252573168-SZ-2498-2600-ENGINE Mahindra - Team-BHP

252573168-SZ-2498-2600-ENGINE Mahindra - Team-BHP

SZ 2498 ENGINE

Mahindra institute of learning excellence, Nasik

ABBREVATION USED

SZ 2498 Plus : Timing - Chain Drive

2498

TCI

: CC of engine

: Turbo charged intercool

The SZ 2498 TCI engine is a 4-cylinder, inline, overhead valve, water-cooled, direct injection engine.

Specification-SZ 2498

No. of cylinders

Bore

Stroke

Displacement

Compression ratio

Power

Torque

Type of operation

Timing mechanism

Cooling System

Lubrication System :

:

:

:

:

:

:

04

94mm

90mm

2498cc

:

:

18.5 : 1

105 HP at 3800 RPM

:

: 238 Nm at 1700 to 1900 RPM

Four stroke , Direct injection

Chain drive [ Plus]

Pressurised

Centrifugal water pump

Force feed lubrication

Maintenance schedule

Change engine oil & filter [ Maximile Premium oil -10K ]

OR Viscosity index 15W 40. If API CG4 grade oil then.

5000km ,10000km & then every 10,000km

Refill fresh coolant [ Maximile Coolant ]

Once in a year / After every 40,000 kms

Change primary fuel filter

10000km, 20000kms & then every 10000kms

Change secondary fuel filter

20000km, 40000kms & then every 20000kms

Remove drain plug & Clean fuel tank

After every 80,000Kms

Check & drain water from filter

Every 10,000 Kms

Adjust fan belt tension as per value

During PDI & every service

Clean air filter

Every 10000Kms / Service indicator shows red band

Change air cleaner cartridge

At every 40,000kms / Service indicator shows red band even after cleaning

Adjust tappet

5000Km[ If required ], 20000 Km & then every 20000Km

Check vacuum pipe, PCVS pipe, Oil hoses & LDA connection

PDI & then every 10,000 Km

Check Radiator coolant hose connection, Heater connection

PDI & then every 5000km.

Engine oil

Alternate oil : Oil confirming to API CG4 grade with Viscosity index 15W 40. If API CF4 grade oil used then oil change interval is after Every 5000Kms.

Engine Coolant

Maximile Coolant should be used for SZ 2600/ SZ

2600 Plus engine.

Note: No alternate coolant is available in the market. Used of any other coolant may deteriorate liner ‘O’ rings which may lead to coolant & oil mixing. This coolant is premixed with water. Total coolant capacity is 9.3 lit..

Sealant

RTV silicon sealant-Rhodoseal to be used

: Between ladder frame & block.

: Between Rear oil seal retainer & block.

All other places

: use Loctite 547

Rust cleaning solution [ For Turbo charger mounting Nut, EGR pipe Nut etc.]

: WD 40

General construction

All engine internal parts remain same as SZ 2600 except crankshaft, connecting rod, FIP & nozzles

SZ 2600 ENGINE

Mahindra institute of learning excellence, Nasik

ABBREVATION USED

SZ 2600 Plus : Timing - Chain Drive

2600

TCI

: CC of engine

: Turbo charged intercool

The model SZ 2600 TCI engine is a 4-cylinder, in-line, overhead valve, water-cooled, direct injection engine.

Specification-SZ 2600/SZ 2600 Plus

No. of cylinders

Bore

Stroke

Displacement

Compression ratio

Type of operation

Power

Max Torque

Timing mechanism

Cooling System

Lubrication System :

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

04

94mm

94mm

2609 cc

18.5 : 1

Four stroke , Direct injection

109bhp @ 3800rpm

26.00 Kg-m

Chain drive [ Plus]

Pressurised

Centrifugal water pump

Force feed lubrication

Maintenance schedule

Change engine oil & filter [ Maximile Premium oil -10K ]

5000km ,10000km & then every 10,000km

Refill fresh coolant [ Maximile Coolant ]

Once in a year / After every 40,000 kms

Change primary fuel filter

10000km, 20000kms & then every 10000kms

Change secondary fuel filter

20000km, 40000kms & then every 20000kms

Remove drain plug & Clean fuel tank

After every 80,000Kms

Check & drain water from filter

Every 10,000 Kms

Adjust fan belt tension as per value

During PDI & every service

Clean air filter

Every 10000Kms / Service indicator shows red band

Change air cleaner cartridge

At every 40,000kms / Service indicator shows red band even after cleaning

Adjust tappet

5000Km[ If required ], 20000 Km & then every 20000Km

Check vacuum pipe, PCVS pipe, Oil hoses & LDA connection

PDI & then every 10,000 Km

Check Radiator coolant hose connection, Heater connection

PDI & then every 5000km.

Engine oil

Maximile premium [10k] oil should be used for SZ

2600/ SZ 2600 Plus engine.

Alternate oil : Oil confirming to API CG4 grade with Viscosity index 15W 40. If API CF4 grade oil used then oil change interval is after Every 5000Kms.

Engine Coolant

Maximile Coolant should be used for SZ 2600/ SZ

2600 Plus engine.

Note: No alternate coolant is available in the market. Used of any other coolant may deteriorate liner ‘O’ rings which may lead to coolant & oil mixing. This coolant is premixed with water. Total coolant capacity is 9.3 lit..

Sealant

RTV silicon sealant-Rhodoseal to be used

: Between ladder frame & block.

: Between Rear oil seal retainer & block.

All other places

: use Loctite 547

Rust cleaning solution [ For Turbo charger mounting Nut, EGR pipe Nut etc.]

: WD 40

GENERAL CONSTRUCTION

Block

Replaceable wet type liner , Inline cylinder arrangement

Chain Drive [ Orange colour]

Cylinder head

Height of cylinder head : 97.70mm to 98.30mm

Min. cylinder head height : 97.40mm

97.70 - 98.30 mm

Cylinder head Gasket

Type : Multilayer steel gasket

Gives uniform sealing on surface area.

Note : Do not use any oil or shellac on the cylinder head gasket or on block surface or on cylinder head surface.Do not reused the gasket even if it appears to be good.

Head gasket position : Assemble gasket with lettering facing upward.

Cylinder block warpage

Standard limit : 0.07mm

Service limit : 0.10mm max.

Cylinder head warpage

Standard limit : 0.05mm

Service limit : 0.10mm max.

Ladder frame

Support block from bottom side.

Act as a barrier between rotating crankshaft & returning oil to

control oil mist formation.

Reduces engine noise & vibration.

Piston

Piston : Re-entrant bowl type

Max weight difference allowed : +/- 5 gms

Diameter grading Weight grading

Piston pin

Type : Full floating. Surface hardened & ground

Diameter : 32.00 mm

Top

Middle

Bottom

Piston rings

: Keystoned shaped. [ Top mark ]

: Oil Scrapper ring - Taper faced [ Top mark ]

: Conformable type oil ring

Piston rings

Ring gap [ Standard ]

Top :

Middle :

0.35 to 0.55mm

( 14 to 22 Thou)

0.80 to 1.05mm

( 32 to 42 Thou)

0.25 to 0.55mm Bottom :

( 10 to 22 Thou)

Ring gap [ Service limit ]

Top :

Middle :

Botom

0.90mm ( 36 Thou )

1.50mm ( 60 Thou )

: 0.90mm ( 36 Thou )

Note : While fitting the piston rings ensure that the ring end gap are straggered in 180

0

Piston ring to piston groove clearance

Standard limit

Top :

Middle :

Botom

0.11 to 0.15mm

0.05 to 0.09mm

: 0.04 to 0.07mm

Service limit

0.25mm

0.15mm

0.15mm

Liner

Liner : Replaceable wet type liner.

Coolant & oil jacket are separated by ‘O’ rings.

Both ‘O’ rings are same .

Viton base rubber is used.

Liner projection from block surface : 0.03mm to 0.09mm

Note : Check liner projection without ‘O’ rings.

Connecting rod

Identification No : Punched on connecting rod cap viz. 1,2,3,4

No. 1 start from Fan side.

Also help for cap positioning.

Identification number

Weight grading mark : Punched on connecting rod cap viz. F, G

H,I,……T,U.

Recommended for service replacement

: Grade ‘M’

Weight grading mark

Connecting rod side play : 0.10mm to 0.30mm ( 4 to 12 thou)

Crank pin journal

Std size of crank pin journal :

1 st u/s 0.25 Crank pin journal :

2 nd u/s 0.50

Crank pin journal :

3 rd u/s 0.75 Crank pin journal :

52.98 to 53.00mm

52.73 to 52.75mm

52.48 to 52.50mm

52.23 to 52.25mm

Crank shaft main journal

Std size of main journal

1 st u/s 0.25 main journal

2 nd u/s 0.50

main journal

3 rd u/s 0.75 main journal :

:

:

: 58.98 to 59.00mm

58.73 to 58.75mm

58.48 to 58.50mm

58.23 to 58.25mm

Main bearing Cap

Identification mark i.e. 1 to 5 is punched on main bearing cap.

No 1 cap start from fan side.

Main bearing cap position : Projection on block & Cap is provided to avoid wrong fitments of Main bearing cap.

Projection on block

Projection on cap

Crank shaft end float

Standard

Service limit :

: 0.10 mm to 0.37 mm ( 4 to 15 thou)

0.50mm ( 20thou )

End float is adjusted by using thrust washer.

Thrust washer on cap have locating lips.

Oil grooves faces outer side

Crankshaft bearing removal

MST:543

MST:577

Crankshaft bearing pressing

MST:544

Cam shaft

Axial clearance of cam shaft

Standard : 0.10 to 0.30 mm

Service limit : 0.40 mm

Cam shaft bush to cam journal clearance

Standard : 0.02 to 0.075 mm

Service limit : 0.10 mm

Cam shaft runout : 0.01mm [ max ]

Camlobe lift

Standard :

Service limit :

Inlet

6.08 mm

5.58 mm

Exhaust

6.91 mm

6.41 mm

Cam shaft thrust plate mounting

: While assembling the cam shaft thrust plate ensure that the vertical groove will face towards gear / sprocket.

Gear / Sprocket side

Cam bush side

Cam shaft identification

On chain drive cam shaft letter ‘CHAIN DRIVE’ in forged on cam shaft..

Tappets

Inner dia of tappet hole in crankcase :

Tappet to tappet hole clearance

Standard limit

Service limit :

:

24.48mm

0.075mm to 0.02mm

0.10mm

Oil return hole

Flywheel

Flat ness

Standard limit : 0.05mm[max]

Service limit : 0.10mm[max]

Run out

Standard limit : 0.05mm

Service limit : 0.10mm

Valve,Guide & spring

Valve seat angle : 44

0

45’ to 45

0

Valve stem OD [ Inlet & exhaust valve]

: 6.95mm to 7.10mm

Clearance between valve & valve guide.

Inlet valve

Exhaust valve

:

:

0.03mm to 0.07mm

0.05mm to 0.09mm

Thickness of valve head

Standard limit : 2.00mm

Service limit : 1.50mm

Valve & valve lock

Valve spring free length

: 53.60mm [ Standard limit ]

50.60 mm[ Service limit ]

Valve spring is variable pitch spring. While assembling ensure that the closer pitch should face towards head side.[ Paint marking is given for identification]

Closer pitch

Paint marking

Push rod

Push rod bent

Standard limit : 0.25 mm[ max.]

Service limit : 0.40 mm

Viscous fan drive

Uses fluid coupling, which drives the fan blade by means of silicon fluid.

The fan drive has to be engaged only periodically,between

5 to 10% of the normal operating conditions.

Bi-metal coil senses the air temperature behind the radiator.

The VFD assembly should be kept in either vertical plane or in horizontal plane with bimetallic strip facing down.

Note : If store in horizontal position resting on the nut face then the silicon fluid will flow down to the bearing assembly

& result in contamination of the bearing’s lubricant.

Temperature sensor

Nut

VFD Checking

To check if the VFD is operating itself or not. Let the engine temperature go near the red band. Stop the engine. The moment the engine is stopped the fan blade should also stop rotating. If the fan blade is still rotating then the VFD is not engaged.

To confirmed the VFD fan is engaged or not follow the below procedure.

:When the temperature reaches to app. 105

0

C [1-2 ‘O’

Clock position of needle] , run the engine at around 1600 rpm.

That time the fan pulley speed is appr. 2000 rpm. Check the fan speed by using non contact type tachometer. It should be around 1800 rpm.

Oil filter

Ensure that the oil retaining seal is present inside the filter.

Oil retaining seal retained oil inside the filter even after engine is switch off.

Oil cooler

Control the oil temperature.

Uses engine coolant as a cooling media for hot oil.

Oil cooler made by vacuum brazing process

Copper traces on surface

Oil cooler stud

Torque oil cooler stud with 3.00Kg-m to avoid loosening of stud while removing the filter.

Oil pump

Black phosphating on cover plate on chain drive engine.

Note : Crank opening pressure of chain drive engine is 4.50bar

IMPORTANT

ADJUSTMENTS & SETTING

Chain timing

Chain

Cam sprocket

Chain tensioner

Crank sprocket

FIP sprocket

Idler sprocket

Oil jet

Guide- Cam sprocket to FIP

Guide- FIP sprocket to idler

Match center link of two copper coated link with crank sprocket mark. Next copper coated link with cam shaft sprocket mark.Last copper coated link with FIP sprocket mark

Match no 1 link with Crank sprocket mark

Match no 14 link with Cam sprocket mark

Match no 30 link with FIP sprocket mark

30

14

1

Chain tensioning

Chain tensioning : SZ 2600 Plus engine uses hydraulic chain tensioner hence doesn’t required initial chain tensioning.

Note : Lock hydraulic chain tensioner, before removing.

Guide Cam sprocket to FIP sprocket must be secured with a class of 10.9 bolt.

10.9 Class bolt [ Part no-0310EC0110N]

Wear limits of chain guides

Hydraulic chain tensioner

Guide - Cam shaft to FIP sprocket

Guide - F I P to Idler sprocket :

:

: 2.00mm

1.50mm

1.00mm

F

R

O

N

T

Tappet setting

It is recommended to do the tappet setting in cold condition

Inlet : 0.30mm ( 12 Thou )

Exhaust

: 0.45mm ( 18 Thou )

Valve layout :

Ex

1

– In

1

Ex

2

– In

2

Ex

3

– In

3

Ex

4

– In

4

Procedure for tappet setting

Bring no.1 piston at TDC. Ensure no 4 cylinder valve at rockering position.

Adjust the tappet clearance of No-1 cylinder valve as per given specifications.

Turn the engine further to 180

0 in the dirction of engine rotation. Adjust tappet of No 3 cylinder valve as per given specification.

Follow the above procedure for cylinder No 4 & 2 by further rotating the engine by 180

0.

Tappet setting-cold condition

Inlet : 0.30mm ( 12 Thou )

Exhaust

: 0.45mm ( 18 Thou )

Rocker lubrication system

Holes are drilled to lubricate rocker arms below the rocker support

1 & 2.

Oil hole -2 Oil hole -1

However to supply uniform oil pressure for all rocker arms, oil is taken from oil hole 2.

Oil hole -1 ( From fan side) is blocked by means of flat rocker support .

Oil support without slots

Note : Ensured that oil hole 1 is blocked by means of rocker support w/o slot. If slotted support is used for both one & two oil holes, oil pressure will drop significantly which will lead the failure of rocker shaft & rocker arms bush.

Rocker support bolt : Longer bolt are used to secured rocker support above oil holes.

While assembling the rocker shaft, ensure that lubricating holes will face towards head side.

Cylinder head torquing

Step 1 : Tighten each bolt in sequence to 9.00 Kg-m ( 65.00lbsft )

Step 2 : Rotate each bolt in the same sequence further by 60

0

.

Step 3 : Rotate each bolt in the same sequence further by 60

0

.

Tightening sequence

9 3

2

6

8

7 5

1

4

10

Note : While removing cylinder head , ensure that the bolts are loosen in reverse of tightening sequence.

Front end accessories drive-SZ 2600PLUS

Check frequency

Belt alignments / Belt replacements

Loosen the tensioner pulley nut and release the belt tension by loosening tensioning bolt.

Remove the old belt.

Ensure integral bracket bolts tightness on the front cover

(Torque 2.5 Kg-m)

It is not necessary to loosen the alternator and brace mounting bolts.

Loosen alternator mounting bracket 2 bolts (mounting on cylinder head) & push the alternator along with bracket to the rear side. essentially the top portion of the alternator should move back. Tighten & torque (4.00 Kgm) alternator bracket mounting bolts on the cylinder head.

Loosen tensioner pulley nut & tensioner bolt to release belt tension

loosen the top & bottom mouting alternator mtg bolts on cylinder head

Push the top portion of alternator with bracket backward & tighten the alternator bracket mtg. bolts on cylinder head

Ensure tightness of alternator mounting bolt ( 2.5 Kg-m),

Brace mounting bolt on alternator ( 2.5 Kg-m) & brace mounting 2 bolt (m10) on alternator bracket ( 3.5 Kg-m).

Hand tighten the tensioner pulley nut so that nut face is resting against bearing face.

Engage the belt on all pulleys correctly & push the belt towards the engine on the tensioner pulley. Tension the belt to 140 –145

Hz incase of old belt and 170+/-2 Hz if it is new belt,with the help of tensioning screw. Belt tension to be measured between span of alternator and compressor.

Tighten and torque the tensioner pulley nut.( 3.5Kg-m)

If the belt is new, run the engine for few minutes and confirm the tension 140 - 145 Hz.

S.O.P for belt noise (continuously on the engine)

Spray some drops of water between tensioner pulley and belt.

On running the engine at idling rpm, if the noise disappears and again reoccurs, the alignment is said to be off. (Follow the above procedure for alignment)

On running the engine, if the noise continues or increased, the belt tension is low. tension to be reset to min. 140- 145 Hz.

If the noise still persists, reverse the direction of the belt on the pulleys. ( Follow the above procedure from point. no. 1 & 7 onwards.) If the noise persists the belt needs to be replaced.

Belt tensioning [Gate/Clavis gauge] :

New belt tension

Stabilised belt tension :

Min belt tension :

:

Chain drive

170 +/- 2

140 + 5

125

While fitting a new belt, set the tension as per new belt value.

Drive the vehicle for min 5 Kms, check the belt tension, if it is less than stabilised belt tension, reset it to stabilised belt tension.

Belt should not be run less than minimum belt tension value.

Note : Poly ‘V’ belt is manufactured by using EPDM rubber , Belt must be protected from contact with oil.

Bolt acceptance criteria

It is possible that that bolt may get elongated when torque either by using angular torquing or by using torque wrench.

Measure the length, if it is within the limit the bolt can be reused

Measure this length

Cylinder head bolt :

Flywheel bolt :

135.40mm to 136.60mm

29.58mm to 30.42mm

Main bearing bolt :

Connecting rod bolt :

89.40mm to 90.60mm

Replace all the time

Idling , Antistalling & FICD setting

: SZ 2600 / SZ 2600 Plus Engine

Fuel injection pumps

BSII : 0 460 414 223

Idling Specification

Normal Idling

Fast Idling on vehicle

: 825 to 900 rpm

: 850 to 950 rpm ( With AC load )

Clamp

PLA unit Idling screw

LFG lever

Fast idle screw

Antistalling screw

High idle screw

[ Do not disturb this screw ]

Procedure to adjust the Idling rpm on Vehicle

1] Observe / record idling rpm in as is condition.

2] Ensure LFG lever is resting on idling screw . Gap between

LFG lever and clamp on cable to be approx. 1.0 to 1.5 mm. If

LFG lever is resting on clamp, release the clamp and check for

Idling rpm again.

If idling rpm is in spec. Set fast idling as defined in

procedure ‘B’

If idling is not in spec. Adjust the idling by following

method.

3] Unscrew anti-stalling fully such a way that this has no effect on idling rpm and idling is controlled by normal idling screw.

4] Unscrew Fast idle screw to ensure it doesn't stop the movement of LFG lever.

5] Set the idling to 845 - 850 rpm approx. by adjusting idling screw.

Screw in : increases rpm , screw out : reduces rpm.

6] Re set the anti-stalling screw to get idling rpm of 855 - 860 approx..

Idling set with anti stalling should be slightly more then normal idling

7] To ensure anti stalling screw is in proper position. Set or ensure the gap between clamp and LFG screw , lock it at that position.

8] Set Fast Idling as explained in procedure ‘B’ .

Gap to be maintained

1.0 ± 0.5 mm

B ] Setting Fast Idling rpm on the Vehicle.

1. Ensure Idling is with in the specification

2. Ensure gap is maintained between LFG lever and clamp

3. Switch on the AC. When AC is on vacuum supply will go to PLA unit which activates the LFG lever and pulls in lever so that it butts against fast idle screw . Ensure LFG lever is pulled.

4. Measure engine rpm.

5. If rpm is out of specification adjust the fast idle screw to get required rpm.

Screw in : Decrease rpm , Screw out : Increase idling rpm

With AC on ( load on engine) fast idle rpm should be between 850 - 950

5. Lock fast idle screw in that position.

Turbo charger

Air Cleaner

Compressed air to engine

Compressor

Pressurized Oil

Turbine

Oil to sump

Exhaust gases to turbine of

Turbocharger.

Front End

Inter cooler

Principle of turbocharger

In exhaust gas turbo-charging, the exhaust gas energy which would normally be wasted , is used to drive a turbine. The turbine drives a compressor, which draws in combustion air and feeds this at a higher pressure to the engine.

Main advantages of the turbocharger are :

Lower fuel combustion.

Lower emissions.

Better torque characteristics.

Lower weight and smaller engine package.

Lower engine noise

Altitude compensation

Precautions for turbocharger

1. Use specified grade of engine oil & oil filter.

2. Regular cleaning / change of air filter element according to engine manufacturer’s recommendations.

3. Check for oil pressure at engine idling condition.

4. Idle the engine for 60 seconds after starting the engine.

5. Idle the engine for 60 seconds before stopping the engine.

6. Periodic cleaning of crankcase breather is necessary to allow free flow of oil from turbocharger outlet.

7. Regularly check the oil feed and return pipes for leaks, air intake system pipes and hoses for leakage, blockage and exhaust piping for leakages, blockage.

8. Check the fuel injection system for proper functioning

9. Close all the turbocharger openings with protective plugs when not in use.

1. Don’t run the engine with low oil pressure.

2. Don’t put the engine under full load immediately after starting.

3. Don’t switch off the engine in full load condition.

4. Don’t run the engine with leaky, restricted oil feed & drain pipes.

5. Don’t run the engine with blocked, punctured, aged, deformed hose / pipe connections from the air cleaner to the turbocharger and turbocharger to the inlet manifold.

6. Don’t run the engine with leaky connections, blocked, deformed connections to the turbocharger turbine inlet and from the turbine outlet.

7. Don’t tamper with the fuel injection system.

8. Don’t use actuator control rod for turbocharger. Do not tamper the actuator settings.

9. Don’t dismantle turbocharger contact TEL authorized service center.

Exhaust gas recirculation

Emission control for BS2 diesel engines

Normal/Ideal combustion

Diesel(C

10

H

22

) + Air(77% N

2

, 23% O

2

) ---> Co

2

+ H

2

0 + N

2

Actual combustion

Diesel(C

10

H

22

) + Air(77% N

2

, 23% O

2

) ---> Co

2

+ H

2

0 + N

2

+ O

2

+ Co + HC + No x

+ PM

Components of diesel exhaust

Co - Colourless, poisonous gas

Hc - Colourless , poisonous gas

No x

- Brownish ,poisonous gas

PM - particulate matter, commonly called soot or smoke

Co

2

- Non-poisonous - Potential greenhouse gas related to global warming.

H

2

0 - Non-poisonous

Bharat stage 2 emission norms

Chassis Dynamometer Tests ( Cycle : EEC + EUDC - 90 km/h)

All in g/km

CO HC+Nox PM

RW >1700 1.50 1.20 0.17

RW [ Reference Weight] = Curb weight + 200 Kgs

Tests are on Chassis Dynamometer

EUDC Cycle Speed is limited to 90 km/h instead of 120 km/h (in

EEC)

Emission control technologies try to reduce these harmful exhaust gases by the following technologies :

1] In-cylinder combustion improvements

In-cylinder improvements aims to attack the problem at the source , i.e improve the quality of combustion inside the cylinder so that less of harmful pollutants are produced inside the cylinder. Some of the in-cylinder options are :

Modification to internal engine components

Modifications to fuel injection system

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system

2] Exhaust gas after treatment

Exhaust gas after treatment aims to reduce the pollutants after they are generated inside the engine but before it is released to the atmosphere. Some of the options are :

Catalyst in the exhaust

Principles of No

x

generation

No x

(Oxides of nitrogen) comprises of various types of oxides of nitrogen, clubbed together. These are no, No

2

, No

3 etc.

Nitrogen is an inert gas and will not react with oxygen in normal conditions. However, under certain conditions, nitrogen starts to react with oxygen and forms oxides of nitrogen.

Conditions favoring formation of No x

1. In-cylinder temperatures excessive of 1800

0 c

2. Availability of excess free oxygen

Technologies for No x control aims to reduce either one or both of the above factors inside the engine cylinder.

Principles of No

x

control

No x can be controlled either by arresting the formation,at source or by exhaust after treatment.

1] In-cylinder No x control

Formation of No x can be controlled either by reducing the combustion temperatures or by reducing the availability of free oxygen. This is achieved by exhaust gas recirculation egr,

2] Exhaust after treatment No x control

Catalytic treatment of No x requires a catalyst to reduce

No x to N

2

. The available catalysts to reduce No x to N

2 works on oxygen-free exhaust. There is no catalyst technology available, as of now, which can reduce No x

, in an oxygen-rich exhaust, as found in diesel exhaust.

Principles of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)

EGR system recirculates part of the burnt exhaust back in to the intake system, to help in reducing the combustion temperatures as well as reducing the quantity of free oxygen.

EGR VALVE

WHEN TO OPEN ?

HOW MUCH TO OPEN ?

I

E

Reduction of combustion temperatures -

Exhaust gases are inert gases with a very high value of c p i.e they do not take part in combustion but absorbs heat without increasing its temperature. This acts as a heat sink and reduces the overall combustion temperatures. (Point 1).

Reduction of free oxygen inside cylinder -

Exhaust gases occupy some space and reduce the equivalent amount of free oxygen (Point 2).

In order to meet Bharat stage II emission norms, the following modifications are done on the SZ 2600 engine

In-cylinder control

Modifications to fuel injection system

Exhaust gas recirculation - Electronically controlled variable

EGR.

Fuel injection system modifications

1. Higher peak injection pressures

2. Injector nozzle - 6 holes

3. Cold running advance

4. FIP timing - 1.25 mm plunger lift at TDC.

5. FIP with throttle potentiometer

BS1 Vs BS2

FIP TIMING

(Plunger Lift at TDC, mm)

BS2

NOOZLE OPENING

PRESSURE ( Bar) BS2

NO. OF HOLES IN

NOZZLE

PEAK INJECTION

PRESSURE (Bar)

BS2

BS2

MICO

1.25

250

6 (VCO)

1200

DTVS

NOT APPLICABLE

Exhaust gas recirculation - EGR

Electronically operated, pneumatically actuated variable EGR

Engine load

Coolant temperature

Engine speed

EGR valve lift

EGR ECU

Vacuum modulator

Diagnostic outlet

Alt/vac. Pump

Layout – EGR system[SZ 2600 BS 2]

Vacuum modulator

Vac. Reservoir

Egr valve potentiometer

To FICD

Throttle potentiometer

Fip

Thermostat hsg.

Temperature sensor

Alternator

W

Load

Coolant temp.

Speed

EGR map

ECU

EGR valve

Air cleaner

Vacuum Modulator

ECU

Throttle Potentiometer

EGR valve ( New)

Vacuum reservoir

Temperature Sensor

Vacuum line connection at vacuum modulator

From vacuum pump

To EGR valve

From air cleaner

From ECU

Controls & strategies

Accleration cut-off - The EGR valve will close when the vehicle is suddenly accelerated.

Overheating cut-off - The EGR valve will close if the coolant temperature reaches 95

0

Cold engine - The EGR will not work if the coolant temperature is less than 25

0

.

Half EGR - Between 25

0

& 40

0 of coolant temperature, the EGR valve will open only 50% of the lift as specified in the EGR map.

Cold running advance - The cold running advance will be active up to 30

0 coolant temperature.

Diagnostic defect codes reading

Connect a 12V, 2W bulb to the diagnostic connector provided in the wiring harness.

Switch on the ignition

Wait for minimum 3 seconds

Start the engine and run at idle speed

Look for blink codes in the bulb

Observe the blink codes

Compare blink codes with decoding chart to identify the defective sensor/actuator.

Important - Using a bulb with higher rating will damage the ECU.

Defect code decoding chart

Sr No.

1

2

3

4

5

Parameter

EGR ECU

EGR ECU

Throttle sensor

Temperature sensor

EGR Valve sensor

Error type

No errors

Blink code

Lamp on continuously

No ECU supply / ECU defective

No Signal

Sensor not connected

/ Setting error

No blink

On 2s / Off 2s

On 1s / Off 5s

Open / Short On 5s / Off 1s

No Signal / Sensor not connected

Valve not lifting

Valve not closing

(On 0.5s Off 0.5) x 2 cycles then Off 3s

(On 0.5s Off 0.5) x 3 cycles then Off 3s

(On 0.5s Off 0.5) x continuously.

EGR Valve checking

Remove the EGR valve and check it for valve-sticking, deposition of carbon etc. If excess carbon deposits and sticky valve noticed then it should be cleaned with a suitable solvent, so that the correct valve seat is ensured.

After cleaning the valve blow air from the bottom side of the valve and check for any leakage.

To check for the functioning of the EGR valve apply vacuum on the vacuum connection of the EGR valve. The lift of the valve at the required vacuum should be achieved.

FIE Details

BS II

1.25mm Plunger lift at TDC Static timing

LDA

Lock timing bolt

FICD

LFG

Potentiometer

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Injector

Identification

Nozzle opening pressure

Specification

Nozzle holder

Nozzle holder pressure

Milky white ring

250 + 8 bar

6 X 0.203 X 150°

F 002 C70 555

1200 bar

Identification of Nozzles of BSII

Milky white colour ring

BS II Nozzle

Features in F I P

LDA :

Increases the fuelling according to the boost pressure developed by turbo charger.

Lock timing bolt [ FBB] :

Ease in FIP timing.

LFG:

Avoids the fuelling to become zero during gear changing.

Fast idling control device [ PLA] :

Controls the idling to the set band when AC is on.

Potentiometer [ BS II FIP] :

Gives input of engine load to the EGR ECU.

F. I. P. TIMING

[ SZ 2600 Plus ]

In BSII sprocket, Key ways is offset w.r.t. centre line of weight reducing hole.

Offset

BS 2 Sprocket : Timing marks is on 8 th teeth clockwise from keyway.

Timing mark

6

5

4

7 8

8

3

2

1

Procedure for FIP removal of SZ 2600 + engine

Remove viscous fan drive & shroud

Remove FIP inspection window cover

Remove R/A cover.

Bring no. 1 cylinder to compression stroke.

Remove all high pressure pipe.

Remove first cylinder injector.

Put MST No. 0272 & dial gauge.

Loosen FIP sprocket lock nut & re-torque it to 2.5kg-m. (20 lbs.ft)

Bring no 1 piston exactly at TDC

remove lock plate.

Torque lock screw to 1.5 kg-m

Note: At this point FIP shaft is locked. Even slight rotation of engine will damage FIP rotor shaft.

Remove FIP flange mounting nuts & rear mounting bracket

Place sprocket locking pins (three no.) of MST

0270 in sprocket relief holes.

Note: If piston is not at

TDC, threads on blocks will not align with the holes provided for locking pins.

Torque them to 1.0-1.5 kg-m.

Remove FIP sprocket mounting nut & washer

Put slotted pins. Ensure that the side with ‘F’ punched will face outside.

Letter ‘F’ punched should

Face outside

Note : Slide pins in the slot such that bottom portion of slot will butt against the back face of sprocket when FIP shaft is pushed away from sprocket

2

Sprocket locking pin

5

Slotted pin

Slotted Pin Drawing

Slotted pin used for commonised cast block with CRDI

Locking Pin - FIP Sprocket

Assemble FIP pusher plate of MST 0270 with.

Ensure plate is butting properly on all the three pins.

Push FIP by tightening puller bolt

Note : Till the refitment of

FIP is done, it is not possible to use MST 0270 on another vehicle.

Procedure for FIP fitment of SZ 2600 Plus engine

FIP is removed with following engine condition:

No 1 piston is TDC compression.

FIP sprocket is hold by locking pin.

FIP is locked with required plunger lift.

Note: FIP, if return from MICO dealer is also locked when it is injecting fuel in no. one cylinder & with required plunger lift.

(1.25mm for BS II pump }

This can be ensured with key position of FIP.

Key position of FIP when injecting into no 1 cylinder i.e. in-between

9 to 12 O’ clock position.. this should match with key way position of

FIP sprocket.

Put the locked FIP into fip sprocket.

Assemble sprocket mounting nut & washer. Torque it to 2.5 kgm.

Remove sprocket locking pins

& slotted pins

Assemble flange mounting nut

& torque them to 3.5 kgm.

Put back the locking plate & tight locking screw.

Finally torque the sprocket mounting nut to 9.00 kgm.

Note: it is advisable to check plunger lift by using dial gauge.

For BSII - 1.25 mm at TDC

Complete the assembly

FIP removal & refitment w/o special tools

Without MST 270 & 272, if pump has to be removed ,remove timing cover & chain.

Cooling system

Water bypass system- SZ 2600 Plus

Air intake system

Positive crankcase ventilation system

POSITIVE CRANK CASE VENTILATION

Front End

Rocker Cover

Oil Separator

Air Cleaner

To Turbocharger

Ladder Frame

Sump

This hose connects the ladder frame assembly to rocker cover.

This hose balances the gas pressure in the rocker cover & sump.

This hose connect rocker cover to the oil separator.

It has a coarse mesh, at both ends which trap bigger particle

& thus help to improve oil separator efficiency.

Wire mesh

Oil separator separates oil particle & gas due to centrifugal action.

The vacuum after the air cleaner acts on to the top of diaphragm . The balance of the vacuum against the spring & the vapour pressure controls the amount of the oil going to the sump.

Oil return hose

Reservoir

Vacuum connection to EGR & FICD

FICD switch

FICD at FIP

Pressure

Modulator

Alternator

EGR

Valve

Vacuum pump

To air cleaner

Important clearances & dimension

Exhaust cam lobe lift

Inlet cam lobe lift

Valve stem & guide :

:

: 6.07

6.90

0.03 to 0.07[ inlet ]

Crank shaft & main bearing :

Crank shaft run out :

Crank shaft end float

Connecting rod & crank pin :

:

Connecting rod side clearance :

0.05 to 0.09 [ Exhaust ]

0.02 to 0.07

0.025mm [max]

0.10 to 0.37

0.20 to 0.04

0.10 to 0.30

Cam shaft bush & journal : 0.02 to 0.07

Axial clearance of cam shaft : 0.1 to 0.3

All dimension in ‘mm’ unless specified

Cylinder head height

Transverse deflection of head

Tappet setting - inlet

Tappet setting - exhaust

Nozzle opening pressure- MICO

: 97.70 to 98.30

: 0.05

: 0.30

: 0.45

: 250 + 8 bar

All dimension in ‘mm’ unless specified

Important torque

Cylinder head

Connecting rod bolts

Main bearing caps

Crank shaft pulley

Flywheel bolts

Cam shaft gear/sprocket bolt : 11.00

Timing cover mounting bolt : 2.50

F I P main shaft Nut

Kg-m lbs-ft

: 9.00+ 60

0+

60

0

65.00+ 60

0+

60

0

: 4.50+90

0

30.00+ 90

0

: 17.00

: 9.00+ 90

: 9.00+60

: 9.00

0

0+

90

0

125

65.00+ 90

65.00+ 90

80

20

65

0+

0

90

0

Important MST

Piston ring compressor

(Common with XD 3P)

Spanner for engine mounting nut

Extractor - Fly wheel bearing

Drift - Flywheel bearing

Wrench- Oil filter removal

Cylinder head bolt deep socket

Tool for removing FIP[ Chain drive]

Flywheel lock[ Chain drive]

TDC tool

Lock pin for chain tensioner

Sliding hammer [ Use alongwith MST 543 ] :

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

MST No

168

542

543

544

545

588

270

271

272

273

577

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