LG | ES-2026 | User manual | LG ES-2024G network switch

LG ES-2024G network switch
U SER G UIDE
User Manual
ES-2026 Advanced Smart FE Switch
ES-2026P Advanced Smart FE PoE Switch
ES-2024G Advanced Smart GE Switch
ES-2024GP Advanced Smart GE PoE Switch
U SER M ANUAL
ES-2000 Series
ES-2026 ADVANCED SMART 26-PORT FE SWITCH
Layer 2 Advanced Smart Switch
with 24 10/100BASE-TX (RJ-45) Ports,
and 2 Gigabit Combination Ports (RJ-45/SFP)
ES-2026P ADVANCED SMART 26-PORT FE POE SWITCH
Layer 2 Advanced Smart Switch
with 24 10/100BASE-TX (RJ-45) PoE Ports,
and 2 Gigabit Combination Ports (RJ-45/SFP)
ES-2024G ADVANCED SMART 24-PORT GE SWITCH
Layer 2 Advanced Smart Switch
with 24 10/100/1000BASE-T (RJ-45) Ports,
and 4 Gigabit Shared Ports (SFP)
ES-2024GP ADVANCED SMART 24-PORT GE POE SWITCH
Layer 2 Advanced Smart Switch
with 24 10/100/1000BASE-T (RJ-45) PoE Ports,
and 4 Gigabit Shared Ports (SFP)
ES-2026 ES-2026P
ES-2024G ES-2024GP
E062011/ST-R05
149100000041A
ABOUT THIS GUIDE
ES-2000 Series
PURPOSE This guide gives specific information on how to operate and use the
management functions of the switch.
AUDIENCE The guide is intended for use by network administrators who are
responsible for operating and maintaining network equipment;
consequently, it assumes a basic working knowledge of general switch
functions, the Internet Protocol (IP), and Simple Network Management
Protocol (SNMP).
CONVENTIONS The following conventions are used throughout this guide to show
information:
NOTE: Emphasizes important information or calls your attention to related
features or instructions.
CAUTION: Alerts you to a potential hazard that could cause loss of data, or
damage the system or equipment.
WARNING: Alerts you to a potential hazard that could cause personal injury.
NOTICE OF CHANGES LG-Ericsson reserves the right to change specifications at any time without
notice.
RELATED PUBLICATIONS The following publication details the hardware features of the switch,
including the physical and performance-related characteristics, and how to
install the switch:
The Installation Guide
Also, as part of the switch’s software, there is an online web-based help
that describes all management related features.
– 3 –
ABOUT THIS GUIDE
ES-2000 Series
REVISION HISTORY This section summarizes the changes in each revision of this guide.
JUNE 2011 REVISION
This is the fifth version of this guide. This guide is valid for software release
v1.2.0.12. It includes information on the following changes to the web
pages or command line interface:
◆
Updated descriptive text for port security (see "Configuring Port
Security" on page 187.
JANUARY 2011 REVISION
This is the fourth version of this guide. This guide is valid for software
release v1.2.0.8. It includes information on the following changes:
◆
Updated Table 3, "Web Page Configuration Buttons," on page 36.
◆
Updated Table 4, "Switch Main Menu," on page 39.
◆
Updated the parameter list in "Setting the Time Zone" on page 60.
◆
Updated the Command Usage section and Parameter list in "Resetting
the System" on page 63.
◆
Updated the Command Usage section and Parameter list under
"Configuring by Port List" on page 65.
◆
Updated Table 5, "Port Statistics," on page 71.
◆
Updated the Parameter list in "Configuring a Static Trunk" on page 78.
◆
Added the section for "Configuring Trunk Mirroring" on page 89.
◆
Updated the Parameter list in "Configuring VLAN Groups" on page 95.
◆
Updated the Parameter list in "Adding Static Members to VLANs" on
page 96.
◆
Updated the Command Usage section and Parameter list in "Storm
Control Configuration" on page 123.
◆
Updated the Command Usage section in "Setting the Default Priority for
Interfaces" on page 125.
◆
Updated the Parameter list in "Configuring Remote Logon
Authentication Servers" on page 163.
◆
Updated the Parameter list in "Configuring User Accounts" on page 166.
◆
Added information about LLDP-MED in "Link Layer Discovery Protocol"
on page 205.
◆
Updated the Parameter list in "Setting LLDP Timing Attributes" on
page 206.
– 4 –
ABOUT THIS GUIDE
ES-2000 Series
◆
Updated the Parameter list in "Configuring LLDP Interface Attributes"
on page 208.
◆
Added the section "Configuring LLDP Interface Civic-Address" on
page 211.
◆
Updated the Parameter list in "Displaying LLDP Remote Port
Information" on page 216.
◆
Updated Table 26, "Supported Notification Messages," on page 236.
◆
Updated information in "Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 4)"
on page 271.
◆
Updated the Parameter list in "Configuring IGMP Snooping and Query
Parameters" on page 277.
◆
Updated the Parameter list in "Setting IGMP Snooping Status per
Interface" on page 284.
◆
Added "Filtering and Throttling IGMP Groups" on page 290.
JULY 2010 REVISION
This is the third version of this guide. This guide is valid for software
release v1.1.2.0. It includes information on the following changes:
◆
Updated corporate logo on cover pages, and on the switch image used
in the management interface.
MAY 2010 REVISION
This is the second version of this guide. This guide is valid for software
release v1.0.1.5. It includes information on the following changes to the
web pages:
◆
Removed MAC Address > Learning Status page from the web interface.
◆
Added information on how to configure connection parameters for a
dynamic trunk (see "Configuring a Dynamic Trunk" on page 80).
◆
Added description of “Admin Edge Status for all ports” in the STA
interface configuration page (see "Configuring Interface Settings for
STA" on page 113).
◆
Changed HTTP and HTTPS to function as mutually exclusive services
(see "Configuring Global Settings for HTTPS" on page 172).
◆
Added information on how log messages are flushed from system
memory or flash memory during cold or warm restart (see "Configuring
Event Logging" on page 201).
◆
Added information on how to display log messages in system memory
or flash memory using the web interface (see "Configuring Event
Logging" on page 201).
– 5 –
ABOUT THIS GUIDE
ES-2000 Series
◆
Updated Figure 118 on page 203.
◆
Updated Figure 124 on page 215.
◆
Added additional information about the parameters displayed for
remote devices (see "Displaying LLDP Remote Port Information" on
page 216).
◆
Updated Figure 127 on page 221.
◆
Updated Figure 130 on page 225.
◆
Removed the default IP address pool for switch clustering (see
"Configuring General Settings for Clusters" on page 261).
◆
Added GNU "License Information" on page 303
DECEMBER 2009 REVISION
This is the first version of this guide. This guide is valid for software release
v1.0.0.0.
– 6 –
CONTENTS
ES-2000 Series
SECTION I
SECTION II
ABOUT THIS GUIDE
3
CONTENTS
7
FIGURES
13
TABLES
19
GETTING STARTED
21
1 INTRODUCTION
23
Key Features
23
Description of Software Features
24
System Defaults
28
2 INITIAL SWITCH CONFIGURATION
31
WEB CONFIGURATION
33
3 USING THE WEB INTERFACE
35
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
35
Home Page
35
Configuration Options
36
Panel Display
37
Showing Status Information
38
Main Menu
39
4 BASIC MANAGEMENT TASKS
47
Displaying System Information
47
Displaying Switch Hardware/Software Versions
48
Configuring Support for Jumbo Frames
50
Displaying Bridge Extension Capabilities
51
Managing System Files
52
Copying Files via HTTP
52
Saving the Running Configuration to a Local File
54
– 7 –
CONTENTS
ES-2000 Series
Setting The Start-Up File
55
Showing System Files
56
Setting the System Clock
57
Setting the Time Manually
57
Setting the SNTP Polling Interval
58
Specifying SNTP Time Servers
59
Setting the Time Zone
60
Displaying CPU Utilization
61
Displaying Memory Utilization
62
Resetting the System
63
5 INTERFACE CONFIGURATION
Port Configuration
65
65
Configuring by Port List
65
Configuring by Port Range
68
Displaying Connection Status
68
Configuring Local Port Mirroring
69
Showing Port or Trunk Statistics
71
Performing Cable Diagnostics
75
Trunk Configuration
77
Configuring a Static Trunk
78
Configuring a Dynamic Trunk
80
Displaying LACP Port Counters
85
Displaying LACP Settings and Status for the Local Side
87
Displaying LACP Settings and Status for the Remote Side
88
Configuring Trunk Mirroring
89
Saving Power
91
6 VLAN CONFIGURATION
93
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
93
Configuring VLAN Groups
95
Adding Static Members to VLANs
96
7 ADDRESS TABLE SETTINGS
101
Setting Static Addresses
101
Changing the Aging Time
103
Displaying the Dynamic Address Table
104
Clearing the Dynamic Address Table
105
– 8 –
CONTENTS
ES-2000 Series
8 SPANNING TREE ALGORITHM
107
Overview
107
Configuring Global Settings for STA
108
Displaying Global Settings for STA
112
Configuring Interface Settings for STA
113
Displaying Interface Settings for STA
116
9 RATE LIMIT CONFIGURATION
119
10 STORM CONTROL CONFIGURATION
123
11 CLASS OF SERVICE
125
Layer 2 Queue Settings
125
Setting the Default Priority for Interfaces
125
Selecting the Queue Mode
126
Mapping CoS Values to Egress Queues
129
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings
132
Setting Priority Processing to DSCP or CoS
132
Mapping Ingress DSCP Values to Internal DSCP Values
133
Mapping CoS Priorities to Internal DSCP Values
136
12 QUALITY OF SERVICE
139
Overview
139
Configuring a Class Map
140
Creating QoS Policies
143
Attaching a Policy Map to a Port
153
13 VOIP TRAFFIC CONFIGURATION
155
Overview
155
Configuring VoIP Traffic
155
Configuring Telephony OUI
157
Configuring VoIP Traffic Ports
158
14 SECURITY MEASURES
161
Configuring Local/Remote Logon Authentication
162
Configuring Remote Logon Authentication Servers
163
Configuring User Accounts
166
Network Access
168
Configuring Global Settings for Network Access
168
Configuring Network Access for Ports
169
Displaying Secure MAC Address Information
170
– 9 –
CONTENTS
ES-2000 Series
Configuring HTTPS
172
Configuring Global Settings for HTTPS
172
Replacing the Default Secure-site Certificate
173
Access Control Lists
175
Showing TCAM Utilization
175
Setting the ACL Name and Type
177
Configuring a Standard IPv4 ACL
178
Configuring an Extended IPv4 ACL
179
Configuring a MAC ACL
182
Binding a Port to an Access Control List
184
Filtering IP Addresses for Management Access
185
Configuring Port Security
187
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
189
Configuring 802.1X Global Settings
191
Configuring Port Authenticator Settings for 802.1X
192
Configuring Port Supplicant Settings for 802.1X
196
Displaying 802.1X Statistics
198
15 BASIC ADMINISTRATION PROTOCOLS
Configuring Event Logging
201
201
System Log Configuration
201
Remote Log Configuration
204
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
205
Setting LLDP Timing Attributes
206
Configuring LLDP Interface Attributes
208
Configuring LLDP Interface Civic-Address
211
Displaying LLDP Local Device Information
214
Displaying LLDP Remote Port Information
216
Displaying Device Statistics
221
Power over Ethernet
224
Displaying the Switch’s Overall PoE Power Budget
225
Setting The Port PoE Power Budget
226
Simple Network Management Protocol
227
Configuring Global Settings for SNMP
230
Setting the Local Engine ID
231
Specifying a Remote Engine ID
232
Setting SNMPv3 Views
233
– 10 –
CONTENTS
ES-2000 Series
Configuring SNMPv3 Groups
236
Setting Community Access Strings
240
Configuring Local SNMPv3 Users
241
Configuring Remote SNMPv3 Users
243
Specifying Trap Managers
245
Remote Monitoring
250
Configuring RMON Alarms
250
Configuring RMON Events
253
Configuring RMON History Samples
255
Configuring RMON Statistical Samples
258
Switch Clustering
261
Configuring General Settings for Clusters
261
Cluster Member Configuration
263
Managing Cluster Members
264
16 IP CONFIGURATION
267
Using the Ping Function
267
Address Resolution Protocol
268
Setting the ARP Timeout
269
Displaying ARP Entries
270
Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 4)
17 MULTICAST FILTERING
275
Layer 2 IGMP (Snooping and Query)
276
Configuring IGMP Snooping and Query Parameters
277
Specifying Static Interfaces for a Multicast Router
280
Assigning Interfaces to Multicast Services
282
Setting IGMP Snooping Status per Interface
284
Displaying Multicast Groups Discovered by IGMP Snooping
289
Filtering and Throttling IGMP Groups
SECTION III
271
290
Enabling IGMP Filtering and Throttling
290
Configuring IGMP Filter Profiles
291
Configuring IGMP Filtering and Throttling for Interfaces
293
APPENDICES
295
A SOFTWARE SPECIFICATIONS
Software Features
297
297
– 11 –
CONTENTS
ES-2000 Series
Management Features
298
Standards
298
Management Information Bases
299
B TROUBLESHOOTING
301
Problems Accessing the Management Interface
301
Using System Logs
302
C LICENSE INFORMATION
303
The GNU General Public License
303
GLOSSARY
307
INDEX
313
– 12 –
FIGURES
ES-2000 Series
Figure 1: Home Page
35
Figure 2: Front Panel Indicators
37
Figure 3: Displaying Configuration Settings or Status Information
38
Figure 4: System Information
48
Figure 5: General Switch Information
49
Figure 6: Configuring Support for Jumbo Frames
50
Figure 7: Displaying Bridge Extension Configuration
52
Figure 8: Copy Firmware
54
Figure 9: Saving the Running Configuration
55
Figure 10: Setting Start-Up Files
56
Figure 11: Displaying System Files
56
Figure 12: Manually Setting the System Clock
58
Figure 13: Setting the Polling Interval for SNTP
59
Figure 14: Specifying SNTP Time Servers
59
Figure 15: Setting the Time Zone
61
Figure 16: Displaying CPU Utilization
62
Figure 17: Displaying Memory Utilization
63
Figure 18: Restarting the Switch
64
Figure 19: Configuring Connections by Port List
67
Figure 20: Configuring Connections by Port Range
68
Figure 21: Displaying Port Information
69
Figure 22: Configuring Local Port Mirroring
69
Figure 23: Configuring Local Port Mirroring
70
Figure 24: Displaying Local Port Mirror Sessions
71
Figure 25: Showing Port Statistics (Table)
74
Figure 26: Showing Port Statistics (Chart)
75
Figure 27: Performing Cable Tests
77
Figure 28: Configuring Static Trunks
78
Figure 29: Creating Static Trunks
79
Figure 30: Configuring Connection Parameters for a Static Trunk
80
Figure 31: Showing Information for Static Trunks
80
– 13 –
FIGURES
ES-2000 Series
Figure 32: Configuring Dynamic Trunks
80
Figure 33: Configuring the LACP Aggregator Admin Key
82
Figure 34: Enabling LACP on a Port
83
Figure 35: Configuring LACP Parameters on a Port
84
Figure 36: Configuring Connection Parameters for a Dynamic Trunk
84
Figure 37: Showing Connection Parameters for Dynamic Trunks
85
Figure 38: Showing Members of Dynamic Trunks
85
Figure 39: Displaying LACP Port Counters
86
Figure 40: Displaying LACP Port Internal Information
88
Figure 41: Displaying LACP Port Remote Information
89
Figure 42: Configuring Trunk Mirroring
89
Figure 43: Configuring Trunk Mirroring
90
Figure 44: Displaying Trunk Mirror Sessions
91
Figure 45: Enabling Power Savings
92
Figure 46: VLAN Compliant and VLAN Non-compliant Devices
94
Figure 47: Creating Static VLANs
96
Figure 48: Configuring Static Members by VLAN Index
98
Figure 49: Configuring Static VLAN Members by Interface
99
Figure 50: Configuring Static VLAN Members by Interface Range
100
Figure 51: Configuring Static MAC Addresses
102
Figure 52: Displaying Static MAC Addresses
102
Figure 53: Setting the Address Aging Time
103
Figure 54: Displaying the Dynamic MAC Address Table
105
Figure 55: Clearing Entries in the Dynamic MAC Address Table
106
Figure 56: STP Root Ports and Designated Ports
108
Figure 57: Configuring Global Settings for STA (STP)
111
Figure 58: Configuring Global Settings for STA (RSTP)
111
Figure 59: Displaying Global Settings for STA
113
Figure 60: Configuring Interface Settings for STA
116
Figure 61: STA Port Roles
117
Figure 62: Displaying Interface Settings for STA
118
Figure 63: Configuring Rate Limits
121
Figure 64: Configuring Storm Control
124
Figure 65: Setting the Default Port Priority
126
Figure 66: Setting the Queue Mode (Strict)
128
Figure 67: Setting the Queue Mode (WRR)
128
– 14 –
FIGURES
ES-2000 Series
Figure 68: Setting the Queue Mode (Strict and WRR)
129
Figure 69: Mapping CoS Values to Egress Queues
131
Figure 70: Showing CoS Values to Egress Queue Mapping
131
Figure 71: Setting the Trust Mode
133
Figure 72: Configuring DSCP to DSCP Internal Mapping
135
Figure 73: Showing DSCP to DSCP Internal Mapping
135
Figure 74: Configuring CoS to DSCP Internal Mapping
137
Figure 75: Showing CoS to DSCP Internal Mapping
138
Figure 76: Configuring a Class Map
141
Figure 77: Showing Class Maps
142
Figure 78: Adding Rules to a Class Map
142
Figure 79: Showing the Rules for a Class Map
143
Figure 80: Configuring a Policy Map
151
Figure 81: Showing Policy Maps
151
Figure 82: Adding Rules to a Policy Map
152
Figure 83: Showing the Rules for a Policy Map
152
Figure 84: Attaching a Policy Map to a Port
153
Figure 85: Configuring a Voice VLAN
156
Figure 86: Configuring an OUI Telephony List
158
Figure 87: Showing an OUI Telephony List
158
Figure 88: Configuring Port Settings for a Voice VLAN
160
Figure 89: Configuring the Authentication Sequence
163
Figure 90: Authentication Server Operation
163
Figure 91: Configuring Remote Authentication Server (RADIUS)
165
Figure 92: Configuring Remote Authentication Server (TACACS+)
166
Figure 93: Configuring User Accounts
167
Figure 94: Showing User Accounts
167
Figure 95: Configuring Global Settings for Network Access
169
Figure 96: Configuring Interface Settings for Network Access
170
Figure 97: Showing Addresses Authenticated for Network Access
171
Figure 98: Configuring HTTPS
173
Figure 99: Downloading the Secure-Site Certificate
175
Figure 100: Showing TCAM Utilization
176
Figure 101: Creating an ACL
177
Figure 102: Showing a List of ACLs
178
Figure 103: Configuring a Standard IPv4 ACL
179
– 15 –
FIGURES
ES-2000 Series
Figure 104: Configuring an Extended IPv4 ACL
181
Figure 105: Configuring a MAC ACL
183
Figure 106: Binding a Port to an ACL
184
Figure 107: Creating an IP Address Filter for Management Access
186
Figure 108: Showing IP Addresses Authorized for Management Access
186
Figure 109: Setting the Maximum Address Count for Port Security
188
Figure 110: Configuring the Status and Response for Port Security
189
Figure 111: Configuring Port Security
190
Figure 112: Configuring Global Settings for 802.1X Port Authentication
192
Figure 113: Configuring Interface Settings for 802.1X Port Authenticator
195
Figure 114: Configuring Interface Settings for 802.1X Port Supplicant
197
Figure 115: Showing Statistics for 802.1X Port Authenticator
199
Figure 116: Showing Statistics for 802.1X Port Supplicant
200
Figure 117: Configuring Settings for System Memory Logs
203
Figure 118: Showing Error Messages Logged to System Memory
203
Figure 119: Configuring Settings for Remote Logging of Error Messages
205
Figure 120: Configuring LLDP Timing Attributes
207
Figure 121: Configuring LLDP Interface Attributes
211
Figure 122: Configuring the Civic Address for an LLDP Interface
213
Figure 123: Showing the Civic Address for an LLDP Interface
213
Figure 124: Displaying Local Device Information for LLDP (General)
215
Figure 125: Displaying Local Device Information for LLDP (Port)
216
Figure 126: Displaying Remote Device Information for LLDP (Port)
220
Figure 127: Displaying Remote Device Information for LLDP (Port Details)
221
Figure 128: Displaying LLDP Device Statistics (General)
223
Figure 129: Displaying LLDP Device Statistics (Port)
223
Figure 130: Showing the Switch’s PoE Budget
225
Figure 131: Setting a Port’s PoE Budget
227
Figure 132: Configuring Global Settings for SNMP
230
Figure 133: Configuring the Local Engine ID for SNMP
231
Figure 134: Configuring a Remote Engine ID for SNMP
232
Figure 135: Showing Remote Engine IDs for SNMP
233
Figure 136: Creating an SNMP View
234
Figure 137: Showing SNMP Views
234
Figure 138: Adding an OID Subtree to an SNMP View
235
Figure 139: Showing the OID Subtree Configured for SNMP Views
235
– 16 –
FIGURES
ES-2000 Series
Figure 140: Creating an SNMP Group
239
Figure 141: Showing SNMP Groups
239
Figure 142: Setting Community Access Strings
240
Figure 143: Showing Community Access Strings
241
Figure 144: Configuring Local SNMPv3 Users
242
Figure 145: Showing Local SNMPv3 Users
243
Figure 146: Configuring Remote SNMPv3 Users
245
Figure 147: Showing Remote SNMPv3 Users
245
Figure 148: Configuring Trap Managers (SNMPv1)
248
Figure 149: Configuring Trap Managers (SNMPv2c)
249
Figure 150: Configuring Trap Managers (SNMPv3)
249
Figure 151: Showing Trap Managers
250
Figure 152: Configuring an RMON Alarm
252
Figure 153: Showing Configured RMON Alarms
253
Figure 154: Configuring an RMON Event
254
Figure 155: Showing Configured RMON Events
255
Figure 156: Configuring an RMON History Sample
256
Figure 157: Showing Configured RMON History Samples
257
Figure 158: Showing Collected RMON History Samples
258
Figure 159: Configuring an RMON Statistical Sample
259
Figure 160: Showing Configured RMON Statistical Samples
260
Figure 161: Showing Collected RMON Statistical Samples
260
Figure 162: Configuring a Switch Cluster
262
Figure 163: Configuring a Cluster Members
263
Figure 164: Showing Cluster Members
264
Figure 165: Showing Cluster Candidates
264
Figure 166: Managing a Cluster Member
265
Figure 167: Pinging a Network Device
268
Figure 168: Setting the ARP Timeout
270
Figure 169: Displaying ARP Entries
270
Figure 170: Configuring a Static IPv4 Address
272
Figure 171: Configuring a Dynamic IPv4 Address
273
Figure 172: Multicast Filtering Concept
275
Figure 173: Configuring General Settings for IGMP Snooping
280
Figure 174: Configuring a Static Interface for a Multicast Router
281
Figure 175: Showing Static Interfaces Attached a Multicast Router
281
– 17 –
FIGURES
ES-2000 Series
Figure 176: Showing Current Interfaces Attached a Multicast Router
282
Figure 177: Assigning an Interface to a Multicast Service
283
Figure 178: Showing Static Interfaces Assigned to a Multicast Service
283
Figure 179: Showing Current Interfaces Assigned to a Multicast Service
284
Figure 180: Configuring IGMP Snooping on an Interface
288
Figure 181: Showing Interface Settings for IGMP Snooping
288
Figure 182: Showing Multicast Groups Learned by IGMP Snooping
289
Figure 183: Enabling IGMP Filtering and Throttling
291
Figure 184: Creating an IGMP Filtering Profile
292
Figure 185: Showing the IGMP Filtering Profiles Created
292
Figure 186: Adding Multicast Groups to an IGMP Filtering Profile
293
Figure 187: Showing the Groups Assigned to an IGMP Filtering Profile
293
Figure 188: Configuring IGMP Filtering and Throttling Interface Settings
294
– 18 –
TABLES
ES-2000 Series
Table 1: Key Features
23
Table 2: System Defaults
28
Table 3: Web Page Configuration Buttons
36
Table 4: Switch Main Menu
39
Table 5: Port Statistics
71
Table 6: LACP Port Counters
85
Table 7: LACP Internal Configuration Information
87
Table 8: LACP Internal Configuration Information
88
Table 9: Recommended STA Path Cost Range
115
Table 10: Default STA Path Costs
115
Table 11: Effective Rate Limit
120
Table 12: IEEE 802.1p Egress Queue Priority Mapping
129
Table 13: CoS Priority Levels
130
Table 14: Mapping Internal Per-hop Behavior to Hardware Queues
130
Table 15: Default Mapping of DSCP Values to Internal PHB/Drop Values
134
Table 16: Default Mapping of CoS/CFI to Internal PHB/Drop Precedence
137
Table 17: HTTPS System Support
172
Table 18: 802.1X Statistics
198
Table 19: Logging Levels
202
Table 20: LLDP MED Location CA Types
212
Table 21: Chassis ID Subtype
214
Table 22: System Capabilities
214
Table 23: Port ID Subtype
217
Table 24: Remote Port Auto-Negotiation Advertised Capability
218
Table 25: SNMPv3 Security Models and Levels
228
Table 26: Supported Notification Messages
236
Table 27: Address Resolution Protocol
269
Table 28: Troubleshooting Chart
301
– 19 –
TABLES
ES-2000 Series
– 20 –
SECTION I
ES-2000 Series
GETTING STARTED
This section provides an overview of the switch, and introduces some basic
concepts about network switches. It also describes the basic settings
required to access the management interface.
This section includes these chapters:
◆
"Introduction" on page 23
◆
"Initial Switch Configuration" on page 31
– 21 –
SECTION I | Getting Started
ES-2000 Series
– 22 –
1
INTRODUCTION
ES-2000 Series
This switch provides a broad range of features for Layer 2 switching. It
includes a management agent that allows you to configure the features
listed in this manual. The default configuration can be used for most of the
features provided by this switch. However, there are many options that you
should configure to maximize the switch’s performance for your particular
network environment.
KEY FEATURES
Table 1: Key Features
Feature
Description
Configuration Backup
and Restore
Using management station
Authentication
Web – user name/password, RADIUS, TACACS+, HTTPS
SNMP v1/2c - Community strings
SNMP version 3 – MD5 or SHA password
Port – IEEE 802.1X, MAC address filtering
General Security
Measures
Port Authentication
Port Security
Access Control Lists
Supports up to 512 rules, 64 ACLs,
and a maximum of 32 rules for an ACL
DHCP
Client
Port Configuration
Speed and duplex mode and flow control
Port Trunking
Supports up to 12 trunks – static or dynamic trunking (LACP)
Port Mirroring
24 sessions, one or more source ports to one analysis port
Congestion Control
Rate Limiting
Throttling for broadcast, multicast, unknown unicast storms
Random Early Detection
Address Table
8K MAC addresses in the forwarding table, 1K static MAC
addresses, 256 L2 multicast groups
IP Version 4
Supports IPv4 addressing, and management
IEEE 802.1D Bridge
Supports dynamic data switching and addresses learning
Store-and-Forward
Switching
Supported to ensure wire-speed switching while eliminating bad
frames
Spanning Tree Algorithm
Supports standard STP and Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)
Virtual LANs
Up to 128 using IEEE 802.1Q, port-based
Traffic Prioritization
Default port priority, traffic class map, queue scheduling, IP
Precedence, or Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP)
Qualify of Service
Supports Differentiated Services (DiffServ)
– 23 –
CHAPTER 1 | Introduction
Description of Software Features
ES-2000 Series
Table 1: Key Features (Continued)
Feature
Description
Link Layer Discovery
Protocol
Used to discover basic information about neighboring devices
Multicast Filtering
Supports IGMP snooping and query
DESCRIPTION OF SOFTWARE FEATURES
The switch provides a wide range of advanced performance enhancing
features. Flow control eliminates the loss of packets due to bottlenecks
caused by port saturation. Broadcast storm suppression prevents
broadcast traffic storms from engulfing the network. Untagged (portbased) and tagged VLANs provide traffic security and efficient use of
network bandwidth. CoS priority queueing ensures the minimum delay for
moving real-time multimedia data across the network. While multicast
filtering provides support for real-time network applications.
Some of the management features are briefly described below.
CONFIGURATION You can save the current configuration settings to a file on the
BACKUP AND management station (using the web interface), and later download this file
RESTORE to restore the switch configuration settings.
AUTHENTICATION This switch authenticates management access via a web browser. User
names and passwords can be configured locally or can be verified via a
remote authentication server (i.e., RADIUS or TACACS+). Port-based
authentication is also supported via the IEEE 802.1X protocol. This protocol
uses Extensible Authentication Protocol over LANs (EAPOL) to request user
credentials from the 802.1X client, and then uses the EAP between the
switch and the authentication server to verify the client’s right to access
the network via an authentication server (i.e., RADIUS or TACACS+
server).
Other authentication options include HTTPS for secure management access
via the web, SNMP Version 3, IP address filtering for web/SNMP
management access, and MAC address filtering for port access.
ACCESS CONTROL ACLs provide packet filtering for IP frames (based on address, protocol,
LISTS TCP/UDP port number or TCP control code) or any frames (based on MAC
address or Ethernet type). ACLs can be used to improve performance by
blocking unnecessary network traffic or to implement security controls by
restricting access to specific network resources or protocols.
– 24 –
CHAPTER 1 | Introduction
Description of Software Features
ES-2000 Series
PORT CONFIGURATION You can manually configure the speed and duplex mode, and flow control
used on specific ports, or use auto-negotiation to detect the connection
settings used by the attached device. Use the full-duplex mode on ports
whenever possible to double the throughput of switch connections. Flow
control should also be enabled to control network traffic during periods of
congestion and prevent the loss of packets when port buffer thresholds are
exceeded. The switch supports flow control based on the IEEE 802.3x
standard (now incorporated in IEEE 802.3-2002).
PORT MIRRORING The switch can unobtrusively mirror traffic from any port to a monitor port.
You can then attach a protocol analyzer or RMON probe to this port to
perform traffic analysis and verify connection integrity.
PORT TRUNKING Ports can be combined into an aggregate connection. Trunks can be
manually set up or dynamically configured using Link Aggregation Control
Protocol (LACP – IEEE 802.3-2005). The additional ports dramatically
increase the throughput across any connection, and provide redundancy by
taking over the load if a port in the trunk should fail. The switch supports
up to 12 trunks.
RATE LIMITING This feature controls the maximum rate for traffic transmitted or received
on an interface. Rate limiting is configured on interfaces at the edge of a
network to limit traffic into or out of the network. Traffic that falls within
the rate limit is transmitted, while packets that exceed the acceptable
amount of traffic are dropped.
STORM CONTROL Broadcast, multicast and unknown unicast storm suppression prevents
traffic from overwhelming the network.When enabled on a port, the level of
broadcast traffic passing through the port is restricted. If broadcast traffic
rises above a pre-defined threshold, it will be throttled until the level falls
back beneath the threshold.
STATIC ADDRESSES A static address can be assigned to a specific interface on this switch.
Static addresses are bound to the assigned interface and will not be
moved. When a static address is seen on another interface, the address will
be ignored and will not be written to the address table. Static addresses
can be used to provide network security by restricting access for a known
host to a specific port.
– 25 –
CHAPTER 1 | Introduction
Description of Software Features
ES-2000 Series
IEEE 802.1D BRIDGE The switch supports IEEE 802.1D transparent bridging. The address table
facilitates data switching by learning addresses, and then filtering or
forwarding traffic based on this information. The address table supports up
to 8K addresses.
STORE-AND-FORWARD The switch copies each frame into its memory before forwarding them to
SWITCHING another port. This ensures that all frames are a standard Ethernet size and
have been verified for accuracy with the cyclic redundancy check (CRC).
This prevents bad frames from entering the network and wasting
bandwidth.
To avoid dropping frames on congested ports, the switch provides 1 MB for
frame buffering. This buffer can queue packets awaiting transmission on
congested networks.
SPANNING TREE The switch supports these spanning tree protocols:
ALGORITHM
◆
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP, IEEE 802.1D) – This protocol provides
loop detection. When there are multiple physical paths between
segments, this protocol will choose a single path and disable all others
to ensure that only one route exists between any two stations on the
network. This prevents the creation of network loops. However, if the
chosen path should fail for any reason, an alternate path will be
activated to maintain the connection.
◆
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP, IEEE 802.1w) – This protocol
reduces the convergence time for network topology changes to about 3
to 5 seconds, compared to 30 seconds or more for the older IEEE
802.1D STP standard. It is intended as a complete replacement for STP,
but can still interoperate with switches running the older standard by
automatically reconfiguring ports to STP-compliant mode if they detect
STP protocol messages from attached devices.
VIRTUAL LANS The switch supports up to 128 VLANs. A Virtual LAN is a collection of
network nodes that share the same collision domain regardless of their
physical location or connection point in the network. The switch supports
tagged VLANs based on the IEEE 802.1Q standard. Members of VLAN
groups can be dynamically learned via GVRP, or ports can be manually
assigned to a specific set of VLANs. This allows the switch to restrict traffic
to the VLAN groups to which a user has been assigned. By segmenting
your network into VLANs, you can:
◆
Eliminate broadcast storms which severely degrade performance in a
flat network.
◆
Simplify network management for node changes/moves by remotely
configuring VLAN membership for any port, rather than having to
manually change the network connection.
– 26 –
CHAPTER 1 | Introduction
Description of Software Features
ES-2000 Series
◆
Provide data security by restricting all traffic to the originating VLAN,
except where a connection is explicitly defined via the switch's routing
service.
TRAFFIC This switch prioritizes each packet based on the required level of service,
PRIORITIZATION using four priority queues with strict priority, Weighted Round Robin (WRR)
scheduling, or a combination of strict and weighted queuing. It uses IEEE
802.1p and 802.1Q tags to prioritize incoming traffic based on input from
the end-station application. These functions can be used to provide
independent priorities for delay-sensitive data and best-effort data.
This switch also supports several common methods of prioritizing layer 3/4
traffic to meet application requirements. Traffic can be prioritized based on
the priority bits in the IP frame’s Type of Service (ToS) octet using DSCP, or
IP Precedence. When these services are enabled, the priorities are mapped
to a Class of Service value by the switch, and the traffic then sent to the
corresponding output queue.
QUALITY OF SERVICE Differentiated Services (DiffServ) provides policy-based management
mechanisms used for prioritizing network resources to meet the
requirements of specific traffic types on a per-hop basis. Each packet is
classified upon entry into the network based on access lists, IP Precedence
or DSCP values, or VLAN lists. Using access lists allows you select traffic
based on Layer 2, Layer 3, or Layer 4 information contained in each
packet. Based on network policies, different kinds of traffic can be marked
for different kinds of forwarding.
MULTICAST FILTERING Specific multicast traffic can be assigned to its own VLAN to ensure that it
does not interfere with normal network traffic and to guarantee real-time
delivery by setting the required priority level for the designated VLAN. The
switch uses IGMP Snooping and Query to manage multicast group
registration.
– 27 –
CHAPTER 1 | Introduction
System Defaults
ES-2000 Series
SYSTEM DEFAULTS
The switch’s system defaults are provided in the configuration file
“Factory_Default_Config.cfg.” To reset the switch defaults, this file should
be set as the startup configuration file.
The following table lists some of the basic system defaults.
Table 2: System Defaults
Function
Parameter
Default
Authentication
RADIUS Authentication
Disabled
TACACS+ Authentication
Disabled
802.1X Port Authentication
Disabled
HTTPS
Enabled
Port Security
Disabled
IP Filtering
Disabled
HTTP Server
Enabled
HTTP Port Number
80
HTTP Secure Server
Enabled
HTTP Secure Server Port
443
SNMP Agent
Enabled
Community Strings
“public” (read only)
“private” (read/write)
Web Management
SNMP
Traps
Port Configuration
Port Trunking
Congestion Control
Authentication traps: enabled
Link-up-down events: enabled
SNMP V3
View: defaultview
Group: public (read only);
private (read/write)
Admin Status
Enabled
Auto-negotiation
Enabled
Flow Control
Disabled
Static Trunks
None
LACP (all ports)
Disabled
Rate Limiting
Disabled
Storm Control
Broadcast: Disabled
Multicast: Disabled
Unknown Unicast: Disabled
Address Table
Aging Time
300 seconds
Spanning Tree Algorithm
Status
Enabled, RSTP
(Defaults: RSTP standard)
Edge Ports
Disabled
Status
Enabled
LLDP
– 28 –
CHAPTER 1 | Introduction
System Defaults
ES-2000 Series
Table 2: System Defaults (Continued)
Function
Parameter
Default
Virtual LANs
Default VLAN
1
PVID
1
Acceptable Frame Type
All
Ingress Filtering
Disabled
Switchport Mode (Egress Mode) Access
Traffic Prioritization
Ingress Port Priority
0
Queue Mode
Strict-WRR
Queue Weight
Queue: 0 1 2 3
Weight: 1 2 4 6
Class of Service
Enabled
IP Precedence Priority
Disabled
IP DSCP Priority
Disabled
Management VLAN
VLAN 1
IP Address
192.168.1.10
Default Gateway
0.0.0.0
DHCP
Client: Disabled
BOOTP
Disabled
Multicast Filtering
IGMP Snooping
Snooping: Disabled
Querier: Disabled
System Log
Status
Enabled
Messages Logged to RAM
Levels 0-7 (all)
Messages Logged to Flash
Levels 0-3
Clock Synchronization
Disabled
IP Settings
SNTP
– 29 –
CHAPTER 1 | Introduction
System Defaults
ES-2000 Series
– 30 –
2
INITIAL SWITCH CONFIGURATION
ES-2000 Series
This chapter includes information on connecting to the switch and basic
configuration procedures.
To make use of the management features of your switch, you must first
configure it with an IP address that is compatible with the network in which
it is being installed. This should be done before you permanently install the
switch in the network.
Follow this procedure:
1. Place the switch close to the PC that you intend to use for configuration.
It helps if you can see the front panel of the switch while working on
your PC.
2. Connect the Ethernet port of your PC to any port on the front panel of
the switch. Connect power to the switch and verify that you have a link
by checking the front-panel LEDs.
3. Check that your PC has an IP address on the same subnet as the
switch. The default IP address of the switch is 192.168.1.10 and the
subnet mask is 255.255.255.0, so the PC and switch are on the same
subnet if they both have addresses that start 192.168.1.x. If the PC
and switch are not on the same subnet, you must manually set the PC’s
IP address to 192.168.1.x (where “x” is any number from 1 to 255,
except 10).
4. Open your web browser and enter the address http://192.168.1.10. If
your PC is properly configured, you will see the login page of the
switch. If you do not see the login page, repeat step 3.
5. Enter “admin” for the user name and password, and then click on the
Login button.
6. From the menu, click on System, and then click on IP. Enter the new IP
address, Subnet Mask and Gateway IP Address for the switch, and then
click on the Apply button.
No other configuration changes are required at this stage, but it is
recommended that you change the administrator’s password before
logging out. To change the password, click Security and then User
Accounts. Select Modify from the Action list. Select “admin” from the User
Name list, fill in the Password, and then click Apply.
– 31 –
CHAPTER 2 | Initial Switch Configuration
ES-2000 Series
– 32 –
SECTION II
ES-2000 Series
WEB CONFIGURATION
This section describes the basic switch features, along with a detailed
description of how to configure each feature via a web browser.
This section includes these chapters:
◆
"Using the Web Interface" on page 35
◆
"Basic Management Tasks" on page 47
◆
"Interface Configuration" on page 65
◆
"VLAN Configuration" on page 93
◆
"Address Table Settings" on page 101
◆
"Spanning Tree Algorithm" on page 107
◆
"Rate Limit Configuration" on page 119
◆
"Storm Control Configuration" on page 123
◆
"Class of Service" on page 125
◆
"Quality of Service" on page 139
◆
"VoIP Traffic Configuration" on page 155
◆
"Security Measures" on page 161
◆
"Basic Administration Protocols" on page 201
◆
"IP Configuration" on page 267
◆
"Multicast Filtering" on page 275
– 33 –
SECTION II | Web Configuration
ES-2000 Series
– 34 –
3
USING THE WEB INTERFACE
ES-2000 Series
This switch provides an embedded HTTP web agent. Using a web browser
you can configure the switch and view statistics to monitor network
activity. The web agent can be accessed by any computer on the network
using a standard web browser (Internet Explorer 5.0 or above, Netscape
6.2 or above, or Mozilla Firefox 2.0.0.0 or above).
NAVIGATING THE WEB BROWSER INTERFACE
To access the web-browser interface you must first enter a user name and
password. The administrator has Read/Write access to all configuration
parameters and statistics. The default user name and password for the
administrator is “admin.”
HOME PAGE When your web browser connects with the switch’s web agent, the home
page is displayed as shown below. The home page displays the Main Menu
on the left side of the screen and System Information on the right side. The
Main Menu links are used to navigate to other menus, and display
configuration parameters and statistics.
Figure 1: Home Page
– 35 –
CHAPTER 3 | Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
ES-2000 Series
NOTE: This manual covers the ES-2026 and ES-2026P Fast Ethernet
switches, and the ES-2024G and ES-2024GP Gigabit Ethernet switches.
Other than the difference in port types supported by the Fast Ethernet and
Gigabit Ethernet switches, and support for PoE (ES-2026P, ES-2024GP),
there are no other significant differences. Therefore nearly all of the screen
display examples are based on the ES-2026. The panel graphics for all of
switch types are shown on the following page.
CONFIGURATION Configurable parameters have a dialog box or a drop-down list. Once a
OPTIONS configuration change has been made on a page, be sure to click on the
Apply button to confirm the new setting. The following table summarizes
the web page configuration buttons.
Table 3: Web Page Configuration Buttons
Button
Action
Apply
Sets specified values to the system.
Revert
Cancels specified values and restores current
values prior to pressing “Apply.”
Save current configuration settings.
Displays help for the selected page.
Refreshes the current page.
Displays the site map.
Logs out of the management interface.
Links to the manufacture’s web site.
Sends mail to the manufacturer.
NOTE: To ensure proper screen refresh, be sure that Internet Explorer 5.x
is configured as follows: Under the menu “Tools / Internet Options /
General / Temporary Internet Files / Settings,” the setting for item “Check
for newer versions of stored pages” should be “Every visit to the page.”
NOTE: When using Internet Explorer 5.0, you may have to manually refresh
the screen after making configuration changes by pressing the browser’s
refresh button.
– 36 –
CHAPTER 3 | Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
ES-2000 Series
PANEL DISPLAY The web agent displays an image of the switch’s ports. The Mode can be
set to display different information for the ports, including Active (i.e., up
or down), Duplex (i.e., half or full duplex), or Flow Control (i.e., with or
without flow control).
Figure 2: Front Panel Indicators
ES-2026
ES-2026P
ES-2024G
ES-2024GP
– 37 –
CHAPTER 3 | Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
ES-2000 Series
SHOWING STATUS There are various web pages which display configuration settings or the
INFORMATION status of specified processes. Many of these pages will not display any
information unless the switch is properly configured, and in some cases the
interface to which a command applies is up.
For example, if a static router port is configured, the corresponding
information page will not display any information unless IGMP snooping is
first enabled, and the link for the static router port is up.
Figure 3: Displaying Configuration Settings or Status Information
– 38 –
CHAPTER 3 | Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
ES-2000 Series
MAIN MENU Using the onboard web agent, you can define system parameters, manage
and control the switch, and all its ports, or monitor network conditions. The
following table briefly describes the selections available from this program.
Table 4: Switch Main Menu
Menu
Description
Page
General
Provides basic system description, including contact information
47
Switch
Shows the number of ports, hardware version, power status, and 48
firmware version numbers
IP
Sets the IPv4 address for management access
271
Capability
Enables support for jumbo frames;
shows the bridge extension parameters
50,
51
System
File
52
Copy
Allows the transfer and copying files
52
Set Startup
Sets the startup file
55
Show
Shows the files stored in flash memory; allows deletion of files
56
Time
57
Configure General
Manual
Manually sets the current time
57
SNTP
Configures SNTP polling interval
58
Configure Time Server
Configures a list of SNTP servers
59
Configure Time Zone
Sets the local time zone for the system clock
60
CPU Utilization
Displays information on CPU utilization;
61
Memory Status
Shows memory utilization parameters
62
Reset
Restarts the switch immediately, at a specified time, after a
specified delay, or at a periodic interval
62
Interface
65
Port
65
General
Configure by Port List
Configures connection settings per port
65
Configure by Port Range
Configures connection settings for a range of ports
68
Show Information
Displays port connection status
68
Mirror
69
Show
Shows the configured mirror sessions
69
Add
Sets the source and target ports for mirroring
69
Statistics
Shows Interface, Etherlike, and RMON port statistics
71
Chart
Shows Interface, Etherlike, and RMON port statistics
71
Cable Test
Performs cable diagnostics for selected port to diagnose any cable 75
faults (short, open etc.) and report the cable length
– 39 –
CHAPTER 3 | Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
ES-2000 Series
Table 4: Switch Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
Description
Page
Trunk
Static
78
Configure Trunk
Creates a trunk, specifying port members
Configure General
78
78
Show Information
Displays trunk connection settings
78
Configure
Configures trunk connection settings
78
Dynamic
Configure Aggregator
80
Configures administration key for specific LACP groups
Configure Aggregation Port
80
78
Configure
78
General
Allows ports to dynamically join trunks
80
Actor
Configures parameters for link aggregation group members on the 80
local side
Partner
Configures parameters for link aggregation group members on the 80
remote side
Show Information
Counters
Displays statistics for LACP protocol messages
85
Internal
Displays configuration settings and operational state for the local
side of a link aggregation
87
Neighbors
Displays configuration settings and operational state for the
remote side of a link aggregation
88
Configure Trunk
80
Show
Displays trunk connection settings
80
Configure
Configures trunk connection settings
80
Show Member
Show port members of dynamic trunks
80
Mirror
89
Add
Sets the source trunks and target port for mirroring
89
Show
Shows the configured mirror sessions
89
Statistics
Shows Interface, Etherlike, and RMON port statistics
71
Chart
Shows Interface, Etherlike, and RMON port statistics
71
Adjusts the power provided to ports based on the length
of the cable used to connect to other devices
91
Virtual LAN
93
Configure VLAN
Configures VLAN groups, administrative status, and remote type
95
Modify VLAN and Member Ports
Configures group name, status, and member attributes
96
Edit Member by Interface
Specifies VLAN attributes per interface
96
Edit Member by Interface Range
Specifies VLAN attributes per interface range
96
Green Ethernet
VLAN
Static
– 40 –
CHAPTER 3 | Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
ES-2000 Series
Table 4: Switch Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
Description
Page
MAC Address
101
Static
101
Add
Configures static entries in the address table
101
Show
Displays static entries in the address table
101
Configure Aging
Sets timeout for dynamically learned entries
103
Show Dynamic MAC
Displays dynamic entries in the address table
104
Clear Dynamic MAC
Removes any learned entries from the forwarding database and
clears the transmit and receive counts for any static or system
configured entries
105
Dynamic
Spanning Tree
STA
107
Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configure Global
Configure
Configures global bridge settings for STP and RSTP
108
Show Information
Displays STA values used for the bridge
112
Configure
Configures interface settings for STA
113
Show Information
Displays interface settings for STA
116
Rate Limit
Sets the input and output rate limits for a port
119
Storm Control
Sets the broadcast storm threshold for each interface
123
Default Priority
Sets the default priority for each port or trunk
125
Queue
Sets queue mode for the switch; sets the service weight for each 126
queue that will use a weighted or hybrid mode
Trust Mode
Selects IP Precedence, DSCP or CoS priority processing
Configure Interface
Traffic
Priority
DSCP to DSCP
132
133
Add
Maps DSCP values in incoming packets to per-hop behavior and
drop precedence values for internal priority processing
133
Show
Shows the DSCP to DSCP mapping list
133
CoS to DSCP
136
Add
Maps CoS/CFI values in incoming packets to per-hop behavior and 136
drop precedence values for priority processing
Show
Shows the CoS to DSCP mapping list
PHB to Queue
136
129
Add
Maps internal per-hop behavior values to hardware queues
129
Show
Shows the PHB to Queue mapping list
129
– 41 –
CHAPTER 3 | Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
ES-2000 Series
Table 4: Switch Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
Description
Page
DiffServ
139
Configure Class
140
Add
Creates a class map for a type of traffic
140
Show
Shows configured class maps
140
Modify
Modifies the name of a class map
140
Add Rule
Configures the criteria used to classify ingress traffic
140
Show Rule
Shows the traffic classification rules for a class map
140
Configure Policy
143
Add
Creates a policy map to apply to multiple interfaces
143
Show
Shows configured policy maps
143
Modify
Modifies the name of a policy map
143
Add Rule
Sets the boundary parameters used for monitoring inbound traffic, 143
and the action to take for conforming and non-conforming traffic
Show Rule
Shows the rules used to enforce bandwidth policing for a policy
map
143
Applies a policy map to an ingress port
153
Voice over IP
155
Configure Interface
VoIP
Configure Global
Configures auto-detection of VoIP traffic, sets the Voice VLAN, and 155
VLAN aging time
Configure OUI
157
Add
Maps the OUI in the source MAC address of ingress packets to the 157
VoIP device manufacturer
Show
Shows the OUI telephony list
157
Configures VoIP traffic settings for ports, including the way in
which a port is added to the Voice VLAN, filtering of non-VoIP
packets, the method of detecting VoIP traffic, and the priority
assigned to the voice traffic
158
Configure Interface
Security
AAA
161
Authentication, Authorization and Accounting
System Authentication
Configures authentication sequence – local, RADIUS, and TACACS 162
Server
Configures RADIUS and TACACS server message exchange
settings
User Accounts
163
166
Add
Configures user names, passwords, and access levels
166
Show
Shows authorized users
166
Modify
Modifies user attributes
166
MAC address-based network access authentication
168
Network Access
Configure Global
Enables aging for authenticated MAC addresses, and sets the time 168
period after which a connected MAC address must be
reauthenticated
Configure Interface
Enables dynamic VLAN assignment
169
Show Information
Shows the authenticated MAC address list
170
– 42 –
CHAPTER 3 | Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
ES-2000 Series
Table 4: Switch Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
Description
Page
Secure HTTP
172
Configure Global
Enables HTTPs, and specifies the UDP port to use
172
Copy Certificate
Replaces the default secure-site certificate
173
Access Control Lists
175
HTTPS
ACL
Configure ACL
177
Show TCAM
Shows utilization parameters for TCAM
175
Add
Adds an ACL based on IP or MAC address filtering
177
Show
Shows the name and type of configured ACLs
177
Add Rule
Configures packet filtering based on IP or MAC addresses and other 177
packet attributes
Show Rule
Shows the rules specified for an ACL
177
Binds a port to the specified ACL
184
Configure Interface
IP Filter
185
Add
Sets IP addresses of clients allowed management access via the
web and SNMP
185
Show
Shows the addresses to be allowed management access
185
Port Security
Configures per port security, including status, response for security 187
breach, and maximum allowed MAC addresses
Port Authentication
IEEE 802.1X
189
Configure Global
Enables authentication and EAPOL pass-through
191
Configure Interface
Sets authentication parameters for individual ports
192
Authenticator
Sets port authenticator settings
192
Supplicant
Sets port supplicant settings
196
Displays protocol statistics for the selected port
198
Authenticator
Displays protocol statistics for port authenticator
198
Supplicant
Displays protocol statistics for port supplicant
198
Show Statistics
Administration
201
Log
201
System
201
Configure Global
Stores error messages in local memory
201
Show Logs
Shows logged error messages
201
Configures the logging of messages to a remote logging process
204
Remote
LLDP
205
Configure Global
Configures global LLDP timing parameters
206
Configure Interface
Sets the message transmission mode; enables SNMP notification; 208
and sets the LLDP attributes to advertise
Configure General
Sets the message transmission mode, enables SNMP notification, 208
and sets the LLDP attributes to advertise
Add CA-Type
Specifies the location of the device attached to an interface
– 43 –
211
CHAPTER 3 | Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
ES-2000 Series
Table 4: Switch Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
Description
Page
Show CA-Type
Shows the location of the device attached to an interface
211
Modify CA-Type
Modifies the location of the device attached to an interface
211
Show Local Device Information
214
General
Displays general information about the local device
214
Port/Trunk
Displays information about each interface
214
Show Remote Device Information
216
Port/Trunk
Displays information about a remote device connected to a port on 216
this switch
Port/Trunk Details
Displays detailed information about a remote device connected to 216
this switch
Show Device Statistics
221
General
Displays statistics for all connected remote devices
221
Port/Trunk
Displays statistics for remote devices on a selected port or trunk
221
Power over Ethernet
224
Configure Global
Displays the power budget for the switch
225
Configure Interface
Configures port power parameters
226
Simple Network Management Protocol
227
Enables SNMP agent status, and sets related trap functions
230
PoE
SNMP
Configure Global
Configure Engine
231
Set Engine ID
Sets the SNMP v3 engine ID on this switch
231
Add Remote Engine
Sets the SNMP v3 engine ID for a remote device
232
Show Remote Engine
Shows configured engine ID for remote devices
232
Configure View
233
Add View
Adds an SNMP v3 view of the OID MIB
233
Show View
Shows configured SNMP v3 views
233
Add OID Subtree
Specifies a part of the subtree for the selected view
233
Show OID Subtree
Shows the subtrees assigned to each view
233
Configure Group
236
Add
Adds a group with access policies for assigned users
236
Show
Shows configured groups and access policies
236
Add Community
Configures community strings and access mode
240
Show Community
Shows community strings and access mode
240
Add SNMPv3 Local User
Configures SNMPv3 users on this switch
241
Show SNMPv3 Local User
Shows SNMPv3 users configured on this switch
241
Change SNMPv3 Local User Group
Assign a local user to a new group
241
Add SNMPv3 Remote User
Configures SNMPv3 users from a remote device
243
Configure User
– 44 –
CHAPTER 3 | Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
ES-2000 Series
Table 4: Switch Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
Show SNMPv3 Remote User
Description
Page
Shows SNMPv3 users set from a remote device
241
Configure Trap
245
Add
Configures trap managers to receive messages on key events that 245
occur this switch
Show
Shows configured trap managers
245
Remote Monitoring
250
Alarm
Sets threshold bounds for a monitored variable
250
Event
Creates a response event for an alarm
253
Alarm
Shows all configured alarms
250
Event
Shows all configured events
253
History
Periodically samples statistics on a physical interface
255
Statistics
Enables collection of statistics on a physical interface
258
History
Shows sampling parameters for each entry in the history group
255
Statistics
Shows sampling parameters for each entry in the statistics group 258
RMON
Configure Global
Add
Show
Configure Interface
Add
Show
Show Details
History
Shows sampled data for each entry in the history group
255
Statistics
Shows sampled data for each entry in the history group
258
Cluster
Configure Global
261
Globally enables clustering for the switch; sets Commander status 261
Configure Member
Add
Adds switch Members to the cluster
263
Show Candidate
Shows cluster candidates
263
Shows cluster switch member; managed switch members
264
Show Member
IP
267
General
Ping
ARP
Sends ICMP echo request packets to another node on the network 267
Address Resolution Protocol
268
Configure General
Sets the aging time for dynamic entries in the ARP cache
269
Show Information
Shows entries in the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache
270
– 45 –
CHAPTER 3 | Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
ES-2000 Series
Table 4: Switch Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
Description
Page
Multicast
275
IGMP Snooping
General
276
Enables multicast filtering; configures parameters for multicast
snooping
Multicast Router
277
280
Add Static Multicast Router
Assigns ports that are attached to a neighboring multicast router
280
Show Static Multicast Router
Displays ports statically configured as attached to a neighboring
multicast router
280
Show Current Multicast Router
Displays ports attached to a neighboring multicast router, either
through static or dynamic configuration
280
IGMP Member
282
Add Static Member
Statically assigns multicast addresses to the selected VLAN
282
Show Static Member
Shows multicast addresses statically configured on the selected
VLAN
282
Show Current Member
Shows multicast addresses associated with the selected VLAN,
either through static or dynamic configuration
282
Interface
284
Configure
Configures IGMP snooping per VLAN interface
284
Show
Shows IGMP snooping settings per VLAN interface
284
Displays the current multicast groups learned through IGMP
Snooping
289
Forwarding Entry
Filter
Configure General
290
Enables IGMP filtering for the switch
Configure Profile
290
291
Add
Adds IGMP filter profile; and sets access mode
291
Show
Shows configured IGMP filter profiles
291
Add Multicast Group Range
Assigns multicast groups to selected profile
291
Show Multicast Group Range
Shows multicast groups assigned to a profile
291
Assigns IGMP filter profiles to port interfaces and sets throttling
action
293
Configure Interface
– 46 –
4
BASIC MANAGEMENT TASKS
ES-2000 Series
This chapter describes the following topics:
◆
Displaying System Information – Provides basic system description,
including contact information.
◆
Displaying Switch Hardware/Software Versions – Shows the hardware
version, power status, and firmware versions
◆
Configuring Support for Jumbo Frames – Enables support for jumbo
frames.
◆
Displaying Bridge Extension Capabilities – Shows the bridge extension
parameters.
◆
Managing System Files – Describes how to upgrade operating software
or configuration files, and set the system start-up files.
◆
Setting the System Clock – Sets the current time manually or through
specified SNTP servers.
◆
Displaying CPU Utilization – Displays information on CPU utilization.
◆
Displaying Memory Utilization – Shows memory utilization parameters.
◆
Resetting the System – Restarts the switch immediately, at a specified
time, after a specified delay, or at a periodic interval.
DISPLAYING SYSTEM INFORMATION
Use the System > General page to identify the system by displaying
information such as the device name, location and contact information.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
System Description – Brief description of device type.
◆
System Object ID – MIB II object ID for switch’s network
management subsystem.
(ES-2024GP: 1.3.6.1.4.1.572.17389.105,
ES-2024G: 1.3.6.1.4.1.572.17389.106,
ES-2026P: 1.3.6.1.4.1.572.17389.107,
ES-2026: 1.3.6.1.4.1.572.17389.108)
– 47 –
CHAPTER 4 | Basic Management Tasks
Displaying Switch Hardware/Software Versions
ES-2000 Series
◆
System Up Time – Length of time the management agent has been
up.
◆
System Name – Name assigned to the switch system.
◆
System Location – Specifies the system location.
◆
System Contact – Administrator responsible for the system.
WEB INTERFACE
To configure general system information:
1. Click System, General.
2. Specify the system name, location, and contact information for the
system administrator.
3. Click Apply.
Figure 4: System Information
DISPLAYING SWITCH HARDWARE/SOFTWARE VERSIONS
Use the System > Switch page to display hardware/firmware version
numbers for the main board and management software, as well as the
power status of the system.
PARAMETERS
The following parameters are displayed:
Main Board Information
◆
Serial Number – The serial number of the switch.
◆
Number of Ports – Number of built-in ports.
◆
Hardware Version – Hardware version of the main board.
– 48 –
CHAPTER 4 | Basic Management Tasks
Displaying Switch Hardware/Software Versions
ES-2000 Series
◆
Internal Power Status – Displays the status of the internal power
supply.
Management Software Information
◆
Role – Shows that this switch is operating as Master or Slave.
◆
EPLD Version – Version number of EEPROM Programmable Logic
Device.
◆
Loader Version – Version number of loader code.
◆
Diagnostics Code Version – Version of Power-On Self-Test (POST)
and boot code.
◆
Operation Code Version – Version number of runtime code.
WEB INTERFACE
To view hardware and software version information.
1. Click System, then Switch.
Figure 5: General Switch Information
– 49 –
CHAPTER 4 | Basic Management Tasks
Configuring Support for Jumbo Frames
ES-2000 Series
CONFIGURING SUPPORT FOR JUMBO FRAMES
Use the System > Capability page to configure support for jumbo frames.
The switch provides more efficient throughput for large sequential data
transfers by supporting jumbo frames up to 10240 bytes for Gigabit
Ethernet. Compared to standard Ethernet frames that run only up to
1.5 KB, using jumbo frames significantly reduces the per-packet overhead
required to process protocol encapsulation fields.
USAGE GUIDELINES
To use jumbo frames, both the source and destination end nodes (such as
a computer or server) must support this feature. Also, when the connection
is operating at full duplex, all switches in the network between the two end
nodes must be able to accept the extended frame size. And for half-duplex
connections, all devices in the collision domain would need to support
jumbo frames.
PARAMETERS
The following parameters are displayed:
◆
Jumbo Frame – Configures support for jumbo frames.
(Default: Disabled)
WEB INTERFACE
To configure support for jumbo frames:
1. Click System, then Capability.
2. Enable or disable support for jumbo frames.
3. Click Apply.
Figure 6: Configuring Support for Jumbo Frames
– 50 –
CHAPTER 4 | Basic Management Tasks
Displaying Bridge Extension Capabilities
ES-2000 Series
DISPLAYING BRIDGE EXTENSION CAPABILITIES
Use the System > Capability page to display settings based on the Bridge
MIB. The Bridge MIB includes extensions for managed devices that support
Multicast Filtering, Traffic Classes, and Virtual LANs. You can access these
extensions to display default settings for the key variables.
PARAMETERS
The following parameters are displayed:
◆
Extended Multicast Filtering Services – This switch does not
support the filtering of individual multicast addresses based on GMRP
(GARP Multicast Registration Protocol).
◆
Traffic Classes – This switch provides mapping of user priorities to
multiple traffic classes. (Refer to "Class of Service" on page 125.)
◆
Static Entry Individual Port – This switch allows static filtering for
unicast and multicast addresses. (Refer to "Setting Static Addresses"
on page 101.)
◆
VLAN Version Number – Based on IEEE 802.1Q, “1” indicates Bridges
that support only single spanning tree (SST) operation, and “2”
indicates Bridges that support multiple spanning tree (MST) operation.
◆
VLAN Learning – This switch uses Independent VLAN Learning (IVL),
where each port maintains its own filtering database.
◆
Local VLAN Capable – This switch does not support multiple local
bridges outside of the scope of 802.1Q defined VLANs.
◆
Configurable PVID Tagging – This switch allows you to override the
default Port VLAN ID (PVID used in frame tags) and egress status
(VLAN-Tagged or Untagged) on each port. (Refer to "VLAN
Configuration" on page 93.)
◆
Max Supported VLAN Numbers – The maximum number of VLANs
supported on this switch.
◆
Max Supported VLAN ID – The maximum configurable VLAN
identifier supported on this switch.
◆
GMRP – GARP Multicast Registration Protocol (GMRP) allows network
devices to register end stations with multicast groups. This switch does
not support GMRP; it uses the Internet Group Management Protocol
(IGMP) to provide automatic multicast filtering.
– 51 –
CHAPTER 4 | Basic Management Tasks
Managing System Files
ES-2000 Series
WEB INTERFACE
To view Bridge Extension information:
1. Click System, then Capability.
Figure 7: Displaying Bridge Extension Configuration
MANAGING SYSTEM FILES
This section describes how to upgrade the switch operating software or
configuration files, and set the system start-up files.
COPYING FILES VIA Use the System > File (Copy) page to upload/download firmware or
HTTP configuration settings using HTTP. By backing up a file to a management
station, that file can later be downloaded to the switch to restore
operation. Specify the file type and file names as required.
You can also set the switch to use new firmware or configuration settings
without overwriting the current version. Just download the file using a
different name from the current version, and then set the new file as the
startup file.
PARAMETERS
The following parameters are displayed:
◆
Copy Type – The firmware copy operation includes these options:
■
HTTP Upgrade – Copies a file from a management station to the
switch.
– 52 –
CHAPTER 4 | Basic Management Tasks
Managing System Files
ES-2000 Series
■
HTTP Download – Copies a file from the switch to a management
station
◆
File Type – Specify Operation Code, Config File, or Loader.
◆
File Name – The file name should not contain slashes (\ or /), the
leading letter of the file name should not be a period (.), and the
maximum length for file names is 31 characters for files on the switch.
(Valid characters: A-Z, a-z, 0-9, “.”, “-”, “_”)
NOTE: Only one copy of the system software (i.e., the runtime firmware)
can be stored in the file directory on the switch.
NOTE: The maximum number of user-defined configuration files is limited
only by available flash memory space.
NOTE: The file “Factory_Default_Config.cfg” can be copied to a
management station, but cannot be used as the destination file name on
the switch.
WEB INTERFACE
To copy firmware files:
1. Click System, then File.
2. Select Copy from the Action list.
3. Select HTTP Upgrade as the file transfer method.
4. Set the file type to Operation Code, Config File, or Loader.
5. Enter the name of the file to download.
6. Select a file on the switch to overwrite or specify a new file name.
7. Then click Apply.
– 53 –
CHAPTER 4 | Basic Management Tasks
Managing System Files
ES-2000 Series
Figure 8: Copy Firmware
If you replaced a file currently used for startup and want to start using the
new file, reboot the system via the System > Reset menu.
SAVING THE RUNNING Use the System > File (Copy) page to save the current configuration
CONFIGURATION TO A settings to a local file on the switch. The configuration settings are not
LOCAL FILE automatically saved by the system for subsequent use when the switch is
rebooted. You must save these settings to the current startup file, or to
another file which can be subsequently set as the startup file.
PARAMETERS
The following parameters are displayed:
◆
Copy Type – The copy operation includes this option:
■
◆
Running-Config – Copies the current configuration settings to a local
file on the switch.
Destination File Name – Copy to the currently designated startup
file, or to a new file. The file name should not contain slashes (\ or /),
the leading letter of the file name should not be a period (.), and the
maximum length for file names is 31 characters for files on the switch.
(Valid characters: A-Z, a-z, 0-9, “.”, “-”, “_”)
NOTE: The maximum number of user-defined configuration files is limited
only by available flash memory space.
– 54 –
CHAPTER 4 | Basic Management Tasks
Managing System Files
ES-2000 Series
WEB INTERFACE
To save the running configuration file:
1. Click System, then File.
2. Select Copy from the Action list.
3. Select Running-Config from the Copy Type list.
4. Select the current startup file on the switch to overwrite or specify a
new file name.
5. Then click Apply.
Figure 9: Saving the Running Configuration
If you replaced a file currently used for startup and want to start using the
new file, reboot the system via the System > Reset menu.
SETTING THE START- Use the System > File (Set Start-Up) page to specify the firmware or
UP FILE configuration file to use for system initialization.
WEB INTERFACE
To set a file to use for system initialization:
1. Click System, then File.
2. Select Set Start-Up from the Action list.
3. Mark the operation code or configuration file to be used at startup
4. Then click Apply.
– 55 –
CHAPTER 4 | Basic Management Tasks
Managing System Files
ES-2000 Series
Figure 10: Setting Start-Up Files
To start using the new firmware or configuration settings, reboot the
system via the System > Reset menu.
SHOWING SYSTEM Use the System > File (Show) page to show the files in the system
FILES directory, or to delete a file.
NOTE: Files designated for start-up, and the Factory_Default_Config.cfg
file, cannot be deleted.
WEB INTERFACE
To show the system files:
1. Click System, then File.
2. Select Show from the Action list.
3. To delete a file, mark it in the File List and click Delete.
Figure 11: Displaying System Files
– 56 –
CHAPTER 4 | Basic Management Tasks
Setting the System Clock
ES-2000 Series
SETTING THE SYSTEM CLOCK
Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) allows the switch to set its internal
clock based on periodic updates from a time server (SNTP or NTP).
Maintaining an accurate time on the switch enables the system log to
record meaningful dates and times for event entries. You can also manually
set the clock. If the clock is not set manually or via SNTP, the switch will
only record the time from the factory default set at the last bootup.
When the SNTP client is enabled, the switch periodically sends a request
for a time update to a configured time server. You can configure up to three
time server IP addresses. The switch will attempt to poll each server in the
configured sequence.
SETTING THE TIME Use the System > Time (Configure General - Manually) page to set the
MANUALLY system time on the switch manually without using SNTP.
PARAMETERS
The following parameters are displayed:
◆
Current Time – Shows the current time set on the switch.
◆
Hours – Sets the hour. (Range: 0-23; Default: 0)
◆
Minutes – Sets the minute value. (Range: 0-59; Default: 0)
◆
Seconds – Sets the second value. (Range: 0-59; Default: 0)
◆
Month – Sets the month. (Range: 1-12; Default: 1)
◆
Day – Sets the day of the month. (Range: 1-31; Default: 1)
◆
Year – Sets the year. (Range: 2001-2100; Default: 2009)
WEB INTERFACE
To manually set the system clock:
1. Click System, then Time.
2. Select Configure General from the Action list.
3. Select Manually from the Maintain Type list.
4. Enter the time and date in the appropriate fields.
5. Click Apply
– 57 –
CHAPTER 4 | Basic Management Tasks
Setting the System Clock
ES-2000 Series
Figure 12: Manually Setting the System Clock
SETTING THE SNTP Use the System > Time (Configure General - SNTP) page to set the polling
POLLING INTERVAL interval at which the switch will query the specified time servers.
PARAMETERS
The following parameters are displayed:
◆
Current Time – Shows the current time set on the switch.
◆
SNTP Polling Interval – Sets the interval between sending requests
for a time update from a time server. (Range: 16-16384 seconds;
Default: 16 seconds)
WEB INTERFACE
To set the polling interval for SNTP:
1. Click System, then Time.
2. Select Configure General from the Action list.
3. Select SNTP from the Maintain Type list.
4. Modify the polling interval if required.
5. Click Apply
– 58 –
CHAPTER 4 | Basic Management Tasks
Setting the System Clock
ES-2000 Series
Figure 13: Setting the Polling Interval for SNTP
SPECIFYING SNTP Use the System > Time (Configure Time Server) page to specify the IP
TIME SERVERS address for up to three SNTP time servers.
PARAMETERS
The following parameters are displayed:
◆
SNTP Server IP Address – Sets the IP address for up to three time
servers. The switch attempts to update the time from the first server, if
this fails it attempts an update from the next server in the sequence.
WEB INTERFACE
To set the SNTP time servers:
1. Click System, then Time.
2. Select Configure Time Server from the Action list.
3. Enter the IP address of up to three time servers.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 14: Specifying SNTP Time Servers
– 59 –
CHAPTER 4 | Basic Management Tasks
Setting the System Clock
ES-2000 Series
SETTING THE TIME Use the System > Time (Configure Time Server) page to set the time zone.
ZONE SNTP uses Coordinated Universal Time (or UTC, formerly Greenwich Mean
Time, or GMT) based on the time at the Earth’s prime meridian, zero
degrees longitude, which passes through Greenwich, England. To display a
time corresponding to your local time, you must indicate the number of
hours and minutes your time zone is east (before) or west (after) of UTC.
You can choose one of the 80 predefined time zone definitions, or your can
manually configure the parameters for your local time zone.
PARAMETERS
The following parameters are displayed:
◆
Predefined Configuration – A drop-down box provides access to the
80 predefined time zone configurations. Each choice indicates it’s offset
from UTC and lists at least one major city or location covered by the
time zone.
◆
User-defined Configuration – Allows the user to define all
parameters of the local time zone.
■
Direction: Configures the time zone to be before (east of) or after
(west of) UTC.
■
Name – Assigns a name to the time zone. (Range: 1-29 characters)
■
Hours (0-13) – The number of hours before/after UTC. The
maximum value before UTC is 12. The maximum value after UTC is
13.
■
Minutes (0-59) – The number of minutes before/after UTC.
WEB INTERFACE
To set your local time zone:
1. Click System, then Time.
2. Select Configure Time Zone from the Action list.
3. Set the offset for your time zone relative to the UTC in hours and
minutes using either a predefined or custom definition.
4. Click Apply.
– 60 –
CHAPTER 4 | Basic Management Tasks
Displaying CPU Utilization
ES-2000 Series
Figure 15: Setting the Time Zone
DISPLAYING CPU UTILIZATION
Use the System > CPU Utilization page to display information on CPU
utilization.
PARAMETERS
The following parameters are displayed:
◆
Time Interval – The interval at which to update the displayed
utilization rate. (Options: 1, 5, 10, 30, 60 seconds; Default: 1 second)
◆
CPU Utilization – CPU utilization over specified interval.
– 61 –
CHAPTER 4 | Basic Management Tasks
Displaying Memory Utilization
ES-2000 Series
WEB INTERFACE
To display CPU utilization:
1. Click System, then CPU Utilization.
2. Change the update interval if required. Note that the interval is
changed as soon as a new setting is selected.
Figure 16: Displaying CPU Utilization
DISPLAYING MEMORY UTILIZATION
Use the System > Memory Status page to display memory utilization
parameters.
PARAMETERS
The following parameters are displayed:
◆
Free Size – The amount of memory currently free for use.
◆
Used Size – The amount of memory allocated to active processes.
◆
Total – The total amount of system memory.
– 62 –
CHAPTER 4 | Basic Management Tasks
Resetting the System
ES-2000 Series
WEB INTERFACE
To display memory utilization:
1. Click System, then Memory Status.
Figure 17: Displaying Memory Utilization
RESETTING THE SYSTEM
Use the System > Reset menu to restart the switch immediately.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ This command resets the entire system.
◆
To retain all configuration information stored in non-volatile memory,
click the Save button prior to resetting the system.
◆
When the system is restarted, it will always run the Power-On Self-Test.
PARAMETERS
The following parameters are displayed:
◆
Reset – Restarts the switch immediately.
◆
Save – Click this button to save the current configuration settings.
◆
Factory Default Settings & Reboot – Click this button to restore the
factory default settings and reboot the system.
– 63 –
CHAPTER 4 | Basic Management Tasks
Resetting the System
ES-2000 Series
WEB INTERFACE
To restart the switch:
1. Click System, then Reset.
2. Click the Reset button.
3. When prompted, confirm that you want reset the switch.
Figure 18: Restarting the Switch
– 64 –
5
INTERFACE CONFIGURATION
ES-2000 Series
This chapter describes the following topics:
◆
Port Configuration – Configures connection settings, including autonegotiation, or manual setting of speed, duplex mode, and flow control.
◆
Local Port Mirroring – Sets the source and target ports for mirroring on
the local switch.
◆
Displaying Statistics – Shows Interface, Etherlike, and RMON port
statistics in table or chart form.
◆
Cable Test – Tests the cable attached to a port.
◆
Trunk Configuration – Configures static or dynamic trunks.
◆
Saving Power – Adjusts the power provided to ports based on the
length of the cable used to connect to other devices.
PORT CONFIGURATION
This section describes how to configure port connections, mirror traffic
from one port to another, and run cable diagnostics.
CONFIGURING BY Use the Interface > Port > General (Configure by Port List) page to enable/
PORT LIST disable an interface, set auto-negotiation and the interface capabilities to
advertise, or manually fix the speed, duplex mode, and flow control.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ Auto-negotiation must be disabled before you can configure or force an
interface to use the Speed/Duplex mode or Flow Control options.
◆
When using auto-negotiation, the optimal settings will be negotiated
between the link partners based on their advertised capabilities. To set
the speed, duplex mode, or flow control under auto-negotiation, the
required operation modes must be specified in the capabilities list for
an interface.
◆
The 1000BASE-T standard does not support forced mode. Autonegotiation should always be used to establish a connection over any
1000BASE-T port or trunk. If not used, the success of the link process
cannot be guaranteed when connecting to other types of switches.
– 65 –
CHAPTER 5 | Interface Configuration
Port Configuration
ES-2000 Series
◆
The Speed/Duplex mode is fixed at 1000full on the Gigabit SFP ports.
When auto-negotiation is enabled, the only attributes which can be
advertised include flow control and symmetric pause frames.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Port – Port identifier.
◆
Type – Indicates the port type. (100Base-TX, 1000Base-T,
100Base SFP, 1000Base SFP)
◆
Name – Allows you to label an interface. (Range: 1-64 characters)
◆
Admin – Allows you to manually disable an interface. You can disable
an interface due to abnormal behavior (e.g., excessive collisions), and
then re-enable it after the problem has been resolved. You may also
disable an interface for security reasons.
◆
Media Type – Configures the forced/preferred port type to use for the
combination ports (25-26 on the ES-2026/P and 21-24 on ES-2024G/P).
◆
■
Copper-Forced - Always uses the built-in RJ-45 port.
■
SFP-Forced - Always uses the SFP port (even if a module is not
installed).
■
SFP-Preferred-Auto - Uses SFP port if both combination types are
functioning and the SFP port has a valid link. (This is the default for
the combination ports.)
Autonegotiation (Port Capabilities) – Allows auto-negotiation to be
enabled/disabled. When auto-negotiation is enabled, you need to
specify the capabilities to be advertised. When auto-negotiation is
disabled, you can force the settings for speed, mode, and flow
control.The following capabilities are supported.
■
10h - Supports 10 Mbps half-duplex operation
■
10f - Supports 10 Mbps full-duplex operation
■
100h - Supports 100 Mbps half-duplex operation
■
100f - Supports 100 Mbps full-duplex operation
■
1000f (Gigabit ports only) - Supports 1000 Mbps full-duplex
operation
■
Sym (Gigabit only) - Check this item to transmit and receive pause
frames.
■
FC - Flow control can eliminate frame loss by “blocking” traffic from
end stations or segments connected directly to the switch when its
buffers fill. When enabled, back pressure is used for half-duplex
– 66 –
CHAPTER 5 | Interface Configuration
Port Configuration
ES-2000 Series
operation and IEEE 802.3-2005 (formally IEEE 802.3x) for fullduplex operation.
Avoid using flow control on a port connected to a hub unless it is
actually required to solve a problem. Otherwise back pressure
jamming signals may degrade overall performance for the segment
attached to the hub.
(Default: Autonegotiation enabled; Advertised capabilities for
100Base-TX – 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full;
1000BASE-T – 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full, 1000full;
1000Base-SX/LX/LH – 1000full)
◆
Speed/Duplex – Allows you to manually set the port speed and
duplex mode. (i.e., with auto-negotiation disabled)
◆
Flow Control – Allows automatic or manual selection of flow control.
WEB INTERFACE
To configure port connection parameters:
1. Click Interface, Port, General.
2. Select Configure by Port List from the Action List.
3. Modify the required interface settings.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 19: Configuring Connections by Port List
– 67 –
CHAPTER 5 | Interface Configuration
Port Configuration
ES-2000 Series
CONFIGURING BY Use the Interface > Port > General (Configure by Port Range) page to
PORT RANGE enable/disable an interface, set auto-negotiation and the interface
capabilities to advertise, or manually fix the speed, duplex mode, and flow
control.
For more information on command usage and a description of the
parameters, refer to "Configuring by Port List" on page 65.
WEB INTERFACE
To configure port connection parameters:
1. Click Interface, Port, General.
2. Select Configure by Port Range from the Action List.
3. Enter to range of ports to which your configuration changes apply.
4. Modify the required interface settings.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 20: Configuring Connections by Port Range
DISPLAYING Use the Interface > Port > General (Show Information) page to display the
CONNECTION STATUS current connection status, including link state, speed/duplex mode, flow
control, and auto-negotiation.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Port – Port identifier.
◆
Type – Indicates the port type. (100Base-TX, 1000Base-T,
100Base SFP or 1000Base SFP)
◆
Name – Interface label.
– 68 –
CHAPTER 5 | Interface Configuration
Port Configuration
ES-2000 Series
◆
Admin – Shows if the port is enabled or disabled.
◆
Oper Status – Indicates if the link is Up or Down.
◆
Media Type – Media type used.
(Options: RJ-45 – Copper-Forced;
Combination – Copper-Forced, SFP-Forced, or SFP-Preferred-Auto;
Default: RJ-45 – Copper-Forced; Combination – SFP-Preferred-Auto)
◆
Autonegotiation – Shows if auto-negotiation is enabled or disabled.
◆
Oper Speed Duplex – Shows the current speed and duplex mode.
◆
Oper Flow Control – Shows if flow control is enabled or disabled.
WEB INTERFACE
To display port connection parameters:
1. Click Interface, Port, General.
2. Select Show Information from the Action List.
Figure 21: Displaying Port Information
CONFIGURING LOCAL Use the Interface > Port > Mirror page to mirror traffic from any source
PORT MIRRORING port to a target port for real-time analysis. You can then attach a logic
analyzer or RMON probe to the target port and study the traffic crossing
the source port in a completely unobtrusive manner.
Figure 22: Configuring Local Port Mirroring
Source
port(s)
– 69 –
Single
target
port
CHAPTER 5 | Interface Configuration
Port Configuration
ES-2000 Series
COMMAND USAGE
◆ Traffic can be mirrored from one or more source ports to a destination
port on the same switch (local port mirroring as described in this
section).
◆
Monitor port speed should match or exceed source port speed,
otherwise traffic may be dropped from the monitor port.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Source Port – The port whose traffic will be monitored.
(ES-2026/P: 1-26, ES-2024G/P: 1-24)
◆
Target Port – The port that will mirror the traffic on the source port.
(ES-2026/P: 1-26, ES-2024G/P: 1-24)
◆
Type – Allows you to select which traffic to mirror to the target port, Rx
(receive), Tx (transmit), or Both. (Default: Rx)
WEB INTERFACE
To configure a local mirror session:
1. Click Interface, Port, Mirror.
2. Select Add from the Action List.
3. Specify the source port.
4. Specify the monitor port.
5. Specify the traffic type to be mirrored.
6. Click Apply.
Figure 23: Configuring Local Port Mirroring
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CHAPTER 5 | Interface Configuration
Port Configuration
ES-2000 Series
To display the configured mirror sessions:
1. Click Interface, Port, Mirror.
2. Select Show from the Action List.
Figure 24: Displaying Local Port Mirror Sessions
SHOWING PORT OR Use the Interface > Port/Trunk > Statistics or Chart page to display
TRUNK STATISTICS standard statistics on network traffic from the Interfaces Group and
Ethernet-like MIBs, as well as a detailed breakdown of traffic based on the
RMON MIB. Interfaces and Ethernet-like statistics display errors on the
traffic passing through each port. This information can be used to identify
potential problems with the switch (such as a faulty port or unusually
heavy loading). RMON statistics provide access to a broad range of
statistics, including a total count of different frame types and sizes passing
through each port. All values displayed have been accumulated since the
last system reboot, and are shown as counts per second. Statistics are
refreshed every 60 seconds by default.
NOTE: RMON groups 2, 3 and 9 can only be accessed using SNMP
management software.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
Table 5: Port Statistics
Parameter
Description
Interface Statistics
Received Octets
The total number of octets received on the interface, including
framing characters.
Transmitted Octets
The total number of octets transmitted out of the interface,
including framing characters.
Received Errors
The number of inbound packets that contained errors
preventing them from being deliverable to a higher-layer
protocol.
Transmitted Errors
The number of outbound packets that could not be transmitted
because of errors.
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CHAPTER 5 | Interface Configuration
Port Configuration
ES-2000 Series
Table 5: Port Statistics (Continued)
Parameter
Description
Received Unicast
Packets
The number of subnetwork-unicast packets delivered to a
higher-layer protocol.
Transmitted Unicast
Packets
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols
requested be transmitted to a subnetwork-unicast address,
including those that were discarded or not sent.
Received Discarded
Packets
The number of inbound packets which were chosen to be
discarded even though no errors had been detected to prevent
their being deliverable to a higher-layer protocol. One possible
reason for discarding such a packet could be to free up buffer
space.
Transmitted Discarded
Packets
The number of outbound packets which were chosen to be
discarded even though no errors had been detected to prevent
their being transmitted. One possible reason for discarding
such a packet could be to free up buffer space.
Received Multicast
Packets
The number of packets, delivered by this sub-layer to a higher
(sub-)layer, which were addressed to a multicast address at
this sub-layer.
Transmitted Multicast
Packets
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols
requested be transmitted, and which were addressed to a
multicast address at this sub-layer, including those that were
discarded or not sent.
Received Broadcast
Packets
The number of packets, delivered by this sub-layer to a higher
(sub-)layer, which were addressed to a broadcast address at
this sub-layer.
Transmitted Broadcast
Packets
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols
requested be transmitted, and which were addressed to a
broadcast address at this sub-layer, including those that were
discarded or not sent.
Received Unknown
Packets
The number of packets received via the interface which were
discarded because of an unknown or unsupported protocol.
Etherlike Statistics
Single Collision Frames
The number of successfully transmitted frames for which
transmission is inhibited by exactly one collision.
Multiple Collision Frames
A count of successfully transmitted frames for which
transmission is inhibited by more than one collision.
Late Collisions
The number of times that a collision is detected later than 512
bit-times into the transmission of a packet.
Excessive Collisions
A count of frames for which transmission on a particular
interface fails due to excessive collisions. This counter does not
increment when the interface is operating in full-duplex mode.
Deferred Transmissions
A count of frames for which the first transmission attempt on a
particular interface is delayed because the medium was busy.
Frames Too Long
A count of frames received on a particular interface that exceed
the maximum permitted frame size.
Alignment Errors
The number of alignment errors (missynchronized data
packets).
FCS Errors
A count of frames received on a particular interface that are an
integral number of octets in length but do not pass the FCS
check. This count does not include frames received with frametoo-long or frame-too-short error.
SQE Test Errors
Carrier Sense Errors
A count of times that the SQE TEST ERROR message is
generated by the PLS sublayer for a particular interface.
The number of times that the carrier sense condition was lost
or never asserted when attempting to transmit a frame.
– 72 –
CHAPTER 5 | Interface Configuration
Port Configuration
ES-2000 Series
Table 5: Port Statistics (Continued)
Parameter
Description
Internal MAC Receive
Errors
A count of frames for which reception on a particular interface
fails due to an internal MAC sublayer receive error.
Internal MAC Transmit
Errors
A count of frames for which transmission on a particular
interface fails due to an internal MAC sublayer transmit error.
RMON Statistics
Drop Events
The total number of events in which packets were dropped due
to lack of resources.
Jabbers
The total number of frames received that were longer than
1518 octets (excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets),
and had either an FCS or alignment error.
Fragments
The total number of frames received that were less than 64
octets in length (excluding framing bits, but including FCS
octets) and had either an FCS or alignment error.
Collisions
The best estimate of the total number of collisions on this
Ethernet segment.
Received Octets
Total number of octets of data received on the network. This
statistic can be used as a reasonable indication of Ethernet
utilization.
Received Packets
The total number of packets (bad, broadcast and multicast)
received.
Broadcast Packets
The total number of good packets received that were directed
to the broadcast address. Note that this does not include
multicast packets.
Multicast Packets
The total number of good packets received that were directed
to this multicast address.
Undersize Packets
The total number of packets received that were less than 64
octets long (excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets)
and were otherwise well formed.
Oversize Packets
The total number of packets received that were longer than
1518 octets (excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets)
and were otherwise well formed.
64 Bytes Packets
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received
and transmitted that were 64 octets in length (excluding
framing bits but including FCS octets).
65-127 Byte Packets
128-255 Byte Packets
256-511 Byte Packets
512-1023 Byte Packets
1024-1518 Byte Packets
1519-1536 Byte Packets
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received
and transmitted where the number of octets fall within the
specified range (excluding framing bits but including FCS
octets).
Utilization Statistics
Input Octets per second
Number of octets entering this interface per second.
Input Packets per second Number of packets entering this interface per second.
Input Utilization
The input utilization rate for this interface.
Output Octets per second Number of octets leaving this interface per second.
Output Packets per
second
Number of packets leaving this interface per second.
Output Utilization
The output utilization rate for this interface.
– 73 –
CHAPTER 5 | Interface Configuration
Port Configuration
ES-2000 Series
WEB INTERFACE
To show a list of port statistics:
1. Click Interface, Port, Statistics.
2. Select the statistics mode to display (Interface, Etherlike, RMON or
Utilization).
3. Select a port from the drop-down list.
4. Use the Refresh button at the bottom of the page if you need to update
the screen.
Figure 25: Showing Port Statistics (Table)
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CHAPTER 5 | Interface Configuration
Port Configuration
ES-2000 Series
To show a chart of port statistics:
1. Click Interface, Port, Chart.
2. Select the statistics mode to display (Interface, Etherlike, RMON or All).
3. If Interface, Etherlike, RMON statistics mode is chosen, select a port
from the drop-down list. If All (ports) statistics mode is chosen, select
the statistics type to display.
Figure 26: Showing Port Statistics (Chart)
PERFORMING CABLE Use the Interface > Port > Cable Test page to test the cable attached to a
DIAGNOSTICS port. The cable test will check for any cable faults (short, open, etc.). If a
fault is found, the switch reports the length to the fault. Otherwise, it
reports the cable length. It can be used to determine the quality of the
cable, connectors, and terminations. Problems such as opens, shorts, and
cable impedance mismatch can be diagnosed with this test.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ Cable diagnostics are performed using Time Domain Reflectometry
(TDR) test methods. TDR analyses the cable by sending a pulsed signal
into the cable, and then examining the reflection of that pulse.
◆
This cable test is only accurate for Fast Ethernet cables 50-140 meters
long, and Gigabit Ethernet cables 0 - 250 meters long.
◆
The test takes approximately 5 seconds. The switch displays the results
of the test immediately upon completion, including common cable
failures, as well as the status and approximate length to a fault.
– 75 –
CHAPTER 5 | Interface Configuration
Port Configuration
ES-2000 Series
◆
Potential conditions which may be listed by the diagnostics include:
■
OK: Correctly terminated pair
■
Open: Open pair, no link partner
■
Short: Shorted pair
■
■
◆
Not Supported: This message is displayed for any Fast Ethernet
ports that are linked up, or for any Gigabit Ethernet ports linked up
at a speed lower than 1000 Mbps.
Impedance mismatch: Terminating impedance is not in the
reference range.
Ports are linked down while running cable diagnostics.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Port – Switch port identifier. (ES-2026/P: 1-26, ES-2024G/P: 1-24)
◆
Type – Displays media type. (FE – Fast Ethernet, GE – Gigabit
Ethernet)
◆
Link Status – Shows if the port link is up or down.
◆
Test Result – The results include common cable failures, as well as the
status and approximate distance to a fault, or the approximate cable
length if no fault is found.
◆
Last Updated – Shows the last time this port was tested.
– 76 –
CHAPTER 5 | Interface Configuration
Trunk Configuration
ES-2000 Series
WEB INTERFACE
To test the cable attached to a port:
1. Click Interface, Port, Cable Test.
2. Click Test for any port to start the cable test.
Figure 27: Performing Cable Tests
TRUNK CONFIGURATION
This section describes how to configure static and dynamic trunks.
You can create multiple links between devices that work as one virtual,
aggregate link. A port trunk offers a dramatic increase in bandwidth for
network segments where bottlenecks exist, as well as providing a faulttolerant link between two devices. You can create up to 12 trunks at a time
on the switch.
The switch supports both static trunking and dynamic Link Aggregation
Control Protocol (LACP). Static trunks have to be manually configured at
both ends of the link, and the switches must comply with the Cisco
EtherChannel standard. On the other hand, LACP configured ports can
automatically negotiate a trunked link with LACP-configured ports on
another device. You can configure any number of ports on the switch as
LACP, as long as they are not already configured as part of a static trunk. If
ports on another device are also configured as LACP, the switch and the
other device will negotiate a trunk link between them. If an LACP trunk
consists of more than eight ports, all other ports will be placed in standby
mode. Should one link in the trunk fail, one of the standby ports will
automatically be activated to replace it.
COMMAND USAGE
Besides balancing the load across each port in the trunk, the other ports
provide redundancy by taking over the load if a port in the trunk fails.
However, before making any physical connections between devices, use
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CHAPTER 5 | Interface Configuration
Trunk Configuration
ES-2000 Series
the web interface to specify the trunk on the devices at both ends. When
using a port trunk, take note of the following points:
◆
Finish configuring port trunks before you connect the corresponding
network cables between switches to avoid creating a loop.
◆
You can create up to 12 trunks on a switch, with up to eight ports per
trunk.
◆
The ports at both ends of a connection must be configured as trunk
ports.
◆
When configuring static trunks on switches of different types, they
must be compatible with the Cisco EtherChannel standard.
◆
The ports at both ends of a trunk must be configured in an identical
manner, including communication mode (i.e., speed, duplex mode and
flow control), VLAN assignments, and CoS settings.
◆
Any of the Gigabit ports on the front panel can be trunked together,
including ports of different media types.
◆
All the ports in a trunk have to be treated as a whole when moved
from/to, added or deleted from a VLAN.
◆
STP, VLAN, and IGMP settings can only be made for the entire trunk.
CONFIGURING A Use the Interface > Trunk > Static page to create a trunk, assign member
STATIC TRUNK ports, and configure the connection parameters.
Figure 28: Configuring Static Trunks
}
statically
configured
active
links
COMMAND USAGE
◆ When configuring static trunks, you may not be able to link switches of
different types, depending on the manufacturer’s implementation.
However, note that the static trunks on this switch are Cisco
EtherChannel compatible.
◆
To avoid creating a loop in the network, be sure you add a static trunk
via the configuration interface before connecting the ports, and also
disconnect the ports before removing a static trunk via the
configuration interface.
– 78 –
CHAPTER 5 | Interface Configuration
Trunk Configuration
ES-2000 Series
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Trunk ID – Trunk identifier. (Range: 1-12)
◆
Trunk Member Port List – The ports assigned to a trunk.
WEB INTERFACE
To create a static trunk:
1. Click Interface, Trunk, Static.
2. Select Configure Trunk from the Step list.
3. Enter a trunk identifier, and click Add.
4. Mark the ports assigned to each trunk.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 29: Creating Static Trunks
To configure connection parameters for a static trunk:
1. Click Interface, Trunk, Static.
2. Select Configure General from the Step list.
3. Select Configure from the Action list.
4. Modify the required interface settings. (Refer to "Configuring by Port
List" on page 65 for a description of the parameters.)
5. Click Apply.
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CHAPTER 5 | Interface Configuration
Trunk Configuration
ES-2000 Series
Figure 30: Configuring Connection Parameters for a Static Trunk
To show the static trunks configured on the switch:
1. Click Interface, Trunk, Static.
2. Select Configure General from the Step list.
3. Select Show Information from the Action list.
Figure 31: Showing Information for Static Trunks
CONFIGURING A Use the Interface > Trunk > Dynamic (Configure Aggregator) page to set
DYNAMIC TRUNK the administrative key for an aggregation group, enable LACP on a port,
and configure protocol parameters for local and partner ports.
Figure 32: Configuring Dynamic Trunks
}
dynamically
enabled
active
links
}
backup
link
configured
members
COMMAND USAGE
◆ To avoid creating a loop in the network, be sure you enable LACP before
connecting the ports, and also disconnect the ports before disabling
LACP.
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CHAPTER 5 | Interface Configuration
Trunk Configuration
ES-2000 Series
◆
If the target switch has also enabled LACP on the connected ports, the
trunk will be activated automatically.
◆
A trunk formed with another switch using LACP will automatically be
assigned the next available trunk ID.
◆
If more than eight ports attached to the same target switch have LACP
enabled, the additional ports will be placed in standby mode, and will
only be enabled if one of the active links fails.
◆
All ports on both ends of an LACP trunk must be configured for full
duplex, and auto-negotiation.
◆
Ports are only allowed to join the same Link Aggregation Group (LAG) if
(1) the LACP port system priority matches, (2) the LACP port admin key
matches, and (3) the LAG admin key matches (if configured). However,
if the LAG admin key is set, then the port admin key must be set to the
same value for a port to be allowed to join that group.
NOTE: If the LACP admin key is not set when a channel group is formed
(i.e., it has a null value of 0), the operational value of this key is set to the
same value as the port admin key used by the interfaces that joined the
group.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
Configure Aggregator
◆
Admin Key – LACP administration key is used to identify a specific link
aggregation group (LAG) during local LACP setup on the switch.
(Range: 0-65535)
Configure Aggregation Port - General
◆
Port – Port identifier. (ES-2026/P: 1-26, ES-2024G/P: 1-24)
◆
LACP Status – Enables or disables LACP on a port.
Configure Aggregation Port - Actor/Partner
◆
Port – Port number. (ES-2026/P: 1-26, ES-2024G/P: 1-24)
◆
Admin Key – The LACP administration key must be set to the same
value for ports that belong to the same LAG. (Range: 0-65535;
Default: 1)
By default, the Actor Admin Key is determined by port's link speed, and
copied to Oper Key. The Partner Admin Key is assigned to zero, and the
Oper Key is set based upon LACP PDUs received from the Partner.
◆
System Priority – LACP system priority is used to determine link
aggregation group (LAG) membership, and to identify this device to
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CHAPTER 5 | Interface Configuration
Trunk Configuration
ES-2000 Series
other switches during LAG negotiations. (Range: 0-65535;
Default: 32768)
System priority is combined with the switch’s MAC address to form the
LAG identifier. This identifier is used to indicate a specific LAG during
LACP negotiations with other systems.
◆
Port Priority – If a link goes down, LACP port priority is used to select
a backup link. (Range: 0-65535; Default: 32768)
NOTE: Configuring LACP settings for a port only applies to its administrative
state, not its operational state, and will only take effect the next time an
aggregate link is established with that port.
NOTE: Configuring the port partner sets the remote side of an aggregate
link; i.e., the ports on the attached device. The command attributes have
the same meaning as those used for the port actor.
WEB INTERFACE
To configure the admin key for a dynamic trunk:
1. Click Interface, Trunk, Dynamic.
2. Select Configure Aggregator from the Step list.
3. Set the Admin Key for the required LACP group.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 33: Configuring the LACP Aggregator Admin Key
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CHAPTER 5 | Interface Configuration
Trunk Configuration
ES-2000 Series
To enable LACP for a port:
1. Click Interface, Trunk, Dynamic.
2. Select Configure Aggregation Port from the Step list.
3. Select Configure from the Action list.
4. Click General.
5. Enable LACP on the required ports.
6. Click Apply.
Figure 34: Enabling LACP on a Port
To configure LACP parameters for group members:
1. Click Interface, Trunk, Dynamic.
2. Select Configure Aggregation Port from the Step list.
3. Select Configure from the Action list.
4. Click Actor or Partner.
5. Configure the required settings.
6. Click Apply.
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CHAPTER 5 | Interface Configuration
Trunk Configuration
ES-2000 Series
Figure 35: Configuring LACP Parameters on a Port
To configure the connection parameters for a dynamic trunk:
1. Click Interface, Trunk, Dynamic.
2. Select Configure Trunk from the Step list.
3. Select Configure from the Action list.
4. Modify the required interface settings. (Refer to "Configuring by Port
List" on page 65 for a description of the parameters.)
5. Click Apply.
Figure 36: Configuring Connection Parameters for a Dynamic Trunk
– 84 –
CHAPTER 5 | Interface Configuration
Trunk Configuration
ES-2000 Series
To show the connection parameters for a dynamic trunk:
1. Click Interface, Trunk, Dynamic.
2. Select Configure Trunk from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 37: Showing Connection Parameters for Dynamic Trunks
To show the port members of dynamic trunks:
1. Click Interface, Trunk, Dynamic.
2. Select Configure General from the Step list.
3. Select Show Member from the Action list.
Figure 38: Showing Members of Dynamic Trunks
DISPLAYING LACP Use the Interface > Trunk > Dynamic (Configure Aggregation Port - Show
PORT COUNTERS Information - Counters) page to display statistics for LACP protocol
messages.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
Table 6: LACP Port Counters
Parameter
Description
LACPDUs Sent
Number of valid LACPDUs transmitted from this channel group.
LACPDUs Received
Number of valid LACPDUs received on this channel group.
Marker Sent
Number of valid Marker PDUs transmitted from this channel
group.
Marker Received
Number of valid Marker PDUs received by this channel group.
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CHAPTER 5 | Interface Configuration
Trunk Configuration
ES-2000 Series
Table 6: LACP Port Counters (Continued)
Parameter
Description
Marker Unknown Pkts
Number of frames received that either (1) Carry the Slow
Protocols Ethernet Type value, but contain an unknown PDU, or
(2) are addressed to the Slow Protocols group MAC Address,
but do not carry the Slow Protocols Ethernet Type.
Marker Illegal Pkts
Number of frames that carry the Slow Protocols Ethernet Type
value, but contain a badly formed PDU or an illegal value of
Protocol Subtype.
WEB INTERFACE
To display LACP port counters:
1. Click Interface, Trunk, Dynamic.
2. Select Configure Aggregation Port from the Step list.
3. Select Show Information from the Action list.
4. Click Counters.
5. Select a group member from the Port list.
Figure 39: Displaying LACP Port Counters
– 86 –
CHAPTER 5 | Interface Configuration
Trunk Configuration
ES-2000 Series
DISPLAYING LACP Use the Interface > Trunk > Dynamic (Configure Aggregation Port - Show
SETTINGS AND STATUS Information - Internal) page to display the configuration settings and
FOR THE LOCAL SIDE operational state for the local side of a link aggregation.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
Table 7: LACP Internal Configuration Information
Parameter
Description
LACP System
Priority
LACP system priority assigned to this port channel.
LACP Port Priority
LACP port priority assigned to this interface within the channel
group.
Admin Key
Current administrative value of the key for the aggregation port.
Oper Key
Current operational value of the key for the aggregation port.
LACPDUs Interval
Number of seconds before invalidating received LACPDU
information.
Admin State,
Oper State
Administrative or operational values of the actor’s state parameters:
◆
Expired – The actor’s receive machine is in the expired state;
◆
Defaulted – The actor’s receive machine is using defaulted
operational partner information, administratively configured
for the partner.
◆
Distributing – If false, distribution of outgoing frames on this
link is disabled; i.e., distribution is currently disabled and is not
expected to be enabled in the absence of administrative
changes or changes in received protocol information.
◆
Collecting – Collection of incoming frames on this link is
enabled; i.e., collection is currently enabled and is not
expected to be disabled in the absence of administrative
changes or changes in received protocol information.
◆
Synchronization – The System considers this link to be
IN_SYNC; i.e., it has been allocated to the correct Link
Aggregation Group, the group has been associated with a
compatible Aggregator, and the identity of the Link
Aggregation Group is consistent with the System ID and
operational Key information transmitted.
◆
Aggregation – The system considers this link to be
aggregatable; i.e., a potential candidate for aggregation.
◆
Long timeout – Periodic transmission of LACPDUs uses a slow
transmission rate.
◆
LACP-Activity – Activity control value with regard to this link.
(0: Passive; 1: Active)
WEB INTERFACE
To display LACP settings and status for the local side:
1. Click Interface, Trunk, Dynamic.
2. Select Configure Aggregation Port from the Step list.
3. Select Show Information from the Action list.
4. Click Internal.
5. Select a group member from the Port list.
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CHAPTER 5 | Interface Configuration
Trunk Configuration
ES-2000 Series
Figure 40: Displaying LACP Port Internal Information
DISPLAYING LACP Use the Interface > Trunk > Dynamic (Configure Aggregation Port - Show
SETTINGS AND STATUS Information - Neighbors) page to display the configuration settings and
FOR THE REMOTE SIDE operational state for the remote side of a link aggregation.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
Table 8: LACP Internal Configuration Information
Parameter
Description
Partner Admin
System ID
LAG partner’s system ID assigned by the user.
Partner Oper
System ID
LAG partner’s system ID assigned by the LACP protocol.
Partner Admin
Port Number
Current administrative value of the port number for the protocol
Partner.
Partner Oper
Port Number
Operational port number assigned to this aggregation port by the
port’s protocol partner.
Port Admin Priority
Current administrative value of the port priority for the protocol
partner.
Port Oper Priority
Priority value assigned to this aggregation port by the partner.
Admin Key
Current administrative value of the Key for the protocol partner.
Oper Key
Current operational value of the Key for the protocol partner.
Admin State
Administrative values of the partner’s state parameters. (See
preceding table.)
Oper State
Operational values of the partner’s state parameters. (See
preceding table.)
– 88 –
CHAPTER 5 | Interface Configuration
Trunk Configuration
ES-2000 Series
WEB INTERFACE
To display LACP settings and status for the remote side:
1. Click Interface, Trunk, Dynamic.
2. Select Configure Aggregation Port from the Step list.
3. Select Show Information from the Action list.
4. Click Internal.
5. Select a group member from the Port list.
Figure 41: Displaying LACP Port Remote Information
CONFIGURING TRUNK Use the Interface > Trunk > Mirror page to mirror traffic from any source
MIRRORING trunk to a target port for real-time analysis. You can then attach a logic
analyzer or RMON probe to the target port and study the traffic crossing
the source trunk in a completely unobtrusive manner.
Figure 42: Configuring Trunk Mirroring
Source
trunk(s)
– 89 –
CHAPTER 5 | Interface Configuration
Trunk Configuration
ES-2000 Series
COMMAND USAGE
◆ Traffic can be mirrored from one or more source trunks to a destination
port on the same switch.
◆
Monitor port speed should match or exceed source trunk speed,
otherwise traffic may be dropped from the monitor port.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Source Trunk – The trunk whose traffic will be monitored.
(Range: 1-12)
◆
Target Port – The port that will mirror the traffic on the source trunk.
(ES-2026/P: 1-26, ES-2024G/P: 1-24)
◆
Type – Allows you to select which traffic to mirror to the target port, Rx
(receive), Tx (transmit), or Both. (Default: Rx)
WEB INTERFACE
To configure a local mirror session:
1. Click Interface, Trunk, Mirror.
2. Select Add from the Action List.
3. Specify the source trunk.
4. Specify the monitor port.
5. Specify the traffic type to be mirrored.
6. Click Apply.
Figure 43: Configuring Trunk Mirroring
– 90 –
CHAPTER 5 | Interface Configuration
Saving Power
ES-2000 Series
To display the configured mirror sessions:
1. Click Interface, Trunk, Mirror.
2. Select Show from the Action List.
Figure 44: Displaying Trunk Mirror Sessions
SAVING POWER
Use the Interface > Green Ethernet page to enable power savings mode on
the selected port.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ IEEE 802.3 defines the Ethernet standard and subsequent power
requirements based on cable connections operating at 100 meters.
Enabling power saving mode can reduce power used for cable lengths
of 60 meters or less, with more significant reduction for cables of 20
meters or less, and continue to ensure signal integrity.
◆
The power-saving methods provided by this switch include:
■
Power saving when there is no link partner:
Under normal operation, the switch continuously auto-negotiates to
find a link partner, keeping the MAC interface powered up even if no
link connection exists. When using power-savings mode, the switch
checks for energy on the circuit to determine if there is a link
partner. If none is detected, the switch automatically turns off the
transmitter, and most of the receive circuitry (entering Sleep Mode).
In this mode, the low-power energy-detection circuit continuously
checks for energy on the cable. If none is detected, the MAC
interface is also powered down to save additional energy. If energy
is detected, the switch immediately turns on both the transmitter
and receiver functions, and powers up the MAC interface.
■
Power saving when there is a link partner:
Traditional Ethernet connections typically operate with enough
power to support at least 100 meters of cable even though average
network cable length is shorter. When cable length is shorter, power
consumption can be reduced since signal attenuation is proportional
to cable length. When power-savings mode is enabled, the switch
– 91 –
CHAPTER 5 | Interface Configuration
Saving Power
ES-2000 Series
analyzes cable length to determine whether or not it can reduce the
signal amplitude used on a particular link.
NOTE: Power savings can only be implemented on Gigabit Ethernet ports
when using twisted-pair cabling. Power-savings mode on a active link only
works when connection speed is 1 Gbps, and line length is less than 60
meters.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Port – Power saving mode only applies to the Gigabit Ethernet ports
using copper media.
◆
Power Saving Status – Adjusts the power provided to ports based on
the length of the cable used to connect to other devices. Only sufficient
power is used to maintain connection requirements. (Default: Enabled
on Gigabit Ethernet RJ-45 ports)
WEB INTERFACE
To enable power savings:
1. Click Interface, Green Ethernet.
2. Mark the Enabled check box for a port.
3. Click Apply.
Figure 45: Enabling Power Savings
– 92 –
6
VLAN CONFIGURATION
ES-2000 Series
IEEE 802.1Q VLANS
In large networks, routers are used to isolate broadcast traffic for each
subnet into separate domains. This switch provides a similar service at
Layer 2 by using VLANs to organize any group of network nodes into
separate broadcast domains. VLANs confine broadcast traffic to the
originating group, and can eliminate broadcast storms in large networks.
This also provides a more secure and cleaner network environment.
An IEEE 802.1Q VLAN is a group of ports that can be located anywhere in
the network, but communicate as though they belong to the same physical
segment.
VLANs help to simplify network management by allowing you to move
devices to a new VLAN without having to change any physical connections.
VLANs can be easily organized to reflect departmental groups (such as
Marketing or R&D), usage groups (such as e-mail), or multicast groups
(used for multimedia applications such as video conferencing).
VLANs provide greater network efficiency by reducing broadcast traffic, and
allow you to make network changes without having to update IP addresses
or IP subnets. VLANs inherently provide a high level of network security
since traffic must pass through a configured Layer 3 link to reach a
different VLAN.
This switch supports the following VLAN features:
◆
Up to 128 VLANs based on the IEEE 802.1Q standard
◆
Distributed VLAN learning across multiple switches using explicit or
implicit tagging
◆
Port overlapping, allowing a port to participate in multiple VLANs
◆
End stations can belong to multiple VLANs
◆
Passing traffic between VLAN-aware and VLAN-unaware devices
◆
Priority tagging
Assigning Ports to VLANs
Before enabling VLANs for the switch, you must first assign each port to
the VLAN group(s) in which it will participate. By default all ports are
assigned to VLAN 1 as untagged ports. Add a port as a tagged port if you
want it to carry traffic for one or more VLANs, and any intermediate
– 93 –
CHAPTER 6 | VLAN Configuration
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
ES-2000 Series
network devices or the host at the other end of the connection supports
VLANs. Then assign ports on the other VLAN-aware network devices along
the path that will carry this traffic to the same VLAN(s). However, if you
want a port on this switch to participate in one or more VLANs, but none of
the intermediate network devices nor the host at the other end of the
connection supports VLANs, then you should add this port to the VLAN as
an untagged port.
NOTE: VLAN-tagged frames can pass through VLAN-aware or VLANunaware network interconnection devices, but the VLAN tags should be
stripped off before passing it on to any end-node host that does not
support VLAN tagging.
Figure 46: VLAN Compliant and VLAN Non-compliant Devices
tagged frames
VA
VA
VA: VLAN Aware
VU: VLAN Unaware
tagged
frames
VA
untagged
frames
VA
VU
VLAN Classification – When the switch receives a frame, it classifies the
frame in one of two ways. If the frame is untagged, the switch assigns the
frame to an associated VLAN (based on the default VLAN ID of the
receiving port). But if the frame is tagged, the switch uses the tagged
VLAN ID to identify the port broadcast domain of the frame.
Port Overlapping – Port overlapping can be used to allow access to
commonly shared network resources among different VLAN groups, such
as file servers or printers. Note that if you implement VLANs which do not
overlap, but still need to communicate, you can connect them by enabled
routing on this switch.
Untagged VLANs – Untagged VLANs are typically used to reduce
broadcast traffic and to increase security. A group of network users
assigned to a VLAN form a broadcast domain that is separate from other
VLANs configured on the switch. Packets are forwarded only between ports
that are designated for the same VLAN. Untagged VLANs can be used to
manually isolate user groups or subnets.
Forwarding Tagged/Untagged Frames
If you want to create a small port-based VLAN for devices attached directly
to a single switch, you can assign ports to the same untagged VLAN.
However, to participate in a VLAN group that crosses several switches, you
should create a VLAN for that group and enable tagging on all ports.
– 94 –
CHAPTER 6 | VLAN Configuration
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
ES-2000 Series
Ports can be assigned to multiple tagged or untagged VLANs. Each port on
the switch is therefore capable of passing tagged or untagged frames.
When forwarding a frame from this switch along a path that contains any
VLAN-aware devices, the switch should include VLAN tags. When
forwarding a frame from this switch along a path that does not contain any
VLAN-aware devices (including the destination host), the switch must first
strip off the VLAN tag before forwarding the frame. When the switch
receives a tagged frame, it will pass this frame onto the VLAN(s) indicated
by the frame tag. However, when this switch receives an untagged frame
from a VLAN-unaware device, it first decides where to forward the frame,
and then inserts a VLAN tag reflecting the ingress port’s default VID.
CONFIGURING VLAN Use the VLAN > Static (Configure VLAN) page to create or remove VLAN
GROUPS groups, or set administrative status. To propagate information about VLAN
groups used on this switch to external network devices, you must specify a
VLAN ID for each of these groups.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
VLAN ID – ID of VLAN or range of VLANs (1-4093).
Up to 128 VLAN groups can be defined. VLAN 1 is the default untagged
VLAN.
◆
Status – Enables or disables the specified VLAN.
WEB INTERFACE
To create VLAN groups:
1. Click VLAN, Static.
2. Select Configure VLAN from the Action list.
3. Enter a VLAN ID or range of IDs.
4. Mark Enabled to configure the VLAN as operational.
5. Click Add.
– 95 –
CHAPTER 6 | VLAN Configuration
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
ES-2000 Series
Figure 47: Creating Static VLANs
ADDING STATIC Use the VLAN > Static (Modify VLAN and Member Ports, Edit Member by
MEMBERS TO VLANS Interface, or Edit Member by Interface Range) pages to configure port
members for the selected VLAN index, interface, or a range of interfaces.
Use the menus for editing port members to configure the VLAN behavior
for specific interfaces, including the mode of operation (Hybrid or 1Q
Trunk), the default VLAN identifier (PVID), accepted frame types, and
ingress filtering. Assign ports as tagged if they are connected to 802.1Q
VLAN compliant devices, or untagged they are not connected to any VLANaware devices.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
Modify VLAN and Member Ports
◆
VLAN – ID of configured VLAN (1-4093).
◆
VLAN Name – Name of the VLAN (1 to 32 characters).
◆
Status – Enables or disables the specified VLAN.
◆
Interface – Displays a list of ports or trunks.
◆
Port – Port Identifier. (ES-2026/P: 1-26, ES-2024G/P: 1-24)
◆
Trunk – Trunk Identifier. (Range: 1-12)
◆
Mode – Indicates VLAN membership mode for an interface.
(Default: Access)
■
■
■
Access - Sets the port to operate as an untagged interface. The
port transmits and receives untagged frames on a single VLAN only.
Hybrid – Specifies a hybrid VLAN interface. The port may transmit
tagged or untagged frames.
1Q Trunk – Specifies a port as an end-point for a VLAN trunk. A
trunk is a direct link between two switches, so the port transmits
– 96 –
CHAPTER 6 | VLAN Configuration
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
ES-2000 Series
tagged frames that identify the source VLAN. Note that frames
belonging to the port’s default VLAN (i.e., associated with the PVID)
are also transmitted as tagged frames.
◆
PVID – VLAN ID assigned to untagged frames received on the interface.
(Default: 1)
When using Access mode, and an interface is assigned to a new VLAN,
its PVID is automatically set to the identifier for that VLAN. When using
Hybrid mode, the PVID for an interface can be set to any VLAN for
which it is an untagged member.
◆
Acceptable Frame Type – Sets the interface to accept all frame
types, including tagged or untagged frames, or only tagged frames.
When set to receive all frame types, any received frames that are
untagged are assigned to the default VLAN. (Options: All, Tagged;
Default: All)
◆
Ingress Filtering – Determines how to process frames tagged for
VLANs for which the ingress port is not a member. (Default: Disabled)
◆
■
Ingress filtering only affects tagged frames.
■
If ingress filtering is disabled and a port receives frames tagged for
VLANs for which it is not a member, these frames will be flooded to
all other ports (except for those VLANs explicitly forbidden on this
port).
■
If ingress filtering is enabled and a port receives frames tagged for
VLANs for which it is not a member, these frames will be discarded.
■
Ingress filtering does not affect VLAN independent BPDU frames,
such as GVRP or STP. However, they do affect VLAN dependent BPDU
frames, such as GMRP.
Membership Type – Select VLAN membership for each interface by
marking the appropriate radio button for a port or trunk:
■
Tagged: Interface is a member of the VLAN. All packets
transmitted by the port will be tagged, that is, carry a tag and
therefore carry VLAN or CoS information.
■
Untagged: Interface is a member of the VLAN. All packets
transmitted by the port will be untagged, that is, not carry a tag
and therefore not carry VLAN or CoS information. Note that an
interface must be assigned to at least one group as an untagged
port.
■
None: Interface is not a member of the VLAN. Packets associated
with this VLAN will not be transmitted by the interface.
NOTE: VLAN 1 is the default untagged VLAN containing all ports on the
switch using Access mode.
– 97 –
CHAPTER 6 | VLAN Configuration
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
ES-2000 Series
Edit Member by Interface
All parameters are the same as those described under the preceding
section for Modify VLAN and Member Ports.
Edit Member by Interface Range
All parameters are the same as those described under the earlier section
for Modify VLAN and Member Ports, except for the items shown below.
◆
Port Range – Displays a list of ports. (ES-2026/P: 1-26,
ES-2024G/P: 1-24)
◆
Trunk Range – Displays a list of ports. (Range: 1-12)
NOTE: The PVID, acceptable frame type, and ingress filtering parameters
for each interface within the specified range must be configured on either
the Edit Member by VLAN or Edit Member by Interface page.
WEB INTERFACE
To configure static members by the VLAN index:
1. Click VLAN, Static.
2. Select Modify VLAN and Member Ports from the Action list.
3. Set the Interface type to display as Port or Trunk.
4. Modify the settings for any interface as required. Remember that
Membership Type cannot be changed until an interface has been added
to another VLAN and the PVID changed to anything other than 1.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 48: Configuring Static Members by VLAN Index
– 98 –
CHAPTER 6 | VLAN Configuration
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
ES-2000 Series
To configure static members by interface:
1. Click VLAN, Static.
2. Select Edit Member by Interface from the Action list.
3. Select a port or trunk configure.
4. Modify the settings for any interface as required.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 49: Configuring Static VLAN Members by Interface
To configure static members by interface range:
1. Click VLAN, Static.
2. Select Edit Member by Interface Range from the Action list.
3. Set the Interface type to display as Port or Trunk.
4. Enter an interface range.
5. Modify the VLAN parameters as required. Remember that the PVID,
acceptable frame type, and ingress filtering parameters for each
interface within the specified range must be configured on either the
Edit Member by VLAN or Edit Member by Interface page.
6. Click Apply.
– 99 –
CHAPTER 6 | VLAN Configuration
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
ES-2000 Series
Figure 50: Configuring Static VLAN Members by Interface Range
– 100 –
7
ADDRESS TABLE SETTINGS
ES-2000 Series
Switches store the addresses for all known devices. This information is
used to pass traffic directly between the inbound and outbound ports. All
the addresses learned by monitoring traffic are stored in the dynamic
address table. You can also manually configure static addresses that are
bound to a specific port.
This chapter describes the following topics:
◆
Static MAC Addresses – Configures static entries in the address table.
◆
Address Aging Time – Sets time out for dynamically learned entries.
◆
Dynamic Address Cache – Shows dynamic entries in the address table.
SETTING STATIC ADDRESSES
Use the MAC Address > Static page to configure static MAC addresses. A
static address can be assigned to a specific interface on this switch. Static
addresses are bound to the assigned interface and will not be moved.
When a static address is seen on another interface, the address will be
ignored and will not be written to the address table.
COMMAND USAGE
The static address for a host device can be assigned to a specific port
within a specific VLAN. Use this command to add static addresses to the
MAC Address Table. Static addresses have the following characteristics:
◆
Static addresses are bound to the assigned interface and will not be
moved. When a static address is seen on another interface, the address
will be ignored and will not be written to the address table.
◆
Static addresses will not be removed from the address table when a
given interface link is down.
◆
A static address cannot be learned on another port until the address is
removed from the table.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
VLAN – ID of configured VLAN. (Range: 1-4093)
– 101 –
CHAPTER 7 | Address Table Settings
Setting Static Addresses
ES-2000 Series
◆
Interface – Port or trunk associated with the device assigned a static
address.
◆
MAC Address – Physical address of a device mapped to this interface.
Enter an address in the form of xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx or xxxxxxxxxxxx.
◆
Static Status – Sets the time to retain the specified address.
■
Delete-on-reset - Assignment lasts until the switch is reset.
■
Permanent - Assignment is permanent. (This is the default.)
WEB INTERFACE
To configure a static MAC address:
1. Click MAC Address, Static.
2. Select Add from the Action list.
3. Specify the VLAN, the port or trunk to which the address will be
assigned, the MAC address, and the time to retain this entry.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 51: Configuring Static MAC Addresses
To show the static addresses in MAC address table:
1. Click MAC Address, Static.
2. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 52: Displaying Static MAC Addresses
– 102 –
CHAPTER 7 | Address Table Settings
Changing the Aging Time
ES-2000 Series
CHANGING THE AGING TIME
Use the MAC Address > Dynamic (Configure Aging) page to set the aging
time for entries in the dynamic address table. The aging time is used to
age out dynamically learned forwarding information.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Aging Status – Enables/disables the function.
◆
Aging Time – The time after which a learned entry is discarded.
(Range: 10-844 seconds; Default: 300 seconds)
WEB INTERFACE
To set the aging time for entries in the dynamic address table:
1. Click MAC Address, Dynamic.
2. Select Configure Aging from the Action list.
3. Modify the aging status if required.
4. Specify a new aging time.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 53: Setting the Address Aging Time
– 103 –
CHAPTER 7 | Address Table Settings
Displaying the Dynamic Address Table
ES-2000 Series
DISPLAYING THE DYNAMIC ADDRESS TABLE
Use the MAC Address > Dynamic (Show Dynamic MAC) page to display the
MAC addresses learned by monitoring the source address for traffic
entering the switch. When the destination address for inbound traffic is
found in the database, the packets intended for that address are forwarded
directly to the associated port. Otherwise, the traffic is flooded to all ports.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Sort Key - You can sort the information displayed based on MAC
address, VLAN or interface (port or trunk).
◆
MAC Address – Physical address associated with this interface.
◆
VLAN – ID of configured VLAN (1-4093).
◆
Interface – Indicates a port or trunk.
◆
Type – Shows that the entries in this table are learned.
◆
Life Time – Shows the time to retain the specified address.
WEB INTERFACE
To show the dynamic address table:
1. Click MAC Address, Dynamic.
2. Select Show Dynamic MAC from the Action list.
3. Select the Sort Key (MAC Address, VLAN, or Interface).
4. Enter the search parameters (MAC Address, VLAN, or Interface).
5. Click Query.
– 104 –
CHAPTER 7 | Address Table Settings
Clearing the Dynamic Address Table
ES-2000 Series
Figure 54: Displaying the Dynamic MAC Address Table
CLEARING THE DYNAMIC ADDRESS TABLE
Use the MAC Address > Dynamic (Clear Dynamic MAC) page to remove any
learned entries from the forwarding database.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Clear by – All entries can be cleared; or you can clear the entries for a
specific MAC address, all the entries in a VLAN, or all the entries
associated with a port or trunk.
WEB INTERFACE
To clear the entries in the dynamic address table:
1. Click MAC Address, Dynamic.
2. Select Clear Dynamic MAC from the Action list.
3. Select the method by which to clear the entries (i.e., All, MAC Address,
VLAN, or Interface).
4. Enter information in the additional fields required for clearing entries by
MAC Address, VLAN, or Interface.
5. Click Clear.
– 105 –
CHAPTER 7 | Address Table Settings
Clearing the Dynamic Address Table
ES-2000 Series
Figure 55: Clearing Entries in the Dynamic MAC Address Table
– 106 –
8
SPANNING TREE ALGORITHM
ES-2000 Series
This chapter describes the following basic topics:
◆
Global Settings for STA – Configures global bridge settings for STP,
RSTP and MSTP.
◆
Interface Settings for STA – Configures interface settings for STA,
including priority, path cost, link type, and designation as an edge port.
OVERVIEW
The Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA) can be used to detect and disable
network loops, and to provide backup links between switches, bridges or
routers. This allows the switch to interact with other bridging devices (that
is, an STA-compliant switch, bridge or router) in your network to ensure
that only one route exists between any two stations on the network, and
provide backup links which automatically take over when a primary link
goes down.
The spanning tree algorithms supported by this switch include these
versions:
◆
STP – Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D)
◆
RSTP – Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1w)
STP – STP uses a distributed algorithm to select a bridging device (STPcompliant switch, bridge or router) that serves as the root of the spanning
tree network. It selects a root port on each bridging device (except for the
root device) which incurs the lowest path cost when forwarding a packet
from that device to the root device. Then it selects a designated bridging
device from each LAN which incurs the lowest path cost when forwarding a
packet from that LAN to the root device. All ports connected to designated
bridging devices are assigned as designated ports. After determining the
lowest cost spanning tree, it enables all root ports and designated ports,
and disables all other ports. Network packets are therefore only forwarded
between root ports and designated ports, eliminating any possible network
loops.
– 107 –
CHAPTER 8 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configuring Global Settings for STA
ES-2000 Series
Figure 56: STP Root Ports and Designated Ports
Designated
Root
x
x
x
Designated
Bridge
x
Designated
Port
Root
Port
x
Once a stable network topology has been established, all bridges listen for
Hello BPDUs (Bridge Protocol Data Units) transmitted from the Root Bridge.
If a bridge does not get a Hello BPDU after a predefined interval (Maximum
Age), the bridge assumes that the link to the Root Bridge is down. This
bridge will then initiate negotiations with other bridges to reconfigure the
network to reestablish a valid network topology.
RSTP – RSTP is designed as a general replacement for the slower, legacy
STP. RSTP achieves much faster reconfiguration (i.e., around 1 to 3
seconds, compared to 30 seconds or more for STP) by reducing the
number of state changes before active ports start learning, predefining an
alternate route that can be used when a node or port fails, and retaining
the forwarding database for ports insensitive to changes in the tree
structure when reconfiguration occurs.
CONFIGURING GLOBAL SETTINGS FOR STA
Use the Spanning Tree > STA (Configure Global - Configure) page to
configure global settings for the spanning tree that apply to the entire
switch.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ Spanning Tree Protocol1
Uses RSTP for the internal state machine, but sends only 802.1D
BPDUs.
◆
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol1
RSTP supports connections to either STP or RSTP nodes by monitoring
the incoming protocol messages and dynamically adjusting the type of
protocol messages the RSTP node transmits, as described below:
■
■
STP Mode – If the switch receives an 802.1D BPDU (i.e., STP BPDU)
after a port’s migration delay timer expires, the switch assumes it is
connected to an 802.1D bridge and starts using only 802.1D
BPDUs.
RSTP Mode – If RSTP is using 802.1D BPDUs on a port and receives
an RSTP BPDU after the migration delay expires, RSTP restarts the
migration delay timer and begins using RSTP BPDUs on that port.
1. STP and RSTP BPDUs are transmitted as untagged frames, and will cross any VLAN
boundaries.
– 108 –
CHAPTER 8 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configuring Global Settings for STA
ES-2000 Series
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
Basic Configuration of Global Settings
◆
Spanning Tree Status – Enables/disables STA on this switch.
(Default: Enabled)
◆
Spanning Tree Type – Specifies the type of spanning tree used on
this switch:
◆
■
STP: Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D); i.e., when this option
is selected, the switch will use RSTP set to STP forced compatibility
mode).
■
RSTP: Rapid Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1w); RSTP is the default.
Priority – Bridge priority is used in selecting the root device, root port,
and designated port. The device with the highest priority becomes the
STA root device. However, if all devices have the same priority, the
device with the lowest MAC address will then become the root device.
(Note that lower numeric values indicate higher priority.)
■
Default: 32768
■
Range: 0-61440, in steps of 4096
■
Options: 0, 4096, 8192, 12288, 16384, 20480, 24576, 28672,
32768, 36864, 40960, 45056, 49152, 53248, 57344, 61440
Advanced Configuration Settings
The following attributes are based on RSTP, but also apply to STP since the
switch uses a backwards-compatible subset of RSTP to implement STP:
◆
◆
Path Cost Method – The path cost is used to determine the best path
between devices. The path cost method is used to determine the range
of values that can be assigned to each interface.
■
Long: Specifies 32-bit based values that range from 1-200,000,000.
(This is the default.)
■
Short: Specifies 16-bit based values that range from 1-65535.
Transmission Limit – The maximum transmission rate for BPDUs is
specified by setting the minimum interval between the transmission of
consecutive protocol messages. (Range: 1-10; Default: 3)
When the Switch Becomes Root
◆
Hello Time – Interval (in seconds) at which the root device transmits a
configuration message.
■
Default: 2
■
Minimum: 1
■
Maximum: The lower of 10 or [(Max. Message Age / 2) -1]
– 109 –
CHAPTER 8 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configuring Global Settings for STA
ES-2000 Series
◆
◆
Maximum Age – The maximum time (in seconds) a device can wait
without receiving a configuration message before attempting to
reconfigure. All device ports (except for designated ports) should
receive configuration messages at regular intervals. Any port that ages
out STA information (provided in the last configuration message)
becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If it is a root port, a
new root port is selected from among the device ports attached to the
network. (References to “ports” in this section mean “interfaces,” which
includes both ports and trunks.)
■
Default: 20
■
Minimum: The higher of 6 or [2 x (Hello Time + 1)]
■
Maximum: The lower of 40 or [2 x (Forward Delay - 1)]
Forward Delay – The maximum time (in seconds) this device will wait
before changing states (i.e., discarding to learning to forwarding). This
delay is required because every device must receive information about
topology changes before it starts to forward frames. In addition, each
port needs time to listen for conflicting information that would make it
return to a discarding state; otherwise, temporary data loops might
result.
■
Default: 15
■
Minimum: The higher of 4 or [(Max. Message Age / 2) + 1]
■
Maximum: 30
WEB INTERFACE
To configure global STA settings:
1. Click Spanning Tree, STA.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Select Configure from the Action list.
4. Modify any of the required attributes. Note that the parameters
displayed for the spanning tree types (STP and RSTP) varies as
described in the preceding section.
5. Click Apply
– 110 –
CHAPTER 8 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configuring Global Settings for STA
ES-2000 Series
Figure 57: Configuring Global Settings for STA (STP)
Figure 58: Configuring Global Settings for STA (RSTP)
– 111 –
CHAPTER 8 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Displaying Global Settings for STA
ES-2000 Series
DISPLAYING GLOBAL SETTINGS FOR STA
Use the Spanning Tree > STA (Configure Global - Show Information) page
to display a summary of the current bridge STA information that applies to
the entire switch.
PARAMETERS
The parameters displayed are described in the preceding section, except
for the following items:
◆
Bridge ID – A unique identifier for this bridge, consisting of the bridge
priority, and MAC address (where the address is taken from the switch
system).
◆
Designated Root – The priority and MAC address of the device in the
Spanning Tree that this switch has accepted as the root device.
◆
Root Port – The number of the port on this switch that is closest to the
root. This switch communicates with the root device through this port.
If there is no root port, then this switch has been accepted as the root
device of the Spanning Tree network.
◆
Root Path Cost – The path cost from the root port on this switch to
the root device.
◆
Configuration Changes – The number of times the Spanning Tree has
been reconfigured.
◆
Last Topology Change – Time since the Spanning Tree was last
reconfigured.
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CHAPTER 8 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configuring Interface Settings for STA
ES-2000 Series
WEB INTERFACE
To display global STA settings:
1. Click Spanning Tree, STA.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Select Show Information from the Action list.
Figure 59: Displaying Global Settings for STA
CONFIGURING INTERFACE SETTINGS FOR STA
Use the Spanning Tree > STA (Configure Interface - Configure) page to
configure RSTP attributes for specific interfaces, including port priority,
path cost, link type, and edge port. You may use a different priority or path
cost for ports of the same media type to indicate the preferred path, link
type to indicate a point-to-point connection or shared-media connection,
and edge port to indicate if the attached device can support fast
forwarding. (References to “ports” in this section means “interfaces,” which
includes both ports and trunks.)
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Interface – Displays a list of ports or trunks.
◆
Admin Edge Status for all ports – Since end nodes cannot cause
forwarding loops, they can pass directly through to the spanning tree
forwarding state. Specifying Edge Ports provides quicker convergence
for devices such as workstations or servers, retains the current
forwarding database to reduce the amount of frame flooding required
to rebuild address tables during reconfiguration events, does not cause
the spanning tree to initiate reconfiguration when the interface changes
state, and also overcomes other STA-related timeout problems.
However, remember that Edge Port should only be enabled for ports
connected to an end-node device. (Default: Enabled)
■
Enabled – Manually configures a port as an Edge Port.
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CHAPTER 8 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configuring Interface Settings for STA
ES-2000 Series
■
■
Disabled – Disables the Edge Port setting.
Auto – The port will be automatically configured as an edge port if
the edge delay time expires without receiving any RSTP BPDU. Note
that edge delay time (802.1D-2004 17.20.4) equals the protocol
migration time if a port's link type is point-to-point (which is 3
seconds as defined in IEEE 802.3D-2004 17.20.4); otherwise it
equals the spanning tree’s maximum age for configuration
messages (see maximum age under "Configuring Global Settings
for STA" on page 108).
An interface cannot function as an edge port under the following
conditions:
■
If spanning tree mode is set to STP (page 108), edge-port mode
cannot automatically transition to operational edge-port state using
the automatic setting.
■
If an interface is in forwarding state and its role changes, the
interface cannot continue to function as an edge port even if the
edge delay time has expired.
■
If the port does not receive any BPDUs after the edge delay timer
expires, its role changes to designated port and it immediately
enters forwarding state (see "Displaying Interface Settings for STA"
on page 116).
◆
Spanning Tree – Enables/disables STA on this interface.
(Default: Enabled)
◆
Priority – Defines the priority used for this port in the Spanning Tree
Protocol. If the path cost for all ports on a switch are the same, the port
with the highest priority (i.e., lowest value) will be configured as an
active link in the Spanning Tree. This makes a port with higher priority
less likely to be blocked if the Spanning Tree Protocol is detecting
network loops. Where more than one port is assigned the highest
priority, the port with lowest numeric identifier will be enabled.
◆
■
Default: 128
■
Range: 0-240, in steps of 16
Admin Path Cost – This parameter is used by the STA to determine
the best path between devices. Therefore, lower values should be
assigned to ports attached to faster media, and higher values assigned
to ports with slower media. Note that path cost takes precedence over
port priority. (Range: 0 for auto-configuration, 1-65535 for the short
path cost method2, 1-200,000,000 for the long path cost method)
By default, the system automatically detects the speed and duplex
mode used on each port, and configures the path cost according to the
values shown below. Path cost “0” is used to indicate auto-configuration
mode. When the short path cost method is selected and the default
2. Refer to "Configuring Global Settings for STA" on page 108 for information on setting
the path cost method.
– 114 –
CHAPTER 8 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configuring Interface Settings for STA
ES-2000 Series
path cost recommended by the IEEE 8021w standard exceeds 65,535,
the default is set to 65,535.
Table 9: Recommended STA Path Cost Range
Port Type
IEEE 802.1D-1998
IEEE 802.1w-2001
Ethernet
50-600
200,000-20,000,000
Fast Ethernet
10-60
20,000-2,000,000
Gigabit Ethernet
3-10
2,000-200,000
Table 10: Default STA Path Costs
◆
Port Type
Short Path Cost
(IEEE 802.1D-1998)
Long Path Cost
(802.1D-2004)
Ethernet
65,535
1,000,000
Fast Ethernet
65,535
100,000
Gigabit Ethernet
10,000
10,000
Admin Link Type – The link type attached to this interface.
■
Point-to-Point – A connection to exactly one other bridge.
■
Shared – A connection to two or more bridges.
■
Auto – The switch automatically determines if the interface is
attached to a point-to-point link or to shared media. (This is the
default setting.)
◆
Admin Edge Port – Refer to “Admin Edge Status for all ports” at the
beginning of this section.
◆
Migration – If at any time the switch detects STP BPDUs, including
Configuration or Topology Change Notification BPDUs, it will
automatically set the selected interface to forced STP-compatible
mode. However, you can also use the Protocol Migration button to
manually re-check the appropriate BPDU format (RSTP or STPcompatible) to send on the selected interfaces. (Default: Disabled)
WEB INTERFACE
To configure interface settings for STA:
1. Click Spanning Tree, STA.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select Configure from the Action list.
4. Modify any of the required attributes.
5. Click Apply.
– 115 –
CHAPTER 8 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Displaying Interface Settings for STA
ES-2000 Series
Figure 60: Configuring Interface Settings for STA
DISPLAYING INTERFACE SETTINGS FOR STA
Use the Spanning Tree > STA (Configure Interface - Show Information)
page to display the current status of ports or trunks in the Spanning Tree.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Spanning Tree – Shows if STA has been enabled on this interface.
◆
STA Status – Displays current state of this port within the Spanning
Tree:
■
■
■
Discarding - Port receives STA configuration messages, but does
not forward packets.
Learning - Port has transmitted configuration messages for an
interval set by the Forward Delay parameter without receiving
contradictory information. Port address table is cleared, and the
port begins learning addresses.
Forwarding - Port forwards packets, and continues learning
addresses.
The rules defining port status are:
■
■
■
A port on a network segment with no other STA compliant bridging
device is always forwarding.
If two ports of a switch are connected to the same segment and
there is no other STA device attached to this segment, the port with
the smaller ID forwards packets and the other is discarding.
All ports are discarding when the switch is booted, then some of
them change state to learning, and then to forwarding.
– 116 –
CHAPTER 8 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Displaying Interface Settings for STA
ES-2000 Series
◆
Forward Transitions – The number of times this port has transitioned
from the Learning state to the Forwarding state.
◆
Designated Cost – The cost for a packet to travel from this port to the
root in the current Spanning Tree configuration. The slower the media,
the higher the cost.
◆
Designated Bridge – The bridge priority and MAC address of the
device through which this port must communicate to reach the root of
the Spanning Tree.
◆
Designated Port – The port priority and number of the port on the
designated bridging device through which this switch must
communicate with the root of the Spanning Tree.
◆
Oper Path Cost – The contribution of this port to the path cost of
paths towards the spanning tree root which include this port.
◆
Oper Link Type – The operational point-to-point status of the LAN
segment attached to this interface. This parameter is determined by
manual configuration or by auto-detection, as described for Admin Link
Type in STA Port Configuration on page 113.
◆
Oper Edge Port – This parameter is initialized to the setting for Admin
Edge Port in STA Port Configuration on page 113 (i.e., true or false),
but will be set to false if a BPDU is received, indicating that another
bridge is attached to this port.
◆
Port Role – Roles are assigned according to whether the port is part of
the active topology connecting the bridge to the root bridge (i.e., root
port), connecting a LAN through the bridge to the root bridge (i.e.,
designated port), or is an alternate or backup port that may provide
connectivity if other bridges, bridge ports, or LANs fail or are removed.
The role is set to disabled (i.e., disabled port) if a port has no role
within the spanning tree.
Figure 61: STA Port Roles
R: Root Port
A: Alternate Port
D: Designated Port
B: Backup Port
Alternate port receives more
useful BPDUs from another
bridge and is therefore not
selected as the designated
R
port.
A
x
– 117 –
R
D
B
CHAPTER 8 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Displaying Interface Settings for STA
ES-2000 Series
R
A
x
Backup port receives more
useful BPDUs from the same
bridge and is therefore not
selected as the designated
port.
R
D
B
WEB INTERFACE
To display interface settings for STA:
1. Click Spanning Tree, STA.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select Show Information from the Action list.
Figure 62: Displaying Interface Settings for STA
– 118 –
9
RATE LIMIT CONFIGURATION
ES-2000 Series
Use the Traffic > Rate Limit page to apply rate limiting to ingress or egress
ports. This function allows the network manager to control the maximum
rate for traffic received or transmitted on an interface. Rate limiting is
configured on interfaces at the edge of a network to limit traffic into or out
of the network. Packets that exceed the acceptable amount of traffic are
dropped.
Rate limiting can be applied to individual ports. When an interface is
configured with this feature, the traffic rate will be monitored by the
hardware to verify conformity. Non-conforming traffic is dropped,
conforming traffic is forwarded without any changes.
COMMAND USAGE
The ASIC used to control the ingress rate limit has a default time frame
of 1 ms, 10 ms, 100 ms, and 1 second respectively for 10 Gbps, 1 Gbps,
100 Mbps, and 10 Mbps connection rates. Ingress rate limiting is processed
100 times per second (also referred to as 100 scales per second),
regardless of the packet size.
NOTE: Egress rate limiting does not function in this manner.
For example, a Gigabit port has a 10 ms window size, so there are 100
scales per second, each scale having a bandwidth of 10 Mbps, and using an
inter-packet gap of 20 bytes.
Therefore, when the rate limit is set at 64 kbit/s, each scale has a shared
bandwidth of 80 bytes.
When the packet size = 64 bytes, and the gap = 20 bytes,
each packet = 84 bytes > 80bytes. Only one packet can pass through in
each scale. One second has 100 scales, so the rate is 100 packets per
second.
When the packet size = 640 bytes, and the gap = 20 bytes,
each packet = 660 bytes > 80 bytes. The switch will only let one packet
pass in each scale, so there are still 100 packets per second.
When the packet size = 1500 bytes, and the gap = 20 bytes,
each packet = 1520 bytes > 80 bytes. The switch will only let one packet
pass in each scale, so there are still 100 packets per second.
The following table shows the actual number of packets received when
various ingress rate limits are applied to packets of different sizes. The
values shown below were measured for both ingress rate limiting and
storm control functions.
– 119 –
CHAPTER 9 | Rate Limit Configuration
ES-2000 Series
Table 11: Effective Rate Limit
Packet Size
Rate Limit
Packets Received
64 bytes
64 kbit/s
100
128 kbit/s
200
256 kbit/s
400
512 kbit/s
800
1024 kbit/s
1600
2048 kbit/s
3105
64 kbit/s
100
128 kbit/s
100
256 kbit/s
300
512 kbit/s
500
1024 kbit/s
900
2048 kbit/s
1800
64 kbit/s
100
128 kbit/s
100
256 kbit/s
100
512 kbit/s
200
1024 kbit/s
300
2048 kbit/s
500
128 bytes
512 bytes
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Port – Displays the port number.
◆
Type – Indicates the port type. (100Base-TX, 1000Base-T, or SFP)
◆
Status – Enables or disables the rate limit. (Default: Disabled)
◆
Rate – Sets the rate limit level. (Range: 64 - 100,000 kbits per second
for Fast Ethernet ports; 64 - 1,000,000 kbits per second for Gigabit
Ethernet ports)
– 120 –
CHAPTER 9 | Rate Limit Configuration
ES-2000 Series
WEB INTERFACE
To configure rate limits:
1. Click Traffic, Rate Limit.
2. Enable the Rate Limit Status for the required ports.
3. Set the rate limit for the individual ports,.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 63: Configuring Rate Limits
– 121 –
CHAPTER 9 | Rate Limit Configuration
ES-2000 Series
– 122 –
10
STORM CONTROL CONFIGURATION
ES-2000 Series
Use the Traffic > Storm Control page to configure broadcast, multicast, and
unknown unicast storm control thresholds. Traffic storms may occur when
a device on your network is malfunctioning, or if application programs are
not well designed or properly configured. If there is too much traffic on
your network, performance can be severely degraded or everything can
come to complete halt.
You can protect your network from traffic storms by setting a threshold for
broadcast, multicast or unknown unicast traffic. Any packets exceeding the
specified threshold will then be dropped.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ Storm Control is disabled by default.
◆
Broadcast control does not effect IP multicast traffic.
◆
When traffic exceeds the threshold specified for broadcast and
multicast or unknown unicast traffic, packets exceeding the threshold
are dropped until the rate falls back down beneath the threshold.
◆
Using both rate limiting and storm control on the same interface may
lead to unexpected results. For example, suppose broadcast storm
control is set to 500 Kbps, and the rate limit is set to 20000 Kbps on a
Fast Ethernet port. Since 20000 Kbps is 1/5 of line speed (100 Mbps),
the received rate will actually be 100 Kbps, or 1/5 of the 500 Kbps limit
set by the storm control command. It is therefore not advisable to use
both of these commands on the same interface.
◆
The description of effective rate limiting (see Command Usage under
"Rate Limit Configuration" on page 119) also applies to storm control.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Interface – Displays a list of ports or trunks.
◆
Type – Indicates interface type. (100Base-TX, 1000Base-T, or SFP)
◆
Unknown Unicast – Specifies storm control for unknown unicast
traffic.
◆
Multicast – Specifies storm control for multicast traffic.
◆
Broadcast – Specifies storm control for broadcast traffic.
◆
Status – Enables or disables storm control. (Default: Disabled)
– 123 –
CHAPTER 10 | Storm Control Configuration
ES-2000 Series
◆
Rate – Threshold level as a rate; i.e., kilobits per second.
(Range: 64-100000 Kbps for Fast Ethernet ports,
64-1000000 Kbps for Gigabit Ethernet ports)
NOTE: Only one rate is supported for all traffic types on an interface.
WEB INTERFACE
To configure broadcast storm control:
1. Click Traffic, Storm Control.
2. Set the Status field to enable or disable storm control.
3. Set the required threshold beyond which the switch will start dropping
packets.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 64: Configuring Storm Control
– 124 –
11
CLASS OF SERVICE
ES-2000 Series
Class of Service (CoS) allows you to specify which data packets have
greater precedence when traffic is buffered in the switch due to congestion.
This switch supports CoS with four priority queues for each port. Data
packets in a port’s high-priority queue will be transmitted before those in
the lower-priority queues. You can set the default priority for each
interface, and configure the mapping of frame priority tags to the switch’s
priority queues.
This chapter describes the following basic topics:
◆
Layer 2 Queue Settings – Configures each queue, including the default
priority, queue mode, queue weight, and mapping of packets to queues
based on CoS tags.
◆
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings – Selects the method by which inbound
packets are processed (DSCP or CoS), and sets the per-hop behavior
and drop precedence for internal processing.
LAYER 2 QUEUE SETTINGS
This section describes how to configure the default priority for untagged
frames, set the queue mode, set the weights assigned to each queue, and
map class of service tags to queues.
SETTING THE DEFAULT Use the Traffic > Priority > Default Priority page to specify the default port
PRIORITY FOR priority for each interface on the switch. All untagged packets entering the
INTERFACES switch are tagged with the specified default port priority, and then sorted
into the appropriate priority queue at the output port.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ This switch provides four priority queues for each port. It uses
Weighted Round Robin to prevent head-of-queue blockage, but can be
configured to process each queue in strict order, or use a combination
of strict and weighted queueing.
◆
The default priority applies for an untagged frame received on a port
set to accept all frame types (i.e, receives both untagged and tagged
frames). This priority does not apply to IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagged
frames. If the incoming frame is an IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagged frame,
the IEEE 802.1p User Priority bits will be used.
– 125 –
CHAPTER 11 | Class of Service
Layer 2 Queue Settings
ES-2000 Series
◆
If the output port is an untagged member of the associated VLAN,
these frames are stripped of all VLAN tags prior to transmission.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Interface – Displays a list of ports or trunks.
◆
CoS – The priority that is assigned to untagged frames received on the
specified interface. (Range: 0-7; Default: 0)
WEB INTERFACE
To configure the queue mode:
1. Click Traffic, Priority, Default Priority.
2. Select the interface type to display (Port or Trunk).
3. Modify the default priority for any interface.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 65: Setting the Default Port Priority
SELECTING THE Use the Traffic > Priority > Queue page to set the queue mode for the
QUEUE MODE egress queues on any interface. The switch can be set to service the
queues based on a strict rule that requires all traffic in a higher priority
queue to be processed before the lower priority queues are serviced,
Shaped Deficit Weighted Round-Robin (SDWRR) queuing that specifies a
scheduling weight for each queue. SDWRR is labelled WRR in the menu. It
can also be configured to use a combination of strict and weighted
queuing.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ Strict priority requires all traffic in a higher priority queue to be
processed before lower priority queues are serviced.
◆
The WRR algorithm used by this switch is known as Shaped Deficit
Weighted Round Robin (SDWRR).
– 126 –
CHAPTER 11 | Class of Service
Layer 2 Queue Settings
ES-2000 Series
The basic WRR algorithm uses a relative weight for each queue that
determines the percentage of service time the switch services each
queue before moving on to the next queue. This prevents the head-ofline blocking that can occur with strict priority queuing.
Deficit Weighted Round-Robin (DWRR) services the queues in a manner
similar to WRR, but the next queue is serviced only when the queue’s
Deficit Counter becomes smaller than the packet size to be transmitted.
As a result, traffic on queues with large weights cause increased latency
and jitter for traffic waiting for scheduling other queues. In SDWRR, if
two or more queues have traffic eligible for transmission (i.e. the Deficit
Counter is greater than the packet size to be transmitted), then a
round-robin scheme among those queues is used, while still preserving
the overall weight ratios between the queues. This produces less jitter
and lower maximum latency for traffic on all of the serviced queues.
◆
If Strict and WRR mode is selected, a combination of strict service is
used for the high priority queues and weighted service for the
remaining queues. The queues assigned to use strict priority should be
specified using the Strict Mode field parameter.
◆
A weight can be assigned to each of the weighted queues (and thereby
to the corresponding traffic priorities). This weight sets the frequency
at which each queue is polled for service, and subsequently affects the
response time for software applications assigned a specific priority
value.
Service time is shared at the egress ports by defining scheduling
weights for SWDRR, or the queuing mode that uses a combination of
strict and weighted queuing. Service time is allocated to each queue by
calculating a precise number of bytes per second that will be serviced
on each round.
◆
The specified queue mode applies to all interfaces.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
◆
Queue Mode
■
Strict – Services the egress queues in sequential order,
transmitting all traffic in the higher priority queues before servicing
lower priority queues. This ensures that the highest priority packets
are always serviced first, ahead of all other traffic.
■
WRR (SWDRR) – Shares bandwidth at the egress ports by using
scheduling weights, servicing each queue in a round-robin fashion.
■
Strict and WRR – Uses strict priority on the high-priority queues
and SDWRR for the rest of the queues. (This is the default setting.)
Queue ID – The ID of the priority queue. (Range: 0-7)
– 127 –
CHAPTER 11 | Class of Service
Layer 2 Queue Settings
ES-2000 Series
◆
Strict Mode – If “Strict and WRR” mode is selected, then a
combination of strict service is used for the high priority queues and
weighted service for the remaining queues. Use this parameter to
specify the queues assigned to use strict priority when using the strictweighted queuing mode. (Default: Strict and WRR mode, with Queue 3
using strict mode)
◆
Weight – Sets a weight for each queue which is used by the SDWRR
scheduler. (Range: 1-255; Default: Weights 1, 2, 4, 6 are assigned to
queues 0 - 3 respectively)
WEB INTERFACE
To configure the queue mode:
1. Click Traffic, Priority, Queue.
2. Set the queue mode.
3. If the weighted queue mode is selected, the queue weight can be
modified if required.
4. If the queue mode that uses a combination of strict and weighted
queueing is selected, the queues which are serviced first must be
specified by enabling strict mode parameter in the table.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 66: Setting the Queue Mode (Strict)
Figure 67: Setting the Queue Mode (WRR)
– 128 –
CHAPTER 11 | Class of Service
Layer 2 Queue Settings
ES-2000 Series
Figure 68: Setting the Queue Mode (Strict and WRR)
MAPPING COS VALUES Use the Traffic > Priority > PHB to Queue page to specify the hardware
TO EGRESS QUEUES output queues to use based on the internal per-hop behavior value. (For
more information on exact manner in which the ingress priority tags are
mapped to egress queues for internal processing, see "Mapping CoS
Priorities to Internal DSCP Values" on page 136).
The switch processes Class of Service (CoS) priority tagged traffic by using
four priority queues for each port, with service schedules based on strict
priority, Shaped Deficit Weighted Round-Robin (SDWRR), or a combination
of strict and weighted queuing. Up to eight separate traffic priorities are
defined in IEEE 802.1p. Default priority levels are assigned according to
recommendations in the IEEE 802.1p standard as shown in Table 12. This
table indicates the default mapping of internal per-hop behavior to the
hardware queues. The actual mapping may differ if the CoS priorities to
internal DSCP values have been modified (page 136).
Table 12: IEEE 802.1p Egress Queue Priority Mapping
Priority
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Queue
1
0
0
1
2
2
3
3
– 129 –
CHAPTER 11 | Class of Service
Layer 2 Queue Settings
ES-2000 Series
The priority levels recommended in the IEEE 802.1p standard for various
network applications are shown in Table 13. However, priority levels can be
mapped to the switch’s output queues in any way that benefits application
traffic for the network.
Table 13: CoS Priority Levels
Priority Level
Traffic Type
1
Background
2
(Spare)
0 (default)
Best Effort
3
Excellent Effort
4
Controlled Load
5
Video, less than 100 milliseconds latency and jitter
6
Voice, less than 10 milliseconds latency and jitter
7
Network Control
COMMAND USAGE
◆ Egress packets are placed into the hardware queues according to the
mapping defined by this command.
◆
The default internal PHB to output queue mapping is shown below.
Table 14: Mapping Internal Per-hop Behavior to Hardware Queues
Per-hop Behavior
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Hardware Queues
1
0
0
1
2
2
3
3
◆
The specified mapping applies to all interfaces.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
PHB – Per-hop behavior, or the priority used for this router hop.
(Range: 0-7, where 7 is the highest priority)
◆
Queue – Output queue buffer. (Range: 0-3, where 3 is the highest CoS
priority queue)
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CHAPTER 11 | Class of Service
Layer 2 Queue Settings
ES-2000 Series
WEB INTERFACE
To map internal PHB to hardware queues:
1. Click Traffic, Priority, PHB to Queue.
2. Select Add from the Action list.
3. Map an internal PHB to a hardware queue. Depending on how an
ingress packet is processed internally based on its CoS value, and the
assigned output queue, the mapping done on this page can effectively
determine the service priority for different traffic classes.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 69: Mapping CoS Values to Egress Queues
To show the internal PHB to hardware queue map:
1. Click Traffic, Priority, PHB to Queue.
2. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 70: Showing CoS Values to Egress Queue Mapping
– 131 –
CHAPTER 11 | Class of Service
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings
ES-2000 Series
LAYER 3/4 PRIORITY SETTINGS
Mapping Layer 3/4 Priorities to CoS Values
The switch supports several common methods of prioritizing layer 3/4
traffic to meet application requirements. Traffic priorities can be specified in
the IP header of a frame, using the priority bits in the Type of Service (ToS)
octet, or the number of the TCP/UDP port. If priority bits are used, the ToS
octet may contain three bits for IP Precedence or six bits for Differentiated
Services Code Point (DSCP) service. When these services are enabled, the
priorities are mapped to a Class of Service value by the switch, and the
traffic then sent to the corresponding output queue.
Because different priority information may be contained in the traffic, this
switch maps priority values to the output queues in the following manner –
The precedence for priority mapping is DSCP Priority and then Default Port
Priority.
NOTE: The default settings used for mapping priority values from ingress
traffic to internal DSCP values are used to determine the hardware queues
used for egress traffic, not to replace the priority values. These defaults are
designed to optimize priority services for the majority of network
applications. It should not be necessary to modify any of the default
settings, unless a queuing problem occurs with a particular application.
SETTING PRIORITY The switch allows a choice between using DSCP or CoS priority processing
PROCESSING TO methods. Use the Priority > Trust Mode page to select the required
DSCP OR COS processing method.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ If the QoS mapping mode is set to DSCP, and the ingress packet type is
IPv4, then priority processing will be based on the DSCP value in the
ingress packet.
◆
If the QoS mapping mode is set to DSCP, and a non-IP packet is
received, the packet’s CoS and CFI (Canonical Format Indicator) values
are used for priority processing if the packet is tagged. For an untagged
packet, the default port priority (see page 125) is used for priority
processing.
◆
If the QoS mapping mode is set to CoS, and the ingress packet type is
IPv4, then priority processing will be based on the CoS and CFI values
in the ingress packet.
For an untagged packet, the default port priority (see page 125) is used
for priority processing.
– 132 –
CHAPTER 11 | Class of Service
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings
ES-2000 Series
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Interface – Specifies a port or trunk.
◆
Trust Mode
■
DSCP – Maps layer 3/4 priorities using Differentiated Services Code
Point values. (This is the default setting.)
■
CoS – Maps layer 3/4 priorities using Class of Service values.
WEB INTERFACE
To configure the trust mode:
1. Click Traffic, Priority, Trust Mode.
2. Select the interface type to display (Port or Trunk).
3. Set the trust mode.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 71: Setting the Trust Mode
MAPPING INGRESS
DSCP VALUES TO
INTERNAL DSCP
VALUES
Use the Traffic > Priority > DSCP to DSCP page to map DSCP values in
incoming packets to per-hop behavior and drop precedence values for
internal priority processing.
The DSCP is six bits wide, allowing coding for up to 64 different forwarding
behaviors. The DSCP replaces the ToS bits, but it retains backward
compatibility with the three precedence bits so that non-DSCP compliant,
ToS-enabled devices, will not conflict with the DSCP mapping. Based on
network policies, different kinds of traffic can be marked for different kinds
of forwarding.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ Enter per-hop behavior and drop precedence for any of the DSCP
values 0 - 63.
– 133 –
CHAPTER 11 | Class of Service
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings
ES-2000 Series
◆
This map is only used when the priority mapping mode is set to DSCP
(see page 132), and the ingress packet type is IPv4.
◆
Two QoS domains can have different DSCP definitions, so the DSCP-toPHB/Drop Precedence mutation map can be used to modify one set of
DSCP values to match the definition of another domain. The mutation
map should be applied at the receiving port (ingress mutation) at the
boundary of a QoS administrative domain.
◆
Random Early Detection starts dropping yellow and red packets when
the buffer fills up to 0x60 packets, and then starts dropping any
packets regardless of color when the buffer fills up to 0x80 packets.
◆
The specified mapping applies to all interfaces.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
DSCP – DSCP value in ingress packets. (Range: 0-63)
◆
PHB – Per-hop behavior, or the priority used for this router hop.
(Range: 0-7)
◆
Drop Precedence – Drop precedence used for Random Early Detection
in controlling traffic congestion. (Range: 0 - Green, 3 - Yellow, 1 - Red)
Table 15: Default Mapping of DSCP Values to Internal PHB/Drop Values
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
0,0
0,1
0,0
0,3
0,0
0,1
0,0
0,3
1,0
1,1
1
1,0
1,3
1,0
1,1
1,0
1,3
2,0
2,1
2,0
2,3
2
2,0
2,1
2,0
2,3
3,0
3,1
3,0
3,3
3.0
3,1
3
3,0
3,3
4,0
4,1
4,0
4,3
4,0
4,1
4.0
4,3
4
5,0
5,1
5,0
5,3
5,0
5,1
6,0
5,3
6,0
6,1
5
6,0
6,3
6,0
6,1
6,0
6,3
7,0
7,1
7.0
7,3
6
7,0
7,1
7,0
7,3
ingressdscp1
ingressdscp10
The ingress DSCP is composed of ingress-dscp10 (most significant digit in the left
column) and ingress-dscp1 (least significant digit in the top row (in other words,
ingress-dscp = ingress-dscp10 * 10 + ingress-dscp1); and the corresponding internaldscp is shown at the intersecting cell in the table.
The ingress DSCP is bitwise ANDed with the binary value 11 to determine the drop
precedence. If the resulting value is 10 binary, then the drop precedence is set to 0.
– 134 –
CHAPTER 11 | Class of Service
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings
ES-2000 Series
WEB INTERFACE
To map DSCP values to internal PHB/drop precedence:
1. Click Traffic, Priority, DSCP to DSCP.
2. Select Add from the Action list.
3. Set the PHB and drop precedence for any DSCP value.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 72: Configuring DSCP to DSCP Internal Mapping
To show the DSCP to internal PHB/drop precedence map:
1. Click Traffic, Priority, DSCP to DSCP.
2. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 73: Showing DSCP to DSCP Internal Mapping
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CHAPTER 11 | Class of Service
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings
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MAPPING COS Use the Traffic > Priority > CoS to DSCP page to maps CoS/CFI values in
PRIORITIES TO incoming packets to per-hop behavior and drop precedence values for
INTERNAL DSCP priority processing.
VALUES
COMMAND USAGE
◆ The default mapping of CoS to PHB values is shown in Table 16 on
page 137.
◆
Enter up to eight CoS/CFI paired values, per-hop behavior and drop
precedence.
◆
If a packet arrives with a 802.1Q header but it is not an IP packet, then
the CoS/CFI-to-PHB/Drop Precedence mapping table is used to
generate priority and drop precedence values for internal processing.
Note that priority tags in the original packet are not modified by this
command.
◆
The internal DSCP consists of three bits for per-hop behavior (PHB)
which determines the queue to which a packet is sent; and two bits for
drop precedence (namely color) which is used by Random Early
Detection (RED) to control traffic congestion.
◆
RED starts dropping yellow and red packets when the buffer fills up to
16 packets on Fast Ethernet ports and 72 packets on Gigabit Ethernet
ports, and then starts dropping any packets regardless of color when
the buffer fills up to 58 packets on Fast Ethernet ports and 80 packets
on Gigabit Ethernet ports.
◆
The specified mapping applies to all interfaces.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
CoS – CoS value in ingress packets. (Range: 0-7)
◆
CFI – Canonical Format Indicator. Set to this parameter to “0” to
indicate that the MAC address information carried in the frame is in
canonical format. (Range: 0-1)
◆
PHB – Per-hop behavior, or the priority used for this router hop.
(Range: 0-7)
◆
Drop Precedence – Drop precedence used for Random Early Detection
in controlling traffic congestion. (Range: 0 - Green, 3 - Yellow, 1 - Red)
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CHAPTER 11 | Class of Service
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings
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Table 16: Default Mapping of CoS/CFI to Internal PHB/Drop Precedence
0
1
0
(0,0)
(0,0)
1
(1,0)
(1,0)
2
(2,0)
(2,0)
3
(3,0)
(3,0)
4
(4,0)
(4,0)
5
(5,0)
(5,0)
6
(6,0)
(6,0)
7
(7,0)
(7,0)
CoS
CFI
WEB INTERFACE
To map CoS/CFI values to internal PHB/drop precedence:
1. Click Traffic, Priority, CoS to DSCP.
2. Select Add from the Action list.
3. Set the PHB and drop precedence for any of the CoS/CFI combinations.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 74: Configuring CoS to DSCP Internal Mapping
– 137 –
CHAPTER 11 | Class of Service
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings
ES-2000 Series
To show the CoS/CFI to internal PHB/drop precedence map:
1. Click Traffic, Priority, CoS to DSCP.
2. Select Show from the Action list.
3. Select an interface.
Figure 75: Showing CoS to DSCP Internal Mapping
– 138 –
12
QUALITY OF SERVICE
ES-2000 Series
This chapter describes the following tasks required to apply QoS policies:
Class Map – Creates a map which identifies a specific class of traffic.
Policy Map – Sets the boundary parameters used for monitoring inbound
traffic, and the action to take for conforming and non-conforming traffic.
Binding to a Port – Applies a policy map to an ingress port.
OVERVIEW
The commands described in this section are used to configure Quality of
Service (QoS) classification criteria and service policies. Differentiated
Services (DiffServ) provides policy-based management mechanisms used
for prioritizing network resources to meet the requirements of specific
traffic types on a per hop basis. Each packet is classified upon entry into
the network based on access lists, IP Precedence, DSCP values, or VLAN
lists. Using access lists allows you select traffic based on Layer 2, Layer 3,
or Layer 4 information contained in each packet. Based on configured
network policies, different kinds of traffic can be marked for different kinds
of forwarding.
All switches or routers that access the Internet rely on class information to
provide the same forwarding treatment to packets in the same class. Class
information can be assigned by end hosts, or switches or routers along the
path. Priority can then be assigned based on a general policy, or a detailed
examination of the packet. However, note that detailed examination of
packets should take place close to the network edge so that core switches
and routers are not overloaded.
Switches and routers along the path can use class information to prioritize
the resources allocated to different traffic classes. The manner in which an
individual device handles traffic in the DiffServ architecture is called perhop behavior. All devices along a path should be configured in a consistent
manner to construct a consistent end-to-end QoS solution.
NOTE: You can configure up to 16 rules per class map. You can also include
multiple classes in a policy map.
NOTE: You should create a class map before creating a policy map.
Otherwise, you will not be able to select a class map from the policy rule
settings screen (see page 143).
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CHAPTER 12 | Quality of Service
Configuring a Class Map
ES-2000 Series
COMMAND USAGE
To create a service policy for a specific category or ingress traffic, follow
these steps:
1. Use the Configure Class (Add) page to designate a class name for a
specific category of traffic.
2. Use the Configure Class (Add Rule) page to edit the rules for each class
which specify a type of traffic based on an access list, a DSCP or IP
Precedence value, or a VLAN.
3. Use the Configure Policy (Add) page to designate a policy name for a
specific manner in which ingress traffic will be handled.
4. Use the Configure Policy (Add Rule) page to add one or more classes to
the policy map. Assign policy rules to each class by “setting” the QoS
value (CoS or PHB) to be assigned to the matching traffic class. The
policy rule can also be configured to monitor the maximum throughput
and burst rate. Then specify the action to take for conforming traffic, or
the action to take for a policy violation.
5. Use the Configure Interface page to assign a policy map to a specific
interface.
CONFIGURING A CLASS MAP
A class map is used for matching packets to a specified class. Use the
Traffic > DiffServ (Configure Class) page to configure a class map.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ The class map is used with a policy map (page 143) to create a service
policy (page 153) for a specific interface that defines packet
classification, service tagging, and bandwidth policing. Note that one or
more class maps can be assigned to a policy map.
◆
Up to 32 class maps can be configured.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
Add
◆
Class Name – Name of the class map. (Range: 1-16 characters)
◆
Type – Only one match command is permitted per class map, so the
match-any field refers to the criteria specified on the Add page.
◆
Description – A brief description of a class map. (Range: 1-64
characters)
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CHAPTER 12 | Quality of Service
Configuring a Class Map
ES-2000 Series
Add Rule
◆
Class Name – Name of the class map.
◆
Type – Only one match command is permitted per class map, so the
match-any field refers to the criteria specified by the lone match
command.
◆
ACL – Name of an access control list. Any type of ACL can be specified,
including standard or extended IP ACLs and MAC ACLs.
◆
IP DSCP – A DSCP value. (Range: 0-63)
◆
IP Precedence – An IP Precedence value. (Range: 0-7)
◆
VLAN ID – A VLAN. (Range:1-4093)
WEB INTERFACE
To configure a class map:
1. Click Traffic, DiffServ.
2. Select Configure Class from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Enter a class name.
5. Enter a description.
6. Click Add.
Figure 76: Configuring a Class Map
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CHAPTER 12 | Quality of Service
Configuring a Class Map
ES-2000 Series
To show the configured class maps:
1. Click Traffic, DiffServ.
2. Select Configure Class from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 77: Showing Class Maps
To edit the rules for a class map:
1. Click Traffic, DiffServ.
2. Select Configure Class from the Step list.
3. Select Add Rule from the Action list.
4. Select the name of a class map.
5. Specify type of traffic for this class based on an access list, a DSCP or
IP Precedence value, or a VLAN. You can specify up to 16 items to
match when assigning ingress traffic to a class map.
6. Click Apply.
Figure 78: Adding Rules to a Class Map
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CHAPTER 12 | Quality of Service
Creating QoS Policies
ES-2000 Series
To show the rules for a class map:
1. Click Traffic, DiffServ.
2. Select Configure Class from the Step list.
3. Select Show Rule from the Action list.
Figure 79: Showing the Rules for a Class Map
CREATING QOS POLICIES
Use the Traffic > DiffServ (Configure Policy) page to create a policy map
that can be attached to multiple interfaces. A policy map is used to group
one or more class map statements (page 140), modify service tagging, and
enforce bandwidth policing. A policy map can then be bound by a service
policy to one or more interfaces (page 153).
Configuring QoS policies requires several steps. A class map must first be
configured which indicates how to match the inbound packets according to
an access list, a DSCP or IP Precedence value, or a member of specific
VLAN. A policy map is then configured which indicates the boundary
parameters used for monitoring inbound traffic, and the action to take for
conforming and non-conforming traffic. A policy map may contain one or
more classes based on previously defined class maps.
The class of service or per-hop behavior (i.e., the priority used for internal
queue processing) can be assigned to matching packets. In addition, the
flow rate of inbound traffic can be monitored and the response to
conforming and non-conforming traffic based by one of three distinct
policing methods as described below.
Police Flow Meter – Defines the committed information rate (maximum
throughput), committed burst size (burst rate), and the action to take for
conforming and non-conforming traffic.
– 143 –
CHAPTER 12 | Quality of Service
Creating QoS Policies
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Policing is based on a token bucket, where bucket depth (that is, the
maximum burst before the bucket overflows) is specified by the “burst”
field (BC), and the average rate tokens are removed from the bucket is
specified by the “rate” option (CIR). Action may be taken for traffic
conforming to the maximum throughput, or exceeding the maximum
throughput.
srTCM Police Meter – Defines an enforcer for classified traffic based on a
single rate three color meter scheme defined in RFC 2697. This metering
policy monitors a traffic stream and processes its packets according to the
committed information rate (CIR, or maximum throughput), committed
burst size (BC, or burst rate), and excess burst size (BE). Action may taken
for traffic conforming to the maximum throughput, exceeding the
maximum throughput, or exceeding the excess burst size.
◆
The PHB label is composed of five bits, three bits for per-hop behavior,
and two bits for the color scheme used to control queue congestion. In
addition to the actions defined by this command to transmit, remark
the DSCP service value, or drop a packet, the switch will also mark the
two color bits used to set the drop precedence of a packet for Random
Early Detection. A packet is marked green if it doesn't exceed the
committed information rate and committed burst size, yellow if it does
exceed the committed information rate and committed burst size, but
not the excess burst size, and red otherwise.
◆
The meter operates in one of two modes. In the color-blind mode, the
meter assumes that the packet stream is uncolored. In color-aware
mode the meter assumes that some preceding entity has pre-colored
the incoming packet stream so that each packet is either green, yellow,
or red. The marker (re)colors an IP packet according to the results of
the meter. The color is coded in the DS field [RFC 2474] of the packet.
◆
The behavior of the meter is specified in terms of its mode and two
token buckets, C and E, which both share the common rate CIR. The
maximum size of the token bucket C is BC and the maximum size of the
token bucket E is BE.
The token buckets C and E are initially full, that is, the token count
Tc(0) = BC and the token count Te(0) = BE. Thereafter, the token
counts Tc and Te are updated CIR times per second as follows:
■
If Tc is less than BC, Tc is incremented by one, else
■
if Te is less then BE, Te is incremented by one, else
■
neither Tc nor Te is incremented.
When a packet of size B bytes arrives at time t, the following happens if
srTCM is configured to operate in Color-Blind mode:
■
If Tc(t)-B ≥ 0, the packet is green and Tc is decremented by B down
to the minimum value of 0, else
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CHAPTER 12 | Quality of Service
Creating QoS Policies
ES-2000 Series
■
■
if Te(t)-B ≥ 0, the packets is yellow and Te is decremented by B
down to the minimum value of 0,
else the packet is red and neither Tc nor Te is decremented.
When a packet of size B bytes arrives at time t, the following happens if
srTCM is configured to operate in Color-Aware mode:
■
■
■
If the packet has been precolored as green and Tc(t)-B ≥ 0, the
packet is green and Tc is decremented by B down to the minimum
value of 0, else
If the packet has been precolored as yellow or green and if
Te(t)-B ≥ 0, the packets is yellow and Te is decremented by B down
to the minimum value of 0, else
the packet is red and neither Tc nor Te is decremented.
The metering policy guarantees a deterministic behavior where the
volume of green packets is never smaller than what has been
determined by the CIR and BC, that is, tokens of a given color are
always spent on packets of that color. Refer to RFC 2697 for more
information on other aspects of srTCM.
trTCM Police Meter – Defines an enforcer for classified traffic based on a
two rate three color meter scheme defined in RFC 2698. This metering
policy monitors a traffic stream and processes its packets according to the
committed information rate (CIR, or maximum throughput), peak
information rate (PIR), and their associated burst sizes – committed burst
size (BC, or burst rate), and peak burst size (BP). Action may taken for
traffic conforming to the maximum throughput, exceeding the maximum
throughput, or exceeding the peak burst size.
◆
The PHB label is composed of five bits, three bits for per-hop behavior,
and two bits for the color scheme used to control queue congestion. In
addition to the actions defined by this command to transmit, remark
the DSCP service value, or drop a packet, the switch will also mark the
two color bits used to set the drop precedence of a packet for Random
Early Detection. A packet is marked red if it exceeds the PIR. Otherwise
it is marked either yellow or green depending on whether it exceeds or
doesn't exceed the CIR.
The trTCM is useful for ingress policing of a service, where a peak rate
needs to be enforced separately from a committed rate.
◆
The meter operates in one of two modes. In the color-blind mode, the
meter assumes that the packet stream is uncolored. In color-aware
mode the meter assumes that some preceding entity has pre-colored
the incoming packet stream so that each packet is either green, yellow,
or red. The marker (re)colors an IP packet according to the results of
the meter. The color is coded in the DS field [RFC 2474] of the packet.
◆
The behavior of the meter is specified in terms of its mode and two
token buckets, P and C, which are based on the rates PIR and CIR,
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CHAPTER 12 | Quality of Service
Creating QoS Policies
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respectively. The maximum size of the token bucket P is BP and the
maximum size of the token bucket C is BC.
The token buckets P and C are initially (at time 0) full, that is, the token
count Tp(0) = BP and the token count Tc(0) = BC. Thereafter, the token
count Tp is incremented by one PIR times per second up to BP and the
token count Tc is incremented by one CIR times per second up to BC.
When a packet of size B bytes arrives at time t, the following happens if
trTCM is configured to operate in Color-Blind mode:
■
If Tp(t)-B < 0, the packet is red, else
■
if Tc(t)-B < 0, the packet is yellow and Tp is decremented by B, else
■
the packet is green and both Tp and Tc are decremented by B.
When a packet of size B bytes arrives at time t, the following happens if
trTCM is configured to operate in Color-Aware mode:
◆
■
If the packet has been precolored as red or if Tp(t)-B < 0, the
packet is red, else
■
if the packet has been precolored as yellow or if Tc(t)-B < 0, the
packet is yellow and Tp is decremented by B, else
■
the packet is green and both Tp and Tc are decremented by B.
The trTCM can be used to mark a IP packet stream in a service, where
different, decreasing levels of assurances (either absolute or relative)
are given to packets which are green, yellow, or red. Refer to RFC 2698
for more information on other aspects of trTCM.
Random Early Detection – RED starts dropping yellow and red packets
when the buffer fills up to 0x60 packets, and then starts dropping any
packets regardless of color when the buffer fills up to 0x80 packets.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ A policy map can contain 128 class statements that can be applied to
the same interface (page 153). Up to 32 policy maps can be configured
for ingress ports.
◆
After using the policy map to define packet classification, service
tagging, and bandwidth policing, it must be assigned to a specific
interface by a service policy (page 153) to take effect.
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CHAPTER 12 | Quality of Service
Creating QoS Policies
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PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
Add
◆
Policy Name – Name of policy map. (Range: 1-16 characters)
◆
Description – A brief description of a policy map. (Range: 1-256
characters)
Add Rule
◆
Policy Name – Name of policy map.
◆
Class Name – Name of a class map that defines a traffic classification
upon which a policy can act.
◆
Action – This attribute is used to set an internal QoS value in hardware
for matching packets. The PHB label is composed of five bits, three bits
for per-hop behavior, and two bits for the color scheme used to control
queue congestion with the srTCM and trTCM metering functions.
■
Set CoS – Configures the service provided to ingress traffic by
setting an internal CoS value for a matching packet (as specified in
rule settings for a class map). (Range: 0-7)
See Table 16, "Default Mapping of CoS/CFI to Internal PHB/Drop
Precedence," on page 137).
■
Set PHB – Configures the service provided to ingress traffic by
setting the internal per-hop behavior for a matching packet (as
specified in rule settings for a class map). (Range: 0-7)
See Table 15, "Default Mapping of DSCP Values to Internal PHB/
Drop Values," on page 134).
■
Set IP DSCP – Configures the service provided to ingress traffic by
setting an IP DSCP value for a matching packet (as specified in rule
settings for a class map). (Range: 0-63)
◆
Meter – Check this to define the maximum throughput, burst rate, and
the action that results from a policy violation.
◆
Meter Mode – Selects one of the following policing methods.
■
Flow (Police Flow) – Defines the committed information rate (CIR,
or maximum throughput), committed burst size (BC, or burst rate),
and the action to take for conforming and non-conforming traffic.
Policing is based on a token bucket, where bucket depth (that is,
the maximum burst before the bucket overflows) is specified by the
“burst” field, and the average rate tokens are removed from the
bucket is by specified by the “rate” option.
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CHAPTER 12 | Quality of Service
Creating QoS Policies
ES-2000 Series
■
Committed Information Rate (CIR) – Rate in kilobits per
second. (Range: 64-10000000 kbps at a granularity of 64 kbps
or maximum port speed, whichever is lower)
The rate cannot exceed the configured interface speed.
■
Committed Burst Size (BC) – Burst in bytes. (Range: 400016000000 at a granularity of 4k bytes)
The burst size cannot exceed 16 Mbytes.
■
Conform – Specifies that traffic conforming to the maximum
rate (CIR) will be transmitted without any change to the DSCP
service level.
■
■
■
Transmit – Transmits in-conformance traffic without any
change to the DSCP service level.
Violate – Specifies whether the traffic that exceeds the
maximum rate (CIR) will be dropped or the DSCP service level
will be reduced.
■
Set IP DSCP – Decreases DSCP priority for out of
conformance traffic. (Range: 0-63)
■
Drop – Drops out of conformance traffic.
srTCM (Police Meter) – Defines the committed information rate
(CIR, or maximum throughput), committed burst size (BC, or burst
rate) and excess burst size (BE), and the action to take for traffic
conforming to the maximum throughput, exceeding the maximum
throughput but within the excess burst size, or exceeding the
excess burst size. In addition to the actions defined by this
command to transmit, remark the DSCP service value, or drop a
packet, the switch will also mark the two color bits used to set the
drop precedence of a packet for Random Early Detection.
The color modes include “Color-Blind” which assumes that the
packet stream is uncolored, and “Color-Aware” which assumes that
the incoming packets are pre-colored. The functional differences
between these modes is described at the beginning of this section
under “srTCM Police Meter.”
■
Committed Information Rate (CIR) – Rate in kilobits per
second. (Range: 64-10000000 kbps at a granularity of 64 kbps
or maximum port speed, whichever is lower)
The rate cannot exceed the configured interface speed.
■
Committed Burst Size (BC) – Burst in bytes. (Range: 400016000000 at a granularity of 4k bytes)
The burst size cannot exceed 16 Mbytes.
■
Exceeded Burst Size (BE) – Burst in excess of committed
burst size. (Range: 4000-16000000 at a granularity of 4k bytes)
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CHAPTER 12 | Quality of Service
Creating QoS Policies
ES-2000 Series
The burst size cannot exceed 16 Mbytes.
■
Conform – Specifies that traffic conforming to the maximum
rate (CIR) will be transmitted without any change to the DSCP
service level.
■
■
■
■
Transmit – Transmits in-conformance traffic without any
change to the DSCP service level.
Exceed – Specifies whether traffic that exceeds the maximum
rate (CIR) but is within the excess burst size (BE) will be
dropped or the DSCP service level will be reduced.
■
Set IP DSCP – Decreases DSCP priority for out of
conformance traffic. (Range: 0-63)
■
Drop – Drops out of conformance traffic.
Violate – Specifies whether the traffic that exceeds the excess
burst size (BE) will be dropped or the DSCP service level will be
reduced.
■
Set IP DSCP – Decreases DSCP priority for out of
conformance traffic. (Range: 0-63)
■
Drop – Drops out of conformance traffic.
trTCM (Police Meter) – Defines the committed information rate
(CIR, or maximum throughput), peak information rate (PIR), and
their associated burst sizes – committed burst size (BC, or burst
rate) and peak burst size (BP), and the action to take for traffic
conforming to the maximum throughput, exceeding the maximum
throughput but within the peak information rate, or exceeding the
peak information rate. In addition to the actions defined by this
command to transmit, remark the DSCP service value, or drop a
packet, the switch will also mark the two color bits used to set the
drop precedence of a packet for Random Early Detection.
The color modes include “Color-Blind” which assumes that the
packet stream is uncolored, and “Color-Aware” which assumes that
the incoming packets are pre-colored. The functional differences
between these modes is described at the beginning of this section
under “trTCM Police Meter.”
■
Committed Information Rate (CIR) – Rate in kilobits per
second. (Range: 64-10000000 kbps at a granularity of 64 kbps
or maximum port speed, whichever is lower)
The rate cannot exceed the configured interface speed.
■
Peak Information Rate (PIR) – Rate in kilobits per second.
(Range: 64-1000000 kbps at a granularity of 64 kbps or
maximum port speed, whichever is lower)
The rate cannot exceed the configured interface speed.
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CHAPTER 12 | Quality of Service
Creating QoS Policies
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■
Committed Burst Size (BC) – Burst in bytes.
(Range: 4000-16000000 at a granularity of 4k bytes)
The burst size cannot exceed 16 Mbytes.
■
Peak Burst Size (BP) – Burst size in bytes. (Range: 400016000000 at a granularity of 4k bytes)
The burst size cannot exceed 16 Mbytes.
■
Conform – Specifies that traffic conforming to the maximum
rate (CIR) will be transmitted without any change to the DSCP
service level.
■
■
■
Transmit – Transmits in-conformance traffic without any
change to the DSCP service level.
Exceed – Specifies whether traffic that exceeds the maximum
rate (CIR) but is within the peak information rate (PIR) will be
dropped or the DSCP service level will be reduced.
■
Set IP DSCP – Decreases DSCP priority for out of
conformance traffic. (Range: 0-63).
■
Drop – Drops out of conformance traffic.
Violate – Specifies whether the traffic that exceeds the peak
information rate (PIR) will be dropped or the DSCP service level
will be reduced.
■
Set IP DSCP – Decreases DSCP priority for out of
conformance traffic. (Range: 0-63).
■
Drop – Drops out of conformance traffic.
WEB INTERFACE
To configure a policy map:
1. Click Traffic, DiffServ.
2. Select Configure Policy from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Enter a policy name.
5. Enter a description.
6. Click Add.
– 150 –
CHAPTER 12 | Quality of Service
Creating QoS Policies
ES-2000 Series
Figure 80: Configuring a Policy Map
To show the configured policy maps:
1. Click Traffic, DiffServ.
2. Select Configure Policy from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 81: Showing Policy Maps
To edit the rules for a policy map:
1. Click Traffic, DiffServ.
2. Select Configure Policy from the Step list.
3. Select Add Rule from the Action list.
4. Select the name of a policy map.
5. Set the CoS or per-hop behavior for matching packets to specify the
quality of service to be assigned to the matching traffic class. Use one
of the metering options to define parameters such as the maximum
throughput and burst rate. Then specify the action to take for
conforming traffic, the action to tack for traffic in excess of the
maximum rate but within the peak information rate, or the action to
take for a policy violation.
6. Click Apply.
– 151 –
CHAPTER 12 | Quality of Service
Creating QoS Policies
ES-2000 Series
Figure 82: Adding Rules to a Policy Map
To show the rules for a policy map:
1. Click Traffic, DiffServ.
2. Select Configure Policy from the Step list.
3. Select Show Rule from the Action list.
Figure 83: Showing the Rules for a Policy Map
– 152 –
CHAPTER 12 | Quality of Service
Attaching a Policy Map to a Port
ES-2000 Series
ATTACHING A POLICY MAP TO A PORT
Use the Traffic > DiffServ (Configure Interface) page to bind a policy map
to an ingress port.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ First define a class map, define a policy map, and bind the service
policy to the required interface.
◆
Only one policy map can be bound to an interface.
◆
The switch does not allow a policy map to be bound to an interface for
egress traffic.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Port – Specifies a port.
◆
Ingress – Applies the selected rule to ingress traffic.
WEB INTERFACE
To bind a policy map to a port:
1. Click Traffic, DiffServ.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Check the box under the Ingress field to enable a policy map for a port.
4. Select a policy map from the scroll-down box.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 84: Attaching a Policy Map to a Port
– 153 –
CHAPTER 12 | Quality of Service
Attaching a Policy Map to a Port
ES-2000 Series
– 154 –
13
VOIP TRAFFIC CONFIGURATION
ES-2000 Series
This chapter covers the following topics:
◆
Global Settings – Enables VOIP globally, sets the Voice VLAN, and the
aging time for attached ports.
◆
Telephony OUI List – Configures the list of phones to be treated as VOIP
devices based on the specified Organization Unit Identifier (OUI).
◆
Port Settings – Configures the way in which a port is added to the Voice
VLAN, the filtering of non-VoIP packets, the method of detecting VoIP
traffic, and the priority assigned to voice traffic.
OVERVIEW
When IP telephony is deployed in an enterprise network, it is
recommended to isolate the Voice over IP (VoIP) network traffic from other
data traffic. Traffic isolation can provide higher voice quality by preventing
excessive packet delays, packet loss, and jitter. This is best achieved by
assigning all VoIP traffic to a single Voice VLAN.
The use of a Voice VLAN has several advantages. It provides security by
isolating the VoIP traffic from other data traffic. End-to-end QoS policies
and high priority can be applied to VoIP VLAN traffic across the network,
guaranteeing the bandwidth it needs. VLAN isolation also protects against
disruptive broadcast and multicast traffic that can seriously affect voice
quality.
The switch allows you to specify a Voice VLAN for the network and set a
CoS priority for the VoIP traffic. The VoIP traffic can be detected on switch
ports by using the source MAC address of packets, or by using LLDP (IEEE
802.1AB) to discover connected VoIP devices. When VoIP traffic is detected
on a configured port, the switch automatically assigns the port as a tagged
member the Voice VLAN. Alternatively, switch ports can be manually
configured.
CONFIGURING VOIP TRAFFIC
Use the Traffic > VoIP (Configure Global) page to configure the switch for
VoIP traffic. First enable automatic detection of VoIP devices attached to
the switch ports, then set the Voice VLAN ID for the network. The Voice
VLAN aging time can also be set to remove a port from the Voice VLAN
when VoIP traffic is no longer received on the port.
– 155 –
CHAPTER 13 | VoIP Traffic Configuration
Configuring VoIP Traffic
ES-2000 Series
COMMAND USAGE
All ports are set to VLAN access mode by default. Prior to enabling VoIP for
a port (by setting the VoIP mode to Auto or Manual as described below),
first set the VLAN membership mode to hybrid (see "Adding Static
Members to VLANs" on page 96).
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Auto Detection Status – Enables the automatic detection of VoIP
traffic on switch ports. (Default: Disabled)
◆
Voice VLAN – Sets the Voice VLAN ID for the network. Only one Voice
VLAN is supported and it must already be created on the switch.
(Range: 1-4093)
◆
Voice VLAN Aging Time – The time after which a port is removed
from the Voice VLAN when VoIP traffic is no longer received on the port.
(Range: 5-43200 minutes; Default: 1440 minutes)
NOTE: The Voice VLAN ID cannot be modified when the global Auto
Detection Status is enabled.
WEB INTERFACE
To configure global settings for a Voice VLAN:
1. Click Traffic, VoIP.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Enable Auto Detection.
4. Specify the Voice VLAN ID.
5. Adjust the Voice VLAN Aging Time if required.
6. Click Apply.
Figure 85: Configuring a Voice VLAN
– 156 –
CHAPTER 13 | VoIP Traffic Configuration
Configuring Telephony OUI
ES-2000 Series
CONFIGURING TELEPHONY OUI
VoIP devices attached to the switch can be identified by the manufacturer’s
Organizational Unique Identifier (OUI) in the source MAC address of
received packets. OUI numbers are assigned to manufacturers and form
the first three octets of device MAC addresses. The MAC OUI numbers for
VoIP equipment can be configured on the switch so that traffic from these
devices is recognized as VoIP. Use the Traffic > VoIP (Configure OUI) page
to configure this feature.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Telephony OUI – Specifies a MAC address range to add to the list.
Enter the MAC address in format 01-23-45-67-89-AB.
◆
Mask – Identifies a range of MAC addresses. Selecting a mask of
FF-FF-FF-00-00-00 identifies all devices with the same OUI (the first
three octets). Other masks restrict the MAC address range. Selecting
FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF specifies a single MAC address.
(Default: FF-FF-FF-00-00-00)
◆
Description – User-defined text that identifies the VoIP devices.
WEB INTERFACE
To configure MAC OUI numbers for VoIP equipment:
1. Click Traffic, VoIP.
2. Select Configure OUI from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Enter a MAC address that specifies the OUI for VoIP devices in the
network.
5. Select a mask from the pull-down list to define a MAC address range.
6. Enter a description for the devices.
7. Click Apply.
– 157 –
CHAPTER 13 | VoIP Traffic Configuration
Configuring VoIP Traffic Ports
ES-2000 Series
Figure 86: Configuring an OUI Telephony List
To show the MAC OUI numbers used for VoIP equipment:
1. Click Traffic, VoIP.
2. Select Configure OUI from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 87: Showing an OUI Telephony List
CONFIGURING VOIP TRAFFIC PORTS
Use the Traffic > VoIP (Configure Interface) page to configure ports for
VoIP traffic, you need to set the mode (Auto or Manual), specify the
discovery method to use, and set the traffic priority. You can also enable
security filtering to ensure that only VoIP traffic is forwarded on the Voice
VLAN.
COMMAND USAGE
All ports are set to VLAN access mode by default. Prior to enabling VoIP for
a port (by setting the VoIP mode to Auto or Manual as described below),
first set the VLAN membership mode to hybrid (see "Adding Static
Members to VLANs" on page 96).
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Mode – Specifies if the port will be added to the Voice VLAN when VoIP
traffic is detected. (Default: None)
– 158 –
CHAPTER 13 | VoIP Traffic Configuration
Configuring VoIP Traffic Ports
ES-2000 Series
■
■
■
None – The Voice VLAN feature is disabled on the port. The port will
not detect VoIP traffic or be added to the Voice VLAN.
Auto – The port will be added as a tagged member to the Voice
VLAN when VoIP traffic is detected on the port. You must select a
method for detecting VoIP traffic, either OUI or 802.1ab (LLDP).
When OUI is selected, be sure to configure the MAC address ranges
in the Telephony OUI list.
Manual – The Voice VLAN feature is enabled on the port, but the
port must be manually added to the Voice VLAN.
◆
Security – Enables security filtering that discards any non-VoIP
packets received on the port that are tagged with the voice VLAN ID.
VoIP traffic is identified by source MAC addresses configured in the
Telephony OUI list, or through LLDP that discovers VoIP devices
attached to the switch. Packets received from non-VoIP sources are
dropped. (Default: Disabled)
◆
Discovery Protocol – Selects a method to use for detecting VoIP
traffic on the port. (Default: OUI)
■
OUI – Traffic from VoIP devices is detected by the Organizationally
Unique Identifier (OUI) of the source MAC address. OUI numbers
are assigned to manufacturers and form the first three octets of a
device MAC address. MAC address OUI numbers must be configured
in the Telephony OUI list so that the switch recognizes the traffic as
being from a VoIP device.
■
LLDP – Uses LLDP (IEEE 802.1AB) to discover VoIP devices
attached to the port. LLDP checks that the “telephone bit” in the
system capability TLV is turned on. See "Link Layer Discovery
Protocol" on page 205 for more information on LLDP.
◆
Priority – Defines a CoS priority for port traffic on the Voice VLAN. The
priority of any received VoIP packet is overwritten with the new priority
when the Voice VLAN feature is active for the port. (Range: 0-6;
Default: 6)
◆
Remaining Age – Number of minutes before this entry is aged out.
WEB INTERFACE
To configure VoIP traffic settings for a port:
1. Click Traffic, VoIP.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Configure any required changes to the VoIP settings each port.
4. Click Apply.
– 159 –
CHAPTER 13 | VoIP Traffic Configuration
Configuring VoIP Traffic Ports
ES-2000 Series
Figure 88: Configuring Port Settings for a Voice VLAN
– 160 –
14
SECURITY MEASURES
ES-2000 Series
You can configure this switch to authenticate users logging into the system
for management access using local or remote authentication methods.
Port-based authentication using IEEE 802.1X can also be configured to
control either management access to the uplink ports or client access to
the data ports. This switch provides secure network management access
using the following options:
◆
AAA – Use local or remote authentication to specify authentication
servers.
◆
User Accounts – Manually configure access rights on the switch for
specified users.
◆
Network Access - Configure secure MAC address aging and dynamic
VLAN assignment.
◆
HTTPS – Provide a secure web connection.
◆
ACL – Access Control Lists provide packet filtering for IP frames (based
on address, protocol, Layer 4 protocol port number or TCP control
code).
◆
IP Filter – Filters management access to the web or SNMP interface.
◆
Port Security – Configure secure addresses for individual ports.
◆
Port Authentication – Use IEEE 802.1X port authentication to control
access to specific ports.
NOTE: The priority of execution for the filtering commands is Port Security,
Port Authentication, Network Access, and then Access Control Lists.
– 161 –
CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Configuring Local/Remote Logon Authentication
ES-2000 Series
CONFIGURING LOCAL/REMOTE LOGON AUTHENTICATION
Use the Security > AAA > System Authentication page to specify local or
remote authentication. Local authentication restricts management access
based on user names and passwords manually configured on the switch.
Remote authentication uses a remote access authentication server based
on RADIUS or TACACS+ protocols to verify management access.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ By default, management access is always checked against the
authentication database stored on the local switch. If a remote
authentication server is used, you must specify the authentication
sequence. Then specify the corresponding parameters for the remote
authentication protocol using the Security > AAA > Server page. Local
and remote logon authentication control management access via a web
browser.
◆
You can specify up to three authentication methods for any user to
indicate the authentication sequence. For example, if you select
(1) RADIUS, (2) TACACS and (3) Local, the user name and password
on the RADIUS server is verified first. If the RADIUS server is not
available, then authentication is attempted using the TACACS+ server,
and finally the local user name and password is checked.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Authentication Sequence – Select the authentication, or
authentication sequence required:
■
Local – User authentication is performed only locally by the switch.
■
RADIUS – User authentication is performed using a RADIUS server
only.
■
TACACS – User authentication is performed using a TACACS+
server only.
■
[authentication sequence] – User authentication is performed by up
to three authentication methods in the indicated sequence.
WEB INTERFACE
To configure the method(s) of controlling management access:
1. Click Security, AAA, System Authentication.
2. Specify the authentication sequence (i.e., one to three methods).
3. Click Apply.
– 162 –
CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Configuring Remote Logon Authentication Servers
ES-2000 Series
Figure 89: Configuring the Authentication Sequence
CONFIGURING REMOTE LOGON AUTHENTICATION SERVERS
Use the Security > AAA > Server page to configure the message exchange
parameters for RADIUS or TACACS+ remote access authentication servers.
Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service (RADIUS) and Terminal Access
Controller Access Control System Plus (TACACS+) are logon authentication
protocols that use software running on a central server to control access to
RADIUS-aware or TACACS-aware devices on the network. An
authentication server contains a database of multiple user name/password
pairs with associated privilege levels for each user that requires
management access to the switch.
Figure 90: Authentication Server Operation
Web
RADIUS/
TACACS+
server
1. Client attempts management access.
2. Switch contacts authentication server
.
3. Authentication server challenges client.
4. Client responds with proper password or .key
5. Authentication server approves access.
6. Switch grants management access.
RADIUS uses UDP while TACACS+ uses TCP. UDP only offers best effort
delivery, while TCP offers a connection-oriented transport. Also, note that
RADIUS encrypts only the password in the access-request packet from the
client to the server, while TACACS+ encrypts the entire body of the packet.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ If a remote authentication server is used, you must specify the
message exchange parameters for the remote authentication protocol.
Both local and remote logon authentication control management access
via the web browser.
◆
RADIUS and TACACS+ logon authentication assign a specific privilege
level for each user name/password pair. The user name, password, and
privilege level must be configured on the authentication server. The
encryption methods used for the authentication process must also be
configured or negotiated between the authentication server and logon
client. This switch can pass authentication messages between the
– 163 –
CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Configuring Remote Logon Authentication Servers
ES-2000 Series
server and client that have been encrypted using MD5 (Message-Digest
5), TLS (Transport Layer Security), or TTLS (Tunneled Transport Layer
Security).
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
◆
RADIUS
■
Global – Provides globally applicable RADIUS settings.
■
Server Index – Specifies one of five RADIUS servers that may be
configured. The switch attempts authentication using the listed
sequence of servers. The process ends when a server either
approves or denies access to a user.
■
Server IP Address – Address of authentication server.
(A Server Index entry must be selected to display this item.)
■
Authentication Server UDP Port – Network (UDP) port on
authentication server used for authentication messages.
(Range: 1-65535; Default: 1812)
■
Authentication Timeout – The number of seconds the switch
waits for a reply from the RADIUS server before it resends the
request. (Range: 1-65535; Default: 5)
■
Authentication Retries – Number of times the switch tries to
authenticate logon access via the authentication server.
(Range: 1-30; Default: 2)
■
Set Key – Mark this box to set or modify the encryption key.
■
Authentication Key – Encryption key used to authenticate logon
access for client. Do not use blank spaces in the string. (Maximum
length: 48 characters)
■
Confirm Authentication Key – Re-type the string entered in the
previous field to ensure no errors were made. The switch will not
change the encryption key if these two fields do not match.
TACACS+
■
Global – Provides globally applicable TACACS+ settings.
■
Server Index – Specifies the index number of the server to be
configured. The switch currently supports only one TACACS+ server.
■
Server IP Address – Address of the TACACS+ server.
(A Server Index entry must be selected to display this item.)
■
Authentication Server TCP Port – Network (TCP) port of
TACACS+ server used for authentication messages.
(Range: 1-65535; Default: 49)
– 164 –
CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Configuring Remote Logon Authentication Servers
ES-2000 Series
■
■
■
■
Authentication Timeout – The number of seconds the switch
waits for a reply from the RADIUS server before it resends the
request. (Range: 1-65535; Default: 5)
Set Key – Mark this box to set or modify the encryption key.
Authentication Key – Encryption key used to authenticate logon
access for client. Do not use blank spaces in the string. (Maximum
length: 48 characters)
Confirm Authentication Key – Re-type the string entered in the
previous field to ensure no errors were made. The switch will not
change the encryption key if these two fields do not match.
WEB INTERFACE
To configure the parameters for RADIUS or TACACS+ authentication:
1. Click Security, AAA, Server.
2. Select RADIUS or TACACS+ server type.
3. Select Global to specify the parameters that apply globally to all
specified servers, or select a specific Server Index to specify the
parameters that apply to a specific server.
4. To set or modify the authentication key, mark the Set Key box, enter
the key, and then confirm it
5. Click Apply.
Figure 91: Configuring Remote Authentication Server (RADIUS)
– 165 –
CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Configuring User Accounts
ES-2000 Series
Figure 92: Configuring Remote Authentication Server (TACACS+)
CONFIGURING USER ACCOUNTS
Use the Security > User Accounts page to control management access to
the switch based on manually configured user names and passwords.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ The default guest name is “guest” with the password “guest.” The
default administrator name is “admin” with the password “admin.”
◆
The guest only has read access for most configuration parameters.
However, the administrator has write access for all parameters
governing the onboard agent. You should therefore assign a new
administrator password as soon as possible, and store it in a safe place.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
User Name – The name of the user.
(Maximum length: 8 characters; maximum number of users: 16)
◆
Access Level – Specifies the user level. (Options: 0 - Normal,
15 - Privileged)
Normal privilege level provides access to a limited number of the
commands which display the current status of the switch, as well as
several database clear and reset functions. Privileged level provides full
access to all commands.
◆
Password Type – Plain Text or Encrypted password.
The encrypted password is required for compatibility with legacy
password settings (i.e., plain text or encrypted) when reading the
configuration file during system bootup or when downloading the
configuration file from a TFTP or FTP server. There is no need for you to
manually configure encrypted passwords.
– 166 –
CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Configuring User Accounts
ES-2000 Series
◆
Password – Specifies the user password.
(Range: 0-8 characters plain text, 32 encrypted, case sensitive)
◆
Confirm Password – Re-type the string entered in the previous field
to ensure no errors were made. The switch will not change the
password if these two fields do not match.
WEB INTERFACE
To configure user accounts:
1. Click Security, User Accounts.
2. Select Add from the Action list.
3. Specify a user name, select the user's access level, then enter a
password if required and confirm it.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 93: Configuring User Accounts
To show user accounts:
1. Click Security, User Accounts.
2. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 94: Showing User Accounts
– 167 –
CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Network Access
ES-2000 Series
NETWORK ACCESS
The Network Access pages are used to enable aging for secure addresses
stored in the MAC address table (using 802.1X), and to assign a host to the
VLANs specified for that specific device on a RADIUS server (see
"Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication" on page 189).
COMMAND USAGE
◆ When Dynamic VLAN is enabled on a port, the 802.1X authentication
process sends a Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) request to a
configured RADIUS server. The type of user name and password sent to
the RADIUS server depends on 802.1X Operation Mode (page 192).
Text is used for normal host-based authentication, or the host’s MAC
address is used for both the user name and password for MAC-based
authentication. When MAC-based authentication is used by 802.1X, the
PAP user name and password on the RADIUS server must be configured
in the MAC address format XX-XX-XX-XX-XX-XX (all in upper case).
◆
If the RADIUS server finds an entry for the host, and that entry
contains a VLAN identifier list, this list will be returned to the switch and
applied to the port. The following attributes need to be configured on
the RADIUS server.
■
Tunnel-Type = VLAN
■
Tunnel-Medium-Type = 802
■
Tunnel-Private-Group-ID = 1u,2t
[VLAN ID list]
The VLAN identifier list is carried in the RADIUS “Tunnel-Private-GroupID” attribute. The VLAN list can contain multiple VLAN identifiers in the
format “1u,2t,3u” where “u” indicates an untagged VLAN and “t” a
tagged VLAN.
CONFIGURING GLOBAL Use the Security > Network Access (Configure Global) page to enable
SETTINGS FOR aging for secure addresses stored in the MAC address table (see
NETWORK ACCESS "Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication" on page 189).
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Aging Status – Enables aging for dynamically learned secure
addresses stored in the MAC address table. (Default: Disabled)
This parameter applies to any secure MAC addresses authenticated by
802.1X, regardless of the 802.1X Operation Mode (Single-Host, MultiHost, or MAC-Based authentication as described on page 192).
– 168 –
CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Network Access
ES-2000 Series
WEB INTERFACE
To configure aging status for secure addresses stored in the MAC address
table by 802.1X:
1. Click Security, Network Access.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Enable or disable aging for secure addresses.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 95: Configuring Global Settings for Network Access
CONFIGURING Use the Security > Network Access (Configure Interface) page to enable
NETWORK ACCESS dynamic VLAN assignments.
FOR PORTS
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Dynamic VLAN – Enables dynamic VLAN assignment for a port. When
enabled, any VLAN identifiers returned by the RADIUS server through
the 802.1X authentication process are applied to the port, providing the
VLANs have already been created on the switch. (GVRP is not used to
create the VLANs.) (Default: Enabled)
The VLAN settings specified by the first authenticated MAC address
(using the 802.1X authentication process) are implemented for a port.
Other authenticated MAC addresses on the port must have the same
VLAN configuration, otherwise they are treated as authentication
failures.
If dynamic VLAN assignment is enabled on a port and the RADIUS
server returns no VLAN configuration (to the 802.1X authentication
process), the authentication is still treated as a success, and the host is
assigned to the default untagged VLAN.
When the dynamic VLAN assignment status is changed on a port, all
authenticated addresses mapped to that port are cleared from the
secure MAC address table.
– 169 –
CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Network Access
ES-2000 Series
WEB INTERFACE
To configure dynamic VLAN assignment on switch ports:
1. Click Security, Network Access.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Set the dynamic VLAN status.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 96: Configuring Interface Settings for Network Access
DISPLAYING SECURE Use the Security > Network Access (Show Information) page to display the
MAC ADDRESS authenticated MAC addresses stored in the secure MAC address table.
INFORMATION Information on the secure MAC entries can be displayed and selected
entries can be removed from the table.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Query By – Specifies parameters to use in the MAC address query.
■
◆
Sort Key – Sorts the information displayed based on MAC address,
port interface, or attribute.
■
MAC Address – Specifies a specific MAC address.
■
Interface – Specifies a port interface.
■
Attribute – Displays static or dynamic addresses.
Authenticated MAC Address List
■
■
■
MAC Address – The authenticated MAC address.
Interface – The port interface associated with a secure MAC
address.
RADIUS Server – The IP address of the RADIUS server that
authenticated the MAC address.
– 170 –
CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Network Access
ES-2000 Series
■
Time – The time when the MAC address was last authenticated.
■
Attribute – Indicates a static or dynamic address.
WEB INTERFACE
To display the authenticated MAC addresses stored in the secure MAC
address table:
1. Click Security, Network Access.
2. Select Show Information from the Step list.
3. Use the sort key to display addresses based MAC address, interface, or
attribute.
4. Restrict the displayed addresses by entering a specific address in the
MAC Address field, specifying a port in the Interface field, or setting the
address type to static or dynamic in the Attribute field.
5. Click Query.
Figure 97: Showing Addresses Authenticated for Network Access
– 171 –
CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Configuring HTTPS
ES-2000 Series
CONFIGURING HTTPS
You can configure the switch to enable the Secure Hypertext Transfer
Protocol (HTTPS) over the Secure Socket Layer (SSL), providing secure
access (i.e., an encrypted connection) to the switch’s web interface.
CONFIGURING GLOBAL Use the Security > HTTPS (Configure Global) page to enable or disable
SETTINGS FOR HTTPS HTTPS and specify the UDP port used for this service.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ HTTP and HTTPS are implemented as mutually exclusive services on the
switch. If you enable HTTPS, you must indicate this in the URL that you
specify in your browser: https://device[:port_number]
◆
◆
When you start HTTPS, the connection is established in this way:
■
The client authenticates the server using the server’s digital
certificate.
■
The client and server negotiate a set of security protocols to use for
the connection.
■
The client and server generate session keys for encrypting and
decrypting data.
The client and server establish a secure encrypted connection.
A padlock icon should appear in the status bar for Internet Explorer 5.x
or above, Netscape 6.2 or above, and Mozilla Firefox 2.0.0.0 or above.
◆
The following web browsers and operating systems currently support
HTTPS:
Table 17: HTTPS System Support
◆
Web Browser
Operating System
Internet Explorer 5.0 or later
Windows 98,Windows NT (with service pack 6a),
Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7
Netscape 6.2 or later
Windows 98,Windows NT (with service pack 6a),
Windows 2000, Windows XP, Solaris 2.6
Mozilla Firefox 2.0.0.0 or later
Windows 2000, Windows XP, Linux
To specify a secure-site certificate, see "Replacing the Default Securesite Certificate" on page 173.
NOTE: Users are automatically logged off of the HTTP server or HTTPS
server if no input is detected for 600 seconds.
– 172 –
CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Configuring HTTPS
ES-2000 Series
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
HTTPS Status – Allows you to enable/disable the HTTPS server feature
on the switch. (Default: Disabled)
◆
HTTPS Port – Specifies the UDP port number used for HTTPS
connection to the switch’s web interface. (Default: Port 443)
The HTTPS port number cannot be set to 80.
WEB INTERFACE
To configure HTTPS:
1. Click Security, HTTPS.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Enable HTTPS and specify the port number if required.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 98: Configuring HTTPS
REPLACING THE Use the Security > HTTPS (Copy Certificate) page to replace the default
DEFAULT SECURE-SITE secure-site certificate.
CERTIFICATE
When you log onto the web interface using HTTPS (for secure access), a
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) certificate appears for the switch. By default,
the certificate that Netscape and Internet Explorer display will be
associated with a warning that the site is not recognized as a secure site.
This is because the certificate has not been signed by an approved
certification authority. If you want this warning to be replaced by a
message confirming that the connection to the switch is secure, you must
obtain a unique certificate and a private key and password from a
recognized certification authority.
CAUTION: For maximum security, we recommend you obtain a unique
Secure Sockets Layer certificate at the earliest opportunity. This is because
the default certificate for the switch is not unique to the hardware you have
purchased.
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CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Configuring HTTPS
ES-2000 Series
When you have obtained these, place them on your TFTP server and
transfer them to the switch to replace the default (unrecognized) certificate
with an authorized one.
NOTE: The switch must be reset for the new certificate to be activated. To
reset the switch, see "Resetting the System" on page 63.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
TFTP Server IP Address – IP address of TFTP server which contains
the certificate file.
◆
Certificate Source File Name – Name of certificate file stored on the
TFTP server.
◆
Private Key Source File Name – Name of private key file stored on
the TFTP server.
◆
Private Password – Password stored in the private key file. This
password is used to verify authorization for certificate use, and is
verified when downloading the certificate to the switch.
◆
Confirm Password – Re-type the string entered in the previous field
to ensure no errors were made. The switch will not download the
certificate if these two fields do not match.
WEB INTERFACE
To replace the default secure-site certificate:
1. Click Security, HTTPS.
2. Select Copy Certificate from the Step list.
3. Fill in the TFTP server, certificate and private key file name, and private
password.
4. Click Apply.
– 174 –
CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Access Control Lists
ES-2000 Series
Figure 99: Downloading the Secure-Site Certificate
ACCESS CONTROL LISTS
Access Control Lists (ACL) provide packet filtering for IPv4 frames (based
on address, protocol, Layer 4 protocol port number or TCP control code), or
any frames (based on MAC address or Ethernet type). To filter incoming
packets, first create an access list, add the required rules, and then bind
the list to a specific port.
Configuring Access Control Lists –
An ACL is a sequential list of permit or deny conditions that apply to IP
addresses, MAC addresses, or other more specific criteria. This switch tests
ingress packets against the conditions in an ACL one by one. A packet will
be accepted as soon as it matches a permit rule, or dropped as soon as it
matches a deny rule. If no rules match, the packet is accepted.
COMMAND USAGE
The following restrictions apply to ACLs:
◆
The maximum number of ACLs is 64.
◆
The maximum number of rules per system is 512 rules.
◆
An ACL can have up to 32 rules. However, due to resource restrictions,
the average number of rules bound to the ports should not exceed 20.
SHOWING TCAM Use the Security > ACL (Configure ACL - Show TCAM) page to show
UTILIZATION utilization parameters for TCAM (Ternary Content Addressable Memory),
including the number policy control entries in use, the number of free
entries, and the overall percentage of TCAM in use.
COMMAND USAGE
Policy control entries (PCEs) are used by various system functions which
rely on rule-based searches, including Access Control Lists (ACLs), IP
Source Guard filter rules, Quality of Service (QoS) processes, or traps.
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CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Access Control Lists
ES-2000 Series
For example, when binding an ACL to a port, each rule in an ACL will use
two PCEs; and when setting an IP Source Guard filter rule for a port, the
system will also use two PCEs.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Total Policy Control Entries – The number policy control entries in
use.
◆
Free Policy Control Entries – The number of policy control entries
available for use.
◆
Entries Used by System – The number of policy control entries used
by the operating system.
◆
Entries Used by User – The number of policy control entries used by
configuration settings, such as access control lists.
◆
TCAM Utilization – The overall percentage of TCAM in use.
WEB INTERFACE
To show information on TCAM utilization:
1. Click Security, ACL.
2. Select Configure ACL from the Step list.
3. Select Show TCAM from the Action list.
Figure 100: Showing TCAM Utilization
– 176 –
CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Access Control Lists
ES-2000 Series
SETTING THE ACL Use the Security > ACL (Configure ACL - Add) page to create an ACL.
NAME AND TYPE
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
ACL Name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 15 characters)
◆
Type – The following filter modes are supported:
■
IP Standard: IPv4 ACL mode filters packets based on the source
IPv4 address.
■
IP Extended: IPv4 ACL mode filters packets based on the source
or destination IPv4 address, as well as the protocol type and
protocol port number. If the “TCP” protocol is specified, then you
can also filter packets based on the TCP control code.
■
MAC – MAC ACL mode filters packets based on the source or
destination MAC address and the Ethernet frame type (RFC 1060).
WEB INTERFACE
To configure the name and type of an ACL:
1. Click Security, ACL.
2. Select Configure ACL from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Fill in the ACL Name field, and select the ACL type.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 101: Creating an ACL
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CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Access Control Lists
ES-2000 Series
To show a list of ACLs:
1. Click Security, ACL.
2. Select Configure ACL from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 102: Showing a List of ACLs
CONFIGURING A Use the Security > ACL (Configure ACL - Add Rule - IP Standard) page to
STANDARD IPV4 ACL configure a Standard IPv4 ACL.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Type – Selects the type of ACLs to show in the Name list.
◆
Name – Shows the names of ACLs matching the selected type.
◆
Action – An ACL can contain any combination of permit or deny rules.
◆
Address Type – Specifies the source IP address. Use “Any” to include
all possible addresses, “Host” to specify a specific host address in the
Address field, or “IP” to specify a range of addresses with the Address
and Subnet Mask fields. (Options: Any, Host, IP; Default: Any)
◆
Source IP Address – Source IP address.
◆
Source Subnet Mask – A subnet mask containing four integers from 0
to 255, each separated by a period. The mask uses 1 bits to indicate
“match” and 0 bits to indicate “ignore.” The mask is bitwise ANDed with
the specified source IP address, and compared with the address for
each IP packet entering the port(s) to which this ACL has been
assigned.
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CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Access Control Lists
ES-2000 Series
WEB INTERFACE
To add rules to a Standard IP ACL:
1. Click Security, ACL.
2. Select Configure ACL from the Step list.
3. Select Add Rule from the Action list.
4. Select IP Standard from the Type list.
5. Select the name of an ACL from the Name list.
6. Specify the action (i.e., Permit or Deny).
7. Select the address type (Any, Host, or IP).
8. If you select “Host,” enter a specific address. If you select “IP,” enter a
subnet address and the mask for an address range.
9. Click Apply.
Figure 103: Configuring a Standard IPv4 ACL
CONFIGURING AN Use the Security > ACL (Configure ACL - Add Rule - IP Extended) page to
EXTENDED IPV4 ACL configure an Extended IPv4 ACL.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Type – Selects the type of ACLs to show in the Name list.
◆
Name – Shows the names of ACLs matching the selected type.
◆
Action – An ACL can contain any combination of permit or deny rules.
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CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Access Control Lists
ES-2000 Series
◆
Source/Destination Address Type – Specifies the source or
destination IP address. Use “Any” to include all possible addresses,
“Host” to specify a specific host address in the Address field, or “IP” to
specify a range of addresses with the Address and Subnet Mask fields.
(Options: Any, Host, IP; Default: Any)
◆
Source/Destination IP Address – Source or destination IP address.
◆
Source/Destination Subnet Mask – Subnet mask for source or
destination address. (See the description for Subnet Mask on
page 178.)
◆
Source/Destination Port – Source/destination port number for the
specified protocol type. (Range: 0-65535)
◆
Source/Destination Port Bit Mask – Decimal number representing
the port bits to match. (Range: 0-65535)
◆
Protocol – Specifies the protocol type to match as TCP, UDP or Others,
where others indicates a specific protocol number (0-255).
(Options: TCP, UDP, Others; Default: TCP)
◆
Service Type – Packet priority settings based on the following criteria:
■
ToS – Type of Service level. (Range: 0-15)
■
Precedence – IP precedence level. (Range: 0-7)
■
DSCP – DSCP priority level. (Range: 0-63)
◆
Control Code – Decimal number (representing a bit string) that
specifies flag bits in byte 14 of the TCP header. (Range: 0-63)
◆
Control Code Bit Mask – Decimal number representing the code bits
to match. (Range: 0-63)
The control bit mask is a decimal number (for an equivalent binary bit
mask) that is applied to the control code. Enter a decimal number,
where the equivalent binary bit “1” means to match a bit and “0”
means to ignore a bit. The following bits may be specified:
■
1 (fin) – Finish
■
2 (syn) – Synchronize
■
4 (rst) – Reset
■
8 (psh) – Push
■
16 (ack) – Acknowledgement
■
32 (urg) – Urgent pointer
For example, use the code value and mask below to catch packets with
the following flags set:
■
SYN flag valid, use control-code 2, control bit mask 2
■
Both SYN and ACK valid, use control-code 18, control bit mask 18
■
SYN valid and ACK invalid, use control-code 2, control bit mask 18
– 180 –
CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Access Control Lists
ES-2000 Series
WEB INTERFACE
To add rules to an Extended IP ACL:
1. Click Security, ACL.
2. Select Configure ACL from the Step list.
3. Select Add Rule from the Action list.
4. Select IP Extended from the Type list.
5. Select the name of an ACL from the Name list.
6. Specify the action (i.e., Permit or Deny).
7. Select the address type (Any, Host, or IP).
8. If you select “Host,” enter a specific address. If you select “IP,” enter a
subnet address and the mask for an address range.
9. Set any other required criteria, such as service type, protocol type, or
control code.
10. Click Apply.
Figure 104: Configuring an Extended IPv4 ACL
– 181 –
CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Access Control Lists
ES-2000 Series
CONFIGURING A MAC Use the Security > ACL (Configure ACL - Add Rule - MAC) page to
ACL configure a MAC ACL based on hardware addresses, packet format, and
Ethernet type.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Type – Selects the type of ACLs to show in the Name list.
◆
Name – Shows the names of ACLs matching the selected type.
◆
Action – An ACL can contain any combination of permit or deny rules.
◆
Source/Destination Address Type – Use “Any” to include all
possible addresses, “Host” to indicate a specific MAC address, or “MAC”
to specify an address range with the Address and Bit Mask fields.
(Options: Any, Host, MAC; Default: Any)
◆
Source/Destination MAC Address – Source or destination MAC
address.
◆
Source/Destination Bit Mask – Hexadecimal mask for source or
destination MAC address.
◆
Packet Format – This attribute includes the following packet types:
■
Any – Any Ethernet packet type.
■
Untagged-eth2 – Untagged Ethernet II packets.
■
Untagged-802.3 – Untagged Ethernet 802.3 packets.
■
Tagged-eth2 – Tagged Ethernet II packets.
■
Tagged-802.3 – Tagged Ethernet 802.3 packets.
◆
VID – VLAN ID. (Range: 1-4094)
◆
VID Bit Mask – VLAN bit mask. (Range: 1-4094)
◆
Ethernet Type – This option can only be used to filter Ethernet II
formatted packets. (Range: 600-ffff hex.)
A detailed listing of Ethernet protocol types can be found in RFC 1060.
A few of the more common types include 0800 (IP), 0806 (ARP), 8137
(IPX).
◆
Ethernet Type Bit Mask – Protocol bit mask. (Range: 600-ffff hex.)
– 182 –
CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Access Control Lists
ES-2000 Series
WEB INTERFACE
To add rules to a MAC ACL:
1. Click Security, ACL.
2. Select Configure ACL from the Step list.
3. Select Add Rule from the Action list.
4. Select MAC from the Type list.
5. Select the name of an ACL from the Name list.
6. Specify the action (i.e., Permit or Deny).
7. Select the address type (Any, Host, or MAC).
8. If you select “Host,” enter a specific address (e.g., 11-22-33-44-55-
66). If you select “MAC,” enter a base address and a hexadecimal bit
mask for an address range.
9. Set any other required criteria, such as VID, Ethernet type, or packet
format.
10. Click Apply.
Figure 105: Configuring a MAC ACL
– 183 –
CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Access Control Lists
ES-2000 Series
BINDING A PORT TO AN After configuring ACLs, use the Security > ACL (Configure Interface) page
ACCESS CONTROL to bind the ports that need to filter traffic to the appropriate ACLs. You can
LIST assign one IP access list and one MAC access list to any port.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ This switch supports ACLs for ingress filtering only.
◆
You only bind one ACL to any port for ingress filtering.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Type – Selects the type of ACLs to bind to a port.
◆
Port – Fixed port or SFP module. (ES-2026/P: 1-26,
ES-2024G/P: 1-24)
◆
ACL – ACL used for ingress packets.
WEB INTERFACE
To bind an ACL to a port:
1. Click Security, ACL.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select IP or MAC from the Type list.
4. Select a port.
5. Select the name of an ACL from the ACL list.
6. Click Apply.
Figure 106: Binding a Port to an ACL
– 184 –
CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Filtering IP Addresses for Management Access
ES-2000 Series
FILTERING IP ADDRESSES FOR MANAGEMENT ACCESS
Use the Security > IP Filter page to create a list of up to 15 IP addresses or
IP address groups that are allowed management access to the switch
through the web interface or SNMP.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ The management interfaces are open to all IP addresses by default.
Once you add an entry to a filter list, access to that interface is
restricted to the specified addresses.
◆
If anyone tries to access a management interface on the switch from an
invalid address, the switch will reject the connection, enter an event
message in the system log, and send a trap message to the trap
manager.
◆
IP address can be configured for SNMP or web access respectively. Each
of these groups can include up to five different sets of addresses, either
individual addresses or address ranges.
◆
When entering addresses for the same group (i.e., SNMP or web), the
switch will not accept overlapping address ranges. When entering
addresses for different groups, the switch will accept overlapping
address ranges.
◆
You cannot delete an individual address from a specified range. You
must delete the entire range, and reenter the addresses.
◆
You can delete an address range just by specifying the start address, or
by specifying both the start address and end address.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Mode
■
Web – Configures IP address(es) for the web group.
■
SNMP – Configures IP address(es) for the SNMP group.
◆
Start IP Address – A single IP address, or the starting address of a
range.
◆
End IP Address – The end address of a range.
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CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Filtering IP Addresses for Management Access
ES-2000 Series
WEB INTERFACE
To create a list of IP addresses authorized for management access:
1. Click Security, IP Filter.
2. Select Add from the Action list.
3. Select the management interface to filter (Web, SNMP).
4. Enter the IP addresses or range of addresses that are allowed
management access to an interface.
5. Click Apply
Figure 107: Creating an IP Address Filter for Management Access
To show a list of IP addresses authorized for management access:
1. Click Security, IP Filter.
2. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 108: Showing IP Addresses Authorized for Management Access
– 186 –
CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Configuring Port Security
ES-2000 Series
CONFIGURING PORT SECURITY
Use the Security > Port Security page to configure the maximum number
of device MAC addresses that can be learned by a switch port, stored in the
address table, and authorized to access the network.
When port security is enabled on a port, the switch stops learning new MAC
addresses on the specified port when it has reached a configured maximum
number. Only incoming traffic with source addresses already stored in the
address table will be authorized to access the network through that port. If
a device with an unauthorized MAC address attempts to use the switch
port, the intrusion will be detected and the switch can automatically take
action by disabling the port and sending a trap message.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ The default maximum number of MAC addresses allowed on a secure
port is zero (that is, disabled). To use port security, you must configure
the maximum number of addresses allowed on a port.
◆
To configure the maximum number of address entries which can be
learned on a port, first disable port security on a port, and then specify
the maximum number of dynamic addresses allowed. The switch will
learn up to the maximum number of allowed address pairs <source
MAC address, VLAN> for frames received on the port. When the port
has reached the maximum number of MAC addresses, the port will stop
learning new addresses. The MAC addresses already in the address
table will be retained and will not be aged out.
Note that you can manually add additional secure addresses to a port
using the Static Address Table (page 101).
◆
If port security is enabled, and the maximum number of allowed
addresses are set to a non-zero value, any device not in the address
table that attempts to use the port will be prevented from accessing the
switch.
◆
If a port is disabled (shut down) due to a security violation, it must be
manually re-enabled from the Interface > Port > General page
(page 65).
◆
A secure port has the following restrictions:
■
It cannot be used as a member of a static or dynamic trunk.
■
It should not be connected to a network interconnection device.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Port – Port number.
◆
Action – Indicates the action to be taken when a port security violation
is detected:
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CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Configuring Port Security
ES-2000 Series
■
None: No action should be taken. (This is the default.)
■
Trap: Send an SNMP trap message.
■
Shutdown: Disable the port.
■
Trap and Shutdown: Send an SNMP trap message and disable the
port.
◆
Security Status – Enables or disables port security on the port.
(Default: Disabled)
◆
Max MAC Count – The maximum number of MAC addresses that can
be learned on a port. (Range: 0 - 1024, where 0 means disabled)
The maximum address count is effective when port security is enabled
or disabled, but can only be set when Security Status is disabled.
WEB INTERFACE
To set the maximum number of addresses which can be learned on a port:
1. Click Security, Port Security.
2. If port security is enabled on the selected port, first clear the check box
in Security Status column to disable security.
3. Set the maximum number of MAC addresses allowed on the port.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 109: Setting the Maximum Address Count for Port Security
– 188 –
CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
ES-2000 Series
To enable port security:
1. Click Security, Port Security.
2. Set the action to take when an invalid address is detected on a port.
3. Mark the check box in the Security Status column to enable security.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 110: Configuring the Status and Response for Port Security
CONFIGURING 802.1X PORT AUTHENTICATION
Network switches can provide open and easy access to network resources
by simply attaching a client PC. Although this automatic configuration and
access is a desirable feature, it also allows unauthorized personnel to easily
intrude and possibly gain access to sensitive network data.
The IEEE 802.1X (dot1X) standard defines a port-based access control
procedure that prevents unauthorized access to a network by requiring
users to first submit credentials for authentication. Access to all switch
ports in a network can be centrally controlled from a server, which means
that authorized users can use the same credentials for authentication from
any point within the network.
This switch uses the Extensible Authentication Protocol over LANs (EAPOL)
to exchange authentication protocol messages with the client, and a
remote RADIUS authentication server to verify user identity and access
rights. When a client (i.e., Supplicant) connects to a switch port, the switch
(i.e., Authenticator) responds with an EAPOL identity request. The client
provides its identity (such as a user name) in an EAPOL response to the
switch, which it forwards to the RADIUS server. The RADIUS server verifies
the client identity and sends an access challenge back to the client. The
EAP packet from the RADIUS server contains not only the challenge, but
the authentication method to be used. The client can reject the
authentication method and request another, depending on the
configuration of the client software and the RADIUS server. The encryption
method used to pass authentication messages can be MD5 (MessageDigest 5), TLS (Transport Layer Security), PEAP (Protected Extensible
Authentication Protocol), or TTLS (Tunneled Transport Layer Security). The
– 189 –
CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
ES-2000 Series
client responds to the appropriate method with its credentials, such as a
password or certificate. The RADIUS server verifies the client credentials
and responds with an accept or reject packet. If authentication is
successful, the switch allows the client to access the network. Otherwise,
non-EAP traffic on the port is blocked. In “multi-host” mode, only one host
connected to a port needs to pass authentication for all other hosts to be
granted network access. Similarly, a port can become unauthorized for all
hosts if one attached host fails re-authentication or sends an EAPOL logoff
message.
Figure 111: Configuring Port Security
802.1x
client
RADIUS
server
1. Client attempts to access a switch port.
2. Switch sends client an identity request.
3. Client sends back identity information.
4. Switch forwards this to authentication server.
5. Authentication server challenges client.
6. Client responds with proper credentials.
7. Authentication server approves access.
8. Switch grants client access to this port.
The operation of 802.1X on the switch requires the following:
◆
The switch must have an IP address assigned.
◆
RADIUS authentication must be enabled on the switch and the IP
address of the RADIUS server specified.
◆
802.1X must be enabled globally for the switch.
◆
Each switch port that will be used must be set to dot1X “Auto” mode.
◆
Each client that needs to be authenticated must have dot1X client
software installed and properly configured.
◆
The RADIUS server and 802.1X client support EAP. (The switch only
supports EAPOL in order to pass the EAP packets from the server to the
client.)
◆
The RADIUS server and client also have to support the same EAP
authentication type – MD5, PEAP, TLS, or TTLS. (Native support for
these encryption methods is provided in Windows XP, and in Windows
2000 with Service Pack 4. To support these encryption methods in
Windows 95 and 98, you can use the AEGIS dot1x client or other
comparable client software)
– 190 –
CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
ES-2000 Series
CONFIGURING 802.1X Use the Security > Port Authentication (Configure Global) page to
GLOBAL SETTINGS configure IEEE 802.1X port authentication. The 802.1X protocol must be
enabled globally for the switch system before port settings are active.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Port Authentication Status – Sets the global setting for 802.1X.
(Default: Disabled)
◆
Identity Profile User Name – The dot1x supplicant user name.
(Range: 1-8 characters)
The global supplicant user name and password are used to identify this
switch as a supplicant when responding to an MD5 challenge from the
authenticator. These parameters must be set when this switch passes
client authentication requests to another authenticator on the network
(see "Configuring Port Supplicant Settings for 802.1X" on page 196).
◆
Set Password – Allows the dot1x supplicant password to be entered.
◆
Identity Profile Password – The dot1x supplicant password used to
identify this switch as a supplicant when responding to an MD5
challenge from the authenticator. (Range: 1-8 characters)
◆
Confirm Profile Password – This field is used to confirm the dot1x
supplicant password.
WEB INTERFACE
To configure global settings for 802.1X:
1. Click Security, Port Authentication.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Enable 802.1X globally for the switch. Then set the user name and
password to use when the switch responds an MD5 challenge from the
authentication server.
4. Click Apply
– 191 –
CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
ES-2000 Series
Figure 112: Configuring Global Settings for 802.1X Port Authentication
CONFIGURING PORT Use the Security > Port Authentication (Configure Interface –
AUTHENTICATOR Authenticator) page to configure 802.1X port settings for the switch as the
SETTINGS FOR 802.1X local authenticator. When 802.1X is enabled, you need to configure the
parameters for the authentication process that runs between the client and
the switch (i.e., authenticator), as well as the client identity lookup process
that runs between the switch and authentication server.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ When the switch functions as a local authenticator between supplicant
devices attached to the switch and the authentication server, configure
the parameters for the exchange of EAP messages between the
authenticator and clients on the Authenticator configuration page.
◆
When devices attached to a port must submit requests to another
authenticator on the network, configure the Identity Profile parameters
on the Configure Global page (see "Configuring 802.1X Global Settings"
on page 191) which identify this switch as a supplicant, and configure
the supplicant parameters for those ports which must authenticate
clients through the remote authenticator (see "Configuring Port
Supplicant Settings for 802.1X" on page 196).
◆
This switch can be configured to serve as the authenticator on selected
ports by setting the Control Mode to Auto on this configuration page,
and as a supplicant on other ports by the setting the control mode to
Force-Authorized on this page and enabling the PAE supplicant on the
Supplicant configuration page.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Port – Port number.
◆
Status – Indicates if authentication is enabled or disabled on the port.
The status is disabled if the control mode is set to Force-Authorized.
– 192 –
CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
ES-2000 Series
◆
Authorized – Displays the 802.1X authorization status of connected
clients.
■
Yes – Connected client is authorized.
■
No – Connected client is not authorized.
◆
Supplicant – Indicates the MAC address of a connected client.
◆
Control Mode – Sets the authentication mode to one of the following
options:
■
◆
Auto – Requires a dot1x-aware client to be authorized by the
authentication server. Clients that are not dot1x-aware will be
denied access.
■
Force-Authorized – Forces the port to grant access to all clients,
either dot1x-aware or otherwise. (This is the default setting.)
■
Force-Unauthorized – Forces the port to deny access to all
clients, either dot1x-aware or otherwise.
Operation Mode – Allows single or multiple hosts (clients) to connect
to an 802.1X-authorized port. (Default: Single-Host)
■
Single-Host – Allows only a single host to connect to this port.
■
Multi-Host – Allows multiple host to connect to this port.
In this mode, only one host connected to a port needs to pass
authentication for all other hosts to be granted network access.
Similarly, a port can become unauthorized for all hosts if one
attached host fails re-authentication or sends an EAPOL logoff
message.
◆
Max MAC Count – The maximum number of hosts that can connect to
a port when the Multi-Host operation mode is selected.
(Range: 1-1024; Default: 5)
◆
Max-Request – Sets the maximum number of times the switch port
will retransmit an EAP request packet to the client before it times out
the authentication session. (Range: 1-10; Default 2)
◆
Quiet Period – Sets the time that a switch port waits after the Max
Request Count has been exceeded before attempting to acquire a new
client. (Range: 1-65535 seconds; Default: 60 seconds)
◆
Tx Period – Sets the time period during an authentication session that
the switch waits before re-transmitting an EAP packet.
(Range: 1-65535; Default: 30 seconds)
◆
Supplicant Timeout – Sets the time that a switch port waits for a
response to an EAP request from a client before re-transmitting an EAP
packet. (Range: 1-65535; Default: 30 seconds)
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CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
ES-2000 Series
This command attribute sets the timeout for EAP-request frames other
than EAP-request/identity frames. If dot1x authentication is enabled on
a port, the switch will initiate authentication when the port link state
comes up. It will send an EAP-request/identity frame to the client to
request its identity, followed by one or more requests for authentication
information. It may also send other EAP-request frames to the client
during an active connection as required for reauthentication.
◆
Server Timeout – Sets the time that a switch port waits for a response
to an EAP request from an authentication server before re-transmitting
an EAP packet. (Fixed Setting: 10 seconds)
◆
Re-authentication Status – Sets the client to be re-authenticated
after the interval specified by the Re-authentication Period. Reauthentication can be used to detect if a new device is plugged into a
switch port. (Default: Disabled)
◆
Re-authentication Period – Sets the time period after which a
connected client must be re-authenticated. (Range: 1-65535 seconds;
Default: 3600 seconds)
Authenticator PAE State Machine
◆
State – Current state (including initialize, disconnected, connecting,
authenticating, authenticated, aborting, held, force_authorized,
force_unauthorized).
◆
Reauth Count – Number of times connecting state is re-entered.
◆
Current Identifier – Identifier sent in each EAP Success, Failure or
Request packet by the Authentication Server.
Backend State Machine
◆
State – Current state (including request, response, success, fail,
timeout, idle, initialize).
◆
Request Count – Number of EAP Request packets sent to the
Supplicant without receiving a response.
◆
Identifier (Server) – Identifier carried in the most recent EAP
Success, Failure or Request packet received from the Authentication
Server.
Reauthentication State Machine
◆
State – Current state (including initialize, reauthenticate).
– 194 –
CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
ES-2000 Series
WEB INTERFACE
To configure port authenticator settings for 802.1X:
1. Click Security, Port Authentication.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Click Authenticator.
4. Modify the authentication settings for each port as required.
5. Click Apply
Figure 113: Configuring Interface Settings for 802.1X Port Authenticator
– 195 –
CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
ES-2000 Series
CONFIGURING PORT Use the Security > Port Authentication (Configure Interface – Supplicant)
SUPPLICANT SETTINGS page to configure 802.1X port settings for supplicant requests issued from
FOR 802.1X a port to an authenticator on another device. When 802.1X is enabled and
the control mode is set to Force-Authorized (see "Configuring Port
Authenticator Settings for 802.1X" on page 192), you need to configure
the parameters for the client supplicant process if the client must be
authenticated through another device in the network.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ When devices attached to a port must submit requests to another
authenticator on the network, configure the Identity Profile parameters
on the Configure Global page (see "Configuring 802.1X Global Settings"
on page 191) which identify this switch as a supplicant, and configure
the supplicant parameters for those ports which must authenticate
clients through the remote authenticator on this configuration page.
When PAE supplicant mode is enabled on a port, it will not respond to
dot1x messages meant for an authenticator.
◆
This switch can be configured to serve as the authenticator on selected
ports by setting the Control Mode to Auto on the Authenticator
configuration page, and as a supplicant on other ports by the setting
the control mode to Force-Authorized on that configuration page and
enabling the PAE supplicant on the Supplicant configuration page.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Port – Port number.
◆
PAE Supplicant – Enables PAE supplicant mode. (Default: Disabled)
If the attached client must be authenticated through another device in
the network, supplicant status must be enabled.
Supplicant status can only be enabled if PAE Control Mode is set to
“Force-Authorized” on this port (see "Configuring Port Authenticator
Settings for 802.1X" on page 192).
PAE supplicant status cannot be enabled if a port is a member of trunk
or LACP is enabled on the port.
◆
Authentication Period – The time that a supplicant port waits for a
response from the authenticator. (Range: 1-65535 seconds;
Default: 30 seconds)
◆
Hold Period – The time that a supplicant port waits before resending
its credentials to find a new an authenticator. (Range: 1-65535
seconds; Default: 30 seconds)
◆
Start Period – The time that a supplicant port waits before resending
an EAPOL start frame to the authenticator. (Range: 1-65535 seconds;
Default: 30 seconds)
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CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
ES-2000 Series
◆
Maximum Start – The maximum number of times that a port
supplicant will send an EAP start frame to the client before assuming
that the client is 802.1X unaware. (Range: 1-65535; Default: 3)
◆
Authenticated – Shows whether or not the supplicant has been
authenticated.
WEB INTERFACE
To configure port authenticator settings for 802.1X:
1. Click Security, Port Authentication.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Click Supplicant.
4. Modify the supplicant settings for each port as required.
5. Click Apply
Figure 114: Configuring Interface Settings for 802.1X Port Supplicant
– 197 –
CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
ES-2000 Series
DISPLAYING 802.1X Use the Security > Port Authentication (Show Statistics) page to display
STATISTICS statistics for dot1x protocol exchanges for any port.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
Table 18: 802.1X Statistics
Parameter
Description
Authenticator
Rx EAPOL Start
The number of EAPOL Start frames that have been received
by this Authenticator.
Rx EAPOL Logoff
The number of EAPOL Logoff frames that have been received
by this Authenticator.
Rx EAPOL Invalid
The number of EAPOL frames that have been received by this
Authenticator in which the frame type is not recognized.
Rx EAPOL Total
The number of valid EAPOL frames of any type that have been
received by this Authenticator.
Rx Last EAPOLVer
The protocol version number carried in the most recent EAPOL
frame received by this Authenticator.
Rx Last EAPOLSrc
The source MAC address carried in the most recent EAPOL
frame received by this Authenticator.
Rx EAP Resp/Id
The number of EAP Resp/Id frames that have been received
by this Authenticator.
Rx EAP Resp/Oth
The number of valid EAP Response frames (other than Resp/
Id frames) that have been received by this Authenticator.
Rx EAP LenError
The number of EAPOL frames that have been received by this
Authenticator in which the Packet Body Length field is invalid.
Tx EAP Req/Id
The number of EAP Req/Id frames that have been transmitted
by this Authenticator.
Tx EAP Req/Oth
The number of EAP Request frames (other than Rq/Id frames)
that have been transmitted by this Authenticator.
Tx EAPOL Total
The number of EAPOL frames of any type that have been
transmitted by this Authenticator.
Supplicant
Rx EAPOL Invalid
The number of EAPOL frames that have been received by this
Supplicant in which the frame type is not recognized.
Rx EAPOL Total
The number of valid EAPOL frames of any type that have been
received by this Supplicant.
Rx Last EAPOLVer
The protocol version number carried in the most recent EAPOL
frame received by this Supplicant.
Rx Last EAPOLSrc
The source MAC address carried in the most recent EAPOL
frame received by this Supplicant.
Rx EAP Resp/Id
The number of EAP Resp/Id frames that have been received
by this Supplicant.
Rx EAP Resp/Oth
The number of valid EAP Response frames (other than Resp/
Id frames) that have been received by this Supplicant.
Rx EAP LenError
The number of EAPOL frames that have been received by this
Supplicant in which the Packet Body Length field is invalid.
Tx EAPOL Total
The number of EAPOL frames of any type that have been
transmitted by this Supplicant.
– 198 –
CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
ES-2000 Series
Table 18: 802.1X Statistics (Continued)
Parameter
Description
Tx EAPOL Start
The number of EAPOL Start frames that have been
transmitted by this Supplicant.
Tx EAPOL Logoff
The number of EAPOL Logoff frames that have been
transmitted by this Supplicant.
Tx EAP Req/Id
The number of EAP Req/Id frames that have been transmitted
by this Supplicant.
Tx EAP Req/Oth
The number of EAP Request frames (other than Rq/Id frames)
that have been transmitted by this Supplicant.
WEB INTERFACE
To display port authenticator statistics for 802.1X:
1. Click Security, Port Authentication.
2. Select Show Statistics from the Step list.
3. Click Authenticator.
Figure 115: Showing Statistics for 802.1X Port Authenticator
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CHAPTER 14 | Security Measures
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
ES-2000 Series
To display port supplicant statistics for 802.1X:
1. Click Security, Port Authentication.
2. Select Show Statistics from the Step list.
3. Click Supplicant.
Figure 116: Showing Statistics for 802.1X Port Supplicant
– 200 –
15
BASIC ADMINISTRATION PROTOCOLS
ES-2000 Series
This chapter describes basic administration tasks including:
◆
Event Logging – Sets conditions for logging event messages to system
memory or flash memory, configures conditions for sending trap
messages to remote log servers, and configures trap reporting to
remote hosts using Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP).
◆
Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) – Configures advertisement of
basic information about the local switch, or discovery of information
about neighboring devices on the local broadcast domain.
◆
Power over Ethernet – Sets the priority and power budget for each port.
◆
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) – Configures switch
management through SNMPv1, SNMPv2c or SNMPv3.
◆
Remote Monitoring (RMON) – Configures local collection of detailed
statistics or events which can be subsequently retrieved through SNMP.
◆
Switch Clustering – Configures centralized management by a single unit
over a group of switches connected to the same local network
CONFIGURING EVENT LOGGING
The switch allows you to control the logging of error messages, including
the type of events that are recorded in switch memory, logging to a remote
System Log (syslog) server, and displays a list of recent event messages.
SYSTEM LOG Use the Administration > Log > System (Configure Global) page to enable
CONFIGURATION or disable event logging, and specify which levels are logged to RAM or
flash memory.
Severe error messages that are logged to flash memory are permanently
stored in the switch to assist in troubleshooting network problems. Up to
4096 log entries can be stored in the flash memory, with the oldest entries
being overwritten first when the available log memory (256 kilobytes) has
been exceeded.
The System Logs page allows you to configure and limit system messages
that are logged to flash or RAM memory. The default is for event levels 0 to
3 to be logged to flash and levels 0 to 7 to be logged to RAM.
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
Configuring Event Logging
ES-2000 Series
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
System Log Status – Enables/disables the logging of debug or error
messages to the logging process. (Default: Enabled)
◆
Flash Level – Limits log messages saved to the switch’s permanent
flash memory for all levels up to the specified level. For example, if
level 3 is specified, all messages from level 0 to level 3 will be logged to
flash. (Range: 0-7, Default: 3)
Table 19: Logging Levels
Level
Severity Name
Description
7
Debug
Debugging messages
6
Informational
Informational messages only
5
Notice
Normal but significant condition, such as cold
start
4
Warning
Warning conditions (e.g., return false,
unexpected return)
3
Error
Error conditions (e.g., invalid input, default
used)
2
Critical
Critical conditions (e.g., memory allocation, or
free memory error - resource exhausted)
1
Alert
Immediate action needed
0
Emergency
System unusable
* There are only Level 2, 5 and 6 error messages for the current firmware
release.
◆
RAM Level – Limits log messages saved to the switch’s temporary RAM
memory for all levels up to the specified level. For example, if level 7 is
specified, all messages from level 0 to level 7 will be logged to RAM.
(Range: 0-7, Default: 7)
NOTE: The Flash Level must be equal to or less than the RAM Level.
NOTE: All log messages are retained in RAM and Flash after a warm restart
(i.e., power is reset through the command interface).
NOTE: All log messages are retained in Flash and purged from RAM after a
cold restart (i.e., power is turned off and then on through the power
source).
WEB INTERFACE
To configure the logging of error messages to system memory:
1. Click Administration, Log, System.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
Configuring Event Logging
ES-2000 Series
3. Enable or disable system logging, set the level of event messages to be
logged to flash memory and RAM.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 117: Configuring Settings for System Memory Logs
To show the error messages logged to system or flash memory:
1. Click Administration, Log, System.
2. Select Show Logs from the Step list.
3. Click RAM to display log messages stored in system memory, or Flash
to display messages stored in flash memory.
This page allows you to scroll through the logged system and event
messages. The switch can store up to 2048 log entries in temporary
random access memory (RAM; i.e., memory flushed on power reset)
and up to 4096 entries in permanent flash memory.
Figure 118: Showing Error Messages Logged to System Memory
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
Configuring Event Logging
ES-2000 Series
REMOTE LOG Use the Administration > Log > Remote page to send log messages to
CONFIGURATION syslog servers or other management stations. You can also limit the event
messages sent to only those messages below a specified level.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Remote Log Status – Enables/disables the logging of debug or error
messages to the remote logging process. (Default: Disabled)
◆
Logging Facility – Sets the facility type for remote logging of syslog
messages. There are eight facility types specified by values of 16 to 23.
The facility type is used by the syslog server to dispatch log messages
to an appropriate service.
The attribute specifies the facility type tag sent in syslog messages (see
RFC 3164). This type has no effect on the kind of messages reported by
the switch. However, it may be used by the syslog server to process
messages, such as sorting or storing messages in the corresponding
database. (Range: 16-23, Default: 23)
◆
Logging Trap Level – Limits log messages that are sent to the remote
syslog server for all levels up to the specified level. For example, if level
3 is specified, all messages from level 0 to level 3 will be sent to the
remote server. (Range: 0-7, Default: 7)
◆
Server IP Address – Specifies the IP address of a remote server
which will be sent syslog messages.
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
ES-2000 Series
WEB INTERFACE
To configure the logging of error messages to remote servers:
1. Click Administration, Log, Remote.
2. Enable remote logging, specify the facility type to use for the syslog
messages. and enter the IP address of the remote servers.
3. Click Apply.
Figure 119: Configuring Settings for Remote Logging of Error Messages
LINK LAYER DISCOVERY PROTOCOL
Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) is used to discover basic information
about neighboring devices on the local broadcast domain. LLDP is a Layer 2
protocol that uses periodic broadcasts to advertise information about the
sending device. Advertised information is represented in Type Length Value
(TLV) format according to the IEEE 802.1ab standard, and can include
details such as device identification, capabilities and configuration settings.
LLDP also defines how to store and maintain information gathered about
the neighboring network nodes it discovers.
Link Layer Discovery Protocol - Media Endpoint Discovery (LLDP-MED) is an
extension of LLDP intended for managing endpoint devices such as Voice
over IP phones and network switches. The LLDP-MED TLVs advertise
information such as network policy, power, inventory, and device location
details. LLDP and LLDP-MED information can be used by SNMP applications
to simplify troubleshooting, enhance network management, and maintain
an accurate network topology.
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
ES-2000 Series
SETTING LLDP TIMING Use the Administration > LLDP (Configure Global) page to set attributes for
ATTRIBUTES general functions such as globally enabling LLDP on the switch, setting the
message ageout time, and setting the frequency for broadcasting general
advertisements or reports about changes in the LLDP MIB.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
LLDP – Enables LLDP globally on the switch. (Default: Enabled)
◆
Transmission Interval – Configures the periodic transmit interval for
LLDP advertisements. (Range: 5-32768 seconds; Default: 30 seconds)
This attribute must comply with the following rule:
(Transmission Interval * Hold Time Multiplier) ≤ 65536, and
Transmission Interval >= (4 * Delay Interval)
◆
Hold Time Multiplier – Configures the time-to-live (TTL) value sent in
LLDP advertisements as shown in the formula below. (Range: 2-10;
Default: 4)
The time-to-live tells the receiving LLDP agent how long to retain all
information pertaining to the sending LLDP agent if it does not transmit
updates in a timely manner.
TTL in seconds is based on the following rule:
(Transmission Interval * Holdtime Multiplier) ≤ 65536.
Therefore, the default TTL is 4*30 = 120 seconds.
◆
Delay Interval – Configures a delay between the successive
transmission of advertisements initiated by a change in local LLDP MIB
variables. (Range: 1-8192 seconds; Default: 2 seconds)
The transmit delay is used to prevent a series of successive LLDP
transmissions during a short period of rapid changes in local LLDP MIB
objects, and to increase the probability that multiple, rather than single
changes, are reported in each transmission.
This attribute must comply with the rule:
(4 * Delay Interval) ≤ Transmission Interval
◆
Reinitialization Delay – Configures the delay before attempting to reinitialize after LLDP ports are disabled or the link goes down.
(Range: 1-10 seconds; Default: 2 seconds)
When LLDP is re-initialized on a port, all information in the remote
systems LLDP MIB associated with this port is deleted.
◆
Notification Interval – Configures the allowed interval for sending
SNMP notifications about LLDP MIB changes. (Range: 5-3600 seconds;
Default: 5 seconds)
This parameter only applies to SNMP applications which use data stored
in the LLDP MIB for network monitoring or management.
Information about changes in LLDP neighbors that occur between SNMP
notifications is not transmitted. Only state changes that exist at the
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
ES-2000 Series
time of a notification are included in the transmission. An SNMP agent
should therefore periodically check the value of
lldpStatsRemTableLastChangeTime to detect any lldpRemTablesChange
notification-events missed due to throttling or transmission loss.
◆
MED Fast Start Count – Configures the amount of LLDP MED Fast
Start LLDPDUs to transmit during the activation process of the LLDPMED Fast Start mechanism. (Range: 1-10 packets; Default: 4 packets)
The MED Fast Start Count parameter is part of the timer which ensures
that the LLDP-MED Fast Start mechanism is active for the port. LLDPMED Fast Start is critical to the timely startup of LLDP, and therefore
integral to the rapid availability of Emergency Call Service.
WEB INTERFACE
To configure LLDP timing attributes:
1. Click Administration, LLDP.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Enable LLDP, and modify any of the timing parameters as required.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 120: Configuring LLDP Timing Attributes
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
ES-2000 Series
CONFIGURING LLDP Use the Administration > LLDP (Configure Interface – Configure General)
INTERFACE page to specify the message attributes for individual interfaces, including
ATTRIBUTES whether messages are transmitted, received, or both transmitted and
received, whether SNMP notifications are sent, and the type of information
advertised.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Admin Status – Enables LLDP message transmit and receive modes
for LLDP Protocol Data Units. (Options: Tx only, Rx only, TxRx,
Disabled; Default: TxRx)
◆
SNMP Notification – Enables the transmission of SNMP trap
notifications about LLDP and LLDP-MED changes. (Default: Disabled)
This option sends out SNMP trap notifications to designated target
stations at the interval specified by the Notification Interval in the
preceding section. Trap notifications include information about state
changes in the LLDP MIB (IEEE 802.1AB), the LLDP-MED MIB (ANSI/
TIA-1057), or vendor-specific LLDP-EXT-DOT1 and LLDP-EXT-DOT3
MIBs.
For information on defining SNMP trap destinations, see "Specifying
Trap Managers" on page 245.
Information about additional changes in LLDP neighbors that occur
between SNMP notifications is not transmitted. Only state changes that
exist at the time of a trap notification are included in the transmission.
An SNMP agent should therefore periodically check the value of
lldpStatsRemTableLastChangeTime to detect any lldpRemTablesChange
notification-events missed due to throttling or transmission loss.
◆
MED Notification – Enables the transmission of SNMP trap
notifications about LLDP-MED changes. (Default: Enabled)
◆
Basic Optional TLVs – Configures basic information included in the
TLV field of advertised messages.
■
Management Address – The management address protocol
packet includes the IPv4 address of the switch. If no management
address is available, the address should be the MAC address for the
CPU or for the port sending this advertisement.
The management address TLV may also include information about
the specific interface associated with this address, and an object
identifier indicating the type of hardware component or protocol
entity associated with this address. The interface number and OID
are included to assist SNMP applications in the performance of
network discovery by indicating enterprise specific or other starting
points for the search, such as the Interface or Entity MIB.
Since there are typically a number of different addresses associated
with a Layer 3 device, an individual LLDP PDU may contain more
than one management address TLV.
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
ES-2000 Series
Every management address TLV that reports an address that is
accessible on a port and protocol VLAN through the particular port
should be accompanied by a port and protocol VLAN TLV that
indicates the VLAN identifier (VID) associated with the management
address reported by this TLV.
■
■
◆
◆
Port Description – The port description is taken from the ifDescr
object in RFC 2863, which includes information about the
manufacturer, the product name, and the version of the interface
hardware/software.
System Capabilities – The system capabilities identifies the
primary function(s) of the system and whether or not these primary
functions are enabled. The information advertised by this TLV is
described in IEEE 802.1AB.
■
System Description – The system description is taken from the
sysDescr object in RFC 3418, which includes the full name and
version identification of the system's hardware type, software
operating system, and networking software.
■
System Name – The system name is taken from the sysName
object in RFC 3418, which contains the system’s administratively
assigned name. To configure the system name, see "Displaying
System Information" on page 47.
802.1 Organizationally Specific TLVs – Configures IEEE 802.1
information included in the TLV field of advertised messages.
■
Protocol Identity – The protocols that are accessible through this
interface.
■
VLAN ID – The port’s default VLAN identifier (PVID) indicates the
VLAN with which untagged or priority-tagged frames are associated
(see "IEEE 802.1Q VLANs" on page 93).
■
VLAN Name – The name of all VLANs to which this interface has
been assigned (see "IEEE 802.1Q VLANs" on page 93).
■
Port and Protocol VLAN ID – The port-based protocol VLANs
configured on this interface (see "IEEE 802.1Q VLANs" on page 93).
802.3 Organizationally Specific TLVs – Configures IEEE 802.3
information included in the TLV field of advertised messages.
■
Link Aggregation – The link aggregation capabilities, aggregation
status of the link, and the IEEE 802.3 aggregated port identifier if
this interface is currently a link aggregation member.
■
Max Frame Size – The maximum frame size. (See "Configuring
Support for Jumbo Frames" on page 50 for information on
configuring the maximum frame size for this switch
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
ES-2000 Series
■
■
◆
◆
MAC/PHY Configuration/Status – The MAC/PHY configuration
and status which includes information about auto-negotiation
support/capabilities, and operational Multistation Access Unit (MAU)
type.
PoE – Power-over-Ethernet capabilities, including whether or not
PoE is supported, currently enabled, if the port pins through which
power is delivered can be controlled, the port pins selected to
deliver power, and the power class.
MED TLVs – Configures general information included in the MED TLV
field of advertised messages.
■
Capabilities – This option advertises LLDP-MED TLV capabilities,
allowing Media Endpoint and Connectivity Devices to efficiently
discover which LLDP-MED related TLVs are supported on the switch.
■
Extended Power – This option advertises extended Power-overEthernet capability details, such as power availability from the
switch, and power state of the switch, including whether the switch
is operating from primary or backup power (the Endpoint Device
could use this information to decide to enter power conservation
mode). Note that this device does not support PoE capabilities.
■
Inventory – This option advertises device details useful for
inventory management, such as manufacturer, model, software
version and other pertinent information.
■
Location – This option advertises location identification details.
■
Network Policy – This option advertises network policy
configuration information, aiding in the discovery and diagnosis of
VLAN configuration mismatches on a port. Improper network policy
configurations frequently result in voice quality degradation or
complete service disruption.
MED-Location Civic Address – Configures information for the
location of the attached device included in the MED TLV field of
advertised messages, including the country and the device type.
■
Country – The two-letter ISO 3166 country code in capital ASCII
letters. (Example: DK, DE or US)
■
Device entry refers to – The type of device to which the location
applies:
■
Location of DHCP server.
■
Location of network element closest to client.
■
Location of client. (This is the default.)
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
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WEB INTERFACE
To configure LLDP interface attributes:
1. Click Administration, LLDP.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select Configure General from the Action list.
4. Select an interface from the Port or Trunk list.
5. Set the LLDP transmit/receive mode, specify whether or not to send
SNMP trap messages, and select the information to advertise in LLDP
messages.
6. Click Apply.
Figure 121: Configuring LLDP Interface Attributes
CONFIGURING LLDP Use the Administration > LLDP (Configure Interface – Add CA-Type) page
INTERFACE CIVIC- to specify the physical location of the device attached to an interface.
ADDRESS
COMMAND USAGE
◆ Use the Civic Address type (CA-Type) to advertise the physical location
of the device attached to an interface, including items such as the city,
street number, building and room information. The address location is
specified as a type and value pair, with the civic address type defined in
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RFC 4776. The following table describes some of the CA type numbers
and provides examples.
Table 20: LLDP MED Location CA Types
◆
CA Type Description
CA Value Example
1
National subdivisions (state, canton, province)
California
2
County, parish
Orange
3
City, township
Irvine
4
City division, borough, city district
West Irvine
5
Neighborhood, block
Riverside
6
Group of streets below the neighborhood level
Exchange
18
Street suffix or type
Avenue
19
House number
320
20
House number suffix
A
21
Landmark or vanity address
Tech Center
26
Unit (apartment, suite)
Apt 519
27
Floor
5
28
Room
509B
Any number of CA type and value pairs can be specified for the civic
address location, as long as the total does not exceed 250 characters.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
CA-Type – Descriptor of the data civic address value. (Range: 0-255)
◆
CA-Value – Description of a location. (Range: 1-32 characters)
WEB INTERFACE
To specify the physical location of the attached device:
1. Click Administration, LLDP.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select Add CA-Type from the Action list.
4. Select an interface from the Port or Trunk list.
5. Specify a CA-Type and CA-Value pair.
6. Click Apply.
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
ES-2000 Series
Figure 122: Configuring the Civic Address for an LLDP Interface
To show the physical location of the attached device:
1. Click Administration, LLDP.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select Show CA-Type from the Action list.
4. Select an interface from the Port or Trunk list.
Figure 123: Showing the Civic Address for an LLDP Interface
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
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DISPLAYING LLDP Use the Administration > LLDP (Show Local Device Information) page to
LOCAL DEVICE display information about the switch, such as its MAC address, chassis ID,
INFORMATION management IP address, and port information.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
Global Settings
◆
Chassis Type – Identifies the chassis containing the IEEE 802 LAN
entity associated with the transmitting LLDP agent. There are several
ways in which a chassis may be identified and a chassis ID subtype is
used to indicate the type of component being referenced by the chassis
ID field.
Table 21: Chassis ID Subtype
ID Basis
Reference
Chassis component
EntPhysicalAlias when entPhysClass has a value of
‘chassis(3)’ (IETF RFC 2737)
Interface alias
IfAlias (IETF RFC 2863)
Port component
EntPhysicalAlias when entPhysicalClass has a value ‘port(10)’
or ‘backplane(4)’ (IETF RFC 2737)
MAC address
MAC address (IEEE Std 802-2001)
Network address
networkAddress
Interface name
ifName (IETF RFC 2863)
Locally assigned
locally assigned
◆
Chassis ID – An octet string indicating the specific identifier for the
particular chassis in this system.
◆
System Name – A string that indicates the system’s administratively
assigned name (see "Displaying System Information" on page 47).
◆
System Description – A textual description of the network entity. This
field is also displayed by the show system command.
◆
System Capabilities Supported – The capabilities that define the
primary function(s) of the system.
Table 22: System Capabilities
ID Basis
Reference
Other
—
Repeater
IETF RFC 2108
Bridge
IETF RFC 2674
WLAN Access Point
IEEE 802.11 MIB
Router
IETF RFC 1812
Telephone
IETF RFC 2011
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
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Table 22: System Capabilities (Continued)
ID Basis
Reference
DOCSIS cable device
IETF RFC 2669 and IETF RFC 2670
End Station Only
IETF RFC 2011
◆
System Capabilities Enabled – The primary function(s) of the
system which are currently enabled. Refer to the preceding table.
◆
Management Address – The management address protocol packet
includes the IPv4 address of the switch. If no management address is
available, the address should be the MAC address for the CPU or for the
port sending this advertisement.
Interface Settings
The attributes listed below apply to both port and trunk interface types.
When a trunk is listed, the descriptions apply to the first port of the trunk.
◆
Port/Trunk Description – A string that indicates the port or trunk
description. If RFC 2863 is implemented, the ifDescr object should be
used for this field.
◆
Port/Trunk ID – A string that contains the specific identifier for the
port or trunk from which this LLDPDU was transmitted.
WEB INTERFACE
To display LLDP information for the local device:
1. Click Administration, LLDP.
2. Select Show Local Device Information from the Step list.
3. Select General, Port, or Trunk.
Figure 124: Displaying Local Device Information for LLDP (General)
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Figure 125: Displaying Local Device Information for LLDP (Port)
DISPLAYING LLDP Use the Administration > LLDP (Show Remote Device Information) page to
REMOTE PORT display information about devices connected directly to the switch’s ports
INFORMATION which are advertising information through LLDP, or to display detailed
information about an LLDP-enabled device connected to a specific port on
the local switch.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
Port
◆
Local Port – The local port to which a remote LLDP-capable device is
attached.
◆
Chassis ID – An octet string indicating the specific identifier for the
particular chassis in this system.
◆
Port ID – A string that contains the specific identifier for the port from
which this LLDPDU was transmitted.
◆
System Name – A string that indicates the system’s administratively
assigned name.
Port Details
◆
Local Port – The local port to which a remote LLDP-capable device is
attached.
◆
Chassis Type – Identifies the chassis containing the IEEE 802 LAN
entity associated with the transmitting LLDP agent. There are several
ways in which a chassis may be identified and a chassis ID subtype is
used to indicate the type of component being referenced by the chassis
ID field. (See Table 21, "Chassis ID Subtype," on page 214.)
◆
Chassis ID – An octet string indicating the specific identifier for the
particular chassis in this system.
◆
System Name – A string that indicates the system’s assigned name.
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◆
System Description – A textual description of the network entity.
◆
Port Type – Indicates the basis for the identifier that is listed in the
Port ID field.
Table 23: Port ID Subtype
ID Basis
Reference
Interface alias
IfAlias (IETF RFC 2863)
Chassis component
EntPhysicalAlias when entPhysClass has a value of
‘chassis(3)’ (IETF RFC 2737)
Port component
EntPhysicalAlias when entPhysicalClass has a value ‘port(10)’
or ‘backplane(4)’ (IETF RFC 2737)
MAC address
MAC address (IEEE Std 802-2001)
Network address
networkAddress
Interface name
ifName (IETF RFC 2863)
Agent circuit ID
agent circuit ID (IETF RFC 3046)
Locally assigned
locally assigned
◆
Port Description – A string that indicates the port’s description. If RFC
2863 is implemented, the ifDescr object should be used for this field.
◆
Port ID – A string that contains the specific identifier for the port from
which this LLDPDU was transmitted.
◆
System Capabilities Supported – The capabilities that define the
primary function(s) of the system. (See Table 22, "System
Capabilities," on page 214.)
◆
System Capabilities Enabled – The primary function(s) of the
system which are currently enabled. (See Table 22, "System
Capabilities," on page 214.)
◆
Management Address List – The management addresses for this
device. Since there are typically a number of different addresses
associated with a Layer 3 device, an individual LLDP PDU may contain
more than one management address TLV.
If no management address is available, the address should be the MAC
address for the CPU or for the port sending this advertisement.
Port Details – 802.1 Extension Information
◆
Remote Port VID – The port’s default VLAN identifier (PVID) indicates
the VLAN with which untagged or priority-tagged frames are
associated.
◆
Remote Port-Protocol VLAN List – The port-based protocol VLANs
configured on this interface, whether the given port (associated with
the remote system) supports port-based protocol VLANs, and whether
the port-based protocol VLANs are enabled on the given port associated
with the remote system.
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
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ES-2000 Series
◆
Remote VLAN Name List – VLAN names associated with a port.
◆
Remote Protocol Identity List – Information about particular
protocols that are accessible through a port. This object represents an
arbitrary local integer value used by this agent to identify a particular
protocol identity, and an octet string used to identify the protocols
associated with a port of the remote system.
Port Details – 802.3 Extension Port Information
◆
Remote Port Auto-Neg Supported – Shows whether the given port
(associated with remote system) supports auto-negotiation.
◆
Remote Port Auto-Neg Adv-Capability – The value (bitmap) of the
ifMauAutoNegCapAdvertisedBits object (defined in IETF RFC 3636)
which is associated with a port on the remote system.
Table 24: Remote Port Auto-Negotiation Advertised Capability
Bit
Capability
0
other or unknown
1
10BASE-T half duplex mode
2
10BASE-T full duplex mode
3
100BASE-T4
4
100BASE-TX half duplex mode
5
100BASE-TX full duplex mode
6
100BASE-T2 half duplex mode
7
100BASE-T2 full duplex mode
8
PAUSE for full-duplex links
9
Asymmetric PAUSE for full-duplex links
10
Symmetric PAUSE for full-duplex links
11
Asymmetric and Symmetric PAUSE for full-duplex links
12
1000BASE-X, -LX, -SX, -CX half duplex mode
13
1000BASE-X, -LX, -SX, -CX full duplex mode
14
1000BASE-T half duplex mode
15
1000BASE-T full duplex mode
◆
Remote Port Auto-Neg Status – Shows whether port autonegotiation is enabled on a port associated with the remote system.
◆
Remote Port MAU Type – An integer value that indicates the
operational MAU type of the sending device. This object contains the
integer value derived from the list position of the corresponding
dot3MauType as listed in IETF RFC 3636 and is equal to the last number
in the respective dot3MauType OID.
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Port Details – 802.3 Extension Power Information
◆
Remote Power Class – The port Class of the given port associated
with the remote system (PSE – Power Sourcing Equipment or PD –
Powered Device).
◆
Remote Power MDI Status – Shows whether MDI power is enabled
on the given port associated with the remote system.
◆
Remote Power Pairs – “Signal” means that the signal pairs only are
in use, and “Spare” means that the spare pairs only are in use.
◆
Remote Power MDI Supported – Shows whether MDI power is
supported on the given port associated with the remote system.
◆
Remote Power Pair Controlable – Indicates whether the pair
selection can be controlled for sourcing power on the given port
associated with the remote system.
◆
Remote Power Classification – This classification is used to tag
different terminals on the Power over LAN network according to their
power consumption. Devices such as IP telephones, WLAN access
points and others, will be classified according to their power
requirements.
Port Details – 802.3 Extension Trunk Information
◆
Remote Link Aggregation Capable – Shows if the remote port is not
in link aggregation state and/or it does not support link aggregation.
◆
Remote Link Aggregation Status – The current aggregation status
of the link.
◆
Remote Link Aggregation Port ID – This object contains the IEEE
802.3 aggregated port identifier, aAggPortID (IEEE 802.3-2002,
30.7.2.1.1), derived from the ifNumber of the ifIndex for the port
component associated with the remote system. If the remote port is
not in link aggregation state and/or it does not support link
aggregation, this value should be zero.
Port Details – 802.3 Extension Frame Information
◆
Remote Max Frame Size – An integer value indicating the maximum
supported frame size in octets on the port component associated with
the remote system.
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
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WEB INTERFACE
To display LLDP information for a remote port:
1. Click Administration, LLDP.
2. Select Show Remote Device Information from the Step list.
3. Select Port, Port Details, Trunk, or Trunk Details.
Figure 126: Displaying Remote Device Information for LLDP (Port)
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Figure 127: Displaying Remote Device Information for LLDP (Port Details)
DISPLAYING DEVICE Use the Administration > LLDP (Show Device Statistics) page to display
STATISTICS statistics for LLDP-capable devices attached to the switch, and for LLDP
protocol messages transmitted or received on all local interfaces.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
General Statistics on Remote Devices
◆
Neighbor Entries List Last Updated – The time the LLDP neighbor
entry list was last updated.
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
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◆
New Neighbor Entries Count – The number of LLDP neighbors for
which the remote TTL has not yet expired.
◆
Neighbor Entries Deleted Count – The number of LLDP neighbors
which have been removed from the LLDP remote systems MIB for any
reason.
◆
Neighbor Entries Dropped Count – The number of times which the
remote database on this switch dropped an LLDPDU because of
insufficient resources.
◆
Neighbor Entries Age-out Count – The number of times that a
neighbor’s information has been deleted from the LLDP remote systems
MIB because the remote TTL timer has expired.
Port/Trunk
◆
Frames Discarded – Number of frames discarded because they did
not conform to the general validation rules as well as any specific usage
rules defined for the particular TLV.
◆
Frames Invalid – A count of all LLDPDUs received with one or more
detectable errors.
◆
Frames Received – Number of LLDP PDUs received.
◆
Frames Sent – Number of LLDP PDUs transmitted.
◆
TLVs Unrecognized – A count of all TLVs not recognized by the
receiving LLDP local agent.
◆
TLVs Discarded – A count of all LLDPDUs received and then discarded
due to insufficient memory space, missing or out-of-sequence
attributes, or any other reason.
◆
Neighbor Ageouts – A count of the times that a neighbor’s
information has been deleted from the LLDP remote systems MIB
because the remote TTL timer has expired.
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WEB INTERFACE
To display statistics for LLDP-capable devices attached to the switch:
1. Click Administration, LLDP.
2. Select Show Device Statistics from the Step list.
3. Select General, Port, or Trunk.
Figure 128: Displaying LLDP Device Statistics (General)
Figure 129: Displaying LLDP Device Statistics (Port)
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
Power over Ethernet
ES-2000 Series
POWER OVER ETHERNET
The switch can provide DC power to a wide range of connected devices,
eliminating the need for an additional power source and cutting down on
the amount of cables attached to each device. Once configured to supply
power, an automatic detection process is initialized by the switch that is
authenticated by a PoE signature from the connected device. Detection and
authentication prevent damage to non-compliant devices (IEEE 802.3af or
802.3at).
The switch’s power management enables individual port power to be
controlled within the switch’s power budget. Port power can be
automatically turned on and off for connected devices, and a per-port
power priority can be set so that the switch never exceeds its power
budget. When a device is connected to a switch port, its power
requirements are detected by the switch before power is supplied. If the
power required by a device exceeds the power budget of the port or the
whole switch, power is not supplied.
Ports can be set to one of four power priority levels, critical, high, medium,
or low. To control the power supply within the switch’s budget, ports set at
critical to medium priority have power enabled in preference to those ports
set at low priority. For example, when a device connected to a port is set to
critical priority, the switch supplies the required power, if necessary by
denying power to ports set for a lower priority during bootup. If a device is
connected to a switch port and the switch detects that it requires more
than the power budget of the port, no power is supplied to the device (i.e.,
port power remains off).
If the power demand from devices connected to switch ports exceeds the
power budget set for the switch, the port power priority settings are used
to control the supplied power. For example:
◆
If a device is connected to a low-priority port and causes the switch to
exceed its budget, port power is not turned on.
◆
If a device is connected to a critical or high-priority port and would
cause the switch to exceed its power budget as determined during
booting up, power is provided to the port only if the switch can drop
power to one or more lower-priority ports and thereby remain within its
overall budget.
◆
If a device is connected to a port after the switch has finished booting
up and would cause the switch to exceed its budget, power will not be
provided to that port.
NOTE: Power is dropped from low-priority ports in sequence starting from
port number 1.
NOTE: For more information on using the PoE provided by this switch refer
to the Installation Guide.
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
Power over Ethernet
ES-2000 Series
DISPLAYING THE Use the Administration > PoE (Configure Global) page to display the
SWITCH’S OVERALL maximum PoE power budget for the switch (power available to all Fast
POE POWER BUDGET Ethernet ports). The maximum power budget is fixed at the maximum
available setting, which prevents overload conditions at the power source.
If the power demand from devices connected to the switch exceeds the
power budget, the switch uses port power priority settings to limit the
supplied power.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
PoE Maximum Available Power – The power budget for the switch.
If devices connected to the switch require more power than the switch
budget, the port power priority settings are used to control the supplied
power. (Fixed: 195 Watts)
◆
System Operation Status – Status of the PoE power service provided
to the switch ports.
◆
PoE Power Consumption – The amount of power being consumed by
PoE devices connected to the switch.
◆
Software Version – The version of software running on the PoE
controller subsystem in the switch.
WEB INTERFACE
To set the overall PoE power budget for switch:
1. Click Administration, PoE.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
Figure 130: Showing the Switch’s PoE Budget
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
Power over Ethernet
ES-2000 Series
SETTING THE PORT Use the Administration > PoE (Configure Interface) page to set the
POE POWER BUDGET maximum power provided to a port.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ The switch only provides power to the Fast Ethernet ports. It can supply
up to 30W of power to the first six ports (based on the IEEE 802.3at
draft), up to 15.4W to 12 ports (based on IEEE 802.3af). or up to 7.5 to
24 ports (based on IEEE 802.3af).
◆
If a device is connected to a switch port and the switch detects that it
requires more than the power budget set for the port or to the overall
switch, no power is supplied to the device (i.e., port power remains
off).
◆
If the power demand from devices connected to all switch ports
exceeds the power budget set for the switch, the port power priority
settings are used to control the supplied power. For example:
■
If a device is connected to a low-priority port and causes the switch
to exceed its budget, power to this port is not turned on.
■
If a device is connected to a critical or high-priority port and causes
the switch to exceed its budget, port power is turned on, but the
switch drops power to one or more lower-priority ports.
NOTE: Power is dropped from low-priority ports in sequence starting from
port number 1.
◆
If a device is connected to a port after the switch has finished booting
up and would cause the switch to exceed its budget, power will not be
provided to that port regardless of its priority setting.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Port – The port number on the switch.
◆
Admin Status – Enables PoE power on a port. Power is automatically
supplied when a device is detected on a port, providing that the power
demanded does not exceed the switch or port power budget. (Default:
Enabled)
◆
Mode – Shows whether or not PoE power is being supplied to a port.
◆
Priority – Sets the power priority for a port. (Options: Low, High, or
Critical; Default: Low)
◆
Power Allocation – Sets the power budget for a port.
(Range: 3000-30000 milliwatts on ports 1-6, 3000-15400 milliwatts on
ports 7-24; Default: 30000 milliwatts on ports 1-6, 15400 milliwatts on
ports 7-24)
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
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◆
Power Consumption – Current power consumption on a port.
WEB INTERFACE
To set the PoE power budget for a port:
1. Click Administration, PoE.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Enable PoE power on selected ports. Set the priority and the power
budget.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 131: Setting a Port’s PoE Budget
SIMPLE NETWORK MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a communication protocol
designed specifically for managing devices on a network. Equipment
commonly managed with SNMP includes switches, routers and host
computers. SNMP is typically used to configure these devices for proper
operation in a network environment, as well as to monitor them to evaluate
performance or detect potential problems.
Managed devices supporting SNMP contain software, which runs locally on
the device and is referred to as an agent. A defined set of variables, known
as managed objects, is maintained by the SNMP agent and used to manage
the device. These objects are defined in a Management Information Base
(MIB) that provides a standard presentation of the information controlled
by the agent. SNMP defines both the format of the MIB specifications and
the protocol used to access this information over the network.
The switch includes an onboard agent that supports SNMP versions 1, 2c,
and 3. This agent continuously monitors the status of the switch hardware,
as well as the traffic passing through its ports. A network management
station can access this information using network management software.
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
Simple Network Management Protocol
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Access to the onboard agent from clients using SNMP v1 and v2c is
controlled by community strings. To communicate with the switch, the
management station must first submit a valid community string for
authentication.
Access to the switch from clients using SNMPv3 provides additional security
features that cover message integrity, authentication, and encryption; as
well as controlling user access to specific areas of the MIB tree.
The SNMPv3 security structure consists of security models, with each
model having it’s own security levels. There are three security models
defined, SNMPv1, SNMPv2c, and SNMPv3. Users are assigned to “groups”
that are defined by a security model and specified security levels. Each
group also has a defined security access to set of MIB objects for reading
and writing, which are known as “views.” The switch has a default view (all
MIB objects) and default groups defined for security models v1 and v2c.
The following table shows the security models and levels available and the
system default settings.
Table 25: SNMPv3 Security Models and Levels
Model Level
Group
Read View
Write View
Notify View
Security
v1
noAuthNoPriv
public
(read only)
defaultview
none
none
Community string only
v1
noAuthNoPriv
private
(read/write)
defaultview
defaultview
none
Community string only
v1
noAuthNoPriv
user defined
user defined
user defined
user defined
Community string only
v2c
noAuthNoPriv
public
(read only)
defaultview
none
none
Community string only
v2c
noAuthNoPriv
private
(read/write)
defaultview
defaultview
none
Community string only
v2c
noAuthNoPriv
user defined
user defined
user defined
user defined
Community string only
v3
noAuthNoPriv
user defined
user defined
user defined
user defined
A user name match only
v3
AuthNoPriv
user defined
user defined
user defined
user defined
Provides user authentication via MD5 or
SHA algorithms
v3
AuthPriv
user defined
user defined
user defined
user defined
Provides user authentication via MD5 or
SHA algorithms and data privacy using
DES 56-bit encryption
NOTE: The predefined default groups and view can be deleted from the
system. You can then define customized groups and views for the SNMP
clients that require access.
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
Simple Network Management Protocol
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COMMAND USAGE
Configuring SNMPv1/2c Management Access
To configure SNMPv1 or v2c management access to the switch, follow
these steps:
1. Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure Global) page to enable
SNMP on the switch, and to enable trap messages.
2. Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure User - Add Community)
page to configure the community strings authorized for management
access.
3. Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure Trap) page to specify trap
managers so that key events are reported by this switch to your
management station.
Configuring SNMPv3 Management Access
1. Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure Global) page to enable
SNMP on the switch, and to enable trap messages.
2. Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure Trap) page to specify trap
managers so that key events are reported by this switch to your
management station.
3. Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure Engine) page to change the
local engine ID. If you want to change the default engine ID, it must be
changed before configuring other parameters.
4. Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure View) page to specify read
and write access views for the switch MIB tree.
5. Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure User) page to configure
SNMP user groups with the required security model (i.e., SNMP v1, v2c
or v3) and security level (i.e., authentication and privacy).
6. Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure Group) page to assign SNMP
users to groups, along with their specific authentication and privacy
passwords.
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
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CONFIGURING GLOBAL Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure Global) page to enable SNMPv3
SETTINGS FOR SNMP service for all management clients (i.e., versions 1, 2c, 3), and to enable
trap messages.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Agent Status – Enables SNMP on the switch. (Default: Enabled)
◆
Authentication Traps3 – Issues a notification message to specified IP
trap managers whenever an invalid community string is submitted
during the SNMP access authentication process. (Default: Enabled)
◆
Link-up and Link-down Traps3 – Issues a notification message
whenever a port link is established or broken. (Default: Enabled)
WEB INTERFACE
To configure global settings for SNMP:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Enable SNMP and the required trap types.
4. Click Apply
Figure 132: Configuring Global Settings for SNMP
3. These are legacy notifications and therefore when used for SNMPv3 hosts, they must be
enabled in conjunction with the corresponding entries in the Notification View (page 233).
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Simple Network Management Protocol
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SETTING THE LOCAL Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure Engine - Set Engine ID) page to
ENGINE ID change the local engine ID. An SNMPv3 engine is an independent SNMP
agent that resides on the switch. This engine protects against message
replay, delay, and redirection. The engine ID is also used in combination
with user passwords to generate the security keys for authenticating and
encrypting SNMPv3 packets.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ A local engine ID is automatically generated that is unique to the
switch. This is referred to as the default engine ID. If the local engine
ID is deleted or changed, all SNMP users will be cleared. You will need
to reconfigure all existing users.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Engine ID – A new engine ID can be specified by entering 9 to 64
hexadecimal characters (5 to 32 octets in hexadecimal format). If an
odd number of characters are specified, a trailing zero is added to the
value to fill in the last octet. For example, the value “123456789” is
equivalent to “1234567890”.
WEB INTERFACE
To configure the local SNMP engine ID:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure Engine from the Step list.
3. Select Set Engine ID from the Action list.
4. Enter an ID of a least 9 hexadecimal characters.
5. Click Apply
Figure 133: Configuring the Local Engine ID for SNMP
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SPECIFYING A REMOTE Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure Engine - Add Remote Engine)
ENGINE ID page to configure a engine ID for a remote management station. To allow
management access from an SNMPv3 user on a remote device, you must
first specify the engine identifier for the SNMP agent on the remote device
where the user resides. The remote engine ID is used to compute the
security digest for authentication and encryption of packets passed
between the switch and a user on the remote host.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ SNMP passwords are localized using the engine ID of the authoritative
agent. For informs, the authoritative SNMP agent is the remote agent.
You therefore need to configure the remote agent’s SNMP engine ID
before you can send proxy requests or informs to it. (See "Configuring
Remote SNMPv3 Users" on page 243.)
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Remote Engine ID – The engine ID can be specified by entering 9 to
64 hexadecimal characters (5 to 32 octets in hexadecimal format). If
an odd number of characters are specified, a trailing zero is added to
the value to fill in the last octet. For example, the value “123456789” is
equivalent to “1234567890”.
◆
Remote IP Host – The IP address of a remote management station
which is using the specified engine ID.
WEB INTERFACE
To configure a remote SNMP engine ID:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure Engine from the Step list.
3. Select Add Remote Engine from the Action list.
4. Enter an ID of a least 9 hexadecimal characters, and the IP address of
the remote host.
5. Click Apply
Figure 134: Configuring a Remote Engine ID for SNMP
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To show the remote SNMP engine IDs:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure Engine from the Step list.
3. Select Show Remote Engine from the Action list.
Figure 135: Showing Remote Engine IDs for SNMP
SETTING SNMPV3 Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure View) page to configure
VIEWS SNMPv3 views which are used to restrict user access to specified portions
of the MIB tree. The predefined view “defaultview” includes access to the
entire MIB tree.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
Add View
◆
View Name – The name of the SNMP view. (Range: 1-64 characters)
◆
OID Subtree – Specifies the initial object identifier of a branch within
the MIB tree. Wild cards can be used to mask a specific portion of the
OID string. Use the Add OID Subtree page to configure additional
object identifiers.
◆
Type – Indicates if the object identifier of a branch within the MIB tree
is included or excluded from the SNMP view.
Add OID Subtree
◆
View Name – Lists the SNMP views configured in the Add View page.
◆
OID Subtree – Adds an additional object identifier of a branch within
the MIB tree to the selected View. Wild cards can be used to mask a
specific portion of the OID string.
◆
Type – Indicates if the object identifier of a branch within the MIB tree
is included or excluded from the SNMP view.
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WEB INTERFACE
To configure an SNMP view of the switch’s MIB database:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure View from the Step list.
3. Select Add View from the Action list.
4. Enter a view name and specify the initial OID subtree in the switch’s
MIB database to be included or excluded in the view. Use the Add OID
Subtree page to add additional object identifier branches to the view.
5. Click Apply
Figure 136: Creating an SNMP View
To show the SNMP views of the switch’s MIB database:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure View from the Step list.
3. Select Show View from the Action list.
Figure 137: Showing SNMP Views
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To add an object identifier to an existing SNMP view of the switch’s MIB
database:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure View from the Step list.
3. Select Add OID Subtree from the Action list.
4. Select a view name from the list of existing views, and specify an
additional OID subtree in the switch’s MIB database to be included or
excluded in the view.
5. Click Apply
Figure 138: Adding an OID Subtree to an SNMP View
To show the OID branches configured for the SNMP views of the switch’s
MIB database:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure View from the Step list.
3. Select Show OID Subtree from the Action list.
4. Select a view name from the list of existing views.
Figure 139: Showing the OID Subtree Configured for SNMP Views
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CONFIGURING Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure Group) page to add an SNMPv3
SNMPV3 GROUPS group which can be used to set the access policy for its assigned users,
restricting them to specific read, write, and notify views. You can use the
pre-defined default groups or create new groups to map a set of SNMP
users to SNMP views.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Group Name – The name of the SNMP group to which the user is
assigned. (Range: 1-32 characters)
◆
Security Model – The user security model; SNMP v1, v2c or v3.
◆
Security Level – The following security levels are only used for the
groups assigned to the SNMP security model:
■
noAuthNoPriv – There is no authentication or encryption used in
SNMP communications. (This is the default security level.)
■
AuthNoPriv – SNMP communications use authentication, but the
data is not encrypted.
■
AuthPriv – SNMP communications use both authentication and
encryption.
◆
Read View – The configured view for read access.
(Range: 1-64 characters)
◆
Write View – The configured view for write access.
(Range: 1-64 characters)
◆
Notify View – The configured view for notifications.
(Range: 1-64 characters)
Table 26: Supported Notification Messages
Model
Level
Group
newRoot
1.3.6.1.2.1.17.0.1
The newRoot trap indicates that the
sending agent has become the new
root of the Spanning Tree; the trap is
sent by a bridge soon after its election
as the new root, e.g., upon expiration
of the Topology Change Timer
immediately subsequent to its
election.
topologyChange
1.3.6.1.2.1.17.0.2
A topologyChange trap is sent by a
bridge when any of its configured ports
transitions from the Learning state to
the Forwarding state, or from the
Forwarding state to the Discarding
state. The trap is not sent if a newRoot
trap is sent for the same transition.
RFC 1493 Traps
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Table 26: Supported Notification Messages (Continued)
Model
Level
Group
coldStart
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.1
A coldStart trap signifies that the
SNMPv2 entity, acting in an agent role,
is reinitializing itself and that its
configuration may have been altered.
warmStart
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.2
A warmStart trap signifies that the
SNMPv2 entity, acting in an agent role,
is reinitializing itself such that its
configuration is unaltered.
linkDown*
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.3
A linkDown trap signifies that the
SNMP entity, acting in an agent role,
has detected that the ifOperStatus
object for one of its communication
links is about to enter the down state
from some other state (but not from
the notPresent state). This other state
is indicated by the included value of
ifOperStatus.
linkUp*
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.4
A linkUp trap signifies that the SNMP
entity, acting in an agent role, has
detected that the ifOperStatus object
for one of its communication links left
the down state and transitioned into
some other state (but not into the
notPresent state). This other state is
indicated by the included value of
ifOperStatus.
authenticationFailure*
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.5
An authenticationFailure trap signifies
that the SNMPv2 entity, acting in an
agent role, has received a protocol
message that is not properly
authenticated. While all
implementations of the SNMPv2 must
be capable of generating this trap, the
snmpEnableAuthenTraps object
indicates whether this trap will be
generated.
risingAlarm
1.3.6.1.2.1.16.0.1
The SNMP trap that is generated when
an alarm entry crosses its rising
threshold and generates an event that
is configured for sending SNMP traps.
fallingAlarm
1.3.6.1.2.1.16.0.2
The SNMP trap that is generated when
an alarm entry crosses its falling
threshold and generates an event that
is configured for sending SNMP traps.
swPowerStatus ChangeTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.572.17389.12000.2.1.0.1
This trap is sent when the power state
changes.
swPortSecurityTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.572.17389.12000.2.1.0.36
This trap is sent when the port is being
intruded. This trap will only be sent
when the portSecActionTrap is
enabled.
swIpFilterRejectTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.572.17389.12000.2.1.0.40
This trap is sent when an incorrect IP
address is rejected by the IP Filter.
swAuthenticationFailure
1.3.6.1.4.1.572.17389.12000.2.1.0.66
This trap will be triggered if
authentication fails.
swAuthenticationSuccess
1.3.6.1.4.1.572.17389.12000.2.1.0.67
This trap will be triggered if
authentication is successful.
SNMPv2 Traps
RMON Events (V2)
Private Traps
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Table 26: Supported Notification Messages (Continued)
Model
Level
Group
swAtcBcastStormAlarmFireTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.572.17389.12000.2.1.0.70
When broadcast traffic is detected as a
storm, this trap is fired.
swAtcBcastStormAlarmClearTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.572.17389.12000.2.1.0.71
When a broadcast storm is detected as
normal traffic, this trap is fired.
swAtcBcastStormTcApplyTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.572.17389.12000.2.1.0.72
When ATC is activated, this trap is
fired.
swAtcBcastStormTcReleaseTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.572.17389.12000.2.1.0.73
When ATC is released, this trap is fired.
swAtcMcastStormAlarmFireTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.572.17389.12000.2.1.0.74
When multicast traffic is detected as
the storm, this trap is fired.
swAtcMcastStormAlarmClearTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.572.17389.12000.2.1.0.75
When multicast storm is detected as
normal traffic, this trap is fired.
swAtcMcastStormTcApplyTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.572.17389.12000.2.1.0.76
When ATC is activated, this trap is
fired.
swAtcMcastStormTcReleaseTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.572.17389.12000.2.1.0.77
When ATC is released, this trap is fired.
stpBecomeRootBridgeTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.572.17389.13000.2.1.0.86
The stpBecomeRootBridge trap
indicates that the sending agent has
become the new root of the Spanning
Tree; the trap is sent by a bridge soon
after it has been elected as the new
root.
stpPortEnterForwardingTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.572.17389.13000.2.1.0.87
The trap is sent by a bridge when any
of its configured ports transit from
Learning state to Forwarding state.
stpRootPortChangedTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.572.17389.13000.2.1.0.88
The trap is sent when the root port of
a bridge has changed.
stpRootBridgeChangedTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.572.17389.13000.2.1.0.89
The trap will be sent when the root
bridge of bridges has changed and the
bridge sending off the trap is not the
root in STP topology.
swLoopbackDetectionTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.572.17389.12000.2.1.0.92
This trap is sent when loopback BPDUs
have been detected.
autoUpgradeTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.572.17389.12000.2.1.0.104 This trap is sent when auto upgrade is
executed.
swCpuUtiRisingNotification
1.3.6.1.4.1.572.17389.12000.2.1.0.107 This notification indicates that the CPU
utilization has risen from
cpuUtiFallingThreshold to
cpuUtiRisingThreshold.
swCpuUtiFallingNotification
1.3.6.1.4.1.572.17389.12000.2.1.0.108 This notification indicates that the CPU
utilization has fallen from
cpuUtiRisingThreshold to
cpuUtiFallingThreshold.
swMemoryUtiRisingThresholdNotification
1.3.6.1.4.1.572.17389.12000.2.1.0.109 This notification indicates that the
memory utilization has risen from
memoryUtiFallingThreshold to
memoryUtiRisingThreshold.
swMemoryUtiFallingThresholdNotification
1.3.6.1.4.1.572.17389.12000.2.1.0.110 This notification indicates that the
memory utilization has fallen from
memoryUtiRisingThreshold to
memoryUtiFallingThreshold.
dhcpRougeServerAttackTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.572.17389.12000.2.1.0.114 This trap is sent when receiving a
DHCP packet from a rouge server.
* These are legacy notifications and therefore must be enabled in conjunction with the corresponding traps on the SNMP
Configuration menu.
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WEB INTERFACE
To configure an SNMP group:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure Group from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Enter a group name, assign a security model and level, and then select
read, write, and notify views.
5. Click Apply
Figure 140: Creating an SNMP Group
To show SNMP groups:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure Group from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 141: Showing SNMP Groups
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SETTING COMMUNITY Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure User - Add Community) page to
ACCESS STRINGS configure up to five community strings authorized for management access
by clients using SNMP v1 and v2c. For security reasons, you should
consider removing the default strings.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Community String – A community string that acts like a password
and permits access to the SNMP protocol.
Range: 1-32 characters, case sensitive
Default strings: “public” (Read-Only), “private” (Read/Write)
◆
Access Mode – Specifies the access rights for the community string:
■
Read-Only – Authorized management stations are only able to
retrieve MIB objects.
■
Read/Write – Authorized management stations are able to both
retrieve and modify MIB objects.
WEB INTERFACE
To set a community access string:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure User from the Step list.
3. Select Add Community from the Action list.
4. Add new community strings as required, and select the corresponding
access rights from the Access Mode list.
5. Click Apply
Figure 142: Setting Community Access Strings
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To show the community access strings:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure User from the Step list.
3. Select Show Community from the Action list.
Figure 143: Showing Community Access Strings
CONFIGURING LOCAL Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure User - Add SNMPv3 Local User)
SNMPV3 USERS page to authorize management access for SNMPv3 clients, or to identify
the source of SNMPv3 trap messages sent from the local switch. Each
SNMPv3 user is defined by a unique name. Users must be configured with a
specific security level and assigned to a group. The SNMPv3 group restricts
users to a specific read, write, and notify view.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
User Name – The name of user connecting to the SNMP agent.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
◆
Group Name – The name of the SNMP group to which the user is
assigned. (Range: 1-32 characters)
◆
Security Model – The user security model; SNMP v1, v2c or v3.
◆
Security Level – The following security levels are only used for the
groups assigned to the SNMP security model:
■
noAuthNoPriv – There is no authentication or encryption used in
SNMP communications. (This is the default security level.)
■
AuthNoPriv – SNMP communications use authentication, but the
data is not encrypted.
■
AuthPriv – SNMP communications use both authentication and
encryption.
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◆
Authentication Protocol – The method used for user authentication.
(Options: MD5, SHA; Default: MD5)
◆
Authentication Password – A minimum of eight plain text characters
is required.
◆
Privacy Protocol – The encryption algorithm use for data privacy;
only 56-bit DES is currently available.
◆
Privacy Password – A minimum of eight plain text characters is
required.
WEB INTERFACE
To configure a local SNMPv3 user:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure User from the Step list.
3. Select Add SNMPv3 Local User from the Action list.
4. Enter a name and assign it to a group. If the security model is set to
SNMPv3 and the security level is authNoPriv or authPriv, then an
authentication protocol and password must be specified. If the security
level is authPriv, a privacy password must also be specified.
5. Click Apply
Figure 144: Configuring Local SNMPv3 Users
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To show local SNMPv3 users:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure User from the Step list.
3. Select Show SNMPv3 Local User from the Action list.
Figure 145: Showing Local SNMPv3 Users
CONFIGURING REMOTE Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure User - Add SNMPv3 Remote
SNMPV3 USERS User) page to identify the source of SNMPv3 inform messages sent from
the local switch. Each SNMPv3 user is defined by a unique name. Users
must be configured with a specific security level and assigned to a group.
The SNMPv3 group restricts users to a specific read, write, and notify view.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ To grant management access to an SNMPv3 user on a remote device,
you must first specify the engine identifier for the SNMP agent on the
remote device where the user resides. The remote engine ID is used to
compute the security digest for authentication and encryption of
packets passed between the switch and the remote user. (See
"Specifying Trap Managers" on page 245 and "Specifying a Remote
Engine ID" on page 232.)
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
User Name – The name of user connecting to the SNMP agent.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
◆
Group Name – The name of the SNMP group to which the user is
assigned. (Range: 1-32 characters)
◆
Remote IP – The Internet address of the remote device where the
user resides.
◆
Security Model – The user security model; SNMP v1, v2c or v3.
(Default: v3)
◆
Security Level – The following security levels are only used for the
groups assigned to the SNMP security model:
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■
■
■
noAuthNoPriv – There is no authentication or encryption used in
SNMP communications. (This is the default security level.)
AuthNoPriv – SNMP communications use authentication, but the
data is not encrypted.
AuthPriv – SNMP communications use both authentication and
encryption.
◆
Authentication Protocol – The method used for user authentication.
(Options: MD5, SHA; Default: MD5)
◆
Authentication Password – A minimum of eight plain text characters
is required.
◆
Privacy Protocol – The encryption algorithm use for data privacy;
only 56-bit DES is currently available.
◆
Privacy Password – A minimum of eight plain text characters is
required.
WEB INTERFACE
To configure a remote SNMPv3 user:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure User from the Step list.
3. Select Add SNMPv3 Remote User from the Action list.
4. Enter a name and assign it to a group. Enter the IP address to identify
the source of SNMPv3 inform messages sent from the local switch. If
the security model is set to SNMPv3 and the security level is authNoPriv
or authPriv, then an authentication protocol and password must be
specified. If the security level is authPriv, a privacy password must also
be specified.
5. Click Apply
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Figure 146: Configuring Remote SNMPv3 Users
To show remote SNMPv3 users:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure User from the Step list.
3. Select Show SNMPv3 Remote User from the Action list.
Figure 147: Showing Remote SNMPv3 Users
SPECIFYING TRAP Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure Trap) page to specify the host
MANAGERS devices to be sent traps and the types of traps to send. Traps indicating
status changes are issued by the switch to the specified trap managers.
You must specify trap managers so that key events are reported by this
switch to your management station (using network management
software). You can specify up to five management stations that will receive
authentication failure messages and other trap messages from the switch.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ Notifications are issued by the switch as trap messages by default. The
recipient of a trap message does not send a response to the switch.
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Traps are therefore not as reliable as inform messages, which include a
request for acknowledgement of receipt. Informs can be used to ensure
that critical information is received by the host. However, note that
informs consume more system resources because they must be kept in
memory until a response is received. Informs also add to network
traffic. You should consider these effects when deciding whether to
issue notifications as traps or informs.
To send an inform to a SNMPv2c host, complete these steps:
1. Enable the SNMP agent (page 230).
2. Create a view with the required notification messages (page 233).
3. Configure the group (matching the community string specified on
the Configure Trap - Add page) to include the required notify view
(page 236).
4. Enable trap informs as described in the following pages.
To send an inform to a SNMPv3 host, complete these steps:
1. Enable the SNMP agent (page 230).
2. Create a local SNMPv3 user to use in the message exchange
process (page 241). If the user specified in the trap configuration
page does not exist, an SNMPv3 group will be automatically created
using the name of the specified local user, and default settings for
the read, write, and notify view.
3. Create a view with the required notification messages (page 233).
4. Create a group that includes the required notify view (page 236).
5. Enable trap informs as described in the following pages.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
SNMP Version 1
◆
IP Address – IP address of a new management station to receive
notification message (i.e., the targeted recipient).
◆
Version – Specifies whether to send notifications as SNMP v1, v2c, or
v3 traps. (Default: v1)
◆
Community String – Specifies a valid community string for the new
trap manager entry. (Range: 1-32 characters, case sensitive)
Although you can set this string in the Configure Trap – Add page, we
recommend defining it in the Configure User – Add Community page.
◆
UDP Port – Specifies the UDP port number used by the trap manager.
(Default: 162)
SNMP Version 2c
◆
IP Address – IP address of a new management station to receive
notification message (i.e., the targeted recipient).
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◆
Version – Specifies whether to send notifications as SNMP v1, v2c, or
v3 traps.
◆
Notification Type
■
■
Traps – Notifications are sent as trap messages.
Inform – Notifications are sent as inform messages. Note that this
option is only available for version 2c and 3 hosts. (Default: traps
are used)
■
■
◆
Timeout – The number of seconds to wait for an
acknowledgment before resending an inform message.
(Range: 0-2147483647 centiseconds; Default: 1500
centiseconds)
Retry times – The maximum number of times to resend an
inform message if the recipient does not acknowledge receipt.
(Range: 0-255; Default: 3)
Community String – Specifies a valid community string for the new
trap manager entry. (Range: 1-32 characters, case sensitive)
Although you can set this string in the Configure Trap – Add page, we
recommend defining it in the Configure User – Add Community page.
◆
UDP Port – Specifies the UDP port number used by the trap manager.
(Default: 162)
SNMP Version 3
◆
IP Address – IP address of a new management station to receive
notification message (i.e., the targeted recipient).
◆
Version – Specifies whether to send notifications as SNMP v1, v2c, or
v3 traps.
◆
Notification Type
■
Traps – Notifications are sent as trap messages.
■
Inform – Notifications are sent as inform messages. Note that this
option is only available for version 2c and 3 hosts. (Default: traps
are used)
■
Timeout – The number of seconds to wait for an
acknowledgment before resending an inform message.
(Range: 0-2147483647 centiseconds; Default: 1500
centiseconds)
■
Retry times – The maximum number of times to resend an
inform message if the recipient does not acknowledge receipt.
(Range: 0-255; Default: 3)
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◆
Local User Name – The name of a local user which is used to identify
the source of SNMPv3 trap messages sent from the local switch.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
If an account for the specified user has not been created (page 241),
one will be automatically generated.
◆
Remote User Name – The name of a remote user which is used to
identify the source of SNMPv3 inform messages sent from the local
switch. (Range: 1-32 characters)
If an account for the specified user has not been created (page 243),
one will be automatically generated.
◆
UDP Port – Specifies the UDP port number used by the trap manager.
(Default: 162)
◆
Security Level – When trap version 3 is selected, you must specify
one of the following security levels. (Default: noAuthNoPriv)
■
noAuthNoPriv – There is no authentication or encryption used in
SNMP communications.
■
AuthNoPriv – SNMP communications use authentication, but the
data is not encrypted.
■
AuthPriv – SNMP communications use both authentication and
encryption.
WEB INTERFACE
To configure trap managers:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure Trap from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Fill in the required parameters based on the selected SNMP version.
5. Click Apply
Figure 148: Configuring Trap Managers (SNMPv1)
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Figure 149: Configuring Trap Managers (SNMPv2c)
Figure 150: Configuring Trap Managers (SNMPv3)
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ES-2000 Series
To show configured trap managers:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure Trap from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 151: Showing Trap Managers
REMOTE MONITORING
Remote Monitoring allows a remote device to collect information or
respond to specified events on an independent basis. This switch is an
RMON-capable device which can independently perform a wide range of
tasks, significantly reducing network management traffic. It can
continuously run diagnostics and log information on network performance.
If an event is triggered, it can automatically notify the network
administrator of a failure and provide historical information about the
event. If it cannot connect to the management agent, it will continue to
perform any specified tasks and pass data back to the management station
the next time it is contacted.
The switch supports mini-RMON, which consists of the Statistics, History,
Event and Alarm groups. When RMON is enabled, the system gradually
builds up information about its physical interfaces, storing this information
in the relevant RMON database group. A management agent then
periodically communicates with the switch using the SNMP protocol.
However, if the switch encounters a critical event, it can automatically send
a trap message to the management agent which can then respond to the
event if so configured.
CONFIGURING RMON Use the Administration > RMON (Configure Global - Add - Alarm) page to
ALARMS define specific criteria that will generate response events. Alarms can be
set to test data over any specified time interval, and can monitor absolute
or changing values (such as a statistical counter reaching a specific value,
or a statistic changing by a certain amount over the set interval). Alarms
can be set to respond to rising or falling thresholds. (However, note that
after an alarm is triggered it will not be triggered again until the statistical
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
Remote Monitoring
ES-2000 Series
value crosses the opposite bounding threshold and then back across the
trigger threshold.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ If an alarm is already defined for an index, the entry must be deleted
before any changes can be made.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Index – Index to this entry. (Range: 1-65535)
◆
Variable – The object identifier of the MIB variable to be sampled.
Only variables of the type etherStatsEntry.n.n may be sampled.
Note that etherStatsEntry.n uniquely defines the MIB variable, and
etherStatsEntry.n.n defines the MIB variable, plus the etherStatsIndex.
For example, 1.3.6.1.2.1.16.1.1.1.6.1 denotes
etherStatsBroadcastPkts, plus the etherStatsIndex of 1.
◆
Interval – The polling interval. (Range: 1-31622400 seconds)
◆
Sample Type – Tests for absolute or relative changes in the specified
variable.
■
Absolute – The variable is compared directly to the thresholds at
the end of the sampling period.
■
Delta – The last sample is subtracted from the current value and
the difference is then compared to the thresholds.
◆
Rising Threshold – If the current value is greater than or equal to the
rising threshold, and the last sample value was less than this threshold,
then an alarm will be generated. After a rising event has been
generated, another such event will not be generated until the sampled
value has fallen below the rising threshold, reaches the falling
threshold, and again moves back up to the rising threshold.
(Range: 1-65535)
◆
Rising Event Index – The index of the event to use if an alarm is
triggered by monitored variables reaching or crossing above the rising
threshold. If there is no corresponding entry in the event control table,
then no event will be generated. (Range: 1-65535)
◆
Falling Threshold – If the current value is less than or equal to the
falling threshold, and the last sample value was greater than this
threshold, then an alarm will be generated. After a falling event has
been generated, another such event will not be generated until the
sampled value has risen above the falling threshold, reaches the rising
threshold, and again moves back down to the failing threshold.
(Range: 1-65535)
◆
Falling Event Index – The index of the event to use if an alarm is
triggered by monitored variables reaching or crossing below the falling
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
Remote Monitoring
ES-2000 Series
threshold. If there is no corresponding entry in the event control table,
then no event will be generated. (Range: 1-65535)
◆
Owner – Name of the person who created this entry. (Range: 1-127
characters)
WEB INTERFACE
To configure an RMON alarm:
1. Click Administration, RMON.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Click Alarm.
5. Enter an index number, the MIB object to be polled
(etherStatsEntry.n.n), the polling interval, the sample type, the
thresholds, and the event to trigger.
6. Click Apply
Figure 152: Configuring an RMON Alarm
To show configured RMON alarms:
1. Click Administration, RMON.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
4. Click Alarm.
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
Remote Monitoring
ES-2000 Series
Figure 153: Showing Configured RMON Alarms
CONFIGURING RMON Use the Administration > RMON (Configure Global - Add - Event) page to
EVENTS set the action to take when an alarm is triggered. The response can include
logging the alarm or sending a message to a trap manager. Alarms and
corresponding events provide a way of immediately responding to critical
network problems.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ If an alarm is already defined for an index, the entry must be deleted
before any changes can be made.
◆
One default event is configured as follows:
event Index = 1
Description: RMON_TRAP_LOG
Event type: log & trap
Event community name is public
Owner is RMON_SNMP
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Index – Index to this entry. (Range: 1-65535)
◆
Type – Specifies the type of event to initiate:
■
None – No event is generated.
■
Log – Generates an RMON log entry when the event is triggered.
Log messages are processed based on the current configuration
settings for event logging (see "System Log Configuration" on
page 201).
■
■
Trap – Sends a trap message to all configured trap managers (see
"Specifying Trap Managers" on page 245).
Log and Trap – Logs the event and sends a trap message.
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
Remote Monitoring
ES-2000 Series
◆
Community – A password-like community string sent with the trap
operation to SNMP v1 and v2c hosts.
Although the community string can be set on this configuration page, it
is recommended that it be defined on the SNMP trap configuration page
(see "Setting Community Access Strings" on page 240) prior to
configuring it here. (Range: 1-127 characters)
◆
Description – A comment that describes this event. (Range: 1-127
characters)
◆
Owner – Name of the person who created this entry. (Range: 1-127
characters)
WEB INTERFACE
To configure an RMON event:
1. Click Administration, RMON.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Click Event.
5. Enter an index number, the type of event to initiate, the community
string to send with trap messages, the name of the person who created
this event, and a brief description of the event.
6. Click Apply
Figure 154: Configuring an RMON Event
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
Remote Monitoring
ES-2000 Series
To show configured RMON events:
1. Click Administration, RMON.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
4. Click Event.
Figure 155: Showing Configured RMON Events
CONFIGURING RMON Use the Administration > RMON (Configure Interface - Add - History) page
HISTORY SAMPLES to collect statistics on a physical interface to monitor network utilization,
packet types, and errors. A historical record of activity can be used to track
down intermittent problems. The record can be used to establish normal
baseline activity, which may reveal problems associated with high traffic
levels, broadcast storms, or other unusual events. It can also be used to
predict network growth and plan for expansion before your network
becomes too overloaded.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ Each index number equates to a port on the switch.
◆
If history collection is already enabled on an interface, the entry must
be deleted before any changes can be made.
◆
The information collected for each sample includes:
input octets, packets, broadcast packets, multicast packets, undersize
packets, oversize packets, fragments, jabbers, CRC alignment errors,
collisions, drop events, and network utilization.
For a description of the statistics displayed on the Show Details page,
refer to "Showing Port or Trunk Statistics" on page 71.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Port – The port number on the switch.
◆
Index - Index to this entry. (Range: 1-65535)
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
Remote Monitoring
ES-2000 Series
◆
Interval - The polling interval. (Range: 1-3600 seconds; Default: 1800
seconds)
◆
Buckets - The number of buckets requested for this entry.
(Range: 1-65536; Default: 50)
The number of buckets granted are displayed on the Show page.
◆
Owner - Name of the person who created this entry. (Range: 1-127
characters)
WEB INTERFACE
To periodically sample statistics on a port:
1. Click Administration, RMON.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Click History.
5. Select a port from the list as the data source.
6. Enter an index number, the sampling interval, the number of buckets to
use, and the name of the owner for this entry.
7. Click Apply
Figure 156: Configuring an RMON History Sample
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
Remote Monitoring
ES-2000 Series
To show configured RMON history samples:
1. Click Administration, RMON.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
4. Select a port from the list.
5. Click History.
Figure 157: Showing Configured RMON History Samples
To show collected RMON history samples:
1. Click Administration, RMON.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select Show Details from the Action list.
4. Select a port from the list.
5. Click History.
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
Remote Monitoring
ES-2000 Series
Figure 158: Showing Collected RMON History Samples
CONFIGURING RMON Use the Administration > RMON (Configure Interface - Add - Statistics)
STATISTICAL SAMPLES page to collect statistics on a port, which can subsequently be used to
monitor the network for common errors and overall traffic rates.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ If statistics collection is already enabled on an interface, the entry must
be deleted before any changes can be made.
◆
The information collected for each entry includes:
input octets, packets, broadcast packets, multicast packets, undersize
packets, oversize packets, CRC alignment errors, jabbers, fragments,
collisions, drop events, and frames of various sizes.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Port – The port number on the switch.
◆
Index - Index to this entry. (Range: 1-65535)
◆
Owner - Name of the person who created this entry. (Range: 1-127
characters)
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
Remote Monitoring
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WEB INTERFACE
To enable regular sampling of statistics on a port:
1. Click Administration, RMON.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Click Statistics.
5. Select a port from the list as the data source.
6. Enter an index number, and the name of the owner for this entry
7. Click Apply
Figure 159: Configuring an RMON Statistical Sample
To show configured RMON statistical samples:
1. Click Administration, RMON.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
4. Select a port from the list.
5. Click Statistics.
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
Remote Monitoring
ES-2000 Series
Figure 160: Showing Configured RMON Statistical Samples
To show collected RMON statistical samples:
1. Click Administration, RMON.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select Show Details from the Action list.
4. Select a port from the list.
5. Click Statistics.
Figure 161: Showing Collected RMON Statistical Samples
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
Switch Clustering
ES-2000 Series
SWITCH CLUSTERING
Switch clustering is a method of grouping switches together to enable
centralized management through a single unit. Switches that support
clustering can be grouped together regardless of physical location or switch
type, as long as they are connected to the same local network.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ A switch cluster has a “Commander” unit that is used to manage all
other “Member” switches in the cluster. The management station can
use the web interface to communicate directly with the Commander
through its IP address, and then use the Commander to manage
Member switches using the cluster’s “internal” IP addresses.
◆
Clustered switches must be in the same Ethernet broadcast domain. In
other words, clustering only functions for switches which can pass
information between the Commander and potential Candidates or
active Members through VLAN 4093.
◆
Once a switch has been configured to be a cluster Commander, it
automatically discovers other cluster-enabled switches in the network.
These “Candidate” switches only become cluster Members when
manually selected by the administrator through the management
station.
◆
There can be up to 100 candidates and 36 member switches in one
cluster.
◆
A switch can only be a member of one cluster.
◆
The cluster VLAN 4093 is not configured by default. Before using
clustering, take the following actions to set up this VLAN:
1. Create VLAN 4093 (see "Configuring VLAN Groups" on page 95).
2. Add the participating ports to this VLAN (see "Adding Static
Members to VLANs" on page 96), and set them to hybrid mode,
tagged members, PVID = 1, and acceptable frame type = all.
◆
After the Commander and Members have been configured, any switch
in the cluster can be managed from the web agent by choosing the
desired Member ID from the Show Member page.
CONFIGURING Use the Administration > Cluster (Configure Global) page to create a
GENERAL SETTINGS switch cluster.
FOR CLUSTERS
COMMAND USAGE
First be sure that clustering is enabled on the switch (the default is
disabled), then set the switch as a Cluster Commander. Set a Cluster IP
Pool that does not conflict with the network IP subnet. Cluster IP addresses
are assigned to switches when they become Members and are used for
communication between Member switches and the Commander.
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
Switch Clustering
ES-2000 Series
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Cluster Status – Enables or disables clustering on the switch.
(Default: Disabled)
◆
Commander Status – Enables or disables the switch as a cluster
Commander. (Default: Disabled)
◆
IP Pool – An “internal” IP address pool that is used to assign IP
addresses to Member switches in the cluster. Internal cluster IP
addresses are in the form 10.x.x.member-ID. Only the base IP address
of the pool needs to be set since Member IDs can only be between 1
and 36. Note that you cannot change the cluster IP pool when the
switch is currently in Commander mode. Commander mode must first
be disabled. (Default: 10.254.254.1)
◆
Role – Indicates the current role of the switch in the cluster; either
Commander, Member, or Candidate. (Default: Candidate)
◆
Number of Members – The current number of Member switches in the
cluster.
◆
Number of Candidates – The current number of Candidate switches
discovered in the network that are available to become Members.
WEB INTERFACE
To configure a switch cluster:
1. Click Administration, Cluster.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Set the required attributes for a Commander or a managed candidate.
4. Click Apply
Figure 162: Configuring a Switch Cluster
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
Switch Clustering
ES-2000 Series
CLUSTER MEMBER Use the Administration > Cluster (Configure Member - Add) page to add
CONFIGURATION Candidate switches to the cluster as Members.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Member ID – Specify a Member ID number for the selected Candidate
switch. (Range: 1-36)
◆
MAC Address – Select a discovered switch MAC address from the
Candidate Table, or enter a specific MAC address of a known switch.
WEB INTERFACE
To configure cluster members:
1. Click Administration, Cluster.
2. Select Configure Member from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Select one of the cluster candidates discovered by this switch, or enter
the MAC address of a candidate.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 163: Configuring a Cluster Members
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
Switch Clustering
ES-2000 Series
To show the cluster members:
1. Click Administration, Cluster.
2. Select Configure Member from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 164: Showing Cluster Members
To show cluster candidates:
1. Click Administration, Cluster.
2. Select Configure Member from the Step list.
3. Select Show Candidate from the Action list.
Figure 165: Showing Cluster Candidates
MANAGING CLUSTER Use the Administration > Cluster (Show Member) page to manage another
MEMBERS switch in the cluster.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
Member ID – The ID number of the Member switch. (Range: 1-36)
Role – Indicates the current status of the switch in the cluster.
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
Switch Clustering
ES-2000 Series
IP Address – The internal cluster IP address assigned to the Member
switch.
MAC Address – The MAC address of the Member switch.
Description – The system description string of the Member switch.
Operate – Remotely manage a cluster member.
WEB INTERFACE
To manage a cluster member:
1. Click Administration, Cluster.
2. Select Show Member from the Step list.
3. Select an entry from the Cluster Member List.
4. Click Operate.
Figure 166: Managing a Cluster Member
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CHAPTER 15 | Basic Administration Protocols
Switch Clustering
ES-2000 Series
– 266 –
16
IP CONFIGURATION
ES-2000 Series
This chapter describes how to configure an IP interface for management
access to the switch over the network. You can manually configure a
specific IP address or direct the switch to obtain an address from a BOOTP
or DHCP server when it is powered on.
This chapter provides information on network functions including:
◆
Ping – Sends ping message to another node on the network.
◆
Address Resolution Protocol – Specifies the timeout for ARP cache
entries. Also shows how to display the ARP cache.
◆
IP Configuration – Sets an IP address for management access.
USING THE PING FUNCTION
Use the IP > General > Ping page to send ICMP echo request packets to
another node on the network.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
IP Address – IP address of the host.
◆
Probe Count – Number of packets to send. (Range: 1-16)
◆
Packet Size – Number of bytes in a packet. (Range: 32-512 bytes)
The actual packet size will be eight bytes larger than the size specified
because the switch adds header information.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ Use the ping command to see if another site on the network can be
reached.
◆
The following are some results of the ping command:
■
Normal response - The normal response occurs in one to ten
seconds, depending on network traffic.
■
Destination does not respond - If the host does not respond, a
“timeout” appears in ten seconds.
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CHAPTER 16 | IP Configuration
Address Resolution Protocol
ES-2000 Series
■
■
Destination unreachable - The gateway for this destination indicates
that the destination is unreachable.
Network or host unreachable - The gateway found no corresponding
entry in the route table.
WEB INTERFACE
To ping another device on the network:
1. Click IP, General, Ping.
2. Specify the target device and ping parameters.
3. Click Apply.
Figure 167: Pinging a Network Device
ADDRESS RESOLUTION PROTOCOL
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is used to map an IP address to a
physical layer (i.e., MAC) address. When a device sends or receives a
packet with an IP header, it must first resolve the destination IP address
into a MAC address. When an IP frame is received by this switch, it first
looks up the MAC address corresponding to the destination IP address in
the ARP cache. If the address is found, the switch writes the MAC address
into the appropriate field in the frame header, and forwards the frame on to
the destination.
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CHAPTER 16 | IP Configuration
Address Resolution Protocol
ES-2000 Series
If there is no entry for an IP address in the ARP cache, the switch will
broadcast an ARP request packet to all devices on the network. The ARP
request contains the following fields similar to that shown in this example:
Table 27: Address Resolution Protocol
destination IP address
10.1.0.19
destination MAC address ?
source IP address
10.1.0.253
source MAC address
00-00-ab-cd-00-00
When devices receive this request, they discard it if their address does not
match the destination IP address in the message. However, if it does
match, they write their own hardware address into the destination MAC
address field and send the message back to the source hardware address.
When the source device receives a reply, it writes the destination IP
address and corresponding MAC address into its cache, and forwards the IP
traffic on to the next hop. As long as this entry has not timed out, the
switch will be able forward traffic directly to the next hop without having to
broadcast another ARP request.
Also, if the switch receives a request for its own IP address, it will send
back a response, and also cache the MAC of the source device's IP address.
SETTING THE ARP Use the IP > ARP (Configure General) page to specify the timeout for ARP
TIMEOUT cache entries.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Timeout – Sets the aging time for dynamic entries in the ARP cache.
(Range: 300 - 86400 seconds; Default: 1200 seconds or 20 minutes)
The ARP aging timeout can only be set globally for all VLANs.
The aging time determines how long dynamic entries remain in the
cache. If the timeout is too short, the switch may tie up resources by
repeating ARP requests for addresses recently flushed from the table.
When a ARP entry expires, it is deleted from the cache and an ARP
request packet is sent to re-establish the MAC address.
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CHAPTER 16 | IP Configuration
Address Resolution Protocol
ES-2000 Series
WEB INTERFACE
To configure the timeout for the ARP cache or to enable Proxy ARP for a
VLAN (i.e., IP subnetwork):
1. Click IP, ARP.
2. Select Configure General from the Step List.
3. Set the timeout to a suitable value for the ARP cache.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 168: Setting the ARP Timeout
DISPLAYING ARP Use the IP > ARP (Show Information) page to display dynamic or local
ENTRIES entries in the ARP cache. The ARP cache contains entries for local interfaces,
including subnet, host, and broadcast addresses. However, most entries will
be dynamically learned through replies to broadcast messages.
WEB INTERFACE
To display entries in the ARP cache:
1. Click IP, ARP.
2. Select Show Information from the Step List.
Figure 169: Displaying ARP Entries
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CHAPTER 16 | IP Configuration
Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 4)
ES-2000 Series
SETTING THE SWITCH’S IP ADDRESS (IP VERSION 4)
Use the System > IP page to configure an IPv4 address for management
access over the network. You can direct the device to obtain an address
from a BOOTP or DHCP server, or manually configure a static IP address.
Valid IP addresses consist of four decimal numbers, 0 to 255, separated by
periods. Anything other than this format will not be accepted.
A static address of 192.168.1.10 is set by default for VLAN 1. To configure
an address compatible with your network, you need to change the switch’s
default settings. You may also need to a establish a default gateway
between the switch and management stations that exist on another
network segment.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Management VLAN – ID of the configured VLAN (1-4093). By default,
all ports on the switch are members of VLAN 1. However, the
management station can be attached to a port belonging to any VLAN,
as long as that VLAN has been assigned an IP address.
◆
IP Address Mode – Specifies whether IP functionality is enabled via
manual configuration (Static), Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
(DHCP), or Boot Protocol (BOOTP). If DHCP/BOOTP is enabled, IP will
not function until a reply has been received from the server. Requests
will be broadcast periodically by the switch for an IP address. DHCP/
BOOTP values can include the IP address, subnet mask, and default
gateway. (Default: Static)
◆
IP Address – Address of the VLAN to which the management station is
attached. Valid IP addresses consist of four numbers, 0 to 255,
separated by periods. (Default: 192.168.1.10)
◆
Subnet Mask – This mask identifies the host address bits used for
routing to specific subnets. (Default: 255.255.255.0)
◆
Gateway IP Address – IP address of the gateway router between the
switch and management stations that exist on other network
segments. (Default: 0.0.0.0)
◆
MAC Address – The physical layer address for this switch.
◆
Restart DHCP – Requests a new IP address from the DHCP server.
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CHAPTER 16 | IP Configuration
Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 4)
ES-2000 Series
WEB INTERFACE
To set a static address for the switch:
1. Click System, IP.
2. Select the VLAN through which the management station is attached,
set the IP Address Mode to “Static,” enter the IP address, subnet mask
and gateway.
3. Click Apply.
Figure 170: Configuring a Static IPv4 Address
To obtain an dynamic address through DHCP/BOOTP for the switch:
1. Click System, IP.
2. Select the VLAN through which the management station is attached,
set the IP Address Mode to “DHCP” or “BOOTP.”
3. Click Apply to save your changes.
4. Then click Restart DHCP to immediately request a new address.
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CHAPTER 16 | IP Configuration
Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 4)
ES-2000 Series
Figure 171: Configuring a Dynamic IPv4 Address
NOTE: The switch will also broadcast a request for IP configuration settings
on each power reset.
NOTE: When using DHCP, you may lose the management connection if the
IP address assigned by the DHCP server has changed. To resolve this kind
of problem, ask your network administrator to configure a static binding for
your switch’s MAC address on the DHCP server.
Renewing DHCP – DHCP may lease addresses to clients indefinitely or for
a specific period of time. If the address expires or the switch is moved to
another network segment, you will lose management access to the switch.
In this case, you can reboot the switch to restore the default static
address.
If the address assigned by DHCP is no longer functioning, you will not be
able to renew the IP settings via the web interface. You can only restart
DHCP service via the web interface if the current address is still available.
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CHAPTER 16 | IP Configuration
Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 4)
ES-2000 Series
– 274 –
17
MULTICAST FILTERING
ES-2000 Series
Multicasting is used to support real-time applications such as video
conferencing or streaming audio. A multicast server does not have to
establish a separate connection with each client. It merely broadcasts its
service to the network, and any hosts that want to receive the multicast
register with their local multicast switch/router. Although this approach
reduces the network overhead required by a multicast server, the
broadcast traffic must be carefully pruned at every multicast switch/router
it passes through to ensure that traffic is only passed on to the hosts which
subscribed to this service.
Figure 172: Multicast Filtering Concept
Unicast
Flow
Multicast
Flow
This switch can use Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) to filter
multicast traffic. IGMP Snooping can be used to passively monitor or
“snoop” on exchanges between attached hosts and an IGMP-enabled
device, most commonly a multicast router. In this way, the switch can
discover the ports that want to join a multicast group, and set its filters
accordingly.
If there is no multicast router attached to the local subnet, multicast traffic
and query messages may not be received by the switch. In this case (Layer
2) IGMP Query can be used to actively ask the attached hosts if they want
to receive a specific multicast service. IGMP Query thereby identifies the
ports containing hosts requesting to join the service and sends data out to
those ports only. It then propagates the service request up to any
neighboring multicast switch/router to ensure that it will continue to
receive the multicast service.
The purpose of IP multicast filtering is to optimize a switched network’s
performance, so multicast packets will only be forwarded to those ports
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CHAPTER 17 | Multicast Filtering
Layer 2 IGMP (Snooping and Query)
ES-2000 Series
containing multicast group hosts or multicast routers/switches, instead of
flooding traffic to all ports in the subnet (VLAN).
LAYER 2 IGMP (SNOOPING AND QUERY)
IGMP Snooping and Query – If multicast routing is not supported on other
switches in your network, you can use IGMP Snooping and IGMP Query
(page 277) to monitor IGMP service requests passing between multicast
clients and servers, and dynamically configure the switch ports which need
to forward multicast traffic. IGMP Snooping conserves bandwidth on
network segments where no node has expressed interest in receiving a
specific multicast service. For switches that do not support multicast
routing, or where multicast routing is already enabled on other switches in
the local network segment, IGMP Snooping is the only service required to
support multicast filtering.
NOTE: When the switch is configured to use IGMPv2 snooping, the
snooping version may be downgraded to version 1, depending on the
version of the IGMP query packets detected on each VLAN.
NOTE: IGMP snooping will not function unless a multicast router port is
enabled on the switch. This can accomplished in one of two ways. A static
router port can be manually configured (see "Specifying Static Interfaces
for a Multicast Router" on page 280). Using this method, the router port is
never timed out, and will continue to function until explicitly removed. The
other method relies on the switch to dynamically create multicast routing
ports whenever multicast routing protocol packets or IGMP query packets
are detected on a port.
NOTE: A maximum of up to 255 multicast entries can be maintained for
IGMP snooping. Once the table is full, no new entries are learned. Any
subsequent multicast traffic not found in the table is dropped if
unregistered-flooding is disabled (default behavior) and no router port is
configured in the attached VLAN, or flooded throughout the VLAN if
unregistered-flooding is enabled (see "Configuring IGMP Snooping and
Query Parameters" on page 277).
Static IGMP Router Interface – If IGMP snooping cannot locate the IGMP
querier, you can manually designate a known IGMP querier (i.e., a
multicast router/switch) connected over the network to an interface on
your switch (page 280). This interface will then join all the current
multicast groups supported by the attached router/switch to ensure that
multicast traffic is passed to all appropriate interfaces within the switch.
Static IGMP Host Interface – For multicast applications that you need to
control more carefully, you can manually assign a multicast service to
specific interfaces on the switch (page 282).
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CONFIGURING IGMP Use the Multicast > IGMP Snooping > General page to configure the switch
SNOOPING AND QUERY to forward multicast traffic intelligently. Based on the IGMP query and
PARAMETERS report messages, the switch forwards multicast traffic only to the ports
that request it. This prevents the switch from broadcasting the traffic to all
ports and possibly disrupting network performance.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ IGMP Snooping – This switch can passively snoop on IGMP Query and
Report packets transferred between IP multicast routers/switches and
IP multicast host groups to identify the IP multicast group members. It
simply monitors the IGMP packets passing through it, picks out the
group registration information, and configures the multicast filters
accordingly.
NOTE: If unknown multicast traffic enters a VLAN which has been
configured with a router port, the traffic is forwarded to that port. However,
if no router port exists on the VLAN, the traffic is dropped if unregisteredflooding is disabled (default behavior), or flooded throughout the VLAN if
unregistered-flooding is enabled (see “Unregistered Data Flood” in the
Command Attributes section).
◆
IGMP Querier – A router, or multicast-enabled switch, can periodically
ask their hosts if they want to receive multicast traffic. If there is more
than one router/switch on the LAN performing IP multicasting, one of
these devices is elected “querier” and assumes the role of querying the
LAN for group members. It then propagates the service requests on to
any upstream multicast switch/router to ensure that it will continue to
receive the multicast service.
NOTE: Multicast routers use this information from IGMP snooping and query
reports, along with a multicast routing protocol such as DVMRP or PIM, to
support IP multicasting across the Internet.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
IGMP Snooping Status – When enabled, the switch will monitor
network traffic to determine which hosts want to receive multicast
traffic. This is referred to as IGMP Snooping. (Default: Disabled)
When IGMP snooping is enabled globally, the per VLAN interface
settings for IGMP snooping take precedence (see "Setting IGMP
Snooping Status per Interface" on page 284).
When IGMP snooping is disabled globally, snooping can still be
configured per VLAN interface, but the interface settings will not take
effect until snooping is re-enabled globally.
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◆
TCN Flood – Enables flooding of multicast traffic if a spanning tree
topology change notification (TCN) occurs. (Default: Disabled)
When a spanning tree topology change occurs, the multicast
membership information learned by switch may be out of date. For
example, a host linked to one port before the topology change (TC)
may be moved to another port after the change. To ensure that
multicast data is delivered to all receivers, by default, an switch in a
VLAN (with IGMP snooping enabled) that receives a Bridge Protocol
Data Unit (BPDU) with TC bit set (by the root bridge) will enter into
“multicast flooding mode” for a period of time until the topology has
stabilized and the new locations of all multicast receivers are learned.
If a topology change notification (TCN) is received, and all the uplink
ports are subsequently deleted, a time out mechanism is used to delete
all of the currently learned multicast channels.
When a new uplink port starts up, the switch sends unsolicited reports
for all currently learned channels out the new uplink port.
By default, the switch immediately enters into “multicast flooding
mode” when a spanning tree topology change occurs. In this mode,
multicast traffic will be flooded to all VLAN ports. If many ports have
subscribed to different multicast groups, flooding may cause excessive
packet loss on the link between the switch and the end host. Flooding
may be disabled to avoid this, causing multicast traffic to be delivered
only to those ports on which multicast group members have been
learned. Otherwise, the time spent in flooding mode can be manually
configured to reduce excessive loading.
When the spanning tree topology changes, the root bridge sends a
proxy query to quickly re-learn the host membership/port relations for
multicast channels. The root bridge also sends an unsolicited Multicast
Router Discover (MRD) request to quickly locate the multicast routers in
this VLAN.
The proxy query and unsolicited MRD request are flooded to all VLAN
ports except for the receiving port when the switch receives such
packets.
◆
TCN Query Solicit – Sends out an IGMP general query solicitation
when a spanning tree topology change notification (TCN) occurs.
(Default: Disabled)
When the root bridge in a spanning tree receives a TCN for a VLAN
where IGMP snooping is enabled, it issues a global IGMP leave message
(or query solicitation). When a switch receives this solicitation, it floods
it to all ports in the VLAN where the spanning tree change occurred.
When an upstream multicast router receives this solicitation, it
immediately issues an IGMP general query.
A query solicitation can be sent whenever the switch notices a topology
change, even if it is not the root bridge in spanning tree.
◆
Router Alert Option – Discards any IGMPv2 packets that do not
include the Router Alert option. (Default: Disabled)
As described in Section 9.1 of RFC 3376 for IGMP Version 3, the Router
Alert Option can be used to protect against DOS attacks. One common
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method of attack is launched by an intruder who takes over the role of
querier, and starts overloading multicast hosts by sending a large
number of group-and-source-specific queries, each with a large source
list and the Maximum Response Time set to a large value.
To protect against this kind of attack, routers should not forward
queries. This is easier to accomplish if the query carries the Router
Alert option.
◆
Unregistered Data Flooding – Floods unregistered multicast traffic
into the attached VLAN. (Default: Disabled)
Once the table used to store multicast entries for IGMP snooping and
multicast routing is filled, no new entries are learned. If no router port
is configured in the attached VLAN, and unregistered-flooding is
disabled, any subsequent multicast traffic not found in the table is
dropped, otherwise it is flooded throughout the VLAN.
◆
Version Exclusive – Discards any received IGMP messages which use
a version different to that currently configured by the IGMP Version
attribute. (Default: Disabled)
◆
IGMP Unsolicited Report Interval – Specifies how often the
upstream interface should transmit unsolicited IGMP reports when
proxy reporting is enabled. (Range: 1-65535 seconds, Default: 400
seconds)
When a new upstream interface (that is, uplink port) starts up, the
switch sends unsolicited reports for all currently learned multicast
channels via the new upstream interface.
This command only applies when proxy reporting is enabled.
◆
Router Port Expire Time – The time the switch waits after the
previous querier stops before it considers it to have expired.
(Range: 1-65535, Recommended Range: 300-500 seconds,
Default: 300)
◆
IGMP Snooping Version – Sets the protocol version for compatibility
with other devices on the network. This is the IGMP Version the switch
uses to send snooping reports. (Range: 1-2; Default: 2)
This attribute configures the IGMP report/query version used by IGMP
snooping. Versions 1 - 2 are supported, and version 2 is backward
compatible, so the switch can operate with other devices using either
Version 1 or 2.
◆
Querier Status – When enabled, the switch can serve as the Querier,
which is responsible for asking hosts if they want to receive multicast
traffic. (Default: Disabled)
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WEB INTERFACE
To configure general settings for IGMP Snooping and Query:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, General.
2. Adjust the IGMP settings as required.
3. Click Apply.
Figure 173: Configuring General Settings for IGMP Snooping
SPECIFYING STATIC Use the Multicast > IGMP Snooping > Multicast Router (Add) page to
INTERFACES FOR A statically attach an interface to a multicast router/switch.
MULTICAST ROUTER
Depending on network connections, IGMP snooping may not always be able
to locate the IGMP querier. Therefore, if the IGMP querier is a known
multicast router/switch connected over the network to an interface (port or
trunk) on the switch, the interface (and a specified VLAN) can be manually
configured to join all the current multicast groups supported by the
attached router. This can ensure that multicast traffic is passed to all the
appropriate interfaces within the switch.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
VLAN – Selects the VLAN which is to propagate all multicast traffic
coming from the attached multicast router. (Range: 1-4093)
◆
Interface – Activates the Port or Trunk scroll down list.
◆
Port or Trunk – Specifies the interface attached to a multicast router.
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WEB INTERFACE
To specify a static interface attached to a multicast router:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, Multicast Router.
2. Select Add Static Multicast Router from the Action list.
3. Select the VLAN which will forward all the corresponding multicast
traffic, and select the port or trunk attached to the multicast router.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 174: Configuring a Static Interface for a Multicast Router
To show the static interfaces attached to a multicast router:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, Multicast Router.
2. Select Show Static Multicast Router from the Action list.
3. Select the VLAN for which to display this information.
Figure 175: Showing Static Interfaces Attached a Multicast Router
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To show the all interfaces attached to a multicast router:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, Multicast Router.
2. Select Current Multicast Router from the Action list.
3. Select the VLAN for which to display this information.
Figure 176: Showing Current Interfaces Attached a Multicast Router
ASSIGNING Use the Multicast > IGMP Snooping > IGMP Member (Add Static Member)
INTERFACES TO page to statically assign a multicast service to an interface.
MULTICAST SERVICES
Multicast filtering can be dynamically configured using IGMP Snooping and
IGMP Query messages (see "Configuring IGMP Snooping and Query
Parameters" on page 277). However, for certain applications that require
tighter control, it may be necessary to statically configure a multicast
service on the switch. First add all the ports attached to participating hosts
to a common VLAN, and then assign the multicast service to that VLAN
group.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ Static multicast addresses are never aged out.
◆
When a multicast address is assigned to an interface in a specific VLAN,
the corresponding traffic can only be forwarded to ports within that
VLAN.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
VLAN – Specifies the VLAN which is to propagate the multicast service.
(Range: 1-4093)
◆
Interface – Activates the Port or Trunk scroll down list.
◆
Port or Trunk – Specifies the interface assigned to a multicast group.
◆
Multicast IP – The IP address for a specific multicast service.
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WEB INTERFACE
To statically assign an interface to a multicast service:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, IGMP Member.
2. Select Add Static Member from the Action list.
3. Select the VLAN that will propagate the multicast service, specify the
interface attached to a multicast service (through an IGMP-enabled
switch or multicast router), and enter the multicast IP address.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 177: Assigning an Interface to a Multicast Service
To show the static interfaces assigned to a multicast service:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, IGMP Member.
2. Select Show Static Member from the Action list.
3. Select the VLAN for which to display this information.
Figure 178: Showing Static Interfaces Assigned to a Multicast Service
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To show the all interfaces statically or dynamically assigned to a multicast
service:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, IGMP Member.
2. Select Show Current Member from the Action list.
3. Select the VLAN for which to display this information.
Figure 179: Showing Current Interfaces Assigned to a Multicast Service
SETTING IGMP Use the Multicast > IGMP Snooping > Interface (Configure) page to
SNOOPING STATUS configure IGMP snooping attributes for a VLAN interface. To configure
PER INTERFACE snooping globally, refer to "Configuring IGMP Snooping and Query
Parameters" on page 277.
COMMAND USAGE
Multicast Router Discovery
There have been many mechanisms used in the past to identify multicast
routers. This has lead to interoperability issues between multicast routers
and snooping switches from different vendors. In response to this problem,
the Multicast Router Discovery (MRD) protocol has been developed for use
by IGMP snooping and multicast routing devices. MRD is used to discover
which interfaces are attached to multicast routers, allowing IGMP-enabled
devices to determine where to send multicast source and group
membership messages. (MRD is specified in draft-ietf-magma-mrdisc-07.)
Multicast source data and group membership reports must be received by
all multicast routers on a segment. Using the group membership protocol
query messages to discover multicast routers is insufficient due to query
suppression. MRD therefore provides a standardized way to identify
multicast routers without relying on any particular multicast routing
protocol.
NOTE: The default values recommended in the MRD draft are implemented
in the switch.
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Multicast Router Discovery uses the following three message types to
discover multicast routers:
◆
Multicast Router Advertisement – Advertisements are sent by routers to
advertise that IP multicast forwarding is enabled. These messages are
sent unsolicited periodically on all router interfaces on which multicast
forwarding is enabled. They are sent upon the occurrence of these
events:
■
Upon the expiration of a periodic (randomized) timer.
■
As a part of a router's start up procedure.
■
During the restart of a multicast forwarding interface.
■
On receipt of a Solicitation message.
◆
Multicast Router Solicitation – Devices send Solicitation messages in
order to solicit Advertisement messages from multicast routers. These
messages are used to discover multicast routers on a directly attached
link. Solicitation messages are also sent whenever a multicast
forwarding interface is initialized or re-initialized. Upon receiving a
solicitation on an interface with IP multicast forwarding and MRD
enabled, a router will respond with an Advertisement.
◆
Multicast Router Termination – These messages are sent when a router
stops IP multicast routing functions on an interface. Termination
messages are sent by multicast routers when:
■
Multicast forwarding is disabled on an interface.
■
An interface is administratively disabled.
■
The router is gracefully shut down.
Advertisement and Termination messages are sent to the All-Snoopers
multicast address. Solicitation messages are sent to the All-Routers
multicast address.
NOTE: MRD messages are flooded to all ports in a VLAN where IGMP
snooping or routing has been enabled. To ensure that older switches which
do not support MRD can also learn the multicast router port, the switch
floods IGMP general query packets, which do not have a null source
address (0.0.0.0), to all ports in the attached VLAN. IGMP packets with a
null source address are only flooded to all ports in the VLAN if the system is
operating in multicast flooding mode, such as when a new VLAN or new
router port is being established, or an spanning tree topology change has
occurred. Otherwise, this kind of packet is only forwarded to known
multicast routing ports.
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PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
VLAN – ID of configured VLANs. (Range: 1-4093)
◆
IGMP Snooping Status – When enabled, the switch will monitor
network traffic on the indicated VLAN interface to determine which
hosts want to receive multicast traffic. This is referred to as IGMP
Snooping. (Default: Disabled)
When IGMP snooping is enabled globally (see page 277), the per VLAN
interface settings for IGMP snooping take precedence.
When IGMP snooping is disabled globally, snooping can still be
configured per VLAN interface, but the interface settings will not take
effect until snooping is re-enabled globally.
◆
Version Exclusive – Discards any received IGMP messages (except for
multicast protocol packets) which use a version different to that
currently configured by the IGMP Version attribute. (Default: Disabled)
If version exclusive is disabled on a VLAN, then this setting is based on
the global setting configured on the Multicast > IGMP Snooping >
General page. If it is enabled on a VLAN, then this setting takes
precedence over the global setting.
◆
Immediate Leave Status – Immediately deletes a member port of a
multicast service if a leave packet is received at that port and
immediate leave is enabled for the parent VLAN. (Default: Disabled)
If immediate leave is not used, a multicast router (or querier) will send
a group-specific query message when an IGMPv2 group leave message
is received. The router/querier stops forwarding traffic for that group
only if no host replies to the query within the specified time out period.
Note that this time out is set to Last Member Query Interval *
Robustness Variable (fixed at 2) as defined in RFC 2236.
If immediate leave is enabled, the switch assumes that only one host is
connected to the interface. Therefore, immediate leave should only be
enabled on an interface if it is connected to only one IGMP-enabled
device, either a service host or a neighbor running IGMP snooping.
This attribute is only effective if IGMP snooping is enabled, and IGMPv2
snooping is used.
◆
Multicast Router Discovery – MRD is used to discover which
interfaces are attached to multicast routers. (Default: Enabled)
◆
General Query Suppression – Suppresses general queries except for
ports attached to downstream multicast hosts. (Default: Disabled)
By default, general query messages are flooded to all ports, except for
the multicast router through which they are received.
If general query suppression is enabled, then these messages are
forwarded only to downstream ports which have joined a multicast
service.
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◆
Interface Version – Sets the protocol version for compatibility with
other devices on the network. This is the IGMP Version the switch uses
to send snooping reports. (Range: 1-2; Default: 2)
This attribute configures the IGMP report/query version used by IGMP
snooping. Versions 1 - 2 are supported, and version 2 is backward
compatible, so the switch can operate with other devices using either
Version 1 or 2.
◆
Last Member Query Interval – The interval to wait for a response to
a group-specific or group-and-source-specific query message.
(Range: 1-31744 tenths of a second in multiples of 10;
Default: 1 second)
When a multicast host leaves a group, it sends an IGMP leave message.
When the leave message is received by the switch, it checks to see if
this host is the last to leave the group by sending out an IGMP groupspecific or group-and-source-specific query message, and starts a
timer. If no reports are received before the timer expires, the group
record is deleted, and a report is sent to the upstream multicast router.
A reduced value will result in reduced time to detect the loss of the last
member of a group or source, but may generate more burst traffic.
◆
Last Member Query Count – The number of IGMP proxy groupspecific or group-and-source-specific query messages that are sent out
before the system assumes there are no more local members.
(Range: 1-255; Default: 2)
This attribute will take effect only if IGMP querier is enabled.
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WEB INTERFACE
To configure IGMP snooping on a VLAN:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, Interface.
2. Select Configure from the Action list.
3. Select the VLAN to configure and update the required parameters.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 180: Configuring IGMP Snooping on an Interface
To show the interface settings for IGMP snooping:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, Interface.
2. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 181: Showing Interface Settings for IGMP Snooping
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DISPLAYING Use the Multicast > IGMP Snooping > Forwarding Entry page to display the
MULTICAST GROUPS forwarding entries learned through IGMP Snooping.
DISCOVERED BY IGMP
SNOOPING COMMAND USAGE
To display information about multicast groups, IGMP Snooping must first
be enabled on the switch (see page 277).
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
VLAN – An interface on the switch that is forwarding traffic to
downstream ports for the specified multicast group address.
◆
Group Address – IP multicast group address with subscribers directly
attached or downstream from the switch, or a static multicast group
assigned to this interface.
◆
Source Address – The address of one of the multicast servers
transmitting traffic to the specified group.
◆
Interface – A downstream port or trunk that is receiving traffic for the
specified multicast group. This field may include both dynamically and
statically configured multicast router ports.
WEB INTERFACE
To show multicast groups learned through IGMP snooping:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, Forwarding Entry.
2. Select the VLAN for which to display this information.
Figure 182: Showing Multicast Groups Learned by IGMP Snooping
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FILTERING AND THROTTLING IGMP GROUPS
In certain switch applications, the administrator may want to control the
multicast services that are available to end users. For example, an IP/TV
service based on a specific subscription plan. The IGMP filtering feature
fulfills this requirement by restricting access to specified multicast services
on a switch port, and IGMP throttling limits the number of simultaneous
multicast groups a port can join.
IGMP filtering enables you to assign a profile to a switch port that specifies
multicast groups that are permitted or denied on the port. An IGMP filter
profile can contain one or more addresses, or a range of multicast
addresses; but only one profile can be assigned to a port. When enabled,
IGMP join reports received on the port are checked against the filter
profile. If a requested multicast group is permitted, the IGMP join report is
forwarded as normal. If a requested multicast group is denied, the IGMP
join report is dropped.
IGMP throttling sets a maximum number of multicast groups that a port
can join at the same time. When the maximum number of groups is
reached on a port, the switch can take one of two actions; either “deny” or
“replace.” If the action is set to deny, any new IGMP join reports will be
dropped. If the action is set to replace, the switch randomly removes an
existing group and replaces it with the new multicast group.
ENABLING IGMP Use the Multicast > IGMP Snooping > Filter (Configure General) page to
FILTERING AND enable IGMP filtering and throttling globally on the switch.
THROTTLING
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
IGMP Filter Status – Enables IGMP filtering and throttling globally for
the switch. (Default: Disabled)
WEB INTERFACE
To enable IGMP filtering and throttling on the switch:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, Filter.
2. Select Configure General from the Step list.
3. Enable IGMP Filter Status.
4. Click Apply.
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Figure 183: Enabling IGMP Filtering and Throttling
CONFIGURING IGMP Use the Multicast > IGMP Snooping > Filter (Add) page to create an IGMP
FILTER PROFILES profile and set its access mode. Then use the (Add Multicast Group Range)
page to configure the multicast groups to filter.
COMMAND USAGE
Specify a range of multicast groups by entering a start and end IP address;
or specify a single multicast group by entering the same IP address for the
start and end of the range.
PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
Add
◆
Profile ID – Creates an IGMP profile. (Range: 1-4294967295)
◆
Access Mode – Sets the access mode of the profile; either permit or
deny. (Default: Deny)
When the access mode is set to permit, IGMP join reports are
processed when a multicast group falls within the controlled range.
When the access mode is set to deny, IGMP join reports are only
processed when the multicast group is not in the controlled range.
Add Multicast Group Range
◆
Profile ID – Selects an IGMP profile to configure.
◆
Start Multicast IP Address – Specifies the starting address of a
range of multicast groups.
◆
End Multicast IP Address – Specifies the ending address of a range
of multicast groups.
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WEB INTERFACE
To create an IGMP filter profile and set its access mode:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, Filter.
2. Select Configure Profile from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Enter the number for a profile, and set its access mode.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 184: Creating an IGMP Filtering Profile
To show the IGMP filter profiles:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, Filter.
2. Select Configure Profile from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 185: Showing the IGMP Filtering Profiles Created
To add a range of multicast groups to an IGMP filter profile:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, Filter.
2. Select Configure Profile from the Step list.
3. Select Add Multicast Group Range from the Action list.
4. Select the profile to configure, and add a multicast group address or
range of addresses.
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5. Click Apply.
Figure 186: Adding Multicast Groups to an IGMP Filtering Profile
To show the multicast groups configured for an IGMP filter profile:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, Filter.
2. Select Configure Profile from the Step list.
3. Select Show Multicast Group Range from the Action list.
4. Select the profile for which to display this information.
Figure 187: Showing the Groups Assigned to an IGMP Filtering Profile
CONFIGURING IGMP
FILTERING AND
THROTTLING FOR
INTERFACES
Use the Multicast > IGMP Snooping > Filter (Configure Interface) page to
assign and IGMP filter profile to interfaces on the switch, or to throttle
multicast traffic by limiting the maximum number of multicast groups an
interface can join at the same time.
COMMAND USAGE
◆ IGMP throttling sets a maximum number of multicast groups that a port
can join at the same time. When the maximum number of groups is
reached on a port, the switch can take one of two actions; either “deny”
or “replace.” If the action is set to deny, any new IGMP join reports will
be dropped. If the action is set to replace, the switch randomly
removes an existing group and replaces it with the new multicast
group.
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PARAMETERS
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Interface – Port or trunk identifier.
An IGMP profile or throttling setting can be applied to a port or trunk.
When ports are configured as trunk members, the trunk uses the
settings applied to the first port member in the trunk.
◆
Profile ID – Selects an existing profile to assign to an interface.
◆
Max Multicast Groups – Sets the maximum number of multicast
groups an interface can join at the same time. (Range: 0-255;
Default: 255)
◆
Current Multicast Groups – Displays the current multicast groups the
interface has joined.
◆
Throttling Action Mode – Sets the action to take when the maximum
number of multicast groups for the interface has been exceeded.
(Default: Deny)
◆
■
Deny - The new multicast group join report is dropped.
■
Replace - The new multicast group replaces an existing group.
Throttling Status – Indicates if the throttling action has been
implemented on the interface. (Options: True or False)
WEB INTERFACE
To configure IGMP filtering or throttling for a port or trunk:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, Filter.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select a profile to assign to an interface, then set the maximum
number of allowed multicast groups and the throttling response.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 188: Configuring IGMP Filtering and Throttling Interface Settings
– 294 –
SECTION III
ES-2000 Series
APPENDICES
This section provides additional information and includes these items:
◆
"Software Specifications" on page 297
◆
"Troubleshooting" on page 301
◆
"License Information" on page 303
– 295 –
SECTION III | Appendices
ES-2000 Series
– 296 –
A
SOFTWARE SPECIFICATIONS
ES-2000 Series
SOFTWARE FEATURES
MANAGEMENT Local, RADIUS, TACACS+, Port Authentication (802.1X), HTTPS, Port
AUTHENTICATION Security, IP Filter
CLIENT ACCESS Access Control Lists (512 rules), Port Authentication (802.1X),
CONTROL Port Security
PORT CONFIGURATION 100BASE-TX: 10/100 Mbps, half/full duplex
100BASE-FX: 100 Mbps at full duplex (SFP)
1000BASE-T: 10/100 Mbps at half/full duplex, 1000 Mbps at full duplex
1000BASE-SX/LX/LH - 1000 Mbps at full duplex (SFP)
FLOW CONTROL Full Duplex: IEEE 802.3-2005
Half Duplex: Back pressure
STORM CONTROL Broadcast, multicast, or unicast traffic throttled above a critical threshold
PORT MIRRORING 26 sessions, one or more source ports to one destination port
RATE LIMITS Input/Output Limits
Range configured per port
PORT TRUNKING Static trunks (Cisco EtherChannel compliant)
Dynamic trunks (Link Aggregation Control Protocol)
SPANNING TREE Spanning Tree Protocol (STP, IEEE 802.1D-2004)
ALGORITHM Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP, IEEE 802.1D-2004)
– 297 –
APPENDIX A | Software Specifications
Management Features
ES-2000 Series
VLAN SUPPORT Up to 256 groups; port-based, tagged (802.1Q), voice VLANs
CLASS OF SERVICE Supports four levels of priority
Strict, Shaped Deficit Weighted Round Robin, or strict-WRR queuing
Layer 3/4 priority mapping: IP DSCP
QUALITY OF SERVICE DiffServ supports class maps, policy maps, and service policies
MULTICAST FILTERING IGMP Snooping (Layer 2)
ADDITIONAL FEATURES BOOTP Client
DHCP Client
DNS Client, Proxy
LLDP (Link Layer Discover Protocol)
RMON (Remote Monitoring, groups 1,2,3,9)
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
SNTP (Simple Network Time Protocol)
MANAGEMENT FEATURES
IN-BAND MANAGEMENT Web-based HTTP or HTTPS, SNMP manager
SOFTWARE LOADING HTTP
SNMP Management access via MIB database
Trap management to specified hosts
RMON Groups 1, 2, 3, 9 (Statistics, History, Alarm, Event)
STANDARDS
IEEE 802.1AB Link Layer Discovery Protocol
IEEE 802.1D-2004 Spanning Tree Algorithm and traffic priorities
Spanning Tree Protocol
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
IEEE 802.1p Priority tags
– 298 –
APPENDIX A | Software Specifications
Management Information Bases
ES-2000 Series
IEEE 802.1Q VLAN
IEEE 802.1X Port Authentication
IEEE 802.3-2005
Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet
Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP)
Full-duplex flow control (ISO/IEC 8802-3)
IEEE 802.3ac VLAN tagging
DHCP Client (RFC 2131)
HTTPS
ICMP (RFC 792)
IGMP (RFC 1112)
IGMPv2 (RFC 2236)
IPv4 IGMP (RFC 3228)
RADIUS+ (RFC 2618)
RMON (RFC 2819 groups 1,2,3,9)
SNMP (RFC 1157)
SNMPv2c (RFC 1901, 2571)
SNMPv3 (RFC DRAFT 2273, 2576, 3410, 3411, 3413, 3414, 3415)
SNTP (RFC 2030)
TFTP (RFC 1350)
MANAGEMENT INFORMATION BASES
Bridge MIB (RFC 1493)
Differentiated Services MIB (RFC 3289)
DNS Resolver MIB (RFC 1612)
Entity MIB (RFC 2737)
Ether-like MIB (RFC 2665)
Extended Bridge MIB (RFC 2674)
Extensible SNMP Agents MIB (RFC 2742)
Forwarding Table MIB (RFC 2096)
IGMP MIB (RFC 2933)
Interface Group MIB (RFC 2233)
Interfaces Evolution MIB (RFC 2863)
IP Multicasting related MIBs
Link Aggregation MIB (IEEE 802.3ad)
MAU MIB (RFC 3636)
MIB II (RFC 1213)
P-Bridge MIB (RFC 2674P)
Port Access Entity MIB (IEEE 802.1X)
Port Access Entity Equipment MIB
Power Ethernet MIB (RFC 3621)
Private MIB
– 299 –
APPENDIX A | Software Specifications
Management Information Bases
ES-2000 Series
Q-Bridge MIB (RFC 2674Q)
Quality of Service MIB
RADIUS Authentication Client MIB (RFC 2621)
RMON MIB (RFC 2819)
RMON II Probe Configuration Group (RFC 2021, partial implementation)
SNMP Community MIB (RFC 3584)
SNMP Framework MIB (RFC 3411)
SNMP-MPD MIB (RFC 3412)
SNMP Target MIB, SNMP Notification MIB (RFC 3413)
SNMP User-Based SM MIB (RFC 3414)
SNMP View Based ACM MIB (RFC 3415)
SNMPv2 IP MIB (RFC 2011)
TACACS+ Authentication Client MIB
TCP MIB (RFC 2012)
Trap (RFC 1215)
UDP MIB (RFC 2013)
– 300 –
B
TROUBLESHOOTING
ES-2000 Series
PROBLEMS ACCESSING THE MANAGEMENT INTERFACE
Table 28: Troubleshooting Chart
Symptom
Action
Cannot connect using a
web browser, or SNMP
software
◆
◆
Be sure the switch is powered up.
◆
Check that you have a valid network connection to the
switch and that the port you are using has not been
disabled.
◆
Be sure you have configured the VLAN interface through
which the management station is connected with a valid IP
address, subnet mask and default gateway.
◆
Be sure the management station has an IP address in the
same subnet as the switch’s IP interface to which it is
connected.
◆
If you are trying to connect to the switch via the IP address
for a tagged VLAN group, your management station, and the
ports connecting intermediate switches in the network, must
be configured with the appropriate tag.
◆
Contact your local distributor.
Forgot or lost the
password
Check network cabling between the management station
and the switch.
– 301 –
APPENDIX B | Troubleshooting
Using System Logs
ES-2000 Series
USING SYSTEM LOGS
If a fault does occur, refer to the Installation Guide to ensure that the
problem you encountered is actually caused by the switch. If the problem
appears to be caused by the switch, follow these steps:
1. Enable logging.
2. Set the error messages reported to include all categories.
3. Enable SNMP.
4. Enable SNMP traps.
5. Designate the SNMP host that is to receive the error messages.
6. Repeat the sequence of commands or other actions that lead up to the
error.
7. Make a list of the commands or circumstances that led to the fault. Also
make a list of any error messages displayed.
8. Contact your distributor’s service engineer.
– 302 –
C
LICENSE INFORMATION
ES-2000 Series
This product includes copyrighted third-party software subject to the terms of the GNU General Public
License (GPL), GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL), or other related free software licenses.
The GPL code used in this product is distributed WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY and is subject to the
copyrights of one or more authors. For details, refer to the section "The GNU General Public License"
below, or refer to the applicable license as included in the source-code archive.
THE GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
Version 2, June 1991
Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it
is not allowed.
Preamble
The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. By
contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and
change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. This General Public License
applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors
commit to using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Library
General Public License instead.) You can apply it to your programs, too.
When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our General Public Licenses
are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and
charge for this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you
can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs; and that you know you can do
these things.
To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to
ask you to surrender the rights. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether gratis or for a fee, you must give the
recipients all the rights that you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights.
We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and (2) offer you this license which
gives you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify the software.
Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain that everyone understands that
there is no warranty for this free software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on,
we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so that any problems introduced
by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations.
Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. We wish to avoid the danger
that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
program proprietary. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for
everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification follow.
– 303 –
APPENDIX C | License Information
The GNU General Public License
ES-2000 Series
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION
AND MODIFICATION
1.
This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the
copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. The
"Program", below, refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program"
means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say, a work
containing the Program or a portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated
into another language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in the term
"modification".) Each licensee is addressed as "you".
Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not covered by this License; they
are outside its scope. The act of running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the
Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of
having been made by running the Program). Whether that is true depends on what the Program
does.
2.
You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it, in
any medium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an
appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the notices that refer to
this License and to the absence of any warranty; and give any other recipients of the Program a
copy of this License along with the Program.
You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and you may at your option offer
warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
3.
You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it, thus forming a work
based on the Program, and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of
Section 1 above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
a). You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the
files and the date of any change.
b). You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in whole or in part contains or is
derived from the Program or any part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all
third parties under the terms of this License.
c).
If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run, you must cause
it, when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display
an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no
warranty (or else, saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the
program under these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this License.
(Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an
announcement, your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable sections of that work
are not derived from the Program, and can be reasonably considered independent and separate
works in themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those sections when you
distribute them as separate works. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole
which is a work based on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this
License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole, and thus to each and
every part regardless of who wrote it.
Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written
entirely by you; rather, the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
collective works based on the Program.
In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or
with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not
bring the other work under the scope of this License.
4.
You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it, under Section 2) in object code
or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of
the following:
a). Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code, which must
be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for
software interchange; or,
– 304 –
APPENDIX C | License Information
The GNU General Public License
ES-2000 Series
b). Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three years, to give any third party, for a
charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be distributed under the terms
of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
c).
Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding
source code. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer, in accord with
Subsection b above.)
The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it.
For an executable work, complete source code means all the source code for all modules it
contains, plus any associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to control
compilation and installation of the executable. However, as a special exception, the source code
distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form)
with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the operating system on which the
executable runs, unless that component itself accompanies the executable.
If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated
place, then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source
along with the object code.
5.
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program except as expressly provided
under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program
is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who
have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses
terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
6.
You are not required to accept this License, since you have not signed it. However, nothing else
grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions
are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or distributing the
Program (or any work based on the Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do
so, and all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying the Program or works
based on it.
7.
Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program), the recipient
automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the
Program subject to these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further restrictions on
the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. You are not responsible for enforcing
compliance by third parties to this License.
8.
If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other
reason (not limited to patent issues), conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order,
agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you
from the conditions of this License. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your
obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent license would not permit royaltyfree redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through
you, then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from
distribution of the Program.
If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance,
the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in
other circumstances.
It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right
claims or to contest validity of any such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting
the integrity of the free software distribution system, which is implemented by public license
practices. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software
distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system; it is up to the
author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and
a licensee cannot impose that choice.
This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the
rest of this License.
– 305 –
APPENDIX C | License Information
The GNU General Public License
ES-2000 Series
9.
If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or
by copyrighted interfaces, the original copyright holder who places the Program under this
License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries, so
that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. In such case, this
License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
10. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public
License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but
may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.
Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies a version
number of this License which applies to it and "any later version", you have the option of
following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the
Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License,
you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.
11. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution
conditions are different, write to the author to ask for permission. For software which is
copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we
sometimes make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving
the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of
software generally.
NO WARRANTY
1.
BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN
OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER
EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE
ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH
YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL
NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
2.
IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR
DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL
DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING
BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR
LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO
OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY
HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
– 306 –
GLOSSARY
ES-2000 Series
ACL Access Control List. ACLs can limit network traffic and restrict access to
certain users or devices by checking each packet for certain IP or MAC (i.e.,
Layer 2) information.
ARP Address Resolution Protocol converts between IP addresses and MAC
(hardware) addresses. ARP is used to locate the MAC address
corresponding to a given IP address. This allows the switch to use IP
addresses for routing decisions and the corresponding MAC addresses to
forward packets from one hop to the next.
BOOTP Boot Protocol. BOOTP is used to provide bootup information for network
devices, including IP address information, the address of the TFTP server
that contains the devices system files, and the name of the boot file.
COS Class of Service is supported by prioritizing packets based on the required
level of service, and then placing them in the appropriate output queue.
Data is transmitted from the queues using weighted round-robin service to
enforce priority service and prevent blockage of lower-level queues.
Priority may be set according to the port default, the packet’s priority bit
(in the VLAN tag), TCP/UDP port number, IP Precedence bit, or DSCP
priority bit.
DHCP Dynamic Host Control Protocol. Provides a framework for passing
configuration information to hosts on a TCP/IP network. DHCP is based on
the Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP), adding the capability of automatic
allocation of reusable network addresses and additional configuration
options.
DIFFSERV Differentiated Services provides quality of service on large networks by
employing a well-defined set of building blocks from which a variety of
aggregate forwarding behaviors may be built. Each packet carries
information (DS byte) used by each hop to give it a particular forwarding
treatment, or per-hop behavior, at each network node. DiffServ allocates
different levels of service to users on the network with mechanisms such as
traffic meters, shapers/droppers, packet markers at the boundaries of the
network.
DNS Domain Name Service. A system used for translating host names for
network nodes into IP addresses.
– 307 –
GLOSSARY
ES-2000 Series
DSCP Differentiated Services Code Point Service. DSCP uses a six-bit tag to
provide for up to 64 different forwarding behaviors. Based on network
policies, different kinds of traffic can be marked for different kinds of
forwarding. The DSCP bits are mapped to the Class of Service categories,
and then into the output queues.
EAPOL Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN. EAPOL is a client
authentication protocol used by this switch to verify the network access
rights for any device that is plugged into the switch. A user name and
password is requested by the switch, and then passed to an authentication
server (e.g., RADIUS) for verification. EAPOL is implemented as part of the
IEEE 802.1X Port Authentication standard.
GARP Generic Attribute Registration Protocol. GARP is a protocol that can be used
by endstations and switches to register and propagate multicast group
membership information in a switched environment so that multicast data
frames are propagated only to those parts of a switched LAN containing
registered endstations. Formerly called Group Address Registration
Protocol.
GMRP Generic Multicast Registration Protocol. GMRP allows network devices to
register end stations with multicast groups. GMRP requires that any
participating network devices or end stations comply with the IEEE 802.1p
standard.
IEEE 802.1D Specifies a general method for the operation of MAC bridges, including the
Spanning Tree Protocol.
IEEE 802.1Q VLAN Tagging—Defines Ethernet frame tags which carry VLAN information.
It allows switches to assign endstations to different virtual LANs, and
defines a standard way for VLANs to communicate across switched
networks.
IEEE 802.1P An IEEE standard for providing quality of service (QoS) in Ethernet
networks. The standard uses packet tags that define up to eight traffic
classes and allows switches to transmit packets based on the tagged
priority value.
IEEE 802.1W An IEEE standard for the Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) which
reduces the convergence time for network topology changes to about 10%
of that required by the older IEEE 802.1D STP standard. (Now incorporated
in IEEE 802.1D-2004)
IEEE 802.1X Port Authentication controls access to the switch ports by requiring users to
first enter a user ID and password for authentication.
– 308 –
GLOSSARY
ES-2000 Series
IEEE 802.3AC Defines frame extensions for VLAN tagging.
IEEE 802.3X Defines Ethernet frame start/stop requests and timers used for flow control
on full-duplex links. (Now incorporated in IEEE 802.3-2002)
IGMP Internet Group Management Protocol. A protocol through which hosts can
register with their local router for multicast services. If there is more than
one multicast switch/router on a given subnetwork, one of the devices is
made the “querier” and assumes responsibility for keeping track of group
membership.
IGMP QUERY On each subnetwork, one IGMP-capable device will act as the querier —
that is, the device that asks all hosts to report on the IP multicast groups
they wish to join or to which they already belong. The elected querier will
be the device with the lowest IP address in the subnetwork.
IGMP SNOOPING Listening to IGMP Query and IGMP Report packets transferred between IP
Multicast Routers and IP Multicast host groups to identify IP Multicast
group members.
IN-BAND MANAGEMENT Management of the network from a station attached directly to the
network.
IP MULTICAST FILTERING A process whereby this switch can pass multicast traffic along to
participating hosts.
LACP Link Aggregation Control Protocol. Allows ports to automatically negotiate
a trunked link with LACP-configured ports on another device.
LAYER 2 Data Link layer in the ISO 7-Layer Data Communications Protocol. This is
related directly to the hardware interface for network devices and passes
on traffic based on MAC addresses.
LINK AGGREGATION See Port Trunk.
LLDP Link Layer Discovery Protocol is used to discover basic information about
neighboring devices in the local broadcast domain by using periodic
broadcasts to advertise information such as device identification,
capabilities and configuration settings.
– 309 –
GLOSSARY
ES-2000 Series
MD5 MD5 Message-Digest is an algorithm that is used to create digital
signatures. It is intended for use with 32 bit machines and is safer than the
MD4 algorithm, which has been broken. MD5 is a one-way hash function,
meaning that it takes a message and converts it into a fixed string of digits,
also called a message digest.
MIB Management Information Base. An acronym for Management Information
Base. It is a set of database objects that contains information about a
specific device.
MRD Multicast Router Discovery is a A protocol used by IGMP snooping and
multicast routing devices to discover which interfaces are attached to
multicast routers. This process allows IGMP-enabled devices to determine
where to send multicast source and group membership messages.
MULTICAST SWITCHING A process whereby the switch filters incoming multicast frames for services
for which no attached host has registered, or forwards them to all ports
contained within the designated multicast VLAN group.
PORT AUTHENTICATION See IEEE 802.1X.
PORT MIRRORING A method whereby data on a target port is mirrored to a monitor port for
troubleshooting with a logic analyzer or RMON probe. This allows data on
the target port to be studied unobstructively.
PORT TRUNK Defines a network link aggregation and trunking method which specifies
how to create a single high-speed logical link that combines several lowerspeed physical links.
QOS Quality of Service. QoS refers to the capability of a network to provide
better service to selected traffic flows using features such as data
prioritization, queuing, congestion avoidance and traffic shaping. These
features effectively provide preferential treatment to specific flows either
by raising the priority of one flow or limiting the priority of another flow.
RADIUS Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service. RADIUS is a logon
authentication protocol that uses software running on a central server to
control access to RADIUS-compliant devices on the network.
RMON Remote Monitoring. RMON provides comprehensive network monitoring
capabilities. It eliminates the polling required in standard SNMP, and can
set alarms on a variety of traffic conditions, including specific error types.
– 310 –
GLOSSARY
ES-2000 Series
RSTP Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol. RSTP reduces the convergence time for
network topology changes to about 10% of that required by the older IEEE
802.1D STP standard.
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol. The application protocol in the
Internet suite of protocols which offers network management services.
SNTP Simple Network Time Protocol allows a device to set its internal clock based on
periodic updates from a Network Time Protocol (NTP) server. Updates can
be requested from a specific NTP server, or can be received via broadcasts
sent by NTP servers.
STA Spanning Tree Algorithm is a technology that checks your network for any
loops. A loop can often occur in complicated or backup linked network
systems. Spanning Tree detects and directs data along the shortest
available path, maximizing the performance and efficiency of the network.
TACACS+ Terminal Access Controller Access Control System Plus. TACACS+ is a logon
authentication protocol that uses software running on a central server to
control access to TACACS-compliant devices on the network.
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. Protocol suite that
includes TCP as the primary transport protocol, and IP as the network layer
protocol.
UDP User Datagram Protocol. UDP provides a datagram mode for packet-
switched communications. It uses IP as the underlying transport
mechanism to provide access to IP-like services. UDP packets are delivered
just like IP packets – connection-less datagrams that may be discarded
before reaching their targets. UDP is useful when TCP would be too
complex, too slow, or just unnecessary.
UTC Universal Time Coordinate. UTC is a time scale that couples Greenwich
Mean Time (based solely on the Earth’s rotation rate) with highly accurate
atomic time. The UTC does not have daylight saving time.
VLAN Virtual LAN. A Virtual LAN is a collection of network nodes that share the
same collision domain regardless of their physical location or connection
point in the network. A VLAN serves as a logical workgroup with no
physical barriers, and allows users to share information and resources as
though located on the same LAN.
– 311 –
GLOSSARY
ES-2000 Series
– 312 –
INDEX
ES-2000 Series
default mapping to internal values 136
enabling 132
layer 3/4 priorities 132
priorities, mapping to internal values 136
queue mapping 129
queue mode 126
queue weights, assigning 128
CoS/CFI to PHB/drop precedence 136
CPU
status 61
utilization, showing 61
NUMERICS
802.1X
authenticator, configuring 192
global settings 191
port authentication 189
supplicant, configuring 196
A
acceptable frame type 97
ACL 175
binding to a port 184
IPv4 Extended 177, 179
IPv4 Standard 177, 178
MAC 177, 182
Address Resolution Protocol See ARP
address table 101
aging time 103
aging time, displaying 103
aging time, setting 103
address, management access 31
ARP
configuration 269
description 268
D
B
BOOTP 271
BPDU 108
selecting protocol based on message format 115
bridge extension capabilities, displaying 51
broadcast storm, threshold 123
C
cable diagnostics 75
canonical format indicator 136
class map, DiffServ 140
Class of Service See CoS
clustering switches, management access 261
committed burst size, QoS policy 147, 148, 149
committed information rate, QoS policy 147, 148,
149
community string 240
configuration files, restoring defaults 52
configuration settings
restoring 54, 55
saving 54
CoS 125
configuring 125
default IPv4 gateway, configuration 271
default priority, ingress port 125
default settings, system 28
DHCP 271
client 271
Differentiated Code Point Service See DSCP
Differentiated Services See DiffServ
DiffServ 139
binding policy to interface 153
class map 140
classifying QoS traffic 140
color aware, srTCM 148
color aware, trTCM 149
color blind, srTCM 148
color blind, trTCM 149
committed burst size 148, 150
committed information rate 148, 149
configuring 139
conforming traffic, configuring response 147
excess burst size 148
metering, configuring 143, 144, 145
peak burst size 150
peak information rate 149
policy map 143
policy map, description 140, 147
QoS policy 143
service policy 153
setting CoS for matching packets 147
setting IP DSCP for matching packets 147
setting PHB for matching packets 147
single-rate, three-color meter 144, 148
srTCM metering 144, 148
traffic between CIR and BE, setting response 148
traffic between CIR and PIR, setting response
149
trTCM metering 149
– 313 –
INDEX
ES-2000 Series
filtering, configuring profile 291
filtering, creating profile 291
filtering, group range 291
groups, displaying 283
Layer 2 276
query 276, 277
services, displaying 289
snooping 276
snooping & query, parameters 277
snooping, configuring 277
snooping, enabling 277
snooping, immediate leave 286
IGMP snooping
configuring 284
enabling per interface 284, 286
forwarding entries 289
immediate leave, status 286
interface attached to multicast router 282
last member query count 287
last member query interval 287
querier timeout 279
router port expire time 279
static host interface 276
static multicast routing 280
static port assignment 282
static router interface 276
static router port, configuring 280
TCN flood 278
unregistered data flooding 279
version exclusive 279
version for interface, setting 287
version, setting 279
immediate leave, IGMP snooping 286
ingress filtering 97
IP filter, for management access 185
IPv4 address
BOOTP/DHCP 271
setting 267, 271
two-rate, three-color meter 145
violating traffic, setting response 150
downloading software 52
drop precedence
CoS priority mapping 136
DSCP ingress map 134
DSCP 132
enabling 132
mapping to internal values 133
DSCP ingress map, drop precedence 134
DSCP to PHB/drop precedence 134
dynamic addresses
clearing 105
displaying 104
dynamic VLAN assignment 168, 169
E
edge port, STA 115, 117
engine ID 231, 232
event logging 201
excess burst size, QoS policy
148
F
firmware
displaying version 48
upgrading 52
version, displaying 48
G
gateway, IPv4 default 271
general security measures 161
GNU license 303
H
hardware version, displaying 48
HTTPS 172, 173
configuring 172
replacing SSL certificate 173
secure-site certificate 173
HTTPS, secure server 172
J
jumbo frame 50
L
I
IEEE 802.1D 107
IEEE 802.1w 107
IEEE 802.1X 189
IGMP
filter profiles, binding to interface 293
filter profiles, configuration 291
filter, interface configuration 293
filter, parameters 291
filtering & throttling 290
filtering & throttling, enabling 290
filtering & throttling, interface configuration
filtering & throttling, status 290
293
LACP
configuration 80
group attributes, configuring 83
group members, configuring 81
local parameters 87
partner parameters 88
protocol message statistics 85
protocol parameters 80
last member query count, IGMP snooping 287
last member query interval, IGMP snooping 287
license information, GNU 303
Link Layer Discovery Protocol - Media Endpoint
Discovery See LLDP-MED
Link Layer Discovery Protocol See LLDP
– 314 –
INDEX
ES-2000 Series
link type, STA 115, 117
LLDP 205
device statistics details, displaying 223
device statistics, displaying 221
display device information 214, 216
displaying remote information 216
interface attributes, configuring 208
local device information, displaying 214
message attributes 208
message statistics 221
remote information, displaying 221
remote port information, displaying 216
timing attributes, configuring 206
TLV 205, 208
TLV, 802.1 209
TLV, 802.3 209
TLV, basic 208
TLV, management address 208
TLV, port description 209
TLV, system capabilities 209
TLV, system description 209
TLV, system name 209
LLDP-MED 205
notification, status 208
TLV 210
TLV, extended PoE 210
TLV, inventory 210
TLV, location 210
TLV, MED capabilities 210
TLV, network policy 210
TLV, PoE 210
logging
messages, displaying 203
syslog traps 204
to syslog servers 204
log-in, web interface 35
logon authentication 166
encryption keys 165
RADIUS client 164
RADIUS server 164
sequence 162
settings 163, 164
TACACS+ client 163
TACACS+ server 163
mirror port
configuring 69
configuring local traffic 69
mirror trunk
configuring 89
configuring local traffic 89
multicast filtering 275
enabling IGMP snooping 277, 286
enabling IGMP snooping per interface
router configuration 280
multicast groups 283, 289
displaying 283, 289
static 282, 283
multicast router discovery 285
multicast router port, displaying 281
multicast services
configuring 282
displaying 283
multicast static router port 280
configuring 280
multicast storm, threshold 123
multicast, filtering and throttling 290
N
network access
dynamic VLAN assignment 169
port configuration 169
secure MAC information 170
P
M
main menu, web interface 39
management access
filtering per address 185
IP filter 185
management address, setting 31
Management Information Bases (MIBs) 299
matching class settings, classifying QoS traffic 141
media-type 66
memory
status 62
utilization, showing 62
passwords 31
administrator setting 166
path cost 117
method 109
STA 114, 117
peak burst size, QoS policy 149
peak information rate, QoS policy 149
per-hop behavior, DSCP ingress map 134
policing traffic, QoS policy 143, 147
policy map
description 147
DiffServ 143
port authentication 189
port power
displaying status 227
inline 226
inline status 227
maximum allocation 226
priority 226
showing main power 227
port priority
configuring 125
default ingress 125
STA 114
port security, configuring 187
ports
autonegotiation 66
– 315 –
284
INDEX
ES-2000 Series
broadcast storm threshold 123
capabilities 66
configuring 65
duplex mode 67
flow control 67
forced selection on combo ports 66
mirroring 69
mirroring local traffic 69
multicast storm threshold 123
speed 67
statistics 71
unknown unicast storm threshold 123
power budgets
port 226
port priority 226
power savings
configuring 91
enabling per port 91
priority, default port ingress 125
problems, troubleshooting 301
protocol migration 115
PVID, port native VLAN 97
Q
QoS 139
configuration guidelines 140
configuring 139
CoS/CFI to PHB/drop precedence 136
DSCP to PHB/drop precedence 133
matching class settings 141
PHB to queue 129
selecting DSCP, CoS 132
QoS policy
committed burst size 147, 148, 149
committed information rate 147, 148, 149
excess burst size 148
peak burst size 149
peak information rate 149
policing flow 143, 147
srTCM 144
srTCM police meter 148
trTCM 145
trTCM police meter 149
Quality of Service See QoS
queue mode, setting 126
queue weight, assigning to CoS 128
R
RADIUS
logon authentication 164
settings 164
rate limit
port 119
setting 119
remote logging 204
restarting the system 63
RMON 250
alarm, displaying settings 252
alarm, setting thresholds 250
event settings, displaying 255
response to alarm setting 253
statistics history, collection 255
statistics history, displaying 257
statistics, collection 258
statistics, displaying 259
RSTP 107
global settings, configuring 108
global settings, displaying 112
interface settings, configuring 113
interface settings, displaying 116
S
security, general measures 161
Simple Network Management Protocol See SNMP
single rate three color meter See srTCM
SNMP 227
community string 240
enabling traps 245
filtering IP addresses 185
global settings, configuring 230
trap manager 245
users, configuring 241, 243
SNMPv3
engine ID 231, 232
engine identifier, local 231
engine identifier, remote 232
groups 236
local users, configuring 241
remote users, configuring 243
user configuration 241, 243
views 233
SNTP
setting the system clock 58
specifying servers 59
software
displaying version 48
downloading 52
version, displaying 48
Spanning Tree Protocol See STA
specifications, software 297
srTCM
police meter 148
QoS policy 144
SSL, replacing certificate 173
STA 107
edge port 115, 117
forward delay 110
global settings, configuring 108
global settings, displaying 112
hello time 109
interface settings, configuring 113
interface settings, displaying 116
link type 115, 117
maximum age 110
– 316 –
INDEX
ES-2000 Series
path cost 114, 117
path cost method 109
port priority 114
protocol migration 115
transmission limit 109
standards, IEEE 298
startup files
creating 52
displaying 52
setting 52
static addresses, setting 101
statistics, port 71
STP 108
switch clustering, for management 261
switch settings
restoring 54
saving 54
system clock
setting 57
setting manually 57
setting the time zone 60
setting with SNTP 58
system logs 201
system software, downloading from server 52
T
TACACS+
logon authentication 163
settings 164
TCN
flood 278
general query solicitation 278
time zone, setting 60
time, setting 57
trap manager 245
troubleshooting 301
trTCM
police meter 149
QoS policy 145
trunk
configuration 77
LACP 80
static 78
trunks
mirroring 89
mirroring local traffic 89
two rate three color meter See trTCM
Type Length Value, See LLDP TLV
U
unknown unicast storm, threshold 123
unregistered data flooding, IGMP snooping 279
upgrading software 52
user account 166
user password 166
V
VLANs
acceptable frame type 97
adding static members 96
configuring port members, VLAN index 98
creating 95
description 93
displaying port members 98
displaying port members by interface 99
displaying port members by interface range 100
displaying port members by VLAN index 98
dynamic assignment 169
egress mode 96
ingress filtering 97
interface configuration 96
port members, displaying 98
PVID 97
voice 155
voice VLANs 155
detecting VoIP devices 156
enabling for ports 158
identifying client devices 157
VoIP traffic 155
ports, configuring 158
telephony OUI, configuring 157
voice VLAN, configuring 155
VoIP, detecting devices 159
W
web interface
configuration buttons 36
home page 35
menu list 39
panel display 37
– 317 –
INDEX
ES-2000 Series
– 318 –
ES-2026 ES-2026P
ES-2024G ES-2024GP
E062011/ST-R05
149100000041A
JUNE/2011/ISSUE 2.2
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