Netgear ProSAFE SRX5308, SRX5308 Specification

Netgear ProSAFE SRX5308, SRX5308 Specification
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN
SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Reference M anua l
350 East Plumeria Drive
San Jose, CA 95134
USA
July 29, 2011
202-10536-02
1.0
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
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No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated
into any language in any form or by any means without the written permission of NETGEAR, Inc.
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Statement of Conditions
To improve internal design, operational function, and/or reliability, NETGEAR reserves the right to make changes
to the products described in this document without notice. NETGEAR does not assume any liability that may occur
due to the use, or application of, the product(s) or circuit layout(s) described herein.
Revision History
Publication
Part Number
Version
Publish Date Comments
202-10536-02
1.0
July 2011
Added new features that are documented in the following sections:
• Configure WAN QoS Profiles
• Inbound Rules (Port Forwarding) and LAN WAN Inbound
Services Rules
• Attack Checks
• Set Session Limits
• Create IP Groups
• Use the NETGEAR VPN Client Wizard to Create a Secure
Connection
• Manually Create a Secure Connection Using the NETGEAR VPN
Client
• Configure the NETGEAR VPN Client for Mode Config Operation
• Configure Date and Time Service
• Enable the LAN Traffic Meter
202-10536-01
1.0
April 2010
Initial publication of this reference manual.
2
Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction
What Is the ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308? . . . 9
Key Features and Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Quad-WAN Ports for Increased Reliability and
Outbound Load Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Advanced VPN Support for Both IPSec and SSL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
A Powerful, True Firewall with Content Filtering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Security Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Autosensing Ethernet Connections with Auto Uplink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Extensive Protocol Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Easy Installation and Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Maintenance and Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Package Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Hardware Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Front Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Rear Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Bottom Panel with Product Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Choose a Location for the VPN Firewall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Using the Rack-Mounting Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Chapter 2 Connecting the VPN Firewall to the Internet
Internet and WAN Configuration Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Qualified Web Browsers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Log In to the VPN Firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Web Management Interface Menu Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Configure the Internet Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Automatically Detecting and Connecting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Set the VPN Firewall’s MAC Address. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Manually Configure the Internet Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Configure the WAN Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Configure Network Address Translation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Configure Classical Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Configure the Auto-Rollover Mode and Failure Detection Method . . . . . 34
Configure Load Balancing and Optional Protocol Binding . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Configure Secondary WAN Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Configure Dynamic DNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Configure WAN QoS Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
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ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Configure Advanced WAN Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Additional WAN-Related Configuration Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
What to Do Next . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Chapter 3 LAN Configuration
Manage Virtual LANs and DHCP Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Port-Based VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Assign and Manage VLAN Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
VLAN DHCP Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Configure a VLAN Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Configure VLAN MAC Addresses and LAN Advanced Settings. . . . . . . 64
Configure Multi-Home LAN IP Addresses on the Default VLAN . . . . . . . . 65
Manage Groups and Hosts (LAN Groups) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Manage the Network Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Change Group Names in the Network Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Set Up Address Reservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Configure and Enable the DMZ Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Manage Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Configure Static Routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Configure Routing Information Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Static Route Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Chapter 4 Firewall Protection
About Firewall Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Administrator Tips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Use Rules to Block or Allow Specific Kinds of Traffic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Services-Based Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Order of Precedence for Rules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Set LAN WAN Rules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Set DMZ WAN Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Set LAN DMZ Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Inbound Rules Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Outbound Rules Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Configure Other Firewall Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Attack Checks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Set Session Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Manage the Application Level Gateway for SIP Sessions . . . . . . . . . . 111
Create Services, QoS Profiles, and Bandwidth Profiles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Add Customized Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Create IP Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Create Quality of Service (QoS) Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Create Bandwidth Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Set a Schedule to Block or Allow Specific Traffic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Content Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Content Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Enable and Configure Content Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Enable Source MAC Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
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ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Set Up IP/MAC Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Configure Port Triggering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Configure Universal Plug and Play. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Chapter 5 Virtual Private Networking
Using IPSec Connections
Considerations for Multi-WAN Port Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Use the IPSec VPN Wizard for Client and Gateway Configurations . . . . 136
Create Gateway-to-Gateway VPN Tunnels with the Wizard . . . . . . . . 136
Create a Client to Gateway VPN Tunnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Test the Connection and View Connection and Status Information . . . . . 155
Test the NETGEAR VPN Client Connection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
NETGEAR VPN Client Status and Log Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
View the VPN Firewall IPSec VPN Connection Status. . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
View the VPN Firewall IPSec VPN Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Manage IPSec VPN Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Configure IKE Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Configure VPN Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Configure Extended Authentication (XAUTH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Configure XAUTH for VPN Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
User Database Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
RADIUS Client Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Assign IP Addresses to Remote Users (Mode Config). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Mode Config Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Configure Mode Config Operation on the VPN Firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Configure the NETGEAR VPN Client for Mode Config Operation . . . . 183
Test the Mode Config Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Modify or Delete a Mode Config Record. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Configure Keep-alives and Dead Peer Detection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Configure Keep-alives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Configure Dead Peer Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Configure NetBIOS Bridging with IPSec VPN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Chapter 6 Virtual Private Networking
Using SSL Connections
SSL VPN Portal Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Overview of the SSL Configuration Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Create the Portal Layout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Configure Domains, Groups, and Users. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Configure Applications for Port Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Add Servers and Port Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Add a New Host Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Configure the SSL VPN Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Configure the Client IP Address Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Add Routes for VPN Tunnel Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Use Network Resource Objects to Simplify Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Add New Network Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
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ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Edit Network Resources to Specify Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Configure User, Group, and Global Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
View Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Add a Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Access the SSL Portal Login Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
View the SSL VPN Connection Status and SSL VPN Logs . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Chapter 7 Managing Users, Authentication, and Certificates
Configure VPN Authentication Domains, Groups, and Users . . . . . . . . . 219
Configure Domains. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Configure Groups for VPN Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Configure User Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Set User Login Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Change Passwords and Other User Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Manage Digital Certificates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Certificates Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Manage CA Certificates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Manage Self-Signed Certificates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Manage the Certificate Revocation List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Chapter 8 Network and System Management
Performance Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Bandwidth Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Features That Reduce Traffic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Features That Increase Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Use QoS and Bandwidth Assignment to Shift the Traffic Mix. . . . . . . . 247
Monitoring Tools for Traffic Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
System Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Change Passwords and Administrator Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Configure Remote Management Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Using the Command-Line Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Use a Simple Network Management Protocol Manager. . . . . . . . . . . . 254
Manage the Configuration File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Configure Date and Time Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
Chapter 9 Monitoring System Access and Performance
Enable the WAN Traffic Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
Enable the LAN Traffic Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
Activate Notification of Events, Alerts, and Syslogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
View Status and Log Screens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
View the System (Router) Status and Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
View the VLAN Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
View and Disconnect Active Users. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
View the VPN Tunnel Connection Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
View the VPN Logs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
View the Port Triggering Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
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ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
View the WAN Port Connection Status. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
View the Attached Devices and DHCP Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
Use the Diagnostics Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
Send a Ping Packet or Trace a Route . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
Look Up a DNS Address. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Display the Routing Table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Reboot the VPN Firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Capture Packets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Chapter 10 Troubleshooting and Using Online Support
Basic Functioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
Power LED Not On . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
Test LED Never Turns Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
LAN or WAN Port LEDs Not On . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
Troubleshoot the Web Management Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
When You Enter a URL or IP Address a Time-Out Error Occurs. . . . . . . 296
Troubleshoot the ISP Connection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
Troubleshoot a TCP/IP Network Using the Ping Utility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Test the LAN Path to Your VPN Firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Test the Path from Your PC to a Remote Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
Restore the Default Configuration and Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
Problems with Date and Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
Access the Knowledge Base and Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
Appendix A Default Settings and Technical Specifications
Appendix B Network Planning for Multiple WAN Ports
What to Consider Before You Begin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
Cabling and Computer Hardware Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
Computer Network Configuration Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
Internet Configuration Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
Overview of the Planning Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
Inbound Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
Inbound Traffic to a Single WAN Port System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
Inbound Traffic to a Dual WAN Port System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
Virtual Private Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
VPN Road Warrior (Client-to-Gateway) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
VPN Gateway-to-Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
VPN Telecommuter (Client-to-Gateway through a NAT Router) . . . . . 319
Appendix C System Logs and Error Messages
System Log Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
NTP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Login/Logout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
System Startup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
Reboot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
7
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Firewall Restart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
IPSec Restart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
Unicast, Multicast, and Broadcast Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
WAN Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
Resolved DNS Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
VPN Log Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
Traffic Meter Logs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
Routing Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
LAN to WAN Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
LAN to DMZ Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
DMZ to WAN Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
WAN to LAN Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
DMZ to LAN Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
WAN to DMZ Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
Other Event Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
Session Limit Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
Source MAC Filter Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
Bandwidth Limit Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
DHCP Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
Appendix D Two-Factor Authentication
Why Do I Need Two-Factor Authentication? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
What Are the Benefits of Two-Factor Authentication? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
What Is Two-Factor Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
NETGEAR Two-Factor Authentication Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
Appendix E Notification of Compliance
Index
8
1.
Introduction
1
This chapter provides an overview of the features and capabilities of the ProSafe Gigabit Quad
WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308. This chapter contains the following sections:
•
What Is the ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308?
•
Key Features and Capabilities
•
Package Contents
•
Hardware Features
•
Choose a Location for the VPN Firewall
What Is the ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall
SRX5308?
The ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308, hereafter referred to as the
VPN firewall, connects your local area network (LAN) to the Internet through up to four
external broadband access devices such as cable modems or DSL modems. Four wide area
network (WAN) ports allow you to increase effective data rate to the Internet by utilizing all
WAN ports to carry session traffic or to maintain backup connections in case of failure of your
primary Internet connection.
The VPN firewall is a complete security solution that protects your network from attacks and
intrusions. For example, the VPN firewall provides support for stateful packet inspection
(SPI), denial of service (DoS) attack protection, and multi-NAT support. The VPN firewall
supports multiple web content filtering options, plus browsing activity reporting and instant
alerts—both via email. Network administrators can establish restricted access policies based
on time of day, website addresses, and address keywords.
The VPN firewall provides advanced IPSec and SSL VPN technologies for secure and
simple remote connections. The use of Gigabit Ethernet LAN and WAN ports ensures
extremely high data transfer speeds.
The VPN firewall is a plug-and-play device that can be installed and configured within
minutes.
9
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Key Features and Capabilities
The VPN firewall provides the following key features and capabilities:
•
Four 10/100/1000 Mbps Gigabit Ethernet WAN ports for load balancing and failover
protection of your Internet connection, providing increased data rate and increased
system reliability.
•
Built-in four-port 10/100/1000 Mbps Gigabit Ethernet LAN switch for extremely fast data
transfer between local network resources and support for up to 200,000 internal or
external connections.
•
Advanced IPSec VPN and SSL VPN support with support for up to 125 concurrent IPSec
VPN tunnels and up to 50 concurrent SSL VPN tunnels.
•
Bundled with a single-user license of the NETGEAR ProSafe VPN Client software
(VPN01L).
•
Advanced stateful packet inspection (SPI) firewall with multi-NAT support.
•
Quality of service (QoS) and SIP 2.0 support for traffic prioritization, voice, and
multimedia.
•
Extensive protocol support.
•
Easy, web-based wizard setup for installation and management.
•
One console port for local management.
•
SNMP-manageable, optimized for the NETGEAR ProSafe Network Management
Software (NMS100).
•
Front panel LEDs for easy monitoring of status and activity.
•
Flash memory for firmware upgrade.
•
Internal universal switching power supply.
•
One U rack-mountable, using the rack-mounting kit.
Quad-WAN Ports for Increased Reliability and
Outbound Load Balancing
The VPN firewall provides four broadband WAN ports. These WAN ports allow you to
connect additional broadband Internet lines that can be configured to:
•
Load-balance between up to four lines for maximum bandwidth efficiency.
•
Provide backup and rollover if one line is inoperable, ensuring that you are never
disconnected.
See Network Planning for Multiple WAN Ports on page 306 for the planning factors to
consider when implementing the following capabilities with multiple WAN port gateways:
•
Single or multiple exposed hosts.
•
Virtual private networks (VPNs).
Introduction
10
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Advanced VPN Support for Both IPSec and SSL
The VPN firewall supports IPSec and SSL VPN connections.
•
•
IPSec VPN delivers full network access between a central office and branch offices, or
between a central office and telecommuters. Remote access by telecommuters requires
the installation of VPN client software on the remote computer.
-
IPSec VPN with broad protocol support for secure connection to other IPSec
gateways and clients.
-
Bundled with a single-user license of the NETGEAR ProSafe VPN Client software
(VPN01L).
-
Supports 125 concurrent IPSec VPN tunnels.
SSL VPN provides remote access for mobile users to selected corporate resources
without requiring a pre-installed VPN client on their computers.
-
Uses the familiar Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol, commonly used for
e-commerce transactions, to provide client-free access with customizable user
portals and support for a wide variety of user repositories.
-
Browser-based, platform-independent, remote access through a number of popular
browsers, such as Microsoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, and Apple Safari.
-
Provides granular access to corporate resources based on user type or group
membership.
-
Supports 50 concurrent SSL VPN sessions.
A Powerful, True Firewall with Content Filtering
Unlike simple NAT routers, the VPN firewall is a true firewall, using stateful packet inspection
(SPI) to defend against hacker attacks. Its firewall features have the following capabilities:
•
DoS protection. Automatically detects and thwarts denial of service (DoS) attacks such
as Ping of Death and SYN flood.
•
Secure firewall. Blocks unwanted traffic from the Internet to your LAN.
•
Content filtering. Prevents objectionable content from reaching your PCs. You can
control access to Internet content by screening for web services, web addresses, and
keywords within web addresses. You can configure the VPN firewall to log and report
attempts to access objectionable Internet sites.
•
Schedule policies. Permits scheduling of firewall policies by day and time.
•
Logs security incidents. Logs security events such as blocked incoming traffic, port
scans, attacks, and administrator logins. You can configure the VPN firewall to email the
log to you at specified intervals. You can also configure the VPN firewall to send
immediate alert messages to your email address or email pager when a significant event
occurs.
Introduction
11
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Security Features
The VPN firewall is equipped with several features designed to maintain security:
•
PCs hidden by NAT. NAT opens a temporary path to the Internet for requests originating
from the local network. Requests originating from outside the LAN are discarded,
preventing users outside the LAN from finding and directly accessing the computers on
the LAN.
•
Port forwarding with NAT. Although NAT prevents Internet locations from directly
accessing the PCs on the LAN, the VPN firewall allows you to direct incoming traffic to
specific PCs based on the service port number of the incoming request. You can specify
forwarding of single ports or ranges of ports.
•
DMZ port. Incoming traffic from the Internet is normally discarded by the VPN firewall
unless the traffic is a response to one of your local computers or a service for which you
have configured an inbound rule. Instead of discarding this traffic, you can use the
dedicated demilitarized zone (DMZ) port to forward the traffic to one PC on your network.
Autosensing Ethernet Connections with Auto Uplink
With its internal four-port 10/100/1000 Mbps switch and four 10/100/1000 WAN ports, the
VPN firewall can connect to either a 10 Mbps standard Ethernet network, a 100 Mbps Fast
Ethernet network, or a 1000 Mbps Gigabit Ethernet network. The four LAN and four WAN
interfaces are autosensing and capable of full-duplex or half-duplex operation.
The VPN firewall incorporates Auto UplinkTM technology. Each Ethernet port automatically
senses whether the Ethernet cable plugged into the port should have a normal connection
such as to a PC or an uplink connection such as to a switch or hub. That port then configures
itself correctly. This feature eliminates the need for you to think about crossover cables, as
Auto Uplink accommodates either type of cable to make the right connection.
Extensive Protocol Support
The VPN firewall supports the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and
Routing Information Protocol (RIP). For further information about TCP/IP, see Internet
Configuration Requirements on page 308. The VPN firewall provides the following protocol
support:
•
IP address sharing by NAT. The VPN firewall allows many networked PCs to share an
Internet account using only a single IP address, which might be statically or dynamically
assigned by your Internet Service Provider (ISP). This technique, known as NAT, allows
the use of an inexpensive single-user ISP account.
•
Automatic configuration of attached PCs by DHCP. The VPN firewall dynamically
assigns network configuration information, including IP, gateway, and Domain Name
Server (DNS) addresses, to attached PCs on the LAN using the Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol (DHCP). This feature greatly simplifies configuration of PCs on
your local network.
Introduction
12
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
•
DNS proxy. When DHCP is enabled and no DNS addresses are specified, the VPN
firewall provides its own address as a DNS server to the attached PCs. The VPN firewall
obtains actual DNS addresses from the ISP during connection setup and forwards DNS
requests from the LAN.
•
PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE). PPPoE is a protocol for connecting remote hosts to the
Internet over a DSL connection by simulating a dial-up connection. This feature
eliminates the need to run a login program.
•
Quality of Service (QoS). The VPN firewall supports QoS, including traffic prioritization
and traffic classification with Type of Service (ToS) and Differentiated Services Code
Point (DSCP) marking.
Easy Installation and Management
You can install, configure, and operate the VPN firewall within minutes after connecting it to
the network. The following features simplify installation and management tasks:
•
Browser-based management. Browser-based configuration allows you to easily
configure the VPN firewall from almost any type of operating system, such as Windows,
Macintosh, or Linux. Online help documentation is built into the browser-based web
management interface.
•
Auto detection of ISP. The VPN firewall automatically senses the type of Internet
connection, asking you only for the information required for your type of ISP account.
•
IPSec VPN Wizard. The VPN firewall includes the NETGEAR IPSec VPN Wizard so you
can easily configure IPSec VPN tunnels according to the recommendations of the Virtual
Private Network Consortium (VPNC) to ensure that the IPSec VPN tunnels are
interoperable with other VPNC-compliant VPN routers and clients.
•
SNMP. The VPN firewall supports the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) to
let you monitor and manage log resources from an SNMP-compliant system manager.
The SNMP system configuration lets you change the system variables for MIB2.
•
Diagnostic functions. The VPN firewalll incorporates built-in diagnostic functions such
as ping, traceroute, DNS lookup, and remote reboot.
•
Remote management. The VPN firewall allows you to log in to the web management
interface from a remote location on the Internet. For security, you can limit remote
management access to a specified remote IP address or range of addresses.
•
Visual monitoring. The VPN firewall’s front panel LEDs provide an easy way to monitor
its status and activity.
Maintenance and Support
NETGEAR offers the following features to help you maximize your use of the VPN firewall:
•
Flash memory for firmware upgrades.
•
Technical support seven days a week, 24 hours a day, according to the terms that are
identified in the Warranty and Support information card provided with your product.
Introduction
13
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Package Contents
The VPN firewall product package contains the following items:
•
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308 appliance
•
One AC power cable
•
Rubber feet (4)
•
One Category 5 (Cat5) Ethernet cable
•
One rack-mounting kit
•
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308 Installation Guide
•
Resource CD, including:
-
Application Notes and other helpful information
-
ProSafe VPN Client software (VPN01L)
If any of the parts are incorrect, missing, or damaged, contact your NETGEAR dealer. Keep
the carton, including the original packing materials, in case you need to return the product for
repair.
Hardware Features
The front panel ports and LEDs, rear panel ports, and bottom label of the VPN firewall are
described in the following sections.
Front Panel
Viewed from left to right, the VPN firewall front panel contains the following ports (see the
following figure).
•
LAN Ethernet ports: four switched N-way automatic speed negotiating, Auto MDI/MDIX,
Gigabit Ethernet ports with RJ-45 connectors
•
WAN Ethernet ports: four independent N-way automatic speed negotiating, Auto
MDI/MDIX, Gigabit Ethernet ports with RJ-45 connectors
The front panel also contains three groups of status indicator light-emitting diodes (LEDs),
including Power and Test LEDs, LAN LEDs, and WAN LEDs, all of which are explained in the
following table.
Introduction
14
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
DMZ LED
Left WAN LEDs
Left LAN LEDs
Power LED
Internet
LEDs
Right WAN LEDs
Right LAN LEDs
Test LED
Figure 1.
Table 1. LED descriptions
LED
Activity
Description
Power
On (green)
Power is supplied to the VPN firewall.
Off
Power is not supplied to the VPN firewall.
On (amber) during
startup.
Test mode: the VPN firewall is initializing. After approximately
2 minutes, when the VPN firewall has completed its initialization, the
Test LED goes off.
On (amber) during
any other time
The initialization has failed or a hardware failure has occurred.
Blinking (amber)
The VPN firewall is writing to flash memory (during upgrading or
resetting to defaults).
Off
The system has booted successfully.
On (green)
The LAN port has detected a link with a connected Ethernet device.
Blinking (green)
Data is being transmitted or received by the LAN port.
Off
The LAN port has no link.
On (green)
The LAN port is operating at 1000 Mbps.
On (amber)
The LAN port is operating at 100 Mbps.
Off
The LAN port is operating at 10 Mbps.
On (green)
Port 4 is operating as a dedicated hardware DMZ port.
Off
Port 4 is operating as a normal LAN port.
Test
LAN Ports
Left LED
Right LED
DMZ LED
Introduction
15
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Table 1. LED descriptions (continued)
LED
Activity
Description
On (green)
The WAN port has a valid connection with a device that provides an
Internet connection.
Blinking (green)
Data is being transmitted or received by the WAN port.
Off
The WAN port has no physical link, that is, no Ethernet cable is
plugged into the VPN firewall.
On (green)
The WAN port is operating at 1000 Mbps.
On (amber)
The WAN port is operating at 100 Mbps.
Off
The WAN port is operating at 10 Mbps.
WAN Ports
Left LED
Right LED
Internet LED On (green)
Off
The WAN port has a valid Internet connection.
The WAN port is either not enabled or has no link to the Internet.
Rear Panel
The rear panel of the VPN firewall includes a console port, a reset button, a cable lock
receptacle, an AC power connection, and a power switch.
Power
Switch
Reset button
Console port
AC power
receptacle
Security lock
receptacle
Figure 2.
Viewed from left to right, the rear panel contains the following components:
1. Cable security lock receptacle.
2. Console port. Port for connecting to an optional console terminal. The ports has a DB9 male
connector. The default baud rate is 9600 K. The pinouts are: (2) Tx, (3) Rx, (5) and (7) Gnd.
For information about accessing the command line interface (CLI) using the console port,
see Using the Command-Line Interface on page 253.
3. Factory default reset button. Using a sharp object, press and hold this button for about eight
seconds until the front panel Test light flashes to reset the VPN firewall to factory default
settings. All configuration settings are lost, and the default password is restored.
4. AC power receptacle. Universal AC input (100–240 VAC, 50–60 Hz).
5. A power on/off switch.
Introduction
16
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Bottom Panel with Product Label
The product label on the bottom of the VPN firewall’s enclosure displays factory default
settings, regulatory compliance, and other information.
Figure 3.
Choose a Location for the VPN Firewall
The VPN firewall is suitable for use in an office environment where it can be free-standing (on
its runner feet) or mounted into a standard 19-inch equipment rack. Alternatively, you can
rack-mount the VPN firewall in a wiring closet or equipment room. A rack-mounting kit,
containing two mounting brackets and four screws, is provided in the package.
Consider the following when deciding where to position the VPN firewall:
•
The unit is accessible and cables can be connected easily.
•
Cabling is away from sources of electrical noise. These include lift shafts, microwave
ovens, and air-conditioning units.
•
Water or moisture cannot enter the case of the unit.
•
Airflow around the unit and through the vents in the side of the case is not restricted.
Provide a minimum of 25 mm or 1 inch clearance.
•
The air is as free of dust as possible.
•
Temperature operating limits are not likely to be exceeded. Install the unit in a clean,
air-conditioned environment. For information about the recommended operating
temperatures for the VPN firewall, see Appendix A, Default Settings and Technical
Specifications.
Introduction
17
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Using the Rack-Mounting Kit
Use the mounting kit for the VPN firewall to install the appliance in a rack. Attach the
mounting brackets using the hardware that is supplied with the mounting kit.
Figure 4.
Before mounting the VPN firewall in a rack, verify that:
•
You have the correct screws (supplied with the installation kit).
•
The rack onto which you will mount the VPN firewall is suitably located.
Introduction
18
2.
Connecting the VPN Firewall to the
Internet
2
This chapter contains the following sections:
•
Internet and WAN Configuration Tasks
•
Log In to the VPN Firewall
•
Configure the Internet Connections
•
Configure the WAN Mode
•
Configure Secondary WAN Addresses
•
Configure Dynamic DNS
•
Configure WAN QoS Profiles
•
Configure Advanced WAN Options
•
What to Do Next
Internet and WAN Configuration Tasks
Typically, the VPN firewall is installed as a network gateway to function as a combined LAN
switch and firewall in order to protect the network from incoming threats and provide secure
connections. To complement the firewall protection, NETGEAR advises that you use a
gateway security appliance such as a NETGEAR ProSecure STM appliance.

Generally, seven steps are required to complete the Internet connection of your VPN
firewall:
1. Connect the VPN firewall physically to your network. Connect the cables and restart
your network according to the instructions in the installation guide. See the ProSafe
Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308 Installation Guide for complete steps. A
PDF of the Installation Guide is on the NETGEAR website at
http://support.netgear.com/app/products/model/a_id/13568.
2. Log in to the VPN firewall. After logging in, you are ready to set up and configure your
VPN firewall. See Log In to the VPN Firewall on page 20.
3. Configure the Internet connections to your ISPs. During this phase, you connect to your
ISPs. You can also program the WAN traffic meters at this time if desired. See Configure the
Internet Connections on page 24.
19
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
4. Configure the WAN mode. Select either NAT or classical routing. Select load balancing
mode, auto-rollover mode, or primary (single) WAN mode. For load balancing, you can also
select any necessary protocol bindings. See Configure the WAN Mode on page 32.
5. Configure secondary WAN addresses on the WAN ports (optional). Configure aliases
for each WAN port. See Configure Secondary WAN Addresses on page 41.
6. Configure dynamic DNS on the WAN ports (optional). Configure your fully qualified
domain names. See Configure Dynamic DNS on page 42.
7. Configure the WAN options (optional). You can enable each WAN port to respond to a
ping, and you can change the factory default MTU size and port speed. However, these are
advanced features and changing them is not usually required. See Configure Advanced
WAN Options on page 51.
Each of these tasks is detailed separately in this chapter.
Note: For information about how to configure the WAN meters, see Enable
the WAN Traffic Meter on page 263.
The configuration of LAN, firewall, scanning, VPN, management, and monitoring features is
described in later chapters.
Qualified Web Browsers
To configure the VPN firewall, you need to use a web browser such as Microsoft Internet
Explorer 6 or later, Mozilla Firefox 3 or later, or Apple Safari 3 or later with JavaScript,
cookies, and SSL enabled.
Although these web browsers are qualified for use with the VPN firewall’s web management
interface, SSL VPN users should choose a browser that supports JavaScript, Java, cookies,
SSL, and ActiveX to take advantage of the full suite of applications. Note that Java is required
only for the SSL VPN portal, not for the web management interface.
Log In to the VPN Firewall
To connect to the VPN firewall, your computer needs to be configured to obtain an IP address
automatically from the VPN firewall via DHCP.

To connect and log in to the VPN firewall:
1. Start any of the qualified web browsers, as explained in Qualified Web Browsers on
page 20.
2. Enter https://192.168.1.1 in the address field. The NETGEAR Configuration Manager Login
screen displays in the browser.
Connecting the VPN Firewall to the Internet
20
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Note: The VPN firewall factory default IP address is 192.168.1.1. If you
change the IP address, you need to use the IP address that you
assigned to the VPN firewall to log in to the VPN firewall.
Figure 5.
Note: The first time that you remotely connect to the VPN firewall with a
browser via an SSL connection, you might get a warning message
regarding the SSL certificate. Follow the directions of your browser
to accept the SSL certificate.
3. In the Username field, type admin. Use lower-case letters.
4. In the Password / Passcode field, type password. Here, too, use lower-case letters.
Note: The VPN firewall user name and password are not the same as any
user name or password you might use to log in to your Internet
connection.
5. In the Domain drop-down list, leave the default selection, which is geardomain.
6. Click Login. The web management interface appears, displaying the Router Status screen.
(For information about this screen, see View the System (Router) Status and Statistics on
page 275.)
Connecting the VPN Firewall to the Internet
21
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Figure 6.
Note: After 10 minutes of inactivity (the default login time-out), you are
automatically logged out.
Connecting the VPN Firewall to the Internet
22
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Web Management Interface Menu Layout
The following figure shows the menu at the top of the web management interface.
Option arrow: Additional screen for submenu item
3rd Level: Submenu tab (blue)
2nd Level: Configuration menu link (gray)
1st Level: Main Navigation menu link (orange)
Figure 7.
The web management interface menu consists of the following components:
•
1st Level: main navigation menu links. The main navigation menu in the orange bar
across the top of the web management interface provides access to all the configuration
functions of the VPN firewall, and remains constant. When you select a main navigation
menu link, the letters are displayed in white against an orange background.
•
2nd Level: configuration menu links. The configuration menu links in the gray bar
(immediately below the main navigation menu bar) change according to the main
navigation menu link that you select. When you select a configuration menu link, the
letters are displayed in white against a gray background.
•
3rd Level: submenu tabs. Each configuration menu item has one or more submenu tabs
that are listed below the gray menu bar. When you select a submenu tab, the text is
displayed in white against a blue background.
•
Option arrows. If there are additional screens for the submenu item, they are displayed
on the right side in blue letters against a white background, preceded by a white arrow in
a blue circle.
The bottom of each screen provides action buttons. The nature of the screen determines
which action buttons are shown. The following figure shows an example.
Figure 8.
Any of the following action buttons might be displayed on screen (this list might not be
complete):
•
Apply. Save and apply the configuration.
•
Reset. Reset the configuration to default values.
•
Test. Test the configuration before you decide whether or not to save and apply the
configuration.
Connecting the VPN Firewall to the Internet
23
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
•
Auto Detect. Enable the VPN firewall to detect the configuration automatically and
suggest values for the configuration.
•
Next. Go to the next screen (for wizards).
•
Back. Go to the previous screen (for wizards).
•
Search. Perform a search operation.
•
Cancel. Cancel the operation.
•
Send Now. Send a file or report.
When a screen includes a table, table buttons are displayed to let you configure the table
entries. The nature of the screen determines which table buttons are shown. The following
figure shows an example.
Figure 9.
Any of the following table buttons might be displayed on screen:
•
Select All. Select all entries in the table.
•
Delete. Delete the selected entry or entries from the table.
•
Enable. Enable the selected entry or entries in the table.
•
Disable. Disable the selected entry or entries in the table.
•
Add. Add an entry to the table.
•
Edit. Edit the selected entry.
•
Up. Move up the selected entry in the table.
•
Down. Move down the selected entry in the table.
•
Apply. Apply the selected entry.
Almost all screens and sections of screens have an accompanying help screen. To open the
help screen, click the Help icon (
).
Configure the Internet Connections
To set up your VPN firewall for secure Internet connections, you configure WAN ports 1
through 4. The web management interface offers two connection configuration options:
•
Automatic detection and configuration of the network connection
•
Manual configuration of the network connection
Each option is detailed in a section that follows.
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ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Automatically Detecting and Connecting

To automatically configure the WAN ports for connection to the Internet:
1. Select Network Configuration > WAN Settings. The WAN screen displays:
Figure 10.
The WAN Settings table displays the following fields:
•
WAN. The WAN interface (WAN1, WAN2, WAN3, and WAN4).
•
Status. The status of the WAN interface (UP or DOWN).
•
WAN IP. The IP address of the WAN interface.
•
Failure Detection Method. The failure detection method that is active for the WAN
interface. The following methods can be displayed:
-
None
-
DNS Lookup (WAN DNS Server)
-
DNS Lookup (the configured IP address is displayed)
-
PING (the configured IP address is displayed)
You can set the failure detection method for each WAN interface on its corresponding
WAN Advanced Options screen (see Configure the Auto-Rollover Mode and Failure
Detection Method on page 34).
•
Action. The Edit table button provides access to the WAN ISP Settings screen (see
step 2) for the corresponding WAN interface; the Status button provides access to the
Connection Status screen (see step 4) for the corresponding WAN interface.
2. Click the Edit table button in the Action column of the WAN interface for which you want to
automatically configure the connection to the Internet. The WAN ISP Settings screen
displays. (The following figure shows the WAN1 ISP Settings screen as an example.)
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ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Figure 11.
3. Click the Auto Detect button at the bottom of the screen. The auto detect process probes
the WAN port for a range of connection methods and suggests one that your ISP is most
likely to support.
The auto detect process returns one of the following results:
•
If the auto-detect process is successful, a status bar at the top of the screen displays
the results (for example, DHCP service detected).
•
If the auto detect process senses a connection method that requires input from you, it
prompts you for the information. All methods with their required settings are explained
in the following table:
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ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Table 2. Internet connection methods
Connection method Manual data input required
•
DHCP (Dynamic IP)
No data is required.
PPPoE
Login, Password, Account Name, Domain Name
PPTP
Login, Password, Account Name, My IP Address, and Server IP Address.
Fixed (Static) IP
IP Address, Subnet Mask, and Gateway IP Address; and related data supplied
by your ISP.
If the auto detect process does not find a connection, you are prompted either to
check the physical connection between your VPN firewall and the cable or DSL line or
to check your VPN firewall’s MAC address. For more information, see Configure the
WAN Mode on page 32 and Troubleshoot the ISP Connection on page 296.
4. Verify the connection:
a. Return to the WAN screen by selecting Network Configuration > WAN Settings.
b. Click the Status button in the Action column of the WAN interface that you just
configured to display the Connection Status popup window:
Figure 12.
The WAN Status window should show a valid IP address and gateway. If the
configuration was not successful, skip ahead to Manually Configure the Internet
Connection on this page or see Troubleshoot the ISP Connection on page 296.
Note: If the configuration process was successful, you are connected to
the Internet through the WAN interfaces that you just configured.
Continue with the configuration process for the other WAN
interfaces.
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ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Note: For more information about the WAN Connection Status screen, see
View the WAN Port Connection Status on page 285.
5. Repeat step 2, step 3, and step 4 for the other WAN interfaces that you want to configure.
If your WAN ISP configuration was successful, you can skip ahead to Configure the WAN
Mode on page 32.
If one or both automatic WAN ISP configurations failed, you can attempt a manual
configuration as described in Manually Configure the Internet Connection on this page or see
Troubleshoot the ISP Connection on page 296.
Set the VPN Firewall’s MAC Address
Each computer or router on your network has a unique 48-bit local Ethernet address. This is
also referred to as the computer’s Media Access Control (MAC) address. The default is set to
Use Default Address on the WAN Advanced Options screens. If your ISP requires MAC
authentication and another MAC address has been previously registered with your ISP, then
you need to enter that address on the WAN Advanced Options screen for the corresponding
WAN interface (see Configure Advanced WAN Options on page 51).
Manually Configure the Internet Connection
Unless your ISP automatically assigns your configuration via DHCP, you need to obtain
configuration parameters from your ISP in order to manually establish an Internet connection.
The settings for various connection types are listed in the previous table.

To manually configure the WAN ISP settings:
1. Select Network Configuration > WAN Settings. The WAN screen displays (see
Figure 10 on page 25).
2. Click the Edit table button in the Action column of the WAN interface for which you want to
automatically configure the connection to the Internet. The WAN ISP Settings screen
displays (see Figure 11 on page 26, which shows the WAN1 ISP Settings screen as an
example).
3. Locate the IPS Login section on the screen:
Figure 13.
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ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
In the ISP Login section, select one of the following options:
•
If your ISP requires an initial login to establish an Internet connection, select Yes.
(The default is No.)
•
If a login is not required, select No and ignore the Login and Password fields.
4. If you selected Yes, enter the login name in the Login field and the password in the
Password field. This information is provided by your ISP.
5. In the ISP Type section of the screen, select the type of ISP connection that you use from
the three listed options. By default, Other (PPPoE) is selected, as shown in the following
figure:
Figure 14.
6. If your connection is PPTP or PPPoE, your ISP requires an initial login. Enter the settings as
explained in the following table:
Table 3. PPTP and PPPoE settings
Setting
Description
Austria (PPTP)
If your ISP is Austria Telecom or any other ISP that uses PPTP for login, select this radio
button and enter the following settings:
Account Name
The account name is also known as the host name or system name.
Enter the valid account name for the PPTP connection (usually your
email ID assigned by your ISP). Some ISPs require you to enter your
full email address here.
Domain Name
Your domain name or workgroup name assigned by your ISP, or your
ISP’s domain name. You can leave this field blank.
Idle Timeout
Select the Keep Connected radio button to keep the connection
always on. To log out after the connection is idle for a period of time,
select the Idle Time radio button and, in the timeout field, enter the
number of minutes to wait before disconnecting. This is useful if your
ISP charges you based on the period that you have logged in.
My IP Address
The IP address assigned by the ISP to make the connection with the
ISP server.
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Table 3. PPTP and PPPoE settings (continued)
Setting
Description
Austria (PPTP)
(continued)
Server IP
Address
Other (PPPoE)
If you have installed login software, then your connection type is PPPoE. Select this radio
button and enter the following settings:
The IP address of the PPTP server.
Account Name
The valid account name for the PPPoE connection.
Domain Name
The name of your ISP’s domain or your domain name if your ISP has
assigned one. You can leave this field blank.
Idle Timeout
Select the Keep Connected radio button to keep the connection
always on. To log out after the connection is idle for a period of time,
select the Idle Time radio button and, in the timeout field, enter the
number of minutes to wait before disconnecting. This is useful if your
ISP charges you based on the period that you have logged in.
Connection
Reset
Select the Connection Reset check box to specify a time when the
PPPoE WAN connection is reset, that is, the connection is
disconnected momentarily and then reestablished. Then enter the
following settings:
Disconnect
Time
Specify the hour and minutes when the connection
should be disconnected.
Delay
Specify the period in seconds after which the connection
should be reestablished.
7. In the Internet (IP) Address section of the screen, configure the IP address settings as
explained in the following table. Click the Current IP Address link to see the currently
assigned IP address.
Figure 15.
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Table 4. Internet IP address settings
Setting
Description
Get Dynamically If your ISP has not assigned you a static IP address, select the Get Dynamically from
from ISP
ISP radio button. The ISP automatically assigns an IP address to the VPN firewall using
DHCP network protocol.
Use Static IP
Address
Client Identifier
Select the Client Identifier check box if your ISP requires the Client
Identifier information to assign an IP address using DHCP.
Vendor Class
Identifier
Select the Vendor Class Identifier check box if your ISP requires
the Vendor Class Identifier information to assign an IP address using
DHCP.
If your ISP has assigned you a fixed (static or permanent) IP address, select the Use
Static IP Address radio button and enter the following settings:
IP Address
Static IP address assigned to you. This address identifies the VPN
firewall to your ISP.
Subnet Mask
The subnet mask is usually provided by your ISP.
Gateway IP
Address
The IP address of the ISP’s gateway is usually provided by your ISP.
8. In the Domain Name Server (DNS) Servers section of the screen, specify the DNS settings
as explained in the following table.
Figure 16.
Table 5. DNS server settings
Setting
Description
Get Automatically
from ISP
If your ISP has not assigned any Domain Name Server (DNS) addresses, select the
Get Automatically from ISP radio button.
Use These DNS
Servers
If your ISP has assigned DNS addresses, select the Use These DNS Servers radio
button. Ensure that you fill in valid DNS server IP addresses in the fields. Incorrect
DNS entries might cause connectivity issues.
Primary DNS Server
The IP address of the primary DNS server.
Secondary DNS Server
The IP address of the secondary DNS server.
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9. Click Test to evaluate your entries. The VPN firewall attempts to make a connection
according to the settings that you entered.
10. Click Apply to save any changes to the WAN ISP settings. (Or click Reset to discard any
changes and revert to the previous settings.)
If you want to manually configure an additional WAN interface, select another WAN interface
and repeat these steps. You can configure up to four WAN interfaces.
When you are finished, click the Logout link at the upper right corner of the web
management interface or proceed to additional setup and management tasks.
Configure the WAN Mode
The VPN firewall can be configured on a mutually exclusive basis for either auto-rollover (for
increased system reliability) or load balancing (for maximum bandwidth efficiency). If you do
not select load balancing, you need to specify one WAN interface as the primary interface.
•
Load balancing mode. The VPN firewall distributes the outbound traffic equally among
the WAN interfaces that are functional. You can configure up to four WAN interfaces. The
VPN firewall supports weighted load balancing and round-robin load balancing (see
Configure Load Balancing and Optional Protocol Binding on page 36).
Note: Scenarios could arise when load balancing needs to be bypassed
for certain traffic or applications. If certain traffic needs to travel on a
specific WAN interface, configure protocol binding rules for that
WAN interface. The rule should match the desired traffic.
•
Primary WAN mode. The selected WAN interface is made the primary interface. The
other three interfaces are disabled.
•
Auto-rollover mode. The selected WAN interface is defined as the primary link, and
another interface needs to be defined as the rollover link. The remaining two interfaces
are disabled. As long as the primary link is up, all traffic is sent over the primary link.
When the primary link goes down, the rollover link is brought up to send the traffic. When
the primary link comes back up, traffic automatically rolls back to the original primary link.
If you want to use a redundant ISP link for backup purposes, select the WAN port that
should function as the primary link for this mode. Ensure that the backup WAN port has
also been configured and that you configure the WAN failure detection method on the
WAN Advanced Options screen to support auto-rollover (see Configure the Auto-Rollover
Mode and Failure Detection Method on page 34).
Whichever WAN mode you select, you need to also select either NAT or classical routing, as
explained in the following sections.
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Configure Network Address Translation
Network Address Translation (NAT) allows all PCs on your LAN to share a single public
Internet IP address. From the Internet, there is only a single device (the VPN firewall) and a
single IP address. PCs on your LAN can use any private IP address range, and these IP
addresses are not visible from the Internet.
Note the following about NAT:

•
The VPN firewall uses NAT to select the correct PC (on your LAN) to receive any
incoming data.
•
If you have only a single public Internet IP address, you need to use NAT (the default
setting).
•
If your ISP has provided you with multiple public IP addresses, you can use one address
as the primary shared address for Internet access by your PCs, and you can map
incoming traffic on the other public IP addresses to specific PCs on your LAN. This
one-to-one inbound mapping is configured using an inbound firewall rule.
To configure NAT:
1. Select Network Configuration > WAN Settings > WAN Mode. The WAN Mode screen
displays (see Figure 17 on page 34).
2. In the NAT (Network Address Translation) section of the screen select the NAT radio button.
3. Click Apply to save your settings.
Configure Classical Routing
In classical routing mode, the VPN firewall performs routing, but without NAT. To gain Internet
access, each PC on your LAN needs to have a valid static Internet IP address.
If your ISP has allocated a number of static IP addresses to you, and you have assigned one
of these addresses to each PC, you can choose classical routing. Or, you can use classical
routing for routing private IP addresses within a campus environment.
To learn the status of the WAN ports, you can view the Router Status screen (see View the
System (Router) Status and Statistics on page 275).

To configure classical routing:
1. Select Network Configuration > WAN Settings > WAN Mode. The WAN Mode screen
displays (see Figure 17 on page 34).
2. In the NAT (Network Address Translation) section of the screen select the Classical
Routing radio button.
3. Click Apply to save your settings.
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Configure the Auto-Rollover Mode and Failure Detection
Method
To use a redundant ISP link for backup purposes, ensure that the backup WAN interface has
already been configured. Then select the WAN interface that will act as the primary link for
this mode and configure the WAN failure detection method on the WAN Mode screen to
support auto-rollover.
When the VPN firewall is configured in auto-rollover mode, it uses the selected WAN failure
detection method to detect the status of the primary link connection at regular intervals. Link
failure is detected in one of the following ways:
•
By sending DNS queries to a DNS server
•
By sending a ping request to an IP address
•
None (no failure detection is performed)
From the primary WAN interface, DNS queries or ping requests are sent to the specified IP
address. If replies are not received, after a specified number of retries, the primary WAN
interface is considered down and a rollover to the backup WAN interface occurs. When the
the primary WAN interface comes back up, another rollover occurs from the backup WAN
interface back to the primary WAN interface. The WAN failure detection method that you
select applies only to the primary WAN interface, that is, it monitors the primary link only.
Configure Auto-Rollover Mode

To configure auto-rollover mode:
1. Select Network Configuration > WAN Settings > WAN Mode. The WAN Mode screen
displays:
Figure 17.
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ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
2. In the Load Balancing Settings section of the screen, configure the following settings:
a. Select the Primary WAN Mode radio button.
b. From the corresponding drop-down list on the right, select a WAN interface to
function as the primary WAN interface. The other WAN interfaces become disabled.
c. Select the Auto Rollover check box.
d. From the corresponding drop-down list on the right, select a WAN interface to
function as the backup WAN interface.
Note: Ensure that the backup WAN interface is configured before enabling
auto-rollover mode.
3. Click Apply to save your settings.
Configure the Failure Detection Method

To configure failure detection method:
1. Select Network Configuration > WAN Settings. The WAN screen displays (see
Figure 10 on page 25).
2. Click the Edit table button in the Action column of the WAN interface that you selected as
the primary WAN interface. The WAN ISP Settings screen displays (see Figure 11 on
page 26, which shows the WAN1 ISP Settings screen as an example).
3. Click the Advanced option arrow in the upper right of the screen. The WAN Advanced
Options screen displays for the WAN interface that you selected. (For an image of the entire
screen, see Figure 28 on page 52).
4. Locate the Failure Detection Method section on the screen. Enter the settings as explained
in the following table.
Figure 18.
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ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Table 6. Failure detection method settings
Setting
Description
Failure Detection
Method
Select a failure detection method from the drop-down list:
• WAN DNS. DNS queries are sent to the DNS server that is configured in the
Domain Name Server (DNS) Servers section of the WAN ISP screen (see Manually
Configure the Internet Connection on page 28).
• Custom DNS. DNS queries are sent to a DNS server that you need to specify in
the DNS Server fields.
• Ping. Pings are sent to a server with a public IP address that you need to specify
in the IP Address fields. The server should not reject the ping request and should
not consider ping traffic to be abusive.
Note: DNS queries or pings are sent through the WAN interface that is being
monitored. The retry interval and number of failover attempts determine how quickly
the VPN firewall switches from the primary link to the backup link in case the primary
link fails, or when the primary link comes back up, switches back from the backup link
to the primary link.
DNS Server
The IP address of the DNS server.
IP Address
The IP address of the ping server.
Retry Interval is
The retry interval in seconds. The DNS query or ping is sent periodically after every
test period. The default test period is 30 seconds.
Failover after
The number of failover attempts. The primary WAN interface is considered down after
the specified number of queries have failed to elicit a reply. The backup interface is
brought up after this situation has occurred. The failover default is 4 failures.
Note: The default time to roll over after the primary WAN interface fails is
2 minutes. The minimum test period is 30 seconds, and the
minimum number of tests is 4.
5. Click Apply to save your settings.
You can configure the VPN firewall to generate a WAN status log and email this log to a
specified address (see Activate Notification of Events, Alerts, and Syslogs on page 269).
Configure Load Balancing and Optional Protocol Binding
To use multiple ISP links simultaneously, configure load balancing. In load balancing mode,
any WAN port carries any outbound protocol unless protocol binding is configured.
When a protocol is bound to a particular WAN port, all outgoing traffic of that protocol is
directed to the bound WAN port. For example, if the HTTPS protocol is bound to the WAN1
port and the FTP protocol is bound to the WAN2 port, then the VPN firewall automatically
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routes all outbound HTTPS traffic from the computers on the LAN through the WAN1 port. All
outbound FTP traffic is routed through the WAN2 port.
Protocol binding addresses two issues:
•
Segregation of traffic between links that are not of the same speed.
High-volume traffic can be routed through the WAN port connected to a high-speed link,
and low-volume traffic can be routed through the WAN port connected to the low-speed
link.
•
Continuity of source IP address for secure connections.
Some services, particularly HTTPS, cease to respond when a client’s source IP address
changes shortly after a session has been established.
Configure Load Balancing

To configure load balancing:
1. Select Network Configuration > WAN Settings > WAN Mode. The WAN Mode screen
displays:
Figure 19.
2. In the Load Balancing Settings section of the screen, configure the following settings:
a. Select the Load Balancing Mode radio button.
b. From the corresponding drop-down list on the right, select one of the following load
balancing methods:
• Weighted LB. With weighted load balancing, balance weights are calculated
based on WAN link speed and available WAN bandwidth. This is the default
setting and most efficient load-balancing algorithm.
•
Round-robin. With round-robin load balancing, new traffic connections are sent
over a WAN link in a serial method irrespective of bandwidth or link speed. For
example, if the WAN1, WAN2, and WAN3 interfaces are active in round-robin load
balancing mode, an HTTP request could first be sent over the WAN1 interface,
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ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
then a new FTP session could start on the WAN2 interface, and then any new
connection to the Internet could be made on the WAN3 interface. This
load-balancing method ensures that a single WAN interface does not carry a
disproportionate distribution of sessions.
3. Click Apply to save your settings.
Configure Protocol Binding (Optional)

To configure protocol binding and add protocol binding rules:
1. Select Network Configuration > Protocol Binding.
2. Select the Load Balancing radio button. The Protocol Bindings screen displays. (The
following figure shows two examples in the Protocol Binding table.)
Figure 20.
The Protocol Binding table displays the following fields:
•
Check box. Allows you to select the protocol binding rule in the table.
•
Status icon. Indicates the status of the protocol binding rule:
-
Green circle. The protocol binding rule is enabled.
-
Gray circle. The protocol binding rule is disabled.
•
Service. The service or protocol for which the protocol binding rule is set up.
•
Local Gateway. The WAN interface to which the service or protocol is bound.
•
Source Network. The computers or groups on your network that are affected by the
protocol binding rule.
•
Destination Network. The Internet locations (based on their IP address) or groups
that are covered by the protocol binding rule.
•
Action. The Edit table button provides access to the Edit Protocol Binding screen for
the corresponding service.
3. Click the Add table button below the Protocol Binding table. The Add Protocol Binding
screen displays:
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ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Figure 21.
4. Configure the protocol binding settings as explained in the following table:
Table 7. Add Protocol Binding screen settings
Setting
Description
Service
From the drop-down list, select a service or application to be covered by this rule. If the
service or application does not appear in the list, you need to define it using the Services
screen (see Services-Based Rules on page 83).
Local Gateway
From the drop-down list, select one of the WAN interfaces.
Source Network The source network settings determine which computers on your network are affected by
this rule. Select one of the following options from the drop-down list:
Any
All devices on your LAN.
Single address
In the Start IP field, enter the IP address to which the rule is applied.
Address Range
In the Start IP field and End IP field, enter the IP addresses for the
range to which the rule is applied.
Group
If this option is selected, the rule is applied to the selected group.
The group can be a LAN group or an IP (LAN) group.
Note: For information about LAN group, see Manage Groups and
Hosts (LAN Groups) on page 67. For information about IP groups,
see Create IP Groups on page 114.).
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Table 7. Add Protocol Binding screen settings (continued)
Setting
Description
Destination
Network
The destination network settings determine which Internet locations (based on their IP
address) are covered by the rule. Select one of the following options from the drop-down
list:
Any
All Internet IP address.
Single address
In the Start IP field, enter the IP address to which the rule is applied.
Address range
In the Start IP field and End IP field, enter the IP addresses for the
range to which the rule is applied.
Group
If this option is selected, the rule is applied to the selected IP (WAN)
group.
Note: For information about IP groups, see Create IP Groups on
page 114.).
5. Click Apply to save your settings. The protocol binding rule is added to the Protocol Binding
table. The rule is automatically enabled, which is indicated by the “!” status icon that displays
a green circle.

To edit a protocol binding:
1. On the Protocol Bindings screen (see Figure 20 on page 38), in the Protocol Bindings
table, click the Edit table button to the right of the binding that you want to edit. The Edit
Protocol Bindings screen displays. This screen shows the same fields as the Add Protocol
Bindings screen (see the previous figure).
2. Modify the settings as explained in the previous table.
3. Click Apply to save your settings.

To enable, disable, or delete one or more protocol bindings:
1. On the Protocol Bindings screen (see Figure 20 on page 38), select the check box to the
left of the protocol binding that you want to enable, disable, or delete, or click the Select
All table button to select all bindings.
2. Click one of the following table buttons:
• Enable. Enables the binding or bindings. The “!” status icon changes from a gray
circle to a green circle, indicating that the selected binding or bindings are enabled.
(By default, when a binding is added to the table, it is automatically enabled.)
•
Disable. Disables the binding or bindings. The “!” status icon changes from a green
circle to a gray circle, indicating that the selected binding or bindings are disabled.
•
Delete. Deletes the binding or bindings.
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Configure Secondary WAN Addresses
You can set up a single WAN Ethernet port to be accessed through multiple IP addresses by
adding aliases to the port. An alias is a secondary WAN address. One advantage is, for
example, that you can assign different virtual IP addresses to a web server and an FTP
server, even though both servers use the same physical IP address. You can add several
secondary IP addresses to a single WAN port.
After you have configured secondary WAN addresses, these addresses are displayed on the
following firewall rule screens:
•
•
In the WAN Destination IP Address drop-down lists of the following inbound firewall rule
screens:
-
Add LAN WAN Inbound Service screen
-
Add DMZ WAN Inbound Service screen
In the NAT IP drop-down lists of the following outbound firewall rule screens:
-
Add LAN WAN Outbound Service screen
-
Add DMZ WAN Outbound Service screen
For more information about firewall rules, see Use Rules to Block or Allow Specific Kinds of
Traffic on page 82).
Note: It is important that you ensure that any secondary WAN addresses
are different from the primary WAN, LAN, and DMZ IP addresses
that are already configured on the VPN firewall. However, primary
and secondary WAN addresses can be in the same subnet. The
following is an example of correctly configured IP addresses:
Primary WAN1 IP address: 10.0.0.1 with subnet 255.0.0.0
Secondary WAN1 IP: 30.0.0.1 with subnet 255.0.0.0
Primary WAN2 IP address: 20.0.0.1 with subnet 255.0.0.0
Secondary WAN2 IP: 40.0.0.1 with subnet 255.0.0.0
DMZ IP address: 192.168.10.1 with subnet 255.255.255.0
Primary LAN IP address: 192.168.1.1 with subnet 255.255.255.0
Secondary LAN IP: 192.168.20.1 with subnet 255.255.255.0

To add a secondary WAN address to a WAN port:
1. Select Network Configuration > WAN Settings. The WAN screen displays (see
Figure 10 on page 25).
2. Click the Edit table button in the Action column of the WAN interface for which you want to
add a secondary address. The WAN ISP Settings screen displays (see Figure 11 on
page 26, which shows the WAN1 ISP Settings screen as an example).
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3. Click the Secondary Addresses option arrow in the upper right of the screen. The WAN
Secondary Addresses screen displays for the WAN interface that you selected. (The
following figure see shows the WAN1 Secondary Addresses screen as an example and
includes one entry in the List of Secondary WAN addresses table.)
Figure 22.
The List of Secondary WAN addresses table displays the secondary LAN IP addresses
added for the selected WAN interface.
4. In the Add WAN Secondary Addresses section of the screen, enter the following settings:
• IP Address. Enter the secondary address that you want to assign to the WAN port.
•
Subnet Mask. Enter the subnet mask for the secondary IP address.
5. Click the Add table button in the rightmost column to add the secondary IP address to the
List of Secondary WAN addresses table.
Repeat step 4 and step 5 for each secondary IP address that you want to add to the List
of Secondary WAN addresses table.

To delete one ore more secondary addresses:
1. In the List of Secondary WAN addresses table, select the check box to the left of the
address that you want to delete, or click the Select All table button to select all
addresses.
2. Click the Delete table button.
Configure Dynamic DNS
Dynamic DNS (DDNS) is an Internet service that allows devices with varying public IP
addresses to be located using Internet domain names. To use DDNS, you need to set up an
account with a DDNS provider such as DynDNS.org, TZO.com, Oray.net, or 3322.org. (Links
to DynDNS, TZO, Oray, and 3322 are provided for your convenience as option arrows on the
DDNS configuration screens.) The VPN firewall firmware includes software that notifies
DDNS servers of changes in the WAN IP address, so that the services running on this
network can be accessed by others on the Internet.
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ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
If your network has a permanently assigned IP address, you can register a domain name and
have that name linked with your IP address by public Domain Name Servers (DNS).
However, if your Internet account uses a dynamically assigned IP address, you will not know
in advance what your IP address will be, and the address can change frequently—hence, the
need for a commercial DDNS service, which allows you to register an extension to its
domain, and restores DNS requests for the resulting FQDN to your frequently changing IP
address.
After you have configured your account information on the VPN firewall, when your
ISP-assigned IP address changes, your VPN firewall automatically contacts your DDNS
service provider, logs in to your account, and registers your new IP address. Consider the
following:
•
For auto-rollover mode, you need a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) to implement
features such as exposed hosts and virtual private networks regardless of whether you
have a fixed or dynamic IP address.
•
For load balancing mode, you might still need a fully qualified domain name (FQDN)
either for convenience or if you have a dynamic IP address.
Note: If your ISP assigns a private WAN IP address such as 192.168.x.x
or 10.x.x.x, the DDNS service does not work because private
addresses are not routed on the Internet.

To configure DDNS:
1. Select Network Configuration > Dynamic DNS. The Dynamic DNS screen displays
(see the following figure).
The WAN Mode section on the screen reports the currently configured WAN mode (for
example, Single Port WAN1, Load Balancing, or Auto Rollover). Only those options that
match the configured WAN mode are accessible on the screen.
2. Select the submenu tab for your DDNS service provider:
• Dynamic DNS (which is shown in the following figure) for DynDNS.org
•
DNS TZO for TZO.com
•
DNS Oray for Oray.net
•
3322 DDNS for 3322.org
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ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Figure 23.
3. Click the Information option arrow in the upper right of a DNS screen for registration
information.
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ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Figure 24.
4. Access the website of the DDNS service provider and register for an account (for example,
for DynDNS.org, go to http://www.dyndns.com/).
5. Configure the DDNS service settings as explained in the following table:
Table 8. DDNS service settings
Setting
Description
WAN1 (Dynamic DNS Status: ...)
Change DNS to Select the Yes radio button to enable the DDNS service. The fields that display on the
(DynDNS, TZO, screen depend on the DDNS service provider that you have selected. Enter the following
Oray, or 3322) settings:
Host and Domain Name
The host and domain name for the DDNS service.
Username or
User Email Address
The user name or email address for DDNS server
authentication.
Password or User Key
The password that is used for DDNS server authentication.
Use wildcards
If your DDNS provider allows the use of wildcards in resolving
your URL, you can select the Use wildcards check box to
activate this feature. For example, the wildcard feature
causes *.yourhost.dyndns.org to be aliased to the same IP
address as yourhost.dyndns.org.
Update every 30 days
If your WAN IP address does not change often, you might
need to force a periodic update to the DDNS service to
prevent your account from expiring. If it appears, you can
select the Update every 30 days check box to enable a
periodic update.
WAN2 (Dynamic DNS Status: ...)
WAN3 (Dynamic DNS Status: ...)
WAN4 (Dynamic DNS Status: ...)
See the information for WAN1 above about how to enter the settings. You can select different DDNS
services for different WAN interfaces.
6. Click Apply to save your configuration.
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ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Configure WAN QoS Profiles
The VPN firewall can support multiple quality of service (QoS) profiles for each WAN
interface. You can assign profiles to services such as HTTP, FTP, and DNS and to LAN
groups or IP addresses. Profiles enforce either rate control with bandwidth allocation or
priority queue control. You can configure both types of profiles, but either all profiles on the
VPN firewall enforce rate control and the profiles that you configured for priority queue control
are inactive, or the other way around. Both types of profiles cannot be active simultaneously.
•
Rate control with bandwidth allocation. These types of profiles specify how bandwidth
is distributed among the services and hosts. A profile with a high priority is offered excess
bandwidth while the required bandwidth is still allocated to profiles that specify minimum
and maximum bandwidth rates. The congestion priority represents the classification level
of the packets among the priority queues within the system. If you select a default
congestion priority, traffic is mapped based on the Type of Service (ToS) field in the
packet’s IP header.
•
Priority queue control. These types of profiles specify the priority levels of the services.
You can select a high priority queue or a low priority queue. Services in the high priority
queue share 60 percent of the interface bandwidth; services in the low priority queue
share 10 percent of the interface bandwidth. By default, all services are assigned the
medium priority queue in which they share 30 percent of the interface bandwidth.
Both types of profiles let you allocate the Differentiated Services (DiffServ) QoS packet
matching and QoS packet marking settings, which you configure by specifying Differentiated
Services Code Point (DSCP) values, from 0 to 63.
Note: Before you enable WAN QoS, make sure that the WAN connection
type and speeds are configured correctly in the Upload/Download
Settings section of the WAN Advanced screen for the WAN interface
(see Configure Advanced WAN Options on page 51).

To enable and configure QoS for WAN interfaces:
1. Select Network Configuration > QoS. The QoS screen displays. (The following screen
shows some profiles in the List of QoS Profiles table).
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ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Figure 25.
2. To enable QoS, select the Yes radio button. By default, the No radio button is selected.
3. Specify the profile type that should be active by selecting one of the following radio buttons.
• Rate control. All rate control QoS profiles that you configure are active but priority
QoS profiles are not.
•
Priority. All priority QoS profiles that you configure are active but priority rate control
profiles are not.
4. Click Apply to save your settings.
The List of QoS Profiles table shows the following columns, all of which are explained in
detail in the following table and Table 10 on page 50.

•
QoS Type. The type of profile, either Rate Control or Priority.
•
Interface. The WAN interface to which the profile applies (WAN1, WAN2, WAN3, or
WAN4).
•
Service. The service to which the profile applies.
•
Direction. The WAN direction to which the profile applies (inbound, outbound, or
both).
•
Rate. The bandwidth rate in Kbps or priority.
•
Hosts. The IP address, IP addresses, or group to which the rate control profile
applies. (The information in this column is not applicable to priority profiles).
•
Action. The Edit table button provides access to the Edit QoS screen for the
corresponding profile.
To add a rate control QoS profile:
1. Select Network Configuration > QoS. The QoS screen displays.
2. Under the List of QoS Profiles table, click the Add table button. The Add QoS screen
displays. The following figure shows settings for a rate control QoS profile:
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ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Figure 26.
3. Enter the settings as explained in the following table:
Table 9. Add QoS screen settings for a rate control profile
Setting
Description
QoS Type
Rate Control (for Priority, see Figure 27 on page 50 and Table 10 on page 50)
Interface
From the drop-down list, select one of the WAN interfaces.
Service
From the drop-down list, select a service or application to be covered by this
profile. If the service or application does not appear in the list, you need to
define it using the Services screen (see Services-Based Rules on page 83).
Direction
From the drop-down list, select the direction to which rate control is applied:
• Outbound Traffic. Rate control is applied to outbound traffic only.
• Inbound Traffic. Rate control is applied to inbound traffic only.
Diffserv QoS Match
Enter a DSCP value in the range of 0 through 63. Packets are classified
against this value. Leave this field blank to disable packet matching.
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Table 9. Add QoS screen settings for a rate control profile (continued)
Setting
Description
Congestion Priority
From the drop-down list, select the priority queue that determines the allocation
of excess bandwidth and the classification level of the packets among other
priority queues on the VPN firewall:
• Default. Traffic is mapped based on the ToS field in the packet’s IP header.
• High. This queue includes the following DSCP values: AF41, AF42, AF43,
AF44, and CS4.
• Medium-high. This queue includes the following DSCP values: AF31, AF32,
AF33, AF34, and CS3.
• Medium. This queue includes the following DSCP values: AF21, AF22,
AF23, AF24, and CS2.
• Low. This queue includes the following DSCP values: AF11, AF12, AF13,
AF14, CS1, 0, and all other values.
Hosts
From the drop-down list, select the IP address, range of IP addresses, or group
to which the profile is applied:
• Single IP Address. The profile is applied to a single IP address. Enter the
address in the Start IP field.
• IP Address Range. The profile is applied to an IP address range. Enter the
start address of the range in the Start IP field and the end address of the
range in the End IP field.
• Group. The profile is applied to a group. Select the group from the Select
Group drop-down list and specify how the bandwidth is allocated by making
a selection from the Bandwidth Allocation drop-down list.
Start IP
The IP address for a single IP address or the start IP
address for an IP address range.
End IP
The end start IP address for an IP address range.
Select Group
From the drop-down list, select the LAN group to which
the profile is applied. For information about LAN groups,
see Manage Groups and Hosts (LAN Groups) on
page 67.
Bandwidth Allocation From the drop-down list and specify how the bandwidth
is allocated:
• Shared. The bandwidth is shared among all members
of the group.
• Individual. The bandwidth is allocated to each
member of the group.
Min Bandwidth
Enter the minimum bandwidth in Kbps that is allocated to the host. The default
value is 0 Kbps.
Max Bandwidth
Enter the maximum bandwidth in Kbps that is allocated to the host. The default
value is 100 Kbps.
Diffserv QoS Remark
Enter a DSCP value in the range of 0 through 63. Packets are marked with this
value. Leave this field blank to disable packet marking.
4. Click Apply to save your settings. The profile is added to the List Of QoS Profiles table on
the QoS screen.
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
To add a priority QoS profile:
1. Select Network Configuration > QoS. The QoS screen displays.
2. Under the List of QoS Profiles table, click the Add table button. The Add QoS screen
displays. The following figure shows settings for a priority QoS profile:
Figure 27.
3. Enter the settings as explained in the following table:
Table 10. Add QoS screen settings for a priority profile
Setting
Description
QoS Type
Priority (for Rate Control, see Figure 26 on page 48 and Table 9 on page 48)
Interface
From the drop-down list, select one of the WAN interfaces.
Service
From the drop-down list, select a service or application to be covered by this
profile. If the service or application does not appear in the list, you need to
define it using the Services screen (see Services-Based Rules on page 83).
Direction
From the drop-down list, select the direction to which the priority queue is
applied:
• Outbound Traffic. The priority queue is applied to outbound traffic only.
• Inbound Traffic. The priority queue is applied to inbound traffic only.
Diffserv QoS Match
Enter a DSCP value in the range of 0 through 63. Packets are classified against
this value. Leave this field blank to disable packet matching.
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Table 10. Add QoS screen settings for a priority profile (continued)
Setting
Description
Priority
From the drop-down list, select the priority queue that determines the allocation
of bandwidth:
• Low. All services that are assigned a low priority queue share 10 percent of
interface bandwidth.
• High. All services that are assigned a high priority queue share 60 percent of
interface bandwidth.
Note: By default, all services are assigned the medium priority queue in which
they share 30 percent of the interface bandwidth.
Hosts
Start IP
End IP
These settings are not applicable to a priority profile.
Select Group
Bandwidth Allocation
Min Bandwidth
Max Bandwidth
Diffserv QoS Remark
Enter a DSCP value in the range of 0 through 63. Packets are marked with this
value. Leave this field blank to disable packet marking.
4. Click Apply to save your settings. The profile is added to the List Of QoS Profiles table on
the QoS screen.

To edit a QoS profile:
1. In the Custom Services table, click the Edit table button to the right of the profile that
you want to edit. The Edit QoS screen displays. This screen shows the same fields as the
Add QoS screen (see the previous two figures).
2. Modify the settings as explained in the previous two tables.
3. Click Apply to save your settings.

To delete a QoS profile:
1. In the Custom Services table, select the check box to the left of the QoS profile that you
want to delete, or click the Select All table button to select all profiles.
2. Click the Delete table button.
Configure Advanced WAN Options
The advanced options include configuration of the maximum transmission unit (MTU) size,
port speed, VPN firewall’s MAC address, and setting a rate limit on the traffic that is being
forwarded by the VPN firewall.
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Note: You can also configure the failure detection method for the
auto-rollover mode on the Advanced screen. This procedure is
discussed in Configure the Failure Detection Method on page 35.

To configure advanced WAN options:
1. Select Network Configuration > WAN Settings.
2. Click the Edit table button in the Action column of the WAN interface for which you want to
configure the advanced options. The WAN ISP Settings screen displays (see Figure 11 on
page 26, which shows the WAN1 ISP Settings screen as an example).
3. Click the Advanced option arrow in the upper right of the screen. The WAN Advanced
Options screen displays for the WAN interface that you selected. (The following figure shows
the WAN1 Advanced Options screen as an example.)
Figure 28.
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4. Enter the settings as explained in the following table:
Table 11. WAN Advanced Options screen settings
Setting
Description
MTU Size
Make one of the following selections:
Default
Select the Default radio button for the normal maximum transmit unit (MTU)
value. For most Ethernet networks this value is 1500 Bytes, or 1492 Bytes for
PPPoE connections.
Custom
Select the Custom radio button and enter an MTU value in the Bytes field.
For some ISPs, you might need to reduce the MTU. This is rarely required,
and should not be done unless you are sure it is necessary for your ISP
connection.
Speed
In most cases, the VPN firewall can automatically determine the connection speed of the WAN port of the
device (modem or router) that provides the WAN connection. If you cannot establish an Internet
connection, you might need to manually select the port speed. If you know the Ethernet port speed of the
modem or router, select it from the drop-down list. Use the half-duplex settings only of the full-duplex
settings do not function correctly.
Select one of the following speeds from the drop-down list:
• AutoSense. Speed autosensing. This is the default setting, which can sense 1000BaseT speed at full
duplex.
• 10BaseT Half_Duplex. Ethernet speed at half duplex.
• 10BaseT Full_Duplex. Ethernet speed at full duplex.
• 100BaseT Half_Duplex. Fast Ethernet speed at half duplex.
• 100BaseT Full_Duplex. Fast Ethernet speed at full duplex.
• 1000BaseT Full_Duplex. Gigabit Ethernet.
Router’s MAC Address
Make one of the following selections:
Use Default Address
Each computer or router on your network has a unique 32-bit local Ethernet
address. This is also referred to as the computer's Media Access Control
(MAC) address. To use the VPN firewall’s own MAC address, select the Use
Default Address radio button.
Use this computer’s MAC
Address
Select the Use this computer's MAC Address radio button to allow the VPN
firewall to use the MAC address of the computer you are now using to access
the web management interface. This setting is useful if your ISP requires
MAC authentication.
Use this MAC Address
Select the Use this MAC Address radio button to manually enter the MAC
address in the field next to the radio button. You would typically enter the MAC
address that your ISP is requiring for MAC authentication.
Note: The format for the MAC address is 01:23:45:67:89:AB (numbers 0–9
and either uppercase or lowercase letters A–F). If you enter a MAC address,
the existing entry is overwritten.
Failure Detection Method
See Configure the Failure Detection Method on page 35, including Table 6 on page 36.
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Table 11. WAN Advanced Options screen settings (continued)
Setting
Description
Upload/Download Settings
These settings rate-limit the traffic that is being forwarded by the VPN firewall.
WAN Connection Type
From the drop-down list, select the type of connection that the VPN firewall
uses to connect to the Internet: DSL, ADLS, Cable Modem, T1, T3, or Other.
WAN Connection Speed
Upload
From the drop-down list, select the maximum upload speed that is provided
by your ISP. You can select from 56 Kbps to 1 Gbps, or you can select
Custom and enter the speed in Kbps in the field below the drop-down list.
WAN Connection Speed
Download
From the drop-down list, select the maximum download speed that is
provided by your ISP. You can select from 56 Kbps to 1 Gbps, or you can
select Custom and enter the speed in Kbps in the field below the drop-down
list.
5. Click Apply to save your changes.
WARNING!
Depending on the changes that you made, when you click Apply,
the VPN firewall might restart, or services such as HTTP and
SMTP might restart.
If you want to configure the advanced settings for an additional WAN interface, select another
WAN interface and repeat these steps.
Additional WAN-Related Configuration Tasks
•
If you want the ability to manage the VPN firewall remotely, enable remote management
(see Configure Remote Management Access on page 250). If you enable remote
management, NETGEAR strongly recommend that you change your password (see
Change Passwords and Administrator Settings on page 248).
•
You can set up the traffic meter for each WAN, if desired. See Enable the WAN Traffic
Meter on page 263.
What to Do Next
The following sections describe important tasks that you might want to address before you
deploy the VPN firewall in your network:
•
Configure VPN Authentication Domains, Groups, and Users on page 219
•
Manage Digital Certificates on page 234
•
Use the IPSec VPN Wizard for Client and Gateway Configurations on page 136
•
Overview of the SSL Configuration Process on page 197
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54
3.
LAN Configuration
3
This chapter describes how to configure the advanced LAN features of your VPN firewall. This
chapter contains the following sections:
•
Manage Virtual LANs and DHCP Options
•
Configure Multi-Home LAN IP Addresses on the Default VLAN
•
Manage Groups and Hosts (LAN Groups)
•
Configure and Enable the DMZ Port
•
Manage Routing
Manage Virtual LANs and DHCP Options
A local area network (LAN) can generally be defined as a broadcast domain. Hubs, bridges,
or switches in the same physical segment or segments connect all endpoints. Endpoints can
communicate with each other without the need for a router. Routers connect LANs together,
routing the traffic to the appropriate port.
A virtual LAN (VLAN) is a local area network with a definition that maps workstations on
some basis other than geographic location (for example, by department, type of user, or
primary application). To enable traffic to flow between VLANs, traffic needs to go through a
router, just as if the VLANs were on two separate LANs.
A VLAN is a group of PCs, servers, and other network resources that behave as if they were
connected to a single network segment—even though they might not be. For example, all
marketing personnel might be spread throughout a building. Yet if they are all assigned to a
single VLAN, they can share resources and bandwidth as if they were connected to the same
segment. The resources of other departments can be invisible to the marketing VLAN
members, accessible to all, or accessible only to specified individuals, depending on how the
IT manager has set up the VLANs.
VLANs have a number of advantages:
•
They make it easy to set up network segmentation. Users who communicate most
frequently with each other can be grouped into common VLANs, regardless of physical
location. Each group’s traffic is contained largely within the VLAN, reducing extraneous
traffic and improving the efficiency of the whole network.
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ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
•
They are easy to manage. The addition of nodes, as well as moves and other changes,
can be dealt with quickly and conveniently from a management interface rather than from
the wiring closet.
•
They provide increased performance. VLANs free up bandwidth by limiting node-to-node
and broadcast traffic throughout the network.
•
They ensure enhanced network security. VLANs create virtual boundaries that can be
crossed only through a router. So standard, router-based security measures can be used
to restrict access to each VLAN.
Port-Based VLANs
The VPN firewall supports port-based VLANs. Port-based VLANs help to confine broadcast
traffic to the LAN ports. Even though a LAN port can be a member of more than one VLAN,
the port can have only one VLAN ID as its port VLAN identifier (PVID). By default, all four
LAN ports of the VPN firewall are assigned to the default VLAN, or VLAN 1. Therefore, by
default, all four LAN ports have the default PVID 1. However, you can assign another PVID to
a LAN port by selecting a VLAN profile from the drop-down list on the LAN Setup screen.
After you have created a VLAN profile and assigned one or more ports to the profile, you first
need to enable the profile to activate it.
The VPN firewall’s default VLAN cannot be deleted. All untagged traffic is routed through the
default VLAN (VLAN1), which needs to be assigned to at least one LAN port.
Note the following about VLANs and PVIDs:
•
One physical port is assigned to at least one VLAN.
•
One physical port can be assigned to multiple VLANs.
•
When one port is assigned to multiple VLANs, the port is used as a trunk port to connect
to another switch or router.
•
When a port receives an untagged packet, this packet is forwarded to a VLAN based on
the PVID.
•
When a port receives a tagged packet, this packet is forwarded to a VLAN based on the
ID that is extracted from the tagged packet.
When you create a VLAN profile, assign LAN ports to the VLAN, and enable the VLAN, the
LAN ports that are members of the VLAN can send and receive both tagged and untagged
packets. Untagged packets that enter these LAN ports are assigned to the default PVID 1;
packets that leave these LAN ports with the same default PVID 1 are untagged. All other
packets are tagged according to the VLAN ID that you assigned to the VLAN when you
created the VLAN profile.
The following is a typical scenario for a configuration with an IP phone that has two Ethernet
ports, one of which is connected to the VPN firewall, the other one to another device:
Packets coming from the IP phone to the VPN firewall LAN port are tagged. Packets passing
through the IP phone from a connected device to the VPN firewall LAN port are untagged.
When you assign the VPN firewall LAN port to a VLAN, packets entering and leaving that
LAN port are tagged with the VLAN ID. However, untagged packets entering the VPN firewall
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ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
LAN port are forwarded to the default VLAN with PVID 1; packets that leave the LAN port
with the same default PVID 1 are untagged.
Assign and Manage VLAN Profiles

To assign VLAN profiles to the LAN ports and manage VLAN profiles:
1. Select Network Configuration > LAN Settings. The LAN submenu tabs display, with
the LAN Setup screen in view. (The following figure shows the default VLAN profile and
another VLAN profile as examples.)
Figure 29.
For each VLAN profile, the following fields are displayed in the VLAN Profiles table:
•
Check box. Allows you to select the VLAN profile in the table.
•
Status icon. Indicates the status of the VLAN profile:
-
Green circle. The VLAN profile is enabled.
-
Gray circle. The VLAN profile is disabled.
•
Profile Name. The unique name assigned to the VLAN profile.
•
VLAN ID. The unique ID (or tag) assigned to the VLAN profile.
•
Subnet IP. The subnet IP address for the VLAN profile.
•
DHCP Status. The DHCP server status for the VLAN profile, which can be either
DHCP Enabled or DHCP Disabled.
•
Action. The Edit table button that provides access to the Edit VLAN Profile screen.
2. Assign a VLAN profile to a LAN port (Port 1, Port 2, Port 3, or Port 4/DMZ) by selecting a
VLAN profile from the drop-down list. Both enabled and disabled VLAN profiles are
displayed in the drop-down lists.
3. Click Apply to save your settings.
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Note: For information about how to add and edit a VLAN profile, including
its DHCP options, see Configure a VLAN Profile on page 59.
VLAN DHCP Options
For each VLAN, you need to specify the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
options.
DHCP Server
The default VLAN (VLAN 1) has the DHCP Server option enabled by default, allowing the
VPN firewall to assign IP, DNS server, WINS server, and default gateway addresses to all
computers connected to the VPN firewall’s LAN. The assigned default gateway address is
the LAN address of the VPN firewall. IP addresses are assigned to the attached computers
from a pool of addresses that you need to specify. Each pool address is tested before it is
assigned to avoid duplicate addresses on the LAN. When you create a new VLAN, the DHCP
server option is disabled by default.
For most applications, the default DHCP server and TCP/IP settings of the VPN firewall are
satisfactory.
The VPN firewall delivers the following settings to any LAN device that requests DHCP:
•
An IP address from the range that you have defined
•
Subnet mask
•
Gateway IP address (the VPN firewall’s LAN IP address)
•
Primary DNS server (the VPN firewall’s LAN IP address)
•
WINS server (if you entered a WINS server address in the DHCP Setup screen)
•
Lease time (the date obtained and the duration of the lease)
DHCP Relay
DHCP relay options allow you to make the VPN firewall a DHCP relay agent for a VLAN. The
DHCP relay agent makes it possible for DHCP broadcast messages to be sent over routers
that do not support forwarding of these types of messages. The DHCP relay agent is
therefore the routing protocol that enables DHCP clients to obtain IP addresses from a DHCP
server on a remote subnet. If you do not configure a DHCP relay agent for a VLAN, its clients
can obtain IP addresses only from a DHCP server that is on the same subnet. To enable
clients to obtain IP addresses from a DHCP server on a remote subnet, you need to configure
the DHCP relay agent on the subnet that contains the remote clients, so that the DHCP relay
agent can relay DHCP broadcast messages to your DHCP server.
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DNS Proxy
When the DNS Proxy option is enabled for a VLAN, the VPN firewall acts as a proxy for all
DNS requests and communicates with the ISP’s DNS servers (as configured on the WAN ISP
Settings screens). All DHCP clients receive the primary and secondary DNS IP addresses
along with the IP address where the DNS proxy is located (that is, the VPN firewall’s LAN IP
address). When the DNS Proxy option is disabled for a VLAN, all DHCP clients receive the
DNS IP addresses of the ISP but without the DNS proxy IP address. A DNS proxy is
particularly useful in auto-rollover mode. For example, if the DNS servers for each WAN
connection are different servers, then a link failure might render the DNS servers
inaccessible. However, when the DNS Proxy option is enabled, the DHCP clients can make
requests to the VPN firewall, which, in turn, can send those requests to the DNS servers of
the active WAN connection. However, disable the DNS proxy if you are using a dual-WAN
configuration in auto-rollover mode with route diversity (that is, with two different ISPs) and
you cannot ensure that the DNS server is available after a rollover has occurred.
LDAP Server
A Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) server allows a user to query and modify
directory services that run over TCP/IP. For example, clients can query email addresses,
contact information, and other service information using an LDAP server. For each VLAN,
you can specify an LDAP server and a search base that defines the location in the directory
(that is, the directory tree) from which the LDAP search begins.
Configure a VLAN Profile
For each VLAN on the VPN firewall, you can configure its profile, port membership, LAN
TCP/IP settings, DHCP options, DNS server, and inter-VLAN routing.

To add or edit a VLAN profile:
1. Select Network Configuration > LAN Settings. The LAN submenu tabs display, with
the LAN Setup screen in view. (The following figure shows the default VLAN profile and
another VLAN profile as examples.)
Figure 30.
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2. Either select an entry from the VLAN Profiles table and click the corresponding Edit table
button, or add a new VLAN profile by clicking the Add table button under the VLAN Profiles
table. The Edit VLAN Profile screen displays:
Figure 31.
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3. Enter the settings as explained in the following table:
Table 12. Edit VLAN Profile screen settings
Setting
Description
VLAN Profile
Profile Name
Enter a unique name for the VLAN profile.
Note: You can also change the profile name of the default VLAN.
VLAN ID
Enter a unique ID number for the VLAN profile. No two VLANs can have the same
VLAN ID number.
Note: You can enter VLAN IDs from 2 to 4093. VLAN ID 1 is reserved for the default
VLAN; VLAN ID 4094 is reserved for the DMZ interface.
Port Membership
Port 1
Port 2
Port 3
Port 4 / DMZ
Select one, several, or all port check boxes to make the ports members of this VLAN.
Note: A port that is defined as a member of a VLAN profile can send and receive
data frames that are tagged with the VLAN ID.
IP Setup
IP Address
Enter the IP address of the VPN firewall (the factory default is 192.168.1.1).
Note: Always make sure that the LAN port IP address and DMZ port IP address are
in different subnets.
Note: If you change the LAN IP address of the VLAN while being connected through
the browser to the VLAN, you will be disconnected. You then need to open a new
connection to the new IP address and log in again. For example, if you change the
default IP address 192.168.1.1 to 10.0.0.1, you now need to enter https://10.0.0.1 in
your browser to reconnect to the web management interface.
Subnet Mask
Enter the IP subnet mask. The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of
an IP address. Based on the IP address that you assign, the VPN firewall
automatically calculates the subnet mask. Unless you are implementing subnetting,
use 255.255.255.0 as the subnet mask (computed by the VPN firewall).
DHCP
Disable DHCP
Server
If another device on your network is the DHCP server for the VLAN, or if you will
manually configure the network settings of all of your computers, select the Disable
DHCP Server radio button to disable the DHCP server. This is the default setting.
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Table 12. Edit VLAN Profile screen settings (continued)
Setting
Description
Enable DHCP
Server
Select the Enable DHCP Server radio button to enable the VPN firewall to function
as a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server, providing TCP/IP
configuration for all computers connected to the VLAN. Enter the following settings.
Domain Name
This is optional. Enter the domain name of the VPN firewall.
Start IP
Enter the starting IP address. This address specifies the first of
the contiguous addresses in the IP address pool. Any new
DHCP client joining the LAN is assigned an IP address between
this address and the ending IP address. The IP address
192.168.1.2 is the default start address.
End IP
Enter the ending IP address. This address specifies the last of
the contiguous addresses in the IP address pool. Any new
DHCP client joining the LAN is assigned an IP address between
the starting IP address and this IP address. The IP address
192.168.1.100 is the default ending address.
Note: The starting and ending DHCP IP addresses should be
in the same network as the IP address of the VPN firewall (that
is, the IP address in the IP Setup section of the screen).
DHCP Relay
Primary DNS
Server
This is optional. If an IP address is specified, the VPN firewall
provides this address as the primary DNS server IP address. If
no address is specified, the VPN firewall uses the VLAN IP
address as the primary DNS server IP address.
Secondary DNS
Server
This is optional. If an IP address is specified, the VPN firewall
provides this address as the secondary DNS server IP address.
WINS Server
This is optional. Enter a WINS server IP address to specify the
Windows NetBIOS server, if one is present in your network.
Lease Time
Enter a lease time. This specifies the duration for which IP
addresses are leased to clients.
Select the DHCP Relay radio button to use the VPN firewall as a DHCP relay agent
for a DHCP server somewhere else on your network. Enter the following setting:
Relay Gateway
The IP address of the DHCP server for which the VPN firewall
serves as a relay.
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Table 12. Edit VLAN Profile screen settings (continued)
Setting
Description
Enable LDAP
information
Select the Enable LDAP information check box to enable the DHCP server to
provide Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) server information. Enter the
following settings.
Note: The LDAP settings that you specify as part of the VLAN profile are used only
for SSL VPN and VPN firewall authentication, but not for web and email security.
LDAP Server
The IP address or name of the LDAP server.
Search Base
The search objects that specify the location in the directory tree
from which the LDAP search begins. You can specify multiple
search objects, separated by commas. The search objects
include:
• cn (for common name)
• ou (for organizational unit)
• o (for organization)
• c (for country)
• dc (for domain)
For example, to search the Netgear.net domain for all last
names of Johnson, you would enter:
cn=Johnson,dc=Netgear,dc=net
Port
The port number for the LDAP server. The default setting is 0
(zero).
DNS Proxy
Enable DNS Proxy
This is optional. Select the Enable DNS Proxy radio button to enable the VPN
firewall to provide a LAN IP address for DNS address name resolution. This setting is
disabled by default.
Note: When you deselect the Enable DNS Proxy radio button, the VPN firewall still
services DNS requests that are sent to its LAN IP address.
Inter VLAN Routing
Enable Inter VLAN
Routing
This is optional. Select the Enable Inter VLAN Routing radio button to ensure that
traffic is routed only to VLANs for which inter VLAN routing is enabled. This setting is
disabled by default. When the Enable Inter VLAN Routing radio button is not
selected, traffic from this VLAN is not routed to other VLANs, and traffic from other
VLANs is not routed to this VLAN.
4. Click Apply to save your settings.
Note: For information about how to manage VLANs, see Assign and
Manage VLAN Profiles on page 57.
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Note: Once you have completed the LAN setup, all outbound traffic is
allowed and all inbound traffic is discarded except responses to
requests from the LAN side. For information about how to change
these default traffic rules, see Chapter 4, Firewall Protection.
Note: For information about the DHCP log, see View the DHCP Log on
page 288.

To edit a VLAN profile:
1. On the LAN Setup screen (see Figure 30 on page 59), click the Edit button in the Action
column for the VLAN profile that you want to modify. The Edit VLAN Profile screen
displays. This screen is identical to the Add VLAN Profile screen (see the previous
screen)
2. Modify the settings as explained in the previous table.
3. Click Apply to save your settings.

To enable, disable, or delete one or more VLAN profiles:
1. On the LAN Setup screen (see Figure 30 on page 59), select the check box to the left of
the VLAN profile that you want to delete, or click the Select All table button to select all
profiles. (You cannot select the default VLAN profile.)
2. Click one of the following table buttons:
• Enable. Enables the VLAN or VLANs. The “!” status icon changes from a gray circle
to a green circle, indicating that the selected VLAN or VLANs are enabled. (By
default, when a VLAN is added to the table, it is automatically enabled.)
•
Disable. Disables the VLAN or VLANs. The “!” status icon changes from a green
circle to a gray circle, indicating that the selected VLAN or VLANs are disabled.
•
Delete. Deletes the VLAN or VLANs.
Configure VLAN MAC Addresses and LAN Advanced Settings
By default, all configured VLAN profiles share the same single MAC address as the LAN
ports. (All LAN ports share the same MAC address). However, you can change the VLAN
MAC settings to allow up to 16 VLANs to each be assigned a unique MAC address.
You can also enable or disable the broadcast of Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) packets
for the default VLAN. If the broadcast of ARP packets is enabled, IP addresses can be
mapped to physical addresses (that is, MAC addresses).
For information about the LAN traffic meter, see Enable the LAN Traffic Meter on page 266.
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
To configure a VLAN to have a unique MAC address:
1. Select Network Configuration > LAN Settings. The LAN submenu tabs display, with
the LAN Setup screen in view (see Figure 30 on page 59).
2. Select the Advanced option arrow in the upper right of the LAN Setup screen. The LAN
Advanced screen displays:
Figure 32.
3. From the MAC Address for VLANs drop-down list, select Unique. (The default is Same.)
4. As an option, you can disable the broadcast of ARP packets for the default VLAN by
clearing the Enable ARP Broadcast check box. (The broadcast of ARP packets is enabled
by default for the default VLAN.)
5. Click Apply to save your settings.
Note: If you attempt to configure more than 16 VLANs while the MAC
address for VLANs is set to Unique on the LAN Advanced screen,
the MAC addresses that are assigned to each VLAN might no longer
be distinct.
Configure Multi-Home LAN IP Addresses on the Default
VLAN
If you have computers using different IP networks in the LAN (for example, 172.16.2.0 or
10.0.0.0), you can add aliases to the LAN ports and give computers on those networks
access to the Internet, but you can do so only for the default VLAN. The IP addresses that
are assigned as secondary IP addresses need to be unique and should not be assigned to
the VLAN.
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It is important that you ensure that any secondary LAN addresses are different from the
primary LAN, WAN, and DMZ IP addresses and subnet addresses that are already
configured on the VPN firewall.The following is an example of correctly configured IP
addresses:
WAN1 IP address: 10.0.0.1 with subnet 255.0.0.0
WAN2 IP address: 20.0.0.1 with subnet 255.0.0.0
DMZ IP address: 192.168.10.1 with subnet 255.255.255.0
Primary LAN IP address: 192.168.1.1 with subnet 255.255.255.0
Secondary LAN IP address: 192.168.20.1 with subnet 255.255.255.0

To add a secondary LAN IP address to the default VLAN:
1. Select Network Configuration > LAN Settings > LAN Multi-homing. The LAN
Multi-homing screen displays:
Figure 33.
The Available Secondary LAN IPs table displays the secondary LAN IP addresses that
were added to the VPN firewall.
2. In the Add Secondary LAN IP Address section of the screen, enter the following settings:
• IP Address. Enter the secondary address that you want to assign to the LAN ports.
•
Subnet Mask. Enter the subnet mask for the secondary IP address.
3. Click the Add table button in the rightmost column to add the secondary IP address to the
Available Secondary LAN IPs table.
Repeat step 2 and step 3 for each secondary IP address that you want to add to the
Available Secondary LAN IPs table.
Note: Secondary IP addresses cannot be configured on the DHCP server.
The hosts on the secondary subnets needs to be manually
configured with the IP addresses, gateway IP address, and DNS
server IP addresses.
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
To edit a secondary LAN IP address:
1. On the LAN Multi-homing screen (see the previous screen), click the Edit button in the
Action column for the secondary IP address that you want to modify. The Edit
Secondary LAN IP address screen displays.
2. Modify the IP address or subnet mask, or both.
3. Click Apply to save your settings.

To delete one or more secondary LAN IP addresses:
1. On the LAN Multi-homing screen (see the previous screen), select the check box to the
left of the secondary IP address that you want to delete, or click the Select All table
button to select secondary IP addresses.
2. Click the Delete table button.
Manage Groups and Hosts (LAN Groups)
The Known PCs and Devices table on the LAN Groups screen (see Figure 34 on page 68)
contains a list of all known PCs and network devices that are assigned dynamic IP addresses
by the VPN firewall, or have been discovered by other means. Collectively, these entries
make up the network database.
The network database is updated by these three methods:
•
DHCP client requests. When the DHCP server is enabled, it accepts and responds to
DHCP client requests from PCs and other network devices. These requests also
generate an entry in the network database. This is an advantage of enabling the DHCP
Server feature.
•
Scanning the network. The local network is scanned using Address Resolution Protocol
(ARP) requests. The ARP scan detects active devices that are not DHCP clients.
Note: In large networks, scanning the network might generate unwanted
traffic.
Note: When the VPN firewall receives a reply to an ARP request, it might
not be able to determine the device name if the software firewall of
the device blocks the name.
•
Manual entry. You can manually enter information about a network device.
Some advantages of the network database are:
•
Generally, you do not need to enter either IP address or MAC addresses. Instead, you
can just select the name of the desired PC or device.
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•
There is no need to reserve an IP address for a PC in the DHCP server. All IP address
assignments made by the DHCP server are maintained until the PC or device is removed
from the network database, either by expiration (inactive for a long time) or by you.
•
There is no need to use a fixed IP address on a PCs. Because the IP address allocated
by the DHCP server never changes, you do not need to assign a fixed IP address to a PC
to ensure that it always has the same IP address.
•
A PC is identified by its MAC address—not by its IP address. The network database uses
the MAC address to identify each PC or device. Therefore, changing a PC’s IP address
does not affect any restrictions applied to that PC.
•
Control over PCs can be assigned to groups and individuals:
-
You can assign PCs to groups (see Manage the Network Database on page 68 on
this page) and apply restrictions (LAN WAN outbound rules, LAN DMZ outbound
rules, LAN WAN inbound rules, and LAN DMZ inbound rules) to each group (see Use
Rules to Block or Allow Specific Kinds of Traffic on page 82).
-
If necessary, you can also create firewall rules to apply to a single PC (see Enable
Source MAC Filtering on page 126). Because the MAC address is used to identify
each PC, users cannot avoid these restrictions by changing their IP address.
Manage the Network Database
You can view the network database, manually add or remove database entries, and edit
database entries.

To view the network database:
1. Select Network Configuration > LAN Settings > LAN Groups. The LAN Groups
screen displays. (The following figure shows some examples in the Known PCs and
Devices table.)
Figure 34.
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The Known PCs and Devices table lists the entries in the network database. For each PC
or device, the following fields are displayed:
•
Check box. Allows you to select the PC or device in the table.
•
Name. The name of the PC or device. For computers that do not support the NetBIOS
protocol, the name is displayed as Unknown (you can edit the entry manually to add a
meaningful name). If the PC or device was assigned an IP address by the DHCP
server, then the name is appended by an asterisk.
•
IP Address. The current IP address of the PC or device. For DHCP clients of the
VPN firewall, this IP address does not change. If a PC or device is assigned a static
IP address, you need to update this entry manually after the IP address on the PC or
device has changed.
•
MAC Address. The MAC address of the PC or device’s network interface.
•
Group. Each PC or device can be assigned to a single LAN group. By default, a PC
or device is assigned to Group 1. You can select a different LAN group from the
Group drop-down list in the Add Known PCs and Devices section or on the Edit
Groups and Hosts screen.
•
Profile Name. The VLAN to which the PC or device is assigned.
•
Action. The Edit table button that provides access to the Edit Groups and Hosts
screen.
Add PCs or Devices to the Network Database

To add PCs or devices manually to the network database:
1. In the Add Known PCs and Devices section of the LAN Groups screen (see Figure 34
on page 68), enter the settings as explained in the following table:
Table 13. Known PCs and devices settings
Setting
Description
Name
Enter the name of the PC or device.
IP Address Type
From the drop-down list, select how the PC or device receives it IP address:
• Fixed (set on PC). The IP address is statically assigned on the PC or device.
• Reserved (DHCP Client). Directs the VPN firewall’s DHCP server to always
assign the specified IP address to this client during the DHCP negotiation (see
Set Up Address Reservation on page 72).
Note: When assigning a reserved IP address to a client, the IP address selected
needs to be outside the range of addresses allocated to the DHCP server pool.
IP Address
Enter the IP address that this PC or device is assigned in the IP Address field. If the
IP address type is Reserved (DHCP Client), the VPN firewall reserves the IP
address for the associated MAC address.
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Table 13. Known PCs and devices settings (continued)
Setting
Description
MAC Address
Enter the MAC address of the PC or device’s network interface. The MAC address
format is six colon-separated pairs of hexadecimal characters (0–9 and A–F), such
as 01:23:45:67:89:AB.
Group
From the drop-down list, select the group to which the PC or device is assigned.
(Group 1 is the default group.)
Profile Name
From the drop-down list, select the VLAN profile to which the PC or device is
assigned. (defaultVlan is the default VLAN group.)
2. Click the Add table button to add the PC or device to the Known PCs and Devices table.
3. As an optional step: To enable DHCP address reservation for the entry that you just added
to the Known PCs and Devices table, select the check box for the table entry and click Save
Binding to bind the IP address to the MAC address for DHCP assignment.
Edit PCs or Devices in the Network Database

To edit PCs or devices manually in the network database:
1. In the Known PCs and Devices table of the LAN Groups screen (see Figure 34 on
page 68), click the Edit table button of a table entry. The Edit Groups and Hosts screen
displays:
Figure 35.
2. In the Edit Known PC and Device section, modify the settings as explained in Table 13 on
page 69.
3. Click Apply to save your settings in the Known PCs and Devices table.
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Deleting PCs or Devices from the Network Database

To delete one or more PCs or devices from the network database:
1. On the LAN Groups screen (see Figure 34 on page 68), select the check box to the left
of the PC or device that you want to delete, or click the Select All table button to select
all PCs and devices.
2. Click the Delete table button.
Change Group Names in the Network Database
By default, the groups are named Group1 through Group8. You can rename these group
names to be more descriptive, such as GlobalMarketing and GlobalSales.

To edit the names of any of the eight available groups:
1. Select Network Configuration > LAN Settings > LAN Groups. The LAN Groups
screen displays (see Figure 34 on page 68, which shows some examples in the Known
PCs and Devices table).
2. Click the Edit Group Names option arrow in the upper right of the LAN Groups screen. The
Network Database Group Names screen displays. (The following figure shows some
examples.)
Figure 36.
3. Select the radio button next to any group name to enable editing.
4. Type a new name in the field. The maximum number of characters is 15; spaces and double
quotes (") are not allowed.
5. Repeat step 3 and step 4 for any other group names.
6. Click Apply to save your settings.
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Set Up Address Reservation
When you specify a reserved IP address for a PC or device on the LAN (based on the MAC
address of the device), that PC or device always receives the same IP address each time it
accesses the VPN firewall’s DHCP server. Reserved IP addresses should be assigned to
servers or access points that require permanent IP address settings. The reserved IP
address that you select need to be outside of the DHCP server pool.
To reserve an IP address, select Reserved (DHCP Client) from the IP Address Type
drop-down list on the LAN Groups screen as described in Add PCs or Devices to the Network
Database on page 69 or on the Edit Groups and Hosts screen as described in Edit PCs or
Devices in the Network Database on page 70.
Note: The reserved address is not assigned until the next time the PC or
device contacts the VPN firewall’s DHCP server. Reboot the PC or
device, or access its IP configuration and force a DHCP release and
renew.
Configure and Enable the DMZ Port
The demilitarized zone (DMZ) is a network that, by default, has fewer firewall restrictions
when compared to the LAN. The DMZ can be used to host servers (such as a web server,
FTP server, or email server) and provide public access to them. The fourth LAN port on the
VPN firewall (the rightmost LAN port) can be dedicated as a hardware DMZ port to safely
provide services to the Internet without compromising security on your LAN. By default, the
DMZ port and both inbound and outbound DMZ traffic are disabled. Enabling the DMZ port
and allowing traffic to and from the DMZ increases the traffic through the WAN ports.
Using a DMZ port is also helpful with online games and videoconferencing applications that
are incompatible with NAT. The VPN firewall is programmed to recognize some of these
applications and to work correctly with them, but there are other applications that might not
function well. In some cases, local PCs can run the application correctly if those PCs are
used on the DMZ port.
Note: A separate firewall security profile is provided for the DMZ port that
is also physically independent of the standard firewall security
component that is used for the LAN.
The DMZ Setup screen lets you set up the DMZ port. It permits you to enable or disable the
hardware DMZ port (LAN port 4, see Front Panel on page 14) and configure an IP address
and subnet mask for the DMZ port.
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
To enable and configure the DMZ port:
1. Select Network Configuration > DMZ Setup. The DMZ Setup screen displays:
Figure 37.
2. Enter the settings as explained in the following table:
Table 14. DMZ Setup screen settings
Setting
Description
DMZ Port Setup
Do you want to
enable DMZ Port?
Select one of the following radio buttons:
• Yes. Enables you to configure the DMZ port settings. Fill in the IP Address and
Subnet Mask fields.
• No. Allows you to disable the DMZ port after you have configured it.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of the DMZ port. Make sure that the DMZ
port IP address and LAN port IP address are in different
subnets (for example, an address outside the LAN address
pool, such as 192.168.1.101).
Subnet Mask
Enter the IP subnet mask of the DMZ port. The subnet mask
specifies the network number portion of an IP address.
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Table 14. DMZ Setup screen settings (continued)
Setting
Description
DHCP
Disable DHCP Server If another device on your network is the DHCP server for the VLAN, or if you will
manually configure the network settings of all of your computers, select the
Disable DHCP Server radio button to disable the DHCP server. This is the default
setting.
Enable DHCP Server Select the Enable DHCP Server radio button to enable the VPN firewall to function
as a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server, providing TCP/IP
configuration for all computers connected to the VLAN. Enter the following settings:
Domain Name
This is optional. Enter the domain name of the VPN firewall.
Start IP
Enter the starting IP address. This address specifies the first of
the contiguous addresses in the IP address pool. Any new
DHCP client joining the LAN is assigned an IP address
between this address and the ending IP address. The IP
address 192.168.1.2 is the default start address.
End IP
Enter the ending IP address. This address specifies the last of
the contiguous addresses in the IP address pool. Any new
DHCP client joining the LAN is assigned an IP address
between the starting IP address and this IP address. The IP
address 192.168.1.100 is the default ending address.
Note: The starting and ending DHCP IP addresses should be
in the same network as the IP address of the DMZ port (that is,
the IP address in the DMZ Port Setup section of the screen).
DHCP Relay
Primary DNS
Server
This is optional. If an IP address is specified, the VPN firewall
provides this address as the primary DNS server IP address. If
no address is specified, the VPN firewall provides its own LAN
IP address as the primary DNS server IP address.
Secondary DNS
Server
This is optional. If an IP address is specified, the VPN firewall
provides this address as the secondary DNS server IP address.
WINS Server
This is optional. Enter a WINS server IP address to specify the
Windows NetBIOS server, if one is present in your network.
Lease Time
Enter a lease time. This specifies the duration for which IP
addresses are leased to clients.
Select the DHCP Relay radio button to use the VPN firewall as a DHCP relay
agent for a DHCP server somewhere else on your network. Enter the following
setting:
Relay Gateway
The IP address of the DHCP server for which the VPN firewall
serves as a relay.
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Table 14. DMZ Setup screen settings (continued)
Setting
Description
Enable LDAP
information
Select the Enable LDAP information check box to enable the DHCP server to
provide Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) server information. Enter
the following settings:
LDAP Server
The IP address or name of the LDAP server.
Search Base
The search objects that specify the location in the directory tree
from which the LDAP search begin. You can specify multiple
search objects, separated by commas. The search objects
include:
• cn (for common name)
• ou (for organizational unit)
• o (for organization)
• c (for country)
• dc (for domain)
For example, to search the Netgear.net domain for all last
names of Johnson, you would enter:
cn=Johnson,dc=Netgear,dc=net
Port
The port number for the LDAP server. The default setting is 0
(zero).
DNS Proxy
Enable DNS Proxy
This is optional. Select the Enable DNS Proxy radio button to enable the VPN
firewall to provide a LAN IP address for DNS address name resolution. This setting
is enabled by default.
3. Click Apply to save your settings.
Note: The DMZ LED next to LAN port 4 (see Front Panel on page 14)
lights green to indicate that the DMZ port is enabled.
For information about how to define the DMZ WAN rules and LAN DMZ rules, see Set
DMZ WAN Rules on page 95 and Set LAN DMZ Rules on page 98, respectively.
Manage Routing
Static routes provide additional routing information to your VPN firewall. Under normal
circumstances, the VPN firewall has adequate routing information after it has been
configured for Internet access, and you do not need to configure additional static routes. You
should configure static routes only for unusual cases such as multiple firewalls or multiple IP
subnets located on your network.
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Note: The VPN firewall automatically sets up routes between VLANs and
secondary IP addresses that you have configured on the LAN
Multi-homing screen (see Configure Multi-Home LAN IP Addresses
on the Default VLAN on page 65). Therefore, you do not need to
manually add a static route between a VLAN and a secondary IP
address.
Configure Static Routes

To add a static route to the Static Routes table:
1. Select Network Configuration > Routing. The Routing screen display:
Figure 38.
For information about the fields of the Static Routes table, see the following table.
2. Click the Add table button under the Static Routes table. The Add Static Route screen
displays:
Figure 39.
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3. Enter the settings as explained in the following table:
Table 15. Add Static Route screen settings
Setting
Description
Route Name
The route name for the static route (for purposes of identification and
management).
Active
To make the static route effective, select the Active check box.
Note: A route can be added to the table and made inactive, if not needed. This
allows routes to be used as needed without deleting and re-adding the entry. an
inactive route is not advertised if RIP is enabled.
Private
If you want to limit access to the LAN only, select the Private check box. Doing so
prevents the static route from being advertised in RIP.
Destination IP Address The destination IP address of the host or network to which the route leads.
Subnet Mask
The IP subnet mask of the host or network to which the route leads. If the
destination is a single host, enter 255.255.255.255.
Interface
From the drop-down list, select the interface that is the physical network interface
(WAN1, WAN2, WAN3, WAN4, or DMZ) or virtual interface (VLAN profile) through
which the route is accessible.
Gateway IP Address
The gateway IP address through which the destination host or network can be
reached.
Metric
The priority of the route. Select a value between 2 and 15. If multiple routes to the
same destination exist, the route with the lowest metric is used.
4. Click Apply to save your settings. The new static route is added to the Static Routes table.

To edit a static route that is in the Static Routes table:
1. On the Routing screen (see Figure 39 on page 76), click the Edit button in the Action
column for the route that you want to modify. The Edit Static Route screen displays. This
screen is identical to the Add Static Route screen (see the previous screen).
2. Modify the settings as explained in the previous table.
3. Click Apply to save your settings.

To delete one or more routes:
1. On the Routing screen (see Figure 39 on page 76), select the check box to the left of
the route that you want to delete, or click the Select All table button to select all routes.
2. Click the Delete table button.
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Configure Routing Information Protocol
Routing Information Protocol (RIP), RFC 2453, is an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) that is
commonly used in internal networks (LANs). RIP enables a router to exchange its routing
information automatically with other routers, to dynamically adjust its routing tables, and to
adapt to changes in the network. RIP is disabled by default.

To enable and configure RIP:
1. Select Network Configuration > Routing.
2. Click the RIP Configuration option arrow in the upper right of the Routing screen. The RIP
Configuration screen displays:
Figure 40.
LAN Configuration
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3. Enter the settings as explained in the following table:
Table 16. RIP Configuration screen settings
Setting
Description
RIP
RIP Direction
From the RIP Direction drop-down list, select the direction in which the VPN
firewall sends and receives RIP packets:
• None. The VPN firewall neither advertises its route table, nor does it accept any
RIP packets from other routers. This effectively disables RIP.
• In Only. The VPN firewall accepts RIP information from other routers but does
not advertises its routing table.
• Out Only. The VPN firewall advertises its routing table but does not accept RIP
information from other routers.
• Both. The VPN firewall advertises its routing table and also processes RIP
information received from other routers.
RIP Version
From the RIP Version drop-down list, select the version:
• Disabled. The RIP version is disabled. This is the default setting.
• RIP-1. Classful routing that does not include subnet information. This is the
most commonly supported version.
• RIP-2B. Routing that sends the routing data in RIP-2 format and uses subnet
broadcasting.
• RIP-2M. Routing that sends the routing data in RIP-2 format and uses
multicasting.
Authentication for RIP-2B/2M
Authentication for
RIP-2B/2M required?
Authentication for RP-2B or RIP-2M is disabled by default, that is, the No radio
button is selected. To enable authentication for RP-2B or RIP-2M, select the Yes
radio button and enter the settings for the following fields.
First Key Parameters
MD5 Key Id
The identifier for the key that is used for authentication.
MD5 Auth Key
The password that is used for MD5 authentication.
Not Valid Before
The beginning of the lifetime of the MD5 key. Enter the month,
date, year, hour, minute, and second. Before this date and
time, the MD5 key is not valid.
Not Valid After
The end of the lifetime of the MD5 key. Enter the month, date,
year, hour, minute, and second. After this date and time, the
MD5 key is no longer valid.
Second Key Parameters
MD5 Key Id
The identifier for the key that is used for authentication.
MD5 Auth Key
The password that is used for MD5 authentication.
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Table 16. RIP Configuration screen settings (continued)
Setting
Description
Authentication for
RIP-2B/2M required?
(continued)
Not Valid Before
The beginning of the lifetime of the MD5 key. Enter the month,
date, year, hour, minute, and second. Before this date and
time, the MD5 key is not valid.
Not Valid After
The end of the lifetime of the MD5 key. Enter the month, date,
year, hour, minute, and second. After this date and time, the
MD5 key is no longer valid.
4. Click Apply to save your settings.
Static Route Example
In this example, we assume the following:
•
The VPN firewall’s primary Internet access is through a cable modem to an ISP.
•
The VPN firewall is on a local LAN with IP address is 192.168.1.100.
•
The VPN firewall connects to a remote network where you need to access a device.
•
The LAN IP address of the remote network is 134.177.0.0.
When you first configured the VPN firewall, two implicit static routes were created:
•
A default static route was created with your ISP as the gateway.
•
A second static route was created to the local LAN for all 192.168.1.x addresses.
With this configuration, if you attempt to access a device on the 134.177.0.0 remote network,
the VPN firewall forwards your request to the ISP. In turn, the ISP forwards your request to
the remote network, where the request is likely to be denied by the remote network’s firewall.
In this case you need to define a static route, informing the VPN firewall that the 134.177.0.0
IP address should be accessed through the local LAN IP address (192.168.1.100).
The static route on the VPN firewall needs to be defined as follows:
•
The destination IP address and IP subnet mask need to specify that the static route
applies to all 134.177.x.x IP addresses.
•
The gateway IP address needs to specify that all traffic for the 134.177.x.x IP addresses
should be forwarded to the local LAN IP address (192.168.1.100).
•
A metric value of 1 should work since the VPN firewall is on the local LAN.
•
The static route can be made private only as a precautionary security measure in case
RIP is activated.
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4.
Firewall Protection
4
This chapter describes how to use the firewall features of the VPN firewall to protect your
network. This chapter contains the following sections:
•
About Firewall Protection
•
Use Rules to Block or Allow Specific Kinds of Traffic
•
Configure Other Firewall Features
•
Create Services, QoS Profiles, and Bandwidth Profiles
•
Set a Schedule to Block or Allow Specific Traffic
•
Content Filtering
•
Enable Source MAC Filtering
•
Set Up IP/MAC Bindings
•
Configure Port Triggering
•
Configure Universal Plug and Play
About Firewall Protection
A firewall protects one network (the trusted network, such as your LAN) from another (the
untrusted network, such as the Internet), while allowing communication between the two.
You can further segment keyword blocking to certain known groups. For information about
how to set up LAN groups, see Manage Groups and Hosts (LAN Groups) on page 67.
A firewall incorporates the functions of a Network Address Translation (NAT) router, protects
the trusted network from hacker intrusions or attacks, and controls the types of traffic that
can flow between the two networks. Unlike simple Internet-sharing NAT routers, a firewall
uses a process called stateful packet inspection to protect your network from attacks and
intrusions. NAT performs a very limited stateful inspection in that it considers whether the
incoming packet is in response to an outgoing request, but true stateful packet inspection
goes far beyond NAT.
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Administrator Tips
Consider the following operational items:
1. As an option, you can enable remote management if you have to manage distant sites
from a central location (see Configure VPN Authentication Domains, Groups, and Users
on page 219 and Configure Remote Management Access on page 250).
2. Although using rules (see Use Rules to Block or Allow Specific Kinds of Traffic on page 82)
is the basic way of managing the traffic through your system, you can further refine your
control using the following features and capabilities of the VPN firewall:
- Groups and hosts (see Manage Groups and Hosts (LAN Groups) on page 67)
-
Services (see Services-Based Rules on page 83)
-
Schedules (see Set a Schedule to Block or Allow Specific Traffic on page 121)
-
Source MAC filtering (see Enable Source MAC Filtering on page 126)
-
Port triggering (see Configure Port Triggering on page 130)
3. Some firewall settings might affect the performance of the VPN firewall. For more
information, see Performance Management on page 242.
4. The firewall logs can be configured to log and then email dropped packet information and
other information to a specified email address. For information about how to configure
logging and notifications, see Activate Notification of Events, Alerts, and Syslogs on
page 269.
Use Rules to Block or Allow Specific Kinds of Traffic
Firewall rules are used to block or allow specific traffic passing through from one side to the
other. You can configure up to 600 rules on the VPN firewall. Inbound rules (WAN to LAN)
restrict access by outsiders to private resources, selectively allowing only specific outside
users to access specific resources. Outbound rules (LAN to WAN) determine what outside
resources local users can have access to.
A firewall has two default rules, one for inbound traffic and one for outbound. The default
rules of the VPN firewall are:
•
Inbound. Block all access from outside except responses to requests from the LAN side.
•
Outbound. Allow all access from the LAN side to the outside.
The firewall rules for blocking and allowing traffic on the VPN firewall can be applied to a
combination of LAN-WAN traffic, DMZ-WAN traffic, and LAN-DMZ traffic.
Table 17. Number of supported firewall rule configurations
Traffic rule
Maximum number of
outbound rules
Maximum number of
inbound rules
Maximum number of
supported rules
LAN WAN
200
200
200
DMZ WAN
200
200
200
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Table 17. Number of supported firewall rule configurations (continued)
Traffic rule
Maximum number of
outbound rules
Maximum number of
inbound rules
Maximum number of
supported rules
LAN DMZ
200
200
200
Maximum Number of
Supported Rules
300
300
600
The maximum number of supported outbound rules is 300, and the maximum number of
supported inbound rules is 300. The total number of supported inbound and outbound rules is
therefore 600.
Per traffic rule category (LAN WAN, DMZ WAN, or LAN DMZ), you can configure a total of
200 rules in any combination of outbound and inbound rules. However, the maximum number
of outbound rules for all three categories cannot exceed 300. Similarly, the maximum number
of inbound rules for all three categories cannot exceed 300.
Services-Based Rules
The rules to block traffic are based on the traffic’s category of service:
•
Outbound rules (service blocking). Outbound traffic is normally allowed unless the
firewall is configured to disallow it.
•
Inbound rules (port forwarding). Inbound traffic is normally blocked by the firewall
unless the traffic is in response to a request from the LAN side. The firewall can be
configured to allow this otherwise blocked traffic.
•
Customized services. Additional services can be added to the list of services in the
factory default list. These added services can then have rules defined for them to either
allow or block that traffic (see Add Customized Services on page 112).
•
Quality of Service (QoS) priorities. Each service has its own native priority that impacts
its quality of performance and tolerance for jitter or delays. You can change the QoS
priority, which changes the traffic mix through the system (see Create Quality of Service
(QoS) Profiles on page 116).
Outbound Rules (Service Blocking)
The VPN firewall allows you to block the use of certain Internet services by PCs on your
network. This is called service blocking or port filtering.
Note: See Enable Source MAC Filtering on page 126 for yet another way
to block outbound traffic from selected PCs that would otherwise be
allowed by the firewall.
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WARNING!
Allowing inbound services opens security holes in your VPN
firewall. Enable only those ports that are necessary for your
network.
The following table describes the fields that define the rules for outbound traffic and that are
common to most Outbound Service screens (see Figure 43 on page 93, Figure 46 on
page 96, and Figure 49 on page 99).
The steps to configure outbound rules are described in the following sections:
•
Set LAN WAN Rules.
•
Set DMZ WAN Rules.
•
Set LAN DMZ Rules.
Table 18. Outbound rules overview
Setting
Description
Service
The service or application to be covered by this rule. If the service or application does
not appear in the list, you need to define it using the Services screen (see Add
Customized Services on page 112).
Action
The action for outgoing connections covered by this rule:
• BLOCK always
• BLOCK by schedule, otherwise allow
• ALLOW always
• ALLOW by schedule, otherwise block
Note: Any outbound traffic that is not blocked by rules you create is allowed by the
default rule.
Note: ALLOW rules are useful only if the traffic is already covered by a BLOCK rule.
That is, you wish to allow a subset of traffic that is currently blocked by another rule.
Select Schedule
The time schedule (that is, Schedule1, Schedule2, or Schedule3) that is used by this
rule.
• This drop-down list is activated only when BLOCK by schedule, otherwise allow or
ALLOW by schedule, otherwise block is selected as the Action.
• Use the schedule screen to configure the time schedules (see Set a Schedule to Block
or Allow Specific Traffic on page 121).
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Table 18. Outbound rules overview (continued)
Setting
Description
LAN Users
The settings that determine which computers on your network are affected by this rule.
The options are:
• Any. All PCs and devices on your LAN.
• Single address. Enter the required address to apply the rule to a single device on
your LAN.
• Address range. Enter the required addresses in the Start and End fields to apply the
rule to a range of devices.
• Groups. Select the group to which the rule applies. Use the LAN Groups screen to
assign PCs to groups. See Manage Groups and Hosts (LAN Groups) on page 67.
• IP Group. Select the IP group to which the rule applies. Use the IP Groups screen to
assign IP addresses to groups. See Create IP Groups on page 114.
WAN Users
The settings that determine which Internet locations are covered by the rule, based on
their IP address. The options are:
• Any. All Internet IP address are covered by this rule.
• Single address. Enter the required address in the Start field.
• Address range. Fill in the Start and End fields.
• IP Group. Select the IP group to which the rule applies. Use the IP Groups screen to
assign IP addresses to groups. See Create IP Groups on page 114.
DMZ Users
The settings that determine which DMZ computers on the DMZ network are affected by
this rule. The options are:
• Any. All PCs and devices on your DMZ network.
• Single address. Enter the required address to apply the rule to a single PC on the
DMZ network.
• Address range. Enter the required addresses in the Start and End fields to apply the
rule to a range of DMZ computers.
QoS Profile
The priority assigned to IP packets of this service. The priorities are defined by the Type
of Service (ToS) in the Internet Protocol Suite standards, RFC 1349. The QoS profile
determines the priority of a service, which, in turn, determines the quality of that service
for the traffic passing through the firewall.
The VPN firewall marks the Type of Service (ToS) field as defined in the QoS profiles
that you create. For more information, see Create Quality of Service (QoS) Profiles on
page 116.
Note: There is no default QoS profile on the VPN firewall. After you have created a QoS
profile, it can become active only when you apply it to a non-blocking inbound or
outbound firewall rule.
Note: This field is not applicable to LAN DMZ rules.
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Table 18. Outbound rules overview (continued)
Setting
Description
Bandwidth Profile
Bandwidth limiting determines the way in which the data is sent to and from your host.
The purpose of bandwidth limiting is to provide a solution for limiting the outgoing and
incoming traffic, thus preventing the LAN users from consuming all the bandwidth of the
Internet link. For more information, see Create Bandwidth Profiles on page 118.
Bandwidth limiting occurs in the following ways:
• For outbound traffic. On the available WAN interface in the single WAN port mode and
auto-rollover mode, and on the selected interface in load balancing mode.
• For inbound traffic. On the LAN interface for all WAN modes.
Note: Bandwidth limiting does not apply to the DMZ interface.
Log
The setting that determines whether packets covered by this rule are logged. The
options are:
• Always. Always log traffic considered by this rule, whether it matches or not. This is
useful when you are debugging your rules.
• Never. Never log traffic considered by this rule, whether it matches or not.
NAT IP
The setting that specifies whether the source address of the outgoing packets on the
WAN should be auto-detected, should be assigned the address of a WAN interface, or
should be assigned the address of a different interface. The options are:
• Auto. The source address of the outgoing packets is auto-detected via the configured
routing and load balancing rules.
• WAN Interface Address. All the outgoing packets on the WAN are assigned to the
address of the specified WAN interface.
• Single Address. All the outgoing packets on the WAN are assigned to the specified IP
address, for example, a secondary WAN address that you have configured.
Note: The NAT IP option is available only when the WAN mode is NAT. The IP address
specified should fall under the WAN subnet.
Inbound Rules (Port Forwarding)
If you have enabled Network Address Translation (NAT), your network presents only one IP
address to the Internet, and outside users cannot directly access any of your local computers.
However, by defining an inbound rule you can make a local server (for example, a web server
or game server) visible and available to the Internet. The rule informs the firewall to direct
inbound traffic for a particular service to one local server based on the destination port
number. This process is also known as port forwarding.
Whether or not DHCP is enabled, how a PC accesses the server’s LAN address impacts the
inbound rules. For example:
•
If your external IP address is assigned dynamically by your ISP (DHCP enabled), the IP
address might change periodically as the DHCP lease expires. Consider using Dyamic
DNS so that external users can always find your network (see Configure Dynamic DNS
on page 42).
•
If the IP address of the local server PC is assigned by DHCP, it might change when the
PC is rebooted. To avoid this, use the Reserved (DHCP Client) feature in the LAN Groups
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screen to keep the PC’s IP address constant (see Set Up Address Reservation on
page 72).
•
Local PCs need to access the local server using the PCs’ local LAN address. Attempts by
local PCs to access the server using the external WAN IP address will fail.
Note: See Configure Port Triggering on page 130 for yet another way to
allow certain types of inbound traffic that would otherwise be
blocked by the firewall.
Note: The VPN firewall always blocks denial of service (DoS) attacks. A
DoS attack does not attempt to steal data or damage your PCs, but
overloads your Internet connection so you cannot use it (that is, the
service becomes unavailable).
Note: When the Block TCP Flood and Block UDP Flood check boxes are
selected on the Attack Checks screen (see Attack Checks on
page 106), multiple concurrent connections of the same application
from one host or IP address (such as multiple DNS queries from one
PC) trigger the VPN firewall’s DoS protection.
The following table describes the fields that define the rules for inbound traffic and that are
common to most Inbound Service screens (see Figure 44 on page 94, Figure 47 on page 97,
and Figure 50 on page 100).
The steps to configure inbound rules are described in the following sections:
•
Set LAN WAN Rules
•
Set DMZ WAN Rules
•
Set LAN DMZ Rules
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Table 19. Inbound rules overview
Setting
Description
Service
The service or application to be covered by this rule. If the service or application does not
appear in the list, you need to define it using the Services screen (see Add Customized
Services on page 112).
Action
The action for outgoing connections covered by this rule:
• BLOCK always
• BLOCK by schedule, otherwise allow
• ALLOW always
• ALLOW by schedule, otherwise block
Note: Any inbound traffic that is not blocked by rules you create is allowed by the default
rule.
Select Schedule
The time schedule (that is, Schedule1, Schedule2, or Schedule3) that is used by this
rule.
• This drop-down list is activated only when BLOCK by schedule, otherwise allow or
ALLOW by schedule, otherwise block is selected as the Action.
• Use the schedule screen to configure the time schedules (see Set a Schedule to Block
or Allow Specific Traffic on page 121).
Send to LAN Server
The LAN server address determines which computer on your network is hosting this
service rule. (You can also translate this address to a port number.) The options are:
• Single address. Enter the required address in the Start field to apply the rule to a
single device on your LAN.
• Address range. Enter the required addresses in the Start and End fields to apply the
rule to a range of devices.
Send to DMZ Server The DMZ server address determines which computer on your network is hosting this
service rule. (You can also translate this address to a port number.)
Translate to Port
Number
You can enable this setting and specify a port number if you want to assign the LAN
server or DMZ server to a specific port.
WAN Destination IP
Address
The setting that determines the destination IP address applicable to incoming traffic.
This is the public IP address that maps to the internal LAN server. This address can be
either the address of one of the WAN interfaces or another public IP address (when you
have a secondary WAN address configured).
You also have the option to enter an address range. Enter the required addresses in the
Start and End fields to apply the rule to a range of devices.
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Table 19. Inbound rules overview (continued)
Setting
Description
LAN Users
The settings that determine which computers on your network are affected by this rule.
The options are:
• Any. All PCs and devices on your LAN.
• Single address. Enter the required address to apply the rule to a single device on
your LAN.
• Address range. Enter the required addresses in the Start and End fields to apply the
rule to a range of devices.
• Groups. Select the group to which the rule applies. Use the LAN Groups screen to
assign PCs to groups. See Manage Groups and Hosts (LAN Groups) on page 67.
• IP Group. Select the IP group to which the rule applies. Use the IP Groups screen to
assign IP addresses to groups. See Create IP Groups on page 114.
Note: For LAN WAN inbound rules, this field is not applicable when the WAN mode is
NAT because your network presents only one IP address to the Internet.
WAN Users
The settings that determine which Internet locations are covered by the rule, based on
their IP address. The options are:
• Any. All Internet IP address are covered by this rule.
• Single address. Enter the required address in the Start field.
• Address range. Fill in the Start and End fields.
• IP Group. Select the IP group to which the rule applies. Use the IP Groups screen to
assign IP addresses to groups. See Create IP Groups on page 114.
DMZ Users
The settings that determine which DMZ computers on the DMZ network are affected by
this rule. The options are:
• Any. All PCs and devices on your DMZ network.
• Single address. Enter the required address to apply the rule to a single PC on the
DMZ network.
• Address range. Enter the required addresses in the Start and End fields to apply the
rule to a range of DMZ computers.
Note: For DMZ WAN inbound rules, this field is not applicable when the WAN mode is
NAT because your network presents only one IP address to the Internet.
QoS Profile
The priority assigned to IP packets of this service. The priorities are defined by the Type
of Service (ToS) in the Internet Protocol Suite standards, RFC 1349. The QoS profile
determines the priority of a service, which, in turn, determines the quality of that service
for the traffic passing through the firewall.
The VPN firewall marks the Type of Service (ToS) field as defined in the QoS profiles that
you create. For more information, see Create Quality of Service (QoS) Profiles on
page 116.
Note: There is no default QoS profile on the VPN firewall. After you have created a QoS
profile, it can become active only when you apply it to a non-blocking inbound or
outbound firewall rule.
Note: This field is not applicable to LAN DMZ rules.
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Table 19. Inbound rules overview (continued)
Setting
Description
Log
The setting that determines whether packets covered by this rule are logged. The options
are:
• Always. Always log traffic considered by this rule, whether it matches or not. This is
useful when you are debugging your rules.
• Never. Never log traffic considered by this rule, whether it matches or not.
Bandwidth Profile
Bandwidth limiting determines the way in which the data is sent to and from your host.
The purpose of bandwidth limiting is to provide a solution for limiting the outgoing and
incoming traffic, thus preventing the LAN users from consuming all the bandwidth of the
Internet link. For more information, see Create Bandwidth Profiles on page 118.
Bandwidth limiting occurs in the following ways:
• For outbound traffic. On the available WAN interface in the single WAN port mode and
auto-rollover mode, and on the selected interface in load balancing mode.
• For inbound traffic. On the LAN interface for all WAN modes.
Note: Bandwidth limiting does not apply to the DMZ interface.
Note: Some residential broadband ISP accounts do not allow you to run
any server processes (such as a web or FTP server) from your
location. Your ISP might periodically check for servers and might
suspend your account if it discovers any active servers at your
location. If you are unsure, see the Acceptable Use Policy of your
ISP.
Order of Precedence for Rules
As you define a new rule, it is added to a table in a Rules screen as the last item in the list, as
shown in the LAN WAN Rules screen example in Figure 41 on page 91.
For any traffic attempting to pass through the firewall, the packet information is subjected to
the rules in the order shown in the Rules table, beginning at the top and proceeding to the
bottom. In some cases, the order of precedence of two or more rules might be important in
determining the disposition of a packet. For example, you should place the most strict rules at
the top (those with the most specific services or addresses). The Up and Down table buttons
in the Action column allow you to relocate a defined rule to a new position in the table.
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Figure 41.
Set LAN WAN Rules
The default outbound policy is to allow all traffic to the Internet to pass through. Firewall rules
can then be applied to block specific types of traffic from going out from the LAN to the
Internet (outbound). This feature is also referred to as service blocking. You can change the
default policy of Allow Always to Block Always to block all outbound traffic, which then allows
you to enable only specific services to pass through the VPN firewall.

To change the default outbound policy:
1. Select Security > Firewall. The Firewall submenu tabs display, with the LAN WAN
Rules screen in view. (The following figure shows some examples.)
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Figure 42.
2. Next to Default Outbound Policy, select Block Always from the drop-down list.
3. Next to the drop-down list, click the Apply table button.

To make changes to an existing outbound or inbound service rule:
In the Action column to the right of the rule, click one of the following table buttons:

•
Edit. Allows you to make any changes to the definition of an existing rule. Depending on
your selection, either the Edit LAN WAN Outbound Service screen (identical to Figure 43
on page 93) or Edit LAN WAN Inbound Service screen (identical to Figure 44 on page 94)
displays, containing the data for the selected rule.
•
Up. Moves the rule up one position in the table rank.
•
Down. Moves the rule down one position in the table rank.
To enable, disable, or delete one or more rules:
1. Select the check box to the left of the rule that you want to enable, disable, or delete, or
click the Select All table button to select all rules.
2. Click one of the following table buttons:
• Enable. Enables the rule or rules. The “!” status icon changes from a gray circle to a
green circle, indicating that the selected rule or rules are enabled. (By default, when a
rule is added to the table, it is automatically enabled.)
•
Disable. Disables the rule or rules. The “!” status icon changes from a green circle to
a gray circle, indicating that the selected rule or rules are disabled.
•
Delete. Deletes the rule or rules.
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LAN WAN Outbound Services Rules
You can define rules that specify exceptions to the default rules. By adding custom rules, you
can block or allow access based on the service or application, source or destination IP
addresses, and time of day. An outbound rule can block or allow traffic between an internal IP
LAN address and any external WAN IP address according to the schedule created in the
Schedule screen.
You can also tailor these rules to your specific needs (see Administrator Tips on page 82).
Note: This feature is for advanced administrators only! Incorrect
configuration might cause serious problems.

To create a new outbound LAN WAN service rule:
1. In the LAN WAN Rules screen, click the Add table button under the Outbound Services
table. The Add LAN WAN Outbound Service screen displays. (The following figure
shows an example.)
Figure 43.
2. Enter the settings as explained in Table 18 on page 84.
3. Click Apply to save your changes. The new rule is now added to the Outbound Services
table.
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LAN WAN Inbound Services Rules
The Inbound Services table lists all existing rules for inbound traffic. If you have not defined
any rules, no rules are listed. By default, all inbound traffic (from the Internet to the LAN) is
blocked. Remember that allowing inbound services opens potential security holes in your
firewall. Enable only those ports that are necessary for your network.

To create a new inbound LAN WAN service rule:
1. In the LAN WAN Rules screen, click the Add table button under the Inbound Services
table. The Add LAN WAN Inbound Service screen displays. (The following figure shows
an example.)
Figure 44.
2. Enter the settings as explained in Table 19 on page 88.
3. Click Apply to save your changes. The new rule is now added to the Inbound Services
table.
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Set DMZ WAN Rules
The firewall rules for traffic between the DMZ and the Internet are configured on the DMZ
WAN Rules screen. The default outbound policy is to allow all traffic from and to the Internet
to pass through. You can then apply firewall rules to block specific types of traffic from either
going out from the DMZ to the Internet (outbound) or coming in from the Internet to the DMZ
(inbound).
There is no drop-down list that lets you set the default outbound policy as there is on the LAN
WAN Rules screen. You can change the default outbound policy by blocking all outbound
traffic and then enabling only specific services to pass through the VPN firewall. You do so by
adding outbound services rules (see DMZ WAN Outbound Services Rules on page 96).

To access the DMZ WAN Rules screen:
1. Select Security > Firewall > DMZ WAN Rules. The DMZ WAN Rules screen displays.
(The following figure shows a rule in the Outbound Services table as an example.)
Figure 45.

To make changes to an existing outbound or inbound service rule:
In the Action column to the right of the rule, click one of the following table buttons:
•
Edit. Allows you to make any changes to the rule definition of an existing rule. Depending
on your selection, either the Edit DMZ WAN Outbound Service screen (identical to
Figure 46 on page 96) or the Edit DMZ WAN Inbound Service screen (identical to
Figure 47 on page 97) displays, containing the data for the selected rule.
•
Up. Moves the rule up one position in the table rank.
•
Down. Moves the rule down one position in the table rank.
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
To delete or disable one or more rules:
1. Select the check box to the left of the rule that you want to delete or disable, or click the
Select All table button to select all rules.
2. Click one of the following table buttons:
• Disable. Disables the rule or rules. The “!” status icon changes from a green circle to
a gray circle, indicating that the selected rule or rules are disabled. (By default, when
a rule is added to the table, it is automatically enabled.)
•
Delete. Deletes the selected rule or rules.
DMZ WAN Outbound Services Rules
You can change the default outbound policy or define rules that specify exceptions to the
default outbound policy. By adding custom rules, you can block or allow access based on the
service or application, source or destination IP addresses, and time of day. An outbound rule
can block or allow traffic between the DMZ and any external WAN IP address according to
the schedule created in the Schedule screen.

To create a new outbound DMZ WAN service rule:
1. In the DMZ WAN Rules screen, click the Add table button under the Outbound Services
table. The Add DMZ WAN Outbound Service screen displays. (The following figure
shows an example.)
Figure 46.
2. Enter the settings as explained in Table 18 on page 84.
3. Click Apply. The new rule is now added to the Outbound Services table. The rule is
automatically enabled.
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DMZ WAN Inbound Services Rules
The Inbound Services table lists all existing rules for inbound traffic. If you have not defined
any rules, no rules are listed. By default, all inbound traffic (from the Internet to the DMZ) is
allowed.
Inbound rules that are configured on the LAN WAN Rules screen take precedence over
inbound rules that are configured on the DMZ WAN Rules screen. As a result, if an inbound
packet matches an inbound rule on the LAN WAN Rules screen, it is not matched against the
inbound rules on the DMZ WAN Rules screen.

To create a new inbound DMZ WAN service rule:
1. In the DMZ WAN Rules screen, click the Add table button under the Inbound Services
table. The Add DMZ WAN Inbound Service screen displays. (The following figure shows
an example.)
Figure 47.
2. Enter the settings as explained in Table 19 on page 88.
3. Click Apply to save your changes. The new rule is now added to the Inbound Services
table.
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Set LAN DMZ Rules
The LAN DMZ Rules screen allows you to create rules that define the movement of traffic
between the LAN and the DMZ. The default outbound and inbound policies are to allow all
traffic between the local LAN and DMZ network. You can then apply firewall rules to block
specific types of traffic from either going out from the LAN to the DMZ (outbound) or coming
in from the DMZ to the LAN (inbound).
There is no drop-down list that lets you set the default outbound policy as there is on the LAN
WAN Rules screen. You can change the default outbound policy by blocking all outbound
traffic and then enabling only specific services to pass through the VPN firewall. You do so by
adding outbound services rules (see LAN DMZ Outbound Services Rules on page 99).

To access the LAN DMZ Rules screen:
1. Select Security > Firewall > LAN DMZ Rules. The LAN DMZ Rules screen displays:
Figure 48.

To make changes to an existing outbound or inbound service rule:
In the Action column to the right of the rule, click one of the following table buttons:
•
Edit. Allows you to make any changes to the rule definition of an existing rule. Depending
on your selection, either the Edit LAN DMZ Outbound Service screen (identical to
Figure 49 on page 99) or Edit LAN DMZ Inbound Service screen (identical to Figure 50
on page 100) displays, containing the data for the selected rule.
•
Up. Moves the rule up one position in the table rank.
•
Down. Moves the rule down one position in the table rank.
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
To delete or disable one or more rules:
1. Select the check box to the left of the rule that you want to delete or disable, or click the
Select All table button to select all rules.
2. Click one of the following table buttons:
• Disable. Disables the rule or rules. The “!” status icon changes from a green circle to
a gray circle, indicating that the selected rule or rules are disabled. (By default, when
a rule is added to the table, it is automatically enabled.)
•
Delete. Deletes the selected rule or rules.
LAN DMZ Outbound Services Rules
You can change the default outbound policy or define rules that specify exceptions to the
default outbound policy. By adding custom rules, you can block or allow access based on the
service or application, source or destination IP addresses, and time of day. An outbound rule
can block or allow traffic between the DMZ and any internal LAN IP address according to the
schedule created in the Schedule screen.

To create a new outbound LAN DMZ service rule:
1. In the LAN DMZ Rules screen, click the Add table button under the Outbound Services
table. The Add LAN DMZ Outbound Service screen displays:
Figure 49.
2. Enter the settings as explained in Table 18 on page 84.
3. Click Apply. The new rule is now added to the Outbound Services table. The rule is
automatically enabled.
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LAN DMZ Inbound Services Rules
The Inbound Services table lists all existing rules for inbound traffic. If you have not defined
any rules, no rules are listed. By default, all inbound traffic (from the LAN to the DMZ) is
allowed.

To create a new inbound LAN DMZ service rule:
1. In the LAN DMZ Rules screen, click the Add table button under the Inbound Services
table. The Add LAN DMZ Inbound Service screen displays:
Figure 50.
2. Enter the settings as explained in Table 19 on page 88.
3. Click Apply to save your changes. The new rule is now added to the Inbound Services
table.
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Inbound Rules Examples
LAN WAN Inbound Rule: Hosting a Local Public Web Server
If you host a public web server on your local network, you can define a rule to allow inbound
web (HTTP) requests from any outside IP address to the IP address of your web server at
any time of the day.
Figure 51.
LAN WAN Inbound Rule: Allowing Videoconference from Restricted Addresses
If you want to allow incoming videoconferencing to be initiated from a restricted range of
outside IP addresses, such as from a branch office, you can create an inbound rule (see the
following figure). In the example, CU-SeeMe connections are allowed only from a specified
range of external IP addresses.
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Figure 52.
LAN WAN or DMZ WAN Inbound Rule: Setting Up One-to-One NAT Mapping
In this example, we will configure multi-NAT to support multiple public IP addresses on one
WAN interface. By creating an inbound rule, we will configure the VPN firewall to host an
additional public IP address and associate this address with a web server on the LAN.
The following addressing scheme is used to illustrate this procedure:
•
•
NETGEAR VPN firewall:
-
WAN1 IP address: 99.180.226.101
-
LAN IP address subnet: 192.168.1.1; subnet 255.255.255.0
-
DMZ IP address subnet: 192.168.10.1; subnet 255.255.255.0
Web server PC on the VPN firewall’s LAN
-
LAN IP address: 192.168.1.2
-
DMZ IP address: 192.168.10.2
-
Access to web server is (simulated) public IP address: 192.168.55.110
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Tip: If you arrange with your ISP to have more than one public IP address for
your use, you can use the additional public IP addresses to map to
servers on your LAN or DMZ. One of these public IP addresses is used
as the primary IP address of the router that provides Internet access to
your LAN PCs through NAT. The other addresses are available to map to
your servers.

To configure the VPN firewall for additional IP addresses:
1. Select Security > Firewall. The Firewall submenu tabs display.
2. If your server is to be on your LAN, select the LAN WAN Rules submenu tab. (This is the
screen we will use in this example). If your server is to be on your DMZ, select DMZ WAN
Rules submenu tab.
3. Click the Add table button under the Inbound Services table. The Add LAN WAN Inbound
Service screen displays:
Figure 53.
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4. From the Service drop-down list, select HTTP for a web server.
5. From the Action drop-down list, select ALLOW Always.
6. In the Send to LAN Server field, enter the local IP address of your web server PC
(192.168.1.2 in this example).
7. From the WAN Destination IP Address drop-down list, select the web server. In this
example, the secondary 192.168.55.10 (WAN1) address is shown. You first need to define
this address on the WAN1 Secondary Addresses screen (see Configure Secondary WAN
Addresses on page 41) before you can select it from the WAN Destination IP Address
drop-down list.
8. Click Apply to save your settings. The rule is now added to the Inbound Services table of
the LAN WAN Rules screen.
To test the connection from a PC on the Internet, type http://<IP_address>, in which
<IP_address> is the public IP address that you have mapped to your web server. You should
see the home page of your web server.
LAN WAN or DMZ WAN Inbound Rule: Specifying an Exposed Host
Specifying an exposed host allows you to set up a computer or server that is available to
anyone on the Internet for services that you have not yet defined.

To expose one of the PCs on your LAN or DMZ as this host:
1. Create an inbound rule that allows all protocols.
2. Place the rule below all other inbound rules. (See an example in the following figure.)
WARNING!
For security, NETGEAR strongly recommends that you avoid
creating an exposed host. When a computer is designated as the
exposed host, it loses much of the protection of the firewall and is
exposed to many exploits from the Internet. If compromised, the
computer can be used to attack your network.
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1. Select Any and Allow Always (or Allow by Schedule).
2. Place the rule below all other inbound rules.
Figure 54.
Outbound Rules Example
Outbound rules let you prevent users from using applications such as Instant Messenger,
Real Audio, or other nonessential sites.
LAN WAN Outbound Rule: Blocking Instant Messenger
If you want to block Instant Messenger usage by employees during working hours, you can
create an outbound rule to block that application from any internal IP address to any external
address according to the schedule that you have created in the Schedule screen. (See an
example in the following figure.)
You can also enable the VPN firewall to log any attempt to use Instant Messenger during the
blocked period.
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Figure 55.
Configure Other Firewall Features
You can configure attack checks, set session limits, and manage the application level
gateway (ALG) for Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) sessions.
Attack Checks
The Attack Checks screen allows you to specify whether or not the VPN firewall should be
protected against common attacks in the DMZ, LAN, and WAN networks. The various types
of attack checks are listed on the Attack Checks screen and defined in the following table.

To enable the appropriate attack checks for your network environment:
1. Select Security > Firewall > Attack Checks. The Attack Checks screen displays:
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Figure 56.
2. Enter the settings as explained in the following table:
Table 20. Attack Checks screen settings
Setting
Description
WAN Security Checks
Respond to Ping on
Internet Ports
Select the Respond to Ping on Internet Ports check box to enable the VPN
firewall to respond to a ping from the Internet. A ping can be used as a diagnostic
tool. Keep this check box cleared unless you have a specific reason to enable the
VPN firewall to respond to a ping from the Internet.
Enable Stealth Mode Select the Enable Stealth Mode check box (which is the default setting) to prevent
the VPN firewall from responding to port scans from the WAN, thus making it less
susceptible to discovery and attacks.
Block TCP flood
Select the Block TCP flood check box to enable the VPN firewall to drop all invalid
TCP packets and to protect the VPN firewall from a SYN flood attack.
A SYN flood is a form of denial of service attack in which an attacker sends a
succession of SYN (synchronize) requests to a target system. When the system
responds, the attacker does not complete the connections, thus leaving the
connection half-open and flooding the server with SYN messages. No legitimate
connections can then be made. By default, the Block TCP flood check box is
cleared.
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Table 20. Attack Checks screen settings (continued)
Setting
Description
LAN Security Checks.
Block UDP flood
Select the Block UDP flood check box to prevent the VPN firewall from accepting
more than 20 simultaneous, active UDP connections from a single device on the
LAN. By default, the Block UDP flood check box is cleared.
A UDP flood is a form of denial of service attack that can be initiated when one
device sends a large number of UDP packets to random ports on a remote host. As
a result, the distant host does the following:
1. Checks for the application listening at that port.
2. Sees that no application is listening at that port.
3. Replies with an ICMP Destination Unreachable packet.
When the victimized system is flooded, it is forced to send many ICMP packets,
eventually making it unreachable by other clients. The attacker might also spoof the
IP address of the UDP packets, ensuring that the excessive ICMP return packets do
not reach him, thus making the attacker’s network location anonymous.
Disable Ping Reply
on LAN Ports
Select the Disable Ping Reply on LAN Ports check box to prevent the VPN firewall
from responding to a ping on a LAN port. A ping can be used as a diagnostic tool.
Keep this check box cleared unless you have a specific reason to prevent the VPN
firewall from responding to a ping on a LAN port.
VPN Pass through
IPSec
PPTP
L2TP
When the VPN firewall functions in NAT mode, all packets going to the remote VPN
gateway are first filtered through NAT and then encrypted per the VPN policy. For
example, if a VPN client or gateway on the LAN side of the VPN firewall wants to
connect to another VPN endpoint on the WAN side (placing the VPN firewall
between two VPN endpoints), encrypted packets are sent to the VPN firewall.
Because the VPN firewall filters the encrypted packets through NAT, the packets
become invalid unless you enable the VPN Pass through feature.
To enable the VPN tunnel to pass the VPN traffic without any filtering, select any or
all of the following check boxes:
• IPSec. Disables NAT filtering for IPSec tunnels.
• PPTP. Disables NAT filtering for PPTP tunnels.
• L2TP. Disables NAT filtering for L2TP tunnels.
By default, all three check boxes are selected.
Multicast Pass through
Enable IGMP
Pass through
IP multicast pass-through allows multicast packets that originate in the WAN subnet,
such as packets from a media streaming or gaming application, to be forwarded to
the LAN subnet. Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is used to support
multicast between IP hosts and their adjacent neighbors.
Select the Enable IGMP Pass through check box to enable IP multicast
pass-through. By default, IP multicast pass-through is enabled.
3. Click Apply to save your settings.
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Set Session Limits
The session limits feature allows you to specify the total number of sessions that are allowed,
per user, over an IP connection across the VPN firewall. The session limits feature is
disabled by default.

To enable and configure session limits:
1. Select Security > Firewall > Session Limit. The Session Limit screen displays:
Figure 57.
2. Click the Yes radio button under Do you want to enable Session Limit?
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3. Enter the settings as explained in the following table:
Table 21. Session Limit screen settings
Setting
Description
Session Limit
Session Limit Control
From the drop-down list, select one of the following options:
• When single IP exceeds. When the limit is reached, no new session is allowed
from the IP address. A new session is allowed only when an existing session is
terminated or times out.
• Single IP Cannot Exceed. When the limit is reached, no new session is allowed
from the IP address for a specified period or all sessions from the IP address
are terminated and new sessions are blocked for a specified period. You need to
specify the action and period by selecting one of the following radio buttons:
- Block IP to add new session for. No new session is allowed from the IP
address for a period. In the time field, specify the period in seconds.
- Block IP's all connections for. All sessions from the IP address are
terminated and new sessions are blocked for a period. In the time field,
specify the period in seconds.
User Limit Parameter
From the User Limit Parameter drop-down list, select one of the following options:
• Percentage of Max Sessions. A percentage of the total session connection
capacity of the VPN firewall.
• Number of Sessions. An absolute number of maximum sessions.
User Limit
Enter a number to indicate the user limit. The default value is 3.
If the User Limit Parameter is set to Percentage of Max Sessions, the number
specifies the maximum number of sessions that are allowed from a single-source
device as a percentage of the total session connection capacity of the VPN
firewall. (The session limit is per-device based.)
If the User Limit Parameter is set to Number of Sessions, the number specifies an
absolute value.
Note: Some protocols such as FTP and RSTP create two sessions per
connection, which should be considered when configuring a session limit.
This is a nonconfigurable counter that displays the total number of dropped
Total Number of
Packets Dropped due packets when the session limit is reached.
to Session Limit
Session Timeout
TCP Timeout
UDP Timeout
ICMP Timeout
For each protocol, specify a time-out in seconds. A session expires if no data for
the session is received for the duration of the time-out period. The default time-out
periods are 1200 seconds for TCP sessions, 180 seconds for UDP sessions, and
8 seconds for ICMP sessions.
4. Click Apply to save your settings.
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Manage the Application Level Gateway for SIP Sessions
The application level gateway (ALG) facilitates multimedia sessions such as voice over IP
(VoIP) sessions that use the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) across the firewall and provides
support for multiple SIP clients. ALG support for SIP is disabled by default.

To enable ALG for SIP:
1. Select Security > Firewall > Advanced. The Advanced screen displays:
Figure 58.
2. Select the Enable SIP ALG check box.
3. Click Apply to save your settings.
Create Services, QoS Profiles, and Bandwidth Profiles
When you create inbound and outbound firewall rules, you use firewall objects such as
services, QoS profiles, bandwidth profiles, and schedules to narrow down the firewall rules:
•
Services. A service narrows down the firewall rule to an application and a port number.
For information about adding services and IP groups, see Add Customized Services on
page 112 and Create IP Groups on page 114.
•
QoS profiles. A Quality of Service (QoS) profile defines the relative priority of an IP
packet for traffic that matches the firewall rule. For information about creating QoS
profiles, see Create Quality of Service (QoS) Profiles on page 116.
•
Bandwidth profiles. A bandwidth profile allocates and limits traffic bandwidth for the LAN
users to which a firewall rule is applied. For information about creating bandwidth profiles,
see Create Bandwidth Profiles on page 118.
Note: A schedule narrows down the period during which a firewall rule is
applied. For information about specifying schedules, see Set a
Schedule to Block or Allow Specific Traffic on page 121.
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Add Customized Services
Services are functions performed by server computers at the request of client computers. You
can configure up to 125 custom services.
For example, web servers serve web pages, time servers serve time and date information,
and game hosts serve data about other players’ moves. When a computer on the Internet
sends a request for service to a server computer, the requested service is identified by a
service or port number. This number appears as the destination port number in the
transmitted IP packets. For example, a packet that is sent with destination port number 80 is
an HTTP (web server) request.
The service numbers for many common protocols are defined by the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF) and published in RFC 1700, Assigned Numbers. Service numbers for
other applications are typically chosen from the range 1024 to 65535 by the authors of the
application.
Although the VPN firewall already holds a list of many service port numbers, you are not
limited to these choices. Use the Services screen to add additional services and applications
to the list for use in defining firewall rules. The Services screen shows a list of services that
you have defined, as shown in Figure 59, .
To define a new service, first you need to determine which port number or range of numbers
is used by the application. This information can usually be determined by contacting the
publisher of the application or from user groups of newsgroups. When you have the port
number information, you can enter it on the Services screen.

To add a customized service:
1. Select Security > Services. The Services submenu tabs display, with the Services
screen in view. The screen displays the Custom Services Table with the user-defined
services. (The following figure shows some examples.)
Figure 59.
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2. In the Add Customer Service section of the screen, enter the settings as explained in the
following table:
Table 22. Services screen settings
Setting
Description
Name
A descriptive name of the service for identification and management purposes.
Type
From the Type drop-down list, select the Layer 3 protocol that the service uses as its
transport protocol:
• TCP
• UDP
• ICMP
ICMP Type
A numeric value that can range between 0 and 40. For a list of ICMP types, see
http://www.iana.org/assignments/icmp-parameters.
This field is enabled only when you select ICMP from the Type drop-down list.
Start Port
The first TCP or UDP port of a range that the service uses.
This field is enabled only when you select TCP or UDP from the Type drop-down list.
Finish Port
The first TCP or UDP port of a range that the service uses. If the service uses only a single
port number, enter the same number in the Start Port and Finish Port fields.
This field is enabled only when you select TCP or UDP from the Type drop-down list.
3. Click Apply to save your settings. The new custom service is added to the Custom Services
Table.

To edit a service:
1. In the Custom Services table, click the Edit table button to the right of the service that
you want to edit. The Edit Service screen displays.
Figure 60.
2. Modify the settings that you wish to change (see the previous table).
3. Click Apply to save your changes. The modified service is displayed in the Custom Services
Table.
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
To delete one or more services:
1. In the Custom Services table, select the check box to the left of the service that you
want to disable, or click the Select All table button to select all services.
2. Click the Delete table button.
Create IP Groups
An IP group contains a collection of individual IP addresses that do not need to be within the
same IP address range. You specify an IP group as either a LAN group or WAN group and
use the group as a firewall object to which you apply a firewall rule.

To create an IP group:
1. Select Security > Services > IP Groups. The IP Groups screen displays. (The following
figure shows three groups in the Custom IP Groups table as an example.)
Figure 61.
2. In the Add New Custom IP Group section of the screen, do the following:
• In the IP Group Name field, enter a name for the group.
•
From the IP Group Type drop-down list, select LAN Group or WAN Group.
3. Click Apply to save your changes. The new IP group is displayed in the Custom IP Groups
table.
4. In the Custom IP Groups table, click the Edit table button to the right of the IP group that
you just created. The Edit IP Group screen displays. (The following figure shows three IP
addresses in the IP Addresses Grouped table as an example.)
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Figure 62.
5. In the IP Address fields, type an IP address.
6. Click the Add table button to add the IP address to the IP Addresses Grouped table.
7. Repeat the previous two steps to add more IP addresses to the IP Addresses Grouped
table.
8. Click the Edit table button to return to IP Groups screen.

To edit an IP group:
1. In the Custom IP Groups table, click the Edit table button to the right of the IP group that
you want to edit. The Edit IP Group screen displays.
2. In the Edit New Custom IP Group section of the screen, modify the settings that you wish to
change:
• You can change the group name.
•
You can change the group type.
•
You can delete an IP address from the IP Addresses Grouped table by selecting the
check box to the left of the IP address that you want to delete and then clicking the
Delete table button. You can delete all IP addresses by selecting the Select All table
button and clicking the Delete table button.
•
You can add IP addresses to the IP Addresses Grouped table (see step 4, step 5, and
step 6 in the previous procedure).
3. Click the Edit table button to return to IP Groups screen.

To delete an IP group:
1. In the Custom IP Groups table, select the check box to the left of the IP group that you
want to delete, or click the Select All table button to select all groups.
2. Click the Delete table button.
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Create Quality of Service (QoS) Profiles
A Quality of Service (QoS) profile defines the relative priority of an IP packet when multiple
connections are scheduled for simultaneous transmission on the VPN firewall. A QoS profile
becomes active only when it is associated with a nonblocking inbound or outbound firewall
rule and traffic matching the firewall rule flows through the router.
After you have created a QoS profile, you can assign the QoS profile to firewall rules on the
following screens:
•
Add LAN WAN Outbound Services screen (see Figure 43 on page 93).
•
Add LAN WAN Inbound Services screen (see Figure 44 on page 94).
•
Add DMZ WAN Outbound Services screen (see Figure 46 on page 96).
•
Add DMZ WAN Inbound Services screen (see Figure 47 on page 97).
Priorities are defined by the Type of Service (ToS) in the Internet Protocol Suite standards,
RFC 1349.
There is no default QoS profile on the VPN firewall. Following are examples of QoS profiles
that you could create:
•
Normal service profile. Used when no special priority is given to the traffic. You would
typically mark the IP packets for services with this priority with a ToS value of 0.
•
Minimize-cost profile. Used when data needs to be transferred over a link that has a lower
cost. You would typically mark the IP packets for services with this priority with a ToS
value of 1.
•
Maximize-reliability profile. Used when data needs to travel to the destination over a
reliable link and with little or no retransmission. You would typically mark the IP packets
for services with this priority with a ToS value of 2.
•
Maximize-throughput profile. Used when the volume of data transferred during an interval
is important even if the latency over the link is high. You would typically mark the IP
packets for services with this priority with a ToS value of 3 or 4.
•
Minimize-delay profile. Used when the time required (latency) for the packet to reach the
destination needs to be low. You would typically mark the IP packets for services with this
priority with a ToS value of 7.
Note: This document assumes that you are familiar with QoS concepts
such QoS priority queues, IP precedence, DHCP, and their values.

To create a QoS profile:
1. Select Security > Services > QoS Profiles. The QoS Profiles screen displays. (The
following figure shows some profiles in the List of QoS Profiles table as an example.)
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Figure 63.
The screen displays the List of QoS Profiles table with the user-defined profiles.
2. Under the List of QoS Profiles table, click the Add table button. The Add QoS Profile screen
displays:
Figure 64.
3. Enter the settings as explained in the following table.
Table 23. Add QoS Profile screen settings
Setting
Description
Profile Name
A descriptive name of the QoS profile for identification and management purposes.
Re-Mark
Select the Re-Mark check box to set the differentiated services (DiffServ) mark in the
Type of Service (ToS) byte of an IP header by specifying the QoS type (IP precedence
or DHCP) and QoS value. If you clear the Re-Mark check box (which is the default
setting), the QoS profile is specified only by the QoS priority.
QoS (Type)
From the QoS drop-down list, select one of the following traffic
classification methods:
• IP Precedence. A legacy method that sets the priority in the ToS
byte of an IP header.
• DSCP. A method that sets the Differentiated Services Code Point
(DSCP) in the Differentiated Services (DS) field (which is the same
as the ToS byte) of an IP header.
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Table 23. Add QoS Profile screen settings (continued)
Setting
Description
Re-Mark
(continued)
QoS Value
QoS Priority
The QoS priority represents the classification level of the packet among the priority
queues within the VPN firewall. If you select Default, packets are mapped based on
the ToS bits in their IP headers.
From the QoS Priority drop-down list, select one of the following priority queues:
• Default
• High
• Medium High
• Medium
• Low
The QoS value in the ToS or Diffserv byte of an IP header. The QoS
value that you enter depends on your selection from the QoS
drop-down list:
• For IP Precedence, select a value from 0 to 7.
• For DSCP, select a value from 0 to 63.
4. Click Apply to save your settings. The new QoS profile is added to the List of QoS Profiles
table.

To edit a QoS profile:
1. In the List of QoS Profiles table, click the Edit table button to the right of the QoS profile
that you want to edit. The Edit QoS Profile screen displays.
2. Modify the settings that you wish to change (see the previous table).
3. Click Apply to save your changes. The modified QoS profile is displayed in the List of QoS
Profiles table.

To delete a QoS profile:
1. In the List of QoS Profiles table, select the check box to the left of the QoS profile that
you want to delete, or click the Select All table button to select all profiles.
2. Click the Delete table button.
Create Bandwidth Profiles
Bandwidth profiles determine the way in which data is communicated with the hosts. The
purpose of bandwidth profiles is to provide a method for allocating and limiting traffic, thus
allocating LAN users sufficient bandwidth while preventing them from consuming all the
bandwidth on your WAN link.
For outbound traffic, you can apply bandwidth profiles on the available WAN interfaces in
both the single WAN port mode and auto-rollover mode, and in load balancing mode on the
interface that you specify. For inbound traffic, you can apply bandwidth profiles to a LAN
interface for all WAN modes. Bandwidth profiles do not apply to the DMZ interface.
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For example, when a new connection is established by a device, the device locates the
firewall rule corresponding to the connection:
•
If the rule has a bandwidth profile specification, the device creates a bandwidth class in
the kernel.
•
If multiple connections correspond to the same firewall rule, the connections all share the
same bandwidth class.
An exception occurs for an individual bandwidth profile if the classes are per-source IP
address classes. The source IP address is the IP address of the first packet that is
transmitted for the connection. So for outbound firewall rules, the source IP address is the
LAN-side IP address; for inbound firewall rules, the source IP address is the WAN-side IP
address. The class is deleted when all the connections that are using the class expire.
After you have created a bandwidth profile, you can assign the bandwidth profile to firewall
rules on the following screens:

•
Add LAN WAN Outbound Services screen (see Figure 43 on page 93).
•
Add LAN WAN Inbound Services screen (see Figure 44 on page 94).
To add and enable a bandwidth profile:
1. Select Security > Bandwidth Profile. The Bandwidth Profiles screen displays. (See the
following figure, which shows one profile in the List of Bandwidth Profiles table as an
example.)
Figure 65.
The screen displays the List of Bandwidth Profiles table with the user-defined profiles.
2. Under the List of Bandwidth Profiles table, click the Add table button. The Add Bandwidth
Profile screen displays:
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Figure 66.
3. Enter the settings as explained in the following table:
Table 24. Add Bandwidth Profile screen settings
Setting
Description
Profile Name A descriptive name of the bandwidth profile for identification and management purposes.
Direction
From the Direction drop-down list, select the direction in which the bandwidth profile is
applied:
• Outbound Traffic. The bandwidth profile is applied only to outbound traffic. Specify the
outbound minimum and maximum bandwidths.
• Inbound Traffic. The bandwidth profile is applied only to inbound traffic. Specify the
inbound minimum and maximum bandwidths.
• Both. The bandwidth profile is applied both to outbound and inbound traffic. Specify both
the outbound and inbound minimum and maximum bandwidths.
Outbound Minimum
Bandwidth
The outbound minimum allocated bandwidth in Kbps. The default
setting is 0 Kbps.
Outbound Maximum
Bandwidth
The outbound maximum allowed bandwidth in Kbps. The default
setting is 100 Kbps (you cannot configure less than 100 Kbps); the
maximum allowable bandwidth is 100000 Kbps.
Inbound Minimum
Bandwidth
The inbound minimum allocated bandwidth in Kbps. The default
setting is 0 Kbps.
Inbound Maximum
Bandwidth
The inbound maximum allowed bandwidth in Kbps. The default
setting is 100 Kbps (you cannot configure less than 100 Kbps); the
maximum allowable bandwidth is 100000 Kbps.
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Table 24. Add Bandwidth Profile screen settings (continued)
Setting
Description
Type
From the Type drop-down list, select the type for the bandwidth profile:
• Group. The profile applies to all users, that is, all user share the available bandwidth.
• Individual. The profile applies to an individual user, that is, each user can use the
available bandwidth.
Maximum Number of If you select Individual from the Type drop-down list, you need to
Instances
specify the maximum number of class instances that can be created
by the individual bandwidth profile.
Note: If the number of users exceeds the configured number of
instances, the same bandwidth is shared among all the users of that
bandwidth profile.
4. Click Apply to save your settings. The new bandwidth profile is added to the List of
Bandwidth Profiles table.
5. In the Bandwidth Profiles section of the screen, select the Yes radio button under Enable
Bandwidth Profiles? (By default the No radio button is selected.)
6. Click Apply to save your settings.

To edit a bandwidth profile:
1. In the List of Bandwidth Profiles table, click the Edit table button to the right of the
bandwidth profile that you want to edit. The Edit Bandwidth Profile screen displays.
2. Modify the settings that you wish to change (see the previous table).
3. Click Apply to save your changes. The modified bandwidth profile is displayed in the List of
Bandwidth Profiles table.

To delete one or more bandwidth profiles:
1. In the List of Bandwidth Profiles table, select the check box to the left of the bandwidth
profile that you want to delete, or click the Select All table button to select all profiles.
2. Click the Delete table button to delete the selected profile or profiles.
Set a Schedule to Block or Allow Specific Traffic
Schedules define the time frames under which firewall rules can be applied. Three
schedules, Schedule 1, Schedule 2, and Schedule3 can be defined, and you can select any
one of these when defining firewall rules.

To set a schedule:
1. Select Security > Schedule. The Schedule submenu tabs display, with the Schedule 1
screen in view:
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Figure 67.
2. In the Scheduled Days section, select one of the following radio buttons:
• All Days. The schedule is in effect all days of the week.
•
Specific Days. The schedule is active only on specific days. To the right of the radio
buttons, select the check box for each day that you want the schedule to be in effect.
3. In the Scheduled Time of Day section, select one of the following radio buttons:
• All Day. The schedule is in effect all hours of the selected day or days.
•
Specific Times. The schedule is active only during specific hours of the selected day
or days. To the right of the radio buttons, fill in the Start Time and End Time fields
(Hour, Minute, AM/PM) during which the schedule is in effect.
4. Click Apply to save your settings to Schedule 1.
Repeat these steps to set to a schedule for Schedule 2 and Schedule 3.
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Content Filtering
If you want to restrict internal LAN users from access to certain sites on the Internet, you can
use the VPN firewall’s content filtering and web components filtering features. By default,
these features are disabled; all requested traffic from any website is allowed. If you enable
one or more of these features and users try to access a blocked site, they will see a Blocked
by NETGEAR message.
Content Filtering
The VPN firewall supports several types of content filtering:
•
Web components blocking. You can block the following web component types: Proxy,
Java, ActiveX, and cookies. Some of these components can be used by malicious
websites to infect computers that access them. Even sites on the Trusted Domains list
will be subject to web components blocking when the blocking of a particular web
component is enabled.
-
Proxy. A proxy server (or simply, proxy) allows computers to route connections to
other computers through the proxy, thus circumventing certain firewall rules. For
example, if connections to a specific IP address are blocked by a firewall rule, the
requests can be routed through a proxy that is not blocked by the rule, rendering the
restriction ineffective. Enabling this feature blocks proxy servers.
-
Java. Blocks Java applets from being downloaded from pages that contain them.
Java applets are small programs embedded in web pages that enable dynamic
functionality of the page. A malicious applet can be used to compromise or infect
computers. Enabling this setting blocks Java applets from being downloaded.
-
ActiveX. Similar to Java applets, ActiveX controls are installed on a Windows
computer running Internet Explorer. A malicious ActiveX control can be used to
compromise or infect computers. Enabling this setting blocks ActiveX applets from
being downloaded.
-
Cookies. Cookies are used to store session information by websites that usually
require login. However, several websites use cookies to store tracking information
and browsing habits. Enabling this option filters out cookies from being created by a
website.
Note: Many websites require that cookies be accepted in order for the site
to be accessed correctly. Blocking cookies might interfere with
useful functions provided by these websites.
•
Keyword blocking (domain name blocking). You can specify up to 32 words that, should
they appear in the website name (URL) or in a newsgroup name, will cause that site or
newsgroup to be blocked by the VPN firewall.
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You can apply the keywords to one or more groups. Requests from the PCs in the groups
for which keyword blocking has been enabled will be blocked. Blocking does not occur for
the PCs that are in the groups for which keyword blocking has not been enabled.
You can bypass keyword blocking for trusted domains by adding the exact matching
domain to the list of trusted domains. Access to the domains or keywords on this list by
PCs, even those in the groups for which keyword blocking has been enabled, will still be
allowed without any blocking.
Keyword application examples:
•
If the keyword XXX is specified, the URL www.zzyyqq.com/xxx.html is blocked, as is
the newsgroup alt.pictures.XXX.
•
If the keyword .com is specified, only websites with other domain suffixes (such
as .edu or .gov) can be viewed.
•
If a period (.) is specified as the keyword, all Internet browsing access is blocked.
Enable and Configure Content Filtering

To enable and configure content filtering:
1. Select Security > Content Filtering. The Block Sites screen displays (see the following
figure).
2. In the Content Filtering section, select the Yes radio button to enable content filtering.
3. Click Apply to activate the screen controls. The check boxes and fields that were masked
out become available for configuration.
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Figure 68.
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4. Enter the settings as explained in the following table:
Table 25. Block Sites screen settings
Setting
Description
Web Components
Select the check boxes of any \web components that you wish to block. The web components are
explained in Content Filtering on page 123.
Apply Keyword Blocking to
To apply keyword blocking to groups:
1. Select the check boxes for the groups to which you wish to apply keyword blocking, or click the
Select All button to select all groups.
2. Click the Enable button to activate keyword blocking for these groups. (To deactivate keyword
blocking for the selected groups, click the Disable button.)
(Add) Blocked Keyword(s)
To build your list of blocked keywords or blocked domain names:
1. In the Add Blocked Keyword section, enter a keyword or domain name in the Blocked Keyword
field.
2. After each entry, click the Add table button. The keyword or domain name is added to the Blocked
Keywords table.
To edit an entry, click the Edit table button in the Action column adjacent to the entry.
(Add) Trusted Domain(s)
To build your list of trusted domains:
1. In the Add Trusted Domain section, enter a domain name in the Trusted Domains field.
2. After each entry, click the Add table button. The domain name is added to the Trusted Domains
table.
To edit an entry, click the Edit table button in the Action column adjacent to the entry.
5. Click Apply to save your selection of web components. (The selected groups for keyword
blocking are saved after you have clicked the Enable button; keywords and trusted domains
are saved after you have added them to their respective tables.)
Enable Source MAC Filtering
The Source MAC Filter screen enables you to permit or block traffic coming from certain
known PCs or devices.
By default, the source MAC address filter is disabled. All the traffic received from PCs with
any MAC address is allowed. When the source MAC address filter is enabled, depending on
the selected policy, traffic is either permitted or blocked if it comes from any PCs or devices
whose MAC addresses are listed in MAC Addresses table.
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Note: For additional ways of restricting outbound traffic, see Outbound
Rules (Service Blocking) on page 83.

To enable MAC filtering and add MAC addresses to be permitted or blocked:
1. Select Security > Address Filter. The Address Filter submenu tabs display, with the
Source MAC Filter screen in view. (The following figure shows one address in the MAC
Addresses table as an example.)
Figure 69.
2. In the MAC Filtering Enable section, select the Yes radio button.
3. In the same section, below the radio buttons, select one of the following options from the
drop-down list:
• Block. Traffic coming from all addresses in the MAC Addresses table is blocked.
•
Permit. Traffic coming from all addresses in the MAC Addresses table is permitted.
4. Below Add Source MAC Address, build your list of source MAC addresses to be permitted
or blocked by entering the first MAC address in the MAC Address field. A MAC address
needs to be entered in the format xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx, in which x is a numeric (0 to 9) or a letter
between a and f (inclusive), for example: aa:11:bb:22:cc:03.
5. Click the Add table button. The MAC address is added to the MAC Addresses table.
6. Click Apply to save your settings.
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
To remove one or more entries from the table:
1. Select the check box to the left of the MAC address that you want to delete, or click the
Select All table button to select all entries.
2. Click the Delete table button.
Set Up IP/MAC Bindings
IP/MAC binding allows you to bind an IP address to a MAC address and vice versa. Some
PCs or devices are configured with static addresses. To prevent users from changing their
static IP addresses, the IP/MAC binding feature needs to be enabled on the VPN firewall. If
the VPN firewall detects packets with a matching IP address but with the inconsistent MAC
address (or vice versa), the packets are dropped. If you have enabled the logging option for
the IP/MAC binding feature, these packets are logged before they are dropped. The VPN
firewall displays the total number of dropped packets that violate either the IP-to-MAC binding
or the MAC-to-IP binding.
Note: You can bind IP addresses to MAC addresses for DHCP assignment
on the LAN Groups submenu. See Manage the Network Database
on page 68.
As an example, assume that three computers on the LAN are set up as follows:
•
Host1. MAC address (00:01:02:03:04:05) and IP address (192.168.10.10)
•
Host2. MAC address (00:01:02:03:04:06) and IP address (192.168.10.11)
•
Host3. MAC address (00:01:02:03:04:07) and IP address (192.168.10.12)
If all of the preceding host entry examples are added to the IP/MAC Bindings table, the
following scenarios indicate the possible outcome.
•
Host1. Matching IP address and MAC address in the IP/MAC Bindings table.
•
Host2. Matching IP address but inconsistent MAC address in the IP/MAC Bindings table.
•
Host3. Matching MAC address but inconsistent IP address in the IP/MAC Bindings table.
In this example, the VPN firewall blocks the traffic coming from Host2 and Host3, but allows
the traffic coming from Host1 to any external network. The total count of dropped packets is
displayed.

To set up IP/MAC bindings:
1. Select Security > Address Filter > IP/MAC Binding. The IP/MAC Binding screen
displays. (See the following figure, which shows one binding in the IP/MAC Binding table
as an example.)
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Figure 70.
2. Enter the settings as explained in the following table:
Table 26. IP/MAC Binding screen settings
Setting
Description
Email IP/MAC Violations
Do you want to
Select one of the following radio buttons:
enable E-mail
• Yes. IP/MAC binding violations are emailed.
Logs for IP/MAC
• No. IP/MAC binding violations are not emailed.
Binding Violation?
Note: Click the Firewall Logs & E-mail page link to ensure that emailing of logs is
enabled on the Email and Syslog screen (see Activate Notification of Events, Alerts,
and Syslogs on page 269).
IP/MAC Bindings
Name
A descriptive name of the binding for identification and management purposes.
MAC Address
The MAC address of the PC or device that is bound to the IP address.
IP Address
The IP address of the PC or device that is bound to the MAC address.
Log Dropped
Packets
To log the dropped packets, select Enable from the drop-down list. The default setting
is Disable.
3. Click the Add table button. The new IP/MAC rule is added to the IP/MAC Bindings table.
4. Click Apply to save your changes.
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
To edit an IP/MAC binding:
1. In the IP/MAC Bindings table, click the Edit table button to the right of the IP/MAC
binding that you want to edit. The Edit IP/MAC Binding screen displays.
2. Modify the settings that you wish to change (see the previous table).
3. Click Apply to save your changes. The modified IP/MAC binding is displayed in the IP/MAC
Bindings table.

To remove one or more IP/MAC bindings from the table:
1. Select the check box to the left of the IP/MAC binding that you want to delete, or click
the Select All table button to select all bindings.
2. Click the Delete table button.
Configure Port Triggering
Port triggering allows some applications running on a LAN network to be available to external
applications that would otherwise be partially blocked by the firewall. Using the port triggering
feature requires that you know the port numbers used by the application.
Once configured, port triggering operates as follows:
1. A PC makes an outgoing connection using a port number that is defined in the Port
Triggering Rules table.
2. The VPN firewall records this connection, opens the additional incoming port or ports that
are associated with the rule in the port triggering table, and associates them with the PC.
3. The remote system receives the PC’s request and responds using the incoming port or ports
that are associated with the rule in the port triggering table on the VPN firewall.
4. The VPN firewall matches the response to the previous request, and forwards the response
to the PC.
Without port triggering, the response from the external application would be treated as a new
connection request rather than a response to a requests from the LAN network. As such, it
would be handled in accordance with the inbound port forwarding rules, and most likely
would be blocked.
Note these restrictions on port triggering:
•
Only one PC can use a port triggering application at any time.
•
After a PC has finished using a port triggering application, there is a short time-out period
before the application can be used by another PC. This time-out period is required so the
VPN firewall can determine that the application has terminated.
Note: For additional ways of allowing inbound traffic, see Inbound Rules
(Port Forwarding) on page 86.
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
To add a port triggering rule:
1. Select Security > Port Triggering. The Port Triggering screen displays. (See the
following figure, which shows one rule in the Port Triggering Rule table as an example.)
Figure 71.
2. Below Add Port Triggering Rule, enter the settings as explained in the following table:
Table 27. Port Triggering screen settings
Setting
Description
Name
A descriptive name of the rule for identification and management purposes.
Enable
From the drop-down list, select Yes to enable the rule. (You can define a rule but not
enable it.) The default setting is No.
Protocol
From the drop-down list, select the protocol to which the rule applies:
• TCP. The rule applies to an application that uses the Transmission Control
Protocol (TCP).
• UDP. The rule applies to an application that uses the User Control Protocol
(UCP).
Outgoing (Trigger)
Port Range
Start Port
The start port (1–65534) of the range for triggering.
End Port
The end port (1–65534) of the range for triggering.
Incoming (Response) Start Port
Port Range
End Port
The start port (1–65534) of the range for responding.
The end port (1–65534) of the range for responding.
3. Click the Add table button. The new port triggering rule is added to the Port Triggering Rules
table.
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
To edit a port triggering rule (for example, to enable the rule):
1. In the Port Triggering Rules table, click the Edit table button to the right of the port
triggering rule that you want to edit. The Edit Port Triggering Rule screen displays.
2. Modify the settings that you wish to change (see the previous table).
3. Click Apply to save your changes. The modified port triggering rule is displayed in the Port
Triggering Rules table.

To remove one or more port-triggering rules from the table:
1. Select the check box to the left of the port-triggering rule that you want to delete, or click
the Select All table button to select all rules.
2. Click the Delete table button.

To display the status of the port-triggering rules:
Click the Status option arrow in the upper right of the Port Triggering screen. A popup
window appears, displaying the status of the port triggering rules.
Figure 72.
Configure Universal Plug and Play
The Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) feature enables the VPN firewall to automatically
discover and configure devices when it searches the LAN and WAN.
1. Select Security > UPnP. The UPnP screen displays (see the following figure).
The UPnP Portmap Table in the lower part of the screen shows the IP addresses and
other settings of UPnP devices that have accessed the VPN firewall and that have been
automatically detected by the VPN firewall:
-
Active. A Yes or No indicates if the UPnP device port that established a connection is
currently active.
-
Protocol. Indicates the network protocol such as HTTP or FTP that is used by the
device to connect to the VPN firewall.
-
Int. Port. Indicates if any internal ports are opened by the UPnP device.
-
Ext. Port. Indicates if any external ports are opened by the UPnP device.
-
IP Address. Lists the IP address of the UPnP device accessing the VPN firewall.
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Figure 73.
2. To enable the UPnP feature, select the Yes radio button. (The feature is disabled by default.)
To disable the feature, select No.
3. Configure the following fields:
- Advertisement Period. Enter the period in minutes that specifies how often the VPN
firewall should broadcast its UPnP information to all devices within its range. The
default setting is 40 minutes.
-
Advertisement Time to Live. Enter a number that specifies how many steps (hops)
each UPnP packet is allowed to propagate before being discarded. Small values will
limit the UPnP broadcast range. The default setting is 4 hops.
4. Click Apply to save your settings.
To refresh the contents of the UPnP Portmap Table, click Refresh.
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5.
Virtual Private Networking
Using IPSec Connections
5
This chapter describes how to use the IP security (IPSec) virtual private networking (VPN)
features of the VPN firewall to provide secure, encrypted communications between your local
network and a remote network or computer. This chapter contains the following sections:
•
Considerations for Multi-WAN Port Systems
•
Use the IPSec VPN Wizard for Client and Gateway Configurations
•
Test the Connection and View Connection and Status Information
•
Manage IPSec VPN Policies
•
Configure Extended Authentication (XAUTH)
•
Assign IP Addresses to Remote Users (Mode Config)
•
Configure NetBIOS Bridging with IPSec VPN
•
Configure Keep-alives and Dead Peer Detection
Considerations for Multi-WAN Port Systems
If two WAN ports of the VPN firewall are configured, you can enable either auto-rollover
mode for increased system reliability or load balancing mode for optimum bandwidth
efficiency. Your WAN mode selection impacts how the VPN features need to be configured.
The use of fully qualified domain names (FQDNs) in VPN policies is mandatory when the
WAN ports function in auto-rollover mode or load balancing mode, and is also required for
VPN tunnel failover. When the WAN ports function in load balancing mode, you cannot
configure VPN tunnel failover. An FQDN is optional when the WAN ports function in load
balancing mode if the IP addresses are static, but mandatory if the WAN IP addresses are
dynamic.
See Virtual Private Networks on page 313 for more information about the IP addressing
requirements for VPNs in the dual WAN modes. For information about how to select and
configure a Dynamic DNS service for resolving FQDNs, see Configure Dynamic DNS on
page 42. For information about WAN mode configuration, see Configure the WAN Mode on
page 32.
The following diagrams and table show how the WAN mode selection relates to VPN
configuration.
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WAN Auto-Rollover: FQDN Required for VPN
VPN Firewall
WAN 1 Port
Rest of
VPN Firewall
VPN Firewall
VPN Firewall
WAN Port
Functions
Rollover
Control
Functions
WAN 2 Port
Internet
Same FQDN required for both WAN ports
Figure 74.
WAN Load Balancing: FQDN Optional for VPN
VPN Firewall
WAN 1 Port
Rest of
VPN Firewall
VPN Firewall
WAN Port
Functions
Functions
Load
Balancing
Control
WAN 2 Port
Internet
FQDN required for dynamic IP addresses
FQDN optional for static IP addresses
Figure 75.
The following table summarizes the WAN addressing requirements (FQDN or IP address) for
a VPN tunnel in either dual WAN mode.
Table 28. IP Addressing for VPNs in Dual WAN Port Systems
Configuration and WAN IP address
Rollover modea
Load balancing mode
VPN “Road Warrior”
(client-to-gateway)
Fixed
FQDN required
FQDN Allowed (optional)
Dynamic
FQDN required
FQDN required
Fixed
FQDN required
FQDN Allowed (optional)
Dynamic
FQDN required
FQDN required
Fixed
FQDN required
FQDN Allowed (optional)
Dynamic
FQDN required
FQDN required
VPN “Gateway-to-Gateway”
VPN “Telecommuter”
(client-to-gateway through a
NAT router)
a. After a rollover, all tunnels need to be reestablished using the new WAN IP address.
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Use the IPSec VPN Wizard for Client and Gateway
Configurations
You can use the IPSec VPN Wizard to configure multiple gateway or client VPN tunnel
policies.
The following section provides wizard and NETGEAR ProSafe VPN Client software
configuration procedures for the following scenarios:
•
Using the wizard to configure a VPN tunnel between two VPN gateways.
•
Using the wizard to configure a VPN tunnel between a VPN gateway and a VPN client.
Configuring a VPN tunnel connection requires that all settings on both sides of the VPN
tunnel match or mirror each other precisely, which can be a daunting task. The VPN Wizard
efficiently guides you through the setup procedure with a series of questions that determine
the IPSec keys and VPN policies it sets up. The VPN Wizard also configures the settings for
the network connection: security association (SA), traffic selectors, authentication algorithm,
and encryption. The settings that are used by the VPN Wizard are based on the
recommendations of the VPN Consortium (VPNC), an organization that promotes
multivendor VPN interoperability.
Create Gateway-to-Gateway VPN Tunnels with the Wizard
Figure 76.

To set up a gateway-to-gateway VPN tunnel using the VPN Wizard.
1. Select VPN > IPSec VPN > VPN Wizard. The VPN Wizard screen displays. (The
following figure contains some entries as an example.)
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Figure 77.
To view the wizard default settings, click the VPN Wizard Default Values option arrow in
the upper right of the screen. A popup window appears (see Figure 78 on page 138)
displaying the wizard default values. After you have completed the wizard, you can
modify these settings for the tunnel policy that you have set up.
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Figure 78.
2. Complete the settings as explained the following table;
Table 29. IPSec VPN Wizard settings for a gateway-to-gateway tunnel
Setting
Description
About VPN Wizard
This VPN tunnel will connect to Select the Gateway radio button. The local WAN port’s IP address or
the following peers
Internet name appears in the End Point Information section of the screen.
Connection Name and Remote IP Type
What is the new Connection
Name?
Enter a descriptive name for the connection. This name is used to help
you to manage the VPN settings; the name is not supplied to the remote
VPN endpoint.
What is the pre-shared key?
Enter a pre-shared key. The key needs to be entered both here and on
the remote VPN gateway. This key needs to have a minimum length of
8 characters and should not exceed 49 characters.
This VPN tunnel will use
following local WAN Interface:
From the drop-down list, select one of the four WAN interfaces of the VPN
firewall to specify which WAN interface the VPN tunnel uses as the local
endpoint.
Enable RollOver?
If you have configured the VPN firewall to function in WAN auto-rollover
mode (see Configure the Auto-Rollover Mode and Failure Detection
Method on page 34), select the Enable RollOver? check box. Then, from
the corresponding drop-down list, select the backup WAN interface. After
an auto-rollover has occurred, the VPN tunnel will be reestablished using
the backup WAN interface.
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Table 29. IPSec VPN Wizard settings for a gateway-to-gateway tunnel (continued)
Setting
Description
End Point Information a
What is the Remote WAN's IP
Address or Internet Name?
Enter the IP address or Internet name (FQDN) of the WAN interface on
the remote VPN tunnel endpoint.
What is the Local WAN's IP
Address or Internet Name?
When you select the Gateway radio button in the About VPN Wizard
section of the screen, the IP address of the VPN firewall’s active WAN
interface is automatically entered.
Secure Connection Remote Accessibility
What is the remote LAN IP
Address?
Enter the LAN IP address of the remote gateway.
Note: The remote LAN IP address needs to be in a different subnet than
the local LAN IP address. For example, if the local subnet is 192.168.1.x,
then the remote subnet could be 192.168.10.x. but could not be
192.168.1.x. If this information is incorrect, the tunnel will fail to connect.
What is the remote LAN Subnet Enter the LAN subnet mask of the remote gateway.
Mask?
a. Both local and remote endpoints should be defined as either FQDNs or IP addresses. A combination of
an IP address and an FQDN is not supported.
Tip: To ensure that tunnels stay active, after completing the wizard, manually
edit the VPN policy to enable keep-alive, which periodically sends ping
packets to the host on the peer side of the network to keep the tunnel
alive. For more information, see Configure Keep-alives on page 192.
Tip: For DHCP WAN configurations, first set up the tunnel with IP addresses.
After you have validated the connection, you can use the wizard to
create new policies using the FQDN for the WAN addresses.
3. Click Apply to save your settings. The IPSec VPN policy is now added to the List of VPN
Policies table on the VPN Policies screen. By default, the VPN policy is enabled.
Figure 79.
4. Configure a VPN policy on the remote gateway that allows connection to the VPN firewall.
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5. Activate the IPSec VPN connection:
a. Select VPN > Connection Status. The VPN Connection Status submenu tabs
display, with the IPSec VPN Connection Status screen in view.
Figure 80.
b. Locate the policy in the table, and click the Connect table button. The IPSec VPN
connection should become active.
Note: When using FQDNs, if the Dynamic DNS service is slow to update
its servers when your DHCP WAN address changes, the VPN tunnel
will fail because the FQDNs do not resolve to your new address. If
you have the option to configure the update interval, set it to an
appropriately short time.
Create a Client to Gateway VPN Tunnel
Figure 81.
To configure a VPN client tunnel, follow the steps in the following sections:
•
Use the VPN Wizard Configure the Gateway for a Client Tunnel on page 141
•
Use the NETGEAR VPN Client Wizard to Create a Secure Connection on page 143 or
Manually Create a Secure Connection Using the NETGEAR VPN Client on page 148
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Use the VPN Wizard Configure the Gateway for a Client Tunnel

To set up a client-to-gateway VPN tunnel using the VPN Wizard:
1. Select VPN > IPSec VPN > VPN Wizard. The VPN Wizard screen displays. (The
following figure contains some entries as an example.)
Figure 82.
To display the wizard default settings, click the VPN Wizard Default Values option arrow
in the upper right of the screen. A popup window appears (see Figure 78 on page 138),
displaying the wizard default values. After you have completed the wizard, you can
modify these settings for the tunnel policy that you have set up.
2. Complete the settings as explained the following table.
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Table 30. IPSec VPN Wizard settings for a client-to-gateway tunnel
Setting
Description
About VPN Wizard
This VPN tunnel will connect to Select the VPN Client radio button. The default remote FQDN
the following peers:
(srx_remote.com) and the default local FQDN (srx_local.com) appear in
the End Point Information section of the screen.
Connection Name and Remote IP Type
What is the new Connection
Name?
Enter a descriptive name for the connection. This name is used to help
you to manage the VPN settings; the name is not supplied to the remote
VPN endpoint.
What is the pre-shared key?
Enter a pre-shared key. The key needs to be entered both here and on
the remote VPN gateway, or the remote VPN client. This key needs to
have a minimum length of 8 characters and should not exceed
49 characters.
This VPN tunnel will use
following local WAN Interface:
From the drop-down list, select one of the four WAN interfaces of the
VPN firewall to specify which WAN interface the VPN tunnel uses as the
local endpoint.
Enable RollOver
If you have configured the VPN firewall to function in WAN auto-rollover
mode (see Configure the Auto-Rollover Mode and Failure Detection
Method on page 34), select the Enable RollOver check box. Then, from
the corresponding drop-down list, select the backup WAN interface. After
an auto-rollover has occurred, the VPN tunnel will be reestablished using
the backup WAN interface.
End Point Information a
What is the Remote Identifier
Information?
When you select the Client radio button in the About VPN Wizard section
of the screen, the default remote FQDN (srx_remote.com) is
automatically entered. Use the default remote FQDN or enter another
FQDN.
What is the Local Identifier
Information?
When you select the Client radio button in the About VPN Wizard section
of the screen, the default local FQDN (srx_local.com) is automatically
entered. Use the default local FQDN or enter another FQDN.
Secure Connection Remote Accessibility
What is the remote LAN IP
Address?
These fields are masked out for VPN client connections.
What is the remote LAN Subnet
Mask?
a. Both local and remote endpoints should be defined as either FQDNs or IP addresses. A combination of
an IP address and an FQDN is not supported.
3. Click Apply to save your settings. The IPSec VPN policy is now added to the List of VPN
Policies table on the VPN Policies screen. By default, the VPN policy is enabled.
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Figure 83.
Note: When using FQDNs, if the dynamic DNS service is slow to update
its servers when your DHCP WAN address changes, the VPN tunnel
will fail because the FQDNs do not resolve to your new address. If
you have the option to configure the update interval, set it to an
appropriately short time.
4. Optional step: Collect the information that you need to configure the VPN client. You can
print the following table to help you keep track of this information.
Table 31. Information required to configure the VPN client
Component
Example
Pre-Shared Key
I7!KL39dFG_8
Remote Identifier Information
srx_remote.com
Local Identifier Information
srx_local.com
Information to be collected
Router’s LAN Network IP Address 192.168.1.0
Router’s LAN Network Mask
255.255.255.0
Router’s WAN IP Address
10.34.116.22
Use the NETGEAR VPN Client Wizard to Create a Secure Connection
The VPN client lets you to set up the VPN connection manually (see Manually Create a
Secure Connection Using the NETGEAR VPN Client on page 148) or with the integrated
Configuration Wizard, which is the easier and preferred method. The Configuration Wizard
configures the default settings and provides basic interoperability so that the VPN client can
easily communicate with the VPN firewall (or third-party VPN devices). The Configuration
Wizard does not let you enter the local and remote IDs, so you need to manually enter this
information.
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Note: Perform these tasks from a PC that has the NETGEAR ProSafe
VPN Client installed.

To use the Configuration Wizard to set up a VPN connection between the VPN client
and the VPN firewall:
1. Right-click the VPN client icon in your Windows system tray, and select Configuration
Panel. The Configuration Panel screen displays.
Figure 84.
1. From the main menu on the Configuration Panel screen, select Configuration > Wizard.
The Choice of the remote equipment wizard screen (screen 1 of 3) displays.
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Figure 85.
2. Select the A router or a VPN gateway radio button, and click Next. The VPN tunnel
parameters wizard screen (screen 2 of 3) displays.
Figure 86.
3. Specify the following VPN tunnel parameters:
• IP or DNS public (external) address of the remote equipment. Enter the remote IP
address or DNS name of the VPN firewall. For example, enter 10.34.116.22.
•
Preshared key. Enter the pre-shared key that you already specified on the VPN
firewall. For example, enter I7!KL39dFG_8.
•
IP private (internal) address of the remote network. Enter the remote private IP
address of the VPN firewall. For example, enter 192.168.1.0. This IP address enables
communication with the entire 192.168.1.x subnet.
4. Click Next. The Configuration Summary wizard screen (screen 3 of 3) displays.
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Figure 87.
5. This screen is a summary screen of the new VPN configuration. Click Finish.
6. Specify the local and remote IDs:
a. In the tree list pane of the Configuration Panel screen, click Gateway (the default
name given to the authentication phase). The Authentication pane displays in the
Configuration Panel screen, with the Authentication tab selected by default.
b. Click the Advanced tab in the Authentication pane. The Advanced pane displays.
Figure 88.
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c. Specify the settings that are explained in the following table.
Table 32. VPN client advanced authentication settings
Setting
Description
Advanced features
Aggressive Mode
Select this check box to enable aggressive mode as the negotiation mode
with the VPN firewall.
NAT-T
Select Automatic from the drop-down list to enable the VPN client and VPN
firewall to negotiate NAT-T.
Local and Remote ID
Local ID
As the type of ID, select DNS from the Local ID drop-down list because you
specified FQDN in the VPN firewall configuration.
As the value of the ID, enter srx_remote.com as the local ID for the VPN
client.
Note: The remote ID on the VPN firewall is the local ID on the VPN client. It
might be less confusing to configure an FQDN such as client.com as the
remote ID on the VPN firewall and then enter client.com as the local ID on
the VPN client.
Remote ID
As the type of ID, select DNS from the Remote ID drop-down list because
you specified an FQDN in the VPN firewall configuration.
As the value of the ID, enter srx_local.com as the remote ID for the VPN
firewall.
Note: The local ID on the VPN firewall is the remote ID on the VPN client. It
might be less confusing to configure an FQDN such as router.com as the
local ID on the VPN firewall and then enter router.com as the remote ID on
the VPN client.
7. Configure the global parameters:
a. Click Global Parameters in the left column of the Configuration Panel screen. The
Global Parameters pane displays in the Configuration Panel screen.
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Figure 89.
b. Specify the default lifetimes in seconds:
• Authentication (IKE), Default. The default lifetime value is 3600 seconds.
Change this setting to 28800 seconds to match the configuration of the VPN
firewall.
•
Encryption (IPSec), Default. The default lifetime value is 1200 seconds. Change
this setting to 3600 seconds to match the configuration of the VPN firewall.
8. Click Apply to use the new settings immediately, and click Save to keep the settings for
future use.
The VPN client configuration is now complete.
Instead of using the wizard on the VPN client, you can also manually configure the VPN
client, which is explained in the following section.
Manually Create a Secure Connection Using the NETGEAR VPN Client
Note: Perform these tasks from a PC that has the NETGEAR ProSafe
VPN Client installed.
To manually configure a VPN connection between the VPN client and the VPN firewall,
create authentication settings (phase 1 settings), create an associated IPSec configuration
(phase 2 settings), and then specify the global parameters.
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Configure the Authentication Settings (Phase 1 Settings)

To create new authentication settings:
1. Right-click the VPN client icon in your Windows system tray, and select Configuration
Panel. The Configuration Panel screen displays.
Figure 90.
2. In the tree list pane of the Configuration Panel screen, right-click VPN Configuration and
select New Phase 1.
Figure 91.
3. Change the name of the authentication phase (the default is Gateway):
a. Right-click the authentication phase name.
b. Select Rename.
c. Type vpn_client.
d. Click anywhere in the tree list pane.
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Note: This is the name for the authentication phase that is used only for the
VPN client, not during IKE negotiation. You can view and change this name in
the tree list pane. This name needs to be a unique name.
The Authentication pane displays in the Configuration Panel screen, with the
Authentication tab selected by default.
Figure 92.
4. Specify the settings that are explained in the following table.
Table 33. VPN client authentication settings
Setting
Description
Interface
Select Any from the drop-down list.
Remote Gateway
Enter the remote IP address or DNS name of the VPN firewall. For example, enter
10.34.116.22.
Preshared Key
Select the Preshared Key radio button. Enter the pre-shared key that you already
specified on the VPN firewall. For example, enter I7!KL39dFG_8. Confirm the key in
the Confirm field.
IKE
Encryption
Select the 3DES encryption algorithm from the drop-down list.
Authentication
Select the SHA1 authentication algorithm from the drop-down list.
Key Group
Select the DH2 (1024) key group from the drop-down list.
Note: On the VPN firewall, this key group is referred to as
Diffie-Hellman Group 2 (1024 bit).
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5. Click Apply to use the new settings immediately, and click Save to keep the settings for
future use.
6. Click the Advanced tab in the Authentication pane. The Advanced pane displays.
Figure 93.
7. Specify the settings that are explained in the following table.
Table 34. VPN client advanced authentication settings
Setting
Description
Advanced features
Aggressive Mode
Select this check box to enable aggressive mode as the negotiation mode with
the VPN firewall.
NAT-T
Select Automatic from the drop-down list to enable the VPN client and VPN
firewall to negotiate NAT-T.
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Table 34. VPN client advanced authentication settings (continued)
Setting
Description
Local and Remote ID
Local ID
As the type of ID, select DNS from the Local ID drop-down list because you
specified FQDN in the VPN firewall configuration.
As the value of the ID, enter srx_remote.com as the local ID for the VPN client.
Note: The remote ID on the VPN firewall is the local ID on the VPN client. It might
be less confusing to configure an FQDN such as client.com as the remote ID on
the VPN firewall and then enter client.com as the local ID on the VPN client.
Remote ID
As the type of ID, select DNS from the Remote ID drop-down list because you
specified an FQDN in the VPN firewall configuration.
As the value of the ID, enter srx_local.com as the remote ID for the VPN firewall.
Note: The local ID on the VPN firewall is the remote ID on the VPN client. It might
be less confusing to configure an FQDN such as router.com as the local ID on the
VPN firewall and then enter router.com as the remote ID on the VPN client.
8. Click Apply to use the new settings immediately, and click Save to keep the settings for
future use.
Create the IPSec Configuration (Phase 2 Settings)
Note: On the VPN firewall, the IPSec configuration (phase 2 settings) is
referred to as the IKE settings.

To create an IPSec configuration:
1. In the tree list pane of the Configuration Panel screen, right-click the vpn_client
authentication phase name, and then select New Phase 2.
2. Change the name of the IPSec configuration (the default is Tunnel):
a. Right-click the IPSec configuration name.
b. Select Rename.
c. Type netgear_platform.
d. Click anywhere in the tree list pane.
Note: This is the name for the IPSec configuration that is used only for the
VPN client, not during IPSec negotiation. You can view and change this name
in the tree list pane. This name needs to be a unique name.
The IPSec pane displays in the Configuration Panel screen, with the IPSec tab selected
by default.
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Figure 94.
3. Specify the settings that are explained in the following table.
Table 35. VPN client IPSec configuration settings
Setting
Description
VPN Client address
Either enter 0.0.0.0 as the IP address, or enter a virtual IP address that is used by
the VPN client in the VPN firewall’s LAN; the computer (for which the VPN client
opened a tunnel) appears in the LAN with this IP address.
Address Type
Select Subnet address from the drop-down list. This selection defines which
addresses the VPN client can communicate with after the VPN tunnel is
established.
Remote LAN address Enter 192.168.1.0 as the remote IP address (that is, LAN network address) of the
gateway that opens the VPN tunnel.
Subnet Mask
Enter 255.255.255.0 as the remote subnet mask of the gateway that opens the VPN
tunnel.
ESP
Encryption
Select 3DES as the encryption algorithm from the drop-down list.
Authentication
Select SHA-1 as the authentication algorithm from the drop-down
list.
Mode
Select Tunnel as the encapsulation mode from the drop-down list.
PFS and Group
Select the PFS check box, and then select the DH2 (1024) key group from the
drop-down list.
Note: On the VPN firewall, this key group is referred to as Diffie-Hellman Group 2
(1024 bit).
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4. Click Apply to use the new settings immediately, and click Save to keep the settings for
future use.
Configure the Global Parameters

To specify the global parameters:
1. Click Global Parameters in the left column of the Configuration Panel screen. The
Global Parameters pane displays in the Configuration Panel screen.
Figure 95.
2. Specify the default lifetimes in seconds:
• Authentication (IKE), Default. The default lifetime value is 3600 seconds. Change
this setting to 28800 seconds to match the configuration of the VPN firewall.
•
Encryption (IPSec), Default. The default lifetime value is 1200 seconds. Change this
setting to 3600 seconds to match the configuration of the VPN firewall.
3. Click Apply to use the new settings immediately, and click Save to keep the settings for
future use.
The VPN firewall configuration is now complete.
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Test the Connection and View Connection and Status
Information
Both the NETGEAR ProSafe VPN Client and the VPN firewall provide VPN connection and
status information. This information is useful for verifying the status of a connection and
troubleshooting problems with a connection.
Test the NETGEAR VPN Client Connection
There are many ways to establish a connection. The following procedures assume that you
use the default authentication phase name Gateway and the default IPSec configuration
name Tunnel. If you manually set up the connection and changed the names, use vpn_client
(or any other name that you have configured) as the authentication phase name and
netgear_platform (or any other name that you have configured) as the IPSec configuration
name.

To establish a connection, use one of the following three methods:
•
Use the Configuration Panel screen. In the tree list pane of the Configuration Panel
screen, perform one of the following tasks:
-
Click the Tunnel IPSec configuration name, and press Ctrl+O.
-
Right-click the Tunnel IPSec configuration name, and select Open tunnel.
Figure 96.
•
Use the Connection Panel screen. On the main menu of the Configuration Panel
screen, select Tools > Connection Panel to open the Connection Panel screen.
Perform one of the following tasks:
-
Double-click Gateway-Tunnel.
-
Right-click Gateway-Tunnel, and click Open tunnel.
-
Click Gateway-Tunnel, and press Ctrl+O.
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Figure 97.
•
Use the system-tray icon. Right-click the system tray icon, and click Open tunnel
‘Tunnel’.
Figure 98.
Whichever way you choose to open the tunnel, when the tunnel opens successfully, the
Tunnel opened message displays above the system tray:
Figure 99.
Once launched, the VPN client displays an icon in the system tray that indicates whether or
not a tunnel is opened, using a color code:
Green icon:
at least one VPN tunnel opened.
Purple icon:
no VPN tunnel opened.
Figure 100.
NETGEAR VPN Client Status and Log Information

To view detailed negotiation and error information on the NETGEAR VPN client:
Right-click the VPN client icon in the system tray, and select Console. The VPN Client
Console Active screen displays.
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Figure 101.
View the VPN Firewall IPSec VPN Connection Status

To review the status of current IPSec VPN tunnels:
Select VPN > Connection Status. The VPN Connection Status submenu tabs display, with
the IPSec VPN Connection Status screen in view. (The following figure shows an IPSec SA
as an example.)
Figure 102.
The Active IPSec SAs table lists each active connection with the information that is described
in the following table. The default poll interval is 5 seconds. To change the poll interval period,
enter a new value in the Poll Interval field, and then click Set Interval. To stop polling, click
Stop.
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Table 36. IPSec VPN Connection Status screen information
Item
Description
Policy Name
The name of the VPN policy that is associated with this SA.
Endpoint
The IP address on the remote VPN endpoint.
Tx (KB)
The amount of data that is transmitted over this SA.
Tx (Packets)
The number of IP packets that are transmitted over this SA.
State
The current status of the SA. Phase 1 is the authentication phase and Phase 2 is key
exchange phase. If there is no connection, the status is IPSec SA Not Established.
Action
Click the Connect table button to build the connection, or click the Disconnect table
button to terminate the connection.
View the VPN Firewall IPSec VPN Logs

To view the IPSec VPN logs:
Select Monitoring > VPN Logs. The VPN Logs submenu tabs display, with the IPSec VPN
Logs screen in view.:
Figure 103.
Click Refresh Log to view the most recent entries. Click Clear Log to remove all entries.
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Manage IPSec VPN Policies
After you have used the VPN Wizard to set up a VPN tunnel, a VPN policy and an IKE policy
are stored in separate policy tables. The name that you selected as the VPN tunnel
connection name during the VPN Wizard setup identifies both the VPN policy and IKE policy.
You can edit existing policies, or manually add new VPN and IKE policies directly in the policy
tables.
Configure IKE Policies
The Internet Key Exchange (IKE) protocol performs negotiations between the two VPN
gateways, and provides automatic management of the keys that are used for IPSec
connections. It is important to remember that:
•
An automatically generated VPN policy (Auto Policy) needs to use the IKE negotiation
protocol.
•
A manually generated VPN policy (Manual Policy) cannot use the IKE negotiation
protocol.
IKE policies are activated when the following situations occur:
1. The VPN policy selector determines that some traffic matches an existing VPN policy:
• If the VPN policy is of an Auto Policy type, the IKE policy that is specified in the Auto
Policy Parameters section of the Add VPN Policy screen (see Figure 107 on
page 168) is used to start negotiations with the remote VPN gateway.
•
If the VPN policy is of a Manual Policy type, the settings that are specified in the
Manual Policy Parameters section of the Add VPN Policy screen (see Figure 107 on
page 168) are accessed, and the first matching IKE policy is used to start
negotiations with the remote VPN gateway:
-
If negotiations fail, the next matching IKE policy is used.
-
If none of the matching IKE policies are acceptable to the remote VPN gateway,
then a VPN tunnel cannot be established.
2. An IKE session is established, using the security association (SA) settings that are specified
in a matching IKE policy:
• Keys and other settings are exchanged.
•
An IPSec SA is established, using the settings that are specified in the VPN policy.
The VPN tunnel is then available for data transfer.
When you use the VPN Wizard to set up a VPN tunnel, an IKE policy is established and
populated in the List of IKE Policies, and is given the same name as the new VPN connection
name. You can also edit exiting policies or add new IKE policies from the IKE Policies screen.
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IKE Policies Screen

To access the IKE Policies screen:
Select VPN > IPSec VPN. The IPSec VPN submenu tabs display, with the IKE Policies
screen in view (The following figure shows some examples).
Figure 104.
Each policy contains the data that are explained in the following table These fields are
explained in more detail in Table 38 on page 162.
Table 37. IKE Policies screen information
Item
Description
Name
The name that identifies the IKE policy. When you use the VPN Wizard to set up a VPN
policy, an accompanying IKE policy is automatically created with the same name that you
select for the VPN policy.
Note: The name is not supplied to the remote VPN endpoint.

Mode
The exchange mode: Main or Aggressive.
Local ID
The IKE/ISAKMP identifier of the VPN firewall. The remote endpoint needs to have this
value as its remote ID.
Remote ID
The IKE/ISAKMP identifier of the remote endpoint, which needs to have this value as its
local ID.
Encr
The encryption algorithm that is used for the IKE security association (SA). This setting
needs to match the setting on the remote endpoint.
Auth
The authentication algorithm that is used for the IKE SA. This setting needs to match the
setting on the remote endpoint.
DH
The Diffie-Hellman (DH) group that is used when exchanging keys. This setting needs to
match the setting on the remote endpoint.
To delete one or more IKE polices:
1. Select the check box to the left of the policy that you want to delete, or click the Select
All table button to select all IKE policies.
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2. Click the Delete table button.
To add or edit an IKE policy, see Manually Add or Edit an IKE Policy on this page.
Note: You cannot delete or edit an IKE policy for which the VPN policy is
active. You first need to disable or delete the VPN policy before you
can delete or edit the IKE policy.
Manually Add or Edit an IKE Policy

To manually add an IKE policy:
1. Select VPN > IPSec VPN. The IPSec VPN submenu tabs display, with the IKE Policies
screen in view (see Figure 104 on page 160).
2. Under the List of IKE Policies table, click the Add table button. The Add IKE Policy screen
displays:
Figure 105.
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3. Complete the settings as explained the following table.
Table 38. Add IKE Policy screen settings
Setting
Description
Mode Config Record
Do you want to use
Mode Config Record?
Specify whether or not the IKE policy uses a Mode Config record. For information
about how to define a Mode Config record, see Mode Config Operation on
page 176. Select one of the following radio buttons:
• Yes. IP addresses are assigned to remote VPN clients. You need to select a
Mode Config record from the drop-down list.
• No. Disables Mode Config for this IKE policy.
Note: Because Mode Config functions only in Aggressive mode, selecting the
Yes radio button sets the tunnel exchange mode to Aggressive mode and
disables the Main mode. Mode Config also requires that both the local and remote
ends are defined by their FQDNs.
Note: An XAUTH configuration via an edge device is not possible without Mode
Config and is therefore disabled too. For more information about XAUTH, see
Configure Extended Authentication (XAUTH) on page 172.
Select Mode
Config Record
From the drop-down list, select one of the Mode Config
records that you defined on the Add Mode Config Record
screen (see Configure Mode Config Operation on the VPN
Firewall on page 177).
Note: Click the View Selected button to open the Selected
Mode Config Record Details popup window.
General
Policy Name
A descriptive name of the IKE policy for identification and management purposes.
Note: The name is not supplied to the remote VPN endpoint.
Direction / Type
From the drop-down list, select the connection method for the VPN firewall:
• Initiator. The VPN firewall initiates the connection to the remote endpoint.
• Responder. The VPN firewall responds only to an IKE request from the remote
endpoint.
• Both. The VPN firewall can both initiate a connection to the remote endpoint
and respond to an IKE request from the remote endpoint.
Exchange Mode
From the drop-down list, select the exchange mode between the VPN firewall and
the remote VPN endpoint:
• Main. This mode is slower than the Aggressive mode but more secure.
• Aggressive. This mode is faster than the Main mode but less secure.
Note: If you specify either an FQDN or a User FQDN name as the local ID or
remote ID (see the Local and Remote sections on the screen), the Aggressive
mode is automatically selected.
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Table 38. Add IKE Policy screen settings (continued)
Setting
Description
Local
Select Local Gateway
From the drop-down list, select one of the four WAN interfaces to function as the
local gateway.
Identifier Type
From the drop-down list, select one of the following ISAKMP identifiers to be used
by the VPN firewall, and then specify the identifier in the field below:
• Local WAN IP. The WAN IP address of the VPN firewall. When you select this
option, the Identifier field masks out.
• FQDN. The Internet address for the VPN firewall.
• User FQDN. The email address for a local VPN client or the VPN firewall.
• DER ASN1 DN. A distinguished name (DN) that identifies the VPN firewall in
the DER encoding and ASN.1 format.
Identifier
Depending on the selection in the Identifier Type drop-down
list, enter the IP address, email address, FQDN, or
distinguished name.
Remote
Identifier Type
From the drop-down list, select one of the following ISAKMP identifiers to be used
by the remote endpoint, and then specify the identifier in the field below:
• Remote WAN IP. The WAN IP address of the remote endpoint. When you
select this option, the Identifier field masks out.
• FQDN. The FQDN for a remote gateway.
• User FQDN. The email address for a remote VPN client or gateway.
• DER ASN1 DN. A distinguished name (DN) that identifies the remote endpoint
in the DER encoding and ASN.1 format.
Identifier
Depending on the selection of the Identifier Type drop-down
list, enter the IP address, email address, FQDN, or
distinguished name.
IKE SA Parameters
Encryption Algorithm
From the drop-down list, select one of the following five algorithms to negotiate
the security association (SA):
• DES. Data Encryption Standard (DES).
• 3DES. Triple DES. This is the default algorithm.
• AES-128. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) with a 128-bits key size.
• AES-192. AES with a 192-bits key size.
• AES-256. AES with a 256-bits key size.
Authentication
Algorithm
From the drop-down list, select one of the following two algorithms to use in the
VPN header for the authentication process:
• SHA-1. Hash algorithm that produces a 160-bit digest. This is the default
setting.
• MD5. Hash algorithm that produces a 128-bit digest.
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Table 38. Add IKE Policy screen settings (continued)
Setting
Description
Authentication Method
Select one of the following radio buttons to specify the authentication method:
• Pre-shared key. A secret that is shared between the VPN firewall and the
remote endpoint.
• RSA-Signature. Uses the active self certificate that you uploaded on the
Certificates screen (see Manage Self-Signed Certificates on page 237). The
pre-shared key is masked out when you select the RSA-Signature option.
Pre-shared key
Diffie-Hellman (DH)
Group
A key with a minimum length of 8 characters no more than 49
characters. Do not use a double quote (“) in the key.
The DH Group sets the strength of the algorithm in bits. The higher the group, the
more secure the exchange. From the drop-down list, select one of the following
three strengths:
• Group 1 (768 bit).
• Group 2 (1024 bit). This is the default setting.
• Group 5 (1536 bit).
Note: Ensure that the DH Group is configured identically on both sides.
SA-Lifetime (sec)
The period in seconds for which the IKE SA is valid. When the period times out,
rekeying occurs. The default is 28800 seconds (8 hours).
Enable Dead Peer
Detection
Select a radio button to specify whether or not Dead Peer Detection (DPD) is
enabled:
• Yes. This feature is enabled. When the VPN firewall detects an IKE connection
failure, it deletes the IPSec and IKE SA and forces a reestablishment of the
Note: See also
connection. You need to specify the detection period in the Detection Period
Configure Keep-alives field and the maximum number of times that the VPN firewall attempts to
and Dead Peer
reconnect in the Reconnect after failure count field.
Detection on
• No. This feature is disabled. This is the default setting.
page 191.
Detection Period
The period in seconds between consecutive
DPD R-U-THERE messages, which are sent only when the
IPSec traffic is idle. The default is 10 seconds.
Reconnect after
failure count
The maximum number of DPD failures before the VPN
firewall tears down the connection and then attempts to
reconnect to the peer. The default is 3 failures.
Extended Authentication
Select one of the following radio buttons to specify whether or not Extended
Authentication (XAUTH) is enabled, and, if enabled, which device is used to verify
user account information:
Note: For more
• None. XAUTH is disabled. This the default setting.
information about
• Edge Device. The VPN firewall functions as a VPN concentrator on which one
XAUTH and its
or more gateway tunnels terminate. The authentication modes that are available
authentication modes, for this configuration are User Database, RADIUS PAP, or RADIUS CHAP.
see Configure XAUTH • IPSec Host. The VPN firewall functions as a VPN client of the remote gateway.
for VPN Clients on
In this configuration the VPN firewall is authenticated by a remote gateway with
page 173.
a user name and password combination.
XAUTH Configuration
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Table 38. Add IKE Policy screen settings (continued)
Setting
Description
XAUTH Configuration
(continued)
Authentication
Type
For an Edge Device configuration: from the drop-down list,
select one of the following authentication types:
• User Database. XAUTH occurs through the VPN firewall’s
user database. Users need to be added through the Add
User screen (see User Database Configuration on
page 174).
• Radius PAP. XAUTH occurs through RADIUS Password
Authentication Protocol (PAP). The local user database is
first checked. If the user account is not present in the local
user database, the VPN firewall connects to a RADIUS
server. For more information, see RADIUS Client
Configuration on page 174.
• Radius CHAP. XAUTH occurs through RADIUS Challenge
Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP). For more
information, see RADIUS Client Configuration on page 174.
Username
The user name for XAUTH.
Password
The password for XAUTH.
4. Click Apply to save your settings. The IKE policy is added to the List of IKE Policies table.

To edit an IKE policy:
1. Select VPN > IPSec VPN. The IPSec VPN submenu tabs display, with the IKE Policies
screen in view (see Figure 104 on page 160).
2. In the List of IKE Policies table, click the Edit table button to the right of the IKE policy that
you want to edit. The Edit IKE Policy screen displays. This screen shows the same field as
the Add IKE Policy screen (see Figure 105 on page 161).
3. Modify the settings that you wish to change (see the previous table).
4. Click Apply to save your changes. The modified IKE policy is displayed in the List of IKE
Policies table.
Configure VPN Policies
You can create two types of VPN policies. When you use the VPN Wizard to create a VPN
policy, only the Auto method is available.
•
Manual. You manually enter all settings (including the keys) for the VPN tunnel on the
VPN firewall and on the remote VPN endpoint. No third-party server or organization is
involved.
•
Auto. Some settings for the VPN tunnel are generated automatically by using the IKE
(Internet Key Exchange) Protocol to perform negotiations between the two VPN
endpoints (the local ID endpoint and the remote ID endpoint). You still need to manually
enter all settings on the remote VPN endpoint (unless the remote VPN endpoint also has
a VPN Wizard).
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In addition, a certification authority (CA) can also be used to perform authentication (see
Manage Digital Certificates on page 234). To use a CA, each VPN gateway needs to have a
certificate from the CA. For each certificate, there is both a public key and a private key. The
public key is freely distributed, and is used by any sender to encrypt data intended for the
receiver (the key owner). The receiver then uses its private key to decrypt the data (without
the private key, decryption is impossible). The use of certificates for authentication reduces
the amount of data entry that is required on each VPN endpoint.
VPN Policies Screen
The VPN Policies screen allows you to add additional policies—either Auto or Manual—and
to manage the VPN policies already created. You can edit policies, enable or disable policies,
or delete them entirely. These are the rules for VPN policy use:

•
Traffic covered by a policy is automatically sent via a VPN tunnel.
•
When traffic is covered by two or more policies, the first matching policy is used. (In this
situation, the order of the policies is important. However, if you have only one policy for
each remote VPN endpoint, then the policy order is not important.)
•
The VPN tunnel is created according to the settings in the security association (SA).
•
The remote VPN endpoint needs to have a matching SA, otherwise it refuses the
connection.
To access the VPN Policies screen:
Select VPN > IPSec VPN > VPN Policies. The VPN Policies screen displays. (The following
figure shows some examples.)
Figure 106.
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Each policy contains the data that are explained in the following table. These fields are
explained in more detail in Table 40 on page 169.
Table 39. VPN Policies screen information

Item
Description
! (Status)
Indicates whether the policy is enabled (green circle) or disabled (gray circle). To enable
or disable a policy, select the check box adjacent to the circle and click the Enable or
Disable table button, as appropriate.
Name
The name that identifies the VPN policy. When you use the VPN Wizard to create a VPN
policy, the name of the VPN policy (and of the automatically created accompanying IKE
policy) is the connection name.
Type
Auto or Manual as described previously (Auto is used during VPN Wizard configuration).
Local
IP address (either a single address, range of addresses, or subnet address) on your
LAN. Traffic needs to be from (or to) these addresses to be covered by this policy. (The
subnet address is supplied as the default IP address when you are using the VPN
Wizard).
Remote
IP address or address range of the remote network. Traffic needs to be to (or from) these
addresses to be covered by this policy. (The VPN Wizard default requires the remote
LAN IP address and subnet mask.)
Auth
The authentication algorithm that is used for the VPN tunnel. This setting needs to match
the setting on the remote endpoint.
Encr
The encryption algorithm that is used for the VPN tunnel. This setting needs to match the
setting on the remote endpoint.
To delete one or more VPN polices:
1. Select the check box to the left of the policy that you want to delete, or click the Select
All table button to select all VPN policies.
2. Click the Delete table button.

To enable or disable one ore more VPN policies:
1. Select the check box to the left of the policy that you want to delete, or click the Select
All table button to select all IKE Policies.
2. Click the Enable or Disable table button.
For information about how to add or edit a VPN policy, see the next section, Manually Add or
Edit a VPN Policy.
Note: You cannot delete or edit an IKE policy for which the VPN policy is
active. You first need to disable or delete the VPN policy before you
can delete or edit the IKE policy.
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Manually Add or Edit a VPN Policy

To manually add a VPN policy:
1. Select VPN > IPSec VPN > VPN Policies. The VPN Policies screen displays (see
Figure 106 on page 166).
2. Under the List of VPN Policies table, click the Add table button. The Add New VPN Policy
screen displays:
Figure 107.
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3. Complete the settings as explained the following table:
Table 40. Add New VPN Policy screen settings
Setting
Description
General
Policy Name
A descriptive name of the VPN policy for identification and management
purposes.
Note: The name is not supplied to the remote VPN endpoint.
Policy Type
From the drop-down list, select one of the following policy types:
• Auto Policy. Some settings (the ones in the Manual Policy Parameters
section of the screen) for the VPN tunnel are generated automatically.
• Manual Policy. All settings need to be specified, including the ones in the
Manual Policy Parameters section of the screen.
Select Local Gateway
From the drop-down list, select one of the four WAN interfaces to function as the
local gateway.
Remote Endpoint
Select a radio button to specify how the remote endpoint is defined:
• IP Address. Enter the IP address of the remote endpoint in the fields to the
right of the radio button.
• FQDN. Enter the FQDN of the remote endpoint in the field to the right of the
radio button.
Enable NetBIOS?
Select this check box to allow NetBIOS broadcasts to travel over the VPN
tunnel. For more information about NetBIOS, see Configure NetBIOS Bridging
with IPSec VPN on page 194. This feature is disabled by default.
Enable RollOver?
If you have configured the VPN firewall to function in WAN auto-rollover mode
(see Configure the Auto-Rollover Mode and Failure Detection Method on
page 34), select the Enable RollOver? check box. Then, from the
corresponding drop-down list, select the backup WAN interface. After an
auto-rollover has occurred, the VPN tunnel will be reestablished using the
backup WAN interface. This feature is disabled by default.
Enable Keepalive
Select a radio button to specify if keep-alive is enabled:
• Yes. This feature is enabled. Periodically, the VPN firewall sends keep-alive
requests (ping packets) to the remote endpoint to keep the tunnel alive. You
need to specify the ping IP address in the Ping IP Address field, detection
period in the Detection Period field, and the maximum number of keep-alive
requests that the VPN firewall sends in the Reconnect after failure count field.
• No. This feature is disabled. This is the default setting.
Note: See also
Configure Keep-alives
and Dead Peer
Detection on page 191.
Ping IP Address
The IP address that the VPN firewall pings. The address
needs to be of a host that can respond to ICMP ping
requests.
Detection Period
The period in seconds between the keep-alive requests.
The default setting is 10 seconds.
Reconnect after
failure count
The maximum number of keep-alive requests before the
VPN firewall tears down the connection and then attempts
to reconnect to the remote endpoint. The default is 3
keep-alive requests.
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Table 40. Add New VPN Policy screen settings (continued)
Setting
Description
Traffic Selection
Local IP
From the drop-down list, select the address or addresses that are part of the
VPN tunnel on the VPN firewall:
• Any. All PCs and devices on the network.
• Single. A single IP address on the network. Enter the IP address in the Start
IP Address field.
• Range. A range of IP addresses on the network. Enter the starting IP address
in the Start IP Address field and the ending IP address in the End IP Address
field.
• Subnet. A subnet on the network. Enter the starting IP address in the Start IP
Address field and the subnet mask in the Subnet Mask field.
Note: You cannot select Any for both the VPN firewall and the remote endpoint.
Remote IP
From the drop-down list, select the address or addresses that are part of the
VPN tunnel on the remote endpoint. The menu choices are the same as for the
Local IP drop-down list.
Manual Policy Parameters
Note: These fields apply only when you select Manual Policy as the policy type. When you specify the
settings for the fields in this section, a security association (SA) is created.
SPI-Incoming
The Security Parameters Index (SPI) for the inbound policy. Enter a
hexadecimal value between 3 and 8 characters (for example: 0x1234).
Encryption Algorithm
From the drop-down list, select one of the following five algorithms to negotiate
the security association (SA):
• DES. Data Encryption Standard (DES).
• 3DES. Triple DES. This is the default algorithm.
• AES-128. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) with a 128-bits key size.
• AES-192. AES with a 192-bits key size.
• AES-256. AES with a 256-bits key size.
Key-In
The encryption key for the inbound policy. The length of the key depends on the
selected encryption algorithm:
• DES. Enter 8 characters.
• 3DES. Enter 24 characters.
• AES-128. Enter 16 characters.
• AES-192. Enter 24 characters.
• AES-256. Enter 32 characters.
Key-Out
The encryption key for the outbound policy. The length of the key depends on
the selected encryption algorithm:
• DES. Enter 8 characters.
• 3DES. Enter 24 characters.
• AES-128. Enter 16 characters.
• AES-192. Enter 24 characters.
• AES-256. Enter 32 characters.
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Table 40. Add New VPN Policy screen settings (continued)
Setting
Description
SPI-Outgoing
The Security Parameters Index (SPI) for the outbound policy. Enter a
hexadecimal value between 3 and 8 characters (for example: 0x1234).
Integrity Algorithm
From the drop-down list, select one of the following two algorithms to be used in
the VPN header for the authentication process:
• SHA-1. Hash algorithm that produces a 160-bit digest. This is the default
setting.
• MD5. Hash algorithm that produces a 128-bit digest.
Key-In
The integrity key for the inbound policy. The length of the key depends on the
selected integrity algorithm:
• MD5. Enter 16 characters.
• SHA-1. Enter 20 characters.
Key-Out
The integrity key for he outbound policy. The length of the key depends on the
selected integrity algorithm:
• MD5. Enter 16 characters.
• SHA-1. Enter 20 characters.
Auto Policy Parameters
Note: These fields apply only when you select Auto Policy as the policy type.
SA Lifetime
The lifetime of the security association (SA) is the period or the amount of
transmitted data after which the SA becomes invalid and needs to be
renegotiated. From the drop-down list, select how the SA lifetime is specified:
• Seconds. In the SA Lifetime field, enter a period in seconds. The minimum
value is 300 seconds. The default value is 3600 seconds.
• KBytes. In the SA Lifetime field, enter a number of kilobytes. The minimum
value is 1920000 KB.
Encryption Algorithm
From the drop-down list, select one of the following five algorithms to negotiate
the security association (SA):
• DES. Data Encryption Standard (DES).
• 3DES. Triple DES. This is the default algorithm.
• AES-128. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) with a 128-bits key size.
• AES-192. AES with a 192-bits key size.
• AES-256. AES with a 256-bits key size.
Integrity Algorithm
From the drop-down list, select one of the following two algorithms to be used in
the VPN header for the authentication process:
• SHA-1. Hash algorithm that produces a 160-bit digest. This is the default
setting.
• MD5. Hash algorithm that produces a 128-bit digest.
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Table 40. Add New VPN Policy screen settings (continued)
Setting
Description
PFS Key Group
Select this check box to enable Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS), and then select
a Diffie-Hellman (DH) group from the drop-down list. The DH Group sets the
strength of the algorithm in bits. The higher the group, the more secure the
exchange. From the drop-down list, select one of the following three strengths:
• Group 1 (768 bit).
• Group 2 (1024 bit). This is the default setting.
• Group 5 (1536 bit).
Select IKE Policy
Select an existing IKE policy that defines the characteristics of the Phase-1
negotiation. Click the View Selected button to display the selected IKE policy.
4. Click Apply to save your settings. The VPN policy is added to the List of VPN Policies table.

To edit a VPN policy:
1. Select VPN > IPSec VPN > VPN Policies. The VPN Policies screen displays (see
Figure 106 on page 166).
2. In the List of VPN Policies table, click the Edit table button to the right of the VPN policy that
you want to edit. The Edit VPN Policy screen displays. This screen shows the same fields as
the Add New VPN Policy screen (see Figure 107 on page 168).
3. Modify the settings that you wish to change (see the previous table).
4. Click Apply to save your changes. The modified VPN policy is displayed in the List of VPN
Policies table.
Configure Extended Authentication (XAUTH)
When many VPN clients connect to a VPN firewall, you might want to use a unique user
authentication method beyond relying on a single common pre-shared key for all clients.
Although you could configure a unique VPN policy for each user, it is more efficient to
authenticate users from a stored list of user accounts. XAUTH provides the mechanism for
requesting individual authentication information from the user, and a local user database or
an external authentication server, such as a RADIUS server, provides a method for storing
the authentication information centrally in the local network.
You can enable XAUTH when you manually add or edit an IKE policy. Two types of XAUTH
are available:
•
Edge Device. The VPN firewall is used as a VPN concentrator on which one or more
gateway tunnels terminate. You need to specify the authentication type that should be
used during verification of the credentials of the remote VPN gateways: User Database,
RADIUS-PAP, or RADIUS-CHAP.
•
IPSec Host. Authentication by the remote gateway through a user name and password
that are associated with the IKE policy. The user name and password that are used to
authenticate the VPN firewall need to be specified on the remote gateway.
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Note: If a RADIUS-PAP server is enabled for authentication, XAUTH first
checks the local user database for the user credentials. If the user
account is not present, the VPN firewall then connects to a RADIUS
server.
Configure XAUTH for VPN Clients
Once the XAUTH has been enabled, you need to establish user accounts in the user
database to be authenticated against XAUTH, or you need to enable a RADIUS-CHAP or
RADIUS-PAP server.
Note: You cannot modify an existing IKE policy to add XAUTH while the
IKE policy is in use by a VPN policy. The VPN policy needs to be
disabled before you can modify the IKE policy.

To enable and configure XAUTH:
1. Select VPN > IPSec VPN. The IPSec VPN submenu tabs display, with the IKE Policies
screen in view (see Figure 104 on page 160).
2. In the List of IKE Policies table, click the Edit table button to the right of the IKE policy for
which you want to enable and configure XAUTH. The Edit IKE Policy screen displays. This
screen shows the same fields as the Add IKE Policy screen (see Figure 105 on page 161).
3. In the Extended Authentication section of the screen, complete the settings as explained the
following table:
Table 41. Extended authentication settings
Setting
Description
Select one of the following radio buttons to specify whether or not Extended Authentication (XAUTH) is
enabled, and, if enabled, which device is used to verify user account information:
• None. XAUTH is disabled. This the default setting.
• Edge Device. The VPN firewall functions as a VPN concentrator on which one or more gateway
tunnels terminate. The authentication modes that are available for this configuration are User
Database, RADIUS PAP, or RADIUS CHAP.
• IPSec Host. The VPN firewall functions as a VPN client of the remote gateway. In this configuration
the VPN firewall is authenticated by a remote gateway with a user name and password combination.
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Table 41. Extended authentication settings (continued)
Setting
Description
Authentication
Type
For an Edge Device configuration: from the drop-down list, select one of the
following authentication types:
• User Database. XAUTH occurs through the VPN firewall’s user database. You
can add users on the Add User screen (see User Database Configuration on
page 174).
• Radius PAP. XAUTH occurs through RADIUS Password Authentication Protocol
(PAP). The local user database is first checked. If the user account is not present
in the local user database, the VPN firewall connects to a RADIUS server. For
more information, see RADIUS Client Configuration on page 174.
• Radius CHAP. XAUTH occurs through RADIUS Challenge Handshake
Authentication Protocol (CHAP). For more information, see RADIUS Client
Configuration on page 174.
Username
The user name for XAUTH.
Password
The password for XAUTH.
4. Click Apply to save your settings.
User Database Configuration
When XAUTH is enabled in an Edge Device configuration, users are authenticated either
through a local user database account or by an external RADIUS server. Whether or not you
use a RADIUS server, you might want some users to be authenticated locally. These users
need to be added to the List of Users table on the Users screen, as described in Configure
User Accounts on page 227.
RADIUS Client Configuration
Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS, RFC 2865) is a protocol for managing
authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) of multiple users in a network. A
RADIUS server stores a database of user information, and can validate a user at the request
of a gateway or server in the network when a user requests access to network resources.
During the establishment of a VPN connection, the VPN gateway can interrupt the process
with an XAUTH request. At that point, the remote user needs to provide authentication
information such as a user name and password or some encrypted response using his or her
user name and password information. The gateway then attempts to verify this information
first against a local user database (if RADIUS-PAP is enabled) and then by relaying the
information to a central authentication server such as a RADIUS server.

To configure primary and backup RADIUS servers:
1. Select VPN > IPSec VPN > RADIUS Client. The RADIUS Client screen displays:
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Figure 108.
2. Complete the settings as explained the following table:
Table 42. RADIUS Client screen settings
Settings
Description
Primary RADIUS Server
Select the Yes radio button to enable and configure the primary RADIUS server, and then enter the
settings for the three fields to the right. The default setting is that the No radio button is selected.
Primary Server IP Address
The IP address of the primary RADIUS server.
Secret Phrase
A shared secret phrase to authenticate the transactions between the client
and the primary RADIUS server. The same secret phrase needs to be
configured on both the client and the server.
Primary Server NAS
Identifier
The primary Network Access Server (NAS) identifier that needs to be
present in a RADIUS request.
Note: The VPN firewall functions as a NAS, allowing network access to
external users after verification of their authentication information. In a
RADIUS transaction, the NAS needs to provide a NAS identifier information
to the RADIUS server. Depending on the configuration of the RADIUS
server, the VPN firewall’s IP address might be sufficient as an identifier, or
the server might require a name, which you need to enter in this field.
Backup RADIUS Server
Select the Yes radio button to enable and configure the backup RADIUS server, and then enter the settings
for the three fields to the right. The default setting is that the No radio button is selected.
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Table 42. RADIUS Client screen settings (continued)
Settings
Description
Backup Server IP Address
The IP address of the backup RADIUS server.
Secret Phrase
A shared secret phrase to authenticate the transactions between the client
and the backup RADIUS server. The same secret phrase needs to be
configured on both the client and the server.
Backup Server NAS
Identifier
The backup NAS identifier that needs to be present in a RADIUS request.
Note: See the note earlier in this table for the Primary Server NAS Identifier.
Connection Configuration
Time out period
The period in seconds that the VPN firewall waits for a response from a
RADIUS server.
Maximum Retry Counts
The maximum number of times that the VPN firewall attempts to connect to
a RADIUS server.
3. Click Apply to save your settings.
Note: You select the RADIUS authentication protocol (PAP or CHAP) on
the Edit IKE Policy screen or Add IKE Policy screen (see Configure
XAUTH for VPN Clients on page 173).
Assign IP Addresses to Remote Users (Mode Config)
To simplify the process of connecting remote VPN clients to the VPN firewall, use the Mode
Config feature to assign IP addresses to remote users, including a network access IP
address, subnet mask, WINS server, and DNS address from the VPN firewall. Remote users
are given IP addresses available in a secured network space so that remote users appear as
seamless extensions of the network.
Mode Config Operation
After the IKE Phase 1 negotiation is complete, the VPN connection initiator (which is the
remote user with a VPN client) requests the IP configuration settings such as the IP address,
subnet mask, WINS server, and DNS address from the VPN firewall. The Mode Config
feature allocates an IP address from the configured IP address pool and activates a
temporary IPSec policy, using the information that is specified in the Traffic Tunnel Security
Level section of the Mode Config record (on the Add Mode Config Record screen that is
shown in Figure 110 on page 178).
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Note: After configuring a Mode Config record, you need to manually
configure an IKE policy and select the newly created Mode Config
record from the Select Mode Config Record drop-down list (see
Configure Mode Config Operation on the VPN Firewall on
page 177). You do not need to make changes to any VPN policy.
Note: An IP address that is allocated to a VPN client is released only after
the VPN client has gracefully disconnected or after the SA liftetime
for the connection has timed out.
Configure Mode Config Operation on the VPN Firewall
To configure Mode Config on the VPN firewall, first create a Mode Config record, and then
select the Mode Config record for an IKE policy.

To configure Mode Config on the VPN firewall:
1. Select VPN > IPSec VPN > Mode Config. The Mode Config screen displays:
Figure 109.
As an example, the screen shows two Mode Config records with the names EMEA Sales
and NA Sales:
•
For EMEA Sales, a first pool (172.16.100.1 through 172.16.100.99) and second pool
(172.16.200.1 through 172.16.200.99) are shown.
•
For NA Sales, a first pool (172.25.100.50 through 172.25.100.90), a second pool
(172.25.210.1 through 172.25.210.99), and a third pool (172.25.220.80 through
172.25.220.99) are shown.
2. Under the List of Mode Config Records table, click the Add table button. The Add Mode
Config Record screen displays:
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Figure 110.
3. Complete the settings as explained the following table:
Table 43. Add Mode Config Record screen settings
Settings
Description
Client Pool
Record Name
A descriptive name of the Mode Config record for identification and management
purposes.
First Pool
Assign at least one range of IP pool addresses in the First Pool fields to enable the
VPN firewall to allocate these to remote VPN clients. The Second Pool and Third
Pool fields are optional To specify any client pool, enter the starting IP address for
the pool in the Start IP field and enter the ending IP address for the pool in the End
IP field.
Second Pool
Third Pool
WINS Server
Note: No IP pool should be within the local network IP addresses. Use a different
range of private IP addresses such as 172.173.xxx.xx.
If there is a WINS server on the local network, enter its IP address in the Primary
field. You can enter the IP address of a second WINS server in the Secondary field.
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Table 43. Add Mode Config Record screen settings (continued)
Settings
Description
DNS Server
Enter the IP address of the DNS server that is used by remote VPN clients in the
Primary field. You can enter the IP address of a second DNS server in the
Secondary field.
Traffic Tunnel Security Level
Note: Generally, the default settings work well for a Mode Config configuration.
PFS Key Group
Select this check box to enable Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS), and then select a
Diffie-Hellman (DH) group from the drop-down list. The DH Group sets the strength
of the algorithm in bits. The higher the group, the more secure the exchange. From
the drop-down list, select one of the following three strengths:
• Group 1 (768 bit)
• Group 2 (1024 bit). This is the default setting.
• Group 5 (1536 bit)
SA Lifetime
The lifetime of the security association (SA) is the period or the amount of
transmitted data after which the SA becomes invalid and needs to be renegotiated.
From the drop-down list, select how the SA lifetime is specified:
• Seconds. In the SA Lifetime field, enter a period in seconds. The minimum value
is 300 seconds. The default value is 3600 seconds.
• KBytes. In the SA Lifetime field, enter a number of kilobytes. The minimum value
is 1920000 KB.
Encryption Algorithm From the drop-down list, select one of the following five algorithms to negotiate the
security association (SA):
• DES. Data Encryption Standard (DES).
• 3DES. Triple DES. This is the default algorithm.
• AES-128. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) with a 128-bits key size.
• AES-192. AES with a 192-bits key size.
• AES-256. AES with a 256-bits key size.
Integrity Algorithm
From the drop-down list, select one of the following two algorithms to be used in the
VPN header for the authentication process:
• SHA-1. Hash algorithm that produces a 160-bit digest. This is the default setting.
• MD5. Hash algorithm that produces a 128-bit digest.
Local IP Address
The local IP address to which remote VPN clients have access. If you do not specify
a local IP address, the VPN firewall’s default LAN IP address is used (by default,
192.168.1.1).
Local Subnet Mask
The local subnet mask. Typically, this is 255.255.255.0.
4. Click Apply to save your settings. The new Mode Config record is added to the List of Mode
Config Records table.
Continue the Mode Config configuration procedure by configuring an IKE policy.
5. Select VPN > IPSec VPN. The IPSec VPN submenu tabs display, with the IKE Policies
screen in view (see Figure 104 on page 160).
6. Under the List of IKE Policies table, click the Add table button. The Add IKE Policy screen
displays:
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Figure 111.
7. On the Add IKE Policy screen, complete the settings as explained the following table.
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Note: The settings that are explained in the following table are specifically
for a Mode Config configuration. Table 38 on page 162 explains the
general IKE policy settings.
Table 44. Add IKE Policy screen settings for a Mode Config configuration
Settings
Description
Mode Config Record
Do you want to use
Mode Config Record?
Select the Yes radio button.
Note: Because Mode Config functions only in Aggressive mode, selecting the Yes
radio button sets the tunnel exchange mode to Aggressive mode and disables the
Main mode. Mode Config also requires that both the local and remote ends are
defined by their FQDNs.
Select Mode
Config Record
From the drop-down list, select the Mode Config record that
you created in step 4 on 179. In this example, we are using
NA Sales.
General
Policy Name
A descriptive name of the IKE policy for identification and management purposes.
In this example, we are using ModeConfigNA_Sales.
Note: The name is not supplied to the remote VPN endpoint.
Direction / Type
Responder is automatically selected when you select the Yes radio button in the
Mode Config Record section of the screen. This ensures that the VPN firewall
responds to an IKE request from the remote endpoint but does not initiate one.
Exchange Mode
Aggressive mode is automatically selected you select the Yes radio button in the
Mode Config Record section of the screen.
Local
Select Local Gateway
From the drop-down list, select one of the four WAN interfaces to function as the
local gateway.
Identifier Type
From the drop-down list, select FQDN.
Note: Mode Config requires that the VPN firewall (that is, the local end) is defined
by an FQDN.
Identifier
Enter an FQDN for the VPN firewall. In this example, we are
using router.com.
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Table 44. Add IKE Policy screen settings for a Mode Config configuration (continued)
Settings
Description
Remote
Identifier Type
From the drop-down list, select FQDN.
Note: Mode Config requires that the remote end is defined by an FQDN.
Identifier
Enter the FQDN for the remote end. This needs to be an
FQDN that is not used in any other IKE policy. In this example,
we are using client.com.
IKE SA Parameters
Note: Generally, the default settings work well for a Mode Config configuration.
Encryption Algorithm
From the drop-down list, select the 3DES algorithm to negotiate the security
association (SA).
Authentication
Algorithm
From the drop-down list, select the SHA-1 algorithm to be used in the VPN header
for the authentication process.
Authentication Method Select Pre-shared key as the authentication method, and enter a key in the
Pre-shared key field.
Pre-shared key
A key with a minimum length of 8 characters and no more than
49 characters. Do not use a double quote (“) in the key. In this
example, we are using H8!spsf3#JYK2!.
Diffie-Hellman (DH)
Group
The DH Group sets the strength of the algorithm in bits. From the drop-down list,
select Group 2 (1024 bit).
SA-Lifetime (sec)
The period in seconds for which the IKE SA is valid. When the period times out,
the next rekeying needs to occur. The default is 28800 seconds (8 hours).
However, for a Mode Config configuration, NETGEAR recommends 3600 seconds
(1 hour).
Enable Dead Peer
Detection
Select a radio button to specify whether or not Dead Peer Detection (DPD) is
enabled:
• Yes. This feature is enabled. When the VPN firewall detects an IKE connection
failure, it deletes the IPSec and IKE SA and forces a reestablishment of the
connection. You need to specify the detection period in the Detection Period field
and the maximum number of times that the VPN firewall attempts to reconnect in
the Reconnect after failure count field.
• No. This feature is disabled. This is the default setting.
Note: See also
Configure
Keep-alives and
Dead Peer Detection
on page 191.
Detection Period
The period in seconds between consecutive
DPD R-U-THERE messages, which are sent only when the
IPSec traffic is idle. The default setting is 10 seconds. In this
example, we are using 30 seconds.
Reconnect after
failure count
The maximum number of DPD failures before the VPN firewall
tears down the connection and then attempts to reconnect to
the peer. The default is 3 failures.
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Table 44. Add IKE Policy screen settings for a Mode Config configuration (continued)
Settings
Description
Extended Authentication
XAUTH Configuration
Select one of the following radio buttons to specify whether or not Extended
Authentication (XAUTH) is enabled, and, if enabled, which device is used to verify
user account information:
Note: For more
• None. XAUTH is disabled. This the default setting.
information about
• Edge Device. The VPN firewall functions as a VPN concentrator on which one
XAUTH and its
or more gateway tunnels terminate. The authentication modes that are available
authentication
for this configuration are User Database, RADIUS PAP, or RADIUS CHAP.
modes, see Configure • IPSec Host. The VPN firewall functions as a VPN client of the remote gateway.
XAUTH for VPN
In this configuration the VPN firewall is authenticated by a remote gateway with
Clients on page 173.
a user name and password combination.
Authentication
Type
For an Edge Device configuration: From the drop-down list,
select one of the following authentication types:
• User Database. XAUTH occurs through the VPN firewall’s
user database. You can add users on the Add User screen
(see User Database Configuration on page 174).
• Radius PAP. XAUTH occurs through RADIUS Password
Authentication Protocol (PAP). The local user database is
first checked. If the user account is not present in the local
user database, the VPN firewall connects to a RADIUS
server. For more information, see RADIUS Client
Configuration on page 174.
• Radius CHAP. XAUTH occurs through RADIUS Challenge
Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP). For more
information, see RADIUS Client Configuration on page 174.
Username
The user name for XAUTH.
Password
The password for XAUTH.
8. Click Apply to save your settings. The IKE policy is added to the List of IKE Policies table.
Configure the NETGEAR VPN Client for Mode Config
Operation
When the Mode Config feature is enabled, the following information is negotiated between
the VPN client and the VPN firewall during the authentication phase:
•
Virtual IP address of the VPN client
•
DNS server address (optional)
•
WINS server address (optional)
The virtual IP address that is issued by the VPN firewall is displayed in the VPN Client
Address field on the VPN client’s IPSec pane.
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Note: Perform these tasks from a PC that has the NETGEAR ProSafe
VPN Client installed.
To configure the VPN client for Mode Config operation, create authentication settings (phase
1 settings), create an associated IPSec configuration (phase 2 settings), and then specify the
global parameters.
Configure the Mode Config Authentication Settings (Phase 1 Settings)

To create new authentication settings:
1. Right-click the VPN client icon in your Windows system tray, and select Configuration
Panel. The Configuration Panel screen displays.
Figure 112.
2. In the tree list pane of the Configuration Panel screen, right-click VPN Configuration, and
select New Phase 1.
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Figure 113.
3. Change the name of the authentication phase (the default is Gateway):
a. Right-click the authentication phase name.
b. Select Rename.
c. Type GW_ModeConfig.
d. Click anywhere in the tree list pane.
Note: This is the name for the authentication phase that is used only for the
VPN client, not during IKE negotiation. You can view and change this name in
the tree list pane. This name needs to be a unique name.
The Authentication pane displays in the Configuration Panel screen, with the
Authentication tab selected by default.
Figure 114.
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4. Specify the settings that are explained in the following table.
Table 45. VPN client authentication settings (Mode Config)
Setting
Description
Interface
Select Any from the drop-down list.
Remote Gateway
Enter the remote IP address or DNS name of the VPN firewall. For example, enter
10.34.116.22.
Preshared Key
Select the Preshared Key radio button. Enter the pre-shared key that you already
specified on the VPN firewall. For example, enter H8!spsf3#JYK2!. Confirm the key in
the Confirm field.
IKE
Encryption
Select the 3DES encryption algorithm from the drop-down list.
Authentication
Select the SHA1 authentication algorithm from the drop-down list.
Key Group
Select the DH2 (1024) key group from the drop-down list.
Note: On the VPN firewall, this key group is referred to as
Diffie-Hellman Group 2 (1024 bit).
5. Click Apply to use the new settings immediately, and click Save to keep the settings for
future use.
6. Click the Advanced tab in the Authentication pane. The Advanced pane displays.
Figure 115.
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7. Specify the settings that are explained in the following table.
Table 46. VPN client advanced authentication settings (Mode Config)
Setting
Description
Advanced features
Mode Config
Select this check box to enable Mode Config.
Aggressive Mode
Select this check box to enable aggressive mode as the negotiation mode with
the VPN firewall.
NAT-T
Select Automatic from the drop-down list to enable the VPN client and VPN
firewall to negotiate NAT-T.
Local and Remote ID
Local ID
As the type of ID, select DNS from the Local ID drop-down list because you
specified FQDN in the VPN firewall configuration.
As the value of the ID, enter client.com as the local ID for the VPN client.
Note: The remote ID on the VPN firewall is the local ID on the VPN client.
Remote ID
As the type of ID, select DNS from the Remote ID drop-down list because you
specified an FQDN in the VPN firewall configuration.
As the value of the ID, enter router.com as the remote ID for the VPN firewall.
Note: The local ID on the VPN firewall is the remote ID on the VPN client.
8. Click Apply to use the new settings immediately, and click Save to keep the settings for
future use.
Create the Mode Config IPSec Configuration (Phase 2 Settings)
Note: On the VPN firewall, the IPSec configuration (phase 2 settings) is
referred to as the IKE settings.

To create an IPSec configuration:
1. In the tree list pane of the Configuration Panel screen, right-click the GW_ModeConfig
authentication phase name, and then select New Phase 2.
2. Change the name of the IPSec configuration (the default is Tunnel):
a. Right-click the IPSec configuration name.
b. Select Rename.
c. Type Tunnel_ModeConfig.
d. Click anywhere in the tree list pane.
Note: This is the name for the IPSec configuration that is used only for the
VPN client, not during IPSec negotiation. You can view and change this name
in the tree list pane. This name needs to be a unique name.
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The IPSec pane displays in the Configuration Panel screen, with the IPSec tab selected
by default.
Figure 116.
3. Specify the settings that are explained in the following table.
Table 47. VPN client IPSec configuration settings (Mode Config)
Setting
Description
VPN Client address
This field is masked out because Mode Config is selected. After an IPSec
connection is established, the IP address that is issued by the VPN firewall displays
in this field (see Figure 121 on page 192).
Address Type
Select Subnet address from the drop-down list.
Remote host address
The address that you need to enter depends on whether or not you have specified a
LAN IP network address in the Local IP Address field on the Add Mode Config
Record screen of the VPN firewall:
• If you left the Local IP Address field blank, enter the VPN firewall’s default LAN IP
address as the remote host address that opens the VPN tunnel. For example,
enter 192.168.1.1.
• If you specified a LAN IP network address in the Local IP Address field, enter the
address that you specified as the remote host address that opens the VPN
tunnel.
Subnet Mask
Enter 255.255.255.0 as the remote subnet mask of the VPN firewall that opens the
VPN tunnel. This is the LAN IP subnet mask that you specified in the Local Subnet
Mask field on the Add Mode Config Record screen of the VPN firewall. If you left the
Local Subnet Mask field blank, enter the VPN firewall’s default IP subnet mask.
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Table 47. VPN client IPSec configuration settings (Mode Config) (continued)
Setting
Description
ESP
Encryption
Select 3DES as the encryption algorithm from the drop-down list.
Authentication
Select SHA-1 as the authentication algorithm from the drop-down
list.
Mode
Select Tunnel as the encapsulation mode from the drop-down list.
PFS and Group
Select the PFS check box, and then select the DH2 (1024) key group from the
drop-down list.
Note: On the VPN firewall, this key group is referred to as Diffie-Hellman Group 2
(1024 bit).
4. Click Apply to use the new settings immediately, and click Save to keep the settings for
future use.
Configure the Mode Config Global Parameters

To specify the global parameters:
1. Click Global Parameters in the left column of the Configuration Panel screen. The
Global Parameters pane displays in the Configuration Panel screen.
Figure 117.
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2. Specify the following default lifetimes in seconds to match the configuration on the VPN
firewall:
• Authentication (IKE), Default. Enter 3600 seconds.
•
Encryption (IPSec), Default. Enter 3600 seconds.
3. Select the Dead Peer Detection (DPD) check box, and configure the following DPD settings
to match the configuration on the VPN firewall:
• Check Interval. Enter 30 seconds.
•
Max. number of entries. Enter 3 retries.
•
Delay between entries. Leave the default delay setting of 15 seconds.
4. Click Apply to use the new settings immediately, and click Save to keep the settings for
future use.
The Mode Config configuration of the VPN client is now complete.
Test the Mode Config Connection

To test the Mode Config connection from the VPN client to the VPN firewall:
1. Right-click the system tray icon, and click Open tunnel ‘Tunnel_ModeConfig’.
Figure 118.
When the tunnel opens successfully, the Tunnel opened message displays above the
system tray, and the VPN client displays a green icon in the system tray.
Figure 119.
2. Verify that the VPN firewall issued an IP address to the VPN client. This IP address
displays in the VPN Client address field on the IPSec pane of the VPN client. (The
following figure shows the upper part of the IPSec pane only.)
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Figure 120.
3. From the client PC, ping a computer on the VPN firewall LAN.
Modify or Delete a Mode Config Record

To edit a Mode Config record:
1. On the Mode Config screen (see Figure 109 on page 177), click the Edit table button in
the Action column for the record that you want to modify. The Edit Mode Config Record
screen displays. This screen is identical to the Add Mode Config Record screen (see
Figure 110 on page 178).
2. Modify the settings as explained in Table 43 on page 178.
3. Click Apply to save your settings.

To delete one or more Mode Config records:
1. On the Mode Config screen (see Figure 109 on page 177), select the check box to the
left of the record that you want to delete, or click the Select All table button to select all
records.
2. Click the Delete table button.
Configure Keep-alives and Dead Peer Detection
In some cases, you might not want a VPN tunnel to be disconnected when traffic is idle, for
example, when client-server applications over the tunnel cannot tolerate the tunnel
establishment time. If you require a VPN tunnel to remain connected, you can use the
keep-alive and Dead Peer Detection (DPD) features to prevent the tunnel from being
disconnected and to force a reconnection if the tunnel disconnects for any reason.
For DPD to function, the peer VPN device on the other end of the tunnel should also support
DPD. Keep-alive, though less reliable than DPD, does not require any support from the peer
device.
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Configure Keep-alives
The keep-alive feature maintains the IPSec SA by sending periodic ping requests to a host
across the tunnel and monitoring the replies. To configure the keep-alive feature on a
configured VPN policy:
1. Select VPN > IPSec VPN > VPN Policies. The VPN Policies screen displays (see
Figure 106 on page 166).
2. In the List of VPN Policies table, click the Edit table button to the right of the VPN policy that
you want to edit. The Edit VPN Policy screen displays. (The following figure shows only the
top part of the screen with the General section.)
Figure 121.
3. Enter the settings as explained in the following table:
Table 48. Keep-alive settings
Setting
Description
General
Enable Keepalive
Select a radio button to specify if keep-alive is enabled:
• Yes. This feature is enabled. Periodically, the VPN firewall sends keep-alive
requests (ping packets) to the remote endpoint to keep the tunnel alive. You
need to enter the ping IP address, detection period, and the maximum
number of keep-alive requests that the VPN firewall sends (see below).
• No. This feature is disabled. This is the default setting.
Ping IP Address
The IP address that the VPN firewall pings. The address
needs to be of a host that can respond to ICMP ping
requests.
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Table 48. Keep-alive settings (continued)
Setting
Description
Enable Keepalive
(continued)
Detection Period
The period in seconds between the keep-alive requests.
The default setting is 10 seconds.
Reconnect after
failure count
The maximum number of keep-alive requests before the
VPN firewall tears down the connection and then attempts
to reconnect to the remote endpoint. The default is 3
keep-alive requests.
4. Click Apply to save your settings.
Configure Dead Peer Detection
The Dead Peer Detection (DPD) feature maintains the IKE SA by exchanging periodic
messages with the remote VPN peer.

To configure DPD on a configured IKE policy:
1. Select VPN > IPSec VPN. The IPSec VPN submenu tabs display, with the IKE Policies
screen in view (see Figure 104 on page 160).
2. In the List of IKE Policies table, click the Edit table button to the right of the IKE policy that
you want to edit. The Edit IKE Policy screen displays. (The following figure shows only the
IKE SA Parameters section of the screen.)
Figure 122.
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3. In the IKE SA Parameters section of the screen, locate the DPD fields, and complete the
settings as explained the following table:
Table 49. Dead Peer Detection settings
Setting
Description
IKE SA Parameters
Enable Dead Peer
Detection
Select the Yes radio button to enable DPD. When the VPN firewall detects an
IKE connection failure, it deletes the IPSec and IKE SA and forces a
reestablishment of the connection. You need to specify the detection period in
the Detection Period field and the maximum number of times that the VPN
firewall attempts to reconnect in the Reconnect after failure count field.
Detection Period
The period in seconds between consecutive
DPD R-U-THERE messages, which are sent only when the
IPSec traffic is idle. The default setting is 10 seconds.
Reconnect after
failure count
The maximum number of DPD failures before the VPN
firewall tears down the connection and then attempts to
reconnect to the peer. The default is 3 failures.
4. Click Apply to save your settings.
Configure NetBIOS Bridging with IPSec VPN
Windows networks use the Network Basic Input/Output System (NetBIOS) for several basic
network services such as naming and neighborhood device discovery. Because VPN routers
do not normally pass NetBIOS traffic, these network services do not function for hosts on
opposite ends of a VPN connection. To solve this problem, you can configure the VPN
firewall to bridge NetBIOS traffic over the VPN tunnel.

To enable NetBIOS bridging on a configured VPN tunnel:
1. Select VPN > IPSec VPN > VPN Policies. The VPN Policies screen displays (see
Figure 106 on page 166).
2. In the List of VPN Policies table, click the Edit table button to the right of the VPN policy that
you want to edit. The Edit VPN Policy screen displays. (The following figure shows only the
top part of the screen with the General section.)
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Figure 123.
3. Select the Enable NetBIOS check box.
4. Click Apply to save your settings.
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6.
Virtual Private Networking
Using SSL Connections
6
The VPN firewall provides a hardware-based SSL VPN solution designed specifically to provide
remote access for mobile users to their corporate resources, bypassing the need for a
preinstalled VPN client on their computers. Using the familiar Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
protocol, commonly used for e-commerce transactions, the VPN firewall can authenticate itself
to an SSL-enabled client, such as a standard web browser. Once the authentication and
negotiation of encryption information are completed, the server and client can establish an
encrypted connection. With support for up to 50 dedicated SSL VPN tunnels, the VPN firewall
allows users to easily access the remote network for a customizable, secure, user portal
experience from virtually any available platform.
This chapter contains the following sections:
•
SSL VPN Portal Options
•
Overview of the SSL Configuration Process
•
Create the Portal Layout
•
Configure Domains, Groups, and Users
•
Configure Applications for Port Forwarding
•
Configure the SSL VPN Client
•
Use Network Resource Objects to Simplify Policies
•
Configure User, Group, and Global Policies
•
Access the SSL Portal Login Screen
•
View the SSL VPN Connection Status and SSL VPN Logs
SSL VPN Portal Options
The VPN firewall’s SSL VPN portal can provide two levels of SSL service to the remote user:
•
SSL VPN tunnel. The VPN firewall can provide the full network connectivity of a VPN
tunnel using the remote user’s browser instead of a traditional IPSec VPN client.
The SSL capability of the user’s browser provides authentication and encryption,
establishing a secure connection to the VPN firewall. Upon successful connection, an
ActiveX-based SSL VPN client is downloaded to the remote PC to allow the remote user
to virtually join the corporate network.
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The SSL VPN client provides a point-to-point (PPP) connection between the client and
the VPN firewall, and a virtual network interface is created on the user’s PC. The VPN
firewall assigns the PC an IP address and DNS server IP addresses, allowing the remote
PC to access network resources in the same manner as if it were connected directly to
the corporate network, subject to any policy restrictions that you configure.
•
SSL port forwarding. Like an SSL VPN tunnel, port forwarding is a web-based client that
is installed transparently and then creates a virtual, encrypted tunnel to the remote
network. However, port forwarding differs from an SSL VPN tunnel in several ways:
-
Port forwarding supports only TCP connections, not UDP connections or connections
using other IP protocols.
-
Port forwarding detects and reroutes individual data streams on the user’s PC to the
port-forwarding connection rather than opening up a full tunnel to the corporate
network.
-
Port forwarding offers more fine-grained management than an SSL VPN tunnel. You
define individual applications and resources that are available to remote users.
The SSL VPN portal can present the remote user with one or both of these SSL service
levels, depending on how you set up the configuration.
Overview of the SSL Configuration Process

To configure and activate SSL connections, perform the following six basic steps in
the order that they are presented:
1. Edit the existing SSL portal or create a new one (see Create the Portal Layout on
page 198).
When remote users log in to the VPN firewall, they see a portal page that you can
customize to present the resources and functions that you choose to make available.
2. Create authentication domains, user groups, and user accounts (see Configure Domains,
Groups, and Users on page 202).
a. Create one or more authentication domains for authentication of SSL VPN users.
When remote users log in to the VPN firewall, they need to specify a domain to which
their login account belongs.
The domain determines the authentication method that is used and the portal layout
that is presented, which in turn determines the network resources to which the users
are granted access. Because you need to assign a portal layout when creating a
domain, the domain is created after you have created the portal layout.
b. Create one or more groups for your SSL VPN users.
When you define the SSL VPN policies that determine network resource access for
your SSL VPN users, you can define global policies, group policies, or individual
policies. Because you need to assign an authentication domain when creating a
group, the group is created after you have created the domain.
c. Create one or more SSL VPN user accounts.
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Because you need to assign a group when creating a SSL VPN user account, the
user account is created after you have created the group.
3. For port forwarding, define the servers and services (Configure Applications for Port
Forwarding on page 202).
Create a list of servers and services that can be made available through user, group, or
global policies. You can also associate fully qualified domain names (FQDNs) with these
servers. The VPN firewall resolves the names to the servers using the list you have
created.
4. For SSL VPN tunnel service, configure the virtual network adapter (see Configure the SSL
VPN Client on page 205).
For the SSL VPN tunnel option, the VPN firewall creates a virtual network adapter on the
remote PC that then functions as if it were on the local network. Configure the portal’s
SSL VPN client to define a pool of local IP addresses to be issued to remote clients, as
well as DNS addresses. Declare static routes or grant full access to the local network,
subject to additional policies.
5. To simplify policies, define network resource objects (see Use Network Resource Objects to
Simplify Policies on page 208).
Network resource objects are groups of IP addresses, IP address ranges, and services.
By defining resource objects, you can more quickly create and configure network policies.
6. Configure the SSL VPN policies (see Configure User, Group, and Global Policies on
page 210).
Policies determine access to network resources and addresses for individual users,
groups, or everyone.
Create the Portal Layout
The Portal Layouts screen that you can access from the SSL VPN menu allows you to create
a custom page that remote users see when they log in to the portal. Because the page is
completely customizable, it provides an ideal way to communicate remote access
instructions, support information, technical contact information, or VPN-related news updates
to remote users. The page is also well-suited as a starting page for restricted users; if mobile
users or business partners are permitted to access only a few resources, the page that you
create presents only the resources that are relevant to these users.
You apply portal layouts by selecting one from the available portal layouts in the configuration
of a domain. When you have completed your portal layout, you can apply the portal layout to
one or more authentication domains (see Configure Domains on page 219). You can also
make the new portal the default portal for the SSL VPN gateway by selecting the default radio
button adjacent to the portal layout name.
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Note: The VPN firewall’s default portal address is
https://<IP_Address>/portal/SSL-VPN.
The default domain geardomain is attached to the SSL-VPN portal.
You can define individual layouts for the SSL VPN portal. The layout configuration includes
the menu layout, theme, portal pages to display, and web cache control options. The default
portal layout is the SSL-VPN portal. You can add additional portal layouts. You can also make
any portal the default portal for the VPN firewall by clicking the Default button in the Action
column of the List of Layouts table, to the right of the desired portal layout.

To create a new SSL VPN portal layout:
1. Select VPN > SSL VPN > Portal Layouts. The Portal Layout screen displays. (The
following figure shows layouts in the List of Layouts table as an example. (The IP
address that is shown in this figure do not relate to other figures and examples in this
manual.)
Figure 124.
The List of Layouts table displays the following fields:
•
Layout Name. The descriptive name of the portal.
•
Description. The banner message that is displayed at the top of the portal (see
Figure 132 on page 217).
•
Use Count. The number of remote users that are currently using the portal.
•
Portal URL. The URL at which the portal can be accessed.
•
Action. The table buttons that allow you to edit the portal layout or set it as the
default.
2. Under the List of Layouts table, click the Add table button. The Add Portal Layout screen
displays. (The following figure shows an example.)
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Figure 125.
3. Complete the settings as explained the following table:
Table 50. Add Portal Layout screen settings
Setting
Description
Portal Layout and Theme Name
Portal Layout Name
A descriptive name for the portal layout. This name is part of the path of the SSL
VPN portal URL.
Note: Custom portals are accessed at a different URL than the default portal. For
example, if your SSL VPN portal is hosted at https://vpn.company.com, and you
create a portal layout named CustomerSupport, then users access the sub-site
at https://vpn.company.com/portal/CustomerSupport.
Note: Only alphanumeric characters, hyphens (-), and underscores (_) are
accepted in the Portal Layout Name field. If you enter other types of characters
or spaces, the layout name is truncated before the first nonalphanumeric
character.
Note: Unlike most other URLs, this name is case-sensitive.
Portal Site Title
The title that appears at the top of the user’s web browser window, for example,
Company Customer Support.
Banner Title
The banner title of a banner message that users see before they log in to the
portal, for example, Welcome to Customer Support.
Note: For an example, see Figure 132 on page 217. The banner title text is
displayed in the orange header bar.
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Table 50. Add Portal Layout screen settings (continued)
Setting
Description
Banner Message
The text of a banner message that users see before they log in to the portal, for
example, In case of login difficulty, call 123-456-7890. Enter a plain text message
or include HTML and JavaScript tags. The maximum length of the login page
message is 4096 characters.
Note: For an example, see Figure 132 on page 217. The banner message text
is displayed in the gray header bar.
Display banner
Select this check box to show the banner title and banner message text on the
message on login page login screen as shown in Figure 132 on page 217.
HTTP meta tags for
cache control
(recommended)
Select this check box to apply HTTP meta tag cache control directives to this
portal layout. Cache control directives include:
<meta http-equiv=”pragma” content=”no-cache”>
<meta http-equiv=”cache-control” content=”no-cache”>
<meta http-equiv=”cache-control” content=”must-revalidate”>
Note: NETGEAR strongly recommends enabling HTTP meta tags for security
reasons and to prevent out-of-date web pages, themes, and data being stored in
a user’s web browser cache.
ActiveX web cache
cleaner
Select this check box to enable ActiveX cache control to be loaded when users
log in to the SSL VPN portal. The web cache cleaner prompts the user to delete
all temporary Internet files, cookies, and browser history when the user logs out
or closes the web browser window. The ActiveX web cache control is ignored by
web browsers that do not support ActiveX.
SSL VPN Portal Pages to Display
VPN Tunnel page
Select this check box to provide full network connectivity.
Port Forwarding
Select this check box to provide access to specific defined network services. (See
Configure Applications for Port Forwarding on page 202.)
Note: Any pages that are not selected are not visible from the SSL VPN portal;
however, users can still access the hidden pages unless you create SSL VPN
access policies to prevent access to these pages.
4. Click Apply to save your settings. The new portal layout is added to the List of Layouts
table. For information about how to display the new portal layout, see Access the SSL Portal
Login Screen on page 216.

To edit a portal layout:
1. On the Portal Layouts screen (see Figure 124 on page 199), click the Edit button in the
Action column for the portal layout that you want to modify. The Edit Portal Layout
screen displays. This screen is identical to the Add Portal Layout screen (see the
previous figure).
2. Modify the settings as explained in the previous table.
3. Click Apply to save your settings.
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
To delete one or more portal layouts:
1. On the Portal Layouts screen (see Figure 124 on page 199), select the check box to the
left of the portal layout that you want to delete, or click the Select All table button to
select all layouts. (You cannot delete the SSL-VPN default portal layout.)
2. Click the Delete table button.
Configure Domains, Groups, and Users
Remote users connecting to the VPN firewall through an SSL VPN portal need to be
authenticated before they are being granted access to the network. The login window that is
presented to the user requires three items: a user name, a password, and a domain
selection. The domain determines both the authentication method and the portal layout that
are used.
You need to create name and password accounts for the SSL VPN users. When you create a
user account, you need to specify a group. Groups are used to simplify the application of
access policies. When you create a group, you need to specify a domain. Therefore, you
should create any domains first, then groups, and then user accounts.
To configure domains, groups, and users, see Configure VPN Authentication Domains,
Groups, and Users on page 219.
Configure Applications for Port Forwarding
Port forwarding provides access to specific defined network services. To define these
services, you need to specify the internal server addresses and port numbers for TCP
applications that are intercepted by the port-forwarding client on the user’s PC. This client
reroutes the traffic to the VPN firewall.
Add Servers and Port Numbers
To configure port forwarding, you need to define the IP addresses of the internal servers and
the port number for TCP applications that are available to remote users.

To add a server and a port number:
1. Select VPN > SSL VPN > Port Forwarding. The Port Forwarding screen displays. (The
following figure shows an example.)
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Figure 126.
2. In the Add New Application for Port Forwarding section of the screen, specify information in
the following fields:
• IP Address. The IP address of an internal server or host computer that a remote user
has access to.
•
TCP Port. The TCP port number of the application that is accessed through the SSL
VPN tunnel. The following table lists some commonly used TCP applications and port
numbers:
Table 51. Port-forwarding applications/TCP port numbers
TCP application
Port number
FTP data (usually not needed)
20
FTP Control Protocol
21
SSH
22a
Telnet
23a
SMTP (send mail)
25
HTTP (web)
80
POP3 (receive mail)
110
NTP (Network Time Protocol)
123
Citrix
1494
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Table 51. Port-forwarding applications/TCP port numbers (continued)
TCP application
Port number
Terminal Services
3389
VNC (virtual network computing)
5900 or 5800
a. Users can specify the port number together with the host name or IP
address.
3. Click the Add table button. The new application entry is added to the List of Configured
Applications for Port Forwarding table. Remote users can now securely access network
applications once they have logged in to the SSL VPN portal and launched port forwarding.

To delete an application from the List of Configured Applications for Port Forwarding
table:
Select the check box to the left of the application that you want to delete, and then click the
Delete table button in the Action column.
Add a New Host Name
After you have configured port forwarding by defining the IP addresses of the internal servers
and the port number for TCP applications that are available to remote users, you then can
also specify host-name-to-IP-address resolution for the network servers as a convenience for
users. Host name resolution allows users to access TCP applications at familiar addresses
such as mail.example.com or ftp.customer.com rather than by IP addresses.

To add servers and host names for client name resolution:
1. Select VPN > SSL VPN > Port Forwarding. The Port Forwarding screen displays (see
Figure 126 on page 203).
2. In the Add New Host Name for Port Forwarding section of the screen, specify information in
the following fields:
• Local Server IP Address. The IP address of an internal server or host computer that
you want to name.
•
Fully Qualified Domain Name. The full server name.
Note: If the server or host computer that you want to name does not
appear in the List of Configured Applications for Port Forwarding
table, you need to add it before you can rename it.
3. Click the Add table button. The new application entry is added to the List of Configured Host
Names for Port Forwarding table.
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To delete a name from the List of Configured Host Names for Port Forwarding table, select
the check box to the left of the name that you want to delete, and then click the Delete table
button in the Action column.
Configure the SSL VPN Client
The SSL VPN client on the VPN firewall assigns IP addresses to remote VPN tunnel clients.
Because the VPN tunnel connection is a point-to-point connection, you can assign IP
addresses from the local subnet to the remote VPN tunnel clients.
The following are some additional considerations:
•
So that the virtual (PPP) interface address of a VPN tunnel client does not conflict with
addresses on the local network, configure an IP address range that does not directly
overlap with addresses on your local network. For example, if 192.168.1.1 through
192.168.1.100 are currently assigned to devices on the local network, then start the client
address range at 192.168.1.101 or choose an entirely different subnet altogether.
•
The VPN tunnel client cannot contact a server on the local network if the VPN tunnel
client’s Ethernet interface shares the same IP address as the server or the VPN firewall
(for example, if your PC has a network interface IP address of 10.0.0.45, then you cannot
contact a server on the remote network that also has the IP address 10.0.0.45).
•
Select whether you want to enable full tunnel or split tunnel support based on your
bandwidth:
•
-
A full tunnel sends all of the client’s traffic across the VPN tunnel.
-
A split tunnel sends only traffic that is destined for the local network based on the
specified client routes. All other traffic is sent to the Internet. A split tunnel allows you
to manage bandwidth by reserving the VPN tunnel for local traffic only.
If you enable split tunnel support and you assign an entirely different subnet to the VPN
tunnel clients from the subnet that is used by the local network, you need to add a client
route to ensure that a VPN tunnel client connects to the local network over the VPN
tunnel.
Configure the Client IP Address Range
First determine the address range to be assigned to VPN tunnel clients, then define the
address range.

To define the client IP address range:
1. Select VPN > SSL VPN > SSL VPN Client. The SSL VPN Client screen displays:
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Figure 127.
2. Complete the settings as explained the following table:
Table 52. SSL VPN client IP address range settings
Setting
Description
Client IP Address Range
Enable Full Tunnel Support
Select this check box to enable full tunnel support. If you leave this check
box cleared (which is the default setting), split-tunnel support is enabled, and
you need to add client routes (see Add Routes for VPN Tunnel Clients on
page 207).
Note: When full tunnel support is enabled, client routes are not operable.
DNS Suffix
A DNS suffix to be appended to incomplete DNS search strings. This is
optional.
Primary DNS Server
The IP address of the primary DNS server that is assigned to the VPN tunnel
clients. This is optional.
Note: If you do not assign a DNS server, the DNS settings remain
unchanged in the VPN client after a VPN tunnel has been established.
Secondary DNS Server
The IP address of the secondary DNS server that is assigned to the VPN
tunnel clients. This is optional.
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Table 52. SSL VPN client IP address range settings (continued)
Setting
Description
Client Address Range Begin The first IP address of the IP address range that you want to assign to the
VPN tunnel clients.
Client Address Range End
The last IP address of the IP address range that you want to assign to the
VPN tunnel clients.
3. Click Apply to save your settings. VPN tunnel clients are now able to connect to the VPN
firewall and receive a virtual IP address in the client address range.
Add Routes for VPN Tunnel Clients
The VPN tunnel clients assume that the following networks are located across the
VPN-over-SSL tunnel:
•
The subnet that contains the client IP address (that is, PPP interface), as determined by
the class of the address (Class A, B, or C).
•
Subnets that are specified in the Configured Client Routes table on the SSL VPN Client
screen.
If the assigned client IP address range is in a different subnet from the local network, or if the
local network has multiple subnets, or if you select split mode tunnel operation, you need to
define client routes.

To add an SSL VPN tunnel client route:
1. Select VPN > SSL VPN > SSL VPN Client. The SSL VPN Client screen displays (see
Figure 127 on page 206).
2. In the Add Routes for VPN Tunnel Clients section of the screen, specify information in the
following fields:
• Destination Network. The destination network IP address of a local network or
subnet. For example, enter 192.168.1.60.
•
Subnet Mask. The address of the appropriate subnet mask.
3. Click the Add table button. The new client route is added to the Configured Client Routes
table.
Note: If VPN tunnel clients are already connected, restart the VPN firewall.
Restarting forces clients to reconnect and receive new addresses
and routes.

To change the specifications of an existing route and to delete an old route:
1. Add a new route to the Configured Client Routes table.
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2. In the Configured Client Routes table, to the right of the route that is out-of-date, click the
Delete table button.
If an existing route is no longer needed for any reason, you can delete it.
Use Network Resource Objects to Simplify Policies
Network resources are groups of IP addresses, IP address ranges, and services. By defining
resource objects, you can more quickly create and configure network policies. You do not
need to redefine the same set of IP addresses or address ranges when you configure the
same access policies for multiple users.
Defining network resources is optional; smaller organizations can choose to create access
policies using individual IP addresses or IP networks rather than predefined network
resources. But for most organizations, NETGEAR recommends that you use network
resources. If your server or network configuration changes, you can perform an update
quickly by using network resources instead of individually updating all of the user and group
policies.
Add New Network Resources

To define a network resource:
1. Select VPN > SSL VPN > Resources. The Resources screen displays. (The following
figure shows some resources in the List of Resources table as an example.)
Figure 128.
2. In the Add New Resource section of the screen, specify information in the following fields:
• Resource Name. A descriptive name of the resource for identification and
management purposes.
•
Service. From the Service drop-down list, select the type of service to which the
resource applies:
-
VPN Tunnel. The resource applies only to a VPN tunnel.
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-
Port Forwarding. The resource applies only to a port forwarding.
-
All. The resource applies both to a VPN tunnel and to port forwarding.
3. Click the Add table button. The new resource is added to the List of Resources table.

To delete one or more network resources:
1. Select the check box to the left of the network resource that you want to delete, or click
the Select All table button to select all VPN policies.
2. Click the Delete table button.
Edit Network Resources to Specify Addresses
After you have defined a resource on the Resources screen, you can assign an IP or network
address and a port or port range to the resource.

To edit a resource:
1. Select VPN > SSL VPN > Resources. The Resources screen displays (see the
previous figure, which shows some examples).
2. In the List of Resources table, to the right of the new resource in the Action column, click the
Edit table button. A new screen displays. (The following figure shows an example.)
Figure 129.
3. Complete the settings as explained the following table:
Table 53. Edit Resources screen settings
Setting
Description
Resource Name
The unique identifier for the resource. For information only. (You cannot edit
the resource name after you have created it on the Resources screen.)
Service
The SSL service that is assigned to the resource. For information only. (You
cannot edit the service after you have assigned it to the resource on the
Resources screen.)
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Table 53. Edit Resources screen settings (continued)
Setting
Description
Object Type
From the drop-down list, select one of the following options:
• IP Address. The object is an IP address. You need to enter the IP address
or the FQDN in the IP Address / Name field.
• IP Network. The object is an IP network. You need to enter the network IP
address in the Network Address field and the network mask length in the
Mask Length field.
IP Address / Name
Applicable only when you select IP Address as the
object type. Enter the IP address or FQDN for the
location that is permitted to use this resource.
Network Address
Applicable only when you select IP Network as the
object type. Enter the network IP address for the
locations that are permitted to use this resource.
Mask Length
Applicable only when you select IP Network as the
object type. As an option, enter the network mask
(0–31) for the locations that are permitted to use this
resource.
Port Range / Port Number A port or a range of ports (0–65535) to apply the policy to; the policy is applied
to all TCP and UDP traffic that passes on those ports. Leave the fields blank to
apply the policy to all traffic.
4. Click Apply to save your settings. The new configuration is added to the Defined Resource
Addresses table.
To delete a configuration from the Defined Resource Addresses table, click the Delete table
button to the right of the configuration that you want to delete.
Configure User, Group, and Global Policies
You can define and apply user, group, and global policies to predefined network resource
objects, IP addresses, address ranges, or all IP addresses, and to different SSL VPN
services. A specific hierarchy is invoked over which policies take precedence. The VPN
firewall policy hierarchy is defined as follows:
1. User policies take precedence over all group policies.
2. Group policies take precedence over all global policies.
3. If two or more user, group, or global policies are configured, the most specific policy takes
precedence.
For example, a policy that is configured for a single IP address takes precedence over a
policy that is configured for a range of addresses. And a policy that applies to a range of IP
addresses takes precedence over a policy that is applied to all IP addresses. If two or more
IP address ranges are configured, then the smallest address range takes precedence. Host
names are treated the same as individual IP addresses.
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Network resources are prioritized just like other address ranges. However, the prioritization is
based on the individual address or address range, not the entire network resource.
For example, assume the following global policy configuration:
•
Policy 1. A Deny rule has been configured to block all services to the IP address range
10.0.0.0 – 10.0.0.255.
•
Policy 2. A Deny rule has been configured to block FTP access to 10.0.1.2–10.0.1.10.
•
Policy 3. A Permit rule has been configured to allow FTP access to the predefined
network resource with the name FTP Servers. The FTP Servers network resource
includes the following addresses: 10.0.0.5–10.0.0.20 and the FQDN ftp.company.com,
which resolves to 10.0.1.3.
Assuming that no conflicting user or group policies have been configured, if a user would
attempt to access:
•
an FTP server at 10.0.0.1, the user would be blocked by Policy 1.
•
an FTP server at 10.0.1.5, the user would be blocked by Policy 2.
•
an FTP server at 10.0.0.10, the user would be granted access by Policy 3. The IP
address range 10.0.0.5–10.0.0.20 is more specific than the IP address range that is
defined in Policy 1.
•
an FTP server at ftp.company.com, the user would be granted access by Policy 3. A
single host name is more specific than the IP address range that is configured in Policy 2
Note: The user would not be able to access ftp.company.com using its IP
address 10.0.1.3. The VPN firewall’s policy engine does not perform
reverse DNS lookups.
View Policies

To view the existing policies, follow these steps:
1. Select VPN > SSL VPN. The SSL VPN submenu tabs display, with the Policies screen
in view. (The following figure shows some examples.)
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Figure 130.
2. Make your selection from the following Query options:
• Click Global to view all global policies.
•
Click Group to view group policies, and choose the relevant group’s name from the
drop-down list.
•
Click User to view user policies, and choose the relevant user’s name from the
drop-down list.
3. Click the Display action button. The List of SSL VPN Policies table displays the list for your
selected Query option.
Add a Policy

To add an SSL VPN policy:
1. Select VPN > SSL VPN. The SSL VPN submenu tabs display, with the Policies screen
in view (see the previous figure, which shows some examples).
2. Under the List of SSL VPN Policies table, click the Add table button. The Add Policy screen
displays:
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Figure 131.
3. Complete the settings as explained the following table:
Table 54. Add SSL VPN Policy screen settings
Setting
Description
Policy For
Select one of the following radio buttons to specify the type of SSL VPN policy:
• Global. The new policy is global and excludes all groups and users.
• Group. The new policy is limited to a single group. From the drop-down list, select a group name.
• User. The new policy is limited to a single user. From the drop-down list, select a user name.
Note: For information about how to create groups, see Configure Groups for VPN Policies on page 224.
For information about how to create user accounts, see Configure User Accounts on page 227.
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Table 54. Add SSL VPN Policy screen settings (continued)
Setting
Description
Add SSL VPN Policies
Apply
Policy For
Select one of the following radio buttons to specify how the policy is applied:
• Network Resource. The policy is applied to a network resource that you have defined on
the Resources screen (see Use Network Resource Objects to Simplify Policies on
page 208). The screen adjusts to display the fields that are shown in the Network Resource
rows.
• IP Address. The policy is applied to a single IP address. The screen adjusts to display the
fields that are shown in the IP Address rows of this table.
• IP Network. The policy is applied to a network address. The screen adjusts to display the
fields that are shown in the IP Network rows of this table.
• All Addresses. The policy is applied to all addresses. The screen adjusts to display the
fields that are shown in the All Addresses rows of this table.
Network
Resource
IP Address
Policy Name
A descriptive name of the SSL VPN policy for identification and
management purposes.
Defined
Resources
From the drop-down list, select a network resource that you
have defined on the Resources screen (see Use Network
Resource Objects to Simplify Policies on page 208).
Permission
From the drop-down list, select whether the policy permits
(PERMIT) or denies (DENY) access.
Policy Name
A descriptive name of the SSL VPN policy for identification and
management purposes.
IP Address
The IP address to which the SSL VPN policy is applied.
Port Range /
Port Number
A port (enter in the Begin field) or a range of ports (enter in the
Begin and End fields) to which the SSL VPN policy is applied.
Ports can be 0 through 65535. The policy is applied to all TCP
and UDP traffic that passes on those ports. Leave the fields
blank to apply the policy to all traffic.
Service
From the drop-down list, select the service to which the SSL
VPN policy is applied:
• VPN Tunnel. The policy is applied only to a VPN tunnel.
• Port Forwarding. The policy is applied only to port
forwarding.
• All. The policy is applied both to a VPN tunnel and to port
forwarding.
Permission
From the drop-down list, select whether the policy permits
(PERMIT) or denies (DENY) access.
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Table 54. Add SSL VPN Policy screen settings (continued)
Setting
Description
Apply
Policy For
(continued)
IP Network
Policy Name
A descriptive name of the SSL VPN policy for identification and
management purposes.
IP Address
The network IP address to which the SSL VPN policy is
applied.
Subnet Mask The network subnet mask to which the SSL VPN policy is
applied.
All
Addresses
Port Range /
Port Number
A port (enter in the Begin field) or a range of ports (enter in the
Begin and End fields) to which the SSL VPN policy is applied.
Ports can be 0 through 65535. The policy is applied to all TCP
and UDP traffic that passes on those ports. Leave the fields
blank to apply the policy to all traffic.
Service
From the drop-down list, select the service to which the SSL
VPN policy is applied:
• VPN Tunnel. The policy is applied only to a VPN tunnel.
• Port Forwarding. The policy is applied only to port
forwarding.
• All. The policy is applied both to a VPN tunnel and to port
forwarding.
Permission
From the drop-down list, select whether the policy permits
(PERMIT) or denies (DENY) access.
Policy Name
A descriptive name of the SSL VPN policy for identification and
management purposes.
Port Range /
Port Number
A port (enter in the Begin field) or a range of ports (enter in the
Begin and End fields) to which the SSL VPN policy is applied.
Ports can be 0 through 65535. The policy is applied to all TCP
and UDP traffic that passes on those ports. Leave the fields
blank to apply the policy to all traffic.
Service
From the drop-down list, select the service to which the SSL
VPN policy is applied:
• VPN Tunnel. The policy is applied only to a VPN tunnel.
• Port Forwarding. The policy is applied only to port
forwarding.
• All. The policy is applied both to a VPN tunnel and to port
forwarding.
Permission
From the drop-down list, select whether the policy permits
(PERMIT) or denies (DENY) access.
4. Click Apply to save your settings. The policy is added to the List of SSL VPN Policies table
on the Policies screen. The new policy goes into effect immediately.
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Note: If you have configured SSL VPN user policies, ensure that HTTPS
remote management is enabled (see Configure Remote
Management Access on page 250). If HTTPS remote management
is not enabled, all SSL VPN user connections are disabled.

To edit an SSL VPN policy:
1. On the Policies screen (see Figure 130 on page 212), click the Edit button in the Action
column for the SSL VPN policy that you want to modify. The Edit SSL VPN Policy
screen displays. This screen is identical to the Add SSL VPN Policy screen (see
previous screen).
2. Modify the settings as explained in the previous table.
3. Click Apply to save your settings.

To delete one or more SSL VPN policies:
1. On the Policies screen (see Figure 130 on page 212), select the check box to the left of
the SSL VPN policy that you want to delete, or click the Select All table button to select
all policies.
2. Click the Delete table button.
Access the SSL Portal Login Screen
All screens that you can access from the SSL VPN menu of the web management interface
display a user portal link at the right upper corner, above the menu bars (
).
When you click the user portal link, the SSL VPN default portal opens (see Figure 133 on
page 217). This user portal is not the same as the new SSL portal login screen that you
defined in Create the Portal Layout on page 198.

To open the new SSL portal login screen:
1. Select VPN > SSL VPN > Portal Layouts. The Portal Layout screen displays (see
Figure 124 on page 199).
2. In the Portal URL column of the List of Layouts table, click a URL. The new SSL portal login
screen displays. (The following figure displays the previously created CustomerSupport
portal layout as an example).
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Figure 132.
3. Enter a user name and password that are associated with the SSL portal and the domain
(see Configure VPN Authentication Domains, Groups, and Users on page 219).
4. Click Login. The default User Portal screen displays:
Figure 133.
The default User Portal screen displays a simple menu that provides the SSL user with
the following menu selections:
•
VPN Tunnel. Provides full network connectivity.
•
Port Forwarding. Provides access to the network services that you defined in
Configure Applications for Port Forwarding on page 202.
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•
Change Password. Allows the user to change their password.
•
Support. Provides access to the NETGEAR website.
View the SSL VPN Connection Status and SSL VPN Logs

To review the status of current SSL VPN tunnels:
Select VPN > Connection Status > SSL VPN Connection Status. The SSL VPN
Connection Status screen displays:
Figure 134.
The active user’s user name, group, and IP address are listed in the table with a timestamp
indicating the time and date that the user connected.
To disconnect an active user, click the Disconnect table button to the right of the user’s table
entry.

To view the SSL VPN Logs:
Select Monitoring > VPN Logs > SSL VPN Logs. The SSL VPN Logs screen displays:
Figure 135.
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7.
Managing Users, Authentication, and
Certificates
7
This chapter describes how to manage users, authentication, and security certificates for IPSec
VPN and SSL VPN. This chapter contains the following sections:
•
Configure VPN Authentication Domains, Groups, and Users
•
Manage Digital Certificates
Configure VPN Authentication Domains, Groups, and
Users
Users are assigned to a group, and a group is assigned to a domain. Therefore, you should
first create any domains, then groups, then user accounts.
You need to create name and password accounts for all users who should be able connect to
the VPN firewall. This includes administrators and SSL VPN clients. Accounts for IPSec VPN
clients are required only if you have enabled Extended Authentication (XAUTH) in your
IPSec VPN configuration.
Users connecting to the VPN firewall need to be authenticated before being allowed to
access the VPN firewall or the VPN-protected network. The login window that is presented to
the user requires three items: a user name, a password, and a domain selection. The domain
determines the authentication method that is used and, for SSL connections, the portal
layout that is presented.
Note: IPSec VPN users always belong to the default domain
(geardomain) and are not assigned to groups.
Except in the case of IPSec VPN users, when you create a user account, you need to specify
a group. When you create a group, you need to specify a domain.
Configure Domains
The domain determines the authentication method to be used for associated users. For SSL
connections, the domain also determines the portal layout that is presented, which in turn
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determines the network resources to which the associated users have access. The default
domain of the VPN firewall is named geardomain. You cannot delete the default domain.
The following table summarizes the authentication protocols and methods that the VPN
firewall supports:
Table 55. Authentication protocols and methods
Authentication
Description
protocol or method
PAP
Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) is a simple protocol in which the client sends a
password in clear text.
CHAP
Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) executes a three-way handshake
in which the client and server trade challenge messages, each responding with a hash of
the other’s challenge message that is calculated using a shared secret value.
RADIUS
A network-validated PAP or CHAP password-based authentication method that functions
with Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS).
MIAS
A network-validated PAP or CHAP password-based authentication method that functions
with Microsoft Internet Authentication Service (MIAS), which is a component of Microsoft
Windows 2003 Server.
WiKID
WiKID Systems is a PAP or CHAP key-based two-factor authentication method that
functions with public key cryptography. The client sends an encrypted PIN to the WiKID
server and receives a one-time pass code with a short expiration period. The client logs
in with the passcode. See Appendix D, Two-Factor Authentication for more on WiKID
authentication.
NT Domain
A network-validated domain-based authentication method that functions with a Microsoft
Windows NT Domain authentication server. This authentication method has been
superseded by Microsoft Active Directory authentication but is supported to authenticate
legacy Windows clients.
Active Directory
A network-validated domain-based authentication method that functions with a Microsoft
Active Directory authentication server. Microsoft Active Directory authentication servers
support a group and user structure. Because the Active Directory supports a multilevel
hierarchy (for example, groups or organizational units), this information can be queried to
provide specific group policies or bookmarks based on Active Directory attributes.
Note: A Microsoft Active Directory database uses an LDAP organization schema.
LDAP

A network-validated domain-based authentication method that functions with a
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) authentication server. LDAP is a standard
for querying and updating a directory. Because LDAP supports a multilevel hierarchy (for
example, groups or organizational units), this information can be queried to provide
specific group policies or bookmarks based on LDAP attributes.
To create a domain:
1. Select Users > Domains. The Domains screen displays. The following figure shows the
VPN firewall’s default domain—geardomain—and, as an example, several other
domains in the List of Domains table.
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Figure 136.
The List of Domains table displays the domains with the following fields:
•
Check box. Allows you to select the domain in the table.
•
Domain Name. The name of the domain. The default domain name (geardomain) is
appended by an asterisk.
•
Authentication Type. The authentication method that is assigned to the domain.
•
Portal Layout Name. The SSL portal layout that is assigned to the domain.
•
Action. The Edit table button that provides access to the Edit Domain screen.
2. Under the List of Domains table, click the Add table button. The Add Domain screen
displays:
Figure 137.
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3. Enter the settings as explained in the following table:
Table 56. Add Domain screen settings
Setting
Description
Domain Name
A descriptive (alphanumeric) name of the domain for identification and
management purposes.
Authentication Type
From the drop-down list, select the authentication method that the VPN firewall
applies to the domain. The screen adjusts to display the fields that require
configuration.
• Local User Database (default). Users are authenticated locally on the VPN
firewall. This is the default setting. You do not need to complete any other fields
on this screen.
Note: If you select
•
Radius-PAP. RADIUS Password Authentication Protocol (PAP). Complete the
any type of RADIUS
Authentication Server and Authentication Secret fields.
authentication, make
sure that one or more • Radius-CHAP. RADIUS Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP).
RADIUS servers are
Complete the Authentication Server and Authentication Secret fields.
configured (see
• Radius-MSCHAP. RADIUS Microsoft CHAP. Complete the Authentication Server
RADIUS Client
and Authentication Secret fields.
Configuration on
• Radius-MSCHAPv2. RADIUS Microsoft CHAP version 2. Complete the
page 174).
Authentication Server and Authentication Secret fields.
• WIKID-PAP. WiKID Systems PAP. Complete the Authentication Server and
Authentication Secret fields.
• WIKID-CHAP. WiKID Systems CHAP. Complete the Authentication Server and
Authentication Secret fields.
• MIAS-PAP. Microsoft Internet Authentication Service (MIAS) PAP. Complete the
Authentication Server and Authentication Secret fields.
• MIAS-CHAP. Microsoft Internet Authentication Service (MIAS) CHAP. Complete
the Authentication Server and Authentication Secret fields.
• NT Domain. Microsoft Windows NT Domain. Complete the Authentication Server
and Workgroup fields.
• Active Directory. Microsoft Active Directory. Complete the Authentication Server
and Active Directory Domain fields.
• LDAP. Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP). Complete the
Authentication Server and LDAP Base DN fields.
Select Portal
The drop-down list shows the SSL portals that are listed on the Portal Layout
screen. From the drop-down list, select the SSL portal with which the domain is
associated. For information about how to configure SSL portals, see Create the
Portal Layout on page 198.
Authentication Server The server IP address or server name of the authentication server for any type of
authentication other than authentication through the local user database.
Authentication Secret
The authentication secret or password that is required to access the authentication
server for RADIUS, WiKID, or MIAS authentication.
Workgroup
The workgroup that is required for Microsoft NT Domain authentication.
LDAP Base DN
The LDAP base distinguished name (DN) that is required for LDAP authentication.
Active Directory
Domain
The active directory domain name that is required for Microsoft Active Directory
authentication.
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4. Click Apply to save your settings. The domain is added to the List of Domains table.
5. If you use local authentication, make sure that it is not disabled: Select the No radio button
in the Local Authentication section of the Domain screen (see Figure 136 on page 221).
Note: A combination of local and external authentication is supported.
WARNING!
If you disable local authentication, make sure that there is at least
one external administrative user; otherwise, access to the VPN
firewall is blocked.
6. If you change local authentication, click Apply in the Domain screen to save your settings.

To delete one or more domains:
1. In the List of Domains table, select the check box to the left of the domain that you want
to delete, or click the Select All table button to select all domains. You cannot delete a
default domain.
2. Click the Delete table button.
Edit Domains

To edit a domain:
1. Select Users > Domains. The Domains screen displays (see Figure 136 on page 221).
2. In the Action column of the List of Domains table, click the Edit table button for the domain
that you want to edit. The Edit Domains screen displays. This screen is very similar to the
Add Domains screen (see the previous figure).
3. Modify the settings as explained in the previous table. (You cannot modify the Domain Name
and Authentication Type fields.)
4. Click Apply to save your changes. The modified domain is displayed in the List of Domains
table.
Note: You cannot edit the geardomain default domain.
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Configure Groups for VPN Policies
The use of groups simplifies the configuration of VPN policies when different sets of users
have different restrictions and access controls. Like the default domain of the VPN firewall,
the default group is also named geardomain. The default group geardomain is assigned to
the default domain geardomain. You cannot delete the default domain geardomain, nor its
associated default group geardomain.
IMPORTANT:
When you create a new domain on the Domains screen (see the
previous section), a default group with the same name as the new
domain is created automatically. The name of a default group is
appended by an asterisk, and you cannot delete a default group.
However, when you delete the domain with which it is associated,
the default group is deleted automatically.
Note: IPSec VPN users always belong to the default domain (geardomain)
and are not assigned to groups.
Note: Groups that are defined on the User screen are used for setting SSL
VPN policies. These groups should not be confused with LAN
groups that are defined on the LAN Groups screen and that are used
to simplify firewall policies. For information about LAN groups, see
Manage Groups and Hosts (LAN Groups) on page 67.
Create and Delete Groups

To create a VPN group:
1. Select Users > Groups. The Groups screen displays. The following figure shows the
VPN firewall’s default group—geardomain—and, as an example, several other groups in
the List of Groups table.
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Figure 138.
The List of Groups table displays the VPN groups with the following fields:
•
Check box. Allows you to select the group in the table.
•
Name. The name of the group. If the group name is appended by an asterisk, the
group was created by default when you created the domain with the identical name
as the default group. You cannot delete a default group; you can only delete the
domain with the identical name, which causes the default group to be deleted.
•
Domain. The name of the domain to which the group is assigned.
•
Action. The Edit table button that provides access to the Edit Group screen.
2. In the Add New Group section of the screen, enter the settings as explained in the following
table:
Table 57. Group screen settings
Setting
Description
Name
A descriptive (alphanumeric) name of the group for identification and management
purposes.
Domain
The drop-down list shows the domains that are listed on the Domain screen. From the
drop-down list, select the domain with which the group is associated. For information
about how to configure domains, see Configure Domains on page 219.
Idle Timeout
The period after which an idle user is automatically logged out of the VPN firewall’s
web management interface. The default idle time-out period is 10 minutes.
3. Click the Add table button. The new group is added to the List of Groups table.

To delete one or more groups:
1. In the List of Groups table, select the check box to the left of the group that you want to
delete, or click the Select All table button to select all groups. You cannot delete a
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default group; you can only delete the domain with the identical name as the default
group (see Configure Domains on page 219), which causes the default group to be
deleted.
2. Click the Delete table button.
Note: You can delete only groups that you created on the Groups screen.
Groups that were automatically created when you created a domain
cannot be deleted on the Groups screen. See the Important note at
the beginning of this section.
Edit Groups

To edit a VPN group:
1. Select Users > Groups. The Groups screen displays (see the previous screen).
2. In the Action column of the List of Groups table, click the Edit table button for the group that
you want to edit. The Edit Groups screen displays (see the following figure).
With the exception of groups that are associated with domains that use the LDAP
authentication method, you can modify only the idle time-out settings on the Edit Groups
screen.
Figure 139.
3. Modify the idle time-out period in minutes in the Idle Timeout field. For a group that is
associated with a domain that uses the LDAP authentication method, configure the LDAP
attributes (in fields 1 through 4) as needed.
4. Click Apply to save your changes. The modified group is displayed in the List of Groups
table.
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Configure User Accounts
When you create a user account, you need to assign the user to a user group. When you
create a group, you need to assign the group to a domain that specifies the authentication
method. Therefore, you should first create any domains, then groups, and then user
accounts.
You can create different types of user accounts by applying predefined user types:

•
Administrator. A user who has full access and the capacity to change the VPN firewall
configuration (that is, read/write access).
•
SSL VPN User. A user who can only log in to the SSL VPN portal.
•
IPSEC VPN User. A user who can only make an IPSec VPN connection via a NETGEAR
ProSafe VPN Client, and only when the XAUTH feature is enabled (see Configure
Extended Authentication (XAUTH) on page 172).
•
Guest user. A user who can only view the VPN firewall configuration (that is, read-only
access).
To create an individual user account:
1. Select Users > Users. The Users screen displays. The following figure shows the VPN
firewall’s default users—admin and guest—and, as an example, another user in the List
of Users table.
Figure 140.
The List of Users table displays the users with the following fields:
•
Check box. Allows you to select the user in the table.
•
Name. The name of the user. If the user name is appended by an asterisk, the user is
a default user that came preconfigured with the VPN firewall and cannot be deleted.
•
Group. The group to which the user is assigned.
•
Type. The type of access credentials that are assigned to the user.
•
Authentication Domain. The authentication domain to which the user is assigned.
•
Action. The Edit table button that provides access to the Edit User screen; the
Policies table button that provides access to the policy screens.
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2. Click the Add table button. The Add User screen displays:
Figure 141.
3. Enter the settings as explained in the following table:
Table 58. Add User screen settings
Setting
Description
User Name
A descriptive (alphanumeric) name of the user for identification and management
purposes.
User Type
From the drop-down list, select one of the predefined user types that determines the
access credentials:
• Administrator. User who has full access and the capacity to change the VPN
firewall configuration (that is, read/write access).
• SSL VPN User. User who can only log in to the SSL VPN portal.
• IPSEC VPN User. User who can only make an IPSec VPN connection via a
NETGEAR ProSafe VPN Client, and only when the XAUTH feature is enabled (see
Configure Extended Authentication (XAUTH) on page 172).
• Guest User. User who can only view the VPN firewall configuration (that is,
read-only access).
Select Group
The drop-down list shows the groups that are listed on the Group screen. From the
drop-down list, select the group to which the user is assigned. For information about
how to configure groups, see Configure Groups for VPN Policies on page 224.
Note: The user is automatically assigned to the domain that is associated with the
selected group.
Password
The password that the user needs to enter to gain access to the VPN firewall. The
password can contain alphanumeric, “—” or “_” characters.
Confirm Password The password in this field needs to be identical to the one in the Password field.
Idle Timeout
The period after which an idle user is automatically logged out of the web management
interface. The default idle time-out period is 10 minutes.
4. Click Apply to save your settings. The user is added to the List of Users table.
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
To delete one or more user accounts:
1. In the List of Users table, select the check box to the left of the user account that you
want to delete, or click the Select All table button to select all accounts. You cannot
delete a default user account.
2. Click the Delete table button.
Note: You cannot delete the default admin or guest user.
Set User Login Policies
You can restrict the ability of defined users to log in to the VPN firewall’s web management
interface. You can also require or prohibit logging in from certain IP addresses or from
particular browsers.
Configure Login Policies

To configure user login policies:
1. Select Users > Users. The Users screen displays (see Figure 140 on page 227).
2. In the Action column of the List of Users table, click the Policies table button for the user for
which you want to set login policies. The Policies submenu tabs display, with the Login
Policies screen in view:
Figure 142.
3. In the User Login Policies section of the screen, make the following selections:
• To prohibit this user from logging in to the VPN firewall, select the Disable Login
check box.
•
To prohibit this user from logging in from the WAN interface, select the Deny Login
from WAN Interface check box. In this case, the user can log in only from the LAN
interface.
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Note: For security reasons, the Deny Login from WAN Interface check
box is selected by default for guests and administrators. The
Disable Login check box is disabled (masked out) for
administrators.
4. Click Apply to save your settings.
Configure Login Restrictions Based on IP Address

To restrict logging in based on IP address:
1. Select Users > Users. The Users screen displays (see Figure 140 on page 227).
2. In the Action column of the List of Users table, click the Policies table button for the user for
which you want to set login policies. The Policies submenu tabs display, with the Login
Policies screen in view.
3. Click the by Source IP Address submenu tab. The By Source IP Address screen displays.
(The following figure shows an IP address in the Defined Addresses table as an example.)
Figure 143.
4. In the Defined Addresses Status section of the screen, select one of the following radio
buttons:
• Deny Login from Defined Addresses. Deny logging in from the IP addresses in the
Defined Addresses table.
•
Allow Login only from Defined Addresses. Allow logging in from the IP addresses
in the Defined Addresses table.
5. Click Apply to save your settings.
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6. In the Add Defined Addresses section of the screen, add an address to the Defined
Addresses table by entering the settings as explained in the following table:
Table 59. Defined addresses settings
Setting
Description
Source Address Type Select the type of address from the drop-down list:
• IP Address. A single IP address.
• IP Network. A subnet of IP addresses. You need to enter a netmask length in
the Mask Length field.
Network Address / IP
Address
Depending on your selection of the Source Address Type drop-down list, enter the
IP address or the network address.
Mask Length
For a network address, enter the netmask length (0–32).
Note: By default, a single IP address is assigned a netmask length of 32.
7. Click the Add table button. The address is added to the Defined Addresses table.
8. Repeat step 6 and step 7 for any other addresses that you want to add to the Defined
Addresses table.

To delete one or more addresses:
1. In the Defined Addresses table, select the check box to the left of the address that you
want to delete, or click the Select All table button to select all addresses.
2. Click the Delete table button.
Configure Login Restrictions Based on Web Browser

To restrict logging in based on the user’s browser:
1. Select Users > Users. The Users screen displays (see Figure 140 on page 227).
2. In the Action column of the List of Users table, click the Policies table button for the user for
which you want to set login policies. The Policies submenu tabs display, with the Login
Policies screen in view.
3. Click the by Client Browser submenu tab. The By Client Browser screen displays. (The
following figure shows a browser in the Defined Browsers table as an example.)
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Figure 144.
4. In the Defined Browsers Status section of the screen, select one of the following radio
buttons:
• Deny Login from Defined Browsers. Deny logging in from the browsers in the
Defined Browsers table.
•
Allow Login only from Defined Browsers. Allow logging in from the browsers in the
Defined Browsers table.
5. Click Apply to save your settings.
6. In the Add Defined Browser section of the screen, add a browser to the Defined Browsers
table by selecting one of the following browsers from the drop-down list:
• Internet Explorer.
•
Opera.
•
Netscape Navigator.
•
Firefox. Mozilla Firefox.
•
Mozilla. Other Mozilla browsers.
7. Click the Add table button. The browser is added to the Defined Browsers table.
8. Repeat step 6 and step 7 for any other browsers that you want to add to the Defined
Browsers table.

To delete one or more browsers:
1. In the Defined Browsers table, select the check box to the left of the browser that you
want to delete, or click the Select All table button to select all browsers.
2. Click the Delete table button.
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Change Passwords and Other User Settings
For any user, you can change the password, user type, and idle time-out settings. Only
administrators have read/write access. All other users have read-only access.
Note: The default password for the administrator and for a guest to access
the VPN firewall’s web management interface is password.

To modify user settings:
1. Select Users > Users. The Users screen displays (see Figure 140 on page 227).
2. In the Action column of the List of Users table, click the Edit table button for the user for
which you want to modify the settings. The Edit User screen displays:
Figure 145.
3. Enter the settings as explained in the following table:
Table 60. Edit User screen settings
Setting
Description
User Type
From the drop-down list, select one of the pre-defined user types that
determines the access credentials:
• Administrator. User who has full access and the capacity to change the VPN
firewall configuration (that is, read/write access).
• SSL VPN User. User who can only log in to the SSL VPN portal.
• IPSEC VPN User. User who can only make an IPSec VPN connection via a
NETGEAR ProSafe VPN Client, and only when the XAUTH feature is enabled
(see Configure Extended Authentication (XAUTH) on page 172).
• Guest User. User who can only view the VPN firewall configuration (that is,
read-only access).
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Table 60. Edit User screen settings (continued)
Setting
Description
Check to Edit Password
Select this check box to make the password fields accessible to modify the
password.
Idle Timeout
Enter Your Password
Enter the old password.
New Password
Enter the new password.
Confirm New Password
Reenter the new password for confirmation.
The period after which an idle user is automatically logged out of the web
management interface. De default idle time-out period is 10 minutes.
4. Click Apply to save your settings.
Manage Digital Certificates
The VPN firewall uses digital certificates (also known as X509 certificates) during the Internet
Key Exchange (IKE) authentication phase to authenticate connecting IPSec VPN gateways
or clients, or to be authenticated by remote entities. The same digital certificates are
extended for secure web access connections over HTTPS (that is, SSL connections).
Digital certificates either can be self-signed or can be issued by certification authorities (CAs)
such as an internal Windows server or an external organizations such as Verisign or Thawte.
However, if the digital certificate contains the extKeyUsage extension, the certificate needs to
be used for one of the purposes defined by the extension. For example, if the digital
certificate contains the extKeyUsage extension that is defined for SNMPV2, the same
certificate cannot be used for secure web management. The extKeyUsage would govern the
certificate acceptance criteria on the VPN firewall when the same digital certificate is being
used for secure web management.
On the VPN firewall, the uploaded digital certificate is checked for validity and purpose. The
digital certificate is accepted when it passes the validity test and the purpose matches its use.
The purpose needs to correspond to its use for IPSec VPN, SSL VPN, or both. If the defined
purpose is for IPSec VPN and SSL VPN, the digital certificate is uploaded to both the IPSec
VPN certificate repository and the SSL VPN certificate repository. However, if the defined
purpose is for IPSec VPN only, the certificate is uploaded only to the IPSec VPN certificate
repository.
The VPN firewall uses digital certificates to authenticate connecting VPN gateways or clients,
and to be authenticated by remote entities. A digital certificate that authenticates a server, for
example, is a file that contains the following elements:
•
A public encryption key to be used by clients for encrypting messages to the server.
•
Information identifying the operator of the server.
•
A digital signature confirming the identity of the operator of the server. Ideally, the
signature is from a trusted third party whose identity can be verified.
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You can obtain a digital certificate from a well-known commercial certification authority (CA)
such as Verisign or Thawte, or you can generate and sign your own digital certificate.
Because a commercial CA takes steps to verify the identity of an applicant, a digital certificate
from a commercial CA provides a strong assurance of the server’s identity. A self-signed
certificate triggers a warning from most browsers because it provides no protection against
identity theft of the server.
The VPN firewall contains a self-signed certificate from NETGEAR. This certificate can be
downloaded from the VPN firewall login screen for browser import. However, NETGEAR
recommends that you replace this digital certificate with a digital certificate from a well-known
commercial CA prior to deploying the VPN firewall in your network.
Certificates Screen
To display the Certificates screen, select VPN > Certificates. Because of the large size of
this screen, and because of the way the information is presented, the Certificates screen is
divided and presented in this manual in three figures (Figure 146 on page 236, Figure 148 on
page 238, and Figure 150 on page 241).
The Certificates screen lets you to view the currently loaded digital certificates, upload a new
digital certificate, and generate a certificate signing request (CSR). The VPN firewall typically
holds two types of digital certificates:
•
CA digital certificates. Each CA issues its own CA identity digital certificate to validate
communication with the CA and to verify the validity of digital certificates that are signed
by the CA.
•
Self-signed certificates. The digital certificates that are issued to you by a CA to identify
your device.
The Certificates screen contains four tables that are explained in detail in the following
sections:
•
Trusted Certificates (CA Certificate) table. Contains the trusted digital certificates that
were issued by CAs and that you uploaded (see Manage Self-Signed Certificates on
page 237).
•
Active Self Certificates table. Contains the self-signed certificates that were issued by
CAs and that you uploaded (see Manage Self-Signed Certificates on page 237).
•
Self Certificate Requests table. Contains the self-signed certificate requests that you
generated. These requests might or might not have been submitted to CAs, and CAs
might or might not have issued digital certificates for these requests. Only the self-signed
certificates in the Active Self Certificates table are active on the VPN firewall (see
Manage Self-Signed Certificates on page 237).
•
Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL) table. Contains the lists with digital certificates that
have been revoked and are no longer valid, that were issued by CAs, and that you
uploaded. Note, however, that the table displays only the active CAs and their critical
release date (see Manage the Certificate Revocation List on page 241).
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Manage CA Certificates

To view and upload trusted certificates:
Select VPN > Certificates. The Certificates screen displays. The following figure shows the
top section of the screen with the trusted certificate information and one example certificate in
the Trusted Certificates (CA Certificate) table.
Figure 146. Certificates, screen 1 of 3
The Trusted Certificates (CA Certificate) table lists the digital certificates of CAs and contains
the following fields:

•
CA Identity (Subject Name). The organization or person to whom the digital certificate is
issued.
•
Issuer Name. The name of the CA that issued the digital certificate.
•
Expiry Time. The date after which the digital certificate becomes invalid.
To upload a digital certificate of a trusted CA on the VPN firewall:
1. Download a digital certificate file from a trusted CA and store it on your computer.
2. In the Upload Trusted Certificates section of the screen, click Browse and navigate to the
trusted digital certificate file that you downloaded on your computer.
3. Click the Upload table button. If the verification process on the VPN firewall approves the
digital certificate for validity and purpose, the digital certificate is added to the Trusted
Certificates (CA Certificate) table.

To delete one or more digital certificates:
1. In the Trusted Certificates (CA Certificate) table, select the check box to the left of the
digital certificate that you want to delete, or click the Select All table button to select all
digital certificates.
2. Click the Delete table button.
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Manage Self-Signed Certificates
Instead of obtaining a digital certificate from a CA, you can generate and sign your own digital
certificate. However, a self-signed certificate triggers a warning from most browsers because
it provides no protection against identity theft of the server. The following figure shows an
image of a browser security alert.
There can be three reasons why a security alert is generated for a security certificate:
•
The security certificate was issued by a company you have not chosen to trust.
•
The date of the security certificate is invalid.
•
The name on the security certificate is invalid or does not match the name of the site.
When a security alert is generated, the user can decide whether or not to trust the host.
Figure 147.
Generate a CSR and Obtaining a Self-Signed Certificate from a CA
To use a self-signed certificate, you first need to request the digital certificate from a CA, and
then download and activate the digital certificate on the VPN firewall. To request a self-signed
certificate from a CA, you need to generate a certificate signing request (CSR) for and on the
VPN firewall. The CSR is a file that contains information about your company and about the
device that holds the certificate. Refer to the CA for guidelines about the information that you
need to include in your CSR.

To generate a new CSR file, obtain a digital certificate from a CA, and upload it to the
VPN firewall:
1. Select VPN > Certificates. The Certificates screen displays. The following figure shows
the middle section of the screen with the Active Self Certificates section, Generate Self
Certificate Request section, and Self Certificate Requests section. (The Self Certificate
Requests table contains one example.)
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Figure 148. Certificates, screen 2 of 3
2. In the Generate Self Certificate Request section of the screen, enter the settings as
explained in the following table:
Table 61. Generate self-certificate request settings
Setting
Description
Name
A descriptive name of the domain for identification and management purposes.
Subject
The name that other organizations see as the holder (owner) of the certificate. In
general, use your registered business name or official company name for this
purpose.
Note: Generally, all of your certificates should have the same value in the
Subject field.
Hash Algorithm
From the drop-down list, select one of the following hash algorithms:
• MD5. A 128-bit (16-byte) message digest, slightly faster than SHA-1.
• SHA-1. A 160-bit (20-byte) message digest, slightly stronger than MD5.
Signature Algorithm
Although this seems to be a drop-down list, the only possible selection is RSA.
In other words, RSA is the default to generate a CSR.
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Table 61. Generate self-certificate request settings (continued)
Setting
Description
Signature Key Length
From the drop-down list, select one of the following signature key lengths in bits:
• 512
• 1024
• 2048
Note: Larger key sizes might improve security, but might also decrease
performance.
Optional Fields
IP Address
Enter your fixed (static) IP address. If your IP address is
dynamic, leave this field blank.
Domain Name
Enter your Internet domain name, or leave this field blank.
E-mail Address
Enter the email address of a technical contact in your
company.
3. Click the Generate table button. A new SCR is created and added to the Self Certificate
Requests table.
4. In the Self Certificate Requests table, click the View table button in the Action column to
view the new SCR. The Certificate Request Data screen displays:
Figure 149.
5. Copy the contents of the Data to supply to CA text box into a text file, including all of the
data contained from “-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----” to “-----END CERTIFICATE
REQUEST-----.”
6. Submit your SCR to a CA:
a. Connect to the website of the CA.
b. Start the SCR procedure.
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c. When prompted for the requested data, copy the data from your saved text file
(including “-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----” and “-----END CERTIFICATE
REQUEST-----”).
d. Submit the CA form. If no problems ensue, the digital certificate is issued by the CA.
7. Download the digital certificate file from the CA and store it on your computer.
8. Return to the Certificates screen (see Figure 148 on page 238) and locate the Self
Certificate Requests section.
9. Select the check box next to the self-signed certificate request.
10. Click Browse and navigate to the digital certificate file from the CA that you just stored on
your computer.
11. Click the Upload table button. If the verification process on the VPN firewall approves the
digital certificate for validity and purpose, the digital certificate is added to the Active Self
Certificates table.

To delete one or more SCRs:
1. In the Self Certificate Requests table, select the check box to the left of the SCR that
you want to delete, or click the Select All table button to select all SCRs.
2. Click the Delete table button.
View and Manage Self-Signed Certificates
The Active Self Certificates table on the Certificates screen (see Figure 148 on page 238)
shows the digital certificates issued to you by a CA and available for use. For each
self-signed certificate, the table lists the following information:

•
Name. The name that you used to identify this digital certificate.
•
Subject Name. The name that you used for your company and that other organizations
see as the holder (owner) of the certificate.
•
Serial Number. This is a serial number maintained by the CA. It is used to identify the
digital certificate with the CA.
•
Issuer Name. The name of the CA that issued the digital certificate.
•
Expiry Time. The date on which the digital certificate expires. You should renew the
digital certificate before it expires.
To delete one or more self-signed certificates:
1. In the Active Self Certificates table, select the check box to the left of the self-signed
certificate that you want to delete, or click the Select All table button to select all
self-signed certificates.
2. Click the Delete table button.
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Manage the Certificate Revocation List
A Certificate Revocation List (CRL) file shows digital certificates that have been revoked and
are no longer valid. Each CA issues its own CRLs. It is important that you keep your CRLs
up-to-date. You should obtain the CRL for each CA regularly.

To view the currently loaded CRLs and upload a new CRL:
1. Select VPN > Certificates. The Certificates screen displays. The following figure shows
the bottom section of the screen with the Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL) table. There
is one example in the table.
Figure 150. Certificates, screen 3 of 3
The Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL) table lists the active CAs and their critical release
dates:
•
CA Identify (Subject Name). The official name of the CA that issued the CRL.
•
Last Update. The date when the CRL was released.
•
Next Update. The date when the next CRL will be released.
2. In the Upload CRL section, click Browse and navigate to the CLR file that you previously
downloaded from a CA.
3. Click the Upload table button. If the verification process on the VPN firewall approves the
CRL, the CRL is added to the Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL) table.
Note: If the table already contains a CRL from the same CA, the old CRL
is deleted when you upload the new CRL.

To delete one or more CRLs:
1. In the Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL) table, select the check box to the left of the
CRL that you want to delete, or click the Select All table button to select all CRLs.
2. Click the Delete table button.
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8.
Network and System Management
8
This chapter describes the tools for managing the network traffic to optimize its performance and
the system management features of the VPN firewall. This chapter contains the following
sections:
•
Performance Management
•
System Management
Performance Management
Performance management consists of controlling the traffic through the VPN firewall so that
the necessary traffic gets through when there is a bottleneck and either reducing
unnecessary traffic or rescheduling some traffic to low-peak times to prevent bottlenecks
from occurring in the first place. The VPN firewall has the necessary features and tools to
help the network manager accomplish these goals.
Bandwidth Capacity
The maximum bandwidth capacity of the VPN firewall in each direction is as follows:
•
LAN side. 4000 Mbps (four LAN ports at 1000 Mbps each)
•
WAN side
-
Load balancing mode. 4000 Mbps (four WAN ports at 1000 Mbps each)
-
Auto-rollover mode. 1000 Mbps (one active WAN port at 1000 Mbps)
-
Single-WAN port mode. 1000 Mbps (one active WAN port at 1000 Mbps)
In practice, the WAN side bandwidth capacity is much lower when DSL or cable modems are
used to connect to the Internet. At 1.5 Mbps, the WAN ports support the following traffic
rates:
•
Load balancing mode. 6 Mbps (four WAN ports at 1.5 Mbps each)
•
Auto-rollover mode. 1.5 Mbps (one active WAN port at 1.5 Mbps)
•
Single WAN port mode. 1.5 Mbps (one active WAN port at 1.5 Mbps)
As a result, and depending on the traffic that is being carried, the WAN side of the VPN
firewall is the limiting factor to throughput for most installations.
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Using four WAN ports in load balancing mode increases the bandwidth capacity of the WAN
side of the VPN firewall, but there is no backup in case one of the WAN ports fails. When
such a failure occurs, the traffic that would have been sent on the failed WAN port is diverted
to another WAN port that is still working, thus increasing its load. However, there is one
exception: Traffic that is bound by protocol to the WAN port that failed is not diverted.
Features That Reduce Traffic
You can adjust the following features of the VPN firewall in such a way that the traffic load on
the WAN side decreases:
•
LAN WAN outbound rules (also referred to as service blocking)
•
DMZ WAN outbound rules (also referred to as service blocking)
•
Content filtering
•
Source MAC filtering
LAN WAN Outbound Rules and DMZ WAN Outbound Rules (Service Blocking)
You can control specific outbound traffic (from LAN to WAN and from the DMZ to WAN). The
LAN WAN Rules screen and the DMZ WAN Rules screen list all existing rules for outbound
traffic. If you have not defined any rules, only the default rule is listed. The default rule allows
all outgoing traffic. Any outbound rule that you create restricts outgoing traffic and therefore
decreases the traffic load on the WAN side.
WARNING!
This feature is for advanced administrators only! Incorrect
configuration might cause serious problems.
Each rule lets you specify the desired action for the connections that are covered by the rule:
•
BLOCK always
•
BLOCK by schedule, otherwise allow
•
ALLOW always
•
ALLOW by schedule, otherwise block
The following section summarizes the various criteria that you can apply to outbound rules in
order to reduce traffic. For more information about outbound rules, see Outbound Rules
(Service Blocking) on page 83. For detailed procedures on how to configure outbound rules,
see Set LAN WAN Rules on page 91 and Set DMZ WAN Rules on page 95.
When you define outbound firewall rules, you can further refine their application according to
the following criteria:
•
Services. You can specify the services or applications to be covered by an outbound
rule. If the desired service or application does not appear in the list, you need to define it
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on the Services screen (see Services-Based Rules on page 83 and Add Customized
Services on page 112).
•
•
LAN users. You can specify which computers on your network are affected by an
outbound rule. There are several options:
-
Any. The rule applies to all PCs and devices on your LAN.
-
Single address. The rule applies to the address of a particular PC.
-
Address range. The rule applies to a range of addresses.
-
Groups. The rule is applied to a group of PCs. (You can configure groups for LAN
WAN outbound rules but not for DMZ WAN outbound rules.) The Known PCs and
Devices table is an automatically maintained list of all known PCs and network
devices and is generally referred to as the network database, which is described in
Manage the Network Database on page 68. PCs and network devices are entered
into the network database by various methods that are described in Manage Groups
and Hosts (LAN Groups) on page 67.
WAN users. You can specify which Internet locations are covered by an outbound rule,
based on their IP address:
-
Any. The rule applies to all Internet IP addresses.
-
Single address. The rule applies to a single Internet IP address.
-
Address range. The rule applies to a range of Internet IP addresses.
•
Schedule. You can configure three different schedules to specify when a rule is applied.
Once a schedule is configured, it affects all rules that use this schedule. You specify the
days of the week and time of day for each schedule. For more information, see Set a
Schedule to Block or Allow Specific Traffic on page 121.
•
QoS profile. You can define QoS profiles and then apply them to outbound rules to
regulate the priority of traffic. For information about how to define QoS profiles, see
Create Quality of Service (QoS) Profiles on page 116.
•
Bandwidth profile. You can define bandwidth profiles and then apply them to outbound
rules to limit traffic. For information about how to define bandwidth profiles, see Create
Bandwidth Profiles on page 118.
Content Filtering
If you want to reduce traffic by preventing access to certain sites on the Internet, you can use
the VPN firewall’s content filtering feature. By default, this feature is disabled; all requested
traffic from any website is allowed.
•
Web object blocking. You can block the following web component types: embedded
objects (ActiveX, Java, Flash), proxies, and cookies.
•
Keyword and file extension blocking. You can specify words that, should they appear
in the website name (URL), file extension, or newsgroup name, cause that site, file, or
newsgroup to be blocked by the VPN firewall.
•
URL blocking. You can specify URLs that are blocked by the VPN firewall.
For more information, see Content Filtering on page 123.
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Source MAC Filtering
If you want to reduce outgoing traffic by preventing Internet access by certain PCs on the
LAN, you can use the source MAC filtering feature to drop the traffic received from the PCs
with the specified MAC addresses. By default, this feature is disabled; all traffic received from
PCs with any MAC address is allowed. See Enable Source MAC Filtering on page 126 for the
procedure on how to use this feature.
Features That Increase Traffic
The following features of the VPN firewall tend to increase the traffic load on the WAN side:
•
LAN WAN inbound rules (also referred to as port forwarding)
•
DMZ WAN inbound rules (also referred to as port forwarding)
•
Port triggering
•
Enabling the DMZ port
•
Configuring exposed hosts
•
Configuring VPN tunnels
LAN WAN Inbound Rules and DMZ WAN Inbound Rules (Port Forwarding)
The LAN WAN Rules screen and the DMZ WAN Rules screen list all existing rules for
inbound traffic (from WAN to LAN and from WAN to the DMZ). If you have not defined any
rules, only the default rule is listed. The default rule blocks all access from outside except
responses to requests from the LAN side. Any inbound rule that you create allows additional
incoming traffic and therefore increases the traffic load on the WAN side.
WARNING!
This feature is for advanced administrators only! Incorrect
configuration might cause serious problems.
Each rule lets you specify the desired action for the connections covered by the rule:
•
BLOCK always
•
BLOCK by schedule, otherwise Allow
•
ALLOW always
•
ALLOW by schedule, otherwise Block
The following section summarizes the various criteria that you can apply to inbound rules and
that might increase traffic. For more information about inbound rules, see Inbound Rules
(Port Forwarding) on page 86. For detailed procedures on how to configure inbound rules,
see Set LAN WAN Rules on page 91 and Set DMZ WAN Rules on page 95.
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When you define inbound firewall rules, you can further refine their application according to
the following criteria:
•
Services. You can specify the services or applications to be covered by an inbound rule.
If the desired service or application does not appear in the list, you need to define it on the
Services screen (see Services-Based Rules on page 83 and Add Customized Services
on page 112).
•
WAN destination IP address. You can specify the destination IP address for incoming
traffic. Traffic is directed to the specified address only when the destination IP address of
the incoming packet matches the IP address of the selected WAN interface.
•
LAN users. You can specify which computers on your network are affected by an
inbound rule. There are several options:
•
-
Any. The rule applies to all PCs and devices on your LAN.
-
Single address. The rule applies to the address of a particular PC.
-
Address range. The rule applies to a range of addresses.
-
Groups. The rule is applied to a group of PCs. (You can configure groups for LAN
WAN outbound rules but not for DMZ WAN outbound rules.) The Known PCs and
Devices table is an automatically maintained list of all known PCs and network
devices and is generally referred to as the network database, which is described in
Manage the Network Database on page 68. PCs and network devices are entered
into the network database by various methods that are described in Manage Groups
and Hosts (LAN Groups) on page 67.
WAN users. You can specify which Internet locations are covered by an inbound rule,
based on their IP address:
-
Any. The rule applies to all Internet IP addresses.
-
Single address. The rule applies to a single Internet IP address.
-
Address range. The rule applies to a range of Internet IP addresses.
•
Schedule. You can configure three different schedules to specify when a rule is applied.
Once a schedule is configured, it affects all rules that use this schedule. You specify the
days of the week and time of day for each schedule. For more information, see Set a
Schedule to Block or Allow Specific Traffic on page 121.
•
QoS profile. You can define QoS profiles and then apply them to inbound rules to
regulate the priority of traffic. For information about how to define QoS profiles, see
Create Quality of Service (QoS) Profiles on page 116.
•
Bandwidth profile. You can define bandwidth profiles and then apply them to inbound
rules to limit traffic. For information about how to define bandwidth profiles, see Create
Bandwidth Profiles on page 118.
Port Triggering
Port triggering allows some applications running on a LAN network to be available to external
applications that would otherwise be partially blocked by the firewall. Using the port triggering
feature requires that you know the port numbers used by the application. Without port
triggering, the response from the external application would be treated as a new connection
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request rather than a response to a requests from the LAN network. As such, it would be
handled in accordance with the inbound port forwarding rules, and most likely would be
blocked.
For the procedure on how to configure port triggering, see Configure Port Triggering on
page 130.
DMZ Port
The demilitarized zone (DMZ) is a network that, by default, has fewer firewall restrictions
when compared to the LAN. The DMZ can be used to host servers (such as a web server,
FTP server, or email server) and provide public access to them. The fourth LAN port on the
VPN firewall (the rightmost LAN port) can be dedicated as a hardware DMZ port to safely
provide services to the Internet without compromising security on your LAN. By default, the
DMZ port and both inbound and outbound DMZ traffic are disabled. Enabling the DMZ port
and allowing traffic to and from the DMZ increases the traffic through the WAN ports.
For information about how to enable the DMZ port, see Configure and Enable the DMZ Port
on page 72. For the procedures on how to configure DMZ traffic rules, see Set DMZ WAN
Rules on page 95.
Exposed Hosts
Specifying an exposed host allows you to set up a computer or server that is available to
anyone on the Internet for services that you have not yet defined. For an example of how to
set up an exposed host, see LAN WAN or DMZ WAN Inbound Rule: Specifying an Exposed
Host on page 104.
VPN Tunnels
The VPN firewall supports up to 125 site-to-site IPSec VPN tunnels and up to 50 dedicated
SSL VPN tunnels. Each tunnel requires extensive processing for encryption and
authentication, thereby increasing traffic through the WAN ports.
For information about IPSec VPN tunnels, see Chapter 5, Virtual Private Networking Using
IPSec Connections. For information about SSL VPN tunnels, see Chapter 6, Virtual Private
Networking Using SSL Connections.
Use QoS and Bandwidth Assignment to Shift the Traffic Mix
By specifying QoS and bandwidth profiles and assigning these profiles to outbound and
inbound firewall rules, you can shift the traffic mix to aim for optimum performance of the VPN
firewall.
Assign QoS Profiles
The QoS profile settings determine the priority and, in turn, the quality of service for the traffic
passing through the VPN firewall. After you have created a QoS profile, you can assign the
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QoS profile to firewall rules. The QoS is set individually for each service. You can change the
mix of traffic through the WAN ports by granting some services a higher priority than others:
•
You can accept the default priority defined by the service itself by not changing its QoS
setting.
•
You can change the priority to a higher or lower value than its default setting to give the
service higher or lower priority than it otherwise would have.
For more information about QoS profiles, see Create Quality of Service (QoS) Profiles on
page 116.
Assigning Bandwidth Profiles
When you apply a QoS profile, the WAN bandwidth does not change. You change the WAN
bandwidth that is assigned to a service or application by applying a bandwidth profile. The
purpose of bandwidth profiles is to provide a method for allocating and limiting traffic, thus
allocating LAN users sufficient bandwidth while preventing them from consuming all the
bandwidth on your WAN links.
For more information about bandwidth profiles, see Create Bandwidth Profiles on page 118.
Monitoring Tools for Traffic Management
The VPN firewall includes several tools that can be used to monitor the traffic conditions of
the firewall and content filtering engine and to monitor the users’ access to the Internet and
the types of traffic that they are allowed to have. See Chapter 9, Monitoring System Access
and Performance for a description of these tools.
System Management
System management tasks are described in the following sections:
•
Change Passwords and Administrator Settings
•
Configure Remote Management Access
•
Using the Command-Line Interface
•
Use a Simple Network Management Protocol Manager
•
Manage the Configuration File
•
Configure Date and Time Service
Change Passwords and Administrator Settings
The default administrator and default guest passwords for the web management interface are
both password. NETGEAR recommends that you change the password for the administrator
account to a more secure password, and that you configure a separate secure password for
the guest account.
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
To modify the administrator user account settings, including the password:
1. Select Users > Users. The Users screen displays. The following figure shows the VPN
firewall’s default users—admin and guest—and, as an example, one other user in the
List of Users table.
Figure 151.
2. In the Action column of the List of Users table, click the Edit table button for the user with
the name admin. The Edit User screen displays:
Figure 152.
3. Select the Check to Edit Password check box. The password fields become available.
4. Enter the old password, enter the new password, and then confirm the new password.
Note: The ideal password should contain no dictionary words from any
language, and should be a mixture of letters (both uppercase and
lowercase), numbers, and symbols. Your password can be up to 30
characters.
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5. As an option, you can change the idle time-out for an administrator login session. Enter a
new number of minutes in the Idle Timeout field. (The default setting is 5 minutes.)
6. Click Apply to save your settings.
7. Repeat step 1 through step 6 for the user with the name guest.
Note: After a factory default reset, the password and time-out value are
changed back to password and 5 minutes, respectively.
You can also change the administrator login policies:
•
Deny login access from a WAN interface. By default, the administrator can log in from a
WAN interface.
•
Deny or allow login access from specific IP addresses. By default, the administrator can
log in from any IP address.
Note: For enhanced security, restrict access to as few external IP
addresses as practical.
•
Deny or allow login access from specific browsers. By default, the administrator can log in
from any browser.
In general, these policy settings work well for an administrator. However, if you need to
change any of these policy settings, see Set User Login Policies on page 229.
Configure Remote Management Access
An administrator can configure, upgrade, and check the status of the VPN firewall over the
Internet through either a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) VPN or a Telnet connection, but need
to be logged in locally to enable remote management.
Note: When remote management is enabled and administrative access
through a WAN interface is granted (see Configure Login Policies on
page 229), the VPN firewall’s web management interface is
accessible to anyone who knows its IP address and default
password. Because a malicious WAN user can reconfigure the VPN
firewall and misuse it in many ways, NETGEAR highly recommends
that you change the admin and guest default passwords before
continuing (see Change Passwords and Administrator Settings on
page 248).
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
To configure the VPN firewall for remote management:
1. Select Administration > Remote Management. The Remote Management screen
displays:
Figure 153.
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2. Enter the settings as explained in the following table:
Table 62. Remote Management screen settings
Setting
Description
Secure HTTP Management
Allow Secure HTTP Management? Select the Yes radio button to enable HTTPS remote management
(which is the default setting) and specify the IP address settings and
port number settings. Select the No radio button to disable HTTPS
remote management.
Note: The IP address and port
Select one of the following IP address settings:
number to connect to the VPN
firewall are shown in this section of • Everyone. Allow access from any IP address on the Internet.
• IP address range. Allow access from a range of IP addresses on
the screen.
the Internet. Enter a beginning and ending IP address to define the
allowed range.
• Only this PC. Allow access from a single IP address on the
Internet. Enter a single IP address.
Port Number
Telnet Management
The default HTTPS port is 443. As an option, you
can change the port number.
Select the Yes radio button to enable Telnet remote management and
specify the IP address settings. Select the No radio button to disable
HTTPS remote management (which is the default setting).
Select one of the following IP address settings:
• Everyone. Allow access from any IP address on the Internet.
• IP address range. Allow access from a range of IP addresses on
the Internet. Enter a beginning and ending IP address to define the
allowed range.
• Only this PC. Allow access from a single IP address on the
Internet. Enter a single IP address.
3. Click Apply to save your changes.
WARNING!
If you are remotely connected to the VPN firewall and you select
the No radio button to disable HTTP remote management, you and
all other SSL VPN users are disconnected when you click Apply.
When remote management is enabled, you need to use an SSL connection to access the
VPN firewall from the Internet. You need to enter https:// (not http://) and type the VPN
firewall’s WAN IP address in your browser. For example, if the VPN firewall’s WAN IP
address is 172.16.0.123, type the following in your browser: https://172.16.0.123.
The VPN firewall’s remote login URL is:
https://<IP_address> or https://<FullyQualifiedDomainName>
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Note: For enhanced security, and if practical, restrict remote management
access to a single IP address or a small range of IP addresses.
Note: To maintain security, the VPN firewall rejects a login that uses
http://address rather than the SSL https://address.
Note: The first time that you remotely connect to the VPN firewall with a
browser via an SSL connection, you might get a warning message
regarding the SSL certificate. If you are using a Windows computer
with Internet Explorer 5.5 or later, simply click Yes to accept the
certificate.
Note: If you are unable to remotely connect to the VPN firewall after
enabling HTTPS remote management, check if other user policies,
such as the default user policy, are preventing access. For access to
the VPN firewall’s web management interface, check if
administrative access through a WAN interface is granted (see
Configure Login Policies on page 229).
Note: If you disable HTTPS remote management, all SSL VPN user
connections are also disabled.
Tip: If you are using a dynamic DNS service such as TZO, you can identify
the WAN IP address of your VPN firewall by running tracert from the
Windows Run menu option. Trace the route to your registered FQDN.
For example, enter tracert VPN firewall.mynetgear.net, and
the WAN IP address that your ISP assigned to the VPN firewall is
displayed.
Using the Command-Line Interface
You can access the command-line interface (CLI) using the console port on the rear panel of
the VPN firewall (see Rear Panel on page 16).
You can access the CLI from a communications terminal when the VPN firewall is still set to
its factory defaults (or use your own settings if you have changed them).
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
To access the CLI:
1. From your computer’s command-line prompt, enter the following command:
telnet 192.168.1.1
2. Enter admin and password when prompted for the login and password information (or
enter guest and password to log in as a read-only guest).
3. Enter exit to end the CLI session.
Any configuration changes made via the CLI are not preserved after a reboot or power cycle
unless you issue the CLI save command after making the changes.
Use a Simple Network Management Protocol Manager
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) forms part of the Internet Protocol Suite as
defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). SNMP is used in network
management systems to monitor network-attached devices for conditions that warrant
administrative attention.
SNMP exposes management data in the form of variables on the managed systems, which
describe the system configuration. These variables can then be queried (and sometimes set)
by managing applications.
SNMP lets you monitor and manage your VPN firewall from an SNMP manager. It provides a
remote means to monitor and control network devices, and to manage configurations,
statistics collection, performance, and security.
Manage the SNMP Configuration

To create a new SNMP configuration entry:
1. Select Administration > SNMP. The SNMP screen displays:
Figure 154.
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2. In the Create New SNMP Configuration Entry section of the screen, enter the settings as
explained in the following table:
Table 63. SNMP screen settings
Setting
Description
IP Address
The IP addresses of the SNMP management station that is allowed to receive the
VPN firewall’s SNMP traps.
Subnet Mask
The subnet mask of the SNMP management station that is allowed to receive the
VPN firewall’s SNMP traps. To allow a subnet access to the VPN firewall through
SNMP, enter a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0. In this situation, the entire subnet
that is associated with the IP address of the SNMP management station has
access through the community string.
Note: A subnet mask of 255.255.255.255 or 0.0.0.0 is not supported.
Port
The SNMP trap port of the SNMP manager that is allowed to receive the VPN
firewall’s SNMP traps. The default port number is 162.
Community
The community string to which the SNMP agent belongs.
3. Click the Add table button. The SNMP configuration is added to the SNMP Configuration
table.

To edit an SNMP configuration:
1. On the SNMP screen (see the previous figure), click the Edit button in the Action
column for the SNMP configuration that you want to modify. The Edit SNMP
Configuration screen displays.
Figure 155.
2. Modify the settings as explained in the previous table.
3. Click Apply to save your settings.

To delete one or more SNMP configuration entries:
1. On the SNMP screen (see Figure 154 on page 254), select the check box to the left of
the SNMP configuration that you want to delete, or click the Select All table button to
select all SNMP configurations.
2. Click the Delete table button.
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Manage the VPN Firewall’s SNMP System Information
The following VPN firewall identification information is available to an SNMP manager:
system contact, system location, and system name.

To modify the SNMP identification information:
1. Select Administration > SNMP. The SNMP screen displays (see Figure 154 on
page 254).
2. Click the SNMP System Info option arrow in the upper right of the screen link. The SNMP
SysConfiguration screen displays:
Figure 156.
3. Modify any of the information that you want the SNMP manager to use. You can edit the
system contact, system location, and system name.
4. Click Apply to save your settings.
Manage the Configuration File
The configuration settings of the VPN firewall are stored in a configuration file on the VPN
firewall. This file can be saved (backed up) to a PC, retrieved (restored) from the PC, or
cleared to factory default settings.
Once the VPN firewall is installed and works correctly, make a backup of the configuration file
to a computer. If necessary, you can later restore the VPN firewall settings from this file.
The Settings Backup and Firmware Upgrade screen lets you do the following:
•
Back up and save a copy of the current settings.
•
Restore saved settings from the backed-up file.
•
Revert to the factory default settings.
•
Upgrade the VPN firewall firmware from a saved file on your hard disk to use a different
firmware version.
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
To display the Settings Backup and Firmware Upgrade screen:
Select Administration > Settings Backup and Firmware Upgrade.
Figure 157.
Back Up Settings
The backup feature saves all VPN firewall settings to a file. These settings include the IP
addresses, subnet masks, gateway addresses, and so on.
Back up your VPN firewall settings periodically, and store the backup file in a safe place.
Tip: You can use a backup file to export all settings to another VPN firewall
that has the same language and management software versions.
Remember to change the IP address of the second VPN firewall before
deploying it to eliminate IP address conflicts on the network.

To back up settings:
1. On the Settings Backup and Firmware Upgrade screen (see the previous screen), next
to Save a copy of current settings, click the Back Up button to save a copy of your
current settings. A warning appears, and then a screen, showing the file name of the
backup file (SRX5308.cfg).
2. Select Save file, and then click OK.
3. Open the folder where you have saved the backup file, and then verify that it has been
saved successfully.
Note the following:
•
If your browser is not configured to save downloaded files automatically, locate the folder
in which you want to save the file, specify the file name, and save the file.
•
If your browser is configured to save downloaded files automatically, the file is saved to
your browser’s download location on the hard disk.
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Restore Settings
WARNING!
Restore only settings that were backed up from the same software
version. Restoring settings from a different software version can
corrupt your backup file or the VPN firewall system software.

To restore settings from a backup file:
1. On the Settings Backup and Firmware Upgrade screen (see the previous screen), next
to Restore saved settings from file, click Browse.
2. Locate and select the previously saved backup file (by default, SRX5308.cfg).
3. After you have selected the file, click the Restore button. A warning message might appear,
and you might have to confirm that you want to restore the configuration.
The VPN firewall reboots. An alert message appears indicating the status of the restore
operation. You need to manually restart the VPN firewall for the restored settings to take
effect.
WARNING!
Once you start restoring settings, do not interrupt the process. Do
not try to go online, turn off the VPN firewall, shut down the
computer, or do anything else to the VPN firewall until the settings
have been fully restored.
Revert to Factory Default Settings

To reset the VPN firewall to the original factory default settings, you can use one of the
following two methods:
•
Using a sharp object, press and hold the reset button on the rear panel of the VPN firewall
(see Rear Panel on page 16) for about eight seconds until the Test LED turns on. The
Test LED remains on for about 2 minutes. To restore the factory default configuration
settings when you do not know the administration password or IP address, you need to
use the reset button method.
•
On the Settings Backup and Firmware Upgrade screen (see the previous screen), next to
Revert to factory default settings, click the Default button.
The VPN firewall reboots. The reboot process is complete after several minutes when the
Test LED on the front panel goes off.
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WARNING!
When you push the hardware reset button or click the software
Default button, the VPN firewall settings are erased. All firewall
rules, VPN policies, LAN/WAN settings, and other settings are
lost. Back up your settings if you intend on using them.
Note: After rebooting with factory default settings, the VPN firewall’s
password is password and the LAN IP address is 192.168.1.1.
Upgrade the Firmware and Reboot the VPN Firewall
You can install a different version of the VPN firewall firmware from the Settings Backup and
Firmware Upgrade screen (see the previous screen). To view the current version of the
firmware that your VPN firewall is running, select Monitoring from the main navigation menu.
The Router Status screen displays, showing the firmware version in the System Info section
of the screen. After you have upgraded the firmware, the new firmware version is shown on
the screen.

To download a firmware version and upgrade the VPN firewall:
1. Go to the NETGEAR website at http://www.netgear.com/support:
a. Under Find Your Product, enter SRX5308, and then click on the product number. The
SRX5308 support screen displays.
b. Click the orange Downloads tab.
c. Click the desired firmware version to reach the download page. Be sure to read the
release notes on the download page before upgrading the VPN firewall’s software.
2. Download the firmware file to your computer. Note the following:
• If your browser is not configured to save downloaded files automatically, locate the
folder in which you want to save the file, specify the file name, and save the file.
•
If your browser is configured to save downloaded files automatically, the file is saved
to your browser’s download location on the hard disk.
3. Select Administration > Settings Backup and Firmware Upgrade. The Settings Backup
and Firmware Upgrade screen displays (see the previous screen).
4. In the Router Upgrade section of the screen, click the Browse button.
5. Locate and select the firmware file that you have downloaded.
6. After you have selected the file, click the Upload button to start the software upgrade to your
VPN firewall. The upgrade process might take some time, at the conclusion of which the
VPN firewall reboots automatically. The reboot process is complete after several minutes
when the Test LED on the front panel goes off.
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WARNING!
Do not try to go online, turn off the VPN firewall, shut down the
computer or do anything else to the VPN firewall until the VPN
firewall finishes the upgrade! When the Test light turns off, wait a
few more seconds before doing anything.
7. After the VPN firewall has completed its reboot process, log in to the web management
interface, click Monitoring to display the Router Status screen, and then verify that the VPN
firewall has the new software installed.
Note: In some cases, such as a major upgrade, it might be necessary to
erase the configuration and manually reconfigure your VPN firewall
after upgrading it. Refer to the release notes included with the
software to find out if this is required.
Configure Date and Time Service
Configure date, time, and NTP server designations on the Time Zone screen. Network Time
Protocol (NTP) is a protocol that is used to synchronize computer clock times in a network of
computers. Setting the correct system time and time zone ensures that the date and time
recorded in the VPN firewall logs and reports are accurate.

To set time, date, and NTP servers:
1. Select Administration > Time Zone. The Time Zone screen displays:
Figure 158.
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The bottom of the screen displays the current weekday, date, time, time zone, and year
(in the example in the previous figure: Current Time: Wed Jul 2015:24:51 GMT-0800
2011).
2. Enter the settings as explained in the following table:
Table 64. Time Zone screen settings
Setting
Description
Date/Time
From the drop-down list, select the local time zone in which the VPN firewall
operates. The correct time zone is required in order for scheduling to work
correctly. The VPN firewall includes a real-time clock (RTC), which it uses for
scheduling.
Automatically Adjust for
Daylight Savings Time
If daylight savings time is supported in your region, select the Automatically
Adjust for Daylight Savings Time check box.
Select NTP Mode
In all three NTP modes, the VPN firewall functions both as a client and a server.
The VPN firewall synchronizes its clock with the specified NTP server or servers
and provides time service to clients. From the drop-down list, select the NTP
mode:
• Authorative Mode. The VPN firewall synchronizes its clock with the specified
NTP server or servers on the Internet. If external servers are unreachable, the
VPN firewall’s RTC provides time service to clients. In authorative mode, you
can enter a stratum value and set the date and time manually.
• Sync to NTP Servers on Internet. The VPN firewall synchronizes its clock
with the specified NTP server or servers on the Internet. If external servers are
unreachable, the VPN firewall does not use it’s RTC.
• Sync to NTP Servers on VPN. The VPN firewall synchronizes its clock with
the specified NTP server on the VPN. If the server is unreachable, the VPN
firewall does not use it’s RTC. You need to select a VPN policy that enables
the VPN firewall to contact the NTP server on the VPN.
Select Stratum
In authorative mode, enter a stratum value, which indicates
the distance from a reference clock. The default value is 10,
which specifies an unsynchronized local clock and causes
NTP to use the VPN firewall’s RTC when the specified NTP
server is not available.
Set date and time
manually
This is an optional setting that is available in authorative
mode. Select the check box to unmask the time (hour,
minute, second), Day, Month, and Year fields. Enter the
date and time.
Select VPN Policy
When the VPN firewall is configured to synchronize to an
NTP server on the VPN, select the VPN policy from the
drop-down list. For information about configuring VPN
policies, see Configure VPN Policies on page 165.
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Table 64. Time Zone screen settings (continued)
Setting
Description
NTP Server (default or
custom)
From the drop-down list, select an NTP server:
• Use Default NTP Servers. The VPN firewall’s RTC is updated regularly by
contacting a default NETGEAR NTP server on the Internet.
• Use Custom NTP Servers. The VPN firewall’s RTC is updated regularly by
contacting one of the two NTP servers (primary and backup), both of which
you need to specify in the fields that become available with this menu
selection.
Note: If you select this option but leave either the Server 1 or Server 2 field
blank, both fields are set to the default NETGEAR NTP servers.
Note: A list of public NTP servers is available at
http://ntp.isc.org/bin/view/Servers/WebHome.
Server 1 Name / IP Enter the IP address or host name the primary NTP server.
Address
Server 2 Name / IP Enter the IP address or host name the backup NTP server.
Address
3. Click Apply to save your settings.
Note: If you select the default NTP servers or if you enter a custom server
FQDN, the VPN firewall determines the IP address of the NTP
server by performing a DNS lookup. You need to configure a DNS
server address on a WAN ISP Settings screen (see Manually
Configure the Internet Connection on page 28) before the VPN
firewall can perform this lookup.
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9.
Monitoring System Access and
Performance
9
This chapter describes the system monitoring features of the VPN firewall. You can be alerted to
important events such as changes in WAN port status, WAN traffic limits reached, hacker probes
and login attempts, dropped packets, and more. You can also view status information about the
firewall, WAN ports, LAN ports, active VPN users and tunnels, and more. In addition, the
diagnostics utilities are described.
Note: To receive logs by email, you need to configure the email
notification server—see Activate Notification of Events, Alerts, and
Syslogs on page 269.
This chapter contains the following sections:
•
Enable the WAN Traffic Meter
•
Enable the LAN Traffic Meter
•
Activate Notification of Events, Alerts, and Syslogs
•
View Status and Log Screens
•
Use the Diagnostics Utilities
Enable the WAN Traffic Meter
If your ISP charges by traffic volume over a given period of time, or if you want to study traffic
types over a period of time, you can activate the traffic meter for one or more WAN ports.

To monitor traffic limits on each of the WAN ports:
1. Select Monitoring > Traffic Meter. The WAN Traffic Meter tabs display, with the WAN1
Traffic Meter screen in view (see the following figure).
The Internet Traffic Statistics section in the lower part of the screen displays statistics on
Internet traffic via the WAN port. If you have not enabled the traffic meter, these statistics
are not available.
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Figure 159.
2. Enter the settings for the WAN1 port as explained in the following table:
Table 65. WAN Traffic Meter screen settings
Setting
Description
Enable Traffic Meter
Do you want to
Select one of the following radio buttons to configure traffic metering:
enable Traffic
• Yes. Traffic metering is enabled, and the traffic meter records the volume of
Metering on WAN1?
Internet traffic passing through the WAN1 interface. Complete the fields that are
shown on the right side of the screen (see explanations later in this table).
• No. Traffic metering is disabled. This is the default setting.
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Table 65. WAN Traffic Meter screen settings (continued)
Setting
Description
Do you want to
enable Traffic
Metering on WAN1?
(continued)
Select one of the following radio buttons to specify if or how the VPN firewall applies
restrictions when the traffic limit is reached:
• No Limit. No restrictions are applied when the traffic limit is reached.
• Download only. Restrictions are applied to incoming traffic when the traffic limit is
reached. Complete the Monthly Limit field.
• Both Directions. Restrictions are applied to both incoming and outgoing traffic
when the traffic limit is reached. Complete the Monthly Limit field.
Monthly Limit
Enter the monthly traffic volume limit in MB. The default setting is
0 MB.
Increase this
month limit by
Select this check box to temporarily increase a previously
specified monthly traffic volume limit, and enter the additional
allowed volume in MB. The default setting is 0 MB.
Note: When you click Apply to save these settings, this field is
reset to 0 MB so that the increase is applied only once.
This month limit
This is a nonconfigurable field that displays the total monthly
traffic volume limit that is applicable to this month. This total is the
sum of the monthly traffic volume and the increased traffic
volume.
Traffic Counter
Restart Traffic
Counter
Select one of the following radio buttons to specify when the traffic counter restarts:
• Restart Traffic Counter Now. Select this option and click Apply at the bottom of
the screen to restart the traffic counter immediately.
• Restart Traffic Counter at a Specific Time. Restart the traffic counter at a
specific time and day of the month. Fill in the time fields and select AM or PM and
the day of the month from the drop-down lists.
Send e-mail report
before restarting
counter
An email report is sent immediately before the counter restarts. Ensure that emailing
of logs is enabled on the Email and Syslog screen (see Activate Notification of
Events, Alerts, and Syslogs on page 269).
When Limit is reached
Block Traffic
Select one of the following radio buttons to specify what action the VPN firewall
performs when the traffic limit has been reached:
• Block All Traffic. All incoming and outgoing Internet and email traffic is blocked.
• Block All Traffic Except E-Mail. All incoming and outgoing Internet traffic is
blocked, but incoming and outgoing email traffic is still allowed.
Send e-mail alert
An email alert is sent when traffic is blocked. Ensure that emailing of logs is enabled
on the Email and Syslog screen (see Activate Notification of Events, Alerts, and
Syslogs on page 269).
3. Click Apply to save your settings.
4. If you want to enable the traffic meter for another WAN interface, select the appropriate
WAN Traffic Meter tab for that interface, and repeat step 2 and step 3 for that WAN interface.
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The contents of the WAN2 Traffic Meter, WAN3 Traffic Meter, and WAN4 Traffic Meter
screens are identical to the WAN1 TrafficMeter screen with the exception of WAN
interface number.

To display a report of the Internet traffic by type for the WAN1 interface:
Click the Traffic by Protocol option arrow in the upper right of the WAN1 Traffic Meter
screen. (Each WAN TrafficMeter screen has a Traffic by Protocol option arrow that enables
you to display the Internet traffic by type for that WAN interface.)
The Traffic by Protocol screen appears in a popup window:
Figure 160.
The incoming and outgoing volume of traffic for each protocol and the total volume of traffic
are displayed. Traffic counters are updated in MBs; the counter starts only when traffic
passed is at least 1 MB. In addition, the popup screen displays the traffic meter’s start and
end dates.
Enable the LAN Traffic Meter
If your ISP charges by traffic volume over a period of time and you need to charge the costs
to individual accounts, or if you want to study the traffic volume that is requested or sent over
a LAN IP address over a period of time, you can activate the traffic meter for individual LAN
IP addresses.

To monitor traffic for LAN IP addresses:
1. Select Network Configuration > LAN Settings. The LAN submenu tabs display, with
the LAN Setup screen in view (see Figure 30 on page 59).
2. Select the Advanced option arrow in the upper right of the LAN Setup screen. The LAN
Advanced screen displays.
3. Select the LAN Traffic Meter tab. The LAN Traffic Meter screen displays. (The following
figure shows some examples in the LAN Traffic Meter table.)
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Figure 161.
The LAN Traffic Meter table show the following columns, all of which are explained in
detail in the following table:

•
LAN IP Address. The LAN IP address that is subject to the traffic meter.
•
Direction. The direction for which traffic is measured.
•
Limit(MB). The traffic limit in MB.
•
Traffic(MB). The traffic usage in MB.
•
State. The state that indicates whether traffic to and from the IP address is allowed or
blocked.
•
Action. The Edit table button provides access to the Edit LAN Traffic Meter screen for
the corresponding IP address.
To add a LAN IP address account to the traffic meter:
4. On the LAN Traffic Meter screen, click the Add table button. The Add LAN Traffic Meter
screen displays:
Figure 162.
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5. Enter the settings as explained in the following table:
Table 66. Add LAN Traffic Meter Account screen settings
Setting
Description
Add LAN Traffic Meter Account
LAN IP Address
The LAN IP address for the account.
Direction
From the Direction drop-down list, select the direction in which traffic is measured:
• Inbound traffic. Restrictions are applied to incoming traffic when the traffic limit is
reached.
• Both directions. Restrictions are applied to both incoming and outgoing traffic
when the traffic limit is reached.
Limit
Enter the monthly traffic volume limit in MB. The default setting is 0 MB.
Traffic Counter
Restart Traffic
Counter
Select one of the following radio buttons to specify when the traffic counter restarts:
• Restart Traffic Counter Now. Select this option and click Apply at the bottom of
the screen to restart the traffic counter immediately.
• Restart Traffic Counter at a Specific Time. Restart the traffic counter at a
specific time and day of the month. Fill in the time fields and select the day of the
month from the drop-down list.
Send e-mail report
before restarting
counter
An email report is sent immediately before the counter restarts. Ensure that emailing
of logs is enabled on the Email and Syslog screen (see Activate Notification of
Events, Alerts, and Syslogs on page 269).
When Limit is reached
Block Traffic
Select one of the following radio buttons to specify what action the VPN firewall
performs when the traffic limit has been reached:
• Block. All incoming and outgoing Internet and email traffic is blocked.
• Send Email Alert and Block. An email alert is sent when all incoming and
outgoing Internet and email traffic is blocked. Ensure that emailing of logs is
enabled on the Email and Syslog screen (see Activate Notification of Events,
Alerts, and Syslogs on page 269).
6. Click Apply to save your settings. The new account is added to the LAN Traffic Meter table
on the LAN Traffic Meter screen.

To view the LAN IP traffic meter statistics:
In the LAN Traffic Meter table, click the Edit table button to the right of the account for which
you want to view the statistics. The Edit LAN Traffic Meter Account screen displays. This
screen shows the same fields as the Add LAN Traffic Meter Account screen (see the previous
figure) together with the statistics at the bottom of the screen:
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Figure 163.

To edit a LAN traffic meter account:
1. In the LAN Traffic Meter table, click the Edit table button to the right of the account that
you want to edit. The Edit LAN Traffic Meter Account screen displays. This screen shows
the same fields as the Add LAN Traffic Meter Account screen (see Figure 162 on
page 267).
2. Modify the settings as explained in the previous table.
3. Click Apply to save your settings.

To delete a LAN traffic meter account:
1. Select the check box to the left of the account that you want to delete, or click the
Select All table button to select all accounts.
2. Click the Delete table button.
Activate Notification of Events, Alerts, and Syslogs
You can configure the VPN firewall to log and then email denial of access, general attacks,
and other information to a specified email address. For example, the VPN firewall can log
security-related events such as accepted and dropped packets on different segments of your
LAN, denied incoming and outgoing service requests, hacker probes and login attempts, and
other general information based on the settings that you specify on the Firewall Logs &
E-mail screen. Selecting all events will increase the size of the log, so it is good practice to
select only those events that are required.
For you to receive the logs in an email message, the VPN firewall’s email notification server
needs to be configured and email notification needs to be enabled. You need to configure the
necessary information for sending email, such as the administrator’s email address, the
email server, user name, and password.
You can also view the logs on the View Log screen or send them to a syslog server.

To configure and activate logs:
1. Select Monitoring > Firewall Logs & E-mail. The Firewall Logs & E-mail screen
displays:
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Figure 164.
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2. Enter the settings as explained in the following table:
Table 67. Firewall Logs & E-mail screen settings
Setting
Description
Log Options
Log Identifier
Enter the name of the log in the Log Identifier field. The Log Identifier is a mandatory
field used to identify which device sent the log messages. The identifier is appended
to the log messages. The default identifier is SRX5308.
Routing Logs
From the Accepted Packets and Dropped Packets columns, select check boxes to specify which traffic is
logged:
• LAN to WAN
• LAN to DMZ
• DMZ to WAN
• WAN to LAN
• DMZ to LAN
• WAN to DMZ
System Logs
Select the check boxes to specify which system events are logged:
• Change of Time by NTP. Logs a message when the system time changes after a request from an NTP
server.
• Login Attempts. Logs a message when a login is attempted. Both successful and failed login attempts
are logged.
• Secure Login Attempts. Logs a message when a secure login is attempted. Both successful and failed
secure login attempts are logged.
• Reboots. Logs a message when the VPN firewall has been rebooted through the web management
interface. (No message is logged when the reset button has been pushed to reboot the VPN firewall.)
• All Unicast Traffic. All incoming unicast packets are logged.
• All Broadcast/Multicast Traffic. All incoming broadcast and multicast packets are logged.
• WAN Status. WAN link status–related events are logged.
• Resolved DNS Names. All resolved DNS names are logged.
• VPN. All VPN events are logged.
Other Event Logs
Source MAC Filter
Select this check box to log packets from MAC addresses that match the source
MAC address filter settings (see Enable Source MAC Filtering on page 126).
Session Limit
Select this check box to log packets that are dropped because the session limit has
been exceeded (see Set Session Limits on page 109).
Bandwidth Limit
Select this check box to log packets that are dropped because the bandwidth limit
has been exceeded (see Create Bandwidth Profiles on page 118).
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Table 67. Firewall Logs & E-mail screen settings (continued)
Setting
Description
Enable E-Mail Logs
Do you want logs to Select the Yes radio button to enable the VPN firewall to send logs to an email
be emailed to you? address. Complete the fields that are shown on the right side of the screen (see
explanations later in this table).
Select the No radio button to disable the VPN firewall to send logs to an email
address, which is the default setting.
E-Mail Server
Address
The IP address or Internet name of your ISP’s outgoing email SMTP
server.
Note: If you leave this field blank, the VPN firewall cannot send
email logs and alerts.
Return E-Mail
Address
A descriptive name of the sender for email identification purposes.
For example, enter [email protected]
Send to E-Mail The email address to which the notifications are sent. Typically, this
Address:
is the email address of an administrator.
Select one of the following radio buttons to specify SMTP server authentication:
• No Authentication. The SMTP server does not require authentication.
• Login Plain. The SMTP server requires authentication with regular login. Specify
the user name and password to be used for authentication.
• CRAM-MD5. The SMTP server requires authentication with CRAM-MD5 login.
Specify the user name and password to be used for authentication.
User name
The user name for SMTP server authentication.
Password
The password for SMTP server authentication.
Respond to
Identd from
SMTP Server
Select the Respond to Identd from SMTP Server check box to
respond to Ident protocol messages. The Ident protocol is a weak
scheme to verify the sender of an email. (A common daemon
program for providing the Ident service is Identd).
Send e-mail logs by Schedule
Unit
Enter a schedule for sending the logs. From the Unit drop-down list, select one of the
following:
• Never. No logs are sent.
• Hourly. The logs are sent every hour.
• Daily. The logs are sent daily. Specify the time.
• Weekly. The logs are sent weekly. Specify the day and time.
Day
From the Day drop-down list, select the day on which the logs are
sent.
Time
From the Time drop-down list select the hour on which the logs are
sent, and then select either the a.m. or p.m. radio button.
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Table 67. Firewall Logs & E-mail screen settings (continued)
Setting
Description
Enable SysLogs
Enable
Select one of the following radio buttons to configure the syslog server:
Yes. The VPN firewall sends a log file to a syslog server. Complete the SysLog
Server and SysLog Severity fields that are shown on the right side of the screen (see
explanations later in this table).
• No. The VPN firewall does not send a log file to a syslog server, which is the
default setting.
SysLog Server The IP address or name of the syslog server.
SysLog
Severity
All the logs with a severity that is equal to and above the severity
that you specify are logged on the specified syslog server. For
example, if you select LOG_CRITICAL as the severity, then the logs
with the severities LOG_CRITICAL, LOG_ALERT, and
LOG_EMERG are logged.
From the SysLog Severity drop-down list, select one of the following
syslog severities:
• LOG EMERG. The VPN firewall is unusable.
• LOG ALERT. An action needs to be taken immediately.
• LOG CRITICAL. There are critical conditions.
• LOG ERROR. There are error conditions.
• LOG WARNING. There are warning conditions.
• LOG NOTICE. There are normal but significant conditions.
• LOG INFO. Informational messages.
• LOG DEBUG. Debug-level messages.
3. Click Apply to save your settings.
Note: Enabling logs might generate a significant volume of log messages.
NETGEAR recommends that you enable firewall logs for debugging
purposes only.

To view the routing logs, system logs, and other event logs onscreen:
1. Select Monitoring > Firewall Logs & E-mail. The Firewall Logs & E-mail screen
displays.
2. Click the View Log option arrow in the upper right of the Firewall Logs & E-mai screen. The
View Log screen displays:
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Figure 165.
You can refresh the logs, clear the logs, or send the logs to an email address.
View Status and Log Screens
The VPN firewall provides real-time information in a variety of status screens that are
described in the following sections:
•
View the System (Router) Status and Statistics
•
View the VLAN Status
•
View and Disconnect Active Users
•
View the VPN Tunnel Connection Status
•
View the VPN Logs
•
View the Port Triggering Status
•
View the WAN Port Connection Status
•
View the Attached Devices and DHCP Log
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View the System (Router) Status and Statistics
The Router Status screen, Detailed Status screen, and Router Statistics screen provide
real-time information about the following important components of the VPN firewall:
•
Firmware versions that are loaded on the VPN firewall
•
WAN and LAN port information
•
Interface statistics
View the Router Status Screen

To view the Router Status screen:
Select Monitoring > Router Status. The Status tabs display, with the Router Status screen
in view (see the following figure).
The following table explains the fields of the Router Status screen:
Table 68. Router Status screen information
Item
Description
System Info
System Name
The NETGEAR product name.
Firmware Version (Primary)
The current software version that the VPN firewall is using.
Firmware Version (Secondary) The secondary software version. This version is for display only. (In the current
release, you cannot configure this version.)
LAN (VLAN) Information
For each of the four LAN ports, the screen shows the IP address and subnet mask. For more detailed
information, see the following table.
WAN Information
For each of the four WAN ports, the screen shows the IP address, subnet mask, and status of the port (UP or
DOWN). For more detailed information, see the following table.
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Figure 166.
View the Detailed Status Screen

To view the Detailed Status screen:
1. Select Monitoring > Router Status > Detailed Status. The Detailed Status screen
displays. (Because of the large size of the screen and to avoid duplication of
information, the following figure shows parts of the screen.)
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Figure 167.
The following table explains the fields of the Detailed Status screen:
Table 69. Detailed Status screen information
Item
Description
LAN Port Configuration
The following fields are shown for each of the four LAN port.
VLAN Profile
The name of the VLAN profile that you assigned to this port on the LAN Setup
screen (see Assign and Manage VLAN Profiles on page 57). If the VLAN is not
enabled on this port, the default profile (with VLAN ID 1) is assigned
automatically.
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Table 69. Detailed Status screen information (continued)
Item
Description
VLAN ID
The VLAN ID that you assigned to this port on the Add VLAN Profile screen (see
Configure a VLAN Profile on page 59). If the default VLAN profile is used, the
VLAN ID is 1, which means that all tagged and untagged traffic can pass on this
port.
MAC Address
The MAC address of this port. All LAN ports share the same MAC address
(00:00:00:00:00:01). However, if LAN port 4 is enabled as the DMZ port, its MAC
address is changed to 00:00:00:00:00:06. For information about configuring the
DMZ port, see Configure and Enable the DMZ Port on page 72.
IP Address
The IP address for this port. If the VLAN is not enabled on this port, the IP
address is the default LAN IP address (192.168.1.1). For information about
configuring VLAN profiles, see Configure a VLAN Profile on page 59.
Subnet Mask
The subnet mask for this port. If the VLAN is not enabled on this port, the subnet
mask is the default LAN IP subnet mask (255.255.255.0). For information about
configuring VLAN profiles, see Configure a VLAN Profile on page 59.
DHCP Status
The status can be either DHCP Enabled or DHCP Disabled. For information
about enabling DHCP for this port, see Configure a VLAN Profile on page 59.
WAN Info
The following fields are shown for each of the four WAN port.
WAN Mode
The WAN mode can be Single Port, Load Balancing, or Auto Rollover. For
information about configuring the WAN mode, see Configure the WAN Mode on
page 32.
WAN State
The WAN state can be either UP or DOWN, depending on whether the port is
connected to the Internet and whether the port is enabled. For information about
connecting WAN ports, see Configure the Internet Connections on page 24.
NAT
The NAT state can be either Enabled or Disabled, depending on whether NAT is
enabled (see Configure Network Address Translation on page 33) or classical
routing is enabled (see Configure Classical Routing on page 33).
Connection Type
The connection type can be Static IP, DHCP, PPPoE, or PPTP, depending on
whether the WAN address is obtained dynamically through a DHCP server or
assigned statically by you. For information about connection types, see
Configure the Internet Connections on page 24.
Connection State
The connection state can be either Connected or Not Connected, depending on
whether the WAN port is physically connected to a modem or router. For
information about connecting a WAN port, see the ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN
SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308 Installation Guide.
WAN Connection Type
The detected type of Internet connection that is used on this port. The WAN
connection type can be DSL, ADSL, CableModem, T1, or T3.
Upload Connection
Speed
The maximum upload speed that is provided by your ISP.
Download Connection
Speed
The maximum download speed that is provided by your ISP.
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Table 69. Detailed Status screen information (continued)
Item
Description
IP Address
The IP address of the WAN port.
Subnet Mask
The subnet mask of the WAN port.
Gateway
The IP address of the gateway.
Primary DNS Server
The IP address of the primary DNS server.
Secondary DNS Server
The IP address of the secondary DNS
server.
MAC Address
The default MAC address for this port (for more information, see the note
following this table) or the MAC address that you have specified on the WAN
Advanced Options screen for this port. For information about configuring the
MAC address, see Configure Advanced WAN Options on page 51.
These settings are either obtained
dynamically from your ISP or
specified by you on the WAN ISP
Settings screen for this port (see
Manually Configure the Internet
Connection on page 28).
Note: The default MAC addresses for the LAN and WAN ports are
00:00:00:00:00:01, shared by the LAN1, LAN2, LAN3, and LAN4
ports.
00:00:00:00:00:02, unique for WAN1 port.
00:00:00:00:00:03, unique for WAN2 port.
00:00:00:00:00:04, unique for WAN3 port.
00:00:00:00:00:05, unique for WAN4 port.
00:00:00:00:00:06, unique for DMZ port (LAN4 port), if enabled.
View the Router Statistics Screen

To view the Router Statistics screen:
1. Select Monitoring > Router Status. The Status tabs display, with the Router Status
screen in view (see Figure 166 on page 276).
2. Click the Show Statistics option arrow in the upper right of the Router Status screen. The
Router Statistics screen displays.
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The following table explains the fields of the Router Statistics screen:
Table 70. Router Statistics screen information
Item
Description
System up Time: the period since the last time that the VPN firewall was started up.
Router Statistics
For each of the four WAN interfaces and for all LAN interfaces combined, the following statistics are
displayed:
Tx Pkts
The number of transmitted packets on the port in bytes.
Rx Pxts
The number of received packets on the port in bytes.
Collisions
The number of signal collisions that have occurred on the port. A collision occurs
when the port attempts to send data at the same time as a port on the other router or
computer that is connected to this port.
Tx B/s
The number of transmitted bytes per second on the port.
Rx B/s
The number of received bytes per second on the port.
Up TIme
The period that the port has been active since it was restarted.
To change the poll interval period, enter a new value in the Poll Interval field, and then click
Set interval. To stop polling, click Stop.
View the VLAN Status
The VLAN Status screen displays information about the VLANs (both enabled and disabled)
that are configured on the VPN firewall. For information about configuring VLAN profiles, see
Configure a VLAN Profile on page 59. For information about enabling and disabling VLAN
profiles, see Assign and Manage VLAN Profiles on page 57.
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
To view the VLAN Status screen:
Select Monitoring > Router Status > VLAN Status. The VLAN Status screen displays:
Figure 168.
The following table explains the fields of the VLAN Status screen:
Table 71. VLAN Status screen information
Item
Description
Profile Name
The unique name for the VLAN that you have assigned on the Add VLAN Profile screen
(see Configure a VLAN Profile on page 59).
VLAN ID
The identifier for the VLAN that you have assigned on the Add VLAN Profile screen (see
Configure a VLAN Profile on page 59).
MAC Address
VLANs can have the same MAC address as the associated LAN port or can be assigned
a unique MAC address, depending on the selection that you have made on the LAN
Advanced screen (see Configure VLAN MAC Addresses and LAN Advanced Settings on
page 64). If a VLAN is configured but disabled, the MAC address displays as
00:00:00:00:00:00.
Subnet IP
The IP address and subnet mask that you have assigned on the Add VLAN Profile screen
(see Configure a VLAN Profile on page 59).
DHCP Status
The DHCP status for the VLAN, which can be either DHCP Enabled or DHCP Disabled,
depending on the DHCP configuration that you have specified on the Add VLAN Profile
screen (see Configure a VLAN Profile on page 59).
Port Membership
The ports that you have associated with the VLAN on the Add VLAN Profile screen (see
Configure a VLAN Profile on page 59).
View and Disconnect Active Users
The Active Users screen displays a list of administrators, IPSec VPN, and SSL VPN users
that are currently logged in to the VPN firewall.

To display the list of active VPN users:
Select Monitoring > Active Users. The Active Users screen displays:
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Figure 169.
The active user’s user name, group, and IP address are listed in the table with a timestamp
indicating the time and date that the user logged in.
To disconnect an active user, click the Disconnect table button to the right of the user’s table
entry.
View the VPN Tunnel Connection Status

To view the status of current IPSec VPN tunnels:
Select VPN > Connection Status. The VPN Connection Status submenu tabs display, with
the IPSec VPN Connection Status screen in view. (The following figure shows an IPSec SA
as an example.)
Figure 170.
The Active IPSec SAs table lists each active connection with the information that is described
in the following table. The default poll interval is 5 seconds. To change the poll interval period,
enter a new value in the Poll Interval field, and then click Set Interval. To stop polling, click
Stop.
Table 72. IPSec VPN Connection Status screen information
Item
Description
Policy Name
The name of the VPN policy that is associated with this SA.
Endpoint
The IP address on the remote VPN endpoint.
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Table 72. IPSec VPN Connection Status screen information (continued)

Item
Description
Tx (KB)
The amount of data that is transmitted over this SA.
Tx (Packets)
The number of IP packets that are transmitted over this SA.
State
The current status of the SA. Phase 1 is the authentication phase, and Phase 2 is the key
exchange phase. If there is no connection, the status is IPSec SA Not Established.
Action
Click the Connect table button to build the connection, or click the Disconnect table button to
terminate the connection.
To view the status of current SSL VPN tunnels:
Select VPN > Connection Status > SSL VPN Connection Status. The SSL VPN
Connection Status screen displays:
Figure 171.
The active SSL VPN user’s user name, group, and IP address are listed in the table with a
timestamp indicating the time and date that the user connected.
To disconnect an active user, click the Disconnect table button to the right of the user’s table
entry.
View the VPN Logs

To view the IPSec VPN logs:
Select Monitoring > VPN Logs. The VPN Logs submenu tabs display, with the IPSec VPN
Logs screen in view:
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Figure 172.

To view the SSL VPN log:
Select Monitoring > VPN Logs > SSL VPN Logs. The SSL VPN Logs screen displays:
Figure 173.
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View the Port Triggering Status

To view the status of the port triggering feature:
1. Select Security > Port Triggering. The Port Triggering screen displays (see Figure 71
on page 131).
2. Click the Status option arrow in the upper right of the Port Triggering screen. The Port
Triggering Status screen appears in a popup window:
Figure 174.
The Port Triggering Status screen displays the information that is described in the
following table:
Table 73. Port Triggering Status screen information
Item
Description
#
The sequence number of the rule onscreen.
Rule
The name of the port triggering rule that is associated with this entry.
LAN IP Address
The IP address of the computer or device that is currently using this rule.
Open Ports
The incoming ports that are associated with this rule. Incoming traffic using one of
these ports is sent to the IP address that is listed in the LAN IP Address field.
Time Remaining
The time remaining before this rule is released and made available for other
computers or devices. This timer is restarted when incoming or outgoing traffic is
received.
View the WAN Port Connection Status
You can view the status of a WAN connection with its associated DNS servers and DHCP
servers.

To view the status of a WAN connection:
1. Select Network Configuration > WAN Settings. The WAN screen displays (see
Figure 10 on page 25).
2. Click the Status button in the Action column of the WAN interface for which you want to view
the connection status. The Connection Status screen appears in a popup window:
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Figure 175.
The Connection Status screen displays the information that is described in the following
table. The information that is shown on the Connection Status screen depends on the
nature of the connection—static IP address or dynamically assigned IP address.
Therefore, not all information that is described in the following table might be shown.
Table 74. WAN port Connection Status screen information
Item
Description
Connection Time
The period that the VPN firewall has been connected through the WAN port.
Connection Type
The connection type can be either DHCP or Static IP.
Connection Status
The connection status can be either Connected or Disconnected.
IP Address
Subnet Mask
Gateway
The addresses that were automatically detected (see Automatically Detecting and
Connecting on page 25) or that you have configured on the WAN ISP Settings
screen (see Manually Configure the Internet Connection on page 28).
DNS Server
DHCP Server
The DHCP server that was automatically detected. This field is displayed only when
your ISP does not require a login and the IP address is acquired dynamically from
your ISP. You have configured these settings on the WAN ISP Settings screen (see
Manually Configure the Internet Connection on page 28).
Lease Obtained
The time when the DHCP lease was obtained.
Lease Duration
The period that the DHCP lease remains in effect.
Depending on the type of connection, any of the following buttons might be displayed on
the Connection Status screen:
•
Renew. Click to renew the DHCP lease.
•
Release. Click to disconnect the DHCP connection.
•
Disconnect. Click to disconnect the static IP connection.
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View the Attached Devices and DHCP Log
The LAN Groups screen shows the network database, which is the Known PCs and Devices
table that contains all IP devices that the VPN firewall has discovered on the local network.
The LAN Setup screen lets you access the DHCP log.
View Attached Devices

To view the network database:
Select Network Configuration > LAN Settings > LAN Groups. The LAN Groups screen
displays. (The following figure shows some examples in the Known PCs and Devices table.)
Figure 176.
The Known PCs and Devices table contains a list of all known PCs and network devices that
are assigned dynamic IP addresses by the VPN firewall, or have been discovered by other
means. Collectively, these entries make up the network database.
For each PC or device, the following fields are displayed:
•
Check box. Allows you to select the PC or device in the table.
•
Name. The name of the PC or device. For computers that do not support the NetBIOS
protocol, the name is displayed as Unknown (you can edit the entry manually to add a
meaningful name). If the PC or device was assigned an IP address by the DHCP server,
then the name is appended by an asterisk.
•
IP Address. The current IP address of the PC or device. For DHCP clients of the VPN
firewall, this IP address does not change. If a PC or device is assigned a static IP
address, you need to update this entry manually after the IP address on the PC or device
has changed.
•
MAC Address. The MAC address of the PC or device’s network interface.
•
Group. Each PC or device can be assigned to a single LAN group. By default, a PC or
device is assigned to Group 1. You can select a different LAN group from the Group
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drop-down list in the Add Known PCs and Devices section or on the Edit Groups and
Hosts screen (see Figure 35 on page 70).
•
Profile Name. The VLAN to which the PC or device is assigned.
•
Action. The Edit table button that provides access to the Edit Groups and Hosts screen.
Note: If the VPN firewall is rebooted, the data in the Known PCs and
Devices table is lost until the VPN firewall rediscovers the devices.
View the DHCP Log

To review the most recent entries in the DHCP log:
1. Select Network Configuration > LAN Settings. The LAN Settings submenu tabs
display, with the LAN Setup screen in view (Figure 30 on page 59).
2. Click the DHCP Log option arrow in the upper right of the LAN Setup screen. The DHCP
Log screen displays:
Figure 177.
To view the most recent entries, click the Refresh Log button. To delete all the existing
log entries, click the Clear Log button.
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Use the Diagnostics Utilities
From the Diagnostics screen you can perform diagnostics that are discussed in the following
sections:
•
Send a Ping Packet or Trace a Route
•
Look Up a DNS Address
•
Display the Routing Table
•
Reboot the VPN Firewall
•
Capture Packets
Note: For normal operation, diagnostics are not required.

To view the Diagnostics screen:
Select Monitoring > Diagnostics. The Diagnostics screen displays:
Figure 178.
Send a Ping Packet or Trace a Route
Use the ping utility to perform one of the following diagnostic actions:
•
Send a ping packet request to check the connection between the VPN firewall and a
specific IP address. The ping results are displayed on the Ping screen; Click Back on the
browser menu bar to return to the Diagnostics screen.
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•
Send a ping packet request to trace the route and to show the various hops between the
VPN firewall and a specific IP address. The trace-route results are displayed on the Trace
Route screen. Select Monitoring > Diagnostics to return to the Diagnostics screen.
If the request times out (no reply is received), it usually means that the destination is
unreachable. However, some network devices can be configured not to respond to a ping.

To send a ping request:
1. In the Ping or Trace and IP Address section on the Diagnostics screen, make one of the
following selections to specify how the destination should be reached:
• If the specified address is reached through a VPN tunnel:
a. Select the Ping through VPN tunnel check box.
•
b. Select either Auto or a specific VPN tunnel from the Select VPN Tunnel
drop-down list.
If the specified address is not reached through a VPN tunnel, select a WAN interface
from the Select Local Gateway drop-down list.
2. In the IP Address field, enter the IP address that you want to ping.
3. Make one of the following selections:
• Click the Ping button. The results are displayed on the Ping screen. To return to the
Diagnostics screen, click Back on the browser menu bar.
•
Click the Trace Route button. The results are displayed on the Trace Route screen.
Select Monitoring > Diagnostics to return to the Diagnostics screen.
Look Up a DNS Address
A DNS (Domain Name Server) converts the Internet name (for example, www.netgear.com)
to an IP address. If you need the IP address of a web, FTP, mail, or other server on the
Internet, request a DNS lookup to find the IP address.

To look up a DNS address:
1. In the Perform a DNS Lookup section on the Diagnostics screen, enter a domain name
in the Internet Name field.
2. Click the Lookup button. The results of the lookup action are displayed in the NS Lookup
screen. To return to the Diagnostics screen, click Back on the browser menu bar.
Display the Routing Table
Displaying the internal routing table can assist NETGEAR technical support in diagnosing
routing problems.

To display the routing table:
In the Router Options section on the Diagnostics screen, next to Display the Routing Table,
click the Display button. The routing table is displayed in the Route Display screen that
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appears as a popup window. (The IP addresses that are shown in the following figure do not
relate to other figures and examples in this manual.)
Figure 179.
Reboot the VPN Firewall
You can perform a remote reboot (restart), for example, when the VPN firewall seems to have
become unstable or is not operating normally.
Note: Rebooting breaks any existing connections either to the VPN
firewall (such as your management session) or through the VPN
firewall (for example, LAN users accessing the Internet). However,
when the reboot process is complete, connections to the Internet are
automatically reestablished if possible.

To reboot the VPN firewall:
In the Router Options section on the Diagnostics screen, next to Reboot the Router, click the
Reboot button. The VPN firewall reboots. (If you can see the unit: the reboot process is
complete when the Test LED on the front panel goes off.)
Capture Packets
You can capture packets to analyze traffic patterns with a network traffic analyzer tool. The
captured packet flow can show if traffic is flowing correctly to its destinations or if packets are
dropped. There is a limit to the size of the packet flow that you can capture in a file.

To capture packets:
1. In the Router Options section on the Diagnostics screen, next to Capture Packets, click
the Packet Trace button. The Capture Packets screen appears as a popup window:
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Figure 180.
2. From the Select Network drop-down list, select a WAN interface, DMZ interface (if
enabled), or VLAN.
3. Click the Start button to start capturing the traffic flow. The following text appears in the
popup window: Packet tracing started. Click “stop” when done.
4. When you want to stop capturing the traffic flow, click the Stop button. The following text
appears in the popup window: Packet tracing stopped. Click “download” to view captured
logs.
5. Click the Download button. Select a location to save the captured traffic flow. (The default
file name is pkt.CAP.) The file is downloaded to the location that you specify.
6. Send the file to NETGEAR technical support for analysis.
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10.
Troubleshooting and Using Online
Support
10
This chapter provides troubleshooting tips and information for the VPN firewall. After each
problem description, instructions are provided to help you diagnose and solve the problem. For
the common problems listed, go to the section indicated.
•
Is the VPN firewall on?
Go to Basic Functioning on page 294.
•
Have I connected the VPN firewall correctly?
Go to Basic Functioning on page 294.
•
I cannot access the VPN firewall’s web management interface.
Go to Troubleshoot the Web Management Interface on page 295.
•
A time-out occurs.
Go to When You Enter a URL or IP Address a Time-Out Error Occurs on page 296.
•
I cannot access the Internet or the LAN.
Troubleshoot the ISP Connection on page 296.
•
I have problems with the LAN connection.
Go to Troubleshoot a TCP/IP Network Using the Ping Utility on page 298.
•
I want to clear the configuration and start over again.
Go to Restore the Default Configuration and Password on page 299.
•
The date or time is not correct.
Go to Problems with Date and Time on page 300.
•
I need help from NETGEAR.
Go to Access the Knowledge Base and Documentation on page 301.
Note: The VPN firewall’s diagnostic tools are explained in Use the
Diagnostics Utilities on page 289.
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Basic Functioning
After you turn on power to the VPN firewall, the following sequence of events should occur:
1. When power is first applied, verify that the Power LED is on.
2. After approximately 2 minutes, verify that:
a. The Test LED is no longer lit.
b. The left LAN port LEDs are lit for any local ports that are connected.
c. The left WAN port LEDs are lit for any WAN ports that are connected.
If a port’s left LED is lit, a link has been established to the connected device. If a port is
connected to a 1000 Mbps device, verify that the port’s right LED is green. If the port
functions at 100 Mbps, the right LED is amber. If the port functions at 10 Mbps, the right
LED is off.
If any of these conditions do not occur, see the appropriate following section.
Power LED Not On
If the Power and other LEDs are off when your VPN firewall is turned on, make sure that the
power cord is correctly connected to your VPN firewall and that the power supply adapter is
correctly connected to a functioning power outlet.
If the error persists, you have a hardware problem and should contact NETGEAR Technical
Support.
Test LED Never Turns Off
When the VPN firewall is powered on, the Test LED turns on for approximately 2 minutes and
then turns off when the VPN firewall has completed its initialization. If the Test LED remains
on, there is a fault within the VPN firewall.
If all LEDs are still on more than several minutes minute after power up:
•
Turn the power off, and then turn it on again to see if the VPN firewall recovers.
•
Reset the VPN firewall’s configuration to factory defaults. Doing so sets the VPN firewall’s
IP address to 192.168.1.1. This procedure is explained in Restore the Default
Configuration and Password on page 299.
If the error persists, you might have a hardware problem and should contact NETGEAR
Technical Support.
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LAN or WAN Port LEDs Not On
If either the LAN LEDs or WAN LEDs do not light when the Ethernet connection is made,
check the following:
•
Make sure that the Ethernet cable connections are secure at the VPN firewall and at the
hub, router, or workstation.
•
Make sure that power is turned on to the connected hub, router, or workstation.
•
Be sure you are using the correct cables:
When connecting the VPN firewall’s WAN ports to one or two devices that provide the
Internet connections, use the cables that are supplied with the devices. These cables
could be a standard straight-through Ethernet cables or an Ethernet crossover cables.
Troubleshoot the Web Management Interface
If you are unable to access the VPN firewall’s web management interface from a PC on your
local network, check the following:
•
Check the Ethernet connection between the PC and the VPN firewall as described in the
previous section (LAN or WAN Port LEDs Not On).
•
Make sure your PC’s IP address is on the same subnet as the VPN firewall. If you are
using the recommended addressing scheme, your PC’s address should be in the range
of 192.168.1.2 to 192.168.1.254.
Note: If your PC’s IP address is shown as 169.254.x.x:
Windows and Mac operating systems generate and assign an IP
address if the computer cannot reach a DHCP server. These
auto-generated addresses are in the range of 169.254.x.x. If your IP
address is in this range, check the connection from the PC to the
VPN firewall and reboot your PC.
•
If your VPN firewall’s IP address has been changed and you do not know the current IP
address, reset the VPN firewall’s configuration to factory defaults. This sets the VPN
firewall’s IP address to 192.168.1.1. This procedure is explained in Restore the Default
Configuration and Password on page 299.
Tip: If you do not want to revert to the factory default settings and lose your
configuration settings, you can reboot the VPN firewall and use a sniffer
to capture packets sent during the reboot. Look at the ARP packets to
locate the VPN firewall’s LAN interface address.
•
Make sure that you are using the SSL https://address login rather than the http://address
login.
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•
Make sure that your browser has Java, JavaScript, or ActiveX enabled. If you are using
Internet Explorer, click Refresh to be sure that the Java applet is loaded.
•
Try quitting the browser and launching it again.
•
Make sure that you are using the correct login information. The factory default login name
is admin, and the password is password. Make sure that Caps Lock is off when entering
this information.
If the VPN firewall does not save changes you have made in the web management interface,
check the following:
•
When entering configuration settings, be sure to click the Apply button before moving to
another menu or tab, or your changes are lost.
•
Click the Refresh or Reload button in the web browser. The changes might have
occurred, but the web browser might be caching the old configuration.
When You Enter a URL or IP Address a Time-Out Error
Occurs
A number of things could be causing this situation. Try the following troubleshooting steps.
•
Check whether other computers on the LAN work correctly. If they do, ensure that your
computer’s TCP/IP settings are correct. If you use a fixed (static) IP address, check the
subnet mask, default gateway, DNS, and IP addresses on the WAN ISP Settings screens
(see Manually Configure the Internet Connection on page 28).
•
If the computer is configured correctly, but still not working, ensure that the VPN firewall is
connected and turned on. Connect to the web management interface and check the VPN
firewall’s settings. If you cannot connect to the VPN firewall, see the information in the
previous section (Troubleshoot the Web Management Interface on page 295).
•
If the VPN firewall is configured correctly, check your Internet connection (for example,
your modem or router) to make sure that it is working correctly.
Troubleshoot the ISP Connection
If your VPN firewall is unable to access the Internet, you should first determine whether the
VPN firewall is able to obtain a WAN IP address from the ISP. Unless you have been
assigned a static IP address, your VPN firewall requests an IP address from the ISP. You can
determine whether the request was successful using the web management interface.
To check the WAN IP address for a WAN interface:
1. Launch your browser and navigate to an external site such as www.netgear.com.
2. Access the web management interface of the VPN firewall’s configuration at
https://192.168.1.1.
3. Select Network Configuration> WAN Settings. The WAN Settings screen displays.
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4. Click the Status button in the Action column of the WAN interface for which you want to view
the connection status. The Connection Status screen appears in a popup window. (For more
information, see View the WAN Port Connection Status on page 285.)
5. Check that an IP address is shown for the WAN port.
If 0.0.0.0 is shown, your VPN firewall has not obtained an IP address from your ISP.
If your VPN firewall is unable to obtain an IP address from the ISP, you might need to force
your modem or router to recognize your new VPN firewall by performing the following
procedure:
1. Turn off the power to the modem or router.
2. Turn off the power to your VPN firewall.
3. Wait 5 minutes, and then turn on the power to the modem or router.
4. When the modem’s or router’s LEDs indicate that it has reacquired synchronization with the
ISP, turn on the power to your VPN firewall.
If your VPN firewall is still unable to obtain an IP address from the ISP, the problem might be
one of the following:
•
Your ISP might require a login program.
Ask your ISP whether they require PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE) or some other type of
login.
•
If your ISP requires a login, you might have incorrectly set the login name and password.
•
Your ISP might check for your PC’s host name.
Enter the host name, system name, or account name that was assigned to you by your
ISP in the Account Name field on the WAN ISP Settings screen for the WAN interface
that you are troubleshooting. You might also have to enter the assigned domain name or
workgroup name in the Domain Name field, and you might have to enter additional
information (see Manually Configure the Internet Connection on page 28).
•
Your ISP allows only one Ethernet MAC address to connect to the Internet, and might
check for your PC’s MAC address. In this case, do one of the following:
-
Inform your ISP that you have bought a new network device, and ask them to use the
VPN firewall’s MAC address.
-
Configure your VPN firewall to spoof your PC’s MAC address. You can do this in the
Router’s MAC Address section of the WAN Advanced Options screen for the WAN
interface that you are troubleshooting (see Configure Advanced WAN Options on
page 51).
If your VPN firewall can obtain an IP address, but an attached PC is unable to load any web
pages from the Internet:
•
Your PC might not recognize any DNS server addresses.
A DNS server is a host on the Internet that translates Internet names (such as
www.netgear.com) to numeric IP addresses. Typically your ISP provides the addresses of
one or two DNS servers for your use. You can configure your PC manually with DNS
addresses, as explained in your operating system documentation.
•
Your PC might not have the VPN firewall configured as its TCP/IP gateway.
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Troubleshoot a TCP/IP Network Using the Ping Utility
Most TCP/IP terminal devices and firewalls contain a ping utility that sends an echo request
packet to the designated device. The device then responds with an echo reply. You can easily
troubleshoot a TCP/IP network by using the ping utility in your PC or workstation.
Test the LAN Path to Your VPN Firewall
You can ping the VPN firewall from your PC to verify that the LAN path to the VPN firewall is
set up correctly.
To ping the VPN firewall from a PC running Windows 95 or later:
1. From the Windows toolbar, click Start and select Run.
2. In the field provided, type ping followed by the IP address of the VPN firewall; for example:
ping 192.168.1.1
3. Click OK. A message, similar to the following, should display:
Pinging <IP address> with 32 bytes of data
If the path is working, you will see this message:
Reply from <IP address>: bytes=32 time=NN ms TTL=xxx
If the path is not working, you will see this message:
Request timed out
If the path is not functioning correctly, you could have one of the following problems:
•
•
Wrong physical connections
-
Make sure that the LAN port LED is on. If the LED is off, follow the instructions in
LAN or WAN Port LEDs Not On on page 295.
-
Check that the corresponding Link LEDs are on for your network interface card
and for the hub ports (if any) that are connected to your workstation and VPN
firewall.
Wrong network configuration
-
Verify that the Ethernet card driver software and TCP/IP software are both
installed and configured on your PC or workstation.
-
Verify that the IP address for your VPN firewall and your workstation are correct
and that the addresses are on the same subnet.
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Test the Path from Your PC to a Remote Device
After verifying that the LAN path works correctly, test the path from your PC to a remote
device. From the Windows run menu, type:
ping -n 10 <IP address>
where <IP address> is the IP address of a remote device such as your ISP’s DNS server.
If the path is functioning correctly, replies as in the previous section are displayed. If you do
not receive replies:
•
Check that your PC has the IP address of your VPN firewall listed as the default gateway.
If the IP configuration of your PC is assigned by DHCP, this information is not visible in
your PC’s Network Control Panel.
•
Check to see that the network address of your PC (the portion of the IP address that is
specified by the netmask) is different from the network address of the remote device.
•
Check that the modem or router is connected and functioning.
•
If your ISP assigned a host name, system name, or account name to your PC, enter that
name in the Account Name field on the WAN ISP Settings screen for the WAN interface
that you are troubleshooting. You might also have to enter the assigned domain name or
workgroup name in the Domain Name field, and you might have to enter additional
information (see Manually Configure the Internet Connection on page 28).
•
Your ISP could be rejecting the Ethernet MAC addresses of all but one of your PCs. Many
broadband ISPs restrict access by allowing traffic only from the MAC address of your
broadband modem, but some ISPs additionally restrict access to the MAC address of a
single PC connected to that modem. If this is the case, you need to configure your VPN
firewall to clone or spoof the MAC address from the authorized PC. You can do this in the
Router’s MAC Address section of the WAN Advanced Options screen for the WAN
interface that you are troubleshooting (see Configure Advanced WAN Options on
page 51).
Restore the Default Configuration and Password
To reset the VPN firewall to the original factory default settings, you can use one of the
following two methods:
•
Push the reset button on the rear panel of the VPN firewall (see Rear Panel on page 16)
and hold the reset button for about 8 seconds until the Test LED turns on and begins to
blink (about 30 seconds). To restore the factory default configuration settings when you
do not know the administration password or IP address, you need to use the reset button
method.
•
On the Settings Backup and Firmware Upgrade screen, next to Revert to factory default
settings, click the Default button:
a. To display the Settings Backup and Firmware Upgrade screen, select
Administration > Settings Backup and Firmware Upgrade (see the following
figure).
b. Click the Default button.
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Figure 181.
The VPN firewall reboots. During the reboot process, the Settings Backup and Firmware
Upgrade screen might remain visible. The reboot process is complete after several minutes
when the Test LED on the front panel goes off.
WARNING!
When you push the hardware reset button or click the software
Default button, the VPN firewall settings are erased. All firewall
rules, VPN policies, LAN/WAN settings, and other settings are lost.
Back up your settings if you intend on using them.
Note: After rebooting with factory default settings, the VPN firewall’s
password is password, and the LAN IP address is 192.168.1.1.
Problems with Date and Time
The Time Zone screen displays the current date and time of day (see Configure Date and
Time Service on page 260). The VPN firewall uses the Network Time Protocol (NTP) to
obtain the current time from one of several network time servers on the Internet. Each entry in
the log is stamped with the date and time of day.
Problems with the date and time function can include:
•
Date shown is January 1, 2000. Cause: The VPN firewall has not yet successfully
reached a network time server. Check that your Internet access settings are configured
correctly. If you have just completed configuring the VPN firewall, wait at least 5 minutes
and check the date and time again.
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•
Time is off by 1 hour. Cause: The VPN firewall does not automatically sense daylight
savings time. Go to the Time Zone screen, and select or clear the Automatically Adjust
for Daylight Savings Time check box.
Access the Knowledge Base and Documentation
To access NETGEAR’s knowledge base for the VPN firewall, select Web Support >
Knowledgebase. To access NETGEAR’s documentation library for the VPN firewall, select
Web Support > Documentation.
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A.
Default Settings and Technical
Specifications
A
You can use the reset button located on the rear panel to reset all settings to their factory
defaults. This is called a hard reset (for more information, see Revert to Factory Default Settings
on page 258).
•
To perform a hard reset, press and hold the reset button for approximately 8 seconds
(until the Test LED blinks rapidly). The VPN firewall returns to the factory configuration
settings that are shown in the following table.
•
Pressing the reset button for a shorter period of time simply causes the VPN firewall to
reboot.
The following table shows the default configuration settings for the VPN firewall:
Table 75. VPN firewall default configuration settings
Feature
Default behavior
Router login
User login URL
https://192.168.1.1
Administrator user name (case-sensitive)
admin
Administrator login password (case-sensitive)
password
Guest user name (case-sensitive)
guest
Guest login password (case-sensitive)
password
Internet connection
WAN MAC address
Use default address
WAN MTU size
1500
Port speed
10/100/1000 AutoSense
Local network (LAN)
LAN IP address
192.168.1.1
Subnet mask
255.255.255.0
RIP direction
None
RIP version
Disabled
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Table 75. VPN firewall default configuration settings (continued)
Feature
Default behavior
(continued) RIP authentication
Disabled
DHCP server
Enabled
DHCP starting IP address
192.168.1.2
DHCP starting IP address
192.168.1.100
Management
Time zone
GMT
Time zone adjusted for daylight savings time
Disabled
SNMP
Disabled
Remote management
Disabled
Inbound (communications coming in from the Internet)
All communication denied
Outbound (communications from the LAN to the Internet)
All communication allowed
Source MAC filtering
Disabled
Stealth mode
Enabled
Respond to ping on Internet ports
Disabled
Firewall
The following table shows the physical and technical specifications for the VPN firewall:
Table 76. VPN firewall physical and technical specifications
Feature
Specification
Network protocol and standards compatibility
Data and Routing Protocols
TCP/IP, RIP-1, RIP-2, DHCP
PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE)
Power adapter
Universal input
100–240V, AC/50–60 Hz, 1.2 Amp maximum
Physical specifications
Dimensions (W x H x D)
cm
33 x 4.3 x 20.9
inches 13 x 1.7 x 8.2
Weight
kg
2.1
lb.
4.6
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Table 76. VPN firewall physical and technical specifications (continued)
Feature
Specification
Environmental specifications
Operating temperatures
Storage temperatures
C
0º to 45º
F
32º to 113º
C
–20º to 70º
F
–4º to 158º
Operating humidity
90% maximum relative humidity, noncondensing
Storage humidity
95% maximum relative humidity, noncondensing
Major regulatory compliance
Meets requirements of
FCC Class A
CE
WEEE
RoHS
Interface specifications
4 LAN, one of which is a
configurable DMZ interface
AutoSense 10/100/1000BASE-T, RJ-45
4 WAN
AutoSense 10/100/1000BASE-T, RJ-45
1 administrative console port
RS-232
The following table shows the IPSec VPN specifications for the VPN firewall:
Table 77. VPN firewall IPSec VPN specifications
Setting
Specification
Network Management
Web-based configuration and status monitoring
Number of concurrent users supported
125
IPSec encryption algorithm
DES, 3DES, AES-128, AES-192, AES-256
IPSec authentication algorithm
SHA-1, MD5
IPSec key exchange
IKE, Manual Key, Pre-Shared Key, PKI, X.500
IPSec authentication types
Local user database, RADIUS PAP, RADIUS CHAP
IPSec certificates supported
CA digital certificate, self-signed certificate
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The following table shows the SSL VPN specifications for the VPN firewall:
Table 78. VPN firewall SSL VPN specifications
Setting
Specification
Network Management
Web-based configuration and status monitoring
Number of concurrent users supported
50
SSL versions
SSLv3, TLS1.0
SSL encryption algorithm
DES, 3DES, ARC4, AES-128, AES-192, AES-256
SSL message integrity
MD5, SHA-1, MAC-MD5/SHA-1, HMAC-MD5/SHA-1
SSL authentication types
Local user database, RADIUS-PAP, RADIUS-CHAP,
RADIUS-MSCHAP, RADIUS-MSCHAPv2, WIKI-PAP,
WiKID-CHAP, MIAS-PAP, MIAS-CHAP, NT domain
SSL certificates supported
CA digital certificate, self-signed certificate
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305
B.
Network Planning for Multiple WAN
Ports
B
This appendix describes the factors to consider when planning a network using a firewall that
has more than one WAN port.
This appendix contains the following sections:
•
What to Consider Before You Begin
•
Overview of the Planning Process
•
Inbound Traffic
•
Virtual Private Networks
What to Consider Before You Begin
The VPN firewall is a powerful and versatile solution for your networking needs. To make the
configuration process easier and to understand all of the choices that are available to you,
consider the following before you begin:
1. Plan your network.
a. Determine whether you will use one or several WAN ports. For one WAN port, you
might need a fully qualified domain name either for convenience or to remotely
access a dynamic WAN IP address.
b. If you intend to use several WAN ports, determine whether you will use them in
auto-rollover mode for increased system reliability or load balancing mode for
maximum bandwidth efficiency. See the topics in this appendix for more information.
Your decision has the following implications:
• Fully qualified domain name (FQDN)
•
-
For auto-rollover mode, you will need an FQDN to implement features such as
exposed hosts and virtual private networks.
-
For load balancing mode, you might still need an FQDN either for
convenience or to remotely access a dynamic WAN IP address.
Protocol binding.
-
For auto-rollover mode, protocol binding does not apply.
-
For load balancing mode, decide which protocols should be bound to a
specific WAN port.
-
You can also add your own service protocols to the list.
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2. Set up your accounts.
a. Obtain active Internet services such a DSL broadband accounts and locate the
Internet Service Provider (ISP) configuration information.
• In this manual, the WAN side of the network is presumed to be provisioned as
shown in the following figure, with two ISPs connected to the VPN firewall through
separate physical facilities.
•
Each WAN port needs to be configured separately, whether you are using a
separate ISP for each WAN port or you are using the same ISP to route the traffic
of both WAN ports.
Customer premises
VPN
Firewall
Route diversity
WAN port 1
Physical facility 1
WAN port 2
Physical facility 2
ISP 1
Internet
ISP 2
Figure 182.
•
If your ISP charges by the volume of data traffic each month, consider enabling
the VPN firewall’s traffic meter to monitor or limit your traffic.
b. Contact a Dynamic DNS service and register FQDNs for one or both WAN ports.
3. Plan your network management approach.
• The VPN firewall is capable of being managed remotely, but this feature needs to be
enabled locally after each factory default reset.
NETGEAR strongly advises you to change the default management password to a
strong password before enabling remote management.
•
You can choose a variety of WAN options if the factory default settings are not
suitable for your installation. These options include enabling a WAN port to respond to
a ping, and setting MTU size, port speed, and upload bandwidth.
4. Prepare to physically connect the firewall to your cable or DSL modems and a computer.
Instructions for connecting the VPN firewall are in the ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN
Firewall SRX5308 Installation Guide.
Cabling and Computer Hardware Requirements
For you to use the VPN firewall in your network, each computer needs to have an Ethernet
network interface card (NIC) installed and needs to be equipped with an Ethernet cable. If the
computer will connect to your network at 100 Mbps or higher speeds, you need to use a
Category 5 (Cat5) cable.
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Computer Network Configuration Requirements
The VPN firewall integrates a web management interface. To access the configuration
screens on the VPN firewall, you need to use a Java-enabled web browser that supports
HTTP uploads such as Microsoft Internet Explorer 6 or later, Mozilla Firefox 3 or later, or
Apple Safari 3 or later with JavaScript, cookies, and SSL enabled. Free browsers are readily
available for Windows, Macintosh, and UNIX/Linux.
For the initial connection to the Internet and configuration of the VPN firewall, you need to
connect a computer to the VPN firewall, and the computer needs to be configured to
automatically get its TCP/IP configuration from the VPN firewall via DHCP.
The cable or DSL modem broadband access device needs to provide a standard 10 Mbps
(10BASE-T) Ethernet interface.
Internet Configuration Requirements
Depending on how your ISP sets up your Internet accounts, you will need the following
Internet configuration information to connect VPN firewall to the Internet:
•
Host and domain names
•
One or more ISP login names and passwords
•
ISP Domain Name Server (DNS) addresses
•
One or more fixed IP addresses (also known as static IP addresses)
Where Do I Get the Internet Configuration Information?
There are several ways you can gather the required Internet connection information.
Your ISPs provide all the information needed to connect to the Internet. If you cannot locate
this information, you can ask your ISP to provide you with it, or, if you have a computer
already connected using the active Internet access account, you can gather the configuration
information from that computer.
•
For Windows 95/98/ME, open the Network Control Panel, select the TCP/IP entry for the
Ethernet adapter, and click Properties. Record all the settings for each tab page.
•
For Windows 2000/XP/Vista, open the Local Area Network Connection, select the TCP/IP
entry for the Ethernet adapter, and click Properties. Record all the settings for each tab
page.
•
For Macintosh computers, open the TCP/IP or Network Control Panel. Record all the
settings for each section.
After you have located your Internet configuration information, you might want to record the
information in the following section.
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Internet Connection Information
Print this page with the Internet connection information. Fill in the configuration settings that
are provided to you by ISP.
_________________________________________________________________________
•
ISP Login Name: The login name and password are case-sensitive and need to be
entered exactly as given by your ISP. For AOL customers, the login name is their primary
screen name. Some ISPs use your full email address as the login name. The service
name is not required by all ISPs. If you connect using a login name and password, then
fill in the following:
Login Name:
____________________________
Password:
____________________________
Service Name: ____________________________
•
Fixed or Static IP Address: If you have a static IP address, record the following
information. For example, 169.254.141.148 could be a valid IP address.
Fixed or Static Internet IP Address : ______.______.______.______
•
Gateway IP Address:
______.______.______.______
Subnet Mask:
______.______.______.______
ISP DNS Server Addresses: If you were given DNS server addresses, fill in the
following:
Primary DNS Server IP Address:
______.______.______.______
Secondary DNS Server IP Address: ______.______.______.______
•
Host and Domain Names: Some ISPs use a specific host or domain name such as
CCA7324-A or home. If you have not been given host or domain names, you can use the
following examples as a guide:
-
If your main email account with your ISP is [email protected], then use aaa as your host
name. Your ISP might call this your account, user, host, computer, or system name.
-
If your ISP’s mail server is mail.xxx.yyy.com, then use xxx.yyy.com as the domain
name.
ISP Host Name:
_______________________
ISP Domain Name: _______________________
•
Fully Qualified Domain Name: Some organizations use a fully qualified domain name
(FQDN) from a Dynamic DNS service provider for their IP addresses.
Dynamic DSN Service Provider: ______________________
FQDN:
______________________
_________________________________________________________________________
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Overview of the Planning Process
The areas that require planning when you use a firewall that has multiple WAN ports such as
the VPN firewall include the following:
•
Inbound traffic (port forwarding, port triggering)
•
Outbound traffic (protocol binding)
•
Virtual private networks (VPNs)
Two WAN ports can be configured on a mutually exclusive basis to either of the following:
•
auto-rollover for increased reliability
•
load balance for outgoing traffic
These various types of traffic and auto-rollover or load balancing all interact to make the
planning process more challenging:
•
Inbound traffic. Unrequested incoming traffic can be directed to a PC on your LAN rather
than being discarded. The mechanism for making the IP address public depends on
whether the dual WAN ports are configured for auto-rollover or load balancing.
•
Virtual private networks. A virtual private network (VPN) tunnel provides a secure
communication channel either between two gateway VPN firewalls or between a remote
PC client and gateway VPN firewall. As a result, the IP address of at least one of the
tunnel endpoints needs to be known in advance in order for the other tunnel end point to
establish (or reestablish) the VPN tunnel.
Note: When the VPN firewall’s WAN port rolls over, the VPN tunnel closes
and needs to be reestablished using the new WAN IP address.
However, you can configure automatic IPSec VPN rollover to ensure
that an IPSec VPN tunnel is reestablished.
•
Dual WAN ports in auto-rollover mode. Rollover for a VPN firewall with dual WAN ports
is different from a single WAN port gateway configuration when you specify the IP
address. Only one WAN port is active at a time, and when it rolls over, the IP address of
the active WAN port always changes. Therefore, the use of a fully qualified domain name
(FQDN) is always required, even when the IP address of each WAN port is fixed.
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Figure 183.
Features such as multiple exposed hosts are not supported in auto-rollover mode
because the IP addresses of each WAN port needs to be in the identical range of fixed
addresses.
•
Dual WAN ports in load balancing mode. Load balancing for a VPN firewall with dual
WAN ports is similar to a single WAN gateway configuration when you specify the IP
address. Each IP address is either fixed or dynamic based on the ISP: You need to use
FQDNs when the IP address is dynamic, but FQDNs are optional when the IP address is
static.
Figure 184.
Inbound Traffic
Incoming traffic from the Internet is normally discarded by the VPN firewall unless the traffic is
a response to one of your local computers or a service for which you have configured an
inbound rule. Instead of discarding this traffic, you can configure the VPN firewall to forward it
to one or more LAN hosts on your network.
The addressing of the VPN firewall’s dual WAN port depends on the configuration being
implemented.
Table 79. IP addressing requirements for exposed hosts in a dual WAN port configuration
Configuration and
WAN IP address
Inbound traffic
• Port forwarding
• Port triggering
Single WAN port
(reference case)
Dual WAN port cases
Rollover
Load Balancing
Fixed
Allowed
(FQDN optional)
FQDN required
Allowed
(FQDN optional)
Dynamic
FQDN required
FQDN required
FQDN required
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Inbound Traffic to a Single WAN Port System
The Internet IP address of the VPN firewall’s WAN port needs to be known to the public so
that the public can send incoming traffic to the exposed host when this feature is supported
and enabled.
In the single WAN case, the WAN’s Internet address is either fixed IP or an FQDN if the IP
address is dynamic.
Figure 185.
Inbound Traffic to a Dual WAN Port System
The IP address range of the VPN firewall’s WAN port needs to be both fixed and public so
that the public can send incoming traffic to the multiple exposed hosts when this feature is
supported and enabled.
Inbound Traffic: Dual WAN Ports for Improved Reliability
In a dual WAN port auto-rollover configuration, the WAN port’s IP address will always change
when a rollover occurs. You need to use an FQDN that toggles between the IP addresses of
the WAN ports (that is, WAN1 or WAN2).
Figure 186.
Inbound Traffic: Dual WAN Ports for Load Balancing
In a dual WAN port load balancing configuration, the Internet address of each WAN port is
either fixed if the IP address is fixed or an FQDN if the IP address is dynamic (see the
following figure).
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Note: Load balancing is implemented for outgoing traffic and not for
incoming traffic. Consider making one of the WAN port Internet
addresses public and keeping the other one private in order to
maintain better control of WAN port traffic.
Figure 187.
Virtual Private Networks
When implementing virtual private network (VPN) tunnels, you need to use a mechanism for
determining the IP addresses of the tunnel endpoints. The addressing of the firewall’s WAN
ports in a dual WAN port auto-rollover or load balancing configuration depends on the
configuration being implemented.
Table 80. IP addressing requirements for VPNs in a dual WAN port configuration
Configuration and WAN IP address
VPN Road Warrior
(Client-to-Gateway)
Single WAN port
configurations
(reference cases)
Dual WAN port configurations
Fixed
Allowed
(FQDN optional)
FQDN required
Allowed
(FQDN optional)
Dynamic
FQDN required
FQDN required
FQDN required
Fixed
Allowed
(FQDN optional)
FQDN required
Allowed
(FQDN optional)
Dynamic
FQDN required
FQDN required
FQDN required
Fixed
Allowed
(FQDN optional)
FQDN required
Allowed
(FQDN optional)
Dynamic
FQDN required
FQDN required
FQDN required
VPN Gateway-to-Gateway
VPN Telecommuter
(Client-to-Gateway through
a NAT Router)
Rollover modea Load balancing mode
a. After a rollover, all tunnels need to be reestablished using the new WAN IP address.
For a single WAN gateway configuration, use ann FQDN when the IP address is dynamic
and either an FQDN or the IP address itself when the IP address is fixed. The situation is
different in dual WAN port gateway configurations.
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•
Dual WAN ports in auto-rollover mode. A dual WAN port auto-rollover gateway
configuration is different from a single WAN port gateway configuration when you specify
the IP address of the VPN tunnel endpoint. Only one WAN port is active at a time, and
when it rolls over, the IP address of the active WAN port always changes. Therefore, the
use of an FQDN is always required, even when the IP address of each WAN port is fixed.
Note: When the VPN firewall’s WAN port rolls over, the VPN tunnel
collapses and needs to be reestablished using the new WAN IP
address. However, you can configure automatic IPSec VPN rollover
to ensure that an IPSec VPN tunnel is reestablished.
Figure 188. f
•
Dual WAN ports in load balancing mode. A dual WAN port load balancing gateway
configuration is the same as a single WAN port configuration when you specify the IP
address of the VPN tunnel endpoint. Each IP address is either fixed or dynamic based on
the ISP: You need to use FQDNs when the IP address is dynamic, and FQDNs are
optional when the IP address is static.
Figure 189.
VPN Road Warrior (Client-to-Gateway)
The following situations exemplify the requirements for a remote PC client with no firewall to
establish a VPN tunnel with a gateway VPN firewall such as an VPN firewall:
•
Single-gateway WAN port
•
Redundant dual-gateway WAN ports for increased reliability (before and after rollover)
•
Dual-gateway WAN ports for load balancing
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VPN Road Warrior: Single Gateway WAN Port (Reference Case)
In a single WAN port gateway configuration, the remote PC client initiates the VPN tunnel
because the IP address of the remote PC client is not known in advance. The gateway WAN
port needs to act as the responder.
Figure 190.
The IP address of the gateway WAN port can be either fixed or dynamic. If the IP address is
dynamic, an FQDN needs to be used. If the IP address is fixed, an FQDN is optional.
VPN Road Warrior: Dual Gateway WAN Ports for Improved Reliability
In a dual WAN port auto-rollover gateway configuration, the remote PC client initiates the
VPN tunnel with the active WAN port (port WAN1 in the following figure) because the IP
address of the remote PC client is not known in advance. The gateway WAN port needs to
act as a responder.
Figure 191.
The IP addresses of the WAN ports can be either fixed or dynamic, but you always need to
use an FQDN because the active WAN port could be either WAN1 or WAN2 (that is, the IP
address of the active WAN port is not known in advance).
After a rollover of the WAN port has occurred, the previously inactive gateway WAN port
becomes the active port (port WAN2 in the following figure) and the remote PC client needs
to reestablish the VPN tunnel. The gateway WAN port needs to act as the responder.
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Figure 192.
The purpose of the FQDN in this case is to toggle the domain name of the gateway firewall
between the IP addresses of the active WAN port (that is, WAN1 and WAN2) so that the
remote PC client can determine the gateway IP address to establish or reestablish a VPN
tunnel.
VPN Road Warrior: Dual Gateway WAN Ports for Load Balancing
In a dual WAN port load balancing gateway configuration, the remote PC initiates the VPN
tunnel with the appropriate gateway WAN port (that is, port WAN1 or WAN2 as necessary to
balance the loads of the two gateway WAN ports) because the IP address of the active WAN
port is not known in advance. The selected gateway WAN port needs to act as the responder.
Figure 193.
The IP addresses of the gateway WAN ports can be either fixed or dynamic. If an IP address
is dynamic, you need to use an FQDN. If an IP address is fixed, an FQDN is optional.
VPN Gateway-to-Gateway
The following situations exemplify the requirements for a gateway VPN firewall such as an
VPN firewall to establish a VPN tunnel with another gateway VPN firewall:
•
Single-gateway WAN ports
•
Redundant-dual gateway WAN ports for increased reliability (before and after rollover)
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•
Dual-gateway WAN ports for load balancing
VPN Gateway-to-Gateway: Single Gateway WAN Ports (Reference Case)
In a configuration with two single WAN port gateways, either gateway WAN port can initiate
the VPN tunnel with the other gateway WAN port because the IP addresses are known in
advance.
Figure 194.
The IP address of the gateway WAN ports can be either fixed or dynamic. If an IP address is
dynamic, you need to use an FQDN. If an IP address is fixed, an FQDN is optional.
VPN Gateway-to-Gateway: Dual Gateway WAN Ports for Improved Reliability
In a configuration with two dual WAN port VPN gateways that function in auto-rollover mode,
either of the gateway WAN ports at one end can initiate the VPN tunnel with the appropriate
gateway WAN port at the other end as necessary to balance the loads of the gateway WAN
ports because the IP addresses of the WAN ports are known in advance. In this example
(see the following figure), port WAN_A1 is active and port WAN_A2 is inactive at Gateway A;
port WAN_B1 is active and port WAN_B2 is inactive at Gateway B.
Figure 195.
The IP addresses of the gateway WAN ports can be either fixed or dynamic, but you always
need to use an FQDN because the active WAN ports could be either WAN_A1, WAN_A2,
WAN_B1, or WAN_B2 (that is, the IP address of the active WAN ports is not known in
advance).
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After a rollover of a gateway WAN port, the previously inactive gateway WAN port becomes
the active port (port WAN_A2 in the following figure), and one of the gateways needs to
reestablish the VPN tunnel.
Figure 196.
The purpose of the FQDNs is to toggle the domain name of the rolled-over gateway between
the IP addresses of the active WAN port (that is, WAN_A1 and WAN_A2 in the previous
figure) so that the other end of the tunnel has a known gateway IP address to establish or
reestablish a VPN tunnel.
VPN Gateway-to-Gateway: Dual Gateway WAN Ports for Load Balancing
In a configuration with two dual-WAN port VPN gateways that function in load balancing
mode, either of the gateway WAN ports at one end can be programmed in advance to initiate
the VPN tunnel with the appropriate gateway WAN port at the other end as necessary to
manage the loads of the gateway WAN ports because the IP addresses of the WAN ports are
known in advance.
Figure 197.
The IP addresses of the gateway WAN ports can be either fixed or dynamic. If an IP address
is dynamic, you need to use an FQDN. If an IP address is fixed, an FQDN is optional.
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VPN Telecommuter (Client-to-Gateway through a NAT Router)
Note: The telecommuter case presumes the home office has a dynamic IP
address and NAT router.
The following situations exemplify the requirements for a remote PC client connected to the
Internet with a dynamic IP address through a NAT router to establish a VPN tunnel with a
gateway VPN firewall such as an VPN firewall at the company office:
•
Single-gateway WAN port
•
Redundant-dual gateway WAN ports for increased reliability (before and after rollover)
•
Dual-gateway WAN ports for load balancing
VPN Telecommuter: Single Gateway WAN Port (Reference Case)
In a single WAN port gateway configuration, the remote PC client at the NAT router initiates
the VPN tunnel because the IP address of the remote NAT router is not known in advance.
The gateway WAN port needs to act as the responder.
Figure 198.
The IP address of the gateway WAN port can be either fixed or dynamic. If the IP address is
dynamic, you need to use an FQDN. If the IP address is fixed, an FQDN is optional.
VPN Telecommuter: Dual Gateway WAN Ports for Improved Reliability
In a dual WAN port auto-rollover gateway configuration, the remote PC client initiates the
VPN tunnel with the active gateway WAN port (port WAN1 in the following figure) because
the IP address of the remote NAT router is not known in advance. The gateway WAN port
needs to act as the responder.
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Figure 199.
The IP addresses of the gateway WAN ports can be either fixed or dynamic, but you always
need to use an FQDN because the active WAN port could be either WAN1 or WAN2 (that is,
the IP address of the active WAN port is not known in advance).
After a rollover of the WAN port has occurred, the previously inactive gateway WAN port
becomes the active port (port WAN2 in the following figure) and the remote PC needs to
reestablish the VPN tunnel. The gateway WAN port needs to act as the responder.
Figure 200.
The purpose of the FQDN is to toggle the domain name of the gateway between the IP
addresses of the active WAN port that is, WAN1 and WAN2) so that the remote PC client can
determine the gateway IP address to establish or reestablish a VPN tunnel.
VPN Telecommuter: Dual Gateway WAN Ports for Load Balancing
In a dual WAN port load balancing gateway configuration, the remote PC client initiates the
VPN tunnel with the appropriate gateway WAN port (that is, port WAN1 or WAN2 as
necessary to balance the loads of the two gateway WAN ports) because the IP address of the
remote NAT router is not known in advance. The selected gateway WAN port needs to act as
the responder.
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Figure 201.
The IP addresses of the gateway WAN ports can be either fixed or dynamic. If an IP address
is dynamic, you need to use an FQDN. If an IP address is fixed, an FQDN is optional.
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C.
System Logs and Error Messages
C
This appendix provides examples and explanations of system logs and error message. When
applicable, a recommended action is provided.
This appendix contains the following sections:
•
System Log Messages
•
Routing Logs
•
Other Event Logs
•
DHCP Logs
This appendix uses the following log message terms.
Table 81. Log message terms
Term
Description
[SRX5308]
System identifier.
[kernel]
Message from the kernel.
CODE
Protocol code (e.g., protocol is ICMP, type 8) and CODE=0 means successful reply.
DEST
Destination IP address of the machine to which the packet is destined.
DPT
Destination port.
IN
Incoming interface for packet.
OUT
Outgoing interface for packet.
PROTO
Protocol used.
SELF
Packet coming from the system only.
SPT
Source port.
SRC
Source IP address of machine from which the packet is coming.
TYPE
Protocol type.
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System Log Messages
This section describes log messages that belong to one of the following categories:
•
Logs generated by traffic that is meant for the VPN firewall.
•
Logs generated by traffic that is routed or forwarded through the VPN firewall.
•
Logs generated by system daemons; the NTP daemon, the WAN daemon, and others
daemons.
To select many of these logs, see Activate Notification of Events, Alerts, and Syslogs on
page 269.
NTP
This section describes log messages generated by the NTP daemon during synchronization
with the NTP server.
Table 82. System logs: NTP
Message
Nov 28 12:31:13 [SRX5308] [ntpdate] Looking Up time-f.netgear.com
Nov 28 12:31:13 [SRX5308] [ntpdate] Requesting time from time-f.netgear.com
Nov 28 12:31:14 [SRX5308] [ntpdate] adjust time server 69.25.106.19 offset
0.140254 sec
Nov 28 12:31:14 [SRX5308] [ntpdate] Synchronized time with time-f.netgear.com
Nov 28 12:31:16 [SRX5308] [ntpdate] Date and Time Before Synchronization: Tue
Nov 28 12:31:13 GMT+0530 2006
Nov 28 12:31:16 [SRX5308] [ntpdate] Date and Time After Synchronization: Tue
Nov 28 12:31:16 GMT+0530 2006
Nov 28 12:31:16 [SRX5308] [ntpdate] Next Synchronization after 2 Hours
Explanation
Message 1: DNS resolution for the NTP server (time-f.netgear.com).
Message 2: Request for NTP update from the time server.
Message 3: Adjust time by re-setting system time.
Message 4: Display date and time before synchronization, that is, when
resynchronization started.
Message 5: Display the new updated date and time.
Message 6: Next synchronization will be after the specified time.
Example: In these logs the next synchronization will be after 2 hours. The
synchronization time interval is configurable via the CLI.
Recommended Action None
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Login/Logout
This section describes logs generated by the administrative interfaces of the device.
Table 83. System logs: login/logout
Message
Nov 28 14:45:42 [SRX5308] [login] Login succeeded: user admin from
192.168.10.10
Explanation
Login of user admin from host with IP address 192.168.10.10.
Recommended Action None
Message
Nov 28 14:55:09 [SRX5308] [seclogin] Logout succeeded for user admin
Nov 28 14:55:13 [SRX5308] [seclogin] Login succeeded: user admin from
192.168.1.214
Explanation
Secure login/logout of user admin from host with IP address 192.168.1.214.
Recommended Action None
System Startup
This section describes log messages generated during system startup.
Table 84. System logs: system startup
Message
Jan 1 15:22:28 [SRX5308] [ledTog] [SYSTEM START-UP] System Started
Explanation
Log generated when the system is started.
Recommended Action None
Reboot
This section describes log messages generated during system reboot.
Table 85. System logs: reboot
Message
Nov 25 19:42:57 [SRX5308] [reboot] Rebooting in 3 seconds
Explanation
Log generated when the system is rebooted from the web management interface.
Recommended Action None
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Firewall Restart
This section describes logs that are generated when the VPN firewall restarts.
Table 86. System logs: VPN firewall restart
Message
Jan 23 16:20:44 [SRX5308] [wand] [FW] Firewall Restarted
Explanation
Log generated when the VPN firewall is restarted.
This message is logged when the VPN firewall restarts after any changes in the
configuration are applied.
Recommended Action None
IPSec Restart
This section describes logs that are generated when IPSec restarts.
Table 87. System logs: IPSec restart
Message
Jan 23 16:20:44 [SRX5308] [wand] [IPSEC] IPSEC Restarted
Explanation
Log generated when the IPSec is restarted.
This message is logged when IPSec restarts after any changes in the configuration
are applied.
Recommended Action None
Unicast, Multicast, and Broadcast Logs
Table 88. System logs: unicast
Message
Nov 24 11:52:55 [SRX5308] [kernel] UCAST IN=SELF OUT=WAN SRC=
192.168.10.1 DST=192.168.10.10 PROTO=UDP SPT=800 DPT=2049
Explanation
• This packet (unicast) is sent to the device from the WAN network.
• For other settings, see Table 81 on page 322.
Recommended Action None
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ICMP Redirect Logs
Table 89. System logs: unicast, redirect
Message
Feb 2007 22 14:36:07 [SRX5308] [kernel] [LOG_PACKET] SRC=192.168.1.49
DST=192.168.1.124 PROTO=ICMP TYPE=5 CODE=1
Explanation
• This packet is an ICMP redirect message sent to the device by another device.
• For other settings, see Table 81 on page 322.
Recommended Action To enable these logs, from the CLI command prompt of the VPN firewall, enter this
command:
monitor/firewallLogs/logger/loggerConfig logIcmpRedirect 1
And to disable it enter:
monitor/firewallLogs/logger/loggerConfig logIcmpRedirect 0
Multicast/Broadcast Logs
Table 90. System logs: multicast/broadcast
Message
Jan 1 07:24:13 [SRX5308] [kernel] MCAST-BCAST IN=WAN OUT=SELF SRC=
192.168.1.73 DST=192.168.1.255 PROTO=UDP SPT=138 DPT=138
Explanation
• This multicast or broadcast packet is sent to the device from the WAN network.
• For other settings, see Table 81 on page 322.
Recommended Action None
WAN Status
This section describes the logs generated by the WAN component. If there are several ISP
links for Internet connectivity, the VPN firewall can be configured either in auto-rollover or
load balancing mode.
Load Balancing
When the WAN mode is configured for load balancing, all the WAN ports are active
simultaneously and the traffic is balanced between them. If one WAN link goes down, all the
traffic is diverted to the other WAN links that are active.
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This section describes the logs generated when the WAN mode is set to load balancing.
Table 91. System logs: WAN status, load balancing
Message
Dec 1 12:11:27 [SRX5308] [wand] [LBFO] Restarting WAN1_
Dec 1 12:11:31 [SRX5308] [wand] [LBFO] Restarting WAN2_
Dec 1 12:11:35 [SRX5308] [wand] [LBFO] WAN1(UP), WAN2(UP)_
Dec 1 12:24:12 [SRX5308] [wand] [LBFO] WAN1(UP), WAN2(DOWN)_
Dec 1 12:29:43 [SRX5308] [wand] [LBFO] Restarting WAN2_
Dec 1 12:29:47 [SRX5308] [wand] [LBFO] WAN1(UP), WAN2(DOWN)_
Explanation
Message 1 and Message 2 indicate that both the WANs are restarted.
Message 3: This message shows that both the WANs are up and the traffic is
balanced between the two WAN interfaces.
Message 4: This message shows that one of the WAN links is down. At this point,
all the traffic is directed through the WAN that is up.
Recommended Action None
Auto-Rollover
When the WAN mode is configured for auto-rollover, the primary link is active and the
secondary link acts only as a backup. When the primary link goes down, the secondary link
becomes active only until the primary link comes back up. The VPN firewall monitors the
status of the primary link using the configured WAN failure detection method.
This section describes the logs generated when the WAN mode is set to auto-rollover.
Table 92. System logs: WAN status, auto-rollover
Message
Nov 17 09:59:09 [SRX5308] [wand] [LBFO] WAN1 Test Failed 1 of 3 times_
Nov 17 09:59:39 [SRX5308] [wand] [LBFO] WAN1 Test Failed 2 of 3 times_
Nov 17 10:00:09 [SRX5308] [wand] [LBFO] WAN1 Test Failed 3 of 3 times_
Nov 17 10:01:01 [SRX5308] [wand] [LBFO] WAN1 Test Failed 4 of 3 times_
Nov 17 10:01:35 [SRX5308] [wand] [LBFO] WAN1 Test Failed 5 of 3 times_
Nov 17 10:01:35 [SRX5308] [wand] [LBFO] WAN1(DOWN), WAN2(UP),
ACTIVE(WAN2)_
Nov 17 10:02:25 [SRX5308] [wand] [LBFO] WAN1 Test Failed 6 of 3 times_
Nov 17 10:02:25 [SRX5308] [wand] [LBFO] Restarting WAN1_
Nov 17 10:02:57 [SRX5308] [wand] [LBFO] WAN1 Test Failed 7 of 3 times_
Nov 17 10:03:27 [SRX5308] [wand] [LBFO] WAN1 Test Failed 8 of 3 times_
Nov 17 10:03:57 [SRX5308] [wand] [LBFO] WAN1 Test Failed 9 of 3 times_
Nov 17 10:03:57 [SRX5308] [wand] [LBFO] Restarting WAN1_
System Logs and Error Messages
327
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Table 92. System logs: WAN status, auto-rollover (continued)
Explanation
The logs suggest that the failover was detected after 5 attempts instead of 3.
However, the reason that the messages appear in the log is because of the WAN
state transition logic, which is part of the failover algorithm. These logs can be
interpreted as follows:
The primary link failure is correctly detected after the 3rd attempt. Thereafter, the
algorithm attempts to restart the WAN connection and checks once again to
determine if WAN1 is still down. This results in the 4th failure detection message. If
it is still down, then it starts a secondary link, and once the secondary link is up, the
secondary link is marked as active. Meanwhile, the primary link has failed once
more, and that results in the 5th failure detection message. Note that the 5th failure
detection message and the message suggesting that the secondary link is active
have the same timestamp, and so they happen in the same algorithm
state–machine cycle. So although it appears that the failover did not happen
immediately after 3 failures, internally, the failover process is triggered after the 3rd
failure, and transition to the secondary link is completed by the 5th failure. The
primary link is also restarted every 3 failures till it is functional again. In these logs,
the primary link was restarted after the 6th failure, that is, 3 failures after the failover
process was triggered.
Recommended Action Check the WAN settings and WAN failure detection method configured for the
primary link.
PPP Logs
This section describes the WAN PPP connection logs. The PPP type can be configured from
the web management interface (see Manually Configure the Internet Connection on
page 28).
•
PPPoE Idle Timeout Logs
Table 93. System logs: WAN status, PPPoE idle time-out
Message
Nov 29 13:12:46 [SRX5308] [pppd] Starting connection
Nov 29 13:12:49 [SRX5308] [pppd] Remote message: Success
Nov 29 13:12:49 [SRX5308] [pppd] PAP authentication succeeded
Nov 29 13:12:49 [SRX5308] [pppd] local IP address 50.0.0.62
Nov 29 13:12:49 [SRX5308] [pppd] remote IP address 50.0.0.1
Nov 29 13:12:49 [SRX5308] [pppd] primary DNS address 202.153.32.3
Nov 29 13:12:49 [SRX5308] [pppd] secondary DNS address 202.153.32.3
Nov 29 11:29:26 [SRX5308] [pppd] Terminating connection due to lack of
activity.
Nov 29 11:29:28 [SRX5308] [pppd] Connect time 8.2 minutes.
Nov 29 11:29:28 [SRX5308] [pppd] Sent 1408 bytes, received 0 bytes.
Nov 29 11:29:29 [SRX5308] [pppd] Connection terminated.
System Logs and Error Messages
328
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Table 93. System logs: WAN status, PPPoE idle time-out (continued)
•
Explanation
Message 1: PPPoE connection started.
Message 2: Message from PPPoE server for correct login.
Message 3: Authentication for PPP succeeded.
Message 4: Local IP address assigned by the server.
Message 5: Server side IP address.
Message 6: The primary DNS server that is configured on the WAN ISP
Settings screen.
Message 7: The secondary DNS server that is configured on the WAN ISP
Settings screen.
Message 8: The PPP link has transitioned to idle mode. This event occurs
if there is no traffic from the LAN network.
Message 9: The time in minutes for which the link has been up.
Message 10: Data sent and received at the LAN side while the link was up.
Message 11: PPP connection terminated after idle timeout.
Recommended Action
To reconnect during idle mode, initiate traffic from the LAN side.
PPTP Idle Timeout Logs
Table 94. System logs: WAN status, PPTP idle time-out
Message
Nov 29 11:19:02 [SRX5308] [pppd] Starting connection
Nov 29 11:19:05 [SRX5308] [pppd] CHAP authentication succeeded
Nov 29 11:19:05 [SRX5308] [pppd] local IP address 192.168.200.214
Nov 29 11:19:05 [SRX5308] [pppd] remote IP address 192.168.200.1
Nov 29 11:19:05 [SRX5308] [pppd] primary DNS address 202.153.32.2
Nov 29 11:19:05 [SRX5308] [pppd] secondary DNS address 202.153.32.2
Nov 29 11:20:45 [SRX5308] [pppd] No response to 10 echo-requests
Nov 29 11:20:45 [SRX5308] [pppd] Serial link appears to be disconnected.
Nov 29 11:20:45 [SRX5308] [pppd] Connect time 1.7 minutes.
Nov 29 11:20:45 [SRX5308] [pppd] Sent 520 bytes, received 80 bytes.
Nov 29 11:20:51 [SRX5308] [pppd] Connection terminated.
Explanation
Message 1: Starting PPP connection process.
Message 2: Message from the server for authentication success.
Message 3: Local IP address assigned by the server.
Message 4: Server side IP address.
Message 6: The primary DNS server that is configured on the WAN ISP
Settings screen.
Message 7: The secondary DNS server that is configured on the WAN ISP
Settings screen.
Message 7: Sensing idle link.
Message 8: Idle link sensed.
Message 9: Data sent and received at the LAN side while the link was up.
Message 10: PPP connection terminated after idle timeout.
Recommended Action
To reconnect during idle mode, initiate traffic from the LAN side.
System Logs and Error Messages
329
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
•
PPP Authentication Logs
Table 95. System logs: WAN status, PPP authentication
Message
Nov 29 11:29:26 [SRX5308] [pppd] Starting link
Nov 29 11:29:29 [SRX5308] [pppd] Remote message: Login incorrect
Nov 29 11:29:29 [SRX5308] [pppd] PAP authentication failed
Nov 29 11:29:29 [SRX5308] [pppd] Connection
terminated.WAN2(DOWN)_
Explanation
Starting link: Starting PPPoE connection process.
Remote message: Login incorrect: Message from PPPoE server for
incorrect login.
PAP authentication failed: PPP authentication failed due to incorrect login.
Connection terminated: PPP connection terminated.
Recommended Action
If authentication fails, then check the login/password and enter the correct
one.
Resolved DNS Names
This section describes the logs of DNS names resolution messages.
Table 96. System logs: DNS names resolution messages
Message
2000 Jan 1 05:12:00 [SRX5308] [dnsmasq] [DNSRESOLV]:teamf1.com from
192.168.11.2
Explanation
This log is generated when the DNS name (that is, teamf1) is resolved.
Recommended Action None
VPN Log Messages
This section explains logs that are generated by IPSec VPN and SSL VPN policies. These
logs are generated automatically and do not need to be enabled.
IPSec VPN Logs
This section describes the log messages generated by IPSec VPN policies.
Note: The same IPSec VPN log messages can appear in the logs that are
accessible when you select the VPN check box on the Firewall Logs
& E-mail screen (see Activate Notification of Events, Alerts, and
Syslogs on page 269) and in the logs on the IPSec VPN Logs
screen (see View the VPN Logs on page 283).
System Logs and Error Messages
330
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Table 97. System logs: IPSec VPN tunnel, tunnel establishment
2000 Jan 1 04:01:39 [SRX5308] [wand] [IPSEC] IPSEC Restarted
2000 Jan 1 04:02:09 [SRX5308] [wand] [FW] Firewall Restarted
2000 Jan 1 04:02:29 [SRX5308] [IKE] IKE stopped_
2000 Jan 1 04:02:31 [SRX5308] [IKE] IKE started_
2000 Jan 1 04:02:31 [SRX5308] [wand] [IPSEC] IPSEC Restarted
2000 Jan 1 04:07:04 [SRX5308] [IKE] Adding IPSec configuration with identifier
Messages 6 and 7
"pol1"_
2000 Jan 1 04:07:04 [SRX5308] [IKE] Adding IKE configuration with identifier
"pol1"_
Messages 8 through 19 2000 Jan 1 04:13:39 [SRX5308] [IKE] Configuration found for 20.0.0.1[500]._
2000 Jan 1 04:13:39 [SRX5308] [IKE] Received request for new phase 1
negotiation: 20.0.0.2[500]<=>20.0.0.1[500]_
2000 Jan 1 04:13:39 [SRX5308] [IKE] Beginning Identity Protection mode._
2000 Jan 1 04:13:39 [SRX5308] [IKE] Received Vendor ID: RFC XXXX_
2000 Jan 1 04:13:39 [SRX5308] [IKE] Received Vendor ID: DPD_
2000 Jan 1 04:13:39 [SRX5308] [IKE] DPD is Enabled_
2000 Jan 1 04:13:39 [SRX5308] [IKE] For 20.0.0.1[500], Selected NAT-T version:
RFC XXXX_
2000 Jan 1 04:13:39 [SRX5308] [IKE] Setting DPD Vendor ID_
2000 Jan 1 04:13:39 [SRX5308] [IKE] Received Vendor ID: KAME/racoon_
2000 Jan 1 04:13:39 [SRX5308] [IKE] NAT-D payload matches for 20.0.0.2[500]_
2000 Jan 1 04:13:39 [SRX5308] [IKE] NAT-D payload matches for 20.0.0.1[500]_
2000 Jan 1 04:13:39 [SRX5308] [IKE] NAT not detected _
Messages 20 and 21
2000 Jan 1 04:13:39 [SRX5308] [IKE] ISAKMP-SA established for
20.0.0.2[500]-20.0.0.1[500] with spi:c56f7a1d42baf28a:68fcf85e3c148bd8_
2000 Jan 1 04:13:39 [SRX5308] [IKE] Sending Informational Exchange: notify
payload[INITIAL-CONTACT]_
Messages 22 and 23
2000 Jan 1 04:13:40 [SRX5308] [IKE] Responding to new phase 2 negotiation:
20.0.0.2[0]<=>20.0.0.1[0]_
2000 Jan 1 04:13:40 [SRX5308] [IKE] Using IPSec SA configuration:
192.168.11.0/24<->192.168.10.0/24_
Messages 24 and 25
2000 Jan 1 04:13:41 [SRX5308] [IKE] IPSec-SA established: ESP/Tunnel
20.0.0.1->20.0.0.2 with spi=34046092(0x207808c)_
2000 Jan 1 04:13:41 [SRX5308] [IKE] IPSec-SA established: ESP/Tunnel
20.0.0.2->20.0.0.1 with spi=87179451(0x53240bb)_
Messages 1 through 5
Explanation
Message 1–5: IPSec, IKE, and VPN firewall restart.
Message 6–7: IPSec and IKE configurations are added with the identifier “pol1.”
Message 8–19: New phase 1 negotiation starts by determining the configuration for
the WAN host. Dead Peer Detection (DPD) is enabled and set. NAT payload
matching and NAT detection are done.
Message 20–21: ISAKMP-SA is established between the 2 WANs and information
is exchanged.
Message 22–23: New phase 2 negotiation starts by using IPSec SA configuration
pertaining to the LAN hosts.
Message 24–25: IPSec-SA VPN tunnel is established.
Recommended Action
None
System Logs and Error Messages
331
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Table 98. System logs: IPSec VPN tunnel, SA lifetime (150 sec in phase 1;
300 sec in phase 2), VPN tunnel is reestablished
Message 1
2000 Jan 1 04:32:25 [SRX5308] [IKE] Sending Informational Exchange: delete
payload[]_
Messages 2 through 6 2000 Jan 1 04:32:25 [SRX5308] [IKE] purged IPSec-SA proto_id=ESP spi=
181708762._
2000 Jan 1 04:32:25 [SRX5308] [IKE] purged IPSec-SA proto_id=ESP spi=
153677140._
2000 Jan 1 04:32:25 [SRX5308] [IKE] an undead schedule has been deleted:
'pk_recvupdate'._
2000 Jan 1 04:32:25 [SRX5308] [IKE] IPSec configuration with identifier "pol1"
deleted successfully_
2000 Jan 1 04:32:25 [SRX5308] [IKE] no phase 2 bounded._
Message 7
2000 Jan 1 04:32:25 [SRX5308] [IKE] Sending Informational Exchange: delete
payload[]_
Messages 8 through 11 2000 Jan 1 04:32:25 [SRX5308] [IKE] Purged ISAKMP-SA with spi=
d67f2be9ca0cb241:8a094623c6811286._
2000 Jan 1 04:32:25 [SRX5308] [IKE] an undead schedule has been deleted:
'purge_remote'._
2000 Jan 1 04:32:25 [SRX5308] [IKE] IKE configuration with identifier "pol1"
deleted successfully_
2000 Jan 1 04:32:25 [SRX5308] [IKE] Could not find configuration for
20.0.0.1[500]_
Explanation
Message 1: Informational exchange for deleting the payload.
Message 2–6: Phase 2 configuration is purged and confirms that no phase 2 is
bounded.
Message 7: Informational exchange for deleting the payload.
Message 8–11: Phase 1 configuration.
The VPN tunnel is reestablished.
Recommended Action
None
System Logs and Error Messages
332
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Table 99. System logs: IPSec VPN tunnel, SA lifetime (150 sec in phase 1;
300 sec in phase 2), VPN tunnel not reestablished
Message
2000 Jan 1 04:52:33 [SRX5308] [IKE] Using IPSec SA configuration:
192.168.11.0/24<->192.168.10.0/24_
2000 Jan 1 04:52:33 [SRX5308] [IKE] Configuration found for 20.0.0.1._
2000 Jan 1 04:52:59 [SRX5308] [IKE] Phase 1 negotiation failed due to time up for
20.0.0.1[500]. b73efd188399b7f2:0000000000000000_
2000 Jan 1 04:53:04 [SRX5308] [IKE] Phase 2 negotiation failed due to time up
waiting for phase 1. ESP 20.0.0.1->20.0.0.2 _
2000 Jan 1 04:53:05 [SRX5308] [IKE] Using IPSec SA configuration:
192.168.11.0/24<->192.168.10.0/24_
2000 Jan 1 04:53:05 [SRX5308] [IKE] Configuration found for 20.0.0.1._
2000 Jan 1 04:53:05 [SRX5308] [IKE] Initiating new phase 1 negotiation:
20.0.0.2[500]<=>20.0.0.1[500]_
2000 Jan 1 04:53:05 [SRX5308] [IKE] Beginning Identity Protection mode._
2000 Jan 1 04:53:05 [SRX5308] [IKE] Setting DPD Vendor ID_
2000 Jan 1 04:53:36 [SRX5308] [IKE] Phase 2 negotiation failed due to time up
waiting for phase 1. ESP 20.0.0.1->20.0.0.2 _
Explanation
Phase 1 and phase 2 negotiations failed because of a mismatch of the WAN IP
address in the IPSec VPN policy and the WAN IP address of the remote host
attempting to establish the IPSec VPN tunnel.
Recommended Action None
Table 100. System logs: IPSec VPN tunnel, Dead Peer Detection and keep-alive (default 30 sec)
Messages 1 through 4 2000 Jan 1 04:13:39 [SRX5308] [IKE] Received request for new phase 1
negotiation: 20.0.0.2[500]<=>20.0.0.1[500]_
2000 Jan 1 04:13:39 [SRX5308] [IKE] Beginning Identity Protection mode._
2000 Jan 1 04:13:39 [SRX5308] [IKE] Received Vendor ID: RFC XXXX_
2000 Jan 1 04:13:39 [SRX5308] [IKE] Received Vendor ID: DPD_
Message 5
2000 Jan 1 04:13:39 [SRX5308] [IKE] DPD is Enabled_
Message 6
2000 Jan 1 04:13:39 [SRX5308] [IKE] For 20.0.0.1[500], Selected NAT-T version:
RFC XXXX_
Message 7
2000 Jan 1 04:13:39 [SRX5308] [IKE] Setting DPD Vendor ID_
Explanation
Message 1–4: After receiving a request for phase 1 negotiation, a Dead Peer
Detection Vendor ID is received.
Message 5: DPD is enabled.
Message 7: The DPD vendor ID is set.
Recommended Action None
System Logs and Error Messages
333
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Table 101. System logs: IPSec VPN tunnel, Dead Peer Detection and
keep-alive (default 30 sec), VPN tunnel torn down
Message 1
Message 2
Message 3
2000 Jan 1 06:01:18 [SRX5308] [VPNKA] Keep alive to peer 192.168.10.2
failed 3 consecutive times and 5 times cumulative_
2000 Jan 1 06:01:19 [SRX5308] [IKE] DPD R-U-THERE sent to
"20.0.0.1[500]"_
2000 Jan 1 06:01:19 [SRX5308] [IKE] DPD R-U-THERE-ACK received from
"20.0.0.1[500]"_
Explanation
Message 1: When the remote host connection is removed and when there are
no packets from the remote host, the VPN firewall sends packets to keep the
remote host alive. As the connection itself is removed, keep-alive fails.
Message 2: The VPN firewall sends packets to check whether the peer is dead.
Message 3: The VPN firewall receives an acknowledgment that the peer is
dead. The connection is removed.
Recommended Action
None
Table 102. System logs: IPSec VPN tunnel, client policy,
disconnection from the client side
Message
2000 Jan 1 02:34:45 [SRX5308] [IKE] Deleting generated policy for 20.0.0.1[0]_
2000 Jan 1 02:34:45 [SRX5308] [IKE] an undead schedule has been deleted:
'pk_recvupdate'._
2000 Jan 1 02:34:45 [SRX5308] [IKE] Purged IPSec-SA with proto_id=ESP and
spi=3000608295(0xb2d9a627)._
2000 Jan 1 02:34:45 [SRX5308] [IKE] Purged IPSec-SA with proto_id=ESP and
spi=248146076(0xeca689c)._
2000 Jan 1 02:34:45 [SRX5308] [IKE] Purged ISAKMP-SA with proto_id=ISAKMP
and spi=da1f2efbf0635943:4eb6fae677b2e4f4._
2000 Jan 1 02:34:46 [SRX5308] [IKE] ISAKMP-SA deleted for
20.0.0.2[500]-20.0.0.1[500] with spi:da1f2efbf0635943:4eb6fae677b2e4f4_
Explanation
Phase 2 and phase 1 policies are deleted when the client is disconnected.
Recommended Action None
System Logs and Error Messages
334
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Table 103. System logs: IPSec VPN tunnel, client policy behind a NAT device
Message 3
Message 6
2000 Jan 1 01:54:21 [SRX5308] [IKE] Floating ports for NAT-T with peer
20.0.0.1[4500]_
2000 Jan 1 01:54:21 [SRX5308] [IKE] NAT-D payload matches for
20.0.0.2[4500]_
2000 Jan 1 01:54:21 [SRX5308] [IKE] NAT-D payload does not match for
20.0.0.1[4500]_
2000 Jan 1 01:54:21 [SRX5308] [IKE] Ignore REPLAY-STATUS notification
from 20.0.0.1[4500]._
2000 Jan 1 01:54:21 [SRX5308] [IKE] Ignore INITIAL-CONTACT notification
from 20.0.0.1[4500] because it is only accepted after phase 1._
2000 Jan 1 01:54:21 [SRX5308] [IKE] NAT detected: Peer is behind a NAT
device_
Explanation
These logs are generated when the remote WAN host is connected through a
device such as the VPN firewall. NAT is detected before phase 1 is established.
Message 3: NAT-D does not match the remote host.
Message 6: The VPN firewall confirms that the remote host or the peer is
behind a NAT device.
Recommended Action
None
SSL VPN Logs
This section describes the log messages that are generated by SSL VPN policies.
Table 104. System logs: SSL VPN tunnel, WAN host and interface
Message
2000 Jan 1 03:44:55 [SRX5308] [sslvpntunnel]
id=SRX5308 time="2000-1-1 3:44:55" fw=20.0.0.2 pri=6 rule=access-policy proto=
"SSL VPN Tunnel" src=20.0.0.1 user=sai dst=20.0.0.2 arg="" op="" result="" rcvd=
"" msg="SSL VPN Tunnel"
Explanation
A SSL VPN tunnel is established for ID SRX5308 with the WAN host 20.0.0.1
through WAN interface 20.0.0.2 and logged in with the username “sai.”
Recommended Action None
Table 105. System logs: VPN log messages, port forwarding, WAN host and interface
Message
2000 Jan 1 01:30:08 [SRX5308] [portforwarding]
id=SRX5308 time="2000-1-1 1:30: 8" fw=20.0.0.2 pri=6 rule=access-policy proto=
"Port Forwarding" src=20.0.0.1 user=sai dst=20.0.0.2 arg="" op="" result="" rcvd=""
msg="Port Forwarding"
Explanation
A SSL VPN tunnel through port forwarding is established for ID SRX5308 with the
WAN host 20.0.0.1 through WAN interface 20.0.0.2 and logged in with the
username “sai.”
Recommended Action None
System Logs and Error Messages
335
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Table 106. System logs: VPN log messages, port forwarding, LAN host and interface
Message
2000 Jan 1 01:35:41 [SRX5308] [portforwarding]
id=SRX5308 time="2000-1-1 1:35:41" fw=192.168.11.1 pri=6 rule=access-policy
proto="Virtual Transport (Java)" src=192.168.11.2 user=sai dst=192.168.11.1 arg=
"" op="" result="" rcvd="" msg="Virtual Transport (Java)"
Explanation
A SSL VPN tunnel through port forwarding is established for ID SRX5308 from the
LAN host 192.168.11.2 with interface 192.168.11.1 and logged in with the
username “sai.”
Recommended Action None
Traffic Meter Logs
Table 107. System logs: traffic meter
Message
Jan 23 19:03:44 [TRAFFIC_METER] TRAFFIC_METER: Monthly Limit of 10 MB
has reached for WAN1._
Explanation
Traffic limit to WAN1 that was set as 10 Mb has been reached.
This stops all the incoming and outgoing traffic, that is, if you selected the Block All
Traffic radio button in the When Limit is Reached section on the WAN TrafficMeter
screen.
Recommended Action To start the traffic, restart the traffic limit counter.
Routing Logs
This section explains the logging messages for the various network segments (such as LAN
to WAN) for debugging purposes. These logs might generate a significant volume of
messages.
LAN to WAN Logs
Table 108. Routing Logs: LAN to WAN
Message
Nov 29 09:19:43 [SRX5308] [kernel] LAN2WAN[ACCEPT] IN=LAN OUT=WAN
SRC=192.168.10.10 DST=72.14.207.99 PROTO=ICMP TYPE=8 CODE=0
Explanation
• This packet from LAN to WAN has been allowed by the firewall.
• For other settings, see Table 81 on page 322.
Recommended Action None
System Logs and Error Messages
336
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
LAN to DMZ Logs
Table 109. Routing Logs: LAN to DMZ
Message
Nov 29 09:44:06 [SRX5308] [kernel] LAN2DMZ[ACCEPT] IN=LAN OUT=DMZ
SRC=192.168.10.10 DST=192.168.20.10 PROTO=ICMP TYPE=8 CODE=0
Explanation
• This packet from LAN to DMZ has been allowed by the firewall.
• For other settings, see Table 81 on page 322.
Recommended Action None
DMZ to WAN Logs
Table 110. Routing Logs: DMZ to WAN
Message
Nov 29 09:19:43 [SRX5308] [kernel] DMZ2WAN[DROP] IN=DMZ OUT=WAN
SRC=192.168.20.10 DST=72.14.207.99 PROTO=ICMP TYPE=8 CODE=0
Explanation
• This packet from DMZ to WAN has been dropped by the firewall.
• For other settings, see Table 81 on page 322.
Recommended Action None
WAN to LAN Logs
Table 111. Routing Logs: WAN to LAN
Message
Nov 29 10:05:15 [SRX5308] [kernel] WAN2LAN[ACCEPT] IN=WAN OUT=LAN
SRC=192.168.1.214 DST=192.168.10.10 PROTO=ICMP TYPE=8 CODE=0
Explanation
• This packet from LAN to WAN has been allowed by the firewall.
• For other settings, see Table 81 on page 322.
Recommended Action None
DMZ to LAN Logs
Table 112. Routing Logs: DMZ to WAN
Message
Nov 29 09:44:06 [SRX5308] [kernel] DMZ2LAN[DROP] IN=DMZ OUT=LAN SRC=
192.168.20.10 DST=192.168.10.10 PROTO=ICMP TYPE=8 CODE=0
Explanation
• This packet from DMZ to LAN has been dropped by the firewall.
• For other settings, see Table 81 on page 322.
Recommended Action None
System Logs and Error Messages
337
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
WAN to DMZ Logs
Table 113. Routing Logs: WAN to DMZ
Message
Nov 29 09:19:43 [SRX5308] [kernel] WAN2DMZ[ACCEPT] IN=WAN OUT=DMZ
SRC=192.168.1.214 DST=192.168.20.10 PROTO=ICMP TYPE=8 CODE=0
Explanation
• This packet from WAN to DMZ has been allowed by the firewall.
• For other settings, see Table 81 on page 322.
Recommended Action None
Other Event Logs
This section describes the log messages generated by other events such source MAC
filtering, session limiting, and bandwidth limiting. For information about how to select these
logs, see Activate Notification of Events, Alerts, and Syslogs on page 269.
Session Limit Logs
Table 114. Other Event Logs: Session Limit Logs
Message
2000 Jan 1 06:53:33 [SRX5308] [kernel] SESS_LIMIT[DROP] IN=LAN OUT=WAN
SRC=192.168.11.2 DST=20.0.0.1 PROTO=TCP SPT=50709 DPT=21
Explanation
When two FTP sessions are established from the same LAN host at IP address
192.168.11.2 and a session limit (SESS_LIMIT) is set as 1, the FTP packets from
the second session are dropped.
Recommended Action Change the session limit to 2 to prevent packets from being dropped.
Source MAC Filter Logs
Table 115. Other Event Logs: Source MAC Filter Logs
Message
2000 Jan 1 06:40:10 [SRX5308] [kernel] SRC_MAC_MATCH[DROP] SRC MAC =
00:12:3f:34:41:14 IN=LAN OUT=WAN SRC=192.168.11.3 DST=209.85.153.103
PROTO=ICMP TYPE=8 CODE=0
Explanation
Because MAC address 00:12:3f:34:41:14 of LAN host with IP address
192.168.11.3 is filtered so that it cannot access the Internet, the packets sent by
this MAC address to the Google server at address 09.85.153.103 are dropped.
Recommended Action Disable source MAC filtering.
System Logs and Error Messages
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ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Bandwidth Limit Logs
Table 116. Other Event Logs: Bandwidth Limit, Outbound Bandwidth Profile
Message
2000 Jan 1 00:10:36 [SRX5308] [kernel] [BW_LIMIT_DROP] IN=LAN OUT=WAN
SRC=192.168.100.2 DST=22.0.0.2 PROTO=ICMP TYPE=144 CODE=145
TC_INDEX=10 CLASSID=10:5
Explanation
This log is generated when an outbound packet is dropped because the packet size
exceeds the specified bandwidth limit.
Recommended Action Ensure that the packet size is within the specified bandwidth limit.
Table 117. Other Event Logs: Bandwidth Limit, Inbound Bandwidth Profile
Message
2000 Jan 1 00:08:21 [SRX5308] [kernel] [BW_LIMIT_DROP] IN=LAN OUT=WAN
SRC=22.0.0.2 DST=192.168.100.2 PROTO=ICMP TYPE=112 CODE=113
TC_INDEX=10 CLASSID=10:2
Explanation
This log is generated when an inbound packet is dropped because the packet size
exceeds the specified bandwidth limit.
Recommended Action Ensure that the packet size is within the specified bandwidth limit.
DHCP Logs
This section explains the log messages that are generated when a host is assigned a
dynamic IP address. These messages are displayed on the DHCP Log screen (see View the
DHCP Log on page 288).
Table 118. DHCP Logs
Message 1
Message 2
Message 3
Message 4
Message 5
Message 6
Message 7
2000 Jan 1 07:27:28 [SRX5308] [dhcpd] Listening on
LPF/eth0.1/00:11:22:78:89:90/192.168.11/24
2000 Jan 1 07:27:37 [SRX5308] [dhcpd] DHCPRELEASE of 192.168.10.2 from
00:0f:1f:8f:7c:4a via eth0.1 (not found)
2000 Jan 1 07:27:47 [SRX5308] [dhcpd] DHCPDISCOVER from 00:0f:1f:8f:7c:4a
via eth0.1
2000 Jan 1 07:27:48 [SRX5308] [dhcpd] DHCPOFFER on 192.168.11.2 to
00:0f:1f:8f:7c:4a via eth0.1
2000 Jan 1 07:27:48 [SRX5308] [dhcpd] Wrote 2 leases to leases file.
2000 Jan 1 07:27:48 [SRX5308] [dhcpd] DHCPREQUEST for 192.168.11.2
(192.168.11.1) from 00:0f:1f:8f:7c:4a via eth0.1
2000 Jan 1 07:27:48 [SRX5308] [dhcpd] DHCPACK on 192.168.11.2 to
00:0f:1f:8f:7c:4a via eth0.1
System Logs and Error Messages
339
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Table 118. DHCP Logs (continued)
Explanation
Message 1: The DHCP server is listening on eth0.1.
Message 2: Release of the currently assigned IP address from the host by the
DHCP server.
Message 3: DHCP broadcast by the host is discovered by the DHCP server.
Message 4: The DHCP server offers a new IP address to the host’s current network
interface.
Message 5: Two new leases are written to the lease file.
Message 6: DHCP is requested to assign the new IP address by the host.
Message 7: DHCP acknowledgment to the current network interface from the
server on assignment of the new IP address.
Recommended Action None
System Logs and Error Messages
340
D.
Two-Factor Authentication
D
This appendix provides an overview of Two-Factor Authentication, and an example of how to
implement the WiKID solution.
This appendix contains the following sections:
•
Why Do I Need Two-Factor Authentication?
•
NETGEAR Two-Factor Authentication Solutions
Why Do I Need Two-Factor Authentication?
In today’s market, online identity theft and online fraud continue to be one of the fast-growing
cyber crime activities used by many unethical hackers and cyber criminals to steal digital
assets for financial gains. Many companies and corporations are losing millions of dollars
and running into risks of revealing their trade secrets and other proprietary information as the
results of these cyber crime activities. Security threats and hackers have become more
sophisticated, and user names, encrypted passwords, and the presence of firewalls are no
longer enough to protect the networks from being compromised. IT professionals and
security experts have recognized the need to go beyond the traditional authentication
process by introducing and requiring additional factors to the authentication process.
NETGEAR has also recognized the need to provide more than just a firewall to protect the
networks. NETGEAR has implemented a more robust authentication system known as
Two-Factor Authentication (2FA or T-FA) to help address the fast-growing network security
issues.
What Are the Benefits of Two-Factor Authentication?
•
Stronger security. Passwords cannot efficiently protect the corporate networks because
attackers can easily guess simple passwords or users cannot remember complex and
unique passwords. One-time passcode (OTP) strengthens and replaces the need to
remember complex password.
•
No need to replace existing hardware. Two-Factor Authentication can be added to
existing NETGEAR products through a firmware upgrade.
341
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
•
Quick to deploy and manage. The WiKID solution integrates seamlessly with the
NETGEAR SSL and VPN firewall products.
•
Proven regulatory compliance. Two-Factor Authentication has been used as a
mandatory authentication process for many corporations and enterprises worldwide.
What Is Two-Factor Authentication
Two-factor authentication is a security solution that enhances and strengthens security by
implementing multiple factors of the authentication process that challenge and confirm the
users’ identities before they can gain access to the network. There are several factors that
are used to validate the users to make sure that you are who you said you are. These factors
are:
•
Something you know—for example, your password or your PIN.
•
Something you have—for example, a token with generated passcode that is 6 to 8 digits
in length.
•
Something you are—for example, biometrics such as fingerprints or retinal prints.
This appendix focuses on and discusses only the first two factors, something you know and
something you have. This security method can be viewed as a two-tiered authentication
approach because it typically relies on what you know and what you have. A common
example of two-factor authentication is a bank (ATM) card that has been issued by a bank
institute:
•
The PIN to access your account is “something you know.”
•
The ATM card is “something you have.”
You need to have both of these factors to gain access to your bank account. Similar to the
way ATM cards work, access to the corporate networks and data can also be strengthened
using a combination of multiple factors such as a PIN and a token (hardware or software) to
validate the users and reduce the incidence of online identity theft.
NETGEAR Two-Factor Authentication Solutions
NETGEAR has implemented 2 Two-Factor Authentication solutions from WiKID. WiKID is the
software-based token solution. So instead of using only Windows Active Directory or LDAP
as the authentication server, administrators now have the option to use WiKID to perform
Two-Factor Authentication on NETGEAR SSL and VPN firewall products.
The WiKID solution is based on a request-response architecture where a one-time passcode
(OTP), which is time-synchronized with the authentication server, is generated and sent to
the user after the validity of a user credential has been confirmed by the server.
The request-response architecture is capable of self-service initialization by end users,
dramatically reducing implementation and maintenance costs. Here is an example of how
WiKID works.
Two-Factor Authentication
342
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308

To use WiKID (for end users):
1. Launch the WiKID token software, enter the PIN that has been provided (something the
user knows), and then click Continue to receive the OTP from the WiKID authentication
server:
Figure 202.
2. A one-time passcode (something the user has) is generated.
Figure 203.
Note: The one-time passcode is time-synchronized to the authentication
server so that the OTP can be used only once and needs to be used
before the expiration time. If a user does not use this passcode
before it is expired, the user needs to go through the request
process again to generate a new OTP.
3. Proceed to the 2 Factor Authentication login screen and enter the one-time passcode as the
login password.
Two-Factor Authentication
343
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Figure 204.
Two-Factor Authentication
344
E.
Notification of Compliance
N ETGE A R Wire d P ro d uct s
E
Regulatory Compliance Information
This section includes user requirements for operating this product in accordance with National
laws for usage of radio spectrum and operation of radio devices. Failure of the end-user to
comply with the applicable requirements may result in unlawful operation and adverse action
against the end-user by the applicable National regulatory authority.
This product's firmware limits operation to only the channels allowed in a particular Region or
Country. Therefore, all options described in this user's guide may not be available in your version
of the product.
FCC Requirements for Operation in the United States
FCC Information to User
This product does not contain any user serviceable components and is to be used with
approved antennas only. Any product changes or modifications will invalidate all applicable
regulatory certifications and approvals.
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions: (1) This device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must
accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
FCC Guidelines for Human Exposure
This equipment complies with FCC radiation exposure limits set forth for an uncontrolled
environment. This equipment should be installed and operated with minimum distance of 20
cm between the radiator and your body.
This transmitter must not be co-located or operating in conjunction with any other antenna or
transmitter.
FCC Declaration Of Conformity
We, NETGEAR, Inc., 350 East Plumeria Drive, San Jose, CA 95134, declare under our sole
responsibility that the ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308 complies with
Part 15 of FCC Rules.
Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
•
•
This device may not cause harmful interference, and
This device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause
undesired operation.
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ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
FCC Radio Frequency Interference Warnings & Instructions
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital
device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide
reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This
equipment uses and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in
accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications.
However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation.
If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can
be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct
the interference by one or more of the following methods:
•
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
•
Increase the separation between the equipment and the receiver.
•
Connect the equipment into an electrical outlet on a circuit different from that which the
radio receiver is connected.
•
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
Modifications made to the product, unless expressly approved by NETGEAR, Inc., could void
the user's right to operate the equipment.
Canadian Department of Communications Radio Interference Regulations
This digital apparatus, ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308, does not
exceed the Class B limits for radio-noise emissions from digital apparatus as set out in the Radio
Interference Regulations of the Canadian Department of Communications.
This Class [B] digital apparatus complies with Canadian ICES-003.
Cet appareil numérique de la classe [B] est conforme à la norme NMB-003 du Canada.
European Union
The ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308 complies with essential
requirements of EU EMC Directive 2004/108/EC and Low Voltage Directive 2006/95/EC as
supported by applying the following test methods and standards:
•
EN55022: 2006 / A1: 2007
•
EN55024: 1998 / A1: 2001 / A2 : 2003
•
EN60950-1: 2005 2nd Edition
•
EN 61000-3-2:2006
•
EN 61000-3-3:1995 w/A1: 2001+A2: 2005
GPL License Agreement
GPL may be included in this product; to view the GPL license agreement go to
ftp://downloads.netgear.com/files/GPLnotice.pdf.
For GNU General Public License (GPL) related information, please visit
http://support.netgear.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/2649.
Notification of Compliance
346
Index
Numerics
for IPSec VPN
pre-shared key 138, 142, 164
RSA signature 164
See also RADIUS, MIAS, WiKID, NT Domain,
Active Directory, LDAP.
authentication domain 227
authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA)
174
authorative mode, NTP servers 261
auto uplink, autosensing Ethernet connections 12
auto-detecting, WAN settings 26
automatic logout 234, 250
auto-rollover mode
bandwidth capacity 242
configuring 34–35
DDNS 43
description 32
VPN IPSec 134
auto-sensing, port speed 53
10BaseT, 100BaseT, and 1000BaseT 53
3322.org 42–45
A
AAA (authentication, authorization, and accounting)
174
AC input 16
access, remote management 250
account name, PPTP and PPPoE 29, 30
action buttons (web management interface) 23
active directory 220–222
active routes 77
ActiveX
controls, blocking 123
web cache cleaner, SSL VPN 201
address reservation 72
Address Resolution Protocol) (ARP)
broadcasting packets 65
requests 67
administrator
default name and password 21
receiving logs by email 272
settings (admin) 248–250
tips, for firewall and content filtering 82
user account 227, 228
advertisement, UPnP information 133
AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) 163, 170–171,
179
agent, SNMP 255
alerts, configuring 269–273
application level gateway (ALG) 111
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)
broadcasting packets 65
requests 67
arrow (web management interface) 23
attached devices
monitoring with SNMP 254
viewing 287
attack checks, configuring 106
authentication
extended 172–176
B
backing up, configuration file 257
backup RADIUS server 175
bandwidth allocation, WAN rate control 49
bandwidth capacity 242
bandwidth limits, logging dropped packets 271
bandwidth profiles
configuring for LAN traffic 118–121
shifting traffic mix 248
banners, SSL portal 200
base distinguished name (DN), LDAP 222
blocking
ActiveX controls 123
all browsing access 124
cookies 123
domains 123, 126
floods, TCP and UDP 107–108
instant messaging applications 105
Internet sites and Java applets 123
keywords 126
newsgroups 124
ping replies
on Internet port 107
347
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
on LAN port 108
proxy (server) 123
sessions 110
sites to reduce traffic 244
traffic
scheduling of 121
when reaching LAN limit 268
when reaching WAN limit 265
web components 123, 126
browsers
user login policies 232
web management interface 20
browsing access, blocking 124
button, reset 16
buttons (web management interface) 23
counter
LAN traffic 266
WAN traffic 263
critical messages, syslog 273
CRL (Certificate Revocation List) 235, 241
crossover cable 12, 295
CSR (certificate signing request) 237
custom services, firewall 83, 112
D
Data Encryption Standard (DES) 163, 170–171, 179
database, local users 222
date
settings 261
troubleshooting 300
daylight savings time 261
DDNS (dynamic DNS), configuring 42–45
Dead Peer Detection (DPD) 164, 193
debug messages, syslog 273
defaults
factory 17, 258, 299, 302
IPSec VPN Wizard 137
login time-out 22
MTU 53
password 21, 299
PVID 56
restoring 299
user name 21
VLAN 58
VPN firewall
IP address 61
subnet mask 61
demilitarized zone. See DMZ.
denial of service (DoS) attacks 11, 87, 107–108
DES (Data Encryption Standard) 163, 170–171, 179
DH (Diffie-Hellman) group 164, 172, 179
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
automatic configuration of devices 12
DNS servers, IP addresses 62, 74
domain name 62, 74
LDAP server 63, 75
lease
renewing or releasing 286
time 62, 74
log messages, explanation 339
logs, viewing 288
relay 58, 62, 74
server 58, 61, 74
settings 61, 74
VLANs 58
WINS server 62, 74
diagnostics 289
C
CA (certification authority) 166, 235
cache control and cleaner 201
capturing packets, diagnostics 291
category 5 cable 307
Certificate Revocation List (CRL) 235, 241
certificate signing request (CSR) 237
certificates, managing 234–241
certification authority (CA) 166, 235
CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol).
See also RADIUS-CHAP, MIAS-CHAP, or
WiKID-CHAP. 220
classical routing mode, configuring 33
cleaning cache 201
CLI (command-line interface) 16, 253
client identifier 31
clients, SSL VPN 205
command-line interface (CLI) 16, 253
community string, SNMP 255
compatibility, protocols and standards 303
compliance
notification of 345
regulatory 304
configuration file, managing 256–260
configuration menu (web management interface) 23
configuration, default settings 302
congestion priority, WAN QoS profile 49
connection, WAN, speed and type 54
console port 16
content filtering
about 11
blocking Internet sites and Java applets 123
configuring 124–126
cookies, blocking 123
348
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) 46, 117
Diffie-Hellman (DH) group 164, 172, 179
DiffServ (Differentiated Services)
LAN QoS 117
WAN QoS 46
digital certificates. See certificates.
disabling ping replies 108
DMZ (demilitarized zone)
configuring 72–75
inbound rules
DMZ WAN 97
LAN DMZ 100
increasing traffic 247
outbound rules
DMZ WAN 96
LAN DMZ 99
port 12, 72
DNS (domain name server)
automatic configuration of PCs 12
dynamic, configuring 42–45
looking up an address 290
ModeConfig operation 179
proxy 13, 59, 63, 75
queries, auto-rollover 34
server IP addresses 62
DMZ (demilitarized zone) 74
Internet connection 31
SSL VPN client 206
documentation, online 301
domain name server, See DNS
domain name, PPTP and PPPoE 29, 30
domains
blocking 123
configuring 219–223
trusted 126
user authentication 227
DoS (denial of service) attacks 11, 87, 107–108
downloading
firmware 259
SSL certificate 21
DPD (Dead Peer Detection) 164, 193
DSCP (Differentiated Services Code Point) 46, 117
duplex, half and full 53
dynamic DNS (DDNS), configuring 42–45
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. See DHCP. 12
dynamically assigned IP addresses 31
DynDNS.org 42–45
emails, sending logs 272
emergency messages, syslog 273
environmental specifications 304
error messages, syslog 273
error messages, understanding 322
Ethernet ports 14
exchange mode, IKE policies 160, 162
exposed hosts 43, 104
extended authentication (XAUTH), configuring 172–176
F
factory default settings
reverting to 258
specifications 302
failover attempts, DNS lookup or ping 36
failover protection. See auto-rollover mode.
failure detection method 34–36
filtering, NAT for tunnels 108
firewall
attack checks 106
connecting to the Internet 308
custom services 83, 112
default settings 303
inbound rules. See inbound rules.
LAN bandwidth profiles 118–121
outbound rules. See outbound rules.
overview 11
QoS LAN profiles 116–118
rules
inbound. See inbound rules.
outbound. See outbound rules.
numbers and types supported 82
order of precedence 90
scheduling 121
firmware
downloading and upgrading 259
versions 275
FQDNs (fully qualified domain names)
auto-rollover mode and load balancing mode 43
multiple WAN ports 134–135, 306, 313
SSL VPN, port forwarding 198
front panel
LEDs 15
ports 14
fully qualified domain names. See FQDNs.
G
E
gateway IP address, ISP 31
group policies, precedence 210
groups
for VPN policies 224
e-commerce, using SSL connections 196
edge device 172–173
349
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
increasing WAN traffic limit 265
info messages, syslog 273
Installation Guide 19
instant messaging, blocking applications 105
interface specifications 304
Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) 78
Internet
blocking sites 123
configuration requirements 308
connection
auto-detecting 25
default settings 302
manually configuring 28
filtering content 123
form to save connection information 309
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) 108
Internet Key Exchange. See IKE policies.
Internet LED 16
Internet Service Provider. See ISP.
inter-routing VLANs 63
IP addresses 203
auto-generated 295
default 61
DHCP, address pool 62, 74
DMZ port 73
DNS servers 31, 62, 74
dynamically assigned 31
gateway, ISP 31
LAN, multi-home 65
MAC binding 128
port forwarding, SSL VPN 203
reserved 72
secondary
LAN 65
WAN 41
static or permanent 27, 31
subnet mask
default 61
DMZ port 73
WAN aliases 41
IP groups
assigning in inbound rules 89
assigning in outbound rules 85
creating 114
IP precedence, QoS 117
IP security. See IPSec hosts (XAUTH), IPSec VPN
Wizard, IPSec VPN.
IP/MAC binding 128
IPSec hosts (XAUTH) 172–173
IPSec VPN
overview 11
specifications 304
user account 227, 228
IP groups
assigning in inbound rules 89
assigning in outbound rules 85
creating 114
LAN groups
assigning in inbound rules 89
assigning in outbound rules 85
managing 69–71
guests, user account 227–228
GUI 23
H
hardware
front panel ports 14
rear panel components 16
requirements 307
help button (web management interface) 24
host names, SSL VPN port forwarding 204
hosts
exposed, increasing traffic 247
exposed, specifying 104
name resolution 204
public web server 101
HTTP meta tags 201
HTTPS management 252
I
ICMP
time-out 110
type 113
idle time-out 234, 250
IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) 108
IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol) 78
IKE (Internet Key Exchange) policies
managing 159–165
ModeConfig configuration 179
inbound rules
configuring 88
default 82
DMZ WAN 97
examples 101
increasing traffic 245
LAN DMZ 100
LAN WAN 94
order of precedence 90
overview 86
scheduling 121
settings 88
increasing traffic
features 245–248
port forwarding and DoS attack 87
350
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
search base, search objects 63, 75
server, DHCP 63, 75
VLANs 59
LEDs
explanation of 14–16
troubleshooting 294–295
licenses, ProSafe VPN Client software 11
limits
monthly LAN traffic volume 268
monthly WAN traffic volume 265
number of sessions 109
load balancing mode
bandwidth capacity 242
configuring 36–38
DDNS 43
description 32
VPN IPSec 134
local area network. See LAN.
local user database 222
location, placement of the VPN firewall 17
lock, security 16
log messages (system logs and error messages)
DHCP 339
other events 338
routing 336
system 323
understanding 322
logged out, automatically 234, 250
logging
configuring 269–274
terms in log messages 322
login default settings 302
login policies
administrators 250
restricting 230–232
login time-out
changing 233, 248
default 22
looking up DNS addresses 290
See also VPN tunnels
IPSec VPN logs 158
IPSec VPN Wizard
client-to-gateway tunnels, setting up 141
default settings 137
description 13
gateway-to-gateway tunnels, setting up 136
ISAKMP identifier 163
ISP
connection, troubleshooting 296
gateway IP address 31
login 29
J
Java applets, blocking 123
K
keep-alives, VPN tunnels 169, 192
keywords, blocking 126
kit, rack mounting 18
knowledge base 301
L
LAN
bandwidth capacity 242
default port MAC addresses 279
default settings 302
Known PCs and Devices table 69, 287
network database 67–71, 287
secondary IP addresses 65
security checks 108
testing the LAN path 298
LAN groups
assigning in inbound rules 89
assigning in outbound rules 85
managing 69–71
LAN inbound rules
LAN DMZ 100
LAN WAN 94
LAN LEDs 15, 295
LAN outbound rules
LAN DMZ 99
LAN WAN 93
LAN ports
explanation 14
status, viewing 277
LAN profiles, QoS 116–118
LAN traffic meter (or counter) 266
LDAP
base distinguished name (DN) 222
domains 220–222
M
MAC addresses
blocked, adding 127
configuring 28, 53
defaults, LAN and WAN ports 279
filtering 126
format 53, 127
IP binding 128
spoofing 297
VLANs 65
main navigation menu (web management interface) 23
management default settings 303
351
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
NT Domain 220–222
NTP (Network Time Protocol)
modes and servers 261
troubleshooting 300
maximum transmission unit (MTU) 53
MD5 (Message-Digest algorithm 5)
IKE polices 163
ModeConfig 179
RIP-2 79
self certificate requests 238
VPN policies 171
Media Access Control. See MAC addresses.
membership, ports, VLAN 61, 281
Message-Digest algorithm 5. See MD5.
meta tags, HTTP 201
meter
LAN traffic 266
WAN traffic 263
metric, static routes 77
MIAS (Microsoft Internet Authentication Service)
220–222
ModeConfig operation, configuring 176–183
MTU (maximum transmission unit) 53
multicast pass-through 108
multi-home LAN IP addresses 65
multiple WAN ports
auto-rollover and load balancing 310–314
FQDNs 43, 134–135, 306, 313
network, planning 306
overview 10
O
objects, SSL VPN 210
one-time passcode (OTP) 341–342
online documentation 301
online games, DMZ port 72
option arrow (web management interface) 23
Oray.net 42–45
order of precedence, firewall rules 90
other event log messages 338
OTP (one-time passcode) 341–342
outbound rules
configuring 84
default 82
DMZ WAN 96
examples 105
LAN DMZ 99
LAN WAN 93
order of precedence 90
overview 83
reducing traffic 243
scheduling 121
service blocking 83
settings 84
N
NAS (Network Access Server) 175
NAT (Network Address Translation)
description 12
filtering for tunnels 108
firewall, use with 81
mapping, one-to-one 33, 102
mode, configuring 33
status, viewing 278
NetBIOS, VPN tunnels 169, 194
Network Access Server (NAS) 175
Network Address Translation. See NAT.
network configuration requirements 308
network database
advantages 67
Known PCs and Devices table 69–70, 287
managing 67–71
network planning for multiple WAN ports 306
network resources and objects, SSL VPN 208–210
Network Time Protocol (NTP)
modes and servers 261
troubleshooting 300
newsgroups, blocking 124
notice messages, syslog 273
P
package contents, VPN firewall 14
packet matching and marking 48–49
packets
accepted and dropped, configuring logs 271
capturing, diagnostics 291
collided, received, and transmitted 280
dropped, because of session limits 110
PAP (Password Authentication Protocol). See also
RADIUS-PAP, MIAS-PAP, or WiKID-PAP. 220
pass-through, multicast 108
passwords
changing 233–234, 248–249
default 21
RADIUS, WiKID, MIAS 222
restoring 299
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS) 172, 179
performance management 242
permanent IP address 27, 31
PFS (Perfect Forward Secrecy) 172, 179
physical specifications 303
352
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
pinging
auto-rollover 34
responding on Internet ports 107
responding on LAN ports 108
troubleshooting TCP/IP 298
using the ping utility 289
pinouts, console port 16
placement, location of the VPN firewall 17
plug and play, configuring 132
policies
IKE
managing 159–165
ModeConfig operation, configuring 179
IPSec VPN
automatically generated 165
groups, configuring 224
managing 159
manually generated 165
SSL VPN, managing 210–215
policy hierarchy 210
pools, ModeConfig operation 178
port filtering
reducing traffic 243
rules 83
port forwarding
firewall rules 83–86
reducing traffic 245
port triggering
configuring 130–132
increasing traffic 246
status monitoring 132, 285
Port VLAN Identifier (PVID) 56
portals, SSL VPN 196–201, 216–218
ports
front panel and rear panel 14–16
numbers
for port triggering 130
for services 112
for SSL VPN port forwarding 203
speed 53
VLAN membership
configuring 61
viewing 281
Power LED 15, 294
power receptacle 16
power specifications, adapter 303
PPP connections, SSL 197
PPPoE and PPTP, configuring 27–30
pre-shared key 138, 142, 164
primary RADIUS server 175
primary WAN mode
bandwidth capacity 242
description 32
priority
LAN QoS profile 118
WAN QoS profile 50
private routes 77
profiles
LAN bandwidth 118
LAN QoS 116
WAN QoS 46
ProSafe VPN Client software
configuring 143, 183
license 11
protection, from common attacks 106
protocol binding, configuring 36–40
protocols
compatibilities 303
RIP 12
service numbers 112
traffic volume by protocol 266
proxy (server), blocking 123
public web server, hosting 101
PVID (Port VLAN Identifier) 56
Q
QoS (Quality of Service)
LAN profiles 116–118
shifting the LAN traffic mix 247
WAN profiles 46–51
queue, priority
LAN traffic 118
WAN traffic 50
R
rack mounting kit 18
RADIUS
CHAP and PAP 165, 172–174, 222
edge device 172
RADIUS-MSCHAP(v2) 222
server and client configuration 174–176
rate control, WAN QoS profile 47
rate-limiting, traffic 54
read-only access 227
rebooting, remotely 291
reducing traffic, features 243–245
regulatory compliance 304
relay gateway, DHCP 62, 74
Remote Authentication Dial In User Service. See
RADIUS.
remote management, configuring 250–253
remote users, automatically assigning addresses 176
353
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
requirements, hardware 307
reserved IP addresses 72
reset button 16
restarting the traffic meter (or counter)
LAN traffic 268
WAN traffic 265
restoring the configuration file 258
retry interval, DNS lookup or ping 36
reverting to factory defaults 258
RFC 1349 116
RFC 1700 112
RFC 2865 174
RIP (Routing Information Protocol), configuring 78–80
Road Warrior (client-to-gateway) 314
round-robin load balancing 37
routes
active and private 77
tracing 290
Routing Information Protocol (RIP), configuring 78–80
routing log messages, explanation 336
routing table, displaying 290
RSA signatures 164
rules, See inbound rules, outbound rules.
logging dropped packets 271
severities, syslog 273
SHA-1 (Secure Hash Algorithm 1)
IKE policies 163
ModeConfig 179
self certificate requests 238
VPN policies 171
signature key length, certificates 239
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
configuring 254–256
description 13
single WAN port mode
bandwidth capacity 242
description 32
SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) 111
sniffer 295
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
configuring 254–256
description 13
software
downloading and upgrading 259
versions 275
source MAC filtering
configuring MAC addresses 126
logging matched packets 271
reducing traffic 245
specifications, physical and technical 303
speed, ports 53
SPI (Security Parameters Index) 170
SPI (stateful packet inspection) 11, 81, 170
split tunnel, SSL VPN 205
spoofing, MAC addresses 297
SSL certificate, warning and downloading 21
SSL VPN
ActiveX-based client 196
cache control and cleaner 201
certificates supported 305
clients and routes, configuring 205–208
configuration steps 197
description 11
domains, groups, and users 202
FQDNs, port forwarding 198
logs 218
network resources and objects 208–210
policies, managing 210–215
port forwarding
configuring 202–205
description 197
portals
accessing 216–218
creating 198–201
specifications 305
split tunnel 205
S
SA (security association)
IKE policies 163
IPSec VPN Wizard 136
ModeConfig 179
VPN connection status 158, 283
VPN policies 171
scheduling firewall rules 121
search base, LDAP 63, 75
secondary RADIUS server 175
Secure Hash Algorithm 1. See SHA-1.
Secure Sockets Layer. See SSL VPN.
security alert 237
security association. See SA.
security features, overview 12
security lock 16
Security Parameters Index (SPI) 170
self-signed certificates 235–237
service blocking
reducing traffic 243
rules 83
service numbers, common protocols 112
services, customizing 83, 112
Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) 111
session limits
configuring 109
354
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
status 218
tunnel description 196
user account 227–228
user portal 217
viewing logs 283
stateful packet inspection (SPI) 11, 81, 170
static IP address 27, 31
static routes
configuring 75–77
example 80
statistics, viewing 279
status screens, viewing 274
stealth mode 107
stratum, NTP servers 261
submenu tabs (web management interface) 23
subnet masks
default 61
DMZ port 73
SYN flood 107
syslog and syslog server, configuring 269–273
system
date and time settings 260
details, viewing 277
status, viewing 275
updating 259
system log messages, explanation 323
WAN QoS profile 46
tracert, using with DDNS 253
tracing a route (traceroute) 290
trademarks 2
traffic
blocking
configuring content filtering 123
reaching LAN limit 268
reaching WAN limit 265
inbound (planning) 310
increasing WAN limit 265
management 242
meter (or counter)
LAN 266
WAN 263
rate-limiting 54
using bandwidth profiles 248
using QoS 247
volume
increasing 245
limiting LAN traffic 268
limiting WAN traffic 265
reducing 243
viewing by protocol 266
traps, SNMP 255
troubleshooting
basic functioning 294
browsers 296
configuration settings, using sniffer 295
date and time 300
ISP connection 296
LEDs 294–295
NTP 300
remote management 253
testing the LAN path 298
testing your setup 299
time-out error 296
using the utilities 289
web management interface 295
trusted certificates 235–236
trusted domains 126
Two-Factor Authentication (WiKID)
CHAP and PAP 220–222
overview 341–344
Type of Service. See ToS.
TZO.com 42–45
T
table buttons (web management interface) 24
tabs, submenu (web management interface) 23
tags, meta 201
TCP
flood, blocking 107
time-out 110
TCP/IP, network, troubleshooting 298
technical specifications 303
technical support 2
Telnet, management 252
Test LED 15, 294
time
settings 261
troubleshooting 300
time-out
error, troubleshooting 296
sessions 110
tips for administrators, firewall and content filtering 82
ToS (Type of Service)
inbound rules 89
LAN QoS profile 117
outbound rules 85
QoS support 13
U
UDP
flood blocking 108
time-out 110
upgrading firmware 259
355
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
UPnP (Universal Plug and Play), configuring 132
user accounts, configuring 227
user database 172
user name, default 21
user portal 217
user types 228, 233
users
active VPN users 281
administrator (admin), settings 248–250
assigned groups 228
login policies 229–232
passwords and login time-out, changing 233
users policies, SSL VPN 210–215
load balancing 318
single WAN port mode 317
using IPSec VPN Wizard 136
IKE policies
managing 159–165
ModeConfig 179
increasing traffic 247
IPSec VPN policies
automatically generated 165
groups, configuring 224
managing 159
manually generated 165
keep-alives 169, 192
load balancing mode 135
logs, viewing 283
NetBIOS 169, 194
pass-through (IPSec, PPTP, L2TP) 108
planning 310
pre-shared key 138, 142, 164
Road Warrior
auto-rollover 315
load balancing 316
single WAN port mode 315
rollover 138, 142, 169
RSA signature 164
SSL. See SSL VPN.
testing connections 155
tunnel connection status 282
VPN Telecommuter
auto-rollover 319
load balancing 320
single WAN port mode 319
XAUTH 172–176
VPNC (Virtual Private Network Consortium) 13, 136
V
VCI (vendor class identifier) 31
versions, firmware 275
videoconferencing
DMZ port 72
from restricted address 101
virtual LAN. See VLAN.
Virtual Private Network Consortium (VPCN) 13, 136
virtual private network. See VPN tunnels.
VLANs
configuring and assigning 57–63
DHCP options 58
DHCP server and DHCP relay, configuring 61
LDAP server, configuring 63
overview 55
port membership
configuring 61
viewing 281
status, viewing 280
VoIP (voice over IP) sessions 111
VPN client
Configuration Wizard, using 144
configuring manually 148
Mode Config tunnel, opening 190
Mode Config, configuring 183
tunnel, opening 155
VPN IPSec Wizard. See IPSec VPN Wizard
VPN tunnels
active users 281
auto-rollover mode 135
client policy, creating 144
client-to-gateway, using IPSec VPN Wizard 141
connection status 157
DPD 193
failover 138, 142, 169
FQDNs 135, 313
gateway-to-gateway
auto-rollover 317
W
WAN
advanced settings 53
auto-rollover mode
configuring 34–35
DDNS 43
description 32
VPN IPSec 134
bandwidth capacity 242
classical routing mode 33
connection speed and type 54
connection type, viewing 278
default port MAC addresses 279
failure detection method 34–36
load balancing mode
configuring 36–38
DDNS 43
description 32
356
ProSafe Gigabit Quad WAN SSL VPN Firewall SRX5308
VPN IPSec 134
mode status, viewing 278
NAT mode 33
secondary IP addresses 41
single port mode 32
WAN aliases 41
WAN inbound rules
DMZ WAN 97
LAN WAN 94
WAN interfaces, primary and backup 34
WAN LEDs 16, 295
WAN outbound rules
DMZ WAN 96
LAN WAN 93
WAN ports
connection status 286
description 10, 14
WAN profiles, QoS 46–51
WAN settings
auto-detecting 26
manually configuring 28
WAN status 27, 285, 297
WAN traffic meter (or counter) 263, 264
warning messages, syslog 273
warning, SSL certificate 21
web components, blocking 123, 126
web management interface
description 23
troubleshooting 295
weighted load balancing 37
WiKID
CHAP and PAP 220–222
overview 341–344
WINS server
DHCP 62, 74
ModeConfig operation 178
wizard. See Setup Wizard, IPSec VPN Wizard, SSL
VPN Wizard.
X
XAUTH (extended authentication) 172–176
357
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