scroll fuel system
SCROLL FUEL SYSTEM
NOTE: If the fuel injection pump housing is
removed from the engine the fuel rack setting can
be checked with 7S7113 Rack Setting Gauge but,
FT960 Adapter Assembly must also be used.
GOVERNOR ADJUSTMENTS
CAUTION: Only competent personnel should at-
tempt to adjust the low and high idle rpm. The low
and high idle rpm, and the rack setting dimensions
for this engine, are listed in the RACK SETTING
INFORMATION.
Engine rpm should be checked with an accurate
tachometer.
GOVERNOR ADJUSTMENTS
(Typical Example)
1. Low idle adjusting screw. 2. High idle adjusting screw.
Low and high rpm can be adjusted by removing
the cover at the rear of the governor, and turning
the high idle and low idle adjusting screws. Turning
either adjusting screw in a clockwise direction will
decrease the respective high and low idle rpm. The
retainer holes in the cover are shaped to prevent
the screws from turning, after the adjustment has
been made.
After setting the idle rpm, move the governor
control lever to change the engine rpm. Return it
to the idle position and recheck the idle rpm.
Repeat the adjustment procedure until the speci-
fied idle rpm is obtained.
Fuel Ratio Control Setting
(Six Cylinder Engines Only)
Tools Needed: 95240 Rack Positioning Tool Group,
4B9820 Wrench.
The fuel rack must be set correctly before
setting the fuel ratio control.
1. Remove the rack cover from the front of the
fuel injection pump housing, and cover (4)
from the rear of the fuel ratio control.
2. Engage slot in cover (4) with cross-dowel in
adjusting bolt and turn the adjusting bolt in as
far as possible. This prevents the head of the
bolt from limiting the travel of the fuel rack.
74
TESTING AND ADJUSTING
. Install 95238 Rack Positioning Bracket Group
over the front end of the fuel rack and 98215
Dial Indicator in the bracket.
Remove the plug from the bottom of the
governor and install plug (2). Through opening
in plug (2) use rod (3) to push in (retract) the
speed limiter plunger. Tighten plug (2) just
enough to hold rod (3) in place (speed limiter
depressed).
RETRACTING SPEED LIMITER PLUNGER
. Governor control lever. 2. 958518 Plug. 3. 988521 Rod.
Center the rack and set the dial indicator on
zero. Remove the spacer.
. With the speed limiter plunger held in, move
governor control lever (1) to FULL LOAD
position. Hold the lever in the FULL LOAD
position while making the adjustment.
Turn adjusting bolt out with cover (4) until
the proper dial indicator reading is obtained.
The proper reading is listed in the RACK
SETTING INFORMATION.
SETTING FUEL RATIO CONTROL
(Typical Example)
4. Cover.
Turn cover (4) clockwise the amount neces-
sary to align the bolt holes and install cover
(4).
. Remove the 9S238 Rack Positioning Bracket
Group, 98215 Dial Indicator and install the
rack cover.
SCROLL FUEL SYSTEM
10. Install the standard plug in place of plug (2).
NOTE: Before starting the engine, make certain
the governor control lever will move the governor
to the SHUTOFF position and that all parts
operate freely.
With the above initial adjustment made, a
further adjustment while the engine is running can
be made if necessary to improve engine perform-
ance, To reduce exhaust smoke during acceler-
ation, turn cover (4) out (less fuel) 2 turn at a time
until satisfactory. When exhaust smoke is accepta-
ble but acceleration is sluggish, turn cover (4) in
(more fuel) % turn at a time until satisfactory.
NOTE: Some exhaust smoke is likely to appear at
maximum acceleration.
NOTE: If acceleration is sluggish and full engine
power seems to be lost, inspect the air line to the
cover and the cover gasket for air leaks. If no air
leaks are apparent, inspect the diaphragm. A
damaged diaphragm will not allow the fuel rack to
open completely, acceleration will be sluggish and
full engine power cannot be obtained.
GOVERNOR CONTROL AND
DECELERATOR LINKAGE ADJUSTMENTS
(Six Cylinder Engines Only)
Tools Needed: 1P2385 Protractor Assembly
Three basic uses of the 1P2385 Protractor tools
are shown here.
1P2385 PROTRACTOR TOOL USE
A. Inducator used for angle setting. B. Protractor plate edge
in alignment with lever. C. Vertical housing face and exten-
sion arm are in alignment. D. Bubble in level. E. Indicator
used for angle setting. F. Extension arm in alignment with
lever. G. Extension arm in alignment with lever. H. Plate
edge in alignment with second lever. |. Indicator used for
angle setting. J. Angle between lever and vertical face of
housing. K. Angle between level and lever. L. Angle be-
tween levers,
32231-1X1
All adjustments should be made when governor
control shaft is in shutoff position. Disconnect all
linkage and turn lever (1) clockwise to force
governor control shaft to shutoff position.
TESTING AND ADJUSTING
Engage the nearest serration tooth to obtain
lever positions closest to approximate angles indi-
cated. 1P2385 Protractor Assembly should be used
to establish these angles.
1. Install lever (1) at 26.5° from horizontal as
shown.
SHUT OFF
N
pe
ао
= \ | ES e
30° 3 20685X1
GOVERNOR AND DECELERATOR LEVERS
INSTALLATION
1. Governor control lever. 2. Decelerator control spring
lever. 3. Decelerator cable control lever.
2. Install spring lever (2) at 15°
horizontal.
angle from
3. Install lever (8) with rear of its slot at 30°
angle from horizontal as shown.
4. Force lever (3) on the shaft to remove
clearance between the levers and tighten the
clamp bolt.
5. Move the governor control shaft to high idle
position. This will be when lever (1) makes
angle of 87.5° from horizontal as shown.
1 F— HIGH IDLE
e
|
|
5 | [9
{
| mu»
DECELERATOR LINKAGE ADJUSTMENT
1. Governor control lever high idle position. 4. Stop
clearance .12 in. (3.05 mm). 5. Clamp. 6. Decelerator
control spring. 7. Decelerator cable yoke end. 8. Bracket.
6. Move clamp (5) so there is .12 in. (3.0 mm)
clearance at (4) between lever (1) and the stop
on the clamp.
75
SCROLL FUEL SYSTEM
7. Adjust yoke end (7) so connecting pin will be
at rear of slot in lever (3).
8. Attach decelerator control spring (6) to lever
(2) and bracket (3).
DECELERATION CONTROL ADJUSTMENT
(Six Cylinder Engines Only)
With proper adjustment the dashpot (1) retards
the motion of the governor shaft and control lever
which 15 used to reduce the possibility of engine
stall upon rapid deceleration.
1. Position governor shaft and control lever (2) in
high idle position as shown at (3). The lever is
keyed to the shaft so lever to shaft relation-
ship is non-adjustable.
2. Install coupling assembly (4) so pin engages
slots in lever (2).
3. With the governor control lever held in high
idle position, engage dashpot and coupling
serrations.
HIGH IDLE \>7/
Pain \
20704X 1 ~
DASHPOT INSTALLATION
1. Dashpot. 2. Governor control lever. 3. High idle speed
position,
4. Rotate dashpot clockwise to limit of dashpot
shaft travel.
5. Remove dashpot from coupling and align
dashpot mounting holes.
DASHPOT ADJUSTMENT
4. Coupling assembly.
76
TESTING AND ADJUSTING
AIR INLET AND EXHAUST SYSTEM
TESTING AND ADJUSTING
AIR INLET AND EXHAUST SYSTEM
RESTRICTION OF AIR INLET
AND EXHAUST
There will be a reduction of horsepower and
efficiency of the engine if there is a restriction in
the air inlet or exhaust system.
Air flow through the air cleaner must not have a
restriction of more than 30 in. (762 mm) of water
difference in pressure.
Back pressure from the exhaust (pressure differ-
ence measurement between exhaust outlet elbow
and atmosphere) must not be more than 20 in.
(508 mm) of water.
ENGINES WITH ENGINES WITHOUT
TURBOCHARGERS TURBOCHARGERS
27" H20 34” H20
(686 mm) (864 mm)
MEASUREMENT OF PRESSURE
IN INLET MANIFOLD
By checking the pressure in the inlet manifold
the efficiency of an engine can be checked by mak-
ing a comparison with the information given in the
book RACK SETTING INFORMATION. This test
is used when there is a decrease of horsepower
from the engine, yet there is no real sign of a prob-
lem with the engine.
The correct pressure for the inlet manifold is
given in the book RACK SETTING INFORMA-
TION. Development of this information is done
with these conditions: 29.4 in. (746.76 mm) of
mercury barometric pressure, 60°F (15.5°C) out-
side air temperature and 35 API rated fuel. Any
change from. these conditions can change the pres-
sure in the inlet manifold. Outside air that has
higher temperature and lower barometric pressure
than given above will cause a lower horsepower and
inlet manifold pressure measurement, than given in
the book RACK SETTING INFORMATION. Out-
side air that has a lower temperature and higher
barometric pressure will cause a higher horsepower
and inlet manifold pressure measurement.
A difference in fuel rating will also change horse-
power and the pressure in the inlet manifold. If the
fuel is rated above 35 API, pressure in the inlet man-
ifold can be less than given in the book RACK
SETTING INFORMATION. If the fuel is rated be-
low 35 API, the pressure in the inlet manifold can
be more than given in the book RACK SETTING
INFORMATION. BE SURE THAT THE AIR IN-
LET AND EXHAUST DO NOT HAVE A RE-
STRICTION WHEN MAKING A CHECK OF
PRESSURE IN THE INLET MANIFOLD.
Use the 486553 Instrument Group to check en-
gine rpm, the pressure in the inlet manifold and
pressure in the exhaust system. Special Instruction
(FE036044) is with the tool group and gives in-
structions for the test procedure.
45689X 1
4S6553 INSTRUMENT GROUP
1. 456992 Differential Pressure gauges. 2. Zero adjustment
screw. 3. Lid. 4. 8M2743 Gauge. 5. Pressure tap fit-
ting. 6, 456991 Tachometer. 7. 456997 Manifold Pressure
Gauge.
POSITION FOR PRESSURE TEST
A. Remove elbow and install a tee for testing.
CHECKING INLET MANIFOLD PRESSURE AT
TORQUE CONVERTER STALL SPEED
Inlet manifold pressure at torque converter stall
speed provides a convenient engine performance
test.
The torque converter stalling capacity, and the
hydraulic system can be used to temporarily load
the engine.
71
AIR INLET AND EXHAUST SYSTEM
1. On engine equipped with air compressor,
disconnect the air compressor air inlet line at
the diesel engine cylinder head.
2. Connect the inlet manifold pressure gauge to
the opening in the cylinder head and connect
the rest of the 456553 Instrument Group
components.
NOTE: The air compressor will be operative, but
unfiltered air will be entering the air system. Avoid
prolonged operation with unfiltered air.
3. With the torque converter at operating temper-
ature, load the hydraulic system. This can be
accomplished by driving the bucket into a dirt
bank.
4. Shift to the highest forward gear and move the
governor control to the HIGH IDLE position.
Engine speed will increase until the hydraulic
system and the torque converter stall. At this
point, engine speed stabilizes.
NOTE: It may be necessary to reduce the load on
the hydraulic system to maintain FULL LOAD
SPEED.
CAUTION: Do not leave the converter in a stall
condition for a prolonged period of time; only that
necessary to record engine speed and boost pres-
sure. Observe the temperatures of the torque
converter oil and cooling system. Do not allow to
overheat.
5. Record the engine speed and inlet manifold
pressure.
6. Return the governor control to LOW IDLE
position, move transmission control lever to
NEUTRAL and lower the bucket.
7. Compare the recorded engine speed and inlet
manifold pressure with the values in the
RACK SETTING INFORMATION book. If
both values are within their specified limits
engine output is within expected limits.
8. If stall speed is within limits, but boost is not,
determine why and correct.
9. If boost and/or stall speed are outside their
limits, determine cause as either a converter or
engine malfunction and correct.
CRANKCASE (CRANKSHAFT
COMPARTMENT) PRESSURE
Pistons or piston rings that have damage can be
the cause of too much pressure in the crankcase.
This condition will cause the engine to run rough.
There will also be more than the normal amount of
fumes coming from the crankcase breather. This
crankcase pressure can also cause the element for
78
TESTING AND ADJUSTING
the crankcase breather to have a restriction in a
very short time. It can also be the cause of oil
leakage at gaskets and seals that would not
normally have leakage.
Normal crankcase pressure with a clean crank-
case breather is 2 in. (50.8 mm) of H, O or less.
MEASUREMENT OF EXHAUST
TEMPERATURES
Use the 1P3060 Pyrometer Group to check ex-
haust temperature. Special Instruction
(GMG00697) is with the tool group and gives in-
structions for the test procedure.
1P3060 PYROMETER GROUP
CYLINDER CONDITION
Tools Needed:
3B7762 Tee.
3B7767 Nipple.
6K5875 Hose Assembly.
8M2744 Gauge.
1P5569 Tip.
7S8890 Adapter.
7S8895 Adapter.
852268 Tube Assembly.
957341 Adapter.
Air pressure regulator.
An engine that runs rough can have a leak at the
valves, or valves that need adjustment. Run the en-
gine at the speed that gives rough running. To find
a cylinder that has low compression or does not
have good fuel ignition, loosen a fuel line nut at a
fuel injection pump. This will stop the flow of fuel
to that cylinder. Do this for each cylinder until a
loosened fuel line is found that makes no differ-
ence in engine rough running. Be sure to tighten
each fuel line nut after the test before the next fuel
line nut is loosened. This test can also be an indi-
cation that the fuel injection is wrong, so more
checking of the cylinder will be needed. This test is
just a fast method of finding the cause of com-
pression loss in a cylinder. Removal of the head
AIR INLET AND EXHAUST SYSTEM
and inspection of the valves and valve seats is nec-
essary to find those small defects that do not nor-
mally cause a problem. Repair of these problems is
normally done when reconditioning (overhaul) the
engine.
The procedure that follows will give a better in-
dication of the condition of the valves and valve
seats.
1. Remove the fuel injection valve from the pre-
combustion chamber or adapter.
2. Using a threaded fitting or rubber adapter,
connect an air hose -to the precombustion
chamber or adapter.
3. Turn the crankshaft until the piston for the
cylinder to be tested is at top center (TC)
compression position. The valves for the cylin-
der will be closed.
4. Put air in the cylinder with force and check
for air leakage. An air leak at the exhaust out-
let is an indication of exhaust valve leakage.
An air leak at the inlet of the air cleaner is an
indication of intake valve leakage. An air leak
at the crankcase breather is an indication that
there can be a problem with the piston, piston
rings or the cylinder liner. It may be necessary
to remove inlet and outlet connections on
both sides of turbocharger to find leakage.
MEASURING AIR FLOW
1. Air regulator. 2. 6K6875 Hose Assembly and 7S8895
Adapter. 3, 852268 Tube Assembly and 987341 Adapt-
er. 4. 8M2744 Gauge (0 to 100 psi). 5. 7S8890 Adapter.
Parts not shown: 387762 Tee, 387767 Nipple, 1P5569 Tip.
Engine cylinder condition can be analyzed with
controlled pressure air through the engine cylin-
der precombustion chamber. Special Instruction
(GMGO00694) explains the procedure.
TESTING AND ADJUSTING
VALVE CLEARANCE SETTING
A07902X1
VALVE ADJUSTMENT
NOTE: Valve clearance is measured between the
rocker arm and the valves.
VALVE CLEARANCE SETTING WITH ENGINE STOPPED
Exhaust .... iinet ieee en. 025" (0.64 mm)
Intake ..... tiie te eee 015" (0.38 mm)
3306 Engine
A
/ 2 3 | 4 5 6 \
PONT ON 180 180183 (OA
ADN CE DO
a 2 3 | 4 5 6 /
41440X1 B
CYLINDER AND VALVE IDENTIFICATION
A. Exhaust valves. B. Intake valves.
1. Put No. | piston at top center (TC) on the
compression stroke. Make reference to FIND-
ING TOP CENTER COMPRESSION POSI-
TION FOR NO. 1 PISTON.
79
AIR INLET AND EXHAUST SYSTEM
|
. Make an adjustment to the valve clearance on
the intake valves for cylinders 1, 2, and 4.
Make an adjustment to the valve clearance on
the exhaust valves for cylinders 1, 3, and 5.
3. Turn the flywheel 360° in the direction of en-
gine rotation. This will put No. 1 piston at top
center (TC) on the exhaust stroke.
4. Make an adjustment to the valve clearance on
the intake valve for cylinder 3, 5, and 6. Make
an adjustment to the valve clearance on the
exhaust valves for cylinders 2, 4, and 6.
5. After valve adjustment is correct, tighten the
nuts for the valve adjustment screws to 22 + 3
lb.ft. (3.0 + 0.4 mkg).
3304 Engines
A
|
2 ) 4 \ г
AN EN SBN 76”
Core TAN
“ |” N “= ~~ М
Da 2 3 4 /
41385X1 B
CYLINDER AND VALVE IDENTIFICATION
A. Exhaust valves. B. Intake valves.
1. Put No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on the
compression stroke. Make reference to FIND-
ING TOP CENTER COMPRESSION POSI-
TION FOR NO. 1 PISTON.
2. Make an adjustment to the valve clearance on
the intake valves for cylinders 1 and 2. Make
an adjustment to the valve clearance on the
exhaust valves for cylinders 1 and 3.
3. Turn the flywheel 360° in the direction of en-
gine rotation. This will put No. 1 piston at top
center (TC) on the exhaust stroke.
4. Make an adjustment to the valve clearance on
the intake valves for cylinders 3 and 4. Make
an adjustment to the valve clearance on the
exhaust valves for cylinders 2 and 4.
5. Aiter valve adjustment is correct, tighten the
nuts for the valve adjustment screws to 22 + 3
1b.ft. (3.0 + 0.4 mkg).
80
TESTING AND ADJUSTING
CYLINDER HEAD
The cylinder head has valve seat inserts and valve
guides that can be removed when they are worn or
have damage. Replacement of these components
can be made with the following tools.
Valves
Valve removal and installation is easier with use
of 581330 Valve Spring Compressor Assembly and
581322 Valve Keeper Inserter.
Valve Seat Inserts
Tools needed to remove and install valve seat
inserts are in the 9S3080 Valve Insert Puller
Group. Special Instruction GMG02114 gives an ex-
planation to this procedure. The insert can be more
easily installed by lowering the temperature of the
insert before installing it in the head.
Valve Guides
Tools needed to install valve guides are: 7S8858
Driver Bushing and 788859 Driver. The counter-
bore in the driver bushing installs the guide to the
correct height. Use a 1P7450 Honing Arrangement
to make a finished bore in the valve guide after
installing the guide in the head. Special Instruction
GMGO00966 gives an explanation of this procedure.
Grind the valves after installing new valve guides.
PRECOMBUSTION CHAMBER POSITION
Use 5F8353 Wrench to remove and install cham-
ber.
Put 5M2667 Gasket, with “2C” on it, on the
precombustion chamber. Put 9M3710 or 459416
Anti-Seize Compound on the threads of the pre-
combustion chamber. Install the precombustion
chamber. Install the precombustion chamber in the
cylinder head and tighten 10 150 + 10 Ib.ft.
(20.7 £ 1.4 mkg). If the opening for the glow plug
IS not in the “A range”, remove the precombustion
chamber and 5M2667 Gasket. If the opening for
the glow plug was in the “B range” use 258959
Gasket with “2S” on it. If the opening for the glow
plug was in the “°С range” use 258960 Gasket with
“2X7 on it. Put 9M3710 or 4S9416 Anti-Seize Com-
pound on the threads of the precombustion cham-
ber. Install the precombustion chamber with the
correct gasket and tighten the precombustion
chamber to 150+ 101b.ft. (20.7 + 1.4 mkg).
AIR INLET AND EXHAUST SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING
PRECOMBUSTION CHAMBER POSITIONING DIAGRAM
1. Center line of engine. 2. Center line of cylinder. A. Cor-
rect range for glow plug opening. B. Use “2S” gasket. C.
Use “2X’" gasket.
81
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
TESTING AND ADJUSTING
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
One of the problems in the following list will
generally be an indication of a problem in the lu-
brication system for the engine.
TOO MUCH OIL CONSUMPTION
OIL PRESSURE IS LOW
OIL PRESSURE IS HIGH
TOO MUCH BEARING WEAR
TOO MUCH OIL CONSUMPTION
Oil Leakage on Outside of Engine
Check for leakage at the seals at each end of the
crankshaft. Look for leakage at the oil pan gasket
and all lubrication system connections. Check to
see if oil is coming out of the crankcase breather.
This can be caused by combustion gas leakage
around the pistons. A dirty crankcase breather will
cause high pressure in the crankcase, and this will
cause gasket and seal leakage.
Oil Leakage Into Combustion
Area of Cylinders
Oil leakage into the combustion area of the cyl-
inders can be the cause of blue smoke. There are
four possible ways for oil leakage into the com-
bustion area of the cylinders:
1. Oil leakage between worn valve guides and
valve stems.
2. Worn or damaged piston rings or dirty oil re-
turn holes.
3. Compression ring not installed correctly.
4. Oil leakage past the seal rings in the impeller
end of the turbocharger shaft.
Too much oil consumption can also be the result
of using oil with the wrong viscosity. Oil with a
thin viscosity can be caused by fuel getting in the
crankcase, or by the engine getting too hot.
OIL PRESSURE IS LOW
An oil pressure gauge that has a defect may give
an indication of low oil pressure.
Connect an 8M2744 Gauge to the engine oil
manifold at pressure test location (1). Install a test
thermometer or thermocouple in the crankcase.
Run the engine until the oil temperature is 210 +
10° F (99 + 6° C).
82
OIL MANIFOLD
1. Pressure Test Location.
If the engine has SAE 10 oil, the correct engine
oil pressure at full load speed is 48 + 12 psi (3; 37 +
0.84 kg/cm?).
If the engine has SAE 30 oil, the correct engine
oil pressure at full load speed is 58 £ 12 psi (4.08 +
0.84 kg/cm?).
At lower speeds, lower engine oil pressure is
normal. The minimum engine oil pressure is 12 psi
(0.84 kg/cm?).
The 8M2744 Gauge, in the 7S8875 Hydraulic
Test Box, can be used for checking pressure in the
system.
NOTE: If the clearance between the oil pan and
the suction bell is too small, there will be a
decrease in oil pressure. This can be because of a
dent in the oil pan.
CAUTION: There are holes in the bores for the
main bearings, between cylinders land 2, 3 and 4,
and 5 and 6 (six cylinder engines), for piston
cooling orifices. These holes must have either
orifices or plugs installed. Find this information in
OIL LINES in the parts book for your engine
arrangement.
T92458X1:
758875 HYDRAULIC TEST BOX
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
Crankcase Oil Level
Check the level of the oil in the crankcase. Add
oil if needed. It is possible for the oil level to be
too far below the oil pump supply tube. This will
cause the oil pump to not have the ability to sup-
ply enough lubrication to the engine components.
Oil Pump Does Not Work Correctly
The inlet screen of the supply tube for the oil
pump can have a restriction. This will cause cavita-
tion (the sudden making of low pressure bubbles in
liquids by mechanical forces) and a loss of oil pres-
sure. Air leakage in the supply side of the oil pump
will also cause cavitation and loss of oil pressure. If
the bypass valve for the oil pump is held in the
open (unseated) position, the lubrication system
can not get to maximum pressure. Oil pump gears
that have too much wear will cause a reduction in
oil pressure.
Oil Filter and Oil Cooler Bypass Valves
If the bypass valve for the oil filter or oil cooler
is held in the open position (unseated) and the oil
filter or oil cooler has a restriction, a reduction in
oil pressure can be result. To correct this problem,
install a new Caterpillar oil filter.
Too Much Clearance at Engine Bearings Or Open
(Broken or Disconnected Oil Line or Passage)
Lubrication System
Components that are worn and have too much
bearing clearance can cause oil pressure to be low.
Low oil pressure can also be caused by an oil line
or oil passage that is open, broken or disconnected.
Oil Cooler
Look for a restriction in the oil passages of the
oil cooler. If the oil cooler has a restriction, the oil
temperature will be higher than normal when the
engine is running. The oil pressure of the engine
will not get low just because the oil cooler has a
restriction.
OIL PRESSURE IS HIGH
Oil pressure will be high if the bypass valve for
the oil pump can not move from the closed
position.
TESTING AND ADJUSTING
TOO MUCH BEARING WEAR
When some components of the engine show
bearing wear in a short time, the cause can be a
restriction in an oil passage. À broken oil passage
can also be the cause.
If the gauge for oil pressure shows enough good
oil pressure, but a component is worn because it is
not getting enough lubrication, look at the passage
for oil supply to that component. A restriction in a
supply passage will not let enough lubrication get
to a component and this will cause early wear.
83
COOLING SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING
COOLING SYSTEM
The engine has a pressure type cooling system. A an effect on cooling system temperatures. For an
pressure type cooling system gives two advantages. example, look at the chart to see the effect of
The first advantage is that the cooling system can pressure and the height above sea level on the
operate safely at a temperature that is higher than boiling point (steam) of water.
the normal point where water changes to steam. ALTITUDE COOLING SYSTEM PRESSURE
The second advantage is that this type system FEET wmeTers| © 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 PSI,
prevents cavitation (air in inlet of pump) in the 14.000 4300 |-—9 01 03 04 05 07 0810 KG/CM
water pump. With this type system it is more
difficult for an air or steam pocket to form in the
cooling system.
12,000 3700
10,000 3000
8,000 2400
The cause for an engine getting too hot is 6,000 1800
generally because regular inspections of the cooling 4000 1200
system were not done. Make a visual inspection of
the cooling system before testing with testing
2,000 600
SEA LEVEL O
equipment. FAHRENHEIT 180 190 200 210 220 230 20 250
CENTIGRADE 82 88 93 99 104 110 115 121
VISUAL INSPECTION OF THE COOLING SYSTEM T%070 BOILING POINT OF WATER
1. Check coolant level in the cooling system.
2. Look for leaks in the system. Checking Coolant Temperatures
3. Look for bent radiator fins. Be sure that air Tools Needed: 959102 Thermistor Thermometer Group.
flow through the radiator does not have a
.restriction. The 959102 Thermistor Thermometer Group is
used in the diagnosis of overheating (engine run-
4. Inspect the drive for the fan. ning too hot) or overcooling (engine running too
cool) problems. This group can be used to check
9. Check for damage to the fan blades. the different parts of the cooling system. The €
! 15 1 ial Instructio
6. Look for air or combustion gas in the cooling compete casting procedure is in Special Instruction
system.
7. Inspect the pressure cap and the sealing
surface for the cap. The sealing surface must
be clean.
8. Look for large amounts of dirt in the radiator
core and on the engine.
TESTING THE COOLING SYSTEM
Remember that temperature and pressure work
together. When making a diagnosis of a cooling
system problem, temperature and pressure must o | | |
both be checked. Cooling system pressure will have 959102 THERMISTOR THERMOMETER GROUP
84
COOLING SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING
The locations for making the temperature checks with probe are listed below:
E a : - =. . 3 ; ñ 3t430x1
Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4
Fig. 1 | . |
(Typical Illustration) (Typical Illustration) (Typical Illustration)
Fig. 1. Ambient (air temperature away from the machine and Fig. 3. Bottom tank (in the drain outlet for the radiator or
not in direct sunlight). the pipe plug location in the lower elbow of the radiator).
Fig. 2. Top tank {in a pipe plug location in the top tank of Fig. 4. Torque converter {in a pipe plug location of the oil
the radiator and in the housing for the regulators or in the outlet for the torque converter).
water manifold),
PROBE LOCATIONS TEMPERATURES PROBLEM CHECK FOR
Top Tank (Fig. 2) and Maximum 110° F (43° C) difference. Overheating Wrong Gear Selection.
Ambient (Fig. 1) Radiator Core with Restriction to Air Flow.
Bent Radiator Fins.
Low Fan Speed.
Damaged Fan Guard.
Wrong Blade Position.
Top Tank (Fig. 2) and Maximum 15° F (9° C) difference. Not enough Defect in Water Pump.
Bottom Tank (Fig. 3) Water Flow Collapsed Hoses.
Restriction in Radiator Core Tubes.
Low Coolant Level.
Top Tank (Fig. 2) and Under normal conditions, temperature Wrong Gear Selection.
Torque Converter difference maximum 40° F {4° C). Engine Operated with too Great a Load,
Oil Outlet (Fig. 4) Overheating
At stall conditions, norma! temperature Leakage Inside Torque Converter.
of torque converter oil 270°F (132°C) Low Oil Flow From Torque Converter to Cooler.
for any extended period of time.
Top Tank (Fig. 2) and Maximum 2” F (1° C) difference with Overcooling Temperature Regulator wiil not Close.
Regulator Housing (Fig. 2) | regulators open. Regulator Seals Leaking.
Coolant Flow Past the Regulator Flange.
Low Ambient Temperature with Light Loads.
Overheating Temperature Regulators will not Open.
Be sure the probe is installed in the liquid of the system being tested.
CAUTION: Do not tighten the probe more than 30 Ib.ft. (4.1 mkg) torque.
Check temperatures in the locations listed in the chart and make a comparison of these temperatures.
Look at the chart to see if these comparisons are within the range in the chart. Make the needed checks if
the temperatures are not within the ranges.
NOTE: To get the correct reading make a measurement of the temperatures during working conditions.
85
COOLING SYSTEM
Checking Radiator Air Flow
Tools Needed: 957373 Air Meter Group.
The 987373 Air Meter Group 1s used to check
the air flow through the radiator core. Overheating
can be caused by installing the wrong fan guard,
low fan speed, or a restriction in the radiator core
(clogging). The meter will give aid in finding a
restriction in the core. The testing procedure and
the correct readings are in Special Instruction
GMG00203.
13671X1
957373 AIR METER GROUP
WARNING: When making the checks fas-
ten the transmission in neutral, put the
parking brakes on and lower all equipment.
Make all checks at engine LOW IDLE and on the
side of the radiator opposite the fan. Wear eye
protection.
CATERPILLAR: —
o o
23
12443x1 5
Pa a ARE LL ee
CHECKING AIR FLOW IN CROSS AND
DIAGONAL LINES
(Typical Illustration)
Take readings in a cross and diagonal pattern.
Make a comparison of the readings in each line the
same distance from the center of the fan. Permit
differences for restrictions such as guards, braces
and engine components which will cause a change
in the rate of air flow.
NOTE: All readings are taken at engine LOW
IDLE.
86
TESTING AND ADJUSTING
AIR FLOW
(Typica! Illustration)
1. Fan hub area. 2. Fan blade area. 3. Area outside fan biade.
INSPECTING RADIATOR CORE FOR RESTRICTION
(Typical IHtustration)
If the readings are not within the ranges, stop
the engine, put a strong light behind the core and
inspect for a restriction. If the restriction is from
dirt remove by steam cleaning. If the restriction is
from bent fins use 2H1822 Radiator Fin Comb to
make the fins straight.
Checking Fan Speed
Tools Needed: 1P5500 Portable Phototach Group.
If the radiator core does not have a restriction,
check the fan speed with the 1P5500 Portable
Phototach Group. The complete testing procedure
is in Special Instruction GMG00819.
1P5500 PORTABLE PHOTOTACH GROUP
COOLING SYSTEM
Checking Pressure Cap or Relief Valve
The 9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump
Group is used to test pressure caps and pressure
relief valves, and to pressure check the cooling
system for leaks.
958140 COOLING SYSTEM PRESSURIZING
PUMP GROUP
Pressure Cap
One cause for a pressure loss in the cooling
system can be a bad seal on the pressure cap of the
system. Inspect the pressure cap carefully. Look
for damage to the seal or the sealing surface. Any
foreign material or deposits on the cap, seal or
sealing surface must be removed.
A01533X1
X A / X 7 A
SCHEMATIC OF PRESSURE CAP
A. Sealing surface of cap and radiator.
Pressure Relief Valve
Stop the engine. Tighten the radiator cap to seal
the cooling system. Install suitable fittings and a
pressure test gauge into the radiator top tank.
Install a suitable air pressure regulating valve as
illustrated.
TESTING AND ADJUSTING
T91378
TESTING PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
1. Pressure regulating valve. 2. Pressure gauge. 3. Overflow
port in cover. 4. Pressure relief valve.
Slowly pressurize the radiator top tank. The
highest pressure indicated on the gauge is the point
the relief valve opens. The pressure that makes the
pressure relief valve open is 13 to 16 psi (0.9 to 1.1
kg/cm?). The vacuum that makes the vacuum relief
valve open is 1 psi (0.1 kg/cm?) less than ambient
pressure.
A leakage check can be performed by attaching
a length of hose to the overflow device. Submerge
the opposite end of the hose in a container of
water. Pressurize the top tank to a pressure just
below the relief valve opening pressure. A steady
stream of bubbles from the submerged hose indi-
cates a leak in the relief valve.
If both the radiator cap and pressure relief valve
are functioning properly and still the system will
not hold pressure, a thorough inspection of the
entire cooling system will be necessary. Correct
any leaks detected by the inspection and repeat the
pressure test.
Remember that temperature and pressure go
hand-in-hand and neither one can be tested logi-
cally without considering the other. For example,
the effect of pressurization and altitude on the
boiling point of water 1s shown in the chart.
ALTITUDE COOLING SYSTEM PRESSURE
о 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Ps
FEET METERS
00 0,1 03 04 06 07 0,81,0 KG/CM?
14,000 4300
12,000 3700
10,000 3000
8,000 2400
6,000 1800
4,000 1200
2,000 600
SEA LEVEL 0 В
FAHRENHEIT 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250
CENTIGRADE 82 88 93 99 104 110 115 121
T93970 BOILING POINT OF WATER
87
COOLING SYSTEM
Gauge for Water Temperature
Tools Needed: 959102 Thermistor Thermometer Group.
or
2F7112 Thermometer and 6B5072 Bushing.
If the engine gets too hot and a loss of coolant is
a problem, a pressure loss in the cooling system
could be the cause. If the gauge for water temper-
ature shows that the engine 1s getting too hot, look
for coolant leakage. If a place can not be found
where there is coolant leakage, check the accuracy
of the gauge for water temperature. Use the
989102 Thermistor Thermometer Group or the
2F7112 Thermometer and 6B5072 Bushing.
THERMOMETER INSTALLED
1. 2F7112 Thermometer.
WARNING: Be careful when working a-
round an engine if it is running.
THERMISTOR THERMOMETER GROUP INSTALLED
(Typical Example)
2. 959102 Thermistor Thermometer Group.
For Gauges with Color Temperature Ranges
Install the test thermometer. Get the coolant
temperature at the test temperature according to
the test thermometer. The pointer of the gauge on
the instrument panel must be on the tolerance
mark (TT).
88
TESTING AND ADJUSTING
TEST THERMOMETER
POINTER TEMPERATURE READING
POSITION - -
Е. С:
i 209 TO 217 | 98270102 8
TEST THERMOMETER |
POINTER TEMPERATURE READING
POSITION o ce
] 719 10 227 103, 8 TO 108, 2
45352-2X1
For Direct Reading Gauges
Install the test thermometer. Get the coolant
temperature at 200°F according to the test ther-
mometer. The centerline of the pointer of the
gauge on the instrument panel must be .030 in.
(0.76 mm) or less on either side of the centerline
for the 200° mark.
Water Temperature Regulators
1. Remove the regulator from the engine.
2. Heat water in a pan until the temperature is
correct for opening the regulator according to
the chart. Move the water around in the pan to
make it all be the same temperature.
3. Hang the regulator in the pan of water. The
regulator must be below the surface of the wa-
ter and it must be away from the sides and
bottom of the pan.
4, Keep the water at the correct temperature for
10 minutes.
5. Remove the regulator from the water. Im-
mediately make a measurement of the distance
the regulator is open.
6. If the regulator is open to a distance less than
given in the chart, install a new regulator.
WATER TEMPERATURE REGULATORS
Minimum
Part No. Open Distance Temperature
in. mm °F °c
6L5851 375 9.53 197° 92°
6N1848 o o
273768 .375 9.53 195 90
959160 .375 9.53 187° 86°
4L7615 375 9.53 180° 82°
BASIC BLOCK
TESTING AND ADJUSTING
BASIC BLOCK
PISTON RING GROOVE GAUGE
A 5P3519 Piston Ring Groove Gauge is available
for checking ring grooves with straight sides. For
instructions on the use of the gauge, see the
GUIDELINE FOR REUSABLE PARTS; PISTONS
AND CYLINDER LINERS, Form No. SEBF8001.
CATERPILLAR
SERVICE TOOL
PISTON RING GROOVE GAUGE
CONNECTING RODS AND PISTONS
Use the 759470 Piston Ring Expander to re-
move or install piston rings.
Use the 759417 Piston Ring Compressor to in-
stall pistons into cylinder block.
Tighten the connecting rod bolts in the follow-
Ing step sequence:
1. Put crankcase oil on threads.
2. Tighten both nuts to 30+ 3 Ib.ft. (4.1 + 0.4
mkg).
3. Put a mark on each nut and cap.
4. Tighten each nut 90° from the mark.
The connecting rod bearings should fit tightly in
the bore in the rod. If bearing joints or backs are
worn (fretted), check for bore size as this is an
indication of wear because of looseness.
CONNECTING ROD AND MAIN BEARINGS
Bearings are available with .010 in. (0.254 mm),
.020 in. (0.508 and .030 in. 0.762 mm) smaller
inside diameter than the original size bearings.
These bearings are for crankshafts that have been
“ground” (made smaller) than the original size.
CYLINDER LINER PROJECTION
Tools Needed: 1P2394 Adapter Plate.
Two 3H465 Plates.
Crossbar (from 887548 Push-Puller).
Two 5/8°—11 NC bolts, 5.5 in. (118.7 mm)
long.
Two 4B4281 Washers.
1P5510 Liner Projection Tool Group.
CHECKING LINER PROJECTION
1. Bolts (two). 2. Crossbar. 3. 4B4281 Washers (two). 4.
1P2394 Adapter Plate. 5. 3H465 Plates (two).
Check liner height projection as follows:
1. Make sure that the bore in block and the cylin-
der liner flange are clean.
2. Put adapter plate (4) on top the cylinder liner.
Put crossbar (2) on the adapter plate. Using
bolts (1), washers (3) and plates (5), install the
crossbar to the cylinder block as shown.
Tighten bolts (1) in four steps to: S Ib.ft. (0.7
mkg), 15 Ib.ft. (2.0 mkg), 25 Ib.ft. (3.5 mkg)
and then to 50 1b.ft. (6.9 mkg). Distance from
ZEROING INDICATOR
6. 1P2402 Block. 7. 1P2403 Dial Indicator. 8. 1P5507
Gauge.
89
BASIC BLOCK
bottom edge of crossbar, to top of cylinder
block, must be the same on both sides of the
cylinder liner.
3. Put the dial indicator (7) on zero using the
back of gauge (8) with dial indicator (7) in-
stalled in block (6).
4. Use a 1P5510 Liner Projection Tool Group to
get a measurement of liner projection. Special
Instruction (GMG00623) is with the tool.
5. Make a measurement of the cylinder liner pro-
jection in at least four locations around the
cylinder liner. Projection must be within .0020
to .0056 in. (0.051 to 0.142 mm) and the four
measurements should not vary more than .001
in. (0.03 mm). The average projection between
adjacent cylinders must not vary more than
.001 in. (0.03 mm).
NOTE: If liner projection changes from point to
point around the liner, turn the liner to a new
position within the bore. If still not within specifi-
cations move liner to a different bore.
NOTE: When liner projection is correct, put a tem-
porary mark on the liner and top plate so when
seals and band are installed, the liner can be in-
stalled in the correct position. |
—6. Use the 853140 Counterboring Tool Arrange-
ment to machine the contact face on block if
needed. Special Instruction (FM055228) gives
an explanation of the use of the 853140 Coun-
terboring Tool Arrangement.
ADJUSTMENT SHIMS FOR LINER PROJECTION
SHIM THICKNESS AND PART NUMBER
.007 in. .008 in. .009 in. .015 in. .030 in.
(0.18 mm) | (0.20 mm) | (0.23 mm) | (0.38 mm) | (0.76 mm)
856045 856046 856047 856048 856049
216870
90
1P3537 DIAL BORE GAUGE GROUP
TESTING AND ADJUSTING
CYLINDER BLOCK
The bore in the block for main bearings can be
checked with the main bearing caps installed with-
out bearings. Tighten the nuts holding the caps to
the torque shown in the SPECIFICATIONS, Form
No. REG01350. Alignment error in the bores must
not be more than .003 in. (0.08 mm). Special
Instruction (GMG00503) gives instructions for the
use of 1P4000 Line Boring Tool Group for making
alignment in the main bearing bores. 1P3537 Dial
Bore Gauge Group can be used to check the size of
the bores. Special Instruction (GMG00981) is with
the group.
FLYWHEEL AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING
Installing Ring Gear
Heat the ring gear to install it. Do not heat to
more than 600°F (315°C). Install the ring gear so
the chamfer on the gear teeth are next to the
starter pinion when the flywheel is installed.
Face Runout (axial eccentricity)
of the Flywheel Housing
Tools Needed: 852328 Dial Indicator Group.
If any method other than given here is used,
always remember bearing clearances must be re-
moved to get correct measurements.
1. Fasten a dial indicator to the crankshaft flange
so the anvil of the indicator will touch the face
of the flywheel housing.
с
o <1 | ©
= + o
- « | (
с
А 10272 Хх 1 N
852328 DIAL INDICATOR GROUP INSTALLED
2. Put a force on the crankshaft toward the rear
before reading the indicator at each point.
BASIC BLOCK
3. With dial indicator set at .000 in. (0.0 mm) at
location (A), turn the crankshaft and read the
indicator at locations (B), (C) and (D).
. The
CHECKING FACE RUNOUT OF THE
FLYWHEEL HOUSING
A. Bottom. B. Right side. C. Top. D. Left side.
difference between lower and higher
measurements taken all four points must not
be more than .012 in. (0.30 mm), which is the
maximum permissible face run out (axial
eccentricity) of the flywheel housing.
Bore Runout (radial eccentricity)
of the Flywheel Housing
1.
With the dial indicator in position at (C), ad-
just the dial indicator to “0” (zero). Push the
crankshaft up against the top bearing. Write
the measurement for bearing clearance on line
1 in column (C).
A10271X1 \
852328 DIAL INDICATOR GROUP INSTALLED
A10233X1
TESTING AND ADJUSTING
C (TOP)
A (BOTTOM)
CHECKING BORE RUNOUT OF THE
FLYWHEEL HOUSING
CHART FOR DIAL INDICATOR MEASUREMENTS
Position of
dial indicator
Line
No. B С D
Correction for bearing ciearance |
Dial Indicator Reading Il
о |© |6 | >
+ + +
Total of Line 1 & 2 i"
*Total Vertical eccentricity (out of round).
**Subtract the smaller No. from the larger No. The difference is
the total horizontal eccentricity.
A10234X1
oo SS
. Divide the measurement from Step 1 by 2.
Write this number on line 1 in columns (B) &
(D).
. Turn the crankshaft to put the dial indicator
at (A). Adjust the dial indicator to “0” (zero).
. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put
the dial indicator at (B). Write the measure-
ment in the chart.
. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put
the dial indicator at (C). Write the measure-
ment in the chart.
. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put
the dial indicator at (D). Write the measure-
ment in the chart.
. Add lines I & II by columns.
. Subtract the smaller number from the larger
number in line III in columns (B) & (D). The
91
BASIC BLOCK
result is the horizontal “eccentricity” (out of
round). Line III, column (C) is the vertical
eccentricity.
9. On the graph for total eccentricity find the
point of intersection of the lines for vertical
eccentricity and horizontal eccentricity.
in +.012
mm (0.30) RR
ot
A10235X1
NOT ACCEPTABLE
J
pepe pe
sue rs ERES
0 + ‚002 + .004 + ‚006 + .008 + .010 * 012 in
(0.05) (0.10) (0.15) (0.20) (0.25) (0.30) mm
GRAPH FOR TOTAL ECCENTRICITY
10. If the point of intersection is in the range
marked “Acceptable” the bore is in alignment.
If the point of intersection is in the range
marked “Not Acceptable” do Step 11.
11. Loosen the bolts holding the flywheel housing
to the cylinder block. Hit the flywheel housing
lightly with a hammer to put it in the correct
position. Tighten the bolts holding the fly-
wheel housing to the cylinder block and do
Steps 1 through 10 again.
Face Runout (axial eccentricity)
of the Flywheel
74912X1
CHECKING FACE RUNOUT OF THE FLYWHEEL
92
TESTING AND ADJUSTING
1. Install the dial indicator as shown. Put a force
on the crankshaft the same way before the
indicator is read to the crankshaft end clear-
ance (movement) is always removed.
2. Set the dial indicator to read .000 in. (0.0
mm).
3. Turn the flywheel and read the indicator every
90°.
4. The difference between the lower and higher
measurements taken at all four points must
not be more than .006 in. (0.15 mm), which is
the maximum permissible face runout (axial
eccentricity) of the flywheel.
Bore Runout (radial eccentricity)
of the Flywheel
1. Install the dial indicator (3) and make an ad-
justment of the universal attachment (4) so it
makes contact as shown.
2. Set the dial indicator to read .000 in. (0.0
mm).
3. Turn the flywheel and read the indicator every
90°.
4. The difference between the lower and higher
measurements taken at all four points must
not be more than .006 in. (0.15 mm), which is
the maximum permissible bore runout (radial
eccentricity) of the flywheel.
ЛО
74910X2
CHECKING BORE RUNOUT OF THE FLYWHEEL
1. 7H1945 Holding Rod. 2. 7H1645 Holding Rod. 3.
7H1942 Indicator. 4. 7H1940 Universal Attachment.
BASIC BLOCK
5. Runout (eccentricity) of the bore for the pilot
bearing for the flywheel clutch, must not ex-
ceed .005 in. (0.13 mm).
74911X1
CHECKING FLYWHEEL CLUTCH
PILOT BEARING BORE
VIBRATION DAMPER
Damage to or failure of the damper will increase
vibrations and result in damage to the crankshaft.
It will cause more gear train noise at variable points
in the speed range.
ENGINE MOUNTING BOLTS
Make a reference to Specifications for the
correct torques for the bolts which hold the engine
supports to the frame.
OIL PUMP INSTALLATION
(Four Cylinder Engines Only)
The oil pump can be removed for inspection and
service without removing the timing gear cover.
With the cover in place, timing marks are not easy
to see. Therefore, time both balancer shafts, with
respect to No. 1 piston at TC or compression
stroke, in the following steps.
1. Rotate the crankshaft to bring No. 1 piston to
TC on compression stroke.
2. Drive dowel (7) back so it is flush with
mounting face of oil pump mounting bracket.
3. Rotate both balancer shafts so the flat portion
is away from the oil pan plate. Install bolts (6)
so they enter in countersunk holes in balancer
shafts and limit shaft movement. The bolts
should not be tight against the shaft counter-
sunk hole bottom.
4. Position oil pump on bottom of engine block
and install the mounting bolts loosely.
TESTING AND ADJUSTING
5. Install shims if necessary, between pump
mounting pads and cylinder block to adjust
backlash to .002 to .006 in. (0.05 to 0.15 mm)
between gear (4) and (5) and between gears
(2) and (3).
6. Drive dowel (7) back in place, through mount-
ing bracket and into cylinder block. Tighten
the mounting bolts.
7. Remove bolts (6) and check to see that the
countersunk holes are aligned with holes in oil
pan plate when No. 1 cylinder is in TC
position.
Timing mark alignment information shown in
the SPECIFICATIONS is to be used when the
timing gear cover is removed.
к
Т69536-А Pi - &
OIL PUMP INSTALLATION
(Typical Example)
1. Right side balancer shaft. 2. Right side balancer shaft
gear. 3. Idier gear. 4. Oil pump drive gear. D. Left side
balancer shaft gear. 6. Bolt. 7. Dowel.
93
FLEXIBLE DRIVE COUPLING
TESTING AND ADJUSTING
FLEXIBLE DRIVE COUPLING
CHECKING FLEXIBLE DRIVE
COUPLING ALIGNMENT
Position engine in mounting location within the
main frame. Check for correct engine-to-
transmission alignment as follows:
1. Remove the torque converter input flange.
2. Fasten a TH1942 Indicator (with a 7TH1940
Universal Attachment) to the torque converter
input shaft using a 7TH1948 Snug, 7H1945
Holding Rod, 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) diameter rod 3
in. (76.2 mm) long and a 1J9778 Hose Clamp.
3. Zero the indicator on the outside diameter of
engine output flange as illustrated. Take an
indicator reading every 90° while rotating the
torque converter input shaft one complete
tum.
T 96482
CHECKING VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT
(Viewed from left side of machine).
Total indicator reading must not exceed .080 in. (2.03 mm).
Correct any misalignment by adding or removing shims under
engine rear supports.
4. Remove the 7H1940 Universal Attachment.
Position the anvil of the dial indicator between
the bolt holes and the outside diameter of
engine output flange as illustrated.
94
T96483
CHECKING FACE ALIGNMENT
(Viewed from left side of machine).
Total indicator reading must not exceed .026 in. (0.66 mm).
Move front of engine as necessary to obtain correct dimen-
sion.
5. Zero the dial indicator. Take an indicator
reading every 90° while rotating the torque
converter input shaft one complete turn.
6. Recheck both settings and adjust if necessary.
When alignment is correct, tighten engine
mounting bolts according to the specifications
for the machine in ENGINE MOUNTING
BOLTS in specifications.
Misalignment
If it is necessary to shift the engine from one
side to the other in the frame, loosen the hold-
down bolts and shift the engine accordingly.
If the holes for the hold-down bolts are en-
larged, dowels should be installed to hold the
engine in the proper location after it 15 bolted
down.
Extreme misalignment is probably the result of
bent main frame channels. They should be straight-
ened. Extreme wear in the engine front support
Will also cause misalignment.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
TESTING AND ADJUSTING
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Most of the testing of the electrical system can
be done on the engine. The wiring insulation must
be in good condition, the wire and cable con-
nections clean and tight and the battery fully
charged. If on the engine test shows a defect in a
component, remove the component for more
testing.
BATTERY
Tools Needed: 5P300 Electrical Tester.
951990 or 1P7470 Battery Charger Tester.
5P957 or 5P3414 Coolant and Battery
Tester.
NOTE: Make reference to Special Instruction
(GEG02276) and to the instructions inside of the
cover of the tester, when testing with the 5P300
Electrical Tester.
The battery circuit 1s an electrical load on the
charging unit. The load 1s variable because of the
condition of the charge in the battery. Damage to
the charging unit will result, if the connections,
(either positive or negative) between the battery
and charging unit are broken while the charging
unit 1s charging. This is because the battery load is
lost and there is an increase in charging voltage.
High voltage will damage, not only the charging
unit but also the regulator and other electrical
components.
YEH ana AS cr
CATERPILLAR -
TENSE OY Ен Brie
A eres
951990 BATTERY CHARGER TESTER
CAUTION: Never disconnect any charging unit cir-
cuit or battery circuit cable from battery when the
charging unit is charging.
Load test a battery that does not hold a charge
when in use. To do this, put a resistance, across the
battery main connections (terminals). For a 6 volt
battery, put a resistance of two times the ampere/
hour rating of the battery. For a 12 volt battery,
put a resistance of three times the ampere/hour
rating. Let the resistance remove the charge (dis-
charge the battery) for 15 seconds. Immediately
test the battery voltage. A 6 volt battery in good
condition will test 4.5 volts; a 12 volt battery in
good condition will test 9 volts.
The Special Instruction (GEG00058) with the
981990 Charger Tester gives the battery testing
procedure.
CHARGING SYSTEM
Tools Needed: 5P300 Electrical Tester.
NOTE: Make reference to Special Instruction
(GEG02276) and to the instructions inside of the
cover of the tester, when testing with the 5P300
Electrical Tester.
The condition of charge in the battery at each
regular inspection will show if the charging system
is operating correctly. An adjustment is necessary
when the battery 1s always in a low condition of
charge or a large amount of water is needed (one
ounce per cell per week or every 50 service hours).
Test the charging units and voltage regulators on
the engine, when possible, using wiring and com-
ponents that are a permanent part of the system.
Off the engine (bench) testing will give an opera-
tional test of the charging unit and voltage regula-
tor. This testing will give an indication of needed
repair. Final testing will give proof that the units
are repaired to their original operating condition.
Before starting on the engine testing, the
charging system and battery must be checked. See
the following Steps.
1. Battery must be at least 75% (1.240 Sp. Gr.)
full charged and held tightly in place. The bat-
tery holder must not put too much stress on
the battery.
2. Cables between the battery, starter and engine
ground must be the correct size. Wires and
cables must be free of corrosion and have
cable support clamps to prevent stress on bat-
tery connections (terminals).
3. Leads, junctions, switches and panel instru-
ments that have direct relation to the charging
circuit must give proper circuit control.
4. Inspect the drive components for the charging
unit to be sure they are free of grease and oil
and are able to drive the load of the charging
unit.
95
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Alternator Regulator (Prestolite)
The regulator components are sealed in an insu-
lation of epoxy. The regulator 1s an electronic com-
ponent with no moving parts (solid state) and has
an adjustment screw (1) on the back. This voltage
adjustment screw is used to meet different oper-
ating needs at different times of the year. An in-
crease or decrease by .5 volts from the normal (N)
setting is made by removing the regulator and
changing the position of the adjustment screw and
washer. An increase to the voltage will be made by
moving the screw and washer to the “H” position
(2).
ALTERNATOR REGULATOR
1. Adjustment screw with washer. 2. High output posi-
tion. 3. Green wire to field terminal of the alternator
(F). 4. Orange wire to battery. 5. Black wire to ground.
Alternator Regulator Adjustment
(Delco-Remy)
Set Screw Type
When an alternator is charging the battery too
much or not enough, an adjustment can be made
to the charging rate of the alternator. Remove the
hollow head screw (1) from the alternator and use
a screwdriver to turn the adjustment screw. Turn
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ALTERNATOR REGULATOR
1. Adjustment screw, on other side of alternator from output
terminal,
96
TESTING AND ADJUSTING
the adjustment screw one or two notches to in-
crease or decrease the charging rate of the
alternator.
Cap Type
When the alternator is either charging the bat-
tery too much or not enough, an adjustment can
be made to the alternator charging rate. To make
an adjustment to the voltage output, remove the
voltage adjustment cap (1) from the alternator,
turn the cap 90°, and install it again into the alter-
nator. The voltage adjustment cap has four posi-
tions: HI, LO, and two positions between the high
and the low setting.
1
88262X1
ALTERNATOR REGULATOR ADJUSTMENT
1. Voltage adjustment cap.
Delco-Remy Alternator; Pulley Nut Tightening
Tighten nut holding the pulley to a torque of
(10.4 + 0.7 mkg) with the tools
75 + 5 1b.ft.
shown.
32425X1
ALTERNATOR PULLEY INSTALLATION
1. 851588 Adapter (1/2” female to 3/8" male), 2. 851590
Socket (5/16” with 3/8” drive). 3. 1P2977 Tool Group.
8H8555 Socket (15/16” with 1/2” drive) not shown.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Alternator Regulator (Motorola)
FOR 12 VOLT SYSTEM
VOLTAGE ADJ.
CONNECT ADJ. STRAP —=
ACROSS "HP" FOR +, 4V
ACROSS "LO" FOR -.4V ©
SF
FOR 24 VOLT SYSTEM
- VOLTAGE ADJ.
CONNECT ADJ. STRAP —=
ACROSS "HI" FOR +.6Y
ACROSS "LO" FOR -.6V
x1559—3%1
VOLTAGE ADJUSTMENT
3. Metal strap.
27319—1X3
FINE VOLTAGE ADJUSTMENT
4. Cover screw.
NOTE: Total adjustment is one half a turn.
CAUTION: Do not let screwdriver make contact
with cover.
When the alternator is either charging the bat-
tery too much or not enough, an adjustment can
be made to the alternator charging rate. To make
an adjustment to the voltage output, remove the
cover from the voltage regulator and change the
location of the metal strap (3).
To make an increase in the voltage (approxi-
mately .4 volt in a 12 volt system and .6 volt in a
24 volt system), remove the nuts from the two
studs nearest to the word “HI”. Install the metal
strap on these studs and install the nuts.
To make a decrease in the voltage (approxi-
mately .4 volt in a 12 volt system and .6 volt ina
24 volt system), remove the nuts from the two
studs nearest to the word “LO”. Install the metal
strap on these studs and install the nuts.
TESTING AND ADJUSTING
A line adjustment can be made by removing
cover screw (4) from the insulator and turning the
adjustment screw with a Phillips screwdriver. Turn
clockwise to make an increase in voltage.
Generator Regulator
When a generator is either overcharging or is not
charging enough, a generator regulator tester can
be used to determine whether the voltage regulator
control, or the current limiter control, or both,
require adjustment. To obtain an accurate test, the
regulator cover must not be removed and the
regulator must be warmed to operating tempera-
ture.
The voltage regulator and the current limiter
controls in Delco-Remy regulators have spring
tension adjustment screws. The Paris-Rhone con-
trol uses a spring tension adjustment stop. To
increase generator voltage or current, increase the
spring tension on the respective control. Decrease
spring tension to decrease generator output. After
a regulator has been adjusted always test the
generator output with the regulator cover installed.
h
LS
a rsh]
Sy
(Paris-Rhône)
{Delco-Remy)
GENERATOR OUTPUT ADJUSTMENTS
1. Spring. 2. Stop (adjust by bending stop). 3. Points.
STARTING SYSTEM
Tools Needed: 5P300 Electrical Tester.
NOTE: Make reference to Special Instruction
(GEG02276) and to the instructions inside of the
cover of the tester, when testing with the 5P300
Electrical Tester.
Use a D. C. Voltmeter to find starting system
components which do not function.
Move the starting control switch to activate the
starter solenoid. Starter solenoid operation can be
heard as the pinion of the starter motor is engaged
with the ring gear on the engine flywheel.
If the solenoid for the starting motor will not
operate, it 1s possible that the current from the
97
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
battery is not getting to the solenoid. Fasten one
lead of the voltmeter to the connection (terminal)
for the battery cable on the solenoid. Put the other
lead to a good ground. No voltmeter reading shows
there is a broken circuit from the battery. Further
testing is necessary when there is a reading on the
voltmeter.
The solenoid operation also closes the electric
circuit to the motor. Connect one lead of the
voltmeter to the solenoid connection (terminal)
that is fastened to the motor. Put the other lead to
a good ground. Activate the starter solenoid and
look at the voltmeter. A reading of battery voltage
shows the problem is in the motor. The motor
must be removed for further testing. No reading on
the voltmeter shows that the solenoid contacts do
not close. This is an indication of the need for
repair to the solenoid or an adjustment to be made
to the starter pinion clearance.
Further test by fastening one voltmeter lead to
the connection (terminal) for the small wire at the
solenoid and the other lead to the ground. Look at
the voltmeter and activate the starter solenoid. A
voltmeter reading shows that the problem is in the
solenoid. No voltmeter reading shows that the
problem is in the magnetic switch, heat-start
switch, or wiring.
Fasten one voltmeter lead to the connection
— (terminal) for the battery cable on the magnetic
switch for the starter. Fasten the other lead to a
good ground. No voltmeter reading shows there is a
broken circuit from the battery.
Fasten one voltmeter lead to the connection
(terminal) for the line from the heat-start switch.
Fasten the other lead to a good ground.
Activate the magnetic switch. A voltmeter read-
ing indicates the malfunction is in the magnetic
switch. No voltmeter reading indicates a need for
further testing.
Fasten one voltmeter lead to the heat-start
switch at the connection (terminal) for the wire
from the battery. Fasten the other lead to a good
ground. No voltmeter reading indicates a broken
circuit from the battery. Make a check of the
circuit breaker and wiring. If there is voltmeter
reading, the malfunction is in the heat-start switch
or in the wiring.
Fasten one lead of the voltmeter to the battery
wire connection of the starter switch and put the
other lead to a good ground. A voltmeter reading
indicates a failure in the switch.
98
TESTING AND ADJUSTING
A starting motor that operates too slow can have
an overload because of too much friction in the
engine being started. Slow operation of the starting
motor can also be caused by shorts, loose connec-
tions, and/or dirt in the motor.
Pinion Clearance Adjustment (Prestolite)
There are two adjustments on this type motor.
Armature end play and pinion position.
Armature End Play
Adjust to .005 to .030 in. (0.13 to 0.76 mm) by
adding or removing thrust washers on the commu-
tator end of the armature shaft.
Pinion Position
This adjustment is accomplished in two steps.
12 VOLTS
CONNECTIONS FOR ADJUSTING
THE PINION POSITION
1. Jumper lead flashing point.
1. To adjust the pinion distance, connect the
solenoid to a 12 volt battery as shown.
Momentarily flash the jumper lead from the
motor terminal stud of the solenoid to the
terminal stud at (1) in the commutator end
head to shift the solenoid and drive into the
cranking position.
Remove the jumper lead.
NOTE: The drive will remain in the cranking
position until the battery is disconnected.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Push the drive toward the commutator end of
the motor to eliminate any slack movement in
the linkage and measure the distance between
the outside edge of the drive sleeve and the
thrust washer. The distance (3) must be .02 to
.05 in. (0.51 to 1.27 mm).
Adjust to this dimension by turning the
adjusting nut (2) in or out as required.
PINION POSITION ADJUSTMENT
2. Adjusting nut. 3. Distance,
2. To test assembly of solenoid, it will be
necessary to have an interference block cut to
the dimensions shown.
X769 1.50" 250"
.9844" (38,1 MM) (6,35 MM)
— (25,003 MM) *— >| 100" … |
(25,4 MM) 4 4
.750"
1,250" (19,05 MM)
(31,75 MM) 4
2.50"
—Y. (63,5 MM)
50" 1.250" 750"
(12,7 MM) | mi e (19,05 MM)
Y 1
INTERFERENCE BLOCK DIMENSIONS
ir um San
+
Connect the solenoid to 24 volts as shown.
Position the .9844 in. (25.003 mm) side of the
interference block against the pinion as shown and
close the switch in the battery circuit.
With the switch closed and the .9844 in. (25.003
mm) side of the interference block in place, the
test light must not light. Make sure the interference
block is against the drive gear and not against the
drive sleeve.
TESTING AND ADJUSTING
X770X1
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1
CONNECTIONS FOR TESTING SOLENOID
4. Solenoid motor terminal. 5. Solenoid control switch
terminal. 6. 12V Test lamp. 7. Switch,
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X767-1X1 | _
INTERFERENCE BLOCK IN POSITION
8. Interference block.
CAUTION: Due to the amount of current being
passed through the solenoid series winding, these
tests should be made as brief as possible.
If the test light lights, the solenoid has been
assembled wrong. Remove the cover from the
solenoid and check the contact component as-
sembly. If the test light does not light, connect a
carbon pile between the switch and battery and
voltmeter to the terminals (4) and (5).
Position the .50 in. (12.7 mm) side of the
interference block against the drive gear and adjust
the voltage with the carbon pile. The test light
must light before 16 volt reading. If the test light
does not light, turn the adjusting nut (2) out until
the light comes on. After all adjustments have been
made, replace the plug and washer in the shift
linkage cover.
99
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Pinion Clearance Adjustment (Delco-Remy)
(Paris-Rhóne)
Whenever the solenoid is installed, the pinion
clearance should be adjusted. The adjustment
should be made with the starting motor removed.
3 X1661X1
CONNECTIONS FOR CHECKING PINION CLEARANCE
1. Connector from MOTOR terminal on solenoid to motor.
2. SW terminal. 3. Ground terminal.
Bench test and adjust the pinion clearance at
installation of solenoid as follows:
1. Install the solenoid without connector (1)
from the MOTOR terminal on solenoid to the
motor.
2. Connect a battery, of the same voltage as the
solenoid, to the terminal (2), marked SW.
3. Connect the other side of battery to ground
terminal (3).
4. MOMENTARILY flash a jumper wire from the
solenoid terminal marked MOTOR to the
ground terminal. The pinion will shift into
cranking position and will remain there until
the battery is disconnected.
100
TESTING AND ADJUSTING
5. Push pinion towards commutator end to elimi-
nate free movement.
6. Pinion clearance (6) should be .36 in. (9.1
mm) for Delco-Remy motors and .039 + .02
in, (1.0 + 0.5 mm) for Paris-Rhone.
7. Adjust clearance by removing plug and turning
shaft nut (4).
x
D D
DD ams —
190787-1X1 Lo. A |
PINION CLEARANCE ADJUSTMENT
(Delco-Remy)
4. Shaft nut. 5. Pinion. 6. Pinion clearance.
‚039 + 02 IN,
S S
20613X2
15
PINION CLEARANCE ADJUSTMENT
(Paris-Rhone)
1,0 FT 0,5 MM
4. Shaft end. 5. Pinion. 6. Pinion clearance.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
SHUTOFF SOLENOID
Two checks must be made on the engine to give
proof that the solenoid adjustment is correct.
1. The adjustment must give the piston enough
travel to move the sleeve control shaft to the
shutoff position.
2. The adjustment must give the piston enough
travel to cause only the “hold in” windings of
the solenoid to be activated with the sleeve
control shaft held in the fuel closed position.
Use a thirty ampere ammeter to make sure the
plunger is in the “hold in” position. Current
needed must be less than one ampere.
TESTING AND ADJUSTING
IN — C1) Th
—
| — —
99497—1X5
SHUTOFF SOLENOID
1. Shutoff solenoid. 2. Distance from face of piston to
inside face of shaft.
101
Caterpillar, Cat and (B are Trademarks of Caterpillar Tractor Co.
APRIL 1975
FORM NO. REG01349-01 PRINTED IN U.S.A.
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