notes—When you select this option, WSAM intermediates traffic
from the Lotus Notes fat client application.
„
Microsoft Outlook—When you select this option, WSAM intermediates
traffic from the Microsoft Outlook application.
„
NetBIOS file browsing—When you select this option, WSAM intercepts
NetBIOS name lookups in the TDI drivers on port 137.
„
Citrix—When you select this option, WSAM intermediates traffic from
Citrix applications.
NOTE: You can only use WSAM to configure access to a standard application once
per user role. For instance, you can enable one configuration of Microsoft Outlook
and one configuration of Lotus Notes for the “Users” role.
5. Enter a unique name and optionally a description for the resource profile. The
IVE displays this information in the Client Application Sessions section of the
IVE end-user home page.
6. In the Autopolicy: SAM Access Control section, create a policy that allows or
denies users access to the server that hosts the specified application:
a.
If it is not already enabled, select the Autopolicy: SAM Access Control
checkbox.
b. In the Resource field, specify the application server to which this policy
applies. You can specify the server as a host name or an IP/netmask pair.
You may also include a port.
c.
From the Action list, select Allow to enable access to the specified server
or Deny to block access to the specified server.
d. Click Add.
7. Click Save and Continue.
8. In the Roles tab, select the roles to which the resource profile applies and click
Add.
The selected roles inherit the autopolicy created by the resource profile. If it is
not already enabled, the IVE also automatically enables the SAM option in the
Users > User Roles > Select Role > General > Overview page of the admin
console for all of the roles you select.
9. Click Save Changes.
Creating WSAM destination network resource profiles
When you create a WSAM destination network resource profile, the WSAM client
intercepts requests from processes running on the client to internal hosts.
Defining resource profiles: WSAM
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To create a WSAM destination network resource profile:
1. Navigate to the Users > Resource Profiles > SAM > WSAM Destinations
page in the admin console.
2. Click New Profile.
3. Enter a unique name and optionally a description for the resource profile.
4. In the WSAM Destinations section, specify which servers you want to secure
using WSAM and click Add. You can specify the servers as host name or
IP/netmask pairs. You may also include a port. For information about system
variables and attributes you can use in this field, see “Using system variables in
realms, roles, and resource policies” on page 869.
5. Select the Create an access control policy allowing SAM access to this server
checkbox to enable access to the server specified in the previous step (enabled
by default).
6. Click Save and Continue.
7. In the Roles tab, select the roles to which the resource profile applies and click
Add.
The selected roles inherit the autopolicy created by the resource profile. If it is
not already enabled, the IVE also automatically enables the SAM option in the
Users > User Roles > Select Role > General > Overview page of the admin
console for all of the roles you select.
8. Click Save Changes.
Defining role settings: WSAM
This section contains the following information about configuring role-level settings
for WSAM:
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„
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„
“Specifying applications and servers for WSAM to secure” on page 405
„
“Specifying applications that need to bypass WSAM” on page 407
„
“Specifying role-level WSAM options” on page 408
„
“Downloading WSAM applications” on page 410
Chapter 16: Secure Application Manager
Specifying applications and servers for WSAM to secure
NOTE: Information in this section is provided for backwards compatibility. We
recommend that you secure traffic using WSAM resource profiles instead, since
they provide a simpler, more unified configuration method. For more
information, see “Defining resource profiles: WSAM” on page 401.
Use the Applications tab to specify applications and servers for which WSAM
secures traffic. When WSAM downloads to a client PC, it contains the information
you configure on the Applications tab for the role. After a user launches the Secure
Application Manager, WSAM intercepts requests from client applications to servers
in your internal network and requests from processes running on the client to
internal hosts. You define these resources on the Applications tab by configuring
two lists:
„
WSAM supported applications list—This list contains applications for which
you want WSAM to secure client/server traffic between the client and the IVE.
„
WSAM allowed servers list—This list contains hosts for which you want WSAM
to secure client/server traffic between the client and the IVE.
Specifying applications for WSAM to secure
To specify applications for which WSAM secures client/server traffic between the
client and the IVE:
1. In the admin console, choose Users > User Roles > Select Role> SAM >
Applications.
2. Click Add Application.
3. Enter the name of the application and, optionally, a description. This
information displays in the Client Application Sessions section of the IVE enduser home page.
4. From the Type list, choose one of the following options:
„
Standard—If you select this option, choose one the following applications
from the Application Parameters section:
‰
Citrix—When you select this option, WSAM intermediates traffic from
Citrix applications.
‰
Lotus Notes—When you select this option, WSAM intermediates traffic
from the Lotus Notes fat client application.
‰
Microsoft Outlook/Exchange—When you select this option, WSAM
intermediates traffic from the Microsoft Outlook application.
Defining role settings: WSAM
„
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‰
NetBIOS file browsing—When you select this option, WSAM
intercepts NetBIOS name lookups in the TDI drivers on port 137.
NOTE: Note that in order to access a share using WSAM with NetBIOS, you need to
explicitly specify the server’s NetBIOS name (alphanumeric string up to 15
characters) in two places: on the Add Server page and in a SAM resource policy.
(Wildcards are currently not supported.) Alternatively, you can enable the Autoallow application servers option on the SAM > Options tab, and then the IVE
automatically creates a SAM resource policy that allows access to this server.
„
Custom—Select this option to specify a custom client/server application.
Then:
i.
In the Filename field, specify the name of the file’s executable file.
ii.
Optionally specify the file’s path and MD5 hash of the executable file.
If you enter an MD5 hash value, WSAM verifies that the checksum
value of the executable matches this value. If the values do not match,
WSAM notifies the user that the identity of the application could not be
verified and does not forward connections from the application to the
IVE.
5. Click Save Changes or Save + New.
6. Configure a WSAM resource policy to specify to which enterprise resources
(based on IP address/port combination) the IVE may send the application.
Specifying servers for WSAM to secure
To specify servers for which WSAM secures client/server traffic between the client
and the IVE:
1. In the admin console, choose Users > User Roles > Select Role > SAM >
Applications.
2. Click Add Server.
3. Enter the name of the server and, optionally, a description.
4. Specify the server’s host name (the wild cards '*' or '?' are accepted) or an
IP/netmask pair. Specify multiple ports for a host as separate entries. For
information about system variables and attributes you can use in this field, see
“Using system variables in realms, roles, and resource policies” on page 869.
5. Click Save Changes or Save + New.
6. Configure a WSAM resource policy to specify to which enterprise resources
(based on IP address/port combination) the IVE may send a server request.
Alternatively, you can enable the Auto-allow application servers option on the
SAM > Options tab, and then the IVE automatically creates a SAM resource
policy that allows access to the specified server. Note that you need to enable
this option before specifying the application or server; otherwise, you need to
create a SAM resource policy.
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Specifying applications that need to bypass WSAM
The WSAM client comes pre-configured with a list of “passthrough” applications
bypass WSAM. The WSAM client does not secure traffic for these applications. In
addition to bypassing these pre-defined applications, you may also specify
additional applications on the IVE server that should bypass WSAM.
NOTE: WSAM does not bypass applications on Pocket PCs and other handheld
devices.
This section includes the following information about WSAM bypass applications:
„
“Specifying bypass applications” on page 407
„
“Default bypass applications” on page 407
Specifying bypass applications
Use the Applications tab to specify applications on the IVE server for which WSAM
does not secure traffic. These “passthrough” applications bypass WSAM.
To specify applications for WSAM to secure:
1. In the admin console, choose Users > User Roles > Select Role > SAM >
Applications.
2. Select the Add Bypass Application button. The New Bypass Application page
displays.
3. Name the application and provide a description (optional).
4. Provide the file name (required).
5. Enter the absolute path to the application (optional).
6. Select Save Changes to add the bypass application to the list or Save + New to
save the bypass application and create another bypass application.
Default bypass applications
The WSAM client is pre-configured to bypass WSAM processing for the following
applications:
„
apache.exe
„
apache*
„
licadmin.exe
„
vni.exe
„
lmgrd.exe
„
TNSLSNR.EXE
„
ORACLE.EXE
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„
Agntsrvc.exe
„
ONRSD.EXE
„
Pagntsrv.exe
„
ENCSVC.EXE
„
Agntsvc.exe
„
sqlplus.exe
„
sqlplusw.exe
„
EiSQLW.exe
„
Sqlservr.exe
„
Sqlmangr.exe
„
inetinfo.EXE
„
svchost.exe
„
LSASS.EXE
„
CSRSS.EXE
„
WINLOGON.EXE
„
SERVICES.EXE
„
spoolsv.exe
„
hostex32.exe
„
xstart.exe
„
idsd.exe
„
dsTermServ.exe
„
dsCitrixProxy.exe
„
dsNcService.exe
„
dsNetworkConnect.exe
Specifying role-level WSAM options
To specify WSAM options at the role level:
1. In the admin console, choose Users > User Roles > Select Role > SAM >
Options.
2. If it is not already enabled, select the Windows SAM option at the top of the
page.
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3. Under Secure Application Manager options, configure the following options:
„
Auto-launch Secure Application Manager—If you enable this option, the
IVE automatically launches the Secure Application Manager when a user
signs in. If you do not select this option, users must manually start the
Secure Application Manager from the Client Applications Sessions section
of the IVE end-user home page.
NOTE: Although you configure the Secure Application Manager to automatically
launch when users sign into the IVE, users can override this setting through the
Preferences > Applications page of the IVE end-user console. If you or the enduser disables WSAM from automatically launching, users need to manually start
the Secure Application Manager by clicking its link on the IVE home page.
„
Auto-allow application servers—If you enable this option, the IVE
automatically creates a SAM resource policy that allows access to the
server specified in the WSAM application and server lists.
NOTE: You may not see the Auto-allow option if you are using a new installation
or if an administrator hides the option. For more information on this option, see
“Setting system options” on page 575.
4. Under Windows SAM Options, configure the following options:
„
Auto-uninstall Secure Application Manager—If you enable this option,
the IVE automatically un-installs the Secure Application Manager after
users sign off.
„
Prompt for username and password for intranet sites—If you enable this
option, the IVE requires users to enter their sign-in credentials before
connecting to sites on your internal network. This option changes Internet
Explorer’s intranet zone setting so that Internet Explorer prompts the user
for network sign-in credentials whenever the user wants to access an
intranet site.
„
Auto-upgrade Secure Application Manager—If you enable this option, the
IVE automatically downloads the Secure Application Manager to a client
machine when the version of Secure Application Manager on the IVE is
newer than the version installed on the client. If you select this option, note
the following:
‰
The user must have Administrator privileges in order for the IVE to
automatically install Secure Application Manager on the client.
‰
If a user un-installs Secure Application Manager and then signs in to an
IVE for which the Auto-upgrade Secure Application Manager option is
not enabled, the user no longer has access to Secure Application
Manager.
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„
Session start script and Session end script—If you want to run a batch,
application, or Win32 service file when the WSAM session starts or ends,
enter the name and path for the file. For example, if you want to terminate
an application and then restart it, you may use PSKILL.exe (an third-party
utility that terminates processes on local or remote systems).
NOTE: If you enable the Session start script option or Session end script option,
note the following:
„
You must either install the specified file on your end-user’s computers or
specify a path on an accessible network directory.
„
To ensure that the IVE can locate a file on different platforms, you can use
Windows variables, such as in a path such as %WINDIR%\system32\log.
„
The file must invoke the WSAM launcher using the appropriate command-line
options, as described in “Using the W-SAM launcher” on page 413.
5. Click Save Changes.
Downloading WSAM applications
To download Windows Secure Application Manager applications, go to the
Maintenance > System > Installers tab. For more information about
downloading WSAM applications, see “Downloading application installers” on
page 577.
Defining resource policies: WSAM
This section contains the following instructions for configuring WSAM resource
policies:
„
“Specifying application servers that users can access” on page 410
„
“Specifying resource level WSAM options” on page 412
Specifying application servers that users can access
NOTE: Information in this section is provided for backwards compatibility. We
recommend that you secure traffic using WSAM resource profiles instead, since
they provide a simpler, more unified configuration method. For more
information, see “Defining resource policies: WSAM” on page 410.
When you enable the Secure Application Manager access feature for a role, you
need to create resource policies that specify which application servers a user may
access. These policies apply to both the Java version and Windows version of the
Secure Application Manager (J-SAM and W-SAM, respectively). When a user makes
a request to an application server, the IVE evaluates the SAM resource policies. If
the IVE matches a user’s request to a resource listed in a SAM policy, the IVE
performs the action specified for the resource.
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When writing a SAM resource policy, you need to supply key information:
„
Resources—A resource policy must specify one or more resources to which the
policy applies. When writing a SAM policy, you need to specify application
servers to which a user may connect.
„
Roles—A resource policy must specify the roles to which it applies. When a
user makes a request, the IVE determines what policies apply to the role and
then evaluates those policies that correspond to the request. SAM resource
policies apply to users requests made through either version, J-SAM or W-SAM.
„
Actions—A Secure Application Manager resource policy either allows or denies
access to an application server.
You can create resource policies through the standard interface (as described in this
section) or through resource profiles (recommended method).
The IVE platform’s engine that evaluates resource policies requires that the
resources listed in a policy’s Resources list follow a canonical format, as explained
in “Specifying resources for a resource policy” on page 83.
To write a Secure Application Manager resource policy:
1. In the admin console, choose Users > Resource Policies > SAM > Access.
2. On the Secure Application Manager Policies page, click New Policy.
3. On the New Policy page, enter:
a.
A name to label this policy.
b. A description of the policy (optional).
4. In the Resources section, specify the application servers to which this policy
applies.
5. In the Roles section, specify:
„
Policy applies to ALL roles—Choose this option to apply this policy to all
users.
„
Policy applies to SELECTED roles—Choose this option to apply this policy
only to users who are mapped to roles in the Selected roles list. Make sure
to add roles to this list from the Available roles list.
„
Policy applies to all roles OTHER THAN those selected below—Choose
this option to apply this policy to all users except for those who map to the
roles in the Selected roles list. Make sure to add roles to this list from the
Available roles list.
6. In the Action section, specify:
„
Allow socket access—Choose this option to grant access to the application
servers specified in the Resources list.
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„
Deny socket access—Choose this option to deny access to the application
servers specified in the Resources list.
„
Use Detailed Rules—Choose this option to specify one or more detailed
rules for this policy. See “Writing a detailed rule” on page 88 for more
information.
7. Click Save Changes.
8. On the Secure Application Manager Policies page, order the policies
according to how you want the IVE to evaluate them. Keep in mind that once
the IVE matches the resource requested by the user to a resource in a policy’s
(or a detailed rule’s) Resource list, it performs the specified action and stops
processing policies.
Specifying resource level WSAM options
Use the Options tab to specify the SAM resource option to match IP addresses to
host names specified as resources in your SAM resource policies. When you enable
this option, the IVE looks up IP addresses corresponding to each host name
specified in a SAM resource policy. When a user tries to access a server by
specifying an IP address rather than the host name, the IVE compares the IP to its
cached list of IP addresses to determine if a host name matches an IP. If there is a
match, then the IVE accepts the match as a policy match and applies the action
specified for the resource policy.
When you enable this option, the IVE compiles a list of host names specified in the
Resources field of each SAM resource policy. The IVE then applies the option to this
comprehensive list of host names.
NOTE: This option does not apply to host names that include wildcards and
parameters.
To specify the SAM resource option:
1. In the admin console, choose Users > Resource Policies > SAM > Options.
2. Select IP based matching for Hostname based policy resources. When you
select this option, the IVE looks up the IP address corresponding to each host
name specified in a Secure Application Manager resource policy. When a user
tries to access a server by specifying an IP address rather than the host name,
the IVE compares the IP to its cached list of IP addresses to determine if a host
name matches an IP. If there is a match, then the IVE accepts the match as a
policy match and applies the action specified for the resource policy.
3. Click Save Changes.
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Using the W-SAM launcher
The W-SAM launcher is a tool that signs a user into the IVE and then downloads and
launches W-SAM. The launcher provides a command-line interface that a script or
application can call. For example, you can write an application that calls the W-SAM
executable when needed.
To use the W-SAM launcher, you need to:
1. Write a script, batch file, service, or application that calls the W-SAM launcher
using command line arguments. You need to distribute this file to each client
PC that requires it. For more information, see “Running scripts manually” on
page 414 and “Running scripts automatically” on page 415.
2. Download the W-SAM launcher from Maintenance > System > Installers
page of the admin console and then distribute it to your users.
Use the command-line arguments in Table 33 to invoke the W-SAM launcher.
Table 33: W-SAM Command Line Arguments
Argument
Action
-start
Initiates the W-SAM connection.
-stop
Terminates the W-SAM connection.
-signout
Terminates the WSAM connection and IVE user session.
-version
Displays W-SAM version information and then exits.
-help
Displays available arguments.
-noupgrade
Cancels automatic upgrade of W-SAM software.
-reboot
Automatically reboots if prompted by an upgrade. If reboot flag
is not set, W-SAM exits and does not reboot during an upgrade.
Be sure to set the reboot flag if W-SAM is operating
automatically on a remote PC.
-u <username>
Specifies the user name.
-p <password>
Specifies the password for authentication.
-loginscript file
Specifies the location and name of the script file to run when
W-SAM launches. This command takes precedence over a script
file specified on the Users > User Roles > Select Role > SAM
> Options page.
-postscript file
Specifies the location and name of the script file to run when
W-SAM exits. This command takes precedence over a script file
specified on the Users > User Roles > Select Role > SAM >
Options page.
-u <URL>
Specifies the sign-in URL for the IVE.
-r <realm>
Specifies the realm to which the IVE submits the user’s
credentials.
-verbose
Prompts users for input through dialog boxes.
Table 34 lists the possible codes the W-SAM launcher returns when it exits.
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Table 34: Application Return Codes
Code
Description
0
Success
1
Invalid Arguments
2
Could Not Connect.
3
Invalid Credentials
4
Role Not Specified (credentials map to multiple roles)
5
Pre-authentication Error (Host Checker or Cache Cleaner did not load)
6
Installation Failed
7
Reboot Required (if ‘-reboot’ not specified)
8
Unable to perform a required software upgrade
10
The IVE does not support this feature
12
Failed to authenticate the client certificate
100
Unable to stop the Secure Application Manager
101
Unable to start the Secure Application Manager due to a software conflict
caused by another Layered Service Provider
Running scripts manually
Users may manually specify scripts to run when a W-SAM session begins or ends
using the following command-line arguments.
NOTE: If you specify scripts to run through the Users > User Roles > Select Role
> SAM > Options page of the admin console, the configured script does not run
if a user manually invokes W-SAM using the launcher and specifies a different
script.
To manually launch a script after a W-SAM session begins:
„
At a command prompt, enter -loginscript file followed by a system variable or
script file name and location.
To manually launch a script after a W-SAM session ends:
„
At a command prompt, enter -postscript file followed by a system variable and
the script file name and location.
NOTE:
„
Place system variables, file paths, and file names in quotes
„
Precede and append system variables with a percent sign (%)
For example:
-loginscript file “%program files:%\Internet Explorer\IEXPLORER.EXE”
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Running scripts automatically
You may automatically run a script when WSAM starts or stops by entering the
script path and name in the Session start script field or Session end script field on
the Users > User Roles > Select Role > SAM > Options page of the admin
console, as described in “Specifying role-level WSAM options” on page 408. This
section includes an example batch file that you can automatically launch.
Batch file example
The following example demonstrates how to use the W-SAM launcher to invoke
W-SAM. This sample batch file generates error messages when W-SAM launches:
SamLauncher –start –url %1 –user %2 –password %3 –realm %4
if errorlevel 1 goto error_invalid_args
if errorlevel 2 goto error_connect
if errorlevel 3 goto error_credentials
if errorlevel 4 goto error_role
if errorlevel 5 goto error_preauth
if errorlevel 6 goto error_install
if errorlevel 7 goto error_reboot
:error_invalid_args
@echo invalid arguments
goto done
:error_connect
@echo could not connect
goto done
:error_credentials
@echo invalid credentials
goto done
:error_role
@echo invalid role
goto done
:error_preauth
@echo pre auth version checking
goto done
:error_install
@echo install failed
goto done
:error_reboot
@echo reboot required
goto done
:error_success
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@echo Secure Application Manager has started
goto done
:done
Win32 API example
CHAR szCmd = “SamLauncher.exe –stop”;
DWORD dwExitCode = 0;
STARTUPINFO si;
PROCESS_INFORMATION pi;
ZeroMemory(&si, sizeof(si));
si.cb = sizeof(si);
ZeroMemory(&pi, sizeof(pi));
if (!CreateProcess(NULL, szCmd, NULL, NULL, FALSE,
0, NULL, NULL, &si, &pi)) {
printf( "CreateProcess(%s) failed %d", szCmd, GetLastError());
return -1;
}
WaitForSingleObject(pi.hProcess, 20000);
GetExitCodeProcess(&pi.hProcess, &dwExitCode);
CloseHandle(pi.hProcess);
CloseHandle(pi.hThread);
printf(“SamLauncher return %d\n”, dwExitCode);
return 0;
NOTE: If you are using Windows Vista, open the command window as an
administrator user. Standard output from the SamLauncher.exe does not display
if the command window is opened by a user without administrator privileges.
Task Summary: Configuring JSAM
This section provides high-level JSAM configuration steps. These steps do not
account for preliminary IVE configuration steps such as specifying the IVE’s
network identity or adding user IDs to the IVE.
To configure JSAM:
1. Create resource profiles that enable access to client/server applications, create
supporting autopolicies as necessary, and assign the policies to user roles using
settings in the Users > Resource Profiles> SAM pages of the admin console.
For instructions, see “Defining resource profiles: JSAM” on page 435.
We recommend that you use resource profiles to configure JSAM (as described
above). However, if you do not want to use resource profiles, you can configure
JSAM using role and resource policy settings in the following pages of the
admin console instead:
a.
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Enable access to JSAM at the role-level using settings in the Users > User
Roles > Select Role > General > Overview page of the admin console.
For instructions, see “Configuring user roles” on page 54.
Chapter 16: Secure Application Manager
b. Specify which client/server applications JSAM should intermediate using
settings in the Users > User Roles > SAM > Applications page of the
admin console. For instructions, see “Specifying applications for JSAM to
secure” on page 439.
c.
Specify which application servers users can access through JSAM using
settings in the Users > Resource Policies > SAM > Access page of the
admin console. For instructions, see “Specifying application servers that
users can access” on page 445.
2. After enabling access to client/server applications using JSAM resource profiles
or roles and resource policies, you can modify general role and resource
options in the following pages of the admin console:
a.
(Optional) Configure role-level options such as whether the IVE should
automatically launch JSAM using settings in the Users > User Roles >
SAM > Options page of the admin console. For instructions, see
“Specifying role level JSAM options” on page 442.
b. (Optional) Control IP based hostname matching at the resource level using
settings in the Users > Resource Policies > SAM > Access page of the
admin console. For instructions, see “Specifying application servers that
users can access” on page 445.
3. If you want to enable or disable client-side logging for JSAM, configure the
appropriate options through the System > Configuration > Security >
Client-side Logs tab of the admin console. For instructions, see “Enabling
client-side logs” on page 679.
4. If you have multiple internal domains, such as company-a.com and companyb.com, add DNS domains to the IVE using settings in the System > Network >
Overview page of the admin console so that names such as app1.companya.com and app2.company-b.com resolve correctly.
5. If a remote user’s PC is set up to use a Web proxy in Internet Explorer,
configure the client machine to bypass the proxy server when the user
launches applications that need to connect to the Secure Application Manager.
For instructions, see “Configuring a PC that connects to the IVE through a
proxy Web server” on page 420.
6. Enable JSAM to associate IP loopback addresses with application servers on
specific ports either by enabling JSAM to edit the hosts file on your users’
systems (as explained in “Resolving host names to localhost” on page 424) or
by creating an external DNS to route client application traffic to the J-SAM
applet (as explained in “Configuring external DNS servers and user machines”
on page 425).
J-SAM overview
The Java version of the Secure Application Manager provides support for static TCP
port client/server applications, including enhanced support for Microsoft MAPI,
Lotus Notes, and Citrix NFuse. J-SAM also provides NetBIOS support, which enables
users to map drives to specified protected resources.
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J-SAM works well in many network configurations but does not support dynamic
port TCP-based client/server applications, server-initiated connections, or UDP
traffic.
For information about the operating systems, Web browsers, and JVMs on which
Juniper Networks supports JSAM, see the Supported Platforms Document on the
Juniper Networks Customer Support Center.
This section contains the following information about JSAM:
„
“Using JSAM for client/server communications” on page 418
„
“Linux and Macintosh support” on page 426
„
“Standard application support: MS Outlook” on page 427
„
“Standard application support: Lotus Notes” on page 428
„
“Standard application support: Citrix Web Interface for MetaFrame (NFuse
Classic)” on page 430
„
“Custom application support: Citrix published applications configured from the
native client” on page 431
„
“Custom application support: Citrix secure gateways” on page 434
Using JSAM for client/server communications
J-SAM provides secure port forwarding by directing client application traffic to the
J-SAM applet running on a client machine. To the client application running on the
local machine, J-SAM appears as the application server. To the application server in
your network, the IVE appears as the client application.
The following diagram illustrates the interaction between a client application and its
server via the IVE. (This figure assumes that the user specified a localhost IP
address as the server in the client application.)
Figure 36: Java Secure Application Manager
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1. The user starts a client application listed in the Client Application Sessions
section of the IVE end-user home page. 1 The application resolves the remote
server to localhost.
2. The client application connects to J-SAM running on the user's machine and
starts sending requests.
3. J-SAM encapsulates and forwards all client requests to the IVE over SSL.
4. The IVE un-encapsulates the client data and forwards it to the specified
application server.
5. The application server responds with data to the IVE server.
6. The IVE encapsulates and forwards the response from the application server to
J-SAM over SSL.
7. J-SAM un-encapsulates the application server data and forwards it to the client
application.
For more information about how JSAM executes, see “Assigning IP loopback
addresses to servers” on page 421.
1. Windows 98 operating system only—If the “Close on Exit” property is disabled in the DOS box that opens
during the JSAM boot process (for executing the “restore.bat” process), the DOS box does not close after the
batch file has completed execution. The user must manually close the DOS box before the JSAM boot process
can complete.
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For more information about how JSAM executes, see “Assigning IP loopback
addresses to servers” on page 421.
NOTE:
„
If a remote user’s PC is set up to use a Web proxy in Internet Explorer, you
must configure the client machine to bypass the proxy server when the user
launches applications that need to connect to the Secure Application Manager.
See “Configuring a PC that connects to the IVE through a proxy Web server”
on page 420.
„
J-SAM allocates 20-30 MB of RAM when running (the exact amount of
memory depends on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) used) and, if caching is
enabled, may leave a .jar file on the client machine. For more information
about files left by JSAM on client machines, see the Client-side Changes Guide
on the Juniper Networks Customer Support Center.
„
Users may experience problems waiting for the Secure Application Manager
to fully load if they enable pop-up blockers through their Web browsers. This
problem occurs because a pop-up window alerting users to accept the Secure
Application Manager plug-in may appear in the background (behind the Web
browser window) where users cannot see it.
„
When launching applications through JSAM, Juniper Networks supports
configuration of 1200 unique IP/port combinations on Windows and Mac and
800 unique IP/port combinations on Linux. Note that this limit is based on
IP/port combinations, not applications (which may listen on more than one IP
address and port). Juniper Networks determined these numbers by testing on
Windows XP and Windows 2000 machines using default JRE memory
settings.
Configuring a PC that connects to the IVE through a proxy Web server
If a remote user’s PC is set up to use a Web proxy in Internet Explorer, you must
configure the client machine to bypass the proxy server and contact the Secure
Application Manager instead.
To configure a PC that connects to the IVE through a Web proxy in Internet
Explorer:
1. From the Internet Explorer Tools menu, choose Internet Options.
2. On the Connections tab, click the LAN Settings button.
3. Under Proxy server, click the Advanced button.
4. Under Exceptions, enter the addresses for which you do not want to use a
proxy server. Enter all addresses (host names and localhost) that the client
application uses when connecting through the Secure Application Manager. For
example:
If your application server is app1.company.com, enter the following exceptions:
app1;app1.company.com;127.0.0.1
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If your Exchange Server is exchange.company.com, enter the following
exceptions:
exchange;exchange.company.com;127.0.0.1
Assigning IP loopback addresses to servers
For JSAM to function, it must listen on loopback addresses for client requests to
network application servers. The IVE assigns these unique IP loopback address to
each application server that you specify for a given port. For example, if you
specify:
app1.mycompany.com, app2.mycompany.com. app3.mycompany.com,...
for a single port, the IVE assigns a unique IP loopback address to each application:
127.0.1.10, 127.0.1.11, 127.0.1.12,...
When the IVE installs J-SAM on a user’s machine, J-SAM listens on the loopback
addresses (on the corresponding client port specified for the application server) for
client requests to network application servers. You can configure the IVE to
dynamically assign these loopback addresses, or you can configure static loopback
addresses yourself through the admin console (as explained in “Using static
loopback addresses” on page 422).
You must enable these associations between IP loopback addresses and
applications servers on a specific port in one of two ways:
„
Allow the IVE to edit the hosts file on the client system with IP loopback
assignments. The IVE makes a copy of the current hosts file and then creates a
new hosts file with the IP loopback assignments. When the user ends the
session, the IVE deletes the new hosts file and restores the original hosts file.
If the client system shuts down unexpectedly, the hosts file still points the
client to loopback addresses for outside connections. Settings in the hosts file
are returned to their original state when the client system reboots.
Users must have the proper privileges on their machines in order for the IVE to
edit the hosts file. For more information, see “Resolving host names to
localhost” on page 424.
„
Create an external DNS to route client application traffic to the J-SAM applet.
For more information, see“Configuring external DNS servers and user
machines” on page 425.
For more information about loopback addresses, see:
„
“Using static loopback addresses” on page 422
„
“Determining the IVE-assigned loopback address” on page 422
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„
“IP loopback address considerations when merging roles” on page 424
Using static loopback addresses
Using an external DNS server with dynamic loopback addresses requires an
administrator to update the DNS settings each time the J-SAM application
configuration changes. On the other hand, configuring an external DNS server
using static loopback addresses provides administrators with the highest degree of
configuration control.
For example, consider the following IP loopback assignments:
app1.mycompany.com - 127.0.1.10
app2.mycompany.com - 127.0.1.11
app3.mycompany.com - 127.0.1.12
If you configure an external DNS server using dynamic loopback address
assignments and you delete the first application server, the address assignments
change:
app2.mycompany.com - 127.0.1.10
app3.mycompany.com - 127.0.1.11
With static IP loopback addresses in an external DNS, deleting the first application
server does not affect the IP loopback assignments for the remaining application
servers:
app2.mycompany.com - 127.0.1.11
app3.mycompany.com - 127.0.1.12
You can assign static IP loopback addresses when creating a JSAM custom resource
profile through the Users > Resource Profiles > SAM > Client Applications page
of the admin console or when enabling JSAM applications through the Users >
User Roles > Select Role > SAM > Applications page of the admin console.
If you assign a static IP loopback address while creating a new application, the IVE
checks the address for conflicts against other configured applications in the same
role. If another application uses the same address, the IVE displays an error
message prompting you to enter a different IP address.
NOTE: Static IP loopback addresses apply only to application servers configured by
an administrator. The IVE assigns dynamic IP loopback addresses for user-defined
application servers. If the administrator does not assign an IP loopback address to
an application server, the IVE assigns a dynamic address.
Determining the IVE-assigned loopback address
Users cannot modify the corporate DNS server for applications they add for port
forwarding. If you allow users to specify applications for J-SAM to proxy, users need
to configure a client application to use the localhost address assigned by the IVE
where they typically enter the server host name.
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The Details pane of the J-SAM browser window displays the loopback IP address
assigned by the IVE along with the port specified by the user. To determine what IP
address the IVE assigns to an application specified through the Client Applications
IVE page, a user must restart the Secure Application Manager after adding the
application. The loopback address assigned to the application appears on the
Details pane of the Secure Application Manager browser window, as shown in
Figure 37.
Figure 37: Details pane of the Java Secure Application Manager (J-SAM)
In the client application, the user needs to enter the IVE-assigned loopback address
as the application server. For example, if a user wants to access a telnet server
behind your corporate firewall, the user needs to follow these steps:
1. In the Client Application Sessions section of the IVE end-user home page,
click the Item Properties icon, then click Add Application
2. On the Add Application page, specify:
„
The server’s fully qualified domain name or IP address in the Remote
Server field, such as terminalserver.juniper.com.
„
The port on which J-SAM should listen for client traffic to the server in the
Client Port field, such as 3389.
„
The port on which the remote server should listen for traffic from the client
application (J-SAM) in the Server Port field, such as 3389.
3. Click Add to save the information.
4. Close the Secure Application Manager browser window.
5. In the Client Application Sessions section of the IVE end-user home page,
click Start to restart the Secure Application Manager.
6. In the Secure Application Manager browser window, click Details.
7. On the Details tab, look at which loopback address the IVE assigned to the
remote server, such as 127.0.1.18.
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8. In the client application, such as Remote Desktop Connection, specify the
loopback address in the configuration field for the server. This field appears in
different places for different applications. Users may enter this information
through a setup wizard or other configuration dialog.
IP loopback address considerations when merging roles
If you plan to merge two or more roles, you may encounter IP loopback address
conflicts. Keep the following points in mind when merging roles:
„
If two or more roles map to the same application and each mapping contains a
different static IP loopback address, all of the static IP loopback addresses
remain unchanged.
„
If two or more roles map to the same application and only one role uses a static
IP loopback address, J-SAM uses only the static IP loopback address and binds
to only one statically defined socket on the client.
„
If two or more roles map to the same application using dynamic IP loopback
addresses, only one dynamic IP loopback address is used. The application
listener binds to only one dynamically assigned socket on the client.
„
If you use the same host name in multiple roles, either use the same static IP
loopback address, or dynamic addresses for all the applications.
„
If you use different host names associated with the same loopback address and
port combination, JSAM cannot distinguish between the two different hosts at
the back-end and, hence, cannot accurately direct IP traffic bound for those
hosts.
Resolving host names to localhost
For JSAM to successfully intermediate traffic, a client application on the user’s
machine needs to resolve the application server to the client localhost. This process
enables J-SAM to capture and securely port forward the data intended for the
application server via the IVE. J-SAM can perform automatic host-mapping, in
which it edits the client’s hosts file, to map application servers to localhost. (You
can enable automatic host-mapping through the Users > User Roles > Select Role
> SAM > Options page of the admin console.)
In order for J-SAM to edit a user’s hosts file, the user must have the appropriate
authority on the client machine:
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„
Windows users using the FAT file system may belong to any user group. For
Exchange MAPI support, however, users must have at least Power User
privileges on their machines.
„
Windows users using the NTFS file system must have Administrator
privileges on their machines.
„
Linux (RedHat) users must launch the browser that will launch J-SAM as root.
„
Macintosh users must supply the Administrator password when prompted by
J-SAM.
Chapter 16: Secure Application Manager
If users do not have the appropriate privileges on their machines, J-SAM cannot
automatically edit the hosts file, preventing host name resolution to localhost.
Alternatives for users who do not have the appropriate privileges are:
„
You configure your external DNS server to resolve application servers to
localhost. If you configure your external DNS server to use a localhost address
instead of the application server host name, remote users need to configure the
order in which their machine searches DNS servers to start with the corporate
DNS. For more information, see “Configuring external DNS servers and user
machines” on page 425.
„
You relax the permissions on the etc directory and the etc\hosts file to enable
J-SAM to make the necessary modifications.
„
Users configure a client application to use the localhost address assigned by the
IVE where they typically specify the application server host name in the client
application. See “Determining the IVE-assigned loopback address” on page 422
for more information.
Configuring external DNS servers and user machines
Client applications must resolve server host names to JSAM, which proxies data
between a client and a server. On Windows PCs, server host names are stored in
the hosts file. To intercept data using JSAM, the server names in the hosts file need
to resolve to the local machine (localhost) so that the IVE can intermediate the
traffic. The recommended process for mapping application servers to a user’s local
PC is to enable the automatic host-mapping option, which enables the IVE to
automatically modify the PC hosts file to point application servers to the localhost
for secure port forwarding.
For the IVE to perform automatic host-mapping, however, PC users must have the
proper privileges on their machines (as explained in “Resolving host names to
localhost” on page 424). If your PC users do not have these privileges, you must
ensure that your internal application server names resolve externally to a PC’s
localhost by adding entries to your external Internet-facing DNS server such as:
127.0.0.1 app1.company-a.com
127.0.0.1 app2.company-b.com
127.0.0.1 exchange1.company-a.com
127.0.0.1 exchange1.company-b.com
If the client application uses an unqualified name for the application server, users
need to specify DNS suffixes so that the PC can attach the suffix and contact your
external DNS server for name resolution. For example, an MS Outlook client
typically has an unqualified name for an MS Exchange server. In order for the
qualified name to resolve to 127.0.0.1, users need to specify the appropriate DNS
suffixes on their PCs. Adding domain names does not affect other operations on
the PC, including use of the client application from within the enterprise.
To configure a user PC with DNS suffixes (Windows 2000):
1. From the Windows Start menu, choose Settings > Network and Dial-up
Connections > Local Area Connection and then choose Properties.
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2. Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and then click Properties.
3. Click Advanced and then click the DNS tab.
4. Click Append these DNS suffixes and then click Add.
5. Add your enterprise’s internal domains as additional DNS suffixes.
For information about configuring your external DNS server using static loopback
addresses, see “Using static loopback addresses” on page 422.
Linux and Macintosh support
Linux users do not have access to ports below 1024 unless they are signed into
their machines as root. Macintosh users do not have access to ports below 1024
unless they supply the Administrator password when prompted by J-SAM. To
support applications that run on privileged ports (ports below 1024), such as a
telnet application:
„
Users may launch the browser that will launch J-SAM as root.
„
You or the user may specify a client port number equal to or greater than port
1024 when enabling client applications.
For example, if you specify 2041 fo